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Full text of "Canada--pt. III, geographical"

HlSTORf i 




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A 

HISTORICAL GEOGRAPHY 

OF THE 

BRITISH COLONIES 

VOL. V 

CANADA— PART III 
GEOGRAPHICAL 

BY 

J. D. ROGERS 

BARRISTER-AT-LAW 
FORMERLY STOWELL FELLOW OF UNIVERSITY COLLEGE, OXFORD 



WITH MAPS 



OXFORD 
AT THE CLARENDON PRESS 

MDCCCCXI 




HENRY FROWDE, M.A. 

PUBLISHER TO THE UNIVERSITY OF OXFORD 

LONDON, EDINBURGH, NEW YORK 

TORONTO AND MELBOURNE 



HISTORU 



MAJA) 



PREFACE 



My gratitude is due chiefly to Sir Charles P. Lucas, 
who suggested this volume, and kindly helped me by 
looking through my proofs ; and after him to the 
authorities in the Libraries of the Colonial Office and 
British Museum, for their courtesy and attention. 

Geography, with which this volume deals, has only 
to do with what is present, external, and physical ; 
but Canada is composed of historical as well as geo- 
logical strata, which do not merely belong to the past, 
but still remain exposed, visible, or even unconform- 
able. Again, towns, mines, and wheatfields — which 
are the work of men's hands — are quite as external as 
woods, hills, and rivers ; so that humanity inevitably 
intrudes even into a picture of external objects. 
Further, unity in spite of width is the most striking 
physical feature of the Canada of to-day ; and this 
unity is due partly to the long eastward courses of 
the Saskatchewan and St. Lawrence, to climatic 
pressure from the north, and to interlocking water- 
sheds, but partly also to those two great Com- 
panies, whose servants streamed incessantly between 
Labrador and Vancouver Island, — to political pressure 
from the south, and to the converging plans of 
philanthropists and statesmen for the development 
of the intermediate land. 



IV PREFACE 

The very frontiers of Canada are no mere seas or 
lines of latitude : but Canada is bounded, so to speak, 
by Cartier and Champlain on the east, by Cook and 
Vancouver on the west, by the Loyalists and Sir 
George French on the south, and by Parry and 
Franklin on the north — or by the ghosts and 
memories of these men. Saintliness made Quebec, 
Patriotism made Ontario, and Adventure made 
Western Canada into Provinces ; so that spiritual 
forces — like Northern Lights — spanned the whole 
width of Canada from Ocean to Ocean. Materials, 
too, were brought from Europe, in order that the 
long house might hold together. Distant quarries 
were sought, and elaborate mechanism was applied ; 
the stones from the quarries consisting mainly of 
human beings, and the mechanism consisting of 
human as well as mechanical energy. The very 
canals, roads, and railroads reflected political aspira- 
tions ; emigration, which careless people thought 
automatic, was artificially created by Societies for 
alleviating industrial and military tragedies ; Govern- 
ments planted Halifax, Quebec, and Ontario with 
colonists, much as gardeners plant gardens with 
flowers from other regions ; war helped to change the 
haunts of bison into the homes of men ; and the 
sturdy self-help of pioneers, who, though they 
dreamed of a new heaven and a new earth, were 
loath to break with their past, or to turn their backs 
on the land of their fathers, peopled forests, plains, 
mountains, sea-shores, and river-banks. 

Men's minds rather than Nature welded the Atlantic 



PREFACE V 

with the Pacific across seventy degrees of longitude, 
and within two or three lines of latitude ; and although 
a book on geography primarily deals with things, 
men, though something more than things, are after all 
things, and cannot be quite left out. I have not 
attempted nor have I the knowledge even to refer to 
all the processes by which, or to all the critical places m 
which, human materials have been deposited from 
time to time ; but I hope that in attempting to indicate, 
by a few leading cases, some of these processes, and 
some of these critical places, I shall not be regarded 
as trespassing beyond the proper sphere of Geography, 
which I admit ought to limit itself to things present, 
external, and physical. 



CONTENTS 

PAGE 

Chap. I. The Far North-land and its Heroes i 

II. The Far East: Nova Scotia, the two 

Islands and their People . . 31 

III. Links between Far and Middle East: 

New Brunswick and its People . 73 

IV. Other Links between Far and Middle 

East: Peninsulas and Islands of 
THE Gulf 91 

V. The Core of Canada and the Middle 

East 100 

VI. The Middle East: Quebec, or The 
Province of Two Nations and 
One River 119 

VII. Ontario: One Nation on Three 

St. Lawrence Valleys and Beyond i 5 1 

VIII. The Middle West : Prairie-Land . . 197 

IX. The Many Nations of Prairie-Land . 217 

X. The Far West and North-West, or The 

Land of Mountains .... 247 

XI. The Peopling and Civilization of the 

Far West 262 



INDEX 28 



i> 



LIST OF MAPS 

PAGE 

Arctic Canada 29 

Novia Scotia 30 

New Brunswick . . . 72 

Labrador 90 

Quebec 118 

Ontario . 150 

Prairie-Land 196 

Southern British Columbia 245 

British Columbia • . . 246 

British North America at end 



CANADA 

PART III.-GEOGRAPHICAL 

CHAPTER I 

THE FAB NOBTH-LAND AND ITS HEBOES 

By an Act of 1867 the provinces of Quebec, Ontario, Nova The 

Scotia and New Brunswick were formed into a confederation ^^f^^^\^P^ 

frontier of 

called the Dominion of Canada ; ^ ' Rupert's Land and the Canada 
North-Western Territory' (1870), British Columbia (1871), 
and Prince Edward Island {1873), joined the Dominion soon 
afterwards under powers contained in the same Act, and Orders 
in Council made in pursuance thereof; and in 1880 a further 
Order in Council ^ transferred to the Dominion all other British 
possessions in North America, including the attendant islands, 
but excluding Newfoundland and its dependency on the coasts 
of Labrador. 

Consequently, the frontiers of Canada are — with this one 
exception of the colony of Newfoundland — the frontiers of 
British North America. 

One glance at the map suggests that nature and nature was ascer- 

alone made the northern boundary ; that on the east but for ^f ^^f^ . 

■^ during the 

the colony of Newfoundland and on the west but for Alaska search for 

the same artificer was at work : but that the frontiers of ^ ^^^f^^^- 

^ west 

Newfoundland colony and Alaska, and all the ^0M\ki^xn passage 

fronti^s, were the work of men s hands. If the inference ^^^^^" 
were drawn that these natural frontiers were first-created, self- 
created, and created without human sacrifices, the inference 

' 30 & 31 Vict. c. 3. 

2 Order in Council, July 31, 1880. 

VOL. V. PT. Ill B 



6 ' ''mSTOmQAl GEOVyRAPHY OF CANADA 

*^'^<^ "•■ ^ /'' ' '' ": ^ , : . .-• 

would be a truism in one sense and the reverse of true in 
another sense. The coast of America and its islands existed 
before white men existed, but did not exist as frontiers until 
white men knew of their existence ; and this knowledge was 
obtained after the last man-made boundary had been settled 
by war, treaty, or Act of Parliament, and was obtained by a 
deadly war against nature which lasted 283 years. The 
names of the men who waged this war or directed it from afar 
still consecrate its shores, and brave men's blood proved once 
more the only possible cement of the walls of empire. 
Although some of these warriors still live, they belong in 
spirit to the heroic age ; for they fought not against human 
foes but, like Thor, against the frost giants ; they displayed 
* one equal temper of heroic hearts ', and their doings and 
sufferings were on an heroic scale. Their aim was to dis- 
cover a north-west passage from the Atlantic to the Pacific. 
Their results were to ascertain the northern shores of the 
American continent and northern frontiers of Canada. It is 
now known that the north-west passages, for there are more 
than one, are too icy to be used for trading with Japan, China, 
India, or any other country, and that all the northern shore of 
America which lies west of Hudson's Bay lies within the 
Arctic circle, while Hudson Strait, though situated in the 
latitude of the Shetlands and Faroes, is closed by ice for 
eight or nine months in the year, and Hudson Bay, though 
touching the latitude of Bristol, touches also the Arctic circle 
and is chilled all the year round by stores of never-melted ice 
which pour southward and eastward from Fox Channel. 
The north-west passages are all but unnavigable, the northern 
shores are all but uninhabitable; but great names and 
memories live in this dead or half-dead region, and here at 
all events geographers tread on holy ground, and geography 
if not history has proved itself synonymous with the biography 
of great men. 
The first The first period of these discoveries (1576-1632) is still 



THE FAR NORTH-LAND AND ITS HEROES 3 

commemorated by the names of Queen Elizabeth/ l^ing penod of 
James,^ Prince Henry ,^ ' the young Marcellus of English j^-^^g,' 
history/ King Charles I ^'^ and Queen Henrietta Maria; ^ of 1632, was 
famous statesmen like Sir Francis Walsingham/ Ambrose Earl ^^^ ^^'^^ -'* 
of Warwick/ Robert Earl of Leicester/ George Earl of 
Cumberland/ Robert Earl of Salisbury/ Charles Earl of 
Nottingham/ Henry Earl of Southampton/ patron of 
Shakespeare and Virginia, William Earl of Pembroke/ 
patron of the Bermudas and of Ben Jonson, Sir Christopher 
Hatton/ Sir Walter Ralegh/ Sir Robert Mansell/ and Sir 
John Brooke (Lord Cobham) ; ^ of princely East Indian 
merchants like Sir Thomas Smith/^ Sir John Wolstenholme/*^" 
Sir James Lancaster/^ Alderman Sir Francis Jones/^ or their 
ambassador Sir Thomas Roe/*'' or their advocate Sir Dudley 
Digges ; ^-^^ of great writers like Richard Hakluyt/ and 
Michael Lok ; ^ and of the explorers employed by all these 
patrons, namely. Sir Martin Frobisher^ (1576-8), whom 
George Best/^ Charles Jackman,^ and Christopher HalP 
accompanied; John Davys * (1585-7) the friend and neigh- 
bour of Sir Walter Ralegh and of John Chidleigh ^^ Esq. of 
Chidleigh, Devonshire; Henry Hudson ^•'^ (16 10- 11), whose 
motto was to achieve what he had undertaken * or else to give 
reason wherefore it may not be ' ; Sir Thomas Button " (161 2) 
of Glamorganshire with whom By lot Hubbart ^ and Nelson ^ 
sailed; Robert Bylot ^^ (16 15-16) with William Baffin ^« as 
mate ; Luke Fox (1631)^ assistant of Trinity House; ^ and 
Thomas James ^ (1631-2) a native of Monmouthshire, a sea 
captain of Bristol, and a barrister of the Inner- Temple. All 
these names and places are equally well known to historians 
steeped in Elizabethan lore and to illiterate whalers of to-day ; 

* In Frobisher Bay. '^ In Cumberland Sound. 

3 In Hudson Strait, middle. * In Hudson Strait, east entrance. 

5 In Hudson Strait, west entrance. ^ In Hudson Bay. 

"^ In Hudson Bay, Southampton Islands. 

® In Hudson Bay, James Bay. ^ In Davis Strait. 

^^ In Baffin Bay. ^i In Frobisher Bay, east entrance. 

B 2 



HISTORICAL GEOGRAPHY OF CANADA 



and Hud- 
son Strait 
and Bay 
were dis- 
covered by 
Frobisher, 



Davys, 



Htulson, 



Button, 



and, if we except Bylot and Button Islands, the same names 
denote the same places, although here and there sea-changes 
have occurred, capes being transformed into islands, islands 
into sounds and straits,^ straits into sounds, and sounds into 
straits. 

The discovery of the northern frontier was a process ; and 
its first period may be summarized thus : Martin Frobisher 
(1576-8) in the Gabriel (25 tons) examined not only 
Frobisher Bay but part of * Mistaken Straits ', as he misnamed 
Hudson Strait, and Cape Best or Hatton Headland, which is 
the southern gatepost to Frobisher Bay and the oiorthern 
gatepost to ' Mistaken Straits '. 

Next John Davys (1585-7) in the Sunshine (50 tons) 
searched * Cumberland Sound \ which lies north of Frobisher 
Bay, and sailed north to ^ Mount Ralegh ' and ' Cape 
Walsingham' in ' Davis Strait ', and south to ' Cape Chidleigh \ 
which is the southern gatepost of Hudson Strait, and to Davis 
and Ivuktok "^ inlets in Labrador, lavishing Devon names 
wherever he went. 

Then Henry Hudson (1610-11) in the Discovery (55 tons) 
passed right through Hudson Strait to ' Digges Island ', and 

* Wolstenholme Cape ', which stand on the south side of its 
western entrance ; and to ' Salisbury Island ' which is opposite 
the very middle of its western entrance ; whence he turned 
south along the east coast of the Bay, wintered somewhere in 
the far south-east, and was put into a boat with nearly half his 
crew, was cut adrift, and died an unknown death. 

Next Sir Thomas Button (161 2) in the Resolution and 
Discovery (55 tons) passed from ' Resolution Island \ as the 
island of which Cape Best is the southern extremity was 
afterwards called, through Hudson Strait to Salisbury Island, 
whence he crossed Hudson Bay south-west to what ffe called 

* Port Nelson ' in ' New Wales ' and wintered there. Next 

^ e.g. Cumberland Islands, Sir Thomas Roe's Island. 
* Alias, Hamilton Inlet. 



THE FAR NORTH-LAND AND ITS HEROES 5 

summer he coasted northward by ' Hubbart's Hope ' (now 
called Churchill) to the west,^ south, and east of the ' South- 
ampton ' Islands, whence he returned by ' Mansel ', Notting- 
ham ' and Salisbury Islands through Hudson Strait home. 

Baffin and Bylot (161 5) in the Discovery (55 tons) explored Baffin, 
the east coast of Southampton Island a little further to the 
north than Button, and (16 16) outdid Davys by sailing round 
the whole of ' Baffin Bay ', discovering ' Smith V ' Jones ' and 

* Lancaster ' Sounds, which for aught he knew might be straits. 

In 1 63 1 Fox sailed in the Charles (70 tons) through /^jjt, 
Hudson Strait and Bay into ' Sir Thomas Roe's Welcome ', 
as Button's Strait on the west of Southampton Island was 
thenceforth called. After following it northward, but not so 
far as Button's furthest, he coasted southward to the entrance 
of the Bay named after his rival {55° 10' lat.), then sailed due 
north, passed through the chain of islands Southampton, 
Nottingham, Mansel, and Salisbury — which stretch from 
Hudson Strait to the western main — until he reached the 
Arctic circle in Fox Channel ^ far beyond Baffin's northernmost 
point in Hudson Bay, although far below Baffin's northernmost 
point in Baffin Bay. His names of places on the east coast 
of Fox Channel commemorate Trinity House and its officials. 

James's voyage {163 1-2) in the Maria (70 tons) resembled and James. 
that of Fox, for he followed all except the eastern coasts of 
Hudson Bay, but he did not go so far north and went 
further south, rounding ' Cape Henrietta Maria ' and entering 
' James Bay ', where he wintered on * Charlton Island '. * He 
divided Button's New Wales into 'New North Wales' and 

* New South Wales ', which names persisted until the end of 
the ensuing century "^ ; and named * New Severn River ' in 
' New South Wales '. 

1 Up to 62^42' lat. 2 j.8°lat. 

•^ 66° 30' lat. * Charles I's town. 

® See e. g. C. Middleton's Chart, 1 743 ; and Arrovvsmith's Map in 
Sir A. Mackenzie's Voyages, i8or. 



6 HISTORICAL GEOGRAPHY OF CANADA 

The Hud- After 1632 there was a pause of 186 years during which 

^CoviMnv ^^ geography of the northern coast line remained almost 

built forts stationary while its history advanced. After 1668 Hudson 

^Bav ^668^ Strait became a highway through which the Hudson's Bay 

et seq,^ Company sent annual ships to its factories or forts which 

began to line James Bay and the southern coast of Hudson Bay. 

The earliest Governors of the Company (1670-91) were 

Prince Rupert, the Duke of York and Albany (James II), 

and John Churchill (Duke of Marlborough) ; Sir J. Haynes 

was its deputy governor (1675-85), and forts were built 

on ' Rupert River ' (Fort Charles), ' Moose River ', and 

* Albany River ' in James Bay, and on New Severn River, 
and between Nelson River and * Hayes River ' (York Fort), 
and on 'Churchill River* in Hudson Bay (1668-1688). 
The white man's range was ' the range ' of coast line and 
timber trees ; and all these settlements were on well-wooded 
coasts where Indians did not dwell but whither they gladly 
descended from the interior for purposes of trade. North of 
James Bay on the east coast, and north of Churchill on the 
west coast, the shores of Hudson Bay are timberless and bare 
and the resort of black and white whales; and where shores 
are bare and seas have whales, there Eskimos are always found 

* with fat flat greasy faces, little black piercing eyes, good teeth, 
lank black matted hair with little hands and feet V eating raw 
meat and sleeping naked in houses of stone or (in the Arctics) 
of ice and snow like the sugar huts in Grimm's fairy stories. 
After thetreaty of Utrecht(i 7 13) forts were built by the Hudson 
Bay Company at the mouths of East Main River ^ and Big 
River ^ on the east shores of James Bay, and for a time at 
Richmond Fort on Richmond Gulf (1749) ^ on the east coast 

^ Hakhiyt Society Publications, vol.xi; Captain W. Coats, Geography 
of Hudson Bay^ ?• 73- 
"^ Formerly Slude River. 
^ Fort George, now Fort Victoria. 
* 56° 22'lat. Coats, op. cit., p. 78. 



THE FAR NORTH-LAND AND ITS HEROES 7 

of Hudson Bay, where a few trees chanced to grow, the object 
of Richmond Fort being to attract Eskimo traders who 
ah'eady frequented the coast between Hudson Strait and 
Little Whale River'; but in the west there were no trees 
north of the Churchill 2, and the same object was attained by 
sending annual tradeships up north from the Churchill as far 
as Whale Cove, a distance of 200 miles. Englishmen wanted 
seas and trees, Eskimos seas without trees, and Indians trees 
without seas. For more than a century after 1632 no one 
was a match for Baffin, Fox or even Button, in the extent of 
his knowledge, and geography stood still. 

Then a small move was made. Explorers named James atid 
Knight, George Barlow, and D. Vaughan were sent out by the g^pify^. 
Hudson Bay Company to the north of Churchill in 1 7 1 9, and tions were 
were never heard of again until 1767, when their boats and Hudson 
bones were discovered on Brooke Cobham (Marble) Island. Bay^ 17 19 
In the meantime men's hearts were touched with anxiety for ^ "^^^' ' 
those who had gone forth and had not come back ; and men's 
intellects were stimulated. A controversy arose, some men 
arguing that Hudson Bay was like the Mediterranean, a closed 
sea with an outlet at Hudson Strait but without an inlet, 
and that Roe's Welcome and Fox Channels were ads-de- 
sac where the ice was created which beat against the east 
coasts of Hudson Bay and drove through Hudson Strait. If 
so, they said, the frontier of Canada lay far north of Roe's 
Welcome, Fox Channel, and Hudson Bay and Strait. Other 
theorists, notably Arthur Dobbs, contended that Roe's 
Welcome was not a cul-de-sac but a Strait which rounded 
some northern Cape a few miles north of Button's furthest, 
and that a straight line drawn from this northern Cape to the 
Pacific passed through open sea. Wild as the theory sounded, 
there was no one who could disprove it. So Sir Charles 
Wager, the First Lord of the Admiralty, sent out Christopher 

* Coats, op, cit., pp. 66, 89. - 59° lat. 



8 HISTORICAL GEOGRAPHY OF CANADA 

Middleton and William Moor in King's ships to test it.^ They 
sailed up Roe's Welcome, examined ' Wager Inlet ' (which 
led only to a river), * Repulse Bay ' (which was a bay and 
nothing more), and noted a 'Frozen Strait' leading from 
Repulse Bay down the east coast of Southampton Islands, 
and returned. Middleton had reached the Arctic circle, and 
had found no thoroughfare ; for his road merely took him 
round a corner back into Hudson Bay ; but when he told his 
story he was disbelieved. Less weight was attached to his 
facts than to the arguments urged by controversialists whom 
Dobbs led. 
and the The next move was made by land, and the Hudson Bay 

IhTcopfer- Company was the moving spirit. In 177 1-2 Samuel Hearne 
mine, and went overland from Churchill to the mouth of the Copper- 
and icT^^ mine. He passed through the mountainless, mossy, treeless 
Cape were barrens of the reindeer and musk ox until he reached the 
^fro7nelse- -^^^^^^ circle, the sea, and the Eskimos, whom his attendant 
where. Indians slew. His adventures were vividly described, but his 
geographical information was vague, cloudy, and confused. 
Then two explorers whose geographical capacity was beyond 
cavil took up the tale. Captain Cook (1778) sailed with the 
Discovery and Resolution along the west coast of America and 
reported that it was continuous from 44° 5 S'' lat. northward 
to Icy Cape, which is beyond the Strait, whose exploration 
brought death and immortality to Bering (1741), and some 
three-and-a-half degrees within the Arctic circle. Then an 
employee of the Canadian North-West Fur Company named 
Sir Alexander Mackenzie started from Fort Chipewyan on 
Lake Athabasca, ^ followed the Great Slave River northward 
to Great Slave Lake and Mackenzie River northward from 
Great Slave Lake to its mouth amid black whales and Eski- 
mos.^ The Rockies had already been seen from the Missouri 

^ Henry Ellis, Voyage to Hudson Bay, ly^d-y, for discovering 
a North-west Passage^ 1748, with map. 

'' 59° lat. ^ 69° lat. 



THE FAR NORTH-LAND AND ITS HEROES g 

and perhaps from near Calgary ; the Indians who visited Fort 
Chipewyan brought stories of the same mountains ; and now 
1 60 miles west by north ^ of Great Slave Lake, Mackenzie 
began to catch glimpses of the self-same snow-peaks 
' crowding together like conical waves ' which are seen, and 
are never forgotten when once seen, from Calgary. Hence- 
forth his day-dreams and night-dreams were filled with visions 
of a great range separating prairie land, the Athabasca, the 
Great Slave, and the Mackenzie rivers from the Pacific, and 
became what some people called mountain-mad. But to return. 
Icy Cape and the mouths of the Mackenzie and Coppermine 
rivers formed three fixed points on the northern shore of 
America, and all of them were within the Arctic circle. 
Possibly Repulse Bay, which was also within the Arctic circle, 
and the southern shore of Hudson Strait formed two more 
fixed points; if so, they were tied together by the familiar 
southern shores of Hudson and James Bay and formed one 
coast line ; but as yet no one knew whether Hudson Strait was 
anything more than a larger edition of Cabot or Belleisle 
Strait connecting the Atlantic with a larger edition of the 
Gulf of St. Lawrence. Meanwhile, at all these five points, 
dwelt Eskimos similar to one another in habits, manners, looks, 
and language. The Eskimos were the human and only 
threads which bound these scattered rags and tags together. 
The discovery of the three new fixed points did not solve, but 
only restated in more puzzling language, the problem of 
a continuous frontier, which was left where the stout Eliza- 
bethan mariners in their frail cockleshells left it. 

The second period of discovery (1818-39) began immedi- Thesecojtd 
ately after the batde of Waterloo ; and we seem to pass from ^search 
1632 to 1818 without a break. There is the same heroic ^ 818-39, 
atmosphere as that which surrounded the Elizabethan group, ^alimal • 
and we are once more face to face with Christian patriots 
whose devotion, valour, energy, simplicity, and humility lift us 
* c. 62° c. 30'. 



lO HISTORICAL GEOGRAPHY OF CANADA 

into a region where the air is purer and men are nobler. 
These latter-day heroes attacked their problem by sea and 
land; but the mariners, unlike their predecessors, sailed in 
vessels of 300-400 tons, or more rarely of 150-170 tons, 
while the overlanders were half mariners and used boats 
resembling whaleboats. The royal patrons of the discovery 
were the prince Regent,^ afterwards George IV ; ' his brother, 
the Duke of York,^ the Duke of Cambridge,^ and the Duke 
of Clarence,^ afterwards William IV,^-^ his wife Queen Ade- 
laide,^-^ the Duchess of Kent^*^, and her daughter Queen 
Victoria.^ Its official patrons were Henry Earl Bathurst,^*' 
Colonial Minister ; Robert Viscount Melville,^-^ First Lord of 
the Admiralty ; Admiralty officials such as Sir John Barrow,^*^-'' 
Sir George Cockburn,* Sir Thomas By am Martin/ Sir Henry 
Hotham/ Sir Baldwin Walker,^ Captain Thomas Hurd,^-^ 
Sir Francis Beaufort,^ and John W. Croker ^ (Macaulay's 
Croker). 

Its private patrons were Sir Felix Booth,^ Sir C. Ogle,^ 
and the Hudson Bay Company under Sir John Pelly,^*® 
Nicholas Garry/*^ Sir George Simpson,^ J. Berens,^ 
A. Colvile," Edward Ellice,« J. Halkett,« G. Keith,^ 
McLoughlin,^ S. McGillivray,' and W. McTavish.^ 

The Duke of WeHington,^-^ Sir William Cornwallis' 
(Nelson's friend), and Sir Joseph Banks ^ inspired it ; George 
Earl of Dalhousie "^ and Matthew Baron Aylmer,^ Governors 
General of Canada, and Sir Peregrine Maitland,^ Lieutenant 
Governor of Upper Canada, assisted it; and Hyde WoUaston's*^ 
and Henry Kater's ^ instruments were used. The names of 
all these men are writ large upon the map of Arctic Canada 

^ Barrow Strait and north. 2 Yb\^, and south. 

^ Hecla and Fury Strait and south. * Ibid, and north. 

' Boothia Peninsula. 

® North coast of America and its straits from Great Fish Estuary to 
Coppermine River. 

' Ibid, from (and including) Coppermine River to Mackenzie River, 
* Ibid, west of Mackenzie River. * On the Continent. 



THE FAR NORTH-LAND AND ITS HEROES II 

along with the names of the explorers, amongst whom Sir 
William Edward Parry and Sir John Franklin were foremost. 
All the great explorers of this period except Sir John Ross 
derived their inspiration either from Parry or from Franklin, 
and Sir John Ross introduced Parry to the Arctics. 

In 1818 Sir John Ross, with Lieutenant Parry, sailed round and Par^y 
Baffin Bay in the Isabella (385 tons) and mistook all the ^'^^^^^^'^^ 
straits and sounds, especially Lancaster Sound,^ for ^2i.y^. northern 
In 1819-20 Captain Parry in the Hecla (375 tons) and ^^^^^J 
Griper^ with Captains Matthew Liddon and Edward Sabine, 
Lieutenants F. W. Beechey and H. P. Hoppner, Midshipman 
James Ross, and others who were destined to be famous, entered 
Lancaster Sound, which they pursued due west for 450 miles. 
The new Strait was named Barrow Strait, and they passed in 
succession North Devon (Liddon's County), Wellington Chan- 
nel, Cornwallis, Bathurst, Byam-Martin and Melville Islands 
on their north, and Prince Regent Inlet, North Somerset 
(Parry's County), and after an interval Banksland on their south. 
Between Melville Island and Banksland never-melted ice 
towered aloft and blocked further progress. So Parry wintered 
in Hecla and Griper Bay (Melville Island) and during the 
winter explored the eastern half of that island, whereon the 
names of twenty of these explorers are commemorated.^ On 
most of the islands of Barrow Strait present traces of musk- 
oxen and reindeer but only past traces of Eskimos were 
found, a sure sign that they were near but were not on the 
mainland of America. Another less convincing proof was 
that the explorers were already five hundred miles due north of 
the mouth of the Coppermine, and were gazing westward over 
an ocean of hummocky ice which had never thawed since the 

1 Between 74° and 75° lat. 

2 Parry Islands (for the whole group) and Cape Fisher, Point Nias, 
Point Reid, Sabine Peninsula, Point Griffiths, Point Ross, Beverley 
Inlet, Skene Bay, Point Palmer, Dealey Island, Cape Halse, Point 
Wakeham, Fife Harbor, Cape Hoppner, Hooper Island, Bushnan Cove, 
Cape Edwards, Cape Beechey, Liddon Gulf on Melville Island. 



HISTORICAL GEOGRAPHY OF CANADA 



and Ross 

discovered 

Boothia 

and King 

IViliiam 

Island^ 



world began, while Banksland on their south trended south- ^ 
westward. In 182 1-3 Sir William Edward Parry in the 
Fury and Hecla, with Captain George Lyon, Lieutenant 
H. P. Hoppner, Midshipmen James Ross, Francis Crozier, 
and others no less famous, repeated Middleton's expedition, 
but continued northward along the whole east shore of what 
he called Melville Peninsula to an ice-choked strait which he 
named Fury and Hecla Strait. The mystery of Hudson Bay 
was solved. Fox Channel, some two hundred miles north of 
'Fox's furthest', was fitted flute-like with a mouthpiece at 
right angles to it; and Cockburn Land lay above, and 
Melville Peninsula below the mouthpiece through which ice 
was blown from Prince Regent Inlet into Fox Channel, and 
so into Hudson Bay and Hudson Strait. The apex of 
Melville Peninsula ^ was an eastern apex of the American 
continent, and as usual it swarmed with Eskimos. After 
spending two winters in the Arctics Parry returned home 
and reached Prince Regent Inlet again next year from the 
north (1824-5) with many of his old companions and in the 
same ships ; but the Fury was lost, and his lowest points were 
' Cape Garry ' on the west and * Cape Kater ' on the east of 
the Inlet. Cape Kater was only one hundred and thirty 
miles north-west of Fury and Hecla Strait, and the existence 
of an intervening coast was proved by Parry's successors, 
and more especially by Sir John Ross. 

In 1829-33 Sir John Ross, with James Ross for companion 
and Felix Booth for patron, descended Prince Regent Inlet in 
the Victory (150 tons) and Krusenstern, passed Cape Garry, 
found and named ' Boothia Felix ', which is a continental 
promontory, though nature seems to have intended it for an 
island ; for the isthmus which joins it to the mainland is only 
thirteen feet above sea-level, seventeen to eighteen miles long 
and three parts lake, while a similar isthmus shadows this 
isthmus a few miles north of it. Besides exploring the 
1 7o°lat. 



THE FAR NORTH-LAND AND ITS HEROES 13 

isthmus and its counterpart, and the eastern mainland, for 
fifty or sixty miles, and the magnetic pole on the west coast 
of the peninsula,^ James Ross followed what he thought was 
the western mainland for one hundred and twenty miles as 
the crow flies, named it King William Land, and its western- 
most points Point Victory, Cape Jane Franklin and Point 
Franklin. Long afterwards this land proved an island and 
these names names of omen. Meanwhile Ross lay icebound 
on the east of the isthmus, abandoned his ships, took to his 
boats, and on arriving in Lancaster Sound after four years' 
absence from the world, saw a ship. A ship's boat put forth 
to meet him. What was the ship's name .? asked Ross. * The 
Isabella of Hull, once commanded by Captain Ross ' was the 
mate's answer : and who was the questioner ? ' Captain 
Ross.' * Impossible,' replied the mate, for * Captain Ross 
had been dead two years'. It was now assumed (rightly) 
that the mainland east of Boothia curved round to Fury and 
Hecla Strait, and (wrongly) that Boothia and North Somerset 
were parts of the same peninsula, so that the continent touched 
Lancaster Sound in the northernmost point of North Somerset. 

While Parry was engaged on his second voyage Lieutenant and the 
(Sir) John Franklin (i 820-1) with (Sir) George Back, (Sir) ^^^^f/^^'^ 
John Richardson, Robert Hood and some French Canadians, continents 
repeated Hearne's exploit, but from Great Slave Lake,^ not ^^'^^^l 
from the Churchill, reached the mouth of the Coppermine, strait and 
called the Gulf, into which the Coppermine, Richardson, ^^fj- 
Hood, and Back rivers opened, George I V's Coronation /f/^Wze/^j;^ 
Gulf, and returned by Hood River and the barrens to his 'fJ^^'f!lJ^ 
* fort ' ^ on the edge of the barrens and just south of the 
watershed of the Coppermine. His provisions were exhausted. 
Winter had set in. The fort which he had requested the 

1' 96° 46' ii" long. ; 70° 5' 19'' lat. 

2 Fort Providence c. 62° 17' N. lat. 114° 9' long. 

3 Fort Enterprise at the head of Yellowknife River, which falls into 
Great Slave Lake. 



14 HISTORICAL GEOGRAPHY OF CANADA 

Indians to provision was without provisions or Indians. Back 
crawled on to search for Indians. Franklin lay down and 
lived on ofFal. He was soon joined by Richardson, who 
was in charge of stragglers and had shot one straggler who 
had shot Hood and probably eaten two others. One or two 
others staggered into the fort. While they were dying inch 
by inch, and the last spark was being extinguished, an Indian 
whom Back had found arrived with food and they were saved. 
In 1825-7 Franklin, Richardson, Back, and Kendall, after 
building and provisioning a fort^ on Great Bear Lake, 
repeated Mackenzie's exploit and descended the Mackenzie 
River to its mouth in boats built after the model of whaleboats. 
Thence Franklin and Back coasted westward to meet Captain 
Frederick William Beechey, who was coasting eastward from 
Bering Strait. Franklin passed the boundary between Canada 
and Alaska ; Beechey's mate, Elson, passed the northern apex 
of Alaska ; and the two parties reduced the unknown part of 
that coastline to one hundred and sixty miles. Meanwhile 
Richardson and Kendall coasted to the east through ' Dolphin 
and Union Strait ', which was named after their boats, and 
lies between * Wollaston Land ' and the mainland ; and after 
reaching the Coppermine River they returned by land to the 
fort on Great Bear Lake. 

Two of the five fixed points of the continental border, 
namely, the mouths of the Mackenzie and Coppermine, were 
now joined to one another, and a third, namely, Bering Strait, 
was nearly joined to them. 
by Backy In 1833-5 Sir George Back and Dr. Richard King started 
east from Great Slave Lake, partly to ascertain the fate of Ross, 
but chiefly for purposes of exploration, crossed the watershed 
and discovered and descended the Great Fish River, which 
Franklin had heard of (1819),^ to its mouth. The land 

^ Fort Franklin. 

' As Thloueeatessy, Narrative of a Journey to the . . . Folar Sea, 
1823, vol. i, p. 143. Probably Hearne's Thele aza. 



THE FAR NORTH-LAND AND ITS HEROES 1 5 

about its mouth was named ' William IV's Land ' ; a strange 
coincidence, for although Back had then heard of Ross's return, 
he had not heard that Ross had named his south-western goal 
' King William Land ' ; and Back's ' William I V's Land ', 
and Ross's * King William Land ' were explored by their dis- 
coverers to within one hundred miles of one another. The 
country traversed by Back was the abomination of desolation ; 
a few miles east/^ of his fort ^ on Great Slave Lake, trees 
ceased, and there were barrens, barrens, barrens all the way. 
Thus a sixth fixed point was added to the coast-line of 
North America, namely, the Great Fish River. 

The last expedition of this period was the only private and by 
venture of the Hudson Bay Company during this period. ^^^''^^°^^' 
Thomas Simpson and Peter Warren Dease (1837-9), who 
were in command, explored the northern coast from Beechey's 
furthest to the Great Fish Estuary, which they traced 
a little further east than Back had traced it. Their boats 
Castor and Pollux gave a name to the eastern limit of 
their discoveries, which lay 57 miles south of the most 
southerly point reached by James Ross, and, strange to say, 
1 20 miles south-east (not south-west) of James Ross's western- 
most point. But the wild geese were flying south, stars were 
seen in the sky, and food was scarce, so they too turned back 
with their task just unaccomplished. They noted land on 
the north of Simpson Strait, which they identified with Ross's 
King William Land and deemed a promontory of Boothia, 
and land on the north of Dease Strait, which was called 
* Victoria Land '. Simpson and Dease proved what Franklin, 
Richardson, and Back partly proved and partly guessed, that 
the seaboard from Bering Strait to Boothia is fairly straight, 
except where the Mackenzie Coppermine and Great Fish 
rivers form estuaries, and is paved with ice from end to end, 
except where running rivers and land warmer than the waves 

* At Artillery Lake. ^ Fort Reliance. 



i6 



HISTORICAL GEOGRAPHY OF CANADA 



The third 
period of 
search^ 

i845-59» 
was also 
national : 



Rae 

searched 

between 

Hudson 

Bay and 

King 

William 

Island: 



cut narrow streaks or pathways of water through the crystal 
sea during two short summer months. 

The godfathers and godmothers of the third period 
(1845-59) were the Duchess of Kent, Queen Victoria, her 
consort Prince Albert and her children the Princess Royal, 
the Prince of Wales and Duke of Cornwall, Prince Alfred, and 
Prince Patrick (Duke of Connaught) ; Admiralty officials like 
Sir F. Baring, First Lord, J. W. Deans Dundas, W. A. 
Baillie Hamilton and John Parker; the Hudson Bay 
Company, to whose officials no new names except those 
of Shepherd and Matheson need be added ; Lieutenant 
P. A. Halkett, who invented a portable boat; and the 
explorers, among whom Sir John Franklin was the central 
figure. 

If we may for once anticipate events, John Rae (1846-7), 
acting on a suggestion made by Franklin in 1828 and 1836,^ 
and under a commission from the Hudson Bay Company, 
traced on foot the whole coast between Fury and Hecla Strait 
on the summit of Melville Peninsula, and the base of Boothia 
Peninsula, thus joining Parry's north-western with Ross's 
easternmost limits. He passed the winter at the base of 
Melville Peninsula, which was a low isthmus, thenceforth 
called Rae Isthmus, forty miles across and seven-eighths lake, 
like that which formed the base of Boothia Peninsula; and in 
both cases there were two lines of lake across the isthmus. 
The land lay within the arctic regions, the only fuel was 
Andromeda tetragona, and he fed on reindeer which he shot 
or on seals bought from the Eskimos who lined the shore. 
The whole coast was now known from Bering Strait to 
Hudson Strait, but for two or three exceptions, which were — 
a strip of coast on the west of Boothia, a strip of coast on the 
west of North Somerset (if Boothia and North Somerset 
were indeed one), and fifty or sixty miles of what might be 



^ Journal of the Royal Geographical Society ^ vol. vi, 1836, p. 43. 



THE FAR NORTH-LAND AND ITS HEROES 1 7 

land or might be sea on the east of King William Land. 
These were the two or three dark places on the earth, the two or 
three riddles of the Sphinx which were as yet unanswered. 

In 1845 Sir John Franklin, Captains Francis Crozier, James Franklin 
Fitz James, and one hundred and twenty-six doomed men, set f^^^^ 
out in the Erehus and Terror to sail the whole way from 1845; 
Lancaster Sound to Bering Strait and perchance to answer 
these riddles or else, in Hudson's words, ^to give reason 
wherefore it might not be *, for they were men who meant to 
do or die. They were provisioned for three years and 
vanished in their first year. After three years a search for 
them began. This was the prologue of the drama. 

In 1848-9 Captains Sir James Ross and (Sir) F. Leopold and was 
McClintock and Lieutenants Robinson and Brown wintered nought for, 

first in 

in Barrow Strait and sledged along the east and west coasts 1848-9, by 
of North Somerset, but not quite so far south as Boothia, and J^^^^^^ 
along part of the east coast of Prince Regent Inlet, but not Fullen, 
so far south as in North Somerset : from Bering Strait ^^<^^<^^^- 

' ^ son, Kae, 

Lieutenant W. J. S. Pullen went in a whale-boat to the &c,; 

Mackenzie ; and from Canada Richardson and Rae, starting 

at a fort ^ on Great Bear Lake, repeated Richardson's feat of 

1825-7, tried but failed to cross to Wollaston Land, although 

they conversed with Eskimos who had recently been there ; 

and when the curtain dropped upon the first Act no new 

light had been thrown on the fate of Franklin or on the 

northern frontier of the continent. 

In 1 8 50- 1 a flotilla of vessels under Captains Horatio Austin secondly in 

and Erasmus Ommaney, Lieutenants Sherard Osborn, William ^^^^7-^'^^^ 

Browne, F. Leopold McClintock, George F. Mecham, R. Vesey Ommaney 

Hamilton, R.D.Aldrich, (Sir) Clements Markham, andDr.A.R. ^^^^^^^ 

Bradford, in the Resolute y Assistance, Pioneer, and Intrepid, parties, 

renewed the search. Captains William Penny and Alexander /^j^^^^f^^^^ 

Stewart, Dr. P. C. Sutherland, R. A. Goodsir and J. Stuart joined 

them with two other vessels ; Sir John Ross, then seventy-three 

^ Dease and Simpson's Fort Confidence. 

VOL. V. PT. in Q 



l8 HISTORICAL GEOGRAPHY OF CANADA 

years of age, brought two more vessels, Captain C. Forsyth 
one more (1850), Captain William Kennedy and Lieuten- 
ant Bellot (185 1-2) one more, and Lieutenant De Haven 
(United States) two more, the latter being supplied by the 
generosity of Henry Grinnell. These vessels met off and 
on in Barrow Strait, and Ommaney found on Beechey Island 
at the south-west of North Devon the spot where Franklin 
wintered (1846-7), but no record except an epitaph on the 
grave of one of Franklin's crew. Before the search had pro- 
ceeded far, the vessels were frozen for the winter into beds 
of ice, some in Wellington Channel near its mouth in Barrow 
Strait, others in Barrow Strait near the mouth of Wellington 
Channel. Then sledges took on the task. McClintock went 
west to Melville Island, which he searched more or less as far 
as Liddon Gulf. Aldrich searched both sides of Byam Martin 
Channel, more or less. Penny, Stewart, Sutherland, and 
Goodsir searched both sides of Wellington Channel and of its 
continuation Queen's Channel more or less to its northern 
entrance between Capes which were named Cape Sir John 
Franklin and Cape Lady Franklin — ominously, as it proved. 
South of Barrow Strait a new island was found between 
Somerset and Banks Land, and was named Prince of Wales 
Island. Ommaney and Osborn searched half its west ^ and 
Browne ^ searched half its east coast. Lieutenant Bellot while 
searching North Somerset discovered that it was an island and 
that between it and Boothia Peninsula was a strait ^ more 
like a Greenland fiord than a strait, twenty miles long, one 
mile wide, four hundred feet deep or more, with granite walls 
fifteen hundred feet high. Bellot Strait, as it was called, be- 
came a new fixed point on the northern coast of Canada. 
Everything east of it was already known. On its west there 
were still two unjoined points which lay very near one another. 
James Ross's most northerly point on the west coast of Boothia 
was only one hundred miles south of the western entrance of 
^ Down to 72° 18'. 2 Down to 72° 49'. ^ ^ ^3° lat. 



THE FAR NORTH-LAND AND ITS HEROES 19 

the new strait, and the coast sloped towards it. The west 
coast of Boothia, though a missing link in the chain, was no 
longer a mystery. Only one uncertainty, one crucial uncer- 
tainty, remained. The Achilles' heel of the problem was King 
William Land ^ along whose northern shore James Ross had 
been one hundred miles west of the point reached by Simpson 
from the west on a line of latitude ^ one degree lower than 
Ross's line. As yet no one knew that King William Land 
had an east coast and was an island, and no search party had 
reached within one hundred miles of it, although Bellot had 
been one hundred and thirty miles, and Browne, Osborn, and 
Ommaney had been one hundred and eighty miles on its 
north or north-west. 

Meanwhile Sir Robert McClure in the Investigatory and by ^^^- 
Sir Richard Collin son in the Enterprise, started from England colliitson 
for Bering Strait (1850), after passing which McClure {oV from the 
lowed a water line by the shore, as a miner follows a gold ' 
lead, or Theseus followed Ariadne's string, and it took him 
past the mouth of the Mackenzie north-eastward up a new 
strait, which he called Prince of Wales Strait, and which lay 
between two new lands, the left of which turned out to be 
Banks Land, and the right was named Prince Albert Land. 
He reached its ice-choked mouth some sixty miles due south 
of Melville Island, and wintered a few miles further south 
( 1 850-1). Thence sledge parties were sent out. Lieutenant 
W. H. Haswell sledged southward, where he found Eskimos, 
Lieutenant S. G. Cresswell followed the north coast of Banks 
Land, and R. Wynniatt the north coast of Prince Albert Land, 
until the shore turned to the south-east, and he reached a point 
sixty miles due west of Osborn's furthest point on the west 
coast of Prince of Wales Island and two hundred miles north- 
west of King William Island. Osborn's and Wynniatt's points 
are the Jachin and Boaz of what is now known as McClintock's 
Channel. Next year, unable to escape to the north, McClure 
i 69° 31' lat. 2 68° 29' lat. 

C 2 



20 HISTORICAL GEOGRAPHY OF CANADA 

retraced his steps through the Strait and sailed almost all the 
way round Banks Land until he stuck fast during a second 
and a third winter (185 1-2) (1852-3) in the Bay of Mercy 
on the north coast of Banks Land, sixty miles south-west of 
Melville Island. The same wall of perennial ice which baffled 
Parry when sailing from the east in 1819-20 baffled McClure 
when sailing from the west in 185 1-3. And there in his icy 
prison he must be left at present. 

Collinson passed through Bering Strait in 1851, pursued the 
same clue up the same strait as that which McClure followed, 
found two of McClure's cairns with letters from him, and 
wintered with HaswelKs Eskimos (i 851-2). His sledgers 
unwittingly crossed the very tracks of McClure's northern 
sledgers. Next year he tried to advance, but was compelled 
to retreat, searched Prince Albert Inlet, which is between 
Prince Albert Land and Wollaston Land, and which he had 
mistaken for a strait, and then entered Dolphin and Union 
Strait and sailed east to Cambridge Bay in Victoria Land, just 
one hundred and thirty miles west of King William Land, 
which was now the only unknown place on the northern coast 
of America. His further career will be traced hereafter. 
a7td by Rae Rae was Still on the trail, and after many efforts crossed 
'^sotdjf'^ Dolphin and Union Strait to Wollaston Land and hunted 
after the missing men along its whole south coast from the 
south edge of Prince Albert Inlet on the west, where he almost 
met Haswell, though he knew it not, to a point in east Vic- 
toria Land on the southern threshold of what is now called 
McClintock Channel (1851). He, McClure, and Collinson 
proved that Prince Albert, Wollaston, and Victoria Land 
are a single island, and when near his eastern terminus, some 
forty or fifty miles west of King William Island, Rae found 
a spar of English wood with a broad-arrow mark. He was 
unable to cross to King William Land, and returned with this 
intelligence to England. A ray of hope ushered in the second 
Act of the drama and a ray of hope shone as the curtain fell. 



THE FAR NORTH-LAND AND ITS HEROES 21 

Between 1852 and 1854 Captains Sir Edward 'BQlch^v, thirdly in 
Sherard Osborn, and G. H. Richards, with W. W. May and ll%l\^^ 

D. Lyall in the Assistance and Pioneer] Captains Henry Kellett and by 
and McClintock, with Mecham, Vesey-Hamilton, B. C. Pirn, ^^^^^ 

E. F. de Bray and (Sir) George Nares in the Resolute '^wA from the 
Intrepid, and Captain W J. S. PuUen and Dr. R. McCormick, in ^^orth-east 
the North Star, once more entered Lancaster Sound. The 
Assistance and Pioneer were duly frozen into their winter 
quarters near Cape Sir John Franklin at the north end of 
Queen's Channel, while the North Star was left at Beechey 

Island near the south end of Wellington Channel, and the 
Resolute and Intrepid, after penetrating Barrow Strait as far as 
Melville Island, wintered there off Dealey Islet. Meanwhile 
McClure remained in Mercy Bay and Collinson in Cambridge 
Bay, fast bound in misery and ice. These seven ships did 
not make, but their sledges made geography. Each sledge 
had its name, flag, and motto, for instance, ' Persevere to the 
end ', ' Endeavour to deserve ', * Be of good courage ', * Go 
forth in faith ', ^ Dangers do not daunt me ', ' Success to the 
Brave ' and * Loyal au mort ' (note the gender !) The sledgers 
remained out in winter for 100 days at a time, while the 
thermometer sometimes registered 100 degrees of frost and 
gales blew, and the longest journeys were 1157 sea-miles in 
70 days (Mecham) and 1148 sea-miles in 105 days (McClin- 
tock). Belcher and his men went east along the north coast 
of North Devon, discovering Belcher Channel, North Corn- 
wall, and North Kent, and made it clear that Belcher Channel 
led by Jones Sound to Baffin Bay ; Richards, Osborn, Lyall, 
and May explored the northern coasts of Cornwallis, Bathurst 
and Melville Island, until they met McClintock on the top of 
Sabine Peninsula in Melville Island; Mecham went along 
the south coast of Melville Island, which he found to be twice 
as long as had been thought, and discovered and examined 
the southern half of Eglinton Island and the south-east, south, 
and west coasts of Prince Patrick Island ; while McClintock 



22 



HISTORICAL GEOGRAPHY OF CANADA 



{they 

rescued 

McClure) 



{Belcher 
abandoned 
fonr ships) 



examined the east and north coasts of Melville Island and 
Prince Patrick Island and the northern half of Eglinton Island, 
doing everything which Richards on the east and Beecham 
on the south had left undone. The search was for the first 
time thorough and complete, but the islands were drawn 
blank except for the following discovery. A cairn built by 
Parry near Hecla and Griper Bay (Melville Island) had been 
used as a post office, where McClintock left a letter (June 6, 
1 851), which McClure found, and left a second letter (April 
28, 1852) which Mechamfound (October 12, 1852). McClure 
was in sore straits. His provisions were running short : his 
men's gums were rotting and their legs were swelling with 
scurvy, and he knew that Austin and Ommaney intended to 
return in 1851. Accordingly, as a counsel of despair, he 
arranged to send one-third of his men south, and one-third 
east, if haply they might find some one who would succour 
them. He and the remaining third were to stay at their 
posts for another winter. On April 15, 1853, the three parties 
were to take leave of one another, probably for ever ; but on 
April 6 a wild lonely figure came rushing over the ice gesti- 
culating and yelling like a madman. His face was black 
with frost-bite : but — was it possible ? Yes, he was speaking 
English, and was not one of their crew. It was Lieutenant 
Pim, who brought a sledge party from the Resolute, McClure 
and his men were transferred to Kellett's ships, and the Inves- 
iigaior, which was frozen in beyond hope of release, was 
abandoned. 

In summer Kellett's ships escaped from their position and 
sailed east, but were caught by winter ice before reaching 
Wellington Channel. Belcher's ships sailed south, but were 
caught by winter ice before reaching Barrow Strait. In 
spring, 1854, Belcher ordered the abandonment of the 
Resolute^ Assistance^ Intrepid, and Pioneer^ and their crews 
sailed home in the North Star and some storeships, which 
were met further east. A year later, the Resolute, as if in 



THE FAR NORTH-LAND AND ITS HEROES 23 

mockery of Belcher's orders, drifted by itself unguided yet 
scatheless, like the boat which bore Lancelot to the enchanted 
towers of Carbonek, out of Lancaster Sound down Baffin 
Bay to the very verge of the Arctic circle ^ where an American 
whaler found it and took it home. It was afterwards restored 
to England by the United States. 

And what of Collinson ? From Cambridge Bay his sledgers and by 
explored the Coast of Victoria Land eastward a little further J^^^^^^^^^'* 
than Rae explored it, and found what Rae found ; like Rae, he west, 
was unable to cross to King William Land, so he sailed west, 
and, after passing a third winter in the Arctics, repassed 
Bering Strait (1854) on his way home by the way he came. 

And what of Rae? In 1853 Rae was sent out by \h^ andfro}fi 
Hudson Bay Company from Hudson Bay, not in quest Q{i^^^ south 
the missing men but solely to throw light on the last unsolved who heard 
mystery of the northern frontier of America. After tracing ^f^jf^^^l^' 
Chesterfield Inlet, which had been partially examined in aster on 
1763^ and 1792, he wintered as before on Rae Isthmus, re- ^Ifi^^^j^ 
examined Pelly Bay in the Gulf of Boothia, and reached island. 
Dease and Simpson's furthest point in the Great Fish Estuary. 
He then struck north and reached a point which Ross had 
reached on the west of Boothia Isthmus, thus proving that 
King William Land has an east coast which is separated by 
water from the west coast of Boothia. Rae and Collinson 
had already seen water on the west of King William Land, 
James Ross had seen water on its north, and Back, Dease, 
and Simpson had seen water on its south. Five expeditions 
of first-rate magnitude and difficulty were required in order 
to prove that King William Land was an island. Six search 
parties, conducted with consummate skill by Osborn and 
Ommaney, by Browne, by Bellot, by Wynniatt, by Rae, and 
by Collinson, had converged upon it from every point of the 
compass, except from the inhospitable south, had approached 

^ 67° lat. 

^ S. Hearne, yb«/';^^>' , , , to the N'orihern Ocean^ 1795? P- 3on. 



24 HISTORICAL GEOGRAPHY OF CANADA 

it and retired. This Island is and always was the most in- 
accessible spot on the northern frontier of Canada. Nor 
was Rae able on this occasion to cross thither, want of food 
and boats and healthy men compelling him to return. He 
returned with thrilling news. Englishmen were mourning 
over the abandonment of five Arctic ships, and of Collinson, 
and over the unpenetrated and now impenetrable veil which 
hid Franklin's fate, when Dr. Rae announced, on the authority 
of the Eskimos of the Great Fish River, that Franklin's ships 
were lost on the north coast of King William Island, that 
his crew went south by the west coast to the Great Fish 
Estuary, where the last man dropped and died of famine in 
the month of May long ago, and that the throes of famine 
led to those nameless horrors which disfigured Franklin's 
first expedition. Moreover, he brought back plate with the 
dead men's initials and crests, which he had bought from the 
Eskimos who had bought them from the dying men. In 1 855 
James Anderson descended Great Fish River from Great Slave 
Lake and found more traces of the dead but none of the 
living ; but he too could not cross to King William Island, 
as his boats were worn out and the great Lone Land through 
which he had journeyed had exhausted his supplies. Thus 
the last mystery of the continental coastline and of Franklin's 
fate and of the only practicable north-west passage was rent 
asunder. But there was a fourth Act to the drama. 
In 1857-9 In order to make certainty doubly certain, Lady Franklin 
tockreached ^^^ Others sent out McClintock with W. R. Hobson and 
^^Y ^^^^^ Young in the Fox (170 tons) (1857-9). McClintock 
Island and descended Prince Regent Inlet and steamed to and fro through 

confirmed Bellot Strait, which is the northernmost apex of north-eastern 
the itcws 

America, and which the Eskimos know of but seldom visit. 

Unable to proceed either on the east or west of Boothia, he 

wintered on the east of the strait, and dispatched sledge 

parties. Allen Young explored the whole south coast of 

Prince of Wales Island, between the points formerly reached 



THE FAR NORTH-LAND AND ITS HEROES 25 

by Browne and Osborn respectively, so that the whole coasts 
of Prince of Wales Island, and the east shore of what was 
thenceforth called McClintock Channel, had now been 
traversed from end to end ; McClintock and Hobson scoured 
the west coast of Boothia, which was the last missing link 
left between Bering Strait and Hudson Strait, and the 
whole coasts of King William Island and part of Great Fish 
Estuary. They saw the Eskimos whom Ross and Rae had 
seen, and on the north and west of King William Island and 
on islands in the estuary found cairns, implements, skeletons 
and clothes of white men, and brought home amongst other 
relics of the fallen a written record which was found in a 
cairn on Ross's Point Victory. According to the record, 
Franklin, after wintering on Beechey Island, sailed up 
Wellington and Queen's Channel, passed between what 
Penny prophetically named Capes Sir John Franklin and Lady 
Franklin, sailed down what was thenceforth named Crozier 
Channel, between Cornwallis and Bathurst Islands, descended 
what was thenceforth named Franklin's Channel between 
Prince of Wales Island and North Somerset, and was finally 
wedged into the ice within sight of what Ross propheti- 
cally named Point Franklin, Cape Jane Franklin, and last 
but not least Point Victory. Franklin died in 1847. ^^"^ 
April, 1848, Crozier andFitzJames led one hundred and five 
survivors southward by the west coast towards Back's Great 
Fish River. There the story ends, and although Eskimo 
tales may not have been true in every particular, it can hardly 
be supposed that any of the band were alive when their first 
would-be saviours crossed the Atlantic, and what I have called 
the prologue to the drama was really a prologue in Heaven. 
Everything was now revealed. Franklin and his men were 
the first to connect Ross's, Back's, Dease's, and Simpson's 
discoveries, and died in doing so. The answer to the last 
riddle which the Sphinx propounded was stern and terrible 
indeed. Like Berens and Hudson, Franklin bought glory 



26 HISTORICAL GEOGRAPHY OF CANADA 

with his Hfe and joined 'the lost adventurers his peers', 
wearing a crown of victory. The strangely prophetic names, 
Capes Sir John and Lady Franklin, Point Franklin, Cape Jane 
Franklin, and Point Victory, lend an almost eerie touch to 
a tale which even without it is written in *starfire and 
immortal tears \ 
Franklin's According to McClintock, Franklin might have been 
^l^/ successful as well as victorious had he only known of the east 
William coast of King William Island ; and this criticism was justified 
traversed ^ ^y ^^^^ Amundsen, who sailed along Lancaster Sound, 
byAmtmd- Franklin Channel, and the east coast of King William Island, 
1^903-6. ^^^ ^^^^ along the North American coast, to Bering Strait, 
thus passing from the Atlantic to the Pacific in one ship by 
the north for the first time {1903-6). This error of about 
ten miles in a voyage of twenty thousand miles or more meant 
the difference between Amundsen's exploit and Franklin's 
disaster. The way which Franklin all but found was not 
only a possible way but was probably the only way to the 
west; for Hecla and Fury Strait, and the straits between 
Melville and Banks Island, between the latter and Prince 
Albert-and- Victoria Island, and between the latter and 
Prince of Wales Island, are so far as is known always as 
impassable as Parry, McCliire, and Collinson found them. 
Tins search It is sometimes asked why the archipelago of islands to the 
^northern ^^o^^h of continental Canada are considered part of Canada. 
archipelago The answer is that the differences between straits and isthmuses 
Canada. ^^^ between islands like Southampton, King William and 
North Somerset Islands, and peninsulas like Melville and 
Boothia Peninsulas, are infinitesimally small, that the last 
crowning discovery which was made on the northern coast 
was the discovery that what was thought a promontory was 
really an island, and that the discoveries of these tiny differ- 
ences cost the greatest amount of suffering and deaths. 
Even now maps are not agreed as to whether Cockurn Land 
is an island or a part of Baffin Land. INIen sailed or walked 



THE FAR NORTH-LAND AND ITS HEROES 27 

round every foot of every island coast — except some northern 
islands recently discovered by Otto Sverdrup (1898- 190 2), 
except too the greater part of Grant Land, and except a 
small strip of Victoria Land on the west coast of McClintock 
Channel, which was examined by Amundsen — before the real 
continental coast was ascertained, and in order that it might be 
ascertained. The very names of places denote that the island 
search and continental search were inextricably interwoven ; 
names of landsmen like Garry, and of naval officials like 
Barrow, recur on both the insular and continental shores, 
and Beechey's name is found inland and on every coast. 
History decided that there should and could be only one 
search and one discovery, of which the search and discovery 
of the archipelago was an inseparable part. The very herbs 
and animals proclaimed the unity of the islands and the 
continent. The moss, iripe de roche, and ground willow on 
which reindeer, musk-ox, lemmings and hares feed ; the 
lemmings on which white bear cubs feed ; the white bear 
cubs, musk-ox, and reindeer on which the wolves feed ; the 
hares on which the ermines and foxes feed; the purple 
saxifrage which allures the ptarmigan, which allures the owls 
and ravens; the seals which allure the white bears and 
Eskimos, thrive, and the feeders thrive, in winter as well as in 
summer, on the islands as well as on the mainland. But the 
principal tie is the human interest of the tragedy associated 
with Sir John Franklin, who explored on foot, in boats, and in 
ships of the Royal Navy, the continental barrens and shores 
and the islands and their shores, and perished in the fulfil- 
ment of a mission which equally concerned the waterways 
amid the northern islands and the delineation of the northern 
frontier of the American continent. The Dominion Govern- 
ment sends a steamer from time to time to control or save 
the whalers of Lancaster Sound and Barrow Strait ; and 
Herschel Island, a little west of the mouth of the Mackenzie, 
is a rendezvous of American whalers from Bering Strait and 



28 HISTORICAL GEOGRAPHY OF CANADA 

of representatives of the North- West Mounted Police, who 
also frequent the islands of Hudson Bay ; otherwise these 
arctic islands and this arctic coast have once more resumed 
their primeval desolation ; nor are they destined to become 
the theatre of history or the home of any one white man, and 
the only history of which they are or will be the theatre is 
contained in catalogues of names of kings, queens, princes, 
admirals, officials, men of commerce and explorers of a by- 
gone age, names which mark their dates and illustrate their 
characteristic features in a way which resembles the mute 
records of the past furnished by geology. But the re- 
semblance is not complete ; for the names which are written 
on these shores are human names, and names which speak 
from spirit to spirit and eloquently perpetuate no mere 
succession of events, but an heroic tragedy in which Intrepid 
and Resolute Investigators pursued Discovery through regions 
of Sunshme, but also of Erebus and Terror and Fury, until 
their Enterprise and Resolution were rewarded with Victory. 



As to the general Geography of Canada, S. E. Dawson, Canada ami 
Newfoundland (1897), in Stanford's Compendium of Geography and 
Travely is the leading authority. 

As to this chapter: besides references in the notes, the Hakluyt Society's 
Publications contain monographs on the Voyages of William Baffin 
(1881), William Coats (1852), John Davys (1880), Martin Frobisher 
(1867), Luke Fox and Thomas James (1894), Henry Hudson (i860), 
which illustrate the first period ; during the second period Sir George 
Back, Sir John Franklin, Sir William E. Parry, John Rae, Sir John 
Richardson, Sir John Ross, Captain F. W. Beechey, and Thomas Simpson 
have been their own historians ; and thirty-two Parliamentary papers 
(1847-58), indexed under the title of Arctic Expeditions, deal with 
the last Franklin expedition and the Franklin relief expedition. Sir 
Richard Collinson, Sir Leopold McClintock, Sir Robert McClure, 
Sherard Osborn, Peter C. Sutherland, Robert MacCormick, Robert 
Goodsir, Alexander Armstrong, and others, have also published their own 
experiences. There are English translations of the Voyages of Roald 
Amundsen (1908) and Otto Sverdrup (1904) to which reference has 
been made. 



CHAPTER II 

THE FAR EAST 

Nova Scotia, the two Islands and their People 

We must now leave the Arctic solitudes for the hum of the The four 
market-place. Three thousand miles south-east of Herschel Pr^/nces 
Island and two thousand miles south of Lancaster Sound are 
the Maritime Provinces. 

The four Maritime Provinces, all or some of which the <^>'^ Aca- 
French called Acadia, are the eastern vestibule of Canada. ^^* 
Three of the Maritime Provinces, Cape Breton Island, Nova 
Scotia, and New Brunswick, occupy the curving coast along the 
south shore of the Gulf of St. Lawrence, and the west shore 
of the Atlantic Ocean ; and the fourth, Prince Edward Island, 
is an island in the Gulf, shaped like a new moon and mimick- 
ing the Gulf shores off which it lies. From 1763 to 1767 all 
four, from 1767 to 1784 the first three, from 1820 until now 
the first two provinces, constituted the Province of Nova 
Scotia ; but in the following pages Nova Scotia will be used 
not in its political but in its geographical sense, which is 
also the political sense which it bore between 1784 and 1820 
when the Province was the Peninsula of that name. 

These four provinces lie east of the mountain range (if it 
may be so called) which throws off a succession of ridges 
between Central Alabama and the Shickshock mountains in 
the Peninsula of Gasp^, and is sometimes called the Appala- 
chian range ; and therefore they resemble New England and 
are unlike Canada proper in contour and character. 

East of a bent line drawn from Digby (Nova Scotia) to Their Geo- 
Cape Canso (N. S.) and thence to Cape Breton are ^chtd^'coal 
Cambrian or pre-Cambrian slates, into which granite from strata; 



32 HISTORICAL GEOGRAPHY OF CANADA 

time to time intrudes. The country is rough, stony, irregular, 
and dull of hue. It is unfertile, but has gold. Behind, from 
Digby to Truro (Nova Scotia) and thence to Chignecto 
isthmus (New Brunswick) on the left, and to the Bras D'Or 
and Sydney on the right, are later rocks of Silurian, Devonian, 
Carboniferous, Permian, and Triassic age ; and the rose-red 
sandstones of Windsor (Nova Scotia), of the Bras d'Or 
(Cape Breton Island), and elsewhere, are usually Triassic like 
those at Dawlish, and the lily-white gypsum hard by is 
usually Carboniferous. The series is much the same as in 
Europe, but Triassic is the last and latest of the series in 
Nova Scotia, so that the newest rocks are brightest. 
ami their From Digby to Wolfville what seems like a straight and 
gfography ^arrow valley ninety miles long lies between two straight 
cotnposite ridges, but this is both more and less than truth. The north 
valleys, ii^gQ is a real ridge and is longer than it seems ; for it begins 
west of Digby, where the sea cuts through it, then continues 
as ' North Mountain ', which is sandstone with a trap-cap, to 
Cape Blomidon beyond Wolfville, where the sea again cuts 
through it; and then it continues as the Cobequid range, 
which is mainly Carboniferous, and extends behind Truro 
from the Permian flats of Chignecto Isthmus on the west to 
the Gut of Canso on the east. The seeming south ridge is 
merely the fringe of the Cambrian highlands ; the seeming 
valley between the ridges is a composite valley carved out by 
two rivers rising in a low-lying bog, within a few paces of one 
another by the roadside,^ running in opposite directions and 
named the AnnapoHs and Cornwallis ; and the valley after 
passing Wolfville opens out into the Basin of Mines and its 
shores, until Truro and the hills behind Truro bring it to an 
end some sixty or seventy miles beyond Wolfville. 
red rivers, All the chief rivers of the seeming valley, and of the Basin 
^marshes, ^^ Mines and of south Chignecto, are lazy, dirty, and red 
with slime and ooze, and as unlike the rivers of Quebec and 
^ Lieutenant Coke, Subaltern's Furlough, p. 395. 



THE FAR EAST 33 

Ontario as it is possible for rivers to be; but the mud which 
they carry out to sea is returned by the tide with interest in 
the form of salt, sand, trap, gypsum, lime, and many other 
fertihzers. Moreover, the tides exceed even those of Ungava 
Bay, and are probably the highest in the world. 

Access to the sea from Annapolis, Wolfville, and Truro is 
by narrow slits ; Chignecto also communicates with the same 
sea by narrow slits ; and the sea is not the open sea, but the 
funnel-shaped Bay of Fundy. Therefore flowing tides sixty 
feet high wash these shores, and ebbing tides scoop out 
drains and pile up dams. The land which is washed — or 
but for the dams and drains would be washed — by the tide 
is salt-marsh, and is extraordinarily fertile, especially when 
man adds his puny dams and drains to those which Nature 
has made. 

Because the series of rocks from slates to New-Red Sand- and coal, 
stones is much the same in the West of England and the 
eastern Provinces of Canada, coal may exist west of Mird 
Bay (Cape Breton Island) but not east of it; at Sydney 
(C. B. I.), but not at Louisbourg. Again, the coast north 
of St. Anne's Bay (C. B, I.) is one of the few purely 
Archaean areas east of the Appalachians ; therefore coal may 
be expected at New Campbellton (C. B. I.) and Broad 
Cove (C, B. I.) or to their south, but not in the Archaean 
area to their north. So, too, in Nova Scotia, Pictou, the 
Cobequids and Chignecto are rich in coal, but the Atlantic 
coast is too old for coal. In New Brunswick the coal area 
is vast, and yet hardly any coal is obtained. 

New Brunswick has three belts — a Cambrian or older belt New 
from Shepody, where the salt marshes end, to Passama- ^^^'^^^^^^ 
quoddy Bay, a granite belt thence to Bay Chaleurs, near Edward 
Bathurst, and an Appalachian belt along the north border f^f/^^^^j^^^,, 
of the province ; and these three belts form a Z, between whatdiffer- 
whose upper and middle lines are Silurian and granite high- ^'^^* 
lands 800 to 2,600 feet high, and between whose lower and 

VOL. V. FT. Ill D 



34 HISTORICAL GEOGRAPHY OF CANADA 

middle lines is a fertile Carboniferous plain 200 to 500 feet 
high, cleft by river valleys and ravines, but otherwise level 
and free from stone. These geological divisions are very 
visible even to a railway traveller. The change from stone- 
less levels to rough granite country at Petit Rocher station 
near Bathurst is almost dramatic; Moncton is obviously 
within the zone of salt marshes; the ninety-mile journey 
thence to St. John— along two straight valleys lying back 
to back, and separated by a watershed 160 feet high — is 
obviously within the Carboniferous zone, and St. John 
railway-station is in a cleft between unmistakable Cambrian 
or pre-Cambrian slate rocks and limestone rocks almost as 
old. The Carboniferous area is large and flat ; therefore its 
coal is hard to seek and far to find, and New Brunswick 
hardly yields any coal. Nor does Prince Edward Island, 
which is an extension of the low-lying Carboniferous, Permian, 
and Triassic mainland, and is never 500 feet high. But 
then the Island — which Cobbett described as ' a rascally heap 
of sand, rock, and swamp ', and a * lump of worthlessness ' 
which 'bears nothing but potatoes' — has loamy stoneless 
soil, grows corn, is fertile from end to end, and is known as 
the granary and garden of the Gulf, so that it need not seek 
wealth below the surface. 
The little- Each of the four Maritime Provinces is small : the smallest 
These^Pro- ^^ ^^^^"^ ^^^ ^^^ largest is emptiest : and the size of the three 
vinces, large provinces increases as we approach Canada proper. 

1 90 1 Prince Edward Island 

„ Cape Breton Island 

„ Nova Scotia 

„ New Brunswick 

^'S' ^f Prince Edward Island is a miniature, and the very form 

^Breton Is- ^^ ^^P^ Breton Island conveys a sense of littleness. Two 

/and, thin sea-arms passing on the east and west of Boularderie 

Island (C. B. I.), and known as the Little and Great Bras D'Or, 

lead to an inland sea, as long as Windermere, then to a Strait 



S^. mites 


Population 


2,184 


103,259 


3,975 


97,605 


i7»453 


361,969 


27.985 


33iji2o 



THE FAR EAST 35 

spanned by a railway bridge, then to a second inland sea as 
long as Lake Constance, and lastly to St. Peter*s Isthmus, 
which is half a mile across. These two seas though salt are still 
and small, like lakes, and are known as the Little and Great Bras 
D'Or Lakes respectively. The island is hollow within, and a 
canal through the isthmus of St. Peter divides its attenuated 
body into two halves. Elsewhere waterways which lie back to 
back, and are separated by low watersheds, almost cut it into 
long low-ridged slices, resembling Boularderie Island in 
shape ; for instance, between Sydney Harbour and East Bay, 
between Mire Bay and Fourche, and at Lake Ainslie. The 
country is hilly but low, like Prince Edward Island, except 
near its northern apex, where the hills are 1,392 feet high. 
Thence, too, all down the peninsula is a range with hills, 
glens, burns, and lochs as pretty as in Wales ; but the ridge 
vanishes and is replaced by dull tame flats at a village a few 
miles north of Port Hood. This prosy village, which dispels 
every vestige of romance, is named Glencoe. 

The Gut of Canso, which divides Cape Breton Island from of Nova 
Nova Scotia, is often only a mile wide, and looks like a river -S*^^^^^* 
or ice-cut ravine rather than sea, and trains cross it on steam 
ferries as though it did not exist. The very sea is small, 
and the land of Nova Scotia is low and narrow for its length. 
Though hilly, its hills are less than those of Cape Breton 
Island ; at its thickest it is 70 miles across, and at its thinnest 
30 miles across between Bay and Ocean (at St. Margaret's) ; 
and it is 15 miles across between Bay and Gulf at Chignecto. 
New Brunswick takes us amongst the mountains in its far 
north, and it has one river, the St. John, which is 450 miles 
long, tidal for 90 miles, and navigable by ocean steamers to 
Fredericton, 84 miles up-stream, or by river steamers to the 
Grand Falls, 220 miles up-stream: but for which, like its 
sister provinces, New Brunswick lacks height, length, and 
width. On the other hand, the prevailing littleness of the ^^^^^^.^^^ 
Maritime provinces is veiled by the vast American forest, with their 

D 2 



3^ 



HISTORICAL GEOGRAPHY OF CANADA 



historic im- 
portance. 



Acadians 
were from 
France^ 



not fr 07)1 
the Seiney 
as were the 
Canadians^ 



which clothes them throughout — except in very stony or very 
marshy places — with a coat of many colours; and their 
human geography is instinct with interest, variety, and some- 
times tragic depths, presenting as it does a moving picture of 
great political Powers, and of still greater social forces, com- 
bining, dividing, and recombining, filling, emptying, and re- 
filling large tracts, and of Acadians, New Englanders, Germans, 
British Americans, Ulstermen, Yorkshiremen, Highlanders, 
Lowlanders, Irishmen, and Englishmen supplanting or sup- 
plementing one another, and the writer who describes it 
inevitably lapses into narrative. 

Nova Scotia, which is the central object in the narrative, 
was once possessed — and parts of it are still possessed — by 
the Acadians, who, like the French Canadians, came from the 
apple-growing, cider-drinking districts of France, but were 
unlike, and were not of the same stock as the French 
Canadians, who came from a dififerent part of France, at a 
time when France was not yet one. In the sixteenth century 
the secular rivalries of Brittany and Normandy were not dead, 
and the Guises poisoned the Seine from end to end with 
Roman Catholic intolerance, making Picardy, Paris, Perche, 
and Rouen strongholds of their League ; while Tours, on the 
Middle Loire, was Henry IV's capital in his heretical days, 
and Brittany at the mouth of the Loire, and La Rochelle 
a little further south, maintained their hostility to Parisian 
centralization and orthodoxy long after Henry IV had bridged 
over the gulf between the two religious parties, and built his 
canal between the Loire and the Seine. Old Canada was 
colonized in three movements. Between 1608 and 1645 
immigrants into Quebec from the Seine outnumbered im- 
migrants from the Loire and its neighbourhood by five to 
one, and all but all the latter came in the last decade ^ ; then 
things changed, and a second tidal wave brought two im- 

* Benj. Suite, in Transactions of the Royal Society of Canada ^ 1905* 
vol. xi, Part 3, p. 99. 



THE FAR EAST 37 

migrants from the Seine for every three from the Loire and its 
neighbourhood, but almost all the latter came without women 
and in 1662-3, which was too late to change the type which 
was already set. During the third and last movement (1667- 
72) there was a large inflow of women, and all those who 
came from country districts and went into country districts 
were from Normandy. The Seine, so to speak, flowed into 
the St. Lawrence and coloured it. 

While French Canada was being peopled from the Seine, but from 
Acadia was being peopled from the Lower Loire, or the nlarTt^^^ 
country of dyked salt marsh and lagoon (or barachois) which 
lies between the mouth of the Loire and La Rochelle, and 
which afterwards became famous in history as La Vendue. 
De Monts, one of the fathers of the Acadian race, was from 
Saintonge near La Rochelle, and Pontgravd was Breton; 
De Monts's, Pontgravd's, and Poutrincourt's immigrants into 
Acadia were mustered and embarked at La Rochelle;^ and they 
were the first body of men and women who went to the west 
to stay. Nicolas Denys of Tours and his brother De Vitr^, 
his Breton partner, and Isaac de Razilly of Touraine, chose 
and led out to Acadia the emigrants of 1632, who and whose 
issue ' were ', according to most historians, ^ the Acadian race.' 
The lesser lights included Le Borgne, Lord of Belle Isle, 
who financed D'Aulnay and La Tour,^ and Guilbaut of La 
Rochelle, who defended La Heve with his henchmen (1658). 
True, La Tour was from east France, but he was Protestant, 
and his followers, who were referred to as 'Swiss', * Pro- 
testant/ and rebel Rochellais, left no mark upon this country 
of Roman Catholic devotees. The colonizing Acadians were 
essentially from the middle west of France, and were often 
almost at war with the immigrants from elsewhere, such as 
De Saussaye and his men, who sailed from the Seine; 
Savalet, who was Basque ; and Rossignol and Doublet, who 
were Normans. The Acadians still say ' molue ' for ' morue ' 
^ Lescarbot, Livre iv, ch. ix. ^ jsf^va Scotia A^xhives (1900), pp. 94-5. 



38 HISTORICAL GEOGRAPHY OF CANADA 

as Denys did.^ Although our historical evidence is incom- 
plete and our philological evidence is scanty, yet, so far as 
they go, both point to the Lower Loire, La Rochelle, and the 
country between them as the cradle of the Acadian race. If so, 
the home which was chosen, or which they chose for themselves, 
in the new world contained vivid reflections of their old homes 
across the sea. This choice was partly dictated by conscious 
high policy common to all France, and was partly due to the 
childish memories and ingrained habits of those for whom 
and through whom the choice was made. 
The French French naval experts invariably preferred the harbour with 
were La ^^ narrowest entrance, across whose mouth they could stretch 
Htoe and a chain in time of war in order to save the ships that were 
whose har- within. This was why they chose as their Atlantic capitals 
hours had Placentia (Newfoundland) (1663-17 1 3), Louisbourg (Cape 
mouths Breton Island) (1713-63), and La Heve (Nova Scotia) (1632), 
and nearly chose St. Anne (C. B. I.) (17 13), all of which 
have mouths less than half a mile wide. De Brouillan saw 
Halifax Harbour (Chebucto) and said that it was splendid, 
but too wide for defence ^ In Digby Gut, on the Bay of 
Fundy, there was an entrance which was also half a mile 
wide into the estuary of the Annapolis, and accordingly 
Annapolis only ranked second to La H6ve in French eyes as 
a colonial site. Conversely, British experts praised Annapolis 
harbour, but blamed its narrow exit ^ ; rejected Louisbourg, 
though ice-free, after careful thought, and La H6ve without 
a thought, and chose wide-mouthed Sydney (C. B. L), and 
Halifax (N. Sc), and were almost persuaded to choose Shel- 
burne (N. Sc.) as their Atlantic capitals. British admirals 
wrote of exits as though harbour mouths were meant to be 
opened, French admirals of entrances as though harbour 
mouths were meant to be shut ; for on sea the British were 

^ Abb^ Casgrain, in Transactions of the Royal Society of Canada^ 
1887, vol. V. 
* B. Murdoch, vol. i, p. 247. ^ e.g[. Colonel Morse. 



THE FAR EAST 39 

all for attack, and the French all for defence, or even escape. 
And there were other advantages in Annapolis and La Heve. (^nd be- 
Indians came down Allen's River bringing fur to Annapolis ^^^^^y %^^^ 
from the interior ; or passed up Allen's River, over a portage rotites, 
and down the Mersey to Liverpool on the Atlantic in four 
days ; ^ this last route being the straightest river route between 
the Bay of Fundy and the Atlantic in Nova Scotia. The La 
H6ve River is the largest river on the Atlantic coast of Nova 
Scotia, and Indians paddled up it or its branches either to- 
wards the Allen and Annapolis as already described, or towards 
the Nictaux and Middleton in the Annapolis Valley, or towards 
the Gaspereau, and so to Mines on the Basin of Mines. 
Therefore the French Forts at La Heve and Annapolis be- 
came Indian markets. Moreover, both the La H6ve and 
Annapolis Rivers were navigable to sea-going ships, Bridge- 
town being the head of navigation of the Annapolis and 
Bridge water of the La Heve ; although Acadian civilization 
barely reached Bridgetown and never reached Bridgewater, 
and the timber of the La H6ve deterred more than it attracted 
men who, unlike the French- Canadians, were loath to wield 
the axe or range the forest. 

On the other hand. La H6ve was in the middle of 2,xi fisheries 
Adantic cod-fishery, which was carried on by Frenchmen ^""/^" 
at Liverpool Bay (Rossignol), Tusket Island, Yarmouth 
(Fourchde), and perhaps at Lunenburg (Malagash) before 
1632. The cod-fishery was spontaneous, and long after La 
H6ve was abandoned, sporadic temporary French fishing 
settlements appeared from time to time at Cape Negro (1671), 
Halifax Bay (1699 and before 1749), La H6ve, Shelburne 
(1705), Pubnico (1740)^ and Lunenburg (before I749)^ and 
more permanent settlements at Cape Sable and Yarmouth 
(1736, 1740). Yarmouth, however, possessed more potent at- 
tractions for the Acadian imagination than cod-fish in its great 

* Colonel Morse in Brymner^ 1884, pf>. xxvii, xxxvii. 

2 Nova Scotia Archives (1900), p. 244. ^ Ibid. (1869), P- 5^^^* 



40 HISTORICAL GEOGRAPHY OF CANADA 

Cheboggin salt-marsh. But the salt-marshes of the Lower 

Annapolis excelled those of Yarmouth. Salt-marshes, being 

without forest or stone, easily dyked, and when dyked very 

fertile, like those of La Vendue to-day, fascinated the Acadian 

mind with hopes of wealth and memories of home. The 

herring {gaspereau) and mackerel fisheries of Annapolis were 

to the cod-fisheries of La Heve and its sister ports as the 

Bay of Fundy is to the Atlantic, but agriculture and dim 

recollections of the marsh-lands from which they came lured 

the Acadians once from St. Croix Island (1604-5), ^^^ oi^ce 

from La H6ve (1632-5), and made them cleave to Annapolis 

with the force of a natural instinct. Annapolis became the 

capital (i 635-1 749), an honour for which nature scarcely 

fitted it. Colonel Mascarene described the fort (1720) as on 

a promontory flanked by Allen's River on its left, and facing 

the Annapolis River, which ran on its north. There were two 

towns, one of docks and wharfs on the Annapolis underneath 

the fort, and the other straggling for a mile and a half along 

Allen's River. The dykes were out of repair and the banks 

overflown.^ But for the dykes the description reads like a 

' parody of Quebec : a parody, for the fort was only forty feet or 

so above river-level, there were no rocks, and the Annapolis 

was as different from the St. Lawrence as a mud-pond from 

an Italian lake. In 1755 houses lined each bank of the 

Annapolis, from Goat Island, some nine miles below, to 

Bridgetown, some fifteen miles above Annapolis, as though 

the river were a street.^ Even so Arthur Young compared 

the banks of the Loire near its mouth to 'one continuous 

village * for thirty miles. 

The Mines From Annapolis the Acadians advanced to the salt-marsh 

werTmade between the Cornwallis and Gaspereau rivers, seventy miles to 

because of the east, and dwelt at Grand Pr^, on its very edge, and under 

marshes — "^^ "P^^ — ^^^ foothills which half surround it. Salt- 

^ Nova Scotia Archives (1869), pp. 43-5. 
2 Nova Scotia Hist. Soc^ vol, ii, p. 158. 



THE FAR EAST 41 

marshes also lined the Cornwallis for a few miles, up to 
Kentville or thereabouts, and encircled the mouths of the 
little rivers, Habitants, Canard, and Pereau, themselves a few 
miles north of the Cornwallis; and around each marsh as 
close as close could be the Acadians hovered like fireflies. 
Fourteen miles south-east of Grand Pr^, Windsor (Pisiquid) 
lay between the Avon and St. Croix rivers, along which 
were easy water-routes to the Atlantic at Chester Bay and 
St. Margaret's Bay respectively, and near whose mouths were 
the usual dyked salt-marshes and the usual settlers. All 
these settlements from the Pereau to Windsor were called 
the Mines settlements because they fronted the Basin of 
Mines. They were separated from the settlements on the 
Annapolis, and although De Brouillan in 1701 ordered the 
inhabitants of Mines to make a road to Annapolis, and some 
sort of road was used by English soldiers in 1746-7, the road 
was deemed 'almost impracticable' for the Acadian cattle 
and families in 1755.^ Clearly the Acadian god was only 
god of the marshlands. Mines, said Colonel Mascarene, 
might easily be made ' the granary, not only of this province 
but of the neighbouring governments' (1720); long before 
1746 the men of Mines had two far-off markets for their 
corn, Boston and Quebec; and the Quebec market and 
other magnetic attractions drew them eastward and northward. 
Truro (Cobequid), which is nearly sixty miles north-east of 
Windsor, was made a seignory in 1689, and was peopled 
by Acadians from Mines during the first war between 
France and England (1689-17 13); and in 1748 the Acadians 
spread from Truro along a tract of sea-coast north of 
Cobequid Bay as far as Economy, and south of Cobequid Bay 
as far as the Shubenacadie River, with detached posts west 
of the Shubenacadie at Walton and Noel, and one inland 
settlement at the confluence of the Stewiacke and Shubena- 

^ Judge Morris, ' Remarks concerning the removal of the Acadians in 
1755,' Nova Scotia Hist, Soc, vol. ii, p. 158 (1881). 



42 HISTORICAL GEOGRAPHY OF CANADA 

cadie fourteen miles from the coast. That is to say, they 
leapt from Windsor to Truro, and then stretched back towards 
Windsor as far as 64^ west longitude. Their inland settle- 
ment was on the broad easy waterway which leads over a one- 
hundred foot watershed from Truro to Dartmouth in Halifax 
Harbour, some sixty miles away ; but as yet no one except ' 
Indians had any occasion to use the waterway, because no one 
before 1746 wanted to visit the neighbourhood of Halifax. 
Before that date the mouth of the Shubenacadie was only 
valuable as the end of an avenue of Indian fur-trade. 
so, iooy the More than seventy miles away from Truro, on the other 
^atchi^-^^ side of the Cobequid range of hills, which are here 600 or 700 
necto and feet high, were the famous salt-marshes of Chignecto Isthmus 
Shepody. ^y];^i(^}^ Biencourt and Biard admired in 161 2. Chignecto was 
reached from Mines as easily as it was from Truro by cross- 
ing to what is now Parrsboro Harbour, and by using the 
Hebert or Maccan Rivers, which rise at a short distance from 
Parrsboro ; consequently a double stream of Acadians, both 
from Mines and from Truro, poured into Chignecto, after 
Chignecto (1676) and Truro (1689) became seignories, and 
even overflowed into the marsh-lands of Shepody (New 
Brunswick) at the mouths of the Petitcodiac and Memramcook 
(1698). War turned the Acadian tide thither: in the first 
great war the Acadian settlements of Chignecto were twice 
sacked by Colonel Church (1696, 1704); and in the second 
great war (1744-63), Beaus^jour (Fort Cumberland) con- 
fronted Fort Lawrence (Beaubassin), and the dirty little 
Missiguash River, which ran — or rather crawled — between 
them, became the theatre of one of the decisive battles 
of North America (1755). For the French identified the 
Acadia, which the treaty of 1 713 ceded to England, with Nova 
Scotia, and still claimed as their own the mainland west of 
the Missiguash which is now called New Brunswick. The 
modern distinction between Nova Scotia and New Brunswick 
is derived from this claim which was itself derived from La 



THE FAR EAST 43 

Tour's claims and had nothing to do with geography, for one 
indivisible marsh lay on either side of the impalpable frontier- 
line of which the Missiguash was the outward and visible sign. 

New Brunswick, which now intrudes into our narrative, St, John 
first figures in history tis the transitory scene of the short- ^^-^ chosen 
lived settlement on St. Croix Island in Passamaquoddy Bay itsnarroiv 
(1604-5), but only became a permanent separate entity when j^^^^^^^^^ 
La Tour built Fort Latour (New Brunswick), a few yards long^-iver 
north of the present railway station of St. John (1635), and ^^^^^' 
quarrelled with the Governor of Annapolis. The attraction 
of the site was threefold. First, there were the usual dykable 
salt-marshes down west towards Musquash Harbour; 
secondly, the fur-trade came down to the River St. John 
from the recesses of Maine (United States) and the neighbour- 
hood of the River St. Lawrence ; and thirdly, between what 
is now the Upper Town (Indian Town) and Lower Town the 
river contracts from a width of a mile or more to a width of 
four hundred and fifty yards, and forms reversible falls, 
which fall up-stream when the tide is high and down-stream 
when the tide is low, and are navigable at middle tide, and 
which are not unlike those of the ^ Lac de Grand Lieu ' near 
the mouth of the Loire. The river above the falls seemed 
an ideal place of refuge, and was used as such by Villebon 
when driven from Annapolis (1690), by the Acadians (1755), 
and even by Latour during his strife with Annapolis. 

It was in order to allay this strife that the King of France New 
assigned the American coast, beginning from the middle of J^^^l^^^t 
Chignecto Isthmus to La Tour, and the rest of Acadia as far rated from 
as Cape Canso, to his rival of Annapolis (1638) \ '^^ Scot%for 
modern phrase, one took New Brunswick and the other Nova political 
Scotia. But the New Brunswick of 1638, besides being ^^"^^^''^^ 
indefinite towards the west, contained an odd omission, and 
the Nova Scotia of 1638 contained an odd restriction. 
How, it might be asked, were the eastern coast-lands of New 
^ B. Murdoch, vol. i, p. 93. 



44 HISTORICAL GEOGRAPHY OF CANADA 

Brunswick to be disposed of? Why was the sway of 

Annapolis to go as far as and no further than Cape Canso ? 

and both In order to understand the New Brunswick and Nova 

from the Scotia of those days the scenes must once more be 

andislands shifted and a new scene disclosed. In 1653-4 a third some- 

whichwere thing, which was neither New Brunswick nor Nova Scotia 

given to °' 

Denys. but partook of both, was bestowed on Nicolas Denys of 

Tours. This new dominion extended along the Canso Gut 
and the coast of the Gulf of St. Lawrence from Cape Canso 
to Cape Gasp^ (Rosiers) ; Newfoundland, Cape Breton Island, 
Prince Edward Island, and the other islands of the Gulf 
being thrown in as make-weights ^ In a certain sense this 
sandwiched colony was well-conceived. Cape Canso was 
separated by two hundred miles of coast from the nearest 
Acadian settlements on the Atlantic, was inaccessible from 
land, and was a French fishing resort long before Denys was 
born and long after he died ^. Thus Bergier of La Rochelle 
succeeded Denys as guardian of Canso (1682), and a French 
fort there was raided by Englishmen (1690), and an English 
fort there was raided by Frenchmen (1744). It was the head- 
quarters of a great cod-fishery, which was French until 17 13, 
and then English, or rather New English. The post was 
critical and isolated. Again, the slender isthmus of 
St. Peter's separates the Gut of Canso from the Bras D'Or 
Lakes, over whose placid waters the Indians brought their 
furs, and St. Peter's was easily converted into and soon became 
an Indian market and mission centre for the whole island. It 
was clear that Canso on one side of the entrance to the 
Gut, and St. Peter's on the other side, must belong to 
the same rulers. The Gut itself is only as wide as the 
St. Lawrence at Quebec or Montreal, so that its two sides 

* Nicolas Denys, Description of . , . North America^ 1672, ed. by 
W. F. Ganong (1908), pp. 57-67. 

'^ e.g. of Savalet; Lescarbot, Hist, de la Nouvelle France, ed, 1866, 
Livre iv, ch. ii ; Voyages of Samuel de Champlain (1604-16), ed. by 
E. G. Bourne, 1906, vol. i, p. 133. 



THE FAR EAST 45 

were and are indivisible; and as yet the Gulf Coast was 
a series of ports unconnected with one another except by 
water. Denys's posts were established from time to time 
at Guysborough (Chedabucto, Nova Scotia), where he 
quarrelled with a Sherbrook squatter (1667), at St. Peter's 
Isthmus (Cape Breton Island), across which he built the first 
road in the Maritime Provinces (1650, &c.), at St. Anne's 
(C. B. I.), where his brother grew wheat (1653), at Miramichi 
(New Brunswick) (1647), and at Nipisiguit (N. Br.) (1669). 
At his death the long line was already torn into shreds, two 
of which, at Miramichi and the mouth of the Restigouche in 
Bay Chaleurs, fell to the lot of his short-lived son Richard 
(1689). Nicolas Denys and his son made something of 
their scattered coast-lines and introduced colonists, and 
dreamed dreams of a new dominion which should link 
Acadia with Canada. Nor did these dreams die with them, 
for they were based on nature and fact. But there were 
two weak points. How could the Bay side of the Isthmus 
of Chignecto belong to one authority and the Gulf side 
fifteen miles away to another.? When Denys's son-in-law 
became first Seigneur of Chignecto (1676) this weak point 
was probed. Secondly, there was no capital. The founda- 
tion of Louisbourg on the Atlantic coast of Cape Breton 
Island remedied the latter defect, but aggravated and accentu- 
ated the former defect. 

Louisbourg, or Havre k I'Anglais, is a harbour on the Louis- 
Adantic coast of Cape Breton Island, and in 1597 French J|^f^' 
Basques went there to fish, and men of Olonne in La Vendue capital, re- 
wintered there in order to fish on the Grand Banks of New- ^^^^^^ 
foundland. ^ To-day there are two conspicuous objects in dominion 
Louisbourg Harbour : one, the old ruined fort, coiled like 
a green dragon upon a low grassy slope ; the other, a brand- 
new elevated pier for loading ships with Sydney coal in 
winter, for Louisbourg Harbour is ice-free when Sydney 
^ Denys, op. cit., ed. Ganong, p. 181. 



46 HISTORICAL GEOGRAPHY OF CANADA 

Harbour is ice-bound. Beneath both pier and fort fisher-folk 
may be seen drying cod on flakes in the same fashion as 
they still do at outports in Newfoundland and did at Louis- 
bourg in 1597. The land near the French fort is low, and 
the principal French village was placed on a gradual slope, 
down which marshes trickle lazily into a salt lagoon which 
is now but was not then connected with the sea.^ Doubt- 
less the marshes were just sufficient to keep the ground 
clear of timber, and the lagoon suggested reminiscences 
of a better lagoon at Placentia which was not then but is 
now disconnected from the sea. For the colonists came 
from Placentia (Newfoundland) and even they must have 
been struck by the poverty of Louisbourg when compared 
with their old colonial home. When its garrison of 3,000 odd 
regulars went and the 30,000,000 livres — which they cost — 
was spent, Louisbourg, stripped of its adventitious pomp and 
glamour, became what it has been ever since, a fishing- 
village, only a little less wretched than Baleine (which Lord 
Ochiltree once tried to colonize)^ and its other neighbours 
because of its proximity to the Sydney coal-mines. But the 
great fort galvanized adjacent French fishing-villages, from 
Sydney (Spanish Harbour) to St. Esprit, into life ^ ; a small 
fort east of St. Peter's Isthmus induced small settlements 
on Isle Madame* and by the Inhabitants River; and 
a small fort at St. Anne's served as a base for summer settlers 
at Ingonish Bay. Denys's two sub-centres were revived, 
and they and the new centre at Louisbourg produced local 
effects. But the influence of Louisbourg was more than 
local. Three thousand soldiers clamoured for bread and 
meat, yet no land was cleared in the vicinity. A few 

^ See plan, p. 198 of vol. v, Pt. i, of this Series. 

^ 1629. 

^ (Sydney) Spanish Harbour, L'Indienne (Lingan.), Morienne (Cow 
Bay), Main k Dieu, Scatari, Baleine, Gabarus, Fourch^, St. Esprit. 
See T. Pichon's Letters relating to Cape Breton Island^ &c., 1760; 
Richard Brown, Hist, of Cape Breton Island (1869), p. 269. 

* Arichat (Grand Nerica), Petit De Grat, Descous. 



THE FAR EAST 47 

imported Germans at Mire Bay, twelve miles north, and 
when the St. Peter 's-Louisbourg road, which is still known 
as French Road, was built, the inhabitants of St. Peter's, sixty 
miles south-west, sent supplies ; but the cry was still for 
more. It was heard in far-off Mines, Truro, and Chignecto ; 
and a military road from Beausejour to Bale Verte, and 
cattle-tracts from Windsor to Truro, and from Truro to 
Tatamagouche and Wallace Bay (Remsheg), were con- 
structed ^ This was the first northward Acadian trek. The 
isthmus was crossed, and the first ports were opened on the 
Gulf coast of Nova Scotia in order to send meat and bread to 
Louisbourg. At the same time Port Hood (Just-au-Corps) 
(Cape Breton Island) was occupied by Acadians in order to 
supply it with stone. 

It would seem that the ring of settlements from Gaspd to but with 
Louisbourg was complete, and that Denys's dominion had ^W^^'^^^^^* 
come to life again. But the new Gulf State differed from 
the old. The missing capital was found and faced Europe ; 
so that it was a link not between Canada and Nova Scotia, 
but between Canada and France. Moreover, it tapped Nova 
Scotia, and ports were occupied on English as well as on 
disputed territory, on the Gulf as well as on the Bay of 
Fundy, through which the wealth and manhood of Nova 
Scotia began to drain away to a power at war with Nova 
Scotia. Or, to change the metaphor, what had been meant 
as a clasp was used as a wedge. 

Then Louisbourg fell twice (1745, 1758) and Beausejour The Fall 
once (1755). When Louisbourg fell first, those French ^^^^^^'^" 
colonists of Cape Breton Island who were caught were sent caused an 
to France, but the Acadian trek towards the Gulf instead of j^,^^]l^\ji^ 
being arrested was accelerated. The loss of Louisbourg meant Gulf^ 
the loss of a market ; and amongst other causes economic 
distress drove 2,200 Acadians in 1749 from Chignecto to 

^ See e.g. Nova Scotia Archives (1869), p. 152. 



48 



HISTORICAL GEOGRAPHY OF CANADA 



e.g. to 
Prince 

Edward 
Island, 



Halifax 



Prince Edward Island and Cape Breton Island,^ but chiefly to 
Prince Edward Island, at which we must now glance. 

Prince Edward Island had been occupied in 1719 by two 
Norman families and in 1720 by 135 Frenchmen,^ and in 
1745 there were some 800 persons in the Island, some of 
them Acadians. In 1751, owing to the inflow of Acadians, 
the population probably exceeded 2,000 ^ ; and Acadians were 
still swarming in in 1752.^ In 1752 Hillsborough Bay and 
River,* Crapaud, Tryon and Traverse rivers, and Bedeque 
Bay on the convex side, or the side turned towards New 
Brunswick; St. Peters, Savage Harbour, Tracadie, Little 
Rustico, and Malpeque (Richmond) Bay on the concave or 
Gulf side; and Souris and Fortune rivers, Lescoussier and 
Brudnelle (Three Rivers ),^ on the south-east side ; and 
a little later, according to Lord Rollo (1758), North Point on 
the north-west side of the island had inhabitants : that is to 
say, the chief coves on every coast were inhabited, and more 
especially Hillsborough Estuary, where Port La Joie was the 
nominal capital. Moreover, the only road in the island ran 
from the head of Hillsborough Estuary to St. Peter's, and 
there were cornfields beside it. The Acadian trek from 
Chignecto made the coast line of Prince Edward Island over- 
whelmingly Acadian between 1751 and 1755. But the failure 
of the Louisbourg market was only temporary, and it was 
compensated, though inadequately compensated, by the 
creation of a new market at Halifax. Until the expulsion of 
the Acadians for political causes, the newly-created capital 
produced economic demands which checked the Acadian trek, 
and kept the Acadians in their old homes. 

Halifax, or the port of Chebucto, on the Atlantic coast of 



^ Brymner, 1887, cccxlvi, cccxlviii, ccclvii, ccclviii. 

^ sic Anderson ; but see Nova Scotia Archives (1869), p. 48. 

^ «V Th. Pichon, tibi supra, 

* Port La Joie (Charlotte town),'Pinette River, Pointe Prime, Belfast, 
Wild Boar Creek, and Creek Northwest. 

* John MacGregor, British America^ 1832, vol. i, p. 290. 



THE FAR EAST 49 

Nova Scotia, was the British counterblast to Louisbourg. was made 
Halifax was built in 1749 : the port is one of the best ports f^£^^f' 
in North America ; and the city, like St. John, is a city on 
a rock ; indeed, from the east it looks like a rocky island en- 
garlanded with houses, except on its bare brow, on which 
a fort rests like a crown ; but its rear is really connected by 
a rocky ridge with the mainland, nine miles away, at the head 
of Bedford Basin. It is distinguished from every other first- 
rate Canadian town by the absence of a river, and therefore 
of mills, cultivations, and trade routes behind it. It was mid- 
way between useful sea and useless land, or would have been 
but for two things. In the first place, on the opposite side 
of Bedford Basin, one mile away by ferry and twenty-six by 
rail, a supplementary town was founded at Dartmouth ; and 
the series of lakes which all but connect Dartmouth with the 
Shubenacadie and with Truro begin half a mile behind Dart- 
mouth. Indeed, the water-trip from Truro to Dartmouth was 
so tempting that Indians took it in 1756 and all but wiped out 
Dartmouth. In 1826 a Company was formed to convert the 
incomplete waterway into a complete canal, but the scheme 
failed owing to the shallowness and shiftiness of the Shubena- 
cadie. Almost every first-rate Anglo-Canadian town has its 
supplementary town, which is usually a vis-h-vis town, and the 
reason for the reduplication is sometimes mysterious, but in 
this case was too obvious for words. Dartmouth was called 
into existence in order to correct the barrenness and isolation 
of Halifax. 

In the second place, although there was no waterway, there and was 
was already a cattle trail to Windsor, which was used in '^']\^'^whidlor 
when Due d'Anville sheltered the French fleet in Halifax by a road, 
Harbour, and in 1749 when the Acadians drove * one hun- 
dred cows and some sheep' to greet Colonel Cornwallis's 
colonists. Colonel Cornwallis immediately proceeded to make 
the trail into a road, which was continued to Annapolis. In 
1784 this road from Halifax to Windsor and Annapolis was 



VOL. V. PT. Ill 



50 



HISTORICAL GEOGRAPHY OF CANADA 



and imi* 
fied Nova 
Scotia, 



The 77ew 
colonists 
comprised 
{i) soldiers J 
sailors^ &C, 
of British 
origin : 



the only carriage road in Nova Scotia. The road to Windsor 
is forty-six miles long, and passes through a sterile region, 
which only becomes fertile about nine miles from Windsor. 
It was built, with the help of Acadians and soldiers, not along 
any valley, nor in order to open up the interior to settlers, but 
in order to save Halifax from extinction. When Dartmouth 
failed, this road was a matter of life or death to Halifax. 
Without it Halifax which grew nothing would have been cut 
off from the Acadia where Acadians dwelt and grew every- 
thing ; with it Halifax united the Acadians of Acadia with 
the English of England, although it was built too late to save 
Acadia for the Acadians. 

And Halifax was more than a port, a rock of defence, and 
a possible inlet of Acadian wealth into England and of 
English wealth into Acadia, It was the first city ever built 
on the east coast of Nova Scotia, and it was built midway 
between Cape Sable and Cape Canso and their respective 
cod-fisheries. It brought these two places of resort under 
one control for the first time in history. Before then the 
Atlantic coast of Nova Scotia was dominated from its two 
ends, which never met ; and it almost seemed as though the 
Bay of Fundy represented an alien civilization. Halifax tied 
these three threads into a single knot. Louisbourg more than 
fulfilled, Halifax utterly shattered Denys's dream. Louisbourg 
disunited Nova Scotia while uniting Canada to France. The 
harmony had in it a discordant note. Halifax united Nova 
Scotia with itself and to England, and was a harmony through 
and through. 

The new colonists who arrived in Halifax (1749-52) were 
the first colonists who were not French, but it would be 
a mistake to infer that they were all of them from the United 
Kingdom. In 1781 the Lords of Trade wrote that *it is not 
meant to encourage emigration from these kingdoms *, ' the 
population being too much exhausted to admit of sparing 
any to populate distant territories.' ^ Such was the settled 
* Brymner, 1895, pp. 28, 30. 



THE FAR EAST 51 

policy of England, but an exception was now made in the 
case of (i) disbanded seamen and marines, who were reduced 
from 40,000 to 10,000 between 1748 and 1750 ; (2) of dis- 
banded soldiers ; (3) and of artificers and the like. Some of 
those who were disbanded had doubtless served, or even 
enlisted, in North America ; if so, home fares and land 
grants were no more than what they expected. Artificers 
and soldiers were bracketed together as in French Canada.^ 
The first consignments of intending settlers consisted of (i) 
460 * mariners', ex-marines,^ privateers^ and the like, 73 
naval or military officers^ 86 old soldiers, 505 British or 
(rarely) foreign artificers and the like, 419 servants, 47 non- 
descripts, 509 wives and 444 children, or 2,543 i^ ^'y^ (2) 
of about 2,200 German and other foreign Protestants, {2)German 
recruited by a Mr. Dick of Rotterdam, and his agent at ^^^"^^^^ . 
Frankfort-on-the-Main ; and (3) of New Englanders who /^n ^^^ 
came from Louisbourg when Louisbourg was restored to Eng- 
France (1749).^ The third batch came at their own cost ' 

and risk ; the first two at the cost of, and with promises of 
land and rations from the Government. Those of the first 
batch who were from Great Britain had probably melted away 
before 1767, because in that year there were said to be only 
912 English-born and 173 Scotch-born colonists in the 
whole of the Maritime Provinces.^ But this batch included, 
as we have said, a few Norsemen, Germans, and Frenchmen 
from near Belfort, who were miscalled Swiss, and may have 
included an indefinite number of English Americans. The The Ger- 
second batch of colonists was all, or almost all, German. ^^^'^^^. 
More than half of these Germans went seventy miles west to Lunen- 

1 Part I, pp. 80, 10 1. 

2 Of Frazer's, Holmes's, Jordan's, Paulett's, &c. 

3 Belonging to The Beaufort^ Boym^ Hardwick^ Lightnings Prosperous, 
Privateer y Raleigh^ Royal Family ^ Salama^ider^ York, armed vessels, &c. 

* Nova Scotia Archives (1869), pp. 506-57. 

^ In 1752 of the 4249 colonists in and near Halifax 3594 had British 
names. Ibid., pp. 650-670. 

6 N(yva Scotia Historical Society , 1891, pp. 45-71. 



52 HISTORICAL GEOGRAPHY OF CANADA 

Lunenburg, where they founded the second Atlantic city of 
Nova Scotia, built ships, and planted rye and barley, of which 
they raised 13,000 bushels at a time when no other Atlantic 
settlement of Nova Scotia except Chester raised 1,000 bushels 
of any cereal (1767). Lunenburg is near the La H6ve; and 
in 1765 S. Pernette, a British officer of German nationality, 
took up land, alongside of other British officers, on the La 
Heve below Bridgewater, and he too introduced ' Germans 
and others as colonists '. All these Germans struck boldly 
inland. The Lunenburgers marched to Mines Basin and 
drove back 120 cattle, half of which arrived (1756); thus 
creating what was then the second cattle trail from the 
Atlantic to the Bay of Fundy. Long afterwards (c. 1805) 
the men of La Heve, some of whom were German in origin, 
founded New Germany on the La Heve, seventeen miles 
north of Bridgewater ; and to-day almost continuous corn- 
fields or orchards line the La H6ve below New Germany. 
and the Soon after Halifax and Lunenburg were founded 6,000 

New Eng' Acadians were wiped clean off the map of Nova Scotia (1755 
supplant- et seq.) ; the residue hid, fled, or were absorbed ; and the same 

^ngthe besom of destruction swept Prince Edward Island and Cape 
Acadzans; ^ ^ 

Breton Island only a litde less thoroughly. Louisbourg drew 

them north; in 1745 when Louisbourg fell their self-inflicted 
expatriation began on a considerable scale; ten years later 
their expatriation was intended to be universal and com- 
pulsory; and ten years later still every nook and cranny 
in Nova Scotia where they had ever been was owned 
. or filled by New Englanders. Descendants of the Pilgrim 
Fathers came from New Plymouth to Yarmouth, Liverpool, 
and Barrington (Cape Sable), where one of them had 423 
issue (and others in the States) before she died ; Annapolis 
and Granville at one end of the row of marsh-lands on the 
Bay of Fundy, and Cumberland and Sackville at the other 
end, fell chiefly to the lot of Massachusetts; and so did 
Manchester township between Guysborough and the Gut of 



THE FAR EAST 53 

Canso ; men from Connecticut occupied Grand Pr^, Horton, 
and Cornwallis; Rhode Islanders, Falmouth and Newport; 
and New Hants-men, Noel, Truro, Onslow, and Londonderry. 
Windsor also attracted New Englanders, but being vested in 
absentee officials at Halifax moved slowly ; and experiments 
were played upon several Atlantic ports which failed. 

In 1767 — if the census of that year is to be believed — 
there were 6,349 British Americans, 2,710 British Europeans, 
1,808 Germans, and a few hundred vanishing Acadians in 
Nova Scotia. There was a complete transformation. A 
dainty piece of old French porcelain was replaced by stout 
Boston hardware, and the colony became almost as British 
as Massachusetts itself. Except at Halifax and Lunenburg, 
there was no geographical novelty, but only a substitution of 
new for old faces in old places. Europeans built new seats 
for themselves ; but Americans simply sat in the seats of those 
who had left. The Americans, however, brought European 
Britons in their train. 

Throughout the eighteenth century the prohibition of the (4) Ulxf^^^ 
Irish wool-trade drove Scotch Lowlanders, whom Cromwell ^^'^'^ 
and William III had planted in Ulster, to Londonderry in 
New Hants and to Pennsylvania.^ McNutt, who led the 
immigrants from New Hants, was himself a Scotch-Irish- 
Pennsylvanian, and many of his immigrants came direct 
from old Londonderry and Belfast. They were Presbyterians 
to a man, and ministers invariably accompanied Presbyterian 
emigrant bodies. Immigration direct from Ulster, or the 
Ulster invasion, as it is called, lasted ten years (i 761-71), 
and before 1767 had added 2,165 persons to the population. 
It was spontaneous, collective, and unassisted, and it was the 
prelude to a second spontaneous and collective movement 
from the British Isles. 

Other Acadian homes were vacant besides those by the (5) High' 

^ John Doyle, 77te American colonies tindet the Hotise of Hanover y 
p. 392 et seq. 



54 HISTORICAL GEOGRAPHY OF CANADA 

land Ro- marshlands of Nova Scotia^ and in 1767 the whole of Prince 

manCatho- Edward Island was allotted to 67 proprietors, chiefly Scotch,* 

soldiers, on condition that they should settle foreign European Protest- 

&c,who ^j^|.g Qj. jBritish Americans on their land ; a condition which they 
supplanted ^ '' 

Acadians fulfilled by Stocking the land exclusively with Highlanders, most 

in Prince Qf ^hom were Roman Catholic, and with Dumfries men. 

Edward 

Island; The island was divided into three counties corresponding with 

old French divisions, namely. King's (south-east), Queen s and 
Prince's County (north-west), each with a coast-line looking 
towards Gulf and mainland. The capital of King's was 
Georgetown (Three Rivers, 1,123),^ opposite Port Hood 
(Cape Breton Island), and Pictou (Nova Scotia) ; the capital 
of Queen's was Charlottetown (Port la Joie : pop. 12,080),* 
opposite Baie Verte (Nova Scotia); and the capital of 
Prince's is now Summerside (Bedeque Harbour : pop. 2,875),* 
opposite Shediac Bay (New Brunswick). Nowadays steamers 
ply from Port Hood, or Pictou, to Georgetown and Charlotte- 
town, and from Shediac Bay to Summerside and Charlottetown ; 
or in winter men cross the ice between Baie Verte (Nova 
Scotia) and Cape Traverse (Prince Edward Island) and go 
overland direct to Charlottetown. The island is like some 
fair triptych with three different but related designs — a father, 
mother, and son, upon whom three different groups gaze, but 
the central is always the ultimate figure upon whom the eyes 
of all beholders are directly or indirectly riveted. 

The Highland immigrants spread themselves in all three 
divisions of the island, but at first only along the Gulf shores, 
and before 1773 there were men from Argyle andCantyre at 
Richmond Bay, Moray men at Cavendish, Perth men and 
others at Cove Head and St. Peter's, Dumfries men at Three 
Rivers, and Roman Catholic Highland ex-soldiers at Tracadie. 
Long after 1773 the Highlanders followed the Loyalists to 

^ Lord Advocate Sir James Montgomery ; Judge Stewart ; various 
ofificers of Fraser*s 78th Highland Regiment, &c. 
^ Population 1901. 



THE FAR EAST 55 

the Other side of the island, where Belfast was settled by eight 
hundred Highlanders and Islanders under the auspices of 
Earl Selkirk (1803), and Woodville was colonized from Colon- 
say about the same time. 

It was in 1773 that the Highland invasion reached Pictou (6) High- 
Bay (Nova Scotia), which the Acadians had never touched, {^^/ f^'^^- 

J ^ '' ' by tenancy 

but which had been taken up by some enterprising Philadel- &c,, who 
phians in 1765 by way of experiment. Three rivers meet in ^(-^'"^^^^^ 
Pictou Harbour — East, Middle, and West rivers, all of which 
flow through fertile uplands, especially West River. In 1767 
dense forest spread from the Harbour to the nearest settle- 
ment at Truro, fifty miles away, when six families arrived 
there in a ship called The Hope from Maryland and Philadel- 
phia. Some died, others left, and the hopes of those who 
remained grew dim. Suddenly in 1 773 the Hector^ commanded 
by Captain Ross and owned or hired by a member of the 
Company, deposited thirty families from Loch Broom, 
Sutherland, and Inverness, amid the half- starved remnant. 
The situation seemed desperate ; but the newcomers with 
incredible exertion staved off famine and others joined them, 
chiefly Highlanders, but also some Dumfries men from Three 
Rivers (Prince Edward Island) (1775) and direct from Dum- 
friesshire (1788-9, 1 801, 18 15-17). Pictou soon became 
the Paradise of Highlanders who leave this hemisphere ; and 
bishops, priests, and ministers who preached in Gaelic urged 
them thither. Down to 1 783 the population was Presbyterian, 
but without a minister. In 1786 the Rev. James MacGregor 
arrived from Scotland; in 1790 the first house in the first 
village was built on the west side of Pictou Harbour and the 
village was named Pictou; and in 1792 the blazed trail to 
Truro became something that could be called a road. The 
English and Gaelic sermons and sacred songs of James Mac- 
Gregor were the spiritual charm ; European war (1793) ^^^ 
the lumber trade, which it created, were the material charm 
which attracted the Highlanders, who at the dawn of the 



56 HISTORICAL GEOGRAPHY OF CANADA 

where next century had penetrated into and reclaimed the forests at 
^'ohtedi^hem ^^ ^^^^ sources of East, Middle, and West rivers. 
and zuent Meanwhile some Roman Catholic Highlanders and Island- 
^Br^tft^I^' ^^^' some of whom were ex-soldiers of the 82nd Regiment, 
land; joined them in 1783 and 1791, and in 1791 some of these 
Roman Catholics went further east to Antigonish in 
St. George's Bay. Thence, at the instigation of Bishop 
McEachran of Prince Edward Island, some went still further 
east and crossed to the west coast of Cape Breton Island : 
and men from Locha^er, Strathglass, and the Isles soon 
began to people the coast, from the Inhabitants River in the 
Gut to Judique, Mabou, Port Hood, Broad Cove, and Mar- 
garee, from which easy routes led to the Bras d'Or Lakes. 
From 1802 to 1828 Highland emigrants went direct to Sydney 
and dispersed thence along the Bras d'Or and the east coast, 
reaching St. Esprit and the back lands during the twenties. 
This movement is said to have added 25,000 Highland or 
Island emigrants to the population of Cape Breton Island ; 
and to-day Gaelic is the second language of the island. By far 
the majority were and are Roman Catholics ; but St. Anne's 
(where Denys once was) and Wagamatcook were and are 
Presbyterian, and at West Bay and River Inhabitants the 
{Scokh im- earliest stratum was Presbyterian. The reader may well 
^hemfdue "^^^^^^ ^^ ^^ irony of fate. The State demanded foreign 
to economic Protestants and vetoed other Europeans as colonists of Prince 
causes,) Edward Island, and by way of response not a single foreigner 
came ; but Prince Edward Island, Cape Breton Island, and 
a large brand-new district of Nova Scotia, were promptly 
covered from end to end by Scotch Roman Catholics and 
Protestants from Scotland. Nor did any one note the non 
sequitur. State laws were not only ignored, but reversed amid 
applause ; and an irresistible economic law drove the High- 
landers and a few Lowlanders westward across the Ocean. 
Before 1745 the Highlands were the home of the Mclvors 
and their idle retinue, whose names scarcely suggest economic 



THE FAR EAST 57 

associations, but after 1745^ sons of the Highland widow 
were drafted into the army, while others of the unemployed 
settled down to sheep-farming and soon found that five men 
were doing less than the work of one man.'^ Accordingly 
disinterested philanthropists and interested graziers sent the 
superfluous four to the colonies at their own expense. At 
the same time Highland ex-soldiers in colonial wars were 
rewarded by land grants in accordance with colonial tradition. 
The year when serious sheep-farming began to penetrate and 
deplete the Highlands is usually quoted as 1767 ^ the very 
year when Prince Edward Island was sold to Scotch pro- 
prietors and the first invitation was issued to the Highlanders 
to emigrate. 

The Ulster and Highland Scotch invasions were attended (7) y^rk- 
with two minor invasions, both of which are associated with ^^Ifhodists 
Governor Francklin. From 1772-4 some Yorkshire Metho- <^t Chig- 
dists settled in Chignecto Isthmus at Sackville and Amherst, ^ 
near the old forts, and on the Nappan and Maccan, side by 
side with the British Americans — many of whom they sup- 
planted during the War of Independence. After 1765 the 
whirligig of time changed Great Britain's role from that of 
protector of British Americans against French and Canadians 
into that of protector of French Canadians against British 
Americans, and it seemed inconsistent to bolt and bar the 
door any longer against the Acadians, some of whom were 
accordingly restored. 

In Nova Scotia the restored Acadians were settled (i) on (8) res- 
the Clare coast between Weymouth and Yarmouth {^1^^)/^[ans^'^^' 
and on Tusket Bay between Yarmouth and Fort Latour, at 
Eel Brook, Abuptic, and Pubnico, where La Tour's descen- 
dants might still be seen in 1829 and 1908 ; (2) on the dyked 

^ One regiment dates from 1 740. 

2 e.g. in Rum Island; see Report III on Emigration, 1826-7, <!"• 
2907 ; comp. James Anderson, Account of the Hebrides^ '7^5) P* i^^* 

^ e. g. by Traill. Comp. Lord Selkirk, Obsef-vations on the Highlands ^ 
1805, pp. 113, 171. 



58 HISTORICAL GEOGRAPHY OF CANADA 

marshlands of Minudie, close by the Yorkshiremen ; and {3) 
at Pomquet Tracadie and Au Bushee, a few miles east of 
Antigonish. Here the exiles have clung and thrived. 
Frenchmen have also been observed on the Chezzetcook 
(Musquodoboit) and at French Village (St. Margaret's Bay), 
east and west of Halifax respectively, and at John River 
(Tatamagouche Bay) ; but the two last, and probably the 
first of these settlements, consisted of some persecuted 
Huguenots from the east of France ^, and were therefore not 
Acadian. 
whom As for Cape Breton Island, in 1764, one hundred and fifty 

aUracTcT Frenchmen, or Acadians of Canso, sailed away to St. Pierre 
towards and Miquelon (w^hich are the only North American islands 
Dominion- belonging to France) ^, and others left from elsewhere in the 
neighbourhood for Miquelon, and the Magdalens about the 
same time.^ At the very same time some merchants of Jersey 
and Guernsey (which are the only French-speaking European 
islands belonging to England) set up a large fishery establish- 
ment in Isle Madame (1764) and Cheticamp (1770), and pro- 
ceeded to set up similar establishments in other French-speak- 
ing Gulf ports, namely, Belleisle Strait (on its north). Prince 
Edward Island (on its south-east), Miramichi (New Brunswick), 
Caraquet (N. B.), and Paspebiac (Gasp^) as though Denys's 
mantle had descended upon them. They wished to act as 
political peacemakers as well as captains of industry *, and 
had acted similarly forty years earlier in what was then the 
French-speaking part of Newfoundland. Even to-day their 
establishments at Belleisle Strait, Cheticamp, Isle Madame, 
and Paspebiac, not to speak of minor establishments else- 
where, exercise a political as well as an industrial influence. 
Soon afterwards sixty Acadian families were lured back by 

^ From near Belfort; see George Patterson, Hist, of Pictou, 1877, 
pp. 126-133. John MacGregor, Br. America , vol. ii, p. 127. 

^ Nova Scotia Archives (1869), p. 349; Scots Magazine, 1765, p. 661. 
3 R. Brown, Hist, of Cape Breton Island (1869), pp. 357, 408. 
* B. Murdoch, Hist, of Nova Scotia (1867), vol- ii, p. 436. 



THE FAR EAST 59 

the music of their native tongue from St. Pierre, Miquelon, 
and the Magdalens (i) to Isle Madame and to Grande 
Riviere, Ardoise, Tillard, Bourgeois, and False Bay on the 
adjacent mainland (1768-93), and (2) to Cheticamp and the 
Lower Margaree River, all of which are to-day Acadian or 
French settlements; and those who came back in 1793 
settled too in (3) the Little Bras d'Or and at Ball's Creek on 
Sydney Harbour, where the strip of land between Sydney 
Harbour and the Little Bras d'Or is thinnest, and are there 
still. A handful of Acadians seem never to have left Port 
Hood. 

As for Prince Edward Island, in 1773 the refluent Acadian 
tide reached (i) its north-west corner near Cape Egmont, 
where John MacGregor found in 1832 a centenarian who had 
peopled three neighbouring villages with his issue, from which 
they soon spread round North Point to Tignish and Holland 
(Cascumpec) Bay; (2) Rollo Bay and its neighbourhood at 
the other end of the island; and (3) the north-west corner of 
Rustico Harbour, on the north ; and the living burden has 
remained where it was deposited. 

In each of these three provinces — Nova Scotia, Cape 
Breton Island, and Prince Edward Island — the Acadians 
were redistributed, or redistributed themselves, in three isolated 
districts, some of which were very near their old homes. 

Hardly had the old exiles returned, when a new wave of (9) Loyal- 
exiles surged over the land. The Loyalists were expelled ^^it^ter- 
from the United States, not by thousands but by tens of thou- 'vals on 
sands. The movement began in 1777 when Boston was * 
evacuated, 'took form,' as Sir Guy Carleton wrote, *in 1782,' 
and reached its climax in 1784, when 28,347 were 'settling' 
— as to 11,047, in New Brunswick ; and as to the rest, 10,995 
on the Atlantic coast, 5,481 on the Fundy coast, and 824 on 
the Gulf coast of Nova Scotia. The population of Nova 
Scotia was more than doubled. 

On the Atlantic coast the Loyalists tried to create at Shel- 



6o HISTORICAL GEOGRAPHY OF CANADA 

burne a new capital which was not wanted, and, if wanted, 
would have been in the wrong place. Possibly they argued 
that Louisbourg and Halifax were made and did not grow, but 
forgot that when Louisbourg and Halifax were made they were 
the only Atlantic cities, that they were necessary military and 
naval depots and had a political rat'son d'etre. There was no 
room for a second Halifax : moreover, Liverpool and Lunen- 
burg were already growing into maritime cities ; therefore the 
7,923 Loyalists who thought they could found a big town by 
building many houses dwindled to 300 in 18 18 and are now 
1,500. The city, that was to be, shrivelled into a fishing-village 
like Louisbourg. Between Shelburne and Halifax 651 settlers 
were dotted here and there amid earlier settlers ; and between 
Halifax and Guysborough 604 settlers broke more or less 
new ground at Musquodoboit, Jedore, Ship Harbour, Sheet 
Harbour, and Country Harbour (Stormont) ; and at the end 
of the line — three hundred miles long — Guysborough was 
occupied by 1,053 settlers. The extremities of the line were 
strongly held, and Halifax was in the middle ; but land links 
were wanting, and accordingly roads began to be built from 
Guysborough to Halifax,^ and from Halifax to Chester, and 
so to Shelburne. The continuity of the Atlantic coast, the 
supremacy of Halifax, and the principles of roads with a 
political significance, which were asserted for the first time 
in 1749, were reasserted in 1784 with redoubled emphasis. 

On the north of Nova Scotia, Weymouth, Digby, and 
Clementsport ^ (west of Annapolis), and Wilmot and Ayles- 
ford (east of Annapolis), were occupied for the first time, 
making the line from Mines to Digby complete, and extend- 
ing it, with the help of the Acadians of Clare, to Yarmouth, 
Barrington, and the Atlantic coast. Similarly Loyalist settle- 
ments on the Upper Kennetcook and Nine Mile River joined 
on Windsor to Truro ; Parrsboro supplied the missing link 

^ Completed shortly after 1800. Haliburton. 
"^ Hessians were put here. 



THE FAR EAST 6l 

between the north coast of Cobequid Bay and the south 
coast of Chignecto; and the loyalists of Wallace on Wallace 
Bay, and of Arisaig, between Antigonish and Merigomish, 
and the disbanded 84th, who ' cleared immense tracts' be- 
tween Merigomish and Pictou and * raised large families ', and 
proved * the best body of settlers we have eyer had '/ performed 
similar yeomen's service on the Gulf shore. In 1788 a few 
stragglers were at Baie Verte and Tatamagouche, so that 
a girdle now ran round the crooked coast between Windsor, 
Truro, Parrsboro, and Sackville; across the isthmus of 
Chignecto to Baie Verte ; and between Baie Verte, Pictou, 
Antigonish, Pomquet, Manchester, and Guysborough. Nova 
Scotia was surrounded by settlers, and the circle was fairly 
complete owing to the new lands of the Loyalists. 

The Loyalists were also grafted on to old stocks, and even and re- 
here set their own original mark. To-day not only is the trough fZj^i^.^^ 
of the Annapolis and Cornwallis valleys one apple-orchard, but 77iented 
most of the uplands and parts of the two ridges, which confine f^^^^^^' 
it on the north and south, are cultivated. The Loyalists and 
their kinsmen who were already there went from the river- 
banks to the wooded slopes and heights ; and at Wilmot ^ 
crossed the Northern ridge and settled by the sea. At or 
near Grand Prd, some left the marshes, and cleared the Gas- 
pereau Valley and the uplands between it and the marshes ; 
and others clave to the marshes, where they built far better 
dykes than their predecessors, and reclaimed Long Island, and 
annexed it to and made it a part of Grand Pr^. 

No inland settlements were deHberately planted except on and settled 
main roads, for instance, at West Chester on the road between ^almgwith 
Londonderry and Sackville (c. 1784), at Preston on the Guys- others. 
borough Road, at Boydville and Mount Uniacke on the 
Windsor Road, at Hammond's Plains on the Chester Road, 
and at Dalhousie Settlement (c. 1820) on the straight cross- 

1 Jos. Howe, in Report III on Emigration^ 1826-7, Qn. 41 13, &c. 

2 Includes Middleton, Lauren cet own, Wilmot, &c. 



62 HISTORICAL GEOGRAPHY OF CANADA 

grained road which Sir John Sherbrook set soldiers to cut 
from Halifax through Hammond's Plains to Annapolis. 
Mount Uniacke was colonized by Roman Catholic Irishmen, 
who came ' by way of Newfoundland ' in order to evade the 
Passenger Acts, and were probably the first of their kind 
(c. 1 8 19). The Irish Roman Catholics who may be seen 
to-day, especially at Dartmouth, came in after this date — 
after, that is to say, the seals had been impressed upon the 
wax and the wax had hardened. Preston, Boydville, and 
Hammond's Plains are each within tw^enty miles of the capital, 
and were assigned to bodies of negroes, who, after six or seven 
years' trial, were sent away to warmer places ; and Dalhousie 
Settlement was composed of disbanded soldiers who were 
rationed from Annapolis, and was one of the last of its kind 
in the Maritime Provinces. The inhabitants of Liverpool 
proved bold inland pioneers, like their neighbours of Lunen- 
burg, and pushed northward to Caledonia, Pleasant River 
(Brookfield), Harmony, and Kemptville on the way to Anna- 
polis ; and the road from Liverpool to Annapolis was partly 
the cause and partly the effect of their enterprise (1804). 
Settlements between Dartmouth and Truro preceded the road : 
thus in 1786, when the trail was mostly 'an avenue of felled 
trees', there were wayside cottages along its whole length 
where the wayfarer might feed three times a day on fish, 
bread, and tea. 
Inimi' In one case straggling trail-makers from neighbouring 

grants re- settlements were the cause not only of a new road but a new 
grated in- town. In 1 800 some Truro men bought the sites of Sher- 
land, brook, on the lower reaches of St. Mary's River, of Glencoe 

at its forks, and of Lochaber on its north branch above the 
forks and sixteen miles from Antigonish, and cut their way 
thither through the forest. At this date, as we have seen, 
the Highlanders of Pictou were already at the sources of East, 
Middle, and West rivers, and they now pushed on to Caledonia 
on the west branch of St. Mary's. The Highlanders of Anti- 



THE FAR EAST 63 

gonish came to Lochaber ; and the Highlanders of the Gulf 
soon met, not at Truro on the Bay of Fundy, as they used to 
do, but at a colony from Truro on the St. Mary's, washed by 
the Atlantic tide and named Sherbrook. Sherbrook is the 
only Atlantic settlement created by overlanders from the Bay 
or the Gulf, and it was created by overlanders from both. 
Roads between Antigonish, Pictou, Truro, and the Atlantic 
followed the overlanders : the overlanders did not follow roads. 
The lumber-trade spurred them into the forest where they had 
the courage to live alone ; but they farmed wherever they went, 
and roads and towns followed their footsteps. 

In 1784 three hundred and eighty Loyalists and discharged ^n Prince 
soldiers took steps to settle in Prince Edward Island ; and jsland 
between 1784 and 1792 the only new settlements were on Loyalists 
the mainland side of the island, ten between Bed6que and*^^^^^^^^ 
Murray Bays, and three near East Cape. The main stream, a^idwent 
which had hitherto been directed towards the Gulf side, was capital. 
now diverted to the side which faced the sister colonies. The 
fee-simple of the land was already sold to absentees, and 
Loyalists were daunted by the agrarian situation, against which 
Yorkshiremen alone were proof, many of whom came from 
Chignecto, turned tenants, introduced scientific farming, and 
went inland, if a man can be said to go inland in a country 
where he is seldom five and never ten miles from salt water. 
Many Loyalists left or concentrated themselves in Charlotte- 
town, which is the capital of the Island, and which was after- 
wards recruited from every county of the United Kingdom. 
The miscellaneous character of the capital was due to two 
causes. First, every capital is a mirror of its country; and 
owing to the land being locked up immigrants came slowly, 
and the later type was unlike the earliest type, which was ex- 
clusively Highland or Loyalist. After Waterloo, Lowland 
hand-loom weavers, who formed part of Cormack's colony of 
New Glasgow (181 9), Roman Catholic Irishmen (whose 
names are especially frequent among latter day settlers at 



64 



HISTORICAL GEOGRAPHY OF CANADA 



In Cape 
Breton Is- 
lands 
Loyalists 
founded 
Sydney : 



and Syd- 
ney became 
a coal and 
steel centre. 



North Point, at Richmond Bay, and on the South coast, and 
some of whom came from Newfoundland), and the English 
unemployed contributed their quota. Thus in three years, 
1 83 1-3, ships from Tobermory, Greenock, Dumfries, Bide- 
ford(^w), Plymouth, Yarmouth, and Waterford ((^/j*) discharged 
passengers at Charlottetown, and the archaic Highland element 
was overlaid with strata of every epoch and variety. Secondly, 
every capital — especially if it is an immigrant's port — is apt to 
become an amalgam of many creeds and races. It is so in 
Halifax and Sydney as well as in Charlottetown. 

In 1784-5 Sydney, Baddeck (on the Bras), and St. Peter's 
Isthmus were colonized for the first time, and they were 
colonized by Loyalist refugees. Sydney really consists of 
two low-lying towns five miles apart, one of which is North 
Sydney on the north entrance of the north-west arm, and the 
other of which is Sydney on the south entrance of the south- 
west arm of Sydney Harbour. Four or five miles above 
Sydney, the south-west arm contracts into Sydney or Spanish 
River, which leads to a watershed under one hundred feet 
high, and so to East Bay, which is an arm of the Great Bras 
d'Or Lake. To-day this route is dotted with houses and 
gardens, but in 1799 there was not even a trail from East 
Bay to Sydney, though the distance by land is about 
fourteen miles and by sea about eighty miles. The line of 
extension did not lie in this direction. But there was 
a forest road straight from Sydney to Louisbourg, the elder 
brother whom it had supplanted (1785), and along this road, 
twenty-four miles long, there were and are some scattered 
settlements, and above this road thq whole coast as far as 
Morienne Bay has a series of rich coal-mines. To-day 
Sydney, though not a coal city herself, is the capital of 
a group of coal towns which include Dominion, Caledonia, 
Bridgeport, and Glace. It is supposed that Glace has 15,000 
and Sydney 14,000 inhabitants, so that the suburb exceeds 
the city, from which it is thirteen miles by train, The big 



THE FAR EAST 65 

coal business has even revived Louisbourg (pop. 1588)/ 
which is used as an auxiliary port in winter, is connected 
with the coal towns by railway, and is growing. But Louis- 
bourg, the coal port, is on the north-east cove,^ three miles 
from Louisbourg, the French fort. Moreover, the Dominion 
Steel Company have their principal works a mile or two 
below Sydney, so that Sydney owes its position to its steel as 
well as to its coal. As coal port and coal centre, Louisbourg 
and Glace respectively assist Sydney on the south side of the 
harbour. Sydney also requires an assistant port on the 
north side of the harbour, for the coal-mines cross the 
harbour mouth and reappear at Sydney Mines (pop. 7,000 .?) ^ 
and further north. North Sydney (pop. 5,000 .?) ^ performs 
this function and serves the larger town in its rear, as Sydney 
serves Glace. Being near coal and steel, both Sydneys are 
industrial cities. Like all capitals, they are not cast in any 
one mould, but the visitor is surprised at the indisputable 
' predominance of the Scotch type in the Sydneys. The 
Acadians of Ball's Creek, and the Italian and other cosmo- 
politan workmen in the mining towns, are merging in a common 
type, but the Scotch type persists. Yet the founders of Sydney 
were not Scotchmen, but North American Loyalists. The 
second coal centre of Cape Breton Island is Inverness (pop. 
2,ooo.?y on the west coast, which consists of some two hundred 
red twin houses, each twin isolated from its neighbour, and all 
arranged, or about to be arranged, in the familiar American 
parallelogram. Inverness coal extends to Mabou and Port 
Hood (pop. 550)', where similar miners' houses may be seen ; 
but Port Hood, unlike Inverness, is a port, and has traded 
with Newfoundland for one hundred years or more. The 
principal pr»rt of these coal towns is Port Hastings in Canso 
Gut, with which Inverness is connected by railway (fifty-six 
miles). Three miles beyond Port Hastings is Hawkesbury, 

^ Population, 1901. ^ See plan, Part I, p. 198. 

^ Population now. 

VOL. V. PT. Ill F 



66 HISTORICAL GEOGRAPHY OF CANADA 

but Hawkesbury and Mulgrave, its looking-glass town on 
the Nova Scolian side of the Gut, owe much of their 
importance to their position on the main line from Sydney to 
Halifax and Quebec. Before re-crossing the Gut let us cast 
one last glance back. 
Cape With an account of the Acadians, Highlanders, and 

land was' Loyalists of a century ago, and of the miners and railway 
complete, men of to-day, the human geography of Cape Breton Island 
' is all but complete. During the last century pervasive Irish- 
men mingled with pertinacious Scotchmen on the Bras d'Or 
Lakes, and Scotchmen reached Aspey Bay. Indians have 
increased from three hundred to five hundred and fifty, and 
live on their reserves at Escasoni (East Bay), and near 
Whycocomagh and Baddeck, and on Chapel Island (close by 
St. Peter's Isthmus), whither they flock annually as they did 
in Denys's time. These are small addenda and tiny finishing 
touches, but for which, and for the mines, railways, and 
capitals, the crude outline was a finished sketch in 1820, or' 
somewhere between 1820 and 1830. 
when ^ The date is equally significant in the. history of Cape Breton 

unification island and Nova Scotia. While Cape Breton Island was 
being peopled and was making sure of a separate existence 
for itself, it was polidcally separate from Nova Scotia 
(1784-1820); when its separate existence was secured and 
its character was formed, it was re-annexed to Nova 
Scotia. The reason for this paradox was war and the eff"ects 
of war. After the Canadian War (181 2-14) the proposed 
union of all the Maritime Provinces with Quebec, by an inter- 
colonial road far from the American border, filled the air. 
The road was a good carriage road from Halifax to Moncton 
before 1828, and in 1842 it was a post road as far as the 
Restigouche. The first and only thought which inspired 
Nova Scotians and Cape Breton Islanders, when Cape Breton 
Island attained man's estate, was union with the Western 
Powers. 



THE FAR EAST 67 

Again, in the Twenties, English Committees and Com- and Eng- 
missions on Distress preached Emigration as its cure, and ^^J^ ^,*^^- 
statesmen began to pour streams of Irish, Engh'sh, Lowland, began seri- 
and Highland emigrants into the colonies. Huge land- ^""^^-^* 
companies were formed for the purpose. The land* 
companies of the Twenties peopled some new districts in 
New Brunswick, many in Quebec, and more in Ontario, but 
none in Nova Scotia or Cape Breton Island, for they were 
already full. On the other hand, the land-companies were, or 
were assisted by, agricultural and mining associations, and 
the mining associations set to work at Sydney in 1827, and 
on Nova Scotian coal in the same year, but they only brought 
prosperity to prosperous districts and did not change the country. 

A man might walk from end to end of Cape Breton Nova 
Island and Nova Scotia, using Haliburton's History {^^2())%iriycom. 
as guide-book, and without finding anything except what ht plete in 
expected to find. He would shake hands with a great- ^^^°' 
grandson of an 82 nd Highlander at Pictou Landing, and 
would learn from Haliburton that that spot was granted to 
the 82nd Highlanders in 1784; he would find Antigonish 
Highland, New Glasgow Scotch, Clementsport and Lunen- 
burg rather German, and the Annapolis and Windsor 
valleys very English. He would know exactly where to find 
Acadians and men from Cape Cod, and would recognize 
them at a glance. He would expect to find Halifax city 
(pop. 40,832)^ apparent Queen — with an Adaniic row of 
satellites amongst which Lunenburg (pop. 2,916), Bridge- 
water (pop. I 816), Liverpool (pop. 1,937), Shelburne 
(pop. 1,445), Barrington (pop. 784), and Yarmouth (pop. 
6,430) were conspicuous ; a Fundy group, including Digby 
(pop. 1,150)5 Annapolis (pop. 1,019), Bridgetown (pop. ^5^)' 
Middleton (pop. 969), Kentville (pop. 1,731), Wolfville 
(pop. 1,412), Windsor (pop. 2,849), Truro (pop. 5,993), Parrs- 
boro (pop. 2,705), Amherst (pop. 4,964), and Spring- 
^ Population 1901 censu?. 
F 2 



68 HISTORICAL GEOGRAPHY OF CANADA 

hill (pop. 5,178); and a Gulf group, including Pictou (pop. 
3.235), Westville (pop. 3,47 1). Stellarton (pop. 2,335), New 
Glasgow (pop. 4,147), Trenton (pop. 1,003), ^"^ Anti- 
gonish (pop. 1,526). He would learn that the Gulf and 
Ocean towns other than Halifax were equal to one another, 
and that both together equalled three-fourths of Halifax, or 
a little more than the Bay towns. 

The supremacy of Halifax over other towns is unchallenged, 
and it accounts for two-fifths of the town life but for only one- 
ninth of the whole life of Nova Scotia, for Nova Scotia is 
rural in its habits. 
but for its He might be puzzled by the groups of towns around Pic- 
iron ^o"> ^^^ ^^ ^^ Strange name Springhill, but would easily 

guess the cause. Both are coal centres. The coal-mines 
near Pictou were first worked seriously in 1827, and had 
a railroad in 1839. The harbour is deeply indented by its 
three rivers ; therefore the mines at Westville and Stellarton 
send their coal to sea either from Pictou or from the lofty 
coal pier at Pictou Landing, and the latter route is now pre- 
ferred. As at Sydney Harbour two coal routes are creating 
two capitals of the coal towns, Pictou and New Glasgow, and 
as New Glasgow commands the preferred route, it is out- 
stripping Pictou in the industrial race. In order to complete 
the parallel, the steel-works of the Nova Scotian Steel Com- 
pany at Trenton, a mile or two below New Glasgow, are to 
New Glasgow, what the works of the Dominion Steel Company, 
a*mile or two below Sydney, are to Sydney. 

Springhill, Maccan, and Loggins are coal-mines south of 
Chignecto Bay, and all this coal-mining has only enriched 
districts which were already rich. So with the iron-mines of 
Londonderry, north of Cobequid Bay, and at Torbrook, on 
the Nictaux, and at Clementsport, on the south side of the 
Annapolis Valley. 
its gold, Gold is widely scattered near Sherbrook,t Stormont,* Sheet 
Harbour, Tangier, Musquodoboit, and Mahone Bay on the 



THE FAR EAST 69 

Atlantic coast ; at Montagu, Caribou, and Moose River near 
the Guysborough Road * ; at Oldham and Renfrew near the 
Truro roadf; at Waverly and Uniacke near the Windsor 
road t ; in the Brookfield district behind Liverpool and 
Bridgewater * ; and in the neighbourhood of Yarmouth. The 
starred names are, the crossed names were, yielding rich 
returns — if returns can be called rich which barely yield 
£600,000 per annum" from the whole of Nova Scotia. Gold 
has not opened up new districts, but only added a crown here 
or a crown there to districts which had already attained 
distinct ion. Gold is accountable for the small branch-line 
between New Germany and Caledonia; and may, along 
with Torbrook iron and the agricultural development of the 
La Heve, have been partly accountable for that between 
Bridgewater and Middleton. 

Except local branch-hnes a few miles in length, and some ^>id its 
ten miles of main line west of Mulgrave, every Nova Scotian 
railroad follows the chief main roads more or less. No line 
has been built between Halifax and Guysborough, and the 
lines to and through Windsor became less important than the 
lines to and through Truro owing to the political decay of 
Annapolis, the economic progress of the coal districts, and 
the completion of the through line to Quebec, which promoted 
Halifax from the position of Nova Scotian capital to that of 
winter-port of Canada. But for these additions, omissions, 
and changes, the old main roads which make the Atlantic 
Gulf and Bay towns of Nova Scotia one on Haliburton's 
map (1828), and the new railways, when they are shown upon 
a small scale, seem replicas. There has been a duplication 
of functions. Consequently Halifax, which is the one head, 
has grown out of all proportion ; although Yarmouth, the 
junction, so to speak, for Boston, Truro, the junction for 
Quebec and Sydney, and minor ganglionic rail-and-road 
centres like Kentville and Bridgewater, have also benefited. 



70 HISTORICAL GEOGRAPHY OF CANADA 



Authorities. 

In addition to authorities cited in the notes see : — 

Report and Collections of the Nova Scotia Historical Society: 1881, 
Judge Morris, Remarks concerning the removal of the Acadians in 1755 : 
1891 ; D. Allison, Notes on a general return of the several townships in 
Nova Scotia f Jan. i, 1767. 

Nova Scotia Archives : Selections from the public documents of Nova 
Scotia^ by T. B. Akins, 1869 (contains, e.g., lists of the immigrants of 
l74Q,&c. : Col. Mascarene*s Account of Nova Scotia, 1720, &c., &c.). 

Nova Scotia Archives: Cofnmission Book, 1720-41, ed. A. M. 
MacMechan, 1900. 

Canada Reports on Archives j by D. Brymner, 1884; contains e.g. 
Colonel R. M.orse^''^ Description of Nova Scotia, 1784. 

T. Pichon, Letters, &c. relating to the Islands of Cape Breton and 
St. John, 1760. 

Accounts and Papers, 1826-7 : Third Report of House of Commons 
Committee on Emigration, with Map; Ibid. 1828 : Colonel Cockbum*s 
Report on E7?ngration Appendix, {a) Nova Scotia, (J?) New Brunswick, 
(t) Prince Edward Island, &c. 

Major Holland, Plaft of the Island of St. John (Prince Edward Island), 
ed. 1765, 1775, 1789, 1851. 

Of secondary authorities : — 

T. B. Akins, Hist07y of Halifax, in Report and Collections of the 
Nova Scotia Historical Society, 1895. 

Sir John Bourinot, Historical and Descriptive Account of Cape Breton 
Island, 1892 ; Builders of Nova Scotia, in Transactions of Royal Society 
of Canada, 1899. 

Richard Brown, History of Cape Breton Island, 1869. 

W. Calnek, History of Annapolis (1897). 

J. B. Desbrisays, History of Lunenburg, 2nd ed., 1895. 

T. C. Haliburton, General Description of Nova Scotia, 1823 ; Historical, 
and Statistical Account of Nova Scotia, 2 vols, (with map), 1829. 

T. Longworth, History of O^islow, in Report and Collections of the 
Nova Scotia Historical Society , 1896. 

John MacGregor, British America, 2 vols., 1832. 

Beamish Murdoch, History of Nova Scotia, 3 vols., 1865-7. 

George Patterson, Memoir of James MacGregor^ 1859; History of 
the County of Pictou, 1877 ; Sable Island, 1894. 

T. Watson Smith, Loyalists at Shelburne, in Report and Collections 
of the N Sc. Hist. Soc, 1888. 



NEW BRUNSWICK 




a:- ^-^ ..x^ 



SCALE OF MILES 



10 O lb 20 30 40 50 



•RVr^ouriis**/^*, 0xf8rJl^»<^l0 



CHAPTER III 

LINKS BETWEEN FAB AND MIDDLE EAST 
NEW BBUNSWICK AND ITS PEOPLE 

Lines of communication of river, road, and railway double New 

and doubly intensify one another in Nova Scotia, but triple and ^^««-^«^^^^ 

triply intensify one another in New Brunswick, which is only a through 

little more than a double line of communication between the '^^y^ ^^ 

Quebec. 
Atlantic or Nova Scotia and Quebec ; and the influence of Quebec 

being nearer is increased in proportion to its nearness. Even 

those parts of New Brunswick which adjoin the isthmus of 

Chignecto, and are geographically a part of Nova Scotia, 

became more famous as resting and starting places for the 

north than as places to live and die in. 

Sackville (pop. 1,444^), Dorchester (pop. 1,246^), M^m- itssouih- 
ramcook\ Hillsborough (pop. 650^), Hopewell (pop. 707^), ^^^^^ ^omer 
and Moncton (pop. 9,026 ^) represent geological and historical tension of 
extensions of Chignecto Isthmus and its rivers into New Bruns- ^^^^^ 
wick, and had a similar origin. The Methodist College at 
Sackville accentuates the presence of Yorkshiremen; and the 
Roman Catholic College at Memramcook is the educational 
Mecca of the Acadians. 

Many Acadians swarmed or hid during the troubled Fifties, its east and 

between Moncton and the Bay of Fundy, and then fled further ^^o^'^fj-^^^^ 

^ •' ' coasts were 

north. Long ago there had been Quebec missions at Nipisi- occupied by 

guit (1620) and Miscou (1634); and w^hen Denys's dominion ^.^if^^^l 
crumbled into dust Recollets missionaries remained at Resti- 
gouche and Miramichi, and two coureurs des hois acquired 
seignories and flitted to and fro between Nipisiguit, Poke- 
mouche, and Richibucto. After the first fall of Louisbourg 
a fort was built at Shediac (1749) : and after the fall of Beau- 
1 Population 1901. 



74 HISTORICAL GEOGRAPHY OF CANADA 

s^jour 3,500 men^ were concentrated by 'Mr. Bobare from 
Quebec ' * at Beaubairs's Island, where the two arms of the 
Miramichi meet (1756). In order to take shelter with the 
priests and soldiers of their race the Acadians fled from Nova 
Scotia to Shediac, Cocagne, Buctouche, Richibucto, Miramichi, 
Pokemouche, Miscou, and other ports on the Gulf coast ; and 
to Miscou, Caraquet, Nipisiguit, and Restigouche on Bay 
Chaleurs, lining the sea-route to Quebec Province, and spread- 
ing along all the eastern and part of the northern border 
of New Brunswick. On the eastern border they received 
grants at all these ports between 1767 and 1798 : on the 
northern border they and some French sailors, who fought at 
Restigouche (1760), and some Jerseymen, who settled in 
Miscou, received similar grants from 1784 onwards. Denys's 
colonists had probably died out : if so, Acadians from Nova 
Scotia were the first fruitful seed sown along the eastern and 
northern shores of New Brunswick, and they are still there. 
They dotted two sides of New Brunswick with a succession 
of connected settlements for the first time in history. But 
they founded villages not towns, and the work of peopling 
these two sides was done a second time by men, of a different 
race and of a later generation, who founded towns. Thus Camp- 
bellton (pop. 2,652 ^•*), Dalhousie (pop. 862 *), Bathurst*^ (pop. 
2,500^), and Caraquet (pop. 773*) on Bay Chaleurs; New- 
castle (pop. 2,507 *), Douglastown (pop. 481 *), Nelson (pop. 
377*), and Chatham (pop. 4,868*) on either side of the 
estuary of the Miramichi ; and the towns of Richibucto (pop. 
760 *) and Shediac (pop. 1,075 *) are the fruits of Scotch seed 
w^hich was sown twenty or thirty years later, and of which 
more anon. Of these towns Shediac is the Gulf by-port of 
Moncton (pop. 9,026*), which is on the bend of the Petitcodiac; 



1 B. Murdoch, History, ii. 312. 

* Boishebert; sic Dr. Witherspoon, /^wrwa/ of 1757, Nova Scotia 
Hist. Soc.y 1 88 1, vol. ii, p. 31. 

2 = Restigouche. * Population in 1901. ' = Nipisiguit. 



LINKS BETWEEN FAR AND MIDDLE EAST 75 

therefore it may be said that the only Gulf towns are the ports 
or port towns of the Miramichi, Richibucto, and Petitcodiac, 
which are the only rivers affording easy access from the Gulf 
to the St. John. Similarly Bay Chaleurs and the Restigouche 
also point to the St. John. The Acadian villages and Scotch 
towns are termini of crossways leading to one great river. Of 
all these crossways the two valleys, which seem like one valley 
formed by the Upper Petitcodiac and Kennebecasis, constitute 
the easiest and straightest way, and were first furnished by 
British colonists with a main road past Petitcodiac, Sussex 
(pop. 1,398^) and Hampton (pop. 650^) to St. John (pop. 

40,711'). 

St. John owes its position as the commercial capital of New St, John, 
Brunswick to its fine harbour and situation at the mouth of ^^^^ ^i{ on 
the St. John. The harbour does not freeze in winter, and the St. 
the city proper is on two rocks on the left bank of the river- -^^ ^' 
mouth below the falls, but its suburbs extend above the falls 
and to the right bank, at West End.'^ The river itself is one 
of the great river-routes into the interior of North America. 

For the first fifty miles of its upward course, the river whose 
St. John zigzags by Westfield, at the mouth of the Nerepis ^^'*'^' 
(west), Kingston, at the mouth of the Belleisle (east), and 
Hampstead (west), and Wickham (east), at the mouth of the 
Washademoak (east), to Gagetown (pop. 925^) (west), which e.g. Gage- 
is the most important town between St. John and Fredericton, ^^"' 
and from which the Salmon River produces an easy waterway 
to a low watershed, and so to the Richibucto, and a less easy 
waterway to Cain's River and the Miramichi. 

After Gagetown the river bends westward through flooded 
flats and more continuous settlements, past the vis-a-vis towns 
of Maugerville (north) and Oromocto (south), at the mouth of 
the Oromocto (south), to the low-lying, leafy city of Frederic- Frederic- 
ton (pop. 7,117^) (south), which is the political capital and ^^^^' 
University city of New Brunswick, and presents a striking 
^ Population, 1901. ^ Formerly Carleton. 



76 



HISTORICAL GEOGRAPHY OF CANADA 



Grand 
Falls, 



Edmund- 
ston, 



contrast to its supplementary lumber-towns of Marysville 
(pop. 1,892^) and Gibson (pop. 764^), on the opposite or 
north bank. Though eighty-four miles from the sea, the 
river is still tidal, half a mile wide, and thatched with lumber 
rafts, like Groby's Pool with pancakes. It is here that the 
Nashwaak penetrates towards the sources of the Miramichi, 
and presents a waterway to the Gulf, only inferior in impor- 
tance to the waterway from St. John to Moncton. So far 
the importance of three great towns on the St. John is partly 
due to their position at the head of the three best waterways 
to the Gulf. Sixty-four miles further on is the lumber-town 
of Woodstock (pop. 2,984), below which the Eel River 
joins the St. John from the south, and other rivers join it 
from Maine (United States). The river now runs north and 
south for 112 miles past Perth (east) and Andover (west), 
which are twin towns near the mouths of the Tobique (east) 
and the Aroostook (west), past Grand Falls (pop. 644), where 
there is a miniature Niagara, 124 feet high, and past Grand 
River, where the Grand River flows in from the east, to 
Edmundston (pop. 444), where the river, which is now flowing 
west and east, is joined from the north bythe Madawaska,ariver 
one-third its size and depth, and leading to Temiscouata Lake 
and Portage on the Appalachian Range, and so to Rivibre du 
Loup, 81 miles away, on the St. Lawrence. The St. John, 
Madawaska, and Riviere du Loup are the natural high- 
way through the 341 miles of impenetrable forest which 
separate the Bay of Fundy from the St. Lawrence River. 
Along this highway there are trifling interruptions formed by 
falls, rapids, and one low watershed, and towns have been 
built as trysting-places wherever and only where two or more 
similar highways meet ; for instance, at St. John, Gagetown, 
Fredericton, Woodstock, and Edmundston. Even Westfield 
and Oromocto are at the ends of a pair of waterways which 
cut off a sharp corner of the St. John ; and Petitcodiac and 
^ Population, 1901. 



LINKS BETWEEN FAR AND MIDDLE EAST 77 

Sussex are and have been starting-places for short cuts to the 
Belleisle, Washademoak, and Salmon River crossways. But 
this rule has two exceptions. Grand Falls has its town, and, 
although it is a compulsory resting-place on the old main 
river-route, it is not the starting-point of a new crossway ; 
and although the Grand River furnishes the only practicable 
crossway from the St. John to the Restigouche and Bay 
Chaleurs it has no town, unless Edmundston, twenty miles away, 
serves that purpose. These exceptions, or possible exceptions, 
occur where boundary disputes retarded natural development. 

Hardly less important than the side-passages, so to speak, are also 
from the great river to the eastern gulf are its two back-stair Zm^Passa- 
passages to Passamaquoddy Bay, one from Woodstock up maquoddy 
the Eel River and down the St. Croix \ and the other up the ^■^' 
Oromocto and down the Magaguadavic : the first leading to 
Milltown (pop. 2,044 ''), St. Stephen (pop. 2,840 '^), and St. 
Andrews (pop. 1,066 ^), and the second leading to St. George 
(pop. 2,892 '^), all of which are on Passamaquoddy Bay. The 
towns on the west side of the St. Croix are rather larger than 
those on the east, but belong to the United States : for by 
the sport of Fate the frontier between British America and the 
United States is the St. Croix,^ and Fate as usual has been 
capricious in its choice. 

England claimed as heir to France : and France only and adjoin 
claimed because it planted the first Acadian colony at St. f^f^^f^glf^" 
Croix Island (1604-5).^ ^"^ ^or this plantation no one 
would have heard of the St. Croix River; yet St. Croix 
Island belongs to the United States. Secondly, England 
claimed as the heir of Sir William Alexander, to whom 
James I. granted a colony (162 1) bounded by the St. Croix 
River to its source, including *its furthest source from the 
west ', and thence by a line due north to the nearest river, 
emptying itself into the St. Lawrence. The treaty of 1783 

1 Chiputneticook branch. ^ Population, 1901. 

' Douchet Isle. 



78 HISTORICAL GEOGRAPHY OF CANADA 

substituted the watershed between the Atlantic and the 
St. Lawrence River, for the river emptying itself into the 
St. Lawrence, but otherwise followed the grant with a 
deference rarely paid either to its author or its recipient. 
Yet the present boundary excludes western affluents of the 
St, Croix; and the due north line, after shadowing the 
St. John River from below Woodstock to Grand Falls, hits 
the St. John River above Grand Falls : after which the river 
and a western affluent named the St. Francis become the 
boundary as far as a lake^ near the source of the St. Francis, 
whence a straight line is drawn south by west to lat. 46** 25^ 
where another tributary of the St. John becomes the 
boundary as far as the watershed between the St. Lawrence 
on one side and the Bay of Fundy and the Atlantic on the 
other side. The arguments and compromises by means of 
which this singular boundary was evolved are described in 
the preceding volume of this series. Its effects were 
to assimilate and identify the fortunes of Passamaquoddy 
Bay with those of the St. John River, to throw back the 
proposed inter-colonial road and railway from the St. John • 
and St. Croix to the Gulf shores, and to compel New 
Brunswick to associate with Canada by way of Quebec 
instead of Montreal, and with Quebec by northern routes 
instead of north-western routes. The north-western routes 
would probably have been one : the northern routes are two, 
not by choice but by geographical necessity. 
Hence New The consequence of these artificial arrangements are that 
t^aT''^ New Brunswick is divided longitudinally into a Gulf-Coast- 
eastem and strip held together by a State road and rail : and a St. John 
1imo?life ^iver- Strip held together by river, and at a later date by 
private roads and railways : the first strip being extended to 
include Bay Chdleurs and Moncton, and the second strip 
being extended to include Passamaquoddy Bay. Dusty 
parchments drawn by London scriveners at the behest of 
* Lake Pohenagamook. 



LINKS BETWEEN FAR AND MIDDLE EAST 79 

a crowned pedant and unique historical complications pro- 
duced this arbitrary dichotomy. But was it arbitrary ? 

Long before history began, Indians adopted these very The same 
same divisions : and the St. John River, including Passama- ^^^^^^ ^c- 

•' ^ curved in 

quoddy Bay, was the domain of the Maliceet, while the Gulf Indian, 
coast, including Bay Chaleurs and the Petitcodiac, was the 
domain of the Micmac. To them New Brunswick was not 
one but two : and the ways between the two were the same 
as those which have been described between St. John and 
Monclon, between Gagetown and Richibucto, between 
Fredericton and Miramichi, and between Grand River and 
the Restigouche to-day; even the back entrance to the 
St. John from Passamaquoddy Bay and the short cuts were 
the same. The very trysting and council places of the 
Indians at St. John, Fredericton, St. Andrews and Wood- 
stock — not to mention lesser or later posts at St. George, 
Westfield, Oromocto and Edmundston, were at the same 
corners in Indian times as the principal places were under the 
French and English regimes. 

The French regime was the Indian regime with a and in 
European veneer. In 1620 a RecoUet missionary oi^J'^^^J^ 
Nipisiguit descended the St. John ; and coureurs des hois from 
Quebec followed him ; but in political geography these men 
were mere pupils of those whom they went to teach. Only 
one effort was made to improve upon the lesson learned 
from the Indians. In 1683 De Meule proposed to plant 
French Canadian ' Habitans ' along the St. John every four 
leagues, so that a road ' might make itself naturally ' from 
Quebec to Acadia.^ But in French Canada Habitans pre- 
supposed Seigneurs; so the Government created Seigneurs 
between Woodstock and St. John in order that the Seigneurs 
might create the Habitans, and the Habitans might create 
the road or the road might create itself: and Seigneurs resided 
for a few years at Woodstock, Nashwaak opposite Fredericton, 

1 Coll. de Manuscriis, ed. Blanchet, Quebec, 1883-5, vol. i, p. 301. 



8o HISTORICAL GEOGRAPHY OF CANADA 

Jemseg (opposite Gagetown), St. John, Hampton, St. Andrews, 

and St. George; but those on the coast were mostly Acadians 

who resided elsewhere, while those inland being wild men of 

the woods, and wont to travel like Indians and with Indians, 

resided everywhere or nowhere, and were the last people in the 

world who would be likely to introduce Habitans.^ In 1690 

Villebon removed his capital from Annapolis to Jemseg, 

Nashwaak, and St. John successively, but only for a few 

years. In 1696 and 1704 Colonel Church and others laid 

these setdements waste, and in 1733 there were only one 

hundred and eleven settlers on the St. John, mostly Acadian. 

In 1746 the first order was given to cut a path three feet 

wide from Lake Temiscouata to the Riviere du Loup and 

was not obeyed. So far the French plan proved a mere 

plan on paper. 

Acadian Then voluntary and involuntary flight led bands of 

7hesT\ohn Acadians across the Bay of Fundy to St. John. Thence 

and Gulf they fled further and founded ' French villages ' on ' French 

differed. midges' by * French lakes', (i) near Hampton east of 

St. John, (2) on the Oromocto, (3) at Little River, near 

Grand Lake, and near (4) Kingston, (5) Gagetown,^ and 

(6) Fredericton on the St. John : of which villages two above 

Fredericton survive, but the rest of the villagers have been 

dispersed and gathered together again at Edmundston, or in its 

neighbourhood where they act as Wardens of the March. 

These Acadians entered New Brunswick by a different route 

from those who spread along the coast at the same time, so that 

New Brunswick to all intents and purposes was still two provinces* 

New Eng' As in Nova Scotia so in New Brunswick, while the 

settMin Acadians fled afield for safety, the New Englanders rushed in 

the south- to farm and trade, but at three places only : (i ) in the salt- 

^and^onOie niarshes between Moncton and Sackville, (2) at St. John on 

1 E.g., the four brothers Damours at Hampton, Jemseg, Fr^neuse 
(Maugerville) and Meductic (Woodstock), and Vilieu at Shepody, &c. 
"^ Grimross. 



LINKS BETWEEN FAR AND MIDDLE EAST 8l 

both banks (1762), and (3) on the flooded banks of the western 
St. John at Maugerville (1763). All were of British descent ^^'^^* 
except a very few of the settlers near Moncton, who were 
Germans from Pennsylvania. The settlers at Maugerville 
were the first New Englanders to arrive, and they came by 
the Magaguadavic and Oromocto, thus emphasizing from the 
very first the unity of the St. John district with that of 
Passamaquoddy Bay. A few Englishmen came from 
England under Lieutenant William Owen to Campobello 
Island in Passamaquoddy Bay; and a few scattered British 
Americans settled on the adjacent mainland, and also on the 
St. John at Kingston, and east of Maugerville and at 
Fredericton. No one settled on the Gulf. There was as yet 
no unity in New Brunswick. 

This British- American invasion was a mere fragmentary The Loyal- 
forecast of the invasion twenty years later by the Loyalists, ^f^-f-^^^ ^^ 
In New Brunswick the Loyalists included twelve regiments where the 
of disbanded Provincial soldiers \ two Highland regiments, f^^^^y^^' 
and four neighbourhood guilds or associations of Loyalists, settled , 
besides officials and the like. The soldiers were introduced, 
located, and rationed for a time by the British military 
authorities, and similar first aid was accorded to the other 
wounded spirits. They came with their wives and children. 
These were the men and women to whom, and to whom 
alone, the creation of St. John, Gagetown, Fredericton, 
and Woodstock, and of continuous settlements between them, 
of St. Stephen, St. Andrews, and St. George, on Passama- 
quoddy Bay, and of Hampton and Sussex, on the critical base 
line between St. John and Moncton, was due. The Loyalists, 
who made Nova Scotia come of age, made New Brunswick 
exist. Their harbingers, the New Englanders, barely made 
it a prophecy of a province by twenty years of effort ; while 
they made it a perfected province in a moment, in the twink- 

1 Eighteen others are mentioned in Brymner, Report on Archives^ 
1883, p. II. 

VOL, V. PT, III G 



82 HISTORICAL GEOGRAPHY OF CANADA 

ling of an eye. There were now capital and other towns 
at the very coigns of vantage chosen by Frenchmen a century 
ago, and by Indians many centuries ago ; and there were 
also settlements (followed by a road) along one hundred 
and twenty-eight miles of the River St. John and between 
St. John and the Gulf (near Moncton); and there was 
a road (followed by settlements) between Fredericton and 
St. Andrews. As in Nova Scotia, roads became symbols 
and instruments by which a unity hitherto unattainable 
was attained. Passamaquoddy Bay became like an alter- 
native mouth of the St. John, and the St. John was tied to 
the Gulf by the thin thread that passed through Sussex and 
Moncton. No Loyalists went direct to the Gulf or far from 
the sea except on the St. John and at Sussex, but hardly had 
they arrived when re-emigration and extension began. 
and Loyal- Some re-emigrated by the new road to Moncton and its 

isi re-emt- neighbourhood, and so to the Gulf; others used it as a base 

grants met ° 

Highland for extending northwards to the valleys of the Washademoak 

immi- ^j. j^g^ Canaan, and of the Salmon River at Chipman, New 

grants on ^ r j 

the Gulf, Canaan (1792) and Chipman (c. 1800) having been reached 
already by extension from the St. John. At Fredericton 
a Highland capitalist named Davison induced fifty Loyal- 
ist families to pass over the watershed to the mouth of the 
Miramichi and elsewhere (1784-5); and other Highland 
LoyaHsts followed from Fredericton and founded Ludlow, 
midway between Fredericton and Newcastle (18 14), while a 
counter-current of Ayrshire and Highland colonists from 
Newcastle founded Doaktown (1790), almost midway between 
Newcastle and Fredericton. The Ayrshire and Highland 
colonists, who were borne along on the counter-current, formed 
part of those who came to and overflowed Cape Breton Island, 
Pictou, and Prince Edward Island ; they not only reached the 
Gulf Coast of New Brunswick, but even reached Campbellton * 

1 Athol Point. 



LINKS BETWEEN FAR AND MIDDLE EAST 83 

on Bay Chaleurs, and the shores of Passamaquoddy Bay 
(i8o4y but did not reach the St. John. 

Hitherto no Irishmen from Ireland, and hardly any Eng- English 
lishmen from England,^ officers excepted, had arrived as ^'^^ ^p^^ 
colonists. Then after Waterloo a period of systematic ^^.^^/^ 
emigration began and continued until the Fifties. Every <^^"^^i 
part of the United Kingdom, especially Ireland, contributed. ^ ^ ~^°* 
There were hardly any foreigners ; and the only foreigners 
were from the United States. In 1851 one-fifth of the 
population were returned as immigrants ; and of the 
immigrants 71 percent, were Irish, 12 percent. Scotch, 10 
per cent. English, 4 per cent, 'other British', and 3 per 
cent, foreign, meaning American. The movement towards 
New Brunswick was intensely national. 

The new era ushered in new roads on which the newcomers ^y^^ roads 
setded. There were new provincial roads from Fredericton ^^^^ ^^^^^^ 
(i) to St. John by the short cut between Westfield and Oro- 
mocto (1826), (2) to Chatham (1833-4), (3) to St. Andrews 
(1826-7), and (4)toChipman (c. 1835), and so to Richibucto 
(c. 1855), not to speak of minor cross-roads from Moncton 
to Canaan, from St. John to Shepody, and so on. The 
capital was being used as a road centre, and two more bonds 
were added between the River St. John and the Gulf by the 
second and fourth roads. 

On the first road Irishmen peopled Blissville. The second along 
road was the work of the Nova Scotia Land Company, which '^^^/^^ i»^' 
introduced Skye crofters to Old Stanley Road (1837) to l^^lffj^^^ 
associate with the Irishmen of Tay and the Welshmen of 
Cardigan hard by; Anglo-Scotch borderlanders settled at 
Harvey, Wooler, and Tweedside (1837), on the third road; 
and on the last road which was built in order to promote settle- 

^ G. Patterson, Life of James MacGregor^ pp. 351-2. Probably ex- 
soldiers, ibid., p. 347. 

2 Yorkshiremen in Sackville, &c., Lieutenant Owen at Campobello, 
and W. Hannington at Shediac. 

6 2 



84 



HISTORICAL GEOGRAPHY OF CANADA 



e.g. the two 
inter- 
colonial 
roads to 
Quebec, 



by the 
St. John 

route, 



ment there were Irishmen at Londonderry (c. 1825), Nova 
Scotians from Cornwallis at Alma (c. 18 15), and Scotchmen 
at Roxburgh (c. 1848). 

These settlements were the products of social effort, but 
were backed by sturdy individualists like Thomas Boies, who 
founded a one-man town called Boiestown, near Ludlow 
(c. 1822), and Alexander Gibson, 'the lumber king,* who 
bought land from the Land Company and gave his name to 
Gibson, and by many others whose names are forgotten. 

During this period two great intercolonial roads were com- 
pleted to Quebec, one from Fredericton and Woodstock and 
the other from Moncton. These roads overshadowed every 
other road, and the second which continued to Halifax over- 
shadowed the first. The first was indirectly due to war, and 
the second was directly due to apprehensions of war. 

Before 1783 there was wilderness, and nothing but wilder- 
ness, between Woodstock and the St. Lawrence. In 1783 
Sir Frederick Haldimand began to build, between Rivibre du 
Loup and Lake Temiscouata, a road which in 1833 was from 
six to nine feet wide, with old tree-stumps on its dry patches, 
and rotting timber strewn corduroy-fashion on its wet patches. 
In 1 79 1 Sir Guy Carleton established small military posts at 
Presqu' He and Grand Falls between the Loyalist settlements 
at Woodstock and the Acadian settlements at Edmundston. 
During the war with the United States (18 12-14) Sir John 
Harvey, Sir George Prevost, the 8th and the 104th Regiments, 
marched from Woodstock to Riviere du Loup or vice versa. 
Governors and regiments went before and pioneer-settlers 
followed after. Between 181 7 and 181 9 six disbanded regi- 
ments were settled by the War Office at Wicklow, Kent, 
Perth, and Andover, between Woodstock and Grand Falls,* 
and a seventh between Grand Falls and Lake Temiscouata,^ 
and the self-made road of which De Meule dreamed began 

^ The 8th, 90th, 98th, 104th, and the New Brunswick Fencibles and 
West Indian Rangers. * The 49th. 



LINKS BETWEEN FAR AND MIDDLE EAST 85 

to materialize. Daring the rebellion (1837-9) four regiments 
used this ' celebrated new route by the Portage of Temiscouata, 
by the possession of which the Americans seek to control the 
navigation of the St. Lawrence. Indeed its danger was as 
obvious as its value when these words were written (1842), 
and the writer added that in case of war with the United 
States ' the Kempt road which is to open a communication 
between New Brunswick and Quebec ' was the first necessity 
of life to Canada in winter, when ice on the river and gulf of 
St. Lawrence cuts off Quebec from Europe, unless there is 
a safe way by land from Quebec to some ice-free Atlantic 
port.^ 

The Kempt or Gulf road from Moncton to Newcastle, ami by the 
Bathurst, Lake Matapedia, and M^tis on the St. Lawrence ^^^^^* 
River doubled the sea-route to Quebec, and rarely followed 
either river or any other natural course. It was artificial, 
and was built chiefly as a military precaution, but partly also 
in order to induce settlement; and the chief settlers along 
this line were Irishmen and Scotchmen, among whom lessees 
of the Island of Arran — who, on the expiry of their leases, 
went to Campbellton, Dalhousie (1829), and the Bay Chaleurs 
— were conspicuous. Philanthropists sometimes disguised 
as evicting landlords found recruits for the road by the Gulf, 
as the War Office did for the road by the river. 

The whole history of this period was a history of roads ; both oj 

and the political effect of the two most important roads was "^^^^f^ , 

^ ^ aitmntshed 

to people, enrich, and unify the province by diminishing the the import- 
importance of its capital. The great gulf road did not pass ^^^Z^l^ 
Fredericton or St. John ; and the great river road had two towns. 
branches from Woodstock, one to St. Andrews, which did 
not pass Fredericton, and the other to St. John, on which 
Fredericton resembled a beautiful wayside inn. 

After the Fifties immigration almost ceased ; roads played Railways 
little part, and men forgot the great part which the Colonial ^^^^^ff^ 

^ Sir R. Bonnycastle, The Canadas in 1841, 1842, vol. ii, pp. 127, 146. 



86 HISTORICAL GEOGRAPHY OF CANADA 

Hon almost and War Office played in stocking the land with Loyalists 
^and ' and veterans. It was a period of railroads, which shadowed 
doubled the the two intercolonial roads, and the main provincial roads from 
^'^^ ^' Moncton to St. John and from Fredericton to Chatham or 
Newcastle. The great intercolonial railroad, being political, 
shadowed the Kempt road, which is far from the frontier; 
and the railroads near the St. John were left to private 
enterprise. The Gulf settlements and St. John River settle- 
ments, so to speak, were united with themselves and the 
St. Lawrence by two vertical steel jambs, the left jamb 
dividing into two below Woodstock, and by two steel cross- 
bars with each other. Fredericton sank to the material level 
of Moncton; and the extreme points at Halifax, St. John, 
and Passamaquoddy Bay were strengthened at the expense 
of intermediate towns. Of these towns Halifax, being the 
terminus of the intercolonial Railway, profited more than 
St. John, which is, however, the terminus of a branch-line 
from Moncton, and of a concatenation of small private lines 
down the St. John valley. Perhaps the completion of the 
National Transcontinental Railway, which is meant to go 
across country from Grand Falls by Chipman to Moncton, 
with branches to Fredericton and St. John, will readjust the 
scales ; but its principal effect will be to open up new districts 
to settlement. At present the country away from the main 
railways and roads is very lonely. There has been extension 
by old setders up Eel River, Tobique River, and the like, 
and by old and new settlers elsewhere, but always, more or 
less, in the neighbourhood of the new railway lines. Thus 
the line between Woodstock and Edmundston and its neigh- 
bourhood has absorbed Irish navvies, dispatched by Earl 
Wicklow from his Wicklow estates (1848), Shetland navvies 
(at Lerwick), Baptists conducted by Rev. Charles Knowles 
from Yarmouth (Nova Scotia) to Knowlesville (i860), 
Presbyterians conducted by Rev. G. Glass from Aberdeen to 
Glassville (1865?), and Skedaddlers or Americans, who left 



LINKS BETWEEN FAR AND MIDDLE EAST 87 

the United States in order to avoid fighting and settled on 
Skedaddler Ridge near Knowlesville (1864). But matters 
like these belong to parochial rather than to national 
history, and the face of the country and character of the 
population have hardly changed since the Fifties, when it 
attained some sort of finality. 

The population has increased 50 per cent, during the last The popu- 
fifty years and was 331,120 in 1901, of which one-third was ^^^^^^^ 
* English ' (including British American), one-fourth Irish, British, 
one-fourth Acadian, one-seventh Scotch, and the minute 
residue comprised 1,368 negroes (who settled at Otnabog 
(181 2) and Willow Grove (181 7), and 1,309 native Indians 
(for whom twenty-five reserves have been set apart at the 
mouths of the Tobique, Richibucto, and elsewhere). 

Geographically, if unimportant details are omitted, the 
Indian, French, and British civilizations, and the rivers, 
coast-lines, roads, and railways, resemble one another on the 
map. But the resemblance would be misleading, because it 
ignores the human element. 

New Brunswick is still an oblong exhibiting a difi'eren. and united. 
type of civilization on its two longer sides — Military and 
Loyalist on the west, Scotch and Acadian on the East ; but 
the nature, causes, and effects of its incurable dualism are 
not now what they were in old time. Thus the two types 
still meet along well-worn routes by river, road, and rail ; 
but these cross-routes, which once were mere points of 
casual contact, are now means by which the two civilizations 
are indissolubly welded together. 

The reader may be weary of seeing rivers and coasts New 
referred to as lines of development, and lines of development ^^ ^j^^ .^^_ 
described by architectural and mechanical metaphors such as vince of 
passages, props, bands, bonds, and the like ; but these meta- ^^ ^j^^ 
phors recur irresistibly to those who realize that if there is north, 
one essential truth which has persisted through the ages, it is 
that New Brunswick is the province with two corridors to 



88 HISTORICAL GEOGRAPHY OF CANADA 

Quebec Province, two bands and bonds between the St. Law- 
rence and the Atlantic, two props or pillars upon which Quebec 
Province rests, and must rest during half the year, unless it is 
to depend upon the United States. It was so when New 
Brunswick was dual and divided ; and the more self-contained 
and united New Brunswick has become, the more irrefutably 
has it shown that its mission in the history of the world is to 
connect Quebec Province with the far Eastern provinces 
and with Europe. 

Authorities. 

Nicolas Denys, Description ^ &c.^ of the Coasts of North America 
(Acadia), 1672, transl. and ed. by W. F. Ganong, 1908, published by 
the Champlain Society. 

William F. Ganong, Contributions to the History of New Brunswick, 
1895 et seq., being papers reprinted from the Transactions of the Royal 
Society of Canada ; especially the papers entitled * Origin of Settlement ', 
1904, and * Historic Sites', 1899. 

J. W. Lawrence, Footprints or Incidents in the early history of New 
Brunswick, 1883. 

Captain Mimro's Description of St. John River, &c,, 1784, in Report 
on Archives of Canada, by D. Brymner, 1891, pp. 25 et seq. 

Professor Ganong has discussed and illustrated the peopling of New 
Brunswick with an industry and thoroughness which leave nothing to 
be added. 



CHAPTER IV 

OTHEB LINKS BETWEEN FAR AND MIDDLE EAST 

Peninsulas and Islands of the Gulf 

The north side of Bay Chaleurs, although situated in the The north 
province of Quebec, reflects the civilization of its south side. ^^^^^ ^ 
No one lives there except upon the coast, behind which the Chdleurs, 
wooded tableland of Gaspd Peninsula (c. 1,500 feet), crowned 
by the Shickshock Mountains (c. 4,000 feet), bring the long 
line of the Appalachian range of Eastern America to a fitting 
end, and prohibit settlements inland. 

The country consists of one county, which is to all intents 
and purposes nothing but a line of coast; and along the 
coast is a railway one hundred miles long, ending on the 
west in Restigouche and on the east in Port Daniel, a few 
miles beyond which is Point Macquereau at the mouth of the 
Bay. The easternmost towns lie almost continuously along 
the shore, in this order : Port Daniel (pop. 2,509),^ Hopetown 
(pop. 2,411),* Paspdbiac (pop. 1,759),* and New Carlisle 
(pop. 1,027).* New Carlisle was founded in 1784 by 
Loyalist Englishmen from New York State and a few dis- 
banded soldiers," is still two-thirds English, and is the county 
town ; Port Daniel and Hopetown are two-thirds French in 
origin, and Paspdbiac is six-sevenths French in origin and is 
the head-quarters of the Jersey fish-merchants, who began 
their mission of industry and reconciliation here upon the 
green-sward below the purple mountains and above the low 
red rocks on the shore in 1767. These rocks are red sand- 

^ Population, 1901. 

2 The House of Assembly of Lower Canada, Rep. VI on Crown 
Lands, 182 1-5, p. 120. 



92 HISTORICAL GEOGRAPHY OF CANADA 

Stone, which, as they decay, colour and enrich the soil some 
fifty miles westward as far as New Richmond (pop. 2,318),^ 
New Richmond being the second town of the county and 
half Scotch. West of New Richmond, Carleton (pop. 1,06 1) ^ 
is wholly, Nouvelle Bay three-fourths, and Matapedia five- 
sixths French in origin; but elsewhere the British, chiefly 
the Scotch element, prevails, except in the historic settlement 
of Micmac Indians (pop. 422)^ at Cross Point opposite 
Campbellton. The French mission to these Indians is 
nearly three centuries old; but the Church preceded the 
state, and there were no white settlers here, until Acadian 
refugees and some thousand sailors, who on their defeat by 
Commodore Byron (1758) fled to the woods, formed the 
stock from which the present French-speaking inhabitants of 
the Bay are derived. 
The East of Point Macquereau the Peninsula of Gasp^ trends 

eastern northward, and a new county begins, but the country is the 
Gasp^ same, and we still breathe the same historical atmosphere. 
Pemnsula, jj^^j.^ ^j.^ ^^^ ^2ime forbidding hills, forests, and mountains 
behind the coast, and the same red rocks, and almost the 
same people upon the coast. Gasp^ Bay is the most 
populous place upon the coast ; it was here that Cartier set 
up a cross (1534), and fishermen from Quebec used to live 
here in the summer, so that General Wolfe raided it (1758) 
in order to deprive Quebec of its principal fish supply. 
But there was no permanent settlement here until the 
conquest. An Irishman, F. O'Hara (1765), was the first 
agricultural settler; and its first town was Douglastown 
(pop. 1098),^ which was laid out for the Loyalists in 1784, 
and is now four-fifths Irish, while the other settlements in 
Gasp^ Bay are three-fourths British, South of the Bay 
French influences are in the ascendant at the settlements^ 

1 Population 1901. 

* Mai Bay (pop. 1,993),^ Bonaventure Island, Perc^ (pop- 1,868),^ 
L'Ance au Beaufils (pop. 2,294).^ 



OTHER LINKS BETWEEN FAR AND MIDDLE EAST 93 

opposite Champlain's ^ Pierced Rock and elsewhere; and 
north of the Bay the atmosphere is French, but not de- 
cisively French until the corner is rounded and we reach 
Magdalen River, St. Anne, and Cape Chat. Here we are 
face to face with French Canada in its purest form. There 
is no Acadian tinge, and the British element is almost 
effaced; indeed, it is only one per cent, at Cape Chat. 
Perhaps the changed aspect is due to history, or perhaps to 
geography; for it was here that Riveron was Seigneur and 
tried, like Denys, to plant fishermen colonists in his Seignory 
(1689 et seq.); and it is here that we pass from gulf to 
river, which, according to Denys, began at Cape Rosiers, just 
north of the Bay of Gasp^, but according to modern 
geographers begins at Cape Chat. In any case Cape Chat 
and everything west of it is Quebec in spirit; while Cape 
Rosiers and everything south of it is a replica of the north 
shore, which is a replica of the south shore of Bay Chaleurs. 
Indeed, the statistical resemblance of the north shore of Bay 
Chaleurs and the coast from Point Macquereau to Cape 
Madeleine, two-thirds of the way between Cape Chat and Cape 
Rosiers, is uncanny; and the two districts are like twins. 



Population x 


1000 




Percentage 1901 ' 




1831 


1851 


1 901 


French origin 


British origin 


North shore of 
Bay Chaleurs 

Thence to Cape 
Madeleine 


5 
4 


10.8 
8.7 


24.5 
24.6 


69 

70 


28 
28 



But distinctions of quality underlie these quantities. North of 
Point Macquereau the Frenchmen are less Acadian and more 
Canadian, and the British are less Scotch and more Irish : 
thus out of every ten British there are ^m^ Englishmen, four 
Irishmen, and one Scotchman here ; and the proportion west 

* Voyages of Champlain, ed. E. G. Bourne (1906), vol, ii, p. 212. 



94 HISTORICAL GEOGRAPHY OF CANADA 

of Point Macquereau is four Englishmen and four Scotchmen 
to two Irishmen. The Loyalists who laid the foundation of 
all these settlements were mostly English, that is to say, 
English-American ; next in time came Scotchmen who over- 
flowed Bay Chaleurs; and when at last Irishmen began to 
emigrate they had to go further afield to Perce and Gasp^. 
Hence both counties are to a large extent English, and the 
county which was nearest and grew quickest is as Scotch as 
its twin sister is Irish. 
The Mag- Halfway between the Pierced Rock and Newfoundland 
^l^^d ^^* ^^° niiles), and equidistant from Cape Breton Island and 
Prince Edward Island (c. 60 miles), or from the Gut of 
Canso and Anticosti (c. 90 miles), are the Magdalen Islands, 
with ninety square miles of sandspits, on which the in- 
habitants dry cod; of sandstone rocks, on which sea-birds 
breed as they did in Cartier's day ^ ; of sandstone hills five 
hundred and fifty feet high, and of red soil as in Prince Edward 
Island. The principal island is composite, consisting of 
several islets known as Amherst, Grindstone, Wolf, Grosse, 
Coffin, and Alright. Wolf Islet has been compared to 
a ' sesamoid bone in the middle of a muscle of sand nearly 
twenty-four miles long V and the others are either joined by 
low sand-bars or disjoined by shallow salt-lagoons. On the 
south-east, Entry Island, and on the north-east Brion and 
Bird Islets are wholly detached from these semi-detached 
units. Like Anticosti, the islands lie in the mid-stream and 
are strewn with wrecks. Here walrus were hunted by 
Basques in the sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries ; 
then by Normans and Basques under Denys's Norman rival 
(1663 et seq.)%- then by sailors in the employ of French 
companies; and at last four families arrived from Prince 

^ Richard Hakluyt, Principal Navigations, vol. viii, p. 192. 
^ George Patterson, in Nova Scotia Institute of Natural Science, 
vol. vlii, pp. 35-51. 
8 Doublet. 



Other links betiveen far and middle east 95 

Edward Island (i75V) and several from the Gut of Canso^ 
(1765). They were the first settlers and were Acadian. 
A New Englander named Gridley reorganized the walrus- 
hunting with the residents as helpers, but returned to the 
United States during the war (1776-83); after which other 
New Englanders took on the task, and the new system met 
with so much success that the walruses were practically extinct 
in 1795.^^ Then (1798), to crown their sorrow, a landlord 
was put over the residents ; his name, Sir Isaac Coffin, was 
not cheerful, and the squatting problem, which has always 
been a difficulty, where Acadians are concerned, became acute. 
Nevertheless, the population rose from thirteen (1791) to 80 
or 100 (1798), 133 (1821), and 153 or 195 (1831) families'^; 
swollen as it was by French Royalists, expelled from 
St. Pierre during the French Revolution, and by wrecked 
Englishmen, and by a prolific Nova-Scotian lady named 
Mrs. Dixon (1822), who in sixty years peopled nine out of 
the ten villages of Entry Island with her issue. Fishing and 
sealing are the principal pursuits of the inhabitants, who now 
number 6,000,^ live mostly on the compound island or islet- 
group, and of whom five-sixths are Acadian or French, 
and the rest British in origin. The type of civilization 
is essentially characteristic of the south side of the Gulf. 

Anticosti Island, the other obstruction in the fair way oi AniicosH 
ships sailing from Europe to Quebec, belongs geologically ^^^^*^^- 
and historically, in body and soul, to the north shore of the 
Gulf, which is the south shore of Labrador. It is seven 
hundred feet high in parts, almost harbourless, and 2,600 
square miles in size, or a little larger than Prince Edward Island, 
and nearly as large as Cape Breton Island. Its rocks are 
Lower Silurian limestone or sandstone, like those of Mingan 

' Richard Brown, History of Cape Breton Island ^ pp. 356, 408; 
comp. Nova Scotia Archives (1869), p. 349. 

2 Lower Canada House of Assembly : Report I on Crown Lands^ 
1821, pp. 50 et seq. ^ Population, 1901. 



— g6-^ HISTORICAL GEOGRAPHY OF CANADA 

Islands, off the mainland opposite, to which it once belonged 
physically and politically. 

In 1 66 1 Fran9ois Bissot, son-in-law of Guillaume Couil- 
lard, who was son-in-law of Louis Hubert, became Seigneur 
of Egg Island, where Admiral Hovenden Walker was wrecked 
(1711), with trading and fishing rights thence to the River 
Goynish or thereabouts. He made his head-quarters Mingan, 
on the mainland, of which his successors were acknowledged 
as Seigneurs, while Bissot's son-in-law, Louis Jolliet, the 
discoverer of the Mississippi, settled in Mingan Isles and 
on Anticosti under a separate title and for the same 
purposes.^ There William Phipps took Jolliet captive in 
1690, but the captive returned and resumed his industry. 
Like Denys and Riveron, Jolliet was alive to the value of 
residence as a trading and industrial asset. Thus far 
Anticosti prospered. But a blight seems to overhang 
Labrador; and one hundred and eighty years later Anti- 
costi was a howling wilderness haunted by wrecked sailors, 
who turned cannibals, by lighthouse keepers, who were 
there to save sailors from wreck, and by philanthropists or 
monomaniacs in charge of food stores to save wrecked 
sailors from cannibalism. Then an Anticosti Company 
was formed and introduced settlers (187 1); and the island 
reached its zenith in 1881, when it had 676 inhabitants, 
of whom 160 were English Newfoundlanders and the rest 
Canadian French, all the inhabitants living either in the 
westernmost or in the easternmost corner of the island. 
Then began the decline and fall of what seemed to be an 
incipient province, the inhabitants dwindling to 253 (1891). 
Then the province was bought at a pubUc auction by 
M. Menier, of Paris, with the proceeds of the sale of chocolate 
(1895); and he has built a pier 1,200 yards long at Ellis Bay 
in the west end, where there is the nearest approach to 
a harbour along the smooth undented coast-lines of this 
^ JoUiet's and Bissot's heirs claimed more,/>os^ p. 99* 



OTHER LINKS BETWEEN FAR AND MIDDLE EAST 97 

inhospitable island. The east-enders have gone ; the west- 
enders number about 500 ; and a few wild beasts have been 
introduced in order to enliven the unromantic swamps and 
forests of the interior. 

Anticosti is an outlier of Labrador, and Labrador may The m- 
mean one of three things. Geographers draw a line from '^^y^ ^ 
the mouth of the Saguenay in the St. Lawrence River up the 
Saguenay to Lake St. Jean, and thence to the mouth of 
the Rupert in James Bay, and describe Labrador as the 
great lone land between this line, James Bay, Hudson Bay, 
Hudson Strait, the Atlantic, and the Gulf of St. Lawrence. 
Historians cut off all that part of geographical Labrador 
which abuts on the river St. Lawrence and Saguenay, and 
draw their line from Pointe des Monts, close by Egg Island, 
where the Gulf begins, to Rupert River; because they say 
that the civilization of a river invariably differs from that of 
a gulf. Historical Labrador is the Peninsula of bays, straits, 
seas, and gulfs which are exposed to the iciest currents on the 
earth's surface in those latitudes. Lawyers cut off a thin slice 
of Atlantic coast, beginning with Blanc Sablon in Belle Isle 
Strait and ending in Cape Chidleigh in Hudson Strait, because 
the thin slice belongs to Newfoundland by law, and the rest 
of geographical Labrador has been similarly assigned to 
Quebec Province. Taking Labrador in its least sense, its 
southern shore is what Bissot's and JoUiet's heirs and assigns 
claimed. In its largest sense it exceeds 420,000 square miles; 
yet its only inland residents are a handful of white men, who 
occupy one Hudson Bay Company trading post at Lake Nichi- 
cun and another at Lake Mistassini; and perhaps 2,000 
Montagnais or Nascaupi Cree-Indians who are Algonquins. 
The huge husk is twice the size of Germany and all but 
empty within ; and its exterior is hardly more populous. 

After the amalgamation of the North- West Company of The ex- 
Montreal with the Hudson Bay Company of London (1821) ^Labrador. 
the latter invaded northern, southern, and eastern Labrador 



VOL. V. PT. Ill 



98 HISTORICAL GEOGRAPHY OF CANADA 

from east, west, and north, by sea and by land. Dr. Mendry 
went overland from Richmond Gulf (Hudson Bay) to Ungava 
Bay (Hudson Strait) and founded Fort Chimmo (1827), 
whence John Maclean went overland to Hamilton Inlet on 
the Atlantic Ocean (1838), where a Hudson Bay Company 
post had recently been established by seafarers (1837). 
Various posts and forts on the north coast of the Gulf of St. 
Lawrence and up to and along the Saguenay had already 
been leased to the North- West Company and others, and 
were gradually absorbed by the Hudson Bay Company. 
Thus they ran a girdle round the Peninsula, which still holds, 
but with two differences : the Saguenay has long since been 
rescued from Labradorism, and handed over to civilization ; 
and the trading posts are often doubled, so that a French- 
Canadian faces a London-Scottish post, not in rival war, as 
in the wild north-west before 182 1, but in friendly com- 
petition. Indeed, Franco-British duels of this mild kind are 
in progress from end to end of the Mackenzie, all round 
James Bay, and at Hamilton Inlet, as well as on the north 
shore of the Gulf of St. Lawrence. But the fur trade requires 
only a few, still, strong men in a silent land. On the east 
coast of Labrador there are Moravian missionaries who preach 
to and trade for some 1,000 or 2,000 Eskimos at Makkovik, 
Hopedale, Nain, Okkak, Hebron, Rama, and Killinek; and 
south of these missions some 3,000 Newfoundland fishermen 
have setded. Resident fishermen, traders, and missionaries 
between the Saguenay and Blanc Sablon are now .8,000,^ 
of whom 4,000 are on the river shore west of Egg Island, 
and are almost all French Canadians, and 4,000 are on the 
gulf shore, where French Canadians are to British as three 
to two, and most of the British are English Newfoundlanders 
living east of Cape Whittle. French Canadians on the north 
shore of the Gulf include Acadians from the south shore, and 
the Magdalens, who, between 1857 and 1861, squatted at 
1 8,165; census 1901. 



OTHER LINKS BETWEEN FAR AND MIDDLE EAST 99 

the mouth of the Natashquan, and in the neighbourhood of 
Cartier's Port Brest (Eskimo Point). Settlers have come 
from west, east, and south. The Gulf coast, which was never 
thoroughly French, is now parti- coloured. It is only when 
we enter the river that the French star shines alone, or almost 
alone, on its north as well as on its south bank. 

Authorities. 

There is a good map of Labrador in the Journal of Jhe Royal 
Geographical Society^ vol. v. (1895), No, 6. 

Add to authorities in the Notes : — 

S. G. Benjamin, Cruise in the Gulf of St, Lawreme^ 1885. 

Jos. Bouchette's works mentioned at the end of Chapter VJ. 

Jos. Schmitt, Monographie a^Anticosti^ 1904. 

Henry Y. Hinde, Labrador^ 1863. 

Wilfred Grenfell, Labrador^ 19 10. 

Sir William MacGregor, Governor of Newfoundland, Reports of 
Official Visits to Labrador in 1905 and 1908, published in Parliamentary 
Papers, 1909. 

Laiv Reports^ Appeal Cases ^ I903> P« 104, Labrador Company v. 
Queen. This case exploded the idea, which Vondenvelden (1803), 
Bouchette (1832), and others held, that Bissot's seignory reached to 
Blanc Sablon or thereabouts. Only one or two seignories of small 
extent and comparatively recent origin existed on the north shore of the 
Gulf, and they were in the vicinity of Mingan. De Courtemanche, 
a grandson-in-law of Bissot, occupied Bradore Bay in the eighteenth 
century, but under a different title, which only conferred fishing and 
trading rights. 



Archaean 
Canaaa 
includes 
Labrador 



and is 
bounded on 
one side by 
the basins 
of the 
Mackenzie, 



CHAPTER V 

THE COBE OF CANADA AND THE MIDDLE EAST 

Labrador is vast and desolate because it is a part of 
Archaean Canada; and Archaean Canada, or the Canada 
where Archaean rocks are the only rocks, has been ever 
since the world began, before life began, and before the rest 
of America or any other continent rose from the deep. It 
is the core of the American continent and of Canada. It 
represents the prelude to the geological trilogy. It is the 
ground floor of the earth, on which upper stories have 
been built elsewhere, but on which nothing has been built 
here, for it is what and where and as it always has been, 
and its shape shows no trace of change. In Archaean coun- 
tries distances in space count for as little as aeons in time, 
and the reader must now seat himself on the magic cloth of 
Jonathas and transport himself a few thousand miles to the 
north-west. 

The mouth of the Mackenzie lies in a delta of ddbris be- 
twixt Silurian limestones on the west and Archaean gneiss 
and granite on the east. A few hundred miles up-stream 
just off, but once doubtless part of, the river, is an inland 
sea called Great Bear Lake, with limestone on the west of it 
and granite or some other Archaean rock on the east of it, 
and its eastern is colder than its western shore.^ Yet a few 
hundred miles further up-stream is a second inland sea called 
Great Slave Lake, through the middle of which, close by 
Stony Island, the division between Archaean and Silurian, 
between gneiss and limestone, and between colder and 

* Comp. Sir John Richardson, Arctic Searching Expedition, vol. ii, 
p. 251. Sir George Back, Narrative of the Arctic Land Expedition^ 
1833-5* P- 563- 



THE CORE OF CANADA AND THE MIDDLE,^,ASJ. VOX, 

warmer, runs. The same invisible line now coincides for 

a while with the visible course of the Slave River, which is the 

Mackenzie under another name, and which leads up to a third 

inland sea called Lake Athabasca; after which the line of 

separation leaves the far north-west for the middle north-west 

or west of Canada at Methye Portage, where it enters the 

plains watered by the Churchill and Saskatchewan, coincides oftheSas- 

neither with valleys nor seas (for there are none), but passes ^^^^"'^'^^^^^ 

by Lake He a la Crosse, — where Cree and Chipewyan Indians 

taught Lacrosse to Europeans, — and Beaver Lake, and at 

last reaches a fourth inland sea called Lake Winnipeg, in which 

the Red River and Saskatchewan unite, before they travel of the Red 

together to Hudson Bay under the alias of the Nelson. The ^ '^^^' 

rock-row, which is the southern rim of the Archaean region, 

now travels southward along the eastern border of Lake 

Winnipeg to the border of the United States, dips below the 

border, and reappears as the northern edge of Lakes Superior and of the 

and Huron, which are the two inland seas in which the upper ^A^ ^^• 
' ^^ Lawrence^ 

waters of the river St. Lawrence are gathered together. The 
whole Canadian tract between Lakes Winnipeg and Superior 
is Archaean. Lake Superior and its Archaean edge now 
point eastward ; but Lake Huron wheels southward, and the 
St. Lawrence looks away from its eastern goal, towards which 
it only turns again when it expands into its third and fourth 
inland seas. Lakes Erie and Ontario. Meanwhile the mys- 
terious line of rock which we have been following passes 
through Sault St. Marie (which is between Lakes Superior 
and Huron), through Grand Manitoulin Island, through 
Georgian Bay, which is an inner fold of Lake Huron, then ^;;^ <5y 
just north of Lake Couchiching, which is an extension of Lake Georgia^i 
Simcoe, and then just north of Lakes Balsam and Sturgeon, ^^^^ 
and the dozen other lakes into which the Trent expands, and Ttent 
so straight to the Thousand Islands, which adorn the exit of ^^'^^^^ 
Lake Ontario into what is now called the River St. Lawrence, /^^j^ st. 
Hitherto the feet of the prehistoric Archaean Continent have Lawrence 



l-p:^ ' , ; HISTORIC AI^ GEOGRAPHY Of CANADA 



at the 

Thousand 

Isles, 



{avoiding 
the penin- 
sula of 
Ontario, 
Toronto, 



by the 

Lower 

Ottawa 

{avoiding 

Ottawa) 



been washed by seven seas of fresh water — for Lake Erie is too 
far away to be reckoned — and when it enters the seventh sea, 
which is Lake Ontario, it reaches its southernmost Canadian 
limit and hesitates before committing itself to the north- 
easterly direction which it finally assumes. And here we too 
will pause for a moment. 

The northernmost limits of the limestone area follow the 
southernmost limits of the Archaean area like shadows, ex- 
clude Algoma with its treasures and Muskoka with its 
pleasures, and include Lakes Simcoe and the Trent Lakes, 
the chief cities of Georgian Bay, and the cities of Peterborough 
and Kingston. At or near the southern limits of the lime- 
stone area, the limestone tips of the upper and lower lips of 
Georgian Bay appear; and limestone reappears in Bruce county 
(Ontario) as a ridge which runs southward, encircles Hamilton, 
and is known in its later stages as Burlington Heights, and 
Queenstown Heights, where the famous victories of 1 812-14 
were won. Then once more the ridge reverts into a single 
rock over which the River Niagara plunges, emptying Lake 
Erie into Lake Ontario, and forming the famous cataract 
whose praises Father Hennepin was the first to sound {1678). 
Therefore Toronto is in the very middle of the limestone 
belt. The peninsula behind the ridge and between Lakes 
Erie and Huron belongs to a later stage of evolution called 
Devonian. 

But to return to our gneiss. A few miles east of the 
Thousand Isles and west of Brockville the Archaean border 
goes due north from the St. Lawrence to the Ottawa, which it 
reaches at Lake Chats, forty miles west of Ottawa city, and 
follows in its eastward course, so that Ottawa city, which is 
the capital of the Dominion, Smith's Falls and Merrickville 
on the Rideau, and Brockville on the St. Lawrence, only just 
belong to the later formation. At Grenville on the Ottawa, 
east of Ottawa city, the Archaean rim takes a short cut, as 
does the modern railway, behind Montreal towards Joliette, 



THE CORE OF CANADA AND THE MIDDLE EAST 103 

and then wavers and wanders to and fro some ten miles or and by the 
so from the left bank of the St. Lawrence, until Cap Tour- j^^!^^.^^//^ 
mente is reached thirty miles below Quebec. Thus Montreal, {avoiding 
and Cartier's ' Mount Royal ' behind Montreal, and Quebec, ^^."^^^^""j' 
and the Heights of Abraham behind it, are within the lime- St. Law- 
stone area ; but below Cap Tourmente Silurian limestone is ^^^^^ ^^•^* 
hardly found except on the right bank, for instance, at Riviere 
du Loup, the left bank being thenceforth almost wholly 
dedicated to archaean gneiss and the like. 

Such is the outer margin of the Archaean region. Its The north 
inner margin is Hudson Bay, except where a flat Silurian or ^.^^'^ ^^^ 
Devonian strip lines the shore between the Churchill and near Hud- 
Rupert rivers. This excepted strip begins to overspread the ^^^^ ^^' 
gneiss for the last 60 miles of the Rupert and Nottaway, the 
last 150 miles of the Moose, and the last 250 miles of the 
Albany rivers ^ ; and the principal posts of the Hudson Bay 
Company have dotted its hem for the last 240 years. Every- 
thing else, — if a few well-known outcrops of later date may 
be omitted — is Archaean ; and the Archaean zone is like some 
rough horse-shoe, wide at its extremities but narrow at ils 
arch, with its convex side turned toward the south, and its 
hollow side filled with a sea chilled and choked at its entrances 
with Arctic ice. 

Broadly speaking, the whole Archaean area is stone, hill, Some of the 
and forest. The characteristic Archaean stone is hard, bossy ^I'^l^^^con- 
gneiss ; therefore the hills are low, rounded knolls, and the sists of 
valleys high and three parts lake or river ; and the soil is thin 
and sandy, so that the stones break through it like the rib- 
bones of a starved horse. Archaean Canada is a land without 
glaciers (except one or two in Baffin Land), peaks, passes, 
ridges, downs, heaths, or plains. Even its forests disappear 
and turn into boggy or stony ' barrens ' north of a line drawn 
from Churchill (Hudson Bay) ^ to the east of Great Slave 

1 Dr. R. Bell, Royal Geographical Society, vol. x (1897), p. 8. 

2 c. 60° lat. 



I04 HISTORICAL GEOGRAPHY OF CANADA 

Lake, of Great Bear Lake, and of the mouth of the Macken- 
zie ^ ; and from near Richmond Gulf (Hudson Bay) ^ to near 
Fort Chimmo (Hudson Strait) ' and Okkak ' on the Atlantic. 
Labrador too has bald patches elsewhere, especially on its 
wind-swept, ice-swept Atlantic coast. Similar * barrens ' were 
noted long ago in Lapland and Siberia by Giles Fletcher 
(1588) and others, who called them 'Tundras',* which was 
then the Russian and is now the European word for barrens. 
and some In the Archaean area barrens are a change for the worse, 
^^}'^ , but there are changes for the better. The rocks are not all 
rods and gneiss and granite, but mineral rocks, and rich clay belts have 
clay belts, }qqq^ discovered. What are called Huronian rocks ^ are also 
Archaean in age, but contain dolerite or diabase, and the 
copper and unique nickel of Sudbury (Ontario), the silver 
and unique cobalt of Cobalt (Ontario), the silver ot Thunder 
Bay (Lake Superior), the copper of Michipicoten (Lake 
Superior) and of Wabigoon and Manitou (between Lakeft 
Superior and Winnipeg), and probably all minerals east of 
the Rockies are found in Huronian strata. Nor is the soil 
always thin, deep deposits of clay being found on the shores of 
lakes and over long stretches between lake and lake ; and the 
history of Lake St. Jean, which is an expansion of the Sague- 
nay one hundred miles from its mouth in the very heart of 
the Archaean country, may be taken as a parable and a 
precedent. 
e.^, at Every early explorer wished to go west, and the Saguenay — 

^f ^7.^.. which is one to three miles wide, and lies west and east, while 
the St. Lawrence lies south-west and north-east — tempted 
Cartier (1535), Roberval, Chauvin, and Champlain (1603), 
Chauvin building a stone house at Tadoussac by the mouth 
of the Saguenay at least eight years before the first log 
shanty was built at Quebec. Yet Tadoussac (pop. 511^) only 

' c. 69° lat. 2 c. 57° lat. s c. 58° lat. 

* Hakluyt, Principal Navigations^ vol. iii, p. 403, ed. 1903. 
' Including Animikie. ^ Population, 1901. 



St. Jean, 



THE CORE OF CANADA AND THE MIDDLE EAST 105 

became a summer fishing-station and fur-market, to which the 
Montagnais Cree-Indians of Labrador brought fur, and which 
the Recollets and Jesuits used as a base whence they pushed 
on to Chicoutimi, seventy miles up stream, and to Lake St. 
Jean (1647); ^^^ it was from Lake St. Jean that Father 
Albanel pushed on by Lake Mistassini and Rupert River to 
James Bay (1672). Geology supplied the reason. Tadoussac 
has much gneiss and little grass, and the Saguenay for seventy 
miles is a cleft filled with deep water between gneiss and 
granite walls. Tadoussac and the Saguenay were epitomes 
of Labrador ; therefore civilization shunned them and clave 
to the St. Lawrence, so that the Saguenay and its Lake were 
never more than the home of a few traders and missionaries 
until Joseph Bouchette and others explored the Lake from 
Quebec (1827-8). Bouchette's route lay up the St. Maurice 
and La Tuque, not far from the present railway track from 
Quebec to Roberval-on-the-Lake, through lands which he 
said were less known than the heart of Africa. He urged 
the colonization of the Lake shores and of the river banks 
down to Chicoutimi, or a little further. In 185 1 over 5,000, 
in 1 90 1 nearly 50,000, colonists had responded to his call; 
and the St. Jean and Upper Saguenay district, with its capitals, 
Chicoutimi (pop. 5,79^^), H^bertville (pop. 2,580^), and 
Roberval (pop. 2,593 ^) is a fine example of French-Canadian 
enterprise under the British regime.'' This new district is 
an oasis redeemed from the wilderness and connected with 
the St. Lawrence and civilization by 190 miles of lonely 
railway, or seventy miles of the deep still waters of the lonely 
Saguenay. 

Some four hundred miles due west of Lake St. Jean, e.g. at 
between Lake Abitibi and Lake Timiskaming inclusively, ^J^^is. 
there is a larger and richer clay belt which is now being re- kaming, 
claimed. Lake Timiskaming is an expansion of the upper 

' Population, 1901. 

2 Canada Dept. of Agriculture : La Contrive du Lac St. Jean, 1888. 



To6 HISTORICAL GEOGRAPHY OF CANADA 

Ottawa, and lies on the main water-way by which Pierre De 
Troyes and Pierre Le Moyne Dlberville attacked the Hudson 
Bay Company in James Bay (1686), and along which fur- 
traders still wander north; and it was a mere passage with a 
wayside inn, until rich cobalt and silver mines were discovered 
at Cobalt (November, 1903), and gold mines at Larder Lake 
close by. De Troyes' and the fur-traders' route to James 
Bay just missed Larder Lake, and in 1906 moose fed on its 
water-lilies, bears swam to its islets, loons wailed, and deso- 
lation reigned over it. Two years later machinery crushed 
quartz, and there was a gold ' city ' on its shores. 

For these reasons Lake Timiskaming has a railroad one 
hundred miles long to North Bay Junction (on Lake Nipis- 
sing), and so into the civilized parts of Ontario ; and the 
railroad has now been continued for another hundred miles 
northward to Matheson close by Lake Abitibi ; that is to say, 
right through the clay belt. At Porcupine Lake, near Mathe- 
son, important discoveries of gold were announced in 1909. 
and other The development of Lake St. Jean belongs to the past, 
/ aces, ^j^^j. ^^ Lake Abitibi and its neighbourhood to the present ; 
and one hundred or two hundred miles west of Lake Abitibi 
there is a somewhat similar patch on the Archaean skirt, 
where a surveyor in 1907 discovered a lake fifty miles long, 
surrounded by rich clay, and unmarked on any map ' ; and 
similar discoveries are being made from time to time in the 
heart of the forest, which intervenes between the outer and 
inner limits of the Archaean wilderness. These districts 
belong to the future ; and it is hoped that all these oases will 
ultimately hang together like beads upon a string by means 
of the National Transcontinental Railway which is in course 
of construction. 
In Archae- These tracts, where rocks and lakes produce wealth recall 
"llverTand ^^^^ ' S^od land of brooks, of waters, of fountains and depths 
lakes sei-ve that spring out of valleys and hills, of wheat and barley, . . . 
' ^ On the Kabinagagami River. 



THE CORE OF CANADA AND THE MIDDLE EAST 1 07 

whose stones are iron, and out of whose hills thou mayest 
dig brass ' ; and whether the lakes and rivers do or do not 
deposit soil, they are the natural roadways along which wealth 
is exchanged. As Pascal wrote, 'Les rivieres sont des 
chemins qui marchent,' but rivers are the highways of Canada 
in a peculiar sense. Eternal forest makes other roads im- 
possible or difficult ; Canadian waters are as innumerable as 
the stars, and unless very deep or swift, freeze in winter. 
Archaean Canada is a labyrinth of waters ; lakes lie on 
almost every watershed, and full-grown rivers start from the 
lakes on journeys many hundred miles in length towards 
every point of the compass. A few extreme examples will 
illustrate what is meant. 

Nearly three hundred miles north of Mingan Isles there is and water- 
_ _ ., /- 1 , 1 T 1 partings 

a Lake, seventy miles from north to south, named Lake are often 

Michikamau, which discharges into North- West River, which '^ater- 

ffieettn '^s 
discharges into Hamilton Inlet on the Atlantic. West oi e.g,at ' 

this lake is a lakelet which ' discharges — either into Lake ^^.'^^ ., 
__,,., , , . , XX ., T^. ^' Michika- 

Michikamau or southward into the Hamilton River according ^lau^ 

to the direction of the wind ', and in spring the swollen lake- 
let discharges both ways simultaneously.^ Further, a few 
miles north of Lake Michikamau, on * very flat country ', are 
two lakelets with a bog two hundred yards long between 
them, one lakelet discharging into Lake Michikamau, and 
therefore into Hamilton Inlet, and the other into George 
River, and therefore into Ungava Bay (Hudson Strait), so 
that particles of the same slime ooze from one bog towards 
bournes six hundred miles apart.^ 

If we now travel from Lake Michikamau along its line of at Frog 
latitude in the Sun's course and at the Sun s pace for two 
hours and forty minutes, we shall reach a lakelet on a flat 
called Frog Portage, from which an affluent of the Nelson 

1 Royal Geogr. Soc. Journ. (1895), vol. v, p. 531 (map). 

2 Mrs. L. Hubbard, A Woman's Way through unknown Labrador 
(1908), pp. 174-5 (map). 



To8 HISTORICAL GEOGRAPHY OF CANADA 

flows, and into which the Churchill, during its annual flood- 
time, pours some of its waters ^ ; so that the same waters 
reach Hudson Bay at points. 150 miles apart. It might be 
thought that these lakelets, ponds, and flats — common to two 
w^ater-systems — are occasional vagaries like Tuburi Marsh in 
Mid-Africa. But the same excuse will not explain what follows. 
at Summit Returning now to a spot seventy miles south and one 
Labrador ^^^^^^^ ^^d fifty miles west of Lake Michikamau, whence 
we came, we shall see a flat and on it a lakelet five miles long, 
called Summit Lake. ' The longest branch ' of the Koksoak, 
which runs into Ungava Bay in Hudson Strait four hundred 
miles north, * flows out of the northern end of Summit Lake 
(53° lat.), while a branch of the Manicouagan River,' which 
runs three hundred miles south into the St. Lawrence River, 
* flows out of the southern end of the same lake, thus con- 
necting by w^ater the Gulf of St. Lawrence and Ungava Bay.' ^ 
In other words, everything east of this waterway, or half 
Labrador, is an island, bounded by fresh water on its west, 
and salt water on its north, east, and south. It is strange, 
but a geologist vouches for it and therefore it must be true. 
And still stranger things are true. 
at Summit Once more let us accompany the Sun on its westward race 
Nipioon, ^"^^' ^^ ^0^1* ^^^ ^ quarter, and then drop southward one 
degree, and we shall see another flat and another lakelet, 
called Summit Lake. It is three miles long, and 'sends 
a stream in both directions ' — one to Lake Nipigon, and so 
to Lake Superior and to the river and gulf of St. Lawrence, 
and the other ' north to the Albany river ', and so to James 
Bay (Hudson Bay).^ Therefore everything east of this 
double stream, or nearly all Quebec Province and Ontario, is 
literally and in very truth an island bounded by fresh and 
salt water equally. And the strangest tale is to follow. 

^ Sir J. Richardson, Arctic Searching Expedition (185 1), vol. i, p. 90. 

2 Canada Rep. of Geological Survey (1895), vol. viii, p. 25 /. 

^ Canada Rep. of Geological Survey (1902), vol. xv, pp. 317 «, 218 «. 



THE CORE OF CANADA AND THE MIDDLE EAST 109 

Lake Athabasca (690 feet s.m.), the third inland sea of the and at 
basin of the Mackenzie, lies one thousand miles north-west j^l^/^^ 
of Lake Nipigon. Into its eastern corner, in a dyke between 
Archaean and Cambrian rocks, or between two species of 
Archaean rock, an affluent descends from Wollaston Lake 
{1,300 feet s.m.), whence an effluent descends by Reindeer 
Lake (1,150 feet s.m.) into the Churchill at Frog Portage, 
and so into Hudson Bay at Churchill, or in spring floods at 
Nelson. If so, all the ' barrens ' of North- Western Canada 
and some of their adjacent forests are an island. Recent 
explorations have resolved one-half of Canada into three 
gigantic islands surrounded by sea and river. The nominal 
water-parting between two opposite river-systems is the real 
meeting-place of both ; and there is nothing like this either in 
Africa or anywhere else in the world. 

Even where this is not the case, the watershed is all but and are 
always the nearest approach to a plain in Archaean Canada ; ^(^hvavsflat 
and Methye Portage is probably the only watershed that 
bears the faintest resemblance to a ridge. Americans call 
these roof-flats heights of land for fear that watersheds may 
suggest other associations. The boatman, whom his canoe 
bears from the Atlantic to the Arctic Ocean or to Hudson 
Bay, invariably finds the portages — or places where he 
reverses parts and bears his canoe — on the so-called water- 
sheds the easiest with which he has to deal. The portages 
by the rapids give far more trouble, but not for long ; thus 
the St. Lawrence from Lake Superior, and the Mackenzie 
from Lake Athabasca, only drop 602 feet and 690 feet 
respectively, or on an average one foot in three miles. Similarly 
in Russia, where portages were first described, the describers 
contrasted the ease with which boats were carried from the 
Volga to the Don, on the water-route from Moscow to 
Constantinople, with the difficulties of the ascent of the Onega 
on the water-route from the Arctic Ocean to Novgorod.^ 
^ Hakluyt, Principal Navigation^ vol. ii, p. 454 ; vol. iii, pp. 73 et seq. 



no HISTORICAL GEOGRAPHY OF CANADA 



Its hills 
are low. 



Branches 

of the St. 

Lawrence 

surround 

Archaean 

Canada 

above 

Montreal, 



Moreover in Canada the highest heights of land rarely exceed 
2,000 feet s.m., and the highest mountains are hardly higher. 
But are they mountains? 

A tourist who looks at Mount St. Anne (2,620 feet s.m.) 
behind Cap Tourmente (1,874 feet s.m.), or at Les fiboule- 
ments (2,551 feet s.m.), from a steamer on the St. Lawrence, 
or at Trembling Mountain (2,380 feet s.m.) in the Montreal 
District, looks at some of the loftiest heights from the lowest 
depths in Archaean Canada ^ ; yet he is never conscious of the 
presence of mountains like Snowdon, partly because forests 
invest them from foot to blue rounded summit, and partly 
because the summits are mimicked and shadowed by number- 
less other blue, wavy, fretted summits of almost equal height. 
This country is no more mountainous than the Atlantic in 
a storm. These are not mountains, but the buttresses of an 
undulating plateau. The scenery here is comparatively bold, 
not because the hills are higher, but because the valleys are 
lower than usual. An equally bold descent marks the end 
of the Archaean system on the north shores of Lakes Huron 
and Superior. The plateau resembles some old fort, with 
bastions and lunettes on its outline, guarded by abattis of 
living trees and moats of running water. 

If we proceed westward from the Atlantic, the Gulf and 
river of St. Lawrence represent the moat as far as Montreal. 
In its lower reaches the river is about as wide as the Strait 
between Dover and Calais ; but it narrows at Quebec to 
a little less than a mile, and retains that width as far as 
Lake Ontario, except where it expands into lakes from three 
to nine miles wide. There are no rapids east of Montreal, 
and ships of 15,000 tons visit Montreal. Above Cap 
Tourmente the river is fresh, and above Three Rivers 
tideless. At Montreal the St. Lawrence and Ottawa meet 
and their breadth is equal. Above Montreal, the main- 

^ Probably hills near Moisie River and at Cape Mugford almost 
attain 3,000 feet, those at Nachvak almost 4000 feet. 



THE CORE OF CANADA AND THE MIDDLE EAST III 

Stream of the St. Lawrence having apparently abandoned 

the task, the Ottawa fills the dyke or moat for 170 miles; 

then fragments of dyke skirt the north shore of the Trent 

Lakes, Lake Couchiching, Lakes Huron and Superior, but 

the true moat wavers and wanders in its course. The moat 

between Montreal and Georgian Bay seems to be at one time 

the Ottawa, at another time the St. Lawrence, and at another 

time some more or less watery compromise between the two. 

After Georgian Bay it is clean-cut and sure of its way. 

Even so men who- were westward-bound used to travel which 

along the St. Lawrence from Quebec or Three Rivers, and ^^^^^^^^^ 

pause at Montreal in doubt as to which way they should go. been at 

Montreal was Doubting Castle. Rapids lay above it both ^^^ ^^^^'5 
° r y /^^ main- 

on the St, Lawrence and on the Ottawa. The usual course stream. 
of early voyagers was up the Ottawa, past the capital of the 
Ottawas^ on Allumette Island, along the Mattawa, and 
thence over a flat watershed into the Lake of the Nipissings,^ 
and down French River into Georgian Bay, where the 
Hurons dwelt. Possibly the St. Lawrence once flowed 
along this very course; and this course was taken by Le 
Caron and Champlain (16 15-16), and by the Jesuits who 
founded the doomed mission of St. Mary on the limestones 
near Midland on Georgian Bay (1640). A second route lay 
up the St. Lawrence to the Bay of Quintd on Lake Ontario, 
where there was an early Sulpician mission (1666), and 
thence along the Trent and its lakes beneath the shadow of 
the Archaean rim ; then across a flat watershed into Lakes 
Simcoe and Couchiching; and this route also ended in 
Georgian Bay. Orillia on Lake Couchiching was the Huron 
capital, and two -thirds of this route, or that part which lay 
between Georgian Bay and Kingston, was one-third of 
Champlain's route from Montreal to Lake Ontario (1615- 
16), fear of the Iroquois having made him avoid the direct 
route from Kingston to Montreal, which was first followed 
^ Algpnquins. 



112 HISTORICAL GEOGRAPHY OF CANADA 

by the Jesuit, Le Moyne (1653); but of which La Salle was 
the lay pioneer {1669). The second or middle route lay 
midway between the possible ancient and the actual modern 
channel of the St. Lawrence ; and for aught we know the 
St. Lawrence may have flowed this very way in the middle 
ages of geological history. The route by the actual St. 
Lawrence and its seas was the third and latest way to the 
west, and forts were built between river and seas, or between 
seas and seas at Kingston (1673), Niagara {1678-9), 
Detroit (1686), and Sault St. Marie (1669), a few hundred 
miles apart from one another. Beyond these forts there 
were missions, forts, or both, at Mackinaw and Green Bay 
on Lake Michigan (U. S.), and at Duluth on Lake Superior 
(U. S.), before Lake Ontario was explored or Lake Erie 
known; and these posts, like those on Lake Ontario and 
Lake Erie, led to the Mississippi and its tributaries. Later 
forts were also established at Grand Portage and Fort 
William, on the west of Lake Superior, as gateways to the 
north-west for north-western travellers, and as goals for 
travellers from east or west. Sometimes western and north- 
western travellers took a short cut from Toronto to Lake 
Simcoe, and thence either by Lake Couchiching, or, like 
Franklin (1825), by the Nottawasaga, to Georgian Bay; but, 
although a fort was built at Toronto in 1749, this short cut 
played no part in Canadian history during the French 
regime. 
Quebec and Quebec and Ontario provinces are vast — both extend to 
areTon- Hudson Bay — and the former includes Labrador, and the latter 
cemedwith includes the Lake of the Woods between Lakes Superior and 
^Lawrence ^ij^^ip^g* The boundary between the two provinces is 
audits (i) the Ottawa, of which the north and east banks as far as 
^earlier ^^^^ Timiskaming belong to Quebec, while the south and 
courses. west banks, including Cobalt and the railway to Abitibi, 
belongs to Ontario; (2) an imaginary line due north from 
Lake Timiskaming to James Bay ; and (3) a line from the 



THE CORE OF CANADA AND THE MIDDLE EAST II3 

head of Lac des deux Montagnes — which is the first expan- 
sion of the Ottawa above Montreal — to Pointe au Baudet on 
the St. Lawrence. But those parts of Quebec and Ontario 
Provinces in which history was made lie between narrow 
confines. All their historical events took place in the valley 
of the St. Lawrence. There their colonies and towns were 
built, their battles fought, and their industrial successes won. 
In former times the river was called Canada ; and what was 
once called Canada, and is now called the Middle East of 
Canada, is essentially the country of the River St. Lawrence. 
What the Nile is to Egypt and the Soudan, the St. Lawrence 
is to Quebec and Ontario. But the St. Lawrence is purer 
and straighter than the Nile. It has infinite islands but no 
mud islands or deltas, not even at its mouth, and for its last 
thousand miles, from Detroit to Pointe des Monts, the 
distances by air, land, or water differ but little. As the 
Nile above Khartum is the White and Blue Nile, so the 
St. Lawrence above Montreal is the Ottawa and the St. 
Lawrence; so that the Upper Province is the Province of 
Two Rivers. Quebec Province is bounded on the south 
partly by the boundary-line which has already been described,^ 
then by the Appalachian range, then by the 45th parallel of 
latitude until it strikes the St. Lawrence at St. Regis opposite 
Cornwall. Parts of the Appalachian range within Maine, 
Vermont, and New York States may be seen on a clear day 
from any hill-top between Montreal and Quebec, and on the 
north of the river the crowded hill-tops of Archaean Canada 
loom near at hand. All that is of interest in old Canadian 
history took place within these narrow limits. The figure 
described within these limits represents from time to time en- 
closed spaces, of small size in Quebec Province and of large 
size in Ontario, but French civilization might be typified by 
the straight line of the St. Lawrence, upon which miniature 
circles and triangles were sometimes described on its islands 
^ ubi supra ^ p. 18. 

VOL, V. PT. Ill I 



114 HISTORICAL GEOGRAPHY OF CANADA 

or at the confluence of its principal tributaries. No serious 
effort was made to fill the whole enclosed space until the 
very end of the eighteenth century. Above Cornwall, the 
southern limit of Ontario — for we are already in Ontario — lies 
in the present bed of the St. Lawrence and its inland seas, 
until Pigeon River on the west coast of Lake Superior is 
reached. Thence it continues up the old river route from 
Grand Portage on Pigeon River to the 49th parallel of 
latitude, which is the international boundary of the middle 
and extreme west of Canada as far as the Pacific. Rivers 
have never been boundaries for long, either in Asia, Africa, 
or Europe, and parallels and meridians have only been 
effective boundaries between * spheres of influence ' in bar- 
baric countries or between British provinces. The immediate 
palpable effect of these arbitrary lines was that in Ontario 
new towns sprang up at Niagara, Detroit River, and Sault 
St. Marie, opposite American towns or vice versa ; and that 
the starting-point on Lake Superior for the middle west and 
north-west was shifted from Grand Portage to Fort William, 
forty miles north (1803), the old and new ways meeting 
rather more than one hundred miles west of the two starting- 
points. Ontario, south of the most ancient possible course 
of the St. Lawrence to Georgian Bay, is sometimes nick- 
named old Ontario ; it too has narrow confines, but it was 
always thought of as a triangle which colonists tried to fill. 
Nevertheless nearly all its principal towns lie on one of the 
three ways to the west, and on a Silurian or Devonian, not 
on an Archaean, foundation. The civilization of the middle 
east abhorred granite, and its line of life was thin-spun and 
single, except where the St. Lawrence seemed to go or to 
have gone two or three ways, and there it too became double 
or triple, and tried to cover the interval between the threads. 
West of French River the line is once more frail and 
single, and is symbolized by the Canadian Pacific Railway 
as it runs along or near the north shore of the first and 



THE CORE OF CANADA AND THE MIDDLE EAST IT5 

second seas of the St. Lawrence as far as Fort William, 
which shines with the reflected glory of the middle west. 
After Fort William there are forty miles of the old water- 
system, 350 miles of a new water-system with the old 
wilderness, and then a new country. 

But we must return to the middle east, which suggests Middle 
three reflections. First, because it is the country of one country of 
great river, because that river is a pre-eminent example of the St. 
' Les chemins qui marchent ', and because all its main rail- ^"^^^^^^^^ 
ways and roadways double or treble the course or courses of 
the great river, there is an incessant stream, not only of 
water but of men and things perpetually moving along the 
western way. Secondly, from end to end of the middle east 
there is not one rock later than rocks of Devonian age, 
which rocks precede Carboniferous rocks in the geological 
scale; consequently there is no coal. Thirdly, the middle 
west is often called the north-west because its southern limit 
is 49° lat. or two degrees north of Quebec City, and it is 
proposed that the National Transcontinental Railway shall 
connect it with Quebec by a straight line. When this is 
complete it is thought that the single thread with knots, net- 
works, and tangles here and there, which is the emblem of 
Canadian destiny, will be changed into an immense triangle 
with a base 1,200 miles long; the middle east will no longer 
be length without breadth, and a new era will dawn. The 
St. Lawrence, which has hitherto been the only ' Leit-Faden ' 
of the middle east, will be left at Quebec, and the track will 
plunge at once into the primeval forest, catching up cross- 
threads here and there, like that at Abitibi, but without 
emerging until its journey is at an end. A more familiar 
metaphor is often used. It is said that hitherto the middle 
east has been like a row of one-storied houses in Quebec 
Province, and of two-storied houses in Old Ontario, with 
two or three scaffolds and ladders erected to an unbuilt 
upper storey, and that the time has now come to build 

I 2 



Il6 HISTORICAL GEOGRAPHY OF CANADA 

a still higher storej all along the upper ends of the scaffolds 
and ladders. The metaphor is not quite exact, for it can 
hardly be expected that the living places along the new track 
will be continuous with themselves and with the old track. 
Along the old track nothing is so striking as the continuous 
civilization which lines the valley of the St. Lawrence up to 
Lake Superior ; but the continuity was attained by different 
methods and processes and with different results in the 
provinces of Quebec and Ontario. 



CHAPTER VI 

THE MIDDLE EAST 

Quebec or The Province of Two Nations and one 
River. 

Quebec is the Province of two nations — Old French and Quebec 
New English — the former underlying the latter, and having Zl^jl^^liy 
the first choice of place, but both mingling and alternating in the French, 
centres of most disturbance, like successive geological strata. 
Both cleave to the St. Lawrence, but the French, who were 
there first, cleave most closely. The cities which were chosen 
by the French were on critical points on the great river, and 
are therefore most altered. In the chief cities as well as in 
the country districts the French are still first. 

Under the French rdgime there were only three cities in Quebec, 
Canada : Quebec, Three Rivers, and Montreal, which were '^■^^^.^ 
founded in 1608, 1634, and 1641 respectively. These three a^id Mon- 
places are all north of the St. Lawrence, and were in 1535 ^p^^-^l^^^^ 
the chief places of the Indians/ who lived on the St. Lawrence a7td 
and spoke Iroquois, and may have been Hurons or Mohawks ^^r^J^?^ 
for aught we know, and were wiped clean out before 1608, 
when their vacant seats were filled by Frenchmen, who for 
awhile shunned the south shore as though it were plague - 
stricken. Again, each of these places lies at an angle formed 
by two rivers, as though for trade or defence. At Quebec, 
Cartier dwelt on the east bank of the St. Charles, in whose 
mouth his ships lay, and on the other side of which the 
friendly Indians occupied Quebec itself. Recollets, Jesuits, 
and fur-traders chose Three Rivers because it was on the 
St. Maurice, which, unlike the St. Charles, went far inland, 

* sub. nom. Stadacona, Ochelay, Hochelaga. 



I20 HISTORICAL GEOGRAPHY OF CANADA 

and at whose head waters the Atticamegues ^ dwelt. More- 
over, every year until Montreal was founded, and often in 
later years, the Ottawas of Allumette Island ^ used to travel 
north by the Gatineau and south by the St. Maurice in order 
to bring their peltry to Three Rivers without passing Montreal. 
At Montreal the Ottawa joined the St. Lawrence. Further, 
each of these cities has or is an island ; for early mariners 
conceived the St. Lawrence as a sea-arm, and chose their 
harbours on or behind islands. And islands had other advan- 
tages. The island of Orleans which sheltered, fed Quebec, and 
when Champlain saw the St. Maurice he wrote, ' There is 
one island in the middest of the said river . . . This would be 
a very fit place to inhabit, and it might be quickly fortified.' ^ 
Montreal is an island of 123 square miles, or twice as large 
as Manhattan plus Hong Kong plus Bombay, but not so 
large as Singapore, but with far greater opportunities for agri- 
culture and far greater exposure to attack and far less 
opportunities for defence than its peers. 

In each of these three places the French pioneers occupied 

the very isles and isle-guarded peninsulas on the north bank 

where their first Indian friends flourished and vanished. The 

three sites had different advantages. 

In French Quebec is a city on a hill — strong, fair, and opportune. 

^Quebec ^^^^ miles above it is Cap Rouge, where Cartier and 

was the Roberval wintered (1541-3) in order to be near, but not too 

^andmiy ^^^^» ^^^^^ friends at Quebec. Opposite Cap Rouge is the 

European Chaudi^re, a highway of the Abenaki Indians,^ who dwelt on 

^^^ ' the Kennebec River in Maine (United States) ; and who in 

1 64 1 sent envoys along this highway to Quebec in order to 

make an alliance with some Ottawas,^ then resident at Three 

Rivers. While Quebec opened up the friendly southerners. 

Three Rivers opened up the friendly northerners and 

westerners ; and Quebec and Three Rivers, between them, 

^ Algonquins. 

2 Champlain, Voyages, ed. E. G. Bourne (1906), vol. ii, p. 185. 



THE MIDDLE EAST — QUEBEC 12I 

became junctions and asylums for friendly Algonquins of the 
distant south and the distant north and west. Quebec, too, 
became the port for the European vessels upon whose annual 
arrival the trade, safety, and existence of Canada depended. 
When Kirke (1629) and Wolfe (1759) took Quebec, every- 
thing west of it was doomed, because Quebec was the only 
link of Canada with Europe. But they had to leave in 
November and could never come before Spring, so that 
Quebec was left to its own military resources every winter. 
During five months of the year it is useful only as a fort, for 
ice makes it useless as a port ; then when the thaw comes it 
proudly raises its head and brings Europe into the heart of 
America, and makes the uttermost waters of the basin of the 
St. Lawrence and the seas which beat against England and 
France a single waterway. 

Three Rivers never had direct dealings with Europe, and Three 
Europeans scarcely knew of it except as a half-way house ^^^rthe 
between Quebec and Montreal ; but it was the first base of starting' 
the western fur-trade and the first goal of the western Indians, ^t^raders 
Nipissings ^ and Hurons, as well as Ottawas ^ and Atticame- the resort 
gues,^ came hither year in and year out to meet the %{dians ^ 
Governor-General and his suite, who came in large boats or and the 
little brigantines from Quebec to meet them. It was the ^'^^^ ^ ^ 
home of interpreters such as Pierre Boucher, Jean and 
Thomas Godefroy, Jacques Hertel, Jean Nicolet, M^dard 
Chouart Sieur des Groseilliers, and Pierre Esprit Radisson, 
who were the lay pioneers of the far west. In 1653 ^wo of 
these interpreters visited Green Bay (Lake Michigan), from 
which the Mississippi was discovered ; in 1656 Lake Winni- 
peg was known to them by name^ ; and in 1661 Groseilliers 
and Radisson went from here to the River Nipigon on the 
north-west shore of Lake Superior, where Duluth built a fort 
(1684), from which La Verendrye, a native of Three Rivers, 

^ Algonquins. 

^ B. Suite, Chronique Trifluvienne (1879), p. 174. 



122 HISTORICAL GEOGRAPHY OF CANADA 

advanced in order to build a chain of forts between Lake 
Superior and Winnipeg (1731 et seq.). Three Rivers had 
a long reach inland, which Quebec never had. It seemed 
too at one time that it might become a federal capital for 
the Algonquins and Hurons under French protection. It 
also had a relentless foe across the water who rarely wrought 
havoc in the neighbourhood of Quebec, but incessantly 
attacked Three Rivers. This foe was the Iroquois. 
and was The Iroquois, who spread death along the south shore of 

^mhawks^' ^^ ^^* Lawrence, and dread from James Bay to the Atlantic, 
were the Five Nations; and the Mohawks, who more 
especially menaced the Lower St. Lawrence, dwelt where the 
Appalachian range would be if it were a ridge. Between 
Temiscouata and Rivibre du Loup this range is a wooded 
ridge 1,324 feet high, in the midst of wooded hills 1,000 feet 
higher; further south-west, between the sources of the 
Chaudifere and Kennebec, it is still the same ridge and 
1,854 feet high; and between the St. Francis and Con- 
necticut Rivers, where the watershed is on Canadian soil, 
this selfsame ridge is 1,585 feet high, and its coronet of 
wooded hill-tops twice that height. A little further on, the 
ridge vanishes and is replaced by a watershed, 120 miles 
south of the Canadian border, and 150 feet high, dividing two 
rivers, each running due north and south — the Hudson to New 
York, 200 miles south; and the Richelieu and its expansion 
Lake Cham plain to the St. Lawrence at Sorel, 180 miles 
north. The range only exists for the eye of faith, and the 
watershed is about the same height as that in the Petitcodiac 
or Annapolis Valleys; but the rivers which it divides are 
great navigable rivers, the only obstruction on the Richelieu 
being at Chambly, where the river falls nearly seventy feet in 
two miles. The Mohawks lived west of this watershed, on 
the Mohawk, a western tributary of the Upper Hudson, and 
the rest of the Five Nations lived still further west. The four 
Western Nations menaced the St. Lawrence from above 



THE MIDDLE EAST — QUEBEC 123 

Montreal to the west end of Lake Erie; and the Mohawks 
shot down the Richelieu to Sorel like arrows from a bow. 
When the Mohawks heard that the Hurons and Algonquins 
passed the mouth of the Richelieu annually on their way to 
Three Rivers, they felt as sportsmen would feel on hearing of 
an annual migration of caribou past their lodge-gate. Pbre 
Jogues was their first prize, and was the first to make the 
through trip from Sorel to New York (1642). The Iroquois 
seized him as he started from Three Rivers for the west, took 
him to the Mohawk, tortured, burned, maimed, and mutilated 
him ; then he escaped to New York and France, returned 
twice to the Iroquois of his own accord, and was killed. 
The Richelieu was the road to Calvary, and every field near 
it was watered with the blood of the victims of the Iroquois. 

Pres de la borne q\\ chaque ^tat commence 
Aucun ^pi n'est pur de sang humain. 

As a take-off for Europe Quebec was alone, but as a take-off Montreal 
for the west Three Rivers had a younger rival in Montreal. ^^,,^^^ ^,^^ 
In 1656 ^ the race between Three Rivers and Montreal began base of^ 
in earnest : when La Salle's explorations of Lake Ontario and aminsuhe 
the south-west began (1669), Montreal was his only base, and Iroquois 
after that date Three Rivers was more or less eclipsed, ^j^^ ^/„-^y 
Montreal was exposed to the full fury not only of the ^^se of fur- 
Mohawks but of all the Iroquois. After 1643 ^^ Mohawks ^^^/ ^y 
chastised Three Rivers with whips but Montreal with Indians, 
scorpions. They descended the Richelieu to Chambly, forty- 
seven miles above Sorel, and crossed by the Litde Montreal 
and La Prairie Rivers to Laprairie, opposite Montreal. 
Sometimes, too, other Iroquois descended the St. Lawrence 
from Oswego (United States) on Ontario Lake, so that 
Montreal was between two fires, from east and south-west* 
AdamDaulac's heroism at the Long Sault on the Ottawa (1660) 
and Madeleine's defence of Vercheres (1692) saved Montreal 
1 Suite's date. 



124 HISTORICAL GEOGRAPHY OF CANADA 

from attacks from the west and north respectively. The 

Iroquois, so long as they commanded the river, threatened 

Montreal from every side. Montreal was Castle Dangerous. 

Down to 1665 the Iroquois made the existence of Montreal 

hang in the balance; after that date counter attacks were 

organized, and Montreal was comparatively secure. The 

power of the Iroquois was broken, and the Iroquois gradually 

ceased to be a political force of first-rate importance. Then 

Montreal asserted its geographical superiority over Three 

Rivers, and fur-traders for the west and friendly Indians 

from the west gradually began to prefer Montreal to Three 

Rivers, as base, goal and meeting place. 

Expansion The best defence of the French colonists was expansion, 

^th^7h^^^"^ and expansion was from the same three centres, and was 

French both On the north and on the south side of the river ; for in 

capitals; ^^ history of civilization the country which tries to keep one 

river-bank invariably gains or loses both. 

from At Quebec Louis Hebert of Paris, and his son-in-law 

Quebec Guillaume Couillard, farmed in the Twenties. East of 
along the ' 

east shore Quebec, and west of Montmorency Falls, Robert Giffard of 
V^^ Perche became seigneur of Beauport, and stocked his 

1^20 etseq., seignory with colonists in the Thirties. In the Forties other 
seigneurs did the same for Beaupre, — which is east of Beauport 
and extends eastward to Les Eboulements — and for the lime- 
stone islands which began with the Island of Orleans and end 
opposite St. Paul's Bay in the Isle aux Coudres. The 
inhabitants of Beaupr6 dwelt west of Cap Tourmente, 
where limestone, fresh water, and wheat-growing end ; or at 
St. Paul's Bay, under the shadow of Les Eboulements, and 
outnumbered the inhabitants of the capital in 1667. In 1628 
David Kirke raided Cap Tourmente, and in 1759 James 
Wolfe raided Beauprd from end to end, and occupied the 
Island of Orleans in order to starve Quebec. The island of 
Orleans was also more populous than its capital in 1667 ; and 
from that date it and Beaupr^ have changed but little down 



THE MIDDLE EAST — QUEBEC 125 

to to-day. Nor has Beauport changed much along the shore 
line. 

The Seignory or Lordship or Manor of Beauport was by means of 
three miles long and four miles deep, and of Beauprd ^^^^^^^^ 
forty-eight miles long and eighteen miles deep : the * long ' habitants, 
side being along the St. Lawrence, which served as road, 
till roads were built, and the Meep' side being unin- 
habited and uncultivated, except for a short distance from its 
long side. The building of roads and the clearing of the 
forest, of which the whole valley of the St. Lawrence con- 
sisted, was usually the duty of the lords of the manor or 
seigneurs, but invariably the act of the habitants or copy- 
holders whom their lords imported and planted. In order to 
build roads across their front the habitants required narrow 
and contiguous fronts. The first holdings of the habitants in 
Beauport were from ten to seventeen-fold, and of those in 
Beaupr^ forty-fold deeper than wide. Roads crept on from 
front to front, and clearances crept on from front to rear; 
and the rearmost depths were often forfeited, because they 
had not been reclaimed, or even used, by their nominal 
possessors. Sometimes whole seignories deserved or incurred 
the same fate. 

West of Quebec eight or more seignories had been created and west 
before 1660 around the mouths of the Cap Rouge, Jacques ^^Jly^ ' 
Cartier, Portneuf, and St. Anne Rivers, and ^\\ were empty means of 
except two. The first exception was Portneuf, which is forty ^^^Jj^^ 
miles above Quebec and below Three Rivers, and had colonists 
before 1645, but its lord belonged more to Three Rivers than 
to Quebec ^ ; and the second exception was Sillery, which is 
four miles or so above Quebec, and there Jesuits and others 
began to fold converted Algonquins and Hurons like sheep 
within a pen in 1 639. In the Fifties the Huron pen was trans- 
ferred to the Island of Orleans, and afterwards to St. Foy and 
Old and New Lorette close behind Quebec ; and it is still at 
^ Jacques Le Neuf de La Potherie. 



126 



HISTORICAL GEOGRAPHY OF CANADA 



and on the 
south bank 
towards the 
east ; 



expansion 
on the 
Richelieu 
was from 
Europe^ 
Three 
Rivers, 
and 
Montreal ; 



New Lorette. Consequently Quebec had a motley Indian 
fringe immediately inland and on its west. Its white men 
did not expand to the west until later than 1665. Before 
1689 the Abenaki of Sillery had been sent across the St. Law- 
rence to a pen at the mouth of the Chaudi^re; the other 
Algonquins of Sillery had died out, and it was then that the 
left bank became wholly and solely a white man's country. 

Pbre Druillbtes, the missionary of the Abenaki, was the 
spiritual (1646), Fran9ois Bissot and Guillaume Couture, 
issue-in-law of Couillard and so of Hubert, were the secular 
pioneers of the right bank of the St. Lawrence, Bissot and 
Couture settling at Ldvis opposite Quebec (1646-7). A little 
later, Montmagny acquired and colonized the Rivibre du Sud 
further east, and a bridge of islands thence to the Island of 
Orleans (1646-55). Next, issue-in-law of GifFard took up 
the tale and acquired the colonized St. Roch des Aulmais 
(1657) and St. Anne de la Pocadiere (1672) ; and a Couillard 
acquired and colonized Llslet (1671). Then Bissot's sons 
acquired and colonized Vincennes, between L^vis and Rivibre 
du Sud (1672). Thus members of the Hubert and Giffard 
groups trumped one another's last cards and went step by 
step, islet by islet, along the right bank, away from the 
Iroquois, and like lemmings towards the sea. In 1759 Wolfe 
seized L^vis and raided St. Roch and St. Anne, which were 
then the chief villages, for towns there were none. 

Before 1665 no one dwelt on the right bank of the St. 
Lawrence anywhere east of Longueuil (if there), and west of 
the Algonquin settlement at the mouth of the Chaudi^re. In 
that year forts were built at Sorel and Chambly, and a road 
fifteen miles long was built along the old Mohawk trail from 
Chambly to Laprairie, opposite Montreal. This was the first 
road in the province. The triangle thus formed between 
Laprairie, Chambly, and Sorel was both military and indus- 
trial ; and it bid defiance to the Mohawks, screening Three 
Rivers and Montreal from their attacks. It was the first public 



THE MIDDLE EAST — QUEBEC 127 

colonial enterprise, since Montreal was founded, the first mean 
term between Three Rivers and Montreal, and leading men 
from both cities, but more especially from Three Rivers, took 
part in it. 

Charles Le Moyne of Montreal had founded the seignory 
of Longueuil opposite Montreal in 1657, ^^^ cultivation 
began here in the late sixties; otherwise Montreal took 
ittle direct part in colonizing the right bank. Nearly all the 
first seigneurs of the new seignories were officers of the 
Carignan-Salieres regiment, who were fresh from Europe, 
and some of whom, like Contrecoeur, Sorel, St. Ours, and 
Varennes, proved successes, while others like Chambly proved 
failures. The inhabitants were either soldiers of the same 
regiment, or some of the immigrants whom Pierre Boucher of 
Three Rivers attracted to Canada on his visit to France 
(166 1 -2). For between 1663 and 1672 Canada received 
the largest batch of immigrants that ever went from Europe to 
French Canada, and the population, which was 2,000 in 1662, 
rose to 6,700 in 1672. After that date immigration ceased 
during the French regime. Pierre Boucher and Three Rivers 
were identified with one another, and Three Rivers was the most 
important centre from which the new colonists were distributed. 

At Three Rivers, as at Quebec, there was a family party Three 

whose sons and sons-in-law went east, west, and south ; and ^^'^^^^ 

expanded 
the peopling of Grosbois (1669) and Yamachiche (1703) on east, west, 

the west, and about the same date of Champlain, Grondines, ^^^ souths 

and St. Anne de la Parade, on the east of Three Rivers, may 

be traced not merely to Three Rivers but to Boucher or 

some one of his relatives. South of the St. Lawrence there 

are five rivers between the Chaudiere and the Richelieu, none 

of which were used by Indians as through routes — the Du 

Chene, B^cancour, Nicolet, St. Francis, and Yamaska; and 

colonists settled at Gentilly (1676) and Bdcancour (1680) on 

the B^cancour, and at St. Francis {1674), Nicolet (1676), 

and Yamaska on the mouths of the rivers of those names. 



128 HISTORICAL GEOGRAPHY OF CANADA 

e.g. to Of these settlements St. Francis was the most typical and 
^riverwhere i^^po^'tant. It was on an islet at the river-mouth, as was 
Indians Nicolet, and its colonists were all from Three Rivers and 
also settkiL ^^der the guidance of a relative of Boucher. Shortly after its 
foundation Abenaki arrived from the Chaudibre and settled at 
St. Francis, even as they had settled at the Chaudiere and 
B^cancour, so that an Indian fringe was apparently being 
created all along the right bank of the St. Lawrence. Lastly, 
this sub-colony on the St. Francis opened up a new through- 
route up the St, Francis and down the Connecticut to the 
Atlantic, which Indians knew but neglected, but which the 
descendants of Hertel, the interpreter, used in their raids 
against Salmon Falls (1690) and Haverhill (1708), and 
Robert Rogers used on his return from his counter-raid 
against St. Francis (1759). This is the only river-route in 
Canada which can fairly be described as a white man's route ; 
a route, that is to say, whose utility white men were the first 
to appreciate. But in French times it was a route and 
nothing more. Settlers never ventured up-stream. 
At the end The energetic initiative of the soldiery and of the little 
%rench S^^^P ^^ enthusiasts at Three Rivers was contagious, and 
period the soon after the wars of the Sixties seignories on paper lined 

settlements ^^ ^ \izx^^ of the St. Lawrence, from Montreal to Les 

on the left , ' 

^a«/&^///^ Eboulements on the north bank and Cape Chat on the 

^\'fe^' ^^^^ bank. It was a thin, narrow, close-packed line, and 

became except in the triangle of the Richelieu and St. Lawrence all 

continuous, ^^ seignories abutted on the St. Lawrence, until almost the 

end of the chapter. It became a real line on the north bank 

when the Government completed a road for sledges (1721), 

and carriages (1734), between Quebec and Montreal (1721), 

and the road soon began to resemble the street of a straggling 

village. In the last period of the French regime seignories 

extended up the Richelieu to the frontier, but they were 

shams above Chambly. The Hertel brother-raiders from 

Three Rivers had succeeded Chambly at Chambly, and came 



THE MIDDLE EAST -QUEBEC 129 

to own St. Charles and the volcanic mountains of Beloeil or 
Rouville close by; and they brought in settlers. Both 
Chambly and Sorel were square-shaped, and lay on both 
sides of the Richelieu, like square-rigging on a mast, so that 
settlers here doubtless overlapped the river towards the 
Yamaska, where the uppermost seignory was at St. Hyacinthe. 
Shadowy seignories ascended the Chaudibre to where its 
tributary the Du Loup joins it, and the modern roadway and 
railway to Portland (United States) diverge, and at that spot 
Benedict Arnold found setders in 1775. Some civilization 
crept up these three southern affluents of the St. Lawrence, 
but without system or purpose. 

On the west of Montreal a tiny triangle between the and 
St. Lawrence and Ottawa was marked off into seignories, ^^^Tjj]X!i 
and sparsely colonized at the eleventh hour of the French westward, 
dominies; and it belongs for that reason to the Province of 
Quebec, although geographically it seems a part of Ontario ; 
while opposite it, on the north, there was the Lake of Two 
Mountains, with a settlement of Algonquins and Iroquois, 
and on the south there were settlements of Iroquois at Caugh- 
nawaga and St. R^gis, but for which the south bank of the 
St. Lawrence above Montreal was all but empty. At one having the 
time an Indian fringe hung along exposed parts of the %^^^^^ 
frontier with a seriousness and system which suggests ihd,t fringe. 
the authors of the policy deemed Canada a province more 
like East India than what we usually call a colony. Indian 
reservations may still be seen a New Lorette, B^cancour, 
St. Francis, Caughnawaga, St. R^gis, and the Lake of Two 
Mountains; and some people point to them as the ruined 
remnants of a wall of red men which was once meant to run 
round and protect what once was Canada ; others compare 
them to pounds for deer, decoys for wild birds, kennels for the 
dogs of war, industrial schools, or labour colonies. But perhaps 
they were the outcome of mixed motives, and never had one 
ratson d^elre. 

VOL. V. PT. Ill V 



130 HISTORICAL GEOGRAPHY OF CANADA 

In the Under British rule none of the conditions which have been 

perwd ^ described changed materially, and the military geography of 
Quebec was Quebec Province proved almost immutable. The substitu- 
stoT^^ tion of Americans for Iroquois and British for French had 
scarcely changed the importance of, or the approaches to the 
chief cities. 

In the Anglo-French war one deadly blow was struck from 
the sea at Quebec, and Wolfe won nothing but Quebec, but 
Quebec was everything (1759). Then what was won was 
almost lost in winter, but won again in spring by British 
ships ; and when Amherst swept down to Montreal along 
the two Iroquois routes from Lake Champlain and Oswego 
he only gave the coup de grdce. So far as river-routes went, 
Amherst, like De Courcelles and Frontenac, was only the 
pupil of the Iroquois^ but the sea-route was the decisive route. 
aiidMon- In the next war Richard Montgomery took Montreal by 
trealihe ^^ f^\^ Mohawk route to Laprairie {1775), — for Montreal 
posed place, was Still as vulnerable and exposed as it had been a century 
ago, — and Quebec was once more the only, though the vital 
spot in British hands. Then Benedict Arnold attacked 
Quebec in winter from the old Kennebec-Chaudiere route of 
the Abenaki, and just failed. Spring returned ; Quebec was 
relieved from the sea; and when it was safe, the rest of 
Canada was safe. We hear of emissaries from the Upper 
Connecticut being checked on the Upper St. Francis ; other- 
wise the same old story was repeated. 

In the third war (181 2-14) Quebec was immune, and the 
River Richelieu and Lake Ontario once more poured hostile 
forces against Montreal ; but the country had changed some- 
what. The civilized triangle on the south of Montreal had 
grown in size, and its base was no longer the old road from 
Laprairie to Chambly, but the international frontier. There 
were roads too inside the triangle, one of which went due west 
from St. John's on the Richelieu to the St. Lawrence, and 
another went due south from the St. Lawrence to the frontier 



THE MIDDLE EAST QUEBEC 131 

near Odelltown and Lacolle Mills ; while other roads led from 
Chateauguay in the west of the triangle direct to Plattsburg* 
(New York) on Lake Champlain. Therefore the war-cloud 
hovered over Plattsburg, Lacolle Mills, Odelltown, and 
Chateauguay, and although the old Iroquois duet was sung 
again by American voices, it was sung with variations. 

For a time the arts of peace were as conservative as the Seigmries 
ways of war. The old seignorial system was as immutable as '-^'^^^ P^^' 
ever. The old seignories had been utilized as, or divided neiu town- 
into parishes in the early eighteenth century ; and had been "^^^^"^ r 
utilized as, or grouped into counties in the last half of the 
century, but survived unchanged as the basis of agriculture. 
Two new seignories had been created in Murray Bay east cf 
St. Paul's Bay, and given to Scotch lairds, who forthwith 
talked French and turned themselves into seigneurs, their 
kilts into sashes, and their crofters into red- and blue-capped 
habitants. Many lordships but few holdings changed hands, 
and hundreds of habitants to-day own holdings which their 
forefathers cleared two hundred years ago or more, thus 
belonging to what they call ' la noblesse de la charrue '. The 
institution made for permanence and stability, but it was far 
from universal. Nearly half the valley of the St. Lawrence 
lay south of the seignories and north of the frontier ; and 
here there was a new district congenial to Britons, and to 
which British energy soon began to be applied in a truly 
British way. Roads were built, townships were laid out, and 
immigrants were introduced. 

The scenery of the Richelieu is un-English partly because e.g. town- 
there is no English river so straight, wide, and deep as this ^!f^t^^ 
river ; and partly because there are no English hills Uke the Francis ; 
row of ex-volcanic hills of Devonian age — Mount Royal, 
Montarville, Beloeil, Rougemont, Johnson, Shefford, and 
Yamaska — which adorn its neighbourhood. But the five 
unused rivers between the Chaudi^re and Richelieu are of 
English size, and their shallow upper waters wind in and out 



132 HISTORICAL GEOGRAPHY OF CANADA 



roads were 
built along 
the Chau- 
di^re, and 
St. Francis^ 
and he- 
tweenthem, 
and the 
eastern 
townships 
began to 
exist ; 



of hills which stand to the Appalachian range much as hill- 
tops by the Wye and Severn stand to Plinlimmon. Of these 
rivers the river which has the most English look and English 
surroundings is the St. Francis, and the St. Francis runs 
right through the heart of this district. A survey was ordered 
(i 791), proclamations and rules drafted (1792), check lines 
run (1793), instructions (1796), and maps (1803) issued, in 
order to attract settlers. But convenient roads and intelli- 
gible tenures were also required. 

In 1830 four main roads were more or less complete, 
(i) The Kennebec, or Merrick Road, ran up the Chaudiere and 
Du Loup, and down the Kennebec, by the route which Mon- 
tresor took when he went South (i 761), and was first used for 
carriages in 1830. This route must not be confused with Mon- 
tresor's(i76i)and Arnold's (1775) northward route, which the 
recent railway by Lake Megantic follows. (2) A stage-coach 
ran thrice aw^eekfrom opposite Three Rivers to the St. Francis, 
and thence up the St. Francis, past the villages of Richmond 
with its twelve houses, and of Sherbrooke with its fifty houses, 
to Stanstead on the frontier 129 miles away ; whence the travel- 
ler might wander by road into the valley of the Connecticut, 
or along the frontier to the Richelieu.^ The white man's one 
and only river-route was shadowed by a British-Canadian 
road, along which towns were growing. The St. Francis 
was still connected with Three Rivers as of old. (3) Another 
one-hundred-mile road started from the St. Lawrence up 
a tributary of the Chaudibre called the Beaurivage, by ' Craig's 
Road Station ' to Leeds, Liverness, Craig's Bridge, and 
Kempt's Bridge (which is ten miles north-west of Lake St. 
Francis), and so to Richmond, which is on the St. Francis. 
This road connected the St. Francis more or less with Quebec. 
Part or all of this road was called Craig's Road because 
Sir J. Craig employed Quartermaster-General Sir J. Kempt 

^ British American Land Co., Inforniation respecting the Eastern 
Townships^ i833« 



THE MIDDLE EAST QUEBEC 133 

and soldiers on its construction ; but it was unpopular because 
for sixty miles of its course there was no public house, and 
for twenty-seven miles only one private house.^ (4) An 
eighty-mile road continued from Richmond by Sutton to 
Farnham on the Yamaska, and thence to the Richelieu 
between St. John's and Chambly; whence the traveller 
might reach Montreal by the roads already described. There- 
fore the St. Francis was connected more or less with Montreal. 
The third and fourth roads followed neither river nor hill nor 
valley, but ran across the grain. They were the first cross- 
grained roads in the Province. Each of these roads had 
a distinct influence, and all led to the United States. The 
first road connected Quebec with Boston and Portland 
(United States), and the other roads connected the St. Francis 
with Boston on the one hand, and with Three Rivers, Quebec, 
and Montreal on the other hand. Less than thirty years 
later the first through railway was opened. It ran from the 
valley of the Connecticut, by Hertel's route and Rogers' 
return route, up the St. Francis to Richmond, and then 
diverged into a Y, one branch of the Y going to Quebec and 
the other to Montreal — or, rather, to points opposite to these 
cities.^ The railway went almost the same way as three of 
the roads which have been described, and enhanced their 
influences. Thus, although it detached Richmond and 
everything south of Richmond from Three Rivers, and made 
Sherbrooke supplant Three Rivers as the half-way house 
between Quebec and Montreal, it brought Quebec and Mon- 
treal into closer contact with the eastern States of America 
through Sherbrooke. For by this time Sherbrooke had 
become the judicial, manufacturing, and commercial capital 
of what was once called the St. Francis District, but was also 
known as the Eastern Townships. 

^ C. M. Day, History of the Eastern Townships, 1868, p. 220. 
2 British-American Land Company, Emigration to Canada, The 
Eastern Townships, 1859. 



134 HISTORICAL GEOGRAPHY OF CANADA 

The east- Common people defined the Eastern Townships as rather 

em town- wider than the judicial district of St. Francis, which was 
ships hned •' ' 

thefron- created in 1823.^ In popular usage the Eastern Townships 
^^^^ ' meant the district traversed by these four roads, except where 

the first road shadowed that part of the Chaudibre which lies 
north of its affluent the Du Loup, and except where the other 
roads reached seignories on the Richelieu, Yamaska, and 
St. Lawrence. All the frontier from close by the Richelieu 
to the Du Loup belonged to the Eastern Townships ; and the 
northern limits just included Actonvale, Drummondville, 
Aston, Blandford, Lyster, Inverness, Leeds, and Tring. 
Politicians added to the Eastern Townships of common 
speech a thin western wing along the frontier between the 
uppermost seignory on the Richelieu and the point where the 
frontier and the St. Lawrence intersect, and a still thinner 
eastern wing along the frontier from the Du Loup to the Temis- 
couata portage. In their view the Eastern Townships meant 
the townships which formed a buffer between the seignories 
and the United States. When Sir George Prevost advocated 
* a barrier of wilderness against the Americans ',^ he wanted 
to substitute bears, beavers, wolves, and moose, for human 
beings in the Eastern Townships, not merely in the neigh- 
bourhood of the St. Francis, but all the way from St. R^gis 
to Lake Temiscouata. Both politicians and common people 
illogically confined the expression to the townships at the back 
of the seignories on the right bank of the St. Lawrence ; for 
at the back of the seignories on the left bank of the St. Law- 
rence townships were also introduced, and with them the 
same new type of civilization. In 181 4 there were 150, 
before 1795 there were no townships in Quebec Province; 
and townships soon covered half as much country as that 

^ The judicial district is defined by Bouchette, Topographical Diction- 
ary, sub. nom. ' Districts *. 

* Cited e. g. Accounts and Papers (1826-7), (vol- v), Third Report on 
Emigration^ Aj3peiidix, p. 516; and comp. Kingsford, History oj 
Canada^ vol. ix, p. 41 n 



THE MIDDLE EAST — QUEBEC 



135 



which was covered by seignories. Townships were the new 
note of British policy ; and there had been nothing like it 
hitherto in Quebec Province. But what, it may be asked, is 
a township ? 

An Englishman who was asked this question in 1827 drew townships 
a diagram like that which is below, and, modelling his style ^J-ff^^^^^g 
on Euclid,' replied much as follows : — seignories 



1 
lot" 


__^_, 


_3_ 


.A.. 


_A. 


_6_ 


_7-_ 


._8_. 


9 1 10 11 1 a 




LOT 
200- -" 

ACR£5 


LOT 
lob-- 

ACRES 


.... 


- — 


- — 


5ECOND 


fTHIRD 

'■■"raKge"' 


— - 




--H-- 
50a{»50/\ 


1 

— -1— - 
1 


LOT 


~"c 


y- 





__-J_... 


a 


_. 


fr._g_ 


-i- 


T" 


"0" 


jSi-[-- 


-r- 


...X.. 





...1 ., 





"^' "3 


-i- 


"i" 


-i- 


N,--- 



IV 

III 
II 
I 



' A township \ he said, ' is a parallelogram which some- 
times contains 20 to 36 square miles, like the above, or 
sometimes 100 to 144 square miles.'^ It is divided horizon- 
tally and vertically by thick lines which are roads. All con- 
tinuous lines divide it into 200 acre lots. Each block of 4 
lots is a section, 4 horizontal sections are (sometimes) called 
a concession, and 4 vertical sections a range. Each section 
is surrounded by roads, therefore a fortiori each concession 
or range is surrounded by roads.' The figure resembles the 
plan of numbered seats at a theatre with gangways and rows. 
A model seignory would be represented by a parallelogram, 
but there would be no gangways or rows, so that if a 100 or 
50 acre lot were carved out of a township it could be done as 
shown by the dotted lines in the diagram; but if carved out of 
a seignory it would either be portentously long and thin, and 

^ Accotmis and Papers (1826-7), vol. v, Third Repori on Eniigraiion^ 
p. 413 ; comp. Bouchette, British Dominions in North America, vol. 1, 

p. 183. 

2 Bouchette's * usual ' township = 10 miles x 10 miles = 11 ranges of 
28 200 acre lots-h xodA^, — British Dominions in Noi'th America, vol. i, 
p. 183 note. 



136 HISTORICAL GEOGRAPHY OF CANADA 

would abut on its old front ; or it would be formed by a vertical 
split, and would have no road in front, and if the ground sloped 
would drain into the next holding. The former alternative was 
usually preferred, and French-Canadian colonization was by 
strips, and British-Canadian colonization was by blocks. Thus 
like many townships, Sorel seignory was almost a square, 
and almost 36 square miles, but its normal holdings before 
the conquest were loi acres, or 192 yards in front by 2,560 
}ards in depth, and its deeper depths were uncultivated. 
These awkward oblongs always denoted the seignory, and 
were never seen in townships, where back seats sold almost 
as well as front seats. Both seignories and townships were 
rectangles, or as near thereto as their river-front, if any, per- 
mitted. A writer once traced M'esprit rectangulaire ' of 
modern Socialism to the French Revolution; but the rectangles 
of Sorel were derived from those at Beauport (1635), ^^^ 
those of the townships were derived from New England via 
Nova Scotia, Governor G. Lawrence having introduced 
them into Nova Scotia at the instance of his agent at Boston, 
and for the benefit of immigrants from New England^ {i759)- 
being used In Canada the township was primarily an agricultural unit 
%omen designed for planting yeomen in 200 acre lots ; but if the 
with heal scale were enlarged a hundredfold the diagram would be 
me'ir'^^^^ equally applicable to a building estate and would serve as the 
plan of a town. Towns, therefore, were often carved out of 
townships. Similarly, concessions, ranges, and sections were 
often utilized as parishes or smaller townships; and a town- 
ship, if it were bought from government by one purchaser or 
group, could regulate its own roads, drains, and restrictive 
covenants. 
and to Again, let townships be piled on townships, north, east, 

7an(l ^^// ^^^ ^^^^ — ^^ ^^^ ^2i^t way as Euclid piles rectangles on rect- 
pletely ; angles in his second book — and the whole country would 
become as densely covered with townships as it was once 

^ Haliburton, History of Nova Scotia^ vol. i, p. 220. 



THE MIDDLE EAST— QUEBEC T37 

covered with timber. Seignories hardly ever fronted seig- 
nories ; but in the eastern townships, townships stood behind 
and on the side of townships ten deep, and twenty to thirty 
wide, and fronted nothing but seignories, townships, or the 
frontier. Unlike seignories, townships aggregated into 
counties without leaving gaps. 

Townships, too, stimulated wholesale purchases of quarter, and being 
half, or whole townships, and re-sales by the purchaser in ^j].^/^7^^^ 
lots. The purchases and re-sales were in fee-simple, sub- tors, and 
ject to an obligation to repair roads and the like, because ll^i^f^^a- 
British-Americans eschewed any other form of tenure, leaders of 
Fealty, homage, reliefs, and fines were until 1854 incidents ^^ ^'"^"^' 
of seignorial tenure, even as they were sometimes incidents of 
socage tenure in England. But feudalism and everything 
that savoured of it was alien to American ideas; and com- 
mercialism and everything that seemed akin to it was over- 
favoured. Throughout America there was a brisk market 
for buying and selling land, and real-estate offices were as 
animated as a Stock Exchange. Land leases were disregarded 
much as Stock leases would be disregarded. 

Land speculation was created by suddenly putting one 
hundred odd townships on the market, and then statesman- 
ship blindly tried to control what it had created. Purchases 
were limited in size, and gifts were made as well as purchases. 
Gifts introduced some lazy absentees, and the limitation of 
size was a dead letter. In Quebec Province only 1,200 acres 
could be bought by one person ; accordingly, if the township 
was 105 square miles, 40 men bought 1,200 acres each 
(=75 square miles), and chose one of themselves as ' leader ' ; 
the leader explored and paid costs and fees, and each 
'associate ' assigned to him 1,000 out of his 1,200 acres as 
recompense; so that the leader acquired 63 square miles and 
the associates 12 square miles. This system became common 
form ; and the one-man Company was the vogue. It was 
self-evident that its business was land-jobbing ; and that this 



138 HISTORICAL GEOGRAPHY OF CANADA 



colonial 
leaders be- 
ing often 
Loyalists^ 



and colon- 
ial follow- 
ers being 
scarce and 
British, 



was the last sort of business that the Government intended 
to promote. What was not so self-evident was that some of 
the very best examples of internal colonization in British- 
America and in Nova Scotia had been furnished by precisely 
similar organizations. On the one hand, the leader and his 
associates might only be speculators, in which case they 
usually sold out quickly ; on the other hand, the leader might 
be a real leader like the o-T/oar^yos of an Athenian KXrjpovxta, 
and the associates might be heads of families who meant to 
live and die together like the sociz of a Roman colony. On 
the one hand, Montreal merchants and Quebec ministers 
posed as leaders ; on the other hand, G. Hyatt and 
W. B. Felton ^ made Sherbrooke (c. 1 800) ; Andrew Ten 
Eyck made Dunham (1793); Colonel Henry Ruyter made 
Potton ; Major Willard's son made Stukeley ; and Colonel 
A. Cuyler and Colonel Well's heirs made Farnham ; and all 
these men were ' leaders ' or associates who acted as leaders, 
Cuyler, Ten Eyck, Ruyter, Wells, and Willard being American 
Loyalists. 

But who followed the ' leader '.^^ Townships appealed to 
American Loyalists, but most of them had settled or starved 
before the first Eastern township was designed. Many 
Loyalists had entered Canada by the Richelieu, some of 
whom lingered near the frontier, where a seigneur ^ sold them 
land discharged from its mediaeval incidents; while others 
lingered at St. John's, Chambly, and Sorel,^ where the 
Government bought the seignory and laid out the present 
town of Sorel opposite Berthier (1785). Berthier was, and 
still is, a one-streeted town, and Sorel was from the first 
a square-shaped town like the towns in the townships. 
Nevertheless Sorel and the Richelieu were in the seignories, 
and for this reason many of their British occupants drifted 

^ Report on the Archives of Canada, by D. Brymner (1898), pp. 
xxvi, 27. 

'^ Hon. Thomas Dunn, Seigneur of St. Armand. 
* 757 in 1784. Brymner, op, cit„ 1891, p. 17. 



THE MIDDLE EAST— QUEBEC 139 

away to the townships.' Most of the pioneers of the frontier 
came, axe and compass in hand, from New Hampshire, 
Vermont, and New York State, direct to their new homes ; 
amongst whom many were sons or relatives of Loyalists, and 
most were loyal as well as brave men ; but a very few, in 
Hereford and elsewhere, were refugees from justice. After 
the frontier was well settled, and for the most part settled 
well, by British-Americans, the intermediate region began to 
be filled, but not with Loyalists; for the Eastern townships 
were too late to catch the Loyalist flood when the tide was 
coming in. Land was often given to Canadian militiamen 
as rewards^; thus at Drummondville, • on the St. Francis, 
Colonel Heriot built mills (18 16) and a village for veterans 
in the war (181 2-14); but other similar gifts elsewhere met 
with doubtful success and dotted the map with blanks.'^ 
Nor did the mainstream of European immigrants fertilize the 
townships. From 1817 to 1822 Deputy-Quartermaster- 
General Colonel Cockburn resided at Quebec, and guided 
civilian as well as military immigrants from Great Britain and 
L'eland by different channels to different destinations; but 
the immigrants, as a rule, used Quebec Province as a conduit- 
pipe to Ontario, and an expert^ said that from 1815 to 1821 
only 100 or 150 ' British ' immigrants (from the United King- 
dom) had settled in the Province. But there were exceptions. 
Colonel Cockburn settled some British colonists at Drummond- 
ville; in 1830 large numbers of Irishmen were sent into the 
townships to make roads and to stay ; and it was by these 
exceptions from the general rule, by this residue of the west- 
ward-moving multitude, that the townships were peopled. 
There was never any British rush to the townships, although 
a Land Company was proposed (1823-4)* in order to organize 

^ e. g. Colonel Ruyter, and Cuyler. 

2 Aston, Granby, Milton, Nelson, &c. 

3 Assembly of Lower Canada, Report on Croivn Lands, 1821-5, 
Rep. II, p. iS. 

* Brymner, op. cit. (1898), pp. xxvi, xxvii. 



140 HISTORICAL GEOGRAPHY OF CANADA 

such a rush. Had this proposal (1823-4) been effectual 
Quebec Province would have been enriched by a Land 
Company at the same time as Ontario, New Brunswick, New 
South Wales, and Tasmania; but it involved the partial 
purchase of Clergy and Crown Reserves, and was there- 
fore rejected. Under the scheme which took effect the 
British American Land Company was incorporated in 
London in 1833-4, and bought 1,324 square miles of Crown 
Reserves and lands for £120,000, one half of which was 
applicable to the land, and the other half of which was pay- 
able to the vendor. Though belated, the Land Company added 
new elements. The Highland setders of Compton County ^ 
were first introduced by the Company in 1841. The pur- 
chase of the Crown Reserves involved also a new departure. 
until the The imaginary township which is described on page 137 

Reserves contained 105 square miles, of which 7f^ square miles 

were swept ^ ~i # u ~i 

away, were bought by the imaginary purchasers. They could 

not buy more because 15 square miles were set apart as 
Crown Reserves and 15 square miles as Clergy Reserves. 
The perfection of the township system was that town- 
ship dovetailed into township, and complete continuity was 
secured in the matter of clearances and roads, not merely 
along one front as in the seignories, but along every front, 
and in and out of and between the holdings. But here two- 
seventh parts of every township were cynically left vacant; 
two-sevenths of the feast were wasted in sacrifice to a distant 
Crown and an alien Church ; the symmetry of colonizing by 
townships was marred by two fatal flaws; the only visible 
superiority of the new over the old style was deliberately 
neutralized; and last, but not least, the French Canadians 
were estranged. No Clergy Reserves were sold until 1827, 
and few before 1840, when the local Government obtained 
some control over the Clergy and Crown Reserves, or their 

^ Lingwick (1841), Winslow (1852), Hampden, and Scottstown were 
later. 



THE MIDDLE EAST QUEBEC 141 

proceeds ; but the proceeds of the Clergy Reserves were 
used for Protestant purposes — that is to say, for unpopular 
purposes, until 1854, when they were secularized. In 182 1-5 
questions were sent round to most of the parishes in ^nd 
Quebec Province asking if the young men went to the town- JJ^^, ' 
ships. The answers were unanimous ; not a single French- dians, and 
Canadian went near them. When at the end of the ^arrived 
Twenties the uncultivated Clergy patches, and during the ^«^ ^^^ 
Thirties the uncultivated Crown patches, began to melt tTwnships 
away, the French-Canadians began to appear ; and when became 
during the Forties the uncultivated Crown-and-Clergy French. 
patches disappeared like snow in spring, floods of French- 
Canadians poured into the townships. Before 1830 or 
thereabouts it seemed as though the old wine of old France 
were destined to be kept in an old bottle, and the new 
British wine in a new bottle ; but now the two wines mixed in 
the new bottle, and every substantial difference between 
bottle and bottle was removed by the legislation which 
converted seignories into the similitude of modern estates in 
fee simple (1854). The central block of the Eastern Town- 
ships is now British-French, the British being the first comers 
and having the first choice of place ; but it must begin west, 
not of the River Du Loup, but of Beauce County, and south of 
Bagot County; for these two counties are almost wholly 
French-Canadian. The eastern wing, too, is as French- 
Canadian as the oldest adjoining seignories, with which they 
should now be classed. The western wing, although it con- 
tains some converted seignories, resembles the central block 
more or less. It is significant that the only counties which 
show a majority of British origin are the frontier counties of 
Stanstead, Brome, Missisquoi, and Huntingdon, and that an 
English origin prevails in all these counties except Hunting- 
don, which is Irish. Next to the frontier, the townships and 
towns of the St. Francis are most British ; and in this case, 
too, British means English. No townships or towns on the 



142 HISTORICAL GEOGRAPHY OF CANADA 

Nicolet show a British majority, and here nine or ten con- 
form to the following type ' St. Val^re de Bulstrode ', 
Bulstrode being the original township — * Population =1,192 ; 
population of French origin= 1,192 ' (1901). Where the 
British element is in the ascendant in Quebec Province it is 
never exclusive, as the French element often is. Where, 
amongst the British elements, the English element is in the 
ascendant, the immigration was probably early and through 
the United States. Irish ascendancy indicates immigration 
from Ireland, not before 18 15, and usually in or after 1830. 
Scotch Highlanders, as a rule, came still later, under the 
auspices of the Land Company. All, or practically all, the 
Canadians of French origin came from France before 1759, 
if not before 1672. 
The East' The Eastern Townships put new life into that part of 
7hips ' Quebec Province which lies south of the St. Lawrence. 
stimulated Formerly the south side was an insignificant addition to the 
towti life north side, where the power and might of French Canada 
south of the was concentrated. Between 1825 and the close of the cen- 
reme, ^^^Y ^^^ southern half excelled the northern half in numbers ; 
but the race was always close, and before 1901 the phenomenal 
increase of Montreal tilted the balance, so that the northern 
half again excels the southern half. In French times there 
were no towns in the southern half, which is now honey- 
combed with small-sized towns, not only in the Eastern 
Townships but elsewhere. Of the towns in the townships, 
Sherbrooke (pop. 11,765), Granby (pop. 3,773), Magog 
(pop. 3,516), Kingsville (pop. 3,256), and Farnham (pop. 
6,280) are the largest. Kingsville is the principal centre of 
the recent unique asbestos mines at Thetford, on the water- 
shed between the Bdcancour and St. Francis, and is the 
only mineral centre of any importance in the Province. The 
rest are industrial country towns, Sherbrooke being financial 
centre. The largest towns elsewhere fall into three classes. 
The first class consists of towns adjoining and resembling 



THE MIDDLE EAST — QUEBEC 143 

the township towns Hke Valleyfield (pop. 11,055^), St. 
Hyacinthe (pop. 9,210^), and St. John's (pop. 4,030, or, 
including Iberville, its vis-a-vis town, 5,542 ^). The second 
class is Riviere du Loup (pop. 4,569^) in the far east; and 
the third class of towns are vis-a-vis the northern capitals 
and resemble them. Thus the two (pop. 11,999^) or ^^'^ 
(pop. 17,098^) more or less confluent towns known as Levis 
are opposite Quebec ; and Longueuil, St. Lambert, and 
Laprairie (pop. 5,648 ^), which will doubtless coalesce some 
day, are opposite Montreal. It used to be said that B^can- 
cour (pop. 1,992^) was the vis-a-vis of Three Rivers, and 
Sorel (pop. 7,057^) of Berthier (pop. 1,364^); but of these 
towns Becancour and Berthier have become stars of inferior 
magnitude, and Sorel and Three Rivers alone survive. Yet, 
all these districts, compared with districts of equal size and 
prosperity elsewhere, are essentially rural. 

The state of the country as a whole may be read in the andaffected 
following table, where the reader will note that two, and not ^^^^f^^- 
more than two, nationalities — French -Canadian and British south of the 
—-account for all but all the population; and that the eastern ^^' ^^^^" 
counties, though exclusively French, rival the mixed counties 
of the Eastern Townships in numbers and apparent prosperity ; 
and he will note how impossible it is to classify the counties of 
the extreme west, Beauharnais and the two counties between 
the St. Lawrence and Ottawa being almost as French as the 
ten counties of the extreme east, Chateauguay being a little 
more mixed than the Township or Gulf-Coast counties, and 
Huntingdon being sui generis and forming a class by itself; 
and he will note how the maelstrom of Montreal is sucking 
in people from the neighbouring counties ; how steadily and 
surely French-Canadians are gaining ground upon British 
Canadians, and how insignificant immigration from the United 
States and France has been. 

^ Population, 1901. 



144 



HISTORICAL GEOGRAPHY OF CANADA 






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VOL. V. PT. Ill 



146 HISTORICAL GEOGRAPHY OF CANADA 



The north- 
em towns 
are the old 
towns with 
new in- 
habitants, 
and signi- 
ficance^ 



Quebec^ 



Three 
Rivers y 



and Mon- 
treal ; 



We must now cross the St. Lawrence, remenlbering, 
however, that rivers are the bonds, not the barriers of history, 
even although this river has not yet been bridged and is still a 
physical barrier below Montreal ; and here at first blush the 
conditions seem similar. Quebec Province is still the arena 
of two national forces which compete but do not conflict with 
one another ; furthest east and (if we except the addendum) 
furthest west are most alike in the results, and the French- 
Canadians increase more rapidly than the British. As a 
maelstrom Montreal is more potent than any other town or 
centre. A British-French element exists, but it exists in 
connexion with the capitals. The capitals, moreover, are 
towns quite unlike any towns on the right bank of the 
St. Lawrence. 

Quebec (pop. 68,840 ^), the capital of the Province, is not 
merely great in its memories, but for more than a quarter of a 
century it has been more populous than all Canada was in 1 763. 
A railway bridge is now being constructed from Cap Rouge 
(Cartier's and Roberval's Cap Rouge) to the mouth of the 
Chaudiere, which will stimulate its American commerce ; and 
the National Trans-continental Railway, for which the bridge 
is being built, will bring it into direct contact with prairie- 
land. Hitherto it has never had any intercourse with the far 
west except through Three Rivers or Montreal ; now, for the 
first time in history, it will be able to combine the functions 
of an emporium of European and west-Canadian trade. The 
halo of its romantic past will hover round the prosaic crown 
of a prosperous future. Three Rivers (pop. 10,739^) is 
squeezed between its big neighbours, but derives an impor- 
tance of its own from the St. Maurice River, which penetrates 
a district with much lumber and some bog-iron. Montreal 
(pop. 346,927^)^ is the commercial capital of Canada, but 
not even the capital of its Province. Politically and com- 

* Population, 1901. 

2 I include Hochelaga, Maisonneuve, and the urban part of J. Cartier. 



THE MIDDLE EAST — QUEBEC 147 

mercially it stands to Quebec as New York does to Albany. 
Albany, the capital of New York State, is a little larger than 
Quebec ; Montreal and Quebec are a little further apart than 
Albany and New York. Geographically the parallel must be 
reversed. Albany, which lies upstream at the junction of the 
Hudson and Mohawk, is to New York as Montreal is to 
Quebec. Finance and railways centre in Montreal. It faces 
two ways : towards New York and Boston, and towards 
Quebec and England. The deepening of the channel between 
Quebec and Montreal, and the invention of steamers, makes 
Montreal a port which communicates with Europe direct as well 
as with the far west; and it has a double function, just as Quebec 
will have a double function when the new railway is built. 
As a port for European goods, Quebec is wicket-keep, 
Montreal long-stop — if the metaphor may be allowed. Its 
British inhabitants are mostly English and are one-third of 
the whole, which is rather more than the present ratio in the 
township counties. The Scotchmen of Montreal, though 
fewest, are foremost. 

In old times an Indian fringe was hung round the skirts of where too 
Quebec and Montreal, and along the right bank of the ^ British 
St. Lawrence, to guard against the Iroquois. It is now once 
frayed and faded ; nor did it ever serve the purpose for which ^^'^^^'?^- 
it was meant. Since the conquest a British fringe was hung 
round the edge of the French-Canadian seignories on the 
right bank, partly in order to subdue the wilderness, and 
partly also in order to ward off American intruders. If this 
last intention actuated the authors of the policy, the intention 
has long since been outgrown ; and the British fringe, while 
maintaining its British character, has promoted the arts of 
peace more than the arts of war. It has brought enhanced 
prosperity, partly through its own independent efforts, partly 
owing to the international intercourse which it has fostered. 
A British (mostly Irish) fringe was also hung round Quebec, 
by R. Coughtrie at Valcartier (1816), by E. Hale behind 

L 2 



148 HISTORICAL GEOGRAPHY OF CANADA 

Portneuf (182 1), by A. and J. Duchesnay at Lac Beauport 
(1821) and Faussembault (1820) — that is to say, a few miles 
from the river in what was then wilderness ; and there it may 
still be seen. The war which these British outposts were 
put there to wage, was a war only with the wilderness, and 
they waged it with success. 

Argenteuil County, behind the Isle de Jesus and Montreal 
Island, was the scene of a similar experiment, undertaken at 
the same date with Irishmen, Scotchmen, and Englishmen 
(in this order). The fruits of this experiment may be seen 
in the curious phenomenon that the British are in a majority 
in Argenteuil and nowhere else on the north bank. Argen- 
teuil is the Huntingdon of the north bank. Further, the 
railway, which now runs direct from Grenville to Joliette 
almost on the edge of the limestone belt, was anticipated by 
roads, all of which were the after-effects of this British colony. 
A third result was the opening up of the left bank of the 
entire Ottawa to Canadian enterprise. When the British 
fringe at the back of Montreal had grown, Quebec Province 
grew a tail of its own behind the British fringe, and mixed 
the ingredients of the tail in the same proportion as that 
which obtains in Montreal Island or in Chateauguay to-day ; 
but the whole history of these settlements along the left bank 
of the Ottawa is inextricably intertwined with the history of the 
settlements on the other side of the river, which settlements 
belong to Ontario. It will accordingly be postponed to the 
succeeding chapter. 



Authorities. 

For statistical authorities see the note at the end of Chapter VII. 
In addition to the authorities cited in the notes see : — 
Joseph Bouchette, Topographical Description of Lower Canada with 
Remarks on Upper Canada^ ^815; British Dominions in North 
America^ 2 vols., 1831 ; Three Maps of Quebec^ Montreal ^ and Three 
Rivers Districts^ 1831 ; Topographical Map of Lower Canada ^ 10 sheets, 
3832 ; Topographical Dictionary of Lower Canada ^ 1832. 



THE MIDDLE EAST — QUEBEC 149 

British American Land Company, Map of the Eastern Townships^ 
1842 ; Pamphlets on the Eastern Townships^ 1833, ^^59, &c. 

C. M. Day, History of the Eastern Townships^ 1868. 

L. Gerin, Seignenrie de Siliery, in Transactions of the Royal Society 
of Canada, 1900. 

Major H. Holland, Map of Lower Canada as surveyed by Major H, 
Holland, 1803. 

A. Jodoin and H. L. Vincent, Histoire de Longtieuil, 1889, 

Lower Canada, House of Assembly, Eight Reports on Waste Lands, 
1821-5. 

J. E. Roy, Fi'an^ois Bissot, in Transactions of the Royal Society of 
Canada, 1892. 

Benjamin Suite, Chronique Trijluvienne, 1 879 ; Les premiers Seig- 
7teurs in Transactions of the Royal Society of Canada, 1883 ; St. 
Francois du Lac, 1886; one chapter in History of Yamachiche, 1892 ; 
one chapter on Seigneurial Tenure, in the third volume of J. C. 
Hopkins, Encyclopaedia of Canada, 1898-1900. 

C. Thomas, Contributions to the History of the Eastern Townships, 
1866. 

Isaac Weld, Travels through the States of N. America, and Upper 
and flower Canada, i79S-7i 2 vols., 1799. Letters xxi to xxix deal with 
Quebec Province. 



CHAPTER VII 

ONTAKIO. ONE NATION ON THBEE ST. LA WHENCE 
VALLEYS AND BEYOND 

At Montreal the St. Lawrence valley splits into the Ottawa, Ontario ex- 

ten (is bc~ 

and the St. Lawrence valleys; at the Bay of Quints, into "^^ yond three 
Trent valley and the valley of the inland seas ; but all three St. Law- 
valleys re-unite in Georgian Bay, which is part of the inland ^talleys 
sea named Lake Huron, The first task of Ontarians was to 
fill and unite these valleys and river-banks and shore-lines. 
Afterwards Ontario overflowed and its inhabitants reached 
the Upper St. Lawrence and its sea, and the Upper Ottawa, 
and then passed beyond the watershed of the St. Lawrence 
to the Lake of the Woods, and beyond the watershed of the 
Ottawa to Lake Abitibi; — the Lake of the Woods, Lake 
Abitibi, and the hill-tops north of Lake Superior belonging to 
Hudson Bay. 

Ontario without its overflow — that is to say, the great tri- and the 
angle between the meeting-place of the St. Lawrence and twee7i the 
Ottawa, which serves as apex, the mouth of Georgian Bay, ^^^^^ 
and the angle formed by Lake Erie and Detroit River — is old On- 
sometimes called Old Ontario ; and the overflow of Ontario ^^''^'^• 
is sometimes called New Ontario. Old Ontario was built up 
first, and the first stone which the builders laid was nearest 
the apex ; and it was literally as well as metaphorically the 
corner-stone of Ontario. It was only not in the innermost 
niche of the apex, because that niche was already filled by 
representatives, and formed part, of Quebec Province. 

The successive provinces of Canada lie in a line, and the (0 The east 
preface of one province is the appendix to the last. It was ^^-^ (^g^l 
so in Tantramar Marsh and Bay Chaleurs ; and it is so in eluding 
the tiny triangle of seignories (Quebec Province) which fit ^jiich 



152 HISTORICAL GEOGRAPHY OF CANADA 

belongs wedge-like into the notch formed by the junction of the 
to Quebec) Ottawa and the St. Lawrence, and which seem to the 
outward eye a part of Ontario, but are in essence Canadian- 
French. Conversely, Chateauguay, Huntingdon, and Argen- 
teuil, on the borderland between Quebec Province and Ontario, 
though physically a part of Quebec Province, are a spiritual 
anticipation of Ontario; and Scotchmen, though rare else- 
where in Quebec Province, are numerous here. As soon as 
we cross the line from Quebec Province to Ontario, the whole 
atmosphere is Highland Scotch, and always has been High- 
land Scotch ever since 1781, when the history of Ontario 
began. The cause must be sought on the other side of the 
Atlantic. 
was peopled In the Forties of the eighteenth century Pitt turned wild 
^St'^Law- Highlanders into soldiers; and the Highland soldiers who 
rence by served in America were, like the colonial soldiers, rewarded 
Tmers"^ with grants of land. In the Sixties New York State (United 
{like the States) \. Murray Bay, and Mount Murray (Quebec Province), 
Provinces^ • ^^^ ^" ^^^ Seventies Prince Edward Island received Roman 
Catholic soldier-settlers who had been born and bred in Glen- 
garry, Lochaber, Fraser, and other clan-lands in the neighbour- 
hood of the Caledonian canal ^, and had fought against France 
in the New World. The floodgates were unlocked, and in the 
Seventies civilian Highlanders, both Presbyterian and Roman 
Catholic, began to pour into Pictou (Nova Scotia) and Prince 
Edward Island. In the Eighties the Highland soldier- settlers 
in New York State, after fighting against the revolted colonists, 
were re-transplanted into nine or ten townships which were 
marked out on the St. Lawrence, west of Quebec Province, 
1 781-4, between Cornwall and Brockville inclusively (i 781-4) ^ The 

^ Thomas Douglas, Earl of Selkirk, Observations on the Highlands y 
1805, pp. 166 et seq. 

^ Colonel David Stewart, Sketches of the Highlanders^ 1822, vol. ii, 
PP« 63-7 : see map of clans, vol. i. 

^ W. Canniff, History of the Settlement of Upper Canada^ 1869, 
p. 157 : Report on Canadian Archives, by D. Brymner, 1891, pp. 1-18. 



THE MIDDLE EAST — ONTARIO 153 

names of the townships are forgotten or thrown on one side 
like dismantled scaffolding for use elsewhere ; but the names 
of the counties, and of the towns which were built by means 
of the scaffolding, tell their own tale. The easternmost of 
these counties was called Glengarry, the second Stormont, 
and the third Dundas ; and the men who occupied the first two 
were priest-led Highland ex-soldiers, organized and rationed 
for three years by the English War Office. As in the 
Maritime Provinces, Gaelic priests attracted other Gaels from 
Scotland; so that they rose in a few years from 2,000 (1784) 
to ' 10,000 rapidly increasing' (1804).* These men were the 
foundation-stones of Ontario. Johnston's regiment, which 
was largely German and Protestant, occupied Dundas.^ 

These new counties soon possessed three towns, of which ^^^^^ 
Cornwall (pop. 6,704'), and Prescott^ (pop. 3.0198), were canHZ' 
founded before 1798, and Brockville (pop. 8,940 8) before ^^''^"^^^-^^ 
1807. At Prescott the first rapid below Lake Ontario begins, andBrock- 
and at Cornwall a nine-mile rapid, which is called the ^^'^^^ > 
Long Sauk, and which is the worst rapid after Niagara, 
ends ; so that both towns were resting and starting places for 
boatmen who were westward bound. Both towns were also 
waiting-rooms for the Loyalist refugees from New York 
State ; for men went from Plattsburg (New York), through 
what was then called ' the Willsbury Wilderness \ straight to 
Cornwall, and from the Mohawk (New York) down the 
Oswegatchie straight to Prescott. For the same reasons im- 
portant towns grew up within the American border opposite 
Cornwall, Prescott, and (a little later) Brockville. 

Above Brockville the Archaean system casts its shadow ^'^^ other 
over the shore, and only ends a Httle below the limestone settled at 
city of Kingston. Both Brockville and Kingston are so to Kingston 
speak in the sunshine beyond the cloud. There was, too, ^/^^ ^^^ w- 
a halo of historic glamour around Kingston, for in old time Qt^int^, 

^ Bryniner, op.cU.^ 1891, pp. 5, 37, 1892, p. xxii. 

^ J. Croil, Dundas^ 1861, p. 129. ^ Population 1901. 



154 HISTORICAL GEOGRAPHY OF CANADA 

Fort Frontenac was there, and thirty miles further on the Bay 
of Quintd there was a still earlier Sulpician Mission. More- 
over, Prescott was only on a byway, while Kingston was on 
the highway used by the Iroquois and Loyalists as they went 
from the Mohawk to Canada. French, British, Provincial, 
and Indian armies have come and gone to and from the 
Mohawk, sometimes by Oswego, sometimes by Sackett's 
Harbour, and sometimes by a port between the two ; but 
Kingston has nearly always been base, goal, or rendezvous. 
Accordingly a second series of townships was laid out by 
Major Holland or his deputies, beginning with Kingston and 
1 783-4* ending with the west end of the Bay of Quintd (1783-4); 
and these townships were immediately occupied with the help 
of the English War Office by disbanded Provincial regiments. 
The first batch sailed from New York to Sorel in seven King's 
ships and came on thence by boat ; others came direct from 
the Mohawk. Between 1787 and 1790, when rations ceased 
to be supplied, there was stress and famine ; then prosperity 
returned, and in 1795 for more than half the year a daily 
ship descended to Oswego with settlers bound for the new 
district.^ In these townships Kingston dwarfed its com- 
panions. It was the chief port of Lake Ontario; a dockyard 
and barracks were begun there in 1789; it was naval capital 
when war threatened ; and, above all, in early days it had 
a Government mill, which ground flour for all those who 
dwelt between Cornwall or Prescott on the east and Trenton 
oti the west.^ In those days power meant water-power ; and 
the mulocrat was lord paramount. Lord Dorchester at 
first wished to make Kingston the capital of Ontario, and 
in later days Kingston (pop. 17,961 ^) was for a short time 
capital of both Canadas (1840-5). West of Kingston, 
Napanee (pop. 3,143 ^), Belleville (pop. 9,117 % and Trenton 
(pop. 4,217^) also began as mill-seats. 

' La Rochefoucauld, Travels, 1795-7, ed. 1800, vol. i, p. 536. 
'^ W. Canniff, op.cit.^ pp. 202, 206. ' Population 1901. 



THE MIDDLE EAST — ONTARIO 155 

Meanwhile there were the first symptoms of a move north- and move- 

ward and inland. In 178^ Lieutenant French went from ^''^'^f ^'^" 

* ^ land to- 

Montreal up the Ottawa to the Rideau, and from the Rideau wards the 

straight to Kingston, and thence by the St. Lawrence back ^^^^^^^ 
to Montreal, in order to spy out the land; and he reported 
that the land was a land of promise everywhere, except along 
the narrow granite belt between Kingston and Brockville.^ 
French's tour of inspection stimulated the settlers who came 
after him. In 1793 three American Loyalists named Burritt 1793, 
re-explored the Rideau, and settled soon afterwards at Bur- 
ritt's Rapids; and another American, named Merrick, settled 
at Merrickville hard by in 1799. A rough track twenty miles 1799. 
long was made between Prescott and Merrickville, and only 
forty or fifty miles of lonely river separated Merrickville or 
Burritt's Rapids from the mouth of the Rideau close by what 
is now Ottawa.^ It was thus that the Loyalists went towards 
the Ottawa, for they too dreamed of the conquest of all the . 
woods between Lieutenant French's base-line and the apex 
where the Ottawa and St. Lawrence meet. Unaided they 
could not fulfil their dream. Their one achievement was to 
stretch a single continuous or almost continuous line of settle- 
ments along the St. Lawrence and its inland sea between 
the mouth of the Trent and the Ottawa. 

Meanwhile, 140 miles south-west of Kingston, the old" {2) Loyal- 
world fortress on the Niagara — with its haunting memories ^^^J^^ 
of La Salle — was garrisoned and became a focus to which 
Loyalists' families from the Mohawk gathered for refuge in 
1776. The first-comers — \5 women and 31 children, and 1776, 
only one pair of shoes among them all' — were Bowmans, 
Secords, and others of the best blood of Ontario.^ In 1782 1782, 
there were seventeen families there ; and in 1784 a provincial 
corps, called Butler's Rangers, was disbanded and planted 

1 Brymner, op.cit,, 1890, p. 67. 

2 J. L. Gourlay, History of the Ottawa Valley, 1896, pp. 10, 51, 
150, 151. 

3 E. Ryerson, Loyalists of America^ 1880, vol. ii, pp. 265-70. 



156 HISTORICAL GEOGRAPHY OF CANADA 

there and rationed for awhile, and the left bank of the River 
Niagara, from Fort Erie on Lake Erie to Newark ^ on Lake 
Ontario, became as compact and populous as the townships 
on the St. Lawrence. Newark (pop. 1,258 ^), was capital of 
Ontario, until the Americans established themselves in over- 
whelming strength on the opposite bank half-a-mile away, 
making it as indefensible as Belgrade would be if Austria 
were hostile. Queenston, seven miles upstream, was the 
place where sailors hauled their boats ashore and trudged 
with boats on heads and packs on backs, past the Falls, to 
Chippawa, eight miles away, where boating — which seems as 
natural to Canadians as riding is to Tartars — recommenced. 
In 1798 the first coach that ever ran in Ontario ran from 
Chippawa to Queenston^; for the earliest coach- roads in 
Canada were always carrying-places past rapids. Niagara 
on the Falls (pop. 4,244 '^), which is the present capital of 
this district, lies between Queenston and Chippawa ; but it 
only attained pre-eminence long afterwards through its rail- 
way, its bridge between Ontario and the States, and its 
attractions for tourists. Niagara-land was an early, populous, 
detached, and therefore dangerous colony. And it was also 
and spread a centre of expansion ; thus a Loyalist from New York State 
^ B^urlinlton ^^^ Lundy's Farm, west of the Falls, and then a farm in 
Bay, 1781. Burlington Bay (1781); where in 1813 a subsequent settler 
named George Hamilton created a village by cutting up his 
farm into building-lots and giving his surname to what is now 
one of the leading towns of Ontario.* Robert Gourlay ( 1 8 1 8) 
mentions Hamilton (pop. 52,634 2); Mrs. Jameson refers to 
it as a wheat market (1838), but few other writers of that 
time even name it, although they all name Dundas (pop. 
3,173^), which is now almost absorbed in Hamilton, or 

* Niagara on the Lake (Ontario). 2 Population 1901. 
3 Comp. G. Heriot, Travels^ 1807, vol. i, p. 156. 

* Sir JohnBourinot in Transactions of the Royal Soc. of Canada, 1900, 
vol. vi, Sect. II, pp. 3, 17, &c. ; J. H. Smith, Historical Sketch of the 
Co. of Wentworthy 1897. 



THE MIDDLE EAST — ONTARIO 157 

Ancaster, three miles from Dundas, or both, as coming towns. 
Even the earliest travellers refer to millers on the creeks 
which fall into Lake Ontario between Newark and Hamilton ; 
such as Twelve-Mile Creek or St. Catharine's (pop. 9,946 ^), and 
Forty-Mile Creek or Grimsby (pop. 1,001 ^). Thus De Roche- 
foucauld (1795) wrote : ' Forty-Mile Creek . . . before it empties 
itself into the lake, turns a grist-mill and two saw-mills which 
belong to a Mr. Green, a Loyalist of Jersey, who six or seven 
years ago settled in this part.'^ ' 

The sub-settlements of Niagara crept creek by creek along {l) Long 
the shores of Lake Ontario to Hamilton, but leapt to Long f^w/-^^^ 
Point on Lake Erie ; and for awhile it seemed as though colony from 
Long Point was a third new colony as separate from Niagara ^^^^^^^ 
as Niagara was from Kingston and its satellites. Military 
considerations suggested the origin of the new colony. In 
1793 John Graves Simcoe, the first Governor of Upper 
Canada, selected Turkey Point or Port Dover (pop. 2,035 ^) 
— in the Bay east of Long Point — as a naval arsenal for 
Lake Erie. But naval arsenals have never been of much 
account on this lake because it is very shallow, and is the 
only one of the great lakes of the St. Lawrence which freezes 
all over in winter, so that soldiers can march over it as though 
it were dry land. Nevertheless, Colonel Samuel Ryerse, a 
Loyalist re-emigrant from New Brunswick to Niagara, went 
thence to Port Ryerse, between Turkey Point and Port 
Dover, ascended a hill, said, * Here I will be buried,' brought 
his family and relations thither (1795), built a mill, and lived 1795 
and died there. Other re-emigrants from New Brunswick 
and Niagara followed in his wake, and the little group had 
its little capital in Vittoria, which was the Court-town of the 
surrounding districts until 1828.^ 

The garrison of the military posts at Amherstburg (pop. (4) ^^- 
2,222^), or in later times Windsor (12,153^), opposite "Du Jas a^^^ 

1 Population 1901. detached 

2 Travels^ r79.5-7> trans, by Neuman, 1800, vol. i, pp. 460-3. nuhtary 
' E. Ryerson, Loyalists of America, 1880, vol. ii, pp. 232, &c. colony^ 



158 HISTORICAL GEOGRAPHY OF CANADA 

Luth's and La Mothe's Detroit (United States), constituted 
a fourth detached centre of attraction to Loyalists of French 
as well as of British extraction, and also to disloyalists dis- 
guised as Loyalists. Some of these colonists concentrated 
in Sandwich (pop. 1,450 ^) or elsewhere under the protection 
of the garrison, while others scattered ; and amongst the 
latter one went up the River Thames and established a mill 
'of curious construction' at what Simcoe (1793) called 
Chatham (pop. 9,068 ^). In 1803 the small military coterie 
was reinforced or re-enfeebled by some Highland settlers 
whom Lord Selkirk shipped from Scotland and planted at 
Baldoon on Lake St. Clair. Nearly half the settlers died in 
the first year, and the remnant were saved from famine by 
the soldiers of Amherstburg and then went elsewhere.^ 
These four Each detached centre almost formed a colony by itself and 
colonies ^^^^ fringed by friendly Indians, Iroquois on Grand River 
fringed by from source to mouth, Delawares,^ at Moraviantown on the 
Indians. Thames, Hurons on Lake St. Clair, Mississaguas ^ on Credit 
and Trent Rivers, and Iroquois again in a small reserve on 
Quinte Bay ; on each and all of whom tight control was kept ; 
indeed, the Iroquois, Hurons, and Delawares were as much 
exiles and victims of civil war as the Loyalists themselves. 
Nevertheless, the settlements at Niagara, Long Point, and 
Sandwich were separate and remote from one another, and 
still more separate and remote from the settlements near 
Kingston and on the St. Lawrence. The Loyalist movement 
did not by itself create Ontario, but only created four living 
units which afterwards grew into Ontario. How were these 
units unified ? Partly by far-seeing rulers, partly by isolated 
adventurers, and partly by co-operative schemes, which had 
their head and source in England. 
In order to Simcoe's Specific for unifying the units was fourfold : 
^^ni!ef^^ soldiers, towns, a through road, and a central capital. 

^ Population 1901. 

2 Brymner, op, cit.y 1886, pp. xv, xvi. ' Algonquins. 



THE MIDDLE EAST — ONTARIO 159 

Soldiers would create towns : for ' towns ', he said, ' will simcoe 

spring up where troops are stationed ' ^ ; soldiers, too, would ff^.^^^f ^ 

build the road on which the towns would grow, and he used road, 

the Queen's Rangers, of which he was colonel, as road-makers. 

The road was to go from Amherstburg by Chatham (pop. 

9,068 2), London (pop. 37,981 2), Woodstock (pop. 8,833 '^), 

Dundas (pop. 3,173 ^), and Toronto, all of which were as yet 

mere names but would some day be towns, to Kingston and 

Montreal; with branch-roads leading from Dundas (or 

Ancaster), east to Niagara, and south to the intended arsenal 

near Long Point. Simcoe' s plan was realized, but not by 

the instruments of his choice ; thus the road from Kingston 

to Dundas was finished by an American contractor (1798- 

1801), and the road from Dundas to the Thames by the 

earliest Loyalist settlers. The roads were built and coaches 

soon ran between Montreal and Kingston (1808), Kingston 

and Toronto (1817), Toronto and Niagara (1816), and 

Ancaster and Detroit River (1828).^ The new through road 

shadowed and shortened the waterway from Montreal to 

Detroit, leaving the old capital at Niagara on one side. 

A new capital was required. Simcoe fixed on an inhnd and a new 

capital at London, and if this plan had been executed, the ^^Z^^^^- 

peninsula between Niagara, Lake Erie, and Lake Huron 

might have solidified earlier than it did; and it probably 

would have solidified into a separate Province or foreign state. 

But Lord Dorchester, who had at first chosen Kingston, now 

chose Toronto as the capital ; Toronto (pop. 208,040 ^) being 

midway between his first choice and Simcoe's first choice, and 

midway between the beginning and end of the new through 

road. 

When Bouchette surveyed the new capital one wigwam Toronto 

was the only sign of human habitation, and that was one ^^^^/''^, ^^^ 

capitaly 

1 Brymner, op. cit., 1891, Part II, p. 39. ^ Population 1901. i793> 

3 W. Cannitf, History of Upper Canada^ tfc,^ 1869, p. 595; 

H. Scadding, Toronto of Old, ^^^73, p. 49; comp. J. C. Hopkins, 

Canada Encyclopaedia, vol. ii, p. 224. 



l6o HISTORICAL GEOGRAPHY OF CANADA 



and the 

starting 

point of a 

new road 

towards 

Georgian 

Bay; 



more sign than London had at the same date (1793). 
After Toronto had been the capital for four years it boasted 
of twelve houses (1798). Its value was not material so 
much as spiritual, and it served as a guarantee — so far as 
Government could give a guarantee that, come what may, 
the Peninsula of Ontario and the Ontario of Kingston should 
not be allowed to fall asunder. 

Simcoe, who had no fancy for mere river-and-lake-side 
capitals, immediately found a new use for the new capital. 
Toronto was thirty-five miles by water north of Niagara 
portage, and thirty-five miles by land south of Lake Simcoe, 
which flows by Lake Couchiching and Matchedash River 
into Matschedash— that is to say, into Georgian Bay. Why 
should not Toronto become half-way house, not only between 
east and west, but between north and south ? Why should 
it not become the one and only Canadian city of the cross- 
ways ? Accordingly he set his soldiers to build Yonge Street to 
Lake Simcoe, laid out lots on each side of it, and opened it in 
1796. Moreover, north of Lake Simcoe the River Matsche- 
dash has many rapids, to avoid which, sequels to Yonge 
Street were built from Lake Couchiching, and in later times 
from Barrie (pop. 5,949^) to Penetang (pop. 2,422 ^). The 
latter sequel was the best, and was built partly by Dr. Dunlop 
during the war (181 2-14), and partly by the North-west 
Company, which recognized at an early date the utility of this 
new-old route as a highway of trade ^. Penetang, the goal 
to which both sequels led, was selected as naval arsenal and 
d^p6t by Simcoe (1793), and was used as such during the 
War (1812-14) and for many years after 1829.^ Simcoe's 
revival of these disused routes was a stroke of genius to 
which Toronto owed its subsequent commercial prosperity. 

^ Population 190T. 
Brymner, op. cit., 1890, pp. 53-5 ; comp. H. Scadding, Toronto of 
Old, p. 389. 

' Mrs. Jameson, Winter Studies^ <Sr»^., in Canada, vol. iii, pp. 338 
et seq. ; Sir R. Bonnycastle, Canadas in 1841, vol. i, ch. xvi. 



THE MIDDLE EAST — ONTARIO i6i 

And it had other results. Yonge Street was soon lined by and new 
farmers, some of whom were re-emigrants from Nova ^^^^ly{ 
Scotia and the West Indies, and in later times from Lord were at- 
Selkirk's Red River Colony, but most of the early settlers ^'^ardVthl 
belonged to very different categories. In 1794 a large con- road, 
signment of Germans was drafted by an adventurer named ^^94-9> 
William Berczy into Genesee valley (New York State), where 
inadequate preparations were made for their reception.* 
Sixty families wandered on to Niagara in Canada, and 
Simcoe re-planted them inland east of Yonge Street in 
a township of one hundred square miles named Markham, 
where they still remain. A little further north, close by the 
watershed, many French Royalists settled in 1799, but few 
remained.^ Beyond them again were Pennsylvanian Quakers, 
then Dutch Mennonites, then an American sect called the 
Children of Peace. Luck threw these odds and ends in 
Simcoe's way at the very nick of time. Meanwhile there and to- 
were sporadic settlers at Dundas, Ancaster, Port Hope (before ^^^^•''f^/f ^. 
1798) (pop. 4,188'), and elsewhere on the great through Z^^?^^^ 
road; in 18 16 there were three houses at Cobourg* (pop. J^/^-^;'^^'_ 
4,239'), and in 1819 Whitby (pop. 2,110') was hdngsembleda 
founded by J. Scadding. A fifth detached colony, between -^^'''^'^^^'''^'• 
the Kingston settlements and the settlements on the peninsula, 
was already in being. But before this date other forces had 
come into play and were beginning to blend the five colonies 
into that single finished colony, which Loyalist and Highland 
soldiers^ strong rulers, stray settlers, and luck were vainly 
conspiring to create. 

The first of these forces was that pure spirit of indomitable r^en (i) 
enterprise which began to pervade the New World, and to ^"^^^/^^^^ 
drive men out mto the lonely wilderness, towards the close began, and 
of the eighteenth century. Philemon Wright, of Woburn ^^^^ 

' Brymner, op. cit., 1891, pp. xvii ; G. Heriot, Travels, pp. 137, 141. ^^^^ Ottawa, 
' H. Scadding, Toronto of Old, p. 469; C. P. Lucas, History of ^19^'^^ 
Canada, 1763- 181 2, pp. 230-2. 
' Population 1901. * W. Canniff, op, cit., p. 500* 

VOL. V. PT. in M 



l62 HISTORICAL GEOGRAPHY OF CANADA 

near Boston (Massachusetts), fought against England in the 
War of Independence, then traded between Boston and 
Montreal, then (1796-8) took three trips up the Ottawa to 
the falls of the Chaudiere, 130 miles beyond Montreal and 
70 miles beyond the Long Sault of the Ottawa, where 
Daulac and his heroic twenty-one fought the Canadian 
Thermopylae. Next year Wright persuaded some comrades 
to join his prospecting trip, and they and he cut little trees 
and leaned them against larger trees, climbed as high as they 
could, and agreed that the sea of trees beneath and around 
and found' them boded well (1799). So in February 1800 he and they, 
1800" ' ^^^^ families, servants, horses, oxen, and £10,000, sledged 
from Boston to Montreal, by the St. Francis, over three 
hundred miles or so of snow ; and thence to the new home 
nearly one hundred miles beyond the nearest habitation on 
the Ottawa. The last seventy miles, from Grenville to Hull 
— if modern names may be used — were the loneliest but 
easiest, for they were on smooth river-ice, there being no rapids 
between the Long Sault and the falls of the Chaudiere. 
Indians met Wright, ate a white dog raw, and dubbed him 
the White Chief of the Ottawa. Soon after his arrival the 
White Chief turned Lumber King, for Canada was beginning 
to export lumber to Europe. Philemon Wright w^as pioneer, 
patriarch, and founder, and whenever he returned to Hull 
(pop. 13,993^), as his settlement was named, bells rang. 
His sons and his sons' sons peopled the whole valley of 
the Gatineau ; Hull radiated colonists not only to Chelsea, 
Wakefield, and Masham on the Gatineau, but to Buckingham 
on the east and Eardley on the west; moreover, Papineau, 
father and son, visited Wright in i8o8, and soon afterwards 
began to people the mouth of the Petite Nation River half- 
way between Hull and the Long Sault. All these places are 
north of the Ottawa and in Quebec Province. But what 
Wright did, fired the torch of energy in other brave men, and 

* Population 190I. 



THE MIDDLE EAST — ONTARIO 163 

near where Ottawa now stands, that is to say on the south 
side of the river, the first white settlers began to appear.^ 

In 1810-11 Ira Honeywell of Prescott, son of a Loyalist others 
mother and an anti-Loyalist father, having married a Loyalist -^^^^^^j^^^^ 
lady, drove off with his bride from Prescott past Merrickville, on the 
where there was a house, and thence through unpeopled y-^^ ^^ -,■ 
wastes to the south bank of the Ottawa, where he settled Amprior ; 
close by the left bank of the Rideau. Lumberers, named 
Billings, settled opposite him on the right bank of the Rideau 
a little later. Thus Ottawa began to exist, but not as a town. 
Sundry chances scattered other germs along the Ottawa. 
Seventy miles east of the Rideau, Mears's famous mills on an 
island at Hawkesbury (Quebec Province), began to attract 
labourers and lumberers (1805 et seq.); and Alexander 
MacMillan, of Lochaber, Scotland, brought Scotch Glen- 
garries to join their kith and kin and co-religionists in 
Glengarry (Ontario Province) (c. 1804), bought Grenville 
(Quebec Province), and Lochaber (Quebec Province) on the 
Ottawa for himself and his associates, turned ' Leader \ and 
lived and lumbered with his family opposite Hawkesbury at 
Grenville 2 (iBio et seq.) Some Ottawans went westward 
from the Rideau along the Ottawa; Mr. Charles Sherriff, 
formerly of Leith, then of Port Hope, went further west, and 
lumbered at the mouth of a tributary of the Ottawa called 
the Mississippi, by Chats Rapids (18 19); the MacNab, fresh 
from the Highlands, in kilt, sporran, and tartan, preceded by 
a piper playing the Hacks o' Cromdale, and followed by 
members of his clan, went furthest, and settled west of the 
mouth of another tributary of the Ottawa called the Mada- 
waska, and south of Lake Chats, as the expansion of the 
Ottawa above the Chats Rapids is called. And for many 
years to come the MacNab passed to and fro with a retinue 

^ John Mactaggart, Three years in Canada^ 1829; Bertha Harris, 
Life of Philemon Wright ^ 1903; J. L. Gourlay, ^2J^. of the Ottawa 
Valley, 1896. 

^ C. Thomas, Hist, of the Country o^ Argenteuil and Prescott^ 1896. 

M 2 



164 HISTORICAL GEOGRAPHY OF CANADA 

of new Highland recruits; and the piper always marched 
and piped in front of him. Where he settled, Arnprior (pop. 
4,152 ^) now flourishes. 
andColonel Americans sometimes wondered why, when they were going 
'^f^^^-ed ^"^ alone into the wilds, cultured Europeans wrote fine prose 
Port and poetry about the splendour of solitude, and stayed at home 

Talbot. ^,j^j^ ^YiQ madding crowd. Colonel Thomas Talbot was not one 
of these Europeans ; he was a man who did. Born at Mala- 
hide, a descendant of the Tyrconnels, he served under Simcoe 
in Ontario, and then sold his commission, and settled in the 
township of Dunwich on Lake Erie, midway between Long 
Point and Pointe aux Pins, at Port Talbot (1803), where he 
built the inevitable mill. At first he was his own star and 
almost alone ; then he was authorized to receive two hundred 
acres in an adjoining township for every family settled on 
fifty acres of his own. Yet he claimed, and for a long time 
obtained, his reward, although his settlers were planted in 
adjoining townships along the line of a projected road, which 
was to run parallel to the coast about eight miles inland from 
Delhi (pop. 823 ^), which is behind Long Point, by Aylmer 
(pop. 2,204^) and St. Thomas (pop. 11,485^), to a point 
west of Aldborough. This road was called Talbot Street, 
and his settlers were obliged by the terms of their grants to 
make it. But the road did not make the settlers, and in 1809 
only twelve families had gathered round him, mostly from 
Pennsylvania or Long Point ; and then war undid everything. 
When peace returned his time came. Europe for the first 
time set to work to cure pauperism by collective emigration, 
and the self-help of a few choice spirits was supplemented by 
social efforts on a large scale from beyond the Ocean. Until 
then, Simcoe and the adventurers had been drawing large 
cheques on future possibilities. 
{2) System- The systematic emigration of weavers, Lowlanders, Celtic 
attcemi' ^nd Ulster Irishmen, Englishmen, and ex-soldiers was the 

^ Population 1901. 



THE MIDDLE EAST — ONTARIO 165 

second great force which filled Ontario. This force only began, of 
began to work when the Napoleonic wars were over. In ^^^ti^^^ 
18 15 the British Government issued a paper proclamation Cel/ic 
offering free passage, rations, tools, and land to intending ^" !"^^^' 
settlers in Canada ^ ; and the proclamation, though not backed 
by cash, was widely circulated in the Lowlands, where emigra- 
tion societies were formed. In 1826, 4,653 Renfrewshire- 
men, and about 8,500 Lanarkshiremen, asked aid to emigrate ; 
and all, or almost all, were handloom- weavers, who occupied 
their leisure on farm-work.- They were starving minute by 
minute at home. ' I remember,' said the son of an emigrant 
weaver, ^ often waking in the middle of the night and seeing 
my father working still at the loom as if he would never give 
over. ... I remember I was always hungry then — always.' ^ 
British agony was Canada's opportunity, and the dying men 
went to live again in a land where ' almost every farmer . . . 
has a loom in his house, and their wives and daughters not 
only spin the yarn but weave the cloth '.^ Celtic Rom^iu underPeUf 
Catholic Ireland became the scene of two experiments con- ^ohnsott, 
ducted by Peter Robinson with funds provided by the British 
Parliament. In both experiments the emigrants came from 
County Cork. In tl e first experiment 568 persons were 
with difficulty persuaded to take part (1823). In 1825, 
50,000 wished to go, and envied the good fortune of the 
2,024 who were allowed to go.^ No Celtic Roman Catholic 
Irishmen ever emigrated to the New World except to New- 
foundland before the War of Independence, and after the 
war hardly any went to Canada until Robinson created in 
them the taste to go. Some of the emigration societies which aitd othersy 
now spread from end to end of the old country were friendly 

* R. Gourlay, Statistical Account, vol. i, p. 528. 

2 Report II of House of Commons Coinmittee on Emigration, 1826-7, 
vol. V, pp. 19, 51, 52. 

^ Mrs. Jameson, op. cit., vol. ii, p. 163. 

* John Macgregor, British America^ vol. ii, p. 182. 

^ Report I of House of Commons Committee on Emigration, 1826, 
vol. iv, pp. 286 et seq., 330 ; Report III, 1826-7, p. 344 • 



l66 HISTORICAL GEOGRAPHY OF CANADA 

self-helping societies, others owed their existence to the bene- 
volent landlord; the manufacturing districts of Yorkshire 
were the principal homes of the former, and of the latter the 
Petworth Emigration Committee (1832) may be ^taken as 
a type. Petworth is a tiny village in Sussex, on the borders 
of Surrey, and was owned by Lord Egremont, who gave his 
tenants a free passage to Canada, and provided cheap passages 
for any other intending emigrants. He employed a Village 
Committee to sort the applicants before starting, and skilled 
agents to locate them when they arrived; and in 1832 com- 
menced operations by sending out two ships'-full to Canada. 
of ex- Ex-soldier emigrants were numerous, but they were no 

soldiers, ^^^ feature. Hitherto, however, they had had Provincial 
experience or were Gaels. Now some of them came direct 
from all parts of the United Kingdom into the primeval 
forest, where they not unnaturally proved less deft than their 
American brethren-in-arms ; for ' the Americans ... are our 
masters in these matters', and 'No people can wield the 
hatchet as well as they '} Nevertheless, many of these 
despised ex-soldiers were skilled sappers, miners, and en- 
gineers, many proved apt pupils, and even the most useless 
as a rule drew pensions, or had commuted pensions, and 
brought useful coin into districts where money had never yet 
and of half- passed. About this time hosts of half-pay naval officers 
pay officers, appeared from end to end of Ontario — and lived by its river- 
banks and lake-shores as though they were seas ; and they 
too brought coin, and not only coin but sea-craft and a sense 
of order, into a province whose habitable parts were one- 
third liquid and two-thirds destitute of law. Said Captain 
Andrew Wilson, R.N. : ' He had body and soul to look after; 
he had the county of Bathurst to govern ; the Perth lawyers 
to regulate ; the roads to lay out ; and more to do than all 
Downing Street';* and many other naval officers did quite 

' Basil Hall, Travels^ vol. i, p. 322 ; J. Mactaggart, Three years in 
Canada, vol. ii, p. 295. 

2 Mactaggart, op. cit,^ vol. i, p. 272. 



THE MIDDLE EAST — ONTARIO 167 

as much, although no others thought quite so much of what 
they did, as Captain Andrew Wilson, R.N., thought of what 
he did. 

Individualism was chiefly American, social energy was (3) Catmls 
chiefly British, and the third force which directed the stream "'^^^^ ^^^^^' 
of immigrants hither and thither was wielded by the American, 
Canadian, and British Governments alike. It may be summed 
up in the one word — Canals. A great canal was being made 
between the Hudson River and Lake Erie by the Americans 
(1818-25), who almost persuaded themselves and their rivals, 
that trafiic from the West would leave the St. Lawrence for 
the Hudson. The Canadians responded by canals, not from 
watershed to watershed, but from smooth water to smooth 
water on their great river. The first small Canadian canals 
of this kind had been made in the early days of the English 
regime on the St. Lawrence (1779-83), and at Sault St. Marie 
(1797)^ but now a line of canals began to be constructed 
past every rapid between Montreal and Lake Ontario. Oi e.g,the 
these canals the Lachine Canal, which is immediately above L.achine^ 
Montreal and holds the key both of the Ottawa and the 
St. Lawrence, was made by the Government of Lower Canada 
(182 1-5); canals on the St. Lawrence above Lachine were 
made by local effort, and the Welland Canal between 
Lakes Ontario and Erie was made by private companies 
(1824-9). 'T^® Welland Canal made Port Dalhousie (pop. the Wel- 
1,1252), St. Catharine (pop. 9,946 '^), and Port Colborne ^^«^> 
(pop. 1,253^) into towns; and as at Niagara, a few miles 
east, the inland town derived most benefit. It was thus 
that Canada was saved from the commercial ruin which 
Canadian pessimists and American optimists foretold. Canal the Long 
fever infected the British Government, which regarded the ^^l^j^ ^^f 
matter from a military and naval point of view, and built 

^ Brymner, Report for 1886, pp. xxi, xxix ; 1889, P* xxxvii ; comp. 
J. C. Hopkins, Canada Encyclopaedia (1898-1901), vol. iii, pp. 326 et 
seq. ^ Population 1901. 



l68 HISTORICAL GEOGRAPHY OF CANADA 

canals at the rapids of Carillon and the Long Sault on the 
Ottawa between Lachine and Hull, and up the Rideau, across 
the watershed, and down the Cataraqui between Ottawa and 
Kingston (1827-31), at the Imperial cost. Its object was to 
provide a way between Montreal, which is the last ocean port, 
and Kingston, which is the first fresh-sea port of Canada, by 
which stores and ships of light burden might penetrate inland 
out of range of American guns in case of war. Safety was 
its object, not trade. The route followed was not unlike that 
of Lieutenant French in 1783; and the scheme was often 
mooted, though it was never perfected until the vulnerable 
canals of commerce between the inland seas and Montreal 
were more or less complete. The completion of the St. Law- 
rence Canals was the response by Canada to the United States, 
and the Ottawa and Rideau Canals were the British postscript 
to the Canadian response. 
and jjiili' In order to defend the Rideau Canal three military colonies 

tary and ^^j.^ founded in its neighbourhood — one at Richmond, on 

othe?* colO' ° 

nies zvere a western tributary of the Rideau ; a second at Lanark, on the 

posted by Upper Mississippi; and the third at Perth, on the upper Rideau 

atithorities near Lanark (i 8 1 6-2 o). But in the events that happened 

citizens assisted soldiers, and the civilian overshadowed the 

military element in these colonies from the very first. 

at Pert h^ Deputy-Quartermaster-General Colonel Cockburn left 

1815, Prescott in 1815, and after 'passing through the woods, 

for not a stick had been cut', chose Perth^ which was 

occupied by veterans and Scotchmen in 1816, and became 

the depot whence stores were issued gratis for a while to 

civilian as well as to military colonists. The way to Perth 

lay from the St. Lawrence ; and Perth, though inland, grew 

quickly into a minor capital (pop. 3,588 *)." 

RichfHOJid, Richmond, which was reached from where Ottawa is now, 
1818, 

' Population 1901. 

2 Accounts and Papers, 1828 (vol. xxi^ ; Colonel Cockburn, Report 
on Emigration J p. 11. 



THE MIDDLE EAST — ONTARIO 169 

was occupied by officers and soldiers of the 99th and looth 
Regiment in 18 18, and was almost exclusively military and 
European. 

At Lanark Colonel Cockburn or Captain Marshall planted Lanark, 
some 3,000 immigrants, chiefly from Lanarkshire, 'under ^^^°' 
particular instructions from H. M. Government,' in 1820. 
They enjoyed the same terms and privileges as ex-soldiers, 
some of whom seem to have settled amongst them. Scotch- 
men attracted Scotchmen, and other Scotchmen settled at the and ehe- 
same time at Beckwith (18 18) and Ramsay (182 1) on the^^^^^' 
Mississippi, and Ramsay was the hive from which Scotchmen 
swarmed and flew north of Lake Chats to Bristol and 
Clarendon.^ In 1831 and 1842 writers described the 
MacNab colony on the south and the Clarendon colony 
on the north of Lake Chats, much as Pindar wrote of the 
Pillars of Hercules, as the verge of this solid inhabitable 
world, beyond which only phantoms and shades of men 
flitted fitfully. And it was at Lake Chats that limestone 
ended and gneiss began. So, too, the colonies on the 
Mississippi, a few miles west of the Rideau, occupied the 
debatable land between gneiss and limestone, and have now 
blossomed into the prosperous towns of Arnprior (pop. 
4,152^)5 where the MacNab piped, of Carleton Place (pop. 
4,059 '^), and Almonte (pop. 3,023^), while Smith's Falls 
(pop. 5,155^), and Merrickville (pop. 1,024'^) on the Rideau 
are also on the debatable land. Geology went hand in 
hand with strategy, in determining the new positions. 

The three primary inland settlements in this district — for the 
Richmond, Lanark, and Perth — were primarily military ; ^f^^"^.^^^ 
and their avowed object was ' to establish a communication caiial ; 
with Upper Canada distinct from that of the River 
St. Lawrence '.^ They were organized and subsidized by 

^ J. L. Gourlay, History of the Ottawa Valley ^ 1896, p. 21. 
2 Population 1901. 

^ Accounts and Papers, 1826 (vol. iv), Report I of House of Commons 
Committee on E7nigration^ Question T497. 



I70 HISTORICAL GEOGRAPHY OF CANADA 

the War Office until 1822, and the first crop consisted of 

armed men, planted, nursed, and nurtured by the War 

Office. At an early period Scotchmen were admitted side by 

side with the soldiers, and they too came in under the same 

auspices, and as additions to and expansions of the original 

Thebean design. 

and Irish- Then four new elements were introduced, (i) In 1823 

men, Peter Robinson's wild Irishmen were sown broadcast along 

weavers^ ° 

Glen- the west flank of the Rideau, between Perth and the mouth 

games, ^f ^j^^ Mississippi. They were paid for by the British 
Parliament, not by the War Off.ce. (2) On the Long Sault 
of the Ottawa, weavers, exported by a Glasgow Emigration 
Society, settled at Grenville in 1819 (pop. 495 ^), opposite 
Hawkesbury (pop. 4,150 ^). (3) In 1827 a Glengarry captain 
of militia went inland from Prescott and settled on the east 
flank of the Rideau at Osgoode. Strayed cattle from the 
north led to the discovery that there was a new town called 
Bytown on the north of him, and Bytown thenceforth became 
Colo7telBy, his market.^ (4) Bytown — now called Ottawa (pop. 59,928 '^ 
>^w^<?;' of — became a town after Colonel By made it the headquarters 
of the Rideau Canal Works which he directed (1827-31). 
It stands on a bold blufl" fronting the lumber-town of Hull, 
and is itself a lumber-town as well as the capital of the 
Dominion. For the latter purpose it is well fitted, because 
\i commands the alternative or war route from Quebec to 
Upper Ontario ; because the indistinguishable timber of both 
Provinces drifts past it ; because the first union between the 
two Provinces took shape here in the form of Union Bridge 
between Bytown and Hull (1826-7); ^"<^ finally, because 
Ottawa owed its existence to the Imperial initiative, recon- 
ciling and directing the efforts of both Provinces to a common 
end. To Colonel By the first beginnings of the city of 
Ottawa are due, and when the canal was finished * there 

' Population 1901. 2 j l^ Gourlay, op, cit.j pp. 118, 119. 

5 Population 1901, including New Edinburgh. 



THE MIDDLE EAST — ONTARIO 171 

was an influx of discharged labourers that scattered ovtx' a mi Colonel 

and settled in the intermediate country between the Ottawa, ^/^ canal- 

diggers 
St. Lawrence, Rideau, and Mississippi.^ The War Office, settled be- 

the State, and the man, militarism, philanthropy, and ad- ^'^'^^ ^^^^ 
venture, had done their work ; Colonel By ended what and St. 
Lieutenant French began ; and the building of a canal added Lawrence, 
a crown to a process which, under many disguises, had been 
essentially a process of colonization. Lower Ontario was 
peopled from end to end. The cup was filling before the 
canal was built. It now began to run over the brim, and 
helped to swell the human tide, which was already over- 
spreading the region between Lower Ontario and the 
Ontario of Toronto and of the sea-girt peninsula beyond. 

West of the Bay of Quints on Lake Ontario, Cobourg Peter- 
became the starting-point of a new departure in which ^^^'V^f/^ 
individual enterprise and systematic subsidized emigration Trent 
played equally important parts. In 18 16 James Buchanan, ^^^^l.l^l!fllfl , 
the British Consul at New York, forwarded at the cost of dtte to 
Government some Protestant Ulstermen from New York to ^^^^^^ (^) > 
Ontario, and they were settled in ' County Cavan ' near 
Rice Lake, which is an expansion of that tortuous many- 
named river the Trent, and lies twelve miles north of 
Cobourg.2 Some miners and Scotchmen seem to have 
found their own way to the Lakes (alias the Trent) further 
north in or before 1820.^ In 1822 a lonely EngHsh gentle- 
man wandered with wife and children from Cobourg, by 
Rice Lake up the Ottonabee (alias the Trent) to Scott's 
Plains, where there was ' a tumbling down grist and saw mill'. 
He built a house three miles beyond, in Douro, boiled sap 
one hundred yards from his house, and ' so close were the 
trees that I had my dinner carried to me, thinking it too far 
off to return myself. Ague, poverty, and despair were 

^ J. L. Gonrlay, op. cit.y p. 124. 

^ Report I of House of Conwwns Committee on Emigration ^ 1826, 
p. 169. Comp. Mrs. S. Moodie (Strickland), Roughing it in the Bush, 
1852. 

3 Basil Hall, Travels, vol. i, pp. 293-4, 31 1 ('vSmyth Town '). 



172 HISTORICAL GEOGRAPHY OF CANADA 

driving him away, when Peter Robinson swept down upon 
the district with 2,024 wild Irishmen (1825), and a Govern- 
ment mill was built at Scott's Plains, which was thenceforth 
re-named Peterborough (pop. 11,239'), not because it is 
seventy-six miles from its capital, but in order to com- 
memorate the founder's Christian name.^ State-aided ex- 
periments saved the situation. The magic wand waved ; 
a second minor inland capital arose out of the depths of the 
forest ; a new compact block of Settlements touched those 
behind the Bay of Quints on the east, and almost touched 
Lake Simcoe on the west; and only on the north of the 
River Trent and its lakes the old Archaean edge barred 
progress. 
and the Meanwhile Lake Simcoe was peopled from Toronto. 

foe seuie-' Highlanders fresh from the war (181 2-14) were given land 
ments to at the north end of Yonge Street, near where Lord Selkirk's 
%tin^^^^ waifs and strays arrived; and limestone was quarried by 
Toronto Talbot River, which 'almost reaches Balsam Lake' (alias 

and other ^j^^ Trent), Before 1841 all the Lake shores were lined 
causes i ' 

with * half-pay naval and other officers ', and the sequels to 

Yonge Street with old soldiers and negroes, who did not 
stay. Barrie (pop. 5,949^) was a 'flourishing village where 
not ten years ago there was not a single house ' ; Coldwater 
River had a State mill ; Penetang attracted settlers, although 
the mouth of Nottawasaga River (near Collingwood), which, 
like Penetang, had been a naval base, was deserted ; and only 
Nottawasaga Bay remained 'forest never ending and im- 
penetrable ', although thinkers prophesied a great future 

and these for Owen Sound and Colpoys Bay.* 

^mmts fused "^^^^P^ ^^^ Nottawasaga Bay and the Archaean district on 

Middle atid the north, civilization overspread the whole land between 

Lower 1 Population 1901. 

Ofttar70. 2 Basil Hall, Travels, vol. i, pp. 307-323. 

3 Population 1901, including Allandale. 

* Sir R. Bonnycastle, The Canadas in 1841, vol. i, p. 285; vol. ii, 
pp. 8, 9, 28, 29; Mrs. Jameson, Winter Studies in Canada, vol. iii, 
p. 350. 



THE MIDDLE EAST— ONTARIO 173 

Toronto and the resuscitated route from Toronto to Georgian 
Bay on the west, Lake Ontario on the south, and the old 
waterway — along the Trent or the lakes represented by the 
Trent — on the north. Middle Ontario, or the Ontario be- 
tween Toronto and Kingston, was reclaimed; the east of 
Middle Ontario touched the west of Lower Ontario, and 
both Middle and Lower Ontario were not merely river-banks, 
lake-shores, or streets, but solid bodies between the river- 
courses and lakes which had suggested the new streets and 
settlements, and had from time immemorial controlled the 
destiny of Ontario. 

South-west of Middle Ontario lies Upper Ontario, or the ThePmiu' 
Peninsula between Credit River at the west end of Lake Ontario, "^if^^ ^ 

Ontario 

Niagara River, Lake Erie, Lake Huron, and the rivers and was fused 
lakes between the two last-named lakes. The progress of 
the Peninsula towards unity with itself and with Middle 
Ontario is associated with the names of Brant (the Mohawk), 
Thomas Talbot, John Gait, and Dr. Dunlop. 

The Mohawks, who had hitherto divided Niagara and by Mo- 
Hamilton from the more westerly settlements, began now to ^^Zurazed 
sell parts of their reserves on Grand River, directly or in- individual 
directly, to white colonists ; and in 1835 towns already existed ^^^^^P^^^^^ 
at Brantford (pop. 16,619^), Paris (pop. 3,229*), Gait (pop. 
7,866^), and Berlin (pop. 9,747^). Gait was founded by 
a Dumfriesman (18 16); Paris was so called because plaster- 
of-Paris was quarried there by a speculative American settler; 
and Berlin became, and still is, the most German centre in 
the older provinces. It originated, like Markham, from the 
Germans of New York State, and soon became a rendezvous 
for Mennonites. In 1835 it had its German newspaper, and 
it is still thoroughly German, although a German may pass 
many days there without once hearing any language spoken 
-except English.'^ These new settlements united Niagara-land 

1 Population 1901. 

2 Patrick Shirreff, Tour through North America (1835), chap, 
xviii; Mrs. Jameson, op» cit., vol. ii, pp. 101 et seq. 



174 HISTORICAL GEOGRAPHY OF CANADA 

and Hamilton with Long Point, and with the colony, which 

Colonel Thomas Talbot was before 1 8 1 6 vainly trying to found 

somewhere near Port Talbot on Lake Erie. 

by system- After i8i6 settlers came pouring into Talbot's lands 

atic tm- without any effort on his part, and his visionary setdements 
migration ' . rr.i • i i o 

towards and Streets became livmg realities. The original Talbot Street 

the Talbot ^yg^g ^ straight line seventy miles long, neither on Lake Erie 
under ' nor on the River Thames, but between and parallel with 

Colonel |3Q|;h and proved a link in the colonial chain of first-rate 

Talbot, ^ 

importance. The road was (1835) — and it and its continua- 
tions between Windsor and Simcoe (160 miles) are still — the 
best in the Province ; and it was connected at an early date 
by cross-roads with Simcoe's trunk-road between Dundas and 
Sandwich. Amongst early settlers on or near Talbot Street 
and its cross-roads, Highlanders — some of whom were for- 
warded by James Buchanan from New York, while others 
were flotsam and jetsam from Earl Selkirk's ruined colony in 
the far west (181 7), — and Protestant Irishmen brought by 
Richard Talbot ^ from Tipperary (181 8), may be noted. The 
Colonel preferred English applicants for land, misliked High- 
landers, who thought him a land-grabber, hated Yankees and 
set his dogs on them, and abhorred teetotallers. His eccen- 
tricities added to the gaiety of nations, and his services were 
of sterling use to Ontario. A village was named St. Thomas 
(pop. 11,485^) after the Colonel, and became his capital, 
where anniversaries of this most unsaintly saint were celebrated 
by his admirers during his lifetime ; and a document exists 
in which the ' settlement ' is called ' St. Talbot ' settlement.^ 
Colonists poured in to the number of 70,000 (1816-51), 
reaching from Long Point to Pointe aux Pins, and his posses- 
sions would have been large indeed, if Government had 
admitted his interpretation of his grant, and, as it was, his 

^ No relation to Colonel Thomas Talbot. 

2 Population 1901. 

^ Letters from Sussex Emigrants j 1833, p. 14. 



THE MIDDLE EAST — ONTARIO 175 

estate was valued at his death at £50,000. He had the 
credit of having fixed settlers throughout (what is now) 
Elgin County, the west end of Norfolk County, and the south- 
ern parts of Kent, Essex, and Middlesex Counties, without 
expense to Government, but not without profit to himself; 
and it is now usual to call all this district the Talbot Settle- 
ment — an expression which is not only geographically vague, 
but misleading, for it might imply that the Colonel introduced 
the settlers or owned the land on which they settled ; either 
of which was very seldom the case.^ He was something less 
than founder except in his own original township, and some- 
thing more than agent except in London. 

In Middlesex County, Richard Talbot's settlers occupied the and to- 
site then occupied by wolves ( 1 8 1 8), but afterwards occupied by '^^J^^ 
London (1827)-^ Then Scotchmen,^ ex-soldiers, Lowland under 
weavers (1820 et seq.), and Lord Egremont's Sussex and Surrey ^^/^^J^^^^ 
settlers* (1832-3), came into the neighbourhood, sometimes others, 
with and sometimes without the assistance of the State or of 
philanthropists. London City was laid out in 1 8 2 6, and sold to 
settlers by Colonel Talbot as Government agent in 1827, and 
is sometimes included in and sometimes excluded from that 
elastic expression 'The Talbot Settlement'. In 1828 it 
became the judicial capital of the district, and soon served as 
the common capital of the Long Point, Talbot, and surround- 
ing settlements, and it is now the fourth city in Ontario (pop. 
37,981 ^). Only one thing was now wanting to complete 
the continuous civilization of the Peninsula, and this was 
done by the Canada Company, which was represented in 
Canada by John Gait and Dr. Dunlop. 

^ C. O. Ermatinger, The Talbot Regime, 1904; J. H. Coyne, The 
Talbot Papers, in Transactions of the Royal Society of Candda, 1907, 
sect. 2, p. 15. 

2 E. A. Talbot, Five Years' Residence in the Canadas^ 1823. 

^ Report III of House of Commons Committee on Emigration (1827), 
pp. 405 et seq, 

* Brymner, op. cit., 1900, p. 432 ; Letters from Sussex Emigrants ^ 
1833. s Population 1901. 



176 



HISTORICAL GEOGRAPHY OF CANADA 



and under 
the Canada 
Company 
towards 
Guelphy 



and Gode- 
rich on 
Lake 
Huron. 



The Canada Company was incorporated in England in 
1826, and was empowered to buy from the Crown, and 
re-sell to settlers, 1,875 square miles of various Crown 
Reserves and 1,562 square miles of Crown property between 
the Upper Thames and Grand River and Lake Huron, and 
one- third of its purchase-money was to be spent on improve- 
ments instead of being paid to the Crown. So Gait and 
Dunlop sallied forth on foot on April 23, 1827, from Gait to 
found a capital, lost their way in the forest, stumbled on an 
ex-Dutch ex-French ex- American shoe-maker, took him as 
guide, and arrived towards evening, drenched to the skin, 
at a shanty built by an Indian murderer. There the doctor 
stripped, and put on two blankets — one as toga and the other 
as kilt ; and again they went forth, felled a tree, and christened 
the place with whisky * Guelph City ' (pop. 1 1,496 *). A high 
place was reserved for Roman Catholic buildings out of 
gratitude to Bishop MacDonell of Glengarry, and the acropolis 
of Guelph is now crowned by the ' largest Roman Catholic 
Church in Canada ', around which kindergarten schools and 
the like cling in clusters. The earliest settlers were British 
victims of a British Agricultural Association, which had 
exported them to Caracas in Venezuela, then called Columbia, 
whence revolution drove them to New York, whence James 
Buchanan forwarded them to Hamilton (1829). Capitahsts 
too arrived, and before the year of the discovery of a capital 
had elapsed, the capital possessed 76 houses and many mills.* 
Most business men of to-day at Guelph bear Scotch names. 

Having discovered a capital, Gait and Dunlop set out to 
discover a port for it on Lake Huron, which they did in the 
same year at Goderich, 75 miles away (pop. 4,158^); and 
a road was built between the capital and its port, which, 
like Talbot Street, took a line of its own and became a 



^ Population 1901. 

2 John Gait, Autobiography y 1833, vol. ii, pp. 56-63; Mactaggart, 
Three Years in Canada^ vol. ii, p. 272. 



THE MIDDLE EAST — ONTARIO 177 

nucleus for settlement.^ At this date Goderich was the only 
port on Lake Huron, its nearest port south was Windsor 
and its nearest port north was Penetang ; for Sarnia (pop. 
8,176 2) was only laid out in 1829, and, as we saw, the 
history of Nottawasaga Bay began in the Forties. 

In the early Forties lines drawn between Goderich, Guelph, Ontario 
Toronto, Barrie, Penetang, Orillia, the Lakes of the Trent ^^-^ ^^^»''^^- 
and Mississippi, and the mouths of the Madawaska and 
Ottawa, roughly marked the northern limits of Ontarian civiliza- 
tion. Above it was the wilderness; below it a series of mutually 
connected settlements. Then new forces came into play. 

The Forties were the decade of great railway plans, and Then Rail- 
the Fifties were the decade of great railway completions. ^^"^ ^ , 
Trains ran from Montreal to Toronto in 1856, and in 1858 the Union, 
two railroads led from Toronto to Sarnia, one by Stratford ^850'?^^^^v 
(pop. 9,959^) and the other by Hamilton. Trains already 
ran from Hamilton to Niagara Falls and to Sandwich (1854), 
so that Ontario was knitted together from end to end in 
a way which more than realized Simcoe's wish. But British 
colonization was never content to run in one direction at 
a time ; and Simcoe's cross-roads were now represented by 
two railroads, ending respectively at Goderich (pop. 4,158^), extending 
of which no one had heard before 1827, and at Collingwood ^j^^J^*^ 
(pop. 5,755^), which Sir R. Bonnycastle described as ^forest Huron and 
in the midst of unending impenetrable forest' (1842). The ^^^^i^^^ 
Toronio-Barrie ^-Collingwood cross-line was begun in 1849 
and finished in 1854; and the Goderich-Seaforth- Stratford- 
Fort Erie cross-line was opened in 1858. The lines to 
Midland (pop. 3,174^), Penetang (pop. 2,422^), Meaford 
(pop. 1,916 ^), Owen Sound (pop. 8,776 ^), Colpoys Bay (pop. 
2,443 ^), Southampton (pop. i>636^), and Kincardine (pop. 
2,077^), were only later amplifications of these original and 
historic cross-lines. 

^ Patrick Shirreff, Tour, 1835, PP- ^5° et seq. 

2 Population 1901. 3 I include Allandale in Barrie. 

VOL. V. PT. Ill N 



178 HISTORICAL GEOGRAPHY OF CANADA 



Minerals^ 
&Cj en- 
riched 
out-lying 
districts, 
1^60 etseq 



This railway development doubled or trebled the great 
through waterway of the St. Lawrence, and Simcoe's great 
through roadway from Montreal to Windsor and Sarnia, and 
introduced variants of old short cuts between Lakes Erie, 
Ontario, and Huron, and Georgian Bay, these lakes being 
themselves parts of the St. Lawrence. The St. Lawrence 
was still the presiding genius of Ontarian development. 
These railways also doubled or trebled the importance not 
only of Windsor or Sarnia, but of Hamilton, Toronto, 
Stratford, Collingwood, Goderich, and London, all of which 
dominated the short cuts between the St. Lawrence under 
one of its names with the St. Lawrence under another of its 
names. 

In the Sixties petroleum was obtained in the neighbour- 
hood of Petrolea (pop. 4,135^), ten to twenty miles from 
Sarnia,^ and salt between Seaforth and Goderich and 
Southampton on Lake Huron. Natural gases were after- 
wards discovered in these neighbourhoods ; and Southampton 
became fishing capital of Bruce County, which in 1848 w^as 
uninhabited, but is now almost as full of Scotch Highlanders 
and Islanders as Glengarry or Cape Breton Island itself In 
the Sixties, too, a very little gold was worked at Madoc (pop. 
i»i57 % and a very little iron at Marmora (pop. 961 1), just 
beyond the threshold of the Archaean region behind the 
Bay of Quintd, where the blast furnaces at Deseronto (pop. 
3^527 ^), more than supplied the humble demands of the men 
of iron. 

The Archaean region of what I have called Old Ontario 

<^haeandtS'.^^^ invaded by settlers after 1868, when free land-grants 

trtct of Old ^ 

Ontario Were offered to immigrants in Muskoka and Parry Sound 

7e/ay«'^z;^. Districts, which figure in the 1871 census for the first time. 

loped, 1868 > o / 

et seq. The southern gate- way of this region is * the granite notch , 

a few miles north of the limestones of Orillia (pop. 4,907 \ 

^ Population 1901. 

* Canada: Report of Geological Survey, 1901, p. 160 A, &c., Trans- 
actions of the Royal Soc, of Canada, 1887, Sect, iv, p. loi. 



The Ar- 



THE MIDDLE EAST — ONTARIO 179 

and 107 miles north of Toronto ; and its northern gateway is 
North Bay on Lake Nipissing, 170 miles further north. In 
1859 there was * no European town or village from Orillia to 
the north pole \ In the Seventies the first railway passed 
north of the granite notch to Gravenhurst (pop. 2,146 *) ; but 
many years were destined to elapse before it reached North 
Bay and linked Ontario and its capital to the Canadian 
Pacific Railway. At present this district is largely dedi- 
cated to sportsmen and tourists; though many a farmer 
finds good soil here and there on the shores of some lake, 
and Parry Sound is a considerable lumber-port. Graven- 
hurst (pop. 2,146^), Bracebridge (pop. 2,479^), ^"^^ Hunts- 
ville (pop. 2,152 ^), on the avenue between the two gateways, 
are its tourist capitals. Memories of another kind linger 
round Lake Nipissing, which is on the old Indian water- 
route up the Ottawa, and down French River, to Georgian 
Bay. French River and the Archaean parts of Georgian Bay 
are the north-w^estern borders of the Archaean region of Old 
Ontario; and the Ottawa lies near its north-eastern border, 
which is vague. While settlers came in by twos and threes 
through its southern gateway, lumberers were stealing 
towards it up a tributary of the Ottawa named the Bonne- 
chbre, north-west of the settlement of the MacNab; 
and lonely wayside farmers dotted the Musk Rat Portage of 
the Ottawa, which was still further north-west, as early as 
1830. Before the advent of railways there were 850 settlers 
in Ontario near Lake Timiskaming and Lake Nipissing 
(1871), and rapid progress came with the railways, which led 
from Ottawa to Lake Nipissing and beyond in the Eighties 
(Canadian Pacific Railway), and which also led from Ottawa to 
Parry Sound (pop. 2,884^) in the Nineties (Grand Trunk 
Railway), thanks to which Renfrew (pop. 3,153^) on the 
Bonnechere, Pembroke (pop. 5,156^) on Musk Rat Portage, 
and North Bay (pop. 2,530^), on Lake Nipissing, became 

' Population 1901. ^j q Kohl, Travels, td., i86i,vol. ii, p. 66. 

N 2 



l8o HISTORICAL GEOGRAPHY OF CANADA 

important towns. A railway from Toronto to Sudbury was 
built in the first decade of this century as a companion to the 
railway which had been finished long ago from Toronto to 
North Bay. The pace was accelerated, and Muskoka, 
Parry Sound, and the railway lines through and round these 
lakelands, though populous compared to what they were, are 
desolate indeed, compared to the civilized districts of Old 
Ontario, around which we have been lingering so dispropor- 
tionately long, as some may think. 
In New As in Quebec, so in Ontario, the historical geographer 

develop- ^^^^ \y2i^Q two standard measures— one a foot-rule and the 
ment was other a sextant. Parts of the country are crowded, and these 
^1/ ^^^ " parts were first entered in Old Quebec by members of some 
which were family, and in Old Ontario by some social group, inch by 
^mineral •'^ ^^^^' district by district ; so that their history is written on 
genealogical trees or tombstones or parochial registers. The 
chief difference between Old Quebec and Old Ontario was that 
civil war — or what the Greeks called orrao-tg — did for Ontario 
what religious fervour did for Quebec Province; and that 
while the founders of Quebec Province crept along the banks 
of a single river, spreading slowly up and down in one 
dimension from three points, the founders of Ontario over- 
spread intervals as broad as long between two or three rivers 
and three or more fresh seas, like a multitude of distinct 
cloudlets which coalesced at last into a single complicated 
pattern, so that the entire earth was overcast. When that 
process was complete, when the outline was apparently filled 
in and intelligible, historical geography stops ; for subsequent 
elaborations and permutations belong to history or some 
other kindred science. Thus far the student goes as with 
leaded cowl through some small dense country like a larger 
Scotland or a lesser England. The comparison is not 
unjust; for Old Ontario, excluding the Parry Sound and 
Muskoka District, is exactly the same size as Newfoundland 
and has only 40,000 square miles, some of which just trench 



THE MIDDLE EAST — ONTARIO l8l 

upon the Archaean region, and what is now called the Parry 
Sound and Muskoka District only adds another 5,000 square 
miles or so. 

When we pass northward through the granite notch, we are 
in a country of big distances and little history, and our progress 
should be at astronomical, or at any rate railway speed. 
Indeed, we are in a country where, as a rule, railways 
preceded roads, and were the only events, or almost the 
only events, of history ; and the railways were built, partly, it 
is true, for the purpose of colonizing the lean country through 
which they passed, but partly too for the sake of developing 
fat far-off countries, and partly for purely political purposes. 
The Parry Sound Railway opened up a new port for the far 
west, and the other railways to North Bay and Sudbury were 
feeders of the great through line of the Canadian Pacific 
Railway Company. 

North Bay is the railway junction for several mineral e.g. rail- 
districts; Cobalt, of which we have spoken, Sudbury, Bruce 'ctbali' 
Mines, and Michipicoten, and of these Cobalt and Sudbury 
are already of world-wide significance. 

'The town of Sudbury' (pop. 2,027 ^) 'is a creation of the the Sud- 
Canadian Pacific Railway' (1882),^ being on the main line '^^ 
80 miles west of North Bay, and the starting-point of a branch 
line 182 miles long to Sault St. Marie (pop. 7,169^). In 
1883, Sudbury was the imaginary junction of two unbuilt 
railways, but it had real workmen and surveyors, and a real 
magistrate named Judge MacNaughton. One day the judge 
went for a walk, lost his way three miles from home, and 
when night came perched on a rocky knoll. A search party 
was formed, and found the judge, and noted that where he 
had been sitting there were things that looked like shining 
stones. These things were shown to an expert, who declared 

^ Population 1901. 

2 Canada, Geol. Survey, A. E. Barlow, Report on Stidbury, 1904, 
printed in vol. xiv, p. 46 H. 



l82 HISTORICAL GEOGRAPHY OF CANADA 

that there was copper in them, but not enough to pay, and 
that the brightest nest-egg was nickel, and therefore valueless. 
In 1886 a Canadian Copper Company started work in the 
neighbourhood; in 1889 MacNaugh ton's Bethel became 
Murray Mine, and Sudbury began to experience the chances 
and changes to which copper industry is invariably exposed. 
Meanwhile bicycles, and the invention of nickel steel (1888), 
and the new treatment of nickel ores (1891) supplied a more 
secure foundation for its prosperity (1891 et seq.), and thanks 
to the railways from North Bay to Toronto, and from Sudbury 
to Sault St. Marie, help came from far, and Power and 
Refining Companies at Sault St. Marie and Hamilton (1899) 
assisted the nickel-miners of Sudbury, who now supply the 
world with most of the nickel which it more and more greedily 
consumes. 
to^Satilt ^ Sault St. Marie (pop. 7,169*) was, until recent railways 

St Jl'Idfi^ 

' ' were built, as much isolated from the rest of Ontario as the 
Bosphorus was in classical times from Hellas. It was the 
strait gate to the innermost inland sea ; and there have been 
missions, trade ' forts \ or military forts there on and off since 
1640, or long before similar posts occupied those other 
wicket-gates between its sister seas at Detroit and Niagara. 
In English times it gradually grew into a lumber and mill 
town; some copper-mining was done at Bruce Mines 
(1846-76), thirty-five miles to the east; and these mines 
were re-opened (1901) after the whole of the Sault-and- 
Sudbury branch line was opened. Sault St. Marie is now 
connected by a bridge with its vis-a-vis rival in Michigan 
(United States) ; and besides being a fresh seaport is one of 
the three land-channels by which Canadian produce passes to 
Chicago (United States) ; Sarnia (with its tunnel) and Windsor 
(with its steam-ferry) being the other two. Sault St. Marie 
has copper to west of it as well as copper to east of it ; and 
Michipicoten Island, which is one hundred miles west of it, 

* Population 1901. 



THE MIDDLE EAST — ONTARIO 183 

has been of romantic interest, as the starting-point of a canoe- 
route up the Michipicoten and down the Missinaibi and 
Moose Rivers, to James Bay; a route which De Troyes^s 
companions are said to have used on their return from raiding 
Moose Factory (1676-7),^ but of late years its interest has 
been of a more material character. In 1901 the Helen 
Mine, near Michipicoten river-mouth, began to yield iron 
under the direction of a Power Company at Sault St. Marie ; 
and immediately the production of iron in Ontario leapt up 
from 25,000 to 272,538 tons a year. Blast-furnaces have 
been, or are being, erected at Sault St. Marie and Colling- 
wood, and a railway has been pushed on from Sault St. 
Marie to Michipicoten Harbour, which is no longer a mere 
distant isolated port upon an uninhabited coast. Two hundred 
miles beyond Michipicoten the River Nipigon flows into 
Lake Superior, and near its mouth is Fort Nipigon, which . 
was the westernmost outpost of the French fur-traders, until 
Duluth went seventy miles further along the shore to Fort 
Kaministiquia, which was built in 1678 and rebuilt in 171 7, 
and has since 1801 been represented by Fort William. Here, 
however, we enter upon a new arena ; and the west shore of 
Lake Superior owes its inspiration to a changed country lying 
far away towards the west. Not that the country has not been 
changing somewhat ever since we passed into Lake Superior. 

Along the north coast of Lake Superior, except at Nipigon, and along 
we are very close to the watershed between James Bay and ^jl^J'^^^ 
the Gulf of St. Lawrence : and the rose-red rocks are some- Superior 
times terraced or abrupt, or capped with flat levels or truncated 
cones in a way which is said to be rare in Archaean Canada. 
Moreover, there is hardly a tunnel in all Canada east of the 
Rockies except here, and the traveller is prepared for change 
of historic associations as well as of scenery when he arrives 
at Fort William and Port Arthur. 

^ Alexander Henry the elder. Travels, ed. by James Bain, 1901, 
pp. 231, 232. 



184 HISTORICAL GEOGRAPHY OF CANADA 

to Fort Fort William (pop. 3,997 ^) and Port Arthur (pop. 3,2 14 ^) 

^^dP^t are twin towns, three miles apart, but rapidly growing together 
Arthur y into a joint town (pop, 7,211^); and their gigantic elevators for 
storing the grains of the far west are, since 1885, the outward 
and visible reasons of their being. They do what Grand 
Portage once did for Canada. 
which also In former days Grand Portage, forty miles south, was 
trairies ^^ ^ great gathering-place of the western and eastern servants 
of the North- West Fur Company of Montreal; for the 
servants who plied east of Grand Portage were usually distinct 
from those who plied west, and what was the goal of one was 
the starting-point of the other. Then Pigeon River, on which 
Grand Portage is situate, became the dividing line between 
Canada and the United States, so that part of the old route 
lay through a foreign land. Consequently Fort William was 
substituted for Grand Portage in 1801 ; and it was there 
that Lord Selkirk played the part of the avenging angel. In 
1870 Lord Wolseley's base was a little north of Fort William, 
and he called it Prince Arthur's Landing, after the Duke of 
, Connaught, and it is now called Port Arthur. At that time 

a Montreal firm was working silver-mines in its neighbour- 
hood; and some years later Silver Islet on Thunder Bay, 
close by, yielded £700,000 worth of silver before it was in 
imminent danger of being submerged. Like Sault St. Marie 
and Michipicoten, Fort William and Port Arthur were and 
are to some extent mining centres. But they were and are 
the one and only fresh- sea port for the produce of the far 
west. 
e.g. by In 1870 there were two ways from Fort William to the 

Lord^ Wol- ^ggj . up-stream by the River Kaministiquia to Dog Lake, 
rQute,\%iQ, and up-stream by the Kaministiquia and its affluent the 
Matawin to Lake Shebandowan. The first lay more to the 
north, and the second more to the south. Each route led 
over the usual flat boggy watershed to Lac des Mille Lacs, 

* Population 1901. 



THE MIDDLE EAST — ONTARIO 185 

which contains the headquarters of most of the affluents 
of Rainy River.^ But the Kaministiquia has falls which 
may be compared to a small Niagara, and the sixty miles' 
ascent from Lake Superior (602 feet s, m.) to the water- 
shed (1,584 feet J". 771.) was famous in Canada for its steepness. 
Therefore S. J. Dawson cut, or tried to cut, a portage road 
forty-eight miles long, which was the first road in these parts, 
and which went from Port Arthur direct to Shebandowan 
Lake. But this Yonge Street of the far west was incomplete 
in 1870, and Lord Wolseley used the second more than he 
used the third way. After Lac des Mille Lacs it might seem 
that the old scenes were left behind and new scenes were 
dawning. But for the next three hundred miles or so there 
is a reversion to the old type of Archaean Canada. The 
comparative diversity of contour and boldness and brilliancy 
of the North Shore of Lake Superior disappears, and stone, 
bog, knoll, and lake alternate with a monotony which is not 
excelled elsewhere. 

As Lord Wolseley drifted down Sturgeon River, to Rainy 
Lake, down Rainy Lake to Rainy River, down Rainy River 
to Lake of the Woods, down Lake of the Woods to Winnipeg 
River, and down Winnipeg River to Lake Winnipeg; he 
passed Fort Frances on Rainy River, at the outlet of Rainy 
Lake — which was only a little less lonely than its predecessor 
Fort St. Pierre, which La Verendrye built close by, and 
Kenora on Winnipeg River, at the outlet of Lake of the 
Woods, which had ' three log houses roofed with bark and 
enclosed by a high wooden palisading'.^ 

After Lord Wolseley's expedition, the vulgar error that Aften^io, 
Lake Winnipeg and Lake Superior belong to the same water- ^/^^.^J^' 
system disappeared, but a new confusion arose. To ^hich frontier 
province — if any — did the wilderness west of Lake Superior ^^j^^ ^" 

^ Or ' Lake of the Thousand Islands', see Sir John Franklin's Map of 
the Expedition ^1825, published 1828. 

^ Captain G. L. Huyshe, Ked River Expedition, 1871, p. 170. 



r86 HISTORICAL GEOGRAPHY OF CANADA 

belong? Had Ontario a valid claim to the district, whose 

natural capitals were Fort William (pop. 7,21 1 ^), Fort Frances 

(pop. 466^), and Kenora (pop. 6,358^).^ The question was 

set to rest by an order in Council (August 11, 1884) and an 

Act of the Imperial Parliament (1889), under which the 

western and northern frontiers of Ontario were defined (i) by 

the north-west angle of Lake of the Woods ; (2) by a line 

thence due north to English River, which is an affluent of 

Winnipeg River; (3) and by English River and its watershed 

and Albany River as far as James Bay.'^ Civilization began 

in this district partly with Lord Wolseley's expedition against 

Riel, partly with RieFs second rebellion and defeat (1885), 

partly with the completion of the Canadian Pacific Railway 

(1885), and partly with this final settlement of the provincial 

boundaries. It began more from military and political 

necessity than by choice. But such progress as has been 

attained is due to its unexpected wealth. 

roads, sett- Dominion surveys were made in 1876, but settlers had 

the'c!^P. '^l^^^^y come since 1874 from the United States to fertile 

Railway alluvial flats along Rainy River in the neighbourhood of Fort 

Jo owe , Yxzxic^'s^. Then when the boundary question was settled, 

Ontario built an 80-mile road along Rainy River, between 

Rainy Lake and Lake of the Woods ; townships were marked 

off, free grants of land were offered, and settlers came, not 

from the south but the east. Then the Canadian Pacific 

Railway came (1885), and its way from Fort William lay 

first along the Dawson Road, towards, but not so far as Lake 

Shebandowan ; then north, but not so far as Dog Lake; then 

along the north shore of Lac des Mille Lacs to the north shore 

of Lake of the Woods. Here Kenora (pop. 5,202 ^) and its twin 

Keewatin (pop. 1,156 ^), on the other side of the outlet of the 

Lake of the Woods, became railway towns, were united by a 

bridge, and became the principal mill seats not only for that 

^ Population 1901. 

^ John P. Macdonell, Ontario Boundary Controversy, with map, 
1896. 



THE MIDDLE EAST — ONTARIO 187 

district, but for the far west. East of Kenora we have seen twin 

town and vis-a-vis towns innumerable^ and a few bridge-towns; 

but they have always cut Canada's line of life, which runs. 

east and west, at right angles, and have been the outcome of 

emulation, imitation, or opposition. Kenora-Keewatin are the 

first but not the last looking-glass places, both of which the 

Canadian passes through rather than abides in ; for in Canada 

movement east and west, west and east, rather than rest, is 

the first law of life. In 1894 a pioneer farm was made at 

Wabigoon on the Canadian Pacific Railway, 218 miles from 

Fort William and 218 miles from Winnipeg. Due south oi^^^^^^^^^^ 
TTT t . 1.1 1 . 1 mineral 

Wabigoon there is the usual composite waterway up the discoveries 

Wabigoon and down the Manitou to Rainy Lake, near which ^'^^ other 

copper and gold are worked. There is also copper and gold 

along the River Seine, which runs westward into the north of 

Rainy Lake, and nowadays the Canadian Northern Railway 

Line runs along the Dawson Road to Lake Shebandowan, 

and thence by the Seine River (instead of by the Sturgeon 

River by which Lord Wolseley went) to Rainy Lake and 

Fort Frances, and thence by the southern edge of the Lake 

of the Woods (United States) to Winnipeg. There is copper 

and gold too in the neighbourhood of Whitefish Bay, which 

is an eastern inlet of Lake of the Woods; so that uncivilized 

Ontario preserves some of its mineral as well as its lumbering, 

milling, and agricultural reputation to the last. Thus Kenora 

and Fort Frances, like Fort William, Michipicoten, and Sault 

St. Marie, owe prosperity to the bounty of nature as well as 

to the art of engineers ; and both Nature and Art are putting 

human rubble into the interstices between railways, roads, 

and water-routes, wherever they do not coincide. 

In the preceding paragraphs special allusions are made to Onta7'ian 

towns, because towns of a certain size and number are ^^^^^"^v^ ^^ 

■ more vigor- 

characteristic of Ontario as distinguished from Quebec Pro- ous than 
vince. Toronto (pop, 208,040 ^) is a lesser Montreal (pop. ^pf^^f^^ 
^ Approximate population 1901. 



i88 



HISTORICAL GEOGRAPHY OF CANADA 



and in 
Ontario 
there are 
three 
national- 
ities, 
British 
being para- 
mount. 



350,000), Ottawa (pop. 60,000) a lesser Quebec (pop. 69,000), 
Kingston (pop. 18,000) a larger Ldvis (pop. 17,000^), and 
Windsor (pop. 12,000) a lesser Hull (pop. 14,000); but 
there are no towns like Hamilton (pop. 53,000) and London 
(pop. 38,000) in Quebec Province; towns of 11,000 inhabi- 
tants are only represented by Sherbrooke and Valleyfield in 
Quebec Province, but by Windsor, Guelph, Peterborough, 
and St. Thomas, in Ontario; and towns of less than 11,000 
and more than 8,000 inhabitants by Three Rivers and St. 
Hyacinthe in Quebec Province, but by Stratford, Berlin, 
Chatham, Woodstock, Brockville, Belleville, and Owen Sound 
in Ontario ; and if we lower the standard to 2,500 inhabitants 
the proportionate number of towns in Quebec to towns in 
Ontario is five to twelve. Town life is more energetic in 
Ontario; although, like the elder province, Ontario is essen- 
tially agricultural, and the people are and have been yeomen 
from the beginning. At the very moment when English 
writers began to bewail vanished yeomen who never existed, 
Englishmen were deliberately founding colonies of yeomen 
for the first time in history. 

The towns which grew up in Ontario were the symptoms 
and results of agricultural success. Rural industries, as time 
went on, were able to spare more and more of their devotees 
to manufacturing industries, and the country created the 
towns. The same process has gone on in Quebec Province, 
but with less vigour. Perhaps Ontario is more fertile, and 
the peach-growing peninsula of Ontario is certainly more 
fertile than any part of Quebec Province; or perhaps the 
difference is due to the different nationalities of the provinces. 
By nationality ultimate European origin is meant. In this 
sense three nationalities are universally conspicuous in On- 
tario, — British, French, and German (including Dutch), — but 
British is vastly superior to its rivals, and the ratio of the 
rivals differs widely in different census districts. 



In its widest sense. 



THE MIDDLE EAST — ONTARIO 



189 



1 






Per 

Cent. 

1881 

1901 


siuvaSuu 
-mj 's-'-n 


M'«*-MM«M«MfON 


M 


mox 


On tJ-00 ONt^t^OO t>.00 •»>• 
ONONONONONOsONON ONOO 


i^ 


UVtUAdf) 


M On t>. ro ^VO «^ fO i>« 

MM M VO 





1(0U9A^ 


10 

ro M Tj- M 


10 i^ 


ysptxff 


00 VO f>« C« ONVO 10 fO 
to !>. i>. ON ONOO t>. CO ifiVO 


eg s 


ysui 


rCOO rOONThONC* X^^Q 
MMrO'>*-rOMM «ro 


CO ON 
CO M 


ipfo^s' 


CN'^<M ONONMQO M-MVO 
rOMMMMMMMl-tHi 


ON 00 


yst^Su^ 


VO 00 M tJ- 0\ ONVO "^ »0 i>. 
cOrOMfOfOcOM M 


00 c< 
«s CO 


Pop, 1000 
in these 
Districts 


1 


ONOO J>.M in-^O rOcOPO 

M M '^h iTi T^ MM 


CO 
00 

M 


M 

00 

00 


too ONO toiOf* rO'^O 
^lOM rOtOtOThTj-OOO 


CO 

M 

OS 


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M r« VO 00 CO ONOO M '^f- 'rf 
r« M M 


00 
00 








1. Glengarry, &c. 

2. South-west. 

3. Dundas, &c. 

4. Kingston, &c. 

5. Peterborough, London, &c. 

6. Toronto, &c. 

7. Lennox, Hamilton, &c. 

8. Berlin, &c. 

9. Ottawa and East, &c. 
10. North-west. 





w 



^'5 



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*! O 

a c 
O 2 

c/iW 

"to «3 
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^ VO*"; i^a 00 o 
a 5? «« -^ 



>H^ O 12; 



190 HISTORICAL GEOGRAPHY OF CANADA 

Census districts usually contain 20,000 inhabitants, be the 
same more or less, and in the accompanying table census 
districts are grouped, not geographically, but according to the 
proportion of different nationalities represented in the group. 
British, German, and French nationalities virtually occupy the 
whole field. The fifth, sixth, and seventh groups are the 
largest, and therefore represent normal Ontario ; the second, 
third, and fourth 'may be regarded as stepping-stones to the 
fifth, and the eighth as an appendix and exaggeration of the 
seventh group. 

The three big groups contain two-thirds of the population ; 
of which two -thirds, one-third is partly German and two- 
thirds ultra-British. Though more populous by one-fifth 
than Quebec Province, Ontario is not populous. Old On- 
tario equals England minus Wales in area and Wales minus 
England in population; but then it only began life in 1786. 



APPENDIX TO CHAPTER VII 

Let a = 10 years; x = 26,000 people; « = a negligible 
fraction ; and the formula of the progress of Ontario since 
1 781 will read thus : 3^ = 3^—;/; 6a=:i8x—n; "ja^- 
^6x-\-n\ ioa = 74J\;; 12^ = 84.1:. 

The arrangement of these typical groups may be inferred 
by watching the decline and fall of the British, Irish, French, 
and German figures in their respective columns ; and it is an 
undesigned coincidence that the Highlanders of the first, and 
the British of the third, fourth, fifth, sixth, and half the 
seventh group, have been and are drifting westward, and 
therefore diminishing in number, except at great towns, like 
Toronto, London, and Hamilton; while the other districts 
or half-districts and great towns have been and are increasing 
all along the line. Again, the ethnical order of progression 
reveals as though by accident geographical order. 

In the ensuing analysis it will be noted that, with the 
exception of the second item, six successive types may be 
encountered by a traveller up the St. Lawrence in the order, 
or almost in the order, in which they are given in the tables. 

The reason of this rule is that with one exception distance 
from Quebec Province diminishes French influences, and 
nearness to Niagara increases German influences, these two 
nationalities being antipathetic; and the reason of the ex- 
ception is that in the. far south-west Detroit is, and always 
was, a minor focus from which Frenchmen spread. On the 
other hand, the ninth and tenth types contain every district 
on the Ottawa, and no other district in Old Ontario, except 
north Essex, which is as closely in contact with French 
surroundings at Detroit as the Ottawa colonies are with those 
of Quebec Province on the Ottawa. 

We will now discuss the ten groups in detail. 

(i) Glengarry is the only county with a Scotch majority. 
The proximity of Quebec accounts for its French population ; 
Scotch and French diminishing as we go upstream. The 
presence of Germans, who increase as we go upstream, 
reminds us that we are no longer in Quebec Province. The 
far north-east division only contains two counties, and, 



192 HISTORICAL GEOGRAPHY OF CANADA 

Strange to say, its nearest analogy — if we substitute English 
for Scotch — is 

(2) In the far south-west near which French elements were 
present at Detroit before Ontario began to exist. The un- 
specified six per cent, in Kent and Essex consist partly of 
runaway American Negro slaves, who came here in order to 
be free. Ontario negroes number 8,900 ^ but were half as 
much again in 187 1, and three-fourths of them live here or 
hereabouts. 

(3) In Dundas and the Bay of Quintd a large proportion 
of the early Loyalists were Germans, who are already more 
than three times as numerous as the French. The residue 
of the population chiefly consists of 1,100 Iroquois Loyalists 
who have since 1784 {circa) resided at Tyendenaga on the 
Bay of Quint^. Their relatives, over 3,000 in number, have 
since the same date resided on Grand River near Brantford, 
and account for most of the deficiency in the sixth group. 

(4) In the Kingston group British preponderance, which 
has been steadily growing, reaches its zenith; and in this 
case British means Irish, for the workmen on the Rideau 
were largely Irish, and the seed which was scattered broad- 
cast by Peter Robinson grew and spread. 

(5) The district typified by Peterborough and London is 
equally British; considerable Indian reserves south of the 
Trent Lakes (Mississaguas), on the Thames below London 
(Delawares), and on St. Clair River and Lake (Hurons, &c.), 
account for most of the undefined residue ; and Frenchmen 
are at vanishing point except in Muskoka, where other 
nationalities — Scandinavian, Swiss, and Italian — also appear. 

(6) The Toronto type is only a little less British and 
un-French than its two predecessors ; Penetang accounts for 
nearly half the Frenchmen in the group. There are Algonquin 
reserves in the Peninsula of Bruce County, as well as Iro- 
quois reserves on Grand River, and a few American negroes 
have inhabited Oro on Lake Simcoe from almost the first. 

(7) The Germans who now dispute, and in two districts 
(8) usurp, British paramountcy, came for the most part 
through Niagara from the western frontier of New York 
State, where they were pioneers. 

(9, 10) The ninth and tenth types represent the growing 
end of Ontario, which is also in contact with the growing end 

* Population 1901. 



THE MIDDLE EAST— ONTARIO 193 

of Quebec Province almost as far west as North Bay. In the 
north-easternmost county Frenchmen are more than half; in 
the next county they are all but half; in Ottawa, which comes 
next, they are about one-third ; then they are a little more, 
and then a little less, than one-eighth ; after which British only 
exceed French by a few hundred in Nipissing, while west of 
Nipissing British ascendancy is once more unchallenged as 
far as the western frontier ; and French are almost as rare as 
Germans. Germans are very few except in Renfrewshire 
just east of Nipissing, where they are one-fifth of the popula- 
tion; and in the same county 2,400 Russians, or more than 
half the Russians of Ontario, dwell. The Scandinavians 
of Ontario were in 190 1 fewer even than the Russians, and like 
the Russians dwelt mainly in the wilder districts of the north- 
west. Indians, of course, increase as we move west ; nearly 
half of them residing in Algoma, where the principal Algon- 
quin reserve is on Manitoulin Island in Georgian Bay. The 
Indians of Ontario are 20,000, against 15,000 in 1881. 
The population becomes more and more miscellaneous, its 
type is less fixed and definite, the more we advance westward ; 
and the railway stations west of Fort William are named 
Finland, Linko, Upsala in order to denote the origin of their 
occupants. 



Authorities. 

Census figures for the Canadas were published by the authorities at 
Quebec for 1851-2, and 1 860-1, and have since then been published 
decennially by the authorities of the Dominion at Ottawa for 1870-r, 
1 880-1, 1 890-1 , and 1 900- 1. The fourth volume of the publication which 
deals with 1870-1 contains also in a summary form the census figures 
for the different provinces before 1870-1, including the figures for 1 860-1, 
and 1 85 1 -2, and of eleven previous Ontarian censuses between 1851 and 
1824. For dates prior to 1824 see Robert Gourlay, Statistical Account 
of Upper Canada^ 2 vols., 1822; Sir Charles Lucas, History of 
Canada, 1763-1812, 1909, Chapter IV; Report for 1891 on the 
Archives of Canada, by David Brymner ; and the Introduction of the 
1 870-1 Census Report, vol. iv. 

James White, Atlas of Canada, 1906, contains Statistical details from 
the Census of 1901, presenting differences of nationality, &c., in different 
colours, and giving lists of towns, &c. 

Data for the previous physical condition of the Province are obtain- 
able in — 

(i) General Descriptions of which Joseph Bouchette*s books 

VOL, V. PT. Ill O 



194 HISTORICAL GEOGRAPHY OF CANADA 

mentioned at the end of Chapter VI, and Robert Gonrlay, Statistical 
Account of Upper Canada, 2 vols., 1822, and G. M. Grant, Picturesque 
Canada, 1881, are examples. 

(2) General Histories such as William Kingsford, History of 
Canada, 10 vols., 1887 et seq. ; Francis Parkman, Works, 12 vols., 1899 ; 
Sir Charles P. Lucas, History of Canada, 1763 to 181 2 (1909); The 
Canadian War of 1812, 1906. 

(3) Local Histories. 

William CannifF, History of the Settlement of Upper Canada with 
special reference to the Bay of Quints, 1869. 

James Croil, Dundas, 1861. 

Charles O. Ermatinger, The Talbot Regime, 1904. 

J. L. Gourlay, History of the Ottawa Valley, 1896. 

Egerton Ryerson, The Loyalists of America, 2 vols., 1880. 

Henry Scadding, Toronto of Old, 1873. 

J. H. Smith, Historical Sketch of the County of Wentworth, 1897. 

Edward A. Talbot, Five Years' Residence i7t the Canadas, 2 vols., 
1824. 

C. Thomas, History of the County of Argent ettil and Prescott, 1896. 

(4) Travels. 

Captain Basil Hall, Travels in North A??ierica in 1827 and 1828, 
3 vols., 1829. 

Sir Richard Bonnycastle, The Canadas in 1841, 2 vols., 1842. 

John Gait, Autobiography, 2 vols., 1833. 

Bertha Harris, Life of Philemon Wright, 1903. 

George Heriot, Travels through the Canadas, 1807. 

Captain George L. Huyshe, The Red River Expedition, 1871. 

(Mrs.) Anna B. Jameson, Winter Studies a?td Summer Rambles in 
Canada, 3 vols., 1838. 

John MacGregor, British Afnerica, 2 vols., 1832. 

John Mactaggart, Three Years in Canada, 1826-8, 2 vols., 1829. 

F. A. F. de la Rochefoucauld Liancourt, Voyage dans les Etats Unis 
d'Amirique fait en 1795-7, 8 toms., 1799; English translation, 
2 vols., 1799, 4 vols., 1800. 

Patrick Shirreff, A Tour through North America, 1835. 

James Strachan, A Visit to the Province of Upper Canada in 1819, 
1820. 

Eliot Warburton, Hochelaga or Englaftd in the New World, 2 vols., 
ed. 2, 1846. 

(5) Emigration Reports and Pamphlets. 

Three Reports of the Select Co?nmittee of the House of Commons on 
E??tigration, 1826 (vol. iv), 1826-7 (vol. v). 

Report of Colonel Cockburn, Commissio7ier on Emigration, 1828 
(vol. xxi of collected edition of Reports). 

Thomas Douglas, Earl of Selkirk, Observations on the Highlands, 1805. 

Colonel David ^t&vf2ixi, Sketches of the Highlanders, 2 vols., 1882, 
new ed. 1885. 

Robert Gourlay, General Introduction to his Statistical Account of 
Upper Canada compiled with a view to a grand system of Efnigration^ 
1822. 

Letters from Sussex Emigrants who sailed ... in April, 1833, 
2nd ed., 1833. British Museum Library, 10470 c. 32. 



2 



CHAPTER VIII 

THE MIDDLE WEST 

Prairie-land. 

Somewhere on the threshold of Manitoba woods vanish, East of 
rouerh places are made smooth, the earth is a level lawn, ^^^^^^P^S 

, . . prairie- 

lakes and rivers are not what they were, and the horizon land 

widens. To the east an infinite series of wooded hills, ^^.^'^•^» 
watery hollows, lakes, swamps, and rocks^ cramps while it 
diversifies the scenery, and perplexes while it enchants the 
imagination; and as we move westward the maze becomes 
more intricate and stone-strewn or wet up to a point, beyond 
which there is an utter change ; but the point is not definite 
nor is the change sudden. The lovely, well-named, many- 
islanded Lake of the Woods is the last west lake which is a 
true lake, so that the point of change is west of this lake. 
The east frontier of Manitoba is a mere line of longitude 
drawn due north from the north-west angle of the lake ; and 
henceforth provinces, like parallelograms enclosed by four 
straight lines of longitude and latitude, and sub-divided into 
square townships six miles by six, begin to disfigure the map 
as though we had reached a region destitute of geographical 
outline. But the dividing line between woodland and plain 
is west of the provincial frontier, and is the first of several 
real lines which now begin to straggle and stray across the 
map from south-east to north-west. It may be discerned by 
the traveller from the east somewhere near Whitemouth, 
forty miles or so north-east of Winnipeg ; or, if he travels to 
Winnipeg by the Dawson road from the north-west angle of 
the Lake of the Woods, somewhere near St. Anne des Chenes, 
forty miles or so south-east of Winnipeg. There he sees his 
first plain. For 1,700 miles east of him, right to the Atlantic, 
there is nothing like this, except perhaps in miniature on the 



198 HISTORICAL GEOGRAPHY OF CANADA 

Acadian salt-marshes ; and for 900 miles west of him, right 
to the Rockies, there is hardly anything but this. Here, well 
to the east of Winnipeg (pop. 95,300^), which is the 
provincial capital of Manitoba and the commercial capital of 
prairie land, prairie-land begins, and there in the Rockies 
prairie-land ends. But prairie-land is not all prairie, and the 
prairies are of several sorts. What, then, are the Canadian 
prairies ? It is easier to say what they are not, than what 
they are. 
which an- A Canadian, when asked before a Royal Commission, 
^three * -^^^ \^.^xQ no tracts of land such as the Americans call 

steppes ; prairies in Canada.?' replied, 'None in the Canadas' (1826),^ 
for the Canadas meant nothing to him but the old forest 
provinces where water is the only level surface. The old 
provinces were the very antithesis of prairie, which is dry, 
level, and bare. Again, the mossy, treeless marsh-lands and 
stone-lands of Arctic Canada between Great Bear Lake, Great 
Slave Lake, Fort Churchill, and the northern seas, are called 
in Canada ' barrens ', and in Lapland and Northern Siberia 
' tundras ', and are sometimes flat ; and early travellers mis- 
took 'prairies' for 'barrens'; but 'barrens' are the parodies 
of prairies, which are smooth, grassy, and dry, like our 
English Downs. Prairies are barer than barrens, flatter than 
downs, and better than the best parts of the forest provinces. 
But prairies do not monopolise prairie-land, and the parts of 
prairie-land which are not prairie are the most characteristic 
parts of prairie-land, and differ widely in three tracts, which 
lie side by side between Eastern Manitoba and the Rockies. 
As these tracts are at diff'erent levels — 700 to 950 feet s.m. 
in the east, 1,250 feet to 1,950 feet s.m. in the middle, and 
2,200 to 4,000 or 5,000 feet s.m. in the west — they are 
called steppes, like the steppes of Western Asia and Southern 
Russia, which also lie on almost the same parallel of latitude. 

^ Population 1906 includes St. Boniface; c. 150,000 now. 
'^ Second Report on Emigration, 1826-7 • Felton's evidence. 



THE MIDDLE WEST 199 

A steppe is a table-land; but the first, that is to say the {i) the Red 

easternmost, of the Canadian steppes, though it looks like a ^^'^^^ 

flat table, is really a concave basin between two rims. The which is 

eastern rim is the impalpable watershed betwen the Red bounded 

^ ^ on the east 

River and the Lake of the Woods, which watershed is i,\oo by a hill- 

to 1,200 feet s.m. The western rim is a very palpable scarp, ^^^^P^ 
360 to 400 feet high, which runs 300 to 400 miles north- 
north-west, from Pembina Mountain on the frontier (49° 
N. lat.) to the River Saskatchewan at a point somewhere 
nearer Fort La Corne than Cumberland House. The wooded 
heights of Pembina, Riding, Duck, and Thunder ' Mountains ', 
and Porcupine and Pasquia * Hills ', serve as successive 
towers, and countless hillocks serve as turrets to the scarp; 
but, as in the Great Wall of China, its towers and turrets are 
not much higher than its top. From the foot of the scarp 
the basin slopes insensibly some 200 feet down to Red River 
and Lake Winnipeg, which are mere dents in its middle, and 
so up again to the eastern rim. 

The basin is now divided into three tracts — lake, marsh, and con- 
and dry land — which were once one ; for the lakes and ^^^HJ^i'akes 
marshes are relics of the past, and the dry land of to-day is with 
the marsh of yesterday and the lake of the day before, l^^^/^^f^ 
Long before history began, somewhere in the Post-Tertiary them, 
Age, one lake — to which geologists have given the fancy 
name of Lake Agassiz — is said to have filled the whole basin 
between rim and rim. The lake bottom planed itself into 
curves so gradual as to resemble flats, and the black lake- 
silt left by the receding waters is the most fertile soil in the 
world. While the surfaces of Eastern Canada were rough- 
hewn during the Primary Age, the Post-Tertiary Age moulded 
the first steppe of prairie-land, so that it might be thought 
that the contrast between the old Canada and the Canadian 
prairies is as striking geologically as it is geographically. 
But the geological contrast is only superficial ; for the lake- 
mud is only a carpet, immediately beneath which there is a 



200 HISTORICAL GEOGRAPHY OF CANADA 

rock floor of Silurian or Devonian limestone, like that of the 
valley of the St. Lawrence, or that of south-westernmost 
Ontario. Sometimes the rock protrudes ; thus the thin, low 
rock-rib — rarely more than fourteen feet high — which runs 
off and on for two hundred miles along the west side of Lake 
Winnipeg, from Grassy Narrows in the south to Limestone 
Bay in the north, is like an attenuated reminiscence of 
Niagara and Quebec, and sometimes a rock-bone sticks in a 
channel and forms rapids; but, as a rule, the rocks are 
invisible and do not disturb the surface. The lakes them- 
selves — Lake Winnipeg, Lakes Manitoba and Winnipegosis, 
which resemble a split shadow of Lake Winnipeg, and their 
satellites. Lakes Red Deer, Swan, Dauphin, Waterhen, and 
St. Martin, are mutually connected, like the great inland seas 
of the St. Lawrence, but are mere puddles in comparison, 
Lake Winnipeg being until recently put down as twenty-nine 
feet deep at most,^ and Lakes Manitoba and Swan being 
only a little deeper than the so-called lakes in Hyde Park and 
St. James's Park respectively. Nevertheless, Lakes Winne- 
pegosis, Manitoba, and Winnipeg are 828 feet, 810 feet, and 
710 feet above the sea respectively, so that if, as is supposed, 
they were once one vast lake filling the whole of the first 
steppe, they must then have been almost as deep as Lake 
Erie, which is by far the shallowest of the inland seas of the 
St. Lawrence ; but nowadays they are mere lagune vtve, and 
the marsh-lands between them are a little more than lagune 
morie. As a rule, however, these lakes have firm, tree-clad 
shore-lines; sometimes natural raised causeways of pebbles 
' like pigeons'-eggs \ and forty miles long, cross the marshes ; 
and Inter-Lake-Land varies from time to time. In 1868 a 
writer declared that ' the land ' between the western rim and 
Lake Winnipeg might 'almost be said to be water '.^ In 

^ Description of the Province of Manitoba (ofificial), 1893, p. 30; 
but there is a cut 96 feet deep, Geological Survey , 1898, p. 13 F. 

* M. T^z\\€, Sketch of the North-West of America^ 1868 (translated 
by Captain D. Cameron), p. 81. 



THE MIDDLE WEST 20I 

1874 the surveyors of the Canadian Pacific Railway thought 
this very land so dry, that they decided that their railway 
should go north-west from Selkirk, cross the Narrows of 
Lake Manitoba by a bridge, and so reach Edmonton ; but in 
J 879 wider experiences caused this decision to be revoked. 
The revocation was fortunate; for in 1881 John Macoun 
found ^ the whole country afloat ' west of the Narrows ; and 
to this day Inter- Lake-Land, though one of the earliest to be 
reached by settlers, is thinly peopled and all but destitute of 
railways. Natural accidental variations of solidity suggested 
drainage, and efforts at reclamation have been made here or 
hereabouts during this century on a scale and with a success 
greater than elsewhere in Eastern Canada. Possibly, then, 
some parts of Inter-Lake-Land will be converted in the future 
by the operations of nature or the efforts of man into prairies 
or the semblance of prairies. 

The area of possible future prairie-land is bounded on the 
north by the region of Archaean Gneiss, w^hich extends from 
a little north of Lake Winnipeg, and of the north bank of the 
Saskatchewan, towards Hudson Bay and the Arctics. So far 
as is known the uselessness of this Archaean tract is irre- 
mediable. Its very rivers are unfit for navigation. Thus 
Nelson River, which conducts the waters of Lake Winnipeg 
into Hudson Bay, is so shallow and rocky, that it is avoided 
even by canoes. The most primitive forces of the earth and 
of history still fashion the hinterland of Inter-Lake-Land, 
which is and remains, what God made it, and the Hudson Bay 
Company made of it. 

South of Lakes Winnipeg and Manitoba prairies stretch as well as 
from the eastern border of prairie-land to the western rim of ^^^^. . 
the first steppe, and right down to the frontier, more or less. 
The qualification ' more or less ' is necessary because, as a 
rule, the banks of rivers are clothed with trees, and tree 
clumps may be seen on the level land like sails on a still sea ; 
so that on a clear day isolated trees of sorts are said to be 



202 HISTORICAL GEOGRAPHY OF CANADA 



and whose 
chief rivers 
run at 
right 
angles to 
one an- 
other, 
making 
develop' 
ment 
oblong ; 



(2) the 
second 



always discernible from the highest Manitoban house-tops or 
elevators. This narrow strip is thickly peopled, for it contains 
all the prairies, which contain all the famous wheat fields, 
which Manitoba ever had, or was ever thought likely to have. 
There are only two principal rivers of the Manitoban 
prairies, the Red River and its affluent the Assiniboine. 
The Red River flows north from its source — close by the 
source of the Mississippi, far within the border of the United 
States ; and the Assiniboine flows east in so far as its course 
threads the first steppe for it comes from far, and belongs 
more to the second than to the first steppe. Both wind, for 
they are characteristic prairie rivers, and the rich soil makes 
Red River tawnier than the Tiber, or than any river between 
Red River and the marshlands of the Bay of Fundy. Simi- 
larly, Lake Winnipeg, which means '^muddy water ' — because, 
as the Crees say, a bad god was once so pelted with filth by 
womenfolk that in trying to clean himself in the lake he only 
muddied it^ — is a characteristic prairie lake, if it may be 
called lake, and points north more or less; while the Sas- 
katchewan, turbid amongst other things with prairie mud, 
meets it at its north corner after coming from furthest 
west; but the Saskatchewan belongs more to the second 
than to the first, and more to the third than to the 
second steppe. Widely sundered river-lines run eastward, 
and widely sundered lines of river, lake, and hill run north- 
ward or north-north-westward. If, then, geography deter- 
mines development, it might be expected that the first steppe 
would develop, not like Quebec Province along a single line, 
nor like Old Ontario within triangles bounded by water, but 
as an oblong. And this is what happened ; but it must be 
remembered that development in Inter-Lake-Land presented 
a very diff^erent problem to the problem of development on 
the compact continuous prairies to the south. 

The second steppe begins with the scarp with which the 
^ Sir J. Franklin, Narrative of a Journey to the Polar Sea^ 1823, p. 43. 



THE MIDDLE WEST 203 

first steppe ends, and may be described as an extension o{ steppe 
the scarp-top three hundred miles to the west. The scarp is ^CreLceous 
innocent of rocks, and consists of shale, sand, clay, and marl 
of Cretaceous, that is to say, of the uppermost Secondary 
Age. There is no Canadian tract which represents the 
Secondary Age east of the second steppe, if we except 
* recognizable fragments' of this formation embedded here 
and there in the first steppe; therefore the second steppe, 
being almost wholly Cretaceous, is a novelty in Canada. 
Its fertility and populousness equals that of the Manitoban 
prairie, its ' deep blue clays ' of Cretaceous Age either enrich- 
ing its surface, or intercepting rain a little below the surface, 
so as to provide well-water within easy reach. Where 
Cretaceous formations are not uppermost, this steppe dis- 
plays anticipations of the next steppe on its west, which 
steppe is a still greater novelty in Canada. 

The middle steppe slopes gradually upward towards its is inter- 
western boundary, which is a scarp, sometimes woody and %g]\^jfck 
sometimes not, known as the Coteau du Missouri, and of Cdteau and 
about the same apparent height as the scarp between the first fjH^^J^st % 
and second steppes. Geographically this scarp is the eastern the Cdteau 
edge of the third steppe ; geologically it is a moraine, formed of xertiary 
boulder-drift and earthy materials belonging to the lowest 
Tertiary Age ; and it is the easternmost tract of Canada 
where tertiary formations prevail, if we except fragments of 
itself which are scattered along the middle steppe. This 
scarp runs north-west 350 miles or so just west of the 
Estevan-Moose Creek Railroad, or of Moose Jaw Creek and 
Long Creek, reaching the South Saskatchewan near Swift 
Current, resuming further north as Bad Hills and Eagle Hills, 
and perhaps (north of the North Saskatchewan) as Thick- 
wood Hills. In the middle of the middle steppe there is a 
disconnected series of tree-crowned flat-topped hills, a few 
hundred feet high, but sometimes with declivities fourteen miles 
long, known successively as Turlle and Moose Mountains, 



204 HISTORICAL GEOGRAPHY OF CANADA 

and Wolfe, Brandon, File, Pheasant, Little Touchwood, 
Touchwood, and perhaps Lumpy and Birch Hills, which lie 
parallel with and seem to mock the Coteau. These ten mild 
* mountains' and 'hills' are also composed of boulder-drift, 
and also point north-west. Between the mock and the real 
Coteau the second steppe exhibits its longest stretches of 
pure prairie, and vivid descriptions of some of these stretches, 
which figured in books of forty or fifty years ago, used to 
pass as typical of all prairie land. A thin belt of salt-plain 
connects Long Lake and Quill Lake north-west of Touch- 
wood Hill; from Birch Hill Thomas Simpson saw, as he 
gazed along (not across) this stretch of prairie, ^ barren hills 
and hollows like a petrified sea — said to extend to the 
Missouri'. John Macoun, too, crossed forty-five miles of 
fissured, shrubless plain, between Moose Mountain and the 
Coteau.^ Observers noticed the vices and exceptions before 
the virtues. What seemed limitless prairie is common enough 
on the second steppe, but it is rarely hummocky or saline or 
fissured (except by the plough) ; and trees or hills are almost 
always near at hand. Thus between Winnipeg, Fort Pelly, 
and Carlton (on the bend of the North Saskatchewan), 
Simpson steered by woods in the day and slept in woods by 
night ; for the large Lakes were fringed with oak, elm, poplar, 
and pine ; and countless bluffs, crowned with aspens, and 
ponds, girt with willows, dotted the plain between the white 
poplars and birch trees of Duck Mountain and of the South 
Saskatchewan. His course was west by north. Further west, 
the road to the north presents a similar interchange of plain, 
pond, and tree, and during Kiel's Rebellion (1885) Colonel 
Mason's company marched 243 miles from Qu'Appelle Fort 
northward to Batoche, finding * firewood and water in abund- 
ance ' all the way ; and further south the road to the west lies 

^ e.g. John Macoun, Manitoba and the great Northwest^ 1882, pp. 56 
et seq., p. 86; Thomas Simpson*, Narrative of Discoveries^ 1845, ch. 2 ; 
Professor H. Y. Hind, Canadian, &c,, Expedition, i860, vol. i, p. 339. 



THE MIDDLE WEST 205 

within sight of the valley-walls and trees lining the rivers of 
the second steppe. 

These rivers are shallow, sinuous, devious shadows of what is threaded 
they once were. Absence of rock makes them meander ^^-^^^^ ^^ 
aimlessly ; the high, dry air of the plateau has shrivelled 
them, and accident has turned them awry. If the Assini- 
boine is followed up past its affluents, the Souris and 
Qu'Appelle, to its source, the differences between the rivers 
of the plain and the rivers of Eastern Canada are apparent. 
The Souris seems to come from, and to beckon wanderers ^. ^. //^^ 
towards the regions of the Missouri and Yellowstone in the ^"^'"^' 
far south-west ; but the Coteau in Canada is its real source, 
and between Melita and Alameda it takes 180 miles to 
accomplish what the modern train accomplishes in 60 miles. 
The Jordan is not more tortuous. The Qu'Appelle looks on Qu'Appelle, 
a small-scale map as though it pointed 220 miles due westward 
from Fort Ellice to its source ; but its valley, which is no to 
320 feet deep and a mile or more wide, is far longer; and 
the river in the valley exceeds 500 miles in length, is on an 
average 8 or 12 feet deep, and 80 feet wide or so, winding 
like thin yarn in a winding skein, or if perchance it fills its 
valley it is called a lake. The Assiniboine, after luring wan- Assini- 
derers westward, north-westward, and northward, turns back ^^^^^' 
upon itself at Fort Pelly, where it approaches Swan River, 
which, with its northerly companion Red Deer River, belongs 
to those large lakes of the first steppe to which there are no 
analogies on the second steppe. The guiding rivers are 
crooked instead of straight, and are probably more crooked 
than they once were. One valley encloses the Qu'Appelle 
right to its source, and also encloses Aiktow Creek, which 
rises from the same source, and flows westward into the South 
Saskatchewan twelve miles away. Probably at one time the 
South Saskatchewan ran eastward through this valley, right 
from the Rockies to Winnipeg, keeping — like the Canadian 
Pacific Railway of to-day — between the 50th and 51st degree 



2o6 HISTORICAL GEOGRAPHY OF CANADA 

of latitude all the way; if so, an 85-foot cutting or dam 
would restore the ancient course. Similarly the Qu'Appelle 
might be, and possibly was once, diverted down Elbow Bone 
Creek into the Souris. 
and North The livers are the playthings of chance; although the 
ivan • ' presence of definite river-valleys and banks, like those of the 
Qu'Appelle, suggests that they were once comparatively 
straight and deep. The North and Main Saskatchewan is 
the only river which has held its course consistently and per- 
sistently through the ages. It is by far the straightest river 
in prairie-land. Nevertheless below where the Sipanok 
Channel leaves it, its banks are low and its course capricious ; 
thus it can hardly be mere coincidence that its expansion 
called Cedar Lake is on the same level as Lake Winnepegosis, 
which is separated from it by four miles of flat, ten feet high. 
Even above the Sipanok paddles are exchanged for poles for 
the next nine hundred miles; and it has one great bend, 
which doubles the distance between Carlton House and 
Battleford, or Prince Albert and Fort Pitt. It is a great river 
and has played a great part in history ; but it is quite unlike 
the St. Lawrence or Ottawa. The lucid waters of the old 
provinces were always the only, and often the nearest way 
between point and point; but the discoloured waters of 
prairie-land were never the only, and were always the longest, 
way between point and point. In prairie-land landways were 
direct and unobstructed, and waterways circuitous and some- 
times obstructed, the converse being the case down east. On 
the second steppe it was possible to move in any direction, 
and to settle anywhere between five degrees of latitude, and 
in some places seven degrees of longitude, so that not triangles 
but oblongs once more symbolized progress. But the civil- 
ized oblongs on the first and second steppes differed in size 
as well as in character. Manitoba resembles a long low 

1 H. Y. Hind, Narrative of Canadian Exploring Expeditions, i860, 
vol. i, pp. 355, 428. 



THE MIDDLE WEST 



207 



building — every inch of it alive with men, busy, and rich, 
with towers and spires shooting upward here and there, — the 
highest and most solid on its west where it touches the second 
steppe ; the civilized parts of Saskatchewan resemble a square 
— like the great square of Pegasus — not quite so full as the 
living-rooms, but far higher than the highest pinnacles of its 
eastern neighbour, and with the same inevitable wastes 
above it. 

The third steppe consists of those drifts and earths of the (3) and the 
Coteau, which are superimposed upon those earths and shales ^^j^f^l^f/^ 
of the second steppe, which are superimposed upon those tertiary, 
limestones, which lurk underneath the first steppe. It '"^^^te Rockies 
higher, drier, barer, and hillier than its fellows. The highest 
altitude on its west is more than 2,000 feet higher than the 
highest altitude on its east, and seems, when looked at from 
above, the uptilted end of a rolling plain, and, when looked at 
from below, a platform upon which mountains stand. It 
is really both ; for the Rocky Mountains are rocks and 
glaciers piled up abruptly and confusedly upon the western 
extremity of prairie-land. 

When Sir George French led the newly formed North-West has arid 
Mounted Police on their historic ride along the frontier from^^^^"^' 
the Red River to * Fort Hamilton ' ^ and Macleod, wood, 
grass, and water began to fail on and after the C6teau ; then 
Wood Mountain and Cypress Hills yielded both for more 
than one hundred miles ; afterwards he reached Milk River 
(which belongs to the Missouri), Belly River (which is the 
second greatest branch of the South Saskatchewan), and the 
plain changed imperceptibly into foot-hills, much as a calm 
sea changes into a stormy sea when the breeze stiffens, and 
he was safe (1874). When the Marquis of Lome rode 260 
miles south-west from Battleford to Blackfoot Crossing '^ on 
Bow River (which is the chief branch of the South Saskat- 

1 Near Lethbridge on the Mary-Belly Junction. 

2 Near Gleichen. 



2o8 HISTORICAL GEOGRAPHY OF CANADA 

chewan), he found no wood north-east of Red Deer River 
(which is the third greatest branch of the South Saskatchewan) 
except at Sounding Lake, and neither wood nor water between 
Red Deer River and Bow River (1881); and Sir John 
Palliser had a similar experience between Red Deer River, at 
Hand Hills, and Bow River in 1858. When Bow River was 
reached, wood and water were abundant, and the undulations 
of the plain were already swelling into the foot-hills of the 
Rocky Mountains. The railway traveller of to-day enters 
the same arid zone at Moose Jaw and leaves it at Gleichen, 
between which he sometimes sees * hard, white, sun-cracked 
clay', with scarce, tufty buffalo-grass, or even sage-brush,^ 
and sometimes a sand-dune or two, and sometimes an old dry 
river-bed littered with quartzite stones, smooth as pebbles on 
a sea-beach ; and the ponds by the wayside are rarely fresh, 
as their white crystals and crimson salicornea show. The 
extent of this arid zone was once wildly exaggerated. Pro- 
fessor Hind, who was an optimist in his day (i860), described 
it as beginning at Pembina Mountain on the frontier and 
curving upward along the Assiniboine to Touchwood Hills on 
the mock C6teau (50° N. lat.), running straight thence to 
where Red Deer is now, and redescending abruptly from Red 
Deer to the frontier near the sources of the Belly ; within 
which rude arch lay what he called desert, and above which 
lay what he called the Rainbow of the West. Modern author- 
ities trace the upward curve along the real C6teau, and 
describe the land inside the curve as pastoral land, with 
patches of agricultural and patches of barren land, much of 
the latter being easily reclaimable. Indeed, on its borders 
the Alberta Railway and Irrigation Company drew water 
from the St. Mary River, and made the Lethbridge district 
into a beet-garden ; and the Canadian Pacific Irrigation and 
Colonization Company drew water from the Bow, and 
reclaimed large tracts east of Calgary. These efforts began 

1 Artemisia. 



THE MIDDLE WEST 209 

in the Nineties, and similar efforts are in process of being 
made near the junction of the Bow with the Belly and else- 
where. What drainage is doing for the northern parts of the 
first steppe, irrigation is doing for that southern fraction of 
the third steppe, which reflects on a small scale and in a mild 
degree the characteristics of the so-called Central American 
deserts of the United States. Clearly the civilized oblong of 
Alberta has disadvantages from which its eastern neighbours 
are free, and which suggest that it will never be quite so full 
and busy as they are. But there is another side to the picture, 
and Alberta enjoys advantages which they do not enjoy. 

A strip between the dry tract and the Rockies is influenced and parts 
by warm winds from the Pacific.^ In mid-winter, thaws dis- ^'{/^^'^f^^ 
perse the snow from time to time, and cattle fatten out oi winds, e.g. 
doors, but the re-freezing of the exposed earth injures its crops. y^^^^%\. 
A little north-west of the northernmost latitude of the dry trict^ 
tract, alternate ridged and swampy forests encompass the 
head-waters of the Athabasca beyond Lake St. Anne (near 
Edmonton), and all traces of prairie-land are effaced ; but 
prairie-land recurs further north in the Peace River District, 
or that district through which the Peace River and its south- 
ern affluents flow, and which includes Lesser Slave Lake on 
the east, but excludes the mountain gorges of the west and 
the Arctic lands north of Fort Vermilion,^ or thereabouts. 
Here valley-walls reveal the same stones and earth as the 
constituents of the second and third steppes ; rolling prairies 
alternate with pine and poplar thickets ; and west of Smoky 
River, which joins the Peace River at what is now the Hudson 
Bay Company's Fort of Peace River Landing,^ there are 
3,000 square miles of true prairie. Near Fort Vermilion Mac- 
kenzie first noted the effects of the Pacific winds in winter 
(1792-3); at Peace River Landing he built a fort on what is 
now a potato patch, and near where pumpkins are growing ; 
and in 1907 there was a saw-mill, a flour-mill, and * quite a 

1 Chinook winds. 2 c. 58° 25' N. lat. ^ <,. 56° 10' N. lat. 

VOL, V. PT, in p 



2IO HISTORICAL GEOGRAPHY OF CANADA 

Settlement at Fort Vermilion \ wheat being the ' staple crop'. ^ 
Beet, tomatoes, and apples ripened on an experimental farm 
which was carried on by the Dominion Government, and 
the Hudson Bay factors led the new departure. These open 
tracts to the north of the shut tracts of the Upper Athabasca 
are to prairie-land what real is to Indian summer, or after- 
math is to harvest. The Peace and Athabasca flow north 
into the Mackenzie, and the North and South Saskatchewan 
east into Lake Winnipeg ; yet here, at all events, prairie-land 
ignores watersheds. This strip of prairie-land has no natural 
boundaries on its north and shoots up indefinitely towards 
the Arctics, or merges in the valley of the Mackenzie. 
or e.g the The whole valley of the Mackenzie from Athabasca Land- 
Basin - '^^S ^^ ^^^ Arctics is also a land of hope. Edmonton is now 
the one and only gateway to the Mackenzie. A portage, one 
hundred miles long, which is now a coach-road and will soon 
be a rail-road, leads from Edmonton to Athabasca Landing on 
the Athabasca River, which having risen in the south-west 
henceforth flows north and north-west, merging successively 
in Lake Athabasca, Great Slave River and Lake, and Mac- 
kenzie River, and reaching the Arctic Ocean nearly two 
thousand miles from the Landing. Athabasca Landing has 
two or more competing stores — the principal competitors 
being the Hudson Bay Company and R^villons Fr^res — a 
French Roman Catholic and an English Protestant mission ; 
and these two trading and proselytising establishments face or 
alternate with one another from end to end of the Great River, 
reproducing in the oddest and friendliest way the piebald 
uncivilization of the Red River Colony of nearly a century 
ago, or the piebald civilization of the Quebec Province of to- 
day. The line of life is very frail, and keeps strictly to the 
river banks. The trade and mission stations on the river are 
always more than a house and less than a village, are on the 
average one hundred miles apart, and, usually command, as 

^ Official Handbook^ Alberta^ i907> P« 54? 



THE MIDDLE WEST 211 

the old forts on the St. Lawrence once commanded some 
rapid, some affluent, or some inland sea. There are only 
two important rapids, Fort Macmurray is just below the first, 
and Fort Smith ^ is just below the second. There are two 
inland seas, and Fort Chipewyan is to Lake Athabasca what 
Fort Resolution is to Great Slave Lake, or what Kingston 
or Fort Frontenac once was to Lake Ontario. Three great 
affluents join it on the west, the Peace, Liard, and Peel, and 
Forts Chipewyan, Simpson, and Macpherson control their 
respective points of junction. The mouths of three important 
eastern affluents are commanded by Forts Macmurray, Nor- 
man, and Good Hope ; there is one outlying fort on the east 
of Lake Athabasca, and another on the north of Great Slave 
Lake, and Fort Macpherson and its dependency, Arctic Red 
River Post, although situate on the spot where the Delta of the 
Mackenzie begins, send out feeders to the far north-west and 
north-east. On the north-west Herschel Island, where there 
are American whalers, an Anglican mission, and a post of the 
Royal North- West Mounted Police, trades with Fort Macpher- 
son ; and from time to time there is an outpost of the Fort on 
the north-east near Cape Bathurst. Steamers ply regularly 
between the rapids at Macmurray and Fort Smith, and between 
Fort Smith and Macpherson. Timber lines the valley up to 
68° 55 ' N. lat. ; and potatoes, turnips, carrots, and cabbages 
are habitually grown at Fort Good Hope,'^ The barest 
minimum of white-man's civilization penetrates along this 
favoured channel withotit one break from the crowded centres 
of the western steppe into that desolate uninhabitable region, 
with which the first chapter of this book dealt. It would 
almost seem as though we had wheeled round again to the 
solitudes of the starting-place. But there is nothing cyclical 
about the shape or destiny of Canada; and if, as is probable, 
the Mackenzie basin and Peace River District, instead of 
having only a few hundred white men — as is the case now— 

1 c. 6o° N. lat. 2 c. 66^ 20' N. lat. 

P 2 



212 HISTORICAL GEOGRAPHY OF CANADA 

becomes as populous as the analogous Russian Province 
upon the Lower Ob and Irtish — where there are already 
a million and a half free Russians — that result will be due 
partly to the fertility of the strip between Athabasca Landing 
and the Arctic region, but partly too to the fact that the courses 
of the Athabasca, Peace, Liard, and Peel lure men across the 
western mountains ; for Canada has always been and still 
is racing westward.^ 
and Uadi The Strip between the dry lands and Rockies is of peculiar 
to \ipasses interest as the approach to the mountain passes, of which 
Rockies, thirteen are well-known and six are famous in Canadian 
history. These passes are given on the opposite page in 
their geographical order from north to south, and the order 
of their discovery so far as it is known is not very different 
from their geographical order. 
The third The Steppes have their special minerals and coal. The 
^coal^ ^^ lowest tertiary, and possibly the highest secondary beds of 
the third steppe yield coal at Estevan on the frontier; at 
Frank and Fernie on Crow's Nest Pass ; at Canmore, near 
Kicking Horse Pass, and Pembina River west of Edmonton ; 
and lignite or coal are visible at Red Deer River (52^ 19' N. 
lat.), Edmonton, Dunvegan on the Upper Peace, and else- 
where on the third steppe, and even in the far north, a little 
below Fort Macmurray and a little above Fort Norman.^ East 
of the third steppe or its outliers, there is an interval of 1,600 
or 1,700 miles without actual or possible coal, for the earth 
here is too old for coal. As in south-westernmost Ontario, 
so along the railway lines between Medicine Hat and Calgary, 
natural gases well up from Devonian depths ; there is near 
Pincher Creek in the south, and Fort Macmurray in the north, 

^ Geological Survey of Canaday Reports on Peace River District by 
William Ogilvie, 1892; and by James Macoun, 1903; Alfred H. 
Harrison, In search of a Polar Continent ^ 1908 ; A. Deans Cameron, 
The New Norths 1910. 

* Sir A. Mackenzie, Voyages^ 1801, ed. by R. Waite (1903), vol. ii, 
p. 347 ; Journals of Alexander Henry the Younger ^ 1799-1 8 14, cd. by 
E. Cowcs, pp. 679, 703. 



coaly 



THE MIDDLE WEST 



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214 HISTORICAL GEOGRAPHY OF CANADA 



the second 
has brick, 

all had 
bisoHj ami 
grizzlies. 



Jhe chief 

hidians 

were 

Chippe- 

ways, 



oil as well as gas ; and the bitumen of Athabasca River, and 
the salt-springs worked since 1819 on the south-west shore 
of Lake Winnipegosis and at Swan Lake, are also Devonian. 

The second steppe is without minerals, but bricks are made 
at Moose Jaw, Regina, and Sidney, 

Bison, miscalled buffaloes, are the characteristic animals of 
prairie-land. They were seen by Kellsey (169 1-2), La Ver- 
endrye (1732 et seq.), and Hendry (1754-5), madly careering 
over the three steppes. Hearne saw them on the south shore 
of Great Slave Lake (1772)/ and Mackenzie heard of them 
there, and on the Liard,^ north-west of that lake. They still 
existed on the Liard in a wild state in 1872. Millions 
roamed over the prairies, and in one day in 1769 a fur-trader 
counted 7,360 drowned bisons in the Lower Assiniboine ^ ; 
in 1 858-1 875 their tracks rutted the neighbourhood of Turtle 
Mountain, but their selves had long since passed westward ; 
and now the bison of the plain survive only in ' parks *, as in 
Lithuania, and the woodland bison are being preserved with 
difficulty from total extinction by the efforts of the Royal 
North- West Mounted Police at Fort Smith. Elk ^ and red- 
deer ^ had nearly the same range as the "bison, except that 
the bison shunned marsh-lands, and the red-deer were often 
replaced by reindeer ^ in the north. In the time of Alexander 
Henry the Younger (17 99-1 8 14), grizzly bears were 'abun- 
dant * on Pembina Mountain, and though * not numerous 
along Red River', frequented the three steppes, but with the 
passing of the bison the grizzlies slunk back to their moun- 
tain lairs west of prairie-land. 

When bison waned the Indians of the prairie dwindled; 
and now the former are in preserves and the latter in reserves. 

East of the Rockies, south of the Saskatchewan, or of 54° 



1 S. Hearne, /oiij'ftej^, p. 250. 2 1789-93. 

3 John Macdonnell, in L. R. Masson, Les Bourgeois de la Compagnie 
du Nord-Ouest , 1889, Series I, p. 294. 

* Moose. ' Wapiti. ^ Caribou. 



THE MIDDLE WEST 21 5 

N. lat., and north of the frontier, Chippeways ^ dwelt near the Crees, 

Lake of the Woods, Crees on the first, Assiniboines on the ^{^<^^/^^^' 
' ' who were 

second, and the Blackfoot Confederacy on the third steppe. Algonquin, 
All, with two exceptions, were Algonquins and akin to all the 
Indians of Eastern Canada, except to the Hurons. The two 
exceptions were the Assiniboines and Sarsis. The Assini- Assini- 
boines w^ere offshoots of the Sioux, who dwelt in Dakota \^l^!^^ 
(United States) and were not Algonquin ; and the Assini- 
boines allied themselves to the Crees, and were to the Sioux 
what the Hurons of Quebec Province were in old times to 
the Iroquois of New York State. The Sioux, too, were 
waging war in 1680, 1731, and 1854, and probably in all 
the intermediate years, against the Chippeways, who for a 
similar reason became the allies of the Crees. The Sarsis Sarsis 
were offshoots of the Chipewyan '^ stock, which frequented the ^^yX)' 
River Churchhill, and every river lying north of 54° N. lat. 
and leading to the Arctic Ocean, but the Sarsis seceded from 
their kith and kin of the River Peace in order to join the 
Blackfoot Confederacy. Horses and guns changed Indian whose 
boundaries, but did not change Indian alliances. In 1738-9 f^an/ed^^ 
the horse seems to have been unknown in prairie-land ; in ivhen 
1742-3, *Gens des Chevaux' are mentioned in the far west, fS^t^^^Z^ 
somewhere south of the frontier; Anthony Hendry (1754-5) introdticed 
called the Blackfoot Confederacy of the third steppe ' Eques- ^^^^^ '^^ 
trian Indians \ because they were the only mounted Indians; 
finally in Henry the Younger's time (1799 et seq.) all prairie 
Indians were mounted, and the Assiniboines used to steal 
horses from their western neighbours and sell them to their 
eastern neighbours for guns. ^ The Blackfeet were the first 
to get horses, and the Crees were the first to get guns. As 
the horse stole, or was stolen, into prairie-land from south- 
west and west, Frenchmen and Englishmen brought their 

1 = Ojibbeways. ^ = Athapascan. 

^ Sic A. Henry. Comp. Sir J. Palliser, Report on Exploration, p. 13, 
in Accounts and Papers, 1859, vol. xxii, p. 653. 



2l6 HISTORICAL GEOGRAPHY OF CANADA 

more deadly gifts from east and north-east. The Assini- 
boines got both swiftness and strength at second-hand, and 
were squeezed between friends and foes ; and the Crees, with 
the Chippeways at their heels, enlarged their range at the 
expense of the Assiniboines, Blackfeet, and Chipewyans, 
but especially the defenceless Chipewyans. Thus in the 
eighteenth century they invaded the Peace River District, 
enslaved and made peace with the Chipewyan natives, — hence 
the words Slave River and Peace River — and now reach 
along the valley of the Mackenzie to Lake Athabasca. Horses 
and guns accelerated the doom of the bison, nor did the 
self-dependence of the Indians survive the bison, which had 
hitherto been their clothes, houses, bridles, saddles, bags, 
boats, weapons, fuel, meat, and very life. 



Authorities. 

The following are indispensable books for students of exploration in 
prairie- land : — 

L. Burpee, Search for the Western Sea, T908 (an excellent history of 
exploration, with bibliography, &c.). 

Sir W. F. Butler, Great Lone Land, 1872 ; Wild North Land, 1873, 
new ed. 1904 (popular classics). 

G. M. Dawson, Report 07i the Geology and Resources of , , . the \^th 
parallel J 1875. 

Sir S. Fleming, Report on . , , Canadian Pacific Railway, 1880. 

G. M. Grant, Ocean to Ocean, 1873, new ed. 1877 (a popular classic). 

IT. Y. Hind, Narrative of the Canadian Red River, &c,, exploring 
Expedition, 2 vols., i860. 

Alexander Henry the Younger and D. lL\iom^?,on, Journals of edited 
with notes, by E. Coues, 3 vols , 1897 (a mine of information). 

J. Macoun, Manitoba and the Great North-West, 1882. 

Lord Milton and W. B. Cheadle, North-west Passage by Land, 1865; 
new ed., 1901 (a popular classic). 

Sir J. Palliser's Expeditio7is, including those of Sir James Hector (the 
New Zealand geologist) and T. W. Blakiston (the explorer of China) 
are contained in Parliameiitary Reports, printed in Accounts and Papers, 
1859, Sess. 2 (vol. xxii) and i860 (vol. xliv). 

Important Historical Maps are contained in D. Brymner, Report on 
Cancidian Archives, 1887, p. ex. (C. F. Hanington) : 1890, p. 53 
(Peter Pond) ; in Eliot Coues*s edition of A, Henry (u. s.), vol. iii 
(David Thompson) ; and in Palliser's Reports (u. s.), passim. 



CHAPTER IX 

THE MANY NATIONS OF PRAIRIE-LAND 

Down to 1870, Europeans invaded prairie-land from two British 
sides — Hudson Bay, Nelson River, and Hayes River on the l%^^y^^_ 
north-east ; and Canada, Lake Superior, and Lake of the land from 
Woods on the east — and they reached its threshold in canoes. ^ay^^i6Qi 
In 1 69 1-2 Henry Kellsey explored the second steppe, and in 1754, &c.y 
1754-5 Anthony Hendry explored the third steppe; both 
came from Hudson Bay, both journeys were on foot, and 
both were isolated; for in those days the Company, which 
they served, received but never returned Indians' visits. 

Meanwhile La Verendrye and his sons came from Canada Canadians 
and explored Lake Winnipeg (1732),^ Winnipeg {i 1 34), cZada, 
and Portage La Prairie on the Assiniboine (1737),' where 1732, ^'t-., 
they planted forts at confluences and portages in the usual 
Canadian style. From Portage a flying visit was paid to the 
Missouri (1738-9) and the spurs of the Rockies (1742-3) in 
the United States. Except at the start, where they followed 
the apparent direction of the Souris, the travellers who went 
on foot paid no heed to waterways. These were the first 
dashes across dry land in Canadian history. From Lake and the 
Winnipeg, other expeditions were made up the Saskatchewan ^^f^^^J^^^f 

fZt/CfS Of 

to its forks ; and forts were founded at Cedar Lake,* Le Pas Manitoba 
Crossing,^ and near La Corne^ on the way (1740-9). Two ^^/^fif^^L 
long lakes and three short straits lay between the two forts at Cafiadian 
Cedar Lake and Portage; accordingly a third fort*^ was-^^^^"^* 
founded on the strait between Lakes Manitoba and Winni- 
pegosis in order to connect these two forts. These men 
clung to waterways, and threw a necklace of permanent forts 

1 Fort Maurepas. 2 jrQj.j- Rouge. ^ Fort La Reine. 

* Fort Bourbon. ^ P'ort Poskoia. 

* Fort Nipawi and St. Louis. ^ Fort Dauphin. 



2l8 HISTORICAL GEOGRAPHY OF CANADA 

round the wet parts of the first steppe, including however the 
Assiniboine, and some parts of the Saskatchewan, which just 
lay within the second steppe. La Corne, for instance, was 
within the second steppe ; and one flying expedition up the 
South Saskatchewan is said to have reached the third steppe. 
The Indians who dealt with the French-Canadian forts were 
Chippeways, Crees, and Assiniboines ; but the British of 
Hudson Bay still monopolized the Chipewyans, who came 
thither by the Churchill. Long walks on foot and away 
from rivers were new in Canada and left little mark on its 
history ; but the chain of posts on the lake-shores and river- 
banks endured, and meant that the history of prairie-land 
had at last begun. 
Rivalry Shortly before and after the conquest of 1759 prairie-land 

fhe^Saskat'^'''^^ left alone. In 1767 James Finlay and Thomas Curry 
chewan, retraced the old French waterways from Montreal as far as 
^whlnce ^ip^wi on the Saskatchewan; in 1772 the Frobishers fol- 
Canadians lowed, and built a house at Cumberland on a backwater of 
^Rockies via ^^ Saskatchewan within easy reach of Frog Portage, where 
Cumber- they intercepted the Chipewyans on the way down the 
^AthabaTca Churchill to Hudson Bay. The Hudson Bay Company took 
Lakeland up the challenge, sent Matthew Cocking by Hendry's route 
River ^^ Nipawi in order to spy out the land (1772), and estab- 
1793; lished their first inland settlement at Cumberland House 
(1773). But the Frobishers, Peter Pond, Alexander Henry 
the elder, and other Canadians were already flitting still 
further into the heart of the Chipewyan country, where they 
built 'houses' and forts at Frog Portage (1774), La Crosse 
Lake (1776), and Athabasca River (1778-84) and Lake 
(1788); whence Sir Alexander Mackenzie ascended the 
Peace River, building forts as he went, and crossing the 
Rockies (1793). Commercial rivalry diverted the way to the 
far west from the Saskatchewan at Cumberland House ; and 
the first through-way lay north of what is usually called 
prairie-land, through a labyrinth of rivers and lakes, like 



THE MANY NATIONS OF PRAIRIE-LAND 219 

those in the Archaean regions of Quebec Province. This 
through-route persisted until the close of the century. Cum- 
berland was always on the main through-route so long as 
men went to the west solely by water, and it is still sometimes 
used as a junction for Arctic Canada. 

Indian politics obstructed for awhile the natural through- and, later, 
way to the west along the North Saskatchewan. Eagle Hills, ^^4/ 
near Battleford, was reached, built on (1779), and abandoned Saskat- 
(1780) owing to native attacks; a lonely adventurer named '^ ^^^'^" 
Peter Pangman arrived near the head-waters of the North 
Saskatchewan, saw the Rockies, carved his name upon a tree 
and returned (1790) ; and a chain of forts was erected along 
the river at Prince Albert,^ Carlton House,^ Forts George 
(1792),' Saskatchewan (1798),^ Edmonton (1797,)" and the 
Rocky Mountains (1802)^ Then the way by the North 
Saskatchewan superseded the older and more circuitous way. 
The multiple northern chain was woven first; the single 
chain which supplanted it came second, and both chains 
depended partly or wholly on the Saskatchewan and North 
Saskatchewan. 

A third chain might have been, but was not stretched but not via 
across prairie-land along the course of the Saskatchewan and ^saska^-^ 
South Saskatchewan, where there were forts near Batoche cheivan ; 
(1790), and at the junction of Red Deer River (1791, 1805, 
182 ly the latter being abandoned from time to time because 
of the hostility of the Blackfeet. Beyond this point no one 
penetrated from the east ; but Peter Fiddler, of the Hudson 
Bay Company, darted down from Fort George on the north 
of the third steppe to Bow River and back (1792-3); and 
David Thompson or his men traced Red Deer River and 
Bow River down-stream from the west (1800), so that the 

1 Fort Providence. 

2 Fort Hudson Hope before 1794, Carlton House 1797. 

3 Tio° 41' W. long. ■* Old Fort Augustus. 

5 New Fort Augustus. '^ Rocky Mountain House. 

' Chesterfield House. 



220 HISTORICAL GEOGRAPHY OF CANADA 



the Assini- 
boine being 
used to go 
north not 
west and 
the South 
Saskat- 
chewan 
being 
avoided. 



last links in this chain were put on late in the day, and 
sideways or backwards. But these last links were never used 
as one chain. 

Alternative first links in the same chain were, or might 
have been added along the Assiniboine, and its principal 
tributary the Qu'Appelle ; but these too were never used as 
such. The Assiniboine was chiefly used for circulating 
round and through the lakes* of the first steppe. From 
Portage La Prairie (1794) men went by White Mud River 
(1799), Birtle Creek (1801), the junctions of the Assiniboine 
with the Souris (1797V and with the Qu Appelle (1790)/ 
Fort Pelly (1797), Swan River, Red Deer Lake (1800), and 
then either by Le Pas and the Lower Saskatchewan, or by 
Lakes Dauphin (1775?), and St. Martin (1797), back to 
Lake Winnipeg, and their starting place ; and at all of these 
points there were forts at or before the dates mentioned. 
All, or nearly all the adventurers revolved in a circle, only a 
little larger and better held than under the French regime. 
There was no systematic advance along the Souris or the 
Qu'Appelle, although isolated visitors reached the Missouri 
from the Souris on horseback and returned ; and an advanced 
post was stationed near Qu'Appelle on the Qu Appelle and 
withdrawn (1804). Through-ways were waterways; yet the 
through-way along the Qu'Appelle and South Saskatchewan, 
which seems so obvious to students of Professor Hind (i860), 
was shunned, and Sir John Palliser wrote that west of 
Qu'Appelle Fort ^the whole country in this latitude is un- 
t ravelled by the white man ' and therefore ' unknown. ' (1857).^ 
Only one route was used across the whole of prairie-land 
from east to west, and that was the water-route by the 
Saskatchewan and North Saskatchewan. Canadian instincts, 
which clave to one long water-way, with many short cuts, 

1 Stone Indian River House. 

2 Fort Esperance, near Fort Ellice. 

^ Accounts and Papers, 1859, Sees. 2, vol, xxii, p. 653 ; Palliser*s 
Report on Explorations ^ See, p. 14. 



THE MANY NATIONS OF PRAIRIE-LAND 221 

preferred this route and made it supreme, at all events until 
1870. Before that date men thought exclusively in water; 
thus the east of prairie-land seemed spacious to them because 
it presented an uninterrupted water-base 300 miles long from 
north to south ; and, west of the large lakes, lines of movement 
seemed narrowing and tapering towards the North Saskat- 
chewan. Capitals w^ere water-capitals. At the lower end of the 
base, Winnipeg, being a ganglion of waterways and portages 
to the north, east, south, and west, was important ; and at the 
apex, Edmonton, being a similar ganglion for Athabasca 
Landing, Peace River (via Lesser Slave Lake, 1799), and the 
sources of the Athabasca and of both Saskatchewans, rivalled 
Cumberland as a water-junction. Le Pas, Prince Albert, and 
Battleford were not only water-junctions, but fords for horses ; 
and horses supplemented boats in a way unknown in Eastern 
Canada. Posts, where men exchanged boats for horses, 
became even more important than fords ; and Prince Albert, 
Carlton House, and Battleford became starting-points and 
goals for short cuts — or, rather, long rides — either across the 
bed of the North Saskatchewan, or in later times from the 
Saskatchewan, to the Swan River, Assiniboine, and Qu'- 
Appelle, at Forts Pelly, EUice, and Qu'Appelle. These long 
rides over treeless levels often exceeded two hundred miles, 
and must not be confused with the portage roads of Eastern 
Canada, which seldom exceeded ten miles, and were always 
artificially cleared, although the effects produced on history 
were similar. 

The belief that the development of prairie-land must pro- Settlers 

ceed along rivers and lakes and their banks affected history . /^^^^.^'^^ 
° ^ similar 

The permanent settlement of prairie-land by men who were water 
not hunters began in 187 1, but for twelve years or more dawn ^o^^^^i 
had been visible, and sixty years ago there had been a false 
dawn. The settlements of the real settlers, like those of the 
hunters, concentrated on the river-banks near Winnipeg ; but 
there were also the germs of settlements on the Saskatchewan 



222 HISTORICAL GEOGRAPHY OF CANADA 

and North Saskatchewan. The first real settlers were Lord 
Selkirk's colonists, isolated ' freemen ', and the immigrants of 
the Seventies. 
e, g. Lord Of Lord Selkirk's colonists, some came from Sutherland- 
settlers ^ ^^^^^ ^^^ Sligo to Hudson Bay, and then southward by Hayes 
1 812, &C.J River and Lake Winnipeg to Winnipeg (18 12 et seq.), and 
others were Swiss mercenaries who fought for Canada, and 
came thence westward by Lake Superior, Rainy Lake, and 
Lake of the Woods, to German Creek ^ above Winnipeg. In 
winter these settlers usually flitted for food to Pembina across 
the border, and most of them soon fled for good, the British 
flying by the usual waterways to Eastern Canada, and the 
Swiss flying up the Red River to Dakota (United States) 
(1825). Thus two human currents met in Winnipeg from 
afar, and retired diff"erent ways, leaving deposits behind. 
and French Then two Other currents set in from the eastern and 
freemen^at ^^^^^ern waterways, and bore 'freemen' to Winnipeg. 
^or near French-Canadians, after serving in prairie-land with Canadian 
Wtnmpegy j^^sters (1732 et seq.), used to marry Indian wives and beget 
half-breeds, and settle where there was fish, fowl, fun, and 
salt, and not further than could be helped from bison. As 
in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, Newfound- 
landers touched at Waterford, and hired cheap indentured 
Irish servants, of whom they had a monopoly ; even so, after 
1 71 1, Hudson Bay factors touched at the Orkneys and in- 
dentured and monopolized cheap Scotch servants, and when 
the Hudson Bay Company invaded prairie-land, the Orkney- 
men did what the French-Canadian servants did, when their 
indentures expired, after Lord Selkirk had shown the way. All 
these freemen farmed or pretended to farm along the banks of 
the Red River for a few miles — Scotchmen west and French- 
Canadians east, and the banks of the lower Assiniboine — 
Scotchmen north and French-Canadians south.' The farms 
were wretched, were twenty times as deep as broad, and after 
1 = River Seine. ^ Milton and Cheadle, oj). cit.^ 1862, p. 44. 



THE MANY NATIONS OF PRAIRIE-LAND 2.2^^ 

1870 were replaced, even as the farms of the early Dungharee 
settlers around Sydney (New South Wales) were replaced by 
the law of the survival of the fittest. Houses straggled with 
long gaps as far as Portage la Prairie, fifty-six miles west of 
Winnipeg (c. 1850); Portage was regarded in i860 as the 
most westerly limit of civilization, and * the last house ' lay 
ten miles west of it in 1872. For the sake of these settlers 
of a bygone age, Winnipeg became a cathedral city for Roman 
Catholics (1822) and Anglicans (1849). After 1859, ^ ^^w 
traders settled at Winnipeg from the United States. 

From 1859 to 1871 newspapers (1859)^ mails (1864), the {which 
first Governor (186 9), steamers {1870), Commissioners (1870), J^C^^J'' 
Sir William Butler (though a member of the Red River wholly on 
Expedition) (1870), Fenians, food, travellers, telegraphs, ^^^^^-^^^^^ 
(1871), Hudson Bay Company's stores, everything came 
from the United States to Winnipeg.^ Commercially Winnipeg 
was an appanage of the United States and owed its growth 
in the Seventies to this fact. 

In these longitudes the Americans of the United States 
were a quarter of a century ahead of the Canadians, and the 
latter sometimes shone with the reflected prosperity of the 
former. Almost continuous prairie stretched westward from 
near Chicago, and Germans and Scandinavians were pouring 
in solid masses into Wisconsin in the Forties and into 
Minnesota in the Sixties.* St. Paul's, Minnesota, was also a 
Mississippi port, and a steamer bore Lawrence Oliphant thence 
southward in 1854. In 1870, and even afterwards, St. Paul's 
was the rich uncle and patron, Winnipeg the lonely orphan. 
Civilization at Winnipeg was composed of many opposing 
types, which met there beneath the shadow of many churches, 
and looked for material help exclusively to the United States. 

Freemen had not only cathedrals and churches at Winnipeer, and near or 
^ ^ ^ at Prince 

^ Alex. Begg, The Creation of Manitoba, 1871 ; 7'he Great Canadian Albert and 
North-west, 1881. Edmonton, 

2 L. 01iphant,Af«««<?j^/a(i855), p. 158, &c.; J. G.Kohl, Travels, 1861, 
vol. i, pp. 321-2 ; Sir W. Butler, Great Lone Land, 1873, pp. 53, 89, &c. 



224 



HISTORICAL GEOGRAPHY OF CANADA 



{Edmon 
ton be- 
coming 
dependent 
on Mon- 
tana). 



All writers 
believed in 
water- 
routes and 
some in 
U.S. routes 
only. 



but mission churches at Lac la Biche, Lac St. Anne, and 
Victoria, which are over fifty miles north, west, and east of 
Edmonton respectively ; afterwards at St. Albert, nine miles 
north of Edmonton (1859), and lastly at Edmonton (1872), 
which became their chief resort. There were also freemen 
at Prince Albert, whither Scotch and English missions 
attracted them in the Sixties. Nor were missions mere con- 
centration camps ; but the missioners did for prairie-land 
what the monks did for mediaeval Europe by teaching culti- 
vation of the soil. As in the south-east corner, so in the 
north-west corner of the great oblong of prairie-land, economic 
dependence upon the United States began and grew. Fort 
Benton on the Missouri (United States) had a steam-service 
to the Mississippi in 1857. In 1863 miners reached Bow 
River from the w^est, and while prospecting were refreshed 
from Fort Benton. In 1870 Edmonton sent fur thither; and 
whisky sellers came thence to the Belly, where they built ' Fort 
Hamilton' near Lethbridge.^ Before 1875 a Fort Benton 
firm began to trade at what was afterwards Calgary, midway 
between Edmonton and Lethbridge. Thus Americans began 
to trace the third line of the oblong and to open a new trade 
route along it; and Fort Benton became the back door, just 
as St. Paul's was the front door of the Canadian prairie-land < 
Shortly before 1870 predictions were rife as to the channels 
along which population would flow to and between these 
fixed points. Palliser (and Hind) held that there were ' no 
means of access ' to the Red River, * save those via the United 
States '—that is to say, via the Red River ; ^ George Dawson, 
who, ever since 1859, had been prospecting and trying to 
perfect roads over portages between Winnipeg and Lake 
Superior, championed this route, and held that civilization 
would after reaching Winnipeg flow down the Red River 

^ Sir \V. Butler, Great Lone Land^ ed. 1873, pp. 375 et seq. 
Accounts and Papers y 1864 (40^)> Correspondence respecting Sioux, 
vol. xli, p. 597. 

* Accounts and Papers : Further Papers (2732), i860, vol. xliv, p. 5. 



THE MANY NATIONS OF PRAIRIE-LAND 225 

Valley and up the Saskatchewan and North Saskatchewan to 
its sources beyond Edmonton, to which there would also be 
access by the American trade-route from the south ;^ and Hind 
and Blakiston urged the superior attractions of an alternative 
route from Winnipeg up the Assiniboine, down the Swan, up 
the Red Deer, and down the Carrot Rivers to the Saskat- 
chewan. All believed in water, few in the Qu'Appelle, fewer 
in the South Saskatchewan, and no one in the open prairie, 
as the line of progress. They accounted for three external 
sides of the oblong, but not for the fourth side, which is dry 
land and follows the frontier. Their gods were gods of 
river and woodland, and they were sure that the prairie 
would be skirted on the north, east, and west, and scouted 
except for pastoral purposes. 

Then four events occurred which turned these predictions Then Wol- 
awry, or fulfilled them with a difference. These four events ^L^IJ^' 
were the Red River Expedition (1870), the establishment oi destroyed 
the Royal North- West MountedPolice (1874), the arrival of the ff/^f'''' 
colonists of the Seventies, and the Railways of the Eighties. U.S., 

In 1870 Lord Wolseley proved that the route between ^ ^°' 
Lake Superior and Winnipeg which Dawson championed 
was feasible for an army; and after him. Governors (1870) 
and bodies of immigrants from Eastern Canada (1872) came 
that way. Prairie-land was weaned from the United States 
and restored to its natural mother. In the Seventies Winni- 
peg once more turned its face eastward, and faced two ways, 
eastward and southward equally. 

Military intervention was temporary, but the Royal North- the Police 

West Mounted Police, which was largely recruited from Lord ^^^^^^ ^^^ 

Wolseley's officers and soldiers, was a permanent influence. MacUod, 

The first feat of the new military police was to ride eight ^^o^ndon- 

^ ^ . ° tng water 

hundred miles from Emerson on the Red River, along the routes, 

frontier, to Forts Hamilton and Macleod near the Rockies. ^^^"4; 

They went boldly across the prairie, without regard to water- 

> G. M. Dawson, Geology and Resources ^ 1875, p. 301. 

VOL, V. PT. Ill Q 



226 HISTORICAL GEOGRAPHY OF CANADA 

courses and with compass as guide. To some extent the 
International Frontier Commission anticipated them ; but it 
did not keep to Canada as the police did/ The police were 
the true white pioneers of the fourth side of the oblong, and 
they were urged by four political motives to do as they did. 
First, the War of the Sioux against whites raged in the 
American prairies 1862-82, and refugees and their pursuers 
frequently crossed the border. Secondly, the Americans 
between Fort Benton and Edmonton lived without law, and 
must be reached at all costs. Thirdly, bison were scarce, 
and half-breeds and Indians were moving uneasily westward 
towards the international frontier at Wood Mountain and 
Cypress Hills, where they had no right. Fourthly, it was 
a characteristic Canadian maxim that soldiers should be or 
should precede immigrants. They were meant to be, and were, 
the advanced guard of civilization. They proved that on the 
prairies there were no definite lines by which bodies of men 
must go, and that Geography imposed no limits. They too 
asserted Canadian supremacy and self-reliance; though it 
sounds odd that the expedition of the new Police force came 
to Emerson through Chicago, and on reaching Fort Macleod, 
which they created, drew supplies from Fort Benton. But the 
police became self-sufficient ; they took ploughs and cows to 
Macleod, bought American cattle (1876) and ranched at 
Pincher Creek hard by (1878-9), and occupied Calgary 
(1875), near which the Cochrane Company introduced the first 
large ranches in 188 1. Except in Inter-Lake-Land they went 
from end to end of prairie-land on horses with carts ; cross- 
country routes between Estevan and Fort Ellice, and between 
their older posts at Macleod, Edmonton, and Swan River 
(1874), and their newer posts at Calgary (1875), Carlton 
(1875), Cypress Hills (1876), Qu'Appelle (1876), and 
Wood Mountain (1877), were patrolled. The prairies were 
at last conquered through and through ; and old trails along 
^ Accounts and Papers^ 1875, c. 1131, vol. Ixxxii, p. 53. 



THE MANY NATIONS OF PRAIRIE-LAND 227 

river-banks, or cutting off the corners of rivers, were, if 
boggy or wooded, improved into roads. Theirs were the 
first farms on Cypress Hills (Maple Creek) and at Battleford; 
their head-quarters at Livingstone (Swan River), Battleford, 
and Regina became capitals of the North- West Provinces in 
1875, 1877, and 1882; and Regina is still the capital of 
Saskatchewan.^ 

Meanwhile new colonists came in flocks and crept from «^^ colon- 
point to point. First came the Mennonites, or disciples of a ^-^ ^ o-. 
Frisian named Menno or Menno Simons (c. 1536), \>iho -^^mtO' 
preached doctrines similar to those of the Baptists and ^" ^^^ 
Quakers of to-day. War against war made them flit from 
country to country; some wandering to America (1661-2) 
and others to Prussia (1670), thence to the Lower Dnieper, 
the Molotchna, and the Lower Volga (1786), and thence to 
Manitoba (1874), where they settled in compact masses 
between the Red River and Pembina Mountain in the foot- 
prints of the Royal North-West Mounted Police ; but some 
loitered by the way and settled in Nebraska and Kansas 
(United States).^ They preserved their native language, 
which was Frisian, German, or Flemish, but never Russian, 
and reproduced the old German village, with its rundale 
agriculture and pastoral communism ; but these survivals 
of the past are dying out^ as they have already died out 
among the Mennonites of Ontario.^ Recently they numbered 
upwards of 1 5,000 * in Manitoba ; and they still crowd the 
frontier, chiefly on the west, but also on the east of the Red 
River. Religion made them fly from conscription like the 
plague, and they became collective emigrants, almost by 
profession. 

In 1876 a similar large body of Icelanders arrived, 2S\tr and Ice- 
shedding some of their members in North Dakota (United ^^ ^^^* 

^ E. J. Chambers, Royal North-West Mounted Police^ 1906. 

2 A. Brons, Ur sprung der Taufgesinnten oder Mennoniteny 1884. 

3 Ante^ pp. 161, 173. * In 1901. 

Q 2 



228 HISTORICAL GEOGRAPHY OF CANADA 

States), but they came for different reasons and went different 
ways. They came because, until 1894, boys and girls of 
sixteen years of age were compelled by law to work for 
wages in Iceland, and girls who earned 32^*. per annum in 
Iceland earned £41 per annum in Manitoba. As with the 
Orkneymen, the wage-rate w^as their goad and bait. From 
Winnipeg they went down stream by boat to Gimli — which 
in Icelandic means heaven — on the west coast of Lake 
Winnipeg. There they cut down trees — though most of 
them now saw trees for the first time — minded cattle and 
sheep, and fished, and there are still 3,000 Icelanders near 
Gimli, all or nearly all of whom are bilingual and speak 
better English than any other foreigners in Canada; but 
most of the Icelanders have scattered throughout Manitoba, 
some northward to the Grassy Narrows of Lake Winnipeg, 
and others westward to the west shore and Narrows (1888) 
of Manitoba Lake; some near the frontier at Grunde (1881 
et seq.) learned and taught agriculture to their fellow country- 
men at Gimli (before 1895); and the intellectuals leavened 
the cosmopolitan city of Winnipeg. 
on the National colonies, composed of Scandinavians or Germans, 

^Red River ^^^'^ already common on the American prairies,^ and there 
V alley, and y^^xQ massed Mennonites in Ontario; but an exclusive Ice- 
'^nthe ^ landic settlement was a complete novelty. The Icelanders 
frontier; are Still in the van of real settlers on the west coast of Lake 
Winnipeg, and they who flew first flew furthest down the 
Red River Valley. The Mennonite settlements on the 
frontier were, on the other hand, but a beginning of westward 
expansion, which left Pembina Mountain behind it in 1876, 
and lined Rock Lake and the edge of the Souris Plain in 
1878-9, French-Canadians from the United States (1878) '^ 
and Icelanders (i88i)' carrying on where German Men- 
nonites left off. 

^ Ante^ p. 223, note 2. • At St. Alphonse, St. L6on, &c. 

8 At Grunde Baldur, &c. 



THE MANY NATIONS OF PRAIRIE-LAND 229 

The main stream of development lay north of the colonists and other 
of the frontier and south of the colonists of the large lakes- ^fjill^l^^ 
West of Portage La Prairie, Rapid City (1877), which '<^2.% the Assini- 
colonized direct from England, Birtle (1879), Odanah, Min- ^^in/' 
nedosa (1879-80), Shell River (1879-80), — half-way \i^\.-^^tvi predicted. 
Forts Ellice and Pelly— and Red Deer River (1879-80) ^ 
near Carrot River, marked the direction; and it was the 
same direction which Hind and Blakiston foretold. 

Then three towns were built which proved that a new Railways 
force had appeared whose workings had not been foretold. Jj^/^^Jf^^^ 
Emerson (1875) '^ on the frontier was the first pure railway /<?w;/j, 5.^. 
town, attaining its zenith in 1879, when the first Manitoban ^J^^^^y^^^^ 
railway was completed between Winnipeg and St. Paul's Brandon ^ 
(United States). It was the gateway from the South. Selkirk Z'ay7we7e' 
(1875)^ was the second pure railway town, and would \i2LVQ compara- 
been the gateway from the east, had not Winnipeg, fearing ^aaomu^'^ 
eclipse, offered to build a railway bridge over the Red River 
(1879), and so lured the Canadian Pacific Railway to 
Winnipeg, although Winnipeg is out of the direct way to its 
far western goal. By means of this bridge Winnipeg sup- 
planted Selkirk as the gateway between east and west. 
Then a third railway town sprang into life. In 1879 i^ was 
decided that the Canadian Pacific Railway should pass south 
of Lake Manitoba (instead of across its Narrows), and so to 
Edmonton. Two years later plans were re-shuffled ; and its 
present course, which is a long way south of Edmonton, was 
resolved upon. Immediately Brandon was transformed from 
an empty meadow to a town (1881).* Brandon was the 
crucial example. But for the railway there was no reason for 
the existence of Brandon; and men knew now that the 
railway could go wherever it would in prairie-land, and that 
men and towns would follow, in the same way as effect 
follows cause, or noon sunrise. 

1 Macoun, Manitoba and the Great North- West, pp. 94^6, 467 et seq. 

2 Population in 1906 = 900. ^ Population in 1906 = 2,700. 
^ Population in 1906 = 10,400. 



230 HISTORICAL GEOGRAPHY OF CANADA 
the C.P.R. From Brandon westward to Calgary the Canadian Pacific 

afierBran- ^ .. , r^r^ \ -, ..1 , 

don follow- -K-ailway (188 1-2) pursued a course as original as that 

ingnoriver pursued by Sir George French and his police, and equally 

but only ^ ^ _ , ° . , a.m., ,. , 

the general momentous. Brandon is on the Assinibome, but a little west 

direction of Brandon the railway takes to the open prairie until it 

oftheQtl'- . ^r ^' • TT , r^ 1 ^ , , 

Appelle reaches Medicine Hat, on the South Saskatchewan, more 

and South tj^^n four hundred miles away, and almost on the same 

Saskat- . r 1 . -I T 

chewan, mmute of latitude. Its course is not an air-line, for it 

wanders north as though it would shadow the Qu' Appelle, 
and then south as though it would shadow the South 
Saskatchewan ; and it seems to strike a compromise between 
the route by these two rivers and the plain prairie route on 
its south. As it swept westward, Moosomin, Indian Head, 
and Regina (1882) rose from the dust and became markets 
for settlers on the Qu'Appelle ; and Regina, Moosejaw, Swift 
Current, Maple Creek Town, and Medicine Hat,^ when they 
were founded (1882-3), drew the Police northward from their 
hill-stations on the frontier, and became centres. Between 
Medicine Hat and Calgary the railway followed from afar or 
abbreviated the long-neglected course of the South Saskatche- 
wan. The new power was creative, conjuring up towns from 
nothing, and scattering men from nowhere in its wake. 
Although Meanwhile water exercised its old magnetic power to guide 
'^sUlUn-^^ civilization. Steamers ascended the main and North Saskat- 
duced chewan to Edmonton (1875), a^d the Assiniboine to Fort 
'andZerl ^^^^^^ (1879); Pnnce Albert boasted of a steam saw-mill 
more used; {1875) and attracted the half-breeds, who sold their so-called 
farms near Winnipeg, and settled on what they called farms, 
sixteen times as long as wide, between where the prongs of 
the South and North Saskatchewan diverge (1875). Settlers 
too settled on Carrot River, near Red Deer River, and between 
Swan River and the Saskatchewan, before 1885; on many 
prairie lakelets — Foam Lake, Quill Lake, and Nut Lake — 

^ Population in i9o6of these seven towns c. 1,200, 1,500,6,200,6,200, 
600, 700, and 3,000 respectively. 



THE MANY NATIONS OF PRAIRIE-LAND 231 

one or two men lived like hermits in a desert minding cattle ; 
and at Humboldt two women minded a telegraph station 
(1880), so that the historic circle of settlements round the 
large lakes and their immediate feeders was now widening 
westward across the second steppe and becoming fuller from 
day to day. Prince Albert^ became a nucleus for these 
settlers on its east as well as on its west. 

Then Riel's rebellion broke out, and war cast its search- thtisin 
light over the problems of prairie-land. The puzzle was how Hinon^' 
to get to the Mesopotamia of the half-breeds, and what 1885, 
should be base, rest-camp, or goal, and whether to go there 
by steamer, railway, or horse ; and this was how the puzzle 
was solved. 

First Carlton was evacuated, and large bodies of the police Prince 
galloped across the prairie from Regina by Qu'Appelle and ^^^^ ^^^ 
Batoche to Prince Albert, which became the rallying-point in soldiers 
the war and has ever since supplanted Carlton. Then came ^ays^^ 
the soldiers, all of whom used the Canadian Pacific Railway — prairie- 
which was then complete from Ottawa to Calgary, except for ^j^^ 'saskat- 
short gaps near Lake Superior — some leaving the train at chewan 
Qu'Appelle, others at Swift Current, and others at Calgary, ^^^^ ^* 
whence they marched straight across lonely prairies to Batoche, 
Battleford, and Edmonton respectively. Prisoners were taken 
straight from Batoche and Battleford to Regina. The un- 
conventional railway was supplemented by the traditional 
two-hundred mile short cuts or long rides. Nor was the 
river neglected. The Edmonton detachment descended the 
North Saskatchewan or its banks to Mesopotamia, and some 
of them returned thence by steamer to Lake Winnipeg and 
Winnipeg, having completed half of their circuit of prairie- 
land by water or river banks. A steamer which was prepared 
at Medicine Hat descended the South and main Saskatchewan 
with supplies; and a place called Saskatoon on the South 
Saskatchewan, where there chanced to be one or two houses, 
1 Population in 1906 = 3,000. 



232 HISTORICAL GEOGRAPHY OF CANADA 

received the wounded. Reliance was placed on the new 
railway, the older rides across the plains, and the oldest 
waterways ; but amongst the latter, thanks to the new railway, 
the South Saskatchewan for the first time took its rightful 
place. All three methods were used in harmony with one 
another, and each made for Canadian unity, the railway on a 
large, the river on a medium, and the open prairie on a small 
scale — if the scale of a hundred miles to an inch may be 
applied. This war was the third national movement which 
knit prairie-land to itself and to Canada; and it was even 
more national than the war of 1870, and the police move- 
ments of 1874. Nevertheless, the Canadian general in com- 
mand reached Winnipeg by way of Chicago. The foster- 
mother was still just visible in the background behind the 
real mother. ^ 
yet main Since 1 885 lines of development, except in Inter-Lake- 
develop' Land, follow, unless they are followed by, a railway. The 
ment began line is always from east to west except in the far west and 
^foUowrail' ^^^^^^ where cross lines run north and south. Lines of 
way^ lines y development may therefore be learned from railway lines : 
'^eizht • ^^^^^ ^^^ ^^^ following numbering indicates the geographical order 
from north to south of the six railway lines which run west. 
(i) The Canadian Northern Company took on the task of 
connecting Portage ^ with Edmonton. Between Portage and 
Dauphin,^ and between the North Saskatchewan and Edmon- 
ton, it followed, or but slightly varied, the historic waterways ; 
but between Fort Pelly and the North Saskatchewan'^ it went 
by the usual two-hundred-mile short cut across the prairie, to 
which, however, there is a circuitous variant (i a), by Red Deer 
River, Prince Albert, and the south Saskatchewan, which 
shadows waterways more or less, and is the work of more 
than one Company. (3) South of this first through>route the 

^ Rev. R. G. Macbeth, The Making- of the Canadian West, 2nd ed., 
1905 ; J. Mason, The Northwest Rebellion of 1885, in Can, Encyclo- 
paedia^ by J. C. Hopkins, vol. iv, p. 519. 

2 Population in 1906 = 5,000. 3 Population in 1906 = 1,700. 



THE MANY NATIONS OF PRAIRIE-LAND 233 

Grand Trunk Pacific defies natural ways and makes straight 
for Edmonton (1909), and below it branch -lines from Saska- 
toon or thereabouts to Calgary and Wetaskiwin are being 
built by other Companies, with equal disregard for natural 
features. The Grand Trunk Pacific Railway is flanked on 
either side by incipient railways through (2) the Yorkton ^ 
and (4) Pheasant Hill districts, which mimic or vary the 
respective courses of the Assiniboine and Qu' Appelle ; and the 
Pheasant Hill branch now reaches Saskatoon. (5) Further 
south is the pioneer railway from east to west, namely, the Cana- 
dian Pacific, which now forks near Medicine Hat, and leads not 
only to Calgary (5 ^), but to Lethbridge, Macleod, and 
Crow's Nest (5 d). (6) Along or near the frontier railways 
go from the Red River to Estevan and Alma, and thence, 
hugging or parallel with the Coteau, branch off to Moose 
Jaw and Regina. Probably the more southerly of these 
railways will soon be continued from the Coteau to Lethbridge 
in the very footprints of Sir George French. {7) Lethbridge"^ 
has two railways to the border, and a third railway joins it, 
or rather Macleod,^ with Calgary* and Edmonton.^ This 
railway from Macleod to Edmonton is by far the most impor- 
tant railway running south and north, and it follows more or 
less the old American trade-route of 1870. (8) The Regina- 
Saskatoon railway, which also goes from south to north, 
represents a ' short cut ' often used in the war of 1885. As 
lines of development the six railway lines which run west- 
ward are of primary importance, and the cross lines are 
only of secondary importance. 

Of these routes i, i a, 2, and 4 represent water-routes, and only the ^ 
7 represents a trade-route, which men foresaw ; 5 ^, 5 <^ and ^ ^^ ^j^^ 
perhaps the idea of 5, represent water-routes w^hich men did west being 
not foresee as the destined line of progress ; i 3, 8, and parts ^ ^^^^ ' 
of 6 were well-known short cuts which men thought of as 

* Population in 1906 = 1,400. ^ Population in 1906 = 2,300. 

3 Population in 1906 = 1,100. * Population in 1906=12,000. 

^ Population in 1906 = 14,100. 



234 HISTORICAL GEOGRAPHY OF CANADA 

roads only, but which have proved lines of progress ; much 
of 6, and perhaps the idea of 5, came from the frontier ride ; 
and much of 5, and nearly all of 3, were so simple and 
straight that they were unexpected and came last. 
Theprocess The one obvious characteristic feature of prairie-land, 
setT/emmt ^^^^ty^ i^s capacity to develop in any direction whatever, was 
followed unexpected ; and its less obvious capacity to attract and 
^sTlf^emdent accommodate settlers from everywhere was equally unexpected. 
and groups Nowadays the former characteristic seems self-evident, but 
d^samed^^ the latter still seems a paradox. Instead, then, of tracing the 
progress of population along the railroads, where people grew 
like primroses by a pathway in spring, or of tabulating results 
which would be out of date while these pages are passing 
through the press, I will note a few of the motley national 
groups which are scattered along the various lines of advance, 
and which distinguish prairie-land from the rest of Canada. 
Associated families, Presbyterian, Baptist, and Roman Catholic 
congregations, Regiments, and other social groups in eastern 
Canada were usually British or American, and there were two 
or three instances of American- German groups in Ontario ; 
but there is nothing like the large quantity and diversity of 
* colonies composed almost exclusively of persons speaking the 
same language and following the same social and religious 
customs'^ which permeates prairie-land throughout. The dates 
in brackets indicate the year at or before which these groups 
made their earliest appearance. The lists, too, are as arbi- 
trary and eclectic as the lists of a vagrant collector of insects 
or butterflies. In omitting the British element, which 
advanced silently and seldom in groups, the hero and more 
than half the story is omitted, and the reader should always 
keep before his imagination the following figures, which speak 
for themselves, and which it would be idle to encumber with 
commentary. 

^ Canada : Rep. of the Commissioner for Immigration^ 1892. 



THE MANY NATIONS OF PRAIRIE-LAND 235 
The Population of British Origin preponderates : — 





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t3 b -O 13 '13 

y s S s S 



236 HISTORICAL GEOGRAPHY OF CANADA 

The Population doubled formerly every ten, latterly every 
five, years : — 

Population x 1,000 includes Half-Breeds^ Indians, &c. 





1871 


1881 


1 901 


1906 


Manitoba 


25? 


66 


255 


366 


Saskatchewan 


I 24? 


33 1 


91 


258 


Alberta 


73 


185 


Total 


49 


99 


419 


809 



Men born in the British Empire are diminishing relatively 
to those born elsewhere : — 

Manitoba and Saskatchewan and Alberta 





Born in 
Canada 


Elsewhere 
in Br, E. 


Total 
Br,E. 


Born 
in U. S. 


Other foreign 
places 


Total 
foreign 

22 p.c. 
30 p. c. 


I90I 
1906 


66 p.c. 
55P-C. 


12 p. c. 
15 pc. 


78 p.c. 
70 p.c. 


5PC 
II p.c. 


17 p.c. 
19 p.c. 



In the following sketches of samples of the composite minor- 
ity of foreigners it should be remembered too that * at ' means 
* near \ and * near ' means ' fairly far off ' ; for the only settle- 
ments of any interest were rural, and were in townships, 
or groups of townships, and not in towns or villages, 
(i) Groups (i) Passing from south-east to north-west along the rail- 
on^the^ first ^^^^ from Portage, the Germans of Tupper (1893) are 
railway succeeded by the French Canadians of Makinak (1907) and 

z nclude 

St. Rose (1893), and the Galicians of Dauphin Lake {1897); 
on the direct route thence to the west {1 b) by Doukhobor 
Russians at Kamsack and Good Spirit Lake (1899), by 
American Icelanders at Foam Lake (1904) and Quill Lake 
(1906), and by Mennonites at Humboldt (1903); on the 
northern detour (i a) by Doukhobors near Thunder Hill 



THE MANY NATIONS OF PRAIRIE-LAND 237 

(1899), Scandinavians near Duck Mountain (1903), English- 
men and Austrians towards Prince Albert, German Roman 
Catholics from Minnesota at Hoodoo Plains (1903), and 
South Russian Germans (189 1), Mennonites {1893), Galicians 
(1893), Frenchmen (1894), Doukhobors (1899), Hungarians 
and Roumanians (1902) side by side with the half-breeds of 
Mesopotamia. Between Prince Albert and Fort Pitt, and 
between Carlton, and Battleford human bridges are almost 
finished along the old short cuts across the Great Bend of the 
North Saskatchewan ; and between Battleford and Edmonton 
the architects of history set to work at either end and met 
midway in 1904, the Rev. I. M. Barr's EngHshmen creating 
Lloydminster from the east (1903-4) ; and Moravians (1892), 
Galicians (1892), and Scandinavians (1896) starting the work 
from the west at Brudersheim, Wostock, and Edna respec- 
tively. Of these experiments in wholesale national colonizing 
the Galician and Doukhobor experiments were the most 
striking and original. 

The Galicians are Ruthene or Little Russian peasant- Galicians, 
farmers, of the Greek Church, from Galicia in Austria, where 
for many centuries Roman Catholic Polish nobles and 
townsmen outnumbered and oppressed them. Thus they 
were compelled to acknowledge Papal supremacy, and to call 
themselves ' Uniats \ so that they might be severed from 
communion with their ' orthodox ' Russian relations. But 
religion only aggravated a feud which was essentially racial 
and social, and the trek to the Canadian prairie-land which 
only began in 1892 sometimes brings more than 5,000 immi- 
grants in a year.^ The immigrants were nearly all farmers 
of small farms, which they sold in order that they might 
emigrate ; they are especially valuable where woods have to 
be cleared or labourers are wanted, and their adaptability to 
British ways and speech equals that of the better Mennonites, 

^ See Law Reports, 1908, Appeal Cases, p. 65, Zacklynski versus 
Polushie. 



238 HISTORICAL GEOGRAPHY OF CANADA 

is only excelled by that of the Icelanders, and far excels 
that of the Doukhobors. Moreover, unlike the Mennonites 
and Doukhobors, they are individualistic ; nor is their religion 
peculiar, like the religion of the Doukhobors. 
and Douk' The Doukhobors are pure Russian heretics, who lived 
^ ^^'^' before 1841 on the Molochnia River, near the Mennonites, 
whose pacific tenets they exaggerate. They are ultra- Quaker 
and ultra-anarchist; but anarchism generally implies des- 
potism, and since 1775 or thereabouts they have been led by 
a hereditary Messiah, the present Messiah basing his claim 
on the alleged adultery of his mother with the last Messiah 
but one. His name is Peter Verigin ; he is a cultured dis- 
ciple of Count Tolstoi, whose writings he often repeats as his 
own, and his influence is beneficent and almost supernatural. 
In 1 84 1 these sectarians were removed from South Russia to 
the Caucasus ; whence conscription, disputes about the Messiah^ 
and Count Tolstoi's influence caused the removal of over 
7,000 in one year to prairie-land, which they occasionally 
enliven with pilgrimages as nude and unintelligible as the 
pilgrimages of lemmings. But they are high-minded en- 
thusiasts for a purer religion ; and they repudiate, because, as 
a rule, they are too good for political constraint. They began 
by being communists; but their communism is breaking 
down on Thunder Hill and in the Mesopotamia of the Saskat- 
chewan, as was once the case on the Molochnia ; and near 
Kamsack their arrangements for buying from and selling to 
the outside world are indistinguishable from those of co- 
operative producers elsewhere. The position of Kamsack is 
between Fort Pelly and the Yorkton settlements, which were 
already populous, before they arrived in prairie-land.^ 
(2) Groups (2) Roman Catholics from Hungary came to Hun's Valley 
on the (1885, 1892), Scandinavians to new Scandinavia (1885), 
second Galicians to Ranchevale (1005) on or near Riding Mountain ; 

railway \ ^ u, o 

^ A.yi2i\xAQf A Peculiar People: The Doukhobors ^\^ot^\ J. Elkinton, 
The Doukhohorsy 1903 ; Robert Pinkerton, Russia^ 1833, pp. 165-187. 



THE MANY NATIONS OF PRAIRIE-LAND 239 

Austrian (1885) and South Russian Germans (1891) came to 
Beresina, Icelanders to Logberg (1886), Bavarians to Land- 
shut (1889), Hungarians to Otthon (before 1895); Crofters 
(1890) and Patagonian Welshmen (1902-3) settled near 
Saltcoats; South Russian Germans (1888), Galicians (1897), 
American Poles (1898), and Hungarians (1898) settled near 
Yorkton ; Danes settled at New Denmark (1890) and German 
Americans at Sheho (1891), further west along the second 
railway-line. As to these colonists, the Hungarians were the Hunga- 
first of their kind in prairie-land, but their chief centre now is ^'^^^^^ 
among the hills at Esterhazy. Religion, and what a writer 
calls ' Magyar Ethnophagy ', were potent causes of Hungarian 
emigrations, of which there were many earlier instances in 
Pittsburg, Cleveland, and elsewhere in the United States. 
The Welshmen were re-emigrants. After living for over and Welsh- 
thirty years in Patagonia,^ which they irrigated, Spanish ^^^^'^' 
economic and political pressure induced J. Dyke to lead 
a colony from this colony to prairie-land. The easternmost 
of these multifarious colonies have, as time went on, leaned 
more on corn than on cattle; and in 1903 the Commissioner 
for Immigration wrote that 'at Yorkton ranching will soon 
be a thing of the past '. 

(3) As to the third line, in 1906 pastoral was changing to (3) TJwse 
agricultural occupation on the Touchwood Hills; Saskatoon ^^/^^ 
began steam-ploughing in 1904, its population rose from 113 
to 3,011 between 1901 and 1906, and it is rapidly becoming 
a secondary capital like Calgary; there were American- 
Germans (before 1905) and French-Canadians (1907) on 
Tramping Lake; in 1910 German farmers came to Goose 
Lake ; Manitou Lake became a spa ; Rivers, Melville, Scott, 
Wainwright, Kindersley, Delisle, and other towns sprang up 
Hke mushrooms on waste land in 1909; and motorists were 
scouring the prairie around Tramping Lake for vast distances 
without let or hindrance in the same year. 

1 Introduction to this Series, ch. iv, p. 29. 



240 HISTORICAL GEOGRAPHY OF CANADA 

(4) and (4) The fourth line passes American Finns at New Fin- 

waysTn-'^^"^^ (1889), Hungarians at Esterhazy and Kaposvar (1888, 

dude 1892), Swedes at Stockholm {1886), Austrians at Neudorf 

(1890), Hungarians (1903) and Roumanian (1905) and 

Moldavian Jews at Pheasant and File Hills (1905), and 

Germans at Strassburg (1885), of whom the first and the last 

American are most remarkable; the first because they were the first 

Ft7tn5, Finnish settlers in prairie-land and were re-emigrants from 

Dakota (United States) ; and the last because they were not 

and Ger- re-emigrants. Before 1899 almost all Germans who came to 

^^^•^/^^^'f, prairie-land were from the United States, Austria, or South 
Russia and ^ ^ -r, • i. 

even Ger- Russia. Many of the American-Germans were Baptists, who 
viany ; jgf|. ^-j^q Palatinate for America in the eighteenth century, and 
were akin to the German colonists of Halifax (1749 et seq.); 
the Austrians were often Moravians in race and religion ; and 
the South Russian Germans were farmers on the only 
European lands which in any way resemble prairie-land, and 
being mostly Molokani, Stundists, or Baptists, were, like the 
Mennonites, driven from Russia by conscription and by the 
policy of Russifying Russia. Of them it may be said, as of 
the Spaniards and Anglo-Irish of the sixteenth and early 
seventeenth centuries, that the internal colonization of the 
Old World gave rise to and supplied a pattern for the coloni- 
zation of the New World. In 1895 there were fifty- two 
colonies of Germans in prairie-land, and now there are far 
more ; yet even now Germans from Germany are very rare, 
rarer even than such Russians as are neither Jews, Germans, 
nor Doukhobors. 
{t;) those on (5) On the Canadian Pacific main-line near Moosomin 
the fifth tijgi-g ^gi-e Welshmen at Kirkella (1903), Swedes at Fleming 
(1883), and Lady Cathcart's crofters at Wapella (1883-4) S* 
near Indian Head, German -Austrians at Josephsburg (1887) 
and Lord Brassey's tenants (before 1895); near Regina, 
South Russian and Roumanian Germans at Edenwold (1886), 
* A. Begg, History of the North-West (1895), vol. iii, p. 159. 



THE MANY NATIONS OF PRAIRIE-LAND 241 

Balgonie, Davin, Josephsthal (1890), and Kronau (1892), 
Hungarians (of Zichy-falva) (before 1899), ^^^^ Roumanians 
(1903); near Moose Jaw, American- Swedes (1903) and 
French-Canadians ( 1 907) ; and near Medicine Hat, American- 
Germans (1889, 1903). Swift Current and Medicine Hat 
were, with the aid of the steam-plough, passing from the 
pastoral to the agricultural stage in 1905. 

(6) On the frontier east of the Red River, French- (6) and 
Canadians (1887) and Galicians (1897) almost surrounded ^^^,j ^V^. ' 
the Mennonites of the Seventies ; and beyond the Western ^^«^^ ^'^f^'- 
Mennonites of 1874 Frenchmen introduced lace-making ^^ alitles ;^^^' 
Lourdes (1897), State-sent crofters occupied Pelican Lake 
(1888), and Germans Alcester (1889) ^^^^i' Turtle Mountain. 
Beyond them, again, Belgians occupied Clairiere (1888), 
Frenchmen Deloraine (1891), Icelanders Melita (1892), 
Canadian-Frenchmen and American- Germans Alameda (1897) 

and agricultural Jews sent from Eastern Europe by the Anglo- 
Jewish Association, Hirsch (1894), all of which places are 
somewhere near Moose Mountain ; while Scandinavian and 
other settlements at Estevan (1891), Yellowgrass, Weyburn, 
and Milestone (1902), all of which places are under the 
shadow of the Coteau, joined the frontier to Moose Jaw. 
West of the C6teau there is an interval ; after which Wood 
Mountain and Cypress Hills, which are now served by the ' 
Canadian Pacific main-line, and are already or will soon be 
served by a more direct branch -line from Weyburn, retain 
their half-breed settlers, and there were large ranches here in 
1903. 

(7) The seventh line, which leads from south to north, {f)thoseon 
and was once an American trade-route, witnessed a singular ^^ii!^^ 
social experiment in its southern quarter. In 1889 Mormons include 
from Utah, having undertaken to abjure polygamy (December, ^fj^ratd- 
1888), settled at Cardston^ under C. O. Card ; and after the stony 
introduction of irrigation by C. A. Magrath, new Mormon 

^ Population in 1906 = 1,000. 

VOL. V. PT. HI R 



242 HISTORICAL GEOGRAPHY OF CANADA 



others at 
ranching 
and other 
centres^ 



settlements * sprang into existence as if by magic ' at Stirling 
and Magrath (1899), ^^^ ^^^^^ ^^ Raymond (1902),^ whose 
speciality is beet. Americans not from Utah have recently 
been farming at Spring Coulee, between Raymond and 
Cardston, near Lethbridge, and in the coal-district, where 
Hungarians (1896) and others assist. At Pincher Creek — 
the earliest ranching centre in Alberta — ' the sound of the 
hammer and ring of the anvil resounded all the year (1900) 
through the streets' — and agriculture superseded ranching 
between 1901 and 1905. Near Calgary ^ Cochrane, the 
second ranch-capital of Alberta (1881), underwent the same 
transformation in 1907, when one hundred square miles were 
converted from pastoral to agricultural uses. Further north, 
Scandinavians occupied Olds and Svea (1893); American 
Icelanders (i888) and American Finns (1904) occupied Red 
Deer ^ ; European Germans or Swiss, and French-Canadians 
occupied Stettler (1907); American (?) Germans occupied 
Lacombe'* (1894) ; Welshmen Ponoka (before 1907), Swedes 
New Sweden (1892), American and South Russian Germans 
Wetaskiwin (1892),''' Germans and Scandinavians (1896) 
Stoney Plains, South Russian German Baptists (1893) and 
Galicians (before 1905) Leduc and Rabbit Hills — which bring 
us close to the twin capitals of Alberta, Strathcona cum Ed- 
Edmonton. rnonton, which face one another from either side of the North 
Saskatchewan in the same way as St. Boniface and Winnipeg 
face one another on either side of the Red River. The 
North Saskatchewan is finer, and its banks nobler, than those 
of the Red River ; but Edmonton * is more distant than 
Winnipeg '^ and its history is more recent — for Winnipeg was 
at least a village in 1879, which Edmonton was not, and 
Winnipeg is as much more opportune as it is less picturesque 
than Edmonton ; so that perhaps it is premature to compare 

^ Population in 1906 = 400, 900, and 1,600 respectively. 
^ Population in 1906 = 12,000. ^ Population in 1906 = 1,400. 

* Population in 1906=1,000. ^ Population in 1906 = 1,650. 

^ Population in 1906 « 14,100. "^ Population in 1906 = 95,000. 



up to 



THE MANY NATIONS OF PRAIRIE-LAND 243 

them. Water and railways conduced to their pre-eminence ; 
Edmonton, in consequence of its railway, diverting the 
northern fur-trade from Cumberland to itself. Father Morin 
has of late years been indefatigable in bringing back French- 
Canadians from the United States to the neighbourhood of 
Edmonton. 

(8) This railway line is peopled largely by British-Ameri- The eighth 
cans, many of whom are Canadian by origin or descent. ^^^ ^^. 

The colonization of prairie-land differs from that of Coloniza- 
Eastern Canada in the absence of soldier and sailor settlers, tionof 
and of a war or of an industrial revolution at home ; in the land^differs 
presence of returned emigrants from the United States, ^xAfrom that 
in the wider area from which groups of associated families are Canada!^ 
drawn. In prairie-land, Icelanders and Scandinavians, as 
well as Highlanders and Islanders, represent the clan ; 
Americans from the Western as well as the Eastern States 
represent the neighbourhood guild ; Germans, who lived in 
the Palatinate two centuries ago. South Russian Germans, 
Doukhobors, Galicians, Finns, Jews, and others from Eastern 
Europe represent foreign victims of political and religious 
intolerance. Persecution enriched the New World with 
those denizens of the Old World, who did not agree with their 
environment, and North America proved the safety valve of 
European discontents. Prairie-land is an epitome of the 
modern history of all Europe, except the centre and the south ; 
and is the result of a free trade in men, of which no European 
nation or thinker has ever dreamed, since the days of the 
Roman Empire. Cosmopolitanism originated in Pennsylvania, 
and is now the characteristic creed of the United States. But 
American cosmopolitanism has an English bias, and it is this 
kind of cosmopolitanism which is moulding the destinies of 
prairie-land. 

In applying cosmopolitanism to prairie-land three maxims Its cosmo- 
have been observed. First, extreme types of one kind are /^^^^^^^-^^'^ 
planted near extreme types of different kinds, in order that/«jw«. 

R 2 



244 HISTORICAL GEOGRAPHY OF CANADA 

alkalis may neutralize acids, and something which is neither 
may result, and become the salt of the earth. Secondly, 
colonists, though introduced in groups, are planted as indi- 
vidual yeomen — each on his free i6o-acre homestead — so 
that before treatment the compound is resolved, as far as may 
be, into colourless, self-subsisting atoms. Thirdly, Britons 
are superior in numbers, all-pervasive, and hold the keys of 
the commercial situation ; so that foreigners are compelled to 
be bilingual, the second language being always English. It 
is believed that numerical, commercial, and linguistic pre- 
dominance will create a new British type, like and yet unlike 
the Cymric, Gael, Erse, Huguenot and Danish types of the 
old United Kingdom ; and that the thousand and one 
nationalities will fuse themselves in a single crucible, and will 
emerge British, not exactly in the sense which we know, but 
in a sense very like the sense which we know. 



Authorities. 

For descriptive works see last chapter. For the movements of 
population see the Annual Reports on Emigration presented before 
1892 by the Ministry of Agriculture, since 1892 by the Ministry of the 
Interior of the Dominion of Canada. Other authorities are cited in the 
notes. 



BRITISH COLUMBIA 




<^Y.<Baxi»ieU<«; ete|«ni^mo 



CHAPTER X 

THE FAB WEST AND NOBTH-WEST, OB 
THE LAND OP MOUNTAINS 

East of the Rockies and west of the Appalachians there The Range 
are no mountains in Canada, and even the wooded Appa- ^V^l- 
lachians are only tamer Apennines, so that the first glimpse separates 
of the wild white crowded summits of the Rockies from the ^^^^^^i 
east is like the revelation of a new world. They are a range, rivers, but 
but are not like other ranges. They lie parallel with the ^JJ^47<?^' 
coast. Their eastern side is gradual, and part of their 
gradual side consists, as we have seen, of three inclined plains 
800 miles long, descending from west to east, from dais to 
dais, upon the topmost of which rude rocks, sharp ice peaks, 
and smooth snow domes, high as the Rothhorn and of every 
shape and hue, tower like a row of ruins. On this side the 
range has two great rivers ; the Athabasca- Slave-Mackenzie, 
which follows in bold wide curves along the feet of the moun- 
tains from 100 miles above Edmonton for 1,500 miles or so 
right into the Arctic Ocean ; and the Saskatchewan, which 
writhes and wriggles away from the range for 800 miles or 
so to the east and then makes for Hudson Bay. The 
western slope is steep, and western rivers, whether they 
belong, like the Columbia and Eraser, wholly, or like the 
upper Peace and Liard, partly, to the west, cling close to the 
skirts of the mountain for many hundreds of miles before 
they double back and make for the Ocean, whither they are 
bound. The eastern are unlike the western slopes and 
rivers ; yet the Rockies do not form a true watershed like the 
Caucasus Pyrenees or Alps. 

As we follow the Rockies to the north, rivers which are thus^ 
eastward-bound rise more and more to the west of the ideal ^^fJ,Z!^,,,„, 

ilTJciS C0771C 

line which geographers identify with the true range ; xYitfrom be- 



248 HISTORICAL GEOGRAPHY OF CANADA 

kind it, in South Saskatchewan rising before, the North Saskatchewan 
t e north ; ^j|.]^jj^^ ^j^^ Athabasca further within, and the Peace behind 
the range, and the Liard behind a range behind the range. 
Strangely enough, the rim which bounds the plains and big 
lakes of Manitoba on their west, and which lies parallel with 
the great range as though it were some distant shadow or 
projection of the range, has the same characteristic, its more 
northerly streams rising further and further behind it. 
it was first Northerly waterways went furthest west ; therefore adventurers 
7he^m>Hh ^^^^ ^^^^ westward from the Peace which feeds the Mackenzie, 
then from the North Saskatchewan, and lastly from the South 
Saskatchewan. Therefore, too; those east-bound rivers, 
whose heads are hidden most within the folds of the moun- 
tains, yield most gold; the North Saskatchewan yielding 
a little, the Peace more, and the Liard most, British Columbia 
and on the being the only source of this gold. Again, it was partly because 

north It IS gQ many of the affluents of the Mackenzie play fast and loose 

neither .11,.,, 

watershed With natural barriers, that the north and north-eastern boundary 

nor bound' Qf British Columbia has been changed from time to time. 
Under an Act of 1858, the Rockies bounded British Columbia 
on its east, the beds of the Skeena and Findlay or Upper 
Peace River on its north, and the Pacific on its west.^ Its 
boundaries seemed for a while wholly natural. Then it was 
shown that nature defied natural boundaries ; an illogical 
compromise was struck, and the eastern boundaries of 
British Columbia were defined as the range of the Rockies 
up to lat. 54° — that is to say, up to and including the sources 
of the Athabasca ; and north of lat. 54° as the meridian of 
120°, which lies east of the range and a long way east of the 
watershed ; while its northern boundary was defined as the 
parallel of 60°, apparently because that parallel is also 
the northern boundary of Alberta and Saskatchewan. The 
effect of this northern boundary is that it includes in British 
Columbia not only the whole of the Skeena, the Upper 
^ 21 & 22 Vict., c. 58. 



THE FAR WEST AND NORTH-WEST 249 

Peace, and the Canadian Stikine, but also fragments of the 

river-systems of the Liard and Yukon, thereby producing 

irreparable confusion as between British Columbia and the 

Yukon district, especially at the junction of the Frances River 

with the Upper Liard, at Teslin and Atlin Lakes, and at 

Rainy Hollow and Bennett. Not that the confusion does 

harm ; for these regions are very thinly populated, and the 

Governments of British Columbia and Yukon district are 

often only represented there by the Royal North- West 

Mounted Police, who act as their common agent. North of 

the 60th parallel, the eastern boundary of the Yukon district 

includes the Liard and its affluents west of 124° 16^ W. long., 

and the Peel and its affluents up to 67° N. lat., and then 

follows the Rockies for awhile ; and it, too, is a mere artificial 

amalgam of natural and mathematical lines.^ 

West of the Rockies there are nothing but high mountains 7^he Range 

in whose shadows mountain valleys hide. The mountains ^^P^^'^^^^ 

different 
rise in echelon, like the Himalayas and Trans-Himalayas, kmds of 

and are parallel with one another and with their deep ^f>^untry ; 

dividmg valleys. They may be classed as five ranges or west there 

ideal lines, although the actual lines often exceed five in ^^'^ ^uY^ ' 

number : — The Rockies ; an intermittent range of which the ranges 

Selkirk, Babine, and Cassiar mountains are the most con- "^^^"^^'f^^^-^ 

' or coal ; 

spicuous examples; 'a sea of mountains*, composed of waves, 
so to speak, from the ranges immediately on its east and west, 
and which narrows at one place to the Gold Range, and to 
the familiar Eagle Pass between Revelstoke and Sicamous ; the 
Coast Range, which defends the coast between New West- 
minster and the mountains of St. Elias ; and the fragmentary 
ridges which penetrate Vancouver, Queen Charlotte, Texada, 
and other islands along their longer axis, making them fish- 
shaped. Each of these ranges is associated with a special 
type of country, and each yields minerals ; the gold mountains 
of Cariboo, and the copper and gold of Rossland, Grand 

^ Canada, Revised Statutes, 1906, cap. 63, Schedule. 



250 HISTORICAL GEOGRAPHY OF CANADA 

Forks, Boundary and Trail Creeks belonging to the third 
class ; the silver-lead of Moyie, Kimberley, and the Slocan, 
and the silver and gold of Nelson and the Lardeau belonging 
to the second class ; the gold of Hedley to the fourth class, 
the iron of Texada to the fifth class, and the copper of the 
inlets and the islands to the fourth and fifth class respectively. 
Coal of Cretaceous Age and excellent quality makes Crow's 
Nest Pass in the Rockies, and Nanaimo, Wellington, and 
Comox, on the east of Vancouver Island, rival Cape Breton 
Island ; while Tertiary coal is found on uplands of the fourth 
type near Nicola. Geologically, the first and fifth types are 
similar, ranging chiefly from primary to lower secondary 
formations ; the second type has Archaean elements, and the 
fourth is largely intrusive granite. Tertiary volcanic elements 
lie over many uplands of the third class ; but there are no 
modern volcanoes, unless, as has been surmised, the traces of 
lava in the valley of the Nass ^ point to an eruption a few 
hundred years ago. The Rockies attain 13,700 feet, the 
Selkirks 10,800 feet, and the island mountains 7,000 feet ; 
on the coast St. Elias exceeds 18,000 feet, and its companion 
Mount Logan 19,000 feet, but they are exceptions, and the 
rest of the coast mountains do not often exceed 9,000 feet. 
and valleys ^^ ^^^^ western land the scenery is always bold, and 
are deep, mountains are visible everywhere barring the way ; there- 
an7fofie- ^ore valleys are, or should be, to British Columbia what they 
are to Switzerland, Tirol, and Scotland. 

The valleys are threaded by rivers which expand into 
lakes, and the lakes are real deep lochs, and as unlike Lake 
Winnipeg as unlike can be ; thus Shuswap Lake is almost 
as deep as Lake Ontario, and its sister lake. Lake Adam, is 
deeper than Lake Superior ; and the great rivers are navi- 
gable from source to mouth, except where they rush through 
e.g, the gorges, often many miles in length. The sources of the Colum- 
^th^^C f ^^^ ^^^ Fraser, which are the two greatest rivers of British 

bia-Fraser- 1 North of the Skeena. 

Peace^ 



THE FAR WEST AND NORTH-WEST 251 

Columbia, lie in the longest and most characteristic valley of 
British Columbia. It is about 2,500 feet above the sea, 
extends at least 800 miles north-west and south-east, and has 
at least six rivers, three of which start north-west and three 
south-east. The Kootenay runs south-east, the Columbia 
north-west, and they rise back to back ; for the watershed 
between the two is * a large morass \ and ' it is impossible to 
cross even on foot between the two without going in water ' ^; 
but low, wet watersheds between two rivers flowing opposite 
ways are not rare in Canada, and may be seen in a mild 
version as far east as the Petitcodiac and Annapolis. The 
Columbia, as it flows north-west, meets the Canoe River 
front to front ; and they two become one and pass westward, 
forming one of those T-shaped rivers which are common in 
mountainous countries, and are therefore wanting east of the 
Rockies. The uppermost Fraser, between which and the 
Canoe there is a second low short watershed, prolongs the line, 
flowing north-west until it reaches a third similar watershed, 
2,160 feet high, on the other side of which are the Parsnip 
(Crooked Branch) and Finlay (Tochieca Branch), which 
together constitute the cross-bar of the T-shaped east-flowing 
Peace, and prolong the line of the Kootenay-Colombia-Canoe- 
and-Fraser valley, which has now reached its eight hundredth 
mile. Even here the valley does not wholly end, but is con- 
tinued in a manner by the Kachika and Frances, which are 
the outstretched right and left arms of the Liard, for another 
two hundred miles. Frances Lake, at the extreme end of 
the series, is a characteristic British Columbian Lake — very 
deep, very narrow, hemmed in by mountains 4,000 feet 
above it, and splitting into parallel arms which repeat these 
characteristics. This immense valley, or succession of con- 
fluent valleys, lies parallel with the coast, and invites travellers 
to wander, and colonists to settle, not, as elsewhere in Canada, 

^ Sir James Hector in Accounts and Papers^ 1859, ^ess. 2 (vol. xxii, 
P- 653}, P- 37- 



252 HISTORICAL GEOGRAPHY OF CANADA 

east and west, one nearer to and another further from the 

Atlantic or Pacific Ocean, but up and down nine or more 

degrees of latitude, north-west and south-east, without coming 

nearer at any moment of the journey to or further from the 

Pacific Ocean. In this respect it differs from other main 

or 'bend' valleys in habitable Canada. Those valleys lead westward 

ran^fs attd ^^^"^ ^^^ Atlantic to the Rockies, after crossing which this valley 

ovei' other diverts wanderers from their quest, and sends them aimlessly 

river- tnes. ^^ ^^^ ^^^^ ^p ^^^ down the map, or would do so but for 

three or four great bends in the rivers and river valleys. 
The First, the Kootenay dips below the frontier, bends west- 

river- ^^^ ward, and emerges in Kootenay Lake, where it meets the 
system River Duncan from the north — forming a second long line 
lines and "P ^^^ down the map, more or less parallel with the great 
one great composite valley where it rose. Here, too, it resembles a 
Kootmay ^^isshapen T, whose tiny stalk goes down by Nelson into 
Lake, &c, the Middle Columbia at Robson. For the Columbia, in the 
meantime, has made its great bend, two hundred miles north 
of Robson, towards which it then flows south-west by Revel- 
stoke and the Arrow Lakes, driving a third great straight 
furrow, about 1,500 feet above the sea, down the map. Soon 
after passing Robson, the Columbia passes the frontier, and 
the principal river of Western America, and its chief satellite, 
which is the Kootenay, vanish from Canadian history. Not 
so its lesser tributaries. Li addition to the three long Hues 
drawn lengthwise by the Columbia or Kootenay, other 
tributaries, or tributaries of tributaries, contribute five or six 
similar, but smaller, streaks to the map of British Columbia ; 
Slocan valley between Arrow and Kootenay Lakes ; then 
North Fork, Boundary Creek, and Kettle valleys between 
Arrow and Okanagan Lakes; and then the Okanagan and 
Upper Similkameen valleys, whose rivers join the Columbia 
within the United States. In each of these nine valleys 
history is being made. 

The Fraser The bend of the Columbia is of wider span than that of the 

'bends' 



THE FAR WEST AND NORTH-WEST 253 

Kootenay, but the bend of the Fraser is still wider and over the 

overarches the bend of the Columbia. The Columbia en- ,^S!^^tl^ 

sons, ana 

compasses the Selkirk Mountains, but the Fraser encompasses through 
the Cariboo Mountains, which have been described as ' a sea j^an^e^to 
of mountains, 7,000 or 8,000 feet (high), and pine-clad hills,' the Coast. 
with 'hardly a foot of level ground, except at the bottom of the 
narrow gullies between the hills V and in which the Selkirks 
and other mountains are merged. Then the Fraser travels 
southward for 350 miles, gradually nearing, then shaving, and 
finally cleaving the Coast Range slantwise, for the Coast 
Range runs not southward but south-eastward. Meanwhile, 
between the pillars of this stately arch, the North Thompson, 
which plays towards the Fraser a part like that played by 
Duncan River plus Kootenay Lake towards the Columbia, 
traces down the map an intermediate slit from north to south, 
and joins the South Thompson at Kamloops, whence the 
South Thompson, imitating the Kootenay at Nelson, runs for 
once in a way due west to meet the Fraser Valley at Ashcroft, 
and the Fraser River at Lytton. Between Lytton and Hope 
the Fraser, reinforced by the Thompsons, bursts its way 
through the Coast Range by a mighty gorge, after which it 
bends once more westward and crawls lazily through fertile, 
flooded flats to the Ocean a little beyond New Westminster. 

In British Columbia the Skeena, as well as the Fraser, Between 
makes a breach in the Coast Range. In the interval of five ^^^^^kema 
hundred miles between these breaches, there are many passes the Coast 
of historic moment to which affluents of the Fraser ^"^^f^^fg/L 
oceanic fiords, sounds, or inlets point from either side. Thus means of 
the Nechaco affluent leads from the top of the great bend of-^^^^^{^^^ 
the Fraser towards Gardner Inlet ; the Nechaco, Blackwater, not by 
and Chilcotin affluents towards Bella Coola, Dean Inlet, *^^^^^' 
Burke Channel, and Fitzhugh Sound ; the Chilcotin towards 
Homathco River and Bute Inlet ; Seton and Anderson Lakes, 

^ Milton and Cheadle, The North-west Passage by Land^ ed. 1875, 
P- 369« 



254 HISTORICAL GEOGRAPHY OF CANADA 

which just belong to the Middle Fraser, by a difficult route 
towards Howe Sound, or by an easy route down Lillooet and 
Harrison Lakes and Rivers to the Lower Fraser, to which 
they belong, and so to the sea. The inlets are high-walled, 
narrow, straight, and deep ; some, like Fitzhugh Sound and 
Bute Inlet, running due north; others north-west, like the 
coast; and a few, like Bella Coola and Gardner Canal, 
running at right angles to the predominant direction. 
TheSkeena The Skeena — about whose mouth are Port Simpson, Prince 
^Coast ^^^ Rupert, and Port Essington — is navigable by steamers up to 
Range and Hazelton, i8o miles away ; beyond which three affluents join 
^thTupplr ^^ ^"^ ^^^ ^^^^' ^^ Bulkley, Babine, and uppermost Skeena, 
Fraser and each of which forms, or helps to form, long valleys, stretching 
far'lineTtr south-east and north-west. The Bulkley, if followed upward, 
bends. is prolonged by the valley of the Endako River, which flows 
in the opposite direction into the Nechaco River, near Fort 
Fraser. Close by the sources of the uppermost Skeena, the 
valley of the Stuart Rivers and Lakes begins, and this valley 
runs parallel to the Bulkley-Endako Valley, and it too ends 
in the Nechaco River, fifty miles below the Endako, and fifty 
miles above the confluence of the Nechaco with the Fraser, 
near Fort George. Lake Stuart is engarlanded by mountains 
more than 2,000 feet above its level, and suggested to its first 
visitor the name of New Caledonia, by which British Columbia 
was known until 1858 ; and on its shores Fort St. James was 
built. Between the Stuart and Bulkley-Endako Valleys the 
Babine Valley intervenes, and it, too, is parallel with its sister 
valleys and with the coast. On. the east of, and parallel with, 
the Stuart Valley is the valley of the Parsnip and Findlay, 
which is a part or continuation of the great composite valley 
with which we began, and into which all ways seem to lead 
back. On the Parsnip (Crooked River Branch) Fort Macleod 
was built, and forthwith Forts St. James, Macleod, Fraser, and 
George wielded joint dominion over British Columbia on 
behalf, first, of the North- West Company, then (182 1) of the 



THE FAR WEST AND NORTH-WEST 255 

Hudson Bay Company. If the Findlay River is followed 
further to the north-west, some of its tributaries curl round 
towards the uppermost Skeena, which also curls round 
towards them; so that on ill-drawn maps the two curves 
almost meet like some broken, far-off reflection of the perfect 
arches formed further south by the Fraser and Columbia. 
This false curve used to round off" British Columbia on old 
maps; and the Skeena and Findlay, or their basins, were 
the northern boundaries of British Columbia in the Act of 
1858.^ But the boundary w^as impossible, because amongst 
other things it ignored the Nass, which enters the sea north 
of the Skeena and is wholly British. Indeed, the Nass is the 
last of the wholly British rivers. 

A little north of the mouth of the Skeena is a north- TheStikine 
pointing fiord, called Portland Canal, which divides the British ^^f^J^^f'^-^ 
and Alaskan or American possessions. Beyond the canal there Liard 
are many rivers which are of vital importance to Canada, '^'^^^/'^ ^'^^^'^ 
such as the Stikine (near Cross Sound), which is navigable Yukon, 
by steamer up to Glenora and Telegraph Creek (138 miles). ^j^^^S^ ^^' 
Telegraph Creek lies behind the Coastal Range, and a 62^ the Mac- 
mile pack-trail leads thence along the river-banks and over a ^^^^^^ y 
watershed, 2,730 feet high, to Dease Lake and Dease River, 
which is a tributary of the Liard, which is a tributary of the 
Mackenzie ; and on Dease Lake is Laketon, the centre of the 
so-called Cassiar mining district. The Liard is easily reached 
from Laketon by the placid waters of the river Dease, and the 
spot where the Dease and Liard meet is a junction, if so 
lonely a spot can be called a junction, not only for the 
Mackenzie on the east, but for the great long valley of the 
Peace, Fraser, and Columbia on the south, and for Lake 
Frances and the Pelly on the north and west, the Pelly being 
a tributary of the Yukon. North of the Stikine, the Taku and the 
enters the Pacific offering difficult access to Lakes Adin and Taku and 
Teslin, which belong to the Yukon river-system, and which canal lead 

' ^«/^, p. 248. y,,^^^^ 



256 HISTORICAL GEOGRAPHY OF CANADA 

can also be reached from Glenora. After the Taku a straight 
north-pointing fiord, called Lynn's Canal, offers the shortest 
way either over the Chilcat, or the Chilcoot, or the White Pass, 
to the Yukon District. Here, too, or hereabouts, there are 
minglings of glacier and sea which are wilder than on the 
Jokul Fjeld in Norway. But north-west of Portland Canal, 
Canada is as clean cut off from the sea as coastless Abyssinia. 
The coast-strip beyond Portland Canal is part of Alaska, and 
therefore the Lower Stikine, the Lower Taku, Lynn's Canal, 
and the southern slopes of the White, Chilcoot, and Chilcat 
Passes, are American; while the Upper Stikine, the Upper 
Taku, the northern slopes of these passes, and all the sources 
of the Yukon River are Canadian. 
Then are The one way which has superseded every other way to the 
^wav7^o7he ^^^^^^^ region of Yukon District lies by Lynn's Canal and the 
Yukon by White Pass, for the White Pass soon eclipsed the Chilcat and 
^anal ^ Chilcoot Passes. The front door of the treasure-stores of the 
north is owned and guarded by foreigners ; or, let us rather 
and the say, Canada's big brother keeps the key. The mouth of the 
The^ Yukon Yukon in Bering Sea is the back door to Yukon District, and 
is wholly American. The following side-doors are wholly 
and five Canadian. One side-door is at Telegraph Creek on the 
overland ^^^^ine, from which there is a trail to Lake Atlin, along the 
telegraph-wires, or to Lake Teslin — along what was once 
a projected railroad — both lakes being part of the Yukon 
water-system. Telegraph Creek itself is reached by the wires 
direct from Fort Fraser near the bend of the Fraser, via 
Hazelton on the Skeena. A second side-passage is from 
Telegraph Creek by Laketon, the Liard, Frances, and Pelly ; 
and a third uses the same three rivers, but starts from Edmon- 
ton and the Mackenzie. A fourth ascends Peel River (Wind 
River Branch), and crosses either Bonnet Plume or Braine Pass 
to the Stewart, which flows into the Yukon a little above the 
Klondike; and a fifth comes from Peel River (Rat Branch) to 
the Porcupine, which flows into the Yukon in Alaska. As to 



THE FAR WEST AND NORTH-WEST 257 

these two first by-routes, the first route was made an eight-foot 
trail by the Royal North- West Mounted Police in 1907, and 
three hundred cattle once came overland from the Fraser to 
Laketon, but travellers almost invariably sail to Telegraph 
Creek up the Stikine, that is to say through the territory of 
the United States. The tortuous and arduous Middle and 
Lower Liard makes the third route difficult. The other routes 
start from the Arctic Circle, one encroaching on Alaska. 
Therefore the front door is the only door which Canadians use. 

After passing Lynn's Canal, Skagway, and White Pass, The White 
the traveller reaches Bennett, which belongs to British ^^iy^^^fl 
Columbia. The tangle of Lakes near Bennett — Lakes is along the 
Bennett, Tagish, and Atlin — are reservoirs of one arm of the ^^^^^o^h 
Lewes, as the Upper Yukon is called; and Teslin Lake, 
which is further east, is the reservoir of Teslin River, which is 
the other arm of the Lewes. Except for three miles near 
Whitehorse, the whole Yukon is navigated by steamers from 
Bennett to its mouth, 2,000 miles away, during the three ice- 
free months. It is a shallow river, although it has great 
tributaries, especially from the east. At Selkirk the Pelly 
joins it, and it ceases to be called the Lewes and is thence- 
forth called the Yukon. If the Teslin may be regarded as the 
main stream, the Yukon flows straight north-westward from 
Teslin Lake to Selkirk. Between Selkirk and the mouths of 
the White River, which comes from the St. Ellas Glaciers, and 
of the Stewart River, which comes from the Rockies, and of 
the little river called Klondike, which joins it at Dawson, the 
Yukon is crooked, but its general direction is the same. 
Between Dawson and what was once Fort Yukon, at the 
junction of the Porcupine, it again flows straight north-west. 
Here, having touched the Arctic Circle, it wheels round 
towards a more genial sea than that towards which it was 
moving hitherto. In its course through Canada it preserves 
the characteristic British Columbian trend, which is the trend 
of the Rockies and the Mackenzie. But it is the last to do 

VOL. V. PT, HI S 



258 HISTORICAL GEOGRAPHY OF CANADA 



which is 
the last of 
the great 
Canadian 
Rivers, 



The valleys 
of British 
Columbia 
are char- 
acteristic^ 



so are its 
trees, 



SO and has no imitators; and on leaving Canada it desists, 
swerves round, and makes towards Asia. If rivers of one 
country may be compared with those of another, the St. 
Lawrence recalls the Nile, the Mackenzie recalls the Ob, or 
Yenisei ; and the rivers of British Columbia combine the longi- 
tudinal parallelism of the Salween, Mekhong, and Dichu, with 
the bendingness of the Yellow, Congo, or Niger ; but perhaps 
there are no true parallels in geographical contours any more 
than there are in historical events. 

Terraced valleys are also characteristic of the Kootenay, 
Columbia, Fraser, and every other main river-valley of British 
Columbia. Thus near Ashcroft the Fraser has three visible 
tiers about 80 feet, no feet, and 400 feet above, and each on 
both sides of the present bed ; and Lake Frances, 900 miles 
away, has two clear terraces each on both sides, 90 feet and 
300 feet high respectively. One supposed explanation is that 
the present valleys were scooped out to their present depths in 
the Tertiary Age; then the Glacial Age filled them with 
rubble ; then the rubble was swept away at different periods 
in two or three successive stages. Pre-glacial river-beds are 
still found choked with rubble, which is the chief source of 
placer gold in the Cariboo Mountains. 

British Columbia possesses not only mountains, rivers, and 
valleys, but also trees different from those of the rest of 
Canada. The Douglas Fir^ is sometimes as high as the 
North Tower of the Crystal Palace, and its lowest branches are 
higher than the Crystal Palace roof; within the trunk of a red 
cedar '^ a whole family might live in comfort ; and the hem- 
lock' — which is the particular glory of Queen Charlotte 
Islands — and the white spruce * are akin to the Douglas Fir, 
and the yellow cedar ^ is akin to the red cedar. The Douglas 
Fir, like the black pine,* overlaps the Rockies from the Yellow- 



^ Pseudotsuga Douglasii, 
^ Tsuga mertensiana. 
^ Thuya excel sa. 



2 Thuya gigantea. 

* Picea (a hies) Sitchensis. 

* Pinus Murrayana. 



THE FAR WEST AND NORTH-WEST 259 

head Pass to the south, but none of these trees exists far north, 
except the black pine, which flourishes beside Frances Lake, 
and on the left bank of the Yukon at Selkirk. The forests are 
as dense as splendid. A writer describes Alberni in Vancouver 
Island thus : ' The density of the forest is marvellous : . . . 
one mile in four hours was very quick work.' Elsewhere, 
' The forest was composed of enormous cedar, and spruce, 
300 feet high at least ; . . their lowest branches had died or 
were lifeless and covered with long matted moss. Overhead 
the thickness of black branches met far away and seemed 
gently to sway with some distant breeze. There w^as nothing 
green or young in this forest. The colouring was that of 
old, tarnished silver-gilt. ' ^ The British Columbian trees, 
mountains, valleys, and rivers, are on a grand scale. Prairie- 
land is the world's greatest corn-land, British Columbia is one 
of its two or three greatest tree-lands. 

Climate, of course, affects plants. In Yukon, Fort Cudahy plants, 
barracks were built by the North- West Police on tw^o feet of ^ ^^^^^^' 
moss ; Dawson was a marsh, and miners find the earth frozen 
at four foot deep. Nevertheless the wild rose blooms at 
Dawson, and early pioneers found grass and pasture for their 
horses on the sunny side of the river-banks. The climate is 
dry, and glacial traces are few. In the far south of British 
Columbia there is a strange alternation from wet to dry land. 
The coast is wet. In one year there were 64 inches of rain on 
the Lower Fraser, and 7 1 inches at Port Simpson ; behind 
the Coast Range there were 8 inches at Kamloops, and 8 at 
Barkerville ; the Selkirks were very wet indeed, and behind 
them again there were i o inches only on the Upper Kootenay. 
These dry strips surprise the traveller with the spectacle so 
common in Europe, and so strange in Canada, of hills which 
are thinly dotted with hardy trees,^ or are wholly bare, not 
because they are too high, but because they are too dry. 

' F. MacNab, British Columbia, 1898, pp. 190-1 (abbreviated 
quotation). '^ Pinus ponderosa. 

S 2 



26o HISTORICAL GEOGRAPHY OF CANADA 

On the westernmost dry strip, which extends from Kamloops 
up to Stuart Lake more or less, and down by Okanagan to 
the frontier, the hopes of graziers, farmers, and fruiterers are 
- fixed ; or rather on those parts of the strip where there are 
valleys or where the sea of mountains is comparatively calm. 
Farms flourish up to 2,500 feet and cattle up to 3,500 feet 
s. m., but irrigation is as necessary here as dykes and dams 
are in the Lower Eraser. 
fauna, Mountain-sheep^ and reindeer or caribou roam over the 

whole country, and grizzly bears over the whole mainland. 
The coyote ^ is a bond between prairie-land and parts of 
British Columbia ; so are the elk or moose,^ and red deer or 
wapiti,'' which survive on the Arctic slope and in Vancouver 
Island respectively. There are no bison west of the Rockies, 
although Sir A. Mackenzie and David Thompson saw bison 
just west of the Passes which they crossed. There were, or 
are, fur-seals ^ on the Straits of Juan de Fuca, and sea-otters* 
in every inlet ; while innumerable salmon still frequent every 
river from the Naas to the Fraser. 
and There are far more Indians of different stock in British 

Indians. Columbia than elsewhere in the whole of Canada. Every- 
thing north of Nelson River in Hudson Bay, the Yellowhead 
Pass, and the headwaters of the Chilcotin affluent of the 
Fraser, belongs to the Chipewyan Athapascan or V>ixi€ race,'' 
if recent Cree invaders between Edmonton and the Peace, 
still more recent Iroquois colonists at the Yellowhead, and the 
occupants of the coast are excepted. Eskimos occupy the 
coast from Churchill (Hudson Bay), by the Arctic and North 
Pacific Oceans, to St. Elias (Yukon). On the coast line south 
or east of St. Elias, Eskimos are succeeded by Tlinkits near 
Bennett, by Haidas on Queen Charlotte Islands, by Tsimp- 

* Ovis Canadensis. 2 Canis latrans. 

^ A Ices Ainericamis, * Cervus Canadensis. 

^ Latax Lutris, ^ Otaria nrsina, 

■^ e. jj. Sikanni, Carrier, Chilcotin, Babincs, &c., in British Columbia. 



THE FAR WEST AND NORTH-WEST 261 

seans near Port Simpson and the Skeena, by Kwakiutl-Noot- 
kas from Gardner Canal to Bute Inlet (except at Bella Coola and 
Dean inlets) and on Vancouver Island (except near Victoria), 
and by Salish ^ near Victoria, and on Bella Coola and Dean 
inlets. Salish also occupy the Lower Ffaser, the Middle 
Fraser, the North Thompson, the South Thompson and the 
Middle Columbia, and Kootenays occupy the Upper Colum- 
bia and Kootenay. Probably these six nations are as different 
from one another as Algonquins are from Chipewyans ; yet 
these two nations cover vast masses of land over two-sevenths 
of the earth's circumference; and those six nations are 
crammed into the western coast, and along the southern 
frontier of a single British province. 

Mountains and fiords split the Indians into isolated frag- 
ments. Not that the fragments were ever sedentary. Thus 
the Haidas periodically visited the mainlands, and the 
Shuswaps the Yellowhead. But their area and their ideas of 
movement were ' cabin'd, cribbed, confined ' by the grandeur 
of their mountains and the intricacy of their shore line. 

1 Shuswap, Okinakan, Kawitchin, &c. 



CHAPTER XI 

THE PEOPLING AND CIVIIiIZATlON OF 
THE FAB LATEST 

Russians, 'Y'&E white men who first landed in British Columbia 
Spaniards^ . i . i i i . r r>..i . r>. . -r^ 

English- brought With them the memories of Siberia, Spam, France, 

men, j^^ Pacific Islands, India, China, and every country except 

Canadians, Canada. Vitus Bering, a Dane in Russian service, sailed 

and {xox£i Okhotsk, and saw and named Cape (and Mount) 

x^fenc/itjicn x \ / 

discovered St. Elias (1741), which separates Yukon from Alaska, and 

B. C, from Russian traders followed him to the Aleutian bridge of islands 

Asia, east 

and west between Asia and America. When Captain Cook reached 

cT'''h' Nootka and Cross Sounds (1778) from the Cape of Good 
the South- ^^V^ and Australia, Don Juan de Ayala and J. F. de la 
West Pad- Bodega, who were Spaniards, had already reached Cross 
Europe, Sound from Mexico (1775),^ and the Russians had already 
1 741-95) reached Kadiak, w^hich is this side of the Aleutian bridge 
(1776). After Cook, Russian traders occupied Kadiak 
(c. 1784) and Alaska (c. 1792); La P6'ouse, after doubling 
Cape Horn, visited Cross Sound on behalf of France (1786); 
Captain J. Hannah (1785), Captain Barclay (1787), Com- 
mander John Meares (1788), and other Englishmen traded 
between London, India, Nootka Sound, and China ; and there 
was a London merchant named Brown in Portland Canal 
before 1793. Meanwhile, New England traders sailed round 
Cape Horn, discovered the mouth of the Columbia, and 
helped Englishmen and Spaniards to discover or re-discover 
the Strait, of which a Greek pilot, known as Juan de Fuca, 
spoke in 1592, saying that it led straight across the continent 
to the Atlantic ^ ; so that old-world fables and old-world inter- 
national rivalries were revived, and hovered over the British 

1 Daines Barrington, Miscellanies, 1781, p. 504. 

2 Between 47° N. lat. and 48° N. lat., Purchas, Pilgrims, ed. 1907, 
vol. xiv, p. 415. 



THE CIVILIZATION OF THE FAR WEST 26;^ 

Columbian coast. Then Captain Vancouver was sent out from e.g-. Van- 
England, by the Cape of Good Hope and Australia, to dispel 'Macken^f 
these ghosts of a dead past ; sailed between Vancouver Island in 1793. 
and the mainland (1792) ; explored and named the creeks and 
islands of the coast, and amongst others Burke Channel and 
Bentinck Arm (May and June, 1793). Exactly one month 
later Canada flashed upon the scene in the person of 
Sir A. Mackenzie. His route was up the Peace River, over 
the Peace River Pass, up the Parsnip, down the Eraser to 
Alexandria, back to the Blackwater affluent of the Phraser, up 
the banks of the Blackwater, over the Coast Range, and down 
the Bella Coola to Bentinck Arm and Burke Channel.^ 

The Scotchman travelling westward across one-third of 
the world, and the Englishman, sailing eastward over the 
other two-thirds, all but met in this lonely fiord. Both men 
were idealists, but there was no common plan ; each went 
about his own business, and between them they ran a girdle 
round the earth. The so-called all-red route of to-day is an 
echo of the Vancouver-Mackenzie route of 120 years ago. 

Forts or trading-posts followed in Mackenzie's footsteps Forts Mc- 
but slowly. Simon Eraser, while discovering and exploring /^^J^ ^* 
the Nechaco affluent of the Eraser, built McLeod's fort for Fraser.and 
the Sikanni, St. James, Eraser (1806), and George Eort (1807) ^^g^flu-n^ 
for the Carriers ; and thence discovered the mouth of the (i7id rtded 
Eraser from inland (1808), even as the mouths of the Niger %J^Jff^^ 
and Murray were discovered. These four fur-forts ruled the 1806-13, 
country of the Eraser from inland and from the north. Then ike Upper 
D. W. Harmon went thence to the Babine country on the ^keena, 
north, the Babine being tributary to the Skeena, and John 
Stuart went thence to the Upper Columbia on the south ; so 
that the four forts now connected critical parts of the three 
principal water-systems of British Columbia (18 10-13). ^^^^ Upper 
Meanwhile, David Thompson explored, and almost exhausted, anJ^co- 

^ Captain George Vancouver, Voyages^ 1790-5, ed. by J. Vancouver, ^^ ^^» 
3 vols, 1798 ; Sir A. Mackenzie's Voyages ^ ed. by R. Waite, 2 vols., 1903. 



264 HISTORICAL GEOGRAPHY OF CANADA 

the Columbian water-system, from the Canoe River on the 
north to Fort Astoria (United States), which was founded near 
its mouth in 1810-11 ; and amongst other things he founded 
Fort Kootenay (1807-8), at the head of the Columbia, and 
completed a circle of travel and commerce between the 
Kootenay Fort, the Kootenay River (British Columbia and 
United States), the Kootenay Lake, the Arrow Lakes of the 
Middle Columbia, and Fort Kootenay (181 1). 
the N. and Then David Stuart reached Okanagan Lake from Astoria, 
sonmid"^' ^^^^^^^^ i^> crossed to the junction of the Thompsons, which 
Okanagan. had already been reached from Fort George, and founded 
Fort Kamloops (1811-13) at the junction^ A second 
circular travel-and-trade way was now complete between the 
great bend of the Fraser, the Columbia-Kootenay source, the 
Columbia (British Columbia and United States), the Oka- 
nagan, the South Thompson, and the great bend of the Fraser. 
Like the other irregular circle, it dipped below the border, 
and its long axis lay north and south, not east and west. 
Six Pacific The coast and the coast-tribes seem to have been forgotten 
founZ7^ since Mackenzie and Frazer; for the valleys drove men 
frofnCol' north and south, and the Coast Range and coast-tribes 
^ea, 1827'- checked the white inlanders. Ultimately the coast was 
42. reached by fur-forts, but not from the interior. Fort Alex- 

andria (1821), — which eclipsed Fort George, — and the short- 
lived Fort Chilcotin (after 1826), were founded lower down 
on or near the Fraser ; but the Lower Fraser was not reached 
from this side. Then settling traders sailed north from the 
Columbia and founded Forts Langley (1827) on the Lower 
Fraser, Forts Simpson (1831, 1833) ^^^ Essington (1835) 
on the mouth of the Skeena, Fort McLaughlin (1833), just 
north of Fitzhugh Sound, and Forts Rupert (1835) and 
Victoria (1842),^ on the north-east and south-west respec- 
tively of Vancouver Island. 

* Alexander Ross, Adventures ^ P-*T5i ; Washington Irving, Astoi-ia, 
ed. 1 86 1, p. 285. 2 Aij^g Port Camosun. 



THE CIVILIZATION OF THE FAR WEST 265 

Meanwhile exploring traders pushed north from the four The four 

forts to Forts Babine on Lake Babine (1822), and YoxX.^'^V^^ 

\ f^ forts were 

Connolly (1829) on the uppermost Skeena ; but these inland discon- 
forts were as unconnected with the forts on the mouth of the ^iTcoastal 
Skeena as the four forts were with Fort Langley. It was/^^^^, 
easier apparently to get from the inland forts to the Atlantic 
or Hudson Bay, than to the Pacific coast of Canada. 

Next, John Macleod (1834 et seq.) and Robert or Roderick although 
Campbell (1838 et seq.) explored the southern tributaries ^f^;^,^7iS^ 
of the Liard, and crossed from the Dease to the Upper with forts 
Stikine, and others crossed from the Dease to Fort Connolly Tenzie^nd 
on the uppermost Skeena. Campbell then followed the Yukon, 
northern tributary of the Liard into Frances Lake, which is ^ ^"^'"^ ' 
its origin, and crossed to the Pelly, which he descended to 
the Yukon (1840-3). Forts were founded on Dease Lake 
(1838) and the Upper Pelly (1842), and Fort Selkirk was 
built at the junction of the Yukon and Pelly (1848). The 
Peel-Porcupine-Yukon route was explored between 1842 and 
1846, when Fort Yukon was built at the junction of the 
Porcupine and Yukon in Alaska, and the Yukon was navi- 
gated between Forts Selkirk and Yukon. The earliest news 
of these remote forts on what was then a new unknown 
water-system reached England from searchers engaged in the 
Franklin Relief Expedition/ so that the last chapter leads 
back to the first chapter of this book, as though the narrative 
ran in a circle. The four forts of the Eraser were now con- 
nected with the Liard, the Stikine, the Mackenzie, and the 
Yukon, but not with the Pacific on Canadian soil. 

The impulse communicated by the fur-traders of one The settle- 

great company to historical geography had now reached its ^^^^^^^/^^^^ 

grand climacteric, and a new force came into play which was began to 

single, world-wide, and purely political in its character. ^''"jf "f" 

^ Sir John Richardson, Arctic Searching Expedition, 1851, vol. ii, coastal 
pp. 204-7; Papers relating to the Arctic Relief Expedition, \^zp,fofts ; 
No. 107, p. 4 (vol. XXXV, p. 184) ; Further correspondence cojinected with 
the Arctic Expedition^ 1852, No. 1449, pp. 204-5 (vol. 1, pp. 878-9). 



266 HISTORICAL GEOGRAPHY OF CANADA 

In 1846 the Anglo-American frontier was fixed at 49° N. 
lat., but gave Vancouver Island to England, although part of it 
is south of 49° N. lat. Immediately the scattered posts upon 
the coast, and the long-drawn lines in the interior, drew together, 
and one capital for both was selected upon the Pacific. 
the history The Hudson Bay Company, which now governed Vancouver 
^and^Van-^ Island, made Victoria the seat of government. Esquimault, 
couver which is the twin city of Victoria, became until 1905 the 
l^emn- principal British naval station on the Pacific, being as it is 
the only first-rate Pacific port south of 49° N. lat., except San 
Francisco (United States) and Acapulco (Mexico). Con- 
sequently, whalers and sealers bound for Alaska used Victoria 
as a d^p6t from the first, and fish and lumber began to be 
exported thence even to the Hawaii Islands. Salmon was 
exported in barrels from Victoria as early as 1853; and 
eight British settlers arrived from England at Sooke Harbour 
twenty miles west of Victoria, in 1849. Coal was worked 
temporarily at Fort Rupert (1849), then permanently at 
Nanaimo (1851), which is seventy-three miles north of 
Victoria, and Victoria soon became to the East Pacific what 
one Sydney is to the North-west Atlantic, and another Sydney 
is to the South-west Pacific. These crude facts almost con- 
tain a complete epitome of the industrial geography of the 
island. The canned-salmon trade began to prosper in 1876 ; 
the Wellington coal-mines, five miles beyond Nanaimo, in 
187 1 ; the Comox coal-mines, sixty miles beyond Nanaimo, 
in 1888; and Malcolm Islet, opposite old Fort Rupert, yielded 
coal in 1908. A line of settlements connect Victoria with 
Wellington, and the sixteen-mile Saanich peninsula north-east 
of Victoria is fertile and inhabited throughout. Agriculture 
flourishes round the coal-mines. Otherwise settlements are 
discontinuous, and consist largely of fishermen and lumberers, 
who are scattered on many streams, and in many islets. The 
condition of the island in 1853 ^^d 19 10 differs only in 
degree and most of these differences are due to discoveries of 



THE CIVILIZATION OF THE FAR WEST 267 

precious metals. Precious metals have had three effects 
upon the island history. First, they scattered miners about 
the mouths of many inlets. Secondly, the connected districts 
of the island now reach beyond Nanaimo to the opposite 
side of the island, through the copper-mines of Alberni and 
Central Lake, where there is cultivable land. A railway is 
now being built from sea to sea between Nanaimo and 
Alberni. Not that we know much of the interior even now, 
and officials wrote in 1908 that 'its Geology and Topography 
is practically unknown '. Thirdly, Victoria grew with, and 
became knit to the mainland. 

On the mainland the concentration produced by political routes were 

events feebly united the Middle and Lower Fraser. In-^^^^^^^f' 

•' tween the 

1846 A. C. Anderson discovered what are now known 2,^^ Middle and 
the Seton-Anderson-Lillooet route and the Hope-Nicola- 4^^^^^ 

^ rraser ; 

Kamloops route between Alexandria on the Middle and 

Langley on the Lower Fraser,^ and the first loose links were 

forged between the coast and the interior. Fraser {1808) 

and Simpson (1828) had shot through the gorge; but the 

gorge was impracticable for ordinary purposes, and until 

1846 white traders did not cross the Coast Range anywhere. 

Forts Hope and Yale were then built at or near the lower 

end of the gorge (1848), in order to bind the uplands with 

the sea-shore. Nor were they the only bonds between west 

and east. 

On the Middle Columbia, below Arrow Lake, P'ort Shep- between the 

Upper 
hard, which had hitherto been beyond the border, was shifted Columbia 

on to Canadian soil. The east was accessible from the new Middle 

Fort Shephard without trespassing on the United States — by ^^^ Loiver 

going up the Lower Kootenay, across Kootenay Lake, then Fraser, 

by a short cut which John Sullivan, an assistant of Sir John*^^^ 

Palliser, discovered (1859), to the Moyie, and up the Moyie and Frontier; 

over a Pass often used by Thompson (1807-11), and so to 

^ A. G. Morice, History of the North-west Interior of British 
Columbia, 1906, p. 253. 



268 HISTORICAL GEOGRAPHY OF CANADA 

the Upper Kootenay at or near Fort Steele, and to the 
Rockies. But was Fort Shephard accessible from the west ? 
Sir John Palliser reported that with the utmost difficulty he 
had penetrated in 1859 from Fort Shephard to 119° W. 
longitude, keeping just within the border ; and that a trail 
made by the Hudson Bay Company ran from the point 
reached by him to Langley. Thus the Lower Fraser was 
just connected with the Middle Columbia, which was con- 
nected with the Upper Columbia, which was connected with 
the Canadian prairies, and the through route was all-red, 
direct, and near the frontier. It was deemed, however, too 
difficult for use. But strange things were happening in 1859, 
because gold, which can remove mountains, was already in 
the air. 
and men The Upper and Lower Skeena, and the Upper and Lower 
7heUpp7r Stikine were still more inaccessible one from the other, than 
to the lower the Middle and Lower Fraser, the cause being that jealousy 
Stikine, ^^ coastlanders and mountaineers which is universal among 
savages of different origin. Indeed, Major William Downie 
was the first white man to pass between the coast-forts and 
the forts on the Upper Skeena ; and this too happened in 
1859. 
The dis- Gold not only found out new ways, but transformed 

cffvery of gntish Columbia from a network of trade-centres into 

gold in the 

Fraser and 2^ living colony ; and its advent was the signal for new 

^n^f^'^t developments. It swept like a storm up the American banks 

united the of the Columbia from the south, and there were rumours of 

^lw!r^^^ its coming down the Thompson from the north in April, 1856. 

Fraser and\xi 1 857 gold gleaned from the Thompson was minted at 

iS^e^f^^^* San Francisco. In 1858 one red-shirted, armed Californian 

seg.y crowd struggled up overland by the Okanagan to Kamloops, 

and another sailed into Victoria, where quiet people took 

them for pirates, and up the Fraser to Hope, near which they 

winnowed gold-dust from the river in the forbidding gorges 

of the Fraser. One miner strayed upstream to the Chilcotin 



THE CIVILIZATION OF THE FAR WEST 269 

far beyond the gorge, heard from Indians of Horsefly Lake, 
somewhere out east under the arch of the Great Bend of the 
Fraser, and found gold there (1858). In 1859 Quesnel 
River, to the north of Horsefly Lake, and in i860 Antler 
Creek, still further north, were found to be auriferous ; and 
Lightning Creek and William (Dietz's) Creek, which are 
near Antler Creek, and on which Barkerville stands, came as 
a climax in 1861. Antler on Antler's Creek, and Keighley 
near the forks of the Quesnel, became towns in 1861, and 
Barkerville was in 1865, and still is capital of the Cariboo 
District, as these three new far-off gold-fields were called. 
Placer gold is still strained there, but since 1893 (c) by 
hydraulic machinery, which has superseded individual sieves, 
and sometimes fails owing to the scanty rainfall. 

In 1859 there were less sensational discoveries near Lillooet 
on the Middle Fraser, on the Similkameen, sixty miles east 
by south of Hope, and at Rock Creek — 119° W, longitude — 
150 miles east by south of Hope, and just within the frontier. 
Sir John Palliser, who reached Rock Creek from the east in 
September of the same year, had heard of the discoveries on 
the Similkameen, but not of those at Rock Creek. The 
madding crowd rushed from Hope to Rock Creek through 
the valley of the Similkameen in i860. 

These events riveted the Middle to the Lower Yx2.'^tx, and caused 
The way between Harrison River and Lillooet was perfected, ^^^^-^"^/^/^ 
a good coach-road being built over thirty miles of portage tween coast 
before 1862. Simcoe's Yonge Street was also a good coach- ^^^^ J^/^^^ 
road over thirty miles of portage, but that portage was very tween 

different to this. Then a coach-road was built from Hope ^^^^{^i ^^^^ 

^ south, 

through the great gorge between the Lower and Middle 
Fraser, past Lytton and Clinton — where another coach-road 
from Lillooet met it — to Quesnel, Alexandria (1863), and 
Barkerville (1865), which is 370 miles from Hope. Once 
more we recall Dundas Street, but there is no analogy east 
of the Rockies to the country which this great new road 



270 HISTORICAL GEOGRAPHY OF CANADA 

subdued. Parts of it were built by the Royal Engineers, parts 

by miners, but most by Chinese labourers. Fate strewed its 

potent gold- bait in the most impossible and important spot, 

and the greatest obstacle was converted into the greatest aid 

and immi- to development from the coast, whence all immigrants now 

grants to Q.2cmQ except casual Americans, who from time to time drifted 
arrive. ^ ' 

in from the south — except, too, those 193 Ontarians whom 

the fame of the Cariboo mines drew from their homes 3,000 

miles away, overland by the Yellowhead Pass, and down the 

Upper Fraser or the North Thompson to Quesnel and Kam- 

loops (1862). These Ontarians were the first overlanders 

from Canada, and they came to stay.^ Indeed, most who 

came to mine stayed as farmers in the country or traders in 

the towns. Barkerville, Lillooet, and Kamloops became 

farming centres and general markets; and the Lower Fraser 

became what it is to-day — a series of farms, orchards, and 

ruit-gardens. Langley, Hope, Yale, Lytton, Douglas, 

Lillooet, and CUnton were described as towns in 1862, all 

of which lay along the great road ; and New Westminster had 

been built in 1858-9 at the lodge-gate of this long avenue to 

the gold-fields. Nor was the Hope-Similkameen-Rock Creek 

trail neglected, over which in 1861 the Governor rode from 

end to end. Trails as well as roads converged on the Lower 

Fraser, and the Lower Fraser led to New Westminster, which 

was provincial capital during the short time that the mainland 

was detached from Vancouver Island. These trails and 

roads, for which the gold rush was responsible, are the A.B.C. 

of British Columbian history, as well as of its geography. 

They made the dwellers on and beyond the Middle Fraser 

and its affluents live, and lead one life, and draw breath, so to 

speak, through one tube from one source, the tube being the 

Lower Fraser and the source being the Pacific Ocean. 

The dis' The trail to the Similkameen and Rock Creek also united 

coveries of 

gold at 1 See Milton and Cheadle, North-west Passage by Land, 1863 ; Mrs. 

M. McNaughton, Overland to Cariboo^ 1896. 



THE CIVILIZATION OF THE FAR WEST 27 1 

the Lower Fraser to outliers of the water-system of the Rock 
Columbia on or near the American frontier. And that was <^f^^^> «^^ 
only the first link in a long chain. kameen 

Part of the Similkameen where gold was found in 1859 ^^^^' 
constitutes what I have called the ninth longitudinal valley of 
the Columbia, reckoning from the east. Graziers followed 
miners into the open uplands in the neighbourhood. 

Rock Creek, where gold was found in 1859, is an offshoot 
of Kettle River, which forms the seventh valley. 

In 1863 Wild Horse Creek (near Fort Steele) was dx^- near Fort 
covered in the first valley; and in 1864 there was a rush ^g^^^^' 
thither, but from the south. Said the Governor : ' It was 
from the American newspapers that I became aware of a rich 
and prosperous mining town existing within our limits about 
500 miles east of New Westminster.' Fort Steele had 
become a town. 

In 1875 and 1876 a creek near Kelowna in the eighth near Oka- 
valley, where there had been a Roman Catholic mission for ^^^^ 
nearly twenty years, showed signs of gold, and settlement 1875-6, 
began on Okanagan Lake. Miners were succeeded by 
graziers and farmers, and the Lake-lands blossomed into 
Summer-lands and Peach-lands, which now vie with the 
Lower Fraser as the fruit-garden of the west. 

In 1886 Toad Mountain, south of Nelson, began to pro- near Nel- 
duce silver and copper near the second valley; and in 1889-91 ■^^^» '^^^' 
the Sandon-and-Slocan District, which is north of Nelson, 
and occupies the third valley, began to produce silver-lead, 
which was also produced to the east of Nelson at Hot Springs, 
and Hendryx, near Balfour, at Ainsworth, at Kaslo, and on 
either side of the second valley. 

The gold-quartz of Rossland and Trail in the fourth valley near Ross- 
belongs to the years 1888-92, soon after which Greenwood j'^gg',*^'^** 
(Boundary Creek), in the sixth valley, became a copper 
capital; and Grand Forks in the fifth valley yielded gold. near Sio- 

In 1 890-1 Rossland and Nelson, and before 1893 Sandon, can, &c., 

1890-T, 



272 HISTORICAL GEOGRAPHY OF CANADA 

Slocan, Kaslo, Ainsworth, and Balfour, and between 1895- 
1897 Greenwood and Grand Forks, sprang into existence; 
and Nelson soon afterwards became an agricultural and 
business centre, and began to outstrip Rossland as the inland 
capital of British Columbia. 
near Gran- Then a wonderful thing happened out east. In the first 
brook, 1^2 valley, Fort Steele was the only town south of Golden, 180 

et seq.y 

miles away. It was the market of a few scattered farms, 

mostly pastoral. Wild Horse Creek was still running ; so 

were the wild horses after which it was named. The post 

came once a month, or (1897) week, from Golden. There 

was a Roman Catholic mission for Indians near. In 1892 

miners discovered silver-lead near Kimberley, on St. Mary's 

River, to the west of it. Then the mission-priest wrote that 

' a larger church was needed ' for the miners, * but where to 

get the money was a hard question. Divine Providence came 

to the rescue.' In other words, the priest sent out an Indian 

to the south-west, to St. Eugene on Moyie Lake ; and Divine 

Providence, prompted by the canny priest and clever Indian, 

brought to light what proved the greatest silver-lead mine in 

Canada, until Cobalt was discovered. After 1893, and 

before the discovery of Cobalt, British Columbia produced 

all but all Canadian silver, which often exceeded £500.000 

per annum in value. Cranbrook, which was in 1887 'a large 

farm ' ^ on Thompson s trail to the Moyie, was built a few 

years later, and supplanted Fort Steele as local capital. 

near Hed- And a wonderful thing happened out west. In or near the 

ley, &c., ninth valley, Hedley was discovered in 1896, and became in 

^^° ' 1908 the largest gold-producing camp in British Columbia. 

Princeton is the chief town here, although Osoyoos, in the 

fertile Okanagan valley, is the official local capital. 

and of coal Meanwhile the coal of Fernie — near Crow's Nest Pass and 

at Crow's fifty miles east of Fort Steele — which geologists described 

eUeq^, ^' 3,s Mittle known' in 1889, ^^^ ^^ 'phenomenal' in 1891, 

^ J. A. Lees and W, J. Clutterbuck, British Columbia, p. 210. 



THE CIVILIZATION OF THE FAR WEST 273 

attracted its railway from the east. Passing west from Fernie caused 
(pop. 1,540^) there were already nine stepping-stones of-^^^^/^^^ 
solid rock-hewn gold, silver, and copper at Cranbrook railways 
(pop. 1,196 0, Moyie (pop. 582^), Nelson (pop. 5,273'), ^898^!^'^^'. 
Trail (pop. 1,350^), Rossland (pop. 6,159^), Grand Forks 
(pop. 1,012^), Greenwood (pop. 1,359^), Osoyoos, and 
Princeton (pop. 316 ^); and Princeton was on the way to the 
coal-district of Nicola. The fact that each of these towns is 
near the frontier would suggest to a European a strategic 
road or railway. A road has been, and a railway is being 
built, but it is as little strategic as natural ; and it is certainly 
not natural, for it cuts straight across the grain, hitting more 
than nine rivers and many more mountains at right angles. 
The roads and railways — for both were built piecemeal — were 
purely mineral. The section of railway, which was available in 
1898 between Crow's Nest Pass and Kootenay Lake, followed 
more or less a trail, most of which was used by miners in the 
Sixties, and by Sullivan and David Thompson long ago. The 
Nelson-Greenwood-Midway section is complete; and a further 
section to Osoyoos, Princeton, and Yale, or to Spence Bridge 
via Nicola, or to some other point on the Lower Fraser, will be 
probably ready before this book. If so, a second through- 
railway will zigzag from the tidal waters of the west, 
certainly to Alberta, possibly to Red River, always within 
fifty miles of the frontier, attesting the triumph not of political 
idealism, nor of strategy, but solely of gold, silver, copper, and 
coal over Nature. 

The first through-railway was built long before ; but its 
origin was political, and the mineral-thread must be followed 
further afield before politics are broached. 

The gold-thread led north beyond Quesnel and the four Golddis- 

fur-forts. The Parsnip was reached in 1861,2 the Findlay ^^^f^'^^ 

^ ' •' took men 

in 1862,^ the Omineca, which is a western affluent of ihQ north from 

the four 
^ Population 1 90 1. forts to the 

2 By ' Bill Cust \ ^ By Pete Toy. 

VOL. V. PT. Ill X 



274 HISTORICAL GEOGRAPHY OF CANADA 

Upper Findlay, in 1864, Germanson, Vital, and Manson Creeks, 

Skeena, which belong to the Omineca and Findlay, in 1867 ^; after 

and Liardy which miners rushed to the Omineca, sometimes from the 

^ ^* south, but usually up the Skeena, by Hazelton and the 

Babine, from the western Ocean. The Omineca is still 

haunted by gold-seekers, and the Findlay drew fresh crowds 

in 1908. In 1861 the Stikinewas searched for gold between 

Glenora and Telegraph Creek — so called because of a pro* 

jected telegraph-wire between America and Asia, which 

reached it from Bulkley Valley and Hazelton in 1866-7 ; and 

miners went further upstream and crossed to Dease Lake, 

where miners from the east found gold among the Cassiar 

Mountains in 1872. Here a little alluvial and a very little 

quartz mining still continues. We are now near 60° N. latitude, 

where British Columbia ends ; and in these northern latitudes 

Fate spun its threads more and more from the east and the 

west, and less and less from the south, and every thread was 

thin. After this point it snapped, and made a new beginning 

more than four degrees further north in Yukon. 

Golddis' The mineral history, of Yukon began in 1880. Stewart 

coverus on River, sixty miles above Dawson, on the east of the Yukon, 

the Yukon , , . x- n^.i ^^ 1 , -r^ 

had a was worked m 1885; Forty Mile Creek, below Dawson, on 

separate the west of the Yukon, in 1886; and Sixty-Mile Creek, 

near the between the Stewart and Dawson, on the west of the Yukon, 

Arctic in 1893. The Klondike, whose river-mouth is at Dawson, 

1880, '&c,y was being gradually approached ; and its gold was discovered 

late in 1896. Immediately Canadian gold rose to equality 

with that of South Africa and Australia. During seven years 

the output of gold from the Yukon was nearly worth three 

millions a year ; while the annual output of British Columbia, 

then at its zenith, exceeded one million for the first time in 

1 90 1, and was £1,126,108 in 1906. British Columbia 

nowadays just surpasses Yukon in its annual production of 

gold, Yukon producing £1,120,000 in 1906; moreover, 

^ Compare Sir W. Butler, Wild North Land, pp. 300 et seq. 



THE CIVILIZATION OF THE FAR WEST 275 

British Columbian gold is more than three-fourths rock-gold, 
and is therefore permanent, while Yukon gold is wholly gravel 
or placer gold, and is therefore of doubtful permanence. The 
usual mob flowed and ebbed from creek to creek of the 
Klondike, and plied the usual tools, with simple devices for 
thawing buried river-beds; and, as might be expected, 
hydraulic machinery superseded the work of men s hands 
before 1908. Meanwhile, Yukon began to resemble a 
province. Dawson was founded in 1897, and in 1901 had 
over 9,000 inhabitants. The Royal North- West Mounted 
Police arrived there among the first ; in consequence of which, 
pistols, locks, and keys are scarce, because useless, although 
the riff-raff of the wild west often drifts thither from Alaska. 
Horses were plentiful there in 1899, and motors in 1908, for 
the roads are good. In 1897 the first Canadian overlander 
arrived via the Mackenzie, Peel, and Porcupine ^ ; and in 
1898 via the Liard and Pelly. In 1900 the Governor- 
General paid his first visit, coming by Lynn s Canal, the 
new White Pass Railway, and the river steamers of i\iQ progressing 
Yukon. Minerals and coal soon stimulated expansion up "^^^ toToiuhat 
down stream. Tertiary coal was worked on the right bank or near 60"* 
of the Yukon, between Dawson and the north-east frontier ' ^ * 
(1899), and at Tantalus between Selkirk and Bennett (1906). 
Selkirk at the Pelly-Lewes junction had a few cabins in 1899, 
and is now a centre for hay-and-potato farms. The Upper 
Stewart (north-east of Selkirk) and Livingstone Creek (near 
Tantalus) yielded gold (1898); Whitehorse, the railway 
terminus, yielded copper (c. 1908); and Kluane, on the 
northern slopes of the St. Elias, 143 miles by wagon-road 
from Whitehorse, also yielded copper (1903). Bennett Lake, 
still further upstream, is connected with two parallel north- 
pointing lakes on the east — Lakes Tagish and Atlin — which, 
like Lake Bennett, are wholly or mainly in British Columbia. 
On Lake Atlin and Lake Tagish (Windy Arm) there were 

1 Mr. William Langworthy of Edmonton. 
T 2 



276 HISTORICAL GEOGRAPHY OF CANADA 

gold discoveries of some importance in 1898 and 1907 
respectively ; and west of Bennett, but reached usually by the 
Chilcat Pass from Lynn's Canal, copper was worked at Rainy 
Hollow in 1898. The mineral thread has now been retraced 
from the extreme north — not indeed to the very spot, but 
to the very parallel where its progress to the north was 
interrupted. In its progress east and west along the southern 
frontier of British Columbia agricultural invariably accom- 
panied mineral development. This has hardly been the case, 
except on a very humble scale, north of Barkerville. 
Eniku- The final impulse towards development came from idealists, 

^l^lYci whose idealism, mad as it once seemed, proved to be sober 
unity sense, and their faith to be wisdom in disguise. When its 
^d!«j^^ the godmother named British Columbia, and gave her name to its 
the Cana- capital, she expressed her * hopes that this new colony might 
^fic^aU-^' be but one step ... by which ... her dominions might 
way^ ultimately be peopled in an unbroken chain from the Atlantic 
to the Pacific by a loyal and industrious population.'* 
Echoes of the Psalms '^ and a sense of British greatness brooded 
over its birth, and a spirit of national rivalry stimulated its 
growth. Alfred Waddington complained in 1868 that the 
new colony was * entirely indebted to the United States ' for 
the carriage of its letters and immigrants, and even its food ; 
others too wrote in the same strain. In 187 1 the new colony 
joined the Dominion, in order that it might lean on the east 
rather than on the south, and stipulated for a through-railway 
to the Atlantic, like that which San Francisco had already. 
The railway was to be a symbol and instrument of union with 
Eastern Canada, and for this purpose was to pass through 
two thousand miles or more of solitude. A passionate desire for 
the union of Canada with itself made Canadians run risks of 
what seemed certain material ruin. 
for which Two of the proposed routes for this railroad, which 

two routes 

were pro- 1 Queen's Speech, 1858 : Hansard, Ser. iii, vol. cli, p. 2372. 

posedf 2 « fjg shall have dominion also from sea to sea.' 



THE CIVILIZATION OF THE FAR WEST 277 

visionaries set to work to build through vacancy, may be re- 
called. Its first proposed course lay through the Yellowhead 
Pass, by the Upper Fraser, Forts George and Fraser, the 
Bulkley Valley, and Hazelton to Port Simpson; with variants 
or tentacles from the Upper to the Middle Fraser, and so 
either to Gardner Canal, Dean Channel, or Bute Inlet, up 
which last Waddington built a road at his own expense in 1 864 . 
All these routes are natural routes and have been described ^ ; 
but were rejected on the ground that they led no whither. The 
inlets to which they led were as vacant as the great spaces which 
were traversed. A further proposal to build a bridge across the 
archipelago from Bute Inlet to Vancouver Island, and so reach 
the capital, was too expensive to be adopted. The second, 
which is the actual route of the Canadian Pacific Railway, one to 
crosses the Kicking Horse Pass over the Rockies, and Rogers' creating ^' 
Pass over the Selkirks, which passes resemble two Brenner settlement 
Passes in quick succession; and a third easy pass over the Gold ^^J^ '^^^ 
Range called the Eagle Pass ; after which it passes through 
the broad lovely Thompson Valley, which is comparatively 
civilized, through the narrow gloomy Fraser Gorge, which 
a road already traversed, and through the fertile levels of the 
Lower Fraser to the neighbourhood of New Westminster, 
where Burrard's Inlet was the terminus. At Burrard's Inlet 
there was nothing but high thick trees and deep still water, 
when the railway reached it. Immediately after it was reached, 
Vancouver City sprang up like the prophet's gourd, and in 190 1 
was more populous (26,133 ^), ^^^ is now far more populous, 
than Victoria (20,816 2), although Victoria is the prettiest and 
oldest town in western Canada, and has gained by whatever 
has happened in the province during sixty years or more. 

On the railway-track Golden (pop. 705 ^), Revelstoke (pop. 
1,600^), Kamloops (pop. 1,594^), and Ashcroft (pop. 475^); 
and south of it, Vernon (pop. 802^) on Lake Okanagan, 
Arrowhead, on Lake Arrow, Kaslo (pop. 1,680 2) on Lake 

^ Ante^ pp. 253-4. 2 Population 1901. 



278 HISTORICAL GEOGRAPHY OF CANADA 



the other by 
the route 
now adop- 
ted by the 
G. T. P, 
Railway, 
which is 
also creat- 
ing settle- 
ment. 



Bella Coola 
settlement 
is detached 
and was 
created 
otherwise 
than by 
raihvay, 
1894. 



Kootenay, and Gerrard, on Trout Lake, owed their growth 
to the railway or its branches, but Vancouver City owed its 
very existence to the railway. The biggest town in the 
colony was created by a railway out of nothing in a moment. 

Why, it was asked, could not this miracle be repeated? 
The Grand Trunk Pacific Railway, which is now being built 
over what I have described as the first projected course for 
the first main railway, is the answer to the question. Prince 
Rupert, its proposed terminus near Port Simpson, was vacant 
in 1907, and had 4,000 inhabitants in 1909. There are 
farmers already in the Bulkley Valley, and some copper and 
coal. Opposite Prince Rupert are the Queen Charlotte Islands, 
Graham Island in the north, Moresby Island in the south, 
like Corsica and Sardinia halved in size. Cretaceous coal 
has been known (1859), and worked a little from time to 
time (1871, 1890), in the south of Graham Island; and 
copper was worked by Francis Poole (1862-4),^ and is now 
being worked, amongst others, by the Japanese of Ikeda Bay 
in the south of Moresby Island. Coal extends into the heart 
of the northern island, right amongst its mountains, 5,000 
feet high, and its all-pervading forests, where cattle run wild. 
The climate is mild, and everything except mankind abundant. 
The new through- rail way is already beginning to galvanize 
these islands, and many an inlet on the mainland into life. 

One inlet began to be civilized long after it was known 
that the Canadian Pacific Railway would send no branches 
that way, and long before the Grand Trunk Pacific Railway 
existed. This was Bella Coola Inlet. A group of Nor- 
wegians, who had formerly setded in Minnesota (United 
States), began to hanker after mountains and seas, like those 
in the home of their fathers. Accordingly, under the leader- 
ship of their pastor, seventy-five went north in October, 1894, 
furnished themselves with supplies in Winnipeg, which became 
their base of operations, and took the train for Vancouver. 

^ Francis Poole, Queen Charlotte Islands, 1872. 



THE CIVILIZATION OF THE FAR WEST 279 

Thence they sailed to Bella Coola Inlet, where Vancouver and 
Mackenzie just failed to meet a century ago, and formed 
a nucleus around which their kith and kin from afar clustered. 
In 1906 wagon-roads penetrated twenty-two miles, and settlers 
occupied seventy-five miles of the valley, and were still pushing 
towards the Middle Fraser. If, as is probable, a third railway 
is built along the Middle Fraser between the Upper and 
Lower Fraser, it will be partly a junction-line between the 
two great political lines, partly a mineral line for the Cariboo 
and Lillooet Districts ; and if, as is also probable, it should 
some day send out a spur to Bella Coola, this spur will be 
wholly due to the agricultural enterprize of these pioneers, 
and will be unique in British Columbia, where railways have 
usually been the cause, not the effect, of agriculture, and where 
colonizing communities are as rare as lumber-camps, 
canneries, and Indian villages — served by a trader and 
a missionary in true Pacific fashion — are common on its 
coastal indentations. The story of the peopling of Bella 
Coola recalls the Icelanders of Gimli, and reads like a distant 
recollection of Prairie-land. 

The following statistics explain themselves ; they are statistical 
somewhat belated ; but more recent statistics are not avail- ^^-^w'''^- 
able for comparative purposes : — 





Total 


Population x 1000 in 1901 




British 
Origin ^ 


Chinese and 
Japanese 


Americait 
Indians 


Half- 
breeds 


Others 


British Columbia 
Yukon 


178.6 

27 


106.4 
i0'6 


19*5 
.1 


25-5' 
3-3 


3-5 » 
.02 


13 = 



* Includes Americans ; 
to Scotch or Irish origin. " = T 

3 = ^1^ of all the half-breeds in all Canada, 

* French (Canadians) = 4-6 ; Germans = 5'8 
^ Fr. Can. = 1.8; Germans ^2.1; Scand.= 



half (53,000) are of English as opposed 
2 = f of all the Indians in all Canada. 



; Scandinavians = 4-8, &c. 
•6; Unknown = 6.6, &c. 



The pro- 
spects of 
B,C, 



280 HISTORICAL GEOGRAPHY OF CANADA 

The population nearly doubles in ten years, but Indians 
were 25,000 in 1881, as well as in 1901 : — 



Population of 


1871 


1881 


1891 


1901 


British Columbia 


36 


49-5 


98 


178.6 



Population x 1,000 includes Indians, &c. 
Men born in Canada form the vast majority ; and men 
born elsewhere in the British Empire are twice as many as 
those born in the United States : — 



Year 


Born in 
Canada 


Elsewhere 
in Br. 
Empire 


Total 
Br, Empire 


Born 
in U, S. 


Born 
elsewhere 


Total 
foreign 


1881 
1901 


68 
56 


II 

18 


79 

74 


5 
9 


16 
17 


21 
26 



Birthplaces of the population by percentages. 

Emigration from Eastern Canada is the chief feature in the 
situation, although Emigration from Great Britain has also 
left traces more deep than numerous. Chinese and Japanese 
immigrants are conspicuous here, as they are, or have been, 
in every Pacific Dominion and colony. The Far East of Asia 
casts its shadow over the Far West of Canada ; but not, to an 
appreciable extent, over Central or Eastern Canada. Although 
Chinamen wash linen from Louisbourg to Victoria, nearly 
thirteen out of every fourteen Chinese residents in Canada 
resided in British Columbia in 1901, and the disproportion 
has increased since then. 

British Columbia and the provinces of Prairie-land are 
the newest provinces of the Dominion of Canada. All of 
them are totally unlike the rest of the Dominion ; and British 
Columbia is the very antithesis of Prairie-land. British 
Columbia is all mountain and the prairie is dead level. The 



THE CIVILIZATION OF THE FAR WEST 281 

dead levels are being peopled at lightning speed ; the mountain 
province, though covering an area equal to Austria and the 
United Kingdom, has far less inhabitants than square miles. 
In discussing its population we are discussing its future ; and 
its future depends on two unknown factors. 

First, what will happen in China, Japan, and the Pacific? 
Will China awaken } Will Japan trade more and more with 
Europeans ? Will the Panama Canal and Western America 
make the Pacific as busy, or anything like as busy, as the 
Atlantic? After all, the Atlantic was as lifeless a few 
centuries ago as the Pacific was a few decades ago ; and in 
human history centuries count for little. 

Secondly, will British enterprise be as successful among 
the mountains, as it has been among the bare plains and inter- 
minable forests of Eastern and Central Canada, and among 
the park-lands of Australia ? British colonists have rarely, 
if they have ever, grappled with mountains. Mountains are 
a comparatively new factor in British history, and in European 
history symbolize slow progress and secluded lives. Statistics 
of size and pace must not dazzle us ; small numbers multiply 
with delusive rapidity, especially under the stimulus of mineral 
wealth, and colonists must not be expected on mountain-tops. 

On the other hand, British Columbia is in many respects 
the greatest, as it is the grandest, of the provinces ; and into 
it its eastern neighbours are still draining their superfluous 
numbers and riches, a process which is likely to grow more 
and more common. Their future is assured, and it is their 
residuary legatee. 

What was said in every chapter of this book holds of Is B, C. 
British Columbia. Nova Scotia Province is the link with It^^^p^o. 
Europe, New Brunswick with Quebec //«,r Ontario ; Ontario, vince of 
at all events out west, is a mere link with the provinces of ii^^be- ^ 
Prairie-land ; and British Columbia is also a link between what tween east 
is east and west of it, between continent, and ocean, and ^^ '^^^ ' 
what is beyond the ocean, and its future depends wholly 



282 HISTORICAL GEOGRAPHY OF CANADA 

upon the next links on its east and west. Looked at by itself, 
its development ran along its valleys or coasts, v^hich lie north, 
and south, or north-west and south-east, contrasting in this 
respect with that of every other province of Canada. Looked 
at as a part of Canada, it is the end of a series and depends 
solely on its eastern sister-provinces. But Canada itself 
resembles a link in a larger chain, a word in the middle 
of a sentence, or a hyphen between two half-words. The 
whole, of which it is an essential part, is the British Empire, 
which seems working towards unity in a way which our 
ancestors never contemplated. The unity is due to geo- 
graphical facts, the most important of which are that the 
provinces of Canada lie in this order, east and west, and that 
Great Britain is the only European Power, except Russia, 
which holds continents or half-continents on the western 
side of the Pacific. Purely political ideals welded these 
provinces together ; and it is possible that purely political 
ideals will weld these continents and half-continents together. 
Vast economic results have ensued from what political idealism 
has already achieved ; but economics have not supplied the 
motives of the process. The series of provinces points from 
the Atlantic to the Pacific ; and the continuation of the series 
across the Atlantic points to England, and the continuation of 
the series across the Pacific points to Australia and India, and 
thence by South Africa and an island chain respectively to 
England. The chain which is being run round the earth is 
not exclusive ; indeed, in all its links it touches some other 
European power ; and in North America, which contains its 
most important series of continuous links, every part of every 
link is continuous with the United States of America for 
many thousands of miles. 

Nor has it any prospect of proving to be an exclusive 
chain even in the least of its links ; but it has a far better 
prospect of proving to be a complete chain than any which 
any other Power upon the surface of the earth possesses. 



THE CIVILIZATION OF THE FAR WEST 283 

The dumb consciousness of this paramount mission has been 
the mainspring, economic and material factors have only 
been wheels within wheels, carrying on the British race 
irresistibly towards their common destiny. 

The processes are very complex, and work sometimes in 
obedience to, and sometimes in spite of design, sometimes 
like automata and sometimes like an unspoken instinct, but 
work in harmony ; and the harmonious working of diiferent 
tendencies is the greatest driving force, just as sane idealism 
is the greatest ruling force in history. 



Authorities. 

Alexander Begg, History of British Colu/nbia, 1894-5. [This author 
is not the same as the historian of Manitoba.] 

Ernest J. Chambers, History of the Royal North-West Mounted 
Police, 1906. 

British Cohimbia, Gold Fields of, 1862 (a pamphlet in the British 
Museum Library, 10470 d 27); Handbook of, 1858, 1862, &c. ; 
Information for intending settlers in, 1884, &c. ; Maps of, by Philips, 
1858, Stanford, 1859, Wyld, 1865?, Trutch, 1870, Martin, 1905, and in 
Handbooks, Yearbooks, and Geological Survey, nbi infra ; Guide Map 
of, 1891 ; Mining Record of, edited by A. Begg, 1895, in progress; 
Reports of Minister of Mines of'. Year-book of, 1897. 

Lawrence J. Burpee, The Search for the Westertt Sea, 1908. 

Sir William Butler, The Wild North Land, 1873. 

Canada, Annual Reports of the Geological Survey of. 

George M. Dawson, Mineral Wealth of British Colwnbia, 1889; 
British Columbia, its present Resources, 1893. 

R. E. Gosnell, History of British Colunibia, 1901. 

George Monro Grant, Ocean to Ocean, 1873. 

Alexander Henry and David Thompson, Journals of, ed. by Elliott 
Coues, 3 vols., 1897. 

James Lynch, Three Years in the Klondike, 1904. [This is a fair 
description by an American resident; and there are several other 
similar books.] 

Archibald MacDonald, Peace River, a Canoe Voyage from Hudson 
Bay to Pacific by Sir G, Simpson, ed. by M. MacLeod, 1872. 

Frances Macnab, British Columbia, 1898. [This is probably the 
best book by a traveller on the south of British Columbia.] 

L. R. Masson, Bourgeois de la Compagnie du Nord-Ouest, 2® ser., 
1889-90. 

Lord Milton and W. B. Cheadle, The North-West Passage by Land, 
1865. 



284 HISTORICAL GEOGRAPHY OF CANADA 

A. G. Morice, History of the Northern Interior of British Columbia^ 
1906. [Father Morice corrects several current minor errors, and adds 
original information of importance about Indians, roads, &c.] 

Sir John Palliser, Reports by. See reference at the end of Chapter IX. 

Francis Poole, Queen Charlotte Islands, 1872. 

Alexander Ross, Adventures of the first Settlers on the Oregon or 
Columbia River, 1849 J ^^^ Hunters of the Far West, 2 vols., 1855. 

Sir George Simpson, Narrative of a Journey round the World, 1847. 

F. Mortimer Trimmer, The Yukori Territory, 1898, contains at 
length Reports on the Yukon, by W. H. Dall, 1866-8, G. M. Dawson, 
1887, William Ogilvie, 1896-7. [This is the chief authority on the 
Yukon.] 

Alfred Waddington, Overland Route through British North America, 
1868. [This is a pamphlet in the British Museum Library, 10470, 
bbb 38.] 

Beckles Willson, The Great Company^ 1899. 



INDEX 



Abitibi Lake, 105, 106, 112. 

Abuptic, 57. 

Acadians, 36, 37 etseq., 52 et seq., 

67-9. 73» 77-80, 92, 95, 98-9. 
Adam Lake, 250. 
Aiktow Creek, 205. 
Ainslie Lake, 35. 
Ainsworth, 271, 272. 
Alameda, 205, 241. 
Alaska, i, 14, 255, 256, 257, 262, 

265, 266. 
Albanel, Father, 105. 
Albany River, 6, 103, 108, 186. 
Alberni, 259, 267. 
Alberta Province, 209, 248. 
Alberta Railway and Irrigation 

Company, 208, 209. 
Aldrich, Lieutenant R. D., 17-18. 
Alexander, Sir William, 77. 
Alexandria (Fort), 263, 264, 267, 

269. 
Algoma, 102, 193, j^^ New Ontario. 
Allen's River, 39, 40. 
AUumette Island, iii, 120. 
Alma (N. Br.), 84. 
Alma (Sask.), 233. 
Almonte, 169. 
Alright Island, 94. 
Amherst, Baron, 130. 
Amherst, 57, 67. 
Amherstburg, 157, 158, 159. 
Amherst Island, 94. 
Amundsen, Captain Roald, 26. 
Ancaster, 157, 159, 161. 
Anderson, A. C, 267. 
Anderson, James, 24. 
Anderson Lake, 253, 267. 
Andover, 76, 84. 
Annapolis, 33, 38-40, 43, 49> 52, 

67. 
Annapolis River, 32, 38, 40, 41, 

61, 67, 122, 251. 
Anticosti Island, 95-7. 

VOL. V. PT. Ill 



Antigonish, 56, 58, 63, 6^, 68. 
Antler (Creek), 269. 
Appalachian Mountains, 31, 91, 

113, 122, 132, 247. 
Arctic Red River Post, 211. 
Ardoise, 59. 

Argenteuil County, 148, 152. 
Arisaig, 61. 

Arnold, Benedict, 129, 130, 132. 
Amprior, 164, 169. 
Aroostook River, 76. 
Arrowhead, 277. 
Arrow Lakes, 252, 277, 
Artillery Lake, 15. 
Ashcroft, 253, 258, 277. 
Aspey Bay, 66. 
Assiniboine River, 202, 205, 214, 

217, 220, 221, 222, 225. 
Assistance, The, 17-18, 21-3. 
Astoria, Fort, 264. 
Athabasca Lake, 8, loi, 109, 310, 

211, 218. 
Athabasca Landing, 210. 
Athabasca Pass, 213. 
Athabasca River, 9, 210, 212, 213, 

214, 218, 247-8. 
Atlin Lake, 249, 255, 256, 257, 

275. 
Au Bushee, 58. 
Avon River, 41. 
Aylesford, 60. 
Aylmer, 164. 

Babine Fort and Lake, 265. 
Babine Mountains, 249. 
Babine River, 254, 263, 274. 
Back, Sir George, 13-15. 
Baddeck, 64, 66. 
Bad Hills, 203. 
Baffin, William, 3, 5. 
Baffin Bay, 5, 1 1 et seq. 
Baffin Land, 26, 103. 
Bagot County, 141. 



286 



INDEX 



Baldoon, 158. 

Baleine, 46. 

Balfour, 271, 272. 

Ball's Creek, 59, 65. 

Balsam Lake, loi, 172. 

Banks, Sir Joseph, 10. 

Banks Island or Land, 11 et seq., 

19 et seq. 
Baptists, 86, 234, 240, 242. 
Barclay, Captain, 262. 
Barkerville, 259, 269, 270, 276. 
Barlow, George, 7. 
Barrens, 104, 198. 
Barrie, 160, 172, 177. 
Barrington, 52, 67. 
Barrow, Sir John, 10. 
Barrow Strait, 1 1 et seq. 
Bathurst, Henry Earl, 10. 
Bathurst, 33, 74, 85. 
Bathurst Cape, 211. 
Bathurst Island, 11 et seq. 
Batoche, 204, 219, 231. 
Battleford, 206, 219, 221, 227, 

231, 237. 
Beaubairs Island, 74. 
Beaubassin, 42. 
Beauce County, 141. 
Beauharnais, 143. 
Beauport, 124-5. 
Beauport Lake, 148. 
Beaupre, 124-5. 
Beaurivage River, 132. 
Beausejour, 42, 47. 
Beaver Lake, 10 1. 
B^cancour, 129, 143. 
Becancour River, 127-8, 142. 
Beckwith, 169. 
Bedeque Bay and Harbour, 48, 

54» 63. 
Beechey, F. W., 11, 14. 
Beechey Island, 18 et seq. 
Belcher, Sir Edward, 21-3. 
Belcher Channel, 21. 
Belfast (P. E. I.), 55. 
Bella Coola Canal or Inlet, 253, 

254, 261, 263, 278, 279. 
Belleisle River (N. Br.), 75, 77. 
Belleville, 154. 
Bellot, Lieutenant, 18. 
Bellot Strait, 18, 24. 
Belly River, 207-9, 213, 224. 
Beloeil Mountain, 129, 131. 



Bennett, 249, 257, 275, 276. 
Bennett Lake, 257, 275. 
Bentinck Arm, 263. 
Berczy, William, 161. 
Bering, Vitus, 8, 25, 262. 
Bering Strait and Sea, 8 et seq., 

256. 
Berlin, 173. 
Berthier, 138, 143. 
Best, George, 3. 
Best Cape, 4. 
Big River, 6. 
Birch Hills, 204. 
Bird Islands, 94. 
Birtle (Creek), 220, 229. 
Bissot, Fran9oiSj 96, 126. 
Blackwater River, 253, 263. 
Blakiston, T. W., 213, 225, 229. 
Blanc Sablon, 97, 98. 
Blissville, 83. 
Boies, Thomas, 84. 
Boiestown, 84. 
Bonnechere River, 179. 
Booth, Sir Felix, 10. 
Boothia Felix Peninsula, 1 2 et seq. 
Boucher, Pierre, 121, 127, 128. 
Bouchette, Joseph, 105, 159. 
Boularderie Island, 34. 
Boundary Creek, 250, 252, 271. 
Bourgeois (C. B. I.), 59. 
Bow River, 207-9, 213, 219, 

224. 
Boydville, 62. 
Bracebridge, 179. 
Bradford, Dr. A. R., 17, 18. 
Brandon, 229, 230. 
Brandon Hills, 204. 
Brant, 173. 
Brantford, 173, 192. 
Bras d'Or Lakes, 32, 34, 35, 44, 

Brest, Port, 99. 
Breton Cape, 31. 
Bridgetown, 39, 40, 67. 
Bridgewater, 39, 52, 67, 69. 
British Agricultural Association, 

176. 
British- American Land Company, 

140. 
British Columbia, 247 et seq. 
British Columbia, Boundaries of, 

114, 247-8, 255, 256. 



INDEX 



287 



Broad Cove, 33, 56. 
Brockville, 102, 152, 153. 
Brome County, 14T. 
Brooke, Sir John, Lord Cobham, 

3. 
Brooke Cobham Island, 7. 
Brookfield, 62, 69. 
Browne, Lieutenant William, 17, 

19. 25. 
Bruce County (Ont.), 102, 178, 

192. 
Bruce Mines, 181-2. 
Brudersheim, 237. 
Buchanan, James, 171, 174, 176. 
Buctouche, 74. 

Bulkley River, 254, 274, 277, 278. 
Bulstrode, St. Valere de, 142. 
Burke Channel, 253, 263. 
Burlington Bay, 156. 
Burlington Heights, 102. 
Burritt, Mr., 155. 
Burritt*s Rapids, 155. 
Bute Inlet, 253, 254, 277. 
Butler, Sir William, 223. 
Button, Sir Thomas, 3, 4, 5. 
Button Islands, 4. 
By, Colonel, 170-1. 
Byam Martin, Sir Thomas, 10. 
B)'am Martin Channel, 18 et seq. 
Byam Martin Island, 11. 
Bylot, Robert, 3, 5. 
Bylot Island, 4. 
Bytown, 171. 

Cain's River, 75. 

Caledonia, 62, 69. 

Calgary, 9, 224, 226, 230, 231, 

233, 242. 
Cambridge Bay, 20. 
Campbell, R., 265. 
Campbellton (N. Br.), 74, 82, 85, 

92. 
Campobello Island, 81. 
Canada Company, 175, 176. 
Canadian Copper Company, 182. 
Canadian Northern Railway, 187. 
Canadian Pacific Irrigation, &c., 

Company, 208. 
Canadian Pacific Railway, 86, 

114, 179, 181, 186-7, 213, 229- 

33, 276-8. 
Canals, 167-8. 



Canard River, 41. 

Canmore, 212. 

Canoe River, 251, 264. 

Canso Cape, 31, 43, 44, 50, 58. 

Canso Gut, 32, 35, 44, 95. 

Cape Breton Island, 31, 34-5, 44, 

45» 56, 64-6. 
Cap Rouge, 120, 146. 
Cap Rouge River, 125. 
Caraquet, 58, 74. 
Card, C. O., 241. 
Cardston, 241, 242. 
Cariboo District, 269, 279. 
Cariboo Mountains, 249, 253, 258. 
Carleton, Sir Guy, 84, 159. 
Carleton, 92. 
Carleton House, 204, 206, 219, 

221, 226, 231, 237. 
Carleton Place, 169. 
Carrot River, 225, 229, 230. 
Cartier, Jacques, 92, 94, 99, 103, 

104, 119, 1 20-1, 146. 
Cassiar District, 255, 274. 
Cassiar Mountains, 249, 274. 
The Castor, 15. 
Caughnawaga,i29, 
Cavan, 171. 
Cavendish (P.E.I.), 54. 
Cedar Lake, 206, 217. 
Chaleurs Bay, 45, 74, 75, 78, 79, 

85, 9i-4> 151- 
Chambly, 122, 123, 126, 127, 128, 

129, 130, 133, 138. 
Champlain, Samuel, 104, 11 1, 120. 
Champlain, 127. 
Champlain Lake, 122, 130-1. 
The Charles J 5. 
Charles Fort, 6. 
Charlottetown, 54, 63, 64. 
Charlton Island, 5. 
Chat, Cape, 93, 128. 
Chateauguay, 131, 143, 152. 
Chats Lake, 102, 163, 169. 
Chats Rapids, 163. 
Chatham (N. Br.), 74, 83. 
Chatham (Ont.), 158, 159. 
Chaudiere Falls (Ottawa), 162. 
Chaudiere River, 120, 122, 127, 

128, 129, 130, 131, 132, 134. 
Chauvin, Captain, 104. 
Cheboggin, 40. 
Chebucto, see Halifax Harbour. 



288 



INDEX 



Chedabucto, see Guysborough. 
Chester, 52, 60. 
Chester Bay, 41. 
Chesterfield Inlet, 23. 
Cheticamp, 58, 59. 
Chezzetcook, 58. 
Chicoutimi, 105. 
Chidleigh, John, 3. 
Chidleigh Cape, 4, 97. 
Chignecto Isthmus, 32, 33, 35, 42, 

43, 45, 57, 73. 
Chilcat Pass, 256, 276. 
Chilcoot Pass, 256. 
Chilcotin Fort, 264. 
Chilcotin River, 253, 260, 268. 
Chimmo Fort, 98, 104. 
Chinese immigrants, 270, 280. 
Chipewyan Fort, 8, 9, 211. 
Chipman, 82, 83, 86. 
Chippawa, 156. 
Churchill, Colonel, 42, 80. 
Churchill Fort, &c., 5, 8, 109. 
Churchill River, 6, 7, loi, 103, 

108, 109, 215, 218, 260. 
Clare, 57, 60. 
Clarendon, 169. 
Clemensport, 60, 67. 
Clinton, 269, 270. 
Coast Range, 249, 253, 259, 264, 

267, &c. 
Cobalt, 104, 106, 112, 181, 272. 
Cobequid Bay, 41. 
Cobequid Mountains, 32, 33, 42. 
Cobourg, 161, 171. 
Cocagne, 74. 
Cochrane, 242. 
Cochrane Company, 226. 
Cockburn, Colonel, 139, 168, 169. 
Cockbum, Sir George, 10. 
Cockburn Land, 12, 26. 
Cocking, Matthew, 218. 
Coffin, Sir Isaac, 95. 
Coffin Island, 94. 
Col bourne. Port, 167. 
Cold water River, 172. 
Collingwood, 172, 177, 178, 183. 
CoUinson, Sir Richard, 19-23, 
Colpoys Bay, 172, 177. 
Columbia River, 247, 250 et seq., 

253 etseq., 271 et seq. 
Comox, 250, 266. 
Compton County, 140. 



Confidence Fort, 17. 

Connolly, or Connelly, Fort, 265. 

Contrecoeur, 127. 

Cook, Captain James, 8, 262. 

Coppermine River, 8, 9, 11, 13, 

15. 
Cormack, W. E., 63. 
Cornwall, 114, 152, 153. 
Cornwallis, Colonel Edward, 49. 
Cornwallis, Sir William, 10. 
Cornwallis, 53. 
Cornwallis Island, 1 1 et seq. 
Cornwallis River, 32, 40, 41, 61. 
Coteau du Missouri, 203, 204, 208, 

241. 
Couchiching Lake, loi, iii, 112, 

160. 
Coughtrie, R., 147. 
Couillard, Guillaume, 124, 126. 
Couture, Guillaume, 126. 
Cove Head (P. E. L), 54. 
Craig, Sir James, 132. 
Craig's Bridge, 132. 
Craig's Road, 132-3. 
Cranbrook, 272, 273. 
Credit River, 158. 
Cresswell, Lieutenant S. G., 19. 
Cross Point, 92. 
Cross Sound, 255, 262. 
Crow's Nest Pass, 212, 213, 233, 

250, 272, 273. 
Crozier, Captain Francis, 12, 17 

et seq. 
Crozier Channel, 25. 
Cudahy, Fort, 259. 
Cumberland, George, Earl of, 3. 
Cumberland Fort and Town (N. 

Sc), 42, 52. 
Cumberland House (Sask.), 218, 

221. 
Cumberland Sound, 4. 
Curry, Thomas, 218. 
Cypress Hills, 207, 226, 227, 241. 

Dalhousie (N. Br.), 74, 85. 
Dalhousie, Port, 167. 
Dalhousie Settlement, 61, 62. 
Daniel, Port, 91. 
D*Anville, Due, 49. 
Dartmouth, 42, 49, 62. 
Daulac, Adam, 123, 162. 
Dauphin, 217, 232. 



INDEX 



289 



Dauphin Lake, 200, 220, 236. 

Davis Inlet, 4. 

Davis Strait, 4. 

Davison, Mr., 82. 

Davys (or Davis), Captain Jolin, 

3-5- 
Dawson, George, 224. 
Dawson, S. J., 185. 
Dawson Road, 185-7, 197. 
Dawson City, 257, 259, 274, 275. 
Dealey Islet, 21. 

Dean Channel or Inlet, 253, 277. 
Dease, Peter Warren, 15. 
Dease Lake, 255, 265, 274. 
Dease River, 255, 265. 
Dease Strait, 15. 
De Brouillan, 41. 
De Haven, Lieutenant, 18. 
Delhi, 164. 

De Meule or Meules, 79, 84. 
De Monts, Pierre du Guast, 37. 
Denys, Nicolas, 37, 38, 44, 45, 66, 

74, 93. 
De Razilly, Isaac, 37. 
De Saussaye, 37. 
Deseronto, 178. 
Detroit, 112, 114, 158, 159. 
De Troyes, Pierre, 106. 
Deux Montagnes, Lac des, 113, 

129. 
De Vitre, 37. 

D'Iberville, Pierre Le Moyne, 106. 
Dick, Mr., 51. 
I^igby, 31-2, 60, 67. 
Digby Gut, 38. 
Digges, Sir Dudley, 3. 
Digges Island, 4. 
The Discovery (of Baffin, &c.), 4, 5. 
The Discovery (of Cook), 8. 
Doaktown, 82. 
Dobbs, Arthur, 7, 8. 
Dog Lake, 184, 186. 
Dolphin and Union Strait, 14, 20. 
Dominion (C. B. I.), 64. 
Dominion of Canada, i, 77-8, 102, 

1 1 3-4, 170, 270 et seq. 
Dorchester, 73. 
Doublet, 37, 94. 
Douglas, 270. 

Douglastown (N. Br.), 74, 92. 
Doukhobors, ^36, 237, 238 et seq. 
Douro, 1 7 1-2. 



Dover, Port, 157. 

Downie, Major William, 268. 

Druilletes, Pere, 126. 

Drummondville, 134, 139. 

Duchesnay, A. and J., 148. 

Duck Mountain, 199, 204, 237. 

Du Loup River, 129, 132, 134. 

Duncan River, 252, 253. 

Dundas, 156, 157, 159, 161. 

Dundas County, 153. 

Dundas Street, 158-9. 

Dunham, 138. 

Dunlop, Dr., 160, 173, 175, 176. 

Dunvegan, 212. 

Dunwich, 164. 

Eagle Hills, 203, 219. 

Eagle Pass, 249, 277. 

East Bay, 35, 64, 66. 

East Cape (P. E. I.), 63. 

East River, 55-6, 62. 

East Main River, 6. 

Eastern Townships, 134 et seq. 

(Les) ]£boulemenls, no, 124, 128. 

Economy, 41. 

Edmonton, 210, 212, 219, 221, 

224, 226, 230, 231, 242-3. 
Edmunston, 76, 77, 79, 80, 84. 
Eel Brook, 57. 

Eel River (N. Br.), 76, 77, 86. 
Egg Island, 96, 97. 
Eglinton Island, 21. 
Egmont Cape, 59. 
Egremont, Lord, 166, 175. 
Ellice, Fort, 205, 221, 226, 229, 

230. 
Ellis Bay, 96. 
Elson, Mr., 14. 
Emerson, 225, 226, 229. 
Endako, 254. 
English River, 186. 
The Enterprise i 19-23. 
Entry Island, 94, 95. 
The Erebus, 17 et seq. 
Erie, Fort, 156, 177. 
Erie, Lake, 101-2, 112, 157. 
Escasoni, 66. 
Eskimos, 6, 8, 9, 11, 12, 16 et seq., 

260. 
Esquimault, 266. 
Essington, Fort, 264. 
Essington, Port, 254. 



VOL. V. PT. in 



290 



INDEX 



Esterhazy, 240. 

Estevan, 203, 212, 226, 241, 

Falmouth, 53. 

False Bay (C. B. I.), 59. 

Farnham, 133, 138, 142. 

Faussembault, 148. 

Fernie, 212, 272, 273. 

Fiddler, Peter, 219. 

File Hills, 204, 240. 

Finlay, James, 218. 

Finlay or Findlay River, 248, 251, 

254, 255, 273, 274. 
Finns, 240 et seq. 

Fitzhugh Sound, 253, 254, 264. 
Fitzjames, Captain James, 17 et 

seq. 
Foam Lake, 230, 236. 
Forsyth, Captain C, 18. 
Fort William, 112, 114, 183, 184, 

186, 187. 
Fourch^, 35. 
Fourch^e, 39. 
Fox, Captain Luke, 3, 5. 
The Fox, 24-5. 
Fox Channel, 2, 5, 7, 12. 
Frances, Fort (Ont.), 185, 186,187. 
Frances Lake (B.C.), 251, 255, 

258, 259, 265. 
Frances River (B.C.), 249, 251, 

255, 256. 
Frank, 212. 

Franklin, Sir John, 11, 13, 14, 16, 

17-26, 112, 265. 
Franklin, Lady, 24. 
Franklin, Fort, 14. 
Franklin, Cape Jane, 13, 25. 
Franklin, Cape Sir John, 18, 21, 

25- 
Franklin, Cape Lady, 18, 25. 
Franklin Point, 13. 
Franklin's Channel, 25. 
Eraser, Simon, 263, 267. 
Eraser, Fort, 254, 256, 263 et seq., 

277. 
Eraser River, 247, 250-1, 253 et 

seq., 258, 263 et seq. 
Eredericton, 35, 75-6, 79, 80, 81, 

82, 83. 
French, Lieutenant, 155, 168, 171. 
French, Sir George, 207, 233. 
French River, iii, 114, 179, 



French Village (N. Br.), 80. 
French Village (N. Sc), 58. 
Erobisher, J. and T., 218. 
Erobisher, Sir Martin, 3, 4. 
Erobisher Bay, 4. 
Frog Portage, 107, 109, 218. 
Eundy Bay, 33 et passim. 
The Ftiry^ 1 2. 

Fury and Hecla Strait, 12, 13, 16, 
26. 

Gagetown, 75, 80, 81. 
Galicians, 236, 237 etseq. 
Gait, John, 173, 175, 176. 
Gait, 173. 
Gardner Canal or Inlet, 253, 254, 

261, 277. 
Garry, Nicholas, 10. 
Garry, Cape, 12. 
Gasp6 Bay, 92, 94. 
Gasp^ Cape, 44. 
Gaspd Peninsula, 91 et seq. 
Gaspereau River, 39, 61. 
Gatineau River, 120, 162. 
Gentilly, 127. 
George, Fort, (Alta.) 219. 
George, Fort (B.C.), 254, 263, 264, 

277. 
George River, 107. 
George IV*s Coronation Gulf, 13. 
Georgetown, 54. 
Georgian Bay, 101-2, iii, 112, 

178, 179. 
German Creek, 222. 
German Settlers, 47, 51-3, 81, 

i53> 161, 173, 191-3, 223, 236 

et seq. 
Germanson Creek, 274. 
Gerrard, 278. 
Gibson, Alexander, 84. 
Gibson, 76, 84. 
GifFard, Robert, 124, 126. 
Gimli, 228. 
Glace, 64-5. 
Glass, Rev. G., 86. 
Glassville, 86. 
Gleichen, 208. 
Glencoe (N. Sc), 62. 
Glencoe(C. B.L), 35. 
Glengarry County, 153, 163. 
Glenora, 255, 256, 274. 
Godefroy, Jean and Thomas, 121. 



INDEX 



291 



Goderich, 176, 177, 178. 

Gold Range, 249, 277. 

Golden, 272, 277. 

Good Hope, Fort, 211. 

Goodsir, R. A., 17-18. 

Goynish River, 96. 

Granby, 142. 

Grande Riviere (C. B. I.), 59. 

Grand Falls, 35, 76, 77, 78, 84, 86. 

Grand Forks (B. C), 250, 271, 

272, 273. 
Grand Lake (N. Br.), 80. 
Grand Portage, 112, 114, 184. 
Grand Pre, 40, 53, 61. 
Grand River (N. Br.), I6. 
Grand River (Ont.), 173, 192. 
Grand Trunk Railway, 179. 
Grand Trunk Pacific, see National 

Trans-Continental Railway. 
Grant Land, 27. 
Granville (N. Sc), 52. 
Gravenhurst, 179. 
Great Bear Lake, 14, 17, 100, 104. 
Great Fish River, 14, 15, 24-5. 
Great Slave Lake, 8, 9, 13, 15, 24, 

100,101,103,104, 210,211, 214. 
Great Slave River, 8, 9, loi, 210, 

247. 
Greenwood, 271, 272, 273. 
Grenville, 102, 148, 162,163, 170. 
Gridley, Mr., 95. 
Grimsby, 157. 
Grindstone Island, 94. 
Grinnell, Henry, 18. 
Grinnell Land, see Grant Land. 
The Griper J 11. 
Grosbois, 127. 

Groseillers, M^dard Chouart, 121. 
Grosse Island, 94. 
Grunde, 228. 
Guelph, 176. 
Guysborough, 45, 52, 60. 

Habitants River, 41. 
Haldimand, Sir Frederick, 84. 
Hale, E., 147. 
Halifax, 48-52, 67, 68. 
Halifax Harbour, 38, 39, 48. 
Hall, Christopher, 3. 
Hamilton, George, 156. 
Hamilton City (Ont.), 102, 156, 
177, 178, 182, 188. 



Hamilton, Fort (Alta.), 207, 224, 

225. 
Hamilton Inlet, 4, 98, 107. 
Hamilton River, 107. 
Hammond's Plains, 61, 62. 
Hampstead (N. Br.), 75. 
Hampton (N. Br.), 75, 80, 81. 
Hand Hills, 208. 
Harmon, D. W., 263. 
Harmony, 62. 

Harrison Lake and River, 254, 269. 
Harvey, Sir John, 84. 
Harvey, 83. 
Hastings, Port, 65. 
Has well. Lieutenant W. H., 19. 
Hatton, Sir Christopher, 3. 
Hatton Headland, 4. 
Hawkesbury (N. Sc), 65, 66. 
Hawkesbury (Ont.), 163, 170. 
Hayes River, 6, 317, 222. 
Hazelton, 254, 256, 274, 277 
Heame, Samuel, 8, 214. 
Hebert, Louis, 96, 124, 126. 
Hebert River, 42. 
Hebertville, 105. 
Hebron, 98. 
The HeclUj 11, 12. 
Hecla and Griper Bay, 11, 22. 
Hector, Sir James, 213. 
The Hector y 55. 
Hedley, 250, 270. 
Hendry, Anthony, 214, 217, 218. 
Henrietta Maria Cape, 3, 5. 
Henry, Alexander, The Elder, 218. 
Henry, Alexander, The Younger, 

214, 215. 
Hereford, 139. 
Heriot, Colonel, 139. 
Herschel Island, 27, 31, 211. 
Hertel, Jacques, 121, 128, 133. 
Hillsborough, 73. 
Hind, H. Y., 208, 220, 224, 225, 

229. 
Hirsch, 241. 
Hobson, W. R., 24. 
Homathco River, 253. 
Honeywell, Ira, 163. 
Hood, Robert, 13, 14. 
Hood River, 13. 

Hood, Port, 35, 47, 54, 56, 59, 65. 
Hope, 253, 267, 268, 269, 270. 
The Hope, 55. 



U 2 



292 



INDEX 



Hope, Port, 161, 163. 

Hopedale, 98. 

Hopetown, 91. 

Hopewell, 73. 

Hoppner, H. P., 11, 12. 

Horsefly Lake, 269. 

Horton, 53. 

Howe Sound, 254. 

Howse Pass, 213. 

Hubbart, Mr., 3. 

Hubbart's Hope, 5. 

Hudson, Henry, 3, 4. 

Hudson Bay, 2 etseq., 97-8, 103, 

108. 
Hudson Bay Company, 6 etseq., 

97-8, 103, 106, 209-12, 218, 

222, 223, 255, 266, 268. 
Hudson Strait, 2 et seq., 97-8, 

107-8. 
Huguenots, 37, 58. 
Hull, 162. 
Humboldt, 231. 
Hungarian Settlers, 237 et seq. 
Huntingdon County, 141, 143, 152. 
Huntsville, 179. 
Huron Lake, loi, 177, 178. 

Icelanders, 227-8, 236 et seq. 
Icy Cape, 8, 9. 
Indian Head, 230. 
Indians : 
Algonquins — 

generally, 125, 129, 192, 193. 
Abenaki, 120, 126, 128, 130. 
Atticamegues, 120, 121. 
Blackfeet, 215, 216. 
Crees, 97, loi, 105, 202, 215, 

216, 218, 260. 
Chippeways, 215, 216, 218. 
Delawares, 158, 192. 
Maliceet, 79, 87. 
Micmacs, 39, 42, 44, 49, 66, 

79, 87, 92. 
Mississaguas, 158, 192. 
Montagnais, 97, 105. 
Nascaupi, 97. 
Nipissings, 121. 
Ottawas, III, 120, 121. 
Athapascan alias Chipewyan 
alias 'Dini — 
Chipewyans, loi, 215, 216 
218, 260. 



Babine, Carrier, Chilcotin, 

and Sikanni, 260, 263. 
Sarsi, 215. 
Haidas, 260, 261. 
Iroquois — 
generally, 122, 129, 147, 158, 

192, 260. 
Hurons, iii, 119, 121, 125-6, 

158, 192. 
Mohawks, 119, 122-4, 173. 
Kootenays, 261. 
Kwakiutl-Nootkas, 261. 
Salish (Kawitchin, Okinakan, and 
Shuswap), 261. 
Sioux generally, 215, 226. 

Assiniboines, 215, 216, 218. 
Tsimpseans, 260. 
Tlinkits, 260. 
Ingonish Bay, 46. 
Inhabitants River, 46, 56. 
Intercolonial Railway, 86. 
The Intrepid y 17-18, 21-3. 
Inverness (C. B. I.), 65. 
Inverness (Q. P.), 132, 134. 
The Investigator., 19-23. 
The Isabella, 11, 13. 
Ivuktok Inlet, see Hamilton Inlet. 

Jackman, Charles, 3. 
Jacques-Cartier River, 125. 
James, Captain Thomas, 3, 5. 
James Bay, 5 et seq., 97-8, 105, 

106, 186. 
Jemseg, 80. 
Jerseymen, 58, 59, 91. 
Jews, 240 et seq. 
Jogues, Pere, 123. 
John River (N. Sc), 58. 
Johnson Mountain, 131. 
Joliette, 102, 148. 
Jolliet or Joliet, Louis, 96. 
Jones, Sir Francis, 3. 
Jones Sound, 5, 21. 
Juan de Fuca, 262. 
Juan de Fuca Straits, 260. 
Judique, 56. 

Kachika River, 251. 
Kaministiquia Fort aiid River, 

183-5. 
Kamloops, 253, 259, 260, 264, 

267, 268, 270, 277. 
Kamsack, 236, 238. 



INDEX 



293 



Kaslo, 271, 272, 277. 

Kater, Henry, 10. 

Kater Cape, 12. 

Keewatin, 186, 187. 

Keighley, 269. 

Kellet, Captain Henry, 21 et seq. 

Kellsey, Henry, 214, 217. 

Kelowna, 271. 

Kempt, Sir James, 85, 132. 

Kempt Road, 85, 86. 

Kempt's Bridge, 132. 

Kemptville, 62. 

Kendall, Mr., 14. 

Kennebecasis River, 75. 

Kennedy, Captain William, 18. 

Kennetcook River, 60. 

Kenora, 185, 186, 187. 

Kent (N. Br.), 84. 

Kentville, 67, 69. 

Kettle Creek or River, 252, 271. 

Kicking Horse Pass, 212, 213, 277. 

Killinek, 98. 

Kimberley, 250, 272. 

Kincardine, 177. 

King, Dr. Richard, 14, 15. 

King William Land, 13, 15, 17 et 

seq. 
Kingston (N. Br.), 75, 80, 81. 
Kingston (Ont.), 102, iii, 112, 

153-5. 
Kingsville, 142. 
Kirkella, 240. 

KlondikeRiver, 256, 257,274, 275. 
Kluane, 275. 
Knight, James, 7. 
Knowles, Rev. Charles, 86. 
Knowlesville, 86. 
Koksoak River, 108. 
Kootenay Fort, 264. 
Kootenay Lake, 252, 253, 267, 

273, 278. 
Kootenay River, 251, 252, 253, 

259, 267.- 
The Krusentern^ 12. 

La Biche, Lac, 224. 
Labrador, i, 95, 97-9, 104. 
Lacolle Mills, 131. 
Lacombe, 242. 

La Come, Fort, 199, 217, 218. 
La Crosse, He a, Lac, loi, 218. 
La Heve, 37-40. 



La Heve River, 39, 52. 

Laketon, 255, 256. 

Lanark, 168, 169. 

Lancaster, Sir James, 3, 

Lancaster Sound, 5 et seq. 

Langley, Fort, 264, 267, 268, 270. 

La P^ronse, 262. 

La Prairie, 123, 126, 130, 143. 

La Prairie River, 123. 

Lardeau River, 250. 

Larder Lake, 106. 

La Salle, Rene Robert de, 112, 

123, 155. 
La Tour, Charles de, 37, 42-3. 
Latour Fort, 43, 57. 
La Tuque River, 105. 
La V6rendrye, 121, 185, 214, 2x7. 
Lawrence, Fort, 42. 
Le Borgne, 37. 
Le Caron, iii. 
Leeds, 132, 134. 
Le Moyne, Pere, 112. 
Le Moyne, Charles, 127. 
Le Pas, 217, 220. 
Lesser Slave Lake, 209. 
Lethbridge, 208, 224, 233, 242. 
Levis, 126, 143. 
Lewes River, 257, 275. 
Liard River, 211, 212, 214, 247-9, 

251. 255, 257, 265, 275. 
Liddon, Captain Matthew, 11. 
Liddon Gulf, 18. 
Lillooet, 269, 270. 
Lillooet Lake, 254, 267. 
LTslet, 126. 

Little River (N. Br.), 80. 
Little Whale River, 7. 
Liverpool, 39, 52, 62. 
Livingstone, 227. 
Livingstone Creek, 275. 
Lloydminster, 237. 
Lochaber (N. Sc), 62, 63. 
Lochaber (Quebec), 163. 
Loggins, 68. 

London, 159, 160, 175, 178. 
Londonderry (N. Br.), 84. 
Londonderry (N. Sc), 53, 68. 
Long Lake, 204. 
Long Point, 157, 158, 159. 
Longueuil, 126-7, ^43' 
Louisbourg, 38, 45-8, 65. 
Ludlow, 82. 



294 



INDEX 



Lumpy Hills, 204. 
Lundy's Farm, 156. 
Lunenburg, 39, 52, 67. 
Lyall, D., 21-3. 
Lynn's Canal, 256, 257, 275. 
Lyon, Captain George, 12. 
Lytton, 253, 269, 270. 

Mabou, 56, 65. 

Maccan, 68. 

Maccan River, 42, 57. 

MacDonell, Bishop, 176. 

MacGregor, Rev. James, 55. 

Mackenzie, Sir Alexander, 8, 9, 

209, 214, 218, 260, 263. 
Mackenzie River, 8, 9, 14, 15, 17, 

19, 27, 98, 100, loi, 210-12, 

247, 248. 
Mackenzie Valley, 210-12. 
Maclean, John, 98. 
Macleod, John, 265. 
Macleod(Alta.),2o7, 225, 226, 233. 
Macleod, Fort (B. C), 254, 263 

et seq. 
Macmurray, Fort, 211, 212. 
The MacNab, 163, 164, 169, 179. 
MacNaughton, Judge, 18 1-2. 
Macoun, John, 201, 204. 
Macpherson, Fort, 211. 
Macquereau Point, 91, 92, 93. 
Madame, Isle, 46, 58, 59. 
Madawaska River (N. Br.), 76. 
Madawaska River (Ont.), 163, 177. 
Madeleine, Cape, 93. 
Madoc, 178. 

Magaguadavic River, 77, 81. 
Magdalen Islands, 58, 59,94-5,98. 
Magdalen River, 93. 
Magrath, C. A., 242. 
Magrath, 242. 
Makkovik, 98. 
Malagash, 39. 
Malcolm Island, 266. 
Manchester (N. Sc), 61. 
Manicouagan River, 108. 
Manitoba, 197 et seq. 
Manitoba, frontier of, 114, 185-6. 

197. 
Manitoba Lake, 200, 201, 229. 
Manitou District and River (Ont.), 

104, 187. 
Manitou, Lake, 239. 



Manitoulin Island (Grand), loi, 

193- 

Mansel, Sir Robert, 3. 

Mansel Islands, 5. 

Manson Creek, 274. 

Maple Creek, 227, 230. 

Marble Island, see Brooke Cob- 
ham I. 

Margaree, 56, 59. 

The Maria, 5, 

Markham, Sir Clements, 17. 

Markham, 161. 

Marmora, 178. 

Marshall, Captain, 169. 

Marysville, 76. 

Mascarene, Colonel, 40, 41. 

Matapedia Lake, 85, 92. 

Matawin River, 184. 

Matchedash River, 160. 

Matheson, 106. 

Mattawa River, 1 1 1 . 

Maugerville, 75, 81. 

May, W. W., 21-3. 

McClintock, Sir F.Leopold, 17-26. 

McClintock's Channel, 19 et seq. 

McChire, Sir Robert, 19-23. 

McCormick, Dr. R., 21-3. 

McEachran, Bishop, 56. 

McLoughlin, Mr., 10. 

McLoughlin, or McLaughlin, Fort, 
264. 

McNutt, Colonel Alexander, 53. 

Meares, Commander John, 262. 

Mecham, Captain George, 17-18, 
21-3. 

Medicine Hat, 230, 231, 233, 241. 

Megantic Lake, 132. 

Melita, 205, 241. 

Melville, Robert Viscount, 10. 

Melville Island, 11 etseq. 

Melville Peninsula, 12 etseq. 

Memramcook, 73. 

Memramcook River, 42. 

Mendry, Dr., 98. 

Menier, M., 96. 

Mennonites, 161, 173, 227, 228, 
236 et seq. 

Merigomish, 61. 

Merrick Road, 132. 

Merrickville, 102, 155, 169. 

Mersey River, 39. 

Methodist Settlers, 57, 73. 



INDEX 



295 



Methye Portage, loi, 109. 

M^is, 85. 

Michikamau Lake, 107, 108. 

Michipicoten, 104, 18 1-3. 

Middle River, 55-6, 62. 

Middleton, Christopher, 7, 8. 

Middleton (N. Sc), 39,67. 

Midland, (Ont.) iii, 177. 

Midway, 273. 

Milk River, 207. 

Mille Lacs, Lake, 184-6. 

Milltown, 77. 

Mines Basin, 32, 39, 41, 52, &c. 

Mingan, 96. 

Mingan Islands, 95-6. 

Minnedosa, 229. 

Minudie, 58. 

Miquelon Island, 58, 59. 

Miramichi, 45, 58, 73-6, 82. 

Mire Bay, 33,35,47. 

Miscou, 73, 74. 

Missiquash River, 42. 

Missisquoi County, 141. 

Mississippi River, 163, 168, 169, 

177- 
Mistassini Lake, 97, 105. 
Moncton, 66, 73, 80, 81, 82. 
Montarville Mountain, 131. 
Montgomery, Richard, 130. 
Montreal, 102-3, iio> ii9> 120, 

123-4, 127, 128, 129 et seq., 

143, 145 etseq., et passim. 
Moor, "William, 8. 
Moose Fort and River, 6, 103, 183. 
Moose Jaw, 203, 208, 214, 230, 

233, 241. 
Moose Mountain, 203, 241. 
Moosomin, 230, 240. 
Moravian Missions, 98. 
Moravian Settlers, 237 et seq. 
Moraviantown, 158. 
Mormons, 241 et seq. 
Mount Royal, 103, 131. 
Moyie, Lake, &c., 250, 267, 272, 

273. 
Mulgrave, 66 y 69. 
Murray Bay, 131, 152. 
Murray, Mount, 152. 
Muskoka, 102, 178-181, 192. 
Muskrat Portage, 1 79. 
Musquash Harbour, 43. 
Musquodoboit, 58, 60, 6^, 



Naas or Naase River, 250, 255. 

Nain, 98. 

Nanaimo, 250, 266, 267. 

Napanee, 154. 

Nappan River, 57. 

Nares, Sir George, 21. 

Nashwaak, 79, 80. 

Nashwaak River, 76. 

Natashquan, 99. 

National Trans-continental Rail- 
way, 86, 106, 115, 146, 213, 
233, 278. 

Nechaco River, 253, 254, 263. 

Negro Cape, 39. 

Negroes, 62, 87, 172, 192. 

Nelson, Mr., 3. 

Nelson (N. Br.), 74. 

Nelson (B.C.), 250, 252, 271, 272, 

273. 
Nelson, Port, 4, 109. 
Nelson River, 6, loi, 107, 108, 

201, 217. 
Nerepis River, 75. 
Newark, 156. 
New Brunswick Province, 33-4, 

73 et seq. ; Boundaries of, 43-4, 

77-9. 
New Caledonia, 254. 
New Campbellton, 33. 
New Canaan, 82, 83. 
New Carlisle, 91. 
Newcastle, 74, 82, 85. 
Newfoundland, i, 44, 46, 62, 64, 

65> 96, 97, 98. 
New Germany, 52, 69. 
New Glasgow (N. Sc), 67, 68. 
New Glasgow (P. E. I.), 63. 
New Lorette, 125-6, 129. 
Newport, 53. 
New Richmond, 92. 
New Severn River, 5. 
New Wales, or New South Wales, 

4, 5- 
New Westminster, 253, 370. 
Niagara District, 155-7, ^5^, ^59? 

161. 
Niagara Fort and Town, 112, 114, 

155, 159- 
Niagara River, 102, 112. 
Niagara Town and Falls, 1 56, 177. 
Niagara-on-the-Lake, see Newark. 
Nichicun Lake, 97. 



296 



INDEX 



Nicola, 250, 267, 273. 

Nicolet River, T27, 128, 142. 

Nictaux River, 39, 68. 

Nine Mile River, 60. 

Nipawi, 217, 21 8. 

Nipigon Fort, Lake, and River, 

108, 109, 121, 183. 
Nipisiguit, 45, 73, 74, 79. 
Nipissing Lake, 106, in, 179. 
Noel, 41, 53. 
Nootka Sound, 261. 
Norman, Fort, 211. 
North Bay (Town), 106, 179, 

180, 181, 182. 
North Cornwall, 21. 
North Devon, 1 1 et seq. 
North Fork, 252, 271. 
North Kent, 21. 

North Point (P. E. I.), 48, 59, 64. 
North Somerset, 11 et seq. 
ThQ Noiih Star, 21-3. 
North- West Company, 97-8, 160, 

218 et seq., 254. 
North-West River, 107. 
Nottawasaga River and Bay, 112, 

172, 177. 
Nottaway River, 103. 
Nottingham, Charles Earl of, 3. 
Nottingham Island, 5. 
Nova Scotia, 31, et seq., 43-4, &c. 
Nova Scotia Land Company, 83, 

84. 
Nut Lake, 230. 

Ochiltree, Lord, 46. 

Odelltown, 131. 

O'Hara, F., 92. 

Okanagan Lake, 252, 260, 264, 

268, 271, 272, 277. 
Okkak, 98, 104. 
Omineca River, 273, 274. 
Ommaney, Captain Horatio E., 

17-18. 
Onslow, 53. 

Ontario Lake, 101-2, in, 112. 
Ontario Province, 151 etseq. 

boundaries of, 112-4, 185-6, 197. 

population and towns of, 187-93. 
Ontario, New, 151, 180, et seq. 
Ontario, Old, 114, 151, 172, 180. 
Ontario, Upper, Middle, & Lower, 
173. 



Orillia, in, 177, 178, 179. 
Orleans Island, 120, 124, 125, 126. 
Oromocto, 75, 76, 79, 83. 
Oromocto River, 75, 80, 81. 
Osborn, Captain Sherard, 17, 

21-3- 
Osgoode, 170. 
Osoyoos, 272, 273. 
Otnabog, 87. 
Ottawa Canals, 168. 
Ottawa City, 170-1. 
Ottawa River, 102, no, in, 112, 

120, 123, 151, 161-4, 177. 
Ottonabee, 171. 

Owen, Lieutenant William, 81. 
Owen Sound, 172, 177. 

Palliser, Sir John, 208, 213, 220, 

224, 267, 268, 269. 
Pangman, Peter, 219. 
Papineau, Louis, 162. 
Paris, 173. 

Parrsboro, 42, 60, 61, 67. 
Parry, Sir William Edward, 11-13, 

22. 
Parry Sound District, 178-81. 
Parry Sound Railway, 181. 
Parsnip River, 251, 254, 263, 273. 
Paspebiac, 58, 91. 
Pasquia Hills, 199. 
Passamaquoddy Bay, 33, 77, 81-3. 
Peace River, 209, 210, 211, 212, 

213, 218, 247, 248, 249, 251. 
Peace River District, 209-10, 216. 
Peace River Landing, 209. 
Peace River Pass, 213, 218, 263. 
Peel River, 211, 212, 249, 256, 

265, 275. 
Pelly, Sir John, 10. 
Pelly Bay, 23. 
Pelly, Fort, 204, 205, 220, 221, 

229, 232, 238. 
Pelly River, 255, 256, 257, 265, 

275- 
Pembina Mountain, 199, 208, 214, 

227, 228. 
Pembina River, 212. 
Pembroke, 179. 
Penetang, 160, 172, 177. 
Penny, Captain William, 17, 18. 
Pereau River, 41. 
Perce, 93, 94. 



INDEX 



297 



Perth (N. Br.), 76, 84. 
Perth (Ont.), 168, 169. 
Peterborough, 102, 171-2. 
Petitcodiac, 76, 77. 
Petitcodiac River, 42, 74-5, 79, 

122,251. 
Petite Nation River, 162. 
Petit Rocher, 34. 
Petrolea, 178. 
Petworth Emigration Committee, 

166. 
Pheasant Hills, 204, 233, 240. 
Pictou, 33, 54, 55-6, 61, 62, 68. 
Pictoii Landing, 6"]^ 68. 
Pigeon River, 114, 184. 
Pincher (Creek), 212, 226, 242. 
The Pioneer^ 17-18, 21-3. 
Pitt, Fort, 206, 237. 
Placentia, 38, 46. 
Pleasant River, 62. 
Pointe au Baudet, 113. 
Pointe des Monts, 97, 113. 
Pokemouche, 73, 74. 
The Pollux, 15. 
Pomquet, 58, 61. 
Pond, Peter, 218. 
Ponoka, 242. 
Pontgrave, 37. 
Poole, Francis, 278. 
Porcupine Hills, 199. 
Porcupine Lake, 106. 
Porcupine River, 256, 257, 265,275. 
Portage la Prairie, 217, 220, 223, 

232. 
Port Arthur, 183-6. 
Portland Canal, 255, 256, 262. 
Portneuf, 148. 
Portneuf River, 125. 
Potton, 138. 
Poutrincourt, 37. 
Presbyterian Settlers, 53, 55, 56, 

86, 234. 
Prescott, 153, 154, 155. 
Presqu' He (N. Br.), 84. 
Preston, 61, 62. 
Prevost, Sir George, 84, 134. 
Prince Albert, 206, 219, 221, 224, 

230-1, 232, 237. 
Prince Albert and Victoria Land, 

14, 15, 17, 19, 20, 26. 
Prince Edward Island, 34, 48, 53- 

5, 59» 63-4. 



Prince Patrick Island, 21. 

Prince Regent Inlet, 1 1 et seq. 

Prince Rupert, 254, 278. 

Princeton, 272, 273. 

Prince of Wales Island, 18 et seq. 

Prince of Wales Strait, 19, 20. 

Pubnico, 39, 57. 

Pullen, Captain W. J. S., 17, 21-3. 



Quakers, 161. 

Qu'Appelle Fort, 204, 220, 221, 

226. 
Qu'Appelle River, 205, 206, 220, 

221, 230. 
Qu'Appelle on the Railway, 231. 
Quebec City, 103, no, iii, 115, 

1 19-12 1, 143 et seq., et passim. 
Quebec Province, 119 et seq. . 
boundaries of, 97, 11 2-1 3. 
population and towns of, T42-8. 
Queen Charlotte Islands, 249, 258, 

260, 278. 
Queen's Channel, 1 8 et seq. 
Queenstown (Ont.), 102, 156. 
Quesnel, 269, 270, 273. 
Quesnel River, 269. 
Quill Lake, 204, 230, 236. 
Quints Bay, in, 151, it;4, 158, 

178. 



Radisson, Pierre Esprit, 121. 

Rae, John, 16. 

Rae Isthmus, 16, 23. 

Rainy Hollow, 249, 276. 

Rainy Lake and River, 185-7. 

Ralegh, Sir W., 3. 

Ralegh Mountain, 4. 

Rama, 98. 

Ramsay, 169. 

Rapid City, 229. 

Raymond, 242. 

RecoUets' Missions, 73, 79, 119. 

Red Deer, 208, 242. 

Red Deer Lake, 200, 220, 229. 

Red Deer River (Alta.), 208, 212, 

219. 
Red' Deer River (Man.), 205, 225, 

230, 232. 
Red River, loi, 199, 202, 222-3, 

229. 



298 



INDEX 



Regina, 214, 227, 230, 231, 233,240. 
Reindeer Lake, 109. 
Reliance, Fort, 15. 
Remsheg, 47. 
Renfrew, 179. 
Repulse Bay, 8, 9. 
The Resolute, 17-18, 21-3. 
The Resolution (of Button), 4. 
The Resohitio7i (of Cook), 8. 
Resolution, Fort, 211. 
Resolution Island, 4. 
Restigouche River, 45, 66, 74, 75, 

77. 
Revelstoke, 249, 252, 277. 
Rice Lake, 171. 

Richards, Captain G. H., 21-3. 
Richardson, Sir John, 13, 14. 
Richelieu River, 122-3, 127-9, 

132, 133, 134. 
Richibucto, 73-5, 83, 87. 
Richmond (Ont.), 168, 169. 
Richmond (Q. P.), 132, 133. 
Richmond Bay, 48, 54, 64. 
Richmond, Fort, 6, 7. 
Richmond Gulf, 6, 98, 104. 
Rideau Canal, 168, 170-1. 
Rideau River, 102, 155, 163, 168- 

71. 
Riding Mountain, 199, 238. 
RieFs Rebellions, 186, 204, 231-2. 
Riveron, Sieur, 93. 
Riviere du Loup, 76, 80, 84, 103, 

143. 
Riviere du Sud, 126. 
Roberval, Sieur de, 104, 119, 120. 
Roberval (place), 105. 
Robinson, Lieutenant, 17. 
Robinson, Peter, 165, 170, 172. 
Robson, 252. 

Rock Creek, 269, 270, 271. 
Rocky Mountains, 8, 207, 211, 

219, 247-9. 
Rocky Mountains House, 219. 
Rocky Mountains, Passes, 212, 213. 
Roe, Sir Thomas, 3. 
Roe, Sir Thomas, Welcome, 5, 7, 8. 
Rogers, Robert, 128, 133. 
Rogers Pass, 277. 
Rosiers Cape, 44, 93. 
Ross, Sir James, 11- 13, 17. 
Ross, Sir John, 11-13, 17, 18. 
Rossignol, 37, 39. 



Rossland, 249, 271, 272, 273. 
Rougemont Mountain, 131. 
Rouville Mountain, 129. 
Roxburgh, 84. 
Royal North-West Mounted Police, 

211, 214, 225-7, 249» 257, 259, 

275. 
Rupert, Fort (B. C), 264, 266. 
Rupert River, 6, 97, 103, 105. 
Rupert's Land, i. 
Rustico Harbour, 48, 59. 
Ryerse, Colonel Samuel, 157. 
Ryerse, Port, 157. 

Saanich Peninsula, 266. 
Sabine, Sir Edward, 11. 
Sabine Peninsula, 21. 
Sable Cape, 39, 50, 52. 
Sackville, 52, 57, 73, 80. 
Saguenay River, 97, 98, 104-5. 
St. Albert, 224. 
St. Andrews, 77, 79, 80, 81, 82, 

83, 85. 
St. Anne (Q.), 93. 
St. Anne (C. B. I.), 38, 45, 46, 56. 
St. Anne des Chenes, 197. 
St. Anne de la Perade, 127. 
St. Anne de la Pocadiere, 126. 
St. Anne Bay, 33. 
St. Anne, Lake, 209, 224. 
St. Anne Mountain, no. 
St. Anne River, 125. 
St. Catharine's, 157, 167, 
St. Charles, 129. 
St. Charles River, 119. 
St. Croix or Dochet Island, 40, 43. 
St. Croix River, 41, 77, 78. 
St. Elias Cape and Mountain, 

249, 250, 257, 262, 275. 
St. Esprit, 46, 56. 
St. Francis, 128, 129, 132. 
St. Francis District, 133-4. 
St. Francis River (N. Br.), 78. 
St. Francis River (Q.), 122, 127-8, 

130, 132, 133, 162. 
St. George, 77, 79, 80, 81. 
St. Hyacinthe, 129, 143. 
St. James, Fort, 254, 263 et seq. 
St. Jean, Lake, 97, 104-5. 
St. John, 43, 75, 79, 80, 81, 83. 
St. John River, 35, 75-7, &c. 
St. John's (Q.), 130, 133. 138, 143- 



INDEX 



299 



St. Lambert, 143. 

St. Lawrence River, loi et seq., 

no et seq., 178 et passwi, 
St. Lawrence River, Canals of, 

167. 
St. Margaret's Bay, 35, 41, 58. 
St. Martin Lake, 200, 220. 
St. Mary Mission (Ont.), in. 
St. Mary River (Alta.), 208. 
St. Mary River (B. C), 272. 
St. Mary River (N. Sc), 62. 
St. Maurice River, 105, 119, 120, 

146. 
St. Ours, 127. 
St. Paul Bay, 124, 131. 
St. Peter's (P. E. I.), 48, 54. 
St. Peter's Isthmus, 35, 44-7, 64, 

St. Pierre Island, 58, 95. 

St. Regis, 113, 129, 134. 

St. Roch, 126. 

St. Stephen, 77, 81. 

St. Thomas, 164, 174. 

Salisbury, Robert Earl of, 3. 

Salisbury Island, 4, 5. 

Salmon River (N. Br.), 75, 77, 82. 

Saltcoats, 239. 

Sandon, 271. 

Sandwich, 158, 177. 

Samia, 177, 178, 182. 

Saskatchewan, Fort, 219. 

Saskatchewan Province, 207, 248. 

Saskatchewan River, loi, 199, 

201, 206, 219 et seq., 247, 248. 
Saskatchewan River, North, 203, 

206, 219-22, 225, 248. 
Saskatchewan River, South, 203, 

204, 205, 207, 208, 218, 219, 

220, 225, 230-2, 248. 
Saskatoon, 231, 233, 239. 
Sault St. Marie, loi, 112, 114, 

167, 181-3. 
Savalet, 37. 
Scadding, J,, 161. 
Scandinavian Settlers, 51, 192, 193, 

223, 237 et seq, 278, 279. 
Seaforth, 177, 178. 
Seine River (France), 36, 37. 
Seine River (Man.), 222. 
Seine River (Ont.), 187. 
Selkirk, Thomas Earl of, 55, 158, 

161, 172, 174, 184, 222. 



Selkirk (Man.), 201, 229. 
Selkirk (Yukon), 257, 259, 265, 

275. 
Selkirk Mountains, 249, 250, 253, 

259. 
Selkirk Mountains Pass, 277. 
Seton Lake, 253, 267. 
Shebandowan Lake, 184, iS?, 

186. 
Shediac Fort, Bay, &c., 54, 73, 74. 
Shefford, 131. 
Shefford Mountain, 131. 
Sheho, 239. 
Shelburne, 39, 60, 67. 
Shell River, 229. 
Shephard (Fort), 267, 268. 
Shepody, 33, 42, 83. 
Sherbrook, Sir John, 62. 
Sherbrook, 63, 68. 
Sherbrooke, 132, 133, 138, 142. 
Sherriff, Charles, 163. 
Shickshock Mountain, 31, 91. 
Shubenacadie Canal, 49. 
Shubenacadie River, 41, 42, 49. 
Shuswap Lake, 250. 
Sicamous, 249. 
Sillery, 125-6. 
Silver Isle, 184. 
Simcoe, John Graves, 157-61. 
Simcoe, 174. 

Simcoe Lake, 101-2,112, 160, 172. 
Similkameen River, 252, 269, 270, 

271. 
Simpson, Sir George, 267. 
Simpson, Thomas, 15, 19, 204. 
Simpson, Fort (B. C), 264. 
Simpson, Fort (Mackenzie), 211. 
Simpson Pass, 213. 
Simpson, Port (B. C), 254, 259, 

261, 277, 278. 
Simpson Strait, 15. 
Skedaddler Ridge, 87. 
Skeena River, 248, 253-5, 264, 

265, 268, 274. 
Slave River, see Great Slave River. 
Slocan, 250, 252, 271, 272. 
Smith, Sir Thomas, 3. 
Smith, Fort, 211, 214. 
Smith Sound, 5. 
Smith's Falls, 102, 169. 
Smoky River Pass, 213. 
Sooke Harbour, 266. 



300 



INDEX 



Sorel, 122-3, 126-7, 129, 138, 143. 

Sounding Lake, 208. 

Souris River, 205, 217, 220, 228. 

Southampton, Henry Earl of, 3. 

Southampton (Ont.), 177. 

Southampton Islands, 5. 

Spring Coulee, 242. 

Springhill, 68. 

Stanstead, 132. 

Standstead County, 141. 

Steele, Fort, 268, 271, 272. 

Stellarton, 68. 

Stettler, 242. 

Stewart, Captain Alexander, 17,18. 

Stewart River (Yukon), 256, 274, 

275- 
Stewiacke River. 41. 
Stikine River, 249, 255, 256, 257, 

265, 268, 274. 
Stirling, 242. 
Stormont, 153. 
Stratford, 177, 178. 
Strathcona, 242. 
Stuart, David, 264. 
Stuart, J., 17, 18. , 

Stuart, John, 263. 
Stuart Lake, 254, 260. 
Stuart River, 254. 
Stukeley, 138. 
Sturgeon Lake, loi. 
Sturgeon River, 185, 187. 
Sudbury, 104, 180, 18 1-2. 
Summerside, 54. 
Summit Lake (Labrador), 108. 
Summit Lake (Ont.), 108. 
The SmtshinCf 4. 
Superior, Lake, loi, 112, 121, 183 

-4 et passim. 
Sussex (N. Br.), 75, 76, 77, 8 1, 82. 
Sutherland, Dr. P. C, 17, 18. 
Sutton, 133. 

Sverdrup, Captain Otto,. 27. 
Swan Lake, 200, 214. 
Swan River, 205, 220, 221, 225, 

226, 227, 230. 
Swift Current, 203, 230, 231, 241. 
Sydney, 38, 46, 56, 64-5, et passim. 

Tadoussac, 104, 105. 
Tagish, Lake, 257, 275. 
Taku River, 255, 256. 
Talbot, Richard, 174, 175. 



Talbot, Colonel Thomas, 164, 

173-5. 
Talbot, Port, 164. 
Talbot Settlement, 175. 
Talbot, Street, 164, 174. 
Tantalus, 275. 
Tatamagouche, 47, 58, 61. 
Telegraph Creek, 255, 256, 257, 

274. 
Temiscouata Lake, 76, 80, 84-5, 

134- 

The Terror, 1 7 et seq. 

Teslin Lake and River, 249, 255, 

256, 257. 
Texada Island, 249, 250. 
Thames River, 158. 
Thetford, 142. 
Thickwood Hills, 203. 
Thompson, David, 219, 260, 263, 

264, 267, 272, 273. 
Thompson River, North and South, 

253, 261, 264, 268, 270, 277. 
Thousand Isles, 10 1, 102. 
Three Rivers, (Q.) no, in, 119, 

121-2, 127-8, 146-7. 
Three Rivers (P.E.I.), 48, 54, 55. 
Thunder Bay, 184. 
Thunder Moimtain or Hill, 199, 

236, 238. 
Tillard(C.B.I.), 59. 
Timiskaming, Lake, 105-6, 112, 

179. 
Tobique River, "jS, 86, 87. 
Toronto, 102, 112, 159, 160, 177, 

178, 187. 
Touchwood Hills, 204, 208, 239. 
Touchwood Hills, Little, 204. 
Tourmente, Cap, 103, no, 124. 
Tracadie(N.Sc.), 58. 
Tracadie (P. E.L), 48, 54. 
Trail Creek, 250, 271, 273. 
Tramping Lake, 239. 
Traverse, Cape, 54. 
Traverse River, 48. 
Trembling Mountain, no. 
Trent River, 101-2, in, 151, 158, 

i7i» 173, 177. 
Trenton (N. Sc), 68. 
Trenton (Ont.), 154. 
Trout, Lake, 278. 
Truro, 32, 33, 41, 47, 53, 60, 62-3, 

67. 



INDEX 



301 



Turkey Point, 157. 
Turtle Mountain, 203, 214, 241. 
Tusket Bay and Island, 39, 57. 
Tweedside, 83. 

Two Mountains, Lake of, see Deux 
Montagnes. 

Ungava Bay, 33, 98, 107, 108. 
Uniacke (Mount), 61, 69. 
Utrecht, Treaty of, 6. 

Valcartier, 147. 
Valleyfield, 143, 188. 
Vancouver, Captain George, 263. 
Vancouver City, 277. 
Vancouver Island, 249, 250, 264, 

266, 267, 277. 
Varennes, 127. 
Vaughan, D., 7. 
Vercheres, 123. 
Vermilion, Fort, 209. 
Vernon, 277. 
Verte, Bale, 47, 54, 61. 
Vesey-Hamilton, Sir R., 17-18, 

21-3. 
Victoria (B. C), 264, 266-7, 268, 

277. 
Victoria, Fort i Alta.), 224. 
Victoria Land, see Prince Albert 

and Victoria Land. 
The Victory y 12. 
Victory Point, 13, 25. 
Vital Creek, 274. 
Vittoria, 157. 

Wabigoon (Ont.), 104, 187. 
Waddington, Alfred, 276, 277. 
Wagamatcook, 56. 
Wager, Sir Charles, 7. 
Wager Inlet, 8. 
Wallace Bay, 47, 61. 
Walsingham, Sir Francis, 3. 
Walsingham, Cape, 4. 
Walton, 41. 
Wapella, 240. 
Washademoak, 75, 77, 82. 
Waterhen, Lake, 200. 
Welland Canal, 167. 
Wellington (B.C.), 250, 266. 
Wellington Channel, 11, i8etseq. 



Welsh Settlers, 83, 239 et seq. 

West Bay, 56. 

West Chester, 61. 

Westfield, 75, 76, 79, 83. 

West River, 55-6, 62. 

Westville, 68. 

Wetaskiwin, 233, 242. 

Weyburn, 241. 

Weymouth, 57, 60. 

Whale Cove, 7. 

Whitby, 161. 

Whitehorse, 257, 275. 

Whitemouth, 197. 

White Pass, 256, 257, 275. 

White River, 257. 

Whittle, Cape, 98. 

Whycogomagh, 66. 

Wickham, 75. 

Wicklow, 84, 86. 

Wild Horse Creek, 271, 272. 

William IV's Land, 15. 

Willow Grove, 87. » 

Wilmot, 60, 61. 

Wilson, Captain Andrew, 166. 

Windsor (N.Sc), 32, 41, 47, 50. 

53, 60, 67. 
Windsor (Ont.), 157-8, 174, 178, 

182. 
Winnipeg, 185, 187, 198, 217, 221 , 

222, 223, 229, 242. 
Winnipeg, Lake, loi, 185, 199, 

200, 201, 202, 217. 
Winnipeg River, 185, 186. 
Winnipegosis, Lake, 200, 206, 214. 
Wolf Island, 94. 
Wolfville, 32, 33, 67. 
WoUaston, Lake, 109. 
WoUaston Land, see Prince Albert 

and Victoria Land. 
Wolseley, Lord, 184-7, 225. 
Wolstenholme, Sir John, 3. 
Wolstenholme, Cape, 4. 
Wood Mountain, 207, 226, 241. 
Woods, Lake of the, 185-7, 197, 

199, 217. 
Woodstock (Ont.)» 159- 
Woodstock (N. Br.), 76, 77, 78, 

79, 81, 84, 85, 86. 
Wooler, 83. 
Wostock, 237. 

Wright, Philemon, 161, 162. 
Wynniatt, R., 19. 



302 



INDEX 



Yale, Fort, 267, 270, 273. 

Yamachiche, 127. 

Yamaska Mountain, 131. 

Yamaska River, 127, 129, 134. 

Yarmouth, 39, 52, 57, 67, 69. 

Yellowgrass, 241. 

Yellowhead Pass, 213, 260, 261, 

270, 277, 278. 
Yonge Street, 160, 161, 172. 



York, Fort, 6. 

Yorkton, 233, 238, 239. 

Young, Allen, 24. 

Yukon District and River, 349, 

255-8, 265, 274-6. 
Yukon District, Boundaries of, 

249, 262. 
Yukon, Fort, 265. 



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