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Toronto Public Library. 



Reference Department. 



THIS BOOK MUST NOT BE TAKEN OUT OF THE ROOM. 




SIR SANDFORD FI^EMING 



CANADIAN ALPINE JOURNAL 



PUBLISHED BY THE 

ALPINE CLUB OF CANADA 
1907 



PrinteJ liy the Herald Company, Limited, Calgary, Alberta. 



?^Ul o ^* 



CANADIAN ALPINE JOURNAL 



The Publishing Committee is not responsible for statements 
made by contributors to the Canadian Alpine Journal. 



CONTENTS— VOLUME I. 

PAGE 

Greetings. By William Whyte, Second Vice-President, 

Canadian Pacific Railway 1 

The Alpine Club of Canada. By Elizabeth Parker ... 3 

MISCELLANEOUS SECTION 

Memories of the Mountains. By Sir Sandford Fleming, 

K. C. M. G 9 

Biographical Sketch — The All Red Line. Editorial 34 

The Canadian Rockies, a field for an Alpine Club. By 

Arthur O. Wheeler, F. R. G. S 36 

Canada's First Alpine Club Camp. By Frank Yeigh 47 

How We Climbed Cascade. By the Rev. C. W. Gordon, 

D. D. (Ralph Connor) 58 

Camping in the Canadian Rockies. By Mary M. Vaux 67 

MOUNTAINEERING SECTION 

The Ascent of Mt. Goodsir. By Chas. E. Fay, Litt. D., 

President American Alpine Club 72 

The Ascent of Mt. Hungabee. By Herschel C. Parker, 

Ph. D 80 

The Ascent of Mt. Ball. By John D. Patterson .... 85 

The Ascent of Mt. Assiniboine. By Gertrude E. Benham . 90 

The Ascent of Mt. Hermit. By the Rev. S. H. Gray . . 95 
The First Ascent of Central Peak of Mt. Bagheera. By W. 

S. Jackson 100 

The Ascent of Mt. Macoun. By the Rev. J. C. Herdman, 

D. D 104 

The Climb of Crow's Nest Mountain. By P. D. McTavish. 108 
The Ascents of Mts. Marpole and Amgadamo. By the 

Revs. A. M. Gordon, Alex. Dunn and A. O. MacRae . 115 

Mt. Stephen. By the Rev. G. R. B. Kinney 118 

Glossary of Mountaineering Terms. Compiled by Arthur 

O. Wheeler 123 



CONTENTS— Co«//««f^ ii 

PAGE 

SCIENTIFIC SECTION 

The Mountain Wildflowers of Western Canada. By Julia 

W. Henshaw 130 

Glacier Observations. By Geo. Vaux, Jr., and William S. 

Vaux 138 

Observations of the Yoho Glacier. By Arthur O. Wheeler, 

F. R. G. S 149 

OFFICIAL SECTION 

Alpine Club Notes 160 

Report of Secretary 164 

Statement of Treasurer 167 

Report of Librarian 168 

Report of the Yoho Camp, July, 1906 169 

Report of Chief Mountaineer 171 

Receipts and Expenditures, Yoho Camp 177 

Constitution 178 

List of Members 182 

MAPS 

The All-Red Line Around the World 34 

The Tongue and Moraines of the llleciMewaet Glacier. 
To accompany "Glacier Observations" by Geo. and 
W. S. Vaux 142 

The Wapta Icefield. To accompany "Observations of the 

Yoho Glacier," by Arthur O. Wheeler . . . .156 



Copies of the Canadian Alpine Journal, Volume I, can be 
had on application to the following officers of the Executive: 
A. O. Wheeler, President, Box 167, Calgary, Alberta. 
Mrs. H. J. Parker, Secretary, 160 Furby street, Winnipeg, 

Manitoba. 
S. H. Mitchell, Asst. Secretary, 567 Spence street, Winnipeg, 

Manitoba. 

PRICE, 75 CENTS, POST PAID 

All applications for copies must be accompanied by money 
order or postal note payable in Canada. 



THE ALPINE CLUB OF CANADA 



Officers for 1906- 1908 



Patron 

Sir Sandford Fleming^ C.E., K.C.M.G., LL.D., 

Ottawa, Ontario 

President 
Arthur O. Wheeler, F.R.G.S., Calgary, Alberta 

Vice-Presiden ts 

The Rev. J. C. Herdman, D.D., Calgary, Alberta 

A. P. Coleman, M.A., Ph.D., Toronto University, 

Toronto, Ontario 

Secretary 
Mrs. H. J. Parker, 160 Furby Street, Winnipeg, Man. 

Assistant Secretary 
S. H. Mitchell, 567 Spence Street, Winnipeg, Man. 

Treasurer 
D. H. Laird, Winnipeg, Manitoba 

Librarian 
Miss Jean Parker, 160 Furby Street, Winnipeg, Man. 

Advisory Board 
E. A. Haggen, M.E., Revelstoke, British Columbia 
J. A. Kirk, D.L.S., Revelstoke, British Columbia 
T. Wilson, Banff, Alberta 



Applicants for membership must be proposed and seconded 
by three active members. 

Applications for active membership must be accompanied 
by a statement of qualification, duly attested. 

Graduating members must qualify within two years of 
date of election. 

All subscriptions are payable on the 1st of .January in 
each year. 



CANADIAN ALPINE JOURNAL. 



PUBLISHED BY 

Vol. I. THE ALPINE CLUB OF CANADA. No. 1 



GREETINGS 



By William Whyte 

The opening of the Alpine Club's Season of 1907 
is awaited with the most pleasurable anticipation by 
great numbers of whole-hearted and patriotic Cana- 
dians. That the coming Season will be an epoch in 
the history of the Club is my firm conviction. With 
its large membership and loyal adherents all, awaiting 
eagerly the time when they may be permitted to try 
conclusions with the glorious peaks and mountain 
passes in our great West, the Club has, within itself, 
the quahty of unlimited success. 

With my early experiences in the Canadian Rockies, 
I could, perhaps, speak with authority on the subject 
of our wonderful mountain ranges, but the time and 
space at my disposal would not permit of my doing 
full justice to them. I might say, however, that 
although countless books and articles have been pub- 
lished in laudation of the Canadian Rockies, a great 
deal has been left unsaid. 



2 Canadian Alpine Journal 

When one considers the personnel of the Club and 
the field they have chosen for their outing this season, 
one cannot help but prophesy that the Camp this year 
will be a great success, and I cannot too strongly urge 
all of our young Canadians to attend, when the oppor- 
tunity will be afforded them of climbing their own 
mountains and thus securing an appreciation of some 
of the beauties of their own country. 

Much has been said and written about the Alps of 
Switzerland and about other great mountain ranges of 
the earth, but when the Canadian Rockies become 
widely known as these other ranges, I am confident 
that they will not be found second in the regard of all 
lovers of mountains and mountain-climbing, and I 
may say that the best method of advertising our 
mountains is first to have our young Canadians gain a 
thorough knowledge and appreciation of their heritage. 
The resultant pride in their heritage will quickly make 
itself known across the seas, and many will come, see, 
and be conquered. There may be those who will come 
to scoff, but they will remain — to praise. 




A SNOW COKXICE ON MT. VICIM'KI^SIDHNT, 



Alpine Club of Canada 



THE ALPINE CLUB OF CANADA 



By Elizabeth Parker 

Its apologetic is summed in the second paragraph 
of the circular announcing the organization of the 
Club. 

"The objects of the Club are : ( i ) the promotion of 
scientific study and the exploration of Canadian alpine 
and glacial regions; (2) the cultivation of Art in 
relation to mountain scenery; (3) the education of 
Canadians to an appreciation of their mountain heri- 
tage; (4) the encouragement of the mountain craft 
and the opening of new regions as a national play- 
ground; (5) the preservation of the natural beauties 
of the mountain places and of the fauna and flora in 
their habitat; (6) and the interchange of ideas with 
other Alpine organizations." 

When the Club was organized in March, 1906, it 
was a red-letter day to some who had long felt the 
reproach of Canadian apathy to Canadian mountains. 
For, while English and American mountaineers had, 
year by year, seized the summers following the advent 
of the railway, and had explored and climbed — here 
and there a man with the "magic of the words" telling 
the story, — an increasing few of our own people had 
also been climbing for love of it. Thus learning of 
the immensities of the alpine regions of their own 
land, they became jealous for their compatriots' sake. 
Why should not mountaineering become one of our 
national sports? 

Not until November, 1905, did any positive move- 
ment towards organization begin. The response from 



4 Canadian Alpine Journal 

all parts of the Dominion was a surprise, and ought 
to have been a rebuke to us who had loudly lamented 
Canadian indifference to a sport for which Nature had 
provided so vast a playground on our own immediate 
territory. We had awakened out of sleep, and would 
redeem the past by a vigorous mountaineering organ- 
ization. But whatever the Alpine Club of Canada 
achieves of climbing, of discovery, of purely scientific 
work; whatever the Club may eventually become, it 
must never forget how great and splendid service, and 
affectionate withal, has been rendered to our mountains 
and Canadian mountaineering by the members of the 
Appalachian Mountain Club, the American Alpine 
Club, and the Alpine Club of London. They have 
done the work, and published the tidings in a series of 
publications that already make a considerable library 
of Rocky Mountain literature. When the Canadian 
Alpine Club was organized, it counted itself honored 
to confer honorary membership upon some represen- 
tatives of these Clubs, and happy to receive others as 
active members. The first life-member on our list is 
Professor Herschel C. Parker of Columbia University, 
one of the boldest pioneers of them all. 

What does the Alpine Club of Canada propose to 
do? Does it take itself too seriously? There may be 
learned cosmopolitan alpinists whose many years' 
experience of hardy holidays among the glaciers and 
upper snows of the mountain ranges of the world, 
would incline them to look with patronage, if not 
incipient scorn, upon an organized effort to popularize 
the exclusive sport. They might say that to popularize 
was to vulgarize. Not so. Mountaineering is too 
toilsome, too hard a sport, and demands qualities of 
mind and character quite other than vulgar. Many 
pastimes and sports, many vocations and avocations 
may become vulgarized. But it must be obvious to 
any who know ever so little about the glaciers and 



Alpine Club of Canada 5 

neves and precipices — the unimaginable visions from 
the upper heights; it must be obvious that, from the 
very nature of the sport, to popularize mountaineering 
is not to vulgarize nor degrade it. The mountains 
themselves hold the high effort and achievement in fee. 
The vulgar reach the mountain summits by a way 
against which the Alpine Club of Canada will set a 
face of flint. We know what way that is : the way of 
the monster, Mammon. By virtue of its constitution, 
the Alpine Club is a national trust for the defence of 
our mountain solitudes against the intrusion of steam 
and electricity and all the vandalisms of this luxurious, 
utilitarian age; for the keeping free from the grind of 
commerce, the wooded passes and valleys and alplands 
of the wilderness. It is the people's right to have 
primitive access to the remote places of safest retreat 
from the fever and the fret of the market place and 
the beaten tracts of life. We are devoutly grateful, 
as we ought to be, that the Canadian Pacific Railway 
Company has shown itself wise in a national sense, 
by refusing to follow in the wake of the cog-railways 
of the Rigi and Pike's peak. Our associate member, 
Mr. Whyte, the Second Vice-President of the Com- 
pany, than whom a shrewder man of commerce does 
not live in Canada, nor one with a clearer vision of 
the people's good, would deplore any wanton deface- 
ment of the wild natural beauty and grandeur of these 
now secluded fastnesses. If I had space I could give 
tangible proof of this. 

It is the Club's business to support the picturesque 
and wholly enjoyable transit to the mountain-places 
by pack-horse and saddle, and to promote the too 
much neglected exercise of walking. Your true lover 
of Nature is also a man of the unfamiliar roads and 
forest trails. It would be a great thing for young 
Canadians if all the automobiles vanished into space 
and walking for pleasure became the fashion. As 



6 Canadian Alpine Journal 

soon as prudence will warrant, huts will be built in 
remote strategic situations for the convenience of the 
members, and persons put in charge for the season; 
bivouacs will be established on the long trails at 
distances of a day's journey, and the Club will co- 
operate, where possible, with the Railway and the 
Government, in making new trails, giving comfortable 
access to all the places already known or yet to be 
discovered. And it is the Club's business to support 
all measures towards preservation for all time of the 
fauna and flora in their wild habitat. All members 
are expected to be alert to this end. 

First named among the reasons for the Club's exist- 
ence is the claim of science : "the promotion of 
scientific study and the exploration of Canadian alpine 
and glacial regions." This clause makes its appeal to 
the exclusive class already referred to, whose work is of 
the schools, a thing apart from, though it may and 
ought to include mountaineering as an ennobling, 
ethical and aesthetic pastime. This section has a dis- 
tinct work to do; and will, we hope, include a consid- 
erable number of men of science. And though much 
snow may fall upon the mountains and much water 
run in torrents from the glaciers ere it achieves its 
predestined high place in alpine and glacial science, 
its progress towards that consummation is in safe 
guidance. The President will look to that. He is 
keen for progress, and has withal, an appalling capa- 
city for dogged hard work — and for making other 
people work. The Scientific Section is not likely to 
languish while Mr. Wheeler is alive. 

Concerning the cultivation of Art, prizes are to be 
given for the best photographs; and as soon as cir- 
cumstances will permit, a competition in oils and water 
colors will be opened for active members. A reliable 
guide-book, too which will include instruction on the 
details of mountaineering, will be published for the 













ROI.Iv CAIvI, FOR THK OHHICIAIv CIJMB OF MT. VICK-PRF:S]DENT 



Alpine Club of Canada 7 

benefit of any who come to climb in the Canadian 
Alps. 

There is nothing quixotic about the Alpine Club of 
Canada: it is a sane, sober institution, organized by 
sane, sober men. As indicated, its mission is manifold. 
The education of Canadians to an appreciation of their 
alpine heritage, is of itself a raison d'etre. The Cana- 
dian Rocky Mountain system, with its unnumbered 
and unknown natural sanctuaries for generations yet 
unborn, is a national asset. In time we ought to 
become a nation of mountaineers, loving our moun- 
tains with the patriot's passion. A great Canadian, 
who wore himself out for the love he bore to God and 
Canada, was wont to say that a country which could 
grow wheat could grow men, by which he meant 
a race made of the flesh-stuff and the soul-stuff that 
builds up nations. This is the composite human 
material out of which mountaineers are made. But 
the peril is, that men become satiated with wheat, and 
there follows that effeteness which is worse than the 
effeteness of an unbalanced culture. Among other 
correctives none is more effective than this of the 
exercise of the mountain-craft. No sport is so likely 
to cure a fool of his foolishness as the steady pull, 
with a peril or two of another sort attending, of a 
season's mountain climbing in one of those ''thrilling 
regions of thick-ribbed ice" in the wild alpine play- 
ground of Canada. The ethical value of mountain- 
eering is a subject upon which our statesmen would 
do well to ponder; and there is a considerable Cana- 
dian Alpine literature from which they may gather 
data. 

Any young man of latent intellectual and moral 
force, who comes to close grips with the waiting, 
challenging mountains, and puts one summit after 
another beneath the soles of his feet, has gained 
immensely in the Spartan virtues. Moreover, he has. 



8 Canadian Alpine jQurnal 

by climbing to these skiey stations and standing face 
to face with Infinitude, learned some things he may 
not tell, because they are unspeakable. It is given to 
very few, to utter such experiences. But there comes 
to the mountaineer of pure mind and willing spirit 
the sense of which Wordsworth tells, of the presence 
interfused in Nature; the presence that dwells among 
the sheer peaks and in the living air and the blue sky 
and in the mind of man; the motion and the spirit 
that rolls through all things. Browning sums it in 
his swift way : "which fools call Nature and I call 
God." To this climber is given a key to many an 
utterance of the Masters, which else remained for him 
unlocked. It is quite true that every climber has not, 
nor may not acquire the philosophic mind that is 
curious regarding the divine interpretation of Nature; 
but traversing the sources of the great ice-rivers and 
breathing the virgin air above their mute snows is 
conducive to that philosophic mind. And whether or 
no, if that high exercise and that environment fail to 
arouse a sense of Nature malignant and Nature 
benignant, his case is hopeless as one who stands 
among men at the making of the nation. 

One word more : the standard for membership may 
not be lowered. That it will be raised is almost 
certain; just as. with the progress of education, the 
standards for matriculation in a new university are 
raised. 



Miscellaneous Section. 



10 Canadian Alpine Journal 



MEAIORIES OF THE MOUNTAINS 



By Sir Sandford Fleming 

There is no record of any European having crossed 
the continent of America north of the Gulf of Mexico 
at an earher date than one hundred and fourteen years 
ago. The idea of reaching the Western sea overland 
had fired the ambition of the men of New France for 
a hundred years and more. After long effort they 
succeeded in reaching a point within sight of the 
Rocky mountains, but a distant view of the gleaming 
peaks of that mighty range marked the utmost limit 
of their achievement. It remained for a Scotchman, a 
partner of the enterprising North-West Company of 
Canada, to gain the coveted honor. Alexander Mac- 
kenzie was born in Scotland in 1760, came to Canada 
as a young man, and at once threw himself into the 
hazardous service of the western fur trade. His rest- 
less ambition found little congenial in the commercial 
side of his occupation, but he eagerly seized upon the 
opportunities it offered for exploration. Always 
ready to engage in perilous enterprises, he discovered 
the great river of the north which springs in the 
passes of the mountains and bears the name of its 
discoverer. He was the first from Canada to reach the 
Arctic ocean. Not content with that notable exploit, 
he turned to the westward, penetrated the mountains, 
and reached the Pacific at Bella Coola, a point not far 
distant from the site of Prince Rupert, the recently 
selected terminus of the Grand Trunk Pacific railway. 
On a rock facing the tide water of the western ocean 




SIR AIvEXANDER MACKENZIE 



Memories of the Mountains 1 1 

he painted this simple memorial: "Alexander Mac- 
kenzie, from Canada, by land, the twenty-second of 
July, one thousand seven hundred and ninety-three." 
The record has long since disappeared, but the name 
of Alexander Mackenzie, the indomitable explorer, 
lives and will always live in the history of Canada^ 

Following in the footsteps of Mackenzie, another 
explorer, Simon Fraser, crossed the mountains and 
descended the river that now bears his name. The 
appalling difficulties of the journey would have fright- 
ened any less heroic heart. His men threatened to 
desert him. They urged him to avoid the almost 
impassable canyon by crossing overland to the 
Thompson river, but he replied simply that his orders 
were to explore the Fraser to the sea, and he would do 
that or die in the attempt. He succeeded, where many 
another would have failed. 

From the days of Mackenzie and Fraser, the Rocky 
mountains have been penetrated time and again by 
explorers, fur-traders and travellers, from David 
Thompson, Alexander Henry, Gabriel Franchere, Ross 
Cox, Daniel Harmon, and Alexander Ross, to Sir 
George Simpson, Sir James Douglas, Paul Kane, the 
Earl of Southesk, Dr. James Hector, Lord Milton and 
Dr. Cheadle. All the earlier explorers were associated 
either with the North-West Company or with the 
greater company into which it was merged, the Hud- 
son's Bay Company, whose vast commercial enterprises 
are recognized to have played an exceedingly import- 
ant part in retaining our western territory within the 
limits of British North America. 

The days when the fur-trader ruled an empire 
larger than all Europe have gone by. His realm is 
now in a different sphere. The railway has to a large 
extent taken the place of his brigade of prairie carts, 
his bark canoe or dog-sled. Many changes have 
occurred under my own eyes during the more than a 



12 Canadian Alpine Journal 

third of a century since my feet lightly trod for the 
first time the region of the mighty mountains, when I 
willingly accepted my first lessons in mountaineering. 
It was in 1871 that the mountain region north of 
the 49th parallel became part of Canada. The import- 
ance of connecting British Columbia with the eastern 
provinces was at once recognized, and the stupendous 
task of building a railway from ocean to ocean was 
undertaken. Having been appointed engineer-in-chief, 
my duties soon led me to the mountains, and I have 
returned to them again and again, always with the 
same keen appreciation of their grandeur. My purpose 
here is to recall the past and revivify some of the 
impressions formed from personal observation, before 
the mountain region was made accessible to the people 
of the world by the completion of the Canadian Pacific 
railway. With this end in view, I do not think I can 
do better than select illustrations from the records of 
my early journeys. I purpose, then, to submit a brief 
reference to some scenes and incidents still fresh in my 
memory, under the following headings : 

1. The Yellow Head Pass — 1872. 

2. The Kicking Horse Pass — 1883. 

3. The Rogers Pass — 1883. 

4. The First Through Train — 1885. 

The Yelloiv Head Pass — 18 J2 

My overland expedition of 1872 left Halifax on 
July I St. We reached Prince Arthur's Landing (now 
Port Arthur) twenty-one days later. Following the 
route of the fur-traders, and travelling for the most 
part by canoe, we arrived at Fort Garry (now Winni- 
peg) on August I St. Procuring horses, we crossed 
the plains to Edmonton; thence, after an exceed- 
ingly toilsome journey, we came under the protection of 
the Rocky mountains. It had taken from August 28th 
to the night of September 9th to reach the mountains 



Memories of the Mountains 13 

from Edmonton. I cannot now do better than turn to 
the diary kept, day by day, by my dear friend, the late 
Principal Grant, who acted as secretary to the 
expedition. 

September loth. We had come to the bases of the 
Rocky mountains and the sight of them was sufficient 
reward for all the toil of the preceeding fortnight. 
Curiously enough, as if to mark the occasion, we came 
into possession of "treasure trove" soon after we 
decided to camp for the night. A tent pole refusing to 
pentrate the ground more than about four inches, 
some blows from the axe were called for, to cut the 
supposed root of a sapling, but without effect other 
than blunting badly the edge of the axe. The hand 
of the axeman then felt for the obstruction, and with 
some effort drew out of the soil an ancient sword 
bayonet, the brazen hilt and steel blade in excellent 
preservation, but the leather scabbard partly eaten as 
if by some animal. It seemed strange in this vast and 
silent wilderness thus to come upon a European relic. 
How long had it lain where we found it? Are there 
many or any more bayonets embedded in this region? 
Its past history remains a mystery. It became part of 
our travelling impedimenta for the rest of the journey, 
and for nearly thirty-five years, which have since 
passed away, this "treasure trove" has found another 
resting place in my Ottawa home. 

The Athabaska fell six inches during the night. Got 
away from camp at 7.30 a.m., and for two hours had 
a delightful ride to Prairie river. The trail ran along 
a terrace of shingle or alluvial flats, and was free from 
fallen timber and muskegs. Most of the flowers were 
out of blossom. Few, however, thought of plants 
to-day or of anything but the mountains that stood in 
massive grandeur, thirty miles ahead, but on account 
of the morning light, in which every point came out 
clear, seemingly just on the other side of each new 



14 Canadian Alpine Journal 

patch of wood or bit of prairie before us. They rose 
bold and abrupt five or six thousand feet from the 
wooded country beneath them — the western verge of 
the plains, the elevation of which was over three 
thousand feet additional above the sea, — and formed 
in long, unbroken line across our path. . . . The sum- 
mits on one side of the Athabaska were serrated, 
looking sharp as the teeth of a saw; on the other, the 
Roche a Myette, immediately behind the first line, 
reared a great, solid, unbroken cube, two thousand feet 
high, a "forehead bare,'' twenty times higher than Ben 
An's; and, before and beyond it, away to the south 
and west, extended ranges with bold summits and 
sides scooped deep, and corries far down, where 
formerly the wood buffalo and the elk, and now the 
moose, bighorn and bear, find shelter. There was 
nothing fantastic about their forms. Everything was 
imposing. And these, too, were ours, an inheritance 
as precious, if not as plentiful in corn and milk, as the 
vast rich plains they guarded. For mountains elevate 
the mind, and give an inspiration of courage and 
dignity to the hardy races who own them and who 
breathe their atmosphere. 

For the strength of the hills we bless Thee, 

Our God, our fathers' God. 
Thou hast made our spirits mighty 

With the touch of the mountain sod. 

The scene had its effect on the whole party. As we 
wound in long, Indian file along the sinuous trail that 
led across grassy bas-fonds under the shadow of the 
mountains that were still a day's journey distant, not 
a word was heard nor a cry to the horses for the first 
half-hour. 

After dinner we resumed the march. . . . The view 
of the mountains all this afternoon more than made up 
for the difficulties of the road. Instead of being clearly 



Memories of the Mountains 15 

outlined, cold, and grey, as in the morning, they 
appeared indistinct through a warm deep blue haze. 

September nth. Away this morning at 6.15 a.m., 
and halted at i p.m., after crossing the Riviere de 
Violon, or Fiddle river. It was a grand morning for 
mountain scenery. For the first three hours the trail 
continued at some distance east from the valley of the 
Athabaska, among wooded hills, now ascending, now 
descending, but on the whole with an upward slope, 
across creeks where the ground was invariably boggy, 
and over fallen timber where infinite patience was 
required on the part of horse and man. Suddenly it 
opened out on a lakelet, and right in front, a semi- 
circle of five glorious mountains appeared; a high 
wooded hill and Roche a Perdrix on our left, Roche 
a Myette beyond, Roche Ronde in front, and a moun- 
tain above Lac Brule on our right. For half a mile 
down from their summits, no tree, shrub or plant 
covered the nakedness of the three that the old trap- 
pers had thought worthy of names; a clothing of 
vegetation would have marred their massive 
grandeur. . . . 

The road now descended rapidly to the valley of the 
Athabaska. As it wound from point to point among 
the tall dark green spruces, the soft blue of the 
mountains gleamed through everywhere, and when the 
woods parted the mighty column of Roche a Perdrix 
towered a mile above our heads, scuds of cloud kissing 
its snowy summit, and each plication and angle of the 
different strata up its giant sides boldly and clearly 
revealed. We were entering the magnificent jasper 
portals of the Rocky mountains by a quiet path wind- 
ing between groves of trees and rich lawns like an 
English gentleman's park. 

Crossing a brook divided into half a dozen brooklets 
by willows, the country opened a little, and the base 
and inner side of Roche a Perdrix were revealed, but 



16 Canadian Alpine Journal 

it was still an amphitheatre of mountains that opened 
out before us, and Roche a Myette seemed as far ofif 
as ever. Soon the Riviere de Violon was heard 
brawling round the base of Roche a Perdrix and 
rushing on like a true mountain torrent to the Atha- 
baska. We stopped to drink to the Queen out of its 
clear ice-cold waters, and halted for dinner in a grove 
on the other side of it, thoroughly excited and awed 
by the grand forms that begirt our path for the last 
three hours. We could now sympathize with the daft 
enthusiast, who returned home after years of absence, 
and when asked what he had as an equivalent for so 
much lost time, — answered only, "I have seen the 
Rocky mountains." 

Myette is the characteristic mountain of the Jasper 
valley. There are others as high, but its grand bare 
forehead is recognized everywhere. It is five thousand 
eight hundred feet above the valley, or over nine 
thousand feet above the sea. Doctor Hector, with the 
agent in charge of Jasper House, climbed to a sharp 
peak far above any vegetation, three thousand five 
hundred feet above the valley, but the great cubical 
block which formed the top towered more than two 
thousand feet higher. 

The views this afternoon from every new point were 
wonderfully striking. Looking back on Roche a 
Perdrix, it assumed more massive proportions than 
when we were immediately beneath. A huge shoulder 
stretched up the valley, one side covered with bare 
poles, grey as itself, and the other with sombre firs. 
From it, the great summit upreared itself so conspicu- 
ously, that it filled the background and closed the 
mouth of the valley. 

But the most wonderful object was Roche a Myette, 
right above us on our left. That imposing sphinx-like 
head with the swelling Elizabethan ruff of sandstone 
and shales all around the neck, save on one side where 



Memories of the Mountains 17 

a^corrngated mass of party colored strata twisted like 
a coil of serpents from far down nearly half way up 
the head, haunted us for days. Mighty must have 
been the forces that upreared and shaped such a 
monument. Vertical strata were piled on horizontal, 
and horizontal again on the vertical, as if Nature had 
determined to build a tower that would reach to the 
skies. As we passed this old warder of the valley, the 
sun was setting behind Roche Suette. A warm south- 
west wind as it came in contact with the snowy summit 
formed heavy clouds, that threw long black shadows, 
and threatened rain ; but the wind carried them past to 
empty their buckets on the woods and prairies. 

It was time to camp, but where? The Chief, 
Beaupre, and Brown rode ahead to see if the river 
was fordable. The rest followed, going down to the 
bank and crossing to an island formed by a slew of 
the river. . . . The resources of the island would not 
admit of our light cotton sheet being stretched as an 
overhead shelter, so we selected the lee side of a dwarf 
aspen thicket, and spread our blankets on the gravel; 
a good fire being made in front to cook our supper and 
keep our feet warm through the night. Some of us 
sat up late, watching the play of the moonlight on the 
black clouds that drifted about her troubled face as 
she hung over Roche Jacques; and, then we stretched 
ourselves out to sleep on our rough but truly enviable 
couch, rejoicing in the open sky for a canopy, and in 
the circle of great mountains that formed the walls of 
our indescribably magnificent bed-chamber. It had 
been a day long to be remembered. 

September 12th. We slept soundly our first night in 
the mountains, and after a dip in .the Athabaska and 
breakfast, Valad went off on horseback to try the 
fords. Though the river had fallen six inches since 
last night, he found it still too deep for pack horses, 
and there was nothing but to construct a raft. . . . 



18 Canadian Alpine Journal 

All got over safely, though there was some danger 
on account of the strength of the current. ... A ride 
of two miles took us to Jasper's, where we arrived 
exactly fifteen days after leaving Edmonton, two of 
them days of rest and a third lost by the obstruction of 
the Athabaska. It is hardly fair to speak of it as lost, 
however, for there was no point at which the delay of 
a day was so acceptable. The mountains of the Jasper 
valley would have repaid us for a week's detention. 

Jasper House itself is one of the best possible places 
for seeing to advantage the mountains up and down 
the valley. It is situated in a pretty glade that slopes 
gently to the Athabaska, sufficiently large and open to 
command a view in every direction. There is a won- 
derful combination of beauty about these mountains. 
Great masses of boldly defined bare rock are united to 
all the beauty that variety of form, color, and vegeta- 
tion give. A noble river with many tributaries, each 
defining a distinct range, and a beautiful lake ten miles 
long, embosomed three thousand three hundred feet 
above the sea, among mountains twice as high, offer 
innumerable scenes, seldom to be found within the 
same compass, for the artist to depict and for every 
traveller to delight in. 

Valad informed us that the winter in this quarter is 
wonderfully mild, considering the height and latitude; 
that the Athabaska seldom if ever freezes here, and 
that wild ducks remain all the year instead of migrat- 
ing south, as birds further east invariably do. The 
lake freezes, but there is so little snow that travellers 
prefer fording the river to trusting to the glare ice. 

September 13th. The rain that had been brewing all 
yesterday came down last night in torrents. One 
awakened to find the boots at his head full of water; 
the feet of another, the head of a third, the shoulders 
of a fourth, were in pools according to the form of the 
ground, or the precautions that each had taken before 



Memories of the Mountains 19 

turning in. The clouds were lifting, however, and 
promised a fine day, and nobody cared for a little 
wetting; but everybody cared very much, when the 
Chief announced that the flour bag was getting so light 
that it might be necessary to allowance the bread 
rations. That struck home, though there was abun- 
dance of pemmican and tea. By 6.45 a.m. we were 
on the march again, to go deeper into the mountains. 
The trail led along Lake Jasper, and was so good that 
we made the west end of the lake, which is ten miles 
long, in two hours. 

After dinner the march was resumed for seven miles 
up the valley. On the east side a succession of peaks 
resembling each other with the exception of one — 
"Roche a Bonhomme" — hemmed us in; while on the 
west, with lines of stratification parallel to lines on the 
east side, the solid rampart at the base of the Pyramid 
rose so steep and high, that the snowy summit behind 
could not be seen. The valley still averaged from two 
to five miles wide, though horizontal distances are so 
dwarfed by the towering altitude of the naked massive 
rocks on both sides, that it seemed to be scarcely one- 
fourth of that width. What a singularly easy opening 
into the mountains, formed by some great convulsion 
that had cleft them asunder, crushed and piled them 
up on each side like cakes of ice, much in the same way 
as may be seen in winter on the St. Lawrence or any 
of our rivers, on a comparatively microscopic scale, in 
ice-shoves! The Athabaska, finding so plain a course, 
had taken it, gradually shaped and finished the valley, 
strewn the bas-fonds, which cross-torrents from the 
hills have seamed and broken up. It looks as if Nature 
had united all her forces to make this the great natural 
highway into the heart of the Rocky mountains. 

Sept. 14th. The trail this morning led along the 
Athabaska for seven miles, to where the Myette runs 
into it, opposite the old "Henry House." The highest 



20 Canadian Alpine Journal 

mountains that we had yet seen, showed away to the 
south in the direction of the Athabaska pass, and "the 
Committee's Punch Bowl." This pass is seven thou- 
sand feet high, and snow hes on its summit all the 
year round, but our road led westward up the Myette; 
and, as the Athabaska here sweeps away to the south, 
under the name of Whirlpool river, the turn shut out 
from view for the rest of our journey, both the valley 
and the mountains of the Whirlpool. 

The first five miles up the Caledonian valley, as the 
valley of the Myette is called in the old maps and in 
Dr. Hector's journals, we made in about three hours, 
and a little after midday halted for dinner. . . . The 
Myette has a wonderful volume of water for its short 
course. It rushes down a narrow valley fed at every 
corner by foaming fells from the hillsides, and by 
several large tributaries. A short way from its mouth 
it becomes simply a series of rapids or mad currents, 
hurling along boulders, trees, and debris of all kinds. 
The valley at first is uninteresting, but, five miles up 
and for much of the rest of the w^ay, is quite pictur- 
esque, two prominent mountains, that rise right above 
the pass and the lake at the summit, closing it in at 
its head. 

September 15th. Left the "Caledonian Camp" at 
8 a.m. for our Sabbath day's journey, and found it not 
much better than 'yesterday afternoon's, as far as 
quality was concerned. As every one needed rest and 
was tired of the Myette and its swamps, willows, and 
rocks, the call for a halt was hailed with general joy. 
. . . McCord had selected his camping ground judi- 
ciously. Good wood, water, and pasture in his 
immediate neighborhood; a beautiful slope covered 
with tall spruce, among which the tents were scattered ; 
an open meadow and low wooded hills to the north- 
west, round which the low line of the pass, winding in 
the same direction, could easily be made out; and the 



Memories of the Mountains 21 

horizon, bounded by a bold ridge which threw out its 
two great peaks to overhang the pass. This was one 
of the most picturesque spots in the Caledonian valley, 
combining a soft lowland and woodland beauty with 
stern, rocky masses cappJed with eternal snow. We 
were 3,700 feet above the sea, but the air was soft and 
warm. Even at night it was only pleasantly cool. We 
were all delighted with this our first view of the Yellow 
Head pass. 

September i6th. Our aim today was to reach Moose 
lake, twenty-four miles distant. The first half of the 
day was more like a pleasure trip than work. A gentle 
ascent brought us to the summit, which was found to 
be almost a continuous level, the trail following the 
now smooth-flowing Myette till the main branch 
entered the valley from the north, and then a small 
branch till it too disappeared among the hills. A few 
minutes afterwards the sound of a rivulet running in 
the opposite direction over a red pebbly bottom was 
heard. Thus we left the Myette flowing to the Arctic 
ocean, and now came upon this, the source of the 
Fraser, hurrying to the Pacific. At the summit 
Moberly welcomed us into British Columbia, for we 
were at length out of "No man's land," and had 
entered the western province of our Dominion. Round 
the rivulet running west the party gathered and drank 
from its waters to the Queen and the Dominion. There 
had been little or no frost near the summit, and flowers 
were in bloom that we had seen a month ago farther 
east. Before encamping for the night we continued 
our journey some twenty-six miles farther into British 
Columbia, well satisfied that no incline could be more 
gentle than the trail we had followed to the Pacific 
slope through the Yellow Head pass. 

Among my memories of the mountains, I may here 
allude to a curious episode. We had a toilsome jour- 
ney of about two weeks from Yellow Head pass to 



22 Canadian Alpine Journal 

Kamloops. About midway we came into possession 
of the head of the "headless Indian," well known to 
every reader of the "North-West Passage by Land." 
In 1863 Dr. Cheadle and his companion, Lord Milton, 
in the silent forest saw in a sitting posture at the foot 
of a tree a headless skeleton clothed in the leathern 
garments of an Indian. In vain they looked for the 
head, but all trace of it eluded their diligent search. 
When we reached the spot, nine years afterwards, the 
skeleton had been found by some of my staff precisely 
as described by Milton and Cheadle. After a careful 
search in all directions, the head was likewise discov- 
ered, about a hundred and fifty yards away from the 
body. While the mystery of its separation from the 
trunk will probably always remain a mystery, the 
history of the skull since its discovery in 1872 is easily 
told. It found its way to Ottawa along with the old 
sword bayonet unearthed in the Jaspar valley on the 
other side of the Yellow Head pass, but unlike the 
sword bayonet it soon came to an untimely end. The 
long-missing cranium of the headless Indian was acci- 
dentally cremated on January i6th, 1874, when the 
offices of the Canadian Pacific Railway Survey, at the 
Capital, were unfortunately consumed by fire. 

The Kicking Horse Pass — 1883- 

My first visit to the Kicking Horse pass was in 1883, 
when on a special examination at the instance of Lord 
Mountstephen, then president of the Canadian Pacific 
railway. I was in London when I received his tele- 
gram from Canada. It hastened my return, and it 
likewise led subsequently to the publication in book 
form of the journal of a summer tour between Old and 
New Westminster. It may not be without interest to 
look back at the record of a generation ago, along the 
identical route by which the railway has since con- 
veyed, in ease and comfort, hundreds of thousands, 



Memories of the Mountains 23 

and will continue to convey millions of passengers, 
througfh one of the great mountain reg-ions of the globe. 

Taking up the narrative at Calgary, the travelling 
party had hoped to learn at this place all that was then 
known of the territory to be traversed. We had 
reached the point on our journey where the accessories 
of modern travel ceased to be at our disposal. Before 
us lay the mountain zone to Kamloops, the distance 
across which, as the crow flies, is about three hundred 
miles. We failed to obtain any reliable information 
of the country through which we had to pass. Indeed, 
it was by no means a certainty that there was a prac- 
ticable route through it. But it should not be forgotten 
that this uncertainty was understood to be the prime 
reason why Lord Mountstephen was so desirous that 
I should undertake the examination. 

Before leaving the then canvas town of Calgary, I 
entered a tent where a printing press was in the act of 
striking off the first, or a very early issue, of the 
Calgary Herald, a journal which is still published. 
The day's journey brought us to "Morley," the hom.e 
of the Stonies or Rocky Mountain Indians, where we 
obtained shelter. Next day, we proceeded nearly 
twenty miles, through a fine valley from three to eight 
miles wide, once the haunt of the buffalo, which a few 
years earlier, so we were informed at Morley, were 
numbered by hundrds of thousands. 

The prairie diminishes as we advance, the valley 
contracts to half a mile. Evidently we are about to 
enter the portals of the mountains.* To the north, the 
bare precipitous rock is stratified and strongly con- 
torted. The geological features are most striking and 
the exposure is on a grand scale. A great bluff rises 
almost vertical to a height of possibly fifteen hundred 
feet, and is about two miles in length. Four miles 

* In this locality the industrial town of Exshaw is being 
established, where Portland cement is to be manufactured on 
a large scale. — April, 1907. 



24 Canadian Alpine Journal 

west, we are completely in the mountains, and every 
turn of the trail reveals new views of the grandest 
mountain scenery. Peaks towering behind and above 
each other come in sight, and the sun poured down its 
warmest rays, deepening the shadows and bringing 
out fresh beauties. The smoky air occasionally added 
to the landscape by developing the aerial perspective. 

We pass Alount Cascade, so named from the small 
stream issuing from its side at the height possibly of 
two thousand feet, and descending direct to the valley. 
This mountain, the summit of which is said to be 5060 
feet above the plain, is the most striking of the masses 
we have yet seen on the journey. Discoveries of 
anthracite coal have been made in its flanks, and from 
this fact the visitor of today will realize that the 
travellers had reached the neighborhood of what is 
now called Banff. 

We learned from a party of engineers, encamped 
near by, that the prospect of getting through the 
mountains in front of us was not encouraging. They 
had never heard of any one crossing the Selkirk 
range. As they stated, "no one was known to have 
passed over from where we stood, by the route before 
us, to Kamloops ; not even an Indian ; and it was ques- 
tionable if it were possible to find a route which could 
be followed." The information was unwelcome, but 
there was only one course open for us, and that was 
to proceed and ascertain the precise character of the 
difficulties, if there were any in the way. 

We encamped for the night. Next morning, Sun- 
day, the weather was really beautiful. The sun lit up 
in warm colors the great mountain peaks encircling 
the valley. The more distant peaks were invisible, but 
we had a remarkable view of the towering battlements 
to the north, in themselves so lofty and seemingly so 
near to us. We had a short service as usual, and as we 
anticipated a toilsome journey in front of us, we 



Memories of the Mountains 25 

resolved on a Sabbath day's travel in order to get 
hardened to our work. We rode about twelve miles 
up the valley between mountains of the most imposing 
grandeur. One peak crowned with perpetual snow is 
of striking beauty. Another has a cubical summit. A 
third, at no great distance, is pyramidal ; and so on, in 
every conceivable variety. On the other side of the 
valley, we see Castle mountain, the resemblance of 
its features to cyclopean masonry doubtless suggesting 
the name. Night comes and we are soon wrapped in 
our blankets. 

Next morning we are in the saddle again, when the 
sun is peering over Castle mountain. The ride is 
partly through burnt woods along the side of the river, 
and the smoke conceals to a large extent the outline of 
the mountains. Our party gets divided, one of the 
number taking a wrong trail narrowly escaped 
losing himself, at least for the night. At the end of 
the day, we ascend a glacier-fed stream and thus reach 
the summit, 5300 feet above the sea. Tonight we fall 
asleep on the continental "Divide." Hitherto we have 
passed over ground draining to the east. Tomorrow 
we follow a stream flowing into the waters of the 
Pacific ocean. 

The descent from the summit, which has since 
received the name of Laggan, was by the Kicking- 
Horse valley,, flanked by great mountains. It occupied 
four days to the upper part of the Columbia river, and 
proved to be a most toilsome journey. As is frecjuently 
the case in mountaineering, a dash of peril was occa- 
sionally encountered. The Kicking-Horse river, which 
has its source in a small summit lake near Laggan, 
soon gathers strength from many glacier sources, and 
flows with tremendous impetuosity, especially for the 
first six miles. The last ten mUes passes through 
canyons, where the descent is most rapid, and the 
water, now of great volume, rushes downwards with 



26 Canadian Alpine Journal 

wonderful force before it falls into the placid Columbia. 
In the lower canyon, the water is forced through a 
rock}^ chasm, which from our point of view was of 
unknown depth. Where we stood the banks were 
overhanging. We encamped on the evening of the 
fourth day near the intersection of the Kicking-Horse 
with the Columbia, a river of considerable size in a 
magnificent valley several miles in width. 

It is again Sunday, the first of September, which 
we devote to much-needed rest for horses and men. It 
is a beautiful morning, the sun lighting up the whole 
valley of the Columbia. The Rocky Mountain range 
which we have crossed lies behind us. The great Sel- 
kirk range lies in front. To the west and northwest, 
high peaks form a golden line of stern magnificence. 
AAvay to the south, huge areas of snow, possibly the 
accumulation of centuries, rest between the peaks. 
Amid all this grandeur we seek a few hours' rest to 
regain the vigor and elasticity which we shall need as 
we proceed on our journey. 

In the cool of the evening we walk up the first 
gravelly terrace in rear of the camp to enjo}^ the view, 
ascending some five hundred feet. We were repaid 
for our effort. The huge mountains in our front and 
the valley stretching away in the magnificence of 
foliage to the southeast, lit up by the warm color of 
sunset, presented a noble landscape. I asked myself 
if this vast solitude would remain unchanged, or 
whether civilization in some form would ever penetrate 
to this region? It cannot be that this immense valley 
will always be the haunt of a few wild animals. Will 
the future now seeming to dawn upon us bring some 
change? How soon will a busy crowd of workmen 
take possesison, and the steam whistle re-echo where 
now all is silent? In the ages to come, how many 
trains will run to and fro from Ocean to Ocean, 
carrying millions of passengers? All these thoughts 



Memories of the Mountains 27 

crowded upon me in view of that peaceful scene, 
lighted by the last rays of the sinking sun as it dropped 
behind the Selkirk mountains. I do not think that I 
can ever forget the sight as I then gazed upon it. 

The Rogers Pass — i88s- 

It w^as in the valley of the Columbia that I first met 
Major Rogers. We all enjoyed the hospitalities of 
his camp when we emerged from the toils of the 
Kicking-Horse valley. Here we remained from Satur- 
day night until Monday morning. 

Refreshed and prepared for the journey before us, 
we were up early, and at eight were in a canoe floating 
down the Columbia. We had 20 or 30 miles to go in 
this way, and there was ample time to discuss the 
chances of getting through to Kamloops. I was aware 
that by descending the Columbia to Boat Encampment 
and thence continuing by the river to Eagle pass, we 
coiijd avoid the Selkirks wholly, but my present object 
was to learn all I could from Major Rogers. He had 
for two seasons been engaged on the discovery of what 
might prove a considerably shorter passage for the 
railway across the Selkirk range, and was confident 
that he would succeed. He proposed to accompany us 
part of the distance, and to send his nephew, Mr. 
Albert Rogers, with us as far as we might desire. We 
camped at the mouth of Beaver river, some thirty miles 
from our starting point. Next day we followed the 
rough and recently made trail by the Beaver river 
itself, a large stream passing through an open 
canyon for four or five miles. It is quite unnavigable. 
There are few places where it can be forded. We 
proceed through a flat, well-timbered valley half a mile 
in width. There is a dense growth of cedar, spruce 
and Cottonwood; and such magnificent cedar! Four 
feet and more in diameter. We have now an under- 
growth which is the genuine flora of the Pacific slope. 



28 Canadian Alpine Journal 

As we advance, dense smoke surrounds us, for we are 
reaching a region where fires have been burning ahead. 
With difficulty we continue our advance, hour after 
hour, in the hope of finding a spot where the horses can 
pasture, but none is to be seen. There is no alternative 
but to camp in the midst of the burnt timber. Our 
poor horses could only nibble the leaves of the devil's 
club in the attempt to satisfy hunger. 

In the morning we continue our journey, passing 
through a tall forest until we reach a rugged mountain 
defile leading up to the summit which we are to cross. 
The mountain peaks rise high above us. Five miles 
from our last night's camp we leave Bear creek, a 
branch of Beaver river, and follow a small stream to 
the south. Half a mile further brings us to the summit. 
We are now 4300 feet above the sea, surrounded by 
mountains of all forms, pyramidal, conical and ser- 
rated. They are marked in bold relief on the lofty 
sky line. 

As we rest at the summit, Major Rogers describes 
to us the history of the discovery of the pass. Eighteen 
years before, Mr. Walter Moberly had ascended the 
Illecillewaet river on an exploration for the government 
of British Columbia. He was the first white man to 
traverse its banks. He ascended the Illecillewaet to 
the forks, and followed the more northerly branch 
some thirty miles farther, until it terminated in a 
cul-de-sac among snowy mountains. The other branch 
he was unable to follow, as the season was then ad- 
vanced, and his Indian guide declined to accompany 
him. In his report he spoke hopefully of a route by 
that branch, and recommended that it should be exam- 
ined before a road was finally determined on. It was 
upon this hint that Major Rogers acted. Three years 
back he traced the Illecillewaet to the forks, and then 
followed the eastern branch. This branch also pro- 
ceeded from two streams, the most southerly of which 



Memories of the Mountains 29 

he followed. With his nephew he climbed a mountain 
on its northern bank, and from the summit he looked 
down on the meadow on which we were now resting. 

A party had been detailed to cut out a trail west- 
ward, which we are to follow as far as it is made pass- 
able. Beyond that point our party will be the first to 
pass across the Selkirk range from its eastern base on 
the upper Columbia to the second crossing of that 
river. The horses are still feeding and we have some 
time at our command. As we view the landscape we 
feel as if some memorial should be preserved of our 
visit here, and we organize a Canadian Alpine Club. 
The writer, as a grandfather, is appointed interim 
president. Dr. Grant secretary, and my son, S. H. 
Fleming, treasurer. A meeting is held, and we turn 
to one of the springs rippling down to the Illecillewaet 
and drink success to the organization. Unanimously 
we carry resolutions of acknowledgment to Major 
Rogers, the discoverer of the pass, and to his nephew 
for assisting him. 

The summit on which we stand is a dry meadow 
about a mile in extent, with excellent grass. Our 
horses being satisfied, some are actually rolling in the 
grass, the hour has come to leave the pleasant meadow 
in the Rogers pass and pursue our journey. The 
animals are loaded with their packs. At last we are 
fairly under way. Our descent is rapid. We soon 
come in sight of a conical peak rising about fifteen 
hundred feet, above the surrounding lofty mountains. 
It stands out majestically among its fellows, and we 
thought it was a fitting subject for the virgin attempt 
of the Alpine Club. It now bears the name of Mt. 
Sir Donald, and Major Rogers declared it would be 
the summit of his ambition to plant on its highest 
point the Union Jack on the day that the first through 
train passed along the gorge we were travelling. 

We descend slowly enough, but with increased 



30 Canadian Alpine Journal 

rapidity of actual descent, crossing a series of ava- 
lanche slides with a growth of tall alder bushes, the 
roots interlaced in all directions. We soon find our- 
selves five hundred feet below the summit. Our 
course had been westerly through a valley flanked on 
both sides by high mountains. We have difficulty in 
finding a place to pitch our tent, but finally secure a 
nook with area enough on the low gravelly bank of a 
brook of crystal, eighteen inches wide, but so small is 
the space available that the camp fire must be placed 
on the opposite side of the rivulet; the murmur of its 
waters at my feet was the sound by which I fell asleep. 

The following morning, we continue through the 
valley walled in by mountains, the height of which 
must be counted by thousands of feet. We trudge 
slowly along the newly cut trail high up among the 
rocks, to descend again to the flats with its alders and 
devil's club, until at last we reach a surveyors' camp, 
twenty-four miles from the summit. Our horses have 
now to leave us, it being impossible for them to proceed 
further. The men must carry on their shoulders what 
we require, through an untrodden forest without path 
or trail of any kind. We are turning our backs on 
civilized life and its auxiliaries, again to meet them, 
we trust, at Kamloops, still many miles away. 

We knew nothing of the country before us and had 
no assistance to look for from the world behind. We 
were following a tributary of the Columbia to the 
waters of that river, and this was the one guide for 
our direction. The walking was dreadful, climbing 
over and creeping under fallen trees of great size; 
wading through tall ferns reaching to the shoulder, 
and millions of devil's club viciously stabbing as we 
passed. We camp for the night on a high bank over- 
looking the Illecillewaet. Three days' march carry us 
scarcely more than ten miles. Rain falls incessantly. 
We reach the lower canyon of the Illecillewaet, and 



Memories of the Mountains 31 

climb from rock to rock, grasping roots and branches, 
scrambling up almost perpendicular ascents, swinging 
ourselves occasionally like experienced acrobats and 
feeling like the clown in the pantomime. At some 
places the loads have to be unpacked and the men draw 
each other up by clinched hands from one ledge to 
another. We pass cautiously along a steep slope where 
a false step is certain disaster; creep under a cascade 
over a point of precipitous rock to comparatively safe 
ground beyond. So the story goes from day to day. 
Finally, after many vicissitudes, we reach the junction 
of the Illecillewaet and the Columbia, and the worst 
part of our journey to Kamloops is over. 

The First Through Train — i88j. 

These memories which I have recalled and briefly 
dwelt upon in the foregoing pages seem to culminate 
in an occurrence which may be regarded as an epoch in 
Canadian mountaineering. I allude to the passage of 
the first railway train through the solitudes of the 
mountains, along the precise route wearily travelled 
step by step less than three years before, up the Bow 
river, through the Kicking-Horse valley, and over the 
Selkirks by Rogers pass. 

The railway had been opened for traffic between 
Montreal and Winnipeg for some time, when, on the 
evening of October 27th, 1885, the regular Winnipeg 
train leaving Montreal had attached to it a private car 
containing three directors of the Canadian Pacific 
railway, Lord Strathcona, Sir William C. Van Home, 
and the late Mr. George H. Harris. A fourth director 
(the writer) joined at Ottawa. A delay of two days 
took place at Winnipeg. Finally the party left on 
November 2nd. for the far west. Beyond Winnipeg 
the train became "special." It was the first Transcon- 
tinental train crossing Canadian soil. It reached the 
western crossing of the Columbia in fifty-six hours 



32 Canadian Alpine Journal 

after leaving Winnipeg. The railway track some 
miles ahead was not yet completed, and we could not 
at once proceed. There was still a gap between the 
rails laid from the east and those from the west. The 
delay gave time for reflection, and it was not felt to be 
tedious among the surprising wealth of mountain 
scenery on every side. For myself I could not help 
contrasting the luxurious travelling which the railway 
afforded with the experience of my little party jour- 
neying westward through the mountains in 1883. The 
special train remained for part of a day and night at a 
place which has received the name of Revelstoke — 
almost the identical spot where a couple of years before 
we found ourselves in a seriously embarrassing situa- 
tion from the near prospect of starvation. At other 
times on the journey I usually took my stand on the 
rear platform watching as we passed the changing 
scenery and trying to recognize the ground laboriously 
passed over on the former journey. 

Early on the morning of November 7th the hun- 
dreds of busy workmen gradually brought the two 
tracks nearer and nearer, and at 9 o'clock the last rail 
was laid in its place to complete the railway connection 
from Ocean to Ocean. All that remained to finish the 
work was to drive home the last spike. This duty 
devolved on one of the four directors present — the 
senior in years and influence, he who is now known the 
world over as Lord Strathcona. No one could on such 
an occasion more worthily represent the Company by 
taking hold of the spike hammer and giving the 
finishing blows. 

It was indeed no ordinary occasion. The scene was 
in every respect noteworthy, from the groups which 
composed it and the circumstances which had brought 
together so many human beings in this spot in the 
heart of the mountains, until recently an untracked 
solitude. The engineers, the workmen, every one 




DklVING THE IvAST SPIKE AT CRAIGEU.ACHIE 



Memories of the Mountains 33 

present appeared deeply impressd by what was taking 
place. It was felt by all to be the moment of triumph. 
The central figure — the only one at the moment in 
action — was more than the representative of the rail- 
way company. His presence recalled memories of the 
Mackenzies, Frasers, Finlaysons, Thompsons, Mc- 
Leods, MacGillivrays, Stuarts, McTavishs, and 
McLoughlins who in a past generation had penetrated 
the surrounding mountains. Today he is the chief 
representative of a vast trading organization in the 
third century of its existence. 

The spike driven home, the silence for a moment or 
two remained unbroken. It seemed as if the act now 
performed had worked a spell on all present. Each 
was absorbed in his own thoughts. The silence was, 
however, of short duration. The pent-up feelings 
found vent in a spontaneous cheer, the echoes of which 
will long be remembered in association with Craig- 
gellachie. 

In a few minutes the train was again in motion. It 
passed over the newly-laid rail amid further cheering, 
and sped on its way, arriving the following morning 
at Port Moody, where a connection was made with 
the Pacific on November 8th, 1885. At that date the 
city of Vancouver was an unbroken forest. 

The passage of the first railway train from Ocean 
to Ocean must, I think, be recognized as an important 
epoch in Canadian mountaineering. Before the exist- 
ence of the railway the Rockies could only be 
approached by toilsome journeys occupying months or 
more than months. Now all is changed, and our 
mountain region, a rich heritage, is made accessible to 
the world, and many persons may now enjoy the 
privilege of participating in the healthful and noble 
sport of the Alpine Club of Canada. 



34 ■ Canadian Alpine Journal 



EDITORIAL NOTE 



Such a noteworthy event as the attainment of his 
eightieth birthday by the founder of the first Alpine 
Club of Canada, at the summit of Rogers pass in 1883, 
and the Patron and Honorary President of the Alpine 
organization formed last year at Winnipeg, cannot fail 
to be of the very deepest interest to all our members, 
and, owing to his many scientific and commercial 
achievements, to the British Empire. 

Thanks to the four sons of Sir Sandford Fleming, 
we have secured the privilege of presenting to the 
public with this volume a reduced facsimile of a 
birthday address presented to their father by his 
descendants on the day when he reached the mature 
age of eighty years, January 7th, 1907. The original 
is a beautifully illuminated sheet, about double the size 
of the appended copy, which is merely in outline. It 
furnishes a terse but eloquent autobiography. 

We are indebted, in part, to these gentlemen for the 
explanation which follows. Two of them accompanied 
their father across the mountains. Major Frank Flem- 
ing in 1872, and Sandford Hall Fleming in 1883. The 
first by the Yellow Head pass, the second by the Bow 
river and Rogers passes. 

They mention that their father at first hesitated to 
give his assent to the publication of the address, for 
the reason that however interesting it might be to him 
and to his children, and however much he and they 
might appreciate the proposal to incorporate it in the 
Canadian Alpine Journal, it was after all "merely a 
family matter, a record of service on the one hand and 
of loving family devotion on the other, in itself of 



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tbc oqc o| fouf bLOrc >eor£ , "' Y 

"'hilt your nome has-heerj associated durmq i|Our long life Uiitb mora; ^ 
iii)|)or[Qnt cnterpNS(.s_ jj.ijn]f oyu^AvU tlV'' '.'arfi'tuill rpujin-i ijou i -J^l 
ond an iticejitive tp loftij tijTd iTn'ttrina f)forl,to ijoiir chilOrcn itbos 
'been cxpiessiVe osvuell of triiTff^iind-^i/itn.Justice-ana helpfulness 
flp and fajhetln l(ivc aW cart _ I ,. ,^1 ^-W 

liour public services dove bGcrj-artn'ouilcittjed bij the goKcrcujn and 
it/ bn parliament we otfo'Tyiou the love vuhich your noble 
•-■' ■-'-Icm St) d cljaracter bovo inspired on6 we proy t 
■ vidcnce ^ou may lon<j be spared to us in Ijcalffl 






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Memories of the Mountains 35 

little or no public interest." The request having been 
pressed by the Editorial Committee, Sir Sandford said : 
"On public grounds I can see one reason only for 
waiving my objection. In the centre of the address 
there is a diagram intended to illustrate the world- 
encircling Imperial Cable project, respecting which 
the public mind still needs educating, and no doubt 
publication of the address with the forthcoming 
Journal and a reference to this feature of it in the text, 
would have an educative tendency, productive of 
good." 

It is difficult at a glance to grasp the full significance 
of the proposal to establish an unbroken chain of state- 
owned cable-telegraphs connecting all the self-govern- 
ing British communities in both hemispheres, but by 
those who have studied the matter, it is regarded to be 
of immense Imperial importance. At the three Col- 
onial Conferences assembled in 1887, 1894 and 1902 
the subject was under consideration. At the two first 
mentioned, Sir Sandford, representing Canada, as one 
of the delegates, took a prominent part in the discus- 
sions, and his matured views were placed before the 
Conference assembling in London on April I5tli, 1907. 
For twenty years he has had the keenest desire to 
promote the project and has never spared himself or 
lost an opportunity of advancing it. The Empire Cable 
scheme is one of his highest ideals. He believes most 
thoroughly that, when eventually consummated, it will, 
by bringing all the autonomous units of the Empire 
around the globe into one friendly neighborhood, elec- 
trically and telegraphically, become the indirect means 
of quickening trade, making more effective the ties of 
sympathy, more enduring the bonds of sentiment, and 
thus add strength and stability to the great sisterhood 
of British nations — the development of the new 
century we have entered on. 



36 Canadian Alpine Journal 



THE CANADIAN ROCKIES, A FIELD FOR 
AN ALPINE CLUB 



By Arthur O. Wheeler 

The first question is : What constitutes a field for 
an Alpine Club? The second question, and one of 
primary importance, is : Do the Rocky mountains of 
Canada fill the required conditions? 

With reference to the former, it is necessary to trace 
the origin of the word "Alpine." We have the Latin 
word alpes, meaning a high mountain, and said to be 
of Celtic origin. The Irish ailp and its Gaelic equiva- 
lent alp have the same meaning as the Latin. The 
word alp is identical with the word alb, which would 
seem to be synonymous with the word albus, meaning 
zvhitc. We have, therefore, by a process of deduction, 
a meaning for the word alps, of high zvhite mountains, 
or mountains clad with snow, holding stored in their 
recesses more or less extensive bodies of the same 
material. 

An Alpine Club is one that has for its field of opera- 
tions a tract of country fulfilling the above conditions. 
And herein lies the difference between an Alpine and a 
Mountain club : while any mountain tract will supply 
the requirements of the latter, those of the former can 
only be satisfied by a region where there is a permanent 
snow line, above which snow and ice may be found 
throughout the year. 

Do the Rocky mountains of Canada fulfil the re- 
quired conditions? To ascertain this fact, it is only 




Photo, Byron Ilaymun 



A PARTY OF GRADUATES AND GUIDES RETURNED FROM THE 
OFFICIAI, CLIMB OF MT. VICE-PRESIDENT 



Field for Alpine Club 37 

necessary to apply to the Department of the Interior 
at Ottawa for a topographical map of the Rocky or 
Selkirk mountain ranges, or to look up the maps and 
text in "Baedeker's Guide to Canada." 

Better still, pay a visit to the region. It will not be 
necessary to leave the train to obtain a view of vast 
snow-fields and glaciers. If you can spend a few days 
by the way, a trip to some of the alpine, glacier-hung 
valleys will soon convince you; for, in these deep 
recesses, high above timber line, tumbling ice-falls 
break in every direction through openings in the rock- 
battlements and sweep in broken cascades of crystal ice 
to the morainal flats below. Following the path of the 
mountain goat from crag to crag, until sky-line is 
reached, the eye wanders over fields of purest white, 
rolling gently in billowy mounds, broken only by 
islands and reefs of jagged rock. Many of these snow- 
fields are of considerable extent, varying from ten 
square miles in the Illecillewaet, twenty in the Wapta, 
and thirty in the Brazeau, to between one hundred and 
two hundred square miles in the Great Columbian 
snow-field. 

In a new and as yet inadequately mapped country, 
such as Canada, it is impossible to do more than 
approximate the area that may be described as "alpine." 
Roughly speaking, it can be placed at 250,000 square 
miles. This area is embodied by the Cordilleran or 
Rocky Mountain chain, embracing four principal 
ranges of mountains and numerous sub-ranges and 
groups. Enumerating from east to west, we have the 
Rocky Mountain or Main range, the Selkirk range, 
the so-called Gold range, and finally the Coast range, 
lying along the Pacific ocean. 

Each of these ranges has its own distinct charac- 
teristics. In the Main range, the rocks, generally 
speaking, belong to the Paleozoic period, and consist 
for the most part of grey and blue limestones, sand- 



38 Canadian Alpine Journal 

stones, quartzites, slates, shales and conglomerates. 
They have been carved, by the processes of erosion and 
Aveathering, into many and varied styles of architecture, 
rising in such a profusion of fantastic towers, minarets, 
spires and obelisks as to delight the eye of the most 
exacting seekei- after the picturesque. In these lime- 
stone rocks, of the Silurian and Devonian series, are 
seen fossil sea-worms and shells, and other relics of the 
low order of life in a by-gone age. They are found 
even at the very summits of some of the peaks, at an 
altitude of 10,000 feet above the level of the sea — 
their former home. At the other places, beds con- 
taining fossilized species, closely allied to the trilobite, 
are to be found. One of these, on the slopes of Mt. 
Stephen, at an altitude of 7000 feet, has become 
famous. 

In this range, the valleys are wide, owing to the 
susceptibility of the rock formations to the erosive 
power of ice and water. Their sides, clad with bronze- 
green pine and dark blue spruce, sweep upward to open 
parklands, dotted with golden larch; then, to sunny 
alplands, where the ground is soft with a carpet of 
pink heath and white heather and where other alpine 
flowers of rare beauty and brilliance grow. Hidden in 
the recesses of these forests and high aloft, surrounded 
by snow, ice and rock-falls, are lakes of magic hues, 
like quaint jewels in rare old settings; turquoise green, 
in Hector, Bow and Emerald lakes; turquoise blue in 
Peyto lake; transparent emerald in Yoho lake; bright 
cerulean blue in McArthur and Turquoise lakes ; royal 
blue in Lake Louise; even brilliant yellow may occa- 
sionally be seen. It is a land of leaping waterfalls and 
rushing torrents, of fierce sunlight and black shadow, 
of rosy alpen-glow and purple twilight, a land of 
enchantment, where extremes meet ; for it is but a step 
from grim, gaunt and cruel rocks to sunny alps, bril- 
liant with the bloom of rare, exquisite flowers, and 



Field for Alpine Club 39 

teeming with animal life, quaint and uncommon as the 
surroundings. 

The Selkirk range lies west of the Main range. It 
is practically a vast island of rock, ice and snow, insu- 
lated by giant loops of the Columbia and Kootenay 
rivers. The material composing it is of a much older 
and harder formation, consisting chiefly of archaean 
rocks : grey, pink, green and white quartzites, glitter- 
ing mica-schists, argillites and rocks of gneissic 
character. The valleys are narrow, and the mountain 
masses rise swiftly up, their sides scored and seamed 
by giant scaurs. The fantastically carved limestone 
shapes of the Main range are lacking. 

The two most striking features of the range are its 
impenetrably luxuriant forests, filling up the valleys, 
and the immense accumulations of snow and ice stored 
in its mountain recesses, high up among the clouds. 
The former contribute much to the seeker after the 
picturesque in Nature, and the latter are a source of 
joy to the true alpine enthusiast. Both effects are from 
the same cause, viz. : the large amount of precipitation 
deposited in the form of snow, accumulating from 
year's end to year's end until the entire cap of the range 
appears in perspective as an endless succession of snow- 
fields, with precipitous black faces of rock rising at 
intervals from their midst, where the sheer is too steep 
for snow to lie. Nor is this to be wondered at when 
it is considered that the average snowfall at the summit 
of the range is thirty-six feet, with an additional rain- 
fall of thirteen inches ; making in all an annual precipi- 
tation of fifty-seven inches of water. In comparison 
may be mentioned the annual average snowfall of 
about fifteen feet, and annual precipitation of 
about thirty inches, at the summit of the Main range. 

The excessive precipitation in the Selkirks is due to 
the fact that it is the first high range of mountains to 
intercept the moisture-laden clouds borne eastward 



40 Canadian Alpine Journal 

from the Pacific ocean by prevailing winds. The 
decreasing pressure, as this current is deflected upward 
over the range, causes a rapid cooHng of the air and a 
consequent deposit of the large bodies of snow found 
in these mountain fastnesses. 

Where, in the Main range, the slopes are clad with 
pine, spruce and larch, according to altitude, in the 
Selkirk range, Douglas fir, hemlocks, cedar, giant 
spruce and balsam take their place. These forests of 
green, so deep in color as to appear almost black, rise 
grandly to the snows, and often amidst the trees may 
be seen crystal cascades of ice, tumbling in a wild 
confusion of seracs down rocky beds. 

The Selkirk range is remarkable for the number, 
purity and picturesque formation of its glaciers. In 
size they may not compare with the ice-rivers of other 
ranges, but what they lack in size, they more than make 
up in their wonderfully crevassed surfaces and in the 
grotesque seracs that are formed where they break 
over cliffs and rock ledges. Specially beautiful are 
the hanging and confluent glaciers, high up on the 
mountain sides, dropping tons of crystal ice daily to the 
trunk streams below. Splendid examples of these may 
be seen above the Battle glaciers at the head of Battle 
creek, and in the hanging valley of Cougar creek ; also, 
in the Main range the narrow gorge, known as "The 
Death Trap," leading between Mts. Victoria and 
Lefroy to Abbott pass. During the warm summer 
days the roar of ice falling from these upper glaciers 
is incessant. 

The Gold range, situated westward beyond the 
Columbia river on its southern course, resembles the 
Selkirk range, but here the great ice-plough of a by- 
gone age has done more serious work, and the sharp 
peaks and jagged edges of the Selkirks give place, as a 
rule, to rounded domes and elevated plateaus, covered 
most of the year by snow. The rock formation is 



Field for Alpine Club 41 

more purely achaean and consists chiefly of grey 
gneisses, varying from massive to schistose, and highly 
micaceous. 

The Coast range, reaching into the far northland, is 
cut and intersected by many inlets from the sea. These 
inlets are often narrow and enclosed by precipitous 
sides of rock, over which cascades fall hundreds of feet 
to tide-water below. The steeps are clad with forests 
of tropical luxuriance, through which it is only with 
great difficulty a passage can be forced, and giant trees 
of fir, cedar and balsam grow nearly to the summits 
of the mountains. As you proceed northward, the 
timber-covering becomes more scant until, at length, 
it is found only at the bottom of the lower valleys. 

There can be little doubt that the characteristics out- 
lined above, furnish not only a worthy field for an 
alpine organization, but a field of immense magnitude, 
and one that will continually offer something new for 
many years to come. It is true we have not the great 
height of other mountain systems of the world. Mt. 
Blanc, the giant of the European Alps, is 15,780 feet 
above the sea; Mt. Tacoma, in Washington, is 14,526 
feet; Popocatapetl and Orizaba, in Mexico, are 17,500 
and 18,300 feet; Mt. McKinley, in Alaska, is said, by 
a recent explorer, to be 20,300 feet, and the Himalayas 
reach the enormous altitude of 29,000 feet. Against 
all this, except in a few isolated cases — Mt. Logan, 
19,500; Mt. Hubbard, 16,400; Mt. Vancouver, 15,600; 
Mt. Augusta, 14,900, and others in the Yukon Terri- 
tory, with Mt. Robson, 13,700, and Mt. Columbia, 
12,700, in British Columbia, — we can only boast a 
general altitude of 10,000 to 12,000 feet; but, for 
primeval forests, beauty of glaciers and labyrinthine 
organization, the Rockies of Canada cannot be 
surpassed. 

Up to the completion of the Canadian Pacific rail- 
way in 1885, there was no thought of mountaineering 



42 Canadian Alpine Journal 

in Canada. Prior to that date, by one year, attention 
was first called to the claims of the Canadian Rockies 
as a field for alpine work, and the great attractions 
they offered to mountaineers, by the Honorary Presi- 
dent and Patron of our Club, Sir Sandford Fleming, 
K.C.M.G., who had the year before made a journey on 
foot through this rock-bound wilderness, along the 
route it was proposed to lay the rails. In his book, 
"England and Canada, a Summer Tour between Old 
and New Westminster," he frequently refers to the 
massive, snow-clad peaks and crystal ice-falls of the 
Rocky mountains as affording a suitable field for 
mountaineers. 

In 1888 the RoA'al Geographical Society, represented 
by the Rev. William SpotswOod Green* and the Rev. 
Henry Swanzy, made explorations and rough topo- 
graphical surveys in the vicinity of Glacier, near the 
summit of the Selkirk range. They then made the first 
ascent of Mt. Bonney (10,200 feet), at that time an 
arduous two-day climb from Glacier station. As a 
result, Mr. Green's able and instructive book, "Among 
the Selkirk Glaciers," appeared in 1890, giving a 
delightful and humorous description of the range and 
of his climbs and surveys. 

It was in 1890 that the region was visited by repre- 
sentatives of the English and Swiss Alpine Clubs : H. 
W. Topham of the former, and Emil Huber and Carl 
Sulzer of the latter. Both parties realized that, at that 
early date, the most accessible alpine material lay in the 
Selkirks; so they made their headquarters at Glacier 
and, joining forces, accomplished many splendid 
climbs together. 

This year also. Professor Charles E. Fay* of the 
Appalachian Mountain Club of Boston, visited the 
Selkirks and was so impressed with what he saw that 
he not only repeated his visit but brought many others 
* Honorary Member of the Alpine Clul of CanaxJa. 




MOUNT WAPTA FROM YOHO CAMP 



Field for Alpine Club 48 

with him, the result being: first, the formation of an 
Alpine section of the Appalachian Club, and eventually 
the organization of the American Alpine Club, of 
which Professor Fay is now President. From 1890 
on, "Appalachia," the organ of that Club, set forth 
the conquests made by its members in the Canadian 
mountains, and furnishes much instructive and 
interesting reading. 

An account and map of the expeditions of Professor 
A, P. Coleman** and Professor L. B. Stewart of 
Toronto University, accompanied by L. Q. Coleman,** 
to the headwaters of the Athabaska river, by new and 
unmapped routes, will be found in "The Geographical 
Journal" of January, 1895. These trips, made in 1892 
and 1893, resulted in the discovery of Fortress lake, 
lying directly upon the Continental watershed, and in 
the dethroning of Mt. Brown, on the west side of the 
Athabaska pass. The mountain was climbed by Pro- 
fessor Stewart and L. Q. Coleman and the altitude 
fixed, by barometric readings, at 9050 feet instead of 
over 16,000 feet, as it is, even at the present date, 
shown in standard geographies and on published maps. 
At this time, eight peaks over 9000 feet above sea level 
were climbed, and three over 10,000 feet. A later 
expedition in 1903 resulted in the mapping of the 
Brazeau snow-field, never before visited by white men. 

In 1894, W. D. Wilcox, S. H. S. Allen and two 
other young college men visited Lake Louise, of which 
the striking beauty had already been realized to such 
an extent that the Railway Company had built a small 
chalet on its borders to accommodate a few visitors. 
On this occasion, they discovered Paradise valley, 
where the Club will camp during the present summer. 
The explorations then made and, the following year, 
to the headwaters of the Bow river, resulted in Mr. 
Wilcox's artistic and beautifully illustrated book, 
** Active Member of the Alpine Club of Canada. 



44 Canadian Alpine Journal 

"Camping in the Canadian Rockies,' which has since 
been ampHfied and brought up to date as the author 
pushed his investigations farther afield, both north 
and south, accompanied in the latter direction by 
Henry G. Bryant of the Philadelphia Geographical 
Society. 

The late Jean Habel of Berlin, a noted explorer and 
enthusiastic mountaineer, explored the Yoho valley in 
1897, and it was due to his representations that it first 
attained notoriety. Again, in 1901, he travelled to 
the headwaters of the Athabaska river, visited Fortress 
lake, and gazed upon the mighty Mt. Columbia, which 
he designated in his records as "Gamma." 

Subsequently, we have records of explorations and 
first climbs, in 1897, 1898, 1900 and 1902, by Dr. J. 
Norman Collie,* Hugh E. M. Stutfield, G. P. Baker 
and Hermann Woolley in the mountaineer's paradise 
on the north side of the Blaeberry river, along whose 
banks lay the old Howse pass route of early fur- 
trading days. These have been embodied in a splendid 
book : "Climbs and Explorations in the Canadian 
Rockies," written jointly by Mr. Stutfield and Dr. 
Collie. Accompanying the book is the only existing 
detail map of the region. 

In 1 90 1, and following years, came Mr. Edward 
Whymper* with four Swiss guides. The same year, 
the Rev. James Outram captured Mt. Assiniboine, and, 
in 1902, he made his big killing in the north country, 
first explored by Collie, Stutfield, Woolley, and Baker. 
Mts. Columbia, Bryce, Lyall, Alexandra and many 
others succumbed to his attacks, a truly wonderful 
mountaineering record for one summer. Mr. Outram 
has set forth his achievements in a well-written and 
charmingly descriptive book, entitled, "In the Heart 
of the Canadian Rockies." 



* Honorary Member of the Alpine Club of Canada. 



Field for Alpine Club 45 

Each year two or three travellers penetrate into the 
wilderness of snow-clad peaks and rushing glacier- 
torrents, described in the works named, and some 
publish accounts of their impressions, but they follow 
only the beaten paths of the pioneers and see the sights 
they have seen. 

Minor explorations have been made of valleys and 
passes opening from the main routes along the Bow 
and Saskatchewan headwaters by members of the 
Appalachian Mountain Club, among whom may be 
named: C. S. Thompson, G. M. Weed, Rev. H. P. 
Nichols, C. L. Noyes, and H. C. Parker;* also, at 
the sources of the Beaverfoot river by J. H. Scatter- 
good. Accounts of these investigations will be found 
in the various numbers of Appalachia appearing since 
1890. There are but two deviations from the beaten 
line of travel that have given us mapped results : Collie 
and Stutfield's exploration of the Bush river and 
vicinity, on the western side of the Main range, and 
Wilcox and Bryant's expedition to the headwaters of 
the Kananaskis river. 

Notwithstanding the large amount of information 
contained in the books referred to, our absolute know- 
ledge of Alpine Canada is confined to a strip of little 
more than ten miles on either side of the Canadian 
Pacific railway, possibly some five or six thousand 
square miles, and what may be seen by travelling the 
paths cut by Collie, Stutfield, Baker, Wilcox and a few 
others. The books published all cover, practically, the 
same ground, with the exception of the trips up the 
Bush river and to the Kananaskis headwaters. The 
region lying between the Columbia river on the west, 
the Blaeberry on the south, and the Saskatchewan on 
the east, is unknown territory except to the pioneers 
who have published its fame The only map we have 
of it is the one accompanying Dr. Collie's book, and 
* Life member of the Alpine Club of Canada. 



46 Canadian Alpine Journal 

that is admittedly a "sketch map." This field alone, 
embracing from 20,000 to 25,000 square miles, the 
finest alpine country of the entire Continent, is suffi- 
cient to supply an alpine club with work, both 
scientific and athletic, for many years to come. In the 
Selkirks, north of Mt. Rogers and south of Mt. Purity, 
lie unknown tracts, with peaks, towers, pyramids and 
pinnacles, rising from wide snow-fields, that are 
unknown, unnamed, and unmapped, and have only 
been seen from Selkirk summits near the railway and 
from the more distant Rockies. 

The Dominion Government is steadily pushing its 
topographical surveys into the unknown terrtiory, but 
these surveys are slow and costly and some adequate 
return must be in sight before they can be undertaken. 

The books, etc., published by the authors named 
have attracted a great many people to the region, and, 
to meet the demand, the Canadian Pacific Railway 
Company have erected a number of hotels at beauty- 
spots along the line, which have been enlarged and 
modernized, until now the acme of luxury may be 
found in the heart of these wilds, where the many 
forces of Nature that contribute so largely to a 
civilized world are seen at work. 

A list of the publishers of the accounts of the 
expeditions named above will be sent on application to 
the writer. It is strongly recommended that each 
members of the Club study these writings and thus 
obtain such elementary knowledge of our alpine tracts 
as at present exists, with a view to increasing that 
knowledge by making more extended explorations into 
the partly known districts, and organizing methods for 
reaching the parts that are quite unknown. 




ICE CAVES ON THE VICE-PRESIDENT'GI^ACIER 




THE AI^PINE CLUB'S WAR CORRESPONDENT 



First Club Camp 47 



CANADA'S FIRST ALPINE CLUB CAMP 



By Frank Yeigh 

The wayfaring globe-trotter who chanced to reach 
Field station, on the Canadian Pacific railway, on the 
evening of July 8th, 1906, must have wondered at the 
scene of excitement and activity revealed in that spa- 
cious hostelry. For undoubtedly excited the groups of 
fellow-travellers were, and with rare good cause, for 
were we not the lucky folk privileged to be present at 
the christening of the Alpine Club of Canada, on the 
occasion of its first annual camp in the Rocky moun- 
tains. Tenderfeet and old-timers alike were equally 
seized with a delicious fever of expectation. From 
England, from the United States, and from many 
corners of Canada the alpinists-in-embryo had thus 
foregathered at this appointed rendezvous under the 
shadow of Mt. Stephen, the grim old King of the 
Rockies. Some were armed with ice-axes and alpen- 
stocks — and umbrellas, and all were laden with 
impedimenta, the wonderful contents of which were 
not revealed till the next morning, when the actual 
start was made by the actual members of an actually 
formed Alpine Club for Canada! 

No wonder we were excited! For once in our 
blessed lives we all saw the sun rise and flood the 
awesome canyon of the Kicking Horse as the dark 
shadows of the night were dispelled. Soon after sun- 
up the thin long line of amateurs, with Excelsior 
written on face and in eye, crossed the bridge over 
the Kicking-Horse and took to the road that leads 
through a silent forest aisle to Emerald lake. That 
seven-mile path through the trees, with a snow- 



48 Canadian Alpine Journal 



enshrined peak closing the view at either end, stirred 
every heart and led to an exaltation of spirit and 
buoyancy of life that never left us. Most of the 
campers were first trampers over this bit of road, a 
few following in the comfortable carriages or perched 
aloft on the commisariat wagons. Striking to a degree 
were the costumes worn by the mountain invaders, 
and while not so stylish as an Easter day parade at 
Atlantic City, there was more variety; yes, one may 
safely assert, infinitely more variety. 

So we were really off at last ! The months of antici- 
pation had ended, the days of realizing delight had 
come as we trudged off the first few miles. Why an 
Alpine camp? may be asked. A clause of the Consti- 
tution reads, and when a Constitution speaks let all 
listen : "A summer camp in some suitable part of the 
mountain regions shall be organized in each year for 
the purpose of ennabling graduating members to 
qualify for active membership, and the members 
generally to meet together for study in the alpine 
districts of Canada." 

It was no small task to plan such a camp, to be 
placed on a summit 6000 feet above the sea, and at a 
distance of nearly a score of miles from the nearest 
railway station. It was an even greater task to 
provide at such an inaccessible spot for a hundred 
people and to carry thereto on pack ponies the thirty 
or forty tents, with necessary equipment and provi- 
sions. The Club, moreover, was at the time only four 
months old, having been organized in Winnipeg in the 
previous March. Never before had a camp on such a 
large scale been attempted, especially by such a 
youthful organization. The project was, therefore, a 
somewhat daring one and was made possible of 
successful achievement by a strong union of forces on 
the part of governments, railway companies and indi- 
viduals. This unity of action was brought into play 



First Club Camp 49 

not as a mere whim or from any selfish motive, but in 
a spirit of patriotism worthy of all praise and emula- 
tion. The Dominion Government contributed assist- 
ance to the value of $500, the Alberta Government 
contributed $250, private subscriptions amounted to 
$170, and four of the principal mountain guides and 
outfitters gave their services and the services of their 
men, horses and outfits free of charge, to make the 
first camp a success. These men are : R. E. Campbell 
of Laggan and Field, Martin and Otto (now Otto 
Bros.) of Field, Leanchoil and Golden, E. C. Barnes of 
Banff, and S. H. Baker of Glacier. All honor is due 
them, for they cannot well afford to curtail the profits 
of their short seasons. The Canadian Pacific Railway 
Company was no whit behind. It loaned the Club two 
Swiss guides for the week of the Camp, loaned tents, 
canopies and other outfit, and placed its cooks in the 
Company's Yoho camps at the disposal of the Club. 
Tents also were loaned by the Royal North-West 
Mounted Police at Calgary and Banff, and bunting by 
the Superintendent of the Rocky Mountains Parks. 
Taken all round, the greatest interest and enthusiasm 
was shown, not only in the formation of the Club itself, 
but in the organization of its first camp. 

Let us return to the straggling procession of Alpin- 
ists as they round up at the Emerald Lake Chalet. The 
world yet awaits the heaven-gifted artist of brush or 
pen who will transmit to canvas or paper the transcen- 
dent beauty of this mountain lake nestling so peacefully 
at the base of mighty Mt. Burgess — 

"a. lofty precipice in front, 
A silent tarn below." 

It was at Emerald lake that the real part of the first 
day's work began, involving the traverse of the broad 
glacial delta on its northern shore and the ascent of the 
steep cliff wall that appeared to bar all further 



50 Canadian Alpine Journal 

progress, and yet that had to be negotiated if the 
Camp was to be reached before nightfall. It was a 
case of fun and work combined, and fun and work 
make a fine team when well mated. The ceremony of 
initiation into mountain work was here observed. 
First came the passage of an endless number of streams 
flowing from the Emerald glacier, thousands of feet 
higher. Pioneering the first section of the party was 
the Rev. Dr. Herdman, of Calgary, who proved him- 
self to be a born mountaineer. Those who followed 
him as a vanguard had many lively experiences in 
negotiating the mad little rivers, for the log bridges 
had been swept away as the waters rapidly rose under 
the influence of the summer sun upon the glacier. Soon 
all traces of earlier trails were lost as search was made 
for suitable fords, until at last the pack ponies were 
requisitioned as bridges to carry the pilgrims over 
safely. 

After the delta, the deluge, as a storm broke over 
us, giving the invaders of the hills their first, but not 
their last, nature bath. After the delta and the deluge, 
the initial bit of stiff up-grade climbing, of nearly a 
thousand feet, tested strength and breath. The rest 
cure soon became popular, and while the second wind 
was whistled for, entrancing glimpses were had of the 
lake valley, of the enclosing ranks of peaks, and, 
nearer at hand, of the massive buttresses of Mt. Vice- 
President, carrying on their granite slopes tumultuous 
floods of milk-white waters to the lake reservoir of 
emerald hue. A dense forest of spruce succeeded the 
stiff climb ; wherein, for the time, the wonder-world of 
summits was obscured, but wherein another wonder- 
world of Nature unfolded itself in flower and fern and 
forest growth, of heath and heather. Painter's Brush 
and Yellow Columbine, of Anemones, Gailardias, and 
many another botanical specimen, making brilliant the 
floor of this Forest of Arden. 



First Club Camp 51 

At last, the summit of Yoho pass! At last, that 
striking picture of a tented town nestling amid the 
realm of trees ! You remember it, do you not, fellow- 
camper? the white canvas homes for a brief day amid 
avenues of greenery, under a sky of blue, with grey 
old Wapta and Michael's mount standing sentinel, 
three thousand feet higher still. You remember, do 
you not? — as if we could ever forget — the incompar- 
able scene beside the incomparable Yoho lake, holding 
in its translucent waters all the emerald and amethyst 
shades in Nature's color box. You recall the wel- 
coming camp fire of huge dimensions, and the yet 
more welcome aroma of THINGS TO EAT as 
cooked by that cheerful Celestial, Jim Bong, otherwise 
known as Ping-Pong. May his fat shade never grow 
less. 

The Camp, made gay with banners and flags and 
bunting of many colors, was divided into three sec- 
tions : Residence Park, Official Square, and the horse 
paddock. The arrangements were perfect to a detail, 
thanks to the forethought and hard work on the part 
of the President, Mr. Arthur O. Wheeler, and his 
efficient staff. The dining tent accommodated one 
hundred, where meals were served from early morn 
till late night. A bulletin board kept the members 
acquainted with the daily programmes. In the centre 
of the Square the big fire burned unceasingly, bright- 
ening up for the evening hours, when it was 
surrounded by as many fire worshippers as there were 
occupants of the tents, and where were heard more 
Demosthenian eloquence and oratory, more jokes and 
quips and antique chestnuts, and more accomplished 
entertainers than ever gathered on a mountain summit 
before. It is a pity the Journal cannot hold within its 
pages all that was said and sung and done around that 
cheerful camp fire. 

But we were in Camp Yoho for the express purpose 



52 Canadian Alpine Journal 

of going farther and climbing higher than even the 
6000 feet altitude of the Camp site. Thus there were 
daily exploring and climbing trips in all directions. 
The mountain selected for the official climb is known 
as "The Vice-President," so called by Mr. Edward 
Whymper, of Matterhorn fame, in honor of the Vice- 
Presidency of the Canadian Pacific railway. Its 
altitude is 10,050 feet. The peak was selected on 
account of the varied phases of mountaineering 
presented. 

The first official climb was made on Tuesday, July 
loth, the party leaving the camp at 5.30 a.m. and 
arriving at the summit of the Vice-President at 11.30 
a.m. The return was made in three and a 
half hours. Two ladies then graduated, viz. : 
Miss K. McLennan, of Toronto, and Miss E. 
B. Hobbs, of Revelstoke. Official ascents were 
made on the four following days, but the one 
named made the record time, i.e., ascent and return in 
nine and a half hours. In all forty-four members 
graduated, of whom fifteen were ladies. Not one 
graduating member who attempted the climb failed. 
Do not think, because there were no failures, the climb 
was an easy one. Not so! It is a peak presenting 
many difficulties and some danger. The average time 
of ascent was seven hours and of descent three and a 
half hours, making altogether an average climb of ten 
and a half hours — a pretty fair test and initiation for 
those who were, for the most part, absolute novices. 
It goes to show that right here in Canada we have the 
very best of mountaineering material, and it only needs 
a little fostering care to develop to the fullest extent 
this latent talent. 

There were a number of other mountains climbed, 
eight in all, not counting Michael's mount, which was 
taken en route for the Vice-President. The two highest 
were Mt. Collie and the President, both over 10,000 




HiolOy F. IV. Free do I >i 



MOUNT VICE-PKESIUKNT— THE OFFICIAL CLOIB 




/'''-•-, / 11 / 



RESIDENCE TAKK— YOHO CAMP 



First Club Camp 53 

feet. The climb of Mt. Collie was made by J. D. 
Patterson of Woodstock, under the auspices of the 
Club. He was accompanied by the Swiss guide, Gott- 
fried Feuz. Curiously enough, the mountain was 
ascended on the same day by a lady member of the 
Club, but one who was not visiting at the Camp, by a 
different route, and the two climbers met on the summit 
of the peak. The lady was Miss Henrietta L. Tuzo, 
of Warlingham, England. Of the others, Mt. Wapta 
seemed to be the favorite, ascents having been made of 
it by four separate parties, by two different routes. 
The other mountains ascended were : Mt. Burgess — 
though one of the lowest, one of the most difficult 
climbs, — Mt. Field, Mt. Marpole, and the peak lying 
between it and Mt. McMullen, both as far as known, 
virgin ascents. The unnamed peak was christened 
"Amgadamo." 

Bordering the palisades of the Vice-President for a 
mile or more is the Emerald glacier, and to the Emer- 
ald glacier the Club campers made their way in 
detachments. It proved to be not the least delightful 
of the series of excursions, as for the majority it was 
their first experience in ice climbing. Again, variety 
marked every mile of the way. Again, entrancing 
vistas of distant peaks were unfolded at many a turn 
in the switchback trail, and with each higher altitude 
gained, the panorama grew in vastness and magnifi- 
cence. Nature never duplicates her canvases, especially 
amid the mountains. 

Crossing in part the same route as that covered by 
the Upper Yoho trail to Inspiration point, with its 
superb and dramatic picture of the Takakkaw falls on 
the far side of the valley, a turn to the left was made 
by the guide in order to reach the foot of the ice-sheet 
whose gleaming edges hung suspended far above us. 
A stiff bit of ascent over a boulder-strewn incline gave 
each one unexpected surprise practise in baseball 



54 Canadian Alpine Journal 

catching, as descending rocks were caught and hurled 
aside in order to prevent a rock-sHde. 

Rounding a tickhsh corner of rock-wall and crossing 
a noisy little stream, rejoicing in its escape from the 
ice caverns, the snow line was reached and a snow- 
balling match was indulged in to celebrate the summer 
day event. And while it was under way, what would 
have been a shower in the valley became a sleet storm 
up aloft, at the elevation of 8000 feet above the sea, 
the wind driving the frozen sand-like flakes with 
stinging effect against our faces. But the sunshine 
soon returned with its grateful warmth, and with it a 
revival of spirits and a quickened pace up the ice-steps 
cut for us by our leader. At last, the main icefield was 
reached, with its miniature mountains of ice known 
as seracs, its deep chasms and moulins, and its under- 
surface streams making their way to lower levels. On 
either side gaping crevasses reached to unknown 
depths, the wonderful coloring of their green-blue 
walls fascinating the eye while they terrified the mind 
at the thought of what a misstep might result in. An 
occasional halt enabled the alpen-stock travellers once 
more to revel in a sweeping vision of our giant hills, 
where 

"Hills peep o'er hills, and Alps on Alps arise." 

Then there was the two-day trip up the floor of the 
Yoho valley and back by its upper trail. That experi- 
ence was worth the whole journey to the scene, no 
matter from what far-away distance. One stood 
entranced amid the scenic grandeur : the wonderful 
coloring, the titanic peaks guarding the vale, and the 
distant views of other alpine giants. The beholder 
rejoiced in such a revelation of Nature, he rejoiced in 
the freedom of the open, in the chance to breathe the 
pure air of the hills, in the rare opportunity of living 
among the Kings of the Cordilleran range. We had 
sped across Gk)d's plains to reach the Rockies, now we 





OUR BIVOl'ACS OX THE YOHO TRAII, 



First Cluh Camp 55 

were living amid God's hills. In the silent watches of 
the night, when we camped near the Laughing falls, 
God's stars seemed to hover nearer than ever before, 
and on every hand were God's rivers and cascades and 
forests and glacial streams and icefields capping the 
summits. 

''I to the hills will lift mine eyes." Often rang out 
the words of the grand old psalm, as hillward and 
mountainward the eyes of all were instinctively lifted 
in solemn worship and in admiring praise. A fit temple 
in which to worship the Creator of this and all worlds 
was the Yoho. 

It was a rare day in summer when we thus mean- 
dered over the alluring trail, past the Takakkaw falls 
— Canada's highest Niagara — past the Laughing falls 
and the Twin falls, and many another no less beautiful, 
to the great Yoho glacier at the uppper end of the 
valley, with its giant caverns, showing strangely blue 
and green, and from the throats of which the streams 
had their birth that later made the Yoho river. I would 
like the space to tell of that night in the Yoho around 
our camp fire, of the tales told by Jack Otto — honest 
Jack Otto, — of the bear stories that fell from his lips 
till the sight or sound of a fat old porcupine made us 
believe we were face to face with a grizzly! I could 
fill a book, if it were not too bulky, with all that might 
be recorded of the Yoho tramp, up and down this 
Yosemite of Canada, and of the charming upper trail 
journey homeward, when from lofty platforms of rock 
we saw the entire fifteen-mile valley lying below us as 
in a picture, bordered by the Cathedral spires on the 
south and the Yoho glacier on the north. 

In the matter of Science, work was begun by placing 
a row of metal plates across the ice tongue of the Yoho 
glacier to mark its rate of flow down its bed. Rocks 
also were marked to show the advance or retreat of the 
ice. This year, further observations will be made, and 



56 Canadian Alpine Jotirnal 

the several movements ascertained. A full account of 
the operations carried out vv^ill be found in these pages. 

Financially, the camp proved a success, and after all 
expenses were paid there was a sufficient sum in hand 
to partially reimburse the outfitters for their gratuitous 
outlay, and, even then, a small balance was paid in to 
the funds of the Club. This was made possible by the 
great enthusiasm that prevailed throughout, leading to 
a generosity on the part of the visitors that was most 
pleasing and encouraging, and fully repaid those who 
had spent much time and labor in making preparation 
for the event. 

The great success of the camp was almost wholly 
due to the skill, energy and business-like determination 
of the outfitters — the men in buckskin — who started 
out to make the camp a success and did so. No whit 
behind were the ladies present, all of whom gave the 
heartiest assistance in all matters wherein feminine 
skill is most required — in helping the cook, decorating 
and waiting on the tables, and generally making them- 
selves charming around the camp fire. Much wit and 
artistic talent were displayed to help make the evenings 
pass pleasantly, and particularly, in this respect, are 
the thanks of the assembly due to Miss Edna Suther- 
land of Winnipeg. 

The camp broke up on the i6th of July, but two 
more days were required to pack up and remove the 
outfit. Some few stayed until the last moment. When 
returning home, many reached Mt. Stephen House by 
way of the Burgess pass trail. 

In all, the camp was designed for one hundred 
persons, but one hundred and twelve attended, and the 
arrangements were such that one hundred and fifty 
might as easily have been accommodated. 

Throughout the entire gathering, there was a har- 
mony, a hail-fellow-well-met feeling, an unexpressed 
but very apparent resolve by each individual to have 



First Club Camp 57 

the time of their Hves, that resulted in a most pleasur- 
able and instructive outing, proving clearly that, not 
only has Canada the material to create a first-class 
Alpine Club, but has the proper people ready and 
willing to take advantage of the opportunity offered 
by such a Club to learn something of and thoroughly 
enjoy the grand mountain regions that are the heritage 
of each and every Canadian. One of the richest assets 
of the Dominion are her mountains, and the Alpine 
Club of Canada hopes to have a share in enabling the 
Canadian people to realize upon the asset. 



58 Canadian Alpine Journal 



HOW WE CLIMBED CASCADE 



By Ralph Connor 

Just beyond the Gap lies Banff, the capital of the 
Canadian National Park, a park unexcelled in all the 
world for grandeur and diversified beauty of mountain 
scenery. The main street of Banff runs south to 
Sulphur mountain, modest, kindly and pine-clad, and 
north to Cascade, sheer, rocky and bare, its great base 
thrust into the pine forest, its head into the clouds. 
Day after day the Cascade gazed in steadfast calm 
upon the changing scenes of the valley below. The old 
grey face rudely scarred from its age-long conflict with 
the elements, looked down in silent challenge upon the 
pigmy ephemeral dwellers of the village at its feet. 
There was something overpoweringly majestic in the 
utter immobility of that ten thousand feet of ancient 
age-old rock; something almost irritating in its calm 
challenge to all else than its mighty self. 

It was this calm challenge, too calm for contempt, 
that moved the Professor to utter himself somewhat 
impatiently one day, flinging the gauntlet, so to speak, 
into that stony, immovable face : "We'll stand on your 
head some day, old man." And so we did, and after 
the following manner. 

We were the Professor, by virtue of his being peda- 
gogue to the town, slight, wiry, with delicate taste for 
humor; the Lady from Montreal, who, slight as she 
was and dainty, had conquered Mt. Blanc not long 
before; the Lady from Winnipeg, literary in taste, 
artistic in temperament, invincible of spirit; the Man 
from California, strong, solid and steady; the Lady 



Hozv We Climbed Cascade 59 

from Banff, wholesome, kindly, cheery, worthy to be 
the mother of the three most beautiful babes in all the 
Park and far beyond it; and the Missionary. 

It was a Thursday afternoon in early September of 
'91, golden and glowing in smoky purple hues, a day 
for the open prairie or for the shadowy woods, ac- 
cording to your choice. Into a democrat we packed 
our stuff, provisions for a week, so it seemed, a tent 
with all necessary camp appurtenances, and started up 
the valley of the little Forty Mile creek that brawled 
its stony way from the back of the Cascade. We were 
minded to go by the creek till we should get on to the 
back of old Cascade, from which we could climb up 
upon his head. Across the intervening stretch of 
prairie, then through the open timber in the full golden 
glory of the September sun, and then into the thicker 
pines, where we lost the sunlight, we made our way, 
dodging trees, crashing through thickets, climbing 
over boulder masses, till at last the Professor, our 
intrepid driver, declared that it would be safer to take 
our team no further. And knowing him, we concluded 
that advance must be absolutely impossible. We de- 
cided to make this our camp. 

To me a camp anywhere and in any weather is good, 
so that it be on dry ground and within sight, and 
better within sound, of water. But this camp of ours 
possessed all the charms that delight the souls of all 
true campers. In the midst of trees, tall pines between 
whose points the stars looked down, within touch of 
the mountains and within sound of the brawling Forty 
Mile creek and the moaning pines. By the time the 
camp was pitched, the pine beds made and supper 
cooked, darkness had fallen. With appetites sharp- 
ened to the danger point, we fell upon the supper and 
then reclined upon couches of pine, the envy of the 
immortal gods. With no one to order us to bed, we 
yarned and sang, indifferent to the passing of the night 



60 Canadian Alpine Journal 

or to the tasks of the morrow, while the stars slowly 
swung over our heads. 

At last the camp was still. Down the canyon came 
the long-drawn howl of a wolf, once and again, and 
we were asleep; the long day and the soothing night 
proving too much for the shuddering delight of that 
long, weird, gruesome sound. We turned over in our 
sleep and woke. It was morning. The Professor had 
already "fixed" the horses and was lighting the break- 
fast fire. Unhappily, we possessed the remnants of 
conscience which refused to lie down, and though the 
sun had given as yet no hint of arriving, we persuaded 
ourselves that it was day. A solid breakfast, prayers, 
and we stood ready for the climb, greener at our work 
than the very greenest of the young pines that stood 
about us, but with fine jaunty courage of the young 
recruit marching to his first campaign. 

An expert mountain-climber, glancing down the 
line, would have absolutely refused to move from the 
tent door. With the exception of the Lady from 
Montreal, who had done Mt. Blanc, not one of us had 
ever climbed anything more imposing than Little 
Tunnel, one thousand feet high. While as to equip- 
ment, we hadn't any, not even an alpenstock between 
the lot of us. As for the ladies, they appeared to carry 
their full quota of flimsy skirts and petticoats, while 
on their feet they wore their second-best kid boots. It 
was truly a case of fools rushing in where angels pause. 
Without trail, without guide, but knowing that the top 
was up there somewhere, we set out, water-bottles and 
brandy-flasks — in case of accident — and lunch baskets 
slung at the belts of the male members of the party, 
the sole shred of mountaineering outfit being the trunk 
of a sapling in the hand of each ambitious climber. 

As we struck out from camp, the sun was tipping 
the highest pines far up on the mountain side to the 
west. Cascade mountain has a sheer face, but a long, 



Hoiv Wc Climbed Cascade 61 

sloping back. It was our purpose to get upon that back 
with all speed. So, for a mile or more, we followed 
the main direction of the valley, gradually bearing to 
our right and thus emerging from the thicker forest 
into the open. When we considered that we had gone 
far enough up the valley, we turned sharply to our 
right and began to climb, finding the slope quite easy 
and the going fairly good. We had all day before us, 
and we had no intention of making our excursion 
anything but an enjoyment. Therefore, any ambition 
to force the pace on the part of any member was 
sternly frowned down. 

By lo o'clock we had got clear of the trees and had 
begun to see more clearly our direction. But more, we 
began to realize somewhat more clearly the magnitude 
of our enterprise. The back of this old Cascade proved 
to be longer than that bestowed upon most things that 
have backs, and the lack of equipment was begin- 
ning to tell. The ladies of our party were already a 
grotesquely solemn warning that petticoats and flimsy 
skirts are not for mountain climbers. And it was with 
some considerable concern that we made the further 
discovery that kid boots are better for drawing-rooms. 
But in spite of shredded skirts and fraying boots, our 
ladies faced the slope with not even the faintest sign 
of fainting hearts. 

An hour more, and we began to get views ; views 
so wonderful as to make even the ladies forget their 
fluttering skirts and clogging petticoats and fast disin- 
tegrating boots. But now we bagan to have a choice 
of directions. We had never imagined there could be 
so many paths apparetly all leading to the mountain 
top, but we discovered that what had appeared to be an 
unbroken slope, was gashed by numerous deep gorges 
that forbade passage, and ever and again we were 
forced to double on our course and make long detours 
about these gulches. In the presence of one unuually 



62 Canadian Alpine Journal 

long, we determined that it was time for our second 
breakfast, to which we sat down, wondering whether 
there had ever been a first. A short rest, and we found 
ourselves with our stock of water sadly diminished, but 
our stock of courage and enthusiasm high as ever, and 
once more we set out for the peak whose location we 
began to guess at, but of whose distance away we could 
form no idea. 

By noon the Professor announced, after a careful 
estimate of distances, that we were more than half way 
there, and that in an hour's time we should halt for 
lunch, which double announcement spurred those of 
the party who had been showing signs of weariness to 
a last heroic spurt. It was difficult to persuade any 
member of the party as we sat waiting for the baskets 
to be opened, that we had had one breakfast that morn- 
ing, not to speak of two. After lunch the Professor 
declared that, having been brought up on a farm, he had 
been accustomed to a noon spell, and must have one. 
Being the least fatigued, or the most unwilling to 
acknowledge fatigue, this suggestion of a noon spell 
he could afford to make. So, stretched upon the 
broken rocks, we lay disposed at various angles, snug- 
gled down into the soft spots of the old bony back. We 
slept for a full half-hour, and woke, so wonderful is 
this upper air, fresh and vigorous as in the morning. 
We packed our stuff, passed around our water-bottles, 
now, alas! almost empty, tied up the bleeding right 
foot of the Lady from Winnipeg with a portion of the 
fluttering skirt-remnants of the Lady from Montreal, 
seized our saplings, and once more faced the summit. 

Far oft* a slight ledge appeared directly across our 
path. Should we make a detour to avoid it? Or was 
it surmountable? The Professor, supported by the 
majority of the party, decided for a detour to the left. 
The Missionary, supported by the Lady from Winni- 
peg, decided that the frontal attack was possible. In 



Hozv We Climbed Cascade 63 

half an hour, however, he found himself hanging to 
that ledge by his toe-nails and finger-tips, looking down 
into a gully full of what appeared to be stone, in alpine 
vocabulary scree, and sliding out into space at an angle 
of forty-five degrees or less, and the summit still far 
above him. Hanging there, there flashed across his 
mind for a moment the problem as to how the party 
could secure his mangled remains, and having secured 
them, how they could transport them down this moun- 
tain side. He decided that in the present situation his 
alpenstock added little to his safety and could well be 
dispensed with. As it clattered down upon the broken 
rocks far below, he found himself making a rapid cal- 
culation as to the depth of the drop and its effect upon 
the human frame. Before reaching a conclusion, he 
had begun edging his way backward, making the dis- 
covery that all mountain-climbers sooner or later make, 
that it is easier to follow your fingers with your toes, 
than your toes with your fingers. The descent accom- 
plished, the Missionary with his loyal following reluc- 
tantly proceeded to follow the rest of the party, who 
had by this time gone round the head of the gulch, or 
the couloir in expert phrasing, and were some distance 
in advance. A stern chase is a long chase, and almost 
always disheartening. But in this case the advance 
guard were merciful, and, sitting down to enjoy the 
view, waited for the pursuing party to make up. 

It is now late in the afternoon, and a council of war 
is held to decide whether, with all the return journey 
before us, it is safe to still attempt the peak. We have 
no experience in descending mountains, and, therefore, 
we cannot calculate the time required. The trail to 
the camp is quite unknown to us, and there is always 
the possibility of accident. Besides, while the climbing 
is not excessivel}'' steep, the going has become very 
difficult, for the slope is now one mass of scree, so that 
the whole face of the mountain moves with every step. 



64 Canadian Alpine Journal 

Still, the peak is very perceptibly nearer, and the party 
has endured already so much that it is exceedingly loath 
to accept defeat. Then, too, the atmosphere has be- 
come so rare, that the climbing is hard on the wind, as 
the Professor says. The ladies, despite shredded skirts 
and torn shoes, however, are keen to advance, and 
without waiting for further parley, gallantly strike out 
for the peak. It is decided to climb for an hour. So 
up we go, slipping, scrambling, panting, straining ever 
toward the peak. We have no time for views, though 
they are entrancing enough to almost make us content 
with what we have achieved. For an hour and then 
for half an hour, the ladies still in advance, we struggle 
upward. The climbing is now over snow and often 
upon hands and knees, but the scree is gone and the 
rock, where there is no snow, is solid. 

At length the Professor demands a halt. In spite of 
desperate attempts at concealment, various members of 
the party are flying flags of distress. We are still 
several hundred yards from the coveted summit, but 
the rose tints upon the great ranges that sweep around 
are deepening to purple and the shadows lie thick in 
the valleys. If we only knew about the descent, we 
might risk another three-quarters of an hour. The 
ladies begin to share the anxiety of the men, knowing 
full well that it is they who constitute the serious ele- 
ment in the situation. With bitter reluctance they 
finally decide that they will not ask the men to assume 
any greater responsibility than they already bear. It 
is agreed that the men shall make a half-hour dash for 
the summit, while the ladies await their return. Strip- 
ping themselves of all incumbrances, the Professor and 
the Missionary make a final attempt to achieve the 
peak, the Californian gallantly offering to remain with 
the ladies. After a breathless, strenuous half-hour, the 
Professor, with the Missionary at his side, has fulfilled 
his threat and accomplished his proud boast. Breath- 



How We Climbed Cascade 65 

less but triumphant, we are standing upon the head of 
the old Cascade. 

We dare only take a few minutes to gaze about us, 
but these are enough to make indelible the picture 
before us. Down at our feet the wide valley of the Bow 
with its winding river, then range on range of snow- 
streaked mountains, with here and there mighty peaks 
rising high and white against the deep blue. One giant, 
whose head towers far above all his fellows, arrests 
the eye. There he stands in solitary grandeur. Not 
till years after do we learn that this is the mighty 
Assiniboine. But there are no words to paint these 
peaks. They are worth climbing to see, and once seen 
they are worth remembering. I close my eyes any 
day, and before me is spread out the vision of these 
sweeping ranges jutting up into all sorts of angles, and 
above them, lonely and white, the solitary sentinel, 
Assiniboine. 

Without a word, we look our fill and turn to the 
descent. A hundred yards or more and we come upon 
our party who, with a reckless ambition, have been 
climbing after us. But the whole back of the Cascade 
lies now in shadow, and, though half an hour will do 
it, we dare not encourage them to take the risk. The 
party has been successful, though individuals have 
failed. And with this comfort in our hearts and with 
no small anxiety as to what awaits us, we set off down 
the slope. It is much easier than we have anticipated 
until we strike the scree. Here, for the first few steps, 
we proceed with great caution, but after a short time, 
becoming accustomed to have the whole mountain slip 
with us, we abandon ourselves to the exhilaration of 
toboganning upon the skidding masses of broken rock ; 
and touching here and there the high spots, as the 
Professor says, we make the descent with seven- 
leagued boots till we reach the timber. It is here we 
meet our first accident for the day. The Lady from 

5 



66 Canadian Alpine Journal 

Winnipeg has the misfortune to turn her ankle. But 
there is no lack of bandages in the party. In fact, by 
this time the ladies' skirts consist chiefly of bandages, 
so that with foot well swathed, and stopping now and 
then for repairs to the ladies' boots, slipping, sliding, 
stumbling, leaping, we finally, in a more or less bat- 
tered condition, arrive at camp. The indomitable 
Professor, aided by the Missionary and the Man from 
California, set about supper. But long ere it is ready 
the rest of the party are sound asleep. They are merci- 
lessly dragged forth, however, to the refreshment of 
tea, toast and bacon, for which they are none too 
grateful, and after which they drop back upon their 
pine beds into dreamless sleep. 

It takes us a full week, the greater part of it spent 
in bed, to realize that mountain-climbing, sans guides, 
sans mountaineering boots, plus petticoats, is a pastime 
for angels perhaps, but not for fools. 

On the upper part of the mountain, the Professor 
and I were greatly excited over what appeared to be 
the fossil remains of a prehistoric monster, and if its 
jawbone had not weighed several hundred pounds — 
the backbone must have weighed several tons — we 
would have carried it down as a present to the Museum. 
We left them behind us, and they are there to this 
day for some anthropologist to see. 



Camping in the Rockies 67 



CAMPING IN THE CANADIAN ROCKIES 



By Mary M. Vaux 

We may take Laggan as a starting point, as more 
good trips are available from there than from any 
other point in the mountains. The trip may be either 
long or short, varying from a day's ride to Moraine 
lake or Paradise valley, a three-day excursion to Lake 
O'Hara and Mc Arthur lake, to a week or more as far 
as the Pipestone pass, returning by the Bow. On any 
of these trips, it is well to make an elastic arrangement, 
so that one can stay a day or two longer than the actual 
time required ; for there is much delight in a quiet day 
in camp, when you do not have to do your twelve miles 
on foot, or your fifteen miles on horseback, and can 
sleep as long in the morning as you wish, get acquaint- 
ed with the flowers and birds, and enjoy the delights of 
a quiet walk; where there is really time to receive 
deep mental impressions. 

For a four-days' trip, there is no place more delight- 
ful than Lake O'Hara — a lovely clear sheet of water, 
filtered through the rock slide at its head. Its banks 
are carpeted with flowers ; in front are seen, in succes- 
sion, Mts. Biddle, Hungabee, Yukness, Lefroy, Vic- 
toria, Huber, and Wiwaxy peaks, while behind come 
Cathedral, Stephen and Oderay; so that one is almost 
bewildered by the number and grandeur of them all. 
Then, a short walk of three miles brings you to Lake 
McArthur, a true alpine lake, with glaciers from the 
slopes of Mt. Biddle breaking off in miniature icebergs; 
and where the grassy moss-grown slopes are a favorite 
feeding ground of the mountain goat. Their beds and 



68 Canadian Alpine Journal 

rolling places are frequently seen; and the noise of 
falling rocks, as they climb to a point of vantage, aids 
you in discerning their retreating forms. 

By following the stream that feeds Lake O'Hara, a 
beautiful chain of lakes is discovered, with cascades 
and waterfalls between, ending in Lake Oesa, whose 
surface is only melted for a very few weeks at mid- 
summer. Or, if one wishes a still higher climb, one 
can venture across Abbot pass (9000 feet above sea) 
and down the Victoria glacier to Lake Louise. But 
this is only safe with an experienced Swiss guide, as 
the pass is frequently traversed by avalanches on its 
northern side. Unfortunately, there are no fish in any 
of these waters, although it is stated that the lakes are 
well provided with trout-food. 

From Hector station to Lake O'Hara it is about ten 
miles, over a good trail. The earlier miles are marred 
by burnt timber, but the lake and its surroundings well 
repay any discomfort of this part of the way. In addi- 
tion, several other short excursions can be made to 
advantage, and a little exploring done on one's own 
account. 

Now as to appliances and outfit: To begin with, a 
good tent is required, plenty of warm blankets, and a 
canvas sheet to spread under and over the blankets on 
the bough-bed, to prevent dampness from above and 
below ; then, a small pillow is a great luxury, and takes 
but little room in the pack. Of course, it is pre- 
supposed that the women of the party wear rational 
clothes : knickerbockers, a flannel shirtwaist, and knot- 
ted kerchief at the neck; stout boots, with hobnails, 
laced to the knee, or arranged for puttees; woollen 
stockings, a felt hat with moderate brim, and a sweater 
or short coat completing the outfit. A light waterproof 
coat, opened well behind, to allow it to part over the 
horse's back, and which may be fastened to the saddle, 
is very necessary in a region where storms must be 



Camping in the Rockies 69 

expected frequently. Each person should be provided 
with a canvas bag, which can be securely buttoned, 
wherein to place the necessary toilet articles. An extra 
pair of light shoes, a short skirt to wear in camp and 
a golf cape with hood, add greatly to the comfort of 
the camper; also a good-sized piece of mosquito 
netting, to keep off intruding bulldogs, if you wish to 
rest in the tent in the heat of the mid-day sun ; while a 
hot water bottle and a box of mustard may be tucked 
in along with a few simple medicines in case of emer- 
gency. On two occasions I would have given a great 
deal for a mustard plaster, and on a third occasion it 
was of great value. 

The food taken is largely a matter for personal selec- 
tion. We have eliminated canned things very largely, 
and find the change to dried foods not at all distasteful 
— of course, with the proviso that they are properly 
cooked. Bacon, ham, tea, coffee, evaporated cream, 
butter, oatmeal, rice, beans, flour, canned tomatoes, 
canned soup, onions, potatoes, pickles, marmalade, 
cheese and dried fruits can be so prepared that, with 
hunger sauce, there is nothing left to be desired in the 
way of a larger bill of fare. Trout and game are 
always a welcome addition to the larder. Cakes of 
chocolate and raisins may be added to the list, when it 
is desirable to have something in the pocket on a day's 
climb, and the return to camp is uncertain. In all 
preparations it must be remembered that the altitude 
at which we camp is considerable, and that a necessary 
attribute towards a good time is to be warm and com- 
fortable at night, when the thermometer may probably 
fall to 28^, and there will be ice along the brook-sides, 
in the morning. Then, do not forget the cold dip in 
the mountain stream, as the crowning luxury of all. 

A camera is a very delightful adjunct, for it is 
pleasant to have some tangible results to show, on your 
return home. A kodak, if no larger instrument can be 



70 Canadian Alpine Journal 

managed, yields most satisfactory results, although the 
better records from a larger-sized camera are an 
increased delight, when one has the patience and skill 
to obtain them. For changing plates in camp, an im- 
provised tepee can be made of the blankets, and, if this 
is done after sundown, is quite satisfactory. We have 
never known plates to be fogged by the operation. Cut 
films are more convenient than glass plates, as they are 
so much lighter and not subject to breakage, although 
not so easily handled. The actinic properties of the 
light are very great and care must be used to avoid 
over-exposure. It is very desirable to develope the 
plates as soon as possible, for in this way you can more 
readily understand the conditions and change the expo- 
sures to suit. We have found medium plates better 
than the quick ones, especially with a rapid lens. Tele- 
photo work has not been very satisfactory, as on high 
places the wind is so great that it is not possible to 
obtain a sharp picture, with the unsteady condition of 
the camera, when the long draw is in use. We have 
also found that panoramas, made with the ordinary 
camera, give a better idea of extended views than can 
be had by any other method. The panoram cameras, 
as a rule, distort so much that they are useless when 
great heights and depths are to be rendered. 

Then, when you return to civilization, you will have 
many happy memories, and the "call of the wild" will 
so enter your blood, that you will count the days till 
you can again be free among the everlasting hills. 



Mountaineering Section. 



72 Canadian Alpine Journal 



THE ASCENT OF MT. GOODSIR 



By Charles E. Fay 

I well remember how deeply I was impressed at the 
time of my first visit to the Canadian Alps in 1890 by 
the sight of the superb Ottertail range, as the east- 
bound train approached the old bridge over the creek 
of that name, and the peculiarly alpine features of the 
range were revealed, with the portentous towers of Mt. 
Goodsir looming in the distant background. Though 
we had just passed a glorious day at Glacier House 
and had revelled in the grandeur that the intervening 
journey offers in so rich measure, this seemed the 
fitting climax. Little did I suspect that I was to return 
to these scenes again and again, that I was even 
destined to be of the first party to scale the frowning, 
glacier-crowned rampart dividing the Ottertail from 
the Ice River valley, to tread the virgin snows of the 
summit of Mt. Vaux, and to have the alternate experi- 
ences of failure and success in assaulting the highest 
peak of the monarch of them all. 

At that time the name of Goodsir was, to be sure, 
on the Palliser map, but it was not yet generally recog- 
nized as belonging to the mass that now bears this 
name. Indeed, it is more than doubtful whether Dr. 
Hector intended to apply it here, and not rather to 
some peak of the Bow range.* In the first photograph 
of it that I saw on sale in those early years, the massif 
was entitled "The Beaverfoot Mountains." In his 



See Appalachia, vol. xi, p. 131. 



Ascent of Mt. Goodsir 73 

report to the Minister of the Interior for 1887, Mr. 
McArthur, of the Topographical Survey, mentions its 
triad of summits as the "Three Sister Peaks," and then 
says : "The Three Peaks,' as I have named them, are 
the highest that are estabhshed by my survey, the 
western one towering 11,000 feet above the sea." 
Later measurements have not diminished its relative 
height, but have accorded it an altitude of 11,676 feet, 
making it thus the highest of the Canadian peaks south 
of the line of the railway, or indeed north of it until 
one reaches the great peaks near the sources of the 
Athabaska. 

Little wonder, then, that it made an early appeal to 
the alpine instinct growing stronger in me with each 
new visit to that inspiring region. But it was not 
until the year 1901 that an opportunity offered to make 
a real assault upon it. Kind Fortune gave me as com- 
panions two men of utterly different mould, yet 
pleasantly complementing one another — the Rev. James 
Outram and Mr. J. H. Scattergood — both athletes of 
the intellectual type, both accustomed to physical con- 
quests, one twenty, the other thirty years my junior — 
but for that glorious week we were all of one age. It 
joined to us as our guide the honest, kind and trust- 
worthy Christian Hasler, under whose leadership 
Professor Parker and I had already, two years before, 
scaled Mt. Dawson. 

Our main camp was to be established in Ice River 
valley, and around to it we sent Ross Peecock by way 
of the Beaverfoot valley. This was as yet traversed 
by nothing more definite than an old Indian trail, but 
almost immediately was to furnish ready access to Ice 
river by a good wagon road. The troubles Scatter- 
good had endured there, the year before, he has 
narrated in Appalachia.* We ourselves were to leave 
the railway at the bridge over Ottertail creek and make 

* Vol. ix, p. 289/ 



74 Canadian Alpine Journal 

our way to a bivouac at timber-line at the high sources 
of Haskins creek, just below a promising looking cleft 
at the rear of Mt. Hurd. From here we hoped, with 
an early start, to find a lead up to the ice-field that 
covers the broad eastern slope of Mt. Vaux, to scale 
its virgin summit, and thence to find our way down to 
the Ice river by the glaciers sweeping southward. And 
all this, with numerous other unexpected details, we 
accomplished with perfect success, turning up at our 
camp in the late afternoon of our second day. 

Up to that time, as far as I am aware, none but 
prospectors had visited this upper portion of the Ice 
River valley. Our camp was at the southern edge of a 
large meadowy glade of perhaps ten acres in extent, 
possibly a mile and a half above the junction of the 
stream from Zinc gulch and the main stream. It was 
a beautiful pastoral picture, with the pack horses 
browsing in the plentiful herbage — the more striking 
from its wild surroundings and the news that a grizzly 
bear had accorded but a surly welcome to Ross on his 
arrival a few hours before. Studying his plantigrade 
tracks in the gravel of the river bed, photographing the 
unfamiliar aspect of the Chancellor and other leading 
features of the picture, and refreshing ourselves in 
general idleness from the somewhat strenuous labors 
of the day before, we passed the forenoon, and soon 
after our simple dinner we set forth for the high 
bivouac from which we should make our attack on 
Goodsir the following day. To reach it, we followed 
a short distance down the valley, then up the eastern 
sloping path of an avalanche, overgrown with rank 
hellibore — a torrid stretch, — then over the crest of this 
ridge and across the torrent-washed rubble of the 
ravine from which spring the two great towers. 

At about 7000 feet and at the very base of a spur 
from the southern, higher peak, near to a refreshing 
rill, we found two gnarled firs with ample tops, promis- 



Ascent of Mt. Goodsir 75 

ing a tolerable shelter in case of a sudden shower, and 
under these we spread our blankets with good hope 
for the morrow. The sun set clear, the stars gleamed 
with joyous brightness, and with such omens we saw 
ourselves already the victors over the untamed monster 
at whose feet we dared to lie so serenely. But "man 
proposes." 

At crisp daylight we were astir, and after a formal 
breakfast set out at a good pace over the lower flanks 
of the first ridge south of our bivouac. The evidences of 
the earlier presence of the gold-hunter were about us ; 
indeed we had been fully twenty minutes under way 
before we passed the last trace of such a visitation, a 
claim-stake with the name of the prospector and the 
bounds of his claim. We merely gave it a sidelong 
glance in passing, for it seeed to have been tacitly 
agreed that no one of the three should first call a halt, 
so that it was fully an hour before we made our first 
stop, and then for the purpose of putting on the rope 
at the beginning of the first real climbing. Still it had 
not been severe, save as a test of lung power. 

Considerable snow lay at the base of the rocks we 
skirted, and unfortunately it was soft and little prom- 
ising. At about 10,000 feet, not far, if I remember, 
above where one ridge joins another striking more to 
the south, we paused for our second breakfast. Things, 
were now growing more interesting. A superb pros- 
pect had opened over the western ridge of the Ice 
River valley to the gleaming snows of the limitless line 
of the Selkirks, and near at hand were the forbidding 
crags and cornices of our own peak. Just above us rose 
the snowy shoulder over which we were to pass, and 
from that rose a steep cliff seen in all our reconnais- 
sances, which was apparently the chief obstacle in the 
way of our success. 

Again getting under way, we soon were upon that 
shoulder, and anon making our way under most tick- 



76 Canadian Alpine Journal 

lish conditions to the base of the hindering cliff. A 
narrow arete of several rods in length connected it with 
the snow shoulder, and this arete was itself ominously 
corniced, and with snow in a most treacherous state. 
Seldom have I seen Hasler so trepidant, so insistent 
that the ice-axes should be so planted as not to serve as 
levers to start a crack that would imperil the entire 
party, should the cornice fall; but, in good time, we 
were standing at the base of the cliff. 

On either side of us, steep couloirs swept down 
thousands of feet; before us rose this beetling face of 
dark rock, with little snow-patches here and there re- 
vealing possible stations, between which only cracks 
and slight protuberances offered scanty holds for foot 
and hand. Hasler led off and attained the first 
anchorage; then Scattergood boldly followed. My 
turn came next, and I remember having some doubts 
as to the entire safety of the sport of alpinism for the 
next few minutes ; indeed, for the next half hour. On 
my reaching the anchorage, the same tactics were 
repeated by the first two, after which Outram came up 
to my level, and I then went forward. Our third 
station brought us to the top of the cliff — and to the 
end of our ascent. 

A most ominous situation revealed itself. The final 
peak was before us, and its summit hardly three hun- 
dred feet distant — a great white hissing mass, — a 
precipice on the hidden left side, a steep snowslope of 
perhaps 65 to 70 degrees on the right. Under the July 
sun its whole surface was seemingly in a state of flux, 
slipping, over the underlying mass with a constant, 
threatening hiss. A second narrow arete led across 
to this final summit. This, too, was corniced, and in a 
remarkable way. The swirl of the wind had produced 
an unusual spectacle. At the beginning and at the end, 
the cornice hung out to the right; in the middle, a re- 
versed section of it overhung the abyss on the left. 




THE SUMMIT OF MOUNT GOODSIR 
South TowERiliffl 




js 




THE NORTH GABLE OK THE SOUTH T()\V1;R 
Mount CiooDsiR 



Ascent of Mt. Goodsir 77 

The two similar ones could doubtless have been passed. 
To cross the middle of the section meant trusting our- 
selves to the sun-beaten slope already in avalanching 
condition. Indeed, while we studied it, and as if to 
furnish the final argument to our debate, the snow on 
our right impinging against the cornice, well back upon 
which Hasler was standing, broke away, and down 
went a well-developed avalanche a couple of thousand 
feet over that much-tilted surface, and vanished in a 
sheer plunge that landed it perhaps three thousand feet 
below that. It was a suggestive and persuasive sight. 
Feeling sure that we had seen enough for one day, we 
beat a careful retreat. With even greater caution we 
descended the cliff in reversed order, and, with well- 
justified trepidation, returned over the treacherous 
arete to the snowy shoulder. Never did I feel less 
certain of the safe outcome of a climb, or breathe more 
freely on leaving snow, surely the worst condition in 
which it was ever my fortune to meet it. We glissaded 
down the lower greasy snows, made good time below 
our bivouac, and dusk found us with colossal appetites 
back at the lower camp and Ross's bannocks. And so, 
repulsed, we turned our back on the sullen mountain, 
yet harboring intentions of getting even with it on 
some future occasion. 

None offered the following year, but, in 1903, my 
friend Parker, just back at Field from an unsuccessful 
try at Goodsir with the two Kaufmanns as guides, 
wrote me of their discomfiture by reason of a heavy 
snowfall encountered at about 10,000 feet, invited me 
to hurry out from the East and join him in another 
attempt, as soon as the melting of the snow would 
permit. No urging was necessary. I came with all 
haste, and at once we were under way, with Christian 
Kaufmann and Hasler as guides. We were encamped 
well into the Ice River valley by six o'clock of the day 
on which we left Leanchoil at noon; such was our 



78 Canadian Alpine Journal 

eagerness, and such the quick access by the new wagon 
road. The following day we moved our camp up into 
Zinc gulch; starting in summer heat and meeting a 
chill blast with snow squalls as we arrived at our 
chosen camping spot shortly after noon. This camp 
was almost at the identical height of the bivouac of 
1 90 1, but south of the great peak. Dubious weather 
conditions prevailed for the rest of the day; but we 
turned in early with good hopes for the morrow, which 
were dashed about two o'clock by Kaufmann's report 
that it was snowing. Morning revealed a picture more 
appropriate to Christmas than to mid- July. The ever- 
greens were bearing wintry loads of wet srhow, and the 
grey sky gave little promise of good weather. In any 
event, Goodsir was secure from assault for the present ; 
for how long it was impossible to say. Many inches 
must have fallen higher up, and, of course, prudence 
counselled awaiting its disappearance. We had come 
relying on steady atmospheric conditions, intending to 
make quick work of it, and so were scantily furnished 
with supplies. Fortunately, Nixon, our outfitter, had 
come along with us on his handsome grey, rather for 
an outing than for business. After a brief council, he 
was despatched back to Leanchoil to send up supplies 
for a prolonged siege. It was now or never. 

As the day wore on, the sun came out, and to our 
great relief, we saw the clinging snows on the peak 
diminish hour by hour, as we studied it in a practice- 
climb to the col joining "Little Goodsir" — the third 
"Sister" — to Zinc mountain, whose crags rose above 
our camp on the south. It was soaring just above these 
that the waning moon looked down on our party on 
the following morning — July i6th — as we prepared 
our breakfast. By the first good daylight we were 
under way. The first hour was similar to that of our 
climb of two years before, and led us up to our roping 
place on that occasion. In general, our course from 



mk 




Photo. H. C. Parkti 

THE SWISS GUIDES CHRISTIAN AND HANS KAUEMANN, 
WHO ACCOMPANIED PROFESSOR H. C. PARKER 

On the Summit of Mount Hungabee 




Photo, Chas. E. Fay 



THE NORTH TOWER UH MuL-NT GOODS) K 



Ascent of Mt. Goodsir 79 

here to the chff was identical with that of the former 
trip, but, to our great satisfaction, the snow was in 
perfect condition, and so remained the entire day. 
Accordingly, we made sufficiently good time, with the 
same stops as before. The arete from the shoulder to 
the base of the cliff was now child's play. The cliff 
was the same old story, though I recall one variants — 
the hand and foot holds on one occasion lost their grip 
on the man passing between the first two anchorages, 
and left him for a moment in a state of what might 
be called "suspended animation." Arriving at the top, 
all was changed from the conditions of 1901. The 
broken arete was indeed under a draping of recent 
snow, but no cornice was in evidence. It was "plain 
sailing" — and yet very interesting, for the arete was 
so narrow and thin that one astride it could have his 
left leg vertical over a sheer drop, at first indeed over- 
hanging, of hundreds if not thousands of feet, while its 
mate pointed down that 70° slope of snow, as silent 
now as it was noisy in 1901. At eleven o'clock we 
were on the summit — Goodsir was ours. The repulse 
of two years before was forgotten, and our affections 
went out to the graceful peak, no longer a sullen mon- 
ster, and, for the joys of that one glorious hour spent 
on its pure snowy summit, we granted it our love for 
a lifetime. 



80 Canadian Alpine Journal 



THE ASCENT OF MT. HUNGABEE 



By Herschel C. Parker 

On August 3rd, 1897, it was my good fortune to be 
a member of the party that made the first ascent of Mt. 
Lefroy. 

During this trip, from Abbot pass and the summit 
of Lefroy, we gained splendid views of the grim cliffs 
and lofty summit of. the great "Chieftain." I think 
some of the party must have felt, even at this time, a 
strong desire to conquer so fine a peak. 

I made a rapid trip through the Canadian mountains 
in the summer of 1899, but had little opportunity for 
climbing. Through the courtesy of my friend, Profes- 
sor Fay, however, I was able to join him in the first 
ascent of Mt. Dawson. When I returned to the Cana- 
dian Alps in the summer of 1903, prepared for serious 
climbing, I found that four of the most notable peaks 
remained unclimbed : Mts. Hungabee, Deltaform, 
Goodsir, and Biddle. 

After the "Conquest of Mt. Goodsir"' on July i6th, 
I returned to Lake Louise, and with Christian and 
Hans Kaufmann prepared for an attack on Mt. Hunga- 
bee. It may be remembered that Mr. Thompson and 
Mr. Weed, with Hans Kaufmann as guide, had made a 
gallant attempt on the mountain some time before this, 
but when near the summit the climbing became so diffi- 
cult that they were compelled to turn back. For a 
long time, and from many points of view. Christian 
told me he had carefully studied the mountain and 
decided on what should be the exact route of ascent. 
While the lower portion of this route probably pre- 
sented considerably greater difficulties than the one 



Ascent of Mt. Hungahee 81 

previously attempted, it appeared to offer a good 
chance of attaining the final summit. I think, in giving 
a short account of the climb, I can scracely do better 
than quote from an article I wrote for "Appalachia" 
a short time after the trip was made. 

On the morning of July 20th, with a week's provi- 
sions, silk tent, and mountaineering equipment, we 
made a rather late start from Lake Louise. A pack- 
horse carried most of our "impedimenta" as far as 
Moraine lake. Here, assuming the heaviest of packs, 
we proceeded slowly up the Valley of the Ten Peaks, 
and, crossing the high pass between Neptuak and 
Hungabee, made a rapid descent to Prospector's valley, 
where we arrived in good time to make camp. 

Leaving camp next morning at 3.50, we made our 
way up Prospector's valley to within about a quarter 
of a mile of the Opabin pass, whence, taking to an 
arete, we had a fairly easy and interesting climb of 
possibly two thousand feet. At this point further 
progress was barred by a wall of vertical cliffs. Direct- 
ly in our path this rocky battlement was broken by a 
narrow icy couloir and a much narrower chimney 
filled with ice. After inspecting the couloir. Christian 
decided that the chimney would be the safer means of 
ascent, and so, after seeing that Hans and I were in as 
secure positions as the circumstances would permit, 
and with directions not to move from our places close 
against the rock, he disappeared around an angle and 
commenced the perilous climb. 

It was only by watching the rope that Hans and I 
could judge the progress Christian was making above 
us. For minutes at a time, it seemed, the rope would 
be motionless, then inch by inch it would slowly disap- 
pear up the chimney, and the crash of falling rocks and 
ice would warn us that we must cling even more closely 
and find what protection we could beneath the rocky 
wall. 



82 Canadian Alpine Journal 

At last Christian gave the signal that I was to 
follow, first cautioning me most earnestly not to knock 
any rocks down on his brother Hans, for a slight mis- 
hap to any member of the party in a position like ours 
might mean a catastrophe for all. A short space of 
breathless effort, a strong pull on the rope from Chris- 
tian, and I stood by his side at the top of the chimney. 
Then, slowly and carefully, Hans made his way up 
and joined us. 

Above us we could see a smooth, steep slope leading 
to the final summit arete. This slope consisted of 
snow, covering treacherous rock, but, thus early in the 
morning and while in shadow, it was in fine condition, 
and we made our way easily to the great shoulder of 
the mountain just under the final peak and almost over- 
hanging Paradise valley. On this shoulder, a second 
breakfast was eaten, and we anxiously studied the 
route that we must follow. The summit was only a 
few hundred feet above us, but the arete, broken by 
vertical cliffs at this point, was impossible to scale. We 
had only one alternative left, to make an exciting tra- 
verse over a tremendously steep snow-slope at the base 
of these cliffs, and so reach the final cone. 

We did not discuss the possible dangers of such a 
course, but cautiously made our way beneath the cliffs, 
turned a most sensational corner almost in mid-air 
above Paradise valley, and then scaled a nearly per- 
pendicular cliff by means of a convenient crack. We 
were now on the arete but a very short distance from 
the summit. Only one more difficulty confronted us : 
a narrow "gabel," or break in the arete, only a few feet 
in width, it is true, but with a nearly sheer descent of 
thousands of feet on either side. This gabel must be 
crossed to reach the summit. The arete was far too 
narrow to allow a jump being made with safety; so, 
slowly and carefully, while firmly grasping the rock on 
one side. Christian thrust his feet forward until they 



en g 





Ascent of Mt. Hungabee 83 

touched the other and his body bridged the chasm; 
then a strong forward swing, and he stood safely be- 
yond the gap. For me, aided by the rope, the matter 
was far less difficult, and soon we made our way over 
the intervening arete, gained the corniced summit, and 
Hungabee, the grim old "Chieftain," at last was 
conquered. 

It was now 10.40 a.m., almost exactly seven hours 
since we left camp, and Christian warned us that we 
should not stay long, on account of the dangerous 
snow-slopes we must cross on our return. Hans wished 
me, however, to determine the altitude by means of 
the hypsometer, so I "boiled a thermometer," a pro- 
ceeding which, on account of the high wind, consumed 
some time, so that it was nearly an hour later when 
we were finally ready to start downward. We reached 
the point where we had halted for breakfast, without 
difficulty, but from here down the hot sun beating on 
the snow was fast changing it to the consistency of 
slush, which threatened to avalanche at any moment. 
We crossed this safely, however, and arrived at the 
rocky shoulder just above the chimney. It seemed to 
me hardly more than three minutes after we had left 
the snow-slope before a portion of it, including almost 
our very footsteps, slid downward and disappeared 
over the cliffs below us. 

The descent of the chimney was not an inviting 
proposition, for the condition had entirely changed 
since morning, and it was now spouting water. We 
did not hesitate long, but descended as rapidly as pos- 
sible and soon emerged at the other end, somewhat wet 
but very happy, for now our difficulties were at an end. 
From here the way was comparatively easy, and camp 
was reached about six o'clock, after a most enter- 
taining and glorious day. 

The difficulties of any expedition, no matter how 
serious, always appear to diminish with the years 



84 Canadian Alpine Journal 

through which we look back at them, and so, at the 
present time, I cannot accurately estimate the quality 
of this climb. Under certain conditions, for example : 
if the "chimney" should be free from ice and the slopes 
above from snow, two of the greatest difficulties would 
certainly be removed. It seems to me, however, that 
the ascent of Mt. Hungabee can never prove to be an 
easy one, and that it will always be found a most 
interesting climb for the expert mountaineer. 



Ascent of Mf. Ball 85 

THE ASCENT OF MT. BALL 



By John D. Patterson 

It came about in this way : 

On the 31st of May, 1904, journeying from Calgary 
to Glacier, in the hope of spending an idle day or two 
under the hospitable roof of Glacier House, and while 
the train was making its usual twenty-minute stop at 
Field, I had the good fortune to see in an eddy of the 
crowd which was swirling restlessly along the station 
platform, the bronzed, cheery faces of those sturdy 
Swiss mountaineers and guides, the Kaufmanns — 
Christian and Hans. 

My resolution to spend but two days in the moun- 
ts in^ and to do no climbing so early in the season, was 
not proof against the call of the Rockies that came with 
the warm hand clasps of those friends of the previous 
summer, and "Is the snow in good condition?" seemed 
under the circumstances, the only possible greeting. 

That the snow was not "good" did not matter, when 
Hans, following my inquiring gaze to the top of the 
mountain in the shadow of which Field is so comfort- 
ably tucked away, said that we might try Mt. Stephen. 
Five minutes later my bags, recovered from various 
parts of the train, were being carried to a room in the 
Mt. Stephen House. 

In the evening of the following day, content in the 
successful ascent of Stephen, our conversation naturally 
turned to the mountains, and to a discussion of the 
virgin peaks within easy reach of the railroad. Mt. 
Ball and the north tower of Mt. Goodsir were, in the 
estimation of the guides, best worth attempting, and 
of these two, Christian, doubtless influenced, good 
sportsman that he was, by the memory of his defeat 



86 Canadian Alpine Journal 

when, with Mr. Edward Whymper's party, three years 
previously, an unsuccessful effort had been made to 
reach the summit of Mt. Ball, declared it to be the 
better mountain. 

All this could have, of course, but one ending. The 
journey to Glacier was abandoned, and before the 
afternoon of June 2nd was far advanced, a little pack 
train of four horses was on the trail from Banff to 
Castle Mountain station, where, alighting from the 
train early next monring, we found it awaiting our 
arrival. 

While the packs were being adjusted, the guides 
found a man — Joe Smith — to ferry them over the 
Bow river, and at once started off, agreeing to meet 
the ponies on the trail not far from the mouth of Little 
Vermilion creek. This proved a fortunate arrange- 
ment, for the water at the ford was so deep that the 
horses had to swim, and on account of the swift cur- 
rent they could carry only light packs. Two crossings 
had to be made before our small amount of impedi- 
menta, the packer and myself were safely landed on 
the opposite bank. 

The trail to Vermilion pass lay along the north side 
of Little Vermilion creek, and was frequently inter- 
sected by timber roads leading to the camps long ago 
deserted, though doubtless busy enough in the days 
when ties and bridge timbers were being secured for 
the construction of the railway. 

A bridge in fair repair, about five miles from its 
mouth, made easy the crossing of the turbulent creek. 
Between the bridge and the pass we followed the shore 
of a little lake which, our packer assured us, could 
always be relied upon to yield a fair basket of trout. 

A good deal of snow was encountered in the pass, 
and the ponies which had not been halted for a midday 
feed and rest, gave evidence that the work was telling 
on them. Once well over the summit, however, the 



Ascent of Mt. Ball 87 

trail was better; the two miles to Mr. Whymper's 
former camping ground was quickly negotiated, and 
free of their packs, the tired animals were soon quietly 
feeding in the abundant grasses at the foot of the slide 
opposite the camp. 

It was now four o'clock; eight hours had been 
required to cover the ten or twelve miles that lay 
between us and the railroad. 

The trail over which we came had an ^special inter- 
est, as we realized that we were following the footsteps 
of Sir James Hector, then Dr. Hector, who had given 
to Mt. Ball its name, when in 1858, with the Palliser 
expedition, he had crossed the Vermilion pass on his 
way to the Kootenay. 

Reluctantly enough, we turned out of our blankets 
at two o'clock on the morning of Juae 4th, and at three 
precisely, in the uncertain light, we commenced our 
climb. The way led through timber, thick at first, but 
gradually becoming more open as we made our way 
upwards. This forest had apparently never been 
burned over, and everywhere the ground, the fallen 
trees and the rocks were deeply covered with thick 
mosses. 

The guides, yesterday so cheerful and talkative, 
were now as silent almost as the trees about us. 
Earnest work was ahead, and it was delightful to 
observe their keen eyes noting every fragment of the 
mountains appearing through the open spaces. No one 
had ever gone that way. Landmarks might be valu- 
able before the day was done. 

An hour or more had gone, when at timber-line a 
low rock wall, easily surmounted, brought us well upon 
the buttress at the west flank of Mt. Ball. The ledge 
upon which we landed was wide, but covered with 
scree to an extent that made the going slow, and when 
the slope was at all pronounced, somewhat uncom- 
fortable. 



88 Canadian Alpine Journal 

About nine o'clock we rested for a few minutes, and 
shortly afterwards came to a snow-field from which 
w^e had a good view of Storm mountain, and could see 
the route taken by Mr. Whymper in 1901. From this 
point we kept to the arete, and had some interesting 
rock work because of the loose snow, which made it 
impossible often to ascertain the condition of the rocks 
in which we were seeking to establish hand and foot- 
holds. At eleven o'clock, upon leaving a small table, 
from which w^e enjoyed extended views to the north- 
east and south-west, we found a col lying between it 
and the mass of the mountain crowned by the summit 
— our goal, — and owing to the treacherous condition 
of the snow, the very crest of this col, sharp as it was, 
had to be followed. Fortunately it was not more than 
forty feet across, for even with the confidence which 
the rope inspired, it was far from pleasant with such 
uncertain footing, either to look down upon the pre- 
cipitous snow-field to the one side, or at the short and 
hardly less steep slide terminating at the edge of a 
perpendicular rock wall, on the other. From this point 
the ascent was more rapid, and no further difficulty 
was experienced until we arrived at the edge of a snow- 
field leading to a saddle about 150 feet below the 
summit. From the earnest conversation of the guides, 
held in their own language, which I did not under- 
stand, it was evident they feared that the snow might 
avalanche if an attempt were made to cross it. Conse- 
quently, we kept close to the wall marking the western 
edge of this field, and by clinging to projections from 
the rock and cutting steps in the bergschrund when 
opportunity offered, we climbed the steepest part of 
the slope and then quickly made our way to the saddle. 

Upon rounding a bastion at the point where we 
came to the edge of the snow-field, just referred to, it 
was evident that we should succeed in getting to the 
top, but from the saddle itself we had our first view of 




MOUNT BAI,Iv FROM STORM MOUNT 




■■^m- 







THE WAPTA ICEFIELD-MOUNT COI,LIE IN DISTANCE 



Ascent of Mt. Ball 89 

the actual summit, which too evidently was upon the 
cornice overhanging the northerly face of the moun- 
tain. The extent of the overhang and the probable 
security of the huge cornice were carefully noted, and 
as soon as the final climb up the rounded side of the 
snow-field lying above us was made, we were happily 
congratulating one another upon having accomplished 
the first ascent of Mt. Ball. Before venturing upon 
the cornice, I left my place in the middle of the rope 
and had an end made fast to me to enable the guides 
to anchor as far back as possible, while upon hands 
and knees to guard against breaking through the crust, 
I made my way to the actual crest of the mountain, 
10,825 feet. It was then 12 135 o'clock, or nine hours 
and thirty-five minutes since we left camp. The 
weather was clear and we were favored with good 
views of the peaks in the surrounding ranges. 

The conformation of Hungabee, and especially of 
Deltaform, made them easily distinguishable among 
the Ten Peaks. In the direction of Mt. Assiniboine 
the atmosphere was comparatively thick, and we did 
not have a satisfactory view of that splendid mountain. 
As there were no stones at the top, we built a cairn at 
a point where the rock outcropped on the saddle just 
below, and then, luncheon finished, we spent a consid- 
erable time in looking at the interesting crevasses in 
the glacier lying under the north face of the mountain 
and in examining the massive cornice overhanging the 
glacier on the mountain top. A suggestion of this 
most interesting feature may be had through a refer- 
ence to the accompanying photograph, taken in con- 
nection with his topographical work, and kindly 
supplied by Arthur O. Wheeler, F.R.G.S., etc. 

We arrived in camp again at about six o'clock, 
having made the descent without noteworthy incident, 
in five hours. 



90 Canadian Alpine Journal 



THE ASCENT OF MT. ASSINIBOINE 



By Gertrude E. Benham 

We — that is, Christian and Hans Kaufmann (Swiss 
guides) and myself — left Laggan at 9 a.m. on August 
1st and travelled on No. 96 as far as Banff, where Bill 
Peyto, who was outfitting our party, met us and 
escorted us up to his house, to wait while the final 
arrangements were being completed. About noon the 
cavalcade started, our party consisting of Christian, 
Hans and myself, Jimmy Wood and Jesse Trot, pack- 
ers, and seven horses — Jimmy riding on Pet, Peyto's 
beautiful mare, who was accompanied by her little foal 
Baby; Jesse on Toby; Grey, for my use; the guides 
taking it in turns to ride Wilcox, while Cree, Pinto 
and Buckskin carried the packs. I walked for the first 
four or five miles, much to Jimmy's astonishment, and 
he kept inquiring about every half mile if I was not 
tired, but at last I was obliged to mount, to cross a 
creek. Soon after four o'clock, we reached the place 
where our first camp was to be, and which is generally 
known as Porcupine camp, though that name might 
apply equally well to any other place where I have 
camped in the Rockies, as porcupines abound every- 
where. Christian and Hans put up the tents and cut 
boughs for our beds, while Jimmy unsaddled and hob- 
bled the horses, and Jesse made a fire and fetched water 
in preparation for our evening meal. This over, and 
everything washed and tidied up, we sat and rested 
for a while before retiring to bed, the men enjoying 
their pipes, while I knitted. We fastened the tents well 
down, all round, with logs and stones, to prevent the 



Ascent of Mt. Assinihoine 91 

porcupines coming in. It was a good thing we did so, 
as I heard them walking round several times during 
the night, their quills scratching against the canvas. 
They and the gophers are very destructive, especially 
to leather, and we had always to be very careful to 
leave nothing out at night where they could get at it. 
The next morning we were up at five o'clock, as 
breaking up camp, fetching and packing the horses, 
etc., usually takes some time, to say nothing of cooking 
and eating breakfast, and it was generally eight o'clock 
before we got started on our day's march. The first 
part of our second day's journey was through pine 
forests, where, however, there was a good trail, though 
somewhat steep in places. We climbed up to Simp- 
son's pass, and about eleven o'clock reached a wide, 
grassy plateau surrounded by hills with patches of 
snow here and there. About mid-day we made a short 
halt for lunch, but did not stop to unsaddle the horses, 
as we wanted to reach the camping-place at the foot 
of Burnt Timber hill, that night if possible. Our 
luncheon place was in a garden of purple asters and 
other mountain flowers, which added beauty to the 
scene, but we did not stay longer than was necessary, 
and soon continued our journey over the summit of the 
pass to Burnt Timber hill. This hill, as its name 
implies, is covered with the remains of trees all charred 
and dead by some long-ago fire, many of them fallen 
to the ground, often several one on another, while 
others are so unsteady that it would not need much to 
make them fall also; so that, in addition to the hill 
being very steep, it is very bad going, especially for 
the horses. However, we all arrived at the bottom, 
without any mishap, and were soon busy fixing our 
camp for the night. After supper, Jimmy amused 
himself by catching a gopher, with a noose of string 
which he placed outside its hole, and then when it put 
its head out, he drew the string and the gopher was 



92 Canadian Alpine Journal 

caught. After we had kept it a little while I let it go, 
and it ran down its hole, dragging the whole length of 
string with it, and then there was a great commotion 
in gopher-land — such squeaking, while I suppose he 
was telling his adventures to his family. The next 
day's march was varied by the behavior of Pinto, one 
of the pack horses. When we came out of the forest 
into the open, he took it into his head to roll, and this 
loosened his pack and sent it to one side, so he set to 
work to kick it off, and we saw our things flying in all 
directions. Fortunately the boxes of provisions, which 
he had carried the previous day, had been put on Cree, 
or else everything would have been smashed ; but, as it 
was, nothing was damaged, as he was only carrying 
tents and bedding. When he had got rid of his pack, 
he bolted, and both Jimmy and Jesse had a long chase 
■ before they could catch him, and they began to fear 
they had lost him. Although we had seen Mt. Assini- 
boine in the distance from Simpson's pass, it did not 
come into view again till we were nearly through our 
last day's march, and then we saw it in all its grandeur 
and beauty. It stands on an undulating, grassy upland, 
dotted here and there with groups of pine-trees, with 
a beautiful lake lying at its foot, while the lower peaks 
around seem to add to the height and majesty. We 
made our camp as near to the base as possible, so as to 
shorten our climb the next day, and then set to work 
to prepare dinner, for which we were all ready. The 
weather, scenery and everything were delightful, but 
the mosquitoes and bull-dogs were very much the 
reverse. I suppose they do not get many visitors, so 
they make the most of those who do come. During 
the daytime the bull-dogs (very large horse flies) came 
around in hundreds. The poor horses were bitten by 
them till the blood flowed. Jimmy made a "smudge," 
around which the horses crowded to try and get a little 
relief from their tormentors, but it takes a good deal to 



Ascent of Mt. Assiniboine 93 

keep off a bull-dog, and when he is once settled nothing 
short of a hard hit will move him. 

The bull-dogs struck work during the afternoon, 
but almost before they had left, the mosquitoes began, 
and I think they were worse, for they kept on during 
the night. 

At three o'clock next morning, Christian called me 
and I got up, but we had not brought any candles with 
us, and dressing in a tent in the dark is a somewhat 
difficult operation. However,' after groping and feel- 
ing round, I found all my necessary things, and then 
went out to breakfast by firelight, the moon being in 
the last quarter did not give us much light. At four 
o'clock we three started. We went up a very steep 
snow-slope, which required some step-cutting, as the 
snow was so hard, and near the top there was a good 
deal of danger from falling stones. After we had 
reached the glacier, we had a fairly level stretch around 
the base of the peak to the ridge on the right hand, 
which we crossed and descended into a snow-basin on 
the other side. We then traversed a snow-slope and 
loose stones and rock till we were right round the 
farther side of the mountain and could find a prac- 
ticable ridge by which to reach the summit. Some of 
the rocks were covered with ice, which made climbing 
very difficult, but on our descent the sun had turned 
the ice to water, and we got several shower-baths. The 
rocks were very rotten and interspersed with patches 
of snow and ice; and, when coming down, the snow 
was in such bad condition that we dared not trust it; 
so, accordingly, had to come by a different route to that 
by which we had gone up. When nearing the top, we 
thought possibly the other side of the ridge might be 
an easier way of ascent. Our present route lay chiefly 
along steep slabs of rock covered with loose stones, and 
here and there patches of ice which necessitated step- 
cutting. Accordingly, we worked our way te -vhere 



94 Canadian Alpine Journal 

there was a narrow cleft between two high rocks, but 
when we could look over, we saw the other side was a 
sheer precipice, with no hand-hold or foot-hold possi- 
ble, so we had to retrace our steps and continue the 
traverse over the stones and ice. When near the ridge, 
we found the remains of a mountain-rat or some small 
animal, with teeth and claws and fur still good, which 
had evidently been dropped by some large bird, as no 
animal could have lived up there. We reached the 
summit at two p.m. but though the day was cloudless 
there was too much smoke from forest-fires, in the 
horizon, to get a very distant view. The summit was 
much corniced, so we gave it a wide berth, and after 
a short stay began the descent. 

Having no lantern with us, we hurried on, as we 
did not want to be benighted on the mountain, but the 
loose stones made care necessary and we did not reach 
our camp till 8 145 p.m., just as night was setting in. 
Jimmy and Jesse were on the lookout, and fired their 
gun when they saw us on the snow-slope, and when 
we arrived in camp we found a nice hot supper all 
ready. 



Editorial Note. 

Miss Gertrude E. Benham's modest and unassuming account 
of her ascent of Mt. Assiniboine would not lead the reader to 
suppose that she was the first and only lady to set foot upon 
its summit, 11,860 feet above the sea. 

Although several attempts had been made, the summit was 
not reached until 1901, when the Rev. James Outram, accom- 
panied by the Swiss guides, Christian Hasler and Christian 
Bohren made the first ascent (see " In the Heart of the 
Canadian Rockies," by the Rev. .James Outram, published by 
MacMillan & Co., New York). But one other party made the 
ascent between that by Mr. Outram in 1901 and by Miss 
Benham in 1904. 

Presumably, Miss Benham's wonderful record of mountains 
climbed in the European Alps, in New Zealand and in Japan, 
the first including among one hundred and sixty climbs, Mont 
Blanc, the Matterhorn, Monte Rosa the Weisshorn and the 
Jungfrau, has lead her to regard but lightly her ascent of 
Mt. Assiniboine. 




photo. Ftancklyn 



MOUNT ASSINIBOINE, SHOWING NORTH AND EAST FACES 



Ascent of Mt. Hermit 95 



THE ASCENT OF MT. HERMIT 



By the Rev, S. H. Gray 

Few travellers on the west-bound Canadian Pacific 
express will forget the impressive moment when the 
train enters the giant gateway that opens to Rogers 
pass, the railway summit of the Selkirks. Rising on 
either hand are the towering masses of Mts. Tupper 
and Macdonald. This is Rogers pass, and the little 
station which bears that name is close by the summit. 
Looking back, as the train descends the grade to 
Glacier House, one commands an inspiring view of the 
Hermit range, of which Mt. Tupper is the beginning. 
The next to attract his notice is the compact group of 
peaks known as Mt. Rogers. Between this group and 
Tupper, and modestly receding into the background, is 
a well-knit and shapely rock-mass, with a fine apron of 
neve spread beneath it, called Hermit mountain. Pos- 
sibly there is something in the name and the more 
apparent loneliness of the peak that invites acquaint- 
ance. At any rate, it had an attraction for the Rev. 
Dr. Herdman, whose enthusiasm was contagious 
enough to induce the Rev. A. M. Gordon and myself 
to join him in an attempt to climb it. Hermit, as far 
as we knew, had never been climbed, and that added to 
our zeal. 

We met at Glacier House on the afternoon of 
August 3rd, 1904. After enjoying a good meal at the 
hospitable house, we set forth on a five-mile walk to 
Rogers pass. Edouard Feuz and his son were our 
guides. Leaving the rails a little east of the Pass 



96 Canadian Alpine Journal 

station, we climbed the well-made trail to the cabin 
which the railway company has built for the conveni- 
ence of moutnaineers, thereby earning their heartfelt 
gratitude. We reached the cabin about nine p.m., 
with plenty of daylight left to boil the kettle and get 
comfortably fixed for the night. 

At three o'clock Feuz gave the word to rise. A 
moment's struggle to realize where we were, and here 
at last was the great day. What mountaineer ever 
forgets that moment when he first opens the flap of his 
tent or the door of his hut and draws the breath of the 
mountain air, with the silence of the eternal hills about 
him? After a bite to eat, we struck off to the right, 
circling giant rocks and leaping small torrents, walking 
rapidly in the uncertain light. It was light when we 
reached the glacier, and clear enough to take photos 
when we reached the neve. The southern face, the 
broadside of Hermit, was directly before us. There 
appeared to be several feasible routes to the summit. 
The left or western side of the mountain rose in a 
sharp angle from the glacier; the eastern side was a 
long arete of easy grade and apparently afforded a 
sure, if long, route to the peak. Mr. Wheeler has in- 
cluded in his splendid set of maps — the second volume 
of his great work on the Selkirks — a fine drawing of 
Mts. Rogers and Hermit, and has in it marked our 
route on Hermit as lying along this eastern arete. 
That is the obvious route, and Mr. Wheeler is in no way 
to blame for the mistake. Feuz chose another and far 
more interesting mode of attack. A narrow and steep 
couloir leads up the face of the mountain from the 
neve, from which it is separated by a bergschrund. We 
put on the rope, crossed the cleft by a bridge at the 
right, worked across to the centre of the couloir, and 
at once commenced its steep ascent. This was a fine 
climb on good, stiff snow, and, though at the top 
somewhat alarmingly steep, was sure and safe. 



Ascent of Mt. Hermit 97 

The couloir led us almost directly to the shoulder 
of the eastern arete, at no great distance beneath the 
peak itself, to which, however, all progress seemed 
barred by a precipitous wall of rock. We had break- 
fast at this point — nine o'clock — and had leisure to 
look back on one of the noblest and grandest panor- 
amas it is given man to see. The great peaks of the 
Summit range, from Tupper on the right to our 
nearest neighbor, Rogers, on the left, with Macdonald, 
Sir Donald, Dawson and Bonney in the centre, were 
clad in the soft pink light of the rising sun. From the 
side of Mt. Hector I have seen this light covering that 
beautiful ice-mountain, Balfour, and resting on that 
terrible display of rock and ice — that tortured world 
of barren crags, which one views from Lefroy; but 
these scenes lacked something of the mystery of dis- 
tance and contrast of color and coutour which took 
one's breath away on Hermit. Truly, Hermit is the 
mountain for the view which no man can describe, — 
or forget. Turning about, we witnessed another spec- 
tacle, only less impressive. The Rockies lay that way, 
a solid wall of vast and unexplored grandeur, above 
which hung a rich canopy of cloud fired from the east. 

Feuz did a little reconnoitering here, to find a way 
round the precipice above us. He found it on the 
north face of the mountain, and we were soon at work 
with the axes on the snow. This difficulty being sur- 
mounted with comparative ease, there remained only a 
rock-stairway to be climbed to reach the peak. This 
was grand work, enlivened by long reaches and undig- 
nified pushes from below. An ice-axe would be shoved 
into a cleft above to yield a foothold for the first man. 
The rope from above solved the problem for the rest. 
After an hour or less of this fine exercise, we reached 
the summit, on the run. There was no cairn, and, as 
no record of a previous ascent is extant, we were likely 
the first to gain the top of Hermit. 

7 



98 Canadian Alpine Journal 

This first peak (10,194 feet) ran down again into 
a depression of 100 feet or so, and then up again into 
a second peak, the second peak again into a third and 
fourth. We visited each in turn and found them good 
chmbing. The descent from the third peak was quite 
precipitous, and was quite the hardest piece of work 
we had yet encountered. 

After a good rest on the fourth or most westerly 
peak, we commenced the descent by the western arete. 
It was a matter of working from ledge to ledge. Ex- 
cept when one looked from the extreme edge of these 
ledges, he could see nothing below but the white of the 
glacier ; but a little traverse, north or south, invariably 
led to an opening to a lower ledge. Falling stones 
were the worst danger. Feuz ducked in time to escape 
one half as big as his head. I got one on the ankle, 
but not to amount to anything. The ledges became 
narrower and the pitch steeper, the farther we des- 
cended. Probably, we covered more than half the 
distance to the glacier in this way, and might have 
made the whole descent by the arete, but for a moment 
of indecision for which T take all the blame. Dr. 
Herdman and Air. Gordon had been on the rope with 
Feuz, and the younger guide and I were roped to- 
gether. Young Feuz was leading and doing it with 
accuracy and speed. All went well until we dropped 
down five or six feet to a sloping ledge covered with 
scree, and nothing in sight below but the glistening 
white of the glacier. Carefully he picked his way to 
the edge and then swung himself sideways to a projec- 
tion or ledge hidden from us. Here I asked Feuz 
senior to give me a rope from behind. There was a 
little hesitation. Mr. Gordon, intrepid climber as he 
proved himself on this and another climb we had to- 
gether, wanted to take my place. But the cautious 
senior guide thought otherwise, and called us back. 
We all roped together then, and left the arete for good. 




CROSSING SWISS NEVE TO REACH MOUNT HERMIT 




DESCENDING MOUNT HERMIT 



Ascent of Mt. Hermit 99 

Making a long traverse of the southern face on a 
wide and easy ledge, we came at length to a wider and 
less steep couloir than the one which we had ascended 
in the morning. We glissaded this to the bottom, 
lying prone and shooting down at tobaggan speed, 
pulling up with the axes before reaching the berg- 
schrund, Feuz tested the bridge and then shot over 
it safely on his back. We followed, and the glacier 
was reached. 

This ended the interesting part of the climb. Dr. 
Herdman, never weary, wanted to climb Swiss peak 
and make a red-letter day of it, but, as this would have 
meant getting back to Glacier House at midnight, 
nobody seconded the motion. All that sticks in the 
memory concerning the return to the cabin was the 
intolerable glare of the sunlight on the glacier and the 
wearisome ploughing through the soft, wet snow. We 
reached the cabin at four p.m., and after a meal, 
started down the path to the railway and footed the 
ties five miles to Glacier House, reaching the hotel at 
seven o'clock. 

Hermit is well worth climbing — Mr. Gordon and I 
climbed Lefroy, a week later, with Hans Kauffmann, 
and were amply rewarded, but the long, steady pull up 
that interminable snow and ice incline is not to be 
compared, from the climber's point of view, to the 
varied and exciting work on snow and rock which one 
meets with on Hermit; and, while the view from 
Lefroy is one of awe-inspiring grandeur, it does not 
compare in richness and variety of form and color 
with the view from Hermit. This, of course, is a 
matter of taste, but I think my companions will share 
my view. 



100 Canadian Alpine Journal 



THE FIRST ASCENT OF THE CENTRAL 
PEAK OF MT. BAGHEERA 



By W. S. Jackson 

To most men, who have done somewhat more than 
the ordinary show-peak cHmbing, who have got beyond 
the educational drudgery of the art, and grown enthus- 
iastic for the most dehghtful of all forms of outdoor 
exercise, there comes the desire of conquering a virgin 
peak. A vague idea at first, then a shadowy possi- 
bility, it soon becomes a positive yearning to stand 
where no human foot has stood before, scale at least 
one soaring point free from cairns and luncheon cans, 
before axe and rope are laid by for ever. In the Alps 
there are none such left to conquer, though there is at 
least one whereon, though sometimes climbed, the foot 
of man has never stood. The mountaineer thirsting 
for fame is reduced to forcing new paths by forbidden 
routes up or down the oft-climbed peaks. Or else he 
must seek more distant fields; the Caucasus, the Hima- 
layas, or the Rockies. Some such thoughts as these 
passed through my brain, as, after leaving Calgary in 
the early summer of 1905, the mighty barrier of moun- 
tains unfolded itself stretching north and south into 
vanishing distance. But nearer investigation brought 
disappointment. Everything seemed to have been done 
already. To find a decent virgin peak, it would be 
necessary to hire some sort of an outfit — ponies, tents, 
and drivers. It did not sound comfortable, and it did 
sound expensive. It is true that I was shown from 
the top of Temple one of the Ten Peaks that had per- 
haps never been ascended; but it was a long snow- 



Ascent of Mt. Bagheera 101 

grind, and I wanted a climb. If all mountains were 
long snow-grinds, there would be few keen moun- 
taineers. It was the same story again at Field. In all 
the tossed sea of snow that lies around Mt. Stephen, 
there were no wave crests within easy reach that had 
not been topped. Hope had sunk very low when I 
reached Glacier. But here, Mr. Bell-Smith, the climb- 
er's friend, pointed out on his relief map two still 
unconquered summits, Mt. Tupper and the central peak 
of three-headed Bagheera. My holiday had only a 
short time to run, and there was Sir Donald still wait- 
ing as an absolute necessity. Everyone was talking 
of the wonders of the newly-discovered Caves of 
Cheops. That settled it. On the morrow, Edouard 
Feuz, Jr., and I started for Deutschmann's camp at 
the caves. We followed the railway and found the 
trestles across the Illecillewaet very ■ unpleasant. The 
trail to the caves gave a glimpse into the beauties of 
the forests of the Selkirks. The cool shadows were 
delicious after the blazing sunshine on the rails. A 
family of grouse, tamer than barnyard fowl, squatted 
resolutely in our path. Leaving the trees, ferns and 
devil's-club were exchanged for flower carpets of 
lovely hues. The trail descended to the banks of the 
Cougar brook, which is crossed several times by con- 
venient ice bridges, the remains of winter snows. We 
camped for the night at the Caves, where Deutschmann 
received us most hospitably and showed us some of the 
wonders of the place, discovered by himself the pre- 
ceding autumn. 

In the morning we made a somewhat tardy start 
along the bank of the upper Cougar brook, till we 
neared the foot of Mt. Bagheera. There we made our 
first mistake. We began by ascending the brush- 
covered bank lying almost directly under Catamount 
peak. The going soon began to get boggy, the farther 
we went, the wetter it became, till we were actually 



102 Canadian Alpine Journal 

wading, and my feet were soaked for the rest of the 
day. Emerging at length from this dismal swamp, 
we mounted the steep snow-slopes above, heading for 
the notch that separates Catamount from Bagheera. 
Midway were found beautiful waves of red snow, 
varying from pink on the crests to crimson in the 
troughs. This curious phenomenon is due to the pres- 
ence of a tiny alga, which also accounts for the green 
snow elsewhere. Scrambling up the rock-work at the 
head of these slopes, we bore to the left of the notch till 
we reached the arete. Henceforth we had nothing but 
good sound rocks to the finish. Steadily working up- 
wards, the projecting eastern point came into view, and 
seemed at first to be the promised summit; but climb- 
ing to it, the centre peak rose some 200 feet above us, 
looking quite imposing and Doigt de Dieu-like, as seen 
edge-wise from below. It had been hot work with 
the sun on one's back all the way, but Feuz frowned 
on all suggestions of rest and tobacco, and we again 
attacked the arete. This was largely composed of 
blocks of white and black marble, and gave firm and 
generous holds for hand and foot. We soon stepped 
over the edge of the little platform that formed our 
Hochste Spitze, and I stood for the first and probably 
the last time on a virgin peak (9106 feet). Here we 
found a little breeze, and sat down to enjoy the mag- 
nificent view. Far to the north stretched the endless 
snow-peaks that the Swiss range hides from the Glacier 
side. Sir Donald presented the grandest view of him- 
self and his satellites that I was privileged to enjoy. 
Nearer at hand, across a big gulf, rose the eastern 
peak, of almost equal height (9096 feet). The air 
was clear as crystal, though two days later from the 
top of Sir Donald we could hardly see twenty miles 
away. 

When inner cravings had been satisfied, we built an 
artistic cairn, took some photographs, and prepared 



Ascent of Mt. Bagheera 103 

to descend. It was now nearly midday. Reflecting on 
the probable condition of the snow-slopes, we started 
straight down the southern face of the mountain at 
right angles to the Cougar valley. It became hot again 
at once. The holds were sound but generally small, 
and a projecting inch was often all that could be 
found. Being pioneers, we came of course on an 
occasional pitch that threatened to cut us off. But 
Feuz skilfully turned them all, with the aid of the 
instinct that developes in the best Swiss guides. At 
length we came to a rather nasty bit. My feet, stewing 
in soaking boots, felt raw, the sharp rocks had torn my 
sodden puttees, and I was almost inclined to welcome 
Feuz's proposal to make a diagonal cut across a steep, 
doubtful-looking snow-bank. He anchored himself in 
the edge of the little bergschrund, and I started gin- 
gerly to kick steps in the slope. I have always hated 
unstable snow, and my hatred was soon justified. 
After a dozen steps, the surface began to slide and I 
with it, until the rope tightened and swung me clear 
underneath Edouard. The breath was almost squeezed 
out of me, but I hung on to my axe and was soon on 
the edge of the bergschrund. We cut down this till 
we got to the rocks below : some more scrambling, a 
rather rocky glissade, and we were on the banks of the 
Cougar once more. 

The walk back to the railway was weary work for 
one of us; but at the tank we found Mr. Bridgland 
and a party of brother officials, and with the kindness 
of fellow-mountaineers, they entertained us in a way 
that soon revived our spirits, and it was not till dusk 
that we took to the ties for the return to Glacier House. 

Thus ended a delightful trip and interesting climb, 
for which I tender my warmest thanks to Edouard 
Feuz, Jr. ; whatever merit there is in the performance, 
it is wholly due to his care and skill. 



104 Canadian Alpine Journal 



THE ASCENT OF MT. MACOUN 



By the Rev. J. C. Herdman 

Mt. Macoun stands up, like an arched horse's neck, 
eight or nine miles south from Glacier House, near the 
summit of the Selkirk range. It is a unique and separ- 
ate peak, the corner mountain on the southeast of the 
great Illecillewaet neve, overlooking the Beaver valley, 
the Prairie hills, the Spillimacheen river, Grizzly creek, 
and Bald mountain. 

The massif was named "Macoun" in 1888 by the 
Rev. W. S. Green, whose charming book, "Among the 
Selkirk Glaciers," was published in 1890, in honor of 
the distinguished Professor, Dominion Naturalist and 
Botanist, who had spent many summers in the West 
in the study of science. 

In the month of August, 1902, I made the first 
ascent of this mountain with Edouard Feuz, Sr., one 
of the most capable of the guides brought out from 
Switzerland by the Canadian Pacific Railway Com- 
pany. Not only romantic, but in every way enchant- 
ing, was the day's tour. We left the hotel at 5 :20 
a.m., took the east side of the great glacier, and as we 
climbed, the mists were suddenly swept out of the 
valley by the triumphant sunlight. We passed little 
streams and cascades, and, at 8 o'clock, gained Perley 
rock, an island of stones surrounded by snow-banks 
and ice-tongues. In order to reach it we had to cut 
steps like a staircase up a steep snow-slope. So de- 
lightful was the view from this platform of rock, that 
we spent ten minutes looking at the mountains and the 
scenery. Around us were Mt. Abbott, Glacier crest. 




iJDOUARD^FEUZ OF INTERI.AKKN 
The Crack Swiss Guide of the Selkirks 



Ascent of Mt. Macoun 105 

Mts. Lookout, Green, Sir Donald, Uto, Eagle, Cougar, 
and below the seracs of the glacier and many water- 
falls. Then we tramped up to the crest of the neve, 
about 4200 feet above Glacier House, and the Illecille- 
waet valley was suddenly shut out. Instead, a new 
panorama, south and west, opened up to our eyes : 
Mts. Bonney, Fox, Donkin, Selwyn, Purity, Dawson, 
Fish creek. Glacier circle, and many large white snow- 
fields. We kept to the left of the neve, and had no 
difficulties with crevasses, but our steps were in basins, 
formed by the winds whirling the snows around. Then 
Mt. Macoun rose into view. But the problem was, 
how to get our feet on the mountain? It was sur- 
rounded by a high escarpment of snow, with spaces 
between the vertical banks and the green ice which 
clung to the mountain sides. Fortunately, scouting 
about, we found a tongue running out, in a circuitous 
manner, which joined another tongue, a little lower in 
height. It was a very narrow peninsula to traverse, 
and at the end of it we had to step carefully, but the 
guide jumped from one strip to the other, plunging his 
ice-axe into the snow, and I followed ; thus we reached 
the side of the mountain in safety. 

Next came a difficulty which I have never seen, 
before or since, in any mountain range : a crack, three 
to six feet wide, separated the shoulder we were on 
from the main mass and the walls looked perpen- 
dicular. This sharp cut into the mountain may have 
been limited, but where we stood, because of the rough 
boulders, there was no way of getting past, and I 
imagined for some moments that our climb was com- 
pletely blocked. But Feuz lighted his pipe and studied 
the walls carefully. Finally he discerned two small 
ledges, opposite one another, so he descended several 
feet, leaped over the chasm and rested his ice-axe in a 
rift between the rocks. Then he cleverly scaled the 
face of the wall to where a large stone stood, round 



106 Canadian Alpine Journal 

which he lashed the alpine rope, holding me to the 
ledge after my jump and pulling me up the steep 
ascent. But he pulled so actively that I felt myself 
almost cut in two, and yelled to be released. After 
this crisis, we were on the under side of the summit. 
All the way along its crest there was a large cornice, 
and this was the only occasion when the guide spoke 
warningly. He told me not even to speak, because, in 
Switzerland, the vibration of a voice sometimes starts 
a small avalanche; but we soon found that the over- 
hanging cornice was frozen firmly to the crest, instead 
of being a shifting stretch of snow. Soon we saw a 
gap and, cutting holes through the ice, reached the 
summit. No cairn had been erected there, so it was 
manifest that no foot had ever climbed the peak. We 
built up a "stone-man" and left the record of our climb 
in his care. Then I got up on his shoulder and gave 
a good leap several feet higher than the summit. 
Afterwards I learned that Macoun was computed 
from survey stations as four to twelve feet lower than 
the Club's standard of 10,000 feet above sea-level, but 
I feel that I attained the height. 

We decided to go back another way. The vertical 
wall faces at the crack were the difficulty ; for the ledge 
on the opposite side being higher, the jump would 
have to be strenuous. Besides, Swiss guides always 
like to make different trails. So we dropped down on 
the west side of the mountain, leaving at 12:45 P-"^- 
Then we attempted three descents, but found them 
fearfully precipitous. The guide put me to the front, 
which was the right plan, for if I had slipped he was 
there to hold me back with the rope. But we found 
the descents too dangerous and rapid, and were com- 
pelled to climb up again and go partially over towards 
the south end. Here Feuz lighted his pipe once more, 
and studied the rock face that we had to encounter. 
Soon he detected some little ledges and a few crevices. 



Ascent of Mt. Macoun 107 

Down we went ; never before did I have such a descent. 
His words to me were reassuring and made me feel a 
Swiss guide myself. We had to grasp the mountain 
side two or three times with knees and arms out- 
stretched, as there was no hold for boots and fingers. 
A little stone struck the guide, breaking the pipe which 
he had fastened to his vest, while I took calmly some 
cuts and bruises. The vertical descent soon widened 
out, and at the southwest end of the mountain, a wide 
sweep of snow took us clear over to the Illecillewaet 
neve. 

We walked nearly in the centre of the snow-field for 
some miles, and had to rope up again, getting among 
complicated crevasses. Then we had a good glissade 
down to Perley rock and reached Glacier House a few 
minutes after six o'clock. No one, I understand, has 
ever scaled this peak since our ascent, but it should be 
tried again, as the delight of the scenery is unsur- 
passed. In fact, from the summit of Macoun, I 
discerned rivers running north, south, east and west: 
the Beaver, the Duncan, the Spillimacheen, and Fish 
creek. 



108 Canadian Alpine Journal 



THE CLIMB OF CROW'S NEST MOUNTAIN 



By p. D. McTavish 

The discoverer of Crow's Nest* pass is Mr. Michael 
PhilHps, now of Elko, B.C. In the early sixties he 
came as a Hudson's Bay Company's employee to Fort 
Sheppard, and subsequently went to Wild Horse, near 
the present town of Fort Steele, when that place was 
in the midst of its gold excitement. In the latter 
sixties he spent his time trapping along Morrisey and 
Michel creeks, and it was while thus employed that he 
discovered the pass. Standing at its summit, he looked 
out across the quiet, forest-clad valley, which lay so 
calmly beneath him, the whole presenting the appear- 
ance of a great basin. Mr. Phillips thought it resem- 
bled a huge crow's nest, and in speaking of the pass 
thereafter, he referred to it as the "Crow's Nest" pass. 
It is quite natural that the mountain of striking appear- 
ance that stood near by should receive the same name. 

Like the sacred Fuji Yama of Japan, Crow's Nest 
mountain rises abruptly out of the earth, with no other 
mountains within miles. In fact, so striking is this 
that the Peigan Indians had a beautiful legend as to 
its origin. According to this legend, the Great Spirit, 
with his daughter, the Spirit of Water, was walking 
near where the mountain now stands, when the Spirit 
of Fire saw them, and at once became enamored of the 
fair maiden and determined to capture her. But the 
Great Spirit divined his intention, and caused the fair 
Spirit of Water to descend into the bowels of the earth. 
Thus eluded and disappointed, the Spirit of Fire be- 

* Now written " Crowsnest " by a ruling of the Geographic 
Board of Canada. 




Pholo, If. jr. Dubois, Philadelphia 

MOUNT ASSINIBOINE 



Copyright, 11)03 




CROW'S NEST MOUNTAIN 



Ascent of Crozv's Nest Mt. 109 

came enraged, descended after the maiden, and in his 
fury caused such terrible internal havoc that the Great 
Spirit commanded him to come forth out of the earth. 
In obedience to the command, the Spirit of Fire came 
forth, raising his head and shoulders above the earth, 
thus forming the mountain! "Now stand thou there for- 
ever," commanded the Great Spirit. The fair Spirit of 
Water then descended into the earth and subdued the 
flames caused by the enraged Spirit of Fire. Since 
when all has been peaceful. This beautiful legend 
serves to prove to us that even the aborigines of our 
country recognized the singular, isolated appearance 
of this grand old mountain. The gentle forest-clad 
slopes lead up on all sides to the timber line, at an alti- 
tude of about 7000 feet, and from here a perpendicular 
band about 500 feet in- height encircles the entire 
mountain, after which there is a succession of steep, 
rocky slopes and perpendicular faces until it finally 
terminates in a huge symmetrical dome. From the 
Crow's Nest branch of the Canadian Pacific railway, 
the mountain looks truly majestic, and often I had 
cast longing eyes upon it, wondering if it were possi- 
ble for amateurs to successfully make the ascent. True, 
Mr. Tom Wilson, the well-known mountaineer of 
Banff, accompanied by two Swiss guides, had reached 
the top; but the difficulties they had encountered did 
not tend much to encourage the novice. My friend, 
Mr. Keith Whimster, and I talked the matter over, 
and it was finally arranged that we should make the 
attempt. Mr. George Harrower of Lethbridge and 
Mr. L. Stauffer of Frank made up the remainder of 
the party. 

On August 19th, 1905, we met at Coleman, tTie 
Canadian Pacific railway station nearest the mountain, 
and all necessary arrangements were made for the 
climb on the morrow. At two o'clock a.m. we were 
aroused from our peaceful slumbers. There was 



110 Canadian Alpine Journal 

hurried and muffled tramping of big boots along the 
hallways, and finally an attack upon the dining-room, 
where a breakfast awaited us. When we had eaten 
to repletion (we had a long day ahead of us), we 
adjusted our packs, and by three o'clock were in our 
saddles and off. 

It was a glorious night, with moon and stars shining 
brightly. As we galloped along the Old Man river, 
now skirting a hill with the stream far below, now 
rushing along by its margin, now plunging into the 
darkness of a dense copse of timber, or halting to 
splash through a little rippling brook, it was truly 
grand. After going five miles west, we turned due north 
and bore directly upon the object of our attack, which 
could just be discerned through the dim light of 
earliest dawn. How defiantly it seemed to smile, 
towering some 6000 feet above us, and how we won- 
dered what the day w^ould bring forth. Would we 
really reach the top, or was inglorious defeat, with its 
attendant chaffing from our incredulous friends, await- 
ing us ? On our right the Livingstone range rose to a 
height of 8000 to 9000 feet, and when the first rays 
of the rising sun peeped timidly over its serrated sum- 
mit, mingling with the silvery light of the waning 
moon, the transition from night to day was beautiful. 
We enjoyed some fine effects in white and black; each 
clump of trees and valley appearing perfectly black, 
whilst the dim light of daw^n revealed the whiteness of 
the surrounding snow-capped mountains. 

The ride along the winding trail was most enjoy- 
able, and led us finally to a deserted lumber camp, 
beautifully located in a little glade. It was now 4 130 
o'clock, and from this close range, looking through the 
tree tops, Crow's Nest mountain appeared really grand, 
but alarmingly defiant. We dismounted, tethered our 
horses, relieved ourselves of every pound of superfluous 
dunnage, arranged our packs firmly and comfortably, 




Photo, Ptest Co. 



A GENDARME ON CROW S NEST MOUNTAIN 



Ascent of Crow's Nest Mt. Ill 

and at five o'clock started off into the woods by a path 
which led towards the mountain. After about two 
miles' travelling we left the path and blazed a trail of 
our own, which necessarily hampered our speed, so 
that it was after eight o'clock before we emerged above 
the timber line, A long slope of loose rock led up to 
a perpendicular wall several hundred feet high, and as 
we looked at it, we decided that we had met our 
Waterloo: Realizing the impossibility of making an 
ascent here (on the west side of the mountain), we 
travelled about a mile to the left, during which time 
we gradually worked to the top of the sloping stretch 
of loose rock. This brought us to the northwest cor- 
ner, where a very interesting needle of rock engaged 
our attention for a short time. On our left was a bare, 
steep face of rock some 400 feet high, that led up to a 
crevice, which in turn led to the top of the face. This 
seemed our only possible chance of getting up, and we 
believed that once this face had been negotiated, the 
rest of the climb would be compaartively easy. The 
climbing was very difficult, but extremely interesting. 
When we had reached a point about 300 feet high, we 
found it impossible to proceed further, as the rock 
arched outwards, baffling all attempts at ascent. We 
then led off some 40 feet to the left along a very 
narrow ledge of rock, in the forlorn hope of finding a 
way up to the coveted crevice, but this ledge termin- 
ated abruptly, and we found ourselves gazing into a 
sort of semi-circular amphitheatre some 500 feet in 
depth. Not caring to risk climbing over such a place 
as this, we were reluctantly forced to the conclusion 
that we must retreat, and so the descent began. This 
climb, however, was extremely interesting, and we 
found our rope a very useful part of our equipment. 

Near where we descended, was a great crevice, 
leading up about 400 feet, and resembling the space 
left in a whole cheese when a thin wedge-like piece has 



112 Canadian Alpine Journal 

been removed. We grasped at this as a sort of last 
straw, entered it, and began a scrutinizing examination 
of the walls on either side. At length we detected a 
small ledge which led up a short way to a little dome 
of rock, beyond which we could not see. But we had 
hopes, and indulging temporarily in the pleasures of 
hope, we contented ourselves for a sufficient length of 
time to dispose of a few sandwiches, which, needless 
to say, we enjoyed immensely, as it w,as now nearing 
ten o'clock, and we had breakfasted shortly after two. 
The recollection of that lunch always provokes a smile. 
We sat in a row, on a ledge of cold, damp rock, a 
dejected quartette, wath our feet dangling over a per- 
pendicular drop, beneath which was a small glacier; 
the water dripped about us and pebbles of various 
sizes hurled themselves from the heights above ; a cold, 
chilling wind whistled up through the sunless canyon 
as we sat shivering there; while we were still feeling 
chagrined over our recent defeat. It was a disconso- 
late meal, but in memory lives as a most pleasant and 
amusing incident. 

Having temporarily satisfied the cravings of the 
inner man, who, by the way, demands considerable 
attention when one is mountain climbing, we eagerly 
proceeded upwards to ascertain what awaited us 
beyond that obtruding dome. With some difficulty 
we surmounted this, and found ourselves at the base 
of a beautifully straight, but very perpendicular, chim- 
ney, about six feet in width and two hundred feet high. 
This offered possibilities, so we immediately proceeded 
to climb to its top. Arriving there, a short shaly slope 
led to a similar chimney, up which we climbed. We 
now found ourselves at the top of that first circular 
band which begirts the mountain, and felt that victory 
was within our grasp. For some time we encountered 
a series of steep, rocky slopes and perpendicular faces, 
which led to a long slope of about looo feet, after 




LIJMBING PRF.CIPIClvS ON CROW'S NKS I' MOUNTAIN 



Ascent of Croiv's Nest Mt. 113 

which the cHmbing again became fairly difficult, but 
for only a short time, as we had reached the final dome, 
and at 12 :i5 o'clock we stood upon the summit, a most 
jubilant party. Here we found the cairn of rock left 
by Mr. Wilson's party, but being very amateurish, we 
failed to examine the glass jar in its centre, which Mr. 
Wilson subsequently informed me was there, and 
which contained the names of the former party. The 
remnants of an old flag we captured as our lawful 
booty, and carried off as a souvenir, leaving in its 
stead a new one, floating upon the cairn of rock which 
we erected beside the other. 

We then sat down to enjoy the magnificence of the 
panorama stretching before us in all directions. 
Standing isolated in the midst of a beautiful valley, 
many miles from any other mountain, the view from 
Crow's Nest mountain is truly grand. At our feet lay 
the town of Coleman, whose houses seemed mere pack- 
ing-boxes, while the emerald hues of Crow's Nest lake 
sparkled resplendently in the • sunlight. To the east 
was the stately Livingstone range, and through its gaps 
the prairie, vast and illimitable, stretched away as far 
as the eye could see. To the south, the "Big Chief," a 
bold peak standing near the International Boundary 
line, could be seen, while westward rose majestically 
th triple peaks near Fernie, known as the Sphynxes, 
but more commonly called the Three Sisters. The 
snow-capped peaks and glaciers to the north looked 
most resplendent, and seemed to continue on and on 
until finally they merged with sky and beautiful 
cumulus clouds into one glorious and indescribable 
blending of beauty. The sun shone brightly and the 
day was calm and still, with no sound whatever to 
bespeak the presence of any living thing, and as we sat 
there silently enjoying the grandeur of it all, even a 
whisper seemed a sacrilegious disturbance of the 
utter silence that was everywhere about us. At last 



114 Canadian Alpine Journal 

it was time to go, as we had many miles to travel 
through the woods, and darkness is not slow in settling 
there. So after taking many pictures, we gave one last 
look at the magnificent surroundings, and the descent 
was commenced. It was now 14 o'clock, just twelve 
hours from the time our dreams had been disturbed. 
We reached the old camp at 1 7 130 o'clock, had a light 
lunch, saddled our horses, and rode home through the 
calm of the summer evening's twilight. Arriving 
there about 20 130 o'clock, we found that our cairn had 
been espied by means of a telescope, so that even those 
of our acquaintances, who smiled incredulously at our 
attempting the ascent, were forced, though not reluc- 
tantly, to forego the pleasure of friendly banter, which 
we feared when starting in the morning. To any 
desiring a pleasant trip and a delightful, interesting 
and remunerative climb, I can heartily recommend the 
ascent of Crow's Nest mountain. 



Marpole and Amgadamo 115 



THE ASCENTS OF MTS. MARPOLE AND 
AMGADAMO 



By the Revs. A. M. Gordon, Alex. Dunn and 
A. O. McRae. 

The last day of the camp was its climax. Some of 
the members had left toward the end of the week, 
others departed on Monday. But three of us remained 
to climb Mt. Marpole — Dr. A. O. McRae, Rev. Alex. 
Dunn, and Rev. A. M. Gordon. 

We were richly rewarded. True, we had to rise at 
the unearthly hour of 3 45 in the morning, but even 
this had its compensations. After early breakfast, 
Dunn and Gordon set out from camp at five o'clock, 
in company of the guides, Edouard and Gottfried 
Feuz. Soon we were joined by Dr. McRae, and the 
party of five began to ascend the valley toward the 
mountain. It was weary work following the bed of 
the stream and then trekking up a long slope of slip- 
pery shale to the place where the actual climbing 
began. But, once we had to pick footholds and often 
handholds carefully, there was no more fatigue. Mt. 
Marpole is lower than the Vice-President, but gives 
more opportunity for actual climbing. Here we saw 
the real thing. First, the guides took us to the top of 
the unnamed mountain east of Mt. McMullen, and on 
its summit they built a cairn or "stone-man," to show 
that we had made the first ascent. Then they led us 
along the rocky ridge or arete, traversing the moun- 
tain from west to east. There were ascents and 
descents which no one but an expert or a fool would 



116 Canadian Alpine Journal 

attempt alone. Thanks to the guides, however, these 
were made without difficulty. 

At one point we had to cross a glacier between two 
peaks. The usual method would be for the foremost 
guide to cut steps, for the others on the rope to follow, 
steadying themselves with their ice-axes. But this 
takes time; so our guides clambered up the snow 
cornice at the edge of the glacier, and passed over to 
see how the snow lay. The guides decided to risk it; 
we crossed on the cornice; and breathed freely when 
we stood on solid rock again. 

The only actual mishap was the loss of his hat by 
one member of the party. The breeze carried it gaily 
into the valley a couple of thousand feet below; even 
for this mishap the guides were prepared, Gottfried 
promptly produced from his rucksack a cloth cap, and 
the climber exchanged the hat of the cleric for that 
of the mountaineer. So on we went, over rock and 
glacier, until we came to a rock which would defy even 
a mountain goat. The upward slope of thirty or forty 
feet was steep, the ledges were all turned the wrong 
way. It looked as if nothing but a fly or a limpet 
could hold on. But in some wonderful fashion Gott- 
fried made his way up, taking the rope with him, and 
then by means of the rope he pulled us up one by one. 
A few minutes more of easy work brought us to the 
summit. So far as we knew, we were the first to stand 
there. A second "stone-man" was erected to mark 
this event. It was now half-past two o'clock. All 
along we had had brilliant sunshine. After enjoying 
the superb view for three-quarters of an hour, we 
began the descent towards the glacier lying between 
Mt. Marpole and The President. From time to time 
Edouard would reconnoitre : standing on the edges of 
a cliff overhanging space, he picked out the route, and 
we got down as easily and safely as if we had been 
walking on prairie. Then came a walk over a snow- 



Marpole and Amgadamo 117 

covered glacier and a delightful descent, with oppor- 
tunity for "glissading." This part of the journey was 
made in quick time, as the weather had changed. 

Sometimes on the mountains, one has the experience 
of standing in sunshine and looking down on a thuiT 
derstorm below. We were in the midst of the thunder- 
storm. Nowhere is the lightning so vivid or the rever- 
beration of the thunder so stunning as among the hills. 
It is a fine experience to go through such a thunder- 
storm, but one not far from danger. The polished 
steel handles of the ice-axes attract the lightning. In 
this way several men in Switzerland have been killed. 
Our guides did not linger on the heights. They took 
no chances. They pushed down into the valley with 
all speed, pausing only to test the snow-bridges span- 
ning the crevasses on the glacier. We reached the 
valley free from all harm. The one drawback was, 
that the hail and rain deluged us from head to foot. 
Yet this was a trifle, and we could look forward to a 
roaring fire, dry tents, dry clothes, and a good supper 
on our return. And that is a very different thing from 
returning to cold grub, wet blankets, no tents, and no 
fire. Finally, we came to the Upper Yoho trail, and 
we trudged along, a weird-loking, bedraggled com- 
pany, rather tired, very hungry, and altogether happy. 
The arrival in camp at eight o'clock was all that we 
looked for, and an hour and a half later we were 
sleeping the sleep of the just. No more exhilarating 
or healthful day's sport could be imagined. We cannot 
speak too highly of the skill and care shown by our 
two young guides. Without them the expedition 
would have been impossible. Owing to them it was 
an unqualified success. 



118 Canadian Alpine Journal 



MT. STEPHEN 



By the Rev. Geo. R. B. Kinney. 

It was in October of 1904, about the twenty-first, I 
left Field at eight o'clock in the morning, for a solitary- 
stroll to the fossil bed on Mt. Stephen. A dense cold 
fog filled the valley, and promised good opportunities 
for cloud pictures later in the day. So, besides my 
lunch, prospector's pick and chisels, I took two 
cameras, a tripod, plates and holders. For an hour 
the trail to the fossil bed was followed; now going 
through the fragrant groves of spruce and fiir over 
their thick carpets of moss, now crossing the noisy, 
foaming stream on a rustic bridge, but ever up, and 
always plunging through the heavy clouds of mist. As 
timber limit was neared, the clouds became broken 
with many a rift; and then, finally, I emerged above 
them into the glorious sunshine of a serene day. At 
my feet lay a sea of hurrying clouds, dazzling white 
in the brilliant sunshine of that October morning. Its 
massive swirling billows broke in silence on a soundless 
shore, and swept in gentle surges over the fossil bed, 
where once rolled the mighty ocean. Field with its 
tourists and its noisy, puffing traffic, was no more; it 
lay fathoms deep in that fleecy, fluffy flood. 

On the right, across a few miles of clouds, Mt. Field 
arose abruptly, its snows glistening pure and white in 
the sun, with Mt. Wapta just peeping over its broad 
shoulders. Immediately opposite, Mt. Burgess reared 
its rugged crest. Between lay that most beautiful of 
passes. Burgess pass. This trinity of gems seemed an 
island in the midst of a matrix of down. Across an- 
other inlet of this sea of clouds, the ivory peaks of the 



Mt. Stephen 119 

Van Home range and Ottertail mountains formed a 
gleaming row of fangs, guarding the approaches to 
the mainland beyond. 

After taking a few pictures, the rest of the beautiful 
morning, from ten o'clock, was spent in gathering 
fossils and studying that old sea bed. With hammer 
and chisel, I opened Nature's book, and there, page 
after page, were trilobites of rarest form. Thousands, 
yea, millions of years ago, those shell fish had crawled 
slowly along the old sea bottom. Time had heaped 
a mountain upon them, had raised their ocean floor to 
a lofty plateau of a mighty continent, had hardened 
their mud to slate, and their shells to stone. About 
one o'clock, having eaten my lunch, the desire seized 
me to take a few views from the peak of Mt. Stephen. 
So, depositing the trilobites at the gnarled roots of an 
old dwarfed fir, and shouldering the load of cameras, 
etc., I set out for the summit. It only took a few min- 
utes to climb to the top of the spur immediately above 
the fossil bed and to get above the last of the strug- 
gling timber growth, when there burst into view a 
scene that beggars description : Cathedral mountain, 
its perpendicular heights searching the very heavens, 
formed one unbroken wall of a vast amphitheatre. 
There, ridge on ridge, tier on tier, the parallel ledges, 
cushioned with snow, rose in countless numbers for 
thousands of feet. In such places as these the spirits 
of the mountain sit and watch the changing scenes of 
the hills in the vast arena before them. Sometimes it 
is a procession of sheep, or goats, or deer, or bear, or 
the eagle gracefully sailing. Sometimes it is the frisk- 
ing mountain rat, or the whistling marmot, or the busy 
haymaker curing his crops of hay on the hot rocks of 
the slide. Or again it is the grand orchestra of the 
hills, breaking forth in the roar of the avalanche, the 
scream of the wind, the fall of the cataract, or the 
crumbling of the peaks. 



120 Canadian Alpine Journal 

For a mile or more it was easy going over a gentle 
slope covered with rocks and snow. The clouds had 
gradually broken up before the genial warmth of the 
sun, and the Kicking-Horse river seemed a little thread 
of silver that wound, with countless twists and turns, 
in a level valley below. Field, with its roundhouse 
and trains and big hotel, seemed but a little dot, and 
when an engine whistled, a thousand echoes tossed the 
sound from side to side, from peak to peak, from 
canyon to canyon, until it was lost in immensity. 

The climb was uneventful up to the time the cliffs 
near the top were reached. It had been a fairly easy 
slope all the way. The snow began at timber line, and 
was hard enough to walk on its top. Mt. Dennis was 
slowly left behind and sank to a mere hillock beneath. 
Mts. Field and Burgess gradually slipped down until 
Wapta and then the Vice-President, with an emerald 
glacier in its lap, came in full view from behind. 

By making a detour, I could have found an easier 
way, but, having no guide and never having been there 
before, I began to climb the wall of rock immediately 
in front. It was a most difficult climb. The short day 
was nearly ended, the warmth of the sun had given 
place to a raw, cold wind, and my pack being large and 
heavy, got in the way. Nearing the top of this almost 
vertical clift, my numb fingers slipped and I barely 
escaped a sheer fall of fully one hundred feet. Sur- 
mounting the clifif, it proved but a vanguard of many. 
Height on height of barefaced cliffs offered their re- 
sistance in succession, each crowned with snow- 
covered ledges. Gradually, however, they were van- 
quished, one by one, and at last I stood on the glory- 
crowned summit, ten thousand five hundred feet above 
the sea. 

Mts. Field, Burgess and Wapta lay far beneath. 
President and Vice-President gleamed and glistened in 
the near distance. Cathedral mountain, close by, 



Mt. Stephen 121 

seemed almost on a level. Here, there, everywhere, 
some in groups, others in serried ranks, were massed 
the war-scarred veterans of an innumerable host — the 
rugged remnants of a vast ancient plateau, stretching 
north, southeast and west, as far as the eye could see. 
All this vast array of snow-clad peaks, frowning 
precipices, glistening glaciers, and yawning gulfs, was 
burnished with the glowing hues of the setting sun. I 
watched him sink behind the distant fringe of peaks in 
the west, and when he was gone, how lonely and chill 
those somber old masses seemed. I shouted aloud, but 
my voice was immediately swallowed up in that awful 
stillness, for there was nothing to give it an echo. 

I did not stay long on the summit, for the raw, cold 
winds that had frozen the snow in crystals several 
inches long chilled one to the bone. The darkness of 
night began to swallow up the distant hills, and it was 
necessary to get down the cliffs while there was still 
light to see the way. I had gone but a short distance 
when, following a ledge around more to the south, I 
made a grand discovery. There, filling a steep, rugged 
ravine that seemed to extend all the way to Cathedra} 
mountain, was a smooth pathway of snow, steep as the 
roof of a house. One question flashed to my mind : 
would it be frozen too hard? I cautiously tried it. 
Yes! it was hard, but with care it could be travelled. 
By launching out freely and letting the whole weight 
come down on each foot at a time, the heels could be 
forced a couple of inches into the solid snow. Here, 
indeed, was the best kind of speedy going : swing out 
one foot, spring from the other, and land on the heel 
in an inch or two of snow. Each stride covered a 
distance of several feet, and it was possible to run down 
that steep precipice of snow as fast as I liked, but my 
life depended on each heel getting that little two inches 
of a hold ; one slip would mean a fearful slide to death. 
There was no danger of crevasses, for it was all new 
snow. 



122 Canadian Alpine Journal 

In an amazingly short time a descent of hundreds 
of feet had been made, until, finally, the bottom of the 
cliffs were reached. Then I started across and down 
that long, tedious slope of snow and boulders. The 
weary slope at last was ended, and I reached the rock- 
work, where someone had been prospecting for copper 
just above the fossil bed. Here I carefully felt the way 
down in the darkness, guided only by the light of the 
half-obscured stars, found my fossils and rejoiced 
because home was near. The lights of Field twinkled 
far below. 

With a load of fifty pounds or more in weight, 
weary, hungry, and thirsty, I found the trail at the 
foot of the fossil bed, when the going was easier. 
Then, at last, I came to the brook, and drank deeply 
of its cold, sparkling waters. On again through the 
midnight darkness of the woods, where the air was 
warm and balmy, until the welcome lights of Field 
came into view. I arrived safely at eight p.m., having 
enjoyed in twelve hours that which will take more than 
a long lifetime to forget. 



Editorial Note. 

So far as we are aware only four climbs, other than Mr. 
Kinney's, have been made of Mt. Stephen without the aid of 
Swiss guides, viz. : the two ascents, by the Government 
Topographer, J. J. McArthur and his assistant, T. Riley, in 
1887 and 1892 ; an ascent by Abbot, Fay, Field and Thompson 
in 1895 ; and an ascent by A. O. Wheeler's party in 1904. 
Never before or since has the climb been made by one man 
alone, and at a time of the year when the conditions are such 
as to be almost prohibitive. For this reason, if no other, the 
feat is remarkable. 

The mountain has now become the stock climb from Mt. 
Stephen House, the Canadian Pacific Railway Company's 
tourist hotel at Field, B.C. When making it, one, and often 
two Swiss guides are employed. The magnificent view from 
the summit more than repays the exertions of the climb. 



Glossary 123 



GLOSSARY OF MOUNTAINEERING TERMS 



Their Meanings as Used in Literature Relating to 
the Alpine Tracts of Canada. 



Compiled by Arthur O. Wheeler 

Aiguille — A needle-like rock-tower or pinnacle, iso- 
lated from a central mass. 

Alpenstock — A long stout staff, shod with a sharp 
steel point, used by mountaineers. 

Alps, Alplands — The open grasslands, meadows or 
slopes above timber-line; usually clad wtih 
heath, heather and beautiful mountain wild- 
flowers. 

Amphitheatre — A natural circular area, surrounded by 
rising ground, usually rock or snow masses. 

Arete — The sharp ridge, edge or rocky spur of a 
mountain; used in connection with snow as 
well as rock. 

Avalanche — Falling bodies of snow or ice, loosened 
from their hold by the heat of the sun. 

Berg — The integral rock mass rising above a snow- 
field; also, in the absence of snow, above the 
slopes of debris, or the alplands at its base. 

Bergschrund — The crevasse formed between the edge 
of a body of snow and a rock berg; one of the 
chief difficulties and dangers to be overcome in 
mountaineering. 



124 Canadian Alpine Journal 

Boulder Clay — A stiff, tenacious clay containing 
boulders of all sizes; found in the moraines of 
a glacier; corresponds to "till." 

Cache — A hiding place; a store of provisions, etc., 
hidden for future use. 

Cirque — A circle of rock peaks. 

Col — The crest of a neck or pass between two moun- 
tain peaks, usually though not necessarily 
covered with snow. 

Confluent Glacier — One, tributary to a trunk glacier; 
generally flowing from a greater elevation. 

Cornice, Snow Cornice — An overhanging edge of 
snow at the crest of a mountain peak or ridge, 
caused by drifting. 

Couloir — A steeply ascending gully, gorge or ravine 
in the side of a mountain or rock peak; gener- 
ally, though not necessarily, filled with snow. 

Crampon — A steel frame, set with sharp spikes, 
strapped to the boot to facilitate climbing on 
ice. 

Crevasse — A fissure or crack formed in a snow-field or 
glacier ; caused by non-elasticity of the ice when 
moving down the uneven surface of its rocky 
bed. Longitudinal crevasses are formed in the 
direction of the flow; transverse crevasses at 
right angles to the flow. 

Divide — The height of land between two drainage 
basins. The watershed. 

Dry Glacier — The portion of a glacier showing clear 
ice through melting of the snow covering. 

Firn — Accumulated snow while in a granular condi- 
tion and before it has been consolidated into 
the ice of a glacier; corresponds to the neve or 
snow-field forming the source of a glacier. 



Glossary 125 

Forefoot — The part of a dry glacier adjoining the 
terminal moraine. 

Gendarme — Name applied to an isolated rock tower 
or pinnacle, separated from the mass of which 
it had originally been a part. 

Glacier — The form in which snow falling on the 
higher parts of a mountian range, above snow- 
line, finds its way down into the valleys. The 
ice overflows from a firn or neve. 

Glacier Table — A block of stone, a boulder, supported 
by a column of ice which its shade has preserved 
from melting; generally seen on a dry glacier. 

Glissade — To slide down a steep snow-slope; per- 
formed sitting or standing according to the 
conditions of the snow. An ice-axe or alpen- 
stock is used to steer by. 

Grat — An edge or sharp ridge; corresponds to "arete." 

Hanging Glacier — An overhanging glacier, formed in 
a crevice on the cliffs of a mountain side. 

Hanging Valley — A tributary valley opening high up 
on the side of a main valley; often carved out 
by glacial erosion. It is generally marked by 
an abrupt step at the mouth, due to the eroding 
agency having continued its work in the main 
valley long after it had ceased in the hanging 
valley. 

Height of Land — The watershed between two drain- 
age areas. A crest from which the ground 
slopes in opposite directions; corresponds to 
''divide" or "watershed." 

Hoodoos — The name given in Western Canada to 
certain grotesque columns, the products of 
eroison, left standing on the slopes of moun- 
tains and deep gulches. 



126 Canadian Alpine Journal 

Ice-Axe, Ice-Pick — A tough wooden staff, about 3 ft. 
6 in. long, with an adze-shaped steel head at one 
end and a sharp spike at the other. Opposite 
the adze, the head is drawn to a point, some- 
times set with teeth. It is used to cut steps in 
steep ice or snow-slopes. 

Ice-Fall — The dry glacier. 

Langthal — A long valley. The depression between a 
moraine and the mountain side, usually filled 
with snow. 

Massif — A central mountain-mass. The dominating 
part of a range of mountains. 

Mittlegrat — A middle edge or ridge, as for instance: 
the rock-edge between two snow-fields or parts 
of a glacier. 

Moraines — The rock debris transported by a glacier 
and deposited at its base, along its sides, or 
between two separate ice-flows. They are re- 
spectively named : terminal, lateral, and medial 
moraines. 

Moulin — A nearly vertical shaft or circular cavity 
worn in the ice of a glacier by a surface rivulet 
falling into a crevasse, down which it pours in 
a sub-glacial cascade. 

Neve — The accumulated snow forming the source of 
a glacier; corresponds to "snow-field" or "firn." 

Nunatak — A crest or ridge of rock appearing above 
the surface of an ice-field or glacier. 

Reentrant — Rocks are spoken of as being at a reentrant 
angle, i.e., their faces slope inwards from the 
perpendicular. 

Roche Moutonnees — A group of scattered knobs of 
rock, rounded and smoothed by glacial action; 



Glossary 127 

so called from their resemblance to a flock of 
sheep lying down. 

Rock-Fall, Rock-Slide — An accumulation of broken 
rock fallen from the cliffs above, through disin- 
tegration of their masses ; often of considerable 
extent. 

Rucksack — A bag, especially adapted to the back, for 
carrying the impedimenta of a mountain 
climber. 

Schrund — A crack or crevasse in the ice of a glacier. 

Scree — Loose, broken shale at the foot of a cliff; 
slopes of debris fallen from above through 
disintegration. 

Seracs — Fantastic pillars of ice formed on a glacier 
by the intersection of longitudinal and trans- 
verse crevasses where the grade of its rock bed 
is broken by ledges or steps. 

Snow-Mushrooms — Accumulation of snow in the 
woods on trees, stumps, etc., resembling giant 
fungi of the species named. They are seen of 
great size and variety along the Canadian 
Pacific railway through the Selkirks. 

Snout — The most advanced part of a dry glacier; 
corresponds to "forefoot." 

Striae, Striation — Grooves, or scratches cut in rocks 
or boulder clay by the action of ice moving 
down an incline. 

Summit — The highest point of a mountain or peak. 
The lowest part of a mountain pass. The 
highest crest of a ridge. 

Talus — The mass of rock fragments lying at the base 
of a mountain cliff, formed by the accumulation 



128 Canadian Alpine Journal 

of pieces brought down from above by the 
action of gravity, frost, rain, etc. ; equivalent 
to "scree" or "debris." 

Till — A stiff clay containing boulders of all sizes up 
to several tons weight; often smoothed and 
striated by glacial action. 

Tongue — The extreme end of a glacier; corresponds 
to "forefoot" or "snout." 

Watershed — The divide between two drainage systems 
or catchment areas. The height of land be- 
tween streams flowing in opposite directions. 



Scientific Section. 



130 Canadian Alpine Journal 



THE MOUNTAIN WILDFLOWERS OF 
WESTERN CANADA 



By Julia W. Henshaw 

There is a region in Western Canada where the 
most exquisite wildflowers in the whole world bloom 
above the clouds; not singly or in groups, but in beds 
and banks these blossoms of every hue, and size, and 
form flourish with a rich luxuriance in the alpine 
meadows of the Rocky and Selkirk ranges, that recalls 
those tropical gardens only to be found on the irri- 
gated fringe of the desert. Yet how much more 
ethereal in texture and coloring are these hardy alpine 
plants, growing at an altitude of from 3000 to 9000 
feet above the level of the sea, than their fellow-flowers 
which grace the sultry lands of the Orient. 

In the Western mountain ranges lies the real Garden 
of Nature in Canada. It is a wild garden, and wild are 
its surroundings, a beautiful wilderness of wilding 
bloom, fragrant with the breath of Heliotropes and 
Violets, and glorified by the sheen of scarlet Indian 
Paint-brushes, yellow Arnicas, and purple Phacelias. 

Among the mountains there are plants peculiar to 
each particular locality, though there are also hundreds 
of species which abound equally in all the various dis- 
tricts. At Banfif, in the Rockies, the wildflowers are 
within the reach of all; for there they grace the low- 
lying meadows in every direction, are found in the 
thick forests, and out upon the dry stony slopes of the 
hillsides. At this spot H is quite unnecessary to climb 



Mountain WildHowers 131 

in search of them, as is more or less the case at Lake 
Louise and Glacier, for they seem to cover the whole 
locality with a richly colored profusion, which rivals 
the flower-beds in cultivated gardens. 

The Banff Hotel stands on the cliff, high above the 
confluence of the Spray and the Bow rivers; steep 
banks broken by large rocky prominences sweep down 
from its wide verandas to the boiling torrents below, 
and here in sheltered nooks and crannies grow the 
curiously-branched Coral-roots {Corallorhiza innata), 
while the tendrils of the white and purple Vetches trail 
over the stones, and the Wild Clematis {Clematis 
Columbiana) winds its leaf-stalks around the branches 
of adjacent bushes. Lower down you will find huge 
clumps of the Service-berry (Amelanchier almfolia), 
an attractive shrub bearing many clusters of snow- 
white blossoms amid its pale green foliage, and farther 
on the Fireweeds flare and flash like torches burning 
in the long grass. 

Along the banks of the Bow river stretch flat 
meadows where conifers grow sparsely, and the 
pungent scent of pine and balsam fills the air with 
subtle sweetness. The ground is covered with dry 
moss and a tangle of short green growths, above which 
tower tasselled rushes. Here flourish the exquisite 
white blossoms of the One-flowered Wintergreen 
(MoTieses uniflora), which has been so aptly named 
the "Single Delight," its waxen-petalled cups bent 
downwards close to the soil, and its delicate fragrance 
floating forth on the July breeze. 

The roads which thread the forests and lead to those 
hot sulphur springs which gush forth out of the 
mountain-sides in copious streams, are fringed by the 
small plant-like shrubs of the Birch-leaved Spiraea 
{Spiraea lucida), crowned in August by big clusters of 
creamy blossoms faintly tinged with pink, which smell 
extremely sweet, and are particularly attractive to the 



132 Canadian Alpine Journal 

eye of the traveller. Just where the road ends and the 
trail, which leads to the crest of Sulphur mountain 
surmounted by the Government Observatory, begins, 
you will find vast beds of the White Dryas {Dryas 
octopetala) growing in dry soil and exposed to the 
full glare of the sun, its silver-backed foliage carpeting 
the earth, and each large white corolla holding up a 
heart of gold. 

Then, should you leave the open road and seek to 
follow the narrow trail as it winds upward towards the 
eternal snows, what a wealth of bloom you will en- 
counter on every side. Great orange lilies flaming out 
from a bank of ferns, the yellow-flecked magenta 
Calypso {Calypso borealis) growing in its solitary 
beauty from a single bulb with a single leaf at the base 
of its slender stem, Columbines, Garlics, ^Monks-hoods, 
Anemones — there is no end to the floral treasures that 
spring to life at every step. Or should a happy inspira- 
tion seize you to visit the Cave and Basin, where one 
of the hot sulphur springs has been utilized to supply 
the magnificent swimming baths, and an ancient 
geyser, now extinct, has hollowed out a marvelous 
cave of eccentric formation, you will be rewarded by 
the sight of quite a different set of plants; for there 
the warm overflow of the water gushing down the 
hillside, nourishes wonderful clumps of bright blue 
Lobelia, huge azure Gentians, Asters, Sunflowers, 
purple Mints, Butterworts, and sweetest and most fas- 
cinating of all, the large showy spikes of the Ladies' 
Tresses {Spiranthes Romanzoffiana) , and the pale pink 
clusters of the Fly-spotted Orchis {Orchis rotundi- 
folia). 

Banff is by no means the only locality in the Rocky 
mountains where flowers abound. In the vicinity of 
Lake Louise the Western Anemone {Anemone occi- 
dentalis), with its white translucent cups, veined and 
tinged with purple, covers the higher slopes of the 




Photo, Jul la li'. Uniih, 



VKIvI.OW ADDER'S TOXGUE 
(Erythronium Giganteum) 



Mountain Wildflowers 133 

hills, following up the retreating line of the melting 
snows, in springtime and, later on, decorating the 
mountains with its fine feathery seed-heads. Here, 
too, the Wild Heliotrope ( Valeriana sitchensis) grows 
in profusion, the pink Swamp Laurel (Kalmia glauca) 
and the White Mountain Rhododendron; Heaths and 
Heathers, red, rose, and white, carpet the earth be- 
neath the Lyalls Larches, and are among the last vege- 
tation seen at "tree-line"; the Globe Flower {Trollius 
laxus), a great white bloom with a heart of gold, 
pushes its way up through the icy coverlet of winter, 
and the Romanzoffia, with its petals of pure velvet, 
nestles in the crevices of the rocks at an elevation of 
8000 feet. 

Field is the place where you will find the large Yel- 
low Lady's Slipper (Cypripedium pubescens) in all its 
rare perfection. On a long moraine which stretches 
up from Emerald lake to the foot of the Yoho valley, 
these huge orchids grow in thick clumps in the month 
of July. They are weird, uncanny flowers with big 
yellow pouches and long spiral petals, and very strange 
does it seem to find there, flourishing on alpine heights, 
those plants that we are accustomed to associate with 
South African jungles and tropical surroundings. 

As if in contradistinction to the exotic growth of 
these giant Orchids, you will also find at Feld the 
hardy Ox-eye Daisy (Chrysanthemum Leucanthe- 
mum), the white Canada Violet, the Ragworts, the 
Honeysuckles, the Cow Parsnips, and the Harebells, 
rioting all over the meadows, and clothing the earth 
with a coat of many colors. 

At Glacier the Yellow Adders Tongue (Erythron- 
ium giganteum) is, perhaps, the most attractive plant to 
travellers. I have seen these pale yellow blossoms, amid 
their pallid green leaves, glimmer at dusk with a lam- 
bent light beneath the shining star-sown fields of 
heaven, and at dawn have seen the whole mountain- 



134 Canadian Alpine Journal 

side break into bloom with exquisite odorous flowers, 
as if a manntle had been flung about the shoulders of 
the slopes, while at each step one had perforce to crush 
them under foot, so closely clustered did they grow 
among their smooth, spear-like shoots. 

To the true lover of nature there is no greater plea- 
sure than to stand where the snow-crowned mountains 
tower up to heaven, where the thin blue tint of the sky 
is stretched out over stony bastions, rising above the 
tall green conifers, and the alpine streams, ice-born in 
the heart of the sparkling glaciers, form a silvery net- 
work enmeshing myriads of bright-hued blossoms 
which bud and blow at the bidding of the summer sun. 
Such is the Garden of Nature where the mountain 
wildflowers of Canada grow 

" 'Twixt the green and the azure sphere." 

When you leave the Chalet Hotel at Lake Louise to 
follow the trail which leads into the Valley of the Ten 
Peaks, you begin the long slow ascent that ends on the 
shoulder of Mt. Temple, from whence you obtain an 
exquisite view of Moraine lake. Here you enter the 
wonderful flower-fields of the valley, where blossoms 
of every hue sweep in great waves of color from "tree- 
line'' down into the depths, 3000 feet below. Here the 
Indian Paint-brushes (Castilleia septentrionalis) and 
Painted-cups {Castilleia miniata) are to be found in 
all their glory, scarlet, red, pink, white, yellow and 
orange they abound on every hand. Mingled with 
them grow golden-silvery Hairy Hawkweeds (Hiera- 
cium Scouleri), Harebells (Campanula rotundifolia), 
Phacelias {Phacelia sericea), cherry-tipped Eriogo- 
nums (Eriogonum umbellatum), blue-eyed Speed- 
wells (Veronica alpina) and a dozen different species 
of Vetch, Saxifrage and Rock-cress. 

An alpine meadow is a spot of supreme beauty, 
where the Wild Clematis (Clematis Columbiana) and 
Macoun's Gentians (Gentiana Macoiinii) are blue as 




GREAT-FI^OVVERED GAII.I,ARDIA 
(Gaillardia Aristata) 



Mounfain Wildfloivers 135 

the sky overhead, while the Yellow Columbines (Aqui- 
legia Uavescens) toss their heads in the passing breeze 
and a thousand flowers spangle the grass, their star- 
like faces upturned to meet the smile of the sun. 
These alpine gardens, held close in the curved arms of 
the hills, or set like jewels on the bare breast of the 
stone bastions, are one of the great marvels wrought 
by Nature in the recesses of the Western mountains, 
the contrast between the beauty of the blossoms and 
their barren surroundings being as vivid as it is 
enchanting. 

The Bunch-berry (Cornus Canadensis) is a dweller 
in the dense forests, where its white cruciform flowers 
and scarlet fruits are familiar to all travellers. So also 
is the Queen-cup {Clint onia uniUora), so named by 
me in English in 1903, the name being now adopted in 
the Canadian nomenclature of plants; for queen it 
certainly is of all the lovely flower-cups which grow 
in the mountain valleys, its pure white petals forming 
a chalice fit for the First Lady in our land, and its 
large pale green leaves constituting a fitting back- 
ground for so ethereal a bloom. 

On the dry sunny flats at an elevation of from 4000 
to 5000 feet above the level of the sea, the Giant Sun- 
flowers (Helianthus giganteus), Great-flowered Gail- 
lardias {Gaillardia aristata), full-fringed Golden-rods 
(Solidago Canadensis, S. decumbens) and Heart-leaf 
Arnicas {Arnica cordifolia) flaunt their gay golden 
petals; tall and handsome plants they are and very 
attractive. Close beside them grows the frail little 
Wild Flax {Linum Lewisii), which droops as soon as 
it is gathered and withers at a touch, the humble 
Narrow-leaved Puccoon {Lithospermum angusti- 
foliuni), the Yellow Rattle {Rhinanthus Crisis- galli), 
Tall Lungwort {Mcrtensia panicidata) and Loco- weed 
{Oxytropis Lamherti), bushes covered with softly- 
blushing Prickly Roses {Rosa acicularis), flanked by 



136 Canadian Alpine Journal 

flocks of Pink Everlastings (Antennaria parvifolia 
var. rosea) and warm-scented Clovers (Trifolium 
pratense), realms of rose where the calm of green 
things growing tempers the lure of the coral and car- 
mine, and the grasses are gossiping as the migrant 
hosts of the Dandelions march on through Summer's 
wide-set door, with all their golden banners unfurled 
to the southern wind. 

Close beside the alpine lakes upon whose bosoms 
float flat lily-pads, and along the margin of those 
streams where wet-loving water-weeds wind their ten- 
drils about the drooping, dripping willow wands and 
Blue-eyed Grasses {Sisyrinchium angustifolium) 
twinkle like azure stars in the green firmament of the 
moss, the pale globular blossoms of the Small Winter- 
green {Pyrola Minor) hang in pearls upon each juicy 
stalk and myriads of Red Monkey-flowers (Mimulus 
Lezvisii) glimmer like lamps in the gloom of the 
thickets. 

Very early in the Spring the Pasque Flowers (Ane- 
mone Nuttalliana) appear in the land, their purple 
cups with silvery linings opening wide long before the 
fringed fern-like foliage develops about the thick 
downy stems. Very high up on some tiny plateau held 
in a hollow amongst the hills, some play-ground of the 
sun, where a patch of verdure is laid in the earth's 
brown lap, dew-drenched at dusk, ripened to sapphire 
by the sun at noon, wind-wrinkled by the gales that 
blow crisply off the glaciers, these large leaf-whorled 
Pasque Flowers spread in purpling waves across the 
waste, and turn the plateau into a paradise of flowers 
from whose violet rim runs the warm wine of love- 
liness. 

To the traveller the wildflowers of the Rocky and 
Selkirk mountains are a wonderful revelation of the 
prodigality and color-painting of Nature in these 
alpine regions ; while to the botanist they are a constant 



Mountain WildHowers 137 

source of interest and delight. There is no more beau- 
tiful, rich or varied alpine flora in the world than that 
of the British Empire, and it is the proud boast of 
Canada that within her Western borders grow the 
choicest specimens of many mountain wildflowers. 



Editorial Note. 

The foregoing article by Julia W. Henshaw, author of 
"Mountain Wild Flowers of Canada," published by William 
Briggs, of Toronto (price $2.00), was originally written for the 
'• Standard " of Montreal. It is now repviblished by permission 
of that paper, with amplifications, for the information of our 
members. 

No visitor to the Canadian Rockies should come without 
Mrs. Henshaw's book. Written in a most delightful and 
artistic manner, it furnishes a text that, while appealing to 
the layman in the simplicity of its language, does not neglect 
the scientific aspect of the subject. It is designed with the 
purpose of enabling the traveller to identify the various 
species seen and it fulfils its mission well. 



138 Canadian Alpine Journal 



GLACIER OBSERVATIONS 



By George Vaux, Jr., and William S. Vaux 

Of all the phenomena that attract the nature lover in 
the high mountains, possibly none is more interesting 
or appeals more strongly to the imagination than the 
glaciers. 

These vast bodies of ice, slowly meandering from 
the highest peaks and snow-submerged valleys, calling 
to mind that epoch when the polar ice cap covered the 
w^hole of Canada and the northern part of the United 
States, ever pushing onward with resistless force, give 
us a picture of the operation and unchangeableness of 
natural laws, which is most impressive. 

Whilst the glaciers of the Canadian Rockies and 
Selkirks cannot compare in size with those of Alaska 
and other far northern latitudes, there are probably no 
other mountain ranges in the world where the condi- 
tions are more favorable for glacial study and obser- 
vations. All the various types may be seen, and their 
location is such that they may be visited with the 
greatest ease by the tourist, and a continuation of 
observations made and records kept, which in the 
future will be of the greatest value in solving the many 
problems that are as yet unanswered respecting the 
action of glaciers. In no way can the Alpine Club of 
Canada do more to further scientific interests than by 
taking steps to carry on some work of this sort sys- 
tematically each year. 

Though much of it has already appeared in the 
Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of 
Philadelphia, it seems to be not amiss to give here a 
brief resume of the work which we have done on the 



Glacier Observations 139 

glaciers of this region, in the hope that it may prove 
not only interesting, but also that it may serve as a 
starting place and prevent duplication of effort. We 
shall, therefore, run the risk of repeating what is 
familiar to most of the readers of the Canadian Alpine 
Journal and, for continuity of treatment, say a word 
as to the theory of glaciers. 

Broadly speaking, a glacier may be said to be a mass 
of ice of sufficient volume to flow down from an ele- 
vation. With the heavy precipitation of snow charac- 
teristic of high mountain regions, it is one of the 
provisions of Nature by which an indefinite accumu- 
lation of snow and ice cannot occur. 

The Rocky mountain system in southern Canada 
consists of four principal ranges. Beginning with the 
west these are: the Coast range, the Gold range, the 
Selkirk range and the Main or summit range of the 
Rocky mountains, the two former being much lower. 
If now one will examine a map of the Pacific ocean 
upon which the currents are marked, he will see that 
the great Japan current flows in a northeasterly direc- 
tion along the Asiatic coast, until it divides, one branch 
continuing through Behring sea and strait into the 
Arctic, whilst the other and larger portion takes a 
great sweep to the east, until it strikes the American 
continent, when it turns southward, and flows parallel 
to the coast. Necessarily there is an enormous amount 
of evaporation from this great valume of warm water 
and the winds blowing over it are laden with moisture. 
Their prevailing direction is from west to east. Carry- 
ing their burdens of water vapor, they are responsible 
for the moist and mild climate of the northern portions 
of the Pacific coast of Northern America. Where 
these winds meet the cooler land currents of air, some 
precipitation occurs, but they are not seriously depleted 
of their moisture until they strike the cold Selkirks, 
when the precipitation is very heavy. As a result of 



140 Canadian Alpine Journal 

this the air current rises and so crosses the mountain 
range, only to be met beyond by the still colder and 
loftier Rockies, where most of the balance of the mois- 
ture is lost. Herein we see why the western slopes of 
these mountains have a much heavier rain and snow- 
fall than the eastern slopes and why it is that the great 
plains stretching from the foothills to the centre of the 
continent are comparatively so dry. 

In the lower levels this precipitation is in the form 
of rain, during most of the year at least. But when we 
reach the elevation of the higher mountains it is almost 
entirely fine granular snow, even in midsummer. On 
bright days part of this will evaporate, but the greater 
portion keeps on accumulating, until as the result of 
the pressure of the superimposed weight of new snow- 
falls, it gradually becomes compacted into hard solid 
ice. This ice is like that which forms in our rivers and 
lakes, except that its internal crystalline structure is 
different, owing to the different way in which it was 
formed. Now, if this were the end, the situation in 
our regions of high mountains would be very different 
from what it is, for the snow and ice would keep on 
increasing indefinitely, as the amount of melting at 
such high levels must be quite small, and conditions 
analogous to those of the polar regions would ensue. 
But Nature comes to the rescue. With the increasing 
pressure caused by the weight of the ice, to which is 
added the attraction of gravitation, the ice starts to 
flow ; very slowly, but none the less surely. It is hard 
for us to conceive of so brittle a substance as ice, as we 
know it, flowing. Yet it does ; and doubtless the inter- 
nal structure of the ice, above referred to, aids in this. 
But any ice under pressure is more or less plastic. The 
pressure exerted on these great bodies of ice by the 
weight above is tremendous, and their onward motion 
is resistless. Its effects are seen in the way in which 
ledges of the hardest rock are smoothed off, and often- 



Glacier Observations 141 

times most beautifully polished and grooved by the 
ploughing over their surfaces of rocks and stones 
caught in the ice. Possibly the simile frequently used 
of the way in which thick mortar will run when poured 
out of a bucket gives as good an idea as any of the 
manner in which the ice composing a glacier flows. 
The region of transformation of snow into ice is 
called the neve. 

There is still another and distinct apparent move- 
ment of glaciers, which is even more evident than that 
above described. Naturally when the ice stream 
reaches the lower and warmer altitudes, melting goes 
on more rapidly, until finally the end of the ice wastes 
away, and a stream or river ensues. Now, it is for 
only a very short time in each year, in the latitude that 
we are considering, that the temperature is such that 
the amount of daily melting of ice exactly corresponds 
with the daily advance produced by the flow of the 
glacier. Hence it is that we have an oscillation of the 
tongue, which in winter will gradually extend farther 
down the valley, whilst in summer it will gradually 
retreat. This same result of advance and retreat may 
also be produced by protracted changes of weather 
conditions as more or less precipitation, higher or 
lower mean annual temperature. Such must last, how- 
ever, for terms of years in order to produce anything 
more than a temporary effect upon the glacier. This 
characteristic has long been noted, and it is found that 
usually through long cycles varying from a dozen up 
to thirty or more years, the glaciers of a given region 
will show each year a net advance and then again for a 
succeeding period successive annual recessions. Our 
Canadian glaciers are no exception to this rule, and 
during the time they have been observed retreat has 
been the almost universal movement. 

Now, for a brief account of our personal observa- 
tions on the various glaciers which we have studied : 



142 Canadian Alpine Journal 

Illecillewaet Glacier {Glacier House). 

Its proximity to the Glacier House and the ease with 
which it can be reached, has caused this glacier to be 
more visited and more studied than any other in the 
whole region. Its size is not such as to cause it to 
command unusual attention, as there are many others 
which greatly exceed it. But its location has attracted 
attention to it ever since the opening of the Canadian 
Pacific railway, and from 1887 to the present, there 
have been more or less continuous records made. Our 
work has consisted : 

(a) In mapping the end of the glacier, with its 
several moraines and surroundings,' showing 
their conditions through a number of years. 

{b) Taking a series of "test photographs" in suc- 
cessive years, from the same position. 

(c) Measuring the amount of recession from year 
to year. 

{d) Measuring the rate of flow. 

(a) Several maps of the Illecillewaet glacier have 
been made. We have drawn two, one in 1899, and 
the other in 1906. Both are from actual surveys and 
photographs, showing the limits of the ice, the various 
adjacent moraines, and the rocks marked by various 
investigators. They may be found in the Proceedings 
of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. 

{b) Each year since 1899 we have taken a 6^x8^ 
photograph from a large boulder, located to the right 
of the trail, soon after it emerges from the forest. 
These pictures form a most interesting series, and a 
comparison of them gives a very accurate idea of the 
many changes in the ice as they have occurred. 

(c) Numerous individuals have marked rocks in the 
bed moraine of this glacier, giving bases from which 



Glacier Observations 



143 



to calculate the amount of recession. By correspond- 
ence and otherwise we have endeavored to collate all of 
this information, and it is recorded in these maps. The 
first systematic marking was done in 1888 by the Rev, 
W. S. Green. He daubed with tar a number of boul- 
ders adjacent to the ice, and its limitations that year 
may be easily made out by following these marked 
rocks. Our own work has also included the marking 
of the edge of the ice as it was in 1887 upon a large 
boulder beside the trail, just as one emerges from the 
alder bushes. A photograph taken at that time by us, 
and showing this huge rock imbedded in the ice, gave 
the basis for the mark. We have also marked several 
rocks in the bed moraine, and from one of these having 
on it a circle and cross the measurements have been 
made since 1900. 

The following table gives the results of the obser- 
vations for recession : 



Illecillewaet Glacier, Recession of Tongue of Ice 
from Rock C. 



Date of Observation. 



Aug, 17, 1898 

July 29, 1899 

Aug. 6, 1900 

Aug. 5, 1901 

Aug. 26,1902 

Aug. 25, 1903 

Aug. 14, 1904 

July 25, 1905 

July 24, 1906 



Distance Toneue of 
Ice to Rock C. 



60 feet 
76 „ 
140 „ 
155 ,. 
203 M 
235 „ 
240 A „ 
243' „ 

327 n 



Recession of Ice since 
previous year. 



16 feet 

64 

15 

48 

32 

54 

2i 
84 



(d) The most detailed and probably the most in- 
teresting work we have done, however, is the measure- 
ment of the rate of flow. Rev. W. S. Green made 
some observations, but, as he was not equipped with 



144 Canadian Alpine Journal 

proper instruments for the work," his results were not 
very satisfactory. In 1899 our own work of this sort 
began. A base line was laid out on the right moraine, 
at a point about 1000 yards above the tongue of the 
glacier. We had provided a number of square steel 
plates, painted bright red and lettered for identification. 
With the assistance of a transit these were laid out 
across the glacier in a straight line, and at points as 
nearly equidistant as possible. Some days later, and 
again in subsequent years, the position to which the ice 
had carried these plates was measured by trigono- 
metric methods, and then the rate of flow calculated. 

As time went on some of the plates were lost 
through their slipping into crevasses, or from other 
causes. We have reason to believe, however, that none 
of them were disturbed by visitors, which is a satis- 
faction. Finally they had flowed so far down that 
none of them could be seen from the ends of the base, 
and in 1906 a new set of plates was laid out. The 
interval of time at our disposal was too short to permit 
of any very satisfactory deductions from this new line 
of plates, apart from obtaining the rate of summer 
flow, but we are hoping to secure measurements the 
coming summer, which may add to the amount of 
knowledge we possess on this subject. 

The following tables summarize what has already 
been done: 



Glacier Observations 



145 



^0 






'-J 



^ 



o V . 



o «=» 

"33.5 - 

,,— P m 

r n M o 

q - Oi 

^ ;>< " 



c.s 



So 



^ H 5 



s^ 



— 0> 

S I" 



IJ.S ♦' 
S5 § 8 

2 c 3 a 
m'C C 

ir o o 



5 (C w 



.-I ^ .^ .- 

CO O ~ GO 

^ ^ ^ ^ 

e-i ^H t-^ po 



C C C 



•- j_5 (-1 k> i-l 

•" 03 "^ '" "^ 

GC C O C<) -^ 

GO I— i 



cc 


s 


CO 


CD 



CO T-H rH 



O O 
CO ■>* 
—I o 



a IB 



o o 



0) o 



C B 

o o 



O C 



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1— i(MCO-*lC«Dt^CO 
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146 



Canadian Alpine Journal 



Table Comparing Summer Daily Motion of Plates on 
lUeciUeivaet Glacier, 1899- 1906. 



18&9 — 36-day interval. 


1 

1906 


— 12-day interval. 




Feet from 


Average 


Average 


Feet from 




Number 


1906 


daily motion 


daily motion 




Number 


of Plate. 


ice edge. 


in inches. 


in inches. 


ice edge. 


of Plate. 








Plate lost 


92 


1 


1 


187 


2.56 














7.00 


276 


2 


2 


415 


3.90 








3 


520 


5.51 














11.33 


532 


3 


4 


668 


6.77 












» 


9.75 


727 


4 


5 


780 


6.06 








6 


900 


6.79 








7 


956 


6.16 














10.25 


1,020 


5 








8.85 


1,171 


6 


8 


1,220 


6.00 









Asulkan Glacier (Glacier House). 

Our work here has been on the same hnes as on the 
Illecillewaet, though our observations have not been as 
continuous, and no map was made and no attempt to 
measure the rate of flow till 1906. 

As respects recession, this glacier has shown more 
changes than some of the others. In 1901, a distinct 
advance occurred which lasted for about three years. 
Then recession again ensued. Our series of observa- 
tions was somewhat interfered with, because the large 
boulders in the moraine, which were employed to mark 
our datum line, were shoved forward by the ice in its 
advance, entirely obliterating the primary base line for 
our measurements. 



Glacier Observations 



147 



Table Showing Changes in Tongue of Asulkan Glacier. 

Awg. 12, 1899 " Rock opposite lined with snout." 

Aug. 8, 1900 .... Snout receded 24 feet. 

Aug. 6, 1901 Ice above rock 20 feet, 4 feet advance. 

Aug. 30, 1903. . . .Ice heloiu rock 16 feet, 36 feet advance since 

1901. 
July 23,1906 Ice lines with test rocks, or is in same 

position as in 1899. 

The method employed in 1906 to measure the rate 
of flow was identical with that used on the Illecille- 
waet. The accompanying table gives the results so far 
secured. 



Table Shozmng Average Daily Motion of Plates on 
Asulkan Glacier between July /j and 2^, 1^06. 



Plate. 


Total 
Motion. 


Average 

Daily 
Motion. 


Remarks. 


No. 7 


24 in. 
39 „ 

67 „ 
67 M 
63 „ 
89 M 


2.4 in. 
3.9 „ 
.5.5 „ 
6.7 H 

6.7 n 

6.3 „ 

8.9 „ 


Near right edge of ice. 

63 feet from R. edge. 

157 feet from R. edge. 

325 feet from R. edge. 


No. 8 

No. 9 


No. 10 


No. 11 


No. 12 


Close to left edge. 
On left moraine, resting on 
ice foot. 


Boulder 



Wapta Glacier {Yoho Valley)^ 

In 1 90 1, when we first visited this glacier, we 
marked on the bed rock the extent of the tongue, and 
also took test photographs from a large boulder high 
up on the right moraine. This work was repeated in 
1904 and in 1906. The work of the Scientific Section 
of the Alpine Club will demonstrate the rate of flow. 

The recession from 1901 till 1904 was 89 feet, an 
average of about 30 feet per annum. From 1904 till 
1906 apparently the glacier was practically stationary. 

* Now known as Yoho Gkicier. 



148 Canadian Alpine Journal 

Victoria Glacier {Lake Louise). 

We have made some measurements to show the re- 
cession of the Victoria glacier. Its whole lower 
portion is so deeply buried in morainal material that 
the tongue is very difficult to distinguish. The motion 
is also complex, as there is a sideways movement across 
the main stream caused by the inflow of the Lefroy 
glacier. The tongue at present appears to be on the 
left side. Here the recession appears to have been 
about 17 feet per annum between 1898 and 1903; since 
then, there has practically been no movement. 

We have also endeavored to approximate the rate of 
flow of this glacier at two different points, one near 
the forefoot, and the other about two miles further up. 
These observations were made with the aid of some 
large boulders, and the prismatic compass, by which 
means the position of the rocks was located in suc- 
cessive seasons relative to fixed points not on the ice. 
The amount of the flow was about 147 feet during 
the year 1899- 1900. 

We have also visited and photographed a number of 
other glaciers, but on none of them have we made any 
accurate measurements and observations. In the inter- 
ests of science, it is much to be hoped that the number 
of glaciers studied will be very largely extended. The 
field is an extensive one and there are many problems 
to be solved. 




ILLECILLEWAET GLACIER. 

BRITIbH COLUMBIA 



cj Piatt) plo cd pr. CU 









\v/ 



^•jsr!^'. 






The Yoho Glacier 149 



OBSERVATIONS OF THE YOHO GLACIER 



By a. O. Wheeler 

One of the objects of the recently organized Alpine 
Club of Canada is the study of prominent glaciers of 
the region, with a view to obtaining information con- 
cerning the formation and flow, advance or retreat of 
those upon which no observations have as yet been 
made, and of adding to existing information where 
some little work in this direction has been done. 
Speaking generally, it is desired to add the Club's mite 
to scientific knowledge of glacial action by instituting 
yearly observations of the more prominent and access- 
ible ice-cascades of the Canadian Rockies. 

With two noteworthy exceptions, the observations 
made thus far have been so casual as to be, practically, 
of no value. The exceptions are : those by George and 
William S. Vaux,* members of the Academy of 
Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, and by William 
Hittell Sherzer, Ph.D., of Michigan State College, 
under the auspices of the Smithsonian Institution of 
Washington. 

Investigations of the Illecillewaet glacier at the 
summit of the Selkirk range, near Glacier station on 
the Canadian Pacific railway, were begun by George 
and William S. Vaux in 1887, when photographs were 
obtained of the ice-tongue. They were taken up sys- 
tematically in 1894 and have been continued yearly 
since then. Other glaciers upon which they have made 
observations are : the Asulkan glacier in the Selkirks, 
and the Victoria and Yoho glaciers in the Main range. 



Active members of the Alpine Club of Canada. 



150 Canadian Alpine Journal 

The results of their labors — and a good deal of it has 
been hard work — are set forth in a number of mono- 
graphs written for the proceedings of the Academy of 
Natural Sciences of Philadelphia and for "Appal- 
achia," the publication of the Appalachian Mountain 
Club of Boston, and subsequently issued as excerpt 
copies. 

The expedition of Dr. Sherzer was made in 1904, 
supplemented by additional observations in 1905. He 
applied his investigations to five glaciers : The Vic- 
toria, Wenkchema and Yoho in the Main range, and 
the Illecillewaet and Asulkan glaciers in the Selkirk 
range. The account of his surveys and observations 
is given to the public in a most instructive and splen- 
didly illustrated monograph, reprinted from Smith- 
sonian Miscellaneous Collections (Quarterly issue), 
Volume 47, Part 4, No. 1567. In it Dr. Sherzer gives 
a description of the several glaciers, their sources, sur- 
roundings, action and general characteristics, and 
draws most interesting and conclusive deductions from 
his notes. The theory here advanced that the origin of 
"Block moraines" is due to seismic disturbance, is 
valuable in view of the fact that, at the present date, 
no snowfield or glacier in either range carries a load 
of rock fragments of sufficient size to form moraines 
similar to those studied by Dr. Sherzer under that 
name. The moraines referred to were found at no 
great distance from the ice-tongues of the Victoria, 
Wenkchema and Illecillewaet glaciers. 

Owing to close proximity of the Club's annual camp 
for 1906, the Yoho glacier was the first taken up, and 
the initial work last summer is now set forth : 

The triangular elevated area of mountain peaks and 
ridges bounded on the eastern side by the trough of the 
Bow and Mistaya rivers, on the western side by the 
trough of the Amiskwi river. Blaeberry river and 
Middle Fork of the Saskatchewan river, and on the 



The Yoho Glacier 151 

south by the trough of the Kicking-Horse river and 
Bath creek, comprises the Waputik mountains along 
the Bow river, the President range along the Amiskwi 
river, and a high range of peaks, as yet without specific 
name, extending into the apex of the triangle. It con- 
tains approximately 400 square miles and nearly 
through its centre lies the line of the Continental water- 
shed, attaining a maximum elevation of 10,731 feet 
above the sea in Mt. Balfour, situated near the centre 
of the tract. 

The accumulated ice and snow collected in the inter- 
ior basin, or series of basins, of this mountain area is 
named on Government maps the "Waputik Snowfield." 
This snow or icefield — the latter a more appropriate 
term, for the snow is but a shallow covering — is prac- 
tically cut in two by Mts. Gordon and Olive and the 
ridges of which they form a part. The northern and 
larger part is the one with which we have to do at 
the present, and, for the sake of convenience, it is here 
spoken of as the *'Wapta icefield." It has an area of 
approximately from twenty to twenty-five square miles, 
and is enclosed in a basin surrounded by Mts. Gordon, 
Olive, Thompson, Baker, Aysha peak, Mts. Collie, 
Habel and McArthur, Isolated and Yoho peaks, to- 
gether with their connecting ridges. 

In its turn, the icefield is divided into three principal 
component parts by lateral rock ridges having precipi- 
tous escarpments facing westerly and covered on the 
eastern sides by snow, where it has piled up in great 
mounds and slopes. The most western section drains 
to the Yoho valley, which opens southward from the 
centre of the tract, chiefly by the Habel glacier, the 
source of Twin Falls creek. There is also an outflow 
to the north, between Mts. Habel and Collie. The 
next section drains both north and south, but chiefly 
to the south, the iceshed lying close to the northern 
edge. It furnishes the supply for Yoho glacier, the 



152 Canadian Alpine Journal 

principal source of the stream of that name. Section 
No. 3 contains the Continental watershed and drains 
in small part to No. 2, but chiefly to the east by the 
Bow glaciers, forming the main source of the Bow 
river, and by Peyto glacier, a source of the North 
Saskatchewan river. There are a number of minor 
overflows, but those named are the principal. 

Owing to its position, balanced astride of the Contin- 
ental divide, the Wapta icefield is of exceptional inter- 
est. It feeds four good-sized streams. Two lead 
through mountains and rolling plains to the Atlantic 
ocean and two, by a wilder and more broken route, 
through canyons and dense forests to the Pacific : on 
the north the Blaeberry river, on the south the 
Kicking-Horse river, both tributaries of the mighty 
Columbia; and on the east the Bow river, flowing to 
the Saskatchewan by a devious southern route, and 
Mistaya river, flowing direct to the Saskatchewan and 
thus to Hudson's bay. 

The Yoho glacier is the largest outflow from the 
Wapta icefield. It has little length — less than two 
miles, — breaking almost directly from its neve be- 
tween the rocky steeps of Mt. Gordon on the east and 
Yoho peak on the west, the latter separating it from 
the Habel glacier. On account of the short run be- 
tween rock-bound sides, the glacier carries a very 
small amount of debris and is of remarkable purity. 
For the same reason its moraines are poorly developed. 
A short distance above the tongue, the ice stream 
divides and flows around a knob of rock or "nunatak," 
which it covered at an earlier date and has now almost 
wholly encircled by a moraine. The eastern arm is 
small. At the head of this rock outcrop the main flow 
breaks into a series of beautiful seracs, reaching across 
the entire channel in chaotic confusion. The rock 
sides of Yoho peak, show very distinctly the "pluck- 
ing" or stripping action of the ice when the glacier 



The Yoho Glacier 153 

was much larger and far more powerful than at 
present. The accompanying illustration shows the 
dividing rock embossment surrounded by moraine and 
the wildly broken seracs extending across the glacier. 
The action of the glacier as an irresistible plane, 
shaving off the mountain side, is well depicted on the 
left hand. 

The main stream of the Yoho river issues from a 
fine cave which it has hollowed out in the ice-tongue. 
The front of the forefoot is precipitous, rising sharply 
about 150 feet. The slope then assumes a more gentle 
phase, and walking on the ice between the crevasses, 
which are here longitudinal, is an easy matter. 

On the 14th of July, a committee of five members of 
the Alpine Club left camp with one of the daily parties 
making the round trip of the Yoho valley. They 
stopped for the night at Laughing Falls camp and 
started early next morning for the glacier. On the 
road they picked up Mr. George and Miss Vaux, who 
were camped several miles nearer the ice. 

Three independent sets of observations were made 
to establish initial data from which to start a series of 
annual observations: (i) to obtain rate of flow; (2) 
to ascertain retreat or advance; (3) to observe the 
annual change in the ice formation at the snout. For 
the first, a row of metal plates were fixed in position 
across the main ice stream. A suitable base line was 
then carefully measured along the mountain slope on 
the eastern side, at a height overlooking the ice. While 
reaching this position, an interesting feature was no- 
ticed in a long line of piled-up tree trunks in various 
stages of decay, parallel to the trend of the glacier. 
The adjoining slopes have been swept clear of timber 
by an avalanche, and are now covered by scrub growth 
and a few small trees, indicating that, at the time of the 
avalanche, the ice of the glacier was on a level with 
the tree trunks. It is at the present time several hun- 



154 Canadian Alpine Journal 

dred feet distant and many feet below. In his mono- 
graph, Dr. Sherzer refers to this feature and states 
that he measured the oldest living tree he could find 
growing in the path of the avalanche, and it had only 
47 rings of growth. 

Six plates, eight inches square and a quarter-inch 
thick, having on the under side a piece of inch and a 
quarter pipe, one foot long, to act as an anchor, were 
now set at approximately regular distances across the 
width of the glacier, at a place where the surface was 
slightly undulating, and as nearly as possible at right 
angles to the flow. At each point where a plate was set 
a hole was bored in the ice with an augur and the 
anchor dropped into place. A surveyor's transit was 
next set at each end of the measured base and angular 
readings taken on poles placed in the centre of the 
plates, thus fixing their position accurately with regard 
to the established base line. The ends of the base line, 
on prominent boulders embedded in the mountain side, 
were carefully marked with red paint and a suitable 
inscription. Similar readings taken from the same 
base points at any future date will at once indicate the 
changed position of the plates and, provided there has 
been no local displacement, will give an accurate esti- 
mate of the flow of the surface of the glacier at each 
point where a plate was set. 

The plates and method were the same used by 
Messrs. George and William S. Vaux for the Illecille- 
waet glacier. It was now found — and has since been 
learned that the same experience applied to the Illecille- 
waet glacier — that the kind of plate used was not a 
good one; for, returning across the ice later on, it was 
seen that each plate was raised more than an inch 
above the surface, OAving to the melting of the ice 
where exposed to the sun, which had not taken place to 
a similar extent at the bottom of the holes. It is pre- 
sumed this will continue, day by day, until the plate 



The Yoho Glacier 155 

topples over. Even then, it should remain stationary 
on the surface, unless struck by a rolling boulder or 
undermined by a rivulet. 

Work was next carried to the moraines in front of 
the ice-tongue, on the east side of the river. They are 
of a somewhat nondescript character and represent 
rather incipient lateral moraines, formed by the ice- 
nose during its protracted retreat, than perfectly 
formed terminal moraines. The valley floor is here 
traversed by rock ribs, grooved and polished by the ice, 
stretching down it longitudinally. On one of these 
moraines two, deeply imbedded, boulders were marked 
with red paint and the distance measured to the near- 
est ice for future reference. Photographs, also, were 
taken from the boulders for annual comparison of the 
changes occurring in the ice front through melting and 
disintegration. 

Mr. George Vaux pointed out the marks placed by 
Miss Vaux in 1901, which were still quite legible. At 
that date a line was drawn in red paint down one oi 
the rock ribs referred to, as nearly as possible at right 
angles to the flow of the most advanced ice. It was 
now found that the most advanced ice had retreated 
about seventy-six feet, yielding an annual average 
retreat of fifteen feet. This, however, would not 
necessarily represent the retreat for any one year, for 
the ice may have been stationary or even have 
advanced a little during the period. 

In his notes of the Yoho glacier, Dr. Sherzer writes : 
"In August, 1 90 1, independent marks were established 
by Miss Vaux and H. W. DuBois, from the former of 
which it was found that the ice here has retreated 1 1 1 
feet in three years, or at an average rate of 37 feet a 
year. This measurement was made to the glacier itself 
and not to the detached block which has been the nose. 
Measured to the block, the distance was 92.1 feet, 
giving an average of nearly 31 feet a year, with a 



156 Canadian Alpine Journal 

retreat of 23 feet for the year 1903-4." The measure- 
ments now made were to the nearest ice. Mr. Vaux's 
marks were renewed and the present farthest point of 
advance marked on the same rock rib, at a distance of 
seventy-six feet. 

On the western side of the stream, a gigantic boulder 
was found, marked with the legend, "Sr., A, 8|i7|'o4. 
To ice 79.4 ft." The marks and measurement were 
made by Dr. Sherzer in 1904. A measurement now 
made to the nearest ice gave 79.6 feet, showing that 
the ice was, practically, in the position it had occupied 
when the previous measurement was made. 

The accompanying map of the tract here referred to 
as the Wapta icefield is copied from a topographical 
map of the Yoho valley section of the mountains, now 
in course of preparation from Government photo- 
graphic surveys, and is reproduced by permission of 
Dr. E. Deville, Surveyor-General of Dominion lands. 

During the annual camp of the Club for 1907, the 
above observations will be checked and the changes 
noted for contribution to a series of records. Obser- 
vations, also, will be commenced on the Horseshoe 
glacier at the head of Paradise valley, where the 
annual camp will be held. 



Field Notes, Yoho Glacier 



157 



FIELD NOTES OF OBSERVATIONS. 

Taken on the Yoho Glacier, 

July 15th, 190(1 



To Obtain Rate of Flow. 



Readings taken on plates set across the ice forefoot of the Yoho Glacier, 
from a base on the eastern mountain slopes. 

Readings at Sta. A. 





Circle Right. 


Circle Left. 




A B 


A B 


onB 


= 180^00' 


360°00' 


360°00' 


180=00' 


on No 


1 = 102°08' 


282°07' 


282°07' 


102=06' 




2= 95-41' 


275°40' 


275°40' 


9.539' 




3= 93°45' 


273=44' 


273^44' 


9;r43' 




4= 90°54' 


270°.54' 


270°53' 


90 52' 




5= 88°58' 


268°58' 


268"57' 


8856' 




6= 87°46' 


267"46' 


267°65' 


87=44' 



Fob Advance or Retreat. 

On terminal moraine on east bank of river, rock No. 1, 
marked : — 

" A.C.C., No. 1, July 15, 1906. 
Nearest ice 274ft." 

At highest point of moraine, at a distance of 79.3 feet south- 
erly from rock No. 1, took photograph of most advanced ice. 

(See Plate) 

Rock No. 2, on same moraine, marked : — 

" A.C.C., No. 2, July 15th, 1906, 33.6 ft." 

Took photograph of front of glacier from this rock. 

Mr. George Vaux renewed the marks placed by Miss Vaux 
in August, 1901. 

The marks were :— " V | X, Aug., 1901." 

These were placed an west face of a rib of rock on the east 
side of the river, ae nearly as possible at right angles to the 
line of the most advanced ice. 

Took photograph of front of glacier at a point along rock 
rib, 6^ feet nearer to the ice. Marked this point " V. P." 

(See Plate) 



158 



Canadian Alpine Journal 



At a point 76.5 feet northerly, along the same rock rib, 
marked west face of rock as follows ;— 



A. C. C. 

Pt, of 

ice 
with 



July 15, 
1906 

in line 

rock mark'd 

"A" on opp. bank 

(Sherzer) 



Sight line is parallel to face 
of glacier as nearly as could 
be judged. 



On west bank of stream, on old lateral moraine, found large 
boulder marked by Dr. Sherzer as follows : — 

"Sr" 

"A 8/17/'04" 

"X To ice 79-4 ft." 

Measured from this boulder to nearest ice on left hand = 
79.6 feet ; and to nearest ice on right hand = 89.5 feet. 



o 

X 

K n 

2 5 

^ ■ 






U5 



•fl 



O JO 

11 o 




u^V^^ 



rs 






o^\s 






B io P/ofe 6^ 92 "75 

5-^ 97°05 

„ „ " ^ = 89" 07' 
" " " 3 - <96-V6 

a to P/afe 1 = 7 7° S3 




n\\ 



ffoctr m MiLLSioc 



A/OftTM £a/D 



Scale, -4- cAa/nS (26^ft ) to an /nch 



Skctoh showing the Position or Plater 
SET ON YoHO Glacier to mark rate of FLoyhf. 



Official Section. 



160 Canadian Alpine Journal 



ALPINE CLUB NOTES 



The Editorial Committee desires to acknowledge 
with sincere thanks the hearty response to its request 
by contributors of articles to the first issue of the 
Canadian Alpine Journal ; also contributions of photo- 
graphs for illustrative purposes from the following: 
Sir Sandford Fleming, Mrs. J, W. Henshaw, Miss M. 
Vaux, George Vaux, Jr., Howard DuBois, Prof. Chas. 

E. Fay, Prof. H. C. Parker, Rev. S. H. Gray, Frank 
Yeigh, F. W. Freeborn, W. T. Robson, W. Nicholson, 

F. C. Brown, A. O. Wheeler, M. P. Bridgland, W. S. 
Jackson, P. D. McTavish, and D. Warner. 



Attention is called to the excellent illustrations in 
this volume by Byron Harmon. Mr. Harmon at- 
tended the Yoho camp, and obtained a fine lot of alpine 
and camp views. Full sets or any number required, 
can be had on application. His studio at Banff is pre- 
pared to furnish most artistic and beautifully finished 
views of the Rocky mountain region, particularly of 
the vicinity of Batiff, at a low cost. 

The pictures here reproduced were presented to the 
Club by Mr. Harmon. 



It is understood that the Rev. Geo. R. B. Kinney, of 
Michel, B.C., has a series of fine views taken during 
the camp week, which may be had on application 
Several of them appear in this volume. 



Alpine Club Notes 161 

We wish also to tender our sincere thanks to the 
Detroit Photographic Company, who have kindly 
volunteered to place their series of Canadian Rocky 
Mountain views at our disposal for illustrative pur- 
poses. The fact that we have not taken advantage of 
the offer is due to the large amount of illustrative 
material supplied to the Journal by our own members. 

We now take this opportunity of calling the atten- 
tion of our members to the magnificent Rocky moun- 
tain views placed on the market by this company. They 
are from the camera of the well-known traveller and 
lecturer, Mr. G. H. Peabody, whose work is justly cele- 
brated for artistic effect and clearness of detail. The 
Company sells these beautiful seven by nine-inch 
views, with highly glazed finish, for the moderate sum 
of fifty cents each. 



The Alpine Club of Canada will always be glad to 
give information to parties desirous of visiting the 
Canadian Rockies for the purpose of camping, hunt- 
ing, fishing, exploring, or viewing the scenic splendors 
of the region. It will also place such parties in com- 
munication with reliable outfitters and guides, a num- 
ber of whom are connected with the Club. 

Requests for the above information should be 
addressed to the President, Arthur O. Wheeler, Box 
167, Calgary, Alberta, Canada. 



It is suggested to members who contemplate making 
trips in the Canadian Rockies for the purposes above 
named, that they should secure the services of those 
outfitters and guides who warmly supported the organ- 
ization of the Club, and who gave their services and 



162 Canadian Alpine Journal 

outfits free of charge to make a success of the first 
summer camp at the summit of the Yoho pass. That 
they are competent men is well illustrated by their 
splendid work at the camp. 

Their names are : R. E. Campbell, Laggan and 
Field; Otto Bros., Field, Leanchoil and Golden; E. 
C. Barnes, Banff; S. H. Baker, Glacier. 



It is desired, specially, to bring to the notice of our 
members, Mrs. J. W. Henshaw's recently published 
book, ''The Mountain Wildflowers of Canada," em- 
bracing the flowering plants within the tract of country 
lying between the prairie and the Pacific ocean, along 
the line of the Canadian Pacific Railway. The book 
is an excellent work and will undoubtedly become one 
of the text-books of the region, upon this particular 
subject. 

The plan of arrangement by colors, much simplifies 
the grouping of specimens collected, and the indexing 
under both English and scientific names renders iden- 
tification easy. The book fills a long-felt want by 
those who are not scientific, and Mrs. Henshaw has 
conferred a great boon on the public by her splendid 
work. 

It may be had from Wm. Briggs, of Toronto — 
price $2.00. 



It will be seen by reference to the Librarian's report 
that contributions to our library already amount to 
seventeen volumes, the majority valuable works relat- 
ing to the Canadian Rocky mountains. The President 
also has in hand a large number of photographs and 



Alpine Club Notes 163 

maps awaiting a suitable building in which they can 
be set up. Every possible endeavor should be made 
by our members to augment this nucleus of a library. 
A movement is now on foot to obtain a suitable 
building at a suitable spot, where these valuable books, 
maps, and photographs may be placed to the best 
advantage. The matter will be brought up at the 
coming annual meeting in Paradise valley. 



The Executive of the Club will always be pleased to 
furnish to members, as far as it can, information 
concerning the mountain regions of Canada, and 
mountain regions generally. It is hoped to publish 
with our next issue a complete bibliography of the 
Canadian Rockies. 

Those desiring information on the subjects indi- 
cated above are requested to address the Secretary of 
the Club, Mrs. H. J. Parker, i6o Furby street, 
Winnipeg, Manitoba. 



164 Canadian Alpine Journal 

REPORT OF SECRETARY 



The Editorial Committee of this journal has asked me to 
give a sketch of the Alpine Club, with a report of its progress 
up to April 15th of the current year. To begin before the 
beginning, it was foreshadowed twenty-four years ago on a 
clear, bracing, sunny day, when Sir Sandford Fleming, 
K.C.M.G., his son, S. Hall Fleming, the late Principal Grant 
of Queen's University, and party with pack train emerged 
from the slow, difficult forest trail and rested at the welcome 
meadow on Rogers' pass. Inspired by the glacier-mountains 
rising far and high about them, they resolved themselves into 
a Canadian Alpine Club; elected officers; passed a resolution 
of gratitude to Major Rogers, discoverer of the pass; proposed 
the conquest of the most formidable peak in the whole region; 
drank the Club's health in a stream sparkling at their feet; 
and so ended. But the incident was prophetic as well as gay 
and picturesque. And that the element of gaiety was in it, 
Sir Sandford gives evidence, when he tells how these grave 
and reverend seniors performed a game of leapfrog as an act 
of Olympic worship to the deities in the heart of the Selkirks. 

Since that day on Rogers pass, the alpine idea has been 
stirring in the Canadian mind, faintly at first and slowly, but 
gradually increasing until it gathered enough momentum to 
be called by that potential term — a movement. In the winter 
of 1905-6, appeals were made privately and through the press 
to persons proper to the project — appeals which won a response 
justifying the calling of a meeting in March, when twenty- 
eight delegates from every part of the Dominion gathered in 
Winnipeg, and the movement assumed tangible form, on 
March 27th, Mr. A. O. Wheeler, F.R.G.S., assisted by the Rev. 
Dr. Herdman, gave an illustrated lecture, "The Wonderland of 
Canada." On the following day at noon Mr. Wheeler addressed 
the Canadian Club on Canadian Mountaineering, and in the 
afternoon the Club was formally organized, with seventy-nine 
members. Sir Sandford Fleming being chosen as Patron and 
Mr. Wheeler as President, both by hearty acclamation. The 
inaugural dinner followed in the evening, when some stirring 
speeches were made born of experiences in rare altitudes, ana 
the healths of the King (God bless him!), the Club and its 
officers, were drunk with all the enthusiasm of a young 
mountaineering organization. 

The seventy-nine members of a year ago have, up to the 
present date of writing, increased to two hundred. Member- 
ship is divided into five grades: Honorary, Associate, Active, 
Graduate and Subscribing. The first named consists of those 
who are eminently distinguished in mountaineering, explora- 
tion or research. Among the eight elected as honorary 
members of the Alpine Club of Canada, are Professor Charles 
E. Fay, President of the American Alpine Club; Edward 
Whymper and Dr. J. Norman Collie, of the English Alpine 



Report of Secretary 165 



Club, and Colonel the Hon. A. Laussedat, of the Geographical 
Society of Paris. Associate members are those who may not 
or may be able to qualify as active members, yet who wish to 
strengthen the Club by contributing twenty-five dollars annu- 
ally to its maintenance. The first to volunteer as an associate 
member was Mr. J. D. Patterson, Woodstock, a well-known 
climber. Sir Sandford Fleming, and Mr. Wm. Whyte, Second 
Vice-President, Canadian Pacific Railway Company, followed, 
and then the Rev. C. W. Gordon, D.D., and E. B. Drewry, Esq. 
To these original associate members, other five have been added 
during the year. Active members are those who have made 
an ascent of at least 10,000 feet above sea level in some recog- 
nized alpine region; or those who have contributed to Canadian 
Alpine literature by scientific publications, based upon personal 
experience. Graduating members are those not yet qualified 
for active membership, but who are given two years to become 
so. This probation is not renewable under the auspices of the 
Club. Subscribing members are those who wish to keep in 
touch with the Club by receiving its reports and other litera- 
ture. They have no other privileges. Active members pay 
$5.00 annually, or $50.00 for a life membership. We have one 
life member — Professor Herschel C. Parker of Columbia Uni- 
versity. The annual fee for graduating and subscribing 
members is $2.50 and $2.00 respectively. 

The Constitution provides for a summer camp in some 
strategic place, where graduating members may qualify for 
active membership, and all except subscribing members may 
foregather for climbing and mountain study. The first session 
of this school of mountaineering was held July 9-16, 1906, on 
the summit of the Yoho pass, between two grey rock-peaks, by 
the margin of a mountain tarn of purest emerald-green, the 
most limpid and radiant eye that alplands ever opened to see 
blue sky, withal. Forty-four graduated to active membership 
and one hundred or more members were in attendance at some 
time during the week. Bight high mountains were climbed 
and daily excursions made to contiguous points of interest, 
and into the Yoho valley to the Wapta glacier, where metal 
plates were set out to measure its movement. 

For the unqualified success of this first annual "meet" of 
the Club, first credit is due to the President, whose generalship, 
including a patient and amiable faculty for detail, won 
enconiums from all. Thanks to Mr. Wheeler, the "meet," 
which began as an experiment, ended as an institution. 
Hearty thanks are owing to many others, but notably to Mr. 
J. D. Patterson; to the Dominion and Alberta Governments; 
to the C. P. R. Company, the Royal North -West Mounted 
Police, the Superintendent of the National Park; and last but 
not least, to those fine fellows and true lovers of the hills, the 
men in buckskin — our mountain outfitters. Without the 
generous help of all these, the Yoho camp had not been 
possible. 

The next session of this charming summer school will be 
in Paradise valley, where there are a score and more glacier 
mountains near at hand. The present indications are that the 
attendance will be much larger than last year. The camp will 



166 Canadian Alpine Journal 

be situated on a beautiful meadow at the foot of the Horseshoe 
glacier, at the base of Mt. Hungabee, which closes the valley 
on the south. These delightful summer outings are no idle 
holiday. There is no foolishness in mountaineering; it is too 
vigorous a pastime. Even the nonsense that may escape at 
intervals around the camp-fire takes on a sober coloring from 
the grim old heights, that have kept watch for ages over these 
gaily-flowered alpine meadows and sombre green wooded 
valleys. 

During the Christmas season, the President made an 
Eastern tour, giving illustrated lectures at "Winnipeg, Toronto, 
Woodstock. Collingwood and Ottawa, thereby awakening 
interest in mountaineering and adding somewhat to the Club's 
exchequer. In Ottawa, he addressed the Canadian Club on 
Canadian mountaineering. 

On January 11th, a meeting was held at Winnipeg to discuss 
the affairs of the Club. The meeting was adjourned to Cal- 
gary for the 17th of January. It was decided to publish the 
first issue of the Canadian Alpine Journal under the auspices 
of the Club, and $800.00 of the Club's revenue was voted for 
this purpose. It was also decided to contribute $50.00 to help 
pay for the handsome marble monument recently erected in 
honor of Sir James Hector at Laggan station by his friends 
in Canada, the United States and England. 

The affairs of the Club are in its own hands under the 
Executive, which advises and acts independently, if the Club 
may so direct. Election to membership is by vote of the whole 
Club through the ballot. The standard of qualification may not 
be lowered, but as climbing becomes more general, it will 
certainly be raised. The Alpine Club of Canada is as demo- 
cratic as the Church itself: any man of good character who 
fulfils the conditions of active membership, is eligible. 

The first annual meeting was held on the summit of the 
Yoho pass by the light of the camp-fire, when the President 
gave an address and the Secretary and Treasurer presented 
reports. The officers were all re-elected, and Mr. S. H. Mitchell 
was appointed Assistant Secretary. Mr. Mitchell is both effi- 
cient and willing, and has borne the burden of the Secretary's 
work ever since. Very few days pass without letters of enquiry 
or applications for membership. 

The Club is growing fast, but not too fast. The only royal 
road to membership is by the "Associate" way of twenty-five 
dollars a year. It is a worthy way and an honorable for men 
whose circumstances will not permit them to qualify, by way 
of crag and precipice and glacier; and it is money invested in 
nationhood, yielding a far-off interest, not of tears but of 
noble, patriotic temper. For the Alpine Club of Canada will, 
more than any national sport in the Dominion, weld together 
the provinces in the bonds of brotherhood; and furnish training 
in the more Spartan virtues of times of peace. It will not be 
many years before it will have entrenched itself deep in every 
province between the two oceans, when its membership will be 
in the thousands, and each and everj' Canadian mountaineer 
make the Club's motto his own — "sic itur, ad astra." 

Elizabeth Parker, Secretary. 



Report of Treasurer 167 



STATEMENT OF TREASURER 

to 31st December, 1906. 



Receipts. 

Proceeds of illustrated lecture by Messrs. 
Wheeler and Herdman, on "The Wonderland 

of Canada," of the 27th of March, 1906 $ 17 45 

Associate members' fees 150 00 

Active members' fees 332 00 

Graduating members' fees 92 00 

Proceeds of summer camp in the Toho valley. 26 47 

Total $617 92 

Disbursements. 

Printing and stationery $ 49 03 

Typewriting- 1^0 

Postage and express 19 60 

Bank exchange and commission 80 

Total 70 93 

Balance on hand $546 99 

D. H. Laird, Treasurer. 

22nd April, 1907. 

We have examined the books and accounts of the 
Treasurer of the Club to 31st December, 1906, and 
find them correct and that the above is a correct 
summary. 

S. H. iVIitcheli, 

J. Holmes Graham. 



168 Canadian Alpine Journal 



REPORT OF LIBRARIAN 



The library of the Alpine Club comprises seventeen 
volumes, all of which have been donated. They may be 
enumerated in order of donation, as follows: — "The Selkirk 
Range," two volumes, from the author, A. O. Wheeler; "Dent's 
Mountaineering," from S. H. Mitchell; "Among the Selkirk 
Glaciers," by the Rev. W. S. Green, presented by Ferdinand 
Meinecke; "England and Canada, a Summer Tour between 
Old and New Westminster," from the author, Sir Sandford 
Fleming, K.C.M.G.; "Mountain Wildflowers of Canada," by 
Julia W. Henshaw, the author; "The House of Sport," com- 
posite authorship, from S. H. Mitchell; "Climbing in the Hima- 
layas," from Dr. J. Norman Collie, the author; also "Climbs 
and Explorations in the Canadian Rockies," by H. E. M. Stut- 
field and Dr. J. Norman Collie, presented by Dr. Collie; "A 
Guide to Zermatt and the Matterhorn," from Edward 
Whymper, the author; "Camp Fires in the Canadian Rockies," 
by Hornaday and Phillips, presented by the Secretary; four 
volumes of "Appalachia," covering the years of mountaineering 
in the Rockies and Selkirks, from the Appalachian Mountain 
Club; an edition de luxe, "California and Alaska and over the 
Canadian Pacific Railway," by William Seward Webb, pre- 
sented by W. T. Robson; and "Canada," painted by T. Mower 
Martin, described by Wilfrid Campbell, the gift of Clark Bros. 
& Co., Winnipeg. 

In addition, the Club has received by purchase the first 
number of a series of monographs, called "Alpina Americana," 
to be published yearly by the American Alpine Club. 

Mr. Tom Wilson of Banff, himself a collector of Rocky 
Mountain literature, has kindly volunteered to keep watch for 
the acquisition of rare old books dealing with early history 
relating to the Canadian mountains. 

It is perhaps worth noting that of the seventeen volumes 
forming the nucleus of the library, eight were written by our 
own members, and the Appalachian volumes also contain much 
matter contributed by members of our Club. 

We hope that the library will be augmented during the 
current year, by many valuable additions, and that the Club 
will enact some legislation by which these books may be made 
accessible to members, such as the establishment of a library 
building at a suitable point in the mountains. 

Respectfully submitted. 

Jean Parker, Librarian. 




■il K,-uz H. (J. Wlu^fl.T M. P. r.ii.l-IaiKl Gcjttfii 

iiiicif Asst. tliiiilf Chief Ciiide Swiss ( 

GUIDES IN CHARGE OF CLIMBING— YOHO CAMP 







A WEt,I^ EARNED REST— MOUNT VICE-PRESIDENT 



Report J Yoho Camp 169 

YOHO CAMP 



CIRCULAR ISSUED 



The Alpine Club of Canada 



FIRST SUMMER CAMP IN THE YOHO PARK 



The camp is for the purpose of enabling members of the 
Club to meet in the mountain regions of Canada, and graduat- 
ing members to qualify for active membership by climbing a 
mountain at least 10,000 feet above sea level. 

The camp will open on Monday, July 9th, and close Monday, 
July 16th. 

A start for the camp will be made from Field station on 
the Canadian Pacific Railway, early on Monday morning. 
Members attending are requested to arrive at Field, if possible, 
by the evening train of July 8th, but the morning train 
throughout the week will be met. 

The number of persons who can attend the camp is limited 
to one hundred. 

Charges. 

Active members will be charged one dollar ($1.00) per day 
while at the camp, to cover board and equipment. This does 
not include hotel expenses. 

All graduating members who attempt to qualify for active 
membership and reach 9,000 feet above sea level will be 
charged at the above rate. 

All graduating members who fail to reach 9,000 feet above 
sea level, and all persons other than members, will be charged 
at the rate of two dollars ($2.00) per day. 

The altitude of the camp is 6,000 feet above sea level. 

Active members are privileged to bring their wives or 
husbands, who will be charged at the rate of two dollars ($2.00) 
per day. Otherwise, except in the case of the press, it is 
necessary to be a member of the club to attend the camp. 

All nominations for membership must be proposed by three 
members and be in the hands of the Secretary of the Club 
before the 1st of June. 

Members to be eligible for the privileges of the camp must 
be in good standing; that is, have paid their dues for the 
current year. 

The above charges include transport of baggage, and, as 
far as possible, of visitors to and from the railway and to and 
from the various points of interest in the Yoho valley, for 
which excursions will be arranged daily. 



170 Canadian Alpine Journal 

No person attending can bring more than forty pounds 
of baggage. If in excess of that amount they will be refused 
transport until the weight has been reduced to the required 
limit. Baggage should be as light as possible, and should con- 
sist of two pairs of blankets, weighing about fifteen pounds, a 
small feather pillow, a change of clothes and boots, toilet 
articles, etc. No trunks or boxes can be handled. 

Those climbing require heavily soled leather boots, well set 
with Hungarian nails. Knickerbockers, puttees, sweater and 
knockabout hat furnish the most serviceable costume. 

No lady climbing, who wears skirts, will be allowed to take 
a place on a rope, as they are a distinct source ot danger to the 
entire party. Knickerbockers or bloomers with puttees or 
gaiters and sweater will be found serviceable and safe. 

Each member who intends to climb should bring a pair of 
colored glasses. Colored mica glasses are suggested. These 
can be bought from any druggist at about 50c. per pair. 

As the number of persons who can attend the camp is 
limited to one hundred, you are requested to notify the Secre- 
tary of the Committee (Mr. H. G. Wheeler, Banff, Alberta,) as 
soon as possible. The applications to attend will be accepted 
in the order in which they are received, due allowance being 
made for distance. 

Please state on what date you will arrive at Field and for 
how many days you will remain in camp. 

On arriving at Field, all whose applications have been ac- 
cepted, will be supplied with Club badges. Persons unable to 
produce their badges will not be afforded transportation to 
the camp. 

An endeavor will be made to obtain reduced rates from the 
Canadian Pacific Railway, and if successful those booked to 
attend will be duly notified. 



Please take notice that under the Constitution the First 
Annual Meeting of the Club will be held at the Yoho camp. 

In order to become effective at the meeting, all nominations 
for membership and proposed amendments to the Constitution 
should be in the hands of the Secretary of the Club not later 
than 1st of June next. 

Nomination slips may be had from the Secretary of the 
Club on application. 

Amendments to the Constitution require to be proposed 
by five active members. 

H. G. Wheeler, 
Secretary, Yoho Camp Committee, 
Elizabeth Parker, Banff, Alberta. 

Secretary, Alpine Club of Canada, 

160 Furby Street, Winnipeg, Man. 







m -'^ 












^^^'■'-'Sf*"^ N \ 





Report, Yoho Camp 171 



REPORT OF CHIEF MOUNTAINEER 



The mountaineering was in charge of M. P. Bridgland, 
assisted by H. G. Wheeler, both of the Topographical Survey 
of the Rocky mountains. Two Swiss guides, Edouard Feuz, 
Jr., and Gottfried Feuz, of Interlaken, were loaned by the 
Canadian Pacific Railway Company, and one of these usually 
accompanied each official climb. A number of other gentlemen, 
who had had experience in mountaineering, rendered good 
service to climbing and exploring parties, viz.: The Rev. Dr. 
Herdman, J. D. Patterson, E. O. Wheeler, Rev. A. M. Gordon, 
P. D. McTavish, the Rev. Geo. Kinney, Rev. A. O. MacRae, D. 
N. McTavish and Rev. J. H. Miller. 

MT. VICE-PRESIDENT 
(10,049 feet above sea level). 

The camp was opened officially on July 9th. On the 8th the 
chief mountaineer, accompanied by the two Swiss guides, the 
Rev. Dr. Herdman and P. D. McTavish started for Mt. Vice- 
President, to select the best route for the ascent by other 
members of the Club. The object was to choose a route as 
varied as possible, affording, not only rock-work, but also some 
work on snow and ice; further to select suitable resting places 
and to establish a 9,000-feet elevation, so that advantage could 
be taken of the privileged rates to climbers reaching that 
height above sea level. 

Leaving the camp at 6 a.m., the party followed the trail to 
the summit of the Yoho pass and then, turning to the right, 
headed for the lower part of the shoulder extending southward 
from Michaels Mt. The bushes were wet and everyone was 
soaked, but in about half an hour the shoulder was crossed 
near timber-line. The party then traversed a long rock slide 
and worked its way up some steep snow slopes to the arete 
between Michaels Mt. and the main mass of the mountain, 
reaching it at 8:30. 

From this point the way led along the arete, which was 
badly broken in places, offering some very interesting bits of 
rock-work. In one spot it narrowed down to a knife-edge, 
descending abruptly to the glacier on either side. About two 
hours' climbing along this arete brought the party to Angle 
peak,* beyond which it was an easy walk across the snowfield 
to the final peak, about a mile distant and one hundred feet 
higher. The summit, 10,049 feet above sea level, was reached 
at 12:30 p.m., after six and a half hours of steady climbing. 



* Angle peak, as indicated by the name, is a sharp anele of rock rising above the 
north escarpment of the Vice-President ridge, about a mile east of the summit of the 
mountain. The name was first applied by the Rev. James Outram and is here used 
for lack of a better. — Ed. 



172 Canadian Alpine Journal 

A short time was spent at the summit for rest and refresh- 
ment, and then the descent was commenced. Near Angle peak, 
the party turned to the right and travelled down the centre of 
the snowfleld, enjoying a short glissade near the crest. A little 
further, a large cave was crossed on a snow-bridge and some 
steep snow slopes descended to the lower part of the neve. A 
short walk across the snowfleld followed, and then a number 
of crevasses. These were crossed on a narrow neck of ice and. 
passing directly below a group of seracs, the party worked its 
way down to the level tongue of the glacier below, which 
afforded an easy path to the lateral moraine. It was now a 
simple matter to cross the rock-slide and go down through 
the forest to the trail leading to the camp, which was reached 
at 6 o'clock. 

On July 10th the first official climb in connection with the 
camp was undertaken. The party was in charge of M. P. 
Bridgland and the Swiss guide, Gottfried Feuz, assisted by the 
following active members of the Club, viz.: J. D. Patterson, 
Rev. Geo. R. B. Kinney and P. D. McTavish. The trail to 
Inspiration point was followed until above the heavy timber, 
when turning sharply to the left, the open alps below Michaels 
Mt. were passed through and the shoulder crossed a little 
higher up than on the previous occasion. The rock-slide was 
then traversed and the same route followed as on the 8th. 

From the time the rock-slide was crossed until the summit 
was reached, rain fell steadily, accompanied by a cold wind, 
and much of the time it was impossible to see more than a few 
yards ahead. The party remained at the summit half an hour. 
It was too cloudy to see anything and too cold to remain long. 

The descent was by the route selected on the previous 
occasion as far as the shoulder of Michaels Mt., where the 
party turned to the left and crossed over to the trail by the 
way followed in the morning. 

Left camp at 5:30 a.m. and reached the summit at 11:30. 
The descent was commenced at 12 o'clock and camp reached 
at 3:25 p.m. Time of ascent, 6 hours; time of descent, 3 hours 
25 minutes; total for climb, 9 hours 25 minutes. 

The following graduated to active membership: 

Dr. A. M. Campbell C. R. Merrill 

R. Haggen H. W. McLean 

Miss E. B. Hobbs Miss K. McLennan 

Stanley L. Jones D. N. McTavish. 
T. Kilpatrick 



On July 11th the party was in charge of M. P. Bridgland 
and the Swiss guide, Edouard Feuz, assisted by the active 
members, P. D. McTavish and the Rev. J. H. Miller. 

The day was fine and the route followed the same as on the 
previous day. The party remained at the summit one and a 
half hours. 

Left camp at 6 a.m.; arrived at the summit at 1:30 p.m.; 
commenced descent at 3 p.m., and arrived at camp at 6:30. 



Report, Yoho Camp 173 

Time of ascent, 7 hours 30 minutes; time of descent, 3 hours 

30 minutes; total for climb, 11 hours. 

The following graduated to active membership: 
T. A. Hornibrook W. Nicholson 

Mrs. Stanley Jones Miss A. R. Power 

J. W. Kelly Rev. J. R. Robertson 

Miss L. E. Marshall Miss A. M. Stewart 

S. H. Mitchell 

On July 12th the party was in charge of H. G. Wheeler and 
the Swiss guide. Edouard Feuz, assisted by the active mem- 
bers, E. O. Wheeler and the Rev. A. M. Gordon. 

With the exception of a few slight showers towards 
evening, the weather was all that could be desired. 

The party left camp at 6 a.m. and reached the summit at 
12:30. The descent was commenced at 1:30 and camp reached 
at 5 p.m. Time of ascent, 6 hours 30 minutes; time of descent, 
3 hours 30 minutes; total for climb, 10 hours. 

The following graduated to active membership: 
P. C. Brown Miss Jean Parker 

J. A. Campbell Miss F. Pearce 

P. M. Campbell C. B. Sissons 

Miss M. T. Durham Miss K. R. Smith 

Geo. narrower H. M. Snell 

H. G. Langlois ' D. Warner 

Rev. A. O. MacRae 

On July 13th the party was in charge of M. P. Bridgland 
and H. G. Wheeler, assisted by the active members, Rev. G. R. 
B. Kinney, Dr. A. M. Campbell and D. N. McTavish. 

The weather was showery during the morning and fine and 
bright for the rest of the day. The same route was followed 
for the ascent, but as it had been found that the snow- bridge 
over the cave was unsafe, owing to the continued warm 
weather, the party when returning followed the arete a short 
distance past Angle peak, and then descended to the snowfield. 
reaching camp by the usual route. 

A start was made from the camp at 6 a.m. and the summit 
reached at 1 p.m. The descent was commenced at 2 p.m. and 
the camp reached at 6:10. 

Time of ascent, 7 hours; time of descent, 4 hours 10 min- 
utes; total for climb, 11 hours 10 minutes. 

The following graduated to active membership: 
Rev. Alex. Dunn D. H. Laird 

Miss I. W. Griffith A. H. Smith 

B. Harmon Miss E. Sutherland 

Miss A. L. Laird 

MT. PRESIDENT 
(10,287 feet above sea level). 
On July 14th the party was in charge of M. P. Bridgland 
and the Swiss guide, Edouard Feuz, assisted by the active 
member, E. C. Barnes. 

The weather was all that could be desired, bright sunshine 
prevailing throughout the day. As it was a small party, the 



174 Canadian Alpine Journal 

route was changed so as to give a most interesting rock climb 
up the face of Michaels peak to its summit, from which point 
the arete was followed to join the line of previous ascents. 

On reaching the summit of Mt. Vice-President, it being an 
ideal day, the guides continued the climb to the summit of the 
President, while the party was resting. A steep descent led 
to a snow col about two hundred feet below the summit of the 
Vice-President, and a similar ascent on the opposite side led to 
the summit of the President. The trip there and back took an 
hour, a short time being spent in building a cairn on the 
highest rock point. 

The party left camp at 5:50 a.m. and arrived at the summit 
at 12:45. The descent was commenced at 3 p.m. and camp 
reached at 6:35. Time of ascent, 6 hours 55 minutes; time of 
descent, 3 hours 35 minutes; total for climb, 10 hours 30 
minutes. 

The following graduated to active membership: 

J. H. Graham Miss J. M. Porte 

H. G. H. Neville Miss J. L. Sherman 

Taken as a whole the official climb was a marked success. 
Forty-two graduated to active membership. Of this number 
fifteen were ladies. There was not one case of failure, a, fact 
that speaks well for the stuff of which our graduating mem- 
bers are made. While the climb was not a dangerous one, it 
was distinctly strenuous, and the facts that it presented nearly 
all the varied conditions of mountain climbing and for the best 
time made took 9 hours and 30 minutes show that it was a 
feat of very considerable magnitude for young men and women 
in their first attempts at mountaineering, and one well worthy 
of commendation. 

In addition to the official climbs a number of others were 
made: 

MT. BURGESS 
(8,463 feet above sea level). 
On July 10th a party in charge of the Swiss guide, Edouard 
Feuz, Jr., made the ascent of Mt. Burgess, a climb of consid- 
erable difficulty. 

The names of those participating were as follows: 

J, A. Campbell Miss E. R. Smith 

Miss A. G. Foote H. M. Snell 

Miss A. R. Power Miss A. M. Stewart 
Rev. J. R. Robertson 

MT. WAPTA 
(9,106 feet above sea level). 
On July 11th the following gentlemen made the ascent of 
Mt. Wapta, under the guidance of Gottfried Feuz, viz.; 

Dr. P. M. Campbell D. Warner 

Rev. A. M. Gordon E. O. Wheeler 

Rev. Dr. MacRae 



^ in 




5 M 
r^ 2; 



o 2 




{ 



Report, Yoho Camp 175 

The party started at 8 a.m., spent 45 minutes on the summit 
and returned to camp at 2:15 p.m. The climb was made from 
the Burgess trail by way of the west face. 

On July 12th a party, consisting of M. P. Bridgland, Miss 
L. E. Marshall and P. D. McTavish made the ascent of Mt. 
Wapta via the southwestern arete. 

On July 13th the third climb of Mt. Wapta was made, by 
way of the west face, under the leadership of Edouard Feuz, 
Jr. Those who took part were as follows: 

S. H. Baker Miss Francis Pearce 

S. H. Mitchell C. B. Sissons 

Miss Jean Parker E. O. Wheeler 

On July 14th a fourth climb was made of the same moun- 
tain by D. N. McTavish and C. R. Merrill, under the guidance 
of Gottfried Feuz. The climb was made up the northeast face 
and was found to be a difficult one, taking from 9:30 a.m. until 
3 p.m. for the ascent. The descent, by the usual route, was 
commenced at 4 p.m. and camp reached at 5:50. 

MT. COLLIE 
(10,315 feet above sea level). 
On July 12th, J. D. Patterson, accompanied by the Swiss 
guide, Gottfried Feuz, ascended Mt. Collie from a camp 
pitched the night before at the foot of the Twin falls. The 
ascent was made by way of the Yoho glacier and the return 
on the opposite side of Yoho peak, by way of the Twin falls. 
By a curious coincidence, the peak was climbed on the same 
day by Miss Henrietta L. Tuzo, a member of the Club, but 
one who was not visiting the camp. Under the care of the 
Swiss guide. Christian Kaufmann, she made the ascent by a 
different route, and the two parties met upon the summit. 

MT. FIELD 
(8,645 feet above sea level). 
On July 12th, under the guidance of the Rev. J. C. Herdman, 
the following party made the ascent of Mt. Field: 
Rev. Alex. Dunn D. H. Laird 

J. W. Kelly S. H. Mitchell 

Miss A. L. Laird 

MTS. AMGADAMO AND MARPOLE 

(9,537 feet and 9,822 feet above sea level). 

On July 16th, in charge of the Swiss guides, Edouard Feuz, 

Jr., and Gottfried Feuz, the Rev. A. O. MacRae, the Rev. Alec. 

Gordon and the Rev. Alex. Dunn made the first ascent of Mt. 

Marpole, and en route made the first ascent of the peak which 

they named Amgadamo. An account of the climb will be found 

among the pages of the mountaineering section of this volume. 

Respectfully submitted. 

M. P. Bridgland, Chief Mountaineer. 



176 Canadian Alpine Journal 



TRIPS 



Among other events of the camp week the following trips 
require special mention, viz.: 

A two-day trip around the Toho valley, starting out by the 
lower trail and returning by the upper. A night was spent 
at a camp close by the Laughing falls. This trip took in all 
the varied and strikingly beautiful alpine scenery of the valley 
and presented a seemingly endless panorama of towering 
peaks, waterfalls, glaciers, snowfields, ice-cascades, precipices, 
lakes and forest, almost bewildering in their spectacular 
effects, and filling the beholders with wondering delight. 

Four such trips were made, on consecutive days, and in all 
sixty persons were taken round the valley. Each party was 
accompanied by a number of ponies to carry the baggage for 
the night out, for crossing mountain torrents and to afford 
mounts for those who were tired. This trip was voted the 
feature of the camp. 

Three trips were made, under the leadership of the Rev. J. 
C. Herdman, to the glacier below the northeastern escarpment 
of the President range, known as the Emerald glacier. 

Twenty-seven persons participated in these trips, and much 
enjoyment and general information concerning glaciers were 
derived therefrom. 

A special trip was made to the close vicinity of the Takak- 
kaw falls, under the leadership of H. G. Wheeler. The party 
consisted of nineteen, and were greatly delighted with the trip. 

On the 14th and 15th, a special committee, representing the 
Scientific section of the Club, made a trip to the Yoho glacier 
for the purpose of initiating yearly observations of its various 
changes and rate of flow. A full report of the expedition will 
be found in the Scientific section of this volume. 

In addition to the above, trips were made daily to Inspira- 
tion point, reached by a corkscrew trail branching from the 
Upper Toho valley trail at a point near the camp. This point 
is well named, for the view from it not only takes one's breath 
away in wonder, but fills the mind with an inspiration that it 
never again loses. Also, to Lookout point on the Lower Yoho 
valley trail, presenting a magnificent view of the full majesty 
of the Takakkaw falls, with its thousand feet of a sheer drop. 
The Burgess trail seemed a favorite, and many visitors came 
to and returned from the camp by that route, from which the 
Presidents range and Emerald mountains with their glaciers, 
icefalls and torrents, are seen to the greatest advantage; 
while below. Emerald lake nestles in a setting of deep green 
forest. 



Report^ Yoho Camp 177 

A word with regard to these trails of the Yoho valley: 
They are the outcome of the artistic, engineering skill and 
keen appreciation of the value of magnificent alpine scenery 
as a boon to mankind, possessed by the late E. J. Duchesnay. 
Assistant General Superintendent of the Pacific Division of 
the Canadian Pacific railway. In the location of the pony trail 
around the Yoho valley and below Mts. Wapta and Field, every 
possible vantage point has been grasped with a skill that could 
only have been realized by a true lover of Nature. 



RECEIPTS AND EXPENDITURES 

for Yoho Camp 

Receipts. 

Grant, Government of Alberta $250 00 

Private subscription 170 00 

Paid in for board and accommodation 458 25 

Paid in for distribution among employees.... 61 00 

Auction sale of ice-axes 75 75 

Surplus supplies sold 263 87 

$1,278 87 

Expenditures. 

Provisions $613 12 

Stationery, printing, postage, telegrams 38 93 

Expressage and freight 49 60 

Wages 93 00 

Camp outfit 123 95 

Distributed among employees 59 50 

Bonuses to outfitters 239 00 

Purchase of ice-axes 30 00 

Railway fares of employees 5 30 

$1,252 40 



Balance paid in to general fund $26 47 

Arthur O. Wheelen 
Chairman of Camp Committee. 



178 Canadian Alpine Journal 



CONSTITUTION 



1. The name of the Club shall be "The Alpine Club of 
Canada." 

2. The objects of the Club are: 

(a) The promotion of scientific study and exploration of 
Canadian alpine and glacial regions. 

(b) The cultivation of art in relation to mountain scenery. 

(c) The education of Canadians to an appreciation of their 
mountain heritage. 

(d) The encouragement of the mountain craft and the 
opening of new regions as a national playground. 

(e) The preservation of the natural beauties of the moun- 
tain places and of the fauna and flora in their habitat. 

(f) The interchange of literature with other alpine and 
geographical organizations. 

WORK OF THE CLUB. 

3. The work of the Club shall be: 

(a) The exploration and study of Canada's alpine tracts; 
and, with this end in view, it shall gather through its mem- 
bers literary material and photographs for publication and 
dissemination, and such publications shall be placed on record 
with the Secretary and Librarian, and be distributed to the 
members of the Club and to corresponding organizations. 

(b) The promotion of the study of glaciers and glacial 
action in Canada, and of art as applied to mountain regions, 
for which purposes glacial and art sections shall be formed. 

(c) The organization of a corps of reliable guides and out- 
fitters, who shall be available in connection with the work 
of the Club. 

(d) The sphere of action of the Club shall not be confined 
to Canada alone, but may extend to all the high mountain 
ranges of the world, and one of the objects of this organization 
shall be to obtain information concerning other alpine regions 
and to come closely in touch with those who are interested in 
all such matters. 

MEMBERSHIP. 

4. Membership shall be of five grades, viz.: 

Honorary Members. Those who have pre-eminently dis- 
tinguished themselves in mountaineering, exploration or 
research and in the sacrifice of their own interests to the 
interests of the Club shall be eligible for Honorary member- 
ship. Honorary members shall be elected only by a two-thirds 
majority of the recorded votes of the Club. 



Constitution ' 1 79 

Active Members, (a) Those who have made an ascent of 
not less than ten thousand feet above sea-level in some recog- 
nized mountain region; their eligibility for election to be 
decided by the Executive Board. 

(b) Those who for eight years prior to the date of organiza- 
tion have been annual visitors to Canada's mountain regions 
and have contributed to a knowledge of the same by means of 
scientific or atristic publication. 

(c) Except as hereinafter specified, Active members only 
shall be entitled to vote. 

(d) Active members may obtain life membership by the 
payment of fifty dollars, and shall thereafter be exempt from 
the payment of all dues. 

Associate Members. Those who are unable to qualify as 
Active members, but, owing to the objects of the Club, desire 
to affiliate therewith and lend a helping hand towards its 
maintenance. 

Graduating Members. Those who desire to become Active 
members, but are not yet qualified. They will be given two 
years to qualify, but such probation is not renewable. 

Subscribing Members. Those who are unable to take an 
active part in the outdoor work of the Club, but desire to keep 
in touch with it by receiving its publications and exchanges. 

OFFICERS. 

5. (a) The oflficers of the Club shall consist of a Patron, 
a President, Vice-Presidents, a Secretary, a Treasurer, and a 
Librarian, who shall be elected to office biennially. 

The President and Vice-Presidents shall not hold office for 
more than two consecutive terms. 

(b) Officers of the Club shall be elected from the Active 
membership, but, if it be distinctly in the interests of the 
Club, as determined by the Executive Board, they may be 
elected from any other grade except that of Graduating or 
Subscribing membership, and for their term of office shall be 
vested with the powers and privileges of Active membership. 
In such case, however, the election must be by a two-thirds 
majority of the recorded vote of the Club. 

ADVISERS. 

6. (a) In addition, there shall be elected not less than three 
advisers, who, together with the officers, shall constitute the 
Executive Board of the Club. Their tenure of office shall be 
governed by subsection (a) of section entitled "Officers." Only 
residents of Canada shall be eligible for office upon the Exe- 
cutive Board. 

(b) Advisers may be elected from any other grade, except- 
ing that of Graduating or Subscribing membership, and for 
their term of office shall be vested with the powers and 
privileges of Active membership. 



180 Canadian Alpine Journal 

EXECUTIVE BOARD. 

7. The Executive Board shall have the general charge, 
superintendence and control of the affairs, interests and 
property of the Club. It shall pass upon the eligibility of all 
proposed members and shall arrange and direct the working 
details and publications of the Club. The Executive Board 
shall have power to make by-laws for its own government, not 
inconsistent with this Constitution, which by-laws shall be 
submitted by the Board at the first annual meeting thereafter, 

NOMINATION AND ELECTION OP MEMBERS. 

8. Every nomination for membership must be made by not 
less than three members of the Club. Such nomination, with 
a statement of the qualifications of the proposed member, shall 
be submitted to the Executive Board, which shall pass upon 
the eligibility of the candidate. A ballot containing the names 
of such candidates as have been approved by the Executive 
Board, together with a statement of their qualifications and 
the names of their sponsors, shall be sent by the Secretary 
to each Active member. Such ballots as are returned to the 
Secretary within six weeks after they were sent out shall be 
canvassed by the Executive Board and the result declared in 
the minutes of the Board and in the next circular issued to 
members. A majority of the votes cast shall elect. 

NOMINATION AND ELECTION OF OFFICERS. 

9. The election of officers shall take place at every alternate 
annual meeting. Two months before such meeting, the 
President shall appoint a Nominating Committee of five Active 
members. This Committee shall prepare a list of candidates 
for the ensuing term and report it to the Secretary. 

A ballot containing these nominations shall be mailed to 
each Active member at least six weeks before the date of 
election. At the meeting appointed for the election, these 
ballots shall be cast and the result declared. In case of a 
failure to elect, the existing officers shall hold over until their 
successors are elected. 

DUES. 

10. (a) Annual dues for Active members shall be five 
dollars. 

Annual dues for Associate members shall be twenty-five 
dollars. 

Annual dues for Graduating members shall be two dollars 
and fifty cents. 

Annual dues for Subscribing members shall be two dollars. 

(b) Members in arrears for two years, to whom have been 
mailed the usual notice for dues and a final notice, shall 
forfeit membership. 

HEADQUARTERS. 

11. The headquarters of the Club shall be at the city of 
Winnipeg. 



Constitution 181 



ANNUAL MEETING. 

12. An annual meeting of the Club for the election of 
officers and the transaction of other business shall be held at 
the Club's summer camp, or, failing a summer camp, at the 
Club's headquarters during the month of January. 

QUORUM. 

13. Seven Active members shall constitute a quorum of 
the Club for the general transaction of business, and three 
members of the Executive Board shall constitute a quorum of 
that Committee for the general transaction of business. 

SUMMER CAMP. 

14. A summer camp in some suitable part of the moun- 
tain regions shall be organized in each year for the purpose 
of enabling Graduating members to qualify for Active mem- 
bership, and the members generally to meet together for 
study and climbing in the alpine districts of Canada. 

SPECIAL MEETINGS. 

15. Special meetings of the Club may be called by the 
President or by a Vice-President and the Secretary, acting 
under his authority. In such case due official notice shall be 
mailed to all members six weeks before such meeting, stating 
the purpose for which it is called. 

LIBRARY. 

16. A library or libraries shall be established where the 
publications of the Club and books, maps, photographs and 
works of art relating to mountain scenery shall be gathered 
together and filed for the use of its members. 

AMENDMENTS. 

17. Amendments to the Constitution and By-laws may be 
made at any regularly called meeting of the Club, provided 
that such amendment or amendments shall have the signatures 
of not less than five Active members of the Club and are 
acquiesced in by two-thirds of those recording their votes. 

All such amendments shall be mailed by the Secretary to 
the members, on printed ballots, six weeks in advance, 
together with the names of the five members proposing the 
change. Such ballots as have been returned to the Secretary 
shall be canvassed by a committee appointed by the President 
and the result declared at the meeting aforesaid. 



182 Canadian Alpine Journal 



List of Members. 



HONORARY MEMBERS 



MRS. H. J. PARKER, 

Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada. 

J. NORMAN COLLIE, F.R.S., 

London, England. 

E. DEVILLE, LL.D., F.R.S.C, 

Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. 

CHAS. E. FAY, Litt. D. 

(President American Alpine Club) 

Tufts College, Mass., U.S.A. 

REV. W. S. GREEN, M.A., F.R.G.S., 

Dublin, Ireland. 

COLONEL A. LAUSSEDAT, 

Institute of France, Legion of Honour, 
Geographical Society of Paris, 

Tzeure, Canton d'AUier, France. 

EDWARD WHYMPER, 

London, England. 



Associate Members 183 



ASSOCIATE MEMBERS 



MRS. G. A. ANDERSON, 

Box 508, Calgary, Alberta. 

MRS. P. BURNS, 

Calgary, Alberta. 

E. L. DREWRY, 

Winnipeg, Manitoba. 

SIR SANDFORD FLEMING, C.E., K.C.M.G., LL.D., 

Chancellor, Queen's University, Kingston, 

Winterholme, Ottawa, Ontario. 

REV. C. W. GORDON, D.D. (Ralph Connor), 

Winnipeg, Manitoba. 

J. D. PATTERSON, 

Woodstock, Ontario. 

MRS. C. W. ROWLEY, 

Calgary, Alberta. 

R. STEWART SOLOMON, 

Box 82, Cape Town, South Africa. 

BYRON E. WALKER, 

President, Canadian Bank of Commerce, 

Toronto, Ontario. 

WILLIAM WHYTE, 

Second Vice-President, Canadian Pacific Railway, 

Winnipeg, Manitoba. 



184 Canadian Alpine Journal 

ACTIVE MEMBERS 



♦Armstrong, L. O. Can. Pac. Ry. Co., Montreal, Quebec. 

Ascents: Over 10,000 feet above sea level in the 
Spillamacheen Mts. 

* Baker, S. H. Banff, Alberta. 

Ascents: In the Canadian Rockies, Main range — Mts. 
Shields, Wilcox, Wapta and Cascade; Pobokten, 
Howse, Bow and Yoko peaks. In the Selkirks — 
Mt. Afton. 

♦Barnes, E. C. Banff, Alberta. 

Mountain ascents in Wyoming, Montana and Idaho. 

In the Canadian Rockies — Mt. Vice-President. 

Bathurst, H. M. Winnipeg, Manitoba. 

Ascents: Monte Christallo, Dolomites, Tyrol. 

Benham, Miss G. E. 

44 Dartmouth Rd., Brondesbury, London, N.W., England. 
Ascents: More than one hundred and ninety mountain 
ascents in Enrope, Canada, New Zealand and 
Japan; the following are the principal: In the 
European Alps — Mont Blanc, Monte Rosa, Lys- 
kamm, Dom, Matterhorn, Weisshorn, Jungfrau, 
Dent Blanche, etc. In Canadian Rockies, Main 
range — Victoria, Lefroy, Temple, Stephen, Balfour, 
Assiniboine, Fay, Gordon, etc. In the Selkirks — 
Sir Donald, Dawson, Bonney, Rogers, Swiss Peak, 
etc. In New Zealand — Mt. Earnslaw. In Japan — 
Fuji Tama. 

*Bridgland, M. P. Calgary, Alberta. 

Topographical Survey of the Canadian Rocky Mts. 

Ascents: Numerous ascents in the Canadian Rockies; 
among others: In Main range — Mts. Temple, Daly, 
Gordon, Hector, Balfour, Stephen, Habel, Vaux, 
etc. In the Selkirks — Mts. Rogers, Fox, Selwyn, 
Bagheera, etc. 

*Brown, F. C. Calgary, Alberta. 

Ascents: In Canadian Rockies — Mt. Vice-President. 

Burr, Allston, Chestnut Hill, Mass., U.S.A. 

Ascents: In Canadian Rockies — Mts. Victoria, Lefroy 

and Stephen. In the Selkirks — Mt. Sir Donald. 



* Original Member. 



Active Members 185 

Burwash, A. P. Ferrybank, Alberta. 

Ascents: In Canadian Rockies — Mt. Coleman. 

♦Campbell, A. M., M.D, General Hospital, Winnipeg, Man. 

Ascents: In Canadian Rockies — Mt. Vice-President. 

^Campbell, D. Innisfail, Alberta. 

Ascents: In Canadian Rockies — Mt. Chaba. 

♦Campbell, J. A., M.D. Keene, Ontario. 

Ascents: In Canadian Rockies — Mts. Vice-President 
and Burgess. 

♦Campbell, P. M., M.D. Lethbridge, Alberta. 

Ascents: In Canadian Rockies — Mts. Vice-President 
and Wapta. 

♦Campbell, R. E. Laggan, Alberta. 

Ascents: In Canadian Rockies — Mts. Vermillion, Cas- 
cade, Rundle, Aylmer, Inglismaldie, Prospectors' 
peaks, Niles, Stephen, Victoria, Aberdeen, etc. 

Carson, P. A. 

Topographical Surveys Branch, Ottawa, Ontario. 
Ascents: In Canadian Rockies — Storm Mt, Mts. Mc- 
Arthur (Signal 18) and King. In the Selkirks — 
Mt. Bonney. 

♦Coleman, A. P., M.A., Ph.D. 

School of Practical Science, Toronto, Ontario. 

Exploration to headwaters of Saskatchewan and Atha- 
baska rivers in 1892 and 1893. Exploration and 
mapping of Brazeau snowfleld in 1903. 

Ascents: In Norway — Mt. Galdhopiggen. In Canadian 
Rockies — Misty Mt., Castle Mt., Mt. Stewart, ML 
Brazeau to 10,500 feet, and a number of unnamed 
peaks at headwaters of the Saskatchewan, Atha- 
baska and Brazeau rivers. In France — Grand 
Sablier (Dauphiny). In Mexico — Mts. Orizaba, 
Colima, Nevada de Toluca. 

♦Coleman, L. Q. Morley, Alberta. 

Exploration to headwaters of Saskatchewan and Atha- 
baska rivers in 1892 and 1893. Exploration of 
Brazeau snowfleld in 1903. 

Ascents: In Canadian Rockies — Misty Mt., Mts. Stew- 
art, Brazeau and Brown. 

♦Cowdry, E. V. Waterford, Ontario. 

Ascents: European Alps — The Jungfrau, Mettelhorn, 
Dent du Midi, Gorner-grat, Metteinberg, Mouch- 
joch. 



* Orierinal Member. 



186 Canadian Alpine Journal 

Comstock, B. S. 45 Murray St., New York City, U.S.A. 

Ascents: In Canadian Rockies, Selkirk range — Mt. 
Dawson. 

Cowdry, N. H. Waterford, Ontario. 

Ascents: In Switzerland — Gorner-grat. Minor climbs 
in Switzerland, Corsica and Rockies. 

Cummin, Miss E. P. 

113 West Monument Ave., Dayton, Ohio, U.S.A. 
Ascents: In Cascade Range — Mt. Hood (Oregon). 

Curtis, R. F. 25 Kinross Rd., Boston, Mass., U.S.A. 

Ascents: Gray's peak (Colorado). In Canadian Rock- 
ies — Mt. Balfour, Abbot pass. In Selkirks — Eagle 
peak and Mt. Lookout. 

*Dunn, Rev. A. Calgary, Alberta. 

Ascents: Ben Nevis (Scotland), Pilatus and Rigi, 
(Switzerland). In Canadian Rockies — Three Sis- 
ters (Crowsnest pass), Mts. Vice-President, 
Marpole (first ascent) and Field. 

^Durham, Miss M. T. Golden, British Columbia. 

Ascents: In Canadian Rockies — Mt. "Vice-President. 

Finlayson, Miss A. Victoria, British Columbia. 

Ascents: In Switzerland — Piz Languard and Gorner- 
grat. 

Forde, J. P. Can. Pac. Ry. Co., Revelstoke, B.C. 

Ascents: Mts. Skikist and Windsor (Coast range, 
Brltitsh Columbia). 

* Freeborn, F. W. 445 W. 21st St., New York City, U.S.A. 

Ascents: Breithorn and Gorner-grat (Switzerland). 
In Canadian Rockies — Mts. Temple, Victoria and 
Whyte, etc. In the Selkirks — Mt. Rogers. 

*Gordon, Rev. A. M. Lethbridge, Alberta. 

Ascents: Monte Rosa (Switzerland). In Canadian 
Rockies — Mts. Lefroy, Vice-President and Mar- 
pole (first ascent). In the Selkirks — Mt. Hermit. 

*Graham, J. H. Winnipeg, Manitoba. 

Ascents: In Canadian Rockies — Mt. Vice-President. 

*Gray, Rev. S. H. Dundas, Ontario. 

Ascents: In Canadian Rockies, Main range — Mt. 
Lefroy. In the Selkirks — Mt. Hermit. 



* Original Member. 



Active Members 187 

♦Griffith, Miss I. W. Banff, Alberta. 

Ascents: In Canadian Rockies — Mt. Vice-President. 

*Haggen, E. A. Revelstoke, British Columbia. 

Ascents: In Eastern Selkirks — Boston Pk. and others. 

♦Haggen, R. Revelstoke, British Columbia. 

Ascents: In Canadian Rockies — Mt. Vice-President. 
In the Selkirks — Mt. Begbie (first ascent). 

♦Harmon, B. Banff, Alberta. 

Ascents: In Canadian Rockies — Mt. Vice-President 
and Cascade Mt. 

*Harrower, G. Lethbridge, Alberta. 

Ascents: In Canadian Rockies — Mt. Vice-President 
Crowsnest Mt. In the Selkirks — Eagle peak. 

♦Henshaw, Mrs. J. W. 

Box 29, Vancouver, British Columbia. 
Author "Mountain Wildflowers of Canada." 
- Eight years of botanical work in Canadian Rockies. 

♦Herdman, Rev. J. C, D.D. Calgary, Alberta. 

Ascents: In Scotland — Ben Nevis and Ben Lomond. 
In Canadian Rockies, Main range — Mts. Stephen, 
Vice-President, Aberdeen, Field, Yoho peak, Fair- 
view, etc. In the Selkirks — Mts. Macoun (first 
ascent), Macdonald, Hermit (first ascent). Ava- 
lanche, Lookout, Begbie (first ascent), etc. In 
Coast range — Mt. Cheam. 

♦Hobbs, Miss E. R. Revelstoke, British Columbia. 

Ascents: In Canadian Rockies — Mt. Vice-President. 
In the Selkirks — Mt. Revelstoke. 

♦Hornibrook, T. A. Calgary, Alberta. 

Ascents: In Canadian Rockies — Mts. Vice-President 
and Fairview. 

Hyde, F. O. Lethbridge, Alberta. 

Ascents: Mts. Harrison and Old Baldy (San Jacinto 
range, S. California). 

Jackson, W. S. Upper Canada College, Toronto, Ont. 

Ascents: In Canadian Rockies — Mt. Temple. In the 
Selkirks — Mts. Sir Donald and Bagheera (first 
ascent). 

♦Jardine, Mrs. A. B. Stavely, Alberta. 

Ascents: In Japan — Fuji Tama and Asama Yama. 



* Qrieinal Member. 



188 Canadian Alpine Journal 

*Jone8, Stanley L. Calgary, Alberta. 

Ascents: In Canadian Rockies — Mt. Vice-President. 

♦Jones, Mrs. Stanley L. Calgary, Alberta. 

Ascents: In Canadian Rockies — Mt. Vice-President. 

♦Kelly, W. J. Winnipeg, Manitoba. 

Ascents: In Canadian Rockies — Mts. Vice-President 
and Field. 

♦Kilpatrick, T. Can. Pac. Ry. Co., Revelstoke, B.C. 

Ascents: In Canadian Rockies — Mt. Vice-President. 

♦Kinney, Rev. G. R. B. Michel, British Columbia. 

Ascents: In Canadian Rockies — Mts. Stephen and 
Vice-President. A number of climbs between 8,000 
and 10,000 feet in vicinity of Crowsnest pass. 

♦Kirk, J. A. Revelstoke, British Columbia. 

Ascents: Mountains in the Kootenays of British 
Columbia. 

♦Langlois, H. G. 149 Rusholm Road, Toronto, Ontario. 

Ascents: In Canadian Rockies — Mt. Vice-President. 

♦Laird, D. H. Winnipeg, Manitoba. 

Ascents: In Canadian Rockies — Mts. Vice-President 
and Field. 

♦Laird, Miss A. L. Portage la Prairie, Manitoba. 

Ascents: In Canadian Rockies — Mts. Vice-President 
and Field. 

♦Marshall, Miss L. E. Taber, Alberta. 

Ascents: In Canadian Rockies — Mts. Vice-President 
and Wapta. 

♦Merrill, C. R. Stettler, Alberta. 

Ascents: In Canadian Rockies — Mts. Vice-President 
and Wapta. 

Miller, C. F. 

420 School Lane, German Town, Philadelphia, Pa., U.S.A. 

Ascents: In Canadian Rockies, Main range — Mt. Ste- 
phen. In the Selkirks — Mt. Rogers. Peaks in 
Switzerland. 

♦Miller, Rev. J. H. Field, British Columbia. 

Ascents: In Canadian Rockies — Mts. Stephen and 
Vice-President. 

♦Mitchell, S. H. 567 Spence Street, Winnipeg, Man. 

Ascents: In Canadian Rockies — Mts. Vice-President, 
Wapta and Field. 



Original Member. 



Active Members 189 

Morrison, J. C. Revelstoke, British Columbia, 

Ascents: Pike's peak (Colorado). 

*MacRae, Rev. A. O., D.D. 

"Western Canada College, Calgary, Alberta. 
Ascents: In Canadian Rockies — Mts. Vice-President, 
Marpole (first ascent) and Amgadamo (first 
ascent). Mt. Baker (near Nanaimo). London Mt. 
(Kootenays). Mt. Goatfell (Island of Arran). 

♦McArthur, J. J. Dept. of the Interior, Ottawa, Ont. 

Topographical Surveys, Canadian Rocky Mts. 
Ascents: In Canadian Rockies — Mts. Stephen, Field, 
McArthur (Signal 18), Storm Mt. and others. In 
the Selkirks — Mts. McKenzie, McPherson, etc. 

*McEachran, Miss K. 

505 Sherbrook Street W., Montreal, Que. 
Ascents: In Canadian Rockies — Mt. Stephen. 

*McLean, H. W. Calgary, Alberta. 

Ascents: In Canadian Rockies — Mt. Vice-President. 

^McLennan, Miss K. 115 Avenue Road, Toronto, Ontario. 

Ascents: In Canadian Rockies — Mts. Vice-President 
and Rundle. 

*McTavish, D. N. 1010 Harwood Street, Vancouver, B.C. 

Ascents: In Canadian Rockies — Mts. Vice-President 
and Wapta, 

*McTavish, P. D. 1010 Harwood Street, Vancouver, B.C. 

Ascents: In Canadian Rockies — Mts. Vice-President 
and Wapta, Crowsnest Mt, Turtle Mt., Mts. Pernie 
and Lizzard. 

*Neville, G. H. Wetaskiwin, Alberta. 

Ascents: In Canadian Rockies — Mt. Vice-President. 

^Nicholson, W. Calgary, Alberta. 

Ascents: In Canadian Rockies — Mt. Vice-President. 

*Otto, W. J. Golden, British Columbia. 

Ascents: In Canadian Rockies — Mts. Vaux, Hunter 
and Yoho peak. 

*Paget, Very Rev. Dean, M.A., D.D. Calgary, Alberta. 

Ascents: In Switzerland — Piz Languard, Gorner-grat, 
etc. In Canadian Rockies — Paget peak. 



Orieinal Member. 



190 Canadian Alpine Journal 

t Parker, H. C, Ph.B. 

21 Fort Green Place, Brooklyn, N.Y., U.S.A. 

Topographical investigations in Bow Valley, Alberta 
(1903). Explorations in Mt. McKinley region, 
Alaska (1906). 

First ascents in Canadian Rockies: Mts. Hungabee, 
Deltaform, Goodsir, Biddle, Lefroy, Dawson and 
Gordon. 

Ascents: Mts. Sir. Donald, Victoria, Temple and Ste- 
phen. In Western United States — Sierra Blanca, 
Mts. Rainier, Shasta and Hood. In Switzerland — 
Mont Blanc and the Matterhorn. 

♦Parker, Miss J. 160 Furby Street, Winnipeg, Manitoba. 

Ascents: In Canadian Rockies — Mts. Vice-President 
and Wapta. 

♦Patterson, J. D. Woodstock, Ontario. 

Ascents: In Canadian Rockies — Mts. Lefroy, Stephen, 
Vice-President and Collie. First ascent, Mt. Ball. 

♦Pearce, Miss F. Calgary, Alberta- 

Ascents: In Canadian Rockies — Mts. Vice-President 
and Wapta. 

*Peyto, W. E. Banff, Alberta. 

Ascents: In Canadian Rockies — Observation peak 
(Bow pass). To 10,750 feet on Mt. Assiniboine 
(with Rev. James Outram). 

♦Plewman, R. E. Rossland, British Columbia. 

Ascents: In the Selkirks, B.C. — Mt. Sir Donald. 

♦Port, Miss J. M. Kelowna, British Columbia. 

Ascents: In Canadian Rockies — Mt. Vice-President. 

♦Power, Miss A. R., M.A. Calgary, Alberta. 

Ascents: In Canadian Rockies — Mts. Vice-President, 
Burgess and St. Piran. 

Raymond, Miss M. P. West Newton, Mass., U.S.A. 

Ascents: Of more than fifty climbs in the European 
Alps and Canada the following are mentioned — In 
the Canadian Rockies, Main range — Mt. Victoria. 
In the Selkirks — Mt. Sir Donald. In Switzerland — 
Rothorn, Finsteraarhorn, Great Schreckhorn, Grand 
and Petit Don, Dent du Geant, Matterhorn, Ober 
Gabelhorn, Dent Blanche, Eiger, Lauteraarhorn, 
Jungfrau, Monch, etc. Climbs in the Dolomites. 

Ritchie, John, Jr. Box 2795, Boston, Mass., U.S.A. 

Ex-President Appalachian Mountain Club. 
Ascents: Jungfrau (Switzerland). In Appalachian 
mountains, Mt. Washington and others. 

* Original Member. 
t Life Member. 



Active Members 191 

•Robertson, Rev. J. R. Revelstoke, British Columbia. 

Ascents: In Canadian Rockies — Mts. Vice-President 
and Wapta. In the Selkirks — Cougar Mt., Mt. Beg- 
bie (first ascent). 

Rowley, C. W. Canadian Bank of Commerce, Calgary. 

Ascents: In Canadian Rockies, Main range — Mt. 
Aberdeen. 

*Schaffer, Mrs. Chas. 

Philadelphia, Pa., U.S.A. (c|o Geographical Society of 

Philadelphia). 
Eight years' botanical work in the Canadian Rockies. 
Investigations at headwaters of Saskatchewan river. 

♦Sherman, Miss J. L. Sioux Falls, South Dakota, U.S.A. 

Ascents: In Canadian Rockies — Mt. Vice-President. 

*Simpson, James Banff, Alberta. 

Ascents: In Canadian Rockies — Mt. Murchison, Wil- 
cox and Pyramid peaks. 

*Sissons, C. B., M.A. Revelstoke, British Columbia. 

Ascents: With Photo-Topographical Survey of Cana- 
dian Rocky Mts., climbed among others — Mts. 
Vice-President, Wapta, Ogre, Amiskwi, Glenogle, 
Twin Glacier. 

*Smith, A. H. Woodstock, Ontario. 

Ascents: In Canadian Rockies — Mt. Vice-President. 

*Smith, Miss E. R. Calgary, Alberta. 

Ascents: In Canadian Rockies — Mts. Fairview, Bur- 
gess, Vice-President and Cascade. 

*Snell, H. M. Winnipeg, Manitoba. 

Ascents: In Canadian Rockies — Mts. Vice-President 
and Burgess. 

*Stewart, Miss A. M. Calgary, Alberta. 

Ascents: In Canadian Rockies: Mts. Vice-President, 
Burgess and St. Piran. 

♦Sutherland, Miss E. Winnipeg, Manitoba. 

Ascents: In Canadian Rockies — Mt. Vice-President. 

*Tuzo, Miss H. L. 

The White House, Warlingham, Surrey, England. 

Ascents: Ortler (Eastern Alps). In the Canadian 

Rockies, Main range — Mts. Victoria, Collie and Mt. 

Tuzo (Peak seven of the Ten Peaks, first ascent). In 

the Selkirks — Mts. Sir Donald, Bonney, Rogers, 

Afton and Swiss and Eagle peaks. 



Original Member. 



192 Canadian Alpine Journal 

*Vaux, G. Jr. 404 Girard Building, Philadelphia, Pa., U.S.A. 
Glacial studies in the Canadian Rockies and Selkirks 

of British Columbia, since 1887. 
Ascents: In Canadian Rockies — Mt. Stephen. In the 
Selkirks — Mt. Sir Donald. Gray's peak (Colorado). 

*Vaux, Miss M. M. 1715 Arch Street, Philadelphia, Pa., U.S.A. 
Ascents: In Canadian Rockies — Mt. Stephen and 
Abbot pass. In the Selkirks — Mt. Avalanche. 
Glacial studies. 

*Vaux, W. S. 807 Bailey Building, Philadelphia, Pa., U.S.A. 
Investigations and surveys of glaciers in the Canadian 
Rockies and Selkirks orf British Columbia, since 
1887. 

♦Warner, D. C. P R. Telegraphs, Winnipeg, Manitoba. 

Ascents: In Canadian Rockies — Mts. Vice-President 
and Wapta. 

Watt, J. 17 Maple Avenue, Toronto, Ontario. 

Ascents: In the Selkirks of British Columbia — Mt. Sir 
Donald. Climbs in Switzerland and Corsica. 

*Wheeler, A. O., F.R.G.S. Box 167, Calgary, Alberta. 

In charge. Photo -Topographical Survey of the Rocky 
Mts. of Canada. 

Ascents: In the Canadian Rockies, Main range — Mts. 
Hector, Temple, Gordon, Daly, Vaux, Thompson, 
etc. In the Selkirks — Mts. Dawson, Sir Donald, 
Purity, Fox, Rogers, Wheeler (first ascent), Swiss 
peak, etc. 

*Wheeler, E. O. Box 167, Calgary, Alberta. 

Ascents: In Canadian Rockies, Main range — Mts. 
Hector, Gordon, Thompson, Vice-President, Wapta, 
Storm Mt., Observation peak, etc. 

*Wheeler, H. G. Box 167, Calgary, Alberta. 

Photo-Topographical Survey of the Rocky Mts. of 
Canada. 

Ascents: In Canadian Rockies, Main range — Mts. Hec- 
tor, Temple, Gordon, Daly, Balfour, Vaux, Thomp- 
son, Observation peak, etc. In the Selkirks — Mts. 
Dawson, Rogers, Fox, Purity, Selwyn, Wheeler, etc. 

*Wilkie, O. B. M. Trout Lake, British Columbia. 

On Canadian Topographic Survey for determination of 

Alaska Boundary. 
Ascents: Climbs in Lardeau and Kootenay Districts 

of British Columbia. 

♦Wilson, T. Banff, Alberta. 

Ascents: In Canadian Rockies, Main range — Mts. Ste- 
phen, Wilson, Aylmer, Cascade, King, Storm Mt., 
Crowsnest Mt., Wind Mt., Bonnet peak. 



Original Member, 



Graduating Members 193 



GRADUATING MEMBERS 



Adams, Miss C. Havergal College, Wnnipeg, Manitoba. 

Alexander, J. H. 

Toronto, Ontario (c|o H. H. Campkin & Co.) 

Allison, E. K. Regina, Saskatchewan. 
Amphlett, G. T. Standard Bank, Cape Town, South Africa. 

Anderson, G. A,, M.D. Box 508, Calgary, Alberta. 

Anderson, H. E. Calgary, Alberta. 

Armstrong, T. B., M.D. Indian Head, Saskatchewan. 

Atkins, H. B. Didsbury, Alberta. 

Ballentine, A. P. Box 894, Calgary, Alberta. 

Barnard, Miss E. A. Hamilton, Ontario. 

Barnes, Miss E. Bismarck, N. Dakota, U.S.A. 

Barnes, Miss L. Bismarck, N. Dakota, U.S.A. 

Bell, F. 121 Carlton Street, Winnipeg, Manitoba. 
Bell, Miss N. A. 121 Carlton Street, Winnipeg, Manitoba. 

Bleasdale, H. Regina, Saskatchewan. 

Burch, R. E. Winnipeg, Manitoba. 

Burnett, Miss E. M. Calgary, Alberta. 
Burwash, Miss E. M. 

Columbia College, New Westminster, B.C. 

Campbell, Miss M. W. Steele Block, Winnipeg, Manitoba. 

Campbell, Mrs. P. M. Lethbridge, Alberta. 

Campbell, Mrs. R. E. Banff, Alberta. 

Cancel lor, H. Field, British Columbia. 

Coffin, Rev. F. S. Canmore, Alberta. 

Cook, E. M. Revelstoke, British Columbia. 

Cook, Miss M. Banff, Alberta. 

Craig, H. S. Leduc, Alberta. 

Crane, W. L. Indian Head, Saskatchewan. 

Crawford, A. Calgary, Alberta. 

Culp, N. Saskatoon, Saskatchewan. 

Dalton, W. T. 1972 Robson Street, Vancouver, B.C. 

Darling, Godfrey Box 84, Calgary, Alberta. 

Duval, Miss L. E. 59 Donald Street, Winnipeg, Man. 

Davenport, Miss A. J. Sturgis, S. Dakota. 

Eakin, J. I. Lethbridge, Alberta. 

Edwards, R. C. Calgary, Alberta. 

Ferguson, Rev. T. J. S. Didsbury, Alberta. 

Fernie, Miss E. S. Golden, British Columbia. 



194 Canadian Alpine Journal 

Field, Miss F. M. Winnipeg, Manitoba. 

Foote, Miss A. G. Calgary, Alberta. 
Fournier, Miss E. M. Box 107, Indian Head, Saskatchewan. 

Fraser, A. W. Box 1441, Calgary, Alberta. 

Fraser, Rev. Thurlo Portage la Prairie, Manitoba. 
Gillis, C. H. Vancouver, British Columbia (c]o E. H. Heaps). 

Gillis, Miss S. Revelstoke, British Columbia. 

Graham, T. H. Morley, Alberta. 

Griffith, Mrs. H. Banff, Alberta. 

Griffith, Mrs. J. E. Golden, British Columbia. 

Haggith, Rev. W. J. Banff, Alberta. 
Harcourt, Rev. J. R. 

Edmonton, Alberta (c|o Geo. Harcourt, Dep. Min. Agriculture) 

Hart, A. R. Calgary, Alberta. 

Hart, F. W., M.D. Indian Head, Saskatchewan. 

Harvey, James Indian Head, Saskatchewan. 

Harvey, Miss Margaret Indian Head, Saskatchewan. 

Harvey, Miss Mary Indian Head, Saskatchewan. 
Haverson, Miss R. 

Pinecrest, Balsam Ave., Balmy Beach, Toronto. 
Herapath, Miss V. K. Banff, Alberta. 
Herdman, F. W. Trout Lake City, British Columbia. 
Hosr, O. D. Field, British Columbia. 
Hood, R. B. Calgary, Alberta. 
Houston, Miss M. B. Box 250, High River, Alberta. 
Hugg, Miss A. M. Box 188, Regina, Saskatchewan, 
hugg. Miss M. L. Box 188, Regina, Saskatchewan. 
Hutchinson, Miss A. Sioux Falls, S. Dakota, U.S.A. 
Hunt, J. S, Gleichen, Alberta- 
Hunt, W. G. Calgary, Alberta. 
Keith, D. North Battleford. Saskatchowaa 
Kiingenhagen, Miss A. Ferry Hall, Lakeforest, 111., U.S.A. 
La!!y, T. Banff, Alberta. 
Lang, L. L. Winnipeg, Manitoba. 
Lee, J. K. Box 447, Calgary, Alberta. 
Lee, S. C. Portage la Prairie, Manitoba. 
Lennox, Miss M. Revelstoke, British Columbia. 
LeSueur, Miss E. D. Box 821, Calgarj% Alberta. 
Lewis, F. B, Revelstoke, British Columbia. 
Lindmark, C. F. Revelstoke, British Columbia. 
Lindner, Miss E. F. Calgary, Alberta. 
Lyman, Otis A. Banff, Alberta. 
Martin, Mrs. Edwards Box 503, Winnipeg, Manitoba. 
Mason, C. K. Winnipeg, Manitoba. 
Miller, A. E. Revelstoke, British Columbia. 



Graduating Members 195 

Miller, H. H. Box 1127, Calgary, Alberta. 

Morrison, Mrs. J. O. Revelstoke, British Columbia. 

Murray, R. H. Halifax, Nova Scotia. 

McArthur, J. A., M.D. 

354 Carlton Street, Winnipeg, Manitoba. 
McColl, Miss M. F. Grand View Villa. Banff, Alberta. 

McDonald, C. R. Revelstoke, British Columbia. 

MacFarlane, Miss G. Revelstoke, British Columbia. 

MacFariane, Miss M. Education Dept., Regina, Sask. 

MacKay, Miss H. Winnipeg, Manitoba. 

MacKellar, Miss E. Winnipeg, Manitoba. 

McKillican, W. C. Calgary, Alberta. 

McKittrick, M. T. 622 Mclntyre Block. Winnipeg, Man. 

McNeill, John, Box 1416, Calgary, Alberta. 

Overend, F. C. Bankhead, Alberta. 

Palmer, H. J. Banff, Alberta. 

Palmer, Mrs. H. J. Banff, Alberta. 

Parslow, Miss E. M. Calgary, Alberta. 

Paterson, Miss M. E. Calgary, Alberta. 

Patterson, Miss A. E. Lethbridge, Alberta. 

Patterson, Miss R. Calgary, Alberta. 

Patterson, W. A. 

Western Canada College, Calgary, Alberta- 
Patteson, T. E. Lethbridge, Alberta. 

Pearce, Miss P. Calgary, Alberta. 

Percivai, J. W. Calgary, Alberta. 

Porteous, H. M. Winnipeg, Manitoba. 

Prest, Mrs. O. H. Cranbrook, British Columbia. 

Procunier, Rev. C. A., M.A. Revelstoke, British Columbia. 

Reading, A. L. Revelstoke, British Cclumbia. 

Reid, J. A. Box 712, Regina, Saskatchewan. 

Reilly, C. B. Calgary, Alberta. 

Salton, Rev. G. F., Ph.D. 243 Lisgar Street, Ottawa, Ontario. 
Sayre, A. J. Calgary, Alberta. 

Sharpe, Miss D. 24 Elm Street, Brookline, Mass., U.S.A. 

Sharpe, Miss M. Revelstoke, British Columbia. 

Sherman, Miss M. F. Sioux Falls, S. Dakota, U.S.A. 

Slee, J. H. N. 42 Broadway. New York, U.S.A. 

Smith, B. S. Calgary, Alberta (C.P.R. Irrigation Office). 

Smith, C. H. Revelstoke, British Columbia. 

Springate, Miss 2 St. James Place, Winnipeg, Manitoba. 

Stone, W. E. 

President, Purdue University, La Fayette, Indiana, U.S.A. 
Sutherland, E. G. Royal Bank of Canada, Calgary, Alberta. 
Taylor, Miss L. Taber, Alberta. 



196 Canadian Alpine Journal 

Taylor, W. J. Woodstock, Ontario. 
Walker, F. G. Western Canada College, Calgary, Alberta- 
Walker, W. J. S. Calgary, Alberta. 
Watson, Miss H. Kingston, Ontario, (Box 436, Winnipeg). 
Watt, A. B. Saturday News, Edmonton, Alberta. 
Will, J. S. Manitoba College, Winnipeg, Manitoba. 
Wilson, Dr. G. B. Winnipeg, Manitoba. 
Wilson, L. C. Calgary, Alberta. 
Wheeler, Mrs. A. O. Calgary, Alberta. 
Wright, C. A. Calgary, Alberta. 
Yeigh, F. 667 Spadina Ave., Toronto, Ontario. 



SUBSCRIBING MEMBERS 



Chisholm, J., F.I. A. Crossfield, Alberta. 

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NOTICE 



All members whose names, letters, addresses, etc., are not 
entered correctly are requested to notify the Secretary so that 
a proper entry may be made in the next issue. 

Address: Mrs. H. J. Parker, 160 Furby Street, 

Winnipeg, Manitoba. 



CANADIAN ALPINE JOURNAL. 



PUBLISHED BY THE 

ALPINE CLUB OF CANADA 



1908 



Primed by the Herald Job Printing Co., Limited, Calgarj', Alberta. 




COLONEL AIME LAUSSEDAT 



THE ALPINE CLUB OF CANADA 



Officers for 1908-1910. 



Patron 

Sir Sandford Fleming, C.E., K.C.M.G., LL.D., 
Ottawa, Ontario 

President 
x\rthur O. Wheeler. F.R.G.S., Calgary, Alberta 

Vice-Presiden ts 
John D. Patterson, Woodstock, Ontario 
Morrison P. Bridgland, Calgary, x\lberta 

Secretary 
Mrs. H. J. Parker. 160 Fiirby St., Winnipeg, Manitoba 

Excaitivc Secretary 
S. H. Mitchell, 567 Spence St., Winnipeg, Manitoba 

Treasurer 

C. W. Rowley, Manager Canadian Bank of Commerce, 
Calgary, Alberta 

Librarian 
Miss Jean Parker, 160 Fnrln- St., Winnipeg. Manitoba 

Advisory Board 
Frank Yeigh, Toronto. Ontario 
Stanley L. Jones. Calgary, Alberta 
D. H. Laird, Winnipeg, Manitoba 



Applicants for membership must be proposed by tliree Active 
members. 

Application for Active membership must be accompanied by 
a statement of qualification, duly attested. 

Graduating members must qualify within two years of date 
of election. 

All subscriptions are payable on 1st Januar.\- in each year. 



CANADIAN ALPINE JOURNAL 



The Publishing Committee is not responsible for statements 
made by contributors to the Canadian Alpine Journal. 



CONTENTS— VOLUME I., No. 2. 

MOUNTAINEERING SECTION 

Three Attempts on Pinnacle,. By P. D. McTavish .... 197 

The First Ascent of Mt. Garibaldi. By A. T. Dalton ... 205 

A Day on Sir Donald. By Frank W. Freeborn 211 

Expedition to Lake O'Hara. By R. L. GHsan 216 

Nature Benigna. Poem by Theodore Watts-Dunton. (From 

"The Coming of Love") 223 

SCIENTIFIC SECTION. 

The Causes of Mountain Forms in the Canadian Rockies. 

By A. P. Coleman, M.A., Ph.D., University of Toronto 224 

Mt. Stephen Rocks and Fossils. By Dr. Chas. Walcott, 

Secretary, Smithsonian Institution 232 

The Nature and Activity of Canadian Glaciers, By Prof. 

William Hittell Sherzer, Michigan State College . . 249 

Botanical Notes. 

The Orchidaceae of the Rocky and Selkirk Mountains. By 

Julia W. Henshaw 264 

Flora of the Saskatchewan and Athabasca Rivers. By Mary 

T. S. Schaffer 268 

Glacier Observations 1906-1907. 

Motion of the Yoho Glacier. By Arthur O. Wheeler, 

F. R. G. S 271 

MISCELLANEOUS SECTION. 

Paradise Valley Camp. By Francis C. Walker 276 

Untrodden Ways. By Mary T. S. Schaffer 288 

The Alpine Club's Jubilee. By Arthur O. Wheeler, F.R.G.S. 295 



ii CO'NTE-NTS— Continued 

In Memoriam. 

Colonel Aime Laussedat, Biographical Sketch, by E. Deville, 

LL.D 310 

Alpine Club Notes. Editorial 314 

OFFICIAL SECTION. 

Report of Secretary 320 

Statement of Treasurer 324 

Report of Librarian 325 

Report of 1907 Camp 328 

Report of Chief Mountaineer 329 

Expeditions 330 

Receipts and Expenditures, Paradise Valley Camp .... 334 

MAP. 

The Ice Forefoot of the Yoho Glacier. To accompany 

"Motion of the Yoho Glacier" by Arthur O. Wheeler . 275 



Copies of the Canadian Alpine Journal, Volume I., Nos. 1 and 
2, can be had on application to the following- officers of the 
Executive: 

A. O. Wheeler, President, Box 167, Calgary, Alberta. 

Mrs. H. J. Parker, Secretary, 160 Furby street, Winnipeg, 
Manitoba. 

S. H. Mitchell, Executive Secetary, 567 Spence St., Winnipeg, 
Manitoba. 

PRICE ONE DOLLAR, POST PAID. 

All applications for copies must be accompanied by money 
order or postal note payable at par in Canada. Cheques not 
accepted. 

By furnishing the address you can have copies sent direct to 
friends. 




B. S. Cowslock, Photo 

PINNACLE MOUNTAIN FROM PARADISE VALLEY CAMP 



CANADIAN ALPINE JOURNAL 



PUBLISHED BY 

Vol I. THE ALPINE CLUB OF CANADA No. 2. 



MOUNTAINEERING SECTION. 



THREE ATTEMPTS ON PINNACLE. 



By p. D. McTavish. 

Pinnacle Mountain is bold and precipitous with some- 
what of a castellated appearance. It is situated between 
Paradise Valley and the Valley of the Ten Peaks and be- 
hind or southwest of Mt. Temple, which overshadows it 
by upwards of 1,500 feet. Its altitude is only 10,062 ft., 
but the steepness of its walls on all sides, and the rotten- 
ness of its rock combine to make it extremely difficult of 
ascent. In fact it has so far defied the efforts of all who 
have attempted to reach its summit. 

During- the summer of 1907, the year in which the 
Alpine Club of Canada met in Paradise Valley, three at- 
tempts were made to conquer it. On June 24 Mr. Forde 
of Revelstoke with Guide Peter Kaufmann made the 
first attempt, the Alpine Club sent a party composed of 



198 • Canadian Alpine Journal 

the Reverends J. C. Herdman, J. R. Robertson and Geo. 
B. Kinney and P. D. McTavish in charge of the guide 
Edouard Feuz Jr. on July 9 ; and on August 22 Dr. Hick- 
son of Montreal with both Peter and Edouard made the 
third unsuccessful attempt. 

The Alpine Club's party left camp at six o'clock, 
and, after the usual tramp through the woods and over 
the 2,500 feet of loose rock and snow forming the moun- 
tain's lower slopes, we encountered the first real .work. 
This consisted in the ascent of a long, steep couloir filled 
with much loose rock on which rested, most insecurely, 
from six to twelve inches of snow and ice. In spite of 
the greatest precaution we dislodged some boulders and a 
considerable amount of finer debris, snow and ice. As w^e 
approached the top of the chimney the snow increased in 
quantity and steepness, becoming almost perpendicular, so 
our ice-axes were called into use. 

Regarding this particular part of the mountain Mr. 
Forde writes in his account of the climb: "About seven 
o'clock the first work began at an elevation of about 9,000 
feet, up a small couloir, and, as the rocks were icy and 
covered with from six to twelve inches of snow, the rope 
was brought into use. Here one of the pleasures so often 
experienced by mountain climbers fell to the lot of the 
writer, that of hanging on to the face of the rock wall 
while the man above sent a steady stream of snow and 
lumps of ice on the top of his head and down his 
neck, while his fingers were getting numb and stiff and 
he was beginning to doubt the existence of such things 
as toes. Surely one is justified in asking at such times 
the question: Is life worth living? After about two 
hours of this work, during which the two climbers 'spelled' 
each other in cutting steps and finger-holds, about 125 
feet had been gained, and they reached a small shoulder 
of the mountain, projecting into the Wastash Pass. Up 
this shoulder the travelling was comparatively good for 
200 feet more, and then they were brought to a stop 



Three Attempts on Pinnacle 199 

by a perpendicular rock wall, the face of which was 
composed of loose, shaly rock, affording no secure foot- 
hold or hand-hold." 

Having finally reached the top of the couloir we 
found ourselves on a narrow ridge which connected a 
gendarme to the body of the mountain. This ridge was 
so narrow that there was barely room for our party 
to sit down, while the rock was so disintegrated that we 
wondered why col and gendarme did not go crashing to 
the depths below\ We had been climbing five hours, and 
now halted for a breathing spell and a sandwich. Re- 
suming the climb, we found ourselves confronted by a 
perpendicular wall several hundred feet in height, there- 
fore turned south towards Eiffel Peak. Our first work 
was a very difficult descent of about fifty feet which landed 
us in a sort of funnel-shaped amphitheatre. Its walls 
were very steep and its outlet led to a perpendicular drop 
of 500 feet. We crossed safely by a narrow ledge and 
soon found ourselves on the col joining Pinnacle Moun- 
tain and Eiffel Tower. 

Looking upwards (northerly) Pinnacle Mountain 
presented the appearance of a succession of cascades of 
honeycombed rock which seemed ready to crumble were 
any extra weight put upon them or the rain to saturate 
them. For an hour we scaled this succession of per- 
pendicular faces and had little trouble except that the 
rottenness of the rock made more or less hazardous our 
every movement. 

Finally about one o'clock we reached the base of the 
precipice-walled crown which surmounted the rest of the 
mountain, the "keep" as it were of the fortress. Its walls 
rose in a perpendicular face and seemed to defy us. 
We went to right and to left only to find that the same 
perpendicular face extended comlpetely around the moun- 
tain, guarding jealously its summit. There seemed but 
one chance : A huge crack cleft the face of the crown, 
reaching apparently to the summit, and it looked as 



200 Canadian Alpine Journal 

though we might be able to work our way up. For about 
forty or fifty feet we had httle difficulty, but beyond that 
the way was absolutely blocked by the steepness of the 
rock and its utter lack of hand-holds and foot-holds. For 
fully an hour the guide struggled at this point. Finally 
one of the party braced himself and allowed Edouard to 
climb upon his shoulders in the hope that the advantage 
thus gained would reveal new possibilities. But the effort 
was useless and we were reluctantly forced to retreat. 
It was now suggested that we try to work our way 
up the walls of the huge crack at a point farther in 
where it was not as wide, but upon examination we found 
these walls covered with ice and the hope of getting up 
here was quickly dispelled. Then began a more careful 
examination; but, after reconnoitering to right and left 
we found no place where there was the slightest possibil- 
ity of ascending, so returned to the fissure once more. 
For upwards of an hour we redoubled our efforts at this 
point, but all to no effect, and finally decided unanimously 
that we were defeated. Mr. Forde's experience at this 
point follows : "The foot of the wall was traversed on a 
small ledge for several hundred feet easterly, along the 
side of the mountain, above the Valley of the Ten Peaks, 
but further progress was barred by the ledge ending 
suddenly. As no place was found at which it was pos- 
sible to attempt to get higher, the climbers retraced their 
steps to the shoulder mentioned before and continued 
around the face of the wall towards Paradise Valley. 
Here again no practicable route to the top was found, 
the only place that seemed at all likely to be feasible being 
a narrow crevice in the face of the wall. This crevice 
looked anything but promising, but as it was the only 
chance left, it was attempted and some progress made by 
pressing the elbows and knees against the sides and work- 
ing up a few inches at a move. About fifty feet from the 
bottom of the crevice it widened out to six or eight feet. 
As the walls were smooth and perpendicular, and the 



Three Attempts on Pinnacle 201 

former mode of progression of no further service, the 
only course left was to retreat to the shoulder. Here a 
council was held and the easterly ledge again traversed 
in the hope that some possible chance had been over- 
looked, but the hope proved to be a vain one. At about 
one o'clock, therefore, it was decided to abandon the 
attempt." 

It was now four o'clock. If loose and rotten rock 
was dangerous on the ascent, it would be doubly so 
descending, and it was imperative to commence the 
descent. With the chagrin of defeat in our minds, we 
did not particularly relish the anticipation of descend- 
ing faces of weathered and disintegrating rock, skirting 
fearsome ledges with foot-holds of questionable security 
and yawning depths below and, worst of all, lowering 
ourselves down couloirs treacherous with snow, ice and 
debris. 

Proceeding carefully we reached the top of the 
last and longest couloir about seven o'clock. To its base 
the depth was fully 200 feet, and we dreaded this more 
than any part of the whole descent. The sun was ap- 
proaching the mountain peaks to the west, the air had 
become noticeably cool, speed was necessary. Eight 
hundred feet below was the snow-field ; unless we reached 
it before dark we might have the uncomfortable ex- 
perience of spending a night above snow-line, an experi- 
ence which none of us desired. Just as we had nicely en- 
tered the chimney the guide, Edouard, called a halt until 
he should examine another route apparently more feas- 
ible. It was; but the first thirty or forty feet seemed 
quite hazardous, so one member of the party was lowered 
by a rope to examine the rock carefully. It seemed 
better than the couloir and soon all had descended and we 
were approaching the snow-field, which we eventually 
reached about eight o'clock, feeling much relieved that 
the dangers were over before darkness set in. We ar- 
rived at the camp about nine o'clock, just as the evening 



202 Canadian Alpine Journal 

shadows were creeping over Paradise Valley, and the 
warm glow and pleasant crackle of the camp fire were 
making many merry hearts merrier. 

The third attempt of Pinnacle Mountain was made 
on the 22nd of August last by Dr. J. W. A. Hickson, of 
McGill College, Montreal. The account of it is given 
in his own words : 

'T started in the afternoon of August 21st from 
Lake Louise with Peter Kaufman and Edouard Feuz, 
Jr., and camped one night on the site of the Canadian 
Alpine Club camp in 1907. We had camped here a week 
before, but had been driven back from our proposed 
attempt on Pinnacle by heavy rain and snow. When 
we were taking supper, in full view of the mountain, it 
seemed to me that the guides were by no means so hope- 
ful of attaining the summit as they had been previously. 
Feuz even remarked in no genuinely joking tone: 'Per- 
haps we won't get to the top.' Needle-like in appear- 
ance, its summit covered with fresh snow looked cold 
and forbidding, and very diminutive alongside of the 
massive Temple. 

" We set out next morning about 5 o'clock, in fine 
weather. After following the stream which flowed past 
the camp, we ascended a grassy slope and over some 
boulders along the left shoulder of the mountain. In 
about three hours we reached the snow, which was fresh 
and powdery, and the rope was brought into requisition. 
Proceeding carefully up the snow-slope, we crossed to the 
right and following the ridge, which one of the guides 
had traversed some weeks before, had some good rock 
climbing. In some place the foot-holds were rendered 
easier by the hard snow, particularly on a narrow ledge 
skirting the right shoulder of the mountain near the 
top; but elsewhere the rocks were unpleasantly slippery 
through melting snow. We had reached a ledge within 
what seemed to be about 300 feet below the summit, 
when further advance was stopped by a precipitous wall 




fa 
o 

OS 

w 
o 

I '^ 

^- o 

-'? p^ 




Three Attempts on Pinnacle 203 

of smooth rock, about 60 feet high, which apparently 
could be ascended only through a perpendicular chim- 
ney affording no hand-holds except at its base, and hav- 
ing an overhanging rock near its top. Feuz Jr. had 
already been this far in July 1907 with a small party; 
and had been obliged to turn back. 

"It was now about 10.15 o'clock. The weather 
though fairly clear, had turned unpleasantly cold, and 
there were heavy clouds moving from the west with a 
high wind. After taking some refreshment the guides 
suggested that they should first try the chimney, in re- 
gard to the feasibility of which I was not at all hopeful. 
As the result of half an h&ar's work Feuz managed to 
ascend some 15 or 20 feet, but there was no prospect 
of getting further in this direction. We then explored 
both sides of the ledge to discover whether there was 
any way of working round the wall of rock and ascend- 
ing to the summit from another side. We came to the 
conclusion, however, that what seemed to offer a pos- 
sible means of circumvention was, on account of the 
fresh snow on the loose rocks, too dangerous to be worth 
the risk. The guides were strongly opposed to under- 
taking it. So we left the ridge very reluctantly about 
12.30 o'clock with the intention of seeing something more 
of the mountain by descending on the opposite side to 
that along which we had come up. But, after getting 
down about a thousand feet, we were obliged, again ow- 
ing to the condition of the snow, to ascend in order 
to resume our previous path. We reached camp at 
4.40 p.m. It seems to me that it would be worth while 
trying this peak again only when it is completely dry, 
i.e., free of snow for 1,000 feet below the summit. Last 
summer was notoriously unfavorable for inountaineer- 
ing, as fresh snow fell almost continuously after the be- 
ginning of August on all peaks over 8000 feet." 

Defeat does not always mean lack of pleasure, for 
in mountain climbing (as in most other things) the very 



204 Canadian Alpine Journal 

striving itself is enjoyable. "Strive, nor hold cheap the 
strain." When a party of mountaineers, protected from 
danger by a careful guide, spend a day on a mountain 
that tries all their skill and constantly taxes their in- 
genuity, every moment is replete with pleasure. So 
our fifteen hours spent on Pinnacle Mountain was a 
decided success even though we failed to reach the 
summit. All honor to the man who finally performs 
the feat. 



First Ascent of Mt. Garibaldi 205 



THE FIRST ASCENT OF MT. GARIBALDI. 



By a. T. Dalton. 

On the extreme west of the Rocky Mountains sys- 
tem, hard by the waters of the North Pacific, is a moun- 
tain range httle known beyond its own horizon. Its 
highest peaks do not compare in altitude with the giants 
of the Selkirks and Rockies, rising above valleys al- 
ready at a considerable elevation, but they have the same 
alpine features of rock and glacier and snow, while their 
ascent involves climbing almost from the level of the 
sea. Moreover, they possess an added feature of beauty 
impossible to the ranges lying further east, their seaward 
slopes being indented with numerous fiords which find 
their way often into the very heart of the range. 

The peak of greatest height is Mt. Garibaldi — 
known locally as "Old Baldi" — which stands at the head 
of Howe Sound, some thirty miles in from the Gulf of 
Georgia. Every dweller- in the lovely Valley of the 
Squamish, which this mountain overlooks, is as proud of 
him as he is proud of his country; yet, except to these 
good people, he is all but a myth. Years ago a party 
attempted the ascent, but failed; and it looked, as time 
went on, as if Old Baldi were to crumble away in peace. 
But in that party were some who were "baffled to fight 
better," and this is why one stormy night, early in Aug- 
ust, 1907, an adventurous group found themselves about 
a roaring fire in an old log house in the Squamish Val- 
ley, forty miles by water from Vancouver. 

At six o'clock the next morning under a clear sky, 
we set out for the coveted summit, following the Tsee- 
Ki whose source is in Garibaldi's glaciers. At first the 
travelling was easy, for the rise was gradual and the 



206 Canadian Alpine Journal 

country open; and in a few hours we were in the 
foothills, with the Tsee-Ki's milky waters boiling through 
canyons, and our mountain looming ever higher and more 
forbidding. By noon we reached a place where the way 
by the stream was barred and we were obliged to begin 
the ascent by a ridge on the left. And now our toils 
commenced. For i,ooo feet we had some very awkward 
rock-work made risky by loose fragments; and beyond 
this, a laborious grind of 5,000 feet up a wooded slope 
at an angle of 45 degrees. For hours we toiled up that 
interminable mountain-side with never a glimpse of a 
view to encourage us; until at last, when quite near the 
summit of the ridge, we "played out." We had been 
travelling for twelve hours. Camp was made in an open 
glade carpeted with heather, and with plenty of wood 
and pure water, we were soon comfortable for the 
night. 

Early next morning we broke camp and continued 
the work of the previous day with keen anticipation. In 
a short while we were rewarded by our first panorama, 
for all at once we stepped on open ground and, looking 
back, beheld the whole Squamish Valley lying six 
thousand feet beneath us with its roads, rivers and 
farms showing as depicted upon a living map. Beyond 
lay Howe Sound stretching away to the open sea, and in 
the far distance Vancouver Island. We were feasting 
upon this scene when a shout from our amateur guides 
hurried us on. Almost before we knew what had hap- 
pened, we found ourselves on the first crest with Gari- 
baldi beyond in full view, and quite close. Towering 
heavenwards in one magnificent mass of rock, his pre- 
cipices crowned with hanging glaciers, and all his upper 
heights wrapt in a mantle of fresh snow, he seemed 
some terrible monarch of the skies not to be approached 
by man. A rising ridge in the form of a crescent con- 
nected our present point with the glaciers behind the 
mountain. A steep descent of some three hundred feet 



First Ascent of Mt. Garibaldi 207 

brought us to its crest and along it we took our way. 
The whole ridge was clothed with fresh green grasses 
and blossoming heather, through which flowed here and 
there silvery streamlets of purest crystal. Clusters of 
trees were scattered about in reckless order, and gorgeous 
flowers in wild profusion made fragrant the air. In 
Indian file we moved along, ever on our right the moun- 
tain, and far below on the left the Squamish Valley and 
the ice-clad range beyond. Once a deer went bounding 
past with swift graceful motion, and then some fleecy 
clouds floated by. A few hours brought us to a com- 
manding knoll, and here at timber-line we pitched camp 
in a group of dwarfed balsams. We now had a view 
behind Garibaldi of a vast sea of unknown mountains, 
glaciers and lakes. 

After a somewhat uncanny night we awoke to find 
ourselves enveloped in clouds, so dense that our knoll 
seemed a little island in mid-ocean. All morning was 
spent in camp in that heavy, silent fog, but in the after- 
noon two of us set off with one of our guides for the 
base of the peak. It took two hours to get to it, steadily 
tramping up slopes of shale and snow in the thick fog. 
And then we reached a point where there was no sign 
of vegetation, and from whence we beheld the wildest 
scene of the trip. We stood on the top of a huge mass 
of rock, on one side was a precipice vanishing below in 
clouds, and on the other a very steep slope of trap rock, 
up which the clouds were surging from out the Tsee-Ki 
canyons. Within a stone's throw on the left darkly loom- 
ed the red walls of the dome of Garibaldi, and from a 
glacier at its base rushed a noisy little streamlet, the very 
head of the Tsee-Ki, which we had followed for twenty- 
five miles.. 

Early next morning the whole party set out to make 
an attempt at the ascent ; but when we reached the snow- 
field below the peak, silent, desolate and trackless, the 
party would go no further. The fog gathered thickly 



208 Canadian Alpine Journal 

and it was snowing; so, dejected, we returned to camp. 
Now happened what nearly ruined the whole expedition. 
Four of the party wanted to go home, and one of the 
leaders was willing, but the other bitterly opposed to it. 
The fate of that virgin peak hung in the balance. It was 
settled by the ''youngster" of the party stepping along- 
side the "foolish" guide, as he was rated, and with him 
swearing to retreat not one step till more than mere 
clouds and snow flurries barred the way to the sum- 
mit. It had been "do or die" sitting before a cosy hearth 
in town, so now the only way home was the Spartan 
one : with your shield or on it ! 

At sundown the wind veered to the north and in a 
few hours there was not a vestige of a cloud in the sky. 
Now we had cold to contend with, for an icy wind blew 
from the glaciers behind Garibaldi, and our supply of 
wood was ended. The break of dawn on the twelfth was 
the scene of a lifetime. All hands were up early and, 
just as the sun was tipping the surrounding peaks and 
tinting glacier after glacier, we set off for the third time 
up that mountain ridge. The peak showed clear but was 
clad with new snow and looked anything but easy. In a 
couple of hours we reached the base and here roped, 
with the two men of the former expedition as guides. 
Then we stepped out upon the glacier at an altitude of 
about eight thousand feet, and began to circle the peak — 
a pyramid rising two thousand feet — by the north. For 
an hour we walked steadily over new frozen snow of 
dazzling whiteness, constantly encountering ugly crev- 
asses, the peak on our right, a wall of unscaleable pre- 
cipices overhung by a glacier. For another hour we 
hurried on, gradually rising, the silence of those dismal 
wastes broken only by the sound of an alpenstock biting 
the frozen snow. Once the whole place was shaken by 
an avalanche which came thundering down the precipice 
on our flank. At eleven o'clock we reached the nine- 
thousand foot level where began the final struggle. 







^ i 




A. T. Dalton. Photo 



THE SUMMIT OK MT. GARIBALDI 






'^^H 




Ptich, Photo 



LOOKING EAST FROM THE SUMMIT 



First Ascent of Mt. Garibaldi 209 

Soon we were on one of the frozen faces of the 
pyramid, a slope of 45°, rounding off abruptly to where, 
far below, we ha;d passed early in the morning-. We made 
a horizontal traverse of this, negotiated two crevasses, and 
then began to climb the steep face of iced snow leading 
to an arete above, which would take us to the summit. 
Every step had to be cut, and the higher we climbed the 
steeper it grew. Then someone murmured, for the slope 
became nearly vertical and a merciless wind was whistling 
across it. Close above, however, was rock, so we worked 
to this haven. Decidedly unnerved we reached it at last, 
and clambering up its steep face, gazed over the saw-like 
edge. What we saw there sickened the bravest of us. 
We were on the edge of a thin toppling precipice of rotten 
lava, overhanging a horrible green glacier a thousand 
feet below, with empty space beneath it again. A cry 
was raised to return, but our guides were firmer now, 
and we had to go on. The arete was about a hundred 
yards long, all cracked and crumbling, with its north 
face, on which we were, a mass of loose slabs of lava, 
coated with snow and ice. Under this was a bank of 
snow too steep to use, with two yawning crevasses 
stretching across it. To the south was the paralyzing 
"overhang." It took an hour and a half to make that 
course. Every piece of dislodged rock went either silent- 
ly flying into dizzy space on one side, or whirring down 
the other to vanish with an almost human howl in the 
hungry throat of one of those crevasses. 

In a kind of trance we at last crawled up a ridge of 
soft clean snow, and found ourselves standing on a flat, 
bare rock, with only the four winds about us and the 
heavens above us. One of our young guides planted a 
Union Jack; and we realized that a virgin peak was con- 
quered — Garibaldi . 

The view from that point ten thousand feet above 
the sea must be left to the imagination of those who 
have been in like places. A cairn was built, and then 



210 Canadian Alpine Journal 

we hurriedly roped, for there were only four hours till 
nightfall and it had taken eight to make the ascent. 
Clouds were whirling about us now, and a storm was 
evidently coming on. 

How we made the nerve-racking descent of tliat 
arete, and how once the front of our line went into one 
of those crevasses and was rescued, cannot be related 
here. Let it suffice that after a mad race with night and 
fog over the glaciers, we returned to camp, exhausted. 
One more night, and the worst, was spent in that desert 
spot, for all the elements seemed running riot, and our 
firewood was used up. In the morning we bade farewell 
to our never-to-be-forgotten camp, and set off home by 
the route we had come. Observation Point was reached, 
and then began the long tedious descent to the Tsee-Ki 
canyons. It rained in torrents, we lost our way and got 
entangled in a maze of cliffs. Several of these we over- 
came by sliding down our ropes, finally reaching the Tsee- 
Ki ; and at 5 o'clock we stood on the Squamish road and 
were soon safe in our log house again. 

Wednesday, the eighth day out, broke as clear and 
bright as ever a day seen by man, and we set off early 
down the country road on a farm wagon. Quietly we 
drove through that lovely valley, among its farms with 
their peaceful green lands and happy faces; above, the 
blue sky with a fringe of snow peaks. 

Ten miles brought us to the sea where the little 
steamer "Britannia" waited. Then we bade farewell to 
Squamish and her "White-headed Baldi," and were 
homeward-bound. 

The next four hours were spent steaming down that 
grand old fiord, Howe Sound, and at sunset we entered 
Vancouver harbor. 



A Day on Sir Donald 211 



A DAY ON SIR DONALD. 



By Frank W. Freeborn. 

Sir Donald, one of the most conspicuous of the Sel- 
kirks by its height and position, rises at the side of the 
little valley in which stands the Glacier House. On its 
left it is buttressed by four noble peaks, and on its right 
the big Illecillevvaet Glacier comes tumbling down four 
thousand feet, a mighty cataract of ice, a mile wide. Its 
sharp pyramid, rising to the height of 10,808 feet, is so 
steep that little snow can rest on its surface, but in its 
lap it holds a living glacier. In actual height it is over- 
topped by some mountains that are oftener climbed, but 
in elevation above any convenient starting point it con- 
siderably surpasses them. Add to this fact its excessive 
steepness, the difficulty of crossing its bergschund, and 
the danger from falling rock, and you have the ex- 
planation of the infrequency of its ascent. Only two 
ascents were made, I think, in 1905, and after the first 
in 1906 the guides were very loath to try it again that 
season. So when I reached Glacier House near the end 
of July, 1907, after a week in Paradise Valley with the 
Alpine Club of Canada, I had little hope of realizing my 
ambition to climb it. But when I hailed the elder 
Feuz on the subject he at once consented to try it with 
me. At the same time Miss Jean Parker, of Winnipeg, 
one of the practiced climbers of the Canadian Alpine 
Club, engaged the younger Feuz to go with her. So we 
fixed an early day for the climb, July 26th. The day 
before was an ideal one for the task, and we wished 
we had chosen it. But when at 3.30 o'clock the next 
morning we four met for an early breakfast, the clouds 



212 Canadian Alpine Journal 

hid all the mountain tops, and the prospect was gloomy. 
But at 4 o'clock we set out, hoping the adverse weather 
might change with the rising sun. 

It was a silent, wet, chilly tramp that we four had 
by the early light up the Illecillewaet path for a half hour; 
then we branched off into a narrow trail to the left 
through dripping weeds and bushes, across two streams, 
uncomfortably wide and full even at that hour, and up 
a wooded ridge that led us to the terminal moraine of 
the Vaux Glacier. Here we found conditions of ascent 
better than usual. The crevasses were safely filled with 
hardened snow, and when the glacier became much 
steeper, the snow gave us a fine footing to kick our 
steps in it and make it our stairway. With this ad- 
vantage we came at 7.45 to the bergschrund. This had 
always been one of the most serious obstacles to the 
ascent; but, thanks to the enormous masses of snow 
that had fallen the previous season and until early sum- 
mer, the dreaded chasm was, when we happened to reach 
it, no chasm at all, and we could walk directly up to 
the cliff that forms the head wall of the glacier basin. 
Up this we swarmed with much use of our arms. The 
foot-holds and hand-holds were small, but generally more 
secure than in the Rockies. Two hundred feet up we 
came to a series of horizontal ledges none too wide, but 
wide enough for our purpose. These we followed straight 
across the face of the wall to the left until we reached 
the main mass of the mountain. Along this part of the 
way we had some encouraging weather promises ; patches 
of blue sky appeared, and once for a few minutes the 
whole pinnacle of Sir Donald was free from clouds. How 
huge it towered in that sudden nearer exhibition! 

Arrived at the end of this ledge, we stopped for 
twenty minutes for our breakfast. Then we tackled a 
narrow gully, one of the bugbears of the ascent, for it is 
the pathway of much falling rock. And so with anxious 
upward glances, and hurrying feet, we got through it as 



1 





A Day on Sir Donald 213 

soon as we could, and halted for rest and breath, crouched 
at the foot of an overhanging cliff that rose vertically 
hundreds of feet above us, its face from top to bottom 
so jagged and loose- jointed, with such fresh-looking 
cleavage, that it threatened at any moment to drop tons 
of wreckage at our feet. The weather had grown thick 
again, streams of leakage were trickling down upon us, 
and so we kept our refuge no longer than we really 
had to. 

Just beyond this halt we struck to the right and 
somewhat upwards over the face of the main peak; at 
first across a shallow couloir 200 feet wide, plainly in 
most of its curving width a pathway of rocky debris, 
where wMchful eyes and active feet were needed. Be- 
yond this a traverse was made of a rather steep snow 
slope. We were still two parties, and so we took the 
couloir and the traverse separately, Miss Parker and 
young Feuz going first, and then when they had got well 
started on the snow, the elder Feuz and I followed 
rapidly. Luckily, neither in this couloir nor in the one 
below had we to dodge so much as a pebble. In this 
we fared much better than some of our predecessors. 

Our course lay towards the conspicuous shoulder on 
the right of the mountain, and thence along the sky-line 
to the top. The climbing was steady and slow and al- 
ways somewhat strenuous, but in two and a half hours 
from our refuge under the cliffs, we came suddenly 
and somewhat unexpectedly upon the summit. 

Miss Parker was the first Canadian woman to tread 
that windy peak. Only four women had preceded her, 
Mrs. Berens, Miss Benham and Miss Tuzo of Old Eng- 
land, and Miss Raymond of New England, all four names- 
well known to the mountain-climbing world. 

We were almost exactly eight hours in going from 
the Glacier House to the summit. We had been shut in 
by clouds and snow squalls for some time, and in a con- 
tinuance of such condition with no view bevond a few 



214 Canadian Alpine Journal 

rods, we sat there and ate our lunch. It was a cold 
eating place; no sun to cheer us, no landscape to repay 
the toilsome climb, a cold wind blowing, our benumbed 
feet in a snow-bank, the flakes falling thickly over us. 
Then we came down. 

The weather played us many tricks on the return, 
sunshine, rain, hail, sleet, fierce winds, snow squalls, in 
turn and sometimes in conjunction, gave us all the 
variety we needed to kill monotony. A little way be- 
low the summit the clouds blew away from about us and 
discovered a wide landscape to the east and south. Still 
farther down the whole mass of clouds would lift at times 
and we could look under them over the broad Illecille- 
waet Neve with its ten square miles of pure white, look- 
ing from that height as level as a floor. Now and then 
beyond appeared the mighty mass of Dawson, and fur- 
ther to the right the graceful curves of the Asulkan Pass 
and Glacier, with a wilderness of nameless ice-clad giants 
in the west beyond them as far as eye could see. 

The most striking sight of all was a brief view that 
came to us when w^e were near the base of the main 
peak. We had just been pelted with a fierce squall of 
wind and rain and hail. It passed, and we stood in an 
oasis of sunlight. The lower clouds were gone. To the 
south a broad band of sunlight lay across the Illecille- 
waet Neve; the heavy blanket of the upper clouds threw 
its gloomy shadow on all the world in that quarter 
save the single peak of Mt. Purity, its perfect cone a 
brilliant gleaming white in the bright sunlight that trans- 
figured it alone. I tried to catch the scene with my 
camera, but the result is only a faint suggestion of the 
majesty and beauty of the original. 

Our descent was made by practically the same route 
as the ascent, but greater caution was necessary for 
safety; and so we all four went upon one rope. So 
carefully had we to pick our way, that even with less 
stops than on the way up, we were more than an hour 



A Day on Sir Donald 215 

longer in descending from the summit to the glacier than 
in covering the same space in the ascent. But once on 
the glacier, we could avail ourselves of the same tactics 
that had served us so well on the peaks and passes about 
Paradise Valley; now rushing down in the yielding snow 
by leaps and bounds, now sitting and taking a long 
glissade. So with alternate sliding and striding we soon 
reached the moraine. Then, with a short but heavy 
shower, the cantankerous god of the weather gave us his 
parting blessing, and we plodded prosaically along until, 
in a trifle over seven hours after leaving the summit, we 
were back at the welcome shelter of the Glacier House. 
Tired? Of course. Exhausted? By no means. Happy? 
Only those who hold in memory the retrospect of such a 
day can know the feeling. 



216 Canadian Alpine Journal 



EXPEDITION TO LAKE O'HARA. 



By R. L. Glisan. 

To a nature-lover, the invitation of the Alpine Club 
of Canada to the Mazamas to send a representative to the 
Annual Meet in the summer of 1907 was very alluring 
with its brief hints of the scenery one might expect in 
and around Paradise Valley. And especially attractive 
was its suggestion of a two-days' expedition among 
glaciers and over passes in the vicinity. 

I had years before looked with longing eyes from 
the train as we caught fleeting glimpses of distant snow- 
peaks and deep glacier-cut valleys, and when the call came 
to me in Oregon to penetrate the mysteries of the Rockies 
I eagerly accepted. 

Oregon and Washington have attractive snow scen- 
ery, but it is largely centred about individual volcanic 
peaks rising like sentinels above the densely wooded 
region around them. I had made the ascent of our more 
prominent peaks, and was anxious to make comparisons. 
Entering Paradise Valley a stranger, I left it with so 
many pleasant memories that, as I now mentally retrace 
my steps and glance again at the photographs before me, 
as I have so many times, I experience a keen pleasure 
that only Alpine enthusiasts can possibly appreciate. 

Paradise Valley is well named, for it lies in the 
center of a wonderful scenic region and makes an ideal 
place for a club camp. From the summit of Mount 
Temple above the valley, I gazed over a bewildering 
sea of snow peaks and looked with envious eyes in the 
direction of Lake O'Hara. eager to make the circuit of 
the lakes. That evening I entered my name for the 
O'Hara Expedition, and the following morning, rising 



Expedition to Lake O'Hara 217 

with the sun or shortly thereafter, made one of a small 
group around the fire, for the early air was sharp and 
biting. 

Breakfast over, seven responded to the roll-call and 
the click of the alpenstock announced our departure from 
camp. We trailed along up the timbered valley on the 
left bank of the stream rushing madly down from Horse- 
shoe Glacier. Crossing the stream about a mile from 
camp, just above the Giant's Stairway, over which the 
water glides in liquid sheets, we came close to the Mitre, 
a prominent peak overhanging the valley, and so named 
from its resemblance to a bishop's mitre. Here we com- 
menced our ascent towards the pass between the Mitre 
and Mt. Aberdeen, working up a rocky slide, of which 
the lower portion was covered with small brush. We 
were soon taking a breather on the first bench above, 
where the snow began. As a matter of practice and pre- 
caution the rope was uncoiled, and, while our leader was 
making the necessary loops, we turned and absorbed the 
view. Paradise Valley lay before us, a carpet of green, 
walled in by snow peaks reaching from the glacial amphi- 
theatre at its head down its entire length. Mount Temple 
raised its snowy dome across the way, with Pinnacle, 
Eiffel and the other peaks forming a massive semi-circle 
curving towards where we stood. 

The loops adjusted, we started the climb over the 
snow, and after a rather strenuous pull made the pass and 
looked down the other slope, which led to Lefroy Glacier 
and proved much steeper than the route up. Some diffi- 
culty had been experienced here on the previous expedi- 
tion, as the snow then had a hard crust, necessitating a 
tedious process of step-cutting. We were fortunate, how- 
ever, as we found the snow in good condition, and, going 
cautiously at the start, we soon broke rank and slid — 
first one ahead and then another — until what appeared 
like a forbidding descent was soon over and we were 
out on the glacier. 



218 Canadian Alpine Journal 

Where Lefroy and Victoria Glaciers meet we found 
the surface badly broken, necessitating rather cautious 
movement and obliging us in places to jump over partially 
concealed crevasses. Here we paused to take in the view. 
We were at the head of another valley, wilder and more 
interesting than Paradise. The Mitre and Lefroy looked 
down on us, as their other sides did on Paradise Valley. 
Victoria formed the centre of the circle, its huge mass of 
snow and ice overhanging high rocky walls suggesting 
something familiar. Turning, the eye swept down the 
valley of ice and there below us, a pure gem in a perfect 
setting, appeared a small lake of liquid blue. "Lake 
Louise!" someone exclaimed; and, like a flash, I then re- 
called gazing through powerful binoculars towards Lefroy 
and Victoria from the Chalet by the lake, wondering at 
the time if I would have the good fortune to stand where 
we now stood. The Chalet was plainly visible, and be- 
yond we could see Laggan, the railroad and other signs 
of prosaic existence. 

Awakened from a reverie by the warning that we 
must make Abbot Pass before the sun should loosen the 
dangerous snow masses by its piercing rays, we reluct- 
antly turned, and taking our way around the bulwark 
of Lefroy, looked up the Victoria Glacier to Abbot Pass. 
The precipitious walls of Lefroy and Victoria on either 
side force snow into this narrow gap. 

A clear blue canopy of sky brought out the vivid 
whiteness of the pass, and the incline of the vision fol- 
lowing the upward slope belittled the intervening distance 
and made the pass seem almost insignificant. Why was 
it called the "Death Trap"? Why was it dangerous? 
Why the warning to take a long breath and no halt ? The 
answers came as we pushed upward, the pass apparently 
receding as we advanced and yet near enough to lure us 
on. As we zigzagged up, huge masses of snow lay in 
loosely piled heaps, rising high above us, almost forbid- 
ding a whisper lest it start an avalanche; and the sun, 



Expedition to Lake O'Hara 219 

as if just aware of our presence and indignant at our 
audacity, directed its rays against the gap. It did not 
start the snow, but it started beads of honest toil. A 
snow flurry in camp and the biting air on Temple had 
inspired me with the precaution of extra heavy clothing, 
and before we made the skyline, I was ready to halt and 
take my chances with an avalanche. 

It seems a misnomer to call the gap between Lefroy 
and Victoria a pass. Higher than the average snow 
peak, a precipitious slope on either side, we stood on the 
knife-edge of the pass, caught our breath and lost it again 
as we gazed down the other slope. We looked into 
chaotic grandeur, snow and rock everywhere in an end- 
less uplift. Reluctantly we commenced the descent, for- 
tune again favoring us as the slope in places permitted 
cautious sliding, and before we realized it we were down 
the narrow funnel and on the ridge that jutted out 
from the main wall. Here someone suggested lunch, 
and the suggestion meeting with favor, we selected a place 
where we could take in the view and enjoy a sun-bath as 
well. The rocks, though a rather hard resting place, were 
a welcome relief from the snow, lack of water being the 
only drawback. Above us towered Lefroy, further to the 
left rose Mt. Yukness, and below, at the base of glaciers 
and snow-fields, we could see Lake Oeesa,* its ice- 
covered surface making the water seem black by contrast. 
The lake is seldom free from ice on account of its 
elevation. 

After a brief rest and the inner man appeased, we 
made our way down the ledges and then down a talus or 
rock-slide above Oeesa. Here we caught a glimpse of 
Lake O'Hara in the valley below. Following down the 
bed of the valley for several miles, we suddenly came out 
on the rim of a rock-wall and below us saw the lake, its 
mirror-like surface reflecting the snow peaks surround- 
ing it. 



Indi.an word ineanirg " Ice." 



220 Canadian Alpine Journal 

The lake is about a mile long, of irregular shape, in 
places half a mile wide, the further shore broken in a 
series of inviting coves covered with evergreen trees 
reaching to the water's edge. To our right Wiwaxy 
Peaks, a huge buttress of oddly-shaped rock pinnacles, 
rose abruptly from the water, cutting off the further end 
from view, while across rose Mount Schaffer. It was 
then about three o'clock, and the afternoon light brought 
out the vivid blue of the water. Not a trace of human 
presence, not a trace of any disturbing element, the 
whole scene was the personification of majestic peace. 

The Alpine Club had established a temporary camp 
on the shore of the lake to take care of parties making 
the circuit from the main camp, the tents and supplies 
being packed in over a trail from Hector. We looked 
for the camp but failed to lo':ate it, as it was hidden in 
one of the distant coves. Hesitating to break the still- 
ness, we finally hallooed, the call echoing and re-echoing 
from shore to shore, but no one answered. We were 
puzzled at first how to reach the lake as the descent was 
almost a sheer drop of several hundred feet, but after 
careful experimenting, a route was selected requiring 
caution, and we were soon at the water's edge. 

Satisfying our thirst from a small torrent of pure 
water, we followed the left shore over a mossy bank, 
through a natural park, and came in sight of the camp 
about three-quarters of the way down the lake, a most 
welcome sight. A refreshing plunge in the water gave 
additional zest to our appetite for the evening meal, which 
soon followed. The air was cool enough to make the fire 
welcome, and the hard tramp, bath and supper had put 
us in a condition of blissful laziness. Lounging there we 
could see the evening glow and the deepening shadows 
on the lake, and on the mountains and glaciers beyond. 
Going up to a meadow about a mile distant, we secured 
the full effect of the afterglow on the snow peaks back 
of the camp. The twilight was gracious in its length, 




M. F. Bfidglaiid, Photo 



I,AKE O'HARA 




THE EAGI^E'S KVRIE 

PROSPECTOR'S VALLEY 



Expedition to Lake O'Hara 221 

and only the thought of tomorrow persuaded us to turn 
in. A tent with double blanket on yielding, fragrant 
boughs seemed luxurious. We fastened the lower flap 
to keep out the porcupines who have a playful habit of 
chewing footgear and driving, the quill, to one's dismay, 
when interfered with. 

After a restful sleep, which you often fail to get in 
city turmoil, we arose as Aurora, rosy-fingered dawn, was 
tinting the rocks and glaciers in soft morning light. 
Breakfast over, we continued our circuit. Above the 
timber-line we stopped at Crystal Cave to secure speci- 
mens and a farewell view of the lake. Like Lot's wife, 
we could not resist glancing back for just one more 
view to salt down in our memory. Opabin Pass was the 
first goal, and on our way up, on the benches above, we 
passed two small lakes covered with floating ice. In 
skirting them we sank repeatedly in the loose snow, mak- 
ing slow progress. From above the lakes, looking west- 
ward, a panorama of mountain scenery was presented, 
broader and more extensive than we had enjoyed at Lake 
O'Hara. In the distance we could see Mount Odaray 
prominent among many other peaks. Light clouds in 
the clear blue sky heightened the effect. Opabin Pass 
lacked the elements of danger and the strenuousness of 
Abbot Pass. A good long pull over the pass and a 
slide and coast on the other side brought us down the 
slope below the snow-field; and on a rocky, heather- 
covered knob, where we could shake the snow from our 
feet, and bask in the sunshine, we ate lunch, with plenty 
of sparkling water and a glorious view to feast on. 
Just below us stood the Rock Tower, a curious monolith 
rising above the bed of the valley. Keeping to the left, 
we worked along the side of the valley a short distance 
until we reached the rock-slide below Wenkchemna Pass. 
Struggling up over small loose rock and then stepping on 
larger boulders, we reached snow-line, the sun a blaze 
of glory at our backs, reflecting the heat from snow and 



222 Canadian Alpine Journal 

rock into our faces. A gentle breeze on the summit of 
the pass proved very welcome. We were now looking 
down the Valley of the Ten Peaks, ten snow peaks form- 
ing the right side of the valley. 

From the lofty mountains of Oregon and Washing- 
ton, the view lies all below, no rival near. From these 
different passes peaks lifting everywhere fairly bewilder 
one; and it makes it all the more impressive to realize 
that you are not far from the Great Divide, the source or 
fountainhead from which streams branch out to flow 
eventually into three different oceans. The descent into 
the valley would have been easy had the snow been 
firmer . We broke through repeatedly, sometimes waist 
deep. Three of our party soon left us to keep on down 
to Moraine Lake, a few miles away, where another side 
camp had been established. We ascended the left slope 
of the valley, and after a rather steep rock climb reached 
snow again and quickly made Wastash Pass, just west 
of Eiffel Peak, and looked into Paradise Valley. 

We were now opposite the Mitre Pass, the first pass 
of the preceding day's tramp. We hurried down, enjoy- 
ing several steep slides in the snow, and were soon re- 
tracing our way down the valley, making the main camp 
in time for supper; having seen more in two days than 
could be seen elsewhere in months, an expedition never 
to be forgotten. 




D. McTavish, Photo 



OPABIN PASS— LOOKING SOUTH-EAST 

PASS NO. 3 OF TWO-DAY KXPEDITION 




C. Glisan, Photo 



WENKCHEMNA PASS— LOOKING EAST 

PASS NO. 4 OF TWO-DAY KXPEDITIOX 



Natura Benigna 223 



NATURA BENIGNA. 



(From " The Coming of Love.") 

What power is this? What witchery wins my feet 
To peaks so sheer they scorn the cloaking snow, 
All silent as the emerald gulfs below, 

Down whose ice-walls the wings of twilight beat? 

What thrill of earth and heaven — most wild, most 
sweet — 
What answering pulse that all the senses know 
Comes leaping from the ruddy eastern glow 

Where, far away, the skies and mountains meet? 

Mother, 'tis I reborn : I know thee well : 
That throb I know and all it prophesies, 

O Mother and Queen, beneath the olden spell 
Of silence, gazing from thy hills and skies! 

Dumb Mother, struggling with thy years to tell 
The secret at thy heart through helpless eyes. 

— Theodore Watts-Dunton. 



224 Canadian Alpine Journal 

SCIENTIFIC SECTION. 



THE CAUSES OF MOUNTAIN FORMS IN THE 
CANADIAN ROCKIES. 



By A. P. Coleman. 

The " Everlasing Hills " have become proverbial, so 
that we are apt to think of mountains as the very 
emblems of stability and permanence, and very few 
except geologists ever inquire into their past to see how 
they were lifted up and sculptured to their present shape, 
or look into the future to forecast their ultimate fate. 
There is nothing more certain, however, than the fact 
that mountains, like every other creature of earth, have 
their birth, their youth, and middle age, and at last sink 
into decrepitude. The loftiest mountains must always be 
geologically young, for, once elevated, every century 
means wear and tear and loss, till finally only stumps 
remain, as in the most ancient ranges of America, the 
Laurentide Mountains of northeastern Canada. 

The raising of mountains is a difficult bit of en- 
gineering to explain, and geologists are by no means 
agreed as to the causes that thrust one part of the earth's 
crust skyward and sink other parts into ocean depths. 
The most commonly accepted cause is the shrinkage of 
the earth's interior, by cooling, or by the loss of gases, 
or by condensation due to gravity. In this process the 
solid outer crust becomes too large for the interior and 
must be crushed and crumpled to adjust itself. This 
crushing and crumpling takes place along the lines of 
weakness, usually where sea and land meet, as in our 
Pacific coast region. There, from time to time, through 
the geologic ages the ocean floor has pushed itself inland, 
thrusting up the parallel ranges of British Columbia and 
Alberta, the Selkirks first and the Rocky Mountains last. 



Mountain Forms in the Rockies 225 

It was not until the end of Mesozoic times, when 
the dawn of the recent ages had begun, that the Rockies 
were elevated. No volcanic forces took part in the 
work. All the rocks that compose them were laid down 
as sediment on a sea bottom, mud and sand and gravel 
and the lime of shells accumulating until the beds were 
five miles or more in thickness and were slowly trans- 
formed into slate and quartzite and conglomerate and 
limestone, the building materials of the mountains that 
were to be. 

What gave the signal for the raising of the new 
range no one knows, but after the Cretaceous sediments 
forming the coal-bearing rocks of the prairie provinces 
had been deposited, the thrust from the Pacific became 
irresistible, the earth's crust yielded and step by step the 
thick layers of rock were pushed inwards, rising as folds 
or breaking off strip by strip, tilted up and riding upon 
one another like ice-cakes when a great floe is driven 
ashore. We must not think of this process as taking 
place suddenly in one mighty convulsion, but very de- 
liberately, a small push with its earthquake shock, fol- 
lowed by a long quiescence before the next instalment of 
elevation; so that age by age the mountains grew, per- 
haps are growing even yet. 

During all this time of slow growth in height the 
destructive forces were at work, frost and weather and 
running water and ice, tearing down the structures just 
as they do now, though the constructive forces were 
more than a match for them, at least in the earlier 
history of the mountains. The present forms of the 
Rockies are due then to a balance between the upbuild- 
ing and the down-tearing influences which have been 
at work during the past millions of years since the end of 
Cretaceous times. 

Having discussed general causes shaping the moun- 
tains, let us turn now to some of the special features. 
The fundamental structure of the Rockies is simple when 



226 Canadian Alpine Journal 

contrasted with the complex foldings and faultings in 
different directions shown by the Alps. The folds in our 
mountains are often rather broad and uncomplicated, 
especially toward the Pacific side of the range; while 
toward the northeast vast blocks of the sediments. 25 to 
40 miles long, from nothwest to southeast, several miles 
wide and sometimes more than 15,000 feet thick, seem 
to have been split off from the earth's crust, the south- 
west side being tipped down, and the northeast side 
slid up over the next block toward the prairies, the last 
block riding seven miles out over the region of the 
foothills before the thrust from behind ceased. Mr. Mc- 
Connell, of the Geological Survey, whose work I am 
following here, estimated that along Bow Pass this over- 
riding or telescoping of range after range sums up to 
a shrinkage of 25 miles. If the blocks were set back 
in their place again and the strata ironed out flat Golden 
would be 25 miles farther from Calgary than now. 

The blocks which build the eastern ranges have 
various tilts. In the Brazeau Valley I found the inchna- 
tions run from 28° to about 50°, blocks with the lower 
dip presenting a steep cliff of 3,000 or 4,000 feet to- 
ward the northeast, and a gentler slope following the 
surface of the strata, toward the southwest. These 
rather gently tilted blocks provide the "writing-desk" 
type of mountain so common in the eastern Rockies, e.g., 
near Banff, rather scorned by certain English mountain 
climbers. The steeper blocks, with a dip of 50° or more, 
make very rugged, striking mountains, however, often 
with two or three more resistant layers of quartzite 
standing out as sharp ridges, while the softer slates have 
been carved away by the weather. 

The great faults that separate block from block 
sometimes run out into sharp folds at one end, as in 
Sentinel Mountain, near the Kootenay Plains on the 
Saskatchewan. 




A. P. Colemayi, Sketch 

FOLDING UNDER THRUST FAULT, CLEARWATER RIVER 




/. P, CoU^nan Sketch 

ANTICLINE AND SVNCLINE, SENTINEL MT., KOOTENAY PLAINS 



Mountain Forms in the Rockies 227 

Towards the middle of the Rockies the tilted blocks 
of the eastern side give place to broad folds, more or 
less dome shaped at times, where there are wide anti- 
clines; while at others the anticlines have been destroyed 
and shallow synclinal forms make the mountain tops. 
Here the carving of the rivers, perhaps helped by faults 
in some places, has cut the nearly flat-lying beds into 
castles, minsters and cathedrals, magnificent types of 
architecture, with towers and unscalable walls, sup- 
ported here and there by mighty buttresses. 

The folding is not ahvays on broad lines with domes 
and gentle synclines, however; for sometimes, as on 
Kananaskis Pass, the folds have been pushed so far as to 
be overturned and lie flat on their side, to be carved up 
in various ways by frost and running water. Along with 
predominant folding, faulting occurred also in many 
places, splitting up the folded structures into large or 
small fragments. On the other hand when the great 
fault blocks of the eastern side of the range rode upon 
the next block to the east the softer strata beneath were 
often crumpled into small folds, as may be seen along 
the Clearwater Valley. In the eastern half of the 
Rockies we have then chiefly fault blocks with minor 
folds, and in the western half chiefly broad folds with 
faults of a less important kind. 

All of the fundamental structures described are sup- 
posed to be due to thrusting from the direction of the 
Pacific, thus furnishing the rough and massive forms 
from which were to be carved the splendid variety of 
slopes and cliffs and ridges and pinnacles that give the 
mountains their present wild variety of surface. Above 
the snov;-line the sculptors which shaped them are chiefly 
frost, the avalanche and the glacier; on the lower slopes 
frost and rain and torrents have done most of the work; 
while the larger rivers have sawn their way down 
through the rocks, hollowing canyons and broad valleys, 
and sweeping downwards toward the plains or the sea 



228 Canadian Alpine Journal 

all the debris, the rocks and pebbles, the sand and the 
clay, delivered to them by the agents working at higher 
levels. The main valleys have generally been cut right 
across the direction of the great ranges, as shown by the 
Bow, the Saskatchewan and the Brazeau on the east, 
and the Kicking Horse on the west. 

Were the rivers there before the mountains, and 
did they carve their valleys downwards as fast as the 
upheaving forces pushed the mountains aloft; or did 
great lines of faulting provide channels that the rivers 
merely had to deepen? I am inclined to think that the 
main rivers at least were earlier than the mountain 
ranges and simply held their ground during the ages 
of uplift. 

Passing through the Rockies by the lower valleys 
as in the Kicking Horse Pass, one sees mainly the work 
of running water. Where the river has a somewhat 
gentle slope, like the Bow, the valley which it has cut 
is broad and open, with terraces on each side sweeping 
with a curve up to the foot of the cliffs, which have their 
bases buried under vast heaps of talus blocks from above, 
mainly quarried by frost. The broad valleys seem peace- 
ful enough, and it is hard to imagine the relentless war 
of the river and its tributary torrents upon the mountains 
until one works out the cross-section which they have 
cut from the summits on one side to those on the other, 
and figures the many cubic miles of rock which have 
been destroyed and carried down to the plains by the 
flow of water. 

Where the slopes are steeper we have turbulent 
rivers, like the Kicking Horse, rapidly cutting down 
their V-shaped valleys into canyons, and our sense of 
the endless strife grows more vivid as we watch them 
leaping down thousands of feet in a few miles, dragging 
with them the rocks which have rolled from the sides 
and using them as powerful tools to cut the canyon 
still deeper. 



Mountain Forms in the Rockies 229 

As one climbs out of the main valleys, especially 
on the western side of the Rockies, when timber-line is 
passed, snow begins to show itself, and at length there 
are snow-fields draining into glaciers, which creep 
thousands of feet down into the valleys. Finally the 
warmth of the lower elevation balances their slow ad- 
vance and from an ice cave at the end there flows a 
milky mountain torrent, loaded with the stones and 
gravel and rock flour ground from the rock floor of the 
glacier above. Here there is a splendid chance to study 
the carving power of ice in its downward motion urged 
by gravity. Where the mountain torrent cuts sharp- 
walled canyons or V-shaped gorges, the glacier carves 
broad U-shaped valleys with smoothly rounded sur- 
faces; and one notices that these broad U valleys often 
run far below the present glacier and are crossed by 
crescent - shaped moraines, perhaps now tree - covered, 
monuments of former ice extension. In general our 
glaciers seem to be retreating as if the warming up of 
the climate after the Ice Age were still slowly going on. 

In many cases the old ice-carved valleys have been 
hollowed into rock basins or have their outlet blocked by 
moraines; and this gives rise to some of our most de- 
lightful mountain scenery, where forest slopes and 
precipices and snow-fields are reflected in lakes of the 
most marvellous turquoise blue in deeper parts, running 
into clear green in the shallows. These ravishing colors 
appear to be due to the last remnants of glacial mud 
from the ice-fed streams flowing into the lakes, the 
finest possible particles settling almost infinitely slowly, 
and reflecting the short blue rays of light, just as in- 
finitessimal particles in the air give the paler blue to the 
sky. The intense blue or green of these mountain lakes 
contrasts strongly with the much paler blue of clear lakes 
like Superior or Ontario,, unfed with glacial mud, and 
makes it certain that the minute remaining particles are 
the real cause of the color. 



230 Canadian Alpine Journal 

Rising out of the snow-fields and rock ridges and 
isolated peaks, nitnataks, as they are called in Greenland, 
and as one ascends above the glaciers a new type of 
scenery shows itself, no longer smoothed and rounded 
surfaces of rock with here and there a moraine, but 
rugged forms where weathering and frost have rudely 
done the shaping. In this higher region the character 
of the rock has much to do with its forms. Hard 
quartzite or solid limestone resist best and stand out 
as cliffs and ridges, while softer slates and sandstones 
crumble and slide, giving long slopes of loose scree into 
which the foot sinks, the whole surface often slipping 
with the climber. 

In these upper regions the jointage of the rocks 
plays a large part, those with numerous joints, into 
which the water from thawing snow may sink by day, 
only to freeze at night and pry asunder the blocks, are 
quickly shattered even if of hard materials; while rocks 
with few open fissures stand their ground far better and 
rise amidst the slopes of debris as walls or pinnacles. 

From the higher levels one sees, too, how the 
glaciers eat back their U-shaped valleys into the solid 
rocks of the central mountain blocks, even little "cliff 
glaciers" carving for themselves nests shaped like a 
half kettle, cirques, as they are called in the Alps. When 
two of these cirques have been gnawed inwards toward 
each other very narrow ridges of rock with knife edges 
may result. From the lips of empty cirques or hanging 
valleys hollowed during the Ice Age bridal-veil falls now 
spring hundreds or thousands of feet over precipices into 
some deeply cut main valley carved by a glacier of 
the first rank. 

The highest of our Rockies were probably never 
covered by the ice sheets of the glacial period, but rose 
above them, so that their rugged forms are due to the 
tilt of the strata, their relative resistance to weather- 
ing, and their lack of joints in which frost could work. 




A- P. Coleman, Sketch 



OVERTURNED FOLD, CLEARWATER RIVER 




A. P. Colemau. Sketch 



CIRQUES, HEAD OF SOUTH FORK, BRAZEAU RIVER 



Mountain Forms in the Rockies 231 

Every climber must have been impressed by the 
strangely uniform level reached by most of the peaks. 
Hundreds or even thousands of summits rise from ten 
to twelve thousand feet above the sea, but very few 
get above that limit. Some geologists account for this 
by supposing that a vast tableland has been elevated aiiJ 
then carved into the innumerable crests and valleys; but 
it is very doubtful if such a tableland ever existed. Cer- 
tainly no important remnant of it can be recognized now. 
It seems more probable that the higher summits, riiing 
with steep slopes much above the protecting snow- 
fields, have been more rapidly attacked by frost and 
storms, and so have paid the penalty of greatness. The 
higher the summit the more rapidly it is cut down, till 
it reaches a level where slopes are gentler and snow and 
ice give some protection from erosion; and so there is 
a tendency to uniformity of height. 

One type of mountain scenery is lacking in our 
Rockies. No eruptive rocks have reached the surface in 
their elevation, so that none of the forms belonging to 
massive rocks can be seen. 

From the comparative simplicity of their structure 
our Rockies make a splendid school for the study of 
folds and faults on a large scale, and it is well worth 
while for the members of our Club to add this geo- 
logical interest to the many other attractions of the 
mountains. 



232 Canadian Alpine Journal 



MOUNT STEPHEN ROCKS AND FOSSILS. 



By Charles D. Walcott. 

The north face and slope of Mount Stephen pre- 
sents a wonderfully interesting section of rocks in whicli 
many finely preserved fossils occur. At the base, where 
the railroad passes through the north shoulder of the 
mountain mass, fossils of the Lower Cambrian fauna 
occur in the hard, brown sandstones and in the bluish- 
gray limestones and shales above them for 315 feet. 
The characteristic fossil of this horizon is a large tri- 
lobite called Olcnelliis. No whole ones have been found 
on Mount Stephen, but an entire specimen found at 
about the same place in the section in Nevada is shown 
by Figure i, Plate IL Above the Lower Cambrian 
formations comes the massive Cathedral limestone, 1680 
feet thick, which forms the summits of Cathedral Moun- 
tain. These limestones are sandy and impure and in 
Mount Stephen only worm borings have been seen in 
them. Above the Cathedral formation there is a series 
of thin layers of bluish limestone and shale, 525 feet 
thick, which is called the Stephen formation. In this 
may be found many fragments of fossils that belong to 
the Middle Cambrian fauna. We have now reached 
the level of the celebrated fossil bed of Mount Stephen. 
The rock is a gray, siliceous and sandy shale that, 2200 
feet above the railroad station at Field, is 150 feet in 
thickness. A sharp fold in the shale and the rock below 
has bent the layers sharply down the slope in the 
direction of Field. The frost, rain and snow have 
gradually broken up the great layers of shale and scat- 
tered them down the slopes. Nature has done all that 




VIEW OF THE AMPHITHEATRE ON SOUTH-\V?;ST SIDE OF MT. STEPHEN 




Chas. D. IVakotl, Photo 

JUVENILE GEOLOGISTS AT TH?; "FOSSIL BED," MT. STEPHEN 



Mt. Stephen Rocks and Fossils 233 

she could to open up and make accessible the great 
storehouse of fossils contained in the shales. Nearly 
every fragment of shale found on the slopes from 2000 
to 2600 feet above Field has fossils upon it; not only 
fragments, but usually entire specimens of trilobites. 
The fossil bed thins out rapidly to the northeast and 
southwest. It is in fact a lens-shaped formation, thin- 
ning out from the center in all directions. The shales 
were originally a sandy mud that was slowly deposited 
as thin layers in quiet water. For some unknown reason, 
the trilobites died by thousands and were buried by the 
successive layers of mud. Small marine shells occur 
quite abundantly in some of the layers along with the 
trilobites and smaller fossils of various kinds. The 
largest and most abundant trilobite is called Ogygop- 
sis klotzi, and from it the name Ogygopsis shale is given 
to the band or lens of siliceous shale in which the tri- 
lobite occurs. 

The Stephen formation, with the Ogygopsis shale, 
forms the dark, bluish-gray band that extends across the 
north face of the mountain just above the shoulder, over 
the railroad tunnel. Another dark band of limestone, 
150 feet thick, that shows in all photographs of Mount 
Stephen from the north, is 650 feet higher up, the 
interval being occupied by massive beds of gray siliceous 
limestone. A few fragments of Middle Cambrian fossils 
occur in the dark, bluish-gray limestone. Above the dark 
band, massive beds of gray, sandy limestone rise tier 
above tier for 2700 feet to the summit of the moun- 
tain. This great series is called the Eldon formation, 
from Eldon, north of which, in the slopes of Castle 
Mountain, it has a fine development. 

Southwest of Mount Stephen the layers of rock 
are broken and bent to the southwest and west until 
they pass beneath Mount Dennis. All belong to the 
Cambrian period. A few fossils occur in the amphi- 
theatre east of Mount Dennis, but the best collecting 



234 Canadian Alpine Journal 

ground for fossils above the great fossil bed, Ogygopsis 
shale, is in the Mount Bosworth section on the con- 
tinental divide. 

The principal locality from which good fossils can 
readily be obtained is on the slope of Mount Stephen, 
above Field. The best way to make a collection from 
the "fossil bed" is to ride up the trail on a pony to 
about 2000 feet above the railroad, collect specimens, 
securely wrap them in paper, place them in a bag, tie 
the bag to the saddle, and lead the pony down the 
mountain. A fine lot can be secured in a long day's 
trip, 6 a.m. to 6 p.m. 

In order that the reader may understand the loca- 
tion of the "fossil bed" and the position of the various 
formations in the Mount Stephen section, four photo- 
graphs taken in 1907 and a geological section are given 
in connection with this paper; also a list of the fossils 
from the "fossil bed" and illustrations of the more 
common species. 

No. I. Northwest fact of Mount Stephen, show- 
ing the Kicking Horse River at the base. 

A — The railroad tunnel. 

B — The great north shoulder. 

C — The lower bluish-black limestone belt. 

D — The upper bluish limestone belt. 

E — The celebrated "fossil bed." 

F — Best locality to camp in working "fossil bed." 

G — East slope of Mount Dennis. 

No. 2. View looking northwest from the "fossil 
bed," which is shown in the foreground. The trail from 
Field can be followed wnth a saddle animal to the large 
dead pine tree on the left. Just below this is the ridge 
upon which the trail is located. To the left of the ridge 



Mt. Stephen Rocks and Fossils 235 

near the triangular patch of snow is the best place to 
camp when working at the "fossil bed." It is 1600 feet 
above Field. 

This picture gives a beautiful view of the various 
channels of the Kicking Horse River, the mass of Mt. 
Burgess, and the Van Home range to the left of Mt. 
Burgess. 

No. 3. View looking west from the ''fossil bed" 
toward Mt. Dennis. The character of the "fossil bed" 
is beautifully shown, also the structural character of 
Mt. Dennis. 

No. 4. View of the amphitheatre on the southwest 
side of the upper portion of Mt. Stephen. The "alcove" 
erosion of the cliff on the south side of the amphitheatre 
is beautifully shown. Middle Cambrian fossils occur in 
the rock shown in the lower right hand corner of the 
view. 



GEOLOGICAL SECTION OF MOUNT STEPHEN. 
Studied July, 1907. 

The section is from the summit of the mountain 
down the northeast and north slopes to the Canadian 
Pacific Railroad track below the tunnel and through the 
basal quartzitic sandstones. 

The massive, siliceous, dolomitic limestone (Eldon 
formation) forming the upper portion of the mountain 
was not measured above the bluish-gray limestone and 
shaly band. Its thickness is estimated at 2,700+ feet. It 
is 2728 feet thick on Mount Bosworth. An attempt was 
made to measure the Cathedral formation, but owing 
to step-faulting, the result is not satisfactory. This 
formation has a thickness of 1595 feet on Mount Bos- 



236 Canadian Alpine Journal 

worth, so the measured and estimated thickness of 1680 
feet on Mount Stephen is given in the section. No 
attempt was made to carry the section from Mount 
Stephen across to Mount Dennis through the Bosworth 
formation owing to local displacement and the alteration 
of the strata in Mount Dennis. 

MIDDLE CAMBRIAN. (Summit of Mountain) 

Eldon Formation — 

I a. Massive bedded, gray, siliceous 
and dolomitic limestone, es- 
timate 2700 + ft. 

lb. Bluish-gray limestone with bands 
of dark siliceous shale in lower 
portion 190 ft. 

Fauna — Middle Cambrian. 

The fossils are very poorly preserved but the fol- 
lowing have been recognized : 

Protospongia (spicules) 
Lingulella, species undetermined. 
HyoUthes, species undetermined. 
Agnostus, cf. montis Matthew. 
Zacanthoides spinosiis (Walcott) 
Ptychoparia, species undetermined. 
Bathynriscus (pygidium) 
Ogygopsis ( pygidium ) 

ic. Gray arenaceous and dolomitic 

limestone 650 ft. 

Stephen Formation — 

I. Calcareous and siliceous shales 150 ft. 

This shale is given the name of Ogygopsis 
shale from the predominating trilobite contained in 
it, Ogygopsis klotzi. A detailed description of this 



Mt. Stephen Rocks and Fossils 237 

shale and its contained Middle Cambrian fauna may 
be found on page . In a siliceous shale about one- 
half mile east of the great fossil bed the following 
species were found : 

Obolus mcconnelli (Walcott) 
Nisusia {Jamesella) cf. nautes Walcott. 
Hyolithcs carinatus Matthew 
Orthotheca, species undetermined. 
Scenella varians Walcott. 
Ptychoparia, species undetermined. 

2. Thin bedded, bluish-black limestone forming 
dark broken cliff in many sections 325 ft. 

Fauna — Middle Cambrian. 

In the upper portion of this formation just 
beneath the Ogygopsis shale in a bluish-black shaly 
limestone in the amphitheatre between Mount 
Stephen and Mount Dennis the following species of 
fossils were found : 

Obolus mcconnelli (Walcott) 
Acrotreta depressa Walcott. 
Hyolithellus annulata (Matthew) 
Ptychoparia, species undetermined. 
Neolenus serratus (Rominger) 
Ogygopsis klotzi (Rominger) 

At another locality just east of the great "fossil 
bed" there were found in the limestone beneath the 
Ogygopsis shale the following species of fossils : 

Micromitra, species undetermined. 
Nisusia alberta Walcott. 
Hyolithes, species undetermined. 
Bathyiiriscus rotundatus (Rominger) 
Neolenus serratus (Rominger) 



238 Canadian Alpine Journal 

Near the base of this thin-bedded limestone the 
following species of fossils were found : 

Micromitra, species undetermined. 
Oboliis mcconnelli (Walcott) 
Micromitra (Iphidella) paimida (White) 
Acrotreta (large) 
Hyolithes, species undetermined. 
Agnostus montis Matthew. 
Agraidos, species undetermined. 
Ptychoparia, species undetermined. 
Zacanthoides, species undetermined. 
Bathyurisciis, species undetermined. 
Albert ella, species undetermined. 

2a. Massive bedded gray limestone, 
breaking down into thin layers 
on weathering 37 ft. 

3a. Gray and greenish siliceous shale 47 ft. 

3b. Gray oolitic limestone in layers, 

6 in. to 2 ft. thick 4 ft 6 in. 

Fauna — Middle Cambrian. 

Micromitra, species undetermined. 
Nisusia alberta (?) Walcott. 
Hyolithes, species undetermined. 
Microdiscus, species undetermined. 
Ptychoparia, species undetermined . 

3c. Greenish siliceous shale 15 ft. 

3d. Gray oolitic limestone 6 ft. 6 in. 

3e. Gray, impure dolomitic limestone, 
compact, fine - grained and 
weathering buff and yellow ... 38 ft. 

3f. Greenish siliceous shale i ft. 

3g. Similar to 3e 52 ft. 



Mt. Stephen Rocks and Fossils 239 

3h. Gray oolitic limestone 2 ft. 2 in. 

3i. Similar to 3e 3 ft. 

3J. Gray oolitic limestone 4 ft. 2 in. 

3k. Similar to 3e 5 ft. 8 in. 

3I. Gray oolitic limestone 2 ft. 3 in. 

3m. Similar to 36 5 ft. 

3n. Gray oolitic limestone 3 ft. 9 in. 

30. Thin-bedded, bluish-grey limestone, 

weathering buff 10 ft. 



Total of 3 200 ft. 

Cathedral Formation — 

1. Massive bedded, arenaceous, sih- 

ceous limestone 60 ft. 

2. Massive bedded, arenaceous, sili- 
ceous dolomitic limestone. At 495 
feet from the base the beds are 
thinner and of a dark gray color 
for 30 to 40 feet. At 825 feet 
the massive layers are banded 

with light and dark grey colors. .1560 ft. 

Owing to small step faults the 
thickness of this series of strata is 
uncertain. The entire thickness on 
the northeast side was measured 
and an allowance made for dupli- 
cation by faulting. 

This great limestone series 
forms bold, high cliffs on the east 
face of Mount Stephen and the 
west side of Cathedral Moun- 
tain. 



240 Canadian Alpine Journal 

Fauna — Annelid borings and trails 
at a few horizons. 

3. Massive bedded arenaceous dolo- 

mitic limestone 60 ft. 



Total of Cathedral formation 1680 ft. 

LOWER CAMBRIAN— 
Whyte Formation — 

1. Thin-bedded bluish-black and gray 
limestone 3 ft. 

Fauna (from i and the interbedded 
limestones at the top of 2) 

Nisusia {Janicsella) loiui, new species. 
Stenotheca elongata Walcott var. 
Platyceras, new species. 
Scenella varians Walcott 
Hyolithes billingsi Walcott 
Ptychoparia, species a. 
Crepiccphalus, new species. 
Protypus, new species. 
Albert ella, species undetermined. 

2. Gray siliceous shale with inter- 
bedded gray fossiliferous limestone 
in layers 5 in. to 2 ft. thick in 

the upper portion 108 ft. 

Fauna (In the shale of the central 
portion) 

Cystid plates. 

Micromitra (Patcrina), species undetermined 
Acrotreta sagittalis taconica Walcott. 
Nisusia (Jamesella) lozvi, new species. 



Fauna — 



Mt. Stephen Rocks and Fossils 241 

Hyolithes ( fragment ) 
Hyolithelhis cf. micans Billings 
Scenella varians Walcott 
Olenelhis (fragments of thoracic segments) 

Thin-bedded, compact, hard, dark, 
bluish-gray limestone, with a little 
interbedded gray, siliceous shale 
and a few beds of coarser gray 
limestone, 6 to lo inches thick.. 52 ft. 

Fauna (near the top) 

Acrothele colleni, new species. 
Acrotreta sagit talis taconica Walcott 
Scenella varians Walcott 
Stcnotheca elongata Walcott var. 
Albertella, species undetermined. 
Olenellus ( fragments ) . 
Bathyurisciis, species undetermined. 

Fauna (near the base) 

Micromitra {Paterina) lahradorica (Billings) 

var. 
Micromitra {Iphidella) pannula (White) 
Acrotreta sagittalis taconica Walcott 
Borneuiannia prima, new genus and new species 
Ptychoparia, 3 species. 

Brownish - gray, quartzitic sand- 
stone in layers 2 to 4 inches thick 32 ft. 

Microdiscus, species undetermined. 
Olenellus ( fragments) . 
Ptychoparia, species undetermined. 
Protypus, species undetermined. 

5. Gray, siliceous shale 102 ft. 



242 Canadian Alpine Journal 

Fauna — 

Hyolithcs biUingsi Walcott 
Scenella varians Walcott 
Ptychoparia, 2 species. 

6. Bluish-black and gray limestone. . 18 ft. 

Fauna — 

Micro mitra {Iphiddla) pannula (White) 

Acrotreta sagittalis taconica Walcott 

Kutorgina cingulata Billings 

Nisusia festinata Billings 

Hyolithcs hillingsi Walcott. 

Scenella varians Walcott 

Protypus, new species. 

Agraidos, species undetermined. 

Ptychoparia, 3 species. 

Olenellus canadensis, new species. 

BOW RIVER TERRANE. 

St. Piran Formation — 

I. Massive bedded quartzitic sand- 
stone 300 + ft. 

In the Lakes Agnes and Louise 
section the St. Piran formation 
has a thickness of 2640 feet. 

Beneath the St. Piran the Lake 
Louise shale is 105 feet in thick- 
ness. In it occur a few fossils as 
follows : 

Micromitra {Iphidclla) Ionise, new species. 

Cruziana (casts of tracks and burrows made 
in the mud by trilobites) 



Mt. Stephen Rocks and Fossils 243 

Beneath the Lake Louise shale 
there is a great thickness of quart- 
zitic sandstone and siHceous shales 
of which about 600 feet of the 
upper portion is exposed at Lake 
Louise. 

FAUNA OF THE GREAT FOSSIL BED. 
(Ogygopsis Shale) 

The fossils occur in a gray siliceous and arenaceo- 
calcareous shale, only a trace of calcareous matter show- 
ing. The shale usually rests on a thin-bedded limestone, 
but in one instance a lentile of quartzitic gray sandstone 
occurs between the lower limestone and the shale. This 
is at the upper northeast end of the exposure of the 
shales, and here several species of fossils occur that 
were not seen elsewhere, notably Burlingia hectori 
Walcott. 

Fossils are very rare for 50 feet above the base of 
the shale and then only the more common species such 
as Ogygopsis klotsi, Bathyuriscus rotimdatus and Ptych- 
oparia cordillerae. 

The list of named fossils from this shale is as 
follows : 

1. Hyolifhellus flagellum (Matthew) 

2. Hyolithellus annulata (Matthew) 

3. Orthotheca corrugata Matthew 

4. Orthotheca major, new species. 

5. Hyolithes sp. 

6. Hyalites carinatus Matthew. 

7. Stenotheca wheeleri, new species. 

8. Platyceras romingeri Walcott 

9. Platyceras bellianus, new species. 

10. Acrotreta depressa (Walcott) 

11. Micromitra (Iphidclla) paunula (White) 



244 Canadian Alpine Journal 

12. Obolus mcconnelli (Walcott) 

13. Nisnsia alberta Walcott 

14. Philhcdra Columbiana (Walcott) 

15. Scenella varians Walcott 

16. Anomolocaris canadensis ' Whiteaves^ 

17. Anomolocaris whiteavesi, new species. 

18. Anomolocaris {?) acutangidus, new species. 

19. Agnostus montis Matthew 

20. Dorypyge (Kootenia) dawsoni (Walcott). 

21. Bathyuriscns rotundatus (Rominger) 

22. Bathyuriscns pupa Matthew. Probably 23. 
Conocephalites cf. pcrscus Matthew — 30. 
Corynexochus romingeri Matthew — 25. 

2^. Bathyuriscns occidentalis (Matthew) 

24. Bathyuriscus ornatus Walcott 

25. Karlia stephenensis Walcott 
Neolenns granulata Matthew — 26. 

26. Neolenus serratns (Rominger) 
2y. Ogygopsis klotm (Rominger) 

28. Oryctoccphahis reynoldsi Reed 

29. Burlingia hectori Walcott 

30. Ptychoparia cordillcrae (Rominger) 

31. Ptychoparia palliseri, new species. 

32. Zacanthoides spinosus (Walcott) 



DESCRIPTION OF PLATE I. 

MICROMITRA (IPHWELLA) PANNULA 

(White) 

Figs. I, I a, lb. Top, side and back views of a 
ventral valve. 

Fig ic. Surface greatly enlarged. 

OBOLUS MCCONNELLI (Walcott) 

Fig. 2. An imperfect ventral valve, enlarged. 
Fig. 2a. A dorsal valve, enlarged. 







I'LATK I. — MX. STEPHEN FOSSILS 



Mt. Stephen Rocks and Fossils 245 

ACROTRETA DEPRESSA (Walcott) 

Figs. 3 and 3a. Top and side views of an elevated 
ventral valve. 

Fig. 3b. Cast of the interior of a dorsal valve. 
Fig. 3c. Cast of the interior of a ventral valve. 

NISUSIA ALBERTA (Walcott) 

Fig. 4. A cast of the exterior surface showing 
bases of surface spines. 

Fig. 4a. A compressed valve. 

PHILHEDRA COLUMBIANA (Walcott) 

Figs. 5 and 5a. Top and side views, greatly en- 
larged. (Very rare). 

SCENELLA VARIANS Walcott 

Fig. 6. Top view of a specimen with the apex 
nearer the center than usual. 

STENOTHECA WHEELERI, new species. 

Fig. 7. Side view of the type specimen. (Com- 
paratively rare). 

HYOLITHELLUS FLAGELLUM (Matthew) 
Fig. 8. A long curved specimen. 
Fig. 8a. A slender nearly straight specimen. 

HYOLITHELLUS ANNULATA (Matthew) 

Fig. 9. A large specimen with a group of small 
tubes adjoining it. 

Fig. 9a. Enlargement of a portion of the specimen 
represented by figure 9. The small tubes are much like 
those of Hyolithcllus flagcllum. 



246 Canadian Alpine Journal 

HYO LITRES CARINATUS Matthew 

Fig. lo. Shell as it appears flattened in the shale. 

Fig. loa. Operculum that covered the opening of 
the shell. 

ORTHOTHECA MAJOR, new species. 

Fig. II. This is a thin shell compressed in the 
shale. 

ORTHOTHECA CORRUGATA Alatthew 
Fig. 12. Portion of a flattened tube. 

PLATYCERAS {?) BELLI ANUS, new species. 

Fig. 13. Side view of shell flattened in the shale. 
(Very rare). 



DESCRIPTION OF PLATE II. 

OLENELLUS GILBERTI Meek 

Fig. I. Introduced to show the character ot the 
trilobites which occur in fragments at the tunnel near 
the north base of Mount Stephen. 

ANOMOLOCARIS {?) WHITEAVESI, new species. 

Figs. 2 and 2a. Broken and compressed specimens 
of the carapace. 

Figs. 6 and 6a. Abdominal segments tentatively 
referred to this species. 

Fig. 4. A caudal segment, probably of this species. 

ANOMOLOCARIS CANADENSIS Whiteaves 

Fig. 3. Carapace referred to this species. This is 
the most abundant form of carapace. 





K K, Sr'^'ri''^\f, 



' X 



-J i '] ' 



^-\ 



3a 







f 




PLATE II — MT. STKPHEN roSSILS 




PLATE III.~MT. STEPHEN FOSSILS 



Mt. Stephen Rocks and Fossils 247 

Fig. 3a. Thirteen abdominal and one caudal seg- 
ment. 

ANOMOLOCARIS {?) ACUTANGULUS, new species 
Fig. 5. A carapace, very rare. 



DESCRIPTION OF PLATE III. 

ORYCTOCEPHALUS REYNOLDSI Reed 

Fig. I. A nearly entire specimen twice enlarged. 
Not rare. 

BATHYURISCUS OCCWENTALIS (Matthew) 
Fig. 2. A very rare species. 

BATHYURISCUS ORNATUS Walcott 
Fig. 3. A comparatively rare species. 

KARLIA STEPHENENSIS Walcott 

Fig. 4. A small and rather rare species. 

PTYCHOPARIA CORDILLERAE (Rominger) 

Fig. 5. This is one of the common species. It is 
usually about one-half the size of this figure. 

PTYCHOPARIA PALLISERI, new species. 
Fig. 6. A large rare species. 

AGNOSTUS MONTIS Matthew 

Fig. 7. The fragments of this species are very 
abundant in some layers. 

BURLING I A HECTORI Walcott 

Fig. 8. Greatly enlarged. This is a small, very 
rare species. 



248 Canadian Alpine Journal 

DORYPGE (KOOTENIA) DAWSONI Walcott 

Fig. 9. A large specimen. Not very abundant, but 
often mistaken for Neolemis serratus. 



DESCRIPTION OF PLATE IV. 

ZACANTHOIDES SPINOSUS (Walcott) 

Fig. I. A large specimen partially crushed in the 
shale. A common species. 

BATHYURISCUS ROTUNDATUS (Rominger) 

Fig. 2. The average size of this species is about 
one-half that of this figure. It is quite abundant. 

NEOLENUS SERRATUS (Rominger) 
Fig. 3. A common species. 

OGYGOPSIS KLOTZI (Rominger) 

Fig. 4. This is the largest and most abundant tri- 
lobite in the fossil bed. 



_ 




PLATK IV.— MT. STEPHEN FOSSIT^S 



Canadian Glaciers 249 



THE NATURE AND ACTIVITY OF CANADIAN 
GLACIERS. 



By William Hittell Sherzer. 

None the less attractive the glacial student than to 
the mountain climber is that grand array of peaks and 
snow-fields which stretches poleward through the western 
part of the Dominion of Canada. Here upon a magnifi- 
cent scale and in endless variety and profusion one may 
recognize the various types of glaciers, detect in them 
every feature known to science and about them every 
form of geological activity ascribed to these great en- 
gines of rock destruction and transportation. About the 
peaks and ridges and in the higher valleys there accum- 
ulates season after season layer upon layer of snow, 
which, by its own pressure, surface melting and occasi- 
onal rain or cloud mist is gradually compacted into ice. 
Indefinite accumulation of this congealed moisture is 
prevented by one of those beneficent provisions of 
Nature by which, under the influence of its own weight, 
this ice in frozen streams, or shorter tongues, moves 
slowly to lower levels where complete melting may occur 
and this moisture again be put into general circulation. 
Were it not for this the Canadian Rockies and Selkirks 
would be encased in a great ice ridge, extending as 
high into the atmosphere as it is possible for moisture 
to be lifted, from the sides of which tremendous aval- 
anches would hurl themselves to the adjacent plains, 
deeply covering regions now free from snow during a 
portion of the year. 

Although the mechanics of glacial motion are not 
yet fully understood, these ice-streams appear to move 
much as would a similar mass of asphaltum, with which 



250 Canadian Alpine Journal 

they have often been compared. They conform more or 
less perfectly to the shape of the valley and irregularities 
of the bed, move more rapidly towards the centre and 
upper surface than toward the sides and bottom, flow 
more rapidly down steep slopes than gentle ones, and 
are more active during the day than at night and in 
summer than in winter. Where compelled to change 
their course too suddenly, or when subjected to a cer- 
tain degree of tensional stress, great cracks are slowly 
opened at right angles to the direction of such stress. 
When one portion of the mass begins to lag it may be 
thrust forward bodily by great pressure from behind, 
compelled to mount reverse slopes, to scour the bed, de- 
tach rock fragments and transport whatever material 
finds lodgment within or upon the mass. 

I. — Conditions Reqnisitc for Glacial Formation. 

In order that a certain region may support glaciers 
four conditions must be fulfilled, no two or three of 
which alone will suffice, (a) There must first be a de- 
gree of cold that will cause some of the precipitation to 
fall as snow or hail without which a glacier would be 
impossible, {h) The amount of such precipitation must 
be sufficiently great so that, in spite of the seasonal melt- 
ing and evaporation, there will be a remnant to add to 
the accumulation of previous years. The entire snow- 
fall of any 3'ear, or any short series of years, may be 
destroyed by melting, but, upon the whole, there must be 
more or less steady increase in the amount of congealed 
moisture, (c) There must be a collecting area, which 
from its shape or slope is capable of retaining the re- 
quisite amount of snow and ice. If the slope is too 
steep the snow will be avalanched from the area before 
the glacier has time to come into existence, {d) Fi- 
nally, the local conditions must be of such a nature as 
to permit of the inauguration of a movement in which 



Canadian Glaciers 251 

there is more or less of a horizontal component. The 
chief factors concerned are the configuration of the col- 
lecting area and the weight of the accumulated snow. 
If movement is not permitted the entire mass remains 
a snow bank, or heap of stagnant ice which does not 
possess the essential characteristics of a glacier. 

Space does not permit the discussion here of the 
distribution of modern and ancient glaciers over the face 
of the earth by which the application of the above con- 
ditions might be more readily comprehended by the 
reader. In general it may be said that when a glacier 
exists today these four conditions have been satisfactorily 
met in the past, although one or more of them may be 
now lacking. If a given area does not support a glacier, 
one or more of these conditions has been wanting, just 
which ones being readily determined by an inspection of 
the region. In the Canadian Rockies and Selkirks we 
find ideal conditions for glacier formation : broad val- 
leys, basins and gentle slopes; high altitude and latidude; 
moisture-laden winds from the Pacific, causing heavy 
snowfall upon the western slopes and about the crests 
of these great systems. 

When exposed to the warm rays of the sun the 
snowfiakes melt into small globules which are sub- 
sequently frozen into pellets resembling granular tapioca. 
The snow in this condition is flnown as Urn or neve, 
and from its consolidation the glaciers take their origin. 
In some way not yet fully understood the granules of 
the neve gradually diminish in number and increase in 
size until they attain the size of hazel-nuts or walnuts, 
or even the size of the fist in large glaciers like the Yoho 
and Illecillewaet. So long as the temperature of the ice 
is well beneath the freezing point these granules are not 
in evidence, the ice appearing compact and homogeneous. 
When, however, it begins to feel the effect of a higher 
temperature, there appears a delicate system of capillary 
tubes, outlining the granules and extending some dis- 



252 Canadian Alpine Journal 

tance into the ice mass. As melting proceeds these 
capillaries develop into narrow fissures separating the 
granules, and in the final stage a sharp blow will cause 
the ice to crumble into these component granules. It is 
in this granular structure that glacial ice is distinguished 
from that which results from the direct freezing of 
water, as in lakes, ponds and the pools and crevasses of 
the glaciers themselves. Such ice, commonly spoken of 
as "water-ice," consists of appromixately parallel prisms, 
arranged with their axes perpendicular to the freezing 
surface. This structure is often strikingly shown in the 
case of lake and river ice when in the spring it is under- 
going disintegration. 

2. — Principal Types of Glaciers. 

Without attempting to draw any sharp lines of dis- 
tinction between them there may be recognized four 
t3^pes of glaciers, all but one of which have numerous 
representatives in the Canadian Rockies and Selkirks. 
This one, not now represented, occupied the region dur- 
ing the previous geological epoch and its work is much 
in evidence in and about the mountains. These types 
may best be described in the order of their simplicity, 
frequency and development. 

(a) Alpine Glaciers. In its simplest from this 
type originates from the snow which accumulates about 
a mountain pass, or within an amphitheatre, combined 
with that precipitated directly into the valley, or aval- 
anched from the adjacent slopes. Having much the ap- 
pearance of a great frozen river, it slowly winds its way 
clown the valley to a level determined by a number of 
factors; chief of which are the latitude, thickness of the 
ice, exposure to the sun, amount and distribution of 
rocky debris and the amount of snow and ice urging 
the glacier forward. Canadian examples are the Vic- 
toria, Yoho and the easternmost stream of the x\sulkan 



f 




'M:.¥^y^- 



THE ASULKAN GLACIER FROM MT. AVALANCHE 



The entire series represents a hanging Piedmont glacier in a state of decadence, the 
four right-hand components having separated into small Alpine glaciers. The three 
left-hand coniponents are still united, forming the Asulkan Glacier, but have started 

to separate. 



Canadian Glaciers 253 

glaciers. The snow line crossing the glacier divides the 
upper surface into two regions which are designated as 
the neve, or region of perennial snow, and the dissipator, 
or that portion ordinarily free from snow during late 
summer and early autumn. Glaciers of the alpine type 
may receive tributaries from confluent valleys and these 
in turn receive tributary ice-streams. If we consider that 
the Mitre Glacier originates about the Mitre Pass, it 
receives a short, broad tributary from between Mitre 
Mountain and Mount Lefroy and together they join 
the Victoria, being compressed to about one-fifth of 
their breadth. Not infrequently it happens that the 
main glacial stream does not fill the valley and it is 
separated from its tributary streams by a precipice, or 
very steep slope over which the ice and snow are aval- 
anched. The higher glacier is termed a hanging or 
cliff glacier, as seen upon the eastern shoulders of Mts. 
Victoria and Lefroy, and the glacier formed by the re- 
cementing of the ice fragments is spoken of as a re- 
constructed or regenerated. A very interesting example 
of such a regenerated glacier is formed from the hanging 
Lefroy, the fragments of which accumulate at the foot of 
the eastern wall of Mt. Lefroy, upon the upper western 
margin of the Mitre Glacier. There is piled up there, 
mainly in the summer, a mass of ice fragments, along 
with the ground-morainic material manufactured be- 
neath the hanging glacier, which gives rise to a regen- 
erated glacier resting upon the Mitre and which is more 
or less independent of it. The course of the regenerated 
Lefroy is across the Mitre, where it dumps upon the 
opposite side a great heap of ground moraine, while it 
is at the same time carried bodily toward the Victoria. 
Such a glacier, of which this is the best example known, 
has been more or less appropriately called parasitic. 

(b) Piedmont Glaciers. When a well-nourished 
glacier of the alpine type flows from a valley out upon 
the adjacent plain it has a tendency to spread laterally 



254 Canadian Alpine Journal 

as soon as the restraint of the rocky walls is removed. 
In the case of such glaciers derived from a series of 
neighboring valleys their expanded extremities may 
coalesce laterally and form a glacier of the piedmont 
type. The separate alpine glaciers retain their independ- 
ence so far as nourishment, structure, rate of move- 
ment and geological work are concerned and may bet- 
ter be termed commensal streams than tributaries. In 
their form, size and direction of movement they are more 
or less affected by their neighbors, gaining in protection 
and power by the union, so that a piedmont glacier is 
able to maintain itself at a lower level than could its 
separate commensals. Such glaciers are peculiarly broad 
and short and present a relatively great amount of front- 
age, which is more or less irregular or lobed by the noses 
of the component streams, some of which may be ad- 
vancing while others are stationary or in retreat. The 
Wenkchemna Glacier is an interesting example of this 
type, having a length of one-half to one mile, a breadth 
of about three miles and a frontage of over three miles. 
About a dozen commensal streams may be recognized 
which originate in the minor depressions upon the pro- 
tected northern slopes of the Ten Peaks. The Horse- 
shoe Glacier at the head of the neighboring Paradise 
Valley is of this same type, containing some sixteen 
alpine, component streams. 

A similar although less characteristic type of pied- 
mont glacier may originate upon an elevated mountain 
slope, which is crossed by a series of sub-parallel de- 
pressions, separated by rather low divides. Each depres- 
sion may at first support a small alpine glacier, which, 
under favorable conditions for growth, may increase in 
thickness until it more than fills its bed and unites later- 
ally with its neighbors. If the supply of snow is suffi- 
ciently reduced, the loss by wind action, melting and 
evaporation may uncover again the divides and the pied- 
mont glacier shrinks into its original alpine compon- 



Canadian Glaciers 255 

ents; thus attaining its second childhood. Such a 
glacier would have the position of a hanging or cliff 
glacier and might nourish another of the alpine type 
or give rise to a regenerated glacier. Upon the high 
western slope of the Asulkan Valley there existed such 
a glacier in recent geological time, which avalanched its 
ice to the alpine glacier which occupied the valley itself. 
The Asulkan Glacier, with its three commensal streams, 
is all that is left to show the piedmont character of 
the original, the remainder of the glacier having been 
resolved into its alpine components, lying between the 
Dome and Mt. Abbott. 

(c) Local Ice-Caps. These are extensive fields of 
stratified ice and snow which are represented in the 
Rockies by the Waputik and Columbia Ice-fields and in 
the Selkirks by the smaller Illecillewaet field. They 
must originate in a system of alpine and piedmont 
glaciers which have been unable to drain away the ice as 
fast as it was supplied, and, if the expression may be 
permitted, the entire region is flooded with snow and 
ice. Accumulation continues until the lobes of ice 
which come into existence about the margin of the 
cap are able to drain away the excess, when an ap- 
proximate condition of equilibrium is established. These 
marginal lobes may reach neighboring valleys, or the 
adjacent plains, and give rise to alpine and piedmont 
glaciers. The surface of such ice-caps is generally slop- 
ing or undulating, strongly ripple-marked by wind 
action and free from rock debris. Owing to the thick- 
ness of the ice and its sluggish conditions, crevasses are 
not common. Occasionally rocky islands protrude 
through the frozen sea and are known as nunataks. If 
the supply of snow is sufficiently reduced the surface of 
the cap is slowly lowered, the marginal lobes are with- 
drawn and there may remain only the original piedmont 
and alpine glaciers from which the cap was developed. 
The field evidence is that all the existing group of 



256 Canadian Alpine Journal 

glaciers in the Rockies and Selkirks were, in recent 
geological time, encased in such deposits of ice and 
snow, with only the higher peaks and ridges pro- 
truding. 

{d) Continental Ice-sheets. During the so-called 
Pleistocene stage of the earth's history conditions were 
favorable for the formation of glaciers over the entire 
region between the Rockies and the Pacific and from the 
International Boundary to Alaska. These conditions re- 
sulted from an increased precipitation over the region 
and a reduction in the mean annual temperature. In 
the way above noted local ice-caps developed wherever 
favorable conditions existed and later were completely 
buried in snow and their outlines obliterated. With the 
submergence of the higher ridges the filling of the inter- 
vening valleys would go on slowly and at one stage the 
entire western portion of the Dominion was heavily en- 
cased in ice. The movement was mainly to the north, 
west and south, but piedmont glaciers of great magni- 
tude developed along the eastern margin of the Rockies 
and reached out for many miles over the plains. In our 
imagination we may apply the same characteristics to 
this great ice-sheet, with its complex of submerged 
glaciers, that were noted for the local ice-cap. Climatic 
conditions finally changed and this continental type of 
glacier was slowly resolved into its components, only 
relatively few of which still remain to grace the land- 
scape. Two similar ice-sheets developed further east- 
ward, either simultaneously or subsequenth^, one center- 
ing to the west of Hudson's Bay and the other in Lab- 
rador. Existing glaciers of this type are found in 
Greenland and the Antarctic region. 

:?. — Geological Work of Glaciers. 

Within the sphere of their activity glaciers may be- 
come powerful geological agents, destroying or modify- 




A . O. Wheeler, Pholo 

MT. BAI,FOUR AND BALFOUR CI^ACIER FROM BOW PEAK 

The view is of unusual geological interest, showing the relation of the neve-field to the short, Alpine 

glacier, the work of the drainage stream in covering the valley floor with gravel, and the formation 

of an extensive delta at the head of the lake. The left lateral and two medial juoraines are well 

shown, as well as the transverse and marginal crevasses. 




/. S/ie>~t:>. I'liutu. lyus 

EROSIVE ACTION OF GLACIERS SHOWN UPON OUARTZITE 

NEAR HEAD OF PARADISE VALLEY 

Notice the planing and striating of the upper suiface. and the disrupting " plucking ' of 

the massive blocks 




A. O. Wheeler, Photo, 1902 



Canadian Glaciers 257 

ing former physiographic features and producing others 
anew. This phase of glacial study may be best pre- 
sented under three headings. 

(a) Glacial Erosion. The eroding action of pure 
ice upon firm rock, varying in hardness from that of 
limestone to quartzite, is apparently slight and limited 
to a smoothing and polishing effect. When the glacier 
is shod with rock fragments, as is frequently the case, 
and has considerable thickness, the erosive effect may be 
great if the action is prolonged. Hard rocks are 
gouged, scratched and planed and the fragments re- 
duced to pebbles, sand and clay. The glacier's rock tools 
by which this action is accomplished are bruised, bat- 
tered, planed and scratched and the edges and corners 
are more or less rounded in a manner entirely char- 
acteristic of glaciers. When a glacier of considerable 
thickness moves over a jointed, stratified rock, especially 
if the dip of the strata is in the direction of the move- 
ment, masses of rock may be detached bodily, giving 
rise to what is termed plucking. By this action a 
glacier may leave its bed rougher than it found it, and 
furnish the sites for lakelets, such as the exquisite lakes 
Agnes and Louise. An unusually fine example of this 
type of glacial erosion may be seen near the head of 
Paradise Valley, where blocks of quartzite as large as 
small houses have been disrupted from the parent bed 
and shifted but a short distance. Standing upon the 
undisturbed portion of the beautifully glaciated bed and 
looking down the valley it is dif^cult to escape the con- 
viction that many feet of strata have been similarly re- 
moved. Many valleys in the Rockies and Selkirks appear 
to have been deepened and given their characteristic U- 
shape by alpine streams during the maximum period of 
glaciation. Their side walls, up to a certain height, 
have been smoothed and mountain spurs uniformly trun- 
cated, as well shown upon the Lake Louise side of Mt. 
Fairview. Glaciers exert this erosive power to their 



258 Canadian Alpine Journal 

very heads and excavate often a semi-circular amphi- 
theatre, or cirque, which may eat its way into the heart 
of a mountain and assist the atmospheric agencies in 
its destruction. A good example of such work is seen 
in the elevated Lake Agnes Valley, the glacier having 
nearly or quite disappeared from the region. 

(b) Transportation. The loose material which a 
glacier finds in its path, along with that which it is able 
to pluck from its bed, is urged forward by sliding and 
rolling, or it may be incorporated into the base of the 
ice and transported bodily. Aside from the wind-blown 
dust which may be more or less evenly distributed 
throughout the body of the ice, the bulk of the material 
transported by the local ice-caps and continental ice- 
sheets lies in the basal layers. In the case of alpine 
and piedmont glaciers, however, from overtowering 
cliffs the active atmospheric agents may detach rock 
fragments which find their way to the surface of the 
glacier. If they reach the neve they may be incorporated 
into the body of the glacier, to appear later either at the 
surface of the dissipator or its extremity. Material car- 
ried thus either upon or within the ice suffers little 
abrasion compared with that at the base, but by means 
of crevasses and moulins it may work its way down to 
the lower zone. The transporting power of a glacier 
differs very markedly from that of a river since it is 
in no wise dependant upon its velocity. Rocks as large 
as a city block may be handled quite as easily as a grain 
of sand. 

Owing to its relation to the steep cliffs of the Ten 
Peaks the Wenkchemna receives rock fragments along 
its entire breadth. In the case of the Victoria the upper 
valley is sufficiently narrow so that avalanches from Le- 
froy and Victoria may reach entirely across the neve, 
thus distributing rocky debris throughout the glacier 
there in process of formation. When brought below the 
snow-line by the forward movement there is a concen- 



Canadian Glaciers 259 

tration of this material over the entire surface of these 
two glaciers, forming a thin veneering by which fur- 
ther melting is much retarded. Ordinarily the rock 
fragments accumulate in a relatively narrow zone along 
the margin of the glacier where they are moved very 
slowly forward, protecting from melting the ice upon 
which they rest until there is produced a sharp-crested 
ridge upon either side of the glacier — the lateral mor- 
aines. When such a moraine towers above the nose of 
the glacier more than a hundred feet, as is the case 
with the Illecillewaet, it is difficult for the ordinary 
observer to believe that it is essentially an ice-ridge with 
scarcely a foot of rock veneering. For the last few years 
the left lateral of the Asulkan has been shedding its 
cover near the lower end and this ice-core is well ex- 
posed and is being slowly destroyed. 

When a glacier has a tributary, as in the case of 
the Victoria, the adjacent lateral moraines of the trunk 
and tributary streams unite and form a medial moraine, 
which has much the same appearance as the laterals. 
Under ideal conditions there will be one such medial for 
each tributary stream. Owing to the more rapid move- 
ment of the ice upon which they rest there is not the 
opportunity for the development found in the laterals. 
The material which rests upon the surface of the glacier 
has suffered but little abrasion and is thus readily dis- 
tinguished from that which has occupied a basal posi- 
tion. Whenever a glacier is nourished, however, by a 
hanging glacier, as is the Lefroy, Victoria and Yoho, 
there occurs a mixture of the two types of material in 
the lateral moraine. 

(c) Deposition. While the glacier is still in pos- 
session of a region there is being deposited in certain 
protected places beneath the ice the clay, sand and glaci- 
ated boulders, firmly pressed together and typically un- 
assorted. Bluish-gray in color, until it is oxidized, 
this constitutes the grouiid-moraine. Owing to the action 



260 Canadian Alpine Journal 

of sub-glacial streams patches of stratified sand and 
gravel may occur locally, the clay being carried away 
by the drainage. On account of the relatively slight 
grinding action of the present Canadian glaciers and 
lack of opportunity for lodgment, no extensive deposits 
of this ground-moraine or till are now forming. In 
connection with the great continental ice-sheets, however, 
deposits were formed several hundreds of feet in thick- 
ness. 

During the process of retreat all the material car- 
ried in or upon the ice must be deposited as fast as 
complete melting proceeds. The rock debris of the 
lateral and medial moraines will be set down in corres- 
ponding lines or ridges, but of surprisingly insignificant 
proportions when contrasted with the original moraines. 
Rock fragments distributed over the general surface of 
the glacier will be somewhat evenly distributed over the 
bed as it is uncovered, so long as the retreat is fairly 
uniform. In case the melting at the lower extremity, 
however, just equals the forward mo\'ement, the end of 
the glacier comes to a halt and its load is dumped in 
a ridge, forming a terminal moraine, providing we have 
a glacier of the alpine type, which alone can be con- 
sidered to have an end. In the case of the three other 
types of glaciers such moraines, testifying to the stages 
of halt of the front, but not of the ice itself, are known 
as frontal moraines. A good example is seen in connec- 
tion with the Wenkchemna, previously referred to. 

A noteworthy type of ancient moraine is found in 
connection with the five most accessible glaciers along 
the Canadian Pacific Railway, viz., the Victoria, Horse- 
shoe, Wenkchemna. Illecillewaet and Asulkan Glaciers. 
In each case its double character can be made out, 
either through its disposition in separate ridges, or dif- 
ferences in age where heaped together. The moraines 
consist of massive blocks of quartzite and sandstone 
heaped tumultuously together without the usual filling 



Cav.adian Glaciers 261 

of gravel, sand and clay, differing strikingly from the 
moraines formed previously and subsequently. Be- 
tween the great blocks, many of enormous size, spaces 
permit the entrance of man and other animals, so that 
Professor Tarr's name of '' bcar-den moraine " seems 
appropriate. Space will not permit a detailed discription 
here of these moraines, nor a full discussion of their 
probable origin. There is no reason for thinking that 
the ordinary filling material was originally present and 
removed by running water, or other agency. The blocks 
were not pushed along ahead of the ice, nor carried 
subglacially, but were carried either upon or within the 
ice. The ordinar}^ proces of weathering would produce 
as much fine as coarse material and give rise to a ter- 
minal moraine of the ordinary type. An inspection of 
the cliffs from which the blocks were apparently de- 
rived shows that in all the five cases the general trend 
is northwest to southeast and that the bulk of the 
material was dropped to the eastward. The only plaus- 
ible explanation which the writer has been able to 
frame is that these glaciers became loaded with these 
coarse blocks as the result of a double earthc[uake dis- 
turbance, which probably crossed the Rockies and Sel- 
kirks in a northeast-southwest direction. The two 
shocks were separated by two or three centuries and the 
first was either the most severe, or else it found more 
loose material awaiting its arrival. The mountains of 
the region appear to have served as a gigantic seismo- 
graph to record the time, number, relative intensity and 
direction of the shocks. A very rough estimate based 
upon the rings of growth of trees, indicates that these 
disturbances happened from 700 to 1000 years ago, or 
from the loth to the 13th centuries. Glaciers like the 
Geikie, whose bounding cliffs extend in a northeast- 
southwest direction, i.e., in the direction of wave trans- 
mission, would be able to secure but a slight load 
and might reasonably be expected to show no such 



262 Canadian Alpine Journal 

moraines. Similarly the Yoho glacier, which is not 
bounded by steep cliffs capable of supplying such blocks 
no matter how severe the disturbance. Upon the east- 
ern shoulder of Mt. Burgess there lies a mass of coarse 
blocks, very suggestive of these moraine blocks, which 
may have been shaken loose at the same time. The 
members of the Canadian Alpine Club can be of ser- 
vice in extending these observations to the north and 
south of the railway and in the collection of evidence 
which might verify or disprove the above hypothesis. 

In describing their observations in the Sun Wapta 
Valley, Stutfield and Collie (Climbs and Exploration in 
the Canadian Rockies, 1903, page 126) note the occur- 
rence of a similar type of moraine which may date back 
to the time of those above noted, or may have been 
due to a purely local rock-slide. In referring to the 
peaks Woolley and Stutfield, they say : " These two last 
mountains appeared to have been conducting themselves 
in a most erratic manner in bygone ages. A tremendous 
rock-fall had evidently taken place from their ugly, bare, 
limestone cliffs and the whole valley, nearly half r>. mile 
wide, was covered to a depth of some hundreds of feet 
with boulders and debris. What had happened, p.ppar- 
ently, was this. The immense amount of rock that had 
fallen on the glacier below Peak Stutfield had pre- 
vented the ice from melting. Consequently the glacier, 
filling up the valley to a depth of at least two hundred 
feet, had moved bodily down ; and its snout, a couple of 
hundred feet high, covered with blocks of stone the 
size of small houses, was playing havoc with the pine 
woods before it on either side. In our united experi- 
ences, extending over the Alps, the Caucasus, the Him- 
alayas, and other mountain ranges, we had never seen 
indications of a landslide on so colossal a scale." 

It is interesting to note that the Woolley-Stutfield 
range of cliffs has a northwest-southeast trend and that 
this rock debris was thrown to the castzcard. It will be 



Canadian Glaciers 263 

of much interest to ascertain whether other glaciers, 
lying between the headwaters of the Athabasca and 
the railway, which are favorably situated with reference 
to their cliffs, show such moraines. 



264 Canadian Alpine Journal 



BOTANICAL NOTES. 



THE ORCHIDACEAE OF THE ROCKY AND 
SELKIRK MOUNTAINS. 



By Julia W. Henshaw. 

Orchid-hunting has an irresistible attraction for 
every lover of Nature. Whether the secret of this fas- 
cination lies in the difficulties which beset the search for 
the rarer species, or whether it is the strange forms, 
sweet perfumes and tropical appearances of many of the 
flowers belonging to this eccentric family that inspire so 
vivid a delight in the breast of man it is hard to deter- 
mine, but assuredly the traveller does experience a keen 
thrill of ecstacy on finding one of these uncanny plants 
closely hidden in some shady swamp, or deep-set amid 
the tall rank herbage of the hills. 

So far I have found twenty-three different species 
of orchidaceas in the Rocky and Selkirk Mountains. 
They are as follows : 

Calypso borcalis Calypso. 

Corallorhiza innata Early Coral-root. 

Corallorhiza muUiflora . . Large Coral-root. 

Corallorhiza striata Alpine Coral-root. 

Listera cordata Heart-leaved Tway Blade. 

Listera convallarioides . . . Broad-lipped Tway Blade. 

Listera borealis Northern Tway Blade. 

Spiranthes Romansoffianal^d.dies' Tresses. 

Goodyera Menziesii Rattlesnake Plantain. 

Goody era repens Small Rattlesnake Plantain. 

Habenaria bracteata Long-bracted Orchis. 




/. IV. Henshaiv. Photo 



CAT.YPSO 
(CALYPSO BOREALIS) 



Orchidaceae 265 

Habenaria obtusata Small Orchis. 

Habenaria hyperborca. . . Leafy Orchis. 
Habenaria orbiculata. . . . Round-leaved Orchis. 

Habenaria striata Green Orchis. 

Habenaria dilatata White Bog Orchis. 

Habenaria leucostachys .. Giant Orchis. 

Orchis rotiDidifolia Fly-spotted Orchis. 

Cypripedium passerinitm . White Lady's Slipper. 
Cypripedium montaniim . Mountain Lady's Slipper. 

Cypripedium acaule Pink Lady's Slipper. 

Cypripedium pubescens. . Large Yellow Lady's Slipper 
Cypripedium parviflorum Small Yellow Lady's Slipper 

Some of the orchids are quite common in the 
Rocky Mountains, such, for instance, as the lovely 
Calypso {Calypso borealis) whose large rose-pink sacs, 
striped with a deeper hue and variegated by yellow spots, 
form clumps of exquisite color in the deep green forests. 

A very interesting and leatiess plant is the Early 
Coral-root {Corallorhiza innata) found in quantities in 
the vicinity of Banff, where numbers of its queer, 
purplish-green flowers spring on succulent stems from 
the coralloid roots. Other species found in the Selkirk 
Mountains are: Large Coral-root {C orallorhiza multi- 
flora) and Alpine Coral-root {Corallorhiza stricta) the 
latter being a very rare plant. 

The healthy green Tway Blades (Listera cordata, 
Listera convaUarioides, and Listera borealis) together 
with the Rattlesnake Plantains {Goody era menmesii and 
Goodyera repens) the two latter having peculiar white- 
veined leaves, are all found in the mountain regions, but 
are comparatively unattractive plants. 

Ladies' Tresses {Spiranthes Romanzofiana) is a 
lovely member of the Orchid family found blooming to- 
wards the close of the summer in marshy localities, 
where its dense snowy flower-spikes exhale a fragrant 
perfume. 



266 Canadian Alpine Journal 

The Habeuorias are very numerous in the moun- 
tains. Some of them, such as the White Bog Orchis 
(Habenaria dilatata) and Giant Orchis {Habenaria 
leucostachys) have exquisite large spikes of white sweet- 
scented flowers and are a perfect prize to the Nature- 
lover; while others, such as the Long-bracted Orchis 
{Habenaria bractcata), Small Orchis {Habenaria ob- 
tusata), Leafy Orchis {Habenaria hyperborca), Round- 
leaved Orchis {Habenaria orbiculata) and Green Orchis 
{Habenaria stricta) are small plants and have greenish, 
yellowish or purplish blossoms that are almost scentless. 
These lesser orchids grow in the woods and beside 
the trails, and are easily recognized, as each species 
possesses its own marked individual peculiarities. 

On wet, sandy flats and by the margin of the alpine 
streams grow the pale pink clusters of the Fly-spotted 
Orchis {Orchis rotundifolia), its dainty blossoms 
splashed with rose color and a single rounded green leaf 
growing at the base of the plant. 

And so we come at last to the most exquisite of all 
the wild mountain orchids — the Lady's Slipper. To find 
these wonderful treasures growing in swamp or dell, 
their curious inflated sacs expanding with tropical 
luxuriance amid northern alpine surroundings, is a 
thrilling experience unequalled in the history of flower- 
hunting; and so completely does the sight of their 
mysterious beauty enthral the beholder that it is with 
rapture akin to awe he stoops to gather one of the 
" Golden slippers meet for fairies' feet " of the Large 
Yellow Lady's Slipper {Cypripedium pubescens) or the 
Small Yellow Lady's Slipper {Cypripedium parvi- 
florum). The great moraine at Emerald Lake, gilt 
with these conspicuous orchids, is a marvellous sight in 
July, for, curiously enough, the Large Yellow Lady's 
Slipper grows both on exposed arid flats and in the 
deepest seclusion of the woods, while the fragrant Small 
Lady's Slipper has its haunts close beside the streams. 




/, H' //eiisha-u-. Photo 



EARLY CORAL-ROOT 
CORAI.LORHIZA INNATA) 



'y^^Orcliidaceae 267 

The two white Lady's Slippers (Cypripcdiitni pas- 
serinum and Cypripediuni montanum) are less gorgeous 
than the yellow species, but are more rare and charm- 
ingly dainty in appearance. Their shell-like velvety sacs, 
spotted inside with carmine, are very lovely. 

But the Pink Lady's Slipper {Cypripediuni acaide), 
the most rare and the most bewitching of all the orchids 
— how shall I describe its exotic beauty! A flower 
carven in coral of rose, it springs like a living flame 
from the soft green of its setting, exhaling a perfume 
sweet as the breath of Araby. Lance-shaped purplish 
sepals spread out on either side to protect the single 
drooping blossom, and two large leaves spring up from 
the base to sentinel its majesty, while the great glowing 
sac is folded together to defy the attacks of depredating 
bees. The Pink Lady's Slipper is so extremely rare in 
the Rocky Mountains that I regard my discovery of it 
in the year 1903 as the crowning triumph of my botan- 
ical work in that region. 



268 Canadian Alpine Journal 



FLORA OF THE SASKATCHEWAN AND ATHA- 
BASCA RIVER TRIBUTARIES. 



By Mary T. S. Schaffer. 

Another sketch appears in this magazine referring 
directly to the locahties of whose florae I have been asked 
to write, so there is no need to dupHcate a description 
of the ground covered. 

As our stay was to be a long one, it was with 
dubious feelings that w^e asked permission to include 
among the necessities a plant-press and a limited supply 
of paper. Having collected plants from Banff to Glacier 
during a number of years, there were days on the 
earlier part of the journey when we would have been 
glad to get rid of the cumbersome, troublesome thing, 
and leave it hanging on some tree till we should return 
in the fall. But there came a day when a trained 
botanist went over the result of our perseverence, and 
we felt repaid for the annoyance and labor involved 
in gathering the unfamiliar blossoms by the wayside. 

Mr. Stewardson Brown, of Philadelphia, has had 
them all thoroughly studied, and I herewith give a few 
notes, the result of his work upon them. 

As far as the Wilcox Pass we found nothing par- 
ticularly striking, until reaching a point at about 6000 
feet we found the Pinus flcxilus, its blue-green foliage 
betraying it quickly among the browner-green of the 
other trees. The cones, at that time a deep purple, vary 
from three to five inches in length. From there on we 
met many strangers (to us) of the plant world. The 
Picea Canadensis, not seen further south, was first 
noticed on the north shores of the Saskatchewan. 




Mary T. S. Schaffer, Photo 



PULSATILLA OCCIDEXTALIS 




Mary T. S. Schajffer, Photo 



PINUS FLEXILUS 



Rocky Mountain Flora 269 

The Erigeron acris we found in August a few hun- 
dred feet below the Pinus flexilns, and, in the begin- 
ning of July, at 8500 feet, the Ranunculus pygniaeus, 
the tiniest butter-cup imaginable, struggling bravely to 
bloom in the icy winds of Wilcox Pass, and covering 
the ground like a golden moss wherever the winter 
snows had receded. Here, also, in full bloom, but 
or more exposed and barren sections of the pass, was the 
Aragallus inflatus. This was an especially interesting 
find as I had never seen anything more than the huge, 
inflated seed-pods before. The flower is a deep sky-blue, 
and, growing only upon higher elevations, not often 
seen. We gathered the beautiful crimsoning seed- 
vessels at the same place, the latter part of August. 

From the north fork of the Saskatchewan to the 
headwaters of the Athabasca the Primula mistassinica 
and the Primula horcalis grew" by the river banks, 
frequently in beds together; they were as often found 
apart. 

In the Su Wapta flats was growing the Pilosclla 
Richardsonii, as also the Arabis lyrata occidentalis. The 
former plant, varying in general characteristics, but 
withal the same, made our entire journey to Fortress 
Lake bright, its clusters of white blossoms garnishing 
the sandy river-bars. 

On the Wilcox Pass grew the Viola cognata, and 
in the Fortress Lake region, at about 7000 feet, the 
Viola Langsdorfii. This violet is an especially beautiful, 
rich, luscious-looking flower, with strong, rank foliage. 

Down in the swamps of the Su Wapta we found 
the Utricularia vulgaris, and though known generally 
throughout Canada, I have never come across it in the 
mountains further south. At the same time of year, 
and in the same section, but at 7000 feet, we found 
the purple-crimson blooms of the Tclcsonix hcucheri- 
formis. Wedged deep in the cracks of the rocks, it was 
impossible to get any of the specimens entire. One and 



270 Canadian Alpine Journal 

two hundred feet above this point we found the straw- 
berry (Fragaris bractcata) : great luscious berries three- 
quarters to one inch long. Sweeter than many a cul- 
tivated variety, they were welcome company at a height 
where there was no water. 

On September 9th, we climbed a bare, rocky point 
to look for Brazeau Lake. There was little of the 
floral life left, though fungi of many varieties were 
very numerous, even to tree-line, and w^e were surprised 
to come across the little Erigcron lanatus at 9000 feet. 
The plant was a new one to me, though Professor 
Macoun mentions finding it at high points further south. 
The rays are a deep rose-violet, and the rest of the 
plant covered with long white hairs. As it lay bloom- 
ing in the scree close to the summit of the mountain, 
it had the appearance of a purple flower nestling in a 
bed of cotton. 

By the latter part of August all the river banks 
w^ere a continuous strawberry bed, a welcome addition 
to our limited larder, but we never saw* a bush of the 
blueberry {Vacciiiium ovaJiform) which grows so pro- 
fusely in the Selkirks. Occasionally we came across 
the Vaccinium erythrococcum, wdiose tiny red berries 
made very tiresome picking, but were very good and 
toothsome when once gathered. 

We found very many plants familiar to us as grow- 
ing near the railroad, but with limited space I have only 
jotted down the strangers. It will be seen by this list 
that they are largely the plants best known as having 
their habitation in the more northern mountains of the 
Pacific slope. 

We had stolen a march into the meeting grounds of 
two distinct floral sections, an interesting ground for a 
botanist who has time in the future to go so far from 
the beaten way. 



Motion of Yoho Glacier 271 



MOTION OF THE YOHO GLACIER. 



By a. O. Wheeler. 

At the close of the Paradise Valley camp, on July 
15th, 1907, the President with two assistants and a packer 
made a flying trip up the Yoho Valley, via Emerald 
Lake, to visit the Yoho Glacier and inspect the row of 
metal plates set out the year previous. It was intended 
to ascertain by trigonometric methods the extent of the 
movement of the ice-tongue down its bed. 

The party camped for the night a short distance 
south of Lake Duchesney, and, early the next morning, 
July 1 6th, pushed on to a camp ground within a mile 
of the ice-tongue. 

The glacier was at once visited, and, cutting steps 
in the ice forefoot, the party reached the comparatively 
level portion of the tongue where the plates had been set. 
The row of metal plates placed across the surface of the 
ice to mark the movement of the forefoot had been fixed 
in position on the 15th July, 1906, and their respective 
positions were now being checked, just one day later than 
the exact year. The method adopted in placing these 
plates will be found in the report given on pages 149- 
158, Vol. I., No. I, of this Journal. 

Of the six plates first set out, all were found, 
though No. 3 had fallen into a shallow crevasse. It was 
lifted from this and placed on the surface above at a 
point 10.5 feet farther to the south. As it is likely it 
received additional impetus from the fall one way or the 
other, its movement in relation to the original line of 
plates cannot be absolutely depended upon. 



272 



Canadian Alpine Journal 



In 1906, three sets of observations were inaugur- 
ated : (ij to obtain rate of surface flow; (2) to ascer- 
tain retreat or advance; (3) to observe the annual 
change in the ice formation at the snout. 

To Obtain Rate of Surface Flow. 

Both ends of the base estabhshed in 1906 were now 
occupied with the transit, and readings taken upon the 
plates in the positions in which they had been found. 
Work was completed at the south end, but, while that 
at the north was still in progress, rain came on, stopping 
the work and driving the party back to camp. 

Next morning, July 17th, work was resumed and 
the readings completed at the north end of the base. 
The plates were then set in line afresh and their positions 
fixed by angular readings from the south end. On the 
accompanying map the original line of plates is shown 
and the points at which they were found twelve months 
later. The table below shows the respective movements 
as measured from a plot of the several readings taken 
at the ends of the base. 

Table Showing the Motion of Plates Set on the Yoho 
Glacier, between i^th July, igo6, and lythJuly, iQoy. 



Plate 


No. 1 


No. 2 


No. 3 


No. 4 


No. 5 


No. 6 


Yearly 
Motion 


29 ft. 


74 ft. 


89 ft. 


124 ft. 


134 fi. 


124 ft. 


Daily 
Motion 


0.95 in. 


2.43 in. 


2.93 in. 


4.08 in. 


4.41 in. 


4.08 in. 



A glance at the map shows that the greatest move- 
ment has taken place in the locality of Plates IV., V. and 
VI. The reason is that the main body of ice is swung 
to the right against the cliffs seen in illustration No. i. 



Motion of Yoho Glacier 



273 



This panorama shows the striation of these diffs by the 
ice in past years, when the glacier filled up the trough as 
high as the upper line of dense forest. The grooving 
and fluting of the rock over which the ice grinds is well 
shown by the uncovered portion where the fragments 
fallen from the scracs above are lying. On the extreme 
right may be seen the nimatak, which spilts the icefall 
into two parts (Refer to map opp. page 152, Vol. I., 
No. I, Can, Alpine Journal). The appearance of the 
lateral moraine that has been left standing around this 
nunatak and its position with regard to the timber grow- 
ing thereon, suggest strongly an advance of the glacier 
subsequent to the growth of the timber on the nunatak. 

For Advance or Retreat. 

To obtain some idea of the movement of the ice 
forefoot with reference to its position in the valley, 
measurements were made from Rocks Nos. i and 2, 
marked in July, 1906; and, also, from the " Sherzer " 
rock marked in August, 1904. The measurements were 
to the nearest ice and the results are not very satis- 
factory, owing to a considerable change in the structure 
of the forefoot during the twelve months elapsed since 
July, 1906. 

Table Showins: Measurements to Nearest Ice. 



Point Measured From 


1904 


1906 


1907 


Rock No. 1, left side 
Rock No. 2, left side 
Sherzer Rock, right side 


79.4 feet 


27.5 feet 

33.6 •' 
79.6 " 


35.8 feet 
43.8 " 
123.0 •' 



The above measurements would point to a slight 
retreat. The greatest shrinkage appears to have taken 
place on the right side, indicating the withdrawal of 



274 Canadian Alpine Journal 

the ice to a distance of 43 feet further from the Sherzer 
Rock, although for the two years previous it appears to 
have been stationery at that point. 

Annual Changes in Formation of Ice Forefoot. 

A marked change had taken place. Comparison of 
photographs from view-point, 79.3 feet south of Rock No. 
I (illustrations Nos. 2 and 3) taken respectively on the 
15th of July, 1906, and the 17th July, 1907, shows the 
change; and, very distinctly, the shrinkage of the 
forefoot. 

It will be noticed that the two great cracks on 
the right of the 1906 picture are lacking in that of 
1907; the further uncovering of the ground-floor may be 
seen in the centre of the 1907 picture; and the shattered 
and crevassed condition on the left where solid ice shows 
in the 1906 picture. 

Comparison of the 1907 photographs, illustrations 
Nos. 4 and 5, with those taken in 1906 (opposite page 
158, Vol. I., No. I, Canadian Alpine Journal) from 
Rock No. 2 and from the view-point 6^ feet nearer 
the ice that the Vaux marks of 1902 disclose the 
change to a greater degree. In the first picture the dis- 
appearance ofssihe two great cracks, the uncovering of 
the floor, and the shattering of the ice on the left-hand 
side is still more marked. It will also be noticed that in 
1906 the stream was higher than at the same time in 
1907. 

In the second picture the pointed nose of ice seen 
lifted above the ground moraine in the 1906 picture is 
lying broken off and nearly melted away. 

Survey of Ice-Tongue. 
Having completed the above observations, several 
camera stations were occupied at suitable points to en- 
able, by means of the application of photogrammetry, a 
map of the tongue of the ice forefoot to be made. The 
map herewith, w'hich is from the views taken at the 







./. O. H heeler. Photo 

II^IyUSTKATlON No. 2. — FROM VIKW-POINT 79.3 Ft;ET SOUTH OF ROCK No. 1—190(5 








'V 



■T^r-^^ 



**^ •-■^^ 










p,i 



^'', ■'»> ' 
'f.,^' 



.»*'# 



v*f _-■■*• Mf -< ■ 



>'.v 






.'I, O. tVheeUr. Photo 

IIvI^USTRATION No. 3,— FROM VIEW-l'OlNT 79.3 FKRT SOUTH.OF KOCK No. 1— 1!)07 




A . O. Wheeler, Photo 

IlvI<USTRATION No. 4 
From Rock No. 2. Compare with plate opposite Page 158, Vol. 1, No. 1, Canadian .Alpine Journal 




. Wheeler, Photo 

II,I.rSTR.\T10N No. 5 

-Point 0^4 feet nearer ice than the Vaiix marks of 1902. Compare with I>late2, opposite Page lo8. 
Vol. 1, No, 1, Canadian Alpine Journal. 



Motion of Yoho Glacier 275 

several stations, shows the positions of these stations and 
of the rocks from which measurements were made to 
the ice; also, of the other view-points and the various 
features of the glacier in its bed. I now wish to 
acknowledge the assistance given me by Mr. M. P. 
Bridgland, who has plotted and computed the altitudes 
of all the points used in outlining the glacier and in 
drawing the contours here shown. 

It may incidentally be mentioned that it is only 
by the means of the science of photogrammetry that in 
a single day — not taking into consideration the other 
work done when locating plates and making measure- 
ments, etc. — sufficient data could be obtained by two per- 
sons to map the tongue so completely and accurately, 
without making actual measurements, a process that 
would entail a considerable expenditure of time and 
labor. The process, combined with the views taken, 
enables, in this case, a large amount of additional in- 
formation to be gathered, such as : thickness of the ice, 
previous thickness of the ice, slope of ground-floor, etc. 
It shows how valuable the method is for a survey of 
this nature. 

From it we may gather that the approximate thick- 
ness of the ice on the right side is 170 ft., and on the 
left side 130 ft.; that the height of the cliffs from the 
ice to the lower edge of the upper growth of timber in 
illustration No. i varies from 300 to 400 ft., a depth of 
ice that once filled the valley; and that the slope of the 
portion of the bed beneath the ice tongue is approxim- 
ately 35 per cent. 

The general conclusion that may be drawn from 
the above is that the glacier receded during tlie year, 
July 1906 to July 1907, an average distance of about 
20 feet and that the shrinkage of the ice in thickness on 
the right side has been very considerable. These evident 
facts appear somewhat peculiar in view of the unusually 
large amount of snow that fell in that locality during the 
winter of 1906-07. 



276 Canadian Alpine Journal 



MISCELLANEOUS SECTION. 



PARADISE VALLEY CAMP. 



By Francis C. Walker. 

"Mr. Robinson! Is Mr. Robinson in this tent?" 
A very sleepy voice said something which might have 
been taken for a " yes." " Time for breakfast if you 
mean to make Mount Temple to-day. Party starts at 
5.30 sharp." The sleepy voice gave a reply a trifle less 
like a grunt this time, and brisk steps were heard moving 
away from the tent. It was my first day in camp in the 
Paradise Valley, and I was just enough awake to 
rejoice that I was not in Robinson's shoes, while being 
still too much asleep to know whether it was my feet 
or Robinson's that were being pulled out of the pile 
about the tent-pole. I opened one eye and saw to my 
relief that a quite unfamiliar sock was being thrust into 
a stout hob-nailed boot. Evidently I had been left intact 
beneath the blankets, and could afford to take a spec- 
tator's view of any further preparations. I opened the 
other eye to see how he would manage the puttees, 
which he was now fishing out in suspicious newness 
from the dunnage bag. For the life of me I could not 
see that he knew any more about the things than I did. 
Possibly he knew less, for the right leg cost him three 
tries and the left leg two, while I flattered myself I 
could turn off the pair in an average of two attempts. 
Besides, the effect produced seemed all out of proportion 
to the cost of production in language, for the swathing 
was accompanied by a soliloquy whose depth of meaning 
made up for its lowness of tone. I intimated these views 




"PLEASE SIR, MAY I GO WITH BIIJA' " 







[R. ROHTNSON ! IS MR. ROBINSON IN THIS TKNT ? 



Paradise Valley Camp 277 

to Robinson, who took advantage of my waking to bor- 
row a pair of warm gloves and to fish unsuccessfully for 
the loan of an ice-axe, an article evidently possessed by 
neither of us. There would be frosty weather on 
Temple — possibly flurries of snow; altogether Robinson 
at 5.30 a.m. seemed to look less cheerfully on the climb 
than he had done at 10.30 the night before. Finally he 
picked his way over the snoring mummies between him 
and the entrance, fumbled awhile at the fastenings, and 
crawled out, leaving a loose flap, past which the raw 
mountain air came sifting in. 

Once Robinson's footsteps had died away I rolled 
my blankets tighter and tried to sleep. For a time I 
succeeded, but the open flap of the tent was in the end 
too much, and before a fair holiday rising hour I felt 
moved to get up and investigate the camp. My dim re- 
collection of last night's arrival reminded me that I was 
a lodger in tent No. 5, Men's Quarters, south side of 
Paradise Creek. After wrestling with the puttees and 
crawling into the open, I found that tent No. 5 was 
almost the last from the bridge but at no great distance 
from the creek; and I soon washed and started out to 
find the main camp. All along as I made my way cheer- 
fully over the stumps, guy-ropes and rocks that had 
treated me so scurvily the night before, I found other 
denizens of the men's quarters creeping out with soap 
and towel, or furbishing up their ice-axes and boots for 
the day's work. Crossing the substantial log bridge I 
reached the stopping place of the pack-train, where a 
number of the horses, just arrived from Laggan, were 
waiting to be unpacked. Before me now was the main 
encampment on the lowest slope of Aberdeen in a clear- 
ing hewn from the thick woods. Whatever it was 
hewn from I suspected it of holding a breakfast for me, 
and on I pushed through the tents. In another minute 
the breakfast was in view. Half way up what seemed 
to be the main street of the camp, and in the middle of 



278 Canadian Alpine Journal 

the street, was a huge strip of canvas flung over a stout 
horizontal beam and guyed down at either side; beneath 
were six tables made on a simple rustic frame with oil- 
cloth tops and furnished along either side with stout log 
perches on which the second relay of break f asters were 
already balancing themselves. Opposite every place there 
was laid an outfit of eating implements, consisting of one 
tin plate, one tin cup, one knife, one fork and one 
spoon. These must serve the holder for his entire meal, 
and later, as w^e grew accustomed to the etiquette, it 
w^as astonishing how simple and natural it seemed to 
save from the influence of porridge a place large enough 
for bacon, and to keep an unbaconized surface for final 
prunes or pie. At that, my first breakfast, however, I 
was hard put to it, what wnth the simplicity of the ser- 
vice, and what with my struggles to preserve the equili- 
brium of the porridge dish on the curving surface of the 
oilcloth, as well as my own on the diner's perch. 

From the mess-tent to the cook-tent below was a 
short distance, and the speed with which the various 
courses came on was only equalled by the rapidity with 
which the food disappeared. The chief cook was Mok- 
Hen, an old retainer of the President, and familiarly 
known as Mock Turtle, who had under him two China 
boys from the Lake Louise Chalet. Mok and his staff 
served only eatables, tea being handed out by more 
or less active volunteers, from a small tent sacred to the 
ladies, which stood just above the mess-tent. 

The mess-tent practically divided the main camp in 
two. It stood almost spanning the main street, w'ith the 
cook-tent below and ofl^cial tents above. To the right 
and on the same level as the mess-tent were the living 
tents of the President and Secretary, and beyond these, 
scattered along the woody mountain side, were the ladies' 
quarters. The official tents of the President and Secretary 
stood at the upper end of an open space, the forum of the 
camp. Of this space the most important part was a big 



Paradise Valley Camp 279 

square of logs with the camp fire in the middle. Here 
every evening the campers gathered for song and jest, 
and here, during the day a succession of worried-look- 
ing ladies hammered nails, discussed sunburn cures, 
or fried out the interior of the boots thaty had used in 
climbing the day before. Not far from the camp-fire 
was a bulletin board fixed against a large tree and setting 
forth all the official announcements, especially the suc- 
cessive programmes for the following day. Altogether 
this year's camp to most of us, even the pioneers of 1906, 
seemed a model of good arrangement and comfort. The 
President, however, has in view for next year all sorts of 
improvements, among them a larger mess-tent and a 
more satisfactory tea-tent. The tea-tent is really sacred 
to the ladies, which means that they use it for drying 
their clothing, especially overflow boots from the camp 
fire. This system keeps out the mere males from the 
use of the tea-tent as such; but in future we may see a 
two-roomed tent with tea in the foreground, laundry at 
the back, and an entrance at each end. Why not go a 
step further and have bell tents with electric bells in 
them, buttless fir boughs, and porcupines furnished with 
hairpins as well as needles? I am at present working 
on a self-balancing, three-sided plate especially adapted 
to club use. 

The camp, as it stood, represented no small thought 
and toil. To begin with, the late-lingering snow had 
made it necessary to abandon the first site chosen and 
move lower down the valley. This second site had to 
be in the thick woods, and a clearing was made only 
by three days' work on the part of a gang of men 
loaned by the C.P.R. In addition to the work done by 
this gang in clearing the ground and bridging the creek, 
a number of members of the Club worked hard for the 
first four days of July in setting up tents, cutting 
boughs and firewood, and doing a hundred and one 
tiresome, necessary things. Those of us who came after 



280 Canadian Alpine Journal 

and, like Kipling's " Sons of Mary " found the rough 
places smooth for our feet, owe a debt of gratitude to 
the hard-working officers of the Club who planned, and 
the unselfish volunteers who swung axes and stretched 
ropes for our comfort. The names of these, " The 
Sons of Martha," I could give — and would, were it 
not to save a blush in the cheek of the many lingerers. 
Even so I would venture to make an exception of the 
man from Woodstock if he had not been already over- 
paid for those four days; it was then that he thought 
out the great device for the painless ironing of rough- 
dried collars on a tent roof. One of the McTavish 
twins, too, would certainly have been mentioned — if I 
were quite certain which twin it was that worked. The 
wrong one would assuredly claim the credit, and he, as 
it happened, appeared in camp when the work was all 
done, and just as supper was served. I ought to know, 
for I came with him. 

Life in camp was, to some extent, guided by the 
official bulletin. Every evening we could read the pro- 
gramme for the following day, consisting of two official 
climbs (one starting about 5.30 for Mt. Temple, another 
at 6.30 for Mt. Aberdeen), two forty-eight hour ex- 
cursions starting at 10 a.m. (one for Lake O'Hara and 
one for Moraine Lake), besides several less arduous trips 
about the valley itself. In spite of these notices, no 
member was compelled to do anything, arduous or other- 
wise, during the day. Three meals were served for him 
at very elastic hours, and, beyond attendance at these, 
or not even including such attendance, he could spend 
his time as he pleased. I can at all events speak for 
there always being plenty of campers standing or 
lounging about to serve as artistic studies. There were 
always, too, plenty of people to welcome incoming 
campers or baggage when the saddle ponies or pack- 
horses reached us from Laggan. Such pastimes as 
porcupine hunting, wood chopping, patching "glissaded" 




F. 

C 

W 








A KKW DJiNIZKNS OK THE CAMP 



Paradise Valley Camp 281 

clothes, mending tents, and drying out boots could be 
freely indulged; and only the most ardent mountaineers 
spent the majority of their days in actual climbing. I 
hope that all of us, as we idled about in camp or took 
advantage of the daily expeditions through the valley or 
over the mountains, thought occasionally of those who 
oiled the smoothly running machinery. How would you, 
oh Robinson, have liked the fun of running the Presi- 
dent's office, sending off scores of glorious expeditions 
and never sharing one, appointing guides you might 
not follow and replenishing rucksacks for other mouths 
to empty? Or with what grace would you. Miss Vere 
de Vere, have sweltered with the Official Chaperone in 
the tea-tent, catering to the insatiate thirst of the camp 
and leaning on bruised reeds of Ganymedes, who often 
went to pour and remained to eat? 

Here's a health (and we would drink it in that same 
tea) to the President, the O. C, the Secretary, and all 
our noble officers. Here's to the governments too, at 
Ottawa and Edmonton, who have so practically endorsed 
our work! And here's to that octopus of a railway 
company who " hewed timber afore out the thick trees," 
loaned us their guides, and sent us (at one fare) on our 
way rejoicing! 

Of the official climbs, i.e., the climbs by which 
graduating members were to qualify for active member- 
ship, that up Mt. Aberdeen was taken by the greater 
number. Every day from twelve to thirty persons 
ascended this mountain, which was right behind the 
camp and has a height of 10,340 feet. The earlier ex- 
peditions from the camp up this mountain were attended 
with some difficulty owing partly to severe weather and 
partly to the dangerous course at first taken. Your 
blood would run cold if I could repeat to you the hor- 
rible adventures told in tent No. 5 by the different 
gentlemen who took part in those first ascents. The 
ledges along which they walked for hours were never 



282 Canadian Alpine Journal 

wider than six inches, the precipices over which they 
hung suspended by a single rope were seldom less than 
3,000 feet, and the general air of terror which enwrapt 
the whole performance almost robbed me of sleep on the 
night before my venture on the same mountain. 

The next morning at seven o'clock a ropefull of us 
were lined up before the President's tent. Nine in all, 
we started off in charge of our guide without waiting 
for the sixteen others who were to make the ascent that 
morning. For the first half hour we tramped up a steep 
ravine. This seemed easy, though it was not long before 
it began to shorten our breath; the guide was ready for 
this, however, and made us sit down for a rest long 
before any of us would have considered it necessary. 
Once beyond the ravine and out on the rocks we began 
to do some real climbing. The easiest going was up the 
solid rock ledges; the most troublesome was over the 
great slides of shale, which, even when taken in zig- 
zags, gave at every step. The greatest care was neces- 
sary in placing the foot so as not only to assure your 
own advance, but to safeguard from sliding fragments 
the brains of the following climbers. We kept on over 
rock and snow, for we had now reached the snow-line, 
till we arrived at the base of a sort of tower of rock 
with a narrow ledge running round it. Here our guide 
halted and began roping. There were, as I have said, 
nine in our party, and after half a dozen loops had been 
made in the rope and slipped over the shoulders of as 
many people, it was seen that at least two would be left 
out in the cold. Some instinct seemed to tell me that I 
would be one of these heroes. Sure enough, it was to 
me that he first turned with a cheerful *' I know that 
you won't mind going unroped." " N-no — it's not very 
dangerous, is it?" He reassured me and the other hero 
in such ambiguous terms that we followed the party with 
anything but heroic feelings. From the base of the 
tower we got into a snow-filled crevice easily negotiated 



Paradise Valley Camp 283 

by a series of steps made by the feet of the preceding 
parties. At the end of this crevice we found ourselves, 
as it v^ere, on the roof of the mountain. We were, 
however, not on the summit, which we saw to the left 
at the end of a narrow snow-covered crest. Up this 
crest we worked for some time, keeping at a respectful 
distance from its precipitous sides, and before long 
reached our goal, the cairn marking the top of the 
mountain. We were Active Members of the Alpine 
Club of Canada. 

It was now almost twelve o'clock and the thought- 
ful guide took off his rucksack and brought out nine 
substantial lunches, the work of our friend Mock 
Turtle. The only drawback to our enjoyment was the 
lack of drinkables. Some of the party attempted sand- 
wiches of snow and bread and jam, but with doubtful 
success. After lunch and a short rest we began the 
descent, not along the snow ridge, but straight over the 
mountain side, down the back stairs, as it were, the 
stairs consisting of a peculiarly long and irritating slope 
of shale. Besides the usual irresponsibility of this loose 
rock, it occasionally overlay smooth slopes of the firm 
variety, and several exciting slides added interest to the 
descent. Finally to our relief we arrived at an oasis 
of firm rock. Stopping here for a rest we were soon 
joined by the second party, and then prepared for the 
most exciting and most enjoyable part of the whole trip. 

Below us was a long, smooth slope of snow extend- 
ing, as our guide said, for nearly 3,000 feet. This we 
were to travel by the simple process of glissading. 
Glissading is, roughly speaking, tobogganing without a 
toboggan. The glissader simply sits down, put his feet 
firmly together in front of him, draws a long breath, 
and starts, guiding his way with alpenstock held firmly 
under the arm. As one who knows, I should like to 
say, that the only safe from of glissading is "independ- 
ent firing." On this occasion we were beguiled into 



284 Canadian Alpine Journal 

forming a combination toboggan of sixteen persons 
linked together by interlocked arms and feet. At a 
signal we pushed off and began to whiz down the snow 
slope. For a time all went well. Suddenly some pro- 
jecting foot caught in the snow, the human toboggan 
split in two, and the part in front of me continued on 
its own responsibility. My section, however, came on 
with terrific impetus, and in their efforts to pass me 
while still holding on to me, forced my head and 
shoulders into the snow% and described over me a para- 
bola which must have filled with joy the hearts of the 
onlookers. After we had gathered up our limbs, alpen- 
stocks and ice-axes we continued our way in strictly 
independent fashion, and really enjoyed the long slide 
to the bottom of the snow-field. 

The rest of the journey to camp was an easy 
scramble down the ravine, and we soon arrived rather 
wet and weary and quite ready for the usual after- 
noon tea. 

For my part, when I have climbed a mountain, I 
like to sit down for a while and think about it. Yet 
you will see people coming back into camp with half 
the nails gone from their soaking boots and with a con- 
siderable gap in the garment that bears the brunt of a 
glissade, who will at once rush to the bulletin board 
hunting for more trouble. What are you to do with 
people like that? Mild cases are often satisfied with 
an enrollment for an ascent of Mt. Temple (11,626 ft.) 
on the opposite side of the valley, but for others this is 
as nothing; and for these the President unfalteringly 
prescribes a two-day trip. To grasp the psychic value 
of a two-day trip you must understand that the Para- 
dise Valley is a narrow playground running for some 
six miles north-east and south-west, fenced on the 
south-west by a wall of rock one mile in height, and on 
the south-east and north-west by similar walls of from 
half a mile to one mile in height. Unfortunately no 



Paradise Valley Camp 285 

gate has ever been built at the front, and there are 
besides four places where you can climb over the walls. 
Now your two-day trippers are a sort of restless young- 
sters who want to see what the outside of the walls 
looks like. So the President says : " Certainly, my 
boys. I can put you over, Jimmy, by that gap on the 
north-west and you can walk along to the corner and 
down the south-west side and come back into the yard 
again by a gap you will find on the south-east. And 
you, Billy, if you like, may go out by the gap at which 
Jimmy is to come in and inspect the outside of the south- 
east fence till you come to the front, where you can 
easily come in by the gateway." Then he looks down 
and sees a very small boy. " Please, sir, may I go with 
Billy?" "Oh, no, my little man, that would make you 
too tired, and besides, Freddy, you might tear your 
clothes getting through the fence. But here's Mr. 
Holmes starting out through the gateway to take Billy's 
blankets to the place where he must stop tonight. How 
would you like to go along with him? He will take 
your blankets, too, if you ask him, and when you are 
tired he will let you ride on one of those nice ponies. 
Then tomorrow you can come back with Billy?" 

All the boys jump at the chance. Jimmy climbs 
up from the valley, into the Mitre Pass, slides down 
that to the Lefroy Glacier, picks his way round the 
corner of Lefroy to the Victoria Glacier, and pushes 
upward to the Abbot Pass. If he escapes an avalanche 
in the Death Trap he passes Lake Oeesa, and at the 
end of the day staggers down to Lake O'Hara at his first 
fence corner, wondering if the supply of beans and 
bedding in the rest-house will meet his needs. How- 
ever, the rest-house, conducted by a gem of cooks and 
with a base of supplies at Hector on the C.P.R., makes 
a new boy of him and sends him the next morning 
through Opabin Pass into Prospector's Valley, then 
round his second corner by way of VVenkchemna Pass 



286 Canadian Alpine Journal 

and Wenkchemna Glacier till he sights the two gaps in 
the south-eastern wall — Wastach and Sentinel Passes. 
Through one of these he scrambles into our Happy- 
Valley. Meanwhile Billy has made his way over Sen- 
tinel Pass to Larch Valley, and thence down to the 
camp at Moraine Lake in the Valley of the Ten Peaks. 
Here he finds Freddy and the blankets, brought round 
by Mr. Holmes. Next morning they take a side trip up 
Consolation Valley and later in the day push along the 
south-eastern wall till they can come round the end 
into the Valley. 

That many campers should look with favor on two- 
day trips is no surprise to me, for my own feelings in 
the matter may be partly hereditary prejudice. An an- 
cestor of mine, many thousand years back, lived with his 
wife in a Paradise Valley of their own. One day they 
allowed themselves to be assisted through the gateway — 
presumably on a two-day trip — and none of the family 
have got back into that valley since. 

In the modern Paradise Valley, at any rate, there 
was plenty of enjoyment for the one-day tripper, the 
man who liked to start off, not too soon after break- 
fast, in the wake of a well-filled rucksack, to reach at 
noon some remote part of the valley appropriate to the 
emptying of rucksacks, and to stroll back into camp 
with unexhausted frame in good time for the evening 
meal. To begin with, he could push up to the head of 
the valley as far as the Horseshoe Glacier, to feast his 
eyes on the towering snow-decked masses of Hungabee, 
Lefroy, and the Mitre. Or he could stay half way 
where the ice-fed waters of Paradise Creek come tumb- 
ling down the rock structure named not inaptly the 
" Giant's Stairway." Or he could follow the Larch 
Valley between Temple and Pinnacle to the summit of 
Sentinel Pass and after "rucksacitating" the wants of 
the inner man, could glissade homeward down the slope 
that so nearly finished our friends the Physician and 



Paradise Valley Camp 287 

the Habitant. Or he could wander down the valley and 
climb up to where little Lake Annette lies a blinking 
emerald eye under the shadow of Mt. Temple. 

Sad that none of us can stay in our Paradise Val- 
ley forever. Is it our battered boots and our glissaded 
nether garments that clamor for repair? And, now 
that I bethink me, it was some question of clothing — 
that and fresh fruit — that took my ancestor from his 
Paradise Valley. Look as long as the daylight lasts at 
the beautiful mountains, sit as late as you can about 
the camp fire, there must come an end. Already one 
roll of blankets has gone from tent No. 5, and more 
are to go. You have sat at the Annual Meeting in 
the firelight, you have heard the wit and wisdom of the 
" Alpine Herald " recited in the same magic light, you 
have taken your last mouthful of Mok Hen's bacon. 
Pack your dunnage bag, man ! Roll your blankets ! Hit 
the trail ! As you mount the rise at the valley's mouth 
and turn for one last look before striding off for Lake 
Louise and the Outside, you seem to see across the en- 
trance a flaming sword turning every way — or is it only 
the sunlight glancing from the snows of Hungabee? 



288 Canadian Alpine Journal 



UNTRODDEN WAYS. 



By Mary T. S. Schaffer. 

In the summer of 1907, on June 20th, two women 
and two guides left the Httle station of Laggan, Al- 
berta, and started for the vast wilderness to the north. 
It was cold and raw, snow flew in our not over-jubilant 
faces, the way was one of grind over fallen timbers 
and through the most discouraging muskegs. For our 
trail lay up the Bow Valley, across the summit of the 
same name, down Mistaya Creek to its junction with the 
Saskatchewan River, and from thence on by the various 
branches of the Saskatchewan and Athabasca Rivers. 

Not as the crow flies, but as the trail winds, we 
reached in our wanderings a point about 200 miles from 
Laggan, not far from the junction of the Whirlpool 
and Athabasca Rivers. In this section there are four 
distinct streams : the Chaba, which flows up from the 
south and joins the West Branch of the Athabasca 
about twelve miles from its own source; a branch which 
flows from the south-east and joins the Chaba about 
three miles from the latter's source; the West Branch 
mentioned above, and the Sun Wapta, which joins the 
main stream several miles below. About half way up 
the Chaba, and to the west of it, lies beautiful Fortress 
Lake, discovered in 1893 by Dr. A. P. Coleman. It is 
a wild and strikingly picturesque valley, though prob- 
ably not more so than many similarly situated on the 
Saskatchewan River. Yet the West Branch appealed to 
us more; there was a sense of loneliness, of freedom 
from all touch of human life, a purity, a bloom, which 
the white man's hand so quickly brushes aside. I say 
" white," for the red man defiles it no more than does 




M.uy T. S, Sc/inffcr, Photo 



FORTRKSS I,AKE 




Mai-y T. S. Schaffer, Photo 



MOUNT COI.UMJUA 



Untrodden Ways 289 

the passing caribou or the wandering bear. His standing 
teepee-poles but give the touch the artist loves, while 
the centuries-old hunting trails are filled with soundless 
stories which interested eyes may easily read as they fol- 
low in the wake of the feet that have gone by and will 
never return. 

As far as I can learn, only one white man has ever 
penetrated to the end of the West Branch, and this was 
Jean Habel, a German explorer, who visited it in the 
summer of 1901. He did not then recognize the superb 
pyramid of faultless outline which stands guard at the 
extreme southern limit of the valley as Mt. Columbia, 
and called it " Gamma." He afterwards published a 
short article in '* Appalachia " with a fine reproduction 
of Mt. Columbia, but before he could do more, or his 
work be better known, the pen was laid aside forever; 
and it was with a feeling of sincere sadness that we 
passed his long-deserted camps, and realized so vividly 
the feelings which must have thrilled him as he saw the 
rich scenic treasures the mountains were unfolding for 
the first time to human eyes. 

Next to being asked if we were not " afraid " in 
that lonely wilderness, the most common question is : 
"Did you go where no person had ever been before?" 
An Indian after all is a " person," and to find a spot 
where an Indian has not been in that great hunting 
ground, which has doubtless been hunted over from time 
immemorial by the plains tribes, would seem an absolute 
impossibility. The caribou, goat and sheep yet wander 
in these lonely fastnesses, and a few Indians still come 
to the haunts of their forefathers; but in the further 
valleys the teepee-poles are fallen and decayed, and thus 
the story of the passing of the red man is simply and 
sadly told. So to that question I can only reply : We 
found one section, and but one, where it seemed as if 
not even an Indian's foot had trodden. This was on 
the north shore of the Athabasca River after the four 



290 Canadian Alpine Jounuil 

streams had united. The original explorer had chosen 
the south and more " muskeggy " ground, where we our- 
selves were forced to travel to avoid the arduous labor 
of chopping a trail. This was the only section of the 
eight or nine hundred miles we travelled where there 
was a doubt that Indians had gone; at least, it had 
never been a highway. 

From the Athabasca we turned our attention to 
the sources of the Saskatchewan and Brazeau Rivers, to 
the " Valley of the Lakes," a branch of the North Fork 
of the former stream, and to the West Branch, a trib- 
utary of the Saskatchewan flowing from the Lyell group. 
This valley alone is worth a trip, an article to itself, and 
a more ready pen. It is a valley of gorges and glaciers, 
magnificent peaks and tumbling waterfalls, and holds a 
charming lake which we have named " Nashanesen."* 
The climax is reached at the Thompson Pass, where the 
traveller who has stuck to it through pretty rough 
" going " is at last rewarded by his first glim'pse of 
Mt. Bryce, and from a shoulder of the mountain the 
vast ice-fields of Mt. Columbia. 

From the West Branch we crossed by Nigel Pass to 
the Brazeau country lying to the north-east of the Wil- 
cox Pass. Roughly speaking, Brazeau Lake lies in lati- 
tude 53° and longitude 117°. It is about six miles long, 
is wooded round its shores, and at its head stands a fine 
peak — Mt. Brazeau. Low mountains hem it in on all 
sides, and. on a calm morning, before the sun has risen 
or the wind has cast a ripple on its blue-green surface, 
the sight is one of exquisite beauty. 

We no sooner reached the southern shore of the 
lake than a whole volume was opened for us to read. 
In a perfect grove among the spruces stood comparatively 
fresh teepee-poles, while tossed here and there, in every 
stage of decay, were those which had served their pur- 



*Names given in Canada are subject to approval by tlie Geo- 
graphical Board. — Editor. 



Untrodden Ways 291 

pose many, many years before. An old trail was beaten 
deep within the forest, and from this path sprang ancient 
trees which held their proud boughs to the blue sky 
above, their lower bark scarred and gashed by hands 
long laid beneath the sod. 

That it was and yet is a magnificent sheep country, 
there is little doubt. Its long distance from the now 
small band of Stony Indians at Morley and the nearly 
exhausted game country intervening, is probably a suffi- 
cient reason for the greater abundance of animal life 
which we saw there. We had followed a most marvel- 
lous Indian trail over the worst bed of boulders I ever 
met for horses to travel, had climbed on and on, lured 
by the old trail, until well toward 9,000 feet, when we 
suddenly surprised a band of sheep. They had probably 
never seen a human being before. On the defensive at 
once, they were off like a flash before our astonished 
gaze, along a bare rock-face and up an almost perpen- 
dicular wall covered with ice that the most fearless 
Swiss guide would not have dared attempt, and over 
which they bounded as though it were but a meadow 
of upland grass. Reaching the high and inaccessible 
crags, they paused, and for a moment gazed upon us 
far below; then a magnificent ram appeared to take the 
lead. The others disappeared, but the massive head of 
the leader, ' ith its great horns, stood motionless against 
the grey sky, his attitude alert, his body immovable. 
Only, as we moved back and down the valley, we could 
discern that he turned to keep us in view. Such a pic- 
ture! The dreary wastes of naked rock, the cold glisten- 
ing glaciers all about us, the early snows in the unex- 
posed niches, the dying alpine flowers at our feet, then, 
high above, clinging to the superb crags outlined against 
an angry sky, stood that emblem of a noble and fast- 
disappearing creature — the Rocky Mountain sheep. 

From the Brazeau country we made our way back 
toward Nigel Pass, crossed Cataract Pass and descended 



292 Canadian Alpine Journal 

Cataract Creek to the Kootenai Plains. Here we rested 
and revelled in those golden valleys, visited the Indians, 
and found life a very pleasant matter in that peaceful 
sunshine after the snows and storms among the more 
northern valleys. 

Yet even here the late September days were steal- 
ing. They were coming with the yellowing poplars, and 
with the laggard dawn. We knew the winter's snows 
must soon sweep across the higher passes, but begged a 
few days' respite to visit one spot which beckoned us with 
its beguiling name. This was the " Valley of the 
Lakes." James Outram speaks of seeing it from the 
summit of Mt. Lyell, and says in his book {In the Heart 
of the Canadian Rockies) : " It appeared as a deep 
enshadowed trough, jewelled with a host of little lakes." 
The description fascinated us, appealed to our imagina- 
tion, and we were to have the pleasure of stealing the 
first secrets of a primeval wilderness. From the camp at 
the junction of the North Fork and the main Saskatch- 
ewan River, we travelled up the east bank of the North 
Fork for about 13 miles; here, being low water, we 
easily found a crossing, and followed the west shore for 
a mile more, when an old Indian trail led directly to the 
unknown valley. As far as the red man is concerned, 
it is many years since his moccasined foot has trodden 
that moss-covered way. The trail remains beaten and 
worn, but overgrown and impeded with huge fallen trees, 
and only the blaze of a white man's axe seven or eight 
feet above the ground showed that a hunter had gone 
that way in the dead of winter to test his fortune with 
traps and rifle. 

No sooner had we left the river than we plunged 
into a thick growth of spruce, climbing constantly for 
two hours. Reaching comparatively level ground, we 
plodded on amidst closely grown and exasperating pines, 
so thick and so nearly impregnable that even our now 
depleted packs could not be forced through until the 



Untrodden Ways 293 

axe rang and woke the silence which seemed to He hke 
a pall on every surrounding object. So muffled and dark 
and still was this bit of primeval forest that no sign of 
life met us on the way; it seemed that with the passing 
of the Indian had passed the need for the little people of 
the wood; and yet, no doubt, bright, terror-stricken 
eyes were in every direction, watching the movements 
of the terrible and unaccountable enemy. 

After long windings and turnings in the shadows, 
with no sign of the grass so necessary to our horses, 
we made our way to the banks of a tumbling torrent 
which seemed to come from the Lyell ice-fields. From 
the deathly silence of the forest, our serenade all that 
night was the rushing, pounding stream as it hurled 
itself along among the boulders of the river-bed scarce 
ten feet away. On each side of the very narrow valley 
avanaches had torn and ripped the trees from their roots 
in every direction, and amidst this havoc and desolation 
was the only feed our hungry horses could find, and very 
poor picking at that. As yet we had seen nothing of 
the lakes to which Outram had given the lovely name, 
the name which had lured us through those long, silent, 
weary hours in the deep, lonely forest. 

In a rainy, misty sort of sunshine the next morn- 
ing, we essayed a climb to look for the lakes. How hot 
it was when the sun beat down! How steep and tough 
the avalanche-scarred hillside! How bitter cold the 
wind from the ice-fields! And our reward, "the lakes 
like jewels," where were they? Toiling stubbornly on- 
ward to the bare cliffs above, we reached the loose 
unstable scree just beneath them, paused and looked 
eagerly to the valley below upon a chain of sloughs. 
Beautiful they were, too, lying in peaceful silence far 
below, like giant emeralds tossed there by mountain 
gnomes. From his height of several thousand feet 
above us the enthusiastic climber had beheld " lakes." 



294 Canadian Alpine Journal 

The home stretch lay over Howse and Baker Passes, 
the latter very beautiful but difficult to travel. It is 
hard, at best, to leave behind the days of freedom, the 
constantly shifting panorama of mountains, lakes and 
rivers, the balsam-laden air; to return to the beaten 
track, to four walls, and all the cares which know so 
well how to creep within them. It was a summer of 
almost continuous cold and storm, but with no accidents 
to ourselves or the horses. It was a happy sixteen weeks 
amidst as fine a cyclorama of changing scenery as the 
dear old world can offer, and there was always the 
sunshine of contentment and goodwill within the tent 
and at the camp-fire. 



The Alpine Club's Jubilee 295 



THE ALPINE CLUB'S JUBILEE. 



By Arthur O. Wheeler. 

What was the Jubilee of the Alpine Club? It was 
the celebration of the fiftieth birthday of the oldest of 
such organizations — the Alpine Club of England. 
Founded in 1857, this Club has become famous the 
world over for its thrilling feats in mountain conquest, 
its records of scientific exploration among the high 
places of the earth and its introduction of art into the 
regions of snow and ice. 

While the second Annual Camp of the Alpine Club 
of Canada was in progress, during July of 1907, an in- 
vitation was received by the President to attend the 
Jubilee Celebration. It was accepted, and thus the 
honor of representing our youthful Alpine Club, the 
Canadian Rocky Mountains and Canada at this gather- 
ing of the clans from all lands, far and near, devolved 
upon the writer. 

The celebration may be summed in a sentence : It 
was a gathering of the foremost men of the world 
interested in mountain regions from all except the mer- 
cenary aspect, and a review of the foundation and past 
history of the Club. 

For the information of our members, a few words 
as to its origin and early life may not be amiss. In an 
address to the Club by its President, the Right Rev. 
the Bishop of Bristol, delivered at the Winter Meeting, 
December i6th, 1907, he makes the statement that "the 
University of Cambridge had the predominant share in 
the formation of the Club and its earliest activities in 
literature and art as well as in the world of ice, rocks 
and snow." 



296 Canadian Alpine Journal 

The President had for thirty-four years been a "de- 
voted son" of that University. Whatever rival claims 
there may have been to predominance, it is a fact that 
the first proposal for the formation of an Alpine Club 
emanated from William Mathews to F. J. A. Hort, both 
high up in the highest honors of Cambridge, the latter 
during the years 1850 and 185 1 carrying off three out 
of the four Honour Triposes and coming out as Third 
Classic. In the formation and detail, F. Vaughan 
Hawkins and Dr. Lightfoot took an active part. Both 
were Senior Classics and Wranglers. 

According to an article devoted to the Jubilee 
Celebration, appearing in the Graphic of December 14th, 
the Club was founded at a meeting at Ashley's Hotel 
on 22nd December, 1857. The articles goes on to say: 
*Tt w^as greeted with a storm of ridicule. The press 
pronounced it to be an association of suicidal mono- 
maniacs, and Ruskin uttered a wild protest in which 
he declared that 'the Alps themselves, which your ow^n 
poets used to love so reverently, you look upon as 
soaped poles in a bear garden, which you set yourselves 
to climb and slide down again with shrieks of delight.' 
But the storm soon blew over. Ruskin himself found 
that men might climb mountains without vulgarising 
them, and gave practical effect to his recantations by 
himself joining the Club." 

From an original membership of thirty-one, it has 
gradually advanced in the fifty years of its life to some 
seven hundred. The membership is small compared to 
that of other clubs since formed, whose members are in 
the thousands, one of them, the German-Austrian, boast- 
ing of more than seventy thousand members. The 
reason for the comparatively small membership is due 
to the very high standard set and maintained by the 
Club, and the great care with which applicants for 
membership have been selected. This fact is well illus- 
trated by the names of now^ famous men which appear 



The Alpine Club's Jubilee 297 

in the first list of members, published in 1859, when the 
dimensions of the Club had swelled from the original 
thirty-one to one hundred and thirty members. 

In glancing over this publication, a copy of which 
has been presented to the writer by Mr. Edward 
Whymper, such names as Matthew Arnold, John Ball, 
E. F. Blackstone, Rev. T. G. Bonney, Joseph Chamber- 
lain, Rev. J. L. Davies, Rev. F. J. Hort, William 
Mathews, John Murray, Rev. Leslie Stephen, Prof. J. 
Tyndall, Alfred Wills and Horace Walker appear, 
names of young men who have since risen in their 
various departments to the highest fame and greatest 
responsibilities that can be acquired. With mental 
power and physical energy of a calibre such as these 
names indicate, it is not difficult to understand why the 
Mother Club stands to-day on a pinnacle whose heights, 
have been climbed by her alone. It shows most con- 
clusively that of all noble sports, that of mountaineer- 
ing is most noble, in that it appeals to all classes and 
professions and brings forth the lofty traits of patience, 
perseverence, courage and skill. It has, moreover, 
much to do with the formation of a nation's char- 
acter, in the development of the intellectual and 
religious senses, the former through scientific inquiry 
and artistic representation, and the latter through the 
unseen but much felt force of an Almighty Power 
behind an apparent chaos, evolving a scientific scheme of 
order and an artistic blending of color. An alpine club 
built on lines similar to the Mother Club is a national 
asset of which a country may well feel proud. 

From the parent club has sprung a large family, 
one hundred and sixty-six in number. While many of 
these are, properly speaking, tourist associations rather 
than actual alpine clubs, yet the same keen activity, the 
same spirit of emulation and the same desire to come in 
touch with the cruder forms of nature is the mainspring 
of each organization. 



298 Canadian Alpine Journal 

The constitution of the Alpine Club does not admit 
of women members, and, though the climbing record of 
many is on a par, if not superior to that of the average 
member, they are without the pale. It was, therefore, 
somewhat of a satire that, on the very night of the 
great dinner to celebrate the fiftieth anniversary of or- 
ganization, a women's club should have been formed 
in London; thus putting the nose of the Alpine Club 
of Canada "out of joint," previously the baby and 
flower of the flock. 

The most attractive and important features of the 
Jubilee Celebration were an exhibition of alpine paint- 
ings and drawings by past and present members at 
the club rooms, from December loth to 28th, and the 
now historic dinner of the 17th December, 1907. 

The former comprised a very fine and, to a 
stranger, instructive collection of mountain paintings. 
The representations were chiefly from the European 
Alps, the Himalayas, the Caucasus and the Andes. 
Of the first, Mont Blanc, the Matterhorn, the Wetter- 
horn and the Breithorn stood out conspicuously. Among 
others, striking pictures were shown of Mt. Everest 
and Aconcagua. There was also a representation of 
Fujiama; and even of Mt. Ararat. 

Among the member-artists whose works were con- 
tributed figured the names of Ruskin, Watts, Loppe, 
Alfred Williams, McCormick, Sir J. Collier, Franz 
Schrader, Elijah Walton, and Willink. There were 
besides numerous pen and ink sketches, both humorous 
and descriptive. Taken as a whole, the several hun- 
dreds of paintings and drawings presented a collection 
of incalculable value; not only that it was a rare ex- 
hibition of art, but also from its association with mem- 
bers who had "done things" ; and as an important series 
of links in the history of the Club, showing not alone 
the evolution of art in mountaineering, but the evolu- 
tion of mountaineering itself. 



The Alpine Club's Jubilee 299 

The dinner was held in the historic hall of Lin- 
coln's Inn, loaned by the Benchers for the occasion. 
Although a room of vast proportions, the three hundred 
and fifty-odd guests did not seem to fill it, and in the 
gloom beyond the brilliantly-lighted tables there was 
plenty of space. The walls were hung with portraits of 
by-gone Chief Justices whose names are famous in the 
pages of England's history, and at the President's left 
hand, among the honored guests, sat the present Lord 
Chief Justice. 

The gathering was a most remarkable one in that 
it represented the Church, the State, the Navy, the 
Army, Science, and all the learned professions in a very 
high degree. Numerous stars, orders and ribbons scat- 
tered through the assembly showed that many of those 
there had made their mark in their respective callings. 

The dinner was the best London could provide, and 
was served in a style for which the Alpine Club is 
famous; but the supreme charm of the entertainment 
lay in the speeches, which were terse, brilliant and witty, 
and full of a pleasing reference to the history of the 
Club. A few extracts from them will serve to give 
point to our own existence, the objects and aims we 
have in view and the trials of infancy. 

In proposing the toast of "The Alpine Club" the 
President said : " I find an extract which I should like 
to read to you, dating from the year 1854; it was an 
early time in the history of climbing, but I am privi- 
leged to say that this was not written by Sir Alfred 
Wills. This is the extract : Tt is a somewhat remark- 
able fact that a large proportion of those who have 
made the ascent of Mt. Blanc have been persons of 
unsound mind.' (Laughter). That, my lords and gen- 
tlemen, was no passing jest; it was in the sixth edition 
of Murray's 'Guide to Switzerland.' I take it that the 
fact was this — the writer himself had done it — (Laugh- 
ter) — and he generalized from the one to the many, 



300 Canadian Alpine Journal 

hence this remark. Having himself the curious mental 
twist he has described, he took a well-known proverb, 
transposed the word in, and changed the construction 
into mens insana, corpore sano. (Laughter). Of 
course he was speaking about the danger of the ascent 
as it was then." 

Speaking of the care taken by the Alpine Club to 
obviate danger in climbing, he remarked : " I have iia.d 
sent me reproachful cuttings from newspapers month 
after month in the season, with ' What do you think of 
this. President of the Alpine Club?' written upon them. 
(Laughter). I find this sort of thing: a party of three 
has been lost; one was a shoemaker, another a waiter, 
and another a student of the age of sixteen; that is the 
sort of thing with w^hich we are reproached. With 
regard to the Club itself we are in this position : 
People talk about the danger of going without guides. 
Now% in the list of qualifications for entrance to the 
Club applicants frequently state that certain of their 
ascents were made guideless. We found that to be of 
very little real use as evidence, because so many mem- 
bers of the Alpine Club are at least as good as guides. 
We are now obliged to ask, ' Who was your companion 
when you ascended guideless?' (Laughter). The com- 
mittee has had to make that change in very recent times. 
That, I think, may be a useful hint to those who are 
not exactly of us this evening, how very much the 
Alpine Club has succeeded in eliminating the element of 
danger. There are, of course, heaps of places where if 
you do slip there is probably an end of you; but the 
Alpine Club knows so well how to negotiate these places 
that in the last three years, and for some time before 
that, I am glad to say there has not been a single 
accident to any one of the six or seven hundred mem- 
bers of the Club." (Hear, hear). 

During the course of his speech the Bishop of 
Bristol read a note of consrratulation from President 



The Alpine Club's Jubilee 301 

Roosevelt which concluded as follows : " I have always 
peculiarly prized my honorary membership in the Club, 
for not only has the Club itself done a great work, but 
it has set the standard for all similar organizations in all 
other countries, and its example has counted much in 
many fields other than those of strict mountaineering." 

Continuing the Bishop said : " Now, my lords and 
gentlemen, I should like to take as the text for a sermon 
as short as I can make it Theodore Roosevelt's remark 
that this club has set an example in many fields other 
than those of strict mountaineering. I should like to 
read to you — many of you may have forgotten this — 
an extract from the form of application for member- 
ship in the club : ' The applicant must send a list of 
his mountaineering expeditions or a statement of the 
amount of contribution to Alpine literature, science, or 
art, upon which he founds the claim for membership' — 
not strict mountaineering, you see, but a good deal that 
is outside that." 

Again speaking of the contributions of Alpine men 
to the letters of the day : "With regard to literature, 
is it surprising that Alpine literature should be of a 
very striking kind? I think it is not. Beginning with 
Sir Alfred Wills, and even some before him, and going 
on to the list of other delightful writers — we can never 
forget 'Peaks, Passes and Glaciers' — they have been 
men of observation in many scenes of quite unrivalled 
beauty; not only of unrivalled beauty, but of mystery — 
a solitariness — a mystery that always makes an impres- 
sion upon the sensitive mind. But more than that, any- 
thing that the skilled Alpine climber does must be virile 
and strenuous. Therefore you have thoughtful, imag- 
inative, strenuous, virile literature as the natural litera- 
ture which comes from the Alpine Club. (Hear, hear). 
It has been — I was going to say my duty — my pleasure 
to look once more at some of the literature which Alpine 
Club men have put forth to the world, apart from 



302 Canadian Alpine Journal 

descriptions of mountaineering efforts. I have been 
very much struck indeed with one of the earhest of the 
important works to which I refer; I mean Mr. Whymp- 
er's great book on the Andes. (Hear, hear). That 
book is a marvellous collection of archaeology, historj^ 
and science of all kinds — geology, petrology, entomol- 
ogy, and all sorts of things; excellently put as literature, 
and accompanied by abundant evidence of, I suppose, 
about the most skilled power of illustrating man ever 
had. (Hear, hear). There is nothing like Whymper's 
illustrating, I think, done by the mere hand. He makes 
noxious insects much more real than life. There is 
one standing prominent in the middle of a p:?ge, the 
most dangerous, poisonous, mischevious beast that is to 
be found in the whole of the Andes. I regret to say 
that the natives call it the 'Bishop.' (Laughter). A 
few pages on he describes another formidable stinging 
beast, evidently only less bad than the 'Bishop.' This 
the people call the 'Devil.' (Laughter). The libel 
stands in the latest edition." 

Again : " Here is Conway, going wherever there 
is anything to be seen that other people have not seen, 
describing it in a wonderful way, taking about with him 
men who can produce those marvellous photographs of 
mountain scenery accessible and inaccessible. The 
Alpine Club has done at least as much as any to bring 
about that development to the very height of perfection 
which has now been reached by photography in moun- 
tain scenery. Here is Conway, conquering unconquered 
mountains, and describing it all in so fascinating a way; 
and the mystery of it is that he makes it all seem so 
easy, though he confesses now and then that it is not 
always pleasant. He, too, is everywhere, not in 
literature only, but emphatically in art, very much more 
than a mere mountaineer." 

Passing on to science : " What a chance the Alpine 
Club men have always had in the direction of science. 



The Alpine Club's Jubilee 303 

They have had to examine the effects of rain and rivers, 
frost and fire, ice and snow. All the elements that have 
produced the present configuration of the earth's surface 
are familiar to them, and in fact to all of us who have 
climbed the Alps with our eyes open — a normal con- 
dition of the Club's eyes, whether its members are scien- 
tific or not scientific men. By no means all of our best 
climbers have cared much for the science of the Alps. 
Leslie Stephen once made a scientific report on the 
state of the atmosphere at a certain time earlyish in 
the morning. An early morning start, after a night on 
some hard material, was not his best time. I remember 
once moving up to him, about half-past two in the 
morning, and saying something genial. He responded 
with : 'If you think I am such a fool as to be in a 
good temper at half-past two in the morning, you're 
very much mistaken.' (Laughter). Well, Leslie 
Stephen once made a scientific report on the state of 
things he found at the top of a peak. It took this 
form : ' If there was any ozone in the atmosphere, 
ozone is a greater fool than I take it to be.' (Laughter) 
That sort of thing is not confined to Alpine Club men. 
For example, we have with us here tonight Sir George 
Darwin. Sir George Darwin had a father. This was a 
remark made by the first lieutenant of the ship 'Beagle' 
to Darwin, who was engaged in dredging, and no doubt 
was making a great mess on the decks : ' If the captain 
would leave me in charge of this ship for one day I 
would have you and your filth overboard in five min- 
utes.' (Laughter). The latest instance of the scientific 
nature of the Club is very interesting. It is this : 
The University of Oxford has given the degree of 
Doctor in Medicine to a member of this club, than whom 
none has a bolder record as a mountaineer, for a highly 
scientific treatise on mountain sickness. (Applause). 
Some of our visitors w^ho have not seen Dr. Long- 
staff's treatise may not know, perhaps, that the com- 



304 Canadian Alpine Journal 

pound word ' mountain-sickness ' is not formed on the 
same plan as that very nice word ' home-sickness.' 
(Laughter). 

With regard to art : " Is it possible that Alpine 
Club men can climb as they do without breaking out 
into art, if they can use their fingers at all? Why, our 
club rooms are at this moment crowded and over- 
crowded with examples of the art of members. Nothing 
but the work of a member has been admitted there 
at all." 

Finally : " What about Alpine work as an old 
man's memory? Well, just this: It is clean and 
wholesome, pure and unselfish, from one end to the 
other; there is nothing like it. Just think of the recol- 
lections of companionship. You have a jovial, genial 
companion for a week; you give him chaff and he prob- 
ably gives you more in return; and so you go on as if 
the whole thing was just a happy lark. Suddenly there 
comes a crisis. In a moment your companion is like a 
steel spring, instinct with keenness of mind. He knows 
exactly the right thing to do, and exactly the right 
way to do it. Many and many a time that steel spring, 
instinct with keennes of mind, has saved a valuable life. 
And at the end when the time comes to shake hands 
and say ' Auf wiedersehen,' not one word, not one 
glance, throughout the whole of the week that either 
has reason to regret. (Applause). That is the sort 
of thing we old men have, recollections of things like 
that. You younger men, not perhaps of the club, get 
this, that and the other in your course through life, 
but with all your getting get clean memories for your 
older age. (Applause). 

" We have heard a good deal of late of Honours 
Classes. I am not going to put the Alpine Club in the 
first class of clubs, or of sports. There is one word 
that has only once been used in all the centuries of hon- 
ours of the University of Cambridge. Far above all 



The Alpine Club's Jubilee 305 

First Classes I place our club; with this one word 
written over it, the word that has only once been used 
in all the centuries of honours of the University of 
Cambridge — incomparabilis. (Applause) ." 

I have quoted largely from this speech because from 
beginning to end it is a masterly pronounciation. It is 
a sermon worth the hearing, and compresses into a few 
terse sentences the objects, aims and possibilities of an 
Alpine Club, as a mold in which to form a nation's 
character and comprise within it all the high moral, 
scientific, artistic and literary attributes that go to make 
the life of a nation or of a man beautiful. 

Mr. Hermann Woolley, the President-elect — who, 
by the way, has spent a summer exploring and climb- 
ing in the Canadian Rockies — in replying to the toast of 
" The Alpine Club " said among other remarks : " Bril- 
liant work has been done by those members who delight 
only in guideless climbing. Some of these gentlemen 
even disdain the services of the harmless, necessary 
porter, so successfully have they adjusted the weight of 
their equipment to the fewness of their wants. What- 
ever may be the disadvantages of guideless climbing, one 
thing may be said in its favor. When two or three 
men have climbed habitually together the safety of each 
one constantly depending upon the skill, judgment and 
watchfulness of his companion or companions, I believe 
that a feeling of confidence, sympathy and friendship 
must spring up between them strong enough to out- 
last all the wear and tear of later life. Last night's 
meeting impressed upon me the great development that 
has taken place within recent years in the Club, and 
also the value of the possession it has become to us. 
There is, I think, in one of Thackeray's books something 
to this effect : that we ought to cherish with gratitude 
and reverence a wine of noble vintage carefully laid 
down by our wise forefathers at a time when we were 
intent on childish things. In the same spirit we ought 



306 Canadian Alpine Journal 

to cherish, and do cherish, the heritage that has been 
handed down to us by the chmbers of the fifties and 
sixties in the records, traditions and Hterature of the 
Alpine Club." These are words of wisdom, and are 
good to meditate upon. 

Mr, Clinton Dent, replying to the same toast, traced 
the history of the Club from its first home in Hinch- 
liff's chambers in Stone Buildings, Lincoln's Inn, to its 
present comfortable and suitable quarters at 23 Savile 
Row. He said : " The club has often changed its 
home; it has never, thank Heaven! changed its char- 
acter. (Hear, hear). From our rooms and from our 
present habitation we may have to pass elsewhere. 
Much water has flowed under the bridges since the 
days of our first President, John Ball, and much has 
been done since Wills ascended the Wetterhorn and 
crossed the Fenetre de Saleinaz; since Llewelyn Davies 
— happily with us tonight — (Hear, hear) made his 
famous ascent of the Dom or joined with his old friend 
Vaughan Hawkins in an expedition on the west side 
of Mont Blanc and the Col de Miage. The members 
have gone farther and higher since then. They have 
found the right way up peaks in the Andes, in the 
Himalaya, in the Caucasus, in the Rockies; while in 
the English Lake District and Scotland they have found 
the wrong way up nearly every conceivable ascent. 
(Laughter). The club has expanded, developed and 
increased its membership. But, notwithstanding all this, 
the essential old bond of union — the love of the moun- 
tains — remains as it always has been, and the club has 
been constantly true to its traditions on the lines which 
you, the founders, laid down, and which you, the early 
members, so successfully developed. (Hear, hear). It 
has been said often that it is with a feeling of regret 
that one finds one's mountaineering is coming to an 
end. I cannot quite myself take that view, for it is 
not till towards the time when we are approaching 



The Alpine Club's Jubilee 307 

the end of our more active career that we reahze to the 
full all that the mountains have done for us — (hear, 
hear) — and indeed, the consciousness may come cjuite 
suddenly upon us that we have perhaps, after we have 
climbed our very last mountain, gained a great posses- 
sion of valued friendships and of happy memories — 
(hear, hear) — memories of which the recollection can 
fade away only with life itself. In the first volume of 
' Peaks, Passes and Glaciers ' John Ball wrote : ' The 
community of taste and feeling amongst those who in 
the life of the High Alps have shared the same enjoy- 
ments, the same labors and the same dangers con- 
stitutes a bond of sympathy stronger than many of 
those by which men are drawn into association.' Is 
not this true? Could any prediction have been more 
amply verified? Of a truth we were brought up not 
only in the law but amongst the prophets. You, the 
founders, revealed a new and wholesome pleasure which 
the early members so successfully deveolped. You dis- 
covered and made known the most unselfish and the 
grandest sport in this world. But in founding the 
Alpine Club you did a great deal more than that. You 
were the means of linking together, fascinated by one 
common pursuit, men of every taste, pursuit and occu- 
pation in life; and much more, and more important, 
men of every age — the young, those more mature in 
years, and those who have arrived at the period which 
the young are pleased to consider old, but which as a 
matter of fact is nothing of the kind. (Laughter and 
applause). This you, the founders, and you, the early 
members, have done for us, and for it we the rest 
shall ever be grateful to you. 

" It is impossible, as I look round these tables, 
not to miss many faces once familiar and constantly seen 
at our Winter Dinners. It is hard indeed to believe that 
we must search in vain for Leslie Stephen or for the 
keen, alert face of Charles Mathews. Let that pass. I 



308 Canadian Alpine Journal 

would not on the present occasion touch, however 
faintly, a note of sadness. Let us be content with 
McCormick's happy suggestion that our old friends are 
with us in spirit this evening. Gaps there may be, but 
our ranks are still close. Among our founders — those 
who have written after their names those mystic letters 
' O.M.,' signifying alternatively ' Original Member,' or 
to us the rare ' Order of Merit ' — (hear, hear) — those 
who are still with us are both present to-night in the 
persons of Walters and Wills." 

In the following remarks Mr. Douglas Freshfield 
struck a keynote : " And now they, and we, are called 
on to a more arduous task — to preserve our conquest. 
The Alps are threatened with invasion by a horde of 
Goths and Vandals: the company-promoter, the syndi- 
cate and the speculator. Men who know not Nature, and 
whose God is Mammon, are in the field. They make 
pretence to be philanthropists. They would have us 
believe that they desire to benefit the peasantry and the 
economic tourist. It is a false pretence. What does the 
peasant, the guide, the driver, or the local innkeeper gain 
by the crowd, done by contract, that is whirled past his 
door? What does the tourist gain that is carted, tightly 
packed in a covered van, through scenery he could better 
see in a cinematoscope? I met the other day in Swit- 
zerland a specimen of the modern tourist. ' Sir,' said 
he, ' I wish to sample the glasher region. Can you 
tell me if I can do it from Berne in a day without 
sleeping out?' He did it, and found it 'less extensive 
than he had anticipated.' 

" It is for this class of travellers that the modern 
engineer is set to work. For them he has veiled the 
Staubbach in sooty reek; for them he has turned the 
flowery turf of the Wengern Alp into a Happy Hamp- 
stead; for them he is ready to plant a moving plat- 
form in the sublime solitudes of the Aletsch Glacier; 
for them he proposes to furnish the Matterhorn with a 



The Alpine Club's Jubilee 309 

lift, and to convert the summit into a grotto furnished 
with a restaurant, a consulting-room for sufferers from 
the rarity of the air, and a stall for the sale of picture 
postcards." 

The foreging extracts serve to illustrate the high 
estate to which a national institution such as the Alpine 
Club of England may arrive within a period of fifty 
years, and the valuable national asset it may become as 
a bond of sympathy and good feeling between men in 
various paths of life, as well as an exponent of all that 
is best in literature, science and art. 

The text of the speeches in full is a brief history 
of the Club, most charmingly told, and our members are 
advised to obtain copies of the February number of the 
Alpine Journal, Vol. XXIV., No. 179 (Address Edward 
Stanford, 12, 13 and 14 Long Acre, London, W.C. 
Price two shillings). The same number contains an 
account of the accident on the Schwarzhorn written by 
Mr. G. L. Stewart, who, as well as the writer, was 
with the climbing party when the deplorable accident 
occurred. An account of this accident appeared also in 
the May number of " Rod and Gun," in the account 
given of the President's visit to England to attend the 
Alpine Club's Jubilee. 



310 Canadian Alpine Journal 



IN MEMORIAM. 



Colonel A. Laussedat. 

It is with deep sorrow we have to record the death 
of one of our Honorary Members, Colonel Aime Lausse- 
dat, a scientist of world-wide reputation and a man of 
most lovable personality. Dr. E. Deville has kindly 
prepared the following biographical note for the Journal : 

" In March of last year, the members of the Alpine 
Club of Canada were grieved to learn of the death of 
Col. Aime Laussedat, a distinguished Honorary mem- 
ber of the Club, after a short illness of only six days. 
Although eighty-nine years old, he had, during the pre- 
ceding summer, made what he called a pleasure trip to 
Italy, but which actually was a visit to the scientific 
establishments and an investigation of their work. The 
fatigue of the trip proved too much for him, and shortly 
after his return he became seriously ill. A good long 
rest at his country place restored his health. Feeling 
quite strong, he came back to his Paris residence to 
take part in a vote at the Academy of Sciences; he had 
also arranged to give, on March 24th, a lecture in 
which particular mention was to be made of Canada and 
of the honor conferred upon him by giving his name to 
one of the Rocky Mountain peaks. Alas! Six days 
before the date of the lecture the recent illness had 
returned and carried him away. 

" Born in 1819, Laussedat was admitted to the Ecole 
Polytechnique in 1838, graduating in 1840 as an officer 
of Engineers. As Captain of Engineers he was detailed 
in 1846-48 to survey the Pyrennees Mountains in con- 
nection with the Franco-Spanish boundary. It was 
while making this survey that he conceived the idea of 



Colonel A. Laussedat 311 

the application of perspective to surveying, his perspect- 
ives being drawn by means of a camera lucida of his 
own invention. After the discovery of Photography, the 
method developed into photographic surveying, or, as 
it is now called, Photogrammetry. 

" From 1856 to 1870 he was Professor of Astronomy 
and Geodesy at the Ecole Polytechnique ; Commissioner 
for the Franco-German boundary in 1871-73; Director 
of Studies at the Ecole Polytechnique in 1879-81, and 
from 1 88 1 to 1900 Director of the Conservatoire des 
Arts et Metiers, the French counterpart of the South 
Kensington Museum. He was Grand Cross of the 
Legion of Honour, Colonel of Engineers and a member 
of the Academy of Sciences. The list of scientific 
societies, French and Foreign, who considered it an 
honor to enroll him as a member and were proud to 
have him as president or vice-president, is too long to 
be reproduced here. 

"He was best known as the father of Photogram- 
metry. He was first to lay out the principles of the 
art and to indicate its applications. His papers, pub- 
lished in 1854, 1859 and 1864, contain a full treatment 
of the subject and little has been added to his methods 
since their publication. It was in Canada that Photo- 
grammetry received its first practical and extensive ap- 
plication. Laussedat lived long enough to see it adopted 
in many countries, but Canada had always a warm place 
in his heart. The trees and plants of the Canadian 
Rockies, which he owed to a delicate attention of our 
President, were shown with pride to every visitor to his 
park, and were the object of special care. 

" He was a most distinguished scientist and an in- 
defatigable worker. He has contributed innumerable 
articles to scientific papers and periodicals. He was a 
favorite lecturer and the author of a large number of 
books. One of his last works, " Researches on Topo- 
graphic Instruments, Methods and Drawing," a masterly 



312 Canadian Alpine Joiinial 

treatise of 950 pages, large octavo, was written and pub- 
lished after he was eighty years old. Up to his last day 
he maintained an active correspondence with his numer- 
ous friends and admirers in France, as well as abroad. 

"Few men in France have been so much in the public 
eye as Laussedat. He counted among his friends almost 
every Frenchman who had become prominent either as a 
scientist, a literateur, an artist or otherwise. An optim- 
ist and an enthusiast, he was one of those few fortunate 
beings who can see only the bright side of human 
nature; to hear him, his friends were perfection, and 
all that he knew of them was to their advantage. 

" A staunch Republican, like most of the graduates 
of the Ecole Polytechnique, he was so shocked by the 
coup d'etat when Napoleon III. forcibly dissolved par- 
liament and seized the throne, that he tendered his 
resignation to his friend. Marshal Vaillant, one of the 
new emperor's minister. Vaillant knew Laussedat and 
appreciated his immense talent : he dissuaded him from 
this rash step. 

" In September, 1852, he married a Miss Bruel. The 
coming clash between Austria and the allied armies of 
France and Italy was already foreseen. Of a practical 
turn of mind, Laussedat thought that this was a capital 
opportunity of combining business and pleasure by sel- 
ecting for the wedding trip the probable scene of the 
struggle, the Austrian province of Venetia. It so 
happened that in their rambles the couple came to the 
neighborhood of fortifications; the unfeeling Austrian 
police pretended that their behaviour was suspicious and 
rudely interrupted the honeymoon by clapping them 
in jail. How, before being searched, Laussedat man- 
aged to get rid of his surveying instruments and how 
he demonstrated that he and his wife were just innocent 
tourists, is another story. They were eventually re- 
leased, but not without a gentle hint to clear out before 
the authorities had time to change their mind. The 



Colonel A. Laussedat 313 

result of this early experience for Mrs. Laussedat was a 
deep-rooted conviction that her husband's zeal and im- 
pulsive temperament might at times carry him too far 
and henceforth she always took care to counsel prudence 
and circumspection. 

'' But there is no watchfulness so constant that it will 
never relax and it might do so, for instance, just as a 
balloon ascension was preparing for the elucidation of 
some obscure point of meterology. Who could resist 
such a temptation? Surely not Laussedat, and could 
any one be blamed if, after a rough landing, he had to 
be placed in the doctor's hands? 

" The lovable nature of the man was best appreciated 
in the intimacy of his home. Those who have had the 
good fortune to enjoy the hospitality of his beautiful 
country place, " The Priory," remember him as a de- 
lightful conversationalist. Having known personally all 
the prominent men of his time and been an actor in most 
of the great events of French contemporary history, 
he had an inexhaustible fund to draw upon. To listen 
to him telling his reminiscences of men and things and 
explaining what had taken place behind the scenes, was a 
treat never to be forgotten. 

E. D." 



314 Canadian Alpine Journal 



ALPINE NOTES. 



Expedition to Mt. Robson. 

In the Report of the Geological Survey of Canada 
for 1899 (Part D, Vol. XI), appears the following 
note by James McEvoy, B.A. Ss., who was in charge of an 
expedition to examine the geology and natural resources 
of the country traversed by the Yellow-Head Pass route 
from Edmonton to Tete Jaune Cache : — 

" Looking up Grand Fork is the most imposing view 
met with on the whole route. Great mountains are on 
every hand, but over all stands Robson Peak, ' a giant 
among giants and immeasurably supreme.' This, as well 
as the following, is from the description of the mountain 
by Milton and Cheadle.* ' When we first caught sight 
of it, a shroud of mist partially enveloped the summit, but 
this presently rolled away, and we saw its upper portion 
dimmed by a necklace of feathery clouds, beyond which 
its pointed apex of ice, glittering in the morning sun, shot 
up into the blue heaven above.' The top of the mountain 
is usually completely hidden and rarely indeed is it seen 
entirely free from clouds. The actual height of the peak 
is 13,700 feet, or 10,750 feet above the valley. The face 
of the mountain is strongly marked by horizontal lines, 
due to the unequal weathering of the rocks, and has the 
appearance of a perpendicular wall. From the summit 
to the base on the Grand Fork, a height of over 10,500 
feet, the slope is over 60° to the horizontal. 

" Although Robson Peak has been long known, its 
height had never been determined, nor was it supposed 
to be particularly notable in that respect, but now since 
the heieht of Mts. Brown, Hooker and Murchison have 



*The North-West Passage by Land, pp. 252-253. 




Mary T. S. Scliaffer, Photo 

PROF. A. P. COLEMAN AND PARTY ON WILCOX PASS 




fames McF.vov, Photo 



MT. ROBSON, GRAND KORK, FRASKR RIVy<;R 



Geological Survey of Canada 



Alpine Notes 315 

been proved to be greatly exaggerated, it has the distinc- 
tion of being the highest known peak in the Canadian 
Rockies. 

" It is interesting to note that in a paper read before 
the Royal Society of Canada by Dr. G. M. Dawson, the 
following paragraph occurs : ' The Kamloops Indians 
affirm that the very highest mountain they know is on the 
north side of the valley at Tete Jaune Cache, about ten 
miles from the valley. This is named Yuh-hai-kas-kim, 
from the appearance of a spiral road running up it.' The 
mountain referred to is undoubtedly Robson Peak, as it 
is only fifteen miles north from the valley at Tete Jaune 
Cache. The ' spiral road ' is probably an Indian's im- 
perfect description of the horizontal lines on the face of 
the mountain. As far as can be learned no one, either 
Indian or white, has ever succeeded in reaching the 
summit." 

The accompanying ilustration has kindly been loaned 
to the Journal by the Director of the Geological Survey. 

Early last August an expedition consisting of Prof. 
A. P. Coleman of Toronto University, Mr. L. Q. Cole- 
man and the Rev. Geo. B. Kinney, all active members 
of the Club, started from Laggan, a station on the Cana- 
dian Pacific Railway, with the intention of making the 
first ascent of this virgin peak, estimated to be i8o miles 
distant from the starting point. 

The party followed the Pipestone and Siffeur Rivers 
to the Saskatchewan; then along the south bank of that 
stream, fording its tributaries, Mistaya River and Little 
Fork River. Finally the Saskatchewan itself was forded, 
and followed northward beneath the towering mass of 
Mt. Wilson. It was again crossed above the West 
Branch, and the party was soon climbing the side of 
Mt. Saskatchewan, past the canyons and waterfalls at the 
head of the stream, to the watershed between the Sas- 
katchewan and Sun Wapta Rivers; above which towered 
the snow and ice-clad heights of Mt. Athabaska. The 



316 Canadian Alpine Journal 

watershed is locally known as Wilcox Pass. Before 
reaching this spot much rainy and bad weather had been 
encountered and it now climaxed in a wild snow-storm. 

Descending from the Wilcox Pass by the valley of 
the Sun Wapta, over widespread shingle and mud flats 
and by trails badly obstructed by dead-fall or almost 
obscured by the growth of the young jack-pine, the main 
stream of the Athabaska was reached. This stream was 
followed to the junction of Miette River, the party being 
considerably delayed by brule and second growth. 

After a vain search for a ferry, which it was re- 
ported would be found near the mouth of the Miette, 
the Athabaska was crossed by rafting. Now ascending 
the Miette to its source in Yellow-Head Lake, the pass 
was traversed and the headwaters of the Fraser River 
followed to Moose Lake. Continuing down the Fraser, 
at the junction of the Grand Fork the party obtained the 
first view of the " imperial mountain of our aspiration : 
one \'ast, lone, snow-clad, cloud-capped peak, wrapped in 
the solitude of centuries." 

A day was spent seeking a short route from the 
Fraser to a tree-line camp on the flanks of the mountain. 
In the end, however, a path had to be cut, by dint of much 
chopping, up the Grand Fork, with traces of an old-time 
trail for guidance; but so sinuous and rough that it was 
with great difficulty pack-ponies could be taken over it to 
a camp beside the rushing torrent at the base of the 
mountain. 

Two more days were spent searching for a route of 
ascent; and when, at length, the party had with great 
difficulty established a camp at timber-line, snow covered 
the ground and was still falling. Next morning it was 
so deep that the impossibility of an ascent within the 
limit of the time at its disposal was recognized and the 
party was compelled to admit defeat. It was doubtful 
if the heavy snow-fall would permit of an attempt being 
made, even if it had been possible to wait for an oppor- 



Alpine Notes 317 

tunity. " Perhaps the spirit that dwells in this tower- 
ing fortress, alone and undisturbed, defies molestation 
and works with Fate against him who aspires to knock 
at its ancient door." 

The Journal is indebted to Mr. L. O. Coleman for 
the above notes, and sympathizes most sincerely with the 
failure of the plucky attempt to reach the summit of Mt. 
Robson, Which involved an immense amount of hard 
work and much privation, as well as a considerable outlay. 
Should the party again attempt this achievement, as it 
is understood is intended, it is hoped the past experience 
will prove of value and lead its next expedition to a 
successful issue. 

(Editor) 



318 Canadian Alpine Journal 



Mount Douglas. 



First Ascent of North Tower. Attempt to Ascend 
South Tower. 

A party consisting of L. M. Earle of the English 
Alpine Club and two ladies, accompanied by the Swiss 
guides Edouard Feuz Sr., and Gottfried Feuz, started 
from Lake Louise Chalet late in August or early in Sep- 
tember of last year with the intention of making an 
attempt to ascend the still unconquered South Tower of 
Mt. Douglas. 

The following notes are from a description of the 
expedition supplied by Mr. Earle: — 

The party reached the headwaters of the Red Deer 
River by way of the Pipestone and Little Pipestone 
Valleys and camped on the third day at the head of a 
small valley leading southeast from the main valley and 
immediately under the North Tower of Mount Douglas 
on the west side. The peak now rose between the camp 
and the bed of the long lake directly below it on the 
east side, here referred to as " Lake Valley." 

The North Tower was first ascended, and, though no 
great difficulty was experienced, much care was required 
owing to the looseness of the rock. The route selected 
was not the easiest one and led to some rather awkward 
scrambling on the first buttress : time 5^4 hours from 
camp to summit; barometer altitude 10,900 feet. The 
altitude of the North Tower, according to the Topo- 
graphical Survey, is 11,015 feet. The summit commands 
an exceedingly fine view. There was no indication of a 
previous ascent. 

An attempt was next made to ascend the South 
Tower. After viewing the contour of the South Peak 
through strong glasses, both from the North Peak and 




K ;:; 



Mount Douglas 319 

from the neve basin to the southeast, the general opinion 
was that it seemed ahnost certain that the mountain 
descends in sheer precipices to Lake Valley. 

From Mount Douglas there runs a rocky ridge in a 
southwesterly direction, containing two well-marked gaps. 
From the first of these, which is well under the mass of 
the South Tower, the attempt was made. The gap was 
reached in 33^ hours from the camp; first over the 
glacier flowing northwest from the base of the peak, the 
last slope being very steep and covered with treacherous 
snow, and then across a little rocky bay. 

From the gap a rather repellant looking chimney 
leads upward. It was tried in turn but without success, 
and was not conquered until Edouard Feuz stood upon 
his nephew's shoulders and he on Mr. Earle's. Another 
short but difficult crack led to a good platfrom, which, 
by the aid of sundry ropes, was attained by all. Here a 
neck of easy rock connected with the base of some steep 
slabs. The party crawled up these for a short distance 
with but few handholds and no anchorage ; and then came 
the impasse: the only possible way up was by a short 
but slightly overhanging chimney. 

Had the rock been firm, or had there been any 
possibility of giving the leader a shoulder up, the diffi- 
culty would have been overcome; but every hold broke 
away as it was tried and the nature of the place pre- 
cluded any possibility of assisting the leader. 

Greatly disappointed, the party was compelled to 
retreat and descended to the gap, leaving eighty feet of 
Buckingham's best rope hanging from the chimney for 
the benefit of the next party. 

According to the measurements of the Topograph- 
ical Survey the height of the South Tower is 11,220 feet, 

(Editor) 



320 Canadian Alpine Journal 



OFFICIAL SECTION. 



REPORT OF SECRETARY. 

The Alpine Club of Canada passed its second birthday on 
March 28th. The original membership of 79 has increased to 400, 
of whom eight are honorary, and eleven are associate members. 
The new honorary members are the Rt. Hon James Bryce, His 
British Majesty's Ambassador at Washington, and the Rev. James 
Outram, author of "In the Heart of the Canadian Rockies." One 
new associate member was added, Mr. Schiller Flindt. The only 
loss by death came to the honorary list in the decease of Col. 
Laussedat, the eminent and venerable French scientist. 

The constituency of the Club has extended to the Orient 
and Antipodes: India, Australia, South Africa, Holland and 
Switzerland and a dozen of the United States are represented in 
its membership, as well as Britain and all Canada. 

The second annual meet was held during the first week in 
July in Paradise Valley with 150 members and guests in attend- 
ance. Owing to the heavy snowfalls of the previous winter and 
an unusually late spring, the meadow at the head of the valley 
was too wet for an encampment, and it was necessary to hew 
out a place in the unbroken forest at the base of Mt. Aberdeen. 
This involved very considerable though speedy labour: but the 
trees were felled, the ground prepared, the tents erected and 
everything made comfortable by the opening day. In spite of 
bad weather — snow and rain and thunder — climbing began on 
the day appointed, and there was not one beginner who failed 
to accomplish one of the official climbs, Mts. Temple and Aber- 
deen. The total number qualifying for active membership was 
66; also a large number of active members climbed these or other 
peaks every day. The President and his staff of mountaineers 
considered that the character of the climbing was greatly in 
advance of that done the previous year. The round ascents 
were made in less time; physical hardiness was more in evid- 
ence; and the camp-fire, that supreme test of good-fellowship, 
if not of mountaineering- stuff, witnessed no dampened buoyancy 
in those of the company who had spent the day on glacier and 
neve and rock. This was the general rule. The excursions, too, 
over the difficult snow-passes, notably Abbot Pass, were much 
more strenuous than the excursions from Toho Pass, and, on 
the whole, the achievements of Paradise Valley Camp showed 
marked progress in amateur mountaineering. 

The photographic exhibition, at which sixty pictures were 
shown by nine exhibitors, was an interesting feature of the meet. 
The prizes of a gentleman's and a lady's ice-axes were awarded 
to the President and to Mr. Bridgland, but all the exhibits 
reached a high standard of excellence. 



Report of Secretary 321 

The annual meeting was held around the camp-flre on the 
evening of July 9th. The chief busines of the meeting was a 
resolve to build in the near future a Club House at Banff, where 
the Club's headquarters ought to be. Some fifty members 
promised to contribute $10.00 each to the scheme. A suitable 
site of three and a half acres on the side of Sulphur Mountain 
has been generously leased us by the Dominion government; and 
we expect soon to have there a building worthy of the Club, 
which shall give us a new visibility and a home to our growing 
library. Such a Club House will be a headquarters at which 
to rally our members for alpine work in the mountains, and from 
which to organize camps at advantageous points; so that mem- 
bers may make up parties and go from one to the other at times 
suitable to them, finding good accommodation at each. The 
President at the last annual meeting threw out a suggestion 
which is likely to take tangible shape at no remote day, namely: 
that a series of camps in different climbing-centres be established 
each summer, for the better convenience of the whole Club, which 
is growing too large for a single annual session of only one 
week's climbing. This is a matter of development, and is depend- 
ent upon the erection of a Club House. 

A happy and hearty transaction of the meeting was the 
standing vote, bestowing honorary membership upon the Rt. Hon. 
James Bryce, a past President of the English Alpine Club, a 
veteran mountaineer, who has been honored by having one of 
the loftiest mountains in the Rockies named after him. 

Resolutions of thanks were cordially passed to the Canadian 
Pacific Railway Company, the Alberta Government and the Fed- 
eral Government for generous assistance to the Camp, without 
which it had not been possible to provide so excellent a school 
of mountaineering. There is no doubt about the interest which 
such gifts yield in something more than money to the nation. 
I quote Milton's words applied by Tyndall to mountaineering: 
"Such exercises constitute a good means of making them healthy, 
nimble, and well in breath, and of inspiring them with a gallant 
and fearless courage, which being tempered with seasonable pre- 
cepts of true fortitude and patience, shall turn into a native and 
heroic valour, and make them hate the cowardice of wrong- 
doing." 

A kindly feature of the meeting which was adjourned to the 
following evening, were two resolutions of appreciation presented 
to the Secretary and Mrs. Wheeler, the wife of the President, 
who in addition was presented with the perpetual freedom of 
Camp and Club House. These resolutions were afterwards beau- 
tifully illuminated on vellum, Mrs. Wheeler's being placed in a 
silver casket accompanied by a silver key. The President also, 
received a gold watch-chain and compass in token of the Club's 
appreciation of his arduous toil in the interest of organized moun- 
taineering in Canada. 

After the Camp in Paradise Valley had dispersed, the Presi- 
dent received an invitation from the Alpine Club of England to 
be its guest for three days at its Jubilee on the 16th, 17th and 
18th of December, 1907, and though greatly pressed for time, Mr. 
Wheeler was able to accept the invitation and make a hasty 
visit to the Club in London, where he was received with warm 



322 Canadian Alpine Journal 

hospitality, and in spite of the limitations of time, managed to 
get a day or two in Switzerland to see with Canadian eyes the 
Swiss Alps. Cordial relations with British mountaineers have 
been established through this visit, the first fruits of which 
will appear when the British Association meets in Canada next 
year. A party of Alpinists are already arranging to climb in the 
Rockies under the auspices of the Alpine Club of Canada, before 
or after the great meetings to be held in Winnipeg. 

Upon his return to Canada the President received the distinc- 
tion of honorary membership from this Club, mother of organized 
mountaineering and first of the one hundred and sixty-eight 
alpine clubs in the world. By this courtesy, Mr. Wheeler is 
adopted into a distinguished alpine fraternity comprising men 
eminent in science, letters, law, the Church, and every intellectual 
realm in Britain. The honor is also to the Club over which he 
so devotedly presides, and is the more marked that it is the 
first of the kind that has been bestowed upon a representative 
from any of the British dominions beyond the seas. 

Local meetings of the Club have been held as follows: one 
in Calgary and two in Winnipeg where also two meetings of the 
Executive Committee were held. At all of these the President 
was present. Taking advantage of Mr. Wheeler's visit to Lon- 
don, the Executive appropriated $50.00 of the Club's funds to the 
purchase of rare volumes, now out of print, dealing with the 
early history of the Canadian Mountains. The recent changes 
in the Constitution were considered, each change having its birth 
not in the Executive, but in the Club itself, and taking shape 
in the form of an amendment by suggestion from members. These 
have been voted upon and are now Club law. Amendments two 
and three are too obviously necessary in this so large and demo- 
cratic organization, for any comment; number one requires ex- 
planation. When a glacier region was discovered in the Cascade 
Range on the Pacific Coast, where climbing began almost at 
sea-level, it was evident that the ascent of a glacier-hung peak, 
whose altitude was below the 10,000 limit, was ample justification 
for active membership. It will be seen at a glance that the new 
clause impartially meets the requirements, and is thus an im- 
provement in the Constitution. 

The report would be incomplete without reference to the 
Club's modest social functions, functions necessarily local by 
reason of its widely scattered constituency. On the President's 
return from England he was the guest of the Winnipeg members 
at a delightful little dinner at the Tea Kettle Inn, when some 
thirty guests were present. The occasion was made the oppor- 
tunity for an address, giving an account of his visit to attend 
the Jubile Celebration and subsequent trip to Switzerland. A 
day later he lectured on the Canadian Mountains as a recreation 
ground at the Collegiate Institute of Portage la Prairie. The 
lecture was very well attended and half of the net proceeds 
were turned in to the Club House Fund. Several small reunions 
were held during the year by the Winnipeg members. 

Calgary was not behind in matters of social amenities. Last 
February the second of the Annual Alpine Club Dinners was 
held at Horchover's Restaurant, sixty-five members and guests 
being present. On this occasion, also, an account was given of 




p. D. McTavish, Photo 



THE MORNING HORN AT CAMP 



1^ 


^ 


'^■i 


iMJ7 








-pW^P^^^-'' 




^ >^ 







C. IV. 'J /lonipson Pliolo 

DEUGHTS OF THE " GUSSADE " 



Report of Secretary 323 

the Alpine Club's Jubilee Celebration. In April the President 
lectured to the A.Y.P.A. on the "Wonderland of Canada." The 
house was crowded to the doors and many turned away. The 
result has been an addition to membership of a number of fine, 
athletic young men who give promise of "doing things" in the 
near future. 

The Journal has met with a cordial reception. Orders for 
copies of Volume I are still received from various places in Can- 
ada and the United States. We are not unaware that it might be 
better, and we are not without hope that soon it will rank with 
any alpine journal in the world. The second volume will be 
placed in your hands at the Camp, and we may be pardoned if 
we congratulate ourselves on the excellence of its scientific ar- 
ticles. We would be grateful for any suggestion concerning the 
best means of discovering the literary talent undoubtedly exist- 
ing among the members of the Club. 

The Alpine Club of Canada: it is a good name and a signifi- 
cant, one to quicken patriotism and to inspire a desire for ex- 
perience in the hardships and delights of climbing mountains. 
There is much, very much, in a name, and the soul of Shakespeare 
would agree. We do not suppose that this Club will be the only 
one ever in Canada. No doubt In the next hundred or two hun- 
dred years, a great many mountaineering clubs will flourish in 
numerical strength and in esprit de corps: for mountaineering 
is going to be more and more a Canadian sport, and when 
Canada is as populous as the motherland, the Rockies of Canada 
will be as popular as the Swiss Alps. But the Alpine Club of 
Canada will still be the national mountaineering club, and will 
have gathered to itself a noble succession of Canada's good men 
in every high and useful vocation of life; will have added a 
worthy somewhat to Canadian literature, art and science. 

Respectfully submitted, 

Elizabeth Parker, Secretary. 



324 Canadian Alpine Journal 



STATEMENT OF TREASURER. 

From 1st July, 1907, to 22nd May, 1908. 

Receipts. 

Balance on Hand 1st July, 1907 $ 304.08 

Associate Members' fees 150.00 

Active Members' fees 655.00 

Graduating Members' fees 122.50 

Subscribing Members' fees , 6.00 

Life Members' fees 50.00 

Proceeds from Camp in Paradise Valley, 1907 163.35 

Bank interest 7.27 

Total $1458.2!) 



Disbursements. 

Printing, Stationery, etc $ 139.01 

Typewriting assistance 87.50 

Books for Library 59.08 

Postage, Express and Exchange 58.12 

Grant to President on account of his expenses to Alpine 

Club Jubilee in London 200.00 

Printing and distributing of Journal for 1907 over sales 

and previous payment •'546.^7 

Priming and distributing Alpine Herald 25.94 

Total -f ■■16.02 

Balance on hand $ 542.18 



$1458.20 
Winnipeg, 23rd May, 1908. 

D. H. Laird, Treasurer. 



Report of Librarian 325 

REPORT OF LIBRARIAN. 



There are now forty-two books and fifteen minor publications 
in the Library, besides seven volumes (1894-1907) of the Alpine 
Journal, the official organ issued quarterly by the English Alpine 
Club. This shows an increase over last year of thirty- two 
volumes. Of the whole forty-two, twenty-five were acquired 
by gift. 

Exchanges have been made with: The English Alpine Club, 
the Scottish Mountaineering Club, the American Alpine Club, the 
Appalachian Club, the Sierra Club, the Mazama Club and the 
Smithsonian Institution. The English Alpine Club, also, presented 
the Library with the seven volumes of "The Alpine Journal" 
mentioned, and the Sierra Club of San Francisco with Vol. V and 
Nos. 1, 2 and 3 of Vol. VI. A complete set of the former publi- 
cation may be had through a second-hand book seller in London 
for one hundred and twenty-seven dollars ($127.00). The price 
will increase as the Journal becomes more difficult to obtain 
every year. The matter of securing it for our Library will come 
before the Club at the Annual Meeting. 

At a meeting of the Executive Committee the sum of fifty 
dollars ($50.00) was voted for the purchase of some rare books, 
dealing with the early history of the Rocky Mountains, and Mr. 
Wheeler was able to secure fourteen volumes while in London 
attending the Alpine Jubilee. The most important of those pur- 
chased were: Sir Alexander Mackenzie's very rare Journal; Sir 
George Simpson's "A Trip Round the World," and Ross Cox's 
valuable book. We have a dealer on the lookout for a complete 
copy of Palliser's Journal. 

Too much stress cannot be laid on the importance of the 
Club library; and no reasonable opportunity should be lost, 
whereby we can obtain works of value dealing with mountains 
and mountaineering, on historical, scientific or aesthetic lines. 
We hope that the members will be loyal and help to extend the 
book-shelves. Soon, we also hope, it will have permanent shelter 
in the Club House. 

CATALOGUE. PRESENTED BY 

The Selkirk Range, Vol. I and II 

....A. O. Wheeler.. Mr. Wheeler 

Dent's Mountaineering Dent. .Mr. Mitchell 

The House of Sport 

Composite Authorship.. " " 

From Old to New Westminster 

Sir Sandford Fleming. . Sir S. Fleming 

Climbing in the Himalayas 

....J. Norman Collie.. Dr. Collie 

Climbs and Explorations in the Canadian 

Rockies Collie and Stutfield.. " 



326 



Canadian Alpine Journal 



CATALOGUE. 

Ascent of Mt. St. Elias. .Filippo de Filippi. 
Voyages et Aventures dans I'Alaska. 



PRESENTED BY 

Mr. Tom Wilson 



.Frederick Whymper. . 

The Land of the Cliff Dwellers 

....Frederick Chapin.. 

Mountaineering in Colorado 

....Frederick Chapin.. 

Chamonix and Mt. Blanc 

....Edward Whymper.. 

A Guide to Zermatt and the Matterhorn.. 

....Edward Whymper.. 

Camp-fires in the Canadian Rockies 

....Hornaday and Phillips.. 

Glaciers of the Alps Tyndall.. 

The Playground of Europe 

Sir Leslie Stephen.. 

The Alps from End to End 

....Sir Martin Conway.. 
Glaciers of the Canadian Rockies and 

Selkirks W. H. Sherzer. . 

Mountain Wild Flowers of Canada 

. . . .Julia W. Henshaw. . 
Alpine Flora of the Canadian Rocky 
Mountains. . . .Stewardson-Brown and 
. . . .Schaffer. . 

Among the Selkirk Glaciers 

....W. Spottswood Green.. 
California and Alaska and Over the 

Canadian Pacific Railway 

....William Seward Webb., 

Siberia Samuel Turner. , 

Appalachia, Vol. vii, ix and x 

A Trip Round the World, I and II 

.... Sir George Simpson . 

Wanderings of an Artist Paul Kane. 

Mission de I'Oregon De Smet. 

Saskatchewan and the Rocky Mountains, 

1875 Southesk . 

Astoria, 1836 Washington Irving. 

The Northwest Passage by Land, 1863. 
....Milton and Cheadle. 

Ocean to Ocean, 1872 Geo. M. Grant. 

Impressions of a Tenderfoot, 1890 

St. Maur. 

The Columbia River, Vol. I and II, 1832. 

. . . .Ross Cox. 
The Solitary Hunter, 1859 Palliser. 



Mr. Edward Whymper 



Mrs. Parker 



Dr. Sherzer 
Mrs. Henshaw 

Mrs. Schaffer 
Mr. Meinecke 

Mr. Robson 
Mr. Turner 
Appalachian Club 

By purchase 



Report of Librarian 



327 



CATALOGUE. 

Camps in the Rockies, 1883 

. . . .Baillie-Groliman 

Mountain and Prairie, 1880 

....Daniel M. Gordon 

The Great Lone Land Butler 

A Voyage Through North America, 1891 
. . . .Alexander Mackenzie 



PRESENTED BY 



ET 



PUBLICATIONS. 
Alpina Americana. 

Sierra Bulletin, Vol. V and Nos. 1, 2 and 3, 
Vol. VL 
Alpine Journal, Vols. XVII to XXIV. 
The Mountaineers. 
Scottish Mountaineering Club Journal. 

Modern Glaciers Wm. S. Vaux. . 

The Great Glaciers of the Illicillewaet. . 

....Geo. and Wm. S. Vaux.. 
Glacial Studies in the Canadian Rockies 

and Selkirks W. H. Sherzer. . 

Rod and Gun in Canada, April 1906 to date. 



Respectfully submitted, 
Jean Parker, Librarian. 



April 26th, 1908. 



328 Canadian Alpine Journal 



REPORT OF 1907 CA^IP. 



Paradise Vallej'^ is situated about six miles easterly, by road 
and trail, from Laggan Station on the Canadian Pacific Railway, 
and about three fniles from Lake Louise. A characteristic glacier- 
fed stream dominates the valley for the greater part of its 
length — some six miles. The source is in the Horseshoe Glacier, 
a glacier of the piedmont type, surrounded by the towering pre- 
cipices of Mts. Lefroy, Hungabee, Temple, Eiffel and Pinnacle; 
from whose hanging glaciers the supply is received. 

The valley was so named in 1894 by S. E. S. Allen, D. W. 
Wilcox and party, who climbed to the summit of the Mitre Pass 
from the Lake Louise side upon a day that was gloomy and de- 
pressing in the extreme. As they reached the summit the sun 
broke through the clouds and flooded the valley on the eastern 
side of the pass with light, bringing out so charmingly the varied 
contrasts in color, of forest and alp-land, veined by glittering 
silver streams, of rock and snow, that it was promptly named 
"Wastach" or "Paradise" "Valley. 

It was on the borders of these alp-lands, where the bright 
green larches grow sparsely in a park-like fashion, and pink and 
white heather carpets the ground, that it was originally intended 
to place the Club Camp for 1907. Unfortunately the heavy snow- 
fall of the previous winter and the late spring had left this part 
of the valley still covered at the time when it became necessary 
to select a camp ground. An expedition for the purpose was made 
on the 22nd of June, when the President was accompanied by 
J. P. Forde and C. W. Rowley. It was now too late to change 
the locality, so a site was selected lower down the valley, immedi- 
ately below the slopes of Mt. Aberdeen, and a camp-ground 
literally carved from the virgin forest, which luckily at this 
altitude, 6,300 feet above sea level, is not very dense. 

Valuable assistance in making the camp-ground was rendered 
by a trail-gang of the Canadian Pacific Railway Company, sent 
in by the Resident Engineer, Mr. J. P. Forde, to improve the 
pony trail up the valley and construct bridges where it crossed 
the stream. Owing to limitations of space, the camp was div- 
ided into two parts: the Main Camp, Official and Ladies' Quarters 
being on the west side and the Gentlemen's Quarters on the east 
side of the stream. Official Square was arranged in symmetrical 
order, as at the Yoho Camp, but the sleeping tents were scattered 
promiscuously through the woods, and paths leading to them cut 
through the underbrush. 

Everything was in readiness on the opening day, July 4th. 
and although the morning opened with sleet and rain, from then 
on the weather was perfect throughout the entire week, and left 
nothing to be desired in that respect. 

In all one hundred and fifty-seven persons attended the Camp, 
inclusive of the staff of assistants. 




p. D. McTavish. Photo 



MANY FEET ABOVE PARADISE VALLEY 





h. i. Pui Hf!. Pho 



gentlemen's (QUARTERS 



/:, .S. Hariifs. Ph.'lo 

BOLL CALL I'OR O'HARA 



Report of igoy Camp 329 



In Canada the following- places were represented: BRITISH 
COLUMBIA, Field, Golden, Kelowna, Revelstoke, Vancouver, Vic- 
toria. ALBERTA, Banff, Calgary, High River, Laggan, Leth- 
bridge, Morley, Olds, Stettler. MANITOBA, Portage la Prairie, 
Winnipeg, Virden. NEW BRUNSWICK, St. John. ONTARIO, 
Carleton Place, Kingston, London, Ottawa, Toronto. QUEBEC, 
Montreal. SASKATCHEWAN, Indian Head, Regina. 

From the United States of America: CALIFORNIA, Berkeley, 
Oakland. ILLINOIS, Galesburg, Lake Forest. INDIANA, Fair- 
mount. MASSACHUSETTS, Boston. NEW YORK, New York. 
NORTH DAKOTA, Bismark. SOUTH DAKOTA, Sioux Falls. 
OREGON, Portland. 

From Over Seas: AUSTRALIA, Melbourne. ENGLAND, 
Bristol. SWITZERLAND, Interlaken. 

For the great success of the Camp we are indebted, in a 
considerable measure, to the Dominion Government, the Provincial 
Government of Alberta, and the Canadian Pacific Railway Com- 
pany, all of whom, both on this occasion and on the previous one 
at the Yoho Camp, have given the Club every possible assistance 
in the endeavour to make known to Canadians the attractions of 
the Rockies as a field for mountaineering and recreation, and to 
place the same within easy reach, realizing the great benefit 
that will accrue from this noble and enthralling sport. 

To the Canadian Pacific Railway, moreover, we are grateful; 
for, by providing a special rate over its lines to the summer Camp, 
it has conferred a great boon upon many who otherwise could 
not possibly avail themselves of the opportunities created by the 
Club. At the same time these Camp visitors are the means of 
bringing many to the mountain regions, who, through the amounts 
they spend, provide a revenue for those employed in catering to 
tourists. 



REPORT OP CHIEF MOUNTAINEER. 

The mountaineering was again in charge of M. P. Bridgland, 
assisted by H. G. Wheeler and E. O. Wheeler. The two Swiss 
guides, Edouard Feuz and Gottfried Feuz, of Interlaken, who 
were at the Yoho Camp, were placed at the disposal of the Club 
by the courtesy of Mr. Hayter Reed, Manager-in-Chief of C.P.R. 
hotels for the week of the meet. Peter Kaufmann, of Grindel- 
wald, a new Swiss guide in the Canadian Rockies, was also used 
during the first few days of the Camp, having been sent there 
to get some knowledge of the mountains in the vicinity of Lake 
Louise. Later, he was attached to the party of B. S. Comstock, 
by whom he had been retained. 

Gentlemen who were placed in responsible positions as guides 
to various ascents and expeditions were: Rev. J. C. Herdman, 
Rev. Geo. B. Kinney, P. D. McTavish and D. N. McTavish. 

Mts. Temple (11,626 ft.) and Aberdeen (10,340 ft.) were the 
official climbs by which Graduating members qualified for Active 
membership. Sixty-six graduated, as follows: 



330 



Canadian Alpine Journal 



ON MOUNT 



June 23rd. 
Rowley, C. W. 

July 4th. 
Ladler, J. W. 

July 5th. 
Armstrong, T. B. 
Bleasdale, H. 
Hart, A. R. 
Hart, F. W. 
McKillican, W. C 
Miller, H. H. 
Reid, J. A. 
Wilson, L. C. 

July 6th. 
Bell, F. C. 
Bell, Miss N. 
Bennett, W. J. 
Burch, R. E. 
Campbell, Mrs. P. M. 
Darling, G. 
Gillies, D. A. 
Houston, Miss M. B. 
Hutchinson, Miss A. 
Klingenhagen, Miss A. 
Le Sueur, Miss E. D. 
Pearce, Miss M. 
Slee, J. N. H. 
Smith, B. S. 



M. 



ABERDEEN. 
Sutherland, E. G. 
Watson, Miss H. W. 
Yeigh, Frank. 

July 8th, 
Adams, Miss C. E. 
Anderson, G. A. 
Ballantine, A. B. 
Craig, H. S. 
Foote, Miss A. G. 
Hugg, Miss A. M. 
Hunt, W. G. 
Irvine, Miss H. S. 
Lally, C. T. 
McClelland, K. D. 
McFarlane, Miss M. 
McKitterick, M. T. 
Paterson, Miss M. E. 
Patterson, Miss M. E. 
Springate, Miss M. 
Walker, F. C. 
Walker, W. J. S. 

July 9th. 
Lennox, Miss M. 

July 10th. 
Barnes, E. M. 
Barnes, Miss L. 
Boardman, W. W. 
Copeland, C. H. 
Lindsay, L. 



July 4th. 
Sutherland, D. A. 



ON MOUNT TEMPLE. 

July 8th. 
Thomas, A. V. 



July 6th. 
Duval, Miss L. E. 
Graham, T. H. 
Herdman, F. W. 
Humme, P. M. 
McKay, Miss H. 
Morrison, J. C. 
Morrison, Mrs. J. C. 
Schofield, E. 



July 9th. 
Dewey, T. C. 
Fiskin, A. D. 
Goddard, M. 
Hunt, J. S. 
Overend, F. C. 

July 11th. 
(On Mt. Fay) 
Haggith. Rev. W. J. 



MOUNT ABERDEEN. 

(10,340 ft.) 

The ascent of Aberdeen was commenced at the Main Camp. 

The parties followed a small watercourse immediately in the 

rear, to above timber-line, and then ascended steep shale slopes 




By J OH I lay moil. Photo 



MOUNT ABEKDEKN KROM I'ARADISK VALI.KY 



Report of ipoy Camp 331 



and rock slides to the foot of some perpendicular cliffs of the 
shoulder, seen directly above, from the Camp. The first parties 
reached the top of these by an interesting climb up a small 
chimney and then followed the arete of the final slope. This 
consisted of a steep snow ridge, leading straight to the sum- 
mit, which, though requiring care, offered no special difficulty. 

After the first two or three days the chimney to the top of 
the cliffs became slippery with ice owing to the melting snow 
freezing at night, and, to avoid this, a short detour was taken to 
the left and the ascent to the arete made at a point about half 
way between the shoulder and the summit. 

The return was by a different route, the parties descending 
to a low part of the ridge, south of the summit, at head of a 
long snow-filled couloir. From this point one continuous glissade 
of nearly 2,000 feet carried the climbers to timber-line. A short 
tramp over grassy slopes to the watercourse ascended in the 
morning brought them quickly to the Camp. 



MOUNT TEMPLE. 
(11,626 ft.) 

Leaving Camp for Mt. Temple, the parties followed the trail 
up Paradise Valley for a short distance, and, turning to the left, 
climbed some steep timbered slopes reaching to the base of the 
southwest shoulder of the mountain. The path then lay over 
grassy ridges and fallen rocks to the foot of Sentinel Pass. A 
steep snow slope led to the summit of the pass and offered no 
greater difficulty than that of cutting steps if the previous night 
had been cold. After this the route followed was up steep 
shale slopes, rockslides and snow- filled couloirs till the final 
arete was reached. The arete, leading directly to the summit of 
the mountain, was precipitous and very heavily corniced on the 
side next Moraine Lake. The only precaution necessary was to 
avoid going too near the edge. 

The descent was made by almost the same route, the only 
variation being, that when possible, glissades were taken down 
snow slopes instead of climbing down the rocks. 

EIFFEL PEAK. 

(10,091 ft.) 

On July 4th a party in charge of the Swiss guide, Peter 
Kaufmann, made the ascent of Eiffel Peak, which is joined to 
Pinnacle Mountain by a short arete. No details of this climb can 
be given owing to the records having been lost, as explained below 
in the report of the Camp Committee. 

PINNACLE MOUNTAIN. 

(10,062 ft.) 

This peak, but little over 10,000 ft., has proved a veritable 
surprise. Three separate parties tried to make the summit 
during the summer of 1907 but returned vanquished. 



332 Canadian Alpine Journal 

The first attempt was made on June 4th by Mr. J. P. Forde 
and the guide, Peter Kaufmann. The second was on July 9th by 
the Rev. J. C. Herdman, Rev. G. B. Kinney, Rev. J. R. Robertson 
and P. D. McTavish, in charge of the Swiss guide Edouard 
Feuz Jr. 

Later during the summer Dr. Hickson with the two guides 
Edouard Feuz Jr. and Gottfried Feuz made the third and last 
attempt for the year, without success. 

As a full account of the three climbs is given in the moun- 
taineering section of this number, nothing further need be 
said here. 

MOUNT FAY. 

(10,612 ft.) 

On July 11th a party in charge of the guide Gottfried Feuz 
made the ascent of Mt. Fay (formerly "Higi", No. 1 of the Ten 
Peaks) from the camp at Moraine Lake. On this climb the Rev. 
W. J. Haggith of Banff graduated. 

MOUNT VICTORIA. 

(11,355 ft.) 

An attempt was made on July 11th to reach the summit of 
Mt. Victoria, although it was early in the season for climbing 
this snow-clad peak. The party was in charge of the guide 
Edouard Feuz Jr. Crossing the Mitre Pass from Paradise Vallej" 
it rounded the shoulder of Mt. Lefroy and ascended the Victoria 
Glacier to the crest of Abbot Pass. From here the party climbed 
the shoulder above the pass and reached the arete leading to 
the summit, but, owing to the bad condition of the snow and 
lack of time, failed to reach the final peak. The return was 
made that night to the C.P.R. chalet at Lake Louise. 

A word for the future: It is advisable that members coming 
to the Annual Camps should bring their own ice-axes or alpen- 
stocks. It has been found that the demand is greatly in excess 
of the available supply, and on each expedition some have 
to go with makeshifts. This fact renders it unsafe for the whole 
party. Ice-axes should be ordered through the Executive Com- 
mittee not later than March of each j'ear. The cost of an ice- 
axe with the owner's name stamped upon the steel head is about 
$5.00. It is pleasing to note that many members are taking ad- 
vantage of the opportunities offered by the Club to obtain these 
indispensible mountaineering implements, and at least fifty must 
now be in the possession of its members. 

M. P. Bridgland, Chief Mountaineer. 

The above report sets forth shortly a statement of the moun- 
taineering done during the meet. Unfortunately, the Camp papers 
were lost while in transmission from Winnipeg to Calgary, the 
piece of baggage in which they had been placed having been 
stolen. In consequence the details of the various climbs, such 
as times, routes, etc., have been omitted. 



Report of i^oy Camp 3oZ 



EXPEDITIONS. 

A number of expeditions were arranged daily, and two auxili- 
ary camps placed at outside points: one at Lake O'Hara and one 
at Moraine Lake. 

Chief among the expeditions was that encircling Mts. Lefroy, 
Ringrose and Hungabee. The route was a full twenty miles in 
length and occupied two daj's. It crossed Ave mountain passes — 
the Mitre, Abbot, Opabin, Wenkchemna and Sentinel; and trav- 
ersed five glaciers — the Lefroy, Victoria, Opabin, Wenkchemna 
and Horseshoe. It was distinctly strenuous and presented some 
good phases of mountaineering while crossing the passes and 
traversing the glaciers. A half-way stop was made at the 
O'Hara Camp. An account of this expedition will be found in 
another part of the Journal, entitled "Expedition to Lake O'Hara." 
Four such expeditions started from the Camp and returned 
safely, sometimes reversing the order of route and going by the 
Wastach Pass. 

A favorite but less strenuous expedition was the encircling 
of Mt. Temple, via the Sentinel or Wastach Passes — the former 
between Mts. Temple and Pinnacle and the latter between Eiffel 
Peak and Mt. Hungabee — and the Valley of the Ten Peaks. A 
night could be spent, if desired, at the Camp placed at the foot 
of Moraine Lake, and the following day the expedition extended 
up Consolation Valley and a visit paid to the two beautiful 
lakelets near its head, the upper one distinctly a glacial lake. 
The bright sunshine bringing out the golden yellow of the 
meadows, for spring had hardly commenced here, the deep green 
of the surrounding pine forest, the dark grey rock and the white 
snow, with the reflection of the surrounding peaks intensified 
in the placid surface of the lakes, made this minor expedition 
one of very great delight during the fine weather of the Camp. 
The Moraine Lake Camp was reached from both directions: 
those who were not ardent mountain-climbers going by trail 
and then returning via Larch Valley and Sentinel Pass, or, pro- 
ceeding up the Valley of the Ten Peaks, by the Wastach Pass, 
or simply returning by trail as they had gone. 

There were a number of minor one-day expeditions in the 
valley itself: (1) To Lake Annette, perched at timber-line on the 
western slopes of Mt. Temple, a lakelet of brilliant green, most 
beautifully picturesque in its surroundings. The expedition was 
a great favorite. (2) To the Horseshoe Glacier at the head of 
the valley. It is to be regretted that, owing to the heavy snow- 
fall of the previous winter, the entire surface of the ice was 
covered and in consequence the usual interesting features of a 
glacier were hidden. The covering of snow also prevented ob- 
servations for advance or retreat being initiated, as had been 
intended. Notwithstanding this, the visitors to the Camp seemed 
to like going up on the neve to enjoy the delights of glissading 
down the steep stretches of the forefoot. Two or more parties 
would be sent out daily. (3) Not far from the Camp were the 
"Oiant's Stairs," where the western branch of Paradise Creek 
leaps wildly down ledges of rock so symmetrica'ly carved out 
that, when the stream is at a low stage, the bed at this place 
looks like a gigantic stairway. During the period of the Camp 



334 Canadian Alpine Journal 

the water was at a fairly high level and the effect, as it tumbled 
over the ledges in sheets of foam and flying spray, was picturesque 
in the extreme. It was seldom that members of the Camp were 
not to be found at this spot, and especially was it the haunt of 
the exponent of the camera. 

Taken as a whole the Second Annual Camp of th"e Alpine Club 
was a brilliant success and much advancement was made in the 
science of mountaineering. The peaks climbed were of a more 
difficult type, and a keeness and zest were shown for work that 
was most pleasing. Added to this the full attendance throughout 
•the week spoke for the popularity of the work being done by the 
Club, and the fact that many of the members there hailed from 
other countries proclaimed the worth of the Canadian Rockies 
as a field for alpine research and recreation. 

RECEIPTS AND EXPENDITURES PARADISE 
VALLEY CAMP, 1907. 

Receipts. 

Grant from Alberta Government $500.00 

Receipts for Board and Accommodation 1230.00 

Paid in for distribution among employees 90.00 

Sale of ice-axes, drinking cups, snow glasses, etc 116.35 

Surplus supplies sold 7.85 



$1944.20 



Expenditures. 

Expense Account $1587.30 

Paid for Ice-axes and Alpen-stocks 103.55 

Distributed among employees 90.00 

$1780.85 



Balance to credit $ 163.35 



Balance applied on account of first issue of Canadian Alpine 
Journal. 

Arthur O. Wheeler, 
Chairman of Camp Committee. 




D. Pattcrum, Photo 



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