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Full text of "The Canadian field-naturalist"

CAN 

ft2H 



HARVARD UNIVERSITY 




LIBRARY 



OF THE 



Museum of Comparative Zoology 



me CANADIAN 
FIELD^NATURALIST 



Volume 67 



1953 



CJ^2D 



Published by 
THE OTTAWA FIELD-NATURALISTS' CLUB 

OTTAWA. ONTARIO. CANADA 



lUN 1 2 1953 



VoL 67 



JANUARY-MARCH, 1953 



No. 1 



The CANADIAN 
FIELD - NATURALIST 



Contents 



iiiliii. 



Ur 



JUN 1 2 1953 

; - nil 



A brief study of the Double-crested Q>rmoTant on Lake Winnipegosis. 

By J. A. McLeod and G. F. Bondar 1 

Further notes on the panther in the northeast. By Bruce S. Wright 12 

Statement of financial standing, The Ottawa Field-Naturalists' Club, 

November 27, 1952 29 

Annual meeting of the Ottawa Field-Naturalists' Club, December 2, 1952 30 

Christmas bird census — 1952 32 



>• A plant collection from the west side of Boothia Isthmus, N.W.T., Canada. 
By W. J. Cody 



40 



Notes and Observations: — 

Clay-colored Sparrow nesting in Grey County, Ontario. 

By A. J. Mitchener 43 

Recent record of the Magpie in northwestern Ontario. By A. T. Cringan .... 43 

Starling nesting at Churchill, Manitoba. By Mrs. Eva Beckett 44 

Dead Golden Eagle at Perkins Mills, Quebec. By Hoyes Lloyd 44 

White-tailed Deer Odocoileus virginianus in Jasper National Park, Alberta. 

By A. W. F. Banfield 44 

Starlings in the Ungava District, Quebec Province. By Sherman Bleakney .. 44 

Reviews 45 



^ 



Published by the 
OTTAWA FIELD-NATURALIST' CLUB 



Entered at the Post Office at Ottawa, Ont., as second class matter. 



®l)e O^ttatoa jf(elb=JtaturaUsts(' Cluti 



Patron: 
His Excellency, The Rt. Honourable Vincent Massey, C.H., Governor- General of Canada. 

President: Mr. R. Frith 
1st Vice-President: Mr. W. K. W. Baldwin 2nd Vice-President: Dr. H. A. Senn 

Treasurer: Raymond Moore, Secretary: H. J. Scoggan, 

Division of Botany, National Museum of Canada, 

Science Service, Dept. of Ottawa. 

Agriculture, Ottawa. 

Additional Members of Council: Mrs. J. W. Groves, Mrs. Hoyes Lloyd, Miss Ruth 
Horner, Miss Violet Humphreys, Miss Verna Ross, Miss Pauline Snure, Miss 
Mary Stuart, The Reverend Father F. E. Banim, Messrs. R. M. Anderson, J. Arnold, 
J. S. Bleakney, B. Boivin, A. E, Bourguignon, E. L, Bousfield, K. Bowles, A, W. 
Cameron, W. J. Cody, I. L. Conners, J. P. Cuerrier, W. G. Dore, C. Frankton, W. E. 
Godfrey, H. Groh, J. W. Groves, R. D. Harris, S. D. Hicks, W. Illman, W. H. Lan- 
CELEY, H. Lloyd, W. W. Mair, T. H. Manning, H. Marshall, A. E. Porsild, H. L. J. 
Rhodes, L. S. Russell, D. B. O. Savile, V. E. F. Solman, J. S. Tener. 

Auditors: I. L. Conners, C. Frankton. 



Editor 

Dr. H. a. Senn, 

Division of Botany, 

Science Service, Dept. of Agriculture, Ottawa. 

Associate Editors 

W. G. DoKE Botany R. M. Anderson Mammalogy 

A. LaRocque Conchology A. G. Huntsman Marine Biology 

H. G. Crawford Entomology W. E. Godfrey Ornithology 

F. J. Alcock Geology W. A. Bell Palaeontology 

Sherman Bleakney Herpetology J. R. Dymond Ichthyology 

Business Manager 

W. J. Cody, 

Division of Botany, 

Science Service, Dept. of Agriculture, Ottawa. 



The official publications of The Ottawa Field-Naturalists' Club have been 
issued since 1879. The first were The Transactions of the Ottawa Field-Naturalists' 
Club, 1879, 1886, two volumes; the next, The Ottawa Naturalist, 1886-1919, thirty- 
two volumes: and these have been continued by The Canadian Field-Naturalist to 
date. The Canadian Field-Naturalist is issued quarterly. Its scope is the publication 
of the results or original research in all departments of Natural History. 

Price of this volume (4 numbers) $3.00; Single copies 90c each. 



Subscription ($3.00 per year) should be forwarded to Dr. R. J. Moore, 

Div. of Botany, Science Service, Dept. of Agriculture, 

OTTAWA, CANADA. 



I 



The Canadian Field-Naturalist 



Vol. 67 



OTTAWA, CANADA, JANUARY-MARCH, 1953 



No. 1 



A BRIEF STUDY OF THE DOUBLE-CRESTED CORMORANT 
ON LAKE WINNIPEGOSIS ' 

J. A. McLeod and G. F. Bondar JUN 12 1953 

Game and Fisheries Branch, Province of Manitoba 



«T»HE STATUS of the Double-crested Cormo- 
^ rant, Phalacrocorax auritus auritus (Les- 
son), in relation to the destruction of 
commercial fishes has been the subject of 
considerable controversy in parts of Manitoba 
within recent years. It is generally agreed 
that this predaceous bird lives almost ex- 
clusively on fish and, also, that it frequently 
kills more than it consumes. However, there 
was considerable doubt as to the species of 
fish destroyed in local waters and the actual 
amount taken per season. If this bird were 
found to consume only coarse, unmarketable 
fish it might benefit the industry in so doing, 
but if it destroyed commercial fishes or the 
forage fishes of commercial species, then its 
presence in appreciable numbers is to be 
viewed with concern. 

The area principally affected was Lake 
Winnipegosis and in response to many com- 
plaints from local fishermen the investiga- 
tion reported on herein was initiated by the 
Game and Fisheries Branch, Province of 
Manitoba, in 1943. It had as its objectives 
the following: 

1. To determine what percentage of the 
diet of cormorants in this breeding area was 
composed of commercially important fish 
species. 

2. To determine what was the per diem 
consumption of fish for each bird present. 

3. To determine the number of cormo- 
rants utilizing the area as a nesting ground 
and the rate at which they were reproducing. 

4. If the existing population was found 
to be excessive, to determine whether or not 
natural mortality could be depended upon 
to reduce the excess and, if not, what artifi- 
cial means could best be applied. 

That the Double-crested Cormorant is 
widely scattered over the Mid-west during 



M Received for publication March 17, 1952. 



the breeding season is attested to by the 
observations of Cartwright (il931), DuMont 
(1934), Lundquist (1932), Marsh (1934), 
Munro (1927), Ormand (1947), Smith (1911) 
and many others. To what extent these birds 
have been utilizing Manitoba lakes as feeding 
and breeding grounds has not been com- 
pletely investigated but known populations 
recorded by Mendall (1936) are shown in 
Table 1. 

Just what the nesting population of this 
bird is at present on Lake Winnipeg is not 
known. Similarly, Lake Manitoba has not 
been fully investigated recently, but undoubt- 
edly there are several nesting colonies 
present each year. A group of about 200 
individuals was seen from an aircraft by one 
of us (McLeod) in July of 1945 near Garden 
Island at the north end of the Lake. The 
birds were engaged in fishing but where 
their nesting area was located was not deter- 
mined. During 1949 and again in 1950 a 
small colony with about 25 nests occupied a 
reef about one-half mile off the south shore 
of Lake Manitoba near St. Ambroise. How- 
ever, it was not reoccupied in 1951. 

In 1941 one of the writers (McLeod) 
observed a colony of 65 nests on a large 
emergent rock in Crow Duck Lake in the 
Whiteshell area. By 1944, when next seen, 
two additional rocks had been occupied and 
a total of 112 nests was present. Two small, 
very bare rocky islands close to the north 
shore of Lake Atikameg were seen to harbor 
nesting colonies in 1944. One island had 
about 200 nests and the other, which appeared 
to have been occupied more recently, had 
about 150 nests. Although the writers have 
visited a great many of the smaller Manitoba 
lakes in recent years, apart from Lake Win- 
nipegosis, no nesting sites have been found 
other than those mentioned. 



I 



Vol. G6, No. 6, November-December, 1952, was issued March 25, 1953. 

— 1 — 



The Canadian Field-Naturalist 



[Vol. 67 



Table 1. — Manitoba populations of Double-crested Cormorant as recorded by Mendall 

(1936) 



Colony 


Date 
observed 


Observed 
by 


Publication 


Population 


Lake Manitoba 
(10 colonies) 


1927 


Munro 


Munro (1927) 


1012 


Pipestone Rocks 
(L. Winnipeg) 


1928 
1935 


Cartwright 
Rogers 


Lewis (1929) 
Unpublished 


650 
128 


Reef near Commissioner I. 
(L. Wpg.) 


1935 


Rogers 


Unpublished 


38 


Reef near Nut I. 
(L. Wpg.) 


1935 


Rogers 


Unpublished 


138 


Reef near Egg I. 
(L. Wpg.) 


1935 


Rogers 


Unpublished 


66 


Reefs near George I. 
(L. Wpg.) 


1931 


Bajkov 


Cartwright (1931) 


2000 (?) 


Lake Winnipegosis 
(5 colonies) 


1913 


Bent 


Bent (1922) 


4090 


Chitek Lake 
(Several col.) 


1929 


MacFarlane 


Lewis (1931) 


300 (?) 


Pelican River 


1928 (?) 


Reid 


Lewis (1931) 


200 


Herb Lake 

(Several col.) 


1930 


Wright 


(Lewis (1931) 


200 


Cedar Lake 


1928 


MacDonald 


Lewis (1929) 


500 



In 1943 it was possible to visit only four 
of the larger occupied reefs which were 
located near the north end of Lake Winni- 
pegosis. Again in 1944 three of these sites 
were visited during the nesting season. By 
1945 it was possible to obtain a larger boat 
by means of which the entire lake was cov- 
ered and all reefs which had been or pre- 
sently were being used as nesting sites were 
visited. In 1950 and again in 1951 these 
reefs were examined from aircraft and in 
the majority of cases, if they were occupied, 
a landing was made. In some cases where a 
relatively few nests were present, nest counts 
were made by means of aerial photographs 
taken with a Busch Pressman camera using 
an exposure of 1/500 sec. 

Physical Features 

Lake Winnipegosis is a large, irregular 
body of water with a length of about 125 
miles and a maximum width of about 22 
miles (Fig. 1.). It is quite shallow with a 



reported maximum depth of 32 feet and has 
a great many islands of various sizes and 
ages as well as numerous recently emerged 
reefs. The water level fluctuates consider- 
ably from year to year and there is a corre- 
sponding variation in the size and shape of 
the islands and reefs, some of the latter 
disappearing entirely at times of high water. 
Like the shore, the islands are low and flat 
and are timbered to a considerable extent, 
the predominant type being black spruce 
{Picea mariana). It is one of the relict por- 
tions of the extinct Lake Agassiz. 

Lake Winnipegosis is fed mainly by nu- 
merous sizable streams draining the slopes 
of the Duck and Porcupine Mountains and 
empties out through the Waterhen River into 
Lake Manitoba. It is a heavy producer of 
fish, mainly of the anadromous type. The 
only nesting sites found during the investiga- 
tion were on relatively small, partially or 
completely bare reefs. Reefs and islands 
bearing woody plants were not utilized and 



January-March, 1953] The Canadian Field-Naturalist 




1 CAMPING ISLAND REEF 

2 SEALEY 

3 STAPLE '• 

4 PEMICAN 

5 WHISKY JACK " 

6 SPRUCE " " 

7 Vance's " 
e rowan " " 

9 GOODMAN " 

10 CHANNEL " " 

11 HIGH PORTAGE " 

12 CORMORANT" 

»3 SKUNK BAY " 

14 GOOSE •• " 

15 DEAD " " 

16 WADE POINT 

17 BACHELOR " 

FIG. I. LAKE WINNIPEGOSIS 



The Canadian Field-Naturalist 



[Vol. 67 



no nests were found on the mainland although 
a local report stated that a tree-nesting colony 
had existed near Pelican Bay some twenty 
years before. 

Vegetation in Relation to Nesting Area 

Many of the reefs are recently formed 
ridges of gravel and boulders pushed up by 
ice action (Fig. 2). Others are of a similar 
type but the receding waters have left 
stretches of exposed lake bottom surrounding 
the original ridge. On the very recent or the 
extremely rocky or gravelly ones vegetation 
is frequently lacking, but where the lake 
bottom has been exposed for any length of 
time coarse grasses such as foxtail (Alope- 
curus sp.) are usually present. In the area 
immediately occupied by nests and for fifteen 
or more feet around the edge, vegetation was 
absent. This was due, in part, to trampling 
but largely because of the high content of 
nitrogen, calcium, phosphorus, etc., of the 
guano which in some places had accumulated 
to a depth of 28 inches. Around the edges 
and in abandoned nesting areas where leach- 
ing had removed much of the above-mentioned 
substances there was found a dense growth 
of nettles {Urtica sp.) with occasional stands 
of giant ragweed (Ambrosia sp.) and lamb's 
quarter (Chenopodium sp.). These are rather 
short at first but later become very luxuriant 
(Fig. 3). 

Nests and Adults 

The nests were found to be closely packed 
together in all cases and in the several areas 
measured they averaged one per square yard. 
(See Fig. 3). Only on rare occasions was a 
nest found more than ten feet from its near- 
est neighbor. The centre of the area always 
appeared to be the choicest site as it con- 
tained the tallest and oldest nests. Nest 
building and egg laying appears to not always 
be synchronous over the area as, in some 
cases, very flat nests with no eggs or incom- 
plete clutches were found around the peri- 
phery when young of several days of age were 
present in the central portion. Similarly, 
considerable differences in the time of nest- 
ing occur from one reef to another with 
some showing egg laying only partially com- 
pleted while others contain a high propor- 
tion of young. 

Judging by the accumulated guano, those 
showing later nesting were reefs which were 
presently being occupied for the first time 
or had been occupied only in relatively recent 



years. Whether the nesting individuals rep- 
resented mostly young birds or ones whose 
nesting operations elsewhere had been dis- 
turbed was not known. 

Nests for the most part were constructed 
of dry stalks of nettles or ragweed if such 
were present. In a few cases green nettle 
stalks with leaves were used in the construc- 
tion of shallow nests around the periphery 
when dry material was not available. On 
reefs completely devoid of vegetation, nests 
were often little more than depressions in 
the ground but occasionally ragweed stalks, 
old fish net, gull feathers and assorted other 
materials had been transported for some 
distance. In the nesting area the substratum 
was usually composed of smoothly trampled 
guano, decaying fish remains, carcasses of 
dead birds, etc. 

During the investigation it was realized 
that any attempt to count adult birds would 
be futile so the method of Lewis (1929) was 
adopted for calculating the number of adults 
present. Here nests were counted and since 
the birds are monogamous a doubling of this 
number would give an approximation of the 
breeding individuals. However, it has been 
suggested by others that approximately one- 
half of the specimens of previous years in a 
colony are non-breeding juveniles. This was 
considered to hold true in the present work 
and consequently a correction factor of 4 has 
been applied to the nest count in arriving at 
a rough estimate of the number of adults 
present. 

The following is a brief summary of the 
history of each past and present rookery 
(see Fig. 1.): 

1. Camping Island Reef. 

A small, gravel and boulder reef with 
vegetation confined to a few tufts of nettles 
not over six inches high. It appeared to have 
been occupied for only a few years prior to 
1945 when 90 nests were present. It was 
unoccupied in 1950 and again in 1951. A 
moderate number of herring gulls (Larus 
argentatus) and common terns (Sterna 
hirundo) were found nesting here in 1945. 

2. Sealey Island Reef. 

A reef of recent origin about one-half mile 
long by a maximum of 25 yards in width. 
There were indications of recent occupa- 
tion in 1945 but has remained vacant. A 
large number of tern nests were present. 

3. Staple Island Reef. 

A boulder reef with a length of one- 
quarter of a mile by 25 yards in width. A 



January-March, 1953] The Canadian Field-Naturalist 





'<*^ ****** ^*.-**«i 




Figure 2. Rowan Island reef, a recently formed reef of gravel and boulders with a 
small nesting colony of cormorants at the distal end. 




Figure 3. Cormorant Island reef taken from directly above. The nesting area occupies 
the left two-thirds of the reef while the right one-third is occupied by vegetation, there 
being a sharp line of demarcation between the two. The white objects are flying gulls, 

terns and pelicans. 



The Canadian Field-Naturalist 
Table 2. — Comparison of Nests, 1943 to 1951 



[Vol. 67 



Reef 


July 6-12 


July 11-15 


June 20-27 


July 14 


June 27 




1943 


1944 


1945 


1950 


1951 


1. Camping I. 


— 





90 





10 


2. Sealey I. 


— 


— 











3. Staple I. 


— 


— 











4. Pemiean I. 


— 


— 


1056 








5. Whisky Jack I. 


2100 


961 


943 


115 


100 


6. Spruce I. 


5292 


3572 


3633 


3245 


2151 


7. Vance's I. 


— 


— 


600 


40 


30 


8. Rowan I. 


460 


97 


177 


340 


226 


9. Goodman I. 


— 


— 











10. Channel I. 


— 


— 











11. High Portage 


— 


— 


52 








12. Cormorant I. 


1137 


— 


1617 


1819 


1939 


13. Skunk Bay 


— 


— 


430 


40 





14. Goose Bay 


— 


— 


714 


150 





15. Dead I. 


— 


— 











16. Wade Point 


— 


— 


289 








17. Bachelor I. 


— 


— 


261 


200 


200 


Total nests 


9,862 


5,949 


4,656 


Estimated total adults 






39,448 


23,796 


18,624 



high, rocky midnportion bore several inches 
of well-matured guano over an area which 
appeared to have accommodated about 1,000 
nests. It has been vacant for several years 
and has a good growth of raspberry and 
gooseberry bushes. 

4. Pemiean Island Reef. 

A rocky reef which appeared to have been 
occupied for some time and in 1945 had 1,656 
nests. It was vacant in 1950 and in 1951. 

5. Whisky Jack Island Reef. 

A rocky reef about 300 yards in length by 
a maximum width of 50 yards. It is com- 
posed of three equal parts connected by 
boulders over which the waves wash. The 
central portion, comprising the nesting area 
contained 2,100 nests when visited in 1943 
but these had been reduced to 100 by 1951. 

6. Spruce Island Reef. 

A long, low reef containing about five 
acres, the larger portion of which is com- 
posed of exposed lake bottom supporting a 
growth of short grass. The nesting area 
varied considerably in shape and position 
from year to year but was always confined 
to a rocky ridge down the middle. Nests 
were reduced from a total of 5,292 in 1943 
to 2,151 in 1951. The nesting terns, gulls 



and pelicans increased progressively in this 
area through the years. Nesting pelicans 
increased from 6 in 1943 to about 60 in 1951. 
In some cases the nesting areas of the peli- 
cans and cormorants were confluent. 

7. Vance's Reef. 

A high, gravel and boulder reef about 100 
yards long by 15 yards in maximum width. 
From the amount of guano present in 1945 
it appeared to have been occupied for only 
one or two years. The 600 nests of 1945 had 
dropped to 10 in 1951. Many Caspian Tern 
nests were present on one end of the reef 
in 1945. 

8. Rowan Island Reef. 

Very similar in size and appearance to 
the previous one. It appeared to have been 
occupied first only a short time prior to 1943. 
The nest count dropped from 460 to 97 and 
then rose again to 226 in 1951. 

9. Goodman Island Reef. 

A high, narrow reef about 600 yards long 
by a maximum width of 50 yards. The nest- 
ing area occurred on a high portion and was 
large enough to have accommodated about 
1,500 nests but had not been occupied for at 
least three or four years when seen in 1945 
as it was densely grown over with nettles and 



January-March, 1953] The Canadian Field-Naturalist 



ragweed. Apparently it had been utilized for 
many seasons as the old guano completely 
covered large boulders. 

10. Channel Island Reef. 

Very similar to the previous one in physi- 
cal features. It also showed evidence of 
having been occupied by about 1,500 nests for 
about the same time. It had been abandoned 
for a few years. 

11. High Portage Reef. 

A low, gravelly reef about 200 yards long 
by 25 yards in maximum width. In 1945 it 
appeared to have been taken over as a nesting 
area quite recently and only 52 nests were 
present. No vegetation was present on the 
reef and nests were made of gull feathers, 
old fish net and water-borne debris. A rise 
in water level had completely eliminated the 
reef in 1950 and 1951. 

12. Cormorant Island Reef. 

A broad, irregular reef containing about 
two acres, a portion of which had been occu- 
pied for many years. The nests increased 
progressively here from 1,137 in 1943 to 1,949 
in 1951. 

13. Skunk Bay Reef. 

A high, narrow reef about 300 yards long 
and apparently of some age as it bore some 
grass and herbs. The 430 nests present in 
1945 occupied the higher, central portion of 
the reef and represented a part of what 
appeared to have been a large nesting area 
in past years as old guano, overgrown by 
nettles, etc., extended over a large patch. 
The number of nests dropped from 430 in 
1945 to zero in 1951. Reports received in 
1945 stated that the eggs had been broken 
consistently by lumbermen from a camp 
nearby on the mainland. On June 25, 1945, 
the nests were in good repair but were totally 
without eggs. An earlier laying of eggs was 
reported to have been broken and it appeared 
the birds were preparing to lay a second time. 

14. Goose Island Reef. 

A high, narrow reef of medium size. The 
714 nests seen in 1945 were reduced to 150 
in 1950 and in 1951 the area was vacant. In 
1945 there was considerable evidence that 
the reef had also been visited by lumbermen 
from the mainland and the eggs broken 
earlier that season and on at least two previ- 
ous years. 

15. Dead Island Reef. 

An irregular, low reef about half a mile 
in length with a rocky, crescent-shaped ridge 
about 100 yards in length near the east end. 



There was an abundance of old guano on 
this portion indicating that up to 1,500 nests 
might have been present at one time a few 
years before. However, the reef remained 
vacant during the years of observation. 

16. Wade (Point Reef. 

A narrow reef of moderately recent origin 
which appeared to have been occupied for a 
few seasons prior to 1945. On June 26, 1945, 
when visited, this reef had a total of 289 
nests, all but ten of which contained eggs. 
Seventeen days earlier a party of fishermen 
had visited this reef and broken all the 
existing eggs but, obviously, renesting was 
taking place. Whether or not it was again 
occupied in the years immediately following 
is not known but it was vacant in 1950 and 
again in 1951. 

17. Bachelor Island Reef. 

A small, oval reef of about 20 feet in 
maximum height, composed mainly of coarse 
boulders. Local reports stated that the popu- 
lation of nesting birds had not changed appre- 
ciably in the five years prior to 1945 although 
a mink rancher harvested the young each 
year for mink food. There were 261 nests 
present in 1945 and an estimated 200 in 1950 
and again in 1951. 

Food Consumption 

Throughout the investigation attempts 
were made to determine the composition of 
the birds' diet and the quantity of each 
species of organism consumed. Very few 
adult birds were collected for stomach exam- 
ination and estimates were based mainly on 
the weight and composition of regurgitated 
boli of material left by the adults. It was 
found that if disturbed soon after arriving 
with a fresh load of food for the young, the 
adults would usually regurgitate the stomach 
contents before taking off. The solid portion 
of this was then collected over an area occu- 
pied by a known number of nests and young. 

Such a method is of little value in arriving 
at the total consumption per bird per day as 
it was impossible to determine definitely how 
many loads were brought in during a day or 
to compute the weight of the parts already 
digested. On an undisturbed nesting area 
where young were present, flights appeared 
to return at approximately hourly intervals, 
but it is doubtful if all birds returned with 
more than one load in the morning and 
another in the afternoon. As might be ex- 
pected, there was a definite correlation be- 



8 



The Canadian Field-Naturalist 



[Vol. 67 



tween the number and size of the young 
present and the amount of food brought. 

Eight half-grown young cormorants were 
collected in 1950 for the purpose of carrying 
out feeding experiments but they failed to 
survive the long trip to the laboratory. The 
observations of others such as Lewis (1929) 
and Wetmore (1927) set the amount of food 
for active or growing birds of medium age 
at from three-quarters to one pound per day. 
Poultry authorities assure us that, on the 
basis of the body weight of the birds and 
the food content of fish, this should be 
an accurate estimate. 

As (pointed out by Lewis, young under the 
age of about one week are unable to utilize 
unaltered fish tissue. To provide members 
of this age group with food the parent birds 
apparently retain the fish tissue in the 
stomach for a longer period until digestion 
has progressed. On several occasions the 
parent bird of young of only a couple of days 
was driven off but before taking flight it 
regurgitated a stream of semifluid, milky 
appearing material. On close examination 
this proved to be a watery suspension of fish 
muscle in which the individual fibers were 
mostly separated. There was no evidence of 
the production of anything comparable to 
"pigeon milk" but the possibility might bear 
investigation. 

The types of material found in regurgit- 
ated boli are as follows: 

Tullibee (Leucichthys sp.) 
Minnows (various species) 
Darters (Boleosoma nigrum) 
Suckers (Catostomus commersonii) 
iPerch (Perca flavescens) 
Pickerel ( Stizostedion vitreum) 
Marias (Lota lota maculosa) 
Stickleback (Eucalia inconstans) 
Goldeyes (Amphiodon alosoides) 
Crayfish (Cambarus s,p.) 

The morning collections contained larger 
fish almost exclusively while a majority of 
small species and crayfish was found in after- 
noon collections. Tullibee and perch made 
up 55.7% and 31.3% by weight of all the 
material checked. iPickerel made up 6.5% 
and goldeyes 0.7% of the material brought 
in. The latter two are the only species of 
particular commercial value at present and 
represent a total of 7.2% or a relatively 
small portion of the total consumption. 



Reproduction 

No records are available as to when Mani- 
toba cormorants first begin the season's egg 
laying but, based on the study of stages of 
incubation of eggs and the ages of young, it 
would seem to be about the middle of May 
on an average year. However, the laying 
season is considerably drawn out by what 
appear to be younger birds nesting around 
the periphery of an area or in a new area 
who begin egg laying as late as July 1. There 
is no evidence that local cormorants normally 
produce two broods per season, but the fol- 
lowing information indicates strongly thai if 
the first attempt is unsuccessful and the 
season not too advanced, a second attempt 
is made by the majority of birds. On June 
20, 1945, when visited, the rookery on Whisky 
Jack Island reef contained a total of 943 
occupied nests, in about 20% of which the 
eggs had hatched within the previous five 
days. All eggs and young were destroyed 
but when visited again on July 13, 495 nests 
had been rebuilt. Of these, 130 had two 
eggs each and the remainder had three eggs 
each. iSimilarly, in 1945, the Cormorant 
Island rookery had 1,617 nests with eggs, 
young or both which were completely de- 
stroyed on June 24. When visited again on 
July 26th, there were 643 rebuilt nests 
present, about equal portions containing two 
eggs each and one egg each. 

Counts of several hundred presumably 
complete clutches of eggs gave an average 
of 2.43 eggs per nest in 1943, 2.87 in 1944 
and 3.63 in 1945. Taken over the years about 
three eggs per clutch appears to be a reason- 
able average, although four or five eggs per 
nest are common and as high as nine have 
been observed. This is thought to represent 
the clutches of two females, however. 

Mortality 

Mortality among the eggs or young of 
cormorants in Manitoba from non-human 
causes appears to be very low and few infer- 
tile or broken eggs are normally found. The 
early portion of the nesting season of 1950 
was accompanied by cold, stormy weather and 
a much higher percentage of spoiled eggs 
was found. These may have resulted from 
earlier human interference as it was not possi- 
ble to determine the cause in every case, but, 
at most, the loss was almost negligible. Mam- 
malian predators were entirely absent from 
the reefs and, while both Herring and Ring- 



January-March, 1953] The Canadian Field-Naturalisi 



billed Gulls were present in abundance they 
did not attack the unmolested eggs or the 
young as noted by Mendall. On one occasion 
when a large number of eggs had been 
broken and young killed the remains of the 
eggs were immediately consumed by large 
numbers of Ring-billed Gulls which congre- 
gated there. Only occasionally was part of 
the body of a dead young cormorant con- 
sumed. 

On frequent occasions the reef was found 
to be shared by the cormorants with nesting 
Common and Caspian Terns, Herring and 
Ring-billed Gulls, and Pelicans. Pelicans 
were the only species whose nests inter- 
mingled with those of the cormorants, in 
part, or were in the immediate vicinity. 
While scavenging activity on the part of 
the other species was usually pronounced 
no direct evidence of predation was seen. 

There appeared to be little or no loss of 
young from cold or storms although local 
nests are well exposed and Mendall stated 
that young are very susceptible to cold. Con- 
trary to the report of Mendall the young 
were found to be very susceptible to intense 
sunshine. On June 26, 1945, the mid - day 
temperature on Spruce Island reef was 
around 90 degrees F. and the sun was ex- 
tremely bright. Young of all ages up to about 
three weeks were present and our presence 
prevented the adults from shading them. 
Those with the least pigment or protective 
down died in less than twenty minutes while 
forty minutes exposure was sufficient to 
kill them all. Young pelicans of comparable 
ages but lacking pigment succumbed even 
sooner than the cormorants. The symptoms 
were essentially those of heliopathia with 
disturbed equilibrium, coma and death. The 
low humidity of the area would permit the 
passage of intense actinic radiation. The low 
elevation of the nesting reefs reduced the 
loss from falls over cliffs, etc., to zero. 

All the colonies observed appeared to be 
enjoying an abundance of food and no 
definite trace of disease was seen. The few 
adult specimens available for post-mortem 
examination yielded a small number of 
nematodes tentatively identified as Contra- 
caecum spiculigerum. Mallophagan parasites 
were quite abundant on the outer body sur- 
face and in the buccal cavity where they ap- 
peared to be doing little harm. All those 
examined were tentatively identified as Te- 
trophthalamus incompositus. 



Economic Status 

Information gathered from personal ob- 
servations and from local fishermen indicat- 
ed that the Double-crested Cormorant had 
been increasing quite rapidly on Lake Win- 
nipegosis up to 1943. Whether this was due 
to highly successful reproduction and sur- 
vival locally or to the immigration of nesting 
birds from elsewhere is not known but 
probably both were involved. However, 
Bent's figures (1922) for this lake may not 
have been complete and many of the birds 
reported by Lawrence (1931) might have 
nested in this area rather than Lake Win- 
nipeg. The abandonment of the large nesting 
areas listed earlier might be taken to mean 
that a very large population had been 
present in previous years. 

However, regardless of past abundance, 
the population in 1943 of birds of one or 
more years of age on four large reefs was 
estimated to be 35,956. There were also 
present 8,989 nests containing 12,977 eggs 
and 8,155 young. Allowing a 5% mortality 
in eggs and young this would give an 
estimated total population by the end of 
the breeding season of 48,031. 

In 1944 there was present on three of the 
same reefs a total of 4,630 nests with 13,288 
young or eggs and an estimated population 
of adults of about 18,520. At the end of the 
season this would have given an estimated 
total population of birds of 31,144 on the 
three reefs. Again in 1945 there was found 
on all the occupied reefs a total of 9,862 
nests representing about 39,448 adult birds 
and a potential at the end of the season of 
75,247 birds. 

At an average daily consumption of fish 
per day of one pound for each bird, which 
appears to be a reasonable estimate in view 
of the findings of Mattingly (1927), and 
Wetmore (1927) as well as those already 
mentioned, the daily food requirement would 
amount to approximately 37 tons. Even 
though the percentage of commercial species 
taken was much less than the 30 to 35% 
found by Ormand (1947) and several other 
investigators in various areas, it would still 
amount to a calculated 2.66 tons per day. 

Control 

The cormorant population of the area 
appeared to be excessive under existing 
conditions and attempts were made to bring 
the birds under control without threatening 
their extinction. To what extent earlier 



10 



The Canadian Field-Naturalist 



[Vol. 67 



control measures had been applied or had 
been effective the writers were unable to 
determine. Certainly the eggs and young had 
been destroyed sporadically by fishermen 
for many years. During our visits to the 
rookeries in 1943, 1944 and 1945 at the height 
of the breeding season all eggs and young 
were destroyed. 

A recheck of the effectiveness of this 
procedure on two occasions showed that at 
least 30% to 50% of the pairs had renested. 
How successful the attempts at the late 
season would be is not known but a con- 
siderable portion, if not all, the young would 
be large enough to make the fall migration. 

It was decided in 1951 that the killing 
of the embryos without egg destruction as 
mentioned by Goss (1944) would prolong 
the brooding period and remove the stimulus 
to lay a second time, thus forming a much 
easier and more effective method of control. 
The writers were aware that dipping the 
eggs in plasting solution as practised in 
Ontario (personal correspondence between 
Mr. G. E. Butler and Mr. J. L. Baillie, Royal 
Ontario Museum of Zoology) would either 
asphyxiate the embryos or imprison them 
within the shells. Against its high efficiency 
this method is somewhat expensive and labor- 
ious when several thousand clutches have to 
be treated. 

The writers undertook, with the kind as- 
sistance of Prof. G. C. Hodgson, Department 
of Animal Science, University of Manitoba, 
to originate a chemical treatment which 
would be cheap, effective and could be 
safely and easily applied by anyone. It was 
desired to obtain a solution which could be 
applied to the eggs in the nest by means of 
the common three-gallon pressure spray can 
and which would seal up the pores of the 
shell and cause asphyxiation or pass through 
the pores and kill the embryo directly. 

Twenty-nine different mixtures or single 
substances in liquid form were tried using 
hen eggs of different stages of incubation 
and maintaining untreated eggs under ident- 
ical conditions as controls. Eggs were 
candled before and after each experiment 
to determine their viability. The test sub- 
stance was usually allowed to act for 24 
hours before a check was made. 

Fuel oil, "water glass" and various sub- 
stances were tried but only the following 
five gave a complete and consistent kill of 
hen embryos: 



Number 



Substance 



Proportions 



#18 


Lead acetate 


1 lb. 




Alum 


1 lb. 




Water 


3 gals. 


#21 


Boiled oil 


undiluted 


#23 


Methyl hydrate 


1 gal. 




Acetic acid 


Vz gal. 




Glycerine 


1 gal. 




Water 


71/2 gals. 


#25 


Acetic acid 


1/2 gal. 




Formalin 


1 gal. 




Cresylic acid 


1/10 gal. 




Glycerine 


1 gal. 




Water 


7 3/10 gals. 


#26 


Picric acid 


6/10 lb. 




Water 


5 gals. 




Acetic acid 


1/4 gal. 




Formalin 


1/4 gal. 



Solution :^25 was applied in a field test 
on June 27, to the eggs in 226 cormorant nests 
on Rowan Island reef by means of hand oper- 
ated pressure sprayers delivering a dense, 
fine spray. Ninety-eight percent of the nests 
contained eggs but no young were present. 
The solution was applied with little effort 
and time and spread evenly over the upper 
surfaces and sides of the eggs. However, it 
was found to be less efficient in the treat- 
ment of cormorant eggs than hen eggs. When 
this reef was visited again on July 31, 140 
nests were occupied by 292 young varying 
from one to two weeks in age. It is remotely 
possible that some of these young might have 
originated from eggs which were laid after 
the treatment was applied, but this is very 
doubtful and the method is considered to be 
not more than 50% efficient at best. 

Whether or not the other solutions would 
have been more successful in the field is un- 
known as an opportunity to test them has not 
yet been present. 

Summary 

Brief investigations of the cormorant situa- 
tion on Lake Winnipegosis during five dif- 
ferent summers over a period of nine years 
have revealed the following information rel- 
ative to the local situation: 

1. Prior to 1943 the cormorant population 
of Lake Winnipegosis had apparently increas- 
ed progressively and during the nesting sea- 
son of that year reached an estimated total 
of 35,956 on four of the larger reefs near 
the north end of the lake. 



January-March, 1953] The Canadian Field-Naturalist 



11 



2. In 1945 a complete survey revealed the 
lake formed the nesting habitat of an estimat- 
ed 39,448 birds distributed over twelve reefs. 

3. The number of nests per colony varied 
from 10 to 5,292. 

4. There was evidence that some reefs 
which had been used extensively at an earlier 
date had been abandoned and that some 
others had been taken over recently. 

5. The number of eggs per clutch averaged 
from 2.43 to 3.63 from year to year. 

6. If the first eggs or the first young of 
the season are destroyed at an early age 
about 50% of the reproducing pairs will 
renest again almost immediately. 

7. Fish consumption is large and comprises 
about 7.2% commercial species. 

8. Consistent destruction of the eggs and 
young appears to reduce the breeding popula- 
tion fairly effectively but it was not possible 
to determine how many were driven to seek 
new nesting areas or what the mortality from 
natural causes was. 

9. Five different chemical solutions were 
found to give 100% kill of hen embryos but 
the only one tried on cormorant eggs in 
the field gave not more than 50% efficiency. 

10. The cormorant population on Lake 
Winnipegosis is now at a level where the 
problem in connection with fish predation is 
less acute than formerly but still requires 
attention. 

11. From the aesthetic point of view adult 
cormorants are not objectionable, but the 
writers in long zoological experience have en- 
countered few situations less attractive than 
a cormorant rookery. 

Acknowledgments 

The writers are greatly indebted to Mr. 
M. G. Kavanagh, Mr. S. Oliver and Mr. D. 
R. Moir who formed members of the field 
parties or sent in information. Thanks are 
also expressed to Professor D. C. Hogdson, 
University of Manitoba, and Mr. G. E. Butler, 
Supervisor of Fish Culture for much kind 
assistance and to the Game and Fisheries 
Branch, Province of Manitoba, which financed 
this work. 



References 

Bent, A. C. 1922. Life Histories of North 
American Petrels and Pelicans and Their 
Allies. V.S. Nat. Museum, Bull. 121:243- 
251. 

DulMont, P. 1934. The Double^Crested Cor- 
morant Nesting in Southeast Iowa. The 
Auk, 51 : 509-510. 

Cartwright, B. W. 1931. Notes and Observa- 
tions on Some Manitoba Birds. Can. Field- 
Naturalist, 45: 181. 

Lawrence, A. G. 1931. Chickadee Notes. The 
Winnipeg Free Press, Oct. 23, 30. 

Lewis, H. F. 1929. The Natural History of 
the Double-Crested Cormorant (Phalacro- 
corax auritus auritus (Lesson), Ru-Mi-Lou 
Books, Ottawa, Canada. 

Lewis, H. F. 1931. Additional Information 
Concerning the Double-Crested Cormorant 

(Phalacrocrocax auritus auritus, (Lesson), 
The Auk, 48: 207-214. 

Lundquist, A. 1932. The Cormorants of South 
Dakota. Wilson Bull. 44: 227-230. 

Marsh, V. L. 1934. The Nesting of the Double- 
Crested Cormorant at Lake Bowdoin, Mon- 
tana. The Condor, 36: 219-220. 

Mattingly, A. H. E. 1927. Cormorants in Rela- 
tion to Fisheries. The Condor, 29: 182-187. 

Mendall, H. L. 1936. The Home Life and the 
Economic Status of the Double-Crested 
Cormorant (Phalacro cor ax auritus auritus) 
University of Maine Studies, Second Series, 
No. 38. The Maine Bulletin, 39 (3): 1-159. 

Munro, J. A. 1927. Observations on the Dou- 
ble-Crested Cormorant (Phalacro cor ax 
auritus) on Lake Manitoba. Can. Field- 
Naturalist, 43 (5): 99-103. 

Ormand, D. N. 1947. The Cormorant in On- 
tario. Sylva, 3 (1): 18-23. 

Smith, F. 1911. Double-Crested Cormorants 
Breeding in Central Illinois. The Auk, 28 
(1): 16-19. 

Wetmore, A. 1927. The Amount of Food Con- 
sumed by Cormorants. The Condor, 29 (6): 
273-274. 



12 



The Canadian Field-Naturalist 



[Vol. 67 



FURTHER NOTES ON THE PANTHER 

in the 

NORTHEAST ' 

Bruce S. Wright, 

Director, Northeastern Wildlije Station 

Fredericton, N.B. 



INTRODUCTION 

MY FIRST PAPER on this subject 
(Wright, 1948) caused considerable com- 
ment in the press which resulted in a flood 
of reports from different areas which I had 
not previously visited in the course of this 
study. However it did not still the skep- 
ticism existing in some quarters as the con- 
crete evidence consisted of track photographs 
in snow and plaster casts of tracks in earth. 
In the three years since the publication of 
that paper I have accumulated considerable 
additional photographic evidence, including 
the only picture of a New Brunswick panther 
ever taken, and a number of new sight rec- 
ords and track reports. These additional 
data have altered my first conception of the 
status of the species drastically, and I wish 
to present them here. 

LOCAL NAMES 

The old name for the panther or mountain 
lion in New Brunswick and Maine is the 
Indian Devil. This has caused confusion 
with the wolverine, which was known by 
this name across large regions to the north 
and west, and for this reason the two were 
confused in some of the earlier accounts of 
New Brunswick wildlife. Cooney (1832) says 
"The CARCAJOU, probably the catamount 
. . . ", and Dashwood (1871) says (p. 187) 
"I once heard at night on the Miramichi 
waters a most hideous howling, and was told 
by Sebattis" (his Indian guide) "it was an 
'Indian Devil'." He took this to mean a 
wolverine. Thoreau (1858) gives the Pe- 
nobscot Indian name for the Indian Devil as 
"lunxus", and on the east branch of the 
Penobscot he found a large track which his 
Indian guide says was that of "Devil (that is, 
Indian Devil or cougar) lodges about here 
— very bad animal ..." He was told 
that the scream of a cougar had been heard 
about Mt. Katahdin recently, and they were 
not far from the mountain. In talking to an- 
other Indian he says "The last mentioned In- 
dian spoke of the 'lunxus' or Indian Devil 



1 Received for publication May 23, 1952. 



(which I take to be the cougar, and not the 
Gulo luscus) as the only animal in Maine which 
man need fear; it would follow a man, and 
did not mind a fire." This confusion prob- 
ably contributed to the lack of more detailed 
references to the panther in early records. 

THE RECENT INVASION OF 
WILD DOGS 

An invasion of feral dogs in various stages 
of breeding back to the aboriginal type has 
taken place in New Brunswick in the past 
ten years. Sightings of these animals have 
undoubtedly been the foundation of some of 
the reports that were taken to refer to the 
panther at the beginning of this investiga- 
tion. A typical case is that of the Rexton 
lamb killings in 1950. A report reached the 
Station that a panther was killing lambs 
near Rexton, Kent County, and the animal 
was caught in the act. 

Investigation showed that the observer 
drove a team up to his sheep pasture and 
found the sheep running in all directions in 
panic. In the middle of the field chasing 
them was a large animal grizzled grey in 
colour, with prick ears and a long pointed 
snout. It had long thin legs and a figure 
"like a greyhound", and jumped a five foot 
fence with ease without touching the top 
rail. While he watched helplessly, as he 
was unarmed, it caught a lamb weighing 
about thirty pounds and picked it up in its 
jaws and ran off with it easily. About a 
dozen lambs were killed in the district, and 
they were all killed by a bite in the flank 
and very little was eaten off each carcass. 
The killings stopped as suddenly as they be- 
gan as the animal apparently moved away. 
There seems little doubt from the descrip- 
tion of the animal and the method of killing 
that it was a canid, and as two skins and a 
skull of feral dogs of this size and shape are 
in the Station's collection, and one from this 
district, it is almost certain that the predator 
was a wild dog and not a panther. 

The data have been screened for any re- 
ports that might have originated in sightings 
of these animals. 



January-March, 1953] The Canadian Field-Naturalist 

TABLE 1. PANTHER REPORTS FROM THE NORTHEAST (up to 12/31/51) 



13 





Sight Records 


Sign Reports 


No. 
Killed 


Unchecked 


Province or State 


Tracks ' Kills 1 Voice 


Reports 


New Brunswick 


105 


36 15 21 


5 


— 


Maine 


12 


— 


2 


1 


1 


— 


Nova Scotia 


6 


— 


— 


1 


— 


— 


Quebec 

Vermont 

New Hampshire 

Massachusetts 


1 


1 


— 


— 


— 


Several 
Several 

1 


New York 


— 


— ! — 


— 


— 


1 


Quetico-Superior 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


Several 



TOTALS 



124 



37 



17 



23 



THE SOURCE OF THE DATA 

The data used in this paper are of two 
main types. The first and most important 
source is an actual sight record of the 
animal. These sightings were investigated in 
the field whenever possible and the eye- 
witness interviewed. When this was not pos- 
sible a written statement was obtained from 
the eye-witness and the report evaluated on 
the basis of this statement. The same pro- 
cedure was followed in the case of the second 
source, sign reports. Sign might be either 
tracks, kills, or voice. The last type is of 
course the most difficult to evaluate, but as 
the animal has been actually called into 
sight by replying to its calls on several oc- 
casions, there is no reasonable doubt that 
this source should be included. The observa- 
tions of McCabe (1949) and Allen (1950) are 
the latest in a long series testifying to the 
fact that a panther screams, and as this 
manifestation of the animal's presence has 
often been reported in New Brunswick, it is 
recorded here with as much weight as the 
other types of sign. 

The number of the different types of ob- 
servations which are the basis of this paper 
are given in Table 1. 

No attempt has been made to follow up 
the reports listed in the last column as it is 
felt that to do so from this distance would 
not greatly increase their value. They are 
mentioned in the hope that they will be in- 
vestigated by competent biologists with open 
minds in these areas. 

The Reverend W. J. Ballou of Chester, 
Vermont, formed an association of people 
who had seen a panther or its tracks in that 
state about 1935. He gathered many sight 
records and track reports, and a plaster cast 



of a panther track was identified at the 
American Museum of Natural History. This 
information was kindly furnished by Dr. 
Robert T. Hatt, Director of the Cranbrook 
Institute of Science, Bloomfield Hills, 
Michigan. 

Mr. Charles Larned Robinson of Intervale 
Farm, Intervale, New Hampshire, has con- 
ducted a search for sight records and track 
reports in the vicinity of his state, and has 
accumulated considerable information. He is 
one of the few investigators who have been 
fortunate enough to see the animal himself. 

A report from Williamsburg, Mass., in 
1949 stated that a cub had been seen and an 
adult heard calling in that vicinity, and Man- 
ville (1951) cautiously reports a sight record 
by several members of the Trailside Museum 
staff at Bear Mountain, New York, in the 
autumn of 1935. Moving west almost to the 
edge of the plains, a report of Swift (1948) 
says that "sight records since 1940 leave 
little doubt that at least a few still are 
present" in the Quetico-Superior country. 

The Quebec record was made in the first 
week in June, 1947. Two observers reported 
the animal at a camp on Hawk Lake, 25 
miles N.E. of Buckingham, P.Q. 

The data from New Brunswick, Nova 
Scotia, and Maine will now be dealt with in 
some detail. 

SPECIMENS TAKEN IN THE 
NORTHEAST 

This investigation has uncovered six ac- 
counts of panthers shot or trapped in New 
Brunswick and Maine. They are: — 
1. The late William J. Scott, pioneer lumber- 
man of Fredericton, reported that two trap- 
pers of Caverhill Settlement, York County, 



14 



The Canadian Field-Naturalist 



[Vol. 67 



New Brunswick, trapped an 'Indian Devil' 
about 1880. Mr. Scott remembered the in- 
cident well as he was a friend of both the 
trappers. 

2. The specimen trapped at Springhill, York 
County, N.B. in 1900 and reported as Case 1 
of N.B. sightings in Wright (ibid). 

3. The animal trapped by Gullison and Carey 
about 1904. Case 2 of N.B. in Wright (ibid). 

4. The animal shot and killed by Farrell in 
Maine in 1915. Case 2 of Maine Reports, 
Wright (ibid). 

5. The following report as it appeared on 
Page 1 of the Saint John Telegraph Journal 
for November 24, 1923. 

"SHOOTS A PANTHER IN NEW 
BRUNSWICK 

Animal rarely found in the Province 
killed in Northumberland. 
Newcastle, November 22: 
While superintending the work in the 
lumber woods on the headwaters of 
the Sevogle River last week Colling- 
wood Eraser, foreman for William M. 
Sullivan Ltd., saw a large animal 
which he thought was a wildcat. Pro- 
curing a rifle Mr. Eraser fired and 
wounded the animal, whereupon it 
charged him, but a second shot fired 
vi^hen the beast was less than five 
feet away killed the animal which upon 
examination proved to be a panther or 
cougar.' 

Persons who saw it say it measured about 
four feet in length and had a tail almost 
as long as its body ..." 
Mr. Eraser is since deceased and in- 
vestigation has not uncovered any further 
evidence. 

6. The following is the only incident which 
has come to my notice in which an effort was 
made to photograph the animal and pre- 
serve the skin. 

In March 1932 Mr. Havelock Robertson 
of Mundleville, Kent County, N. B., and Mr. 
Roy Grant of Halifax, N. S. took up the trail 
of a panther in fresh snow near Mundleville. 
They tracked the animal for only a short 
distance and found it sitting in a large pine 
tree. Two shots from Mr. Robertson's Lee- 
Enfield .303 rifle brought it down, and it was 
found to measure 7 ft. 3 in. from tip to tip. 
The carcass was case-skinned, and the ac- 
companying photograph shows Mr. Robertson 
holding up the skin. 

The skin was kept in Mr. Robertson's 
house until it became full of moths and 



thrown away. The carcass was thrown into 
the river, so all that remains of the speci- 
men is the photograph appearing in this 
paper. Another picture first appeared in 
the Halifax Chronicle under the caption 
"The What Is It?", where it was promptly 
identified as a panther or cougar by the late 
Bonnycastle Dale. It was through the help 
of Bonnycastle Dale Jr. that I was able to 
locate this photograph as a clipping had been 
preserved among his father's papers. This 
is the only photograph ever taken of a New 
Brunswick panther. 

PANTHERS THAT HAVE BEEN 

WOUNDED OR TRAPPED 

AND ESCAPED 

Panthers have been shot at on several 
occasions in this region, and the following 
are cases in which the animal was wounded 
and escaped. 

1. An account of the wounding of a panther 
in Maine is given by Seton (1929) as follows: 

"MAINE 

Norcross. Charles H. Daisey, the well- 
known guide of Camp Phoenix on 
Sourdnahunk Lake, about 50 miles 
from Norcross, was coming to the 
latter place early in the fall of 1907, 
when he met two panthers and wound- 
ed one with his revolver, but it got 
away. He saw their tracks before 
and after the encounter and has no 
doubt that they were panthers." 

2. The next year (1908) the following ex- 
perience occurred on Porter Brook, a tributary 
of the Miramichi: — 

The observer, accompanied by a guide, 
saw a panther in a tree about thirty feet 
from them. He shot it through the shoulders 
with a .30-.30 Winchester rifle and it slid off 
the branch and hung for a moment by its 
hind claws before dropping into the thick 
underbrush below. 

"McKeil and I hunted for days for that 
cat and never did find him — That cat had 
a tail a good three feet long and I should 
judge the body to be about twice as long as 
the tail. Incidentally the tail kept lashing 
all the time the cat was looking at me; no 
other movement." 

3. In October 1921 a resident of Jemseg, 
Queens Co., N. B. went out to tend his traps. 
He had just reached the back of his field 
when he saw a large panther at a distance of 
25 yards. He was carrying a shotgun loaded 
with bird shot and he hurriedly slipped in a 



January-March, 1953] The Canadian Field-Naturalist 



IS 




Figure 1. The 'lunxus' of the Penobscot Indians, the "Indian Devil' of the early 

settlers, and the Felis concolor of today. The only New Brunswick panther ever 

photographed. Shot in March 1932 at Mundleville, Kent Co., N.B. 



16 



The Canadian Field-Naturalist 



[Vol. 67 



ball cartridge. He fired and hit the panther 
in the foreleg and knocked it down. It 
sprang up and made off quickly on three 
legs. He examined the place where it had 
fallen and found blood, hair, and bone 
splinters. One of the splinters is in the 
Station's collection. It matches well the 
bones of the foreleg of a cougar skeleton in 
the National Museum of Canada. 

4. Case 34 of N. B. in Wright (ibid). 

5. On the 25th of October, 1948, a deer 
hunter was hunting on Coleman Brook, a 
tributary of Pollett River, Albert County, 
N. B. He saw a panther watching him at a 
distance of 40 yards, and after some 
manouvering for position, during which the 
panther changed position several times, he 
fired. The panther leaped straight into the 
air and disappeared into thick cover in one 
bound. A bullet mark on a tree showed that 
he had shot low and apparently raked the 
animal's belly. Hair was scattered over an 
area of 3 x 5 feet, but no blood was found. 
He gave a very careful description of the 
animal, and stated that the hair he picked 
up was lighter than the colour of the animal's 
sides, as would be expected from the ventral 
regions. 

PHYSICAL DESCRIPTION OF THE ANIMAL 

Colour: The best source of information on 
the physical characteristics of the north- 
eastern panther is the photograph of Mr. 
Robertson's skin. This shows an animal 
with a definitely dark dorsal area over the 
hind quarters and along the top of the tail 
where it terminates in what is apparently a 
pure black tip. The backs of the ears are 
dark and the interiors are light coloured. 
The toes of the right hind foot, the only one 
visible, appear dark. The animal is pre- 
sumably an adult as it measured 7 ft. 3 in. in 
the flesh. This agrees well with the ac- 
counts given by eye-witnesses of other speci- 
mens. Note the similarity to the description 
of Felis dorsalis Rafinesque from the Al- 
leghany Mountains of Pennsylvania which 
was described as spotted on the sides with a 
black band all along the middle of the back. 
(Young & Goldman, 1946, p. 205). 

The colour of forty-two separate speci- 
mens was described by eye-witnesses. These 
descriptions are listed in Table 2. 

This table shows that the northeastern 
panther is usually a dark coloured animal on 
the back and sides in various shades from 



dark brown almost black, through dark red 
and fawn, to a brindled grey. The most fre- 
quently observed colour is dark brown and it 
is apparently darker than the western cougar. 
This is to be expected in a forest animal. 

Some reports of exceptionally dark speci- 
mens are as follows: — 

In August 1940 a panther was observed at 
a range of only 35 feet. The light was poor 
and the observer could not be sure of the 
exact colour, but it was very dark all over. 
"This animal reminded me of a black panther 
but it may have been brown instead." 

In March 1943 a truck full of men were 
driving from Fredericton to the Miramichi. 
They were going slowly near the top of a 
hill when they saw a panther on the side 
of the road. It was standing broadside to 
them and looking at them over its shoulder. 
They slowed down and stopped about fifty 
feet from it. It remained perfectly motion- 
less except for a slow waving of the tail. 
They observed it for several minutes with 
the motor shut off. When they restarted 
the truck it made one fifteen-foot bound 
into the woods. The man in charge of the 
party describes it as six feet overall, about 
twenty inches at the shoulders, and blackish 
or dark brown on the head and back. This 
shaded to tawny on the sides and rump, and 
cream coloured beneath. The hair was very 
short and glistening, making the animal ap- 
pear in excellent condition. 

On July 15, 1948, the Provincial Veterina- 
ry Pathologist, and a District Veterinarian, 
both of Fredericton, had an excellent view 
of a panther under good conditions for ob- 
servation about twenty miles from Frederic- 
ton. The panther crossed the road ahead of 
their car and stopped on the side of the 
road. When first seen it was mistaken for a 
bear because it appeared black. They drove 
up to within ten-fifteen yards and stopped 
the car. It then bounded up the cut-bank 
and disappeared in the bush. They describ- 
ed it as dark brown, almost black in colour, 
21/2-3 feet at the shoulders, body "as long as 
a full-grown bear" for which it was first 
mistaken, with a tail 3 feet long and the 
same size all the way down, and 3-4 inches in 
diameter. The ears were short and rounded, 
and the animal was very heavily set, particu- 
larly in the forequarters. 

It appears that very dark individuals of 
the species occur in this region, and it is the 
first place in North America where this has 



January-March, 1953] The Canadian Field-Naturalist 17 

TABLE 2. — COLOUR DESCRIPTIONS OF THE NORTHEASTERN PANTHER 

42 specimens 
Description No. Observations Classification 



'Tawny yellowish" 

'Reddish brown" 

'Deer coloured" 

'Light rust brown" 

'Dark brown" 

'Light brown" 

'Brownish" 

'Dark grey" 

'Yellowish grey and reddish" 

'Light fawn" 

'Dark tawny back, sides yellowish, 

white flanks and underparts" 
'Blackish, or dark brown head 

and back, cream underparts" 
'Greyish like police dog or 

bobcat" 
'Dun coloured" 
'Dark red" 

'Dark brown to black" 
'Reddish grey with underparts 

dirty white" 
'Black" 



Medium 

Dark 

Medium 

Light 

Dark 

Light 

Medium 

Dark 

Medium 

Light 

Dark 

Dark 

Medium 
Medium 
Dark 
Dark 

Medium 
Dark 



Total 42 

Light 5 observations 

Medium 17 observations 

Dark 20 observations 



42 



been reported as at all common. However it 
must be remembered that all dark coloured 
animals appear black when seen in dim 
light, especially if wet. 

WEIGHTS AND MEASUREMENTS 

The only actual measurement available is 
that of Mr. Robertson's specimen. However 
a number of other observers have had an op- 
portunity to estimate weights and measure- 
ments in the field. Making due allowance 
for the doubtful value of estimates of live 
animals seen for a very brief time under 
field conditions, it is possible to arrive at an 
overall impression of the animal's size from 
these observations. The estimated weights 
and measurements of 42 separate specimens 
from the northeast are given in the following 
table, and they are compared with the actual 
weights and measurements of 24 Arizona 
specimens. (Arizona data from Young and 
Goldman, ibid, pp. 54). 



The overall maximum length of 10 feet 
is within the reported limit of the species, 
although it considerably exceeds the actual 
measurements of the Arizona specimens. A 
puma of eleven feet two inches is reported 
from Patagonia, (Field and Stream, Decem- 
ber 1947), but about nine feet is the maxi- 
mum reported from North America. There 
are no data on body length for Arizona, but 
tail length agrees very closely with the esti- 
mates of the northeastern observers. The 
estimates of height are also in close agree- 
ment with the actual measurements, but 
weight appears to have been overestimated 
although the figure given is entirely reason- 
able. The difficulty of estimating live weight 
in the field is well known to fieldmen. 

These observations do not suggest any 
significant differences in the gross measure- 
ments of the northeastern race from those 
of the west. 



18 



The Canadian Field-Naturalist 



[Vol. 67 



TABLE 3. — COMPARISON OF ACTUAL WEIGHTS AND MEASUREMENTS OF 

24 ARIZONA SPECIMENS WITH ESTIMATED WEIGHTS AND MEASUREMENTS 

OF 42 NORTHEASTERN SPECIMENS, ALL ADULTS 



Weight and 




No. 


Obs. 


Average 


Range 


Measurement 


Ariz. 


NE 


Ariz. 


NE 


Ariz. 


NE 


Overall 
length 


Ft. 


24 


19 


6.2 


7.0 


4.2 — 7.1 


6—10 


Body 
length 


Ft. 


— 


22 


— 


4.6 


— 


3 — 7 


Tail 
length 


Ft. 


24 


17 


2.4 


2.6 


1.8 — 3.2 


2 — 4 


Height 


In. 


23 


13 


26 


27.2 


21 — 31 


20 — 36 


Weight 


Lbs. 


24 


9 


94 


148 


65 — 145 


95 — 200 plus 



The degree of accuracy attained by some 
of these estimates is shown in the account 
of one observer, who on December 22, 1948, 
saw a large panther when walking along the 
main right-of-way of the Canadian Pacific 
Railway near Vespra iSiding, Sunbury Co., 
N.B. "I would estimate that he was from 
tip of nose to tip of tail 8 feet long; I made 
this estimate because he nicely covered the 
standard 8-foot ties . . ." The observer was 
an old railwayman and would naturally think 
of this unit of measurement. 

LIFE HISTORY AND HABITS 

Voice: The voice of the panther has been 
discussed at length by Young and Goldman 
(ibid), and more recently by McCabe (ibid) 
and by Allen (ibid). Both these last ob- 
servers watched the animal in the act of 
screaming, McCabe in the mountains of the 
Sierra Madre, Chihuahua, Mexico, and Allen 
in an animal corral in Florida. McCabe 
describes a loud roaring like that of an 
African lion, and Allen a series of loud 
grating shrieks repeated three to seven times 
in succession. The latter author also reports 
that females in oestrus caged next to a male 
were noted to make various crying and 
"meowing" noises which ceased after mating. 

Feeding calls of the species were observed 
by the writer in the San Francisco Zoo on 
March 5, 1950. An adult male and a female 
were caged together and they were observed 
for one hour prior to feeding. Their rest- 
lessness increased as the feeding hour ap- 



proached, and about half an hour before the 
food arrived they began to give high, shrill, 
and a little wheezy calls. The sound can 
best be written as "w-a-a-h! a-o-o-w-a-a-h!" 
It suggested a much smaller animal, and 
would not be suspected of originating from 
a panther. It was a weak reedy sound re- 
peated usually 2-3 times in succession, and 
it would certainly not suggest the species if 
heard in the woods when the animal was 
invisible. It is interesting to note that a 
Maine State Game Warden fired at a panther 
with his pistol on September 10, 1950, in 
Washington County, and he reports that the 
animal made a "whispering noise". 

On March 22nd, 1952, the writer spent 
41/2 hours listening to the calls of a female 
South American puma in oestrus at the 
Central Park Zoo in New York City. The 
animal was an adult having had one preg- 
nancy, but was very small being only about 
4 ft. overall and 15 ins. at the shoulders. She 
was caged across the corridor from her mate, 
and from 10.30 a.m. to 2 p.m. she called 
every 5-10 mins. 

The call began with loud, high-pitched 
"meows" very reminiscent of a large tomcat, 
and these built up to a loud, high, rasping 
continuous cry which lasted 10-15 seconds. 
The volume of sound was considerable and 
brought people running from the other end 
of the building to watch her. It was very 
different from the deep, full sound made by 
the lions, tigers, leopards and jaguars, and 



January-March, 1953] The Canadian Field-Naturalist 



19 





Figure 2. The trail of a small panther that 
crossed the St. John River at Maugerville, Sun- 
bury Co., N.B., on January 27, 1948. Tail-drag 
is present between every pug mark as the animal 
is crossing an open field in daylight and is 
keeping as low as possible. It was observed 
from a distance of seventy yards as it made 
this trail. 

it suggested a much larger animal than the 
little puma. She gave this call when walking, 
standing still, and sitting down. Her lips 
were drawn back and her mouth was open to 
full gape at the peak of the cry. It was 
repeated 2-4 times in succession. 

Loud screams have been reported in the 
northeast on at least 23 separate occasions. 
These screams can be definitely associated 
with a panther in at least three cases. The 
first incident is Case 3 of N. B. Reports in 
Wright (ibid). In this case the panther was 
caJled into view by a man answering its calls 
which were thought to be a man lost in the 
woods. It remained in sight for some time 
and was not frightened off by two men and 
a fire, and stayed around most of the night. 

In December 1944 a young girl and her 
uncle were skating on a lake at South Mus- 
quash, St. John County, N. B. They heard 



Figure 3. The trail of a large male panther. 
Note the tail-drag between the third and fourth 
pug marks from the bottom. A six-inch ruler and 
the man's legs give the scale of the picture. St. 
John Co., N.B., March 29, 1947. 

cries which they thought were someone in 
distress in the woods beyond the lake. They 
stopped to listen and the cries were repeated, 
and then "the awfullest howl" came from 
seemingly much nearer than where the cries 
had come from. They started for home and 
they thought the animal was following them as 
the howls sounded closer. The next day the 
man returned and found large cat tracks 
three times the size of a bobcat's track along 
the edge of the lake. It had come right to 
the border of the lake and made leaps of 12- 
15 feet in the snow. 

The third case occurred on October 29, 
1948, near Millville, York County, N. B. 
Two men were employed in swamping out a 
road and they had been working all day in 
the woods. Just as they were about to finish 
for the day they heard a call in the woods 
which they mistook for a man hallooing. 
They answered and got an immediate reply. 
The sound came from much nearer and they 



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The Canadian Field-Naturalist 



[Vol. 67 



then realized that it was not a man but an 
animal, and that it was coming toward them. 
It came out on the portage road and they 
saw it was a panther as the long tail was 
clearly visible. It followed them out to the 
edge of the clearing and came up very close 
on several occasions. They arrived at the 
store in Millville considerably frightened and 
took some time to collect their wits. The 
storekeeper then called the Wildlife Station 
and I got the men's story. 

An incidence of two animals following 
two armed men with a lantern and calling 
repeatedly is given in N. B. Case 6 in Wright 
(ibid). 

The mating chase was seen in February, 
1948. Three observers of Central Blissville, 
Sunbury Co., N.B., watched a large panther 
followed by a somewhat smaller one come 
out of the woods and cross their farm at the 
dead run without paying any attention to the 
buildings, at 1 p.m. The next day at about 
the same time another panther crossed the 
farm following the same route. The follow- 
ing night a deer was killed on the main road. 
The deer was eaten out leaving nothing but the 
leg bones attached to the hide. Note the 
similarity of this kill to that described in the 
Food Habits section. 

The Den: The den has only been seen once. 
This is a report from Dr. William J. Long of 
Stamford, Conn. In July 1890 he was making 
a trip up the Little Southwest Miramichi in 
company with Dr. Cox of the University of 
New Brunswick. He was walking along the 
bank when he came to the mark of a carcass 
being dragged up a hillside. Following the 
drag he found the body of a yearling cari- 
bou, and he thinks that his approach frighten- 
el off the killer. He caught a glimpse of a 
dun coloured animal but it was not enough 
to give him a clear view of what it was. Fol- 
lowing in the direction of the drag he found 
a den in a hollow with tracks of one large 
panther and at least one cub. The place 
stank of cat smell and carrion. The den 
was a shallow depression in rough rocks. 
The Cubs: The cubs have been reported on 
six occasions. On two of these they were 
actually seen, and on the other four their 
presence was indicated by sign. An observer 
reports that about 1923 "My husband, young 
son and I were taking a drive on an abandoned 
road through a dense forested country near 
Coverdale, Albert County, ... we saw a 
good-size tawny coloured animal with a long 
round tail following the road in front of us. 



When it reached the clearing it left the road 
and sat down facing the road about ten feet 
from us. It watched us closely as we drove 
by and never moved, so we got an excellent 
view of it. It's head was round like a cat's 
and it looked like the pictures of panthers I 
have seen. 

On the opposite side of the road was a 
clump of bushes where two kittens were 
playing quite close to the road. Like the 
large animal they showed no fear of us, and 
resembled her but were spotted, and were 
about the size of a large domestic cat." 

Cubs have been seen or their sign reported 
in March, April, July, October, and Novem- 
ber. They have ranged in size from the 
spotted kittens described above to the year- 
ling that helped its mother clean out a deer 
in one night in November, 1947 (see Food 
Habits: — Deer). 
Numbers travelling together 

There are 157 reports from New Bruns- 
wick, Maine, and Nova Scotia, up to the end 
of 1951, which specify the number of animals 
travelling together. A single animal was 
reported in 92% of these reports, two to- 
gether were reported in 5%, and three to- 
gether in only 3%. This behavior is similar 
to that of the western races which spend 
most of their time alone after the family 
group breaks up. 

Food Habits 

The food habits data available include 
actual kills, reports of panthers seen stalking 
a prey species, and tracks of panthers hunting 
prey species. The following table shows the 
number of kills and hunting observations on 
hand at this writing. 

One observer was the eye-witness of an 
almost classic example of a deer kill about 
1932. He was hunting deer about 5 miles 
from Albright's Corner, on Little River, York 
Co., N.B. He was walking along a portage 
road and had just crossed a good-sized stream. 
About a hundred yards beyond the stream 
he heard heavy breathing coming toward him 
down the portage and he stepped off into 
the bushes. A buck deer came down the 
portage running hard with a large tawny cat 
with a long tail held straight out behind 
running just behind it. The buck was panting 
hard and it was this sound that he had first 
heard. The cat appeared to him to be about 
eight feet overall. When the deer reached 
the stream it leaped in and the cat followed 
so close behind that the two splashes sounded 



January-March, 1953] The Canadian Field-Naturalist 



21 



TABLE 4. — PANTHER KILLS AND 
HUNTING OBSERVATIONS 

(to 12/31/51) 

Prey Species Kills Hunting Observations 



Deer 


15 




Caribou 


1 




Bobcat 


1 




Otter 




1 


Partridge 




1 


Frogs 




1 



almost as one. He had a strange rifle with 
him and he did not feel much confidence in 
it, and the size of the cat so impressed him 
that he left quietly in the other direction 
and left it to its meal. 

An example of a deer kill that was cred- 
ited to a panther on the evidence of sign is 
as follows: 

Date: November 28, 1947. 
Place: Six miles down Goose Creek road from 
Shepody road, St. John Co., N.B., 1 mile in 
bush. 

Observers: Kill found by Freeman McKnight 
and Horace Slipp of Sussex who shortly after- 
wards met Warden John Richardson and took 
him back to see it. Kill located by watching 
ravens circling. Carcass was then moved to 
Sussex where it was examined by the writer. 
Time: Kill found at 7.30 a.m. lying hide-side 
up and still warm enough to melt off snow 
which fell until 5.30 a.m., i.e.: KILLED THAT 
NIGHT. 

Location: The kill was found in thick cover 
on the edge of a swamp. There was no sign 
of a struggle such as blood or hair, i.e.: KILL 
NOT MADE THERE, BUT CARCASS CAR- 
RIED INTO DENSE COVER TO BE EATEN. 
V/as it a cripple? McKnight and Slipp had 
been hunting in the district for a week and 
had not seen any sign of other hunters. They 
had not fired themselves, i.e.: DEER NOT 
WOUNDED BY HUNTERS AND DIED. 

Tracks: One inch of soft snow fell up to 
5.30 a.m. and covered all tracks. Kill was 
circled for a radius of half a mile but no 
tracks of any sort were found. 

The Carcass: The hide, legs and lumbar por- 
tion of the spine were together. The forward 
portion of the spine and the rib cage were 
some distance away. The carcass was very 
neatly skinned down the belly with foot-long 



claw strokes. The head, neck, belly skin, and 
tail were missing. All meat and viscera con- 
sumed, 90-100 lbs. in this deer, and very little 
blood left on the snow. The round bones 
were carefully cleaned by rasping with the 
tongue, leaving no tooth marks. 

One oval hole 1 in. x % in. in back of the 
neck IV2 in. from edge of hide where head 
and neck were torn off. ONLY INTERNAL 
BLEEDING ON HIDE around this hole, i.e.: 
HOLE MADE BY ONE CANINE TOOTH OF 
PREDATOR WHICH GRASPED PREY BY 
THE BACK OF THE NECK. One similar 
hole found on edge of hide near belly, and 
on one hind leg, BUT NO INTERNAL 
BLEEDING at either of these holes or at 
several other holes, taken to be claw holes, 
made while skinning the carcass after death. 
The holes made by the remaining three canine 
teeth of the predator would be on the skin 
of the neck, which is missing. 

The spinal column was PULLED APART 
leaving long strings of tendons attached to 
each section, i.e.: MORE THAN ONE 
ANIMAL FED ON THE KILL AT THE 
SAME TIME. 

Claw marks on hind legs, but none on 
shoulders, i.e., PREDATOR LONG ENOUGH 
TO GRASP DEER'S HEAD WITH FORE- 
PAWS WHILE HINDPAWS ON DEER'S 
HIND LEGS — MORE THAN FOUR FEET 
LONG. 

Burying: No attempt was made to bury the 
carcass PROBABLY BECAUSE THERE WAS 
NOTHING TO RETURN TO, but head and 
neck may have been buried, and were not 
found. 

SCAVANGING: No evidence. Ravens circling 
but had apparently not begun to feed when 
kill found. 
DEDUCTIONS: 

1. Predator carried kill to site of meal. 
Evidence : no signs of struggle where kill was 
found. 

2. There was more than one animal 
feeding on the carcass at the same time. 
Evidence: vertebrae pulled apart, 90-100 lbs. 
of flesh and viscera consumed in one night. 

3. Kill was made by animal, not man. 
Evidence: no men about. 

4. Kill was made by clawed animal which 
killed by biting back of the neck when grasp- 
ing the head in its forepaws, with its hind- 
paws on the deer's upper hind legs, i.e.: a 
four-foot long animal which jumped on the 



22 



The Canadian Field-Naturalist 



[Vol. 67 



deer's back. Evidence: canine tooth mark on 
back of neck, claw marks on hind legs, no 
claw marks on shoulders. 

5. Predator has habits of burying part of 
kill. Evidence: head and neck missing. 
Predatory Animals of the Region: 

1. Wild dog. 
Evidence for: none. 

Evidence against: the method of killing. 

2. Black bear. 

Evidence for: capable of killing in this 
manner and consuming this quantity of food. 

Evidence against: bones not crushed, 
meat rasped off bones with tongue, bears all 
fat and about to den up at this date and not 
prone to hunt deer. 

3. Bobcat. 

Evidence for: large cat might be capable 
of making this kill in this manner. 

Evidence against: carcass carried to site 
of meal, hide neatly skinned out and not 
shredded and torn up, amount consumed too 
great for single or even a pair of bobcats, 
size of canine tooth hole in back of neck. 

4. Lynx. 

Evidence for: same as bobcat. 
Evidence against: same as bobcat, species 
very rare in this region. 

5. Panther. 

Evidence for: carries prey to site of meal, 
at least three in region and two travelling as 
a mother and three-quarter grown cub, meat 
rasped off bones, habitually kills in this 
manner, often buries remains of kill, at 
least four feet long, two animals feeding to- 
gether, i.e., mother and cub or mated pair, 
body skin all in one piece, size of canine 
tooth hole in back of neck. 

Evidence against: none. 
Conclusion: 

Deer was killed and eaten on the night of 
November 28. The kill was made within a 
half mile of the site of the meal. Kill was 
probably made by the female panther who 
was joined by her yearling cub in eating it. 

This kill is shown in the accompanying 
photographs. 

A panther was surprised in the act of 
stalking a flock of partridge in the fall of 
1939, and one chased a bobcat up a tree and 
ate it scattering bits, including the tail, about 
the base of the tree in March, 1941, (Case 24, 
N. B. in Wright, (ibid). It is interesting to 
note that Connolly (1949) quotes Mr. Ed 
Griggs of Salt Lake City, Utah "I saw by 



tracks in the deep snow where she had 
caught a bobcat to feed the cubs. All that 
was left was a front and hind foot and part 
of the head. Since then I have noticed where 
four different bobcats have been killed and 
eaten by a lion." 

An unusual feeding habit was witnessed 
in the outlet of Porcupine Lake, Charlotte 
County, N. B. In June 1944 the observer was 
fishing in the outlet with two other men. 
They heard a noise "like the water injector 
on a steam engine" coming toward them 
along the shore behind a fringe of alders, 
and they could also hear some animal splash- 
ing in the water. They paddled up to the 
alder fringe and the man in the bow stood 
up. He saw "an animal as large as a man, 
the colour of a deer, and with a long tail, 
standing on its hind legs in the water. It 
first made me think of a kangaroo because 
of the long tail. We thought it was chasing 
frogs by standing up on its hind legs to spot 
them and then pouncing. That was the 
splashing noise we had heard. When it saw 
us it dropped to all fours and made off 
slowly without any haste, and apparently un- 
frightened. We had a revolver with us, and 
I was close enough to hit it, but it was so 
big that I did not feel like taking him on with 
a hand gun." Note the similarity of this 
description to that given on pp. 134 of Young 
and Goldman (ibid) when the animal was 
hunting mice. 

There is another account of a panther 
standing on its hind legs which I will include 
here. Two observers had the following ex- 
perience in the late summer or fall of 1948 
at East Thorndike, Waldo Co., Me. 

". . . . One morning I glanced out the 
window and saw what I believed to be a man 
with a white shirt standing in this" (rasp- 
berry) "patch. This being unusual I went 
outside to watch more closely. In a few 
minutes he seemed to vanish and then out 
into the open field stalked a long animal. 
I had seen pictures of panthers and it 
immediately came into my mind. 

The animal was at least six feet long and 
around 30 inches high with a long tail. I 
may not remember accurately now . . . but 
it seemed to me he was dark grey. My 
daughter seeing him thought he was more 
on the brown colour. The morning after my 
neighbor reported hearing some horrible 
screaming (like a woman) in my woods 



January-March, 1953] The Canadian Field-Naturalist 



23 




Figure 4. A deer kill attributed to panthers in St. John County, N.B., in November, 1947. 

The kill as it was found; hair side down, and still warm enough to melt off fresh falling 

snow. Legs and lumbar portion of the spine still attached to the hide. 




Figure 5. The same kill as above. The death wound. The hole made by one canine tooth 

of the predator in the back of the neck. The only internal bleeding found on the hide was 

about this hole indicating that it was made while the animal was still alive. 



24 



The Canadian Field-Naturalist 



[Vol. 67 



around 4.30 a.m. . . . Each time I saw him 
I was alone and watched him stalk around 
at least 15 minutes. I never again saw what 
I thought was a man's white shirt as every 
time he was on all four paws. . . ." 

A small panther came out of the Porto- 
bello country and tried to cross the St. John 
River at Maugerville, Sunbury Co., N.B., on 
January 27, 1948. It appeared on the farm of 
a local resident where he and his wife ob- 
served it through 6x German binoculars at 
a distance of seventy yards walking over an 
open field in broad daylight. I followed the 
trail until dark that night and took it up 
again next day. The panther had come to 
an otter track and had followed it to a hole 
in the ice. The otter did not slide but 
bounded steadily for the hole suggesting that 
it saw the panther coming. 

The caribou kill is that given in the den 
report by Long. 

PREDATION ON DOMESTIC STOCK 

There are two reports of predation on 
domestic stock. The first is from Frederic- 
ton, N.B. On November 2, 1947, the observer 
went out "to my sugary to get a cow with 
a new calf and heard her bawling. A large 
animal dark red in colour about 6 feet long, 
with striped face and a long tail 24-30 inches, 
and standing about 2 feet high at the shoul- 
ders had its front feet on the calf watching 
my dog. I went up within 30 feet of the 
animal. It left very fast going low down." 
The calf was uninjured as the dog had appar- 
ently arrived before the panther had an 
opportunity to kill it. 

The second case took place in Nova Scotia. 
In December, 1949, the observer saw a 
panther in a snow storm in the vicinity of 
Blue Mountain, Pictou County. He also 
found a deer kill mostly eaten with panther's 
tracks about it. In August, 1950, three lambs 
were missing and the panther's tracks were 
found nearby. One lamb was found dead 
with claw marks on the neck and shoulder, 
and the animal was seen about a mile away 
the day before. It was described as a five- 
foot cat, although its tail was not in sight. 

ATTACKS ON MAN 

There are three reports of a panther 
attacking a man in New Brunswick. The 
first is given in my first paper and took 
place in 1841. The second took place in May 
or June 1948 near York Mills, York Co., N.B. 
On that date a resident of Kingsclear was 



working alone cutting pulp in the woods at 
some distance from the rest of his crew. He 
left his saw and went down to the brook for 
a drink. He was lying flat on his face drink- 
ing when an animal jumped on his back. It 
fastened its teeth in the muscles of his right 
shoulder, but it let go when he struck back 
hard with his elbow. He scrambled to his 
feet and got his back against a tree and it 
came at him again. It struck out with its 
paw and clawed him across the right side 
down to the groin. He turned away to pro- 
tect his stomach and it clawed him down 
the back, whereupon he turned and kicked 
it hard three times in the flank and stomach 
and it made off. He made his way to the 
Little Camp, where he was employed, with 
his shirt mostly torn off and bleeding freely. 
He was taken to Harvey where his wounds 
were dressed by a nurse. They healed with- 
out infection and he has no scars today, 
which suggests they were not very deep. 

Although he is a man who has lived in 
the woods all his life, he was so frightened 
by this encounter that he drew his pay and 
refused to work there again. He described 
the animal as brown in colour with a long 
tail, six feet overall, but as it was crouched 
down when not attacking him, he could give 
no estimate of its height. He picked out the 
picture of a mountain lion on pp. 414 of Nel- 
son's WILD ANIMALS OF NORTH AMER- 
ICA as his assailant without difficulty, 
although he did not know its name. It was 
not pointed out to him, instead he was asked 
to go through the book and pick it out him- 
self. This he did without hesitation. 

This may be another case of mistaken 
identity as the man was lying flat on his face 
when attacked, and the animal seemed to 
realize what it had attacked and let go after 
the first bite. The subsequent clawing being 
the normal reaction to suddenly finding it- 
self at close quarters with a man. He was 
lucky the first bite had not been across the 
back of his neck. The victim was interviewed 
and his statement was corroborated by others 
who were present when he was brought out 
of the woods. They recall that several 
people had reported seeing a panther about 
that time, and there is no doubt that he was 
mauled by some clawed animal. They saw 
the wounds and helped dress them. 

The third attack occurred on November 
22, 1951, near the Narrows, Queens Co., N. 
B. A resident of this community had the 
following experience: — "I was returning 



January-March, 1953] The Canadian Field-Naturalist 



25 




Figure 6. The carcass was neatly skinned by foot-long cl.aw strokes down the belly. 




Figure 7. The meat was rasped off the round bones with the dermal denticles of the tongue 

leaving no tooth marks. 



26 



The Canadian Field-Naturalist 



[Vol. 67 



home about 6 p.m. I came to a pole fence 
and before crossing it hit it with my axe . . . 
within seconds I heard five loud yells off in 
the woods ... I walked about 100 yards 
further . . . when I heard four or five more 
yells. I looked back and saw it coming 
leaping. I ran a short way when it overtook 
me, so I had to stop and face it. When I 
stopped it stopped and stood up on its rear 
legs with mouth open and 'sizzling' and with 
front paws waving it charged. I swung the 
axe at it but it jumped back and I missed, so 
I ran for it and whooped. It leaped off in 
the woods and I ran for the house but didn't 
run very far before I saw it coming again 
and had to stop and swing the axe at it. It 
jumped up to one side so I ran for it and it 
ran off in the woods again ... It repeated 
the same thing over and over five or six 
times until I came to a field where I could 
see the lights of the houses, then it leaped 
off and never came back. 

The animal was black or dark grey in 
colour. The tail was at least 2V2 feet long, 
and the animal was at least 6 feet long." 

The circumstances of this attack are so 
unusual that the possibility of rabies must be 
considered. The animal was obviously not 
stalking the man as possible food as the loud 
cries emitted before it even came into sight 
show. The instant belligerence shown when 
the man made a sudden noise suggests a 
highly nervous state which is a symptom of 
this disease. It is fortunate that the victim 
was a grown man with an axe and not a child 
or a tragedy might have resulted. 

Collingwood Eraser's panther charged 
when wounded and was killed by a second 
shot at very short range, and several reports 
mention a decided lack of fear of man on 
the part of certain individuals. Gesner 
(1847) called it "a small but dangerous ani- 
mal", and Thoreau (ibid) was told it "was the 
only animal in Maine a man need fear". It 
appears that truculent specimens are not un- 
known, so that the animal should be ap- 
proached with caution. The great majority 
however are timid in the extreme, and they 
constitute considerably less of a menace in 
the woods than the much more abundant 
black bear, which is nowhere considered 
especially dangerous. 

The ease with which some specimens are 
killed is well shown by the account in Out- 
door Life for November 1950 of a British 
Columbia guide who tied his pocket knife 
to a pole and climbed a tree and speared to 



death an adult cougar. They can be captured 
alive at the rate of more than 20 a month in 
the western mountains by the use of dogs 
and a stout necker, as has been demonstrat- 
ed by Clarence White of Utah. 

SWIMMING ABILITY 

There are four reports of the species 
either swimming, or jumping into the water 
without hesitation, or wading. Case 3 of the 
Maine reports in the previous paper gives an 
account of a panther swimming a stream, and 
Case 11 of N.B. tells of the animal 
watched swimming a good-sized river. On 
August 6, 1950, two men were paddling up 
the Lower Digedeguash River in Charlotte 
County, N. B. They saw an animal swim- 
ming across the river about 50 yards ahead 
of them. When it saw them it turned back 
to the shore. The water was smooth and the 
animal was completely submerged except 
for the head and- the tip of the tail. The head 
was round with short ears, and golden brown 
in colour. The tail was nearly as long as 
the body and had a white tip. It appeared 
the size of a large beagle dog as it went up 
the bank. It did not appear frightened and 
they noted it was the same brown colour all 
over. It was obviously a cat, and they drew 
a sketch with a sample colour which they 
submitted with their report. This was prob- 
ably a cub just out of the spots, and seeing 
its first men. 

Reports of a panther chasing a deer into 
the water, and wading in the shallows for 
frogs have already been given, so they ap- 
parently enter the water readily when the 
necessity arises. As the coat is not water- 
resistant they probably do not do so readily 
in cold weather. 

THE STATUS OF THE SPECIES IN THE 
NORTHEAST 

The number of reports now available in- 
dicates that the species is by no means as 
rare as was thought at the beginning of 
this study. It appears well distributed over 
New Brunswick except in the north and 
northwest. Here the language factor enters 
the picture. The inhabitants of this region 
are mostly French and the difficulty of 
translation has greatly retarded the gather- 
ing of adequate information there. The 
number of panthers in New Brunswick is 
apparently far greater than the number of 
lynx, as less than half a dozen of the latter 
have been reported in the last fifteen years. 



January-March, 1953] The Canadian Field-Naturalist 



27 



PANTHER SIGHT RECORDS 

IN THE 

NORTHEAST 
1841 - I9S/ 



/ 




Figure 8. Map showing panther sight records in the northeast, 1841-1951. 



We are apparently passing through a low of 
the lynx cycle, although bobcats are not 
affected. 

The species appears to have definitely 
expanded its range into Nova Scotia, and the 
steadily rising deer population there is no 
doubt the cause. The New Brunswick deer 
population is also increasing steadily which 
would account for the increase in panthers 
indicated in the last two decades. The 
writer is the only one in this region who has 
systematically collected panther reports in 
the last fifteen years, and naturally most of 
his data come from New Brunswick. It is 
therefore not possible to say that there are 
more panthers in New Brunswick than in 
Maine as the same amount of effort in col- 
lecting evidence has not been made there, 
but there seems little doubt that the Nova 
Scotia records indicate a recent invasion. 

The overall conclusion is that the species 
is on the increase and is not in danger of 
extirpation. The reports from Vermont, 
New Hampshire, Massachusetts, and New 
York suggest that the species is showing 
signs of recovery from a low that was long 



thought to be absolute extinction over most 
of its original range. Whether this recovery 
originated from a surviving remnant, is due 
to influx, or is the result of an artificial in- 
troduction, will vary from region to region. 
The continuity of the records in New Bruns- 
wick strongly indicate that a remnant has 
survived the extirpation of the caribou and 
the decimation of the moose to be succoured 
by the irruption of deer. The eastern Maine 
reports probably indicate an overflow from 
the center of abundance in southwestern 
New Brunswick (see map), as is undoubtedly 
true in the case of Nova Scotia. The 
western Maine and New England reports 
suggest an influx from nuclei of breeding 
stock surviving in the Appalachian Chain. 
However there is another possible source 
which must be considered. It is the pos- 
sibihty that small travelling animal shows 
may have turned loose specimens in this 
region when they have become bankrupt and 
could no longer afford to feed them. It 
seems probable that some of the recent re- 
ports in the east can be attributed to animals 
of this type. 



28 



The Canadian Field-Naturalist 



[Vol. 67 



SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS 

The early panther reports from New 
Brunswick have been screened and any that 
might have originated in the sighting of a 
wild dog have been eliminated. Over one 
hundred reports remained from New Bruns- 
wick, Maine, and Nova Scotia, and these are 
analyzed for physical characteristics and life 
history data. The accounts of the killing of 
six panthers in New Brunswick and Maine 
are given, and a number of cases where 
panthers have been wounded and escaped 
are discussed. 

The northeastern race is found to be 
similar in gross dimensions to the western 
races, but generally darker in colour, parti- 
cularly on the back and head. Accounts of 
calling up a panther are given, as is a report 
of the finding of a den. The young are 
described from eye-witness testimony. Food 
habits include deer, caribou, bobcat, otter, 
partridge, and frogs. The habit of standing 
on the hindlegs is discussed. 

Two incidences of predation on domestic 
stock,, and accounts of two recent attacks on 
man are given. Swimming ability is discus- 
sed and the status of the species in the 
northeast is reviewed. 

LITERATURE CONSULTED 

ALLEN, ROSS. 

Notes on the Florida Panther, Felis con- 
color coryi. Bangs. Jour. Mamm. Vol. 31, 
No. 3, pp 279, August, 1950. 

CONNOLLY, J. EDWARD, Jr. 
The Food Habits and Life History of the 
Mountain Lion, Felis concolor hippolestes. 
Unpublished Thesis, Department of Verte- 
brate Zoology, University of Utah, 1949. 

COONEY, ROBERT. 
A Compendious History of the Northern 
Part of the Province of New Brunswick 
and of the District of Gaspe in Lower Can- 
ada. Reprinted in 1896 by D. G. Smith at 
Chatham, Miramichi, New Brunswick, from 
one of the original copies printed by Joseph 
Howe, Halifax, in 1832. 

DASHWOOD, RICHARD LEWES. 

Chiploquorgan, or Life by the Camp Fire 
in the Dominion of Canada and Newfound- 
land, Robert T. White, 45 Fleet St., Dublin, 
1871. 



GESNER, ABRAHAM. 

New Brunswick, with notes for Emigrants. 
London, Simmonds & Ward, 1847. 

HIBBEN, FRANK C. 
A Preliminary Study of the Mountain Lion, 
Felis orogonensis sp. The University of 
New Mexico Bulletin, December 15, 1937. 

MANVILLE, RICHARD. 
Reports of Cougar in New York. Jour. 
Mamm., Vol. 32, No. 2, May 1951, pp. 227. 

MATSON, J. R. 

Cat Kills Deer. Jour. Mamm., Vol. 29, No. 1, 
February 1948, pp 69. 

McCABE, ROBERT A. 
The Sream of the Mountain Lion. Jour. 
Mamm. Vol. 30, No. 3, August 1949, pp. 305. 

NELSON, EDWARD W. 

Wild Animals of North America. National 
Geographic Society, Washington, D. C. 
1918. 

SETON, ERNEST THOMPSON. 

Lives of Game Animals. Doubleday Doran 
and Co., Garden City, 4 Vols., Vol. 1 
(Part 1) Cats, Wolves and Foxes. 

SQUIRES, W. AUSTIN. 
The Eastern Panther is not Extinct. Cana- 
dian Geographical Journal. Vol. XLI, No. 
4, Oct. 1950. 

STEBLER, A. M. 
The Tracking Technique in the Study of 
the Larger Predatory Animals. Trans. 4th 
N. A. Wildlife Conf., 1939, pp. 203-208. 

STONER, DAYTON. 

Extant New York State Specimens of the 
Adirondack Cougar. New York State 
Museum, Circular 25, May 1950. 

SWIFT, LLOYD W. in 
Animals and Birds Abound on Superior. 
Christian Science Monitor, March 22, 1948. 

THOREAU, HENRY DAVID. 

Chesuncook. Atlantic Monthly, June, July, 
August 1858. 

WRIGHT, BRUCE S. 

Survival of the Northeastern Panther, 
Felis concolor, in New Brunswick, Jour. 
Mamm. Vol. 29, No. 3, August 1948. 

YOUNG, STANLEY P. and EDWARD A. 

GOLDMAN. 
The Puma, Mysterious American Cat. The 
American Wildlife Institute, Washington 
D. C. 1946. 



January-March, 1953] The Canadian Field-Naturalist 



29 



STATEMENT OF FINANCIAL STANDING 
THE OTTAWA FIELD-NATURALISTS' CLUB, NOVEMBER 27/52 



CURRENT ACCOUNT 

Assets Liabilities 

Balance in Bank, Nov. 27/52 $2,827.34 Audubon Screen Tours 

Bills receivable 138.29 guarantee 

Lodge, est. value 320.00 Balance 



$3,285.63 



850.00 
2,435.63 

$3,285.63 



Receipts 

Balance in Bank, Nov. 26/51 ■.. $2,510.29 

Fees: 

Current $1,621.88 

Advance & Arrears 221.23 

Assoc 39.00 

1,882.11 

Separates & Illustrations 291.64 

Back Numbers 593.04 

Miscellaneous 43.08 

Sale of Library 150.45 

Audubon Tours (net) 461.79 



Expenditures 

Can. Field-Nat. (5 nos.) $1,711.20 

Editor's Hon 100.00 

Business Mgr's Hon 15.00 

Binding Set of Can. Field-Nat 125.40 

Excursions & Lect. Comm 100.00 

Newsletter (3 nos.) 69.30 

Separates 287.45 

Illustrations 390.66 

Postage & Stationery 193.26 

Bank Discount 26.10 

Miscellaneous 86.69 

Balance in Bank, Nov. 27/52 2,827.34 



$5,932.40 



$5,932.40 



Assets 

Hydro-Electric Power Comm. 

Ont. Bonds, 3% 

Bal. in Bank, Nov. 27/52 



RESERVE FUND 



$3,000.00 
293.16 



$3,293.16 



Liabilities 



NIL 



Receipts 

Bal. in Bank, November 26/51 $ 205.32 

Bank Interest 2.84 

Bond Interest 90.00 



$ 298.16 



Expenditures 

Rent Deposit Box 

Balance in Bank, Nov. 27/52 



5.00 
293.16 



$ 298.16 



Assets 
Hydro-Electric Power Comm. 

Ont. Bonds, 3% 

Bal. in Bank, Nov. 27/52 



PUBLICATION FUND 



$1,500.00 
197.40 



Liabilities 

NIL 



$1,697.40 



30 



The Canadian Field-Naturalist 



[Vol. 67 



Receipts Expenditures 

Bal. in Bank, Nov. 26/51 $ 150.30 Balance in Bank, Nov. 27/52 $ 197.40 

Bank Interest 2.10 

Bond Interest 45.00 



$ 197.40 



Audited and found correct. 



(Signed) I. L. Conners 
C. Frankton 

AUDITORS. 



November 27, 1952 



$ 197.40 



R. J. Moore, 

TREASURER. 



ANNUAL MEETING OF THE 
OTTAWA FIELD-NATURALISTS' CLUB, DECEMBER 2, 1952 



Report of Council 

Since the last Annual Meeting, there were 
five meetings of Council held at St. Patrick's 
College: December 17, 1951, with 20 mem- 
bers present; February 2, 1952, with 19 mem- 
bers present; March 13, 1952, with 15 mem- 
bers present; October 16, 1952, with 13 
members present; and November 20, 1952, 
with 17 members present. A meeting was 
also held on April 26, 1952, at the home of 
Dr. and Mrs. J. W. Groves, with 23 members 
present. 

Appointments were made for 1952 as 

follows: 

Editor of the Canadian Field-Naturalist — 
Dr. H. A. Senn. 

Business Manager — Mr. W. J. Cody. 

Chairman of the Publications Committee — 
Mr. A. E. Porsild. 

Chairman of the Excursions and Lectures 
Committee — Dr. J. Arnold. 

Chairman of the Reserve Fund Committee 
— Mr. Hoyes Lloyd. 

Chairman of the Special Lectures Commit- 
tee — Mr. R. Frith. 

Chairman of the Membership Committee — 
Dr. V. E. F. Solman. 

Chairman of the Bird Census Committee — 
Mr. J. S. Tener. 

Chairman of the Library Committee — Mr. 
A. E. Porsild. 

Chairman of the Macoun Field Club Com- 
mittee — Mr. W. K. W. Baldwin. 

Chairman of the Gatineau Park Advisory 
Committee — Mr. R. Frith. 

Chairman of the Brewery Creek Bird Sanc- 
tuary Committee — Mr. R. D. Harris. 



Representatives, Canadian Section, Inter- 
national Committee for Bird Preservation 
— Dr. H. F. Lewis, Mr. Hoyes Lloyd. 

Report of the Publications Committee 

Since the last annual meeting, 4 members 
of the Canadian Field-Naturalist (vol. 65 and 
66) were published, with a total of 127 pages, 
the last number being May-June, 1952 issue. 
Papers, notes and reviews were distributed 
as follows: 



Papers 
Botany 3 

Ornithology 4 

Invertebrate Zoology 
Misc. 



Notes Reviews 

6 2 

1 



Two maps and 15 illustrations were used. 
The business manager reported sales of back 
numbers totalling $592.04. The sum of $117.00 
was spent on the binding of an official set of 
the Field-Naturalist. 

Report of the Excursions and 
Lectures Committee 

Four meetings of the Committee were 
held during the year at the home of Mr. and 
Mrs. A. E. Bourguignon at which arrange- 
ments were made for the annual dinner and 
the spring and fall excursions. 

The usual monthly meetings of the Bird 
Group were held with an average attendance 
of about 30 members. The programmes in- 
cluded informal talks by members, discus- 
sions and films. Excursions were held in 
the spring to view the woodcock at Mar- 
churst and the Group spent one day at the 
Lodge and Constance Lake area. Mrs. 



January-March, 1953] The Canadian Field-Naturalist 



31 



Bauche was named chairman and Miss. M. 
Bower secretary for the 1952-53 season. A 
breeding-bird census was carried out on a 
woodland plot on the Mackenzie King Estate. 

Four early morning bird walks were held 
under the leadership of Miss Mary Stuart, 
Professor J. E. Smith and Messrs. Bourgui- 
gnon and Frith. 

Two indoor meetings were held as 
follows: 

April 17 — About 120 persons attended 
the annual dinner at the Central Experi- 
mental Farm at which Mr. Herbert Marshall 
spoke and showed movies of his trip to 
Australia and India. Displays were provided 
by the Macoun Field Club and the Tree and 
Fern Groups. 

October 30 — A meeting was held at the 
headquarters of the Ottawa Humane Society 
at which Mr. Spencer of the National Film 
Board spoke about the birds he had seen in 
Korea and showed two films. 

Five Saturday afternoon excursions were 
held at the Central Experimental Farm, the 
Lodge, Val Tetreau and the Mackenzie King 
Estate, Kingsmere. Leadership for these 
well attended events was provided by the 
study groups. 

The Fern Group held monthly meetings 
at the home of Miss A. W. Anderson and two 
meetings were held at the Central Experi- 
mental Farm and one at the home of Mr. and 
Mrs. J. W. Groves. Four excursions were 
made during the year to various areas in the 
Ottawa district. Twenty-seven species have 
been collected to date in the Ottawa area. 

The Tree Group met twice a month 
during the winter at the Museum. Its mem- 
bers are studying the shrubs of the Ottawa 
district with an aim to devise a key to the 
numerous species. 

The Field-Naturalists' Lodge was used for 
two official outings, namely, the annual May 
24th excursion and the fall weiner roast, but 
numerous unofficial gatherings took place 
there. 

Four copies of the Newsletter were issued 
during the year under the editorship of Mrs. 
Groves. The Newsletter continues to serve 
well its purpose of informing members of 
the various activities of the Club and 
stimulating further work. 

Report of the Special Lectures Committee 

Three Aubudon Screen Tours completed 
the 1951-52 series: 



January 7 — Wild Life Down East, by Carl 

W, Buchheister. 
February 26 — The Four Corners, by Fran 

Wm. Hall. 
March 27 — Animals Unaware, by Howard 

Cleaves. 

The following Audubon Screen Tours of 
the current series complete the programme 
for 1952: 
October 3 — Bonaventure Diary, by Robert 

C. Hermes. 
November 28 — Below the Big Bend, by 

Allan D. Cruickshank. 

Report of the Membership Committee 

A campaign was undertaken involving 
the distribution of application forms and in- 
formation leaflets to Audubon Screen Tour 
audiences. The committee also made plans 
to circularize libraries and universities that 
might be interested in purchasing copies or 
sets of the Canadian Field-Naturalist. 

Report of the Gatineau Park Committee 

This committee met on March 22 with Mr. 
R. P. Sparks, chairman, Gatineau Park Ad- 
visory Committee and Mr. E. S. Richards, 
Park Superintendent. Mr. Richards reported 
that recommended plantings of shrubs and 
trees, which supply bird-food, had been com- 
pleted. The committee recommended fur- 
ther planting of shrubs and trees, which 
has, to date, been partly completed. It is 
the intention to continue these plantings for 
several years. 

The Federal District Commission car- 
penter shop constructed 30 bird houses as 
specified by the Wildlife Service. These 
were erected in the disturbed area of the 
Park during the first week of May. Mr. 
Harris and Mr. Tener were on hand to des- 
ignate the locations of these houses. 

The use of a small building on the Mac- 
kenzie King Estate has been granted the Ot- 
tawa Field-Naturalists' Club. 

The committee has not yet selected a pro- 
posed undisturbed area of approximately 500 
acres to be set aside for the study of Natural 
History. 

Dr. Arnold and associates conducted 
during the spring and summer of 1952 on a 
part of the Mackenzie King Estate a bird 
breeding census. 

Several members of this committee and 
the Club, who have specialized knowledge 
concerning park management, have been as- 



32 



The Canadian Field-Naturalist 



[Vol. 67 



sisting to equip a Park Museum, the establish- 
ment of Nature Trails and with various wild 
life management problems. 

Report of the Macoun Field 
Club Committee 

During 1952 the Macoun Field Club has 
continued the three age groups set up in the 
previous year. The High School Group num- 
bers 33 and was headed by Eric Mills and a 
committee of four. Similar committees 
acted for the Middle Group of 30 under the 
chairmanship of Dick McGregor and for the 
Junior and Middle Group of 32 under Harold 
Savile. 

The year was divided into three seasonal 
programmes, Winter, Spring and Autumn. A 
total of 25 excursions and indoor meetings 
was held for each group. The High School 
Group met regularly on Tuesdays after 
school. The Middle and Junior Groups met 
on Saturday morning at different hours so 
that each could attend one of the two Satur- 
day Morning performances in the Children's 
Series of the National Museum Lecture 
Programme. 

There were five special features during 
the year. On February 23 a party of sixty 
from all three groups made a winter excur- 
sion to Kilreen Farm on the invitation of 
Mrs. Frank Ryan. The members inspected 
the farm livestock and buildings, explored 
the fields and woodlots and had a picnic 
around a roaring fire. A small group related 
their experiences over radio station CFRA. 
On March 29 the Club gave the two per- 
formances of the Museum Saturday Morning 
shov/ under the title "Let's All Go Explor- 
ing". At the Ottawa Field-Naturalists' Club 
dinner on April 17, representatives of the 
group committees attended and an exhibit of 
the Club's work was shown. This exhibit 



was again displayed at the Fourth Birthday 
Meeting on April 26. At this meeting. Dr. 
Alcock, Dr. Groves and Mr. Bourguignon 
presented Club badges to 36 new members 
given by kind friends of the Club. An 
anonymous friend also provided a chartered 
bus for an Autumn excursion to Beattie 
Point on October 25 attended by 51 members. 

The progress of the Macoun Field Club 
has been duly reported in each issue of the 
Newsletter. Two of the radio stations have 
made broadcasts on the Club's work. The 
Citizens Committee on Children displayed 
exhibits from the Club at the Chateau 
Laurier. A second and a third number of 
"The Little Bear" was issued and Mr. Mad- 
dox is now assembling a fourth. 

As in former years, the Club provided a 
team of ushers for the Audubon Screen Tours 
and, in addition, assisted in the setting up of 
the stage and other duties. The Club also 
shipped a collection of specimens from its 
"museum" to a school group in Vogar, Mani- 
toba. A most encouraging development of 
the Club's work has been the leadership pro- 
vided by three members of the High School 
Group in natural history activities at sum- 
mer camps. Letters from corresponding 
members whose families have moved to other 
parts of Canada show that the interest in 
Natural History fostered by the Club is being 
continued and spread elsewhere. 

Report of the Bird Census Committee 

The Christmas Bird Census was taken on 
December 31, 1951. A total of 28 species 
and 3,096 individuals was reported. The 
Christmas Bird census for all of Canada was 
published in the March-April, 1952, issue of 
The Canadian Field-Naturalist. 
J. W. Groves, President. 
H. J. Scoggan, Secretary. 



CHRISTMAS BIRD CENSUS — 1952 



St. John's, Nfld. — (City and half mile of 
coast at Cape Spear). December 26, 1952; 
9.30 to 4.00 p.m.; temp. 37°F; overcast and 
foggy; no snow; 7 observers in 2 parties; 2 
station observers; total hours 15; total miles 
50 (10 on foot, 40 by car). — Old-squaw, 10; 
Glaucous Gull, 15; Iceland Gull, 24; Great 
Black-backed Gull, 9; Herring Gull, 21; Kit- 
tiwake, 2; Black Guillemot, 4; Rock Dove, 



75 (plus); Yellow-shafted Flicker, 3; Horned 
Lark, 1; Crow, 168 (plus); Black-capped 
Chickadee, 23; Brown-capped Chickadee, 15 
(plus); Golden-crowned Kinglet, 100 (plus) 
Northern Shrike, 1; Common Starling, 1 
Palm Warbler, 2; Yellow-breasted Chat, 1 
English Sparrow, 165 (plus); Purple Finch 
37; Pine Grosbeak, 15; Common Redpoll, 25 
Pine Siskin, 35; White-winged Crossbill, 12 



January-March, 1953] The Canadian Field-Naturalist 



33 



Slate-coloured Junco, 29; Snow Bunting, 2. 
Total 26 species; 795 individuals (plus). 
(Seen in area during census week, Baltimore 
Oriole, 1; Starlings, 400 (plus). — Mr. & Mrs. 
A. G. Gosling, Miss C. Furlong, H. H. Winter, 
John Macgilhvray, David Sergeant, Dr. Ian 
Bond, H. Squires, L. M. Tuck (Newfoundland 
Natural History Society). 

Wolfville, N.S. — Dec. 27; 8.00 a.m. to 
5.00 p.m.; total miles 55 (48 by car, 9 on 
foot). Canada Goose, 151; Am. Merganser, 2; 
Bald Eagle, 1; Rough-legged Hawk, 2; Ring- 
necked Pheasant, 21; Great Black-backed 
Gull, 15; Herring Gull, 52; Flicker, 1; Hairy 
Woodpecker, 1; Downy Woodpecker, 2; 
Horned Lark, 5; Blue Jay, 19; Crow, 144; 
Black-capped Chickadee, 8; Brown-capped 
Chickadee, 6; Brown Creeper, 1; Robin, 1; 
Golden-crowned Kinglet, 15; Starling, 132; 
English Sparrow, 733; Common Redpoll, 51; 
Goldfinch, 17; White-winged Crossbill, 20; 
Savannah Sparrow, 1; Vesper Sparrow, 1; 
Junco, 82; Song Sparrow, 2; Total 28 species, 
1,494 individuals. — J. S. Erskine, R. 
Erskine, M. Gibson, W. B. Schofield. 

West Middle Sable, N.S. — (Matthews 
Lake and Hemeon Head to Sable River, 9- 
mile Road, and 1 mi. north, 11.5 mi. between 
extremes). Dec. 26; 7.30 a.m. to 1.37 p.m. 
and 2.07 p.m. to 5.00 p.m. (owl, 8.00 p.m.); 
90% cloudy; one brief, light shower; temp. 
36° to 44°; wind W to NW, 5-10 m.p.h.; no 
frost, ice or snow. One observer at feeding 
station, one travelling 28 mi. (17 by bicycle, 
10 on foot, 1 by car). Common Loon, 2; 
Horned Grebe, 4; European Cormorant, 42; 
Canada Goose, 350; Black Duck, 408; Greater 
Scaup Duck, 27; Buffle-head, 15; Old-squaw, 
4; Harlequin Duck, 5; Common Eider, 6; 
Ruffed Grouse, 1; Purple Sandpiper, 1; Great 
Black-backed Gull, 61; Herring Gull, 154; 
Great Horned Owl, 1; Hairy Woodpecker, 3; 
Downy Woodpecker, 1; Horned Lark, 12; 
Canada Jay, 4; Blue Jay, 1; Raven, 4; Crow, 
17; Golden-crowned Kinglet, 5; Starling, 28; 
House Sparrow, 40; Pine Siskin, 2; White- 
winged Crossbill, 71; Slate-coloured Junco, 
28; Tree Sparrow, 2; White-throated Sparrow, 
2; Snow Bunting, 16. Total, 31 species, 1,317 
individuals. (Other species recorded in 
West Middle Sable and vicinity in December, 
1952: American Golden-eye, Red-breasted 
Merganser, Marsh Hawk, Iceland Gull, Black 
Guillemot, Black-capped Chickadee, Acadian 
Chickadee, Brown Creeper, Robin, Myrtle 
Warbler, Pine Warbler, Yellow Palm War- 



bler, Evening Grosbeak, Pine Grosbeak, Red- 
poll, Goldfinch, Chipping Sparrow, Song 
Sparrow). — Laura N. Lewis and Harrison 
F. Lewis. 

Fredericton, N.B. — (7 miles radius cen- 
tering in Fredericton; town suburbs 10%, 
pasture 20%, coniferous forest 70%.) — Dec. 
14; 9 a.m. to 5 p.m.; clear; temp. 12° to 26°; 
wind NW, very light; ground covered with 4- 
6 inches of old snow; all water frozen except 
the rapids in the Saint John River above 
Fredericton and in a few places in the little 
streams in the deep woods; twelve observers 
in 4 parties; total party-hours, 32 (8 by car, 
24 by foot); total party-miles, 150 (40 on foot, 
90 by car). Am. Golden-eye, 7; Marsh Hawk, 
1; Ruffed Grouse, 11; Herring Gull, 15; Rock 
Dove, 49; Pileated Woodpecker, 1; Downy 
Woodpecker, 1; Blue Jay, 1; Raven, 20; Crow, 
3; Black-capped Chickadee, 11; Brown-headed 
Chickadee, 2; Red-breasted Nuthatch, 6; 
Golden-crowned Kinglet, 4; Common Starling, 
7; English Sparrow, 42; Bronzed Grackle, 1; 
Evening Grosbeak, 3; Purple Finch, 16; Com- 
mon Redpoll, 37; Pine Siskin, 85; White- 
winged Crossbill, 42; Tree Sparrow, 10; Song 
Sparrow, 1. Total, 24 species; 376 indivi- 
duals. — L. Bailhe, N. Balch, D. Bradshaw, 
J. Brown, R. Brown, A. Gordon, A Lucas, J. 
McLeod, M. Moore, G. Mott, B. Robinson, W. 
Spriggs (University of New Brunswick 
Biology Club). 

Quebec, Que. — (Quebec city. Plains of 
Abraham to Sillery, Bois Gomin Road; Ste. 
Foy and Quebec bridge area, La Canardiere 
road to St. Gregoire, Quebec Zoological 
Garden and Charlesbourg; town suburbs 21%, 
fields 18%, coniferous forest 16%, deciduous 
woods 11%, mixed woodlands 21%, shores 
13%) _ Dec. 22; 7 a.m. to 4.30 p.m.; over- 
cast; temp. 15° to 21°; wind NE, 8-10 m.p.h. 
4-6 inches of snow on ground; small rivers 
partly frozen, some moving ice on the St. 
Lawrence River, thin ice; seven observers in 
6 parties; total party-hours, 33 (30 on foot, 3 
by car), total party-miles, 89 (34 on foot, 55 
by car). — Lesser Scaup, 1 (at 100 feet with 
binoculars, R.L.); Am. Golden-eye, 19; Ruf- 
fed Grouse, 9; Ring-necked Pheasant, 1; Ice- 
land Gull, 10; Great Black-backed Gull, 2 
Herring Gull, 242; Hairy Woodpecker, 6 
Downy Woodpecker, 1; Blue Jay, 1; Crow, 4 
Black-capped Chickadee, 37; White-breasted 
Nuthatch, 1; Red-breasted Nuthatch, 10; 
Golden-crowned Kinglet, 1; Cedar Waxwing, 
42; Common Starling, 118; English Sparrow, 



34 



The Canadian Field-Naturalist 



[Vol. 67 



925; Evening Grosbeak, 22; Pine Grosbeak, 
2; Common Redpoll, 73; Tree Sparrow, 1. 
Total 22 species; 1,528 individuals. (Seen in 
area Dec. 15. Northern Shrike, 1) — R. 
Cayouette (compiler), C. Delisle, F. Hamel, 
J.-P. Laplante, L. Lemieux, R. Lepage, Ls.-A. 
Lord. (La Societe Zoologique de Quebec.) 

Montreal, Que. — (Mount Royal, Angrigon 
Park, Dorval, Montreal West, Cote St. Luc, 
St. Helen's Island, Nuns' Island, Caughnawa- 
ga, south shore St. Lawrence River from 
Mercier Bridge to Jacques Cartier Bridge, and 
north .shore from Dorval to Victoria Bridge, 
Saraguay, Ahuntsic, Laval-des-Rapides). — 
Dec. 21; overcast; temperature 16° to 19°F.; 
wind east 15 m.p.h.; 4 inches snow in open 
country; little ice on river; 37 observers in 10 
parties; total party-hours, 49, total party-miles, 
117 (48 on foot, 66 by car, 3 by boat). Canada 
Goose, 26; Mallard, 24; Black Duck. 784; Pin- 
tail, 165; Greater Scaup, 56; Am. Gorlden-eye, 
547; White-winged Scoter, 1; Hooded Mergan- 
ser, 2; Am. Merganser, 38; Goshawk, 1; Rough- 
legged Hawk, 4; Pigeon Hawk, 1; Sparrow 
Hawk, 2; Ruffed Grouse, 2; Ringed-necked 
Pheasant, 75; Great Black-backed Gull, 41; 
Herring Gull, 1,053; Ring-billed Gull, 4; Rock 
Dove, 234; Horned Owl, 2; Short-eared Owl,2; 
Flicker, 6; Hairy Woodpecker, 4; Downy Wood- 
pecker, 36; Blue Jay, 1; Crow, 122; Black- 
capped Chickadee, 110; White-breasted Nut- 
hatch, 12; Brown Creeper, 18; Winter Wren, 
1; Robin, 4; Hermit Thrush, 1; Ruby-crowned 
Kinglet,. 1; Northern Shrike, 2; Starling, 228; 
English Sparrow, 273; Purple Finch, 1; 
Common Redpoll, 71; American Goldfinch, 
19; Tree Sparrow, 41; Song Sparrow, 20. 
Total, 41 species, 4,035 individuals. (Seen in 
area December 27, Red-winged Blackbird, 1.) 
— B. C. Borden, Miss S. Boyer, W. J. Brown, 
J. D. Cleghorn, J. Delafield, P. du Boulay, 
Mrs. P. du Boulay, D. G. Elliot, Mrs. D. G. 
Elliot, D. Garneau, J. Goring, Miss G. Hib- 
bard, A. Hipkins, Mrs. A. Hipkins, J. Howes, 
Mrs. M. Innes-Ket, A. Lepingwell, Mrs. A. 
Lofft, H. Longley, W. McBride, I. McLaren, 
G. H. Montgomery, Mrs. G. H. Montgomery, 
J. Normandin, C. J. Peake, W. H. Rawlings, 
Miss H. Ritchie, Mrs. P. Roberts, J. Robinson, 
D. Ryan, H. F. Seymour, G. Shearer, Dr. J. 
Summerby, L. M. Terrill, Mrs. L. M. Terrill, 
Miss W. E. Wilson, R. Yates (Prov. Que. Soc. 
for the Protection of Birds). 



4.00 p.m.; clear, wind south-west 10, tempera- 
ture 28°, 2-3 inches of snow; 43 observers in 
17 parties; total party-hours 85, total party- 
miles 499 (427 by car and 72 on foot). — 
Great Blue Heron, 1; Mallard, 1; Black Duck, 
10; Ring-necked Duck, 2; Scaup, 1; Am. 
Golden-eye, 262; Am. Merganser, 79; Red- 
breasted Merganser, 1; Sparrow Hawk, 4 
Ruffed Grouse, 20; Hungarian Partridge, 25 
Ring-necked Pheasant, 11; Herring Gull, 108 
Brunnich's Murre, 1; Rock Dove, 771; Mourn- 
ing Dove, 2; Pileated Woodpecker, 5; Hairy 
Woodpecker, 6; Downy Woodpecker, 15; Blue 
Jay, 24; Crow, 19; Black-capped Chickadee, 
191; White-breasted Nuthatch, 32; Red- 
breasted Nuthatch, 2; Brown Creeper, 7; 
Golden-crowned Kinglet, 5; Northern Shrike, 
5; Starling, 1,102, English Sparrow, 2,380; 
Red-winged Blackbird, 3; Bronzed Grackle, 
1; Redpoll, 487; Hoary Redpoll, 15; Pine 
Siskin, 15; White-winged Crossbill, 4; Junco, 
6; Tree Sparrow, 17; Song Sparrow, 4; Snow 
Bunting, 130. Total 39 species, 5,774 indivi- 
duals. (Seen in area December 15: Carolina 
Wren, 1; Hairy Woodpecker, 1; December 
25: Robin, 4.) — H. Brown, T. Erskin, H. 
Lloyd, R. Frith, Dr. & Mrs. D. Savile, T. Mor- 
land, Mr. & Mrs. H. Marshall, Mrs. Brown, Dr. 
Guiou, C. Frankton, L. MacKinnon, A. Cowan, 
A. Bourguignon, Misses V. Ross, M. Flynn, D, 
Haight, M. Stuart, Mr. & Mrs. Bauche, Misses 
Stoner, Summers, Dr. & Mrs. J. W. Groves, 
E. Godfrey, M. Campbell, Misses V. Humph- 
reys, A. Banning, J. Smith, E. Mills, B. Mill- 
man, P. Millman, Miss F. Cook, Mr. & Mrs. C. 
Bennett, K. Bowles, H. Brown, Mr. & Mrs. W. 
Baldwin, H. Bedard, Miss R. Horner, J. 
Arnold. 

Pakenham, Lanark Co., Ont. — December 
22, 1952; 7.45 a.m. to 3.30 p.m.; heavily over- 
cast during entire day; ground bare; Missis- 
sippi River open; wind light, east; temp. 22° 
at 7.45 a.m., 26° at 3.30 p.m.; 7 miles on foot. 
Black Duck, 2; American Merganser, 2; 
Ruffed Grouse, 1; Hairy Woodpecker, 2; 
Downy Woodpecker, 1; Black-capped Chicka- 
dee, 8; White-breasted Nuthatch, 6; Red- 
breasted Nuthatch, 2; Brown Creeper, 1; 
Starling, 12; English Sparrow, 99; Evening 
Grosbeak, 62; Common Redpoll, 41; Pine 
Siskin, 40. Total 14 species, 279 individuals. 
December 24: Blue Jay, 3; Snow Bunting, 
98.) — Edna G. Ross. 



Ottawa, Ont. — (Roughly a radius of 15 Carleton Place, Ont. (Roughly a radius 6- 

miles) — December 21, 1952; 9.00 a.m. to 10 miles). — Clear and cold wind north west 



January-March, 1953] The Canadian Field-Naturalist 



35 



20 m.p.h., temperature 10° to 0°, depth of 
snow 2-3 inches; total party-hours 15; total 
party-miles 98 (91 by car, 7 on foot). Ruffed 
Grouse, 4; Rock Dove, 45; Hairy Woodpecker, 
1; Downy Woodpecker, 4; Blue Jay, 6; Black- 
capped Chickadee, 41; White-breasted Nut- 
hatch, 2; English Sparrow, 244; Evening 
Grosbeak, 20; Common Redpoll, 189; Gold- 
finch, 15; Pine Siskin, 3; Snow Bunting, 220. 
Total 14 species, 903 individuals. — H. M. 
Brown, F. Bourguignon, G. E. Findlay, D. D. 
Findlay, E. H. Ritchie, J. H. Dack, D. K. Find- 
lay, Mrs. D. K. Findlay, Mrs. John Findlay, 
Miss JuHe Findlay, Mrs. Thos. Walton, W. 
F. Findlay, Bill Findlay, Pete Findlay. 

Kingston, Ont. — (7^/^ -mile radius center- 
ing on MacDonald Park, Kingston, and in- 
cluding Cataraqui River and Creek, shores 
and waters of Lake Ontario and St. Lawrence 
River, Wolfe and adjacent islands; farmland, 
30%, urban centres 4%, marshes 12%, water 
30%, mixed woodlands 24%). — Dec. 21; 8.00 
a.m. to 5.00 p.m.; overcast, with intermittent 
snow and rain in p.m. temp. 32°; wind N.E. 
to S.E. 15; ground covered with 5 inches 
snow, deeper in drifts; marshes, rivers 
frozen, bays in L. Ontario largely open; St. 
Lawrence river open; twelve observers in 4 
parties; total party-hours, 88; total party- 
miles 316 (49 on foot, 263 by car, 4 by boat). 
Common Loon, 3; Horned Grebe, 5; Mallard 
Duck, 2; Black Duck, 139; Ring-necked Duck, 
3; Greater Scaup Duck, 1; Common Golden- 
eye, 827; Buffle-head, 1; White-winged Scoter, 
3; Hooded Merganser, 7; Am. Merganser, 
396; Common Rough-legged Hawk, 21; Bald 
Eagle, 3; Marsh Hawk, 1; Sparrow Hawk, 1; 
Ruffed Grouse, 7; Hungarian Partridge, 13; 
Am. Coot, 4; Killdeer Plover, 1; Glaucous 
Gull, 1; Great Black-backed Gull, 63; Herring 
Gull, 592; Ring-billed Gull, 34; Rock Dove, 
47; Horned Owl, 3; Hairy Woodpecker, 1; 
Downy Woodpecker, 3; Blue Jay, 5; Crow, 
2; Blacked-capped Chickadee, 63; White- 
breasted Nuthatch, 10; Hermit Thrush, 1; 
Common Starling, 523; Enghsh Sparrow, 317; 
Red-winged Blackbird, 1; Cowbird, 20; Com- 
mon Purple Finch, 3; Common Redpoll, 550; 
American Goldfinch, 10; Slate-coloured 
Junco, 2; Tree Sparrow, 54; Song Sparrow, 
3; Snow Bunting, 75. Total 44 species, about 
3,831 individuals. (Seen in area Dec. 18: 
Little Gull, 1; Bonaparte's Gull, 4; Briin- 
nich's Murre, 5.) G. Stirrett, A. Hyde, K. 
Edwards, I. Boardman, J. Argue, S. Peters, 



R. Stewart (compiler), W. Lamb, A. Bell, J. 
Cartwright, I. Hyde, F. Phillips. (Kingston 
Nature Club Members). 

Brockville, Ont. — (From Brockville to 4 
miles west along the St. Lawarence River). — 
Dec. 29, 1952; 10:30 a.m.-4:30 p.m., cloudy, 
temperature 35°, wind 5-10 m.p.h.; total 
party-miles 9 (4 by car, 5 on foot) 2 ob- 
servers. — Mallard, 5; Scaup, 300; Herring 
Gull, 11; Rock Dove, 10; Black-capped Chic- 
kadee, 6; White-breasted Nuthatch, 1; Star- 
ling, 4; English Sparrow, 37; Tree Sparrow, 
17; (Seen recently in area. Hooded Mergan- 
ser, 2; Am. Merganser, 7.) Total species 9, 
total individuals, 391. — D. Hurrie, H. Fisher. 

Rutherglen, Ont. — (From 14 miles E of 
North Bay, township of Bonfield, villages of 
Bonfield, Rutherglen, Eau Claire, areas 
around Kaipuskong River, Pimisi Bay, Mat- 
tawa River, Pacaud Lake, Smith's Lake, 
Amable du Fond River, to 10 miles west of 
Mattawa, Ontario; open farmland 30%, coni- 
ferous woodlots and black spruce bog 10%, 
second growth mixed forest 50%, lakes and 
rivers 10%, settlements 10%). — Dec. 30; 
7.30 a.m. to 4.30 p.m.; blue sky; 4° below to 
11° above zero F.; wind SW, S. to E. 5 
m.p.h.; ground covered with 5 to 6 inches 
soft snow; all fresh water except rapids and 
eddies frozen; total hours 9; total miles 42, 
(by car 33, on foot 9). — Am. Golden-eye, 13; 
Great Horned Owl, 1; Hairy Woodpecker, 11; 
Downy Woodpecker, 1; Blue Jay, 9; Northern 
Raven, 3; Black-capped Chickadee, 46; Red- 
breasted Nuthatch, 8; Brown Creeper, 2; 
Pine Grosbeak, 9; Common Redpoll, 7; Snow 
Bunting, 8. (Seen in the same vicinity Dec. 
24: Ruffed Grouse, 1; Dec. 27: Common Starl- 
ing, 1; Dec. 31: Pileated Woodpecker, 1.) 
Total species 12, about 118 individuals. — 
Louise de Kiriline Lawrence. 

Westport, Ont. — (Leeds County — 7V2- 
mile radius centering on the village munici- 
pal office, Westport. Farm land 15%, lakes 
20%, marshes 6%, deciduous woodland 40%, 
mixed woodland 18%, red cedar groves 2%?). 
Dec. 21, 8.00 a.m. to 5.30 p.m.; cloudy; 
temperature 20° to 30°; wind E, 10 to 15 
m.p.h.; ground covered with 3 inches snow; 
marshes, lakes and some rivers frozen. — 
6 observers in 4 parties. Total party-hours 
14; total party-miles 52 (5 on foot, 47 by car). 
— Great Blue Heron, 1; Ring-necked Duck, 1; 
Bald Eagle, 1; Ruffed Grouse, 5; Herring 



36 



The Canadian Field-Naturalist 



[Vol. 67 



Gull, 12; Ring-billed Gull, 6; Rock Dove, 12; 
Kingfisher, 1: Yellow-shafted Flicker, 1; 
Pileated Woodpecker, 5; Hairy Woodpecker, 
1; Downy Woodpecker, 8; Blue Jay, 4; Black- 
capped Chickadee, 139; White-breasted Nut- 
hatch, 4; Starling, 9; English Sparrow, 65; 
Purple Finch, 1; Redpoll, 200; Slate-coloured 
Junco, 21; Tree Sparrow, 60. Total, 21 species; 
557 individuals. — H. B. Arnold, D. Craw- 
ford, R. Hogoboam, R. Lockhart, A. M. 
Strong (compiler), J. Tett. 

Pickering Twp. (Ontario Co.), Ont. — 

(15 acres of mixed woodland; white cedar 
20%, poplar-birch-ironwood-maple 45%, un- 
cultivated fields 15%). — Dec. 26; 7.30 a.m. 
to 4.30 p.m.; overcast; temp. 20° to 24°F.; 
wind W to NW, 10-15 m.p.h.; woods powdered 
lightly with snow; creek open; ice forming 
on still water. Three observers in 1 party. 
Total party-hours, 9; total party-miles 5 (on 
foot). — Red-tailed Hawk, 1; Ruffed Grouse, 
1; Herring Gull, 6; Ring-billed Gull, 1; 
Hairy Woodpecker, 2; Downy Woodpecker, 
4; Blue Jay, 10; Black-capped Chickadee, 15; 
White-"breasted Nuthatch, 1; English Sparrow, 
55; Cardinal, 4; Pine Siskin, 2; American 
Goldfinch, 10; Slate-coloured Junco, 15; Tree 
Sparrow, 4. Total 15 species; 131 individuals. 
— Adele Hearn, Doris H. Speirs, Dr. J. Mur- 
ray Speirs. 

Lindsay, Ont. — ((Lindsay to Cambray and 
return following McLarens Creek and Scug- 
gog River, road 35%, field and pasture 30%, 
woods 35%). — December 21, 7.25 a.m. to 
5.00 p.m.; temperature 23°-27°F.; 1 inch of 
snow, overcast, wind south-east 15 m.p.h. 
Total hours 9%, total miles 35 (9 by car, 26 
on foot). — Ruffed Grouse, 7; Mourning 
Dove, 1; Downy Woodpecker, 2; Blue Jay, 1; 
Red-breasted Nuthatch, 1; Black-capped Chic- 
kadee, 22; Golden-crowned Kinglet, 2; Com- 
mon Starling, 6; English Sparrow, 30; Common 
Redpoll, 19; Pine Siskin, 4; Snow Bunting, 
180. Total 12 species, 275 individuals. (Seen 
in area recently American Golden-eye, 1; 
Goldfinch, 1). — E. W. Calvert. 

Huntsville, Ont. — December 21, 1952; 
9.00 a.m. to 4.00 p.m.; mild; cloudy; light 
snow flurries; 6 inches of snow on ground; 
lakes and rivers mostly open; 7 observers in 
6 parties. — Ruffed Grouse, 3; Herring Gull, 
8; Hairy Woodpecker, 1; Blue Jay, 5; Black- 
capped Chickadee, 58; White-breasted Nut- 
hatch, 7; Red-breasted Nuthatch, 10; Starling, 
45; English Sparrow, 80; Pine Grosbeak, 3; 



Siskin, 30; Snow Bunting, 150. Total 14 
species; 406 individuals. — J. Goldthorp, C. 
Kay, A. May, K. Perrin, Mr. and Mrs. E. G. 
R. Rogers, R. J. Rutter (The Huntsville 
Nature Club). 

Hamilton, Ont. — (As in past years, a IVz- 
mile radius centering on York and Dundurn 
Sts., and including Stoney Creek, Mount Hope 
Airport, Ancaster, Mineral Springs, West 
Flamboro, Lake Medad and Port Nelson; 
farmland 38%, city and suburbs 12%, mixed 
woods 38%, lake and bay 11%, cattail marsh 
1%). — Dec. 21; 8 a.m. to 5.30 p.m.; over- 
cast, dull, very light, intermittent drizzle, 
with heavy fog on upland areas; temp. 31° 
to 37°; wind NE, 9-14 m.p.h.; ground bare to 
3 inches snow; all water open except upland 
ponds. Sixty-five observers in 27 parties. 
Total party-hours, 133 (126 on foot, 7 by car), 
total party-miles, 299 (199 on foot, 100 by 
car). — Common Loon, 1; Red-necked 
Grebe, 1; Horned Grebe, 1; Great Blue Heron, 
2; Mute Swan, 2; Mallard, 108; Black Duck, 
247; Redhead, 5; Canvas-back, 1; Greater 
Scaup, 925; Lesser Scaup, 4; Am. Golden-eye, 
405; Buffle-head, 41; Old-squaw, 2; King 
Eider, 1; Hooded Merganser, 18; Am. Mer- 
ganser, 2,000; Red-breasted Merganser, 47; 
Cooper's Hawk, 3; Red-tailed Hawk, 15; 
Rough-legged Hawk, 1; Bald Eagle, 1; Marsh 
Hawk, 1; Sparrow Hawk, 13; Ruffed Grouse, 
15; Ring-necked Pheasant, 14; Killdeer, 2; 
Purple Sandpiper, 1 (J.B., W.G.); Glaucous 
Gull, 3; Iceland Gull (Kumlien's), 1; Great 
Black-backed Gull, 78; Herring Gull, 8,700; 
Ring-billed Gull, 700; Bonaparte's Gull, 1; 
Briinnick's Murre, 2 (plus 2 dead); Mourning 
Dove, 20; Screech Owl, 1; Horned Owl, 7; 
Long-eared Owl, 1; Belted Kingfisher, 6; 
Yellow-shafted Flicker, 7; Hairy Wood- 
pecker, 25; Downy Woodpecker, 80; Blue 
Jay, 83; Crow, 2; Black-capped Chic- 
kadee, 474; White-breasted Nuthatch, 47; 
Brown Creeper, 22; Winter Wren, 9; Caro- 
lina Wren, 1 (J.B., W.G.); Robin, 1; Golden- 
crowned Kinglet, 38; Water Pipit, 1; Cedar 
Waxwing, 46; Common Starling, 2,000; House 
Sparrow, 2,600; Red-winged Blackbird, 1; 
Cardinal, 104; Evening Grosbeak, 1; Purple 
Finch, 22; Common Redpoll, 1; Pine Siskin, 
145; Goldfinch, 104; Slate-colored Junco, 
391; Tree Sparrow, 407; White-throated Spar- 
row, 2; Swamp Sparrow, 6; Song Sparrow, 
26. Total 68 species; about 20,043 indivi- 
duals. (Seen in area Dec. 14: Ruby-crowned 
Kinglet, 1; Dec. 19: Baldpate, 1; Dec. 20: Com- 



January-March, 1953] 



The Canadian Field-Naturalist 



37 



mon Yellowthroat, 1; Dec. 26: Pied-billed 
Grebe, 1; Pintail, 3; Ring-necked Duck, 1; 
White-winged Scoter, 2; Am. Scoter, 1; 
Goshawk, 1; Purple Grackle, 1; Dec. 30: 
Snowy Owl, 1; Dec. 31: Green-Winged Teal, 
1; Ivory Gull, 1; Black-legged Kittiwake, 1; 
Rusty Blackbird, 1; Jan. 1: Coot, 1; Ivory 
Gull, 2; Jan. 2: Myrtle Warbler, 1.) — Edith 
Austen, Jas. L. Baillie, Eric W. Bastin, W. E. 
Benner, Neil Bourne, R. D. F. Bourne, Stella 
Brown, F. W. Buckle, Don Bucknell, Alex. 
Burns, John D. Campbell, William I. Camp- 
bell, Winston Cheatley, Mrs. M. F. Clark, 
Sheila Clark, Janet Clarkson, K. J. Cox, John 
Gumming, D. Delzell, J. A. N. Dowall, R. 
0. Elstone, Dorothy Falladown, Leopold 
Fucikovsky, Leslie Gray, Miss L. Gright- 
mire, W. W. H. Gunn, Ian Halladay, P. F. 
Henderson, Florence Holley, William R. Hol- 
l-^y, Charles Hunter, Angus B. Jackson, 
H. E. Kettle, Barbara Laking, Leslie 
Laking, Margaret Lamb, H. Lemon, Betty 
LeWarne, Robert H. Lloyd, Ray N. Lowes, 
J. Mannheimer, C. Douglas McCallum, G. 
O. McMillan, Dorothy Jane Miller, John 
W. Moule, Gertrude Nelson, A. B. Nind, Lau- 
rel North, George W. North (compiler), Mrs. 
H. C. Nunn, James Nuttall, David K. Powell, 
Mrs. N. M. Robertson, Morley C. Sabine, Ro- 
bert K. Sargeant, Eunice Smillie, Douglas 
Smith, Robert W. Smith, Laura Stewart, Gor- 
don Sweatman, Anne Watson, Jane Watson, 
Mabel Watson, Mrs. M. R. Watters, J. H. 
Williams (Hamilton Nature Club). 

Kitchener and Waterloo, Ont. — (Dec. 28 
8.30 a.m. to 5 p.m., 22°-32°, wind 15-20 
m.p.h., sparse snow, open water; 15 observers, 
35 party-hours — 37 party-miles. — Mallard, 14; 
Black Duck, 18; Amer. Merganser, 1; Ruffed 
Grouse, 21; Ring-necked Pheasant, 3; Herring 
Gull, 11; Rock Dove, 24; Belted Kingfisher, 
1; Hairy Woodpecker, 8; Downy Wood- 
pecker, 35; Blue Jay, 22; Crow, 1; Black- 
capped Chickadee, 180; White-breasted Nut- 
hatch, 23; Red-breasted Nuthatch, 4; Brown 
Creeper, 28; Winter Wren, 4; Hermit Thrush, 
1; Golden-crowned Kinglet, 74; Northern 
Shrike, 1; Starling, 40; English Sparrow, 435; 
Rusty Blackbird, 1; Cardinal, 22; Redpoll, 
146; Pine Siskin, 26; Goldfinch, 45; Slate- 
coloured Junco, 67; Tree Sparrow, 52; Snow 
Bunting, 56; (Birds seen recently. Red- 
shouldered Hawk 2; American Rough-legged 
Hawk, 1; Red-tailed Hawk, 1; Screech Owl, 1; 
Brown-capped Chickadee, 1). Total 36 species, 
1,377 individuals. — Robert Pickering, Len. 
Wambold, James Detweiler, F. W. R. Dickson, 



Willard Schaefer, Glen Schaefer, Peter 
Smith, Mr. Campbell, Craig Campbell, Mor- 
ley Preston, Russel Tilt, Eric M. Carter, 
Richard Hilborn, Clarence Bingham, Marga- 
ret Lemon. 

Port Arthur-Fort William, Ont. — IV2 

miles radius with Bare Point Chippewa Park, 
Carters Corner and Intolo P.O. being the 
main points on the perimeter). December 26; 

9 a.m. to 5.30 p.m.; overcast in a.m. clearing 
in p.m.; temperature 23° to 3°F., wind north- 
west 12-16 m.p.h., relative humidity was 81% 
in a.m.; snow up to 3 inches; 36 observers in 
14 parties; total party-hours 36, total party- 
miles 195 (164 by car, 31 on foot). — Mal- 
lard, 4; Black Duck, 76; Marsh Hawk, 1; 
Ruffed Grouse, 7; Hungarian Partridge, 8; 
Herring Gull, 47; Rock Dove, 299; Horned 
Owl, 2; Hairy Woodpecker, 2; Downy Wood- 
pecker, 5; Canada Jay, 8; Blue Jay, 10; Raven, 
24; Crow, 5; Black-capped Chickadee, 118; 
Brown-capped Chickadee, 5; Red-breasted 
Nuthatch, 13; Starling, 242; English Sparrow, 
759; Evening Grosbeak, 39; Pine Grosbeak, 
654; Common Redpoll, 379; Pine Siskin, 23; 
Red Crossbill, 8. Total 24 species, 2,737 in- 
dividuals. (Seen recently: Am. Golden-eye, 
2; Snowy Owl, 1; Pileated Woodpecker, 1; 
Brown Creeper, 1; Bohemian Waxwing, 23; 
Cedar Waxwing, 23; Purple Finch, 1; Tree 
Sparrow, 1). — Mr. & Mrs. P. Addison and 
sons Edward, Peter and William, Dr. A. E. 
Allin and son David, M. J. Armstrong, Mr. 
& Mrs. R. M. Beckett, Mr. & Mrs. W. D. 
Beckett, David Bianco, C. Brown, K. Denis 
(compiler) and children Norman and Betty, 
Mr. & Mrs. Ken Foil, H. K. Campbell, Captain 
A. E. Fader, C. E. Garton, Mr. & Mrs. J. Han- 
ton, Mrs. W. M. Knowles, Mr. & Mrs. J. 
Murie, Dr. & Mrs. H. Quackenbush, W. Robin- 
son, Mrs. C. Rydholm & children Louise and 
Laurie, I. Sherlock, L. Shchter, J. Thompson. 
(Thunder Bay Field-Naturalists' Club). 

Yorkton, Sask. — 71/2 -mile radius centering 
on Yorkton; same area as previous years). — 
Dec. 26; 9 a.m. to 5 p.m.; overcast; temp. 11° 
to 22°; wind SSE to NE, 10-12 m.p.h.; ground 
covered with 2 inches snow; 24 observers in 
6 parties; total party-hours, 27 (17 on foot, 

10 by car); total party-miles, 133 (29 on foot, 
104 by car). — Ruffed Grouse, 6; Sharp- 
tailed Grouse, 52; Hungarian Partridge, 18 
Great Horned Owl, 2; Hairy Woodpecker, 1 
Downy Woodpecker, 6; Canada Jay, 1 
Blue Jay, 1; Magpie, 30; Black-capped 
Chickadee, 63; Robin, 1; Bohemian Wax- 



38 



The Canadian Field-Naturalist 



[Vol. 67 



wing, 29; English Sparrow, 1,030; Brewer's 
Blackbird, 1; Pine Grosbeak, 15; Com- 
mon Redpoll, 96; Slate-coloured Junco, 1; 
Snow Bunting, 520. Total 18 species, ap- 
proximately 1,873 individuals. (Seen in 
area Dec. 24: Snowy Owl, 1). — Norma Beck, 
Henry Chilman, Brother Clarence, Lionel 
Coleman, Ronald Coleman, Dr. C. J. Houston, 
Dr. and Mrs. Stuart Houston, Mr. and Mrs. 
C. W. Lightbody, Allan Nurse, Jack Park, 
Tony Pawluck, Gordon Pearce, Greg Pearce, 
Irving Pearce, Wayne Pearce, Ray Riesz, 
Cliff Shaw, Jeff Smith, Frank Switzer, Gil- 
lian Switzer, Darcy Wershler, Merril Wersh- 
ler (Yorkton Natural History Society). 

Saskatoon, Sask. — (10-mile radius, in- 
cluding Sutherland). December 24, 1952; 
8.15 a.m. to 2 p.m.; partly cloudy 5°F; 1-2 
inches of snow; hoar frost on trees; 2 ob- 
servers; total miles 74 (71 by car, 3 on foot). 

— Mallard, 1; Am. Golden-eye, 2; Goshawk, 
3; Sharp-tailed Grouse, 8; Hungarian Part- 
ridge, 39; Snowy Owl, 4; Blue Jay, 2; Mag- 
pie, 11; Black-capped Chickadee, 4; Bohemian 
Waxwing, 31; English Sparrow, 875; Pine 
Grosbeak, 4; Redpoll, 405; Slate-coloured 
Junco, 4; Snow Bunting, 250. (December 27: 
Ring-necked Pheasant, 2; January 1: Great 
Horned Owl, 1). Total 15 species; 1,643 in- 
dividuals. — F. J. H. Fredeen, J. B. Gollop. 

Calgary, Alia. — (4-mile radius of Ingle- 
wood Bird Sanctuary along the Bow and El- 
bow River). Dec. 27, 1952; 2.00 p.m. to 4.00 
p.m.; temperature 16°-18°F.; wind N.W. to 
N. 4 m.p.h.; no snow; rivers and lakes free 
of ice; 14 observers; total party-hours 28; 
total party-miles 36 on foot. — Canada Goose, 
8; Lesser Canada Goose, 22; Mallard, 2,370; 
Am. Golden-eye, 120; Redhead, 1; Buffle- 
head, 9; Am. Merganser, 21; Goshawk, 5; 
Ring-necked Pheasant, 12; Rock Dove, 27; 
Hairy Woodpecker, 2; Downy Woodpecker, 1; 
Magpie, 42; Black-capped Chickadee, 25; 
Cedar Waxwing, 55; Starling, 40; English 
Sparrow, 26; Common Redpoll, 19; Hoary 
Redpoll, 2; Pine Siskin, 3. (Seen recently in 
area, Common Loon, 2; Killdeer, 5; Downy 
Woodpecker, 1; Brown Creeper, 1; Golden- 
crowned Kinglet, 6; Great Northern Shrike, 
1; Loggerhead Shrike, 1; Evening Grosbeak, 
7). Total species 20; total individuals, 2,810. 

— N. Winnick, G. Steen, C. G. Hampson, W. 
R. Salt, M. J. Cope, A. Robinson, J. C. Barn- 
hardt (Calgary Naturalists Club). 

Vernon, B.C. — (West to Okanagan Land- 
ing, north to Buckerfields Ranch, south to 



Kalamalka Lake and east to Coldstream 
Ranch). — Dec. 28, 1952; 9.00 a.m. to 3.00 
p.m.; overcast with scattered snow flurries in 
afternoon; wind light; temp. 30° to 35°; one 
and a half inches of snow; Okanagan and Ka- 
lamalka Lakes clear of ice; Swan Lake 
frozen over; 9 observers in 3 parties; total 
miles by car approx. 45; on foot 10. — Horned 
Grebe, 2; Western Grebe, 4; Great Blue 
Heron, 1; Mallard, 171 + ; Pintail, 1; Green- 
winged Teal, 3; Baldpate, 1064- ; Redhead, 
56; Lesser Scaup, 14; Common Golden-eye, 
17; Am. Merganser, 5; Sharp-shinned Hawk, 
2; Sparrow Hawk, 2; Ruffed Grouse, 1; 
European Partridge, 17; Ring-necked Pheas- 
ant, 132 + ; Am. Coot, 450+ ; Killdeer, 11; 
Wilson's Snipe, 11; Herring Gull, 2; Pygmy 
Owl, 1; Short-eared Owl, 8; Belted King- 
fisher, 2; Red-shafted Flicker, 37; Hairy 
Woodpecker, 1; Downy Woodpecker, 3; 
Steller's Jay, 8; Black-billed Magpie, 13; 
Raven, 3; Clark's Nutcracker, 1; Black-capped 
Chickadee, 126; Mountain Chickadee, 1; Red- 
breasted Nuthatch, 7; Brown Creeper, 1; 
Dipper, 4; Winter Wren, 1; Long-billed Marsh 
Wren, 1; Robin, 29; Townsend's Solitaire, 3; 
Golden-crowned Kinglet, 20; Bohemian Wax- 
wing, 1,939+; Cedar Waxwing, 4; Northern 
Shrike, 5; English Sparrow, 318+ ; Western 
Meadowlark, 55; Brewer's Blackbird, 7; 
Evening Grosbeak, 159; Pine Grosbeak, 27; 
Common Redpoll, 156+ ; American Gold- 
finch, 31; Oregon Junco, 418+ ; Tree Spar- 
row, 11; White-crowned Sparrow, 38; Song 
Sparrow, 32. Total 54 species, 4,478 (approx.) 
individuals. (Seen during period : Gyrfalcon, 
1; Mourning Dove, 40; Horned Lark, 40; Leu- 
costicte, 7; Snow Bunting, 40). — J. B. Bed- 
dome, D. K. Campbell, J. T. Fowle, J. Grant, 
A. N. Humphries, J. Quirk, G. Peacock, B. 
A. Sugden. 

Hope, B.C. — (Kawkawa Lake). — Decem- 
ber 27, 1952; 10.30 a.m. to 3.00 p.m.; over- 
cast, mild; total hours, 9; total miles, 4 on 
foot. — Western Grebe, 2; Pied-billed Grebe, 
1; American Golden-eye, 3; Cooper's Hawk, 
1; American Coot, 1; Pileated Woodpecker, 
1; Hairy Woodpecker, 1; Black-capped Chic- 
kadee, 11; Winter Wren, 6; Ruby-crowned 
Kinglet, 12; Evening Grosbeak, 17; Pine 
Siskin, 15; Oregon Towhee, 2. Total 13 
species; 73 individuals. — Mrs. R. M. Mason, 
Miss Marie Mason, R. Houlden. 

Vancouver, B.C. — (North Arm of Eraser 
River near Point Grey Golf course; S.W. 
Corner of Sea Island; Stanley Park; Burrard 



January-March, 1953] The Canadian Field-Naturalist 



39 



Inlet, Cassiar to Willingdon Streets; Mt. Sey- 
mour Highway, North Vancouver). — Dec. 
28, 1952; 10.00 a.m. to 4.00 p.m.; strong south- 
westerly wind with rain squalls; 13 observers 
in 5 parties; 2 feeding station observers; 
total hours, 35; total miles, 12 on foot. — 
Horned Grebe, 2; Western Grebe, 30; 
Brandt's Cormorant, 1; Baird's Cormorant, 4; 
Great Blue Heron, 4; Mallard, 200; Pintail, 
2,025; Baldpate, 100; Shoveller, 25; Scaup 
Duck, 29; Golden-eye, 206; Buffle-head, 25; 
White-winged Scoter, 42; Surf Scoter, 150; 
Red-breasted Merganser, 53; Hooded Mer- 
ganser, 8; Sharp-shinned Hawk, 1; Coot, 50 
Glaucous-winged Gull, 105; Herring Gull, 49 
Short-billed Gull, 41; Red-shafted FHcker, 8 
Steller's Jay, 1; Northwestern Crow, 10 
Black-capped Chickadee, 60; Chestnut-backed 
Chickadee, 32; Winter Wren, 3; Bewick's 
Wren, 2; Robin, 42; Varied Thrush, 5; 
Golden-crowned Kinglet, 200; Ruby-crowned 
Kinglet, 1; Western Meadowlark, 6; Brewer's 
Blackbird, 7; Evening Grosbeak, 100; Purple 
Finch, 24; Oregon Towhee, 29; Oregon Junco, 
55; Fox Sparrow, 1; Song Sparrow, 37. Total 
40 species; 3,773 individuals. — Mr. & Mrs. 
S. F. Bradley, Miss Christine Bramley, Mrs. 
F. Morgan, Miss Heather Gower, Mr. & Mrs. 
F. Waugh, Mrs. F. McGinn, Mr. & Mrs. G. B. 
H. Stevens, C. F. Gough, F. J. Sanford and 
R. H. Mackay (Vancouver Natural History 
Society). 

Race Rocks Lightstation, B.C. — (12 miles 
southwest of Victoria B.C.); rocky island 
with grass the only vegetation; approx. area 
6 acres; nearest wooded island V2 mile 
distant. — Jan. 1, 1953; 9.00 a.m. to 4.00 p.m.; 
temp. 42° to 45°F.; wind S.E. 5 m.p.h.; 
cloudy, sea smooth, no snow on ground; 2 
observers; since area so limited repeated cir- 
cuits of the island were made on foot and 
the figures given are the maximum seen on 
a single circuit of the island for each species. 
— Horned Grebe, 1; Brandt's Cormorant, 20; 
Pelagic Cormorant, 25; unidentified cormo- 
rants, 65; Harlequin Duck, 7; White-winged 
Scoter, 5; Surf Scoter, 15; Black Oyster- 
catcher, 21; Black Turnstone, 30; Hudsonian 



Curlew, 1; Aleutian Sandpiper, 20; Divers 
(probably mostly Common Murres), 200 plus; 
Glaucous-winged Gull, 20; Short-billed Gull, 
20; Herring Gull (Thayers?), 14; unidentified 
gulls, 300 plus; Song Sparrow, 1. (Seen 
during period, Double-crested Cormorant, 
Black Brant). — Total 15 species, 709 in- 
dividuals. — G. C. and J. M. Odium. 

Comox, B.C. — (From Vz mile east of Co- 
mox Wharf along shore line and Courtenay 
River to Condensory Bridge in Courtenay). 
— January 1; 9.00 to 4.15 p.m.; overcast in 
p.m.; very dark, calm; temperature 26° to 
40° F. — Common Loon, 10; Holboell's Grebe, 
5; Eared Grebe, 11; Western Grebe, 1; 
Double-crested Cormorant, 5; Pelagic Cor- 
morant, 2; Unidentified Cormorants, 5; 
Great Blue Heron, 2; Mallard, 450; Gadwall, 
3; Baldpate, 350; Pintail, 136; Green-winged 
Teal, 11; Canvas-back, 4; Scaup, (probably 
both species) 335; Am. Golden-eye, 150; Bar- 
row's Golden-eye, 4; Buffle-head, 50; Old- 
squaw, 1; White-winged Scoter, 350; Surf 
Scoter, 75; Unidentified Scoters, 700; Ruddy 
Duck, 1; Hooded Merganser, 3; Am. Mer- 
ganser, 7; Red-breasted Merganser, 2; Black 
Pigeon Hawk, 1; Bald Eagle, 1; California 
Quail, 8; Ring-necked Pheasant, 2; Coot, 18; 
Killdeer, 3; Black Turnstone, 3; Glaucous- 
winged Gull, 500; Thayer's Gull, 1; Short- 
billed Gull, 25; Short-eared Owl, 1; Belted 
Kingfisher, 2; Flicker, 9; Pileated Wood- 
pecker, 1; Harris' Woodpecker, 2; Gairdner's 
Woodpecker, 1; Steller's Jay, 5; Raven, 5; 
Western Crow, 2; Northwestern Crow, 400; 
Chestnut-backed Chickadee, 35; Seattle Wren, 
6; Robin, 26; Varied Thrush, 3; Golden- 
crowned Kinglet, 9; English Sparrow, 7; 
Meadowlark, 1; Red-winged Blackbird, 6; 
Brewer's Blackbird, 80; Purple Finch, 25; 
Oregon Towhee, 9; Oregon Junco, 50; Savan- 
nah Sparrow, 1; Song Sparrow, 25. (Seen in 
area recently. Pacific Loon; Black Brant; 
Am. Scoter; Sharp-shinned Hawk; California 
Murre; Marbled Murrelet; Townsend's Soli- 
taire; Ruby-crowned Kinglet; Northern 
Shrike; Pine Siskin). Total species 59, in- 
dividuals 3,626. — R. Fryer, D. Guthrie, 
Theed Pearse. 



40 



The Canadian Field-Naturalist 



[Vol. 67 



A PLANT COLLECTION FROM THE WEST SIDE OF 
BOOTHIA ISTHMUS, N.W.T., CANADA ' - 

W. J. Cody 



During the period May 18 to August 16, 
1951, Mr. J. G. Chillcott conducted a biolo- 
gical investigation on the west coast of 
Boothia Isthmus, in the vicinity of the settle- 
ment of Spence Bay (approx. 69°30'N 
93°30'W). The work was part of the Northern 
Insect Survey undertaken by the Division of 
Entomology, Canada Department of Agri- 
culture in cooperation with the Defence 
Research Board, Canada Department of Na- 
tional Defence. In addition to a large col- 
lection of insects, a representative set of 
specimens of the flora of the area was 
secured. 

Although some two-thirds of Boothia 
Peninsula lies east of the 95th meridian, the 
western limit of his Flora, Polunin excluded 
the whole peninsula from the Botany of the 
Canadian Eastern Arctic 3, presumably be- 
cause of lack of specimens from that area. 
Boothia Peninsula is also outside the range 
of the Report of the Canadian Arctic Expedi- 
tion 1913-1918 4. 

Mr. Chillcott's well-prepared collection of 
plants from this little known area should 
not go unrecorded. This paper lists the en- 
tities gathered by him, together with his 
notes on their frequency and habitat. 

The 1950 edition of the 8 mile to 1 inch 
Rae Strait map sheet published by the Canada 
Department of Mines and Technical Surveys, 
shows the Franklin-Keewatin boundary as 
passing just north of the settlement of Spence 
Bay, thus placing the settlement in the District 
of Keewatin. The Northwest Territories Ad- 
ministration has advised, however, that the 
boundary runs along the south shore of 
Spence Bay several mi'les south of the settle- 
ment. Therefore, with the exception of a few 
specimens which were collected at Lady 
Melville Lake south of the border, all the 
specimens listed below were collected in 
Franklin District. 



1 Contribution No. 1181 from the Division of Botany 
and Plant Pathology, Science Service, Canada Depart- 
ment of Agriculture, Ottawa. 

2 Received for publication. May 8, 1952. 

3 Polunin, N., Botany of the Canadian Eastern Arctic 
Part 1 — Pteridophyta and Spermatophyta, Canada 
Department of Mines and Resources, National Mu- 
seum Bulletin No. 92, 1940. 

4 Macoun, J. M. and Th. Holm, The Vascular Plants 
of the Arctic Coast of America west of the 100th 
Meridian, collected by the Canadian Arctic Expedi- 
tion 1913-18, vol. V: Botany, part A: Vascular Plants, 
1921. 



POLYPODIACEAE 

WOODSIA GLABELLA R. Br. — fairly com- 
mon in crevices on granite hills one mile 
north of the settlement, 37. 

EQUISETACEAE 

EQUISETUM VARIEGATUM Schleich. — 
fairly common on wet moss hummocks in 
marsh, 90. 

GRAMINEAE 

HIEROCHLOE ALPINA (Sw.) R. & S. — in 
crevices in granite hill one mile north of 
settlement, 41. 

HIEROCHLOE PAUCIFLORA R. Br.— com- 
mon in wet marshy ground, 31, 57, 81. 
ARCTAGROSTIS LATIFOLIA (R. Br.) Gri- 
seb. — common on hummocks of temporary 
pools and in wet marshy ground, 76, 87, 96. 
POA ARCTICA R. Br. — common on dry 
mossy tundra, 72, 74. 

DUPONTIA FISHERI R. Br.— in old stream 
valley among moss hummocks and in wet 
marshy ground, 71, 77, 92. 
PUCCINELLIA PHRYGANODES (Trin.) 
Scribn. & Merr. — restricted to marine 
sandy shore, 94 

FESTUCA BAFFINENSIS Polunin — fairly 
well distributed on dry heath tundra hillside, 
79. 

CYPERACEAE 
ERIOPHORUM RUSSEOLUM Fries var. 
LEUCOTHRIX (Blomgr.) Hult. — wet mossy 
edge of pool, uncommon, 91. 

ERIOPHORUM ANGUSTIFOLIUM Honcke- 
ny — fairly common in moist tundra valley 
and in old overflow pool bottom, 55, 62. 

KOBRESIA HYPERBOREA A. E. Porsild — 
in heath tundra on hillside, uncommon, 89. 
CAREX ATROFUSCA Schk.— uncommon in 
wet marshy ground, 82. 

CAREX MISANDRA R. Br. — in wet marshy 
spring flooded ground and on wet hummocks 
by streams and lakes, 58, 61,75A, 80, 99. 
CAREX BIGELOWII Torr. — fairly uncom- 
man in Carex marsh near stream, 73. 
CAREX STANS Drej. — common in w e t 
marshy ground, 84, 86, 97. 
CAREX MEMBRANACEA Hook. — common 
in wet marshy ground and moist moss hum- 
mocks along borders of streams, 54, 85, 98, 
100. 



January-March, 1953] The Canadian Field-Naturalist 



41 



JUNCACEAE 

LUZULA NIVALIS (Laest.) Beurl. — com- 
mon in wet marshy spring-flooded land, 78. 
LUZULA CONFUSA Lindb. — common in 
deep moss in rock crevices, 88. 



JUNCUS BIGLUMIS L. 
wet marshy ground, 83. 



rare, scattered in 



SALICACEAE 

SALIX RETICULATA L.— creeping on moist 
hummocks, 28. 

SALIX ARCTICA Pall. var. BROWNEI An- 
derss. — fairly abundant on hummocks in 
wet sedge marsh near settlement, 3 9, 4$ , 
29 9 ; prostrate on mossy quite rocky upland 
tundra, one mile east of settlement, 8 S ; 
creeping on well-drained upland tundra three 
miles northwest of settlement, 20A 9 , 20B S . 
SALIX ARCTOPHILA Cockerell — dry tun- 
dra on edge of valley stream one mile south 
of settlement, 64 9 . 

SALIX RICHARDSONII Hook. — common 
on grassy stream bank, 69. 

POLYGONACEAE 

OXYRIA DIGYNA (L.) Hill— very common 
in moist sand of long sand spit four miles 
north of settlement, but only occasional in 
the dry lichen tundra near the settlement, 
9A, 9B. 

POLYGONUM VIVIPARUM L.— common in 
moist tundra near edge of pool and among 
mosses on stream bank, 51A, 51B. 

CARYOPHYLLACEAE 

SILENE ACAULIS L. var. EXSCAPA (All.) 
DC. — not common on moist sandy lichen 
tundra three miles northwest of settlement, 
and also in coarse gravel on long spit four 
miles northwest of settlement, IB, 11. 

LYCHNIS APETALA L. var. arctica (Fries) 
Stat. n. Wahlenbergella apetala (3 arctica 
Fries, Ofvers. Vet. Akad. Forh. 133. 1869 
(non vidi). Lychnis apetala L. var. nutans 
Boivin, Can. Field-Nat. 65:5. 1951. — common 
on moss hummocks in wet sedge marsh, 43. 
At the varietal level var. arctica appears to 
be the oldest available epithet for the arctic 
phase of Lychnis apetala. This necessitates 
the following transfer: Lychnis apetala L. 
var. arctica (Fries) Cody forma palea (Pol.) 
stat n.. Lychnis apetala L. forma palea Pol., 
Contr. Gray Herb. 165:97. 1947. This form is 
not yet known to be present in our area, in- 
deed, it is only known from the type locality 
(Coral Harbour, Southampton Island) and 



one other locality, (east end of Baker Lake, 
Keewatin District, D.B.O. Savile & C. T. 
Watts 1487). 

CERASTIUM ALPINUM L. — quite common 
on dry upland tundra east of the settlement, 
46B, 51. 

STELLARIA LAETA Rich, —rare on moist 
upland tundra three miles northwest of set- 
tlement, 18. 

STELLARIA MONANTHA Hulten var. 
MONANTHA — generally distributed in 
gravelly sand on long sandy spit four miles 
northwest of settlement, 17. 

STELLARIA sp. — quite abundant in patches 
in dry upland tundra meadow two miles east 
of settlement, 46A. This is a third entity 
which I have been unable to place in Hul- 
ten's recent treatment of the Stellaria longi- 
pes group. The entire plant is glabrous; the 
leaves are dull and glaucus, somewhat car- 
nose, ovate to lanceolate; scarious bracts are 
present; and the stems are many-flowered. 
Hulten, who has seen a duplicate, reports 
in litt: "It has the general appearance of S. 
crassipes but several characteristics of S. 
longipes such as several flowers, very acute 
leaves and quadrangular stem. Apparently 
intermediates occur, probably not so rarely." 
Our plant is quite possibly of hybrid origin. 
ARENARIA ROSSII R. Br. var. DAETHIA- 
NA Polunin — moist moss hummocks at edge 
of lake, rare, 56. 

RANUNCULACEAE 

RANUNCULUS HYPERBOREUS Rottb. — 
wet sand on ocean shore, 59. 

RANUNCULUS NIVALIS L.— only scattered 
plants on moss hummocks at edge of lake, 
Lady Melville Lake, 69°25'N 93°15'W, 22 

RANUNCULUS SABINEI R. Br. — fairly 
rare in moist moss hummock near lake, 
Lady Melville Lake, 69°25'N 93°15'W, 25 

PAPAVERACEAE 

PAPAVER RADICATUM Rottb.— fairly com- 
mon in gravelly sand on long sandy spit four 
miles northwest of settlement but rare else- 
where, 10. 

CRUCIFERAE 

COCHLEARIA OFFICINALIS L. var. 
GROENLANDICA (L.) Gelert — rare on 
sandy ground at edge of seashore near the 
settlement, 93; fairly common on high gra- 
velly tundra six miles southwest of settle- 
ment, 24; uncommon on moist gravelly beach 



42 



The Canadian Field-Naturalist 



[Vol. 67 



at tip of long point of land six miles south- 
west of settlement, 68. 

EUTREMA EDWARDSII R. Br. — in moist 
sedge meadows and on moss hummocks at 
edge of lake, 34, 49. 

CARDAMINE PRATENSIS L. — rare on 
mossy edge of pool, 44. 
DRABA ALPINA L. — common on upland 
tundra two miles north of settlement and 
generally distributed in gravelly sand on 
long sand spit four miles northwest of set- 
tlement, 35, 21. 

DRABA SUBCAPITATA Simmons — uncom- 
mon in gravelly sand on long sand spit four 
miles northwest of settlement, 14. 
DRABA FLADNIZENSIS Wulfen var. HE- 
TEROTRICHA (Lindblom) Ball — fairly 
common on dry upland tundra, 30. 
PARRYA ARCTICA R. Br. — common on up- 
land tundra, 32. 

PARRYA ARCTICA R. Br. f. albiflora Boivin 
f. n. petalis albis — common on sloping up- 
land tundra, 33; Sweatman & Smith 6, Cam- 
bridge Bay, 69°03'N, 104°50'W, dampish area 
surrounded by Carex, July 2, 1950 (type); 
J. Woodruff 96, King William Island, 68° 
47'N, 97°40'W, Aug. 10, 1949. 

SAXIFRAGACEAE 
SAXIFRAGA CERNUA L. — common on dry 
mossy tundra, 70. 

SAXIFRAGA CAESPITOSA L. — in a mat 
on granite ledge one mile north of settle- 
ment, 42. 

SAXIFRAGA HIERACIFOLIA Waldst. & 
Kit. — in moist earth on south side of tundra 
hill, 40B. 

SAXIFRAGA NIVALIS L. — in rock crev- 
ices in granite hill one mile north of settle- 
ment, 40A. 

SAXIFRAGA AIZOIDES L. — dry upland 
heath tundra eight miles south of settlement; 
uncommon except in this place, 66. 
SAXIFRAGA TRICUSPIDATA Rottb. — on 
rock ledge; of very common occurrence 
everywhere, 47. 

SAXIFRAGA HIRCULUS L. — quite rare in 
deep sedge marsh, Lady Melville Lake, 
65°25'N, 93°15'W, 23 A; common on moist tun- 
dra and in swampy places about the settle- 
ment 23B. 

SAXIFRAGA OPPOSITIFOLIA L. — quite 
common throughout the district, lA. 
CHRYSOSPLENIUM lOENSE Rydb. — most- 
ly hidden in wet moss at edge of pool, 5. 
The specimens of this collection have among 
other characters, 8 stamens and are there- 



fore referred here rather than to the common 
northern C. tetrandum. (Rosendahl, Rhodo- 
ra 49: 25-36. 1947.) 

ROSACEAE 

POTENTILLA RUBRICAULIS Lehmann — 
generally distributed on moist upland tundra 
three miles northwest of settlement, 15. 
POTENTILLA VAHLIANA Lehmann — in 
rock crevices in granite hills one mile north 
of settlement, 38. 

DRYAS INTEGRIFOLIA M. Vahl — com- 
mon throughout the district on well-drained 
upland tundra, 19. 

LEGUMINOSAE 

ASTRAGALUS ALPINUS L. — occasional 
on tundra hummocks near water one mile 
northeast of settlement, 45. 
OXYTROPIS MAYDELLIANA Trautv. — 
generally common on moist sandy tundra 
three miles northwest of settlement, 12. 
OXYTROPIS ARCTOBIA Bunge — common 
on shale limestone tundra, 7. 

ONAGRACEAE 

EPILOBIUM LATIFOLIUM L. — common 

on dry tundra and often in old stream beds, 

52. 

EPILOBIUM DAVURICUM Fisch. var. ARC- 

TICUM (Samuelsson) Polunin — in moss at 

moist edge of pool, 63. 

ERICACEAE 

CASSIOPE TETRAGONA (L.) D. Don — 
dry tundra on valley sides, 60. 

PLUMBAGINACE.AE 

ARMERIA MARITIMA (Mill.) Willd. var. 
SIBIRICA (Turcz.) Lawr. — very rare in old 
lake bed in sedge valley eight miles south of 
settlement, 67. 

SCROPHULARIACEAE 

PEDICULARIS SUDETICA Willd. — com- 
mon on wet sedge meadow, 27. 
PEDICULARIS LANATA Cham. & Schl. — 
fairly common on rocky tundra, 6. 
PEDICULARIS LANGSDORFFII Fisch. — 
common on moist hummocks in sedge marsh, 
26. 

PEDICULARIS CAPITATA Adams — fairly 
common on moist lichen tundra, 39. 

COMPOSITAE 

MATRICARIA AMBIGUA (Ledeb.) Kyrl. — 
restricted to marine sandy shore, 95. 
CHRYSANTHEMUM INTEGRIFOLIUM Rich. 
— often in old stream beds and on upland 



January-March, 1953] The Canadian Field-Naturalist 



43 



tundra, one mile southeast of settlement, 53. 
TARAXACUM LACERUM Greene — restrict- 
ed to gravelly sand on long sand spit four 
miles northwest of settlement, 16. 



The specimens are preserved in the Her- 
barium of the Division of Botany, and Plant 
Pathology, Science Service, Canada Depart- 
ment of Agriculture, Ottawa. 



ny 



NOTES AND OBSERVATIONS 



Clay-colored Sparrow nesting in Grey 
County, Ontario. — During a field day held 
by the Toronto Field Naturalist Club on the 
24th of May week-end 1952, at Craigleith in 
Grey County, Ont., a singing Clay-colored 
sparrow (Spizella pallida) was discovered by 
a member of the party — George Francis of 
Toronto, Ont. The writer made several visits 
to the location, an old pasture field over- 
grown with hawthorn bushes, wild roses bushes 
and wild apple, a typical habitat for this 
western sparrow, and discovered a colony 
of this species, some three or four pairs. 
On June 12, 1952, the writer found a Clay- 
colored Sparrow nesting, in a wild rose bush 
eight or ten inches from the ground in this 
locality with a singing male in attendance 
a few yards from the nesting female. A 
colored photograph was secured of the nest 
and four eggs. While the Clay-colored Spar- 
row has been recorded twice in an adjacent 
county — Simcoe County (no nesting record) 
— this apparently is the first record of the 
Clay-colored Sparrow nesting in Grey 
County. A. J. MITCHENER, 73 Market St., 
Collingwood, Ont. 

Recent Records of the Magpie in North- 
western Ontario ^Peterson (1947) considers 

the Magpie, Pica pica, to be a straggler in 
eastern North America. A northeastern spread 
of the range of this species occurred in 1944- 
45, according to Rand (1948). The effects of 
this spread seem to have persisted, judging 
by records reported to the Department of 
Lands and Forests, Sioux Lookout, during the 
past two years. 

(Mr. Frank Dodds, now of Red Lake, and a 
resident of the Ghost-River — Sioux Lookout — 
Red Lake area for over 30 years, stated that 
there is an occasional fall flight of magpies 
in this area. He has seen them on three 
occasions, and has heard of two or three birds 
being seen each time. 

QVIr. T. Batchelor, now of Sioux Lookout, 
saw a magpie in the fall of 1944 (year?) at 
Big Beaverhouse Lake, to the north of Pickle 
Lake. Later that winter, an Indian trapped 



a magpie nearby, which he showed to Mr. 
Batchelor at the trading post. 

Mr. C. L. Perrie told me that a commer- 
cial fisherman, Mr. Vic Parks, reported seeing 
three magpies at Oneman Lake, north of 
Kenora, in 1949. The birds appeared in Nov- 
ember, then left singly, and the last had gone 
before January. 

Mr. E. Stone, now of Sioux Lookout, fished 
ccommercially near Minaki during the winter 
of 1949-50. He relates that that winter, 
probably in January, between 15 and 20 mag- 
pies came to Sand Lake, and stayed there for 
a period of about 10 days, feeding on cull 
fish. It was the first time that anyone around 
Minaki had seen magpies, and none has been 
seen there since. 

In March, 1951, two magpies were trapped 
near Kenora. One was taken into the local 
Department of Lands and Forests office for 
examination, but the specimen was not saved. 

During December, 1951, an Indian trapper, 
David Brisket, trapped a magpie near High- 
stone Lake 30 miles northeast of Sioux Look- 
out. The specimen was turned over to the 
Royal Ontario Museum of Zoology. 

A magpie was seen on October 28, 1952, 
at Ghost River, by Mr. T. Zarecki, a trapper. 
This last record makes 1952-53 the fourth con- 
secutive winter during which the magpie has 
been reported in northwestern Ontario. 

There is little doubt the magpie is now 
more than a mere straggler in northwestern 
Ontario and deserves to be classified as either 
a regular, or irregular, but rare fall and 
winter visitant in the area. 

Most of the above records have come from 
either trappers or commercial fishermen. A 
potential winter-round supply of magpie food 
results from the efforts of both these groups 
of workers, and so it is quite probable that 
these winter magpie records will increase in 
frequency. If so, this species will become 
increasingly interesting to naturalists of north- 
western Ontario. 



44 



The Canadian Field-Naturalist 



[Vol. 67 



Literature Cited 

Peterson, R. T., 1047. A field guide to the 

birds. Houghton Mifflin Co., Boston. 
Rand, A. L., 1948. Distributional notes on 
Canadian Birds. Can. Field-Nat. 62 (6): 
175480. 

A. T. CRIiNGAN, 
Ont. Dept. of Lands and Forests, 
Sioux Lookout, Ont. 

Starling nesting at Churchill, Manitoba. — 

In 1952, European Starlings (Sturnus vul- 
garis) extended their nesting range in Mani- 
toba as far north as Churchill. This seaport 
town, at 58° 45' N. Lat., is probably the most 
northerly point on this continent at which 
starlings have yet nested. 

Since 1944, when Dr. Arthur Allen re- 
ported having seen 4 Starlings at Churchill, 
occasional strays have been observed in this 
region, but not until this year has there been 
any evidence of their nesting here. 

On May 10, 1952, I saw a flock of 17 
Starlings near the Churchill grain elevator, 
and early in June noted that these birds 
had bulit nests high up (60-70 ft.) in the 
structural steel that supports the grain con- 
veyor between the elevator and the shipping 
docks. There were eight nests at least, per- 
haps more, loosely constructed of grasses. Only 
one brood was raised this season. When the 
young were able to fly, the total number of 
birds, young and old, was approximately 60. 
This flock, which has so far had few casual- 
ties, is still here (November 12, 1952) al- 
though northern winter set in grimly some 
weeks ago. It appears that they have come 
to stay.— MRS. EVA BECKETT, Churchill, 
Man. 

Dead Golden Eagle at Perkins Mills, Quebec. 

—On February 24, 1949, R. Frith and I found 
a dead Golden Eagle, Aquila chrysaetos cana- 
densis (Linnaeus), in the Ottawa District near 
Perkins Mills, Quebec. It was on a fence- 
post by the road from Ste. Rose de Lima. To 
judge from tracks in the snow, someone had 
recently crossed the roadside snowdrift and 
fence, gone a short distance into pine woods, 
picked up the bird from the snow, and placed 
the carcass on the fence-post. When found, 
both feet had been chopped off at the body 
and removed and one wing was gone. On 
dissection, the flesh of the carcass was found 
to be partly decomposed, the internal organs, 
largely so. 

Left wing and back bone were shattered, 
probably by a rifle bullet. It seems probable 
that it was shot near where found, although 



this is not certain. If it had been shot else- 
where and then discarded from a vehicle on 
the road, it seems most unlikely that anyone 
would carry it across drift and fence to leave 
it in the woods beyond. The tail, skull, and 
a piece of breast-skin with feathers attached 
were saved.— HOYES LLOYD, Ottawa. 

White-tailed Deer Odocoileus virginianus 
in Jasper National Park, Alberta. — I observ- 
ed a young doe white-tailed deer on May 23, 
1952, near the junction of the Miette and 
Athabasca Rivers, two miles south of Jasper. 
The only previous record was a doe seen by 
Warden B. White at Decoigne during July, 
1943, according to Cowan (Report on game 
conditions in Banff, Jasper, and Kootenay Na- 
tional Parks, 1943. National Parks Bureau, Ot- 
tawa, 72 pp., mimeographed). 

There is a summer influx of white-tailed 
deer near Mount Eisenhower and Saskatche- 
wan River Crossing, Banff National Park. 
These areas are opposite low passes through 
the Rocky Mountains leading to the Columbia 
River Valley of British Columbia where the 
northwestern white-tailed deer Odocoileus 
virginianus ochrourus is common according to 
Cowan (Distribution and variation in deer 
(genus Odocoileus) of the Pacific coastal 
region of North America. Calif. Fish and 
Game 22 (3) : 156-246, 1936). 

It is noteworthy that the deer observed in 
Jasper were opposite the Yellowhead Pass. 
Undoubtedly these deer belonged to the sub- 
species ochrourus. — A. W. F. BANFIELD, 
Canadian Wildlife Service, Banff, Alberta. 

Starlings in the Ungava District, Quebec 
Province. — During the summer of 1952, the 
writer was engaged in herpetological studies 
of northeastern Canada under the auspices 
of the Arctic Institute of North America. 
From July 19 to August 1 camp was estab- 
lished at the abandoned Hudson's Bay Post 
of Fort McKenzie (56°50'N, 68°58'W). This 
post is situated at the junction of Lac Le- 
Moyne and the Swampy Bay River, the latter 
eventually draining into the Koksoak River 
and thence into southern Ungava Bay. During 
our stay, there was a pair of starlings (Sturnus 
vulgaris vulgaris) with at least five young 
ones living about the post. The young were 
fully fledged but were still being fed by the 
parent birds. 

This is the most northerly breeding record 
for eastern Canada, southern James Bay and 
the north shore of the Gulf of St. Lawrence 
being the previous records. Climatically it is 



January-March, 1953] The Canadian Field-Naturalist 



45 



at the northern border of the Open-Boreal 
Forest where the ground cover is mainly 
lichens. The only comparable western record 
is from Churchill, Manitoba. 

Starlings are common at Seven Islands, on 
the north shore of the St. Lawrence River. 
From this town, there extends a series of 
railway construction camps northwards for 
365 miles. The writer camped at Mile 134 
and at the last camp, Burnt Creek, which has 
been an active little town for several years. 
However, no starlings were seen at either of 
these sites. 



It is remarkable that this pair of starlings 
should have penetrated so far northwards and 
yet have missed the active railway camps, 
flying 130 miles farther north to settle at an 
abandoned Hudson's Bay Post. Whether they 
arrived by storm or through grim determina- 
tion is mere speculation, the fact remains 
that this hardy and aggressive species has 
once more demonstrated its success in spre^- 
ing over and colonizing the North American 
Continent. — SHERMAN BLEAKNEY, Na- 
tional Museum of Canada, Ottawa, Ontario. 



REVIEWS 



A Review Of The Living Representatives 
Of The Genus Aloes. By Randolph L. Peterson. 
Contributions of the Royal Ontario Museum 
of Zoology and Palaeontology, No. 34, Toronto, 
30 pp. 

This review of the genus Alces is the 
most complete and thorough study of the 
group that has ever been undertaken parti- 
cularly with regard to the North American 
moose, which has been sadly neglected by 
taxonomists. This is probably due to the fact 
that in order to examine an adequate series, 
the zoologist must visit a large number of 
scattered museums. This is, in fact, what Dr. 
Peterson did, and we are grateful to him 
for this valuable report. 

No less than 304 specimens were used in 
the study, including seven skulls of Old World 
forms. It is evident, therefore, that the find- 
ings are based on adequate material. Although 
44 separate cranial measurements were made 
in the course of the study, ten were chosen 
as most useful for taxonomic purposes. These 
are described and the results are tabulated. 
The three most significant characters in terms 
of subspecific variation are shown graphically. 

After a careful study of the material and 
a comparison of Old and New World forms, 
the author concludes that the Eurasian elk 
and the North American moose are conspe- 
cific. Earlier authors have suggested that they 
should be so regarded, but none of them had 
sufficient evidence to substantiate his theory. 

Seven subspecies of Alces alces are recog- 
nized: alces, cameloides, and pfizenmayeri 
from Northern Europe and Asia, and gigas, 
shirasi, andersoni and americana from North 
America. A. a. gigas occurs in Alaska, western 
Yukon and northwestern British Columbia, 
shirasi in the northwestern United States 



north into southwestern Alberta and south- 
eastern British Columbia, and americana from 
central Ontario east throughout the forested 
regions to the Atlantic provinces. A. a. a7i- 
dersoni occupies the area between americana 
on the east, and shirasi and gigas in the west. 

Each subspecies is treated in considerable 
detail, particularly the North American races. 
The study reveals that, compared with other 
races, americana has the narrowest palate 
relative to the length of the toothrow and 
the occiput is low. At the other extreme, 
gigas, has a wide palate relative to the length 
of the toothrow and the occiput is high. A. 
a. shirasi is rather intermediate, but the tooth- 
row averages shortest of all. As might be 
expected, andersoni is rather intermediate 
between americana and gigas, the palate is 
broader than in the former, but narrower than 
in the latter, and the occiput is low when 
compared with gigas, but higher than in amer- 
icana. It would appear that there is a broad 
cline in this species in North America, ex- 
tending from Nova Scotia west to Alaska. 

The revision of any poorly understood 
group of animals is always a welcome addi- 
tion to our knowledge. This is especially true 
of such an important genus as the one treat- 
ed in this report.— AUSTIN W. CAMERON. 

Proceedings of the Xth International Orni- 
thological Congress, Uppsala, June 1950. 

Edited by Sven Hbrstadius, General Secretary. 
Printed at Almquist and Wiksell, Uppsala, 
1951. Copies may be obtained from Professor 
H'drstadius, Zoologiska Institutionen, Uppsala, 
or from the printers, for 35 Swedish Crowns. 
This handsome volume of the proceedings 
of the Congress, comprising 662 pages, was 
published with the aid of grants from Sweden, 



46 



The Canadian Field-Naturalist 



[Vol. 67 



Unesco, and the Smithsonian Institution, un- 
der the patronage of the International Union 
of Biological Sciences. 

The presidential address by Alexander 
Wetmore on "Recent Additions to our Know- 
ledge of Prehistoric Birds 1933-1949" is pub- 
lished in full, as are four synoptical surveys 
by Messrs. Drost, Lack, Mayr, and Tinbergen, 
and the "Introduction to Swedish Ornitho- 
logy" by Sven Horstadius. Other authors, be- 
cause of limited space, have had to limit 
themselves to short reports and references 
to places of detailed publication. 

There had not been a congress between 
1938 and 1950 and consequently summaries 
showing advances in knowledge during that 
time assumed extra importance. R. E. Moreau 
(editor of The Ibis) looks at the whole ques- 
tion of migration with interesting results, 
such as the thought that migration was much 
older than the Pleistocene glaciations. The 
spectacular climatic fluctuations of that 
period occurred during less than the last one 
million years, a period less than one hundredth 
part of the age of the class Aves. Birds 
capable of long distance migration existed 
over thirty times as long ago as the first of 
the Pleistocene glaciations. 

It is impossible to review this volume 
which touches on all fields of ornithology, 
with discussion usually by leaders in each. 

To read this report gives some idea of the 
amazing experiences which await any orni- 
thologist who attends one of these world 
gatherings. The effort put into arrangements 



for meetings, excursions, banquets had to be 
experienced to be believed. Language dif- 
ficulties were probably the most severe handi- 
cap, but even these were dealt with as when 
our scholarly secretary gave his address of 
welcome in eight different tongues! 

Only four Canadians attended the Con- 
gress, but all interested can read about it in 
this book and thus keep up to date with 
ornithological studies elsewhere in the world. 
— HOYES LLOYD. 

Annual Report of the Province of Quebec 
Society for the Protection of Birds, Montreal, 
1951. 

This Annual Report of one of our affiliated 
societies contains an extensive list of observa- 
tions on birds made in 1951 including a sum- 
mary of migratory movements. — H. A. 

SENN. 

Dawn Song and All Day, Volume 1, Number 
6, February, 1952. Bird Research Station, 
Glanton, Northumberland, England, Price 
1/6. 

Synchronized observations on the dawn and 
dusk chorus were made in 1951 on March 25, 
May 13, September 23 and November 18. On 
March 25 observations were concentrated for 
the most part in the British Isles but ob- 
servers also went out in India, North Africa 
and the European mainland. On the other 
main date, November 18, observations were 
made in New Zealand, Australia, India, Africa 
British Isles and North and South America. — 
H. A. SENN. 



NOTICE 

to 

MEMBERS AND SUBSCRIBERS 

Due to the present cost of production of the Canadian Field-Naturalist 
the Council of the Ottawa Field-Naturalists' Club has decided that beginning 
with Volume 67 the Canadian Field-Naturalist will be issued quarterly. If 
finances permit each volume will consist of four numbers of approximately 
48 pages each. Bi-monthly publication may later be resumed should cir- 
cumstances warrant. 

EDITOR. 



AFFILIATED SOCIETIES 



NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY 
OF MANITOBA 



VANCOUVER NATURAL HISTORY 
SOCIETY 



OFFICERS FOR 1951-52 : 

President Emeritus: Charles W. Lowe; Honorary Presi- 
dent: A. G. Lawrence; President: RAYMOND R.' LE- 
JEUNE; Vice-Presidents: Mrs. D. B. SPARLING, Prof. 
R. K. STEWART-HAY; General Secretary: Mrs. W. A. 
CARTWRIGHT; Executive Secretary: Mrs. G. I. KEITH; 
Treasurer: H. MOSSOP; Auditor: W. A. CARTWRIGHT; 
Social Convenor: Miss LOUISE M. LOVELL. 

SECTIONS— 

Ornithology: Chair. F. J. COUTTS; Sec. Miss W. 
DOV/NES. Entomology: Chair. R. J. HERON; Sec. 
J. A. DROUIN. Botany. Chair. Mrs. D. B. SPARLING; 
Sec. JOHN S. ROWE. Geology: Chair. P. H. STOICES; 
Sec. P. W. GRANT. Mammalogy: Chair. C. I. TILLE- 
NIUS; Sec. O. P. GIBSON. Herpetology: Chair. R. K. 
STEWART-HAY; Sec. H. MOSSOP. Archeology: Chair. 
Mrs. P. H. STOKES; Sec. Mrs. R. K. HELYAR. 

Lectures on the first and third Monday evenings of 
each month will be held in the 4th floor Board Room 
of the Free Press. Friday evening lectures wil be held 
in Room 200 of the University Extension Service, Me- 
morial Boulevard, Winnipeg. Field Excursions are held 
on Saturdays or Sundays during May, June and Sep- 
tember, and on piiblic holidays in July and August. 
Membership fee: $1 a year for adults; 25 cents for 
juniors. 



PROVANCHER SOCIETY OF NATURAL 
HISTORY OF CANADA 

OFFICERS FOR 1953 

President : F. DONALD ROSS; 1st Vice-President : JOS. 
MORIN; 2nd Vice-President : J. C. PRICE; Secretary- 
Treasurer : GEO. A. LECLERC; Chief of Scientific 
Section : FRANCOIS HAMEL; Chief of Protection 
Section : REX MEREDITH; Chief of Propaganda Section : 
DR. D. A. DERY; Chief of Information Section : J. A. 
BIGONESSE. Other directors : G. H. CARTWRIGHT, 
T. J. A. HUNTER, DR. V. PLAMONDON, J. J. DION, 
J. K. HILL, J. G. COOTE. 

Secretary's address : GEORGES A. LECLERC, 12 Desy 
Avenue, Quebec, P.Q. 



THE TORONTO FIELD-NATURALISTS' 
CLUB 

OmCERS FOR 1950-1951 

President : A. A. OUTRAM; Vice-President : J. L. 
BAILLIE; Secretary-Treasurer: MRS. J. B. STEWART, 
21 Millwood Rd., Toronto; President of Junior Club: 
MRS. J. MURRAY SPEIRS; Vice-President of Junior Club: 
MRS L. E. JAQUITH. Executive Council: G. M. BART- 
MAN, J. BARNETT, MRS. N. BROWN, ALFRED BUNKER, 
MISS F. BURGESS, ALEXANDER CAMERON, MISS VERA 
CLARK, MISS B. DOUGLAS, PROF. T. W. DWIGHT, DR. 
M. FRITZ, W. W. H. GUNN, DR. L. E. JAQUTTH, MRS. 
I. D. KETCHUM, MISS V. KOHLER, MRS. H. H . MARSH, 
C. S. McKEE, D. S. MILLER, JOHN MITCHELE, R. M. 
SAUNDERS, EARL STARK, H. H. SOUTHAM. Ex. Officio: 
A. J. V. LEHMANN, C. A WALKINSHAW, T. F. McIL- 
WRAITH. 

Meetings are held at 8.15 p.m. on the first Monday oi 
each month from October to May at the Royal Ontario 
Museum, unless otherwise announced. Field trips ar« 
held during the spring and autumn and on the second 
Saturday oi each month during the winter. 



OFFICERS 



1951-1952 



Hon. President: DR. N. A. M. MacKENZIE; Past President 
A. H. BAIN; President: DR. V. C. BRINK; Vice-President: 
DR. T. M. C. TAYLOR; Hon. Secretary; C. B. W. ROGERSs 
Recording Secretary: MISS C. PLOMMER; Program Sec- 
retary: S. F. BRADLEY; Hon. Treasurer: F. J. SANFORD; 
Librarian: MRS. S. F. BRADLEY; Editor of Bulletin: N 
PURSSELL; Chairmen of Sections: Botany — PROF. J. 
DAVIDSON; Geology — DR. J. E. ARMSTRONG; En- 
tomology — A. R. WOOTTON; Ornithology — W. M. 
HUGHES; Mammology — DR. I. McT. COWAN; Marine 
Biology — R. W. PILLSBURY; Photography — H. C. 
FRESHWATER; Junior Section — A. R. WOOTTON; 
Mycology — F. WAUGH; Aubudon Screen Tours — A. 
H. BAIN; Additional Member of Executive: J. J. PLOM- 
MER; Auditors: H. G. SELWOOD. J, H. PROSSER 

All meetings at 8 p.m.. Room 100, Applied Science- 
Building, University of British Columbia, unless other- 
w^ise announced. 



McILWRAITH ORNITHOLOGICAL CLUB 
LONDON, ONT. 



OFFICERS FOR 1953 

Past President : Mr. W. D. SUTTON, 313 Whamcliffe 
Rd. N., London; President : Mrs. R. G. CUMMINGS, 
R.R. 4, London; Vice-President : Mr. H. KEAST, 1239 
Gleeson St., London; Secretary : Miss M. EDY, R.R. 4, 
London; Secretary-Treasurer : Dr. W. W. JUDD, 685 
Strathmeyer St., London; Migration Secretary : Mr. J. 
LEACH, West London, P.O., London. 

Meetings are held at 8.00 p.m. in the Public Libraxy 
biulding on the second Monday of each month Iran 

Sep.t-moer to May. 

Field trips are held during the spring and a special 

excursion in September. 



PROVINCE OF QUEBEC SOCIETY FOR 
THE PROTECTION OF BIRDS INC. 

OFFICERS FOR 1952-53 

President: G. H. MONTGOMERY; Vice-President: W. H. 
RAWLINGS; Vice President: J. P. ANGLIN; Treasurer: D, 
G. ELLIOT; Asst.-Treasurer: Mrs. D. G. ELLIOT; Secretary: 
Miss R. S. ABBOTT, 166 Senneville Road, Senneville, P.Q. 

COMMITTEE 

Miss R. S. ABBOTT, J. P. ANGLIN, W. R. B. BERTRAM, 
Miss R. B. BLANCHARD, J. D CLEGHORN, Dr. M. J. DUN. 
BAR, D. G. ELLIOT, Mrs. D. G. ELLIOT, DeLISLE GAfl- 
NEAU, G. H. HALL, W. S. HART, Miss G. HIBBARD. 
Miss A. HORSFALL, A. R. LEPINGWELL, IAN McLAREN, 
G. H. MONTGOMERY. W. H. RAWLINGS, J. W. ROBIN- 
SON, C. C. SAIT, Miss M. SEATH, H. F. SEYMOUR, 
Dr. J. H. SUMMERBY, L. McI. TERRILL, Mrs. L. McL 
TERRILL, Miss F. M. WALLACE. 

Meetings held the second Monday of the month except 
during summer. Field Trips held in spring and autumn. 



BRITISH COLUMBIA BIRD AND 
MAMMAL SOCIETY 



President : KENNETH RACEY; Vice-Prseident : H. M. 
LAING; Secretary: IAN McT. COWAN, Dept oi 
Zoology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, B.C. 



FIRST IN ITS FIELD 

m FROGS, TOADS 

AND SALAMANDERS 

OF EASTERN CANADA 

with 57 line drawings 

by E. B. S. Logier 

The only general work of its kind dealing with the amphibians 
(frogs, toads and salamanders) of Eastern Canada, Mr. Logier's 
authoritative volume is of keen interest to the general reader and 
indispensable to the zoologist. The author is now Associate Curator 
of the Division of Ichthyology and Herpetology of the Royal Ontario 
Museum of Zoology and Palaeontology. 

Intended for the beginner as well as for the experienced student, Mr. 
Logier's book begins with an outline of amphibians in general, and 
then deals with more specific matters, such as structural features and 
functions, life and history, geographical distribution and economic 
importance and conservation. 

Of especial interest to the collector is the section dealmg with the 
technical procedures of collecting, preserving and measuring amphi- 
bians. The author's key to the Eastern Canadian Species is com- 
prehensive, detailed and well-illustrated, yet it is, at the same time, 
so systematically-arranged that the inexperienced student will easily 
be able to identify his spring specimens by means of it. 

$3.75 
from any bookseller or the publishers 

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103 St. Clair Ave. West Toronto 5 



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VoL 67 APRIL-JUNE, 1953 No. 2 

The CANADIAN 
FIELD -NATURALIST 

Contents I JUL 2 19531 






Nesting life and behaviour of the Red-eyed Vireo. - 

By Louise de Kiriline Lawrence 47 

Members of the Ottawa Field-Naturalists' Qub and Subscribers to the 

Canadian Field-Naturalist, 1953 77 

A colony of the land snail Cepaea nemoralis (L.) (Helicidae) in the vicinity 

of London, Ontario. By W. W. Judd 87 

Notes on EUesmere Island birds. By W. Earl Godfrey 89 

Contributions to the flora of Nova Scotia. Ill: Some interesting white forms. 

By W. B. Schofield and E. C. Smith 93 

Notes and Observations: — 

Song Sparrows in central Alberta in winter. 

By E. O. Hohn and A. Oeming 94 

European Starling on Vancouver Island, B.C. By Theed Pearse 94 

'^ 

Published by the 
OTTAWA FIELD-NATURAUSTS' CLUB 

Entered at the Post Office at Ottawa, Ont., as second class matter. 



©be ©ttaina Jftelii-^aturaUsitS' Club 



Patron: 
His Excellency, The Rt. Honourable Vincent Massey, C.H., Governor-General of Canada. 

President: Mr. R. Frith 
1st Vice-President: Mr. W. K. W. Baldwin 2nd Vice-President: Dr. H. A. Senn 

Treasurer: Raymond Moore, Secretary: H. J. Scoggan, 

Division of Botany, National Museum of Canada, 

Science Service, Dept. of Ottawa. 

Agriculture, Ottawa. 

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Horner, Miss Violet Humphreys, Miss Verna Ross, Miss Pauline Snure, Miss 
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J. S. Bleakney, B. Boivin, A. E. Bourguignon, E. L. Bousfield, K. Bowles, A. W. 
Cameron, W. J. Cody, I. L. Conners, J. P. Cuerrier, W. G, Dore, C. Frankton, W. E. 
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Rhodes, L. S. Russell, D. B. O. Savile, V. E. F. Solman, J. S. Tener. 

Auditors: I. L. Conners, C. Frankton. 



Editor 

Dr. H. a. Senn, 

Division of Botany, 

Science Service, Dept. of Agriculture, Ottawa. 

Associate Editors 

W. G. Dos£ Botany R. M. Anderson Mamtrudogy 

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OTTAWA, CANADA. 



The Canadian Field'Naturalist 



Vol. 67 



OTTAWA, CANADA, APRIL-JUNE, 1953 



No. 2 



NESTING LIFE AND BEHAVIOUR OF THE RED-EYED VIREO ' 

Louise de Kiriline Lawrence 
Rutherglen, Ont. 



INTRODUCTION 

SINCE 1940 when I began seriously to study 
birdlife in this area, the Red-eyed Vireo 
Vireo olivaceus (Linnaeus), each summer 
stamped itself most conspicuously on the 
pages of my note-books and upon my mind. 
This was due, in part, to the ease with which 
its nests were usually found. With the Oven- 
bird, Seiurus aurocapillus, the Veery or Wil- 
son's Thrush, Hylocicla fuscescens, and the 
Least Flycatcher, Empidonax minimus, this 
vireo was also one of the most common 
migrants nesting in the region. 

Apart from these reasons, the bird has 
always attracted me by its elegance. It 
travels through the foliage with which its 
sober colouration blends so perfectly, some- 
times slowly, sometimes swiftly, but always 
with that stream-lined precision that above 
all others is a vireo's trade-mark. In its song, 
even, be it monotonous to many by its often 
endless repetitions, I have found subtle 
variations and a full-toned beauty, entirely 
enchanting. The closer acquaintance, which 
an intensified study of the species in 1949 and 
1950 afforded, has but strengthened and sup- 
ported my earlier impressions. 

The data herein presented are based main- 
ly upon daily fieldwork, amounting to many 
hundred hours, and the study of 9 special 
pairs. These pairs are designated by a letter, 
A, B, C, and so on, in the order in which 
they settled in the study plot and two 
numerals denoting the year, for instance, 
Pair E-50. Nest E2-50 denotes the second 
nesting of this pair. It is to be regretted that 
the adult Red-eyed Vireo does not readily 
allow itself to be trapped for banding and 
that therefore the interpretation of the be- 
haviour of birds so alike and passing most of 
their time aloft among the crowns of the 
trees cannot be either as simple or as con- 
stantly accurate as with banded birds. Since 



■ Received for publication February 29, 1952. 

Vol. 67, No. 1, January -March, 



I felt it was more important to observe the 
birds act with as little interference as pos- 
sible, no banding was attempted at the nests 
with the exception of some nestlings. Only 
one adult male was caught by accident and 
banded. For the recognition of individuals 
and pairs especially in 1949 and 1950, I re- 
lied therefore on the careful, almost daily, 
search of the territories, censuses, and the 
studying of individual traits in song, plumage, 
or behaviour. 

I am grateful to Dr. J. Van Tyne and to 
Dr. Harrison F. Lewis for their kindness in 
supplying me with literature from their own 
libraries and that of the Wilson Ornitho- 
logical Club. The courtesy of Mr. Andrew 
Thomson, Controller of the Meteorological 
Division of the Department of Transport 
(Canada) enabled me to base the weather 
data of Table 1 on information from the of- 
ficial records. Further, I have received 
generous and valuable aid from Mrs. Amelia 
Laskey, Mrs. Margaret Morse Nice and Dr. 
and Mrs. J. M. Speirs, assistance with liter- 
ature, data from their own files and ex- 
perience, and helpful guidance throughout 
this study. 

THE LAND 

This region is located in central On- 
tario, south of the Mattawa River and not far 
from its source at Talon Lake and about 20 
miles north of the north-western corner of 
Algonquin Provincial Park. Both north and 
south of the river the country is in the 
ecotone between Temperate Deciduous Forest 
Biome, Association No. 9 (Tsuga-Pinus-north- 
ern hardwood ecotone) and Coniferous 
Forest Biome, Association No. 2 {Picea-Abies 
Association), (Kendeigh, 1948). 

The study area was a strip of land con- 
taining 16 acres between the south and 
south-easterjn shores of a small lake, Pimisi 
Bay, through which the_jiyer-4>asses, and 
Highway 17. FronrXT^B^jol^Verl plateau in 

1953, was issued June B, 1953.^ " ?f , 



47 — 




19531 



48 



The Canadian Field-Naturalist 



[Vol. 67 



the west part, the land sloped east and south- 
wards towards the lake. It was thickly wooded 
by second growth, now becoming mature, 
mixed evergreen and deciduous trees, some 
attaining heights of from 60 to 70 feet. 
The evergreens consisted mainly of white and 
red pines, Pinus Strobus and P. resinosa, 
white spruce, Picea glauca, balsam fir, Abies 
balsamea, and the broad-leaved trees of 
white birch, Betula papyrifera, and aspens, 
Populus tremuloides and P. grandidentata. 
The undergrowth included red and mountain 
maple shrubs, Acer rubrum and A. spicatum, 
juneberry, Amelanchier sp., alder, Alnus in- 
cana, willow, Salix spp., and the forest floor 
was covered with bracken, Pteridium aquili- 
num, wild sarsaparilla, Aralia nudicaulis, 
and Aster spp., to name the most common. 
Among the flowering plants were bunch- 
berry, Cornus canadensis, wintergreen, Gaul- 
theria procumbens, polygala, Polygala pauci- 
folia, and twinflower, Linnaea borealis. With 
the exception of a small clearing around our 
house and a few natural trails, the woods 
have been left entirely untouched for the 
past 15 years. 

In the region as a whole, the Red-eyed 
Vireo was found in the forest as well as in 
the more open country, in woodlots forming 
islands of trees amid the fields and in those 
stretching along rivers, lakes and roads. In 
the forest it liked southward and eastward 
slopes and it was also encountered in places 
near water or where rock formations, or 
fires, or the logger, had thinned out the tall 
timber, thus creating lighter areas in the 
pine-spruce forest. While the bird nested 
both in coniferous and deciduous trees and 
while the undergrowth of its habitat might 
be fairly well scattered, in situations where 
there was none or a low percent of de- 
ciduous trees and where the undergrowth 
was totally lacking, the Red-eyed Vireo was 
not present. This confirms Dr. Kendeigh's 
conclusion (1947: 56), that a certain propor- 
tion of broad-leaved trees is necessary for 
the occurrence of this species. Generally it 
may be said, that an overhead canopy of 
verdure, more or less continuous, under 
which to feed, sing and nest and above which 
it rarely ventured except of necessity (see 
Defence behaviour) appeared to be the chief 
requirement of this vireo. Yet, in years of 
particular abundance, I have found the Red- 
eye not uncommonly singing from the shade 
trees in the city of North Bay in the midst 
of summ,er, or nesting in isolated clumps of 



bushes on the outskirts of settlements or in 
a pasture or field, where the green roof was 
less than 20 or 25 feet high and where there 
was not a single taller tree. 

ARRIVAL IN SPRING 

In the middle of May when the trillium 
and the red cherry burst into bloom and the 
birch and the aspen are about to unfold 
their new leaves, the Red-eyed Vireo may be 
heard in these parts, announcing its arrival 
by a few clear and fluent song phrases. The 
bird is one of the later migrants, from 3 to 
16 days later than the Solitary Vireo, V. soli- 
tarius, but generally a few days ahead of its 
other relative, the Philadelphia Vireo, V. 
philadelphicus. 

In the past 11 years, the arrival dates 
have ranged from May 1 to 24, with a mean 
of May 16. The median date, however, was 
May 19 which is probably more representative 
for the Red-eyes of this region than May 16, 
since the last date is derived from data with 
a large spread and covering hardly enough 
years for an accurate estimate. Incidentally, 
May 16 is the Red-eyed Vireo's mean arrival 
date for the Toronto region, 240 miles south 
of Pimisi Bay, (Gunn and Crocker 1951: . 
143); but this average was established from 
the records of Mr. James L. Baillie over a 
period of 27 years, and hence computed from 
sufficient data upon which a representative 
mean date might be based. 

Table 1 shows the dates of first arrivals 
and pertinent weather data. As will be seen, 
the maximum and, especially, the minimum 
temperatures of the day before and the days 
of first arrivals average higher than the 
Normal May Means, the maximum from 3.8 
to 1.0 degrees and the minimum from 3.2 
to 0.4 degrees F. In all the years but one, 
1948, southwest winds and a flow of warm 
air into the region preceded these dates. The 
years 1941 and 1942 with the exceptionally 
early arrival dates featured April mean tem- 
peratures considerably above the Normal 
Means of the month and spells of unseason- 
ably warm weather and SW winds occurred 
before and on these dates. The late arrival in 
1948 was probably only of local significance, 
i. e. the birds due to pass through or to 
reside in or near this locality happened to 
miss the favourable periods of May 4-5 and 
13-15 and instead became delayed by the 
cold weather May 17-22 when N and NW 
winds for the most part prevailed. The great 
storm of April 4-7, 1947, that in such a 



April- June, 1953] 



The Canadian Field-Naturalist 



49 



TABLE 1. — First arrival dates of the Red-eyed Vireo in relation to temperature 

and weather 

TEMPERATURES (degrees Fahrenheit) 

Date Date 

Date of before 

of arrival arrival April mean May mean 

Year arrival max. min. max. min. max. min. max. min. 



Normal 

1940 May 22 68 

1941 May 7 64 

1942 May 1 82 

1943 May 20 71 

1944 May 14 59 

1945 May 21 64 

1946 May 17 63 

1947 May 20 55 

1948 May 24 56 

1949 May 16 71 

1950 May 19 71 



56 70 40 

55 66 44 

53 75.1 39 

38 62 37 

38 58 53 

45 64 38 

34 46 39 

39 74 48 



48 28 

42.8 23.8 

53.7 31.9 

53.0 32.1 
38.2 20.8 

42.8 22.9 

49.1 31.9 
46.7 28.8 
41.0 23.3 



62 40 

61.0 40.1 

63.8 41.1 

61.8 42.1 

60.9 40.6 

66.8 45.3 

56.2 36.9 

56.9 37.9 
54.4 36.7 



37 50 31 51.5 29.6 59.4 37.5 



39 61 30 48.1 27.6 61.3 38.7 



43 67 45 39.1 22.2 61.7 39.7 



Notes 
Warm May 15, 21-23; other- 
wise May normal or below. 
May 1-8 max. aver. 61; cool 
May 9-13; SW winds May 67. 
Apr. 23-30 maximums above 
70; winds SW Apr.28-May 4. 
May 20 warmest day; May 
19-20 winds light variable. 
May 14 noon winds shifted 
SW; warm Apr. 29-May 4; 
normal or below May 4-14. 
May 19 warmest to date in 
May. 

May 14-15 winds light S; 
May 16-17 winds NE. 
May 18-19 very warm; winds 
shifted to strong N night of 
19-20. 

Warm spells May 4-5 and 
13-15; otherwise normal or 
below. 

Very warm May 1-6, cool 
7-13; winds shifted to SW 
May 15 p.m., turned warm. 
Except May 5, normal or 
below till May 18, very warm 
to May 26. 



Mean May 16 65.8 43.2 63.0 40.4 

Median May 19 64 39 64 39 

Note :' Temperature above the Normal Mean in italics. 

All weather data above the line by courtesy the Meteorological Division, Department of 
Transport, Dominion of Canada. 



spectacular way affected the spring migra- 
tion of some insectivorous birds in eastern 
North America, according to the analysis 
made by Gunn and Crocker (1951:148) had 
ceased influencing the movement of the birds 
on a line some 100 miles south of Pimisi Bay 
and, as could be expected, the Red-eyed 
Vireo's arrival here in that year was therefore 
about normal. 

These data are in accordance with Nice's 
findings (1937:44-46) on the arrivals of the 



first males of the Song Sparrow, Melospiza 
melodia, and of 8 other species; in all, the 
first arrivals were "absolutely dependent on 
a warm wave" during the preceding 10 days. 
In later studies on the relation between the 
weather and the movement of birds in spring, 
Bagg, et al., (1950:13) said, that "during the 
period of spring migration, pronounced move- 
ment will take place into or through a 
given region during the interval between 
the passage of a warm front through that 



50 



The Canadian Field-Naturalist 



[Vol. 67 



region and the subsequent arrival of a cold 
front", but that this "may be less absolute 
in character during the later part of the 
spring migration than during the earlier part". 

In this locality, no pronounced "main" 
migration of the Red-eyed Vireo was observed. 
It is possible that, having come so far north 
in their range, the birds have already dis- 
persed, and this would preclude any larger 
concentrations. Only in a year when the 
weather held back the mass of the migrants 
until very late and warm weather suddenly 
released a major movement northwards. Red- 
eyed Vireos in somewhat greater numbers 
than usual have been seen. 

The male Red-eyed Vireo arrives before 
the female. In 5 cases, the intervals between 
the arrivals of the male and the female of 
mated pairs on given territories varied from 
3 to 15 days. In two instances occurring in 
the normal spring of 1949, the males arrived 
comparatively early and the females com- 
paratively late. May 16 and 28, respectively, 
and May 18 and June 2. In that year, the 
intervals between the male and female arrival 
dates were 6 to 12 days longer than in the 
3 other cases which took place in 1950. 
That spring the weather was unseasonably 
cold up to May 18, then changed abruptly 
to abnormally warm, and the heat-wave lasted 
until May 26 with temperatures ranging above 
80° F. This, evidently, caused the arrivals 
of the females to telescope into those of 
the males. May 23 and 25, respectively, 
May 23 and 28, and May 23 and 28, the cold 
having retarded the males on the last leg of 
their journey and the heat-wave having 
speeded on the females. 

With unmarked birds reliable data on 
the spread between the arrival dates of the 
males are difficult to obtain. While I am 
sure of the date of the first male, the last 
date may not be that of the latest arrived 
male whose existence was perhaps not dis- 
covered until after the beginning of the nest- 
ing. What information I have on the extreme 
arrival dates of the males in 1949, May 16 
and June 11, and in 1950, May 22 and 24, 
suggests that, as with the mated pairs, the 
dates of the males spread over a longer 
period of time in the normal year 1949 than 
in the year following, when the weather 
caused a concentration in the arrivals of the 
birds concerned in both groups. 

One male Red-eyed Vireo which was 
banded in 1948 returned the next spring. 



But of 17 banded nestlings, none was seen 
again the next season. 

THE TERRITORIES 

Certain corners of the study area were 
occupied by Red-eyed Vireos as far back as 
I can remember and often old nests or their 
tattered remains were found hanging within 
a few feet of a new one. These preferred 
habitats were in the NE and SE parts of 
the plot and another stretched across the 
west line diagonally from the SE corner, 
see Map 1. 

The NE corner is densely wooded rocky 
ground containing a moist cedar- grown ravine 
and a marshy spot between a small peninsula 
and the main land. The SE corner consists 
mainly of an alder-grown marshy spot created 
by the overflow of a spring which meanders 
down the wooded slope from the west. The 
W corner is an entirely dry plateau and slope. 
These corners have 3 features in common: 
dry SE slopes, one or two groups of very tall 
deciduous trees with large crowns, and one 
or more dense thickets of young trees or 
bushes. During years of denser occupancy, 
the vireo territories expanded westwards along 
the highway, northwest along the lakeshore, 
and across the plot from SE to W. In this 
way, all the parts of the area containing the 
3 main features became utilized. From this 
it may be deduced, therefore, that in this 
locality the "key-aspects" (Miller 1942:25-35) 
of the Red-eye's territory are SE slopes, which 
are lighter and warmer, combined with tall 
trees singly or in groups, and thickets of 
young growth. 

These requirements become further ex- 
plained when we find that the Red-eye's 
territory is divided into two special areas. 
One of these I have called the "song area"; 
it consists of one or several tall broad-leaved 
trees with large crowns and belongs especially 
to the male. The other, the "nest area", 
contains the nest site and belongs especially 
to the female. 

The map shows the territories in 1949. 
F and G belonged to two pairs whose nests I 
could not locate during the breeding season. 
Territory A had 2 "song areas", B had a 
rather extensive one, while in all the other 
four territories, C, D, E and F, the "song 
areas" were concentrated and well defined. 
All the nesting attempts of a given pair during 
one season were made within the "nest area". 
The uses of each "area" as well as of the 
territory as a whole will be further discussed 
later. 



April- June, 1953] 



The Canadian Field-Naturalist 



51 




Map 1. Red-eyed Vireo territories in 1949. 
S=song area; N=nest area; • =nest. 



Seven pairs resided in the study area in 
1949. The sizes of five of these territories 
were; A — 0.7 acres, B — 1.4 acres, C — 2.4 
acres, D — 1.6 acres and E — 0.7 acres, or 
an average of 1.4 acres. 

In 1950 only 4 pairs took up residence 
in the area. Pair A-50 took over B-49's 
territory almost to its exact previous limits, 
or 1.4 acres. The "song area" remained about 
the same, but the "nest area" was shifted 



to another thicket in the NE corner. Pair 
B-50 took over half of A-49's and F-49's 
territories, or 2.3 acres. They used F-49's 
"song area" but shifted A-49's "nest area" 
slightly westward. Pair C-50 located in C-49's 
territory, including some of D-49's land as 
well, or 2.6 acres. Pair E-50 took in the 
whole of E-49's,part of D-49's, and the other 
half of A-49's territories and also a piece of 
neutral land, or 2.2 acres. They used E-49's; 



52 



The Canadian Field-Naturalist 



[Vol. 67 



song and nest areas unchanged. The average 
size of the territories in 1950 was 2.1 acres, 
0.7 acres more than in 1949. 

In the Black Sturgeon Lake region, Dr. 
Kendeigh (1947:55) found 31/2 Red-eyed Vireo 
territories within a 25-acre plot to average 
1.9 acres, ranging from 1.5 to 2.1 acres. 

PRE-NESTING ACTIVITIES 

Unlike its two other relatives, V. solitarius 
and V. philadelphicus, which as they move 
northwards through these woods punctuate 
their course by song after song, the transient 
Red-eye may sing, but seldom with the 
verve and clarity with which its later efforts 
are characterized. The resident bird, as it 
arrives, may reveal itself by a short session 
of song, but for a short while thereafter his 
singing is usually slow and desultory. At 
this time, only a wave of migrants may arouse 
him and make him conspicuously vocal while 
the flock passes through his treetops, singing, 
chasing and feeding. The arrival of a second 
vireo male to an adjacent territory is generally 
the trigger that sets off the vocality. But 
even then the volume of song may depend 
on how many newcomers arrive, how closely 
they settle, and whether the individual be- 
longs to the category of persistent singers, 
<see Chapter on Voice). 

There was a marked difference in the 
volume of the first singing in 1949 as com- 
pared to 1950. In 1949, 7 males took up 
territories in the study area in rapid succes- 
sion of each other after the first colour- 
l>anded male arrived. All but two of them 
settled border to border. Territorial singing 
that spring soon became loud and persistent. 
In 1950, only 4 males took up residence in 
the same area, with only one border touching 
between B-50 and E-50. Singing in the pre- 
nesting period of that year was surprisingly 
spasmodic in a species that usually excels in 
its tireless vocal efforts. 

In both years, singing increased more or 
less gradually after the initial comparative 
silence. The greatest volume of song was 
delivered from a little before sunrise into 
the forenoon. In general, the song-phrases 
continued to be rather slow in tempo and 
sometimes disconnected, even though loud 
and at times of great clarity and beauty. The 
songs of 5 males, clocked between the day 
of arrival and June 1, averaged 29 songs per 
minute (s.p.m.), ranging from 20 to 42, as 
compared to the singing of the same males 
during incubation averaging 39 s.p.m., and 



with the young in the nest up to the beginning 
of the post-nuptial moult averaging 50 s.p.m. 

In my experience, the Red-eyed Vireo's 
vocal contributions were not so often given 
while the bird perched in one place and tne 
use of preferred song-posts, which is com- 
mon with many other species, does not appear 
to be a habit of this vireo. Most often he 
delivered his songs as he hopped along a 
branch looking for food, or as he mounted 
by stages through the foliage into the crowns 
of the trees, or anon as he descended to 
investigate the chance trespasser with an 
inquiring ruby eye. He sang between mouth- 
fuls, before and after short periods of preen- 
ing, and at times the speed of his delivery 
depended wholly upon the degree of his 
preoccupation. 

The rest of the time he roamed, except 
perhaps when the weather was cold and he 
stayed hidden in shelter, quite silent. This 
roaming of the male as a preliminary to 
territory establishment I also observed in 
a Myrtle Warbler, Dendroica coronata, in both 
cases following marked individuals. The Red- 
eyed male was caught at this early stage after 
he flew against a window, at least 200 feet 
beyond the later established limit of his ter- 
ritory. The Myrtle Warbler was found singing 
one spring at literally the four corners of the 
16-acre plot until, in competition with 4 other 
males of his kind, his territory finally became 
constricted to the center. By this roaming the 
birds "feel out" the resistance of other males 
of their own species and within the line which 
they cannot cross unchallenged, their ter- 
ritories eventually become established. Since 
both the Red-eyed Vireo and the Myrtle 
Warbler belong to the category of birds that 
require what Nice (1941:457) defined as Type 
A Territory, i. e. a mating, nesting, and feed- 
ing ground for the young all in one, the 
roaming is obviously a significant part of the 
pre-nesting behaviour. It is the means by 
which the largest practicable amount of 
living-space is acquired. 

As may be expected, the arrival of the 
female considerably changed the pre-nesting 
picture. The male stopped singing, i(see Nice 
1937:43), to start anew as the search for 
the nesting site got under way. The larger 
area with the flexible boundaries through 
which the male had roamed hitherto acquired 
definite lines as the female indicated her 
preferred nesting area. Now, with the female 
in the lead, the birds moved through their 
domain, the male having become her attentive 



April-June, 1953] 



The Canadian Field-Naturalist 



53 



escort. The scolding note, this peculiarly 
peevish "meeyaen, meeyaen" uttered with 
open bill and a nasal twang and not heard 
before, began to be used commonly, because 
now the situation had changed, involving a 
center point that must be kept inviolate. 

Only once I witnessed the actual introduc- 
tion of a female to an unmated male. Whether 
this way was typical is therefore not possible 
to demonstrate. But in 1948 I saw a similar 
procedure of "segregating" a female out of 
a flock of passing migrants by the colour- 
banded Myrtle Warbler. On this occasion the 
interpretation of the event was facilitated 
by the dimorphism of the warblers and mark- 
ing of the male, and this experience helped 
me to understand the vireo behaviour. 

Male E-50 was singing in his song area, a 
tall poplar, as a flock of migrants including 
another Red-eye came through his territory. 
All of a sudden, he ceased singing and dove 
down from aloft. He began the most spectacu- 
lar pursuit of the other bird I have seen 
among vireos, round about, in loops, in 
circles through the underbrush. Finally, by 
sheer force and passion, he bore the other 
to the ground. The whole action took place 
in utter silence until the very end, when 
I heard the mating note "aerrrrrr" given 
once. From this moment there were two 
vireos in Territory E-50. 

Shortly after arrival, the female began 
examining the forks of bushes and branches 
as prospective nesting sites. She did this 
rather casually at first, as if the nesting 
urge were not yet fully awakened within her. 
She might interrupt her feeding, hop along 
a branch sideways to a likely fork. This 
she inspected closely from above, from all 
sides, and from below. 

With crown and throat feathers on end 
the male attended her. He approached with 
wings a-quivering and either he or she gave 
the mating note, "aerrrrrr". In the event she 
did not object to his propinquity, he flipped 
down his tail at right angles to his body and 
spread it out like a fan. Sometimes at such 
a moment I heard a mellow continuous 
warbled song, containing exquisite variations 
of the vireo themes. At this, the female 
might also display with trembling wings if 
she were in a receptive mood, and with tail 
raised she would crouch and invite the male 
to coitus with a softly uttered "quot-quot- 
quot". Copulation was a brief and airy affair 
performed with strongly vibrating wings and 
sometimes an excited twittering. 



As in the Song Sparrow, (Nice 1937:84), 
copulation in the Red-eyed Vireo also began 
shortly before nest-building. But at this time 
the females I followed appeared far less re- 
ceptive to amorous advances than they became 
later in the period between the completion 
of the nest and the egg-laying. A female quite 
often would rebuff a male at this stage, 
simply by side-stepping him or if he were too 
persistent by gaping and biting at him. The 
mating ritual varied individually, often some 
of it was omitted in the rapid approach of 
a male at an auspicious moment. 

In discussing courtship-feeding in birds 
Lack (1940:177) said: "Vireonidae (vireos). 
Not recorded." To my knowledge, there is 
no mention of this behaviour among vireos 
in the literature until Kendeigh (1947:56) 
recorded an instance at Black Sturgeon Lake 
when a male fed his begging mate during 
nest-building. In this study, as will be shown, 
courtship-feeding was found to be an impor- 
tant part of the behaviour of the Red-eyed 
Vireo. During the pre-nesting epoch, how- 
ever, it appeared of rare occurrence. I saw 
it but once or twice, or else I missed it with 
the birds often hidden amongst the foliage 
high in the treetops. 

The male was more aggressive than the 
female during the prenesting period. Before 
the nest area was established, the territory, 
which is a male concern, had to be watched 
and guarded. Nevertheless, the male Red- 
eyed Vireo did not impress me as being 
a typically aggressive bird. Rather, pugna- 
ciousness was a quality introduced with the 
settling of the site of the nest. Individuality 
played a role, as it did in all the behaviour 
of this vireo. The territorial disputes I saw 
were conducted either by fast pursuit flights 
or by stalking through the foliage, from level 
to level, from twig to twig. Sutton (1949: 
20) wrote: "According to Hamerstrom's field 
notes, territorial disputes amongst Red-eyed 
Vireos were almost incessant in the Big woods 
on May 20, 21, 1946." But the type of 
behaviour was not described. 

One morning Female B-50 was seen feed- 
ing in a treetop. Another Red-eye was not 
far from her while the owner of the territory, 
Male B-50, was singing in a tree to the left. 
The strange bird, presumably a male, tried to 
approach the female. She hopped away from 
him and as he came closer she turned upon 
him in a half crouching position with bill 
gaping. At this moment, MB-50 darted head- 
long at the intruder and chased him. All 



54 



The Canadian Field-Naturalist 



[Vol. 67 



three birds flew into another treetop where 
they hopped from branch to branch, the pair 
stalking the outsider in complete silence, 
warily, "deliberately" watching his every 
move. This went on for several minutes from 
treetop to treetop. Presently, without any 
other move of hostility, the crisis dissolved as 
the stranger flew away. Then MB-50 gave 
several very loud songs. 

The female usually needed 5 to 6 days 
to complete her choice of nest site. In second 
attempts she required less time, 3 to 4 days. 
In the third nesting of Pair B-49 the second 
nest was abandoned after 9 a.m. one day 
and the construction of the next was well 
under way by 10 a.m. the following morning. 

In the afternoon, the day before she 
actually started to build her nest, one female 
was seen returning again and again to the 
fork in a low hazelbush that she fancied 
most. Finally she alighted on the trunk 
of a white birch and pulled off a small 
strip of tissue-thin bark. With this she flew 
to her favoured spot. She laid the strip 
carefully over one arm of the fork, where its 
papery ends floated and twirled in the 
breeze, like a tiny white signal flag. 

THE NESTS 
Forty-four nests were found in the study 
area as follows: 

White birch 11 

Hazel bush 6 

Red maple bush 6 

Trembling aspen 5 

Mountain maple bush 2 

Large-toothed aspen 1 

Juneberry 1 

Willow 1 

Dogwood 1 

Total in deciduous trees 34 (77%) 



White cedar 
Balsam fir 
Red pine 



Total in conifers 



10 (23%) 



Other trees in which the Red-eyed Vireo's 
nests have also been found include bur-oak, 
hackberry, (Nice 1950:1-4), beech, (Common 
1934:241), chestnut, (Herrick 1935:225), elm, 
(Stephens 1917:25), basswood, sugar-maple, 
(Kendeigh 1945:418-436), white oak, hickory 
and witch hazel, (Sutton 1949:21-23). In the 
northern range, nests in conifers have also 
been reported by Doris Speirs (in litt.) who 
found 4 at Lake Opeongo, Algonquin Pro- 
vincial Park, Ontario, on June 28, 1947, and 
Kendeigh (1947:56) observed a bird building 
its nest in a balsam fir at Black Sturgeon 
Lake, Ontario. 

The height of the nests varied from 3 to 
an estimated 55 feet. Sutton (1949:22) 
believed that "the Red-eyed Vireo nests high 
more frequently than has been supposed". 
If the 44 nests in question were divided into 
two groups, one of low nests at elevations 
up to 15 feet and the other of high ones at 
15 feet and over, we find that 32, or 73 
percent, were low nests and 12, or 27 percent, 
were high. 

The high nests are, of course, much harder 
to find than the low ones and it is also 
harder to find nests of second and third 
nestings amongst the lush foliage of midsum- 
mer, particularly as they also have a tendency 
to be at higher elevations. Taking the nests 
found in the years 1945-1949 as an example, 
we have a total of 26 nests of which 19 
were first nestings, representing at least 95 
percent of all possible nests, and 7 were of 
second nestings, approximately 50 percent of 
all possible nests. Assuming that 7 other nests 
of second nestings, presupposed from the 
record of the nesting success, were all high, 
we get a total of 14 high nests. In other 
words, about 42 percent of all nests built 
in the area during these five years would 
be higher than 15 feet from the ground. This 
is probably a rather high figure. 

The tendency toward higher elevations 
in second nestings is shown in Table 2. This, 
however, was a rule with many exceptions. 



TABLE 2. — Height of the nests of the Red-eyed Vireo 



No 



Low nests 

No % 



High nests 

No % 



Av. height 
feet 



12 27 



12.5 



Range 
feet 



1st nestings 


26 


23 88 
9 53 


3 12 
8 47 
1 100 


9.5 
14.9 
50.0 


3 —55 


2nd nestings 


17 


31/2—35 


3rd nestings 


1 











3 — 55 



April-June, 1953] 



The Canadian Field-Naturalist 



55 



Pair B-49 nested 3 times at heights of 8, 20 
and 50 (est.) feet, respectively; Pair E-49 
nested twice at 5 and 30 feet and Pair E-50, 
probably the same birds, also twice at 5y2 
and 8V2 feet; one pair in 1945 nested twice 
at 8 and 15 feet in the same tree; but FA-49 
nested first at 18 and then at 10 feet and 
a pair in 1948 built two nests in hazelbushes 
at exactly the same height, 3y2 feet; Pair 
B-50 built their first nest in the top of a 
white birch an estimated 55 feet from the 
ground. Sutton (1949:22) recorded a nest 
between 40 and 45 feet, which obviously 
also was a first nesting since it was found 
on June 4. 

In some other species there seems to be 
the same tendency towards higher nests in 
later nestings. Walkinshaw (1945:9) found 
that the nests of the Field Sparrow, Spizella 
pusilla, became progressively higher and Nice 
(1937:92-93) found 9/10 first nests of the 
Song Sparrow on the ground but only Vs 
of third nestings. 

The situation of the nesting tree varied 
greatly and nests were found at the edge of 
clearings, a little away from the edges, in 
thickets, near the lakeshore or over the water, 
and so on. One prerequisite was indispensible, 
a density of foliage either beside or above 
the nest site through which the birds could 
approach inconspicuously. Although the Red- 
eye rarely left the nest through this "pro- 
tective area", I never saw it approach by 
any other avenue. 

Sutton (1949:18) suggested that "a conti- 
guous feeding area, either surrounding it (the 
nest) or immediately to one side, is a neces- 
sity", and he considered this especially im- 
portant for the young as they leave the 
nest. In my experience, the birds seldom 
fed in the close vicinity of the nest under 
ordinary circumstances but in quite another 
part of the territory, and after leaving the 
nest the young amazingly quickly betook them- 
selves out of the nest area. 



The nests were generally skilfully cam- 
ouflaged among green leaves or the needles 
of conifers. In some instan,ces I found a 
tendency towards building whiter nests in 
light places and darker ones in shaded 
conifers. One nest, exposed to much sunshine 
in a white birch, was made extensively with 
bits of white tissue paper, but another deep 
in the shade of a white cedar included 
quantities of strips of brown inner bark and 
fuzzed brown wool. Green leaves were often 
interwoven into the sides of the nestcup. 
Nest Bl-49 was festooned with the leaves 
of the white cedar in which it hung and the 
third nest of the same pair with cascades of 
green aspen leaves. 

The nestcups were suspended in two 
different ways, either from a fork (one angle 
suspension) or between two twigs and the 
nesting branch (two angle suspension). Since 
the incubating or brooding bird must face 
a main point of suspension or else be uncom- 
fortably pitched foward over a more or less 
sagging unanchored side, it had no choice of 
position in the one-angle nests, while in the 
two-angle nests it could and did face two 
directions alternatively. Needless to say, the 
two-angle nests were better in other ways 
also; in them the unanchored side was shorter 
and less susceptible to sagging. Both kinds 
were built by the same female. 

Measurements of 4 nests are given in: 
Table 3. 

On the outside, the Red-eyed Vireo's nests 
are made of fine flakes of white birch bark, 
paper of wasp nests and spider silk. Strips 
of the inner bark of cedar and aspen, which 
are picked off dry trunks or sticks amid 
fluttering and airy gestures, are used for 
the inner walls. The lining is made of dead 
pine needles, grasses, strands of bindweed 
and sometimes a few hairs of the varying 
hare or the white-tailed deer. The spider silk 
is of utmost importance in the Red-eye's 
construction work. It is elastic and adhesive 



Table 3. Measurements of 4 nests. 



Inside 
diameter 



Inside 
depth 



Outside 
diameter 



Outside 
depth 



Nest Bl-49 


51 x 62 mm. 


50 


mm. 


60 X 75 mm. 


68 mm. 


Nest C-49 


47 x 63 mm. 


40 


mm. 


70 X 73 mm. 


70 mm. 


Nest D-49 


52 X 62 mm. 


37 


mm. 


75 X 83 mm. 


70 mm. 


Nest E-49 


55 X 63 mm. 


41 


mm. 


85 X 87 mm. 


76 mm. 


Nests Bl-49 and C-49 were two- 


angle nests. 









56 



The Canadian Field-Naturalist 



[Vol. 67 



and is used extensively to hold the materials 
together, to attach the nest to the fork or 
forks, to finish the edges, for repair work 
and generally, to give the nest its "licked- 
over" appearance. Its main source of supply 
is from the underside of the leaves of ferns, 
especially bracken, and bush honey suckle, 
Lonicera sp. 

The durability of this pensile masterpiece 
was remarkable. Nests survived the weather 
from one to two years. In this respect it 
ranked third in the Pimisi Bay region after 
the nests of the Rose-breasted Grosbeak, 
Pheucticus ludovicianus, and the Baltimore 
Oriole, Icterus galhula. In my experience the 
Red-eye never used a nest twice. 

THE BUILDING OF THE NEST 

The earliest nest observed in the Pimisi 
Bay area was begun on May 28 and the latest 
on July 15. 

The time required for so elaborate a 
piece of work was comparatively short; nor- 
mally it took from 4 to 5 days. For a nest 
watched continuously during the time it was 
being built, F. H. Herrick (1935:225-237) gave 
the time as 4V2 days. 

Surprisingly soon after the start, the nest 
acquired shape and form and generally at 
the end of the first day, if the weather was 
favourable, the cup held the bird even as 
she began the first moulding. But the next 
stage, the interminable polishing of the out- 
side, the shaping and the starching of the 
edges by means of applications of spider 
silk, and the lining of the inside, took the 
longest time. 

Even though the work seemed finished 
and the nest hung there apparently fully 
completed, the bird often prolonged the final 
touches far into the nesting cycle. In the 
period before the egg-laying began, during 
incubation, and even when the nest was full 
of young, new adhesive material was brought 
time and again, the outside was polished or 
redecorated and the edges attended to anew. 
FC-45 was seen in a session of energetic nest 
fixing on the 9th day of incubation; in the 
course of 10 minutes she was off and on 8 
times, fetching fresh spider silk, attaching it 
to the outside and then drawing it over the 
edges in long elastic threads, or she festooned 
it in lacy fringes all over the outside. FB-49, 
during the third nesting, brought fresh spider 
silk on August 5 for the last time, when the 
young were 3 days old. I believe that the 
tendency to excessive nest-fixing in these 
two females was caused by nervous tension, 



in the first bird owing to a restless disposi- 
tion in general and in the second because 
of an overly extended nesting season. 

Nest A2-49 was watched for an hour 
and 20 minutes in the morning when it was 
half completed. The female did all the work, 
but the male attended her closely. At inter- 
vals he gave slow, loud, clear songs. With 
the female a little ahead of the male, the 
pair came and went with speed and dispatch, 
as if by a set schedule which must be followed 
at all costs and no time lost on distractions. 
Once the male inspected the nest while the 
female worked, but most of the time he kept 
at a distance. At another time she flew to 
him and he fed her. She brought her nesting 
materials at average intervals of 3.2 minutes 
and remained working for periods averaging 
20 seconds, ranging from 4 to 70 seconds. 
This nest was 10 feet 2 inches from the 
ground in a white cedar. 

Nest Bl-50 was observed a total of 2 
hrs. and 5 min. on the 2nd, 3rd and 4th days 
of building. It was in the top of a white 
birch at an estimated height of 55 feet. 

This female also worked without help from 
the male. He sang quite frequently as he 
accompanied his mate to and fro, always 
perhaps a yard behind her. Sometimes he 
sat aside and watched her working. On six 
occasions he attempted to approach the female, 
courting her, his throat and head feathers 
on end, singing his mellifluous courting song 
and suggesting himself to her by the mating 
note "aerrrrr", or by an inviting "tetetewtew". 
On each occasion she repulsed him, twice by 
chasing him and once by crouching, trembling 
her wings and gaping at him, then darting 
away. Once on the second day while the 
female was absent, the male sat in the nest 
IV2 minutes, looking around. When he got 
off he hopped along the branch and burst 
into song. 

Close by a Myrtle Warbler female was 
building her nest in the top of a balsam 
fir. She persisted in stealing materials from 
the vireos' nest. Several times she was caught 
in the act by FB-50 from an ambush and 
forcefully chased with loudly clattering man- 
dibles. The male took no part in this defence 
of the nest. 

On account of this intermezzo and also 
because the weather was showery, the work 
on this nest was carried out in fits and 
starts. Long intervals of idleness alternated 
with periods of frenzied zeal, during which 
the female brought loads of material every 4 



April- June, 1953] 



The Canadian Field-Naturalist 



57 



minutes on an average, ranging from 1 to 8 
minutes. Nevertheless, this nest was com- 
pleted in 41/2 days on schedule and it was 
a neat creation. 

The building technique consists of 3 main 
parts: the preliminary suspension attachment; 
the formation of the main nest body by 
piling loose material across the arms of the 
fork or forks and gluing it to the suspension 
frame; the inside moulding and trampling, 
the lining, and the outside starching, smooth- 
ing and polishing. 

The female stands on the apex of the fork 
and works outwards. She glues her materials 
to the arms of the fork with spider silk, 
out of which she draws long threads and 
sweeps them around the twig, including any 
other twigs, stems or leaves that may be 
encountered. A nest at this stage looks like 
a fringed triangle without a base. When 
working the loose material, she leans forward 
and downward, glues all of it together into 
a mass and attaches it to the frame with spider 
silk. As soon as it has acquired enough 
starching to hold together, she begins mould- 
ing and trampling the nest mass, which in 
time leads to blocking the nest neatly into 
shape. The unanchored side and the bottom 
remain open until the last. In many nests 
the loose material is left trailing at the 
bottom like a curly tassel, but in others every 
thread is caught up and tucked away and 
the nest has the perfect form of a small 
rounded basket. 

In his account, "Building the Vireo's pen- 
sile nest", Herrick (1935:225-233) gave a 
classic description of the way a Red-eye builds 
its nest. Minna A. Common (1934:241-242) 
told of a male which assisted his mate in 
the building. 

THE EGG-LAYING 

In 7 first nestings, the interval between the 
completion of the nest and the laying of 
the first egg lasted from 2 to 4 days and 
in 3 second attempts one day. In the third 
attempt of Pair B^9, the nest was com- 
pleted on July 18 and incubation started on 
July 20. 

This interval might be called the birds' 
"honeymoon", a short time of rest and play 
between two important phases of the nesting 
cycle. During these days many species appear 
to detach themselves from the nest environ- 
ment, sometimes to the point of leading the 
observer to believe they have abandoned it. 



But to the Red-eyed Vireo the nest hang- 
ing there fresh and new continues to be the 
pivot around which the birds' activities and 
movements center. To and from the nest 
they dash through the foliage, the female 
leading one "pace" ahead of the male, as 
if their destination were a matter of life and 
death. Sometimes she brings another straw, 
another pine-needle or piece of spider silk, 
to add to the already completed structure. 
Sometimes she lets herself down into the nest 
to mould it yet another time, or merely to 
get the feel of it, one may suppose. At 
other times, the birds stop at a distance only 
to cast an eye upon their creation. To the 
female at least, the vicinity and the sight of 
the nest seem to create within her, step by 
step, the strong bond that must attach her 
to the site for the fulfilment of her reproduc- 
tive role. Nice (1943:215), quoting Roberts, 
spoke of the nest site as "an area of great 
emotional valency." 

At this time, the female often becomes 
conspicuous in her courting of the male. This 
generally happens within sight of the nest. 
She quivers her wings, spreads her tail fan- 
wise and flips it down stiffly behind her, 
crouches and utters begging notes. In most 
cases the male accommodates, but not always, 
as occurred in two pairs which I followed 
closely. 

Often long after the male has flown, the 
female remains in an attitude of unsatisfied 
eagerness, wings still a-tremble, gazing after 
him. The next instant she, too, is gone only 
to return perhaps 3 times in 15 minutes, 
each time duly convoyed by her partner. He 
may be silent or else singing loud, clear, slow 
songs when near the nest, songs with a 
special meaning evidently and quite different 
from the fast performances he usually delivers 
from the song area. 

As a rule, the eggs were deposited one 
a day early in the morning, before 7 or 8 
a.m. Standard Time. In the first nesting 
attempt of Pair B-49, however, the last 2 
eggs were laid later in the day. 

Of 19 first nestings, 7 nests contained 
full sets of 4 eggs and 12 nests 3 eggs, 
and of 9 second attempts one nest contained 
4 eggs and the rest sets of 3 eggs. The 
average set per nest was 3.3 eggs. According 
to Bent (1950:337), the most common num- 
ber of eggs in the clutch of the Red-eyed 
Vireo is 4, of the Solitary Vireo also 4 (p. 
294), and of the Philadelphia Vireo 4 (p. 353). 



58 



The Canadian Field-Naturalist 



[Vol. 67 



In the life-history of the tropical Yellow-green 
Vireo, V. flavoviridis flavoviridis, contributed 
by Skutch (Bent 1950:321-334), which bird 
according to this source appears to have much 
in common with the Red-eyed Vireo, it is 
said that 3 eggs is the usual set. 

In two cases, where apparently the same 
females laid both sets of eggs at repeated 
nestings, the first set contained 4 eggs and 
the second 3. The single set of 4 eggs of the 
second nesting attempts was laid by FA-49 
after her first nest had been broken up be- 
cause of the disappearance of her colour- 
banded mate. I have little reason to doubt 
that this female was not the same bird in 
both nestings and, in such a case, she 
abandoned her first nest either during the 
laying or immediately after the completion 
of the set; the nest was too high to make 
sure. Nice (1937: 109) believed that an un- 
usually large set of 6 eggs laid by one of her 
Song Sparrows at a later nesting was "a com- 
bination of the second and third sets." In 
the Lapwing, Vanellus vanellns, Klomp 
(1951: 176) found that the reaction to the re- 
moval of eggs during laying varied in ac- 
cordance to the number taken, and that 
when the first egg is taken after being laid 
the bird produces another normal clutch of 
4 eggs, or "the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th egg plus 1 
additional." 

Replacement of sets in relation to the 
time at which the first set was lost in my 
vireos did not coincide with Stresemann's 
findings, quoted by Nice (1937: 111), that in 
some birds a set destroyed soon after laying 
is sooner replaced than one which has been 
incubated longer or where the young have 
hatched. Data from 4 cases follows: 1) first 
nesting, set destroyed during or just after 
laying, replacement began 7 days later; 2) 
first nesting, after 7 days' incubation, re- 
placement 6 days later; 3) first nesting, after 
young hatched, replacement 9 days later; 4) 
second nesting, after young hatched, replace- 
ment approximately 4 days later. In the Song 
Sparrow, (Nice same ref.) replacement al- 
ways took place 5 days later with only one 
exception, and in the Lapwing (Klomp 1951: 
177) it occurred within an average of 12 days 
in the cases of first clutches destroyed upon 
completion. My data, therefore, would only 
suggest that the contraction of other stages 
of the nesting cycle apparent in later nestings 
would also hold true in the replacement of 
lost sets of eggs. 



INCUBATION 

Many observers, including Sutton (1949: 
5), Saunders (1938: 106), F. L. Burns (For- 
bush 1929: 180), and others, have stated that 
in the Red-eyed Vireo both sexes incubate, 
but in no case did these authors present 
evidence to support this view. As I began 
this study, however, I soon found that this 
information was not in agreement with my 
observations, a circumstance which obvious- 
ly required an especially careful investiga- 
tion. On the basis thereof, I present my 
evidence that in the Pimisi Bay region the 
female Red-eyed Vireo was always found to 
incubate alone with no assistance from the 
male. 

During more than 100 hours spent in 
watching the nests of 9 pairs, I was at no 
time in doubt of the whereabouts of the 
male, either because he was in sight and his 
identity known or he was singing elsewhere, 
while another bird, that could be none else 
but the female, was on the nest. No shifts 
were observed at any time at or near the 
nest, which sometimes occur in species where 
both sexes incubate. The incubating bird 
was never heard singing on the nest and I 
have no evidence at all that the female Red- 
eyed Vireo sings. When high nests were 
watched, the broodpatch of one bird was 
plainly visible as a pronounced division of 
the feathers, while in the other the division 
between the ventral feather tracts showed 
distinctly less, if at all. This was particu- 
larly obvious at Pair B-49's third nesting. 
As will be shown, the general behaviour of 
the birds during incubation followed two 
definite lines of male and female activities. 
Lastly, the incubation rhythm of the Red- 
eyed Vireo, see Table 5, followed closely 
those of other passerines in which only one 
of the pair incubates. 

Nice found the female Red-eyed Vireo 
alone incubating at a nest in Jackson Park 
(1950: 2), and in 1949 she wrote to me: 
"I've never known of a dependable instance 
of the male Red-eye incubating . . ." Kathryn 
Ann Graves said in the abstract of a paper 
which she was to have given at the 67th 
Stated Meeting of the A.O.U., October 1949: 
"My conclusion that incubation is performed 
by the female Red-eyed Vireo alone is based 
on three lines of evidence: 1) the behaviour 
patterns of the adult birds at six nests during 
the incubation period; 2) observations of a 
pair the sexes of which could be distinguish- 
ed with absolute certainty owing to the dis- 



April- June, 1953] 



The Canadian Field-Naturalist 



59 



tinct marking of the female's feathers with 
black indelible ink; 3) analysis of the in- 
cubation rhythms of the females on four 
nests, and a comparison of these rhythms with 
those of 23 other passerine birds." Skutch 
(Bent 1950: 325) found that in the Yellow- 
green Vireo the female also incubated alone 
without help from the male. 

Incubation began after the third egg 
was laid in all the nests found with sets of 
either 3 or 4 eggs. Before that, the female 
was seldom found on the nest except in the 
morning when she generally laid her new 

pcfcr 

Nest A2-49 was watched during the first 
day of incubation for 3V2 hours, beginning 
at 7.30 a.m. soon after the third egg of a set 
of four was laid. The female was attentive 
only 50% of the time. Her periods on the 
nest ranged from 8 to 26 minutes and her 
periods off from 7 to 38 minutes. Because 
of the incomplete set and the irregular 
rhythm, this observation is omitted from 
Table 7. 

The behaviour of the male was also at 
variance from that which becomes character- 
istic later. He was more attentive to the 
female, even to the point of feeding her 
while she sat on the nest. None of the 
males watched in this study were seen close 
to the nests once incubation got well under 
way. MA-49 sang only 28 percent of the 
time and by comparison with later efforts 
(see Table 4) his singing was slow and 
spasmodic. Obviously the birds were in a 
stage of transition from one behaviour pat- 
tern to another. 

When the female finally settled down to 
incubating in earnest, the male withdrew al- 
most entirely to the song area where he 
spent much of his time alone, singing and 
feeding. It is here, during incubation and 
with the young in the nest, that the male 
Red-eyed Vireos' singing becomes such a 



tireless performance. Some data of the 
males' singing during incubation are given 
in Table 4. There was considerable variation 
in the singing of individual males, but this 
will be further discussed under "Voice". 

The female, meanwhile, usually sat very 
still on the nest. Once in a while she arose 
and turned the eggs, using both her bill and 
her feet. Then she adjusted herself com- 
fortably on the nest again. At times she 
gave the nest another polishing, drawing 
loosened spider silk in over the edges. But 
most of the time she sat deep down with 
only her head and tail showing above the 
rim, motionless like a carved figure, and as 
the branch swayed gently her red eye once 
in a while caught the glint of a sunbeam. It 
was clear that all the time she was aware of 
the male's presence in the song area, even 
as I was. His leisurely singing there and 
her quietude on the nest beyond doubt were 
related phenomena and, certainly, the song 
was the paramount means of preserving con- 
tact between these two during the female's 
periods of attention. 

Then the male stopped singing. Perhaps 
a minute later he appeared in the wings of 
the nest area, either giving slow, loud signal 
songs or else calling to his mate with the 
rolling raspy note "aerrrr". Usually the fe- 
male heeded the cessation of the male's 
singing at once and she began fidgeting on 
the nest even before he approached. She 
raised herself, sank down again, turned her 
head hither and yon, peeped over the rim, 
as if torn between a desire to leave and to 
remain. Sometimes she gave the "aerrrr"- 
note as she espied her mate in the offing, 
and then bethought herself yet another 
minute. Then all of a sudden, in a perfect 
swan-dive, she was over the rim, making a 
direct bee-line to where the male was. In 
my presence, the female came off the nest 
only once in 7 times without inducement 
from the male. 



TABLE 4. 



Males singing during incubation 



Date 



Day of 
incubation 



Ob. time 
minutes 



% of time 
male sang 



Song 
phrases 
per min. 



Male A249 June 23 6th 

Male C-49 " 17 3rd 

" 22 8th 

" 27 13th 

Male D-49 " 24 12th 



180 
210 
240 
180 
240 



74 
58 
63 
51 

27 



21 

52-37-45 

47 

48 



60 



The Canadian Field-Naturalist 



[Vol. 67 



TABLE 5. — The rhythm of incubation of the Red-eyed Vireo. Five females at six nests. 

Attentiveness Average 

Ob. time Temp. On Av. Off av. atten- 

Date Day minutes degrees F. Eggs % min. Range min. Range tiveness 



Nest C-45 Jun28 


4th 


165 


68-74 


3 


69 


23.0 


5-44 


7.3 


6-9 


Jul 1 


7th 


60 


65-70 


3 


58 


15.5 


11-20 


10.0 


7-13 


Jul 3 


9th 


107 


70-75 


3 


71 


7.3 


1-30 


3.4 


1-9 


Jul 4 


10th 


85 


75 


3 


84 


26.0 


22-30 


4.7 


2-6 71% 


NestA2-49 Jun 23 


6th 
5th 


180 
105 


70 
75 


4 
4 


77 
87 


32.5 
58.0 


21-40 
58 


8.2 
7.0 


6-10 77% 


NestOBl-49 Jun 20 


6-8 


Jun 21 


6th 


210 


75 


4 


81 


32.3 


29-36 


9.0 


6-11 83% 


NestB3-49 Jul 23 


4th 


255 


70-75 


2? 


83 


34.2 


22-52 


7.2 


6-10 


Jul 29 


10th 


240 


84-89 


2? 


66 


13.6 


1-57 


8.0 


3-13 


Aug 1 


13th 
3rd 


195 
210 


73-77 
80 


2? 
3 


88 

74 


36.0 
36.3 


27-45 
2945 


8.0 
13.5 


7-9 79% 


NestC-49 Jun 17 


11-16 80% 


Jun 22 


8th 


240 


75 


3 


77 


34.7 


17-55 


13.8 


8-19 


Jun 27 


13th 


180 


78-80 


3 


68 


27.0 


17-32 


16.7 


12-26 71% 


NestD-49 Jun 24 


12th 


240 


60-64 


3 


76 


34.0 


21-45 


11.6 


7-16 76% 



As the pair met, the female displayed 
with her wings quivering. She flipped down 
her tail and spread it like a fan, she gave the 
begging note, a monosyllabic soft "tchet- 
tchet-tchet". With throat ruffled and crest 
erect, the male danced attendance upon her, 
fussing about her but not actually courting 
her. Now with the male in the lead, the 
birds betook themselves through the song 
area and adjacent parts of the territory. 
Often the female perched on a twig while 
the male foraged, by turns to beg and to peck 
a little by herself, to preen, and to beg 
again. Time upon time the male brought 
food and fed it to her. 

Finally, usually at the end of 7 or 10 
minutes, the female edged nest-wards. Often 
the male accompanied her to the "protective 
area", seldom far into it. There he left her. 
She went on alone, pecking a mite here and 
there, or preening a little again, and then 
if not disturbed she slipped through the 
"back door" and on to the nest. Away in 
the song area, the male once more com- 
menced to sing, letting phrase follow upon 
phrase of reposeful melodies. 

This concensus of activities is drawn from 
observations covering the years. But I 
would once more emphasize the Red-eyed 
Vireo's leaning toward individualism. This 
together with other factors, such as density 



of population in different years, weather con- 
ditions, etc., sometimes cause certain modifi- 
cations of rituals and behaviour, with new 
aspects being added at times and others left 
out. 

The average attentiveness of 5 females at 
6 nests was during the time of observation 
76 percent. According to Nice (1943: 221, 
227) the percentage of time spent on the 
nest by 9 passerines where only the females 
incubate ranges from 64 to 84. 

As will be seen in Table 5, the rhythm 
of Female C-45 presents a rather irregular 
picture. She was a nervous and fidgety bird 
given to frequent sessions of nest-fixing, and 
the 4 short watches during which she was ob- 
served were not enough to smooth out her 
averages. In considering the 4 other females, 
however, we find that the attentive periods 
of 3 of them, A-49 (4 periods), C-49 (9 
periods), and D49 (4 periods), average from 
32.5 to 34.0 min. Their off-periods show a 
greater divergence, A-49's 5 periods averag- 
ed 8.2 min., C-49's 11 periods 14.5 min., and 
D-49's 5 periods 11.6 min. 

The 4th female, FB-49, was watched while 
incubating at 2 nests. At her first nesting, 
4 attentive periods averaged 37.2 min., but 
at her third nesting 16 periods on the nest 
averaged only 22.8 min. This drop in 
averages was caused, in part, by higher 



April- June, 1953] 



The Canadian Field-Naturalist 



61 



temperatures during the third nesting and a 
certain nervous tension in the bird that de- 
veloped with the prolonged breeding season. 
But this was somewhat compensated by a 
shortening of the periods off the nest, 6 
periods in the first nesting averaged 8.3 min. 
and 19 in the third nesting 7.8 min. This is 
also reflected in the average percent at- 
tentiveness (see Table 5) of this female. 
Her averages for both nestings were 26.2 
min. for 21 periods on, and 7.9 min. for 25 
periods off the nest. 

The combined 53 attentive periods of the 

5 females ranged from 1 to 58 min. with an 
average of 25.3 min. and a median of 29 
min.; the favourite period on the nest was 
32 min. Their combined 63 periods off the 
nest ranged from 1 to 26 min. with an 
average of 8.7 min. and a median of 8 min.; 
the favourite period off the nest was 6 min., 
followed by 7, then 9 min. These data be- 
come particularly interesting when compar- 
ed with Nice's study of the incubation rhythm 
of 10 other passerines (1943: 221). She ob- 
tained a median for attentive periods of 29.8 
min. and for inattentive periods of 8.5 min. 
"It seems," she wrote, "as if 8 minutes was 
a favouite period for small passerines to 
stay off the nest." 

Some of my vireo females occasionally in- 
cubated for exceedingly long periods. FB- 
49's longest occurred on the 13th day and 
lasted 70 minutes when I had to leave her 
still sitting. FB-45, (not shown in the Table), 
furnished the record after which she un- 
fortunately disappeared. She was sitting on 
the nest at 2.50 p.m. when I arrived and still 
there when I left at 5.55 p.m., a period of 3 
hours and 5 minutes of nearly motionless 
incubating. 

There appeared to be no consistent ten- 
dency toward more intensive incubating 
during the last days before hatching. FC- 
45 showed a higher percent attentiveness on 
the 10th day than previously, while FB-49 
showed her lowest on that day and her 
highest on the last day, the 13th, with pro- 
longed periods on but normal off the nest. 
By contrast, FC49's attentiveness was from 

6 to 9 percent lower on her 13th day than 
any earlier average, with nearly normal 
periods on but abnormally long periods off 
the nest. If we calculate the average at- 
tentiveness of all 5 females up to the 10th 
day, the result is 77 percent, whereas from 
the 10th to the 13th days it is only 75 
percent. 



Nice (1937: 124) found, that in the Song 
Sparrow "the periods off consistently de- 
creased in length, becoming very short the 
last day before hatching"; 5 records of Song 
Sparrow incubation, taken by Kendeigh with 
a potentiometer (same ref.), showed no con- 
sistent change in attentiveness near the end 
of incubation. In the Cedar Waxwing, 
Bombycilla cedrorum, Putnam (1949: 179) 
found that "attentiveness heightens as incu- 
bation progresses". 

TABLE 6. — Average periods of attention and 
inattention relative to temperature 



Temp. 



Periods on Periods off 
No Av. min. No Av. min. 



60— 70°F. 


13 


30.0 


16 


9.3 


70— 75°F. 


22 


26.6 


27 


7.5 


75— 85°F. 


15 


20.8 


14 


11.5 



According to Table 6, the average periods 
of attention of my 5 females of the Red-eyed 
Vireo shortened by 30.7 percent in response 
to a rise in temperature of 15 degrees F. and 
the inattentive periods lengthened by 23.6 
percent. In their study of the Carolina 
Wren, Thryothorus ludovicianus, Nice and 
Thomas (1948: 146-147) gave data on the 
relationship between temperature and incu- 
bation rhythm of 17 birds. In all but one of 
these, the percent attentiveness decreased 
with rising temperature and, in all cases, 
the inattentive periods were influenced by 
the temperature in various ways and degrees. 

A high temperature of 89 degrees F. on 
FB-49's 10th day of incubation during her 
third nesting obviously influenced her be- 
haviour. The nest was watched from 9.50 
a.m. to 1.50 p.m. Her first period lasted 57 
min., after which she sat panting in the heat 
and, for apparently no other reason, kept 
going off and on in a manner quite in- 
consistent with her usually slow rhythm. 

Of 11 clutches where the time elapsed 
between the laying of the last egg until its 
hatching was known, 4 sets required 12 days 
of incubation, 5 sets 13 days, and 2 sets 14 
days. In a set of 4 marked eggs, Eggs 1, 2 
and 4, in that order, hatched within 3 hours, 
almost to the hour 14 days after Egg 3 was 
laid and incubation, at least partially, began 
for Egg 1 and 2. Egg 4's time was 13 days 
and 2 hrs. Egg 3 was infertile. 

In one set of 3 and two sets of 4 eggs, 
hatching occurred over a period of 2 days. 



62 



The Canadian Field-Naturalist 



[Vol. 67 



In 2 sets of 4 eggs, 3 hatched in one day and 
the 4th not at all. The remaining 6 sets of 3 
eggs all hatched in one day. These data 
confirm the observation that incubation be- 
gan, at least in part, after the laying of the 
3rd egg in sets of either 3 or 4 eggs. 

In the Philadelphia Vireo the incubation 
time is 14 days (Lewis 1929: 99), in Bell's 
Vireo, V. belli belli, 14 days (Nice 1929: 13- 
18) (Pitelka and Koestner 1942: 99), in the 
Yellow-green Vireo also 14 days according 
to Skutch, (Bent 1950: 327). 

CARE OF YOUNG 

The hatching of the young was observed 
at Nests A2-49 and E-49. At each nest the 
emergence of the first young was preceded 
by a long attentive period, in both cases over 
an hour. As the young hatched, the females 
left, carrying away a half eggshell. I could 
not see what they did with it; one of them 
took hers to a distance of at least 75 feet. 

As mentioned, none of the males was 
seen at the nest during incubation. But the 
sight of the female with the white eggshell 
in the bill presumably informed the male of 
the changed conditions there. ME visited 
the nest immediately, perched on the rim and 
inspected its contents attentively. He re- 
mained about half a minute before he flew 
away. Three minutes later he returned with 
food. This he passed to the brooding female 
and she, in turn, fed the young. 

MA2 did not arrive before 38 minutes 
after the female carried away the first half 
eggshell, partly owing to a disturbance I 
created. But 4 minutes after his first visit, 
he returned with food and fed the young 
himself, the female being absent. Two 
minutes after she carried away the shell of 
the second egg, this male again visited the 
nest without food and inspected the young 
and, for the second time, brought food 4 
minutes later. 

There are various ways in which it is 
thought the males that do not incubate are 
informed of the hatching of their young; 
for instance, special flights on the part of 
the female or the sight of her with food in 
the bill, (see Nice 1943: 229-230). Some 
birds which eat the eggshells unknown to 
the males, display unusual excitement. The 
Song Sparrow, Nice wrote, "shows excite- 
ment, probably by flipping her wings", 
(p. 230). In my own experience, (Law- 
rence 1948: 209, 212) a Chestnut-sided War- 
bler, Dendroica pensylvanica and a Nashville 



Warbler, Vermivora ruficapilla, both flitted 
about in an excited way and chipped inces- 
santly after the first young hatched. No 
such excitement was noted in either of the 
vireo females. Putnam (1949: 166) describ- 
ed how the female waxwing rose revealing 
the young to the male, after which a "strik- 
ing change in the male behaviour" occurred. 

Considering the small part the Red-eyed 
Vireo male took in the feeding of the young 
in general, the promptness with which he 
brought his first meal is noteworthy. In 
some birds it may apparently take several 
days (Howard 1929: 27) and in the warblers 
mentioned above it took several hours be- 
fore the males made their first visits. The 
females' efforts to attract the attention of 
the males, if so their antics may be inter- 
preted, conceivably are not as effective a 
stimulus to commence feeding as the actual 
sight of the young, or of something pertain- 
ing to them, such as an eggshell. 

The first feeding of the young vireos oc- 
curred from 1 minute to nearly 2 hours 
after hatching. The average rate of feeding 
at both nests during the hatching day with 
a maximum of 3 young in each nest was 3.0 
per hour. 

There was a striking difference in the 
brooding of the two females. Both days 
were hot, 88 degrees F. when the A-49 young 
hatched and 87 to 90 degrees F. for the E- 
49's. In spite of this, FE was off the nest 
less than 20% of the time after hatching be- 
gan, while FA did no bona fide brooding at 
all in my presence. She merely stood over 
the young or on the rim for short periods, 
ranging from 1 to 10 minutes. The fact that 
Nest E was better shaded than A may ac- 
count for this. 

In Table 7 the gradual decrease of the 
brooding during daytime to virtual cessation 
after the 6th day is evident at nearly all the 
nests. The temperature which, as we saw, 
influenced the rhythm of incubation seemed 
to affect the brooding schedules little; but 
showers and heavy rains induced the fe- 
males to remain on the nests, sheltering the 
young. "Shading", i.e. standing over the 
young or sitting on the rim, was done mostly 
by FA-49 and FC49, both of which built 
their nests in conifers. 

T. C. Stephens (1917: 25-28) found that 
the female did 75 percent of the feeding of 
the young and the male only 25 percent. My 
figures concerning 268 feedings come close 



April- June, 1953] 



The Canadian Field-Naturalist 



63 



TABLE 7. — Brooding data 



Date Ob. time Temp. Young Age 



Attentiveness Inattentiveness 

av. av. 

% min. Range % min. Range 



Nest 


C-45 Jul 10 


107 min. 


62°F 


3 


1 days 


77 


21.0 


11-35 


23 6.3 


5-8 




Jul 12 


123 " 


50-65 °F 


3 


3 " 


46 


8.8 


1-18 


54 11.0 


3-18 




Jul 13 


66 " 


69 °F 


3 


3 " 


53 


11.7 


1-32 


47 4.0 


1-6 


Nest 


A2-49 Jun 30 


240 " 


88°F 


3 


H-day* 


47 


3.6 


1-10 


53 15.9 


4-68 




Jul 4 


240 " 


75°F 


2 


3 days 


57 


45.7 


15-89 


43 34.3 


5-55 


Nest 


B3-49 Aug 4 


240 " 


65-75°F 


2? 


2 " 


56 


15.0 


1-30 


44 11.5 


3-29 




Aug 5 


240 " 


80-85 °F 


2? 


3 " 


40 


9.1 


1-20 


60 16.5 


4-43 




Aug 6 


240 " 


65-85 °F 


2? 


4 " 


34 


13.5 


2-23 


66 22.6 


10-40 




Aug 8 


240 " 


70-93 °F 


2? 


6 " 


8 


6.5 


6-7 


92 — 






Nest C-49 Jun 29 240 

Nest E-49 Jun 30 420 

Jul 2 300 

Jul 5 300 



85T 3 1" 

87-90 °F 3 H-day* 

89°F 4 2 days 

55-72 °F 4 4" 



35 10.5 



1-30 65 20.6 3-41 



75 28.9 6-92 
48 20.7 2-58 
12 36.0 36 



25 8.5 3-26 
52 19.4 2-39 
88 132.0 104-160 



* Day of hatching. 

to this, 76% for the female and 24% for the 
male. There was, however, quite a dif- 
ference in the assiduousness of individual 
males. MC-45 and ME-49, for instance, by 
far surpassed the other 4 males in diligence. 
Calculated from the total feedings at each 
nest, MC accounted for 39% at his and ME 
for 37%, while the other 4 males ranged from 
14 to 19 percent. Only MC and ME passed 
food to their females to feed the nestlings. 

Table 8 presents the data on the feeding 
of the young at 6 nests. At Nest A2-49 one 
young was missing on July 4 and this pro- 
bably caused the drop in the feeding rate 
during my watch. At Nest B3-49, 2 young left 
the nest, but the decrease in the feeding 
rate during the later part of the nesting 
suggests that a third nestling might have 
died or disappeared on the 7th or 8th day. 
This nest was at a height of 50 feet. At 
2 nests, which were watched during the 
fledging of the young, the rate of feeding 
dropped, perhaps owing to the excitement of 
this event and to the movement of the young 
into the foliage. 

If the data of Nest B3-49 are omitted, the 
young vireos at the other 5 nests received 
food on an average every 50 minutes. Ste- 
phen's study (1917) also established the Red- 
eyed Vireo as a rather .slow feeder. As to 



the rate of feeding of other vireos, there 
is too little information to draw any con- 
clusions, in Latimer's, Philadelphia, Bell's, 
none was watched longer than 17 hours. 

Since, ordinarily, only one young Red-eye 
was fed at each visit and thus was given a 
whole insect, most often a sizeable fat larva, 
such a meal was much larger than one 
divided between a brood of 2 or 4 young. 
This would therefore compensate for the 
slower rates of feeding of this vireo. It 
happened quite frequently that a young bird 
refused a meal and the food was then offered 
to the next and, certainly, this was no indica- 
tion that they were underfed. If none ac- 
cepted, the parent ate the food or flew away 
with it. 

The rates of feeding of a number of 
passerines show a definite increase through- 
out nest-life (see Nice 1943:232). In some 
birds, however, this increase is smaller and 
less noticeable but it is then, apparently, 
offset by larger quantities of food being given 
at each meal. The Red-eyed Vireo, as Table 8 
indicates, belongs to the latter category. The 
increase in feeding rates, as shown, is rather 
insignificant, but the increase in the size of 
the meals as the young grew older was often 
spectacular. In evidence thereof, large dragon- 
flies began to appear on the menu from the 



64 



The Canadian FiELDrNAxuRALisx 



[Vol. 67 



TABLE 8. — Feeding the young 

Ob. time Feedings Per cent Rate Per young 

Date min. Young Age byF byM byMF F M p.h. per hour 



Nest C-45 


Jul 10 


107 


3 


1 


days 


3 


1 


1 


60 


40 


2.8 


0.9 


« 


" 12 


123 


3 


3 


" 


5 


1 


1 


71 


29 


3.4 


1.1 


<< 


" 13 


66 


3 


4 


" 


4 


— 


1 


80 


20 


4.5 


1.5 


« 


" 15 


120 


3 


6 




8 
61% 


6 


— 


57 


43 


7.0 


2.3 






39% 




Nest A2-49 


Jul 1 


240 


3 


H-day 


9 


3 


— 


75 


25 


3.0 


1.0 


<( 


" 4 


240 


2 


3 


days 


3 


— 


— 


100 


— 


0.8 


0.4 


« 


" 9 


180 


2 


8 




7 
86% 


— 


— 


100 




2.3 


1.2 






14% 




Nest B3-49 


Aug 4 


240 


2? 


2 


(( 


11 


1 


— 


92 


8 


3.0 


1.5 


" 


" 5 


240 


2? 


3 


" 


8 


— 


— 


100 


— 


2.0 


1.0 


« 


" 6 


240 


2? 


4 


" 


13 


5 


— 


72 


28 


4.5 


2.3 


<( 


" 8 


240 


2? 


6 


" 


11 


5(3?) — 


58 


26 


4.8 


2.4 


<< 


" 9 


240 


2? 


7 


<< 


16 


4 


— 


80 


20 


5.0 


2.5 


<( 


" 10 


120 


2? 


8 


(( 


6 


1 


— 


86 


14 


3.5 


1.8 


« 


" 11 


240 


2? 


9 


" 


15 


1 


— 


94 


6 


4.0 


2.0 


<( 


" 13 


210 


2 


11 


" 


7 


— 


— 


100 


— 


2.0 


1.0 Y. left 
nest 














84% 




16% 








Nest C-49 


Jun 29 


240 


3 


1 


(1 


11 


4 


— 


73 


27 


3.8 


1.3 


" 


Jul 8 


240 


3 


10 


" 


9 


— 


— 


100 


— 


2.2 


0.7 Y. left 
nest 














83% 




17% 








Nest D-49 


Jul 6 


300 


3 


10 


(( 


22 


7 


— 


76 


24 


5.8 


1.9 Y. left 
nest 














81% 




19% 








Nest E-49 


Jun 30 


420 


3 


H-day 


6 


3 


4 


46 


54 


1.9 


0.6 


" 


Jul 2 


300 


4 


2 


days 


11 


6 


— 


65 


35 


3.4 


0.9 


<( 


,.". 5 


300 


4 


5 


(( 


18 


11 


— 


63 


38 


5.8 


1.5 


« 


: « 7 


300 


2 


7 




9 
63% 


2 


— 


82 


18 


2.2 


1.1 






37% 































Note : MF — feedings passed by male to female which 
fed young 



3rd to 5th day of nest-life and the nestling 
which accepted it often had difficulty in 
downing the giant morsel. 

There was no evidence of feeding by 
regurgitation at any time. In the 268 feedings 
observed, I was able to identify the food items 
75 times. Larvae, green, white, brown, yellow, 
in that order of frequency, including one 
with a reddish belly and one measuring worm, 
accounted for 49 feedings, or 65% of the 
known food items. The rest included 10 
spiders (13%), 12 dragonflies (16%), 2 may- 
flies (3%), and 2 flies (3%). 



The sanitation of the nest was carried out 
by both parents. Since the females attended 
the young about 3 times as often as the males, 
their part in this matter was correspondingly 
larger. Of the droppings recorded, the females 
disposed of 80% and the males of 20%. 

Up to the 7th day of nest-life, the females 
ate the fecal sacs but began carrying them 
away on the 5th. The males also ate a few 
sacs in the beginning, but started carrying 
them away sooner than the females. The 
excreta were carried to distances varying 
from 5 to 100 feet. One male nearly every 



April- June, 1953] 



The Canadian Field-Naturalist 



65 



time carried his far up into a tall poplar. The 
birds deposited the sacs on twigs, branches 
and the trunks of the trees, thoroughly wiping 
their bills afterwards. 

When the young of Nest C-45 were 2 days 
old the female received a sac and then fed 
it back to the young. I found this so extraor- 
dinary that I left it unrecorded, thinking I 
had made a mistake, until the next day when 
it was repeated. The female fed one young, 
then picked up a dropping which she fed to 
another, whereupon she picked up a second 
sac and ate that herself. At Nest C-49, on 
the first day of nest-life, the same thing 
happened, but this time it was done by the 
male. He came and fed, then stood over the 
young for 2 minutes while he picked up sev- 
eral droppings, one after the other, crushed 
them in his bill and then fed them back to 
the young after which he flew. 

This kind of behaviour, to my knowledge, 
has only been recorded once before in the 
literature (Sherman 1910:155). The female 
Northern Flicker, Colaptes auratus, which she 
was studying, "stopped feeding, solicited an 
excrement, obtained and ate it, after which 
she began feeding again — an unheard-of 
thing to do. . . ." Possibly this act is prompted 
by two stimuli of unequal strength prevailing 
upon the parent at the same time, that of the 
young presenting its food target overriding 
the parents' habitual reaction of swallowing 
or carrying away the sac. 

In general, the behaviour pattern during 
the brooding period followed closely that of 
the incubation period. But there was a 
notable difference. The presence of young 
in the nest induced a nervous tension in the 
parents, which chiefly took expression in 
greater alertness, that is, a much faster 
reaction to disturbances. 

Among the causes which gave rise to vari- 
ous interesting reactions in the birds at this 
time were the arrival or presence of "enemies", 
the disappearance of a young, and a certain 
change in the relationship between the mates 
particularly pronounced in very late nestings. 

The first will be fully discussed in the 
Chapter on Defence Behaviour. 

The disappearance of a young occurred at 
two nests. Although in no case did it actually 
happen in my presence, it obviously took place 
shortly before my arrival. In one nest one 
young disappeared and in the other two. The 
lack of response to food offerings from the 



reduced broods was an exceedingly upsetting 
circumstance to the adult birds. For a time 
they were altogether thrown out of their 
feeding schedules. They brought food, hopped 
about, but never went near the nest, they 
displayed to each other with spread tails 
flipped down and uttered various mating 
notes, they chased off neighbouring birds 
which they had hitherto ignored. And all 
the while the female scolded with long drawn- 
out "miewings" and the male sang short inter- 
rupted songs or whisper songs. 

At a third nest, a young died from expo- 
sure, having fallen out, been revived and 
replaced. It was only 2 days old and very 
small and featherless. Probably for this rea- 
son, it was evidently removed by the female 
herself, perhaps eaten, since Harding (1929: 
77-80) recorded such an instance in a Red- 
eyed Vireo. In a fourth nest, an almost fully 
fledged young died of unknown causes. This 
one, on the other hand, was left untouched 
as it died, probably because, although motion- 
less, it lay in a natural position and suggested 
no difference from its live brothers and 
sisters. 

In the Red-eyed Vireo the relationship 
between the mates was very close through 
most of the nesting cycle in spite of the fact 
that both territory and activities were divided 
into pronounced male and female spheres. 
Also after hatching, contact between the 
female occupied with the young and the male 
in the song area was maintained through his 
singing and, as described, he usually stopped 
singing when the female joined him. When 
he himself entered the nest area, often in 
company with the female, his songs changed 
and took on quite a different character. 
Although I did not see any courtship-feeding: 
at this time, (only the passing of food by 
the male to the female for the young), the 
meetings between the mates continued to be 
associated with mutual displays, sometimes 
becoming extravagant under emotional pres- 
sure. 

But as the nesting cycle advanced, a 
change was noticeable, which was evidently 
related to the mates' decreasing need for 
each other after the consummation of their 
reproductive relationship. There came a 
period when the male normally retired into 
his song area from whence his almost con- 
tinuous singing from early morning through 
the heat of the day proclaimed his being 
there alone, while the female toured the 



66 



The Canadian Fiei-d-Naturalist 



[Vol. 67 



territory on her own and for the most part 
cared for the surviving brood with little 
assistance. 

With the renewed cycle of a late third 
nesting, the period of comparative rest which 
normally followed the relaxation of parental 
responsibilities was inhibited by the urgencies 
accompanying another attempt. This appeared 
to have a disturbing influence upon the 
smooth course of the birds' late nesting life 
and produced certain deviations from the 
usual behaviour pattern, which were parti- 
cularly evident in Pair B-49. 

Their first nest was broken up 10 days 
after incubation began. Their second nest 
was destroyed when the young were newly 
hatched. From their third nest 2 young 
emerged on August 13, an active and strenu- 
ous breeding period of 73 days for this pair. 

The female was, on the whole, a phlegmatic 
type with slow rhythm and the male was a 
slow singer, which seems to be correlated with 
the individual's disposition. That a change 
was coming on them was apparent already 
while they were feeding the brood of the 
second nesting. The female came and went 
as if in a constant hurry, brushed past the 
male instead of displaying to him, and in 
general paid little attention to him. With the 
beginning of the third nesting, a natural 
reversal in their relationship occurred, which 
lasted throughout the incubation period. But 
after the young hatched, both mates appeared 
to draw apart, and thereafter only the defence 
of nest and territory remained a common 
ground where the two fully cooperated. An 
incident on the third day of nest-life demon- 
strates this change. 

Both birds arrived at the nest. The female 
-went to the nest and delivered the food which 
she brought in the bill. The male with nothing 
in the bill alighted beside the nest. At this 
the female gaped and snapped her bill at 
him. The male then swung head downwards 
and clung to the branch in this position, while 
the female stood over the nest, her body 
horizontal and feathers flattened, gaping. The 
male righted himself. Again the female 
snapped her bill at him, whereupon he stabbed 
her 3 times with his bill from behind in the 
region of the cloaca. She hopped over to the 
opposite rim of the nest, leaned across, and 
in turn bit at the male. He moved away from 
her to another branch. Here he remained, 
swaying his head from side to side gaping, 
while the female remained standing over the 



nest motionless. This situation endured for 
5 full minutes. Then suddenly, the female 
flew off escorted by the male. 

After this encounter, both birds appeared 
"nervous" when they approached the nest. 
The male continued to feed the young, but 
performed his task in haste and never lingered 
even to pick up a fecal sac. When the female 
was there before him, he did not approach 
but waited well off to the side until she left. 
The female appeared to use more stealth when 
approaching than earlier observed and looked 
about her repeatedly before she went to the 
nest. At one time after feeding she flew into 
the foliage above the nest. Again the male 
came with nothing in the bill, inspected the 
young, flew to a branch near by and back to 
the nest 3 times in succession. The female 
saw him and gave soft "miewing" notes from 
her perch but did not interfere. 

In an attempt to analyse this event it 
would seem, that the fact that the male 
arrived at the nest without food in the bill 
was the reason why the female did not react 
to him as to her mate. Instead she reacted 
to him as to a stranger. She gaped and 
snapped her bill at him, but she did not 
attack him. She stood over the young, not 
to protect them but in a threat posture, her 
body horizontal, feathers flattened, and her 
bill pointed towards the male and opened. 

The reason for the male's arrival at the 
nest without food may be found in the gradual 
weakening of the drive to feed the young, 
caused by the lateness of the season and his 
obvious condition of oncoming moult. His 
response to the female's behaviour by swing- 
ing upside down on his perch, swaying from 
side to side and gaping, I believe to be dis- 
placement movements, derived from court- 
ship behaviour in which swaying, gaping (see 
Armstrong 1942:35) and stabbing in the 
region of the cloaca all play a part, and 
brought forth by the thwarting of his inten- 
tion to inspect the young birds. Inspection 
of the young is usually observed in the male 
soon after the young hatch and is, I think, 
a form of the drive to feed the young before 
this activity properly gets under way, but on 
this occasion occurring "in reverse" at the 
decline of this drive. 

That the whole interlude was so prolonged 
without a consummatory act being reached by 
either bird seems to prove the low intensity 
of the drives in both the male and the female. 
It may not, however, have been actually true 



April- June, 1953] 



The Canadian Field-Naturalist 



67 



but only my impression that the birds ap- 
peared "nervous" after the episode and that 
the Blue Jay attacks rather, which occurred 
with such frequency at this time, were the 
cause of this. The male's arrival at the nest 
some days later for the second time without 
food in the bill while the female was present 
and failing to make her react in any other 
way than to utter "miewing" notes, is prob- 
ably due to the circumstance that on this 
occasion she was too far away from both the 
male and the nest. 

In this study the female Red-eyed Vireo 
was found to be dominant in the area im- 
mediately surrounding the nest and this may, 
in part, have influenced the female's behav- 
iour in this case. Nevertheless, in the incident 
as a whole, this does not detract from its 
importance of demonstrating the gradual 
weakening of the bond between the mates at 
this time as the result, it may be presumed, 
of the beginning retrogression of gonadal 
activity. 

In Latimer's Vireo, Spaulding (1937:25) 
related many instances of the male arriving 
at the nest "empty-billed", in this case con- 
nected with shifts at the nest while the young 
were being brooded, when the female also 
adopted an apparently hostile attitude. Lewis 
(1927:42-43) described an all-out-fight between 
his pair of Philadelphia Vireos on the 4th 
day of nest-life in a first nesting, for which 
he could offer no explanation. 

DEVELOPMENT OF THE YOUNG 

When the young hatch they are naked 
except for a sparse covering of greyish natal 
down on the back, shoulders and head. The 
colour of their skin is warm reddish-yellow, 
like a deep sunburn. It is transparent on the 
belly, showing the liver as a dark area and the 
intestines creamy white, apparently empty. 
The eyes are covered by a thin film which 
does not show any opening. The mouth-lining 
is bright orange-coloured. From the first they 
emit an exceedingly faint note, "te", which 
is audible only as one stands right over them. 
One young bird weighed 2 grams before its 
first feeding. 

At the age of one day, the feather papillae 
on the wings show like dark bands under the 
skin. When inactive in the nest, the position 
of the young is like the spokes of a wheel, 
heads tucked deep into the bottom of the 
nest, forming the hub. When the branch is 
jarred, the hungry nestling raises its head on 



a wobbly neck and opens its mouth wide. But 
in a nestling which is not hungry, even though 
it may open its bill at the approach of the 
parent, the throat is kept closed by two mem- 
branes that can be seen opening and shutting 
like the shutter of a camera. 

When two days old, the nestlings show 
tiny slits in the film covering the eyes. Not 
only on the wings but also on the dorsal 
tracts the dark shade of the developing 
feathers can be seen under the skin. 

When 4 days old, one nestling weighed 
8.5 grams and its length was 55 mm. The egg- 
tooth was lost. The feathers began breaking 
through the skin on all tracts. The rectrices 
were not yet visible with the unaided eye. 

At the age of 5 days, the warm sunburnt 
colour of their skin disappeared. Instead it 
was grey-looking and wrinkled. The nestlings 
became rough in appearance as the feathers 
on the wings, the dorsal tracts and the breast 
broke through the skin. Their eyes were still 
held closed. Heads were jerked aloft at the 
slightest jarring of the limb. Without fail 
the nestlings differentiated between the 
vibrating movement of the limb caused by 
the feet of their parents as they alighted one 
to three feet away below the level of the 
nest and the gentler swaying of it caused by 
the wind. 

When 6 days old, the weight of one nest- 
ling was 10.1 grams and its length was 57 mm. 
Its eyes were opening, but kept shut for the 
most part. The feathers were still in their 
sheaths. The length of the primaries was 
15 mm. 

When 7 days old, the feathers began 
breaking from the sheaths. The rectrices 
barely began to show. The eyes were open 
but still mostly kept shut. The nestlings 
clung strongly with their feet. Their food 
note, a short monosyllabic "tsep-tsep" now 
fully developed from the initial faint "te", 
was perceptibly louder. 

At the age of 8 days, one nestling weighed 
13.7 grams. Its length was 63 mm., wing 36 
mm., tail 4 mm., and tarsus 20 mm. Feathers 
now covered the body fairly well except under 
the wings. On the head they were breaking 
from the sheaths and those of the wings were 
3 mm. out. The natal down was being pushed 
away by the developing feathers but still 
adhered to these, especially on the scapulars 
and above the ears. The colour of the plumage 
was a velvet grey-brown with an olive tinge 
above, cream below, and the flanks were 



68 



The Canadian Field-Naturalist 



[Vol. 67 



faintly tinged with yellow. The young bird 
now kept its eyes open and when fed quivered 
its wings and emitted squealing notes. 

On the 10th day of nest life, the young 
are ready to leave, but in 4 cases they re- 
mained in the nest one day longer. They 
have now become very active, rising and 
flapping their wings and getting up on the 
rim and preening, often returning to the nest 
again. In these activities they sometimes 
mistake each other for a parent and crouch 
with open bills and quivering wings, begging. 

At one nest 3 young left in the course of 
11 minutes, at another 2 young departed in 
25 minutes, and at a third it took 3 young 
nearly 3 hours to be gone. 

The appearance of the fledglings just out 
of the nest is that of small fluffy balls with 
exceedingly short tails. Their white and ashy 
brown juvenal plumage blends perfectly with 
their surroundings of foliage and dappled 
sunlight. 

Often prompted by a feeding call from the 
parents, a very soft "miewing" note, the 
young hop away from the nest along the 
branches and make short flights, not much 
over one to two feet, from twig to twig. If 
left to themselves, they soon move away a 
surprising distance from the nest in this 
manner. Only when disturbed they may at- 
tempt a longer initial flight. One young bird, 
frightened by me, flung itself upon its wings 
in a first flight of 12 feet five minutes after 
leaving the nest. It failed to keep its altitude 
and glided rather than flew to a landing on 
the leaf of a wild sarsaparilla, about 7 feet 
lower than its take-off level. All but missing 
its foothold, the fledgling finally succeeded 
in getting itself safely adjusted on the new 
perch where I caught it without difficulty. 

Sutton's observations on the Edwin S. 
George Reserve (1949:25) led him to con- 
clude that Red-eyed Vireos' families, parents 
and young, do not remain together for any 
length of time after the young leave the nest. 
OVTy observations suggest rather the opposite. 

A good search of a territory at this epoch 
usually revealed adults and young, one parent, 
most often probably the male, meandering by 
himself and the other pursued by one or more 
to-egging young. One colour^banded young, 
aged 35 days, was seen tagging after its parent 
in their nesting territory 25 days after fledg- 
ing from a first nesting. The young fed 
itself, but begged still and was fed occasion- 
ally. 



I obtained the most complete notes on the 
young of Nest B3-49. At the age of 15 days, 
4 days out of the nest, the young looked well 
grown with tails about 30 mm. long. They 
were fed by one parent. They were evidently 
moulting their juvenal plumage; the ashy 
brown feathers above appeared like a fluffy 
wadding puffing over the birds' sides and 
pushed up from below as the moult pro- 
gressed. The new plumage which covered 
their bodies on the underside was white and 
light olive-grey. The flight and tail feathers 
were edged with golden yellow and were not 
being replaced. 

At the age of 27 days, 16 days after 
fledging, the family was still together and 
the young being fed by the parent. They were 
seen again the next day. One of the young 
begged from a Black-capped Chickadee, 
Parus atricapillus. At the age of 31 days, 20 
days out of the nest, the young were giving 
foodcalls but being fed only occasionally. 
Remnants of the juvenal plumage still clung 
to their necks and shoulders. 

One month after leaving the nest, the 
whole family was seen together. The two 
young, now 42 days old, pursued the parents 
begging and giving foodcalls; no attention was 
paid to them. They had completed their 
moult and were evidently in full new plum- 
age, as far as I could see at a distance. 

Thus the family B3-49 kept together until 
the day they started out on their migration 
southwards, to which we shall return in a 
later connection. 

DEFENCE BEHAVIOUR 

After the nest site has been decided, there 
is a marked increase in the aggressiveness of 
the Red-eyed Vireo, that gradually reaches a 
climax while the young are in the nest. After 
this, as the young become fledged, it declines. 
Evidently the boldness of action is dictated in 
part by the fancied or real malignity of the 
enemy, to which the birds may previously 
have been conditioned. At all times and 
seasons, the most intense defence action I 
witnessed was against Blue Jays, Cyanocitta 
cristata. A Cooper's Hawk, Accipiter coope- 
rii, which occasionally hunted through the 
study plot in 1949 was to my knowledge not 
attacked. The intrepidity of the individual 
Red-eyed Vireo is unquestionable, A remark- 
able example was one bird attacking a Por- 
cupine, Erethizon dorsatum, that one day 
crawled up a trunk 30 feet from the nest. 
With snapping mandibles the vireo repeated- 



April- June, 1953] 



Th^ Canadian Field-Naturalist 



69 



ly swooped and dove upon the animal, bare- 
ly missing being speared upon its erect 
spines. 

During the nest-building stage, scolding 
and pursuit flights were most prominent. Once, 
as a Blue Jay alighted in the trees of Ter- 
ritory B-50, both vireos began scolding insist- 
ently. Presently, one of them flung itself 
high into the air above the crowns of the 
trees and chased the Blue Jay off the 
premises. 

After the nest acquires its quota of eggs, 
the female typically resorts to cryptic behav- 
iour. Then the routine reactions include 
absolute immobility with all feathers flat 
against the body, except for the head which 
with raised bill imperceptibly turns to fol- 
low the movements of the intruder. The 
moment he gets too close, the female dives 
off the nest and begins scolding in loud 
petulant cries, "meeyaah-meeyaah". This is 
often accompanied by a moderate distraction 
display which mainly consists of the puffing of 
the throat feathers and the raising of the 
crest. At this time, when the general trend 
is toward secretiveness in the immediate sur- 
roundings of the nest, the scolding may or 
may not attract the male. But the arch 
enemy (Blue Jays) passing too close, or a 
direct attack upon the nest, requires inten- 
sified action at which both birds usually join 
forces. They pursue and dive upon the enemy 
with loudly snapping mandibles and displays 
of ruffled throats, raised crests, spread tails, 
all accompanied by scolding cries. 

Late in the incubation period and after 
the young have hatched, the female often be- 
comes possessed by an aggressiveness far sur- 
passing that of the male. During their last 
nesting, Pair B-49 provided me with some 
remarkable scenes of defence action when 
large post-nesting parties of Crows, Corvus 
brachyrhynchos, Blue Jays and Bronzed 
Crackles, Quiscalus versicolor, almost daily 
trekked through the vireo territory. 

One forenoon not less than 50 grackles in- 
vaded the area. The female vireo remained 
silent on the nest until one of the grackles 
came within 26 feet. Then she dashed out and 
attacked it single-handed, giving the "tcherrr"- 
note. The male joined her, giving slow songs. 
With "tcherrr"-notes and snapping bills the 
two vireos dove, snapped and pecked at the 
grackle with such force that it squawked and 
fled. One grackle returned, trying to locate 
the nest whose existence the vireos evidently 
had given away by their behaviour. The fe- 



male dashed after it, the male dashed after 
the female, and the grackle fled. This was 
repeated a couple of times. 

When crows came into the territory, their 
large size evidently caused the vireos to revert 
to cryptic behaviour, no slow songs, no scold- 
ing, no attack. Entirely silent they stalked 
the crows until these moved out of the neigh- 
bourhood. In this way, the crows evidently 
never surmised the presence of the nest; if 
they had, I do not know what would have 
happened. 

The Blue Jays of this region have a method 
lOf hunting through occupied territories for 
hidden nests, which I have recorded many 
times and with several different species as 
their victims. In a noisy flock, consisting 
usually of groups of adults later accompanied 
by begging young, they enter the area and 
pass on with much screaming and calling. 
(Meanwhile, one or two jays detach them- 
selves from the crowd and in deep silence 
and with great wariness "sneak" from tree 
to tree, stopping, looking about, unmistakably 
searching for the nest. 

During the later part of incubation to the 
end of the nesting of the B's, I recorded 18 
Blue Jay raids, seven of these in one day. 
Whether or not the noisy crowd provoked 
the vireos or they learned the danger of the 
"sneaker" method, the mere sight or sound of 
a Blue Jay became to them like a red rag to 
a bull. With slight variations according to 
circumstances, the vireos followed a set seq- 
ence of tactics. The male, usually hopping 
about in his look-out treetops, instantly gave 
loud slow signal songs at the first inkling 
of an approach, going over to whisper songs 
as the enemy closed in. At this the female 
on the nest sat up, thoroughly alert. She 
fidgeted, looked about, and finally dove over 
the edge. She either joined the male and 
began scolding loudly, or she went to attack 
on her own. The snapping of the bills by 
infuriated vireos I know from my own exper- 
ience is extremely startling. This, in combin- 
ation with vicious swooping and actual stab- 
bing with the bills, which upset the balance of 
the "sneaking" Blue Jay and elicited squeals 
and squawks of pain or fright, repeatedly 
and effectively kept the vireo nest inviolate. 

Commonly the Red-eyed Vireo was not 
aggressive towards the nesting neighbours 
of other species and these were often ad- 
mitted into the nesting tree without being 
rebuffed. The occasions when I saw the 
vireos chasing a neighbour were always in 



70 



The Canadian Field-Naturalist 



[Vol. 67 



connection with an emotional disturbance from 
another cause, such as for instance my ap- 
proach or the disappearance of a young bird. 

Once I saw what happened when another 
vireo came close to a nest. This was while 
I was watching Nest D-49. A Veery and an 
Ovenbird suddenly discovered me and began 
scolding loudly. This upset the D's which 
were feeding young just about to leave the 
nest, and they joined in the scolding. All 
this noise soon attracted the E's from the 
south. A general melee ensued, involving the 
Ovenbirds, a Magnolia Warbler, Dendroica 
magnolia, (the Veery withdrew), and the four 
vireos. The D's were torn between the ur- 
gency of scolding me and chasing the E's. 
PD chased the E's northwards. Having to 
retrace their way across D Territory to reach 
their own, the E's were again soundly chased 
by FD on the return trip too, while MD oc- 
cupied himself with scolding me. The young 
never got their dinner that time. 

RE-NESTING AND NESTING SUCCESS 

According to Bent (1950: 338), the Red- 
eyed Vireo may at times raise two broods in 
a season. During this study, I observed only 
one case in which one pair possibly re-nested 
after having fledged their first brood. 

The young of B-50 left the nest July 1. 
They were not seen again after this. During 
July and August, this pair, the male being 
recognized by his singing, was often en- 
countered not far from the first site and 
they behaved as if they had a new nest 
here. When the leaves fell in the fall, I 
found a nest fresh for the season at this 
spot, hung high in the leafy top of a young 
aspen tree. 

There are three points that favour double- 
broodedness in the Red-eyed Vireo. 1) The 
bird remains on its territory until the day 
it starts the flight south. 2) The nesting 
cycle is comparatively short, in third, second 
and first nestings lasting approximately 30 
— 32 — 34 days, respectively. 3) The 
physiological condition of the species through- 
out its stay on the breeding grounds ap- 
parently permits, not only two nesting at- 
tempts, but 3 certainly and, perhaps rarely, 
four. 

Single-brooded passerines, for example 
some flycatchers and warblers, in this latitude 
begin wandering off their territories in July 
even if both their first and second nesting 
attempts were unsuccessful. Therefore, by 
the end of July, pairs of these species are 



not often to be found on their breeding 
territories and in August their migration is 
already in full swing. Third nesting attempts 
of the Red-eyed Vireo, on the other hand, 
are evidently not unusual, for which reason 
the bird not seldom is found nesting in the 
late months of summer and feeding young 
fresh out of the nest in September. My 
pair B-49 was such a case and Nice (1950: 
3-4) observed a pair in Jackson Park, Chicago, 
which evidently also nested 3 times. 

But the males' small share in the raising 
of the young and the lack of evidence in 
this study of any increase in the rate of 
feeding by him either at the end of nest-life 
or after the young are fledged certainly do 
not favour multiple broods in the Red-eyed 
Vireo. I believe that, in this northerly region, 
a re-nesting may only take place under 
special circumstances when, for example, all 
or most of the fledglings fail to survive 
soon after leaving the nest early in the 
season. Under such conditions, the necessary 
physiological readjustments in the female 
perhaps would have time to develop, enabl- 
ing her to start a new nesting without the 
assistance of an accelerated male attentive- 
ness to the first brood, which usually occurs 
in multi-brooded species. 

The nesting success of 35 nests was 63 
percent, 57 percent in 23 first nestings and 
in 11 second attempts 73 percent. One third 
nesting attempt was successful. In 30 nest- 
ings, where the number of eggs were known, 
80% of the eggs hatched and 60% of the 
eggs fledged young (see Table 9). The two 
nests with 3 eggs each were "abandoned", 
I believe, because the females were killed 
by predators. I have no evidence of direct 
desertion by the Red-eyed Vireo either in 
the early stages of nesting or later. Handling 
of the eggs or young by the observer with 
reasonable care certainly had no after-effects 
in this way. 

The causes of nesting failure included, 
first of all, predators. Of these the Corvidae, 
Crows and Blue Jays, were by far the greatest 
menace to the Red-eye's nests. The Eastern 
Chipmunk, Tamias striatus, and the Red 
Squirrel, Tamiasciurus hudsonicus, although 
numerous, were much less common causes, 
and hawks, the Sharp-shinned, Accipiter 
velox, Cooper's and the Pigeon Hawks, Falco 
columbarius, were a negligible danger be- 
cause of their scarcity. 

At one nest a crow alighted on the nest- 
ing branch in a large-toothed aspen, which 



April- June, 1953] 



The Canadian Field-Naturalist 



71 



TABLE 9 — Data on the nesting success at 80 nests 



EGGS 

Nests Aband. 



Destr. 



Not YOUNG hatched: 
hatched of eggs 



YOUNG fledged: of y. 
of eggs hatched 



Year No No No % No % No % 



1941 
1942 
1943 
1945 
1946 
1947 
1948 
1949 
1950 



3 

7 
10 
15 

9 
10 

7 
20 
17 



40 



6 40 



4 20 



Jo 


% 


No 


% 


No 


% 


% 






3 


100 


3 


100 


100 






7 


100 


5 


71 


71 






10 


100 


10 


100 


100 






3 


20 


3 


20 


100 


1 


11 


8 


89 


6 


67 


75 






10 


100 


9 


90 


90 


1 


14 


6 


86 


6 


86 


100 


1 


5 


15 


75 


10 


50 


67 


1 


6 


16 


94 


7 


41 


44 



Totals: 30 



98 



6% 10 10% 4 4% 78 



80% 



59 



60% 



76% 



broke under its weight, throwing the nest 
still attached to the branch to the ground 
and spilling the eggs. At another a Blue 
Jay was caught in the act of eating one of 
the almost fledged young. The jay had 
pierced the heart of a second, which lay dead 
on the ground, but the third young escaped. 
A third nest was found with the bottom 
torn out, presumably by a chipmunk, and 
a fourth with 4 young apparently eaten by 
a Red Squirrel in the course of a couple 
of days. In a fifth nest heavy rains caused 
it to sag at so steep an angle that one young 
was kicked out by the female and later 
died from exposure. 

Parasitism of the Red-eyed Vireo's nests 
by the Cowbird, Molothrus ater, was not 
observed in this study, notwithstanding that 
female Cowbirds roamed the area every year 
up to 1948 and many species were known to 
be parasitized, such as the Chestnut-sided, 
Nashville and Myrtle Warblers. In other 
localities, observers have found the Red-eye 
to be the most common victim of the Cowbird, 
(Bent 1950: 344), (Sutton 1949: 23-25). 

FEEDING HABITS 

The overwhelming percentage of the Red- 
eyed Vireo's food was taken from the foliage 
of deciduous trees during the whole time 
of its stay on the breeding-grounds. The 
underside of the leaves were the objects of 
its special attention since this is the place 
where many insects and larvae dwell. 

The Red-eye glides rather than hops along 
the branches foraging. Attentively it exam- 
ines the leaves overhead and on all sides. 
Espying a larva, the bird often lifts itself 
to snatch the morsel with a graceful move- 
ment of the wings, its feet trailing, alights 



again, and then smites the prey dead against 
the branch. At other times, it may suddenly 
turn a half somersault and with its feet 
clinging to a swaying cluster of leaves pick 
its food in an upside-down position. 

Kendeigh (1947: 56) made special note 
of this upside-down feeding of the Red- 
eyed Vireo in the Black Sturgeon Lake area 
where he obiserved it in conifers from 
branches that appeared too weak to support 
the bird's weight. For this reason he attrib- 
uted this feeding method to a "geographical 
variation in the normal behaviour pattern 
of the species that aided it to inhabit the 
spruce-fir forest. . . " In this study, the upside- 
down feeding was commonly seen but only 
in broad-leaved trees from clusters of leaves 
that hung down perpendicularly and there- 
fore were conveniently reached in this 
manner. 

By reason of his general habits, the male 
foraged principally in the crowns of the trees 
down to the middle branches and, as he 
escorted the female, occasionally in bushes. 
The female, with nests often suspended from 
low branches, quite frequently also foraged 
near or even on the ground where she 
picked small stuff, such as ants and snails. 

According to Bent (1950: 339), six-sev- 
enths of the Red-eyed Vireo's food is animal 
and the rest wild fruits. The red cherry, 
Prunus pennsylvanica, appears to be a fa- 
vourite. It is eaten whole and is fed to the 
young after they have left the nest. 

In spite of the fact that the study area 
was in possession of plenty of water, the 
lakeshore on two sides and also a small creek 
and a spring with overflow, I never saw the 
Red-eyed Vireo either bathing or drinking 



72 



The Canadian Field-Naturalist 



[Vol. 67 



at any of these places. Presumably the suc- 
culence of its larval food together with dew 
and raindrops provide the bird with the 
liquids it requires. 

VOICE 

For the best technical description of the 
Red-eyed Vireo's song the reader is referred 
to Saunders (1935: 169-170). 

Two distinctly different songs were 
recorded, the courtship-song and the song 
phrase theme. 

On a few occasions during the nest- 
building I heard the courtship-song. It was 
a mellow warble that reminded me of the 
song of the Rose-breasted Grosbeak. Some- 
times it was quite prolonged, at other times 
abbreviated, and every time I heard it, it 
was given sotto voce. Saunders, quoted by 
Bent (1950: 335), described a courtship-song 
he heard in the Allegany State Park on 
July 28, 1933, that was given in a soft 
whisper. 

Several variants of the song phrase theme 
were given so consistently under the same 
conditions that I have recognized them as 
separate "songs". They varied in delivery, 
speed and continuity. Four of these I have 
recorded as the most important: the advertis- 
ing song, the alert song, the contact song, 
and the signal or nest song. 

1) The advertising song was loud, clear, 
and comparatively slow in tempo. It adver- 
tised occupied territory and was therefore 
heard most often during the pre-nesting 
period and in August. 

2) The alert song was also of slow tempo, 
sometimes with prolonged intervals between 
the notes, and it was usually of longer dura- 
tion than the signal song, which it resembled. 
It was given either with full voice or sotto 
voce. Its objective was primarily to alert 
the female, but perhaps also to intimidate 
the "enemy", especially the whispered version. 

3) The contact song was given at the 
bird's highest speed of delivery, often in 
protracted sessions, and seldom used outside 
the song area. As explained earlier, it served 
to maintain the contact between the pair 
when the male was not with the female. 

4) The signal or nest song was loud and 
slow consisting at the most of 2 to 4 phrases. 
With this song the male called the female 
off the nest during incubation and brooding 
and he often sang it as he approached the 
nest to inspect or to feed the young. 



A notable difference in the mode of sing- 
ing was observed in the various males. 
Male A2-49, for instance, was a medium 
slow singer, (40 — 65 s.p.m.), with a strong, 
clear quality of tone. Males C, E and F-49 
were fast and continuous singers (50-85 
s.p.m.), especially in the period from late 
incubation to the post-nuptial moult. MF 
took the prize as a fast performer when 
he was clocked one morning in July at 
85 s.p.m. Of these three, judging by their 
singing and the location of their territories, 
MC and ME returned again in 1950 and were 
heard in the same song areas giving the 
same types of performances. The singing 
of Male B-49 was most distinctive. It was 
unhurried (25-50 s.p.m.) with longer intervals 
between the phrases and the quality of 
tone was beautifully liquid. His phrases were 
often interrupted and seldom given in pro- 
tracted series. I am sure that Male A-50, 
occupying the same territory, was in fact 
the same bird because his singing was of 
exactly the same type as that of MB-49. 

As a rule, the slower singers were not 
given to the incessant series of singing, 
considered so typical of the Red-eyed Vireo, 
as were most of the faster ones. Without 
recourse to banding, reliable observations on 
age and manner of singing could not be 
made. But, assuming that the 3 males 
mentioned above actually returned in 1950, 
I could detect no difference in their singing 
that might be attributed to better practice 
or faster performances from year to year. 

The singing in May, described in detail 
under Pre-nesting activities, was notably less 
insistent and slower as compared to that 
in the later stages of the nesting cycle. But 
with the beginning of incubation and the 
retirement of the male into the song area, 
a distinct increase both with regard to speed 
and volume occurred, which gradually led 
to a climax about the last two weeks of 
July, or about a week earlier after success- 
ful first nestings. This climax lasted until 
the post-nuptial moult began. During this 
time, the birds sang only slightly less after 
noon than they did in the morning. This was 
natural since the meaning of the male's 
singing at this period was primarily to keep 
in contact with his mate when she was out 
of his sight, occupied with her nesting duties. 
In contrast to the thrushes, the Red-eyed 
Vireo decreased his singing in the evening 
and ceased altogether comparatively early. 



April- June, 1953] The Canadian Field-Naturalist 

TABLE 10 — Data on late summer singing in 1949 by 4 males 



73 



July August 

25 26 27 28 29 30 31 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 



Male B-49 


S — S 




s 


s — 


s 




s s 


s 


s s 


s — s s 












Male C-49 


S 






g:|-. 






s 


s 








s 


— s 


S 


— 


Male E-49 


S — S 


s 


s 


s — 


s 


— 


s s 


S 


s — 


s — s s 


— 


s 


s s 


— 


S 


Male F-49 


— — — 


s 


s 





s 


— 


s 


S 


s — 


s 






s 


s 


s 


Blue Jays 








X 


X 




X 


X 


X X 


X X 






X 






Migrants 








X 






X 


X 


X 


X 




X 




X 


X 


No app. reason X 


X 


X 
















'■ 












August 


















September 












b 


18 19 20 


21 


22 


23 24 


25 


26 


27 28 


29 ; 


30 31 


12 3 4 


5 


6 


7 8 


9 


10 


Male B-49 








s 




s 








S — S 












Male C-49 





— 


S 


S S 


s 


S 


S — 


— 


— — 


S 












Male E-49 


S 




















S 










Male F-49 








s 






s 






S 












Blue Jays 
































Migrants 


X 




X 


X X 


X 


X 


X 






XXX 


X 










No app. reason 































































Small s Symbols means insignificantly short song periods. 



In most cases, day singing diminished 
during the last weeks of July. Thereafter 
nearly all the singing occurred in the early 
morning, beginning 30 to 35 minutes before 
sunrise and ending seldom later than about 
11 a.m. Now the singing also changed its 
meaning. At this time the migration of the 
warblers and other small passerines was 
rapidly coming to a head and many flocks 
of these birds passed through the vireo 
territories during the morning and early 
forenoon, evidently creating the urge in the 
Red-eyed Vireo to advertise his territory 
anew. With few exceptions, the records of 
August singing were in connection with the 
passing through the territories of groups 
or "waves" of migrants. 

Table 10 shows the singing of 4 males 
during the late part of the summer 1949 
and the reasons for the singing checked 
(x) below. 

In one way it may be said, that these 
4 males were in song practically through- 
out the post-nuptial moult. A closer analysis 
indicates, however, that each male went 
through a period, relative to the fledging of 
his young, when he was virtually silent ex- 
cept when migrants or Blue Jays prompted 
him to let himself be heard briefly. 

Male B fledged young on August 13 and 
was moulting heavily during the last stages 



of the nesting until the end of the month. 
He sang briefly only twice between Aug. 
11 and Sept. 2, an interval of 22 days. 
His first post-moult song was decidedly 
"rusty". Male C fledged young on July 
10 and he sang only 3 times between July 
25 and Aug. 13, an interval of 19 days. 
Male E probably re-nested twice more after 
his first nest was robbed on July 8. He 
stopped singing between Aug. 18 and Sept. 
5, 17 days. Male F fledged young in the 
end of July and stopped singing from Aug. 
8 to Sept. 3, with the exception of 5 brief 
sessions of song during this time. Thus, 
the average period of virtual cessation of 
song in these 4 males was 21 days. The 
table also shows a revival of song from Sept. 
2 to 5. After this, 3 of the males disappeared 
from their territories, having presumably left 
on their migration south. 

I have no evidence of female song. I 
heard no singing from the nest at any time. 
Sutton (1949: 36) found that the young 
males learn to sing before migration. The 
reason why I heard no singing by young 
birds may be that the migration date on 
the George Reserve, Michigan, is later than 
that at Pimisi Bay, or indeed that I missed it. 

Seven different call-notes were recorded. 
1) The scolding note, the common petulant 
"meeyaen, meeyaen", nasal and longdrawn, 



74 



The Canadian Field-Naturalist 



[Vol. 67 



was not heard until the female appeared 
in the territory. Both she and the male used 
it constantly during the nesting season and 
often during the passing of migrants in 
August when the male was not singing. The 
female's note was a fraction more prolonged 
than the male's. The note was nearly always 
accompanied by displays, ruffled throat, raised 
crest, tail spread and flipped down. 

2) The intimidation note was a rasping 
rolling "tcheerrrr", something between the 
Veery's and the Baltimore Oriole's scolding 
notes. It was used to rebuff an intruder 
during fights and defence actions. 

3) The mates' mutual meeting note, which 
I have also called the mating note, was a 
rather soft "aerrrr". It was always heard 
when the two came close to each other. 

4) The female's special call to the male was 
a soft "quot-quot-quot". It was used during 
courtship and displays, as was 

5) the male's special call to the female, a 
soft "tetetetet" or a twanging "tetewtewtew". 

6) The female's begging note, a monosyllabic 
"tchet, tchet, tchet". 

7) The food call of the young, almost identi- 
cal, "tchirt, tchirt, tchirt". 

Once or twice I heard two additional 
notes, one that seemed to be a nest-note 
and given by a female during nest-building, 
and the other a feeding call by parent to 
young during fledging. Neither of these 
notes was heard enough to attempt classify- 
ing. 

The "odd" notes included in some Red- 
eyed Vireos' repertoire and reminding ob- 
servers variously of a flycatcher or a thrush 
are, I believe, individual peculiarities with 
no bearing on other factors. A vireo with 
such a note was present in a neighbouring 
area in 1944. In the study plot, a White- 
throated Sparrow, Zonotrichia albicollis, fea- 
tured a similar note literally superimposed 
upon his usual whistled song in the very 
middle. This bird was heard in the same 
territory for 5 years. 

DEPARTURE 
FROM THE NESTING GROUNDS 

Soon after the revival of song in the first 
week of September, the Red-eyed Vireo left 
the nesting grounds. September 15 was the 
latest date for a bird known to have been 
a resident. The average latest fall date for 
the Pimisi Bay region over 6 years was 
September 19, ranging from September 6 
to 28. 



In a work just published, Sveriges Djur, 
Faglarna, (Sweden's animals, the Birds, 1951: 
106), Dr. Gunnar Svardson wrote in his 
chapter on the Riddle of Migration: "At the 
start. . . the bird sometimes has a kind of 
"inner inertia" to overcome. . . It is as if 
they were fastened to the locality from which 
they are about to depart with an invisible 
rubberband. . . As this "hesitation" is mas- 
tered, the departure takes place without 
further ado. That this is a conflict between 
an urge both to remain and to leave at the 
actual moment of departure, which releases, 
this behaviour, is demonstrated by the fact 
that migrants passing the place where the 
hesitating birds are, fail to be influenced 
by them." 

On September 15, at 9.30 a.m., two mem- 
bers of Family B-49, which had been con- 
stantly followed since the ending of the 
nesting on August 13, moved away from 
their territory along the lakeshore with a 
flock of passing warblers. The vireos, an 
adult and a young, seemed much excited, 
flying to and fro, and the young one pursued 
the parent with food calls. Their "hesita- 
tion" whether or not to go on with the 
warblers was obvious. They followed the 
migrants about 400 feet from the edge of 
the territory, flitting hither and yon, as. 
if unable to make the final decision. Then, 
all of a sudden, both vireos turned about 
face and flew directly back to the B's favou- 
rite feeding spot where they began foraging^ 
quietly. The warblers passed on across the 
highway. But later in the day, the vireos 
left for good, and this time there was no 
return. 

SUMMARY 

1. The study was conducted in the region 
of the headwaters of the Mattawa River in 
central Ontario and in a 16-acre plot along 
the southeast shore of Pimisi Bay. The land 
is in the ecotone between the Temperate 
Deciduous Forest and the Northern Coniferous 
Forest. 

2. The Red-eyed Vireo was found in 
deciduous and mixed woodlots and in lighter 
areas of coniferous forests. It was absent 
where there was no underbrush and, in agree- 
ment with Kendeigh (1947: 56), where less 
than 25% of the total basal area was covered 
by broad-leaved trees. 

3. The Red-eyed Vireo was among the 
later migrants. The median first arrival date 
in the Pimisi Bay area was May 19. The 
median temperatures of the first arrival 
date were: max. 64 and min..39 degrees F. 



April-June, 1953] 



The Canadian Field-Naturalist 



75 



4. In 10 out of 11 years, the first arrival 
dates were preceded or accompanied by warm 
weather and SW winds. In 1948, cold weather 
was evidently the cause of a delayed first 
arrival date in this locality. In 5 cases of 
mated pairs on given territories, the females 
arrived from 3 to 15 days later than the 
males. 

5. During a short interval just after 
arrival, the Red-eyed Vireo sang very little. 
The arrival of other males of the same species 
set off more energetic singing, but the 
volume of territorial singing during the pre- 
nesting period depended to some extent on 
whether many males settled close together 
in the immediate surroundings, as well as on 
the individual. 

6. The male ranged over a greater area 
before than after the arrival of the female. 
This was taken to be an important part of 
his territorial behaviour, by which the 
resistance of neighbouring male vireos was 
sounded out. Thus it became one of the 
determining factors in the mapping of the 
final territory. Another factor was the 
female's indication of a preferred nesting 
area. 

7. The ecological requirements, "key- 
aspects" (Miller), of the Red-eyed Vireo 
were light, groups of tall trees, and thickets 
of younger growth. The territory was divided 
into two parts, one the "song-area" used 
especially by the male and the other, the 
"nest-area", principally belonging to the 
female. The average size of a territory in a 
crowded year (1949) was 1.4 acres and in 
a year with fewer pairs (1950) 2.1 acres. 

8. The introduction of the female to an 
unmated male in one instance was charac- 
terized by pursuit and "pouncing". The 
female showed less inclination to copulate 
before than after nest-building. 

9. The female chose the nest site and to 
reach a decision she took from 5 to 6 days 
in first nestings, from 3 to 4 in second, 
and in one third nesting half a day or 
merely a few hours. 

10. Of 44 nests, 77 percent were built 
in deciduous trees and bushes and 23 percent 
in conifers. The height varied from 3 to 
55 feet and tended to be increased in later 
nestings. The nesting site was in a variety 
of situations, but a dense "protective area" 
nearby was essential. 

11. Nest-building normally required from 
4 to 5 days and was performed by the female 
with no help from the male. 



12. The interval between the completion 
of the nest and the laying of the first egg 
varied from several hours to 4 days. The 
average set of eggs was 3.3. Clutches of 4 
eggs were most common in first nestings. 

13. The female alone incubated. The in- 
cubation period was from 12 to 14 days and 
incubation started after the third egg was 
laid in sets of either 3 or 4 eggs. The male 
did not visit the nest during incubation, but 
contact between the mates was maintained 
through the singing of the male. Seven 
out of 8 times the male called the female 
off the nest by signal calls or songs. The 
female joined the male during the periods 
off the nest. Courtship-feeding was an im- 
portant feature of these intervals, especially 
during incubation. The attentiveness of 5 
females averaged 76 percent; the average of 
38 attentive periods of 4 females was 29.2 
min. and of 46 inattentive periods 9.9 min. 

14. As soon as the young hatched, the 
female carried away the eggshells. This 
appeared to be the signal for the male to 
visit the nest, soon after which he brought 
his first meal. While in the nest, the young 
were fed 3 times as often by the female 
(76%) as by the male (24%). Some males 
were more attentive than others. The feeding 
curves of the male and the female at one nest 
converged up to the 6th day of nest-life, and 
then sharply diverged. The increase in the 
rate of feeding during nest-life was less 
marked than in most other small passerines, 
but the size of the meals was notably in- 
creased as the young grew older. The young 
at 5 nests were given a meal each on an 
average every 50 minutes. The fecal sacs 
were eaten and carried away by the female 
and mostly carried away by the male. 

15. The young were almost naked on 
hatching, but at 7 days the feathers began 
breaking through the sheaths, and at 8 days 
the young were fairly well feathered. Slits 
in the covering of the eyes appeared on the 
second day and the eyes were kept fully 
open on the 8th day. Young were fledged 
on the 10th, in some cases on the 11th day. 
They were fed by the parents until between 
25 and 30 days after leaving the nest. They 
completed their juvenal moult during this 
time, which did not involve flight and tail 
feathers. 

16. The aggressiveness of the Red-eyed 
Vireo increased with the progress of the 
nesting cycle and then decreased after the 
young were fledged. During incubation cryp- 



76 



The Canadian Field-Naturalist 



[Vol. 67 



tic behaviour was typical. In later stages 
the female became more aggressive than the 
male. In this region Blue Jays were the 
vireos' worst enemy. Birds and other pre- 
dators of the size of jays, or smaller, were 
usually attacked with snapping mandibles and 
sometimes bodily assaults with the bill. 
Larger predators, crows and hawks, were 
stalked in silence and only attacked as a last 
resort. Neighbouring nesting birds of other 
species were usually tolerated and rebuffed 
only when the vireos found themselves under 
some stress. Trepassing vireos were chased. 
17. No reliable evidence was obtained of 
the Red-eyed Vireo raising 2 broods in a 
season. One and two re-nestings occurred 
after unsuccessful attempts. The nesting 
success of 35 nests was 63%; it was higher 
in second than in first nestings. The 
success of the eggs in 30 nests was 60 per- 
cent. No nests were parasitized by the 
Cowbird. 

18. The Red-eyed Vireo foraged chiefly on 
the higher levels of the trees and its food 
was nearly all animal. 

19. The singing of this vireo was in- 
fluenced by individuality, time in the nesting 
cycle, and the purpose of the song. Some 
males were much faster and more persistent 
singers than others. The longest and most 
continuous sessions of singing, irrespective of 
the time of day, occurred after incubation 
began until about one or two weeks after 
the young fledged in July. In 4 males, there 
was a virtual cessation of singing during 
the post-nuptial moult, averaging 21 days. 
During August nearly all the singing was 
territorial and mainly due to the passing 
of migrants through the territories. One 
courtship-song and 4 variants on the song 
phrase theme were recorded, as well as 7 
call-notes. 

20. At Pimisi Bay, the fall migration of 
the Red-eyed Vireo took place during Sep- 
tember. The mean last fall date for 6 years 
was September 19 and the latest date of 
departure of a bird known to have been a 
resident was September 15. 

REFERENCES 

Armstrong, E. A. 1942. Bird display. Cam- 
bridge Univ. Press, p. 35. 

Bagg, A. M. and others, 1950. Barometric 
pressure-patterns and spring bird migra- 
tion. Wilson Bull. 62: i(l): 5-19. 

Bent, A. C. 1950. Life histories of North 
American wagtails, shrikes, vireos and their 
allies. U. S. Nat. Mus. Bull. 197: 294-344. 



Common, M. A. 1934. Notes on a Red-eyed 
Vireo's nest. The Auk, 51: (20): 241-242. 

Forbush, E. H. 1929. Vireo olivacea (Lin- 
naeus) Red-eyed Vireo. Birds of Massachu- 
setts and other New England States, 3: 
179-183. 

Gunn, W. W. H. and Crocker, A. M. 1951. 
Analysis of unusual bird migration in North 
America during the storm of April 4-7, 
1947. The Auk, 68: (2): 139-163. 

Harding, K. C. 1929. Further observations 
on the Black-throated Blue Warbler. Bull. 
Northeastern Bird-Banding Ass. 5: 77-80. 

Herrick, F. A. 1935. Wild birds at home. 
D. Appleton-Century Co. New York & 
London, pp. 68-237. 

Howard, H. E. 1929. An introduction to the 
study of bird behaviour. Cambridge Univ. 
Press, p. 27. 

Kendeigh, S. C. 1945. Community selection 
by birds on the Helderberg Plateau of 
New York. The Auk, 62: 418-436. 

Kendeigh, S. C. 1947. Bird population studies 
in the coniferous forest biome during a 
spruce budworm outbreak. Bull. 1 Depart, 
of Lands and Forests, Ontario, Canada, 
pp. 55-57. 

Kendeigh, S. C. 1948. Biomes. Mimeographed: 
1-27. 

Klomp, H. 1951. Over de achteruitgang van 
de Kievit, Vanellus vanellus (L.), in Neder- 
land en gegevens over het legmechanisme 
en het eiproductie-vermogen. Ardea, 39: 
143-182. 

Lack, David, 1940. Courtship-feeding in birds. 
The Auk, 57: 169-178. 

Lawrence, L. de K. 1948. Comparative study 
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and Nashville Warblers. The Auk, 65: (2): 
204-219. 

Lewis, H. F. 1929. A nesting of the Philadel- 
phia Vireo. The Auk, 38: (1 & 2): 26-44, 
185-202. 

Miller, A. H. 1942. Habitat selection among 
higher vertebrates and its relation to in- 
traspecific variation. Am, Naturalist, 76: 
25-35. 

Nice, M. M. 1929. The fortunes of a pair 
of Bell's Vireos. Condor, 31: 13-18. 

Nice, M. M. 1937. Studies in the life history 
of the Song Sparrow, I. Trans. Lin. Soc. 
4: 43-125. 

Nice, M. M. 1941. The role of territory in 
hirdlife. Amer. Midland Naturalist, 26: 
441-487. 

Nice, M. M. 1943. Studies in the life history 
of the Song Sparrow, II. Trans. Lin. Soc. 
6: 195-249. 



April- June, 1953] 



The Canadian Field-Naturalist 



77 



Nice, M. M. 1950. Red-eyed Vireos in Jackson 

Park. Illinois Aud. Soc. Bull. 73: 1-4. 
Nice, M. M. and Thomas, Ruth H. 1948. A 

nesting of the Carolina Wren. Wilson Bull. 

60: (3): 139-158. 
Pitelka, F. A. and Koestner, E. J. 1942. 

Breeding behaviour of Bell's Vireo in 

Illinois. Wilson Bull. 54: 97-106. 
Putnam, L. C. 1949. The life history of the 

Cedar Waxwing. Wilson Bull. 61: (3): 

141-182. 
Saunders, A. A. 1935. A guide to bird songs. 

P. Appleton-Century Co. New York & 

London, pp. 169-170. 
Saunders, A. A. 1938. Studies of breeding 

birds in the Allegany State Park. New 

York State Museum Bull. 318: 106. 



Sherman, A. R. 1910. At the sign of the 
Northern Flicker. Wilson Bull. 22: 135-166. 

Spaulding, N. 1937. Studies of the nesting 
activities of Latimer's Vireo. Journal 
Agricultura Univ. of Porto Rico, 21: 17-28. 

Stephens, T. C. 1917. A study of a Red-eyed 
Vireo's nest which contained a Cowbird's 
egg. Bull. Lab. Nat. Hist, of State Univ. 
of Iowa, 8: (3): 25-28. 

Sutton, G. M. 1949. Studies of the nesting 
birds of the Edwin S. George Reserve, Part 
I, The Vireos. Misc. Publications Univ. of 
Michigan, 74: 5-36. 

Svardson, Gunnar, 1951. Sveriges Djur. Fa- 
glarna. P. A. Norstedts & Soners Forlag, 
Stockholm, p. 106. 



MEMBERS OF THE OTTAWA FIELD NATURALISTS' CLUB AND 
SUBSCRIBERS TO THE CANADIAN FIELD-NATURALIST 

1953 



HONORARY MEMBERS 

Gibson, Arthur, Maitland, Ont. 
Lewis, Harrison F., West Middle Sable, Shel- 
bume Co., N.S. 

CORRESPONDING MEMBERS 

Preble, E. A., 3027 Newark St., Washington, 
D.C., U.S.A. 

Raup, H. M., Director, Harvard Forest, Peter- 
sham, Mass., U.S.A. 

SUSTAINING LIFE MEMBERS 

De Lury, Ralph E., Dominion Observatory, 

Ottawa, Ont. 
Halkett, Miss M., 216 Lyon St., Ottawa, Ont. 

LIFE MEMBERS 

Cody, W. J. Division of Botany, Science Ser- 
vice Bldg., Ottawa, Ont. 

Groh, H., 472 Highcroft, Ottawa, Ont. 

Manning, T. H., 37 Linden Terrace, Ottawa, 
Ont. 

Paulson, C. W. G., The Monotype Corp. Ltd., 
Salfords, Redhill, Surrey, Eng. 

Polunin, N., Gray Herbarium, Harvard Uni- 
versity, Cambridge, Mass., U.S.A. 

Robertson, C.N., Apt. 601, The Claridge, 1 
Clarendon Ave., Toronto, Ont. 

Senn, H. A., Division of Botany, Science Ser- 
vice Bldg., Ottawa, Ont. 

Walker, E. M., 120 Chaltenham Ave., Toronto, 
Ont. 

Wilson, M. E., Dept. of Mines, Ottawa, Ont. 



MEMBERS AND SUBSCRIBERS 
— A— 

Academy of Natural Sciences, 1900 Race St., 
Philadelphia, Pa. 

Acadia University, Library, Wolfville, N.S. 

Agriculture Dept. of. Chief, Division of Bota' 
ny. Science Service Bldg., Ottawa, Ont. 

Agriculture, Dept. of. Chief, Division of En- 
tomology, Science Service Bldg., Carling 
Ave., Ottawa, Ont. 

Agriculture, Dept. of. Main Library, Science 
Service Bldg., Ottawa, Ont. 

Agriculture, Dept. of, Library, Washington 
25, D.C., U.S.A. 

Agricultural Experiment Station Library, La- 
fayette, Indiana, U.S.A. 

Alaska, University of. Library, College, Alas- 
ka, U.S.A. 

Alberta, University of. The Library (at Cal- 
gary), Calgary, Alta. 

Alberta, University of. Library, Edmonton, 
Alta. 

Alcock, F. J., National Museum, Ottawa, Ont. 

Allan Hancock Foundation, University of 
Southern California, University Park, Los 
Angeles 7, Calif., U.S.A. 

Allen, A. A., McGaw Hall, Cornell University, 
Ithaca, N.Y., U.S.A. 

Allin, A. E., Provincial Laboratory, City Hall, 
Fort William, Ont. 

American Museum of Natural History, 77th 
Street and Central Park West, New York,. 
N.Y., U.S.A. 



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Anderson, A. Winifred, 407 Elgin St., Apt. 
11, Ottawa, Ont. 

Anderson, E. G., Division of Botany, Science 
Service Bldg., Ottawa, Ont. 

Anderson, R. M., 58 Driveway, Ottawa, Ont. 

Arctic Health Research Center Library, Box 
960, Anchorage, Alaska. 

Arctic Institute of North America, Library, 
3485 University St., Montreal, Que. 

Arkansas, University of. General Library, 
Fayetteville, Arkansas, U.S.A. 

Arnold, John Walter, Room 325, Science Ser- 
vice Bldg., Ottawa, Ont. 

Assumption College, Library, Windsor, Ont. 

Austin, O. L., Hill Rest, Tuckahoe, West- 
chester Co., N.Y., U.S.A. 

— B — 

Bailey, Alfred M., Colorado Museum of Na- 
tural History, City Park, Denver, Col., U.S.A. 

Baillie, J. L., 100 Queens Park Ores., Toronto 
5, Ont. 

Balcom, Mrs. C. E., 263 O'Connor St., Ottawa, 
Ont. 

Baldwin, W. K. W., National Museum of 
Canada, Ottawa, Ont. 

Ball, Mrs. George, 194 E. Veterans PI., Ithaca, 
N.Y., U.S.A. 

Ball, S. C, Curator, Dept. of Zoology, Pea- 
body Museum, New Haven, Conn., U.S.A. 

Bancroft, Constance J., Indian Mountain 
School, Lakeville, Conn., U.S.A. 

Banfield, A. W. F., Box 454, Banff, Alta. 

Banim, F. E., Dept. of Biology, St. Patrick's 
College, Ottawa, Ont. 

Banning, Anne, Box 79, Westboro, Ont. 

Bard, Fred G., Normal School, Provincial 
Museum, Regina, Sask. 

Barraclough, W. E., Pacific Biological Station, 
Nanaimo, B.C. 

Barratt, H. G., 374 Brock Ave., Toronto, Ont. 

Bartlett, C. O., Dept. of Lands and Forests, 
Aylmer, Ont. 

Bassett, I. J., Division of Botany, Science Ser- 
vice Bldg., Ottawa, Ont. 

Bauche, Mrs. A. W., 44 Spadina Ave., Ottawa, 
Ont. 

Beacham, E. D., 238 Wineva Ave., Toronto 8, 
Ont. 

Beamer, L. H., Box 56, Meaford, Ont. 

Bennett, Chas. H., 80 Belmont Ave., Ottawa, 
Ont. 

Berry, W. S. C, 452 Brennan Ave., Ottawa, 
Ont. 

Bird, Dick, c/o Bird Films Ltd., 1849 Scarth 
St., Regina, Sask. 

Bird, John, 30 Cooper St., Ottawa, Ont. 



Bird, Ralph D., Box 250, Brandon, Man. 

Black, W. F., Dept. of Zoology, Biology Bldg., 
McGill University, Montreal, Que. 

Bleakney, S., Biologist, National Museum, 
Ottawa, Ont. 

Boisvenue, R. J., 402 C Hawthorn Lane, Michi- 
gan State College, East Lansing, Mich., 
U.S.A. 

Boivin, Bernard, Division of Botany, Science 
Service Bldg., Ottawa, Ont. 

Bollerud, Miss D., 450 Laurier E., Ottawa, Ont. 

Bourguinon, A. E., 52 Powell Ave., Ottawa, 
Ont. 

Bourne, George C, 36 Ossington Ave., Ottawa, 
1, Ont. 

Bousfield, E. L., National Museum of Canada, 
Ottawa, Ont. 

Bowden, W. M., Division of Botany, Science 
Service Bldg., Ottawa, Ont. 

Bower, Margaret, 87 Rochester St., Ottawa, 
Ont. 

Bowerman, Dr. Mary L., Herbarium, Univer- 
sity of California, Berkeley 4, Calif., U.S.A. 

Bowles, Kenneth W., 75 Kenilworth Ave., Ot- 
tawa, Ont. 

Bowman, R. I., Museum of Vertebrate Zoo- 
logy, University of California, Berkeley 4, 
Calif., U.S.A. 

Boyer, George F., R.R. 1, West Sackville, N.B. 

Braid, P. E., R.R. 1, Westboro, Ont. 

Brander, Dr. J. F., 10652-81st St., Edmonton, 
Alta. 

Brandt, Herbert, 2425 N. Park Blvd., Cleve- 
land 6, Ohio, U.S.A. 

Breitung, A. J., 1810 N. Berendo St., Holly- 
wood 27, Calif., U.S.A. 

Brigden, F. H., R.R. 2, York Mills, Ont. 

Brimley, J. F., Wellington, Ont. 

British Columbia Provincial Museum, Victo- 
ria, B.C. 

British Columbia University, The Library, 
Vancouver, B.C. 

British Museum of Natural History, General 
Library, South Kensington, London S.W. 7, 
Eng. 

Brooman, R. C, c/o Bank of Montreal, Kit- 
chener, Ont. 

Brown, A. W. A., Dept. of Zoology, University 
of Western Ontario, London, Ont. 

Brown, Harry, 569 Lisgar St., Ottawa, Ont. 

Brown, Howard M., 23 Crescent Heights, Ot- 
tawa, Ont. 

Brown, J. L., Box 1032 Station B, Ottawa, Ont. 

Brown, Margaret S., 36 Kent St., Halifax, N.S. 

Brown, N. R., Faculty of Forestry, University 
of New Brunswick, Frederickton, N. B. 



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Brown, Wm. James, 4129 Dorchester St. W., 
Westmount, Que. 

Bryce, P. I., Vineland Station, Ont. 

Budd, A. C, Dominion Experimental Station, 
Swift Current, Sask. 

Buffalo Museum of Science, Research Library, 
Humboldt Park, Buffalo 11, N.Y., U.S.A. 

Bunker, A. G., 462 Ossington Ave., Toronto, 
Ont. 

Burton, Donald E., 171 Strathearn Rd., To- 
ronto 10, Ont. 

— C— 

Calder, J. A., Division of Botany, Science Ser- 
vice Bldg., Ottawa, Ont. 

California Academy of Sciences, Golden Gate 
Park, San Francisco, Calif., U.S.A. 

California Fisheries Laboratory, Terminal Is. 
Sta., San Pedro, Calif., U.S.A. 

California, University of, Berkeley 4, Calif., 
U.S.A. 

California, University of. Library, 405 Hilgard 
Avenue, Los Angeles 24, Calif., U.S.A. 

California, University of, College of Agricul- 
ture, Davis, Calif., U.S.A. 

Calvert, E. W., County Home, R.R. 2, Lind- 
say, Ont. 

Cameron, Austin W., Biological Division, Na- 
tional Museum of Canada, Ottawa, Ont. 

Cameron, K. M., 312 First Ave., Ottawa, Ont. 

Campagna, Prof. E., Departement de Botani- 
que, Ecole d'Agriculture, Ste. Anne de la 
Pocatiere, P.Q. 

Campbell, J. Mitchell, Apt. 45, 225 MacLaren 
St., Ottawa, Ont. 

Carnegie Museum, Schenley Park, Pittsburgh 
13, Pa., U.S.A. 

Carnegie Public Library, Ottawa, Ont. 

Central Fisheries Research Library, 165 
Garry St., Winnipeg, Man. 

Central Library, Room 2258 Interior Bldg., 
18th & E. Sts., N.W., Washington 25, D.C., 
U.S.A. 

Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, 
Service de Documentation, 45 rue d'Ulm, 
Paris 5, France. 

Charles, Bruce, 93 Colin Ave., Toronto, Ont. 

Chicago Natural History Museum, General 
Library, Chicago, 111., U.S.A. 

Chicago University Libraries, Periodical De- 
partment, Chicago 37, 111., U.S.A. 

Chief, Plant Protection, Department of Agri- 
culture, Parliament Bldgs., Quebec, P.Q. 

Childers, W. R., 134 First Ave., Ottawa, Ont. 

Clark College, Fourth Plain Road, Vancouver, 
Wash., U.S.A. 

Clark, C. H. D., Royal Ontario Museum of 
Zoology, 100 Queens Park, Toronto, Ont. 



Clark, Thomas H., Dept. of Geological Sci- 
ences, McGill University, Montreal, P.Q. 

Clarke, Mrs. M. E., 387 Ashbury Road, Rock- 
cliffe, Ont. 

Clemens, W. A., Dept. of Zoology, University 
of British Columbia, Vancouver, B.C. 

Cleveland Museum of Natural History, 2717 
Euclid Avenue, Cleveland 15, Ohio, U.S.A. 

Colls, David Geoffrey, 900 Dominion Public 
Building, Winnipeg, Man. 

Congdon, Dr. R. T., 203 Palouse St., Wenat- 
chee. Wash., U.S.A. 

Connell, Robert, P.O. Box 639, Lethbridge, 
Alta. 

Conners, I. L., 719 Island Park Drive, Ottawa, 
Ont. 

Conservation Branch, Department of Planning 
& Development, 863 Bay Street, Toronto, 
Ont. 

Cooch, Graham, 685 Echo Drive, Ottawa, Ont. 

Cookson, Miss B., 79 Park Ave., Ottawa, Ont. 

Cornell University Library, Ithaca, N.Y., 
U.S.A. 

Correll, F. W., 211 Ontario St. W., Whitby, 
Ont. 

Coventry, A. F., Department of Zoology, Uni- 
versity of Toronto, Ont. 

Cowan, A. W., 197 Cartier St., Ottawa, Ont. 

Cowan, Ian McTaggart, Department of Zoo- 
logy, University of British Columbia, Van- 
couver, B.C. 

Cram, Mrs. H. R., 274 Second Ave., Ottawa, 
Ont. 

Crawthorne, Miss E. A., 7 Greenvale Apts., 
Dartmouth, N.S. 

Crawford, H. G., Division of Entomology, 
Science Service Bldg., Ottawa, Ont. 

Crerar Library, Technology Department, Chi- 
cago 1, 111., U.S.A. 

Crevolin, J., Dollard Post Office, Sask. 

Criddle, Stuart, Treesbank, Man. 

Cringan, A. T., Box 565, Sioux Lookout, Ont. 

Cromar, Mrs. V. L., 340 Cooper St., Ottawa, 
Ont. 

Cross, Edith, 36 Grove Ave., Ottawa, Ont. 

Cuerrier, Jean-Paul, Wildlife Service, Norlite 
Bldg., Ottawa, Ont. 

— D— 

Dansereau, Pierre, Department of Botany, 

University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Mich., 

U.S.A. 
Dartmouth College Library, Hanover, N.H., 

U.S.A. 
Davis, Sheldon, Box 56, Eganville, Ont. 
Davis, Eli, R.R. 7, London, Ont. 
Davison, John M. H., 24 Driveway, Ottawa, 

Ont. 



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Davison, R. B., Mayview, Sask. 

Dear, L. S., Box 146, Port Arthur, Ont. 

Defence Research Northern Laboratory, Ad- 
ministration Officer, Ft. Churchill, Man. 

de Lotbiniere, A. Joly, Leclercville, Lotbinie- 
re Co., P.Q. 

Devitt, 0. E., 68 Donegall Drive, Toronto, Ont. 

D. N. R. Fish Branch, Prince Albert, Sask. 

Dore, W. G., Division of Botany, Science Ser- 
vice Bldg., Ottawa, Ont. 

Douglas, George M., Lakefield, Ont. 

Doull, Mrs. Ann, 515 Evered Ave., Ottawa, 
Ont. 

Doutt, J. K., Curator of Mammalogy, Carnegie 
Museum, Pittsburgh, Pa., U.S.A. 

Drury, Wm. H. Jr., Biological Laboratory, 
Divinity Ave., Harvard University, Cam- 
bridge, Mass., U.S.A. 

Drzewiecki, George, 100 Paterson Ave., Ot- 
tawa, Ont. 

Duboulay, Philip H., Apt. 25, 1145 Graham 
Blvd., Montreal 16, P.Q. 

Ducks Unlimited (Canada), 201 Bank of Com- 
merce Bldg., Winnipeg, Man. 

Duff, Margaret E., 544 King Edward Ave., 
Ottawa, Ont. 

Dunbar, M. J., Department of Zoology, McGill 
University, Montreal, P.Q. 

Dutilly, Artheme, Research Associate in Bio- 
logy, The Catholic University of America, 
McMahon Hall, Box 213, Washington 17, 
D.C., U.S.A. 

Dymond, J. R., Royal Ontario Museum of 
Zoology, Toronto, Ont. 

_E— 

Eastham, J. W., 4569 West 1st Ave., Vancou- 
ver, B.C. 

Edmonton Bird Club, do Dr. E. 0. Hohn, 
Dept. Physiology, University of Alberta, Ed- 
monton, Alta. 

Edwards, D. Kemp, c/o D. K. Edwards Co. 
Ltd., Bayswater Ave., Ottawa, Ont. 

Edwards, R. Y., Wildlife Section, Parks and 
Recreation Div., B. C. Forest Service, Vic- 
toria, B. C. 

Elliott, Mrs. D. G., 35 Turnstall Ave., Garden- 
vale, P.Q. 

Elliott, John, 3994 Park Ave., Seaford, L.L, 
N.Y., U.S.A. 

Elton, C. S., Bureau of Animal Population, 
Dept. of Zoological Field Studies, Botanical 
Garden, High St., Oxford, Eng. 

Emery, F. H., 29 Old Mill Terrace, Toronto, 
Ont. 

Enstone, J. P., 21 Second Ave., Ottawa, Ont. 



Errington, Paul L., Iowa State College, Ames, 

Iowa, U.S.A. 
Erskine, David, Wolfville, N.S. 

— F— 

Fallis, A. Murray, Ontario Research Founda- 
tion, 43 Queens Park, Toronto, Ont. 

Falls, J. B., 173 Arlington Ave., Toronto, Ont. 

Fargo, Wm. G., P.O. Box 874, Pass-a-Grill 
Beach, Florida, U.S.A. 

Farnol, Lynn, 330 East 58th St., New York, 
N.Y., U.S.A. 

Fauvel, B. A., 263 MacLeod St., Ottawa, Ont. 

Field, C, 418 Metcalfe Ave., Westmount 6, 
P.Q. 

Filial Biblioteki, Akad. Nauk SSSR, Baltijsky 
Poselok 42-B, Moscow 57, USSR. 

Findlay, D. D., Carleton Place, Ont. 

Findlay, George E., Carleton Place, Ont. 

Findley, James S., Museum of Natural His- 
tory, University of Kansas, Lawrence, Kan- 
sas, U.S.A. 

Finlayson, G. D., 200 Carling Ave., Ottawa, 
Ont. 

Fish and Game, Division of, Ferry Bldg., San 
Francisco 11, Calif., U.S.A. 

Fisheries Research Board of Canada, Atlan- 
tic Biological Station, St. Andrews, N.B. 

Florida State University, Library, Tallahassee, 
Fla., U.S.A. 

Florida, University of, B.G., Library, Perio- 
dical Dept., Gainsville, Fla., U.S.A. 

Flynn, Molly, 33 Willard, Ottawa, Ont. 

Fort William Public Library, Fort William, 
Ont. 

Fox, W. Sherwood, 270 Regent St., London, 
Ont. 

Francis, G. H., 382 Hillsdale Ave. E., Toronto, 
Ont. 

Frankton, Clarence, Division of Botany, Sci- 
ence Service Bldg., Ottawa, Ont. 

Franz Theodore Stone, Institute of Hydro- 
biology, Put-in-Bay, Ohio, U.S.A. 

Frith, Rowley, 65 Acacia Ave., Ottawa, Ont. 

Frith, Mrs. R., 65 Acacia Avenue, Ottawa, Ont. 

Fritz, Clara W., 70 Lees Ave., Ottawa, Ont. 

Fuller, W. A., Fort Smith, N.W.T. 

— G— 

Gardner, Dr. G., 4541 Pontiac St., Montreal, 

P.Q. 
Garson, Stuart, 350 Justice Bldg., Ottawa, Ont. 
Garton, C. E., 354 Leslie Ave., Port Arthur, 

Ont. 
Gibson, G. G., 265 Sheldrade Blvd., Toronto 

12, Ont. 
Gifford, James A., 2241 Beaver, Ottawa, Ont. 



April-June, 1953] 



The Canadian Field-Naturalist 



81 



Gillett, John M., 363 Hamilton Ave., Ottawa, 
Ont. 

Glendenning, R., Agassiz, B.C. 

Glenny, Fred H., 1148 Linden Ave., Akron, 
Ohio, U.S.A. 

Godfrey, W. Earl, National Museum of Cana- 
da, Ottawa, Ont. 

Goelet, Robert G., 546 Fifth Ave., New York 
36, N.Y., U.S.A. 

Gollop, Bernard, 317 Field Husbandry Bldg., 
University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, 
Sask. 

Goodwill, J. E. v., Hydrographic Survey, De- 
partment of Mines and Technical Services, 
Ottawa, Ont. 

Goodwin, C. E., 38 Walsh Ave., Weston, Ont. 

Gordon, Elizabeth M., 36 Glendale Ave., Ot- 
tawa, Ont. 

Gos. Nauchn. Biblioteka, Minist. vyssh. obraz, 
PI. Nogina, 2/5, Moscow, USSR. 

Goteborgs Stadsbibliotek, Goteborg, Sweden. 

Gottingen University, Gottingen, Germany. 

Grant, J., Dominion Forest Insect Laboratory, 
Box 740, Vernon, B.C. 

Green, H. W., 418 Cougar St., Banff, Alta. 

Green, Morris, 39 South Wyoming, Ardmore, 
Pa., U.S.A. 

Gross, A. O., Bowdoin College, Brunswick, 
Me., U.S.A. 

Groves, J. W., Division of Botany, Science 
Service Bldg., Ottawa, Ont. 

Groves, Mrs. J. W., 95 Sunnyside Ave., Ot- 
tawa, Ont. 

Guiou, Dr. Norman, 380 Driveway, Ottawa, 
Ont. 

Gunn, W. W. H., 178 Glenview Ave., Toronto 
12, Ont. 

Guthrie, H. D., 63 Oriole Gardens, Toronto, 
Ont. 

— H— 

Haight, D. E., 208 Young St., Ottawa, Ont. 

Halferdahl, Mrs. A. C, 140 Minto Place, Rock- 
cliffe Park, Ont. 

Hall, E. R., Museum of Natural History, Uni- 
versity of Kansas, Lawrence, Kansas, U.S.A. 

Hamilton, R. A., Manotick, Ont. 

Hamilton Nature Club, Box 384, Hamilton, 
Ont. 

Hamilton, W. J., Department of Conservation, 
Cornell University, Ithaca, N.Y., U.S.A. 

Hammond, G. H., Marmora, Ont. 

Harkness, W. J. K., Division of Fish and Wild- 
Life, Department of Lands and Forests, To- 
ronto 2, Ont. 

Harper, F., 115 Ridgway St., Mount Holly, 
New Jersey, U.S.A. 



Harris, R. D., 12 Rupert St., Ottawa, Ont. 

Hart, J. L., Pacific Biological Station, Na- 
naimo, B.C. 

Hart, W. S., 62 Forden Cres., Westmount 6, 
P.Q. 

Harvard University, Gray Herbarium, Cam- 
bridge, Mass., U.S.A. 

Harvard University, Museum of Comparative 
Zoology, Cambridge 38, Mass., U.S.A. 

Hastings, R. C, Jeffery Hale's Hospital, St. 
Cyrille St., Quebec, P.Q. 

Helleiner, F. M., Box 14, Swastika, Ont. 

Heming, W. E., Ontario Agricultural College, 
Guelph, Ont. 

Henderson, A. D., RR. 1, Dunstable, Alta. 

Henderson, Peter F., 32 Rosslyn Ave. S., Ha- 
milton, Ont. 

Herbert, Violet, 51 Frank St., Ottawa, Ont. 

Hewitt, Oliver H., Department of Conserva- 
tion, Cornell University, Ithaca, N.Y., U.S.A. 

Hibbard, Gladys E., Chambly Canton, P.Q. 

Hicks, Stanton D., Division of Systematic En- 
tomology, Science Service Bldg., Carling 
Ave., Ottawa, Ont. 

Hildebrand, Henry H., Institute of Marine 
Science, Port Aransas, Texas, U.S.A. 

Hoare, Sheila, 6 Rideau R. Drive, Ottawa, 
Ont. 

Hodgson, Duncan M., 523 Argyle Ave., West- 
mount, P.Q. 

Holdom, M. W., Lindsay College, Crescent, 
B.C. 

Hollander, Mrs. Alfred, 8634 Buckeye Rd., 
Cleveland 4, Ohio, U.S.A. 

Hollway, R. W., c/o Director Medical Health 
Service, Hong Kong. 

Hooper, R., Somme, Sask. 

Horner, Ruth M., Apt. 3, 179 Patterson Ave., 
Ottawa, Ont. 

Houston, C. Stuart, Box 279, Yorkton, Sask. 

Howe, J. S., 68 Orange St., Leamington, Ont. 

Hudson, J. H., P.O. Box 882, Flin Flon, Man. 

Hughes, Elwyn 0., Division of Applied Biolo- 
gy, National Research Council, Ottawa, Ont. 

Humphreys, Violet, 171 Cowley Ave., Ottawa, 
W., Ont. 

Hunter, Fenley, Box 230, Flushing, L.I., N.Y., 
U.S.A. 

Huntsman, A. G., Biological Department, Uni- 
versity of Toronto, Toronto, Ont. 

Hurrie, D., 8C Devonshire Apts., Brockville, 
Ont. 

— I— 

Idaho University, Library, Moscow, Idaho, 
U.S.A. 

Ide, F. P., Department of Zoology, University 
of Toronto, Toronto, Ont. 



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Illinois University, Library, Urbana, 111., 
U.S.A. 

Illman, William I., Biology Department, Car- 
leton College, Ottawa, Ont. 

Indiana University Library, Bloomington, In- 
diana, U.S.A. 

Inoizdat, Glavnij Jaschik 36, Moscow, USSR. 

Institut Frangais de I'Afrique Noire, Abidjan, 
Cote d'lvoire, French West Africa. 

Institute of Parasitology, Macdonald College, 
P.Q. 

Iowa State College, Ames, Iowa, U.S.A. 

Isinger, Bryan, Middle Lake, Sask. 
— J— 

Jackson, C. F., College of Liberal Arts, Dur- 
ham, N.H., U.S.A. 

Jackson, H. A. C, 35 Campbell Ave., Montreal 
W., P.Q. 

Jacquith, Mrs. L. E., 72 Hudson Drive, Toron- 
to 5, Ont. 

Jameson, R. W., Jr., Division of Zoology, Uni- 
versity of California, Davis, Calif., U.S.A. 

Jellison, William L., Division of Infectious 
Diseases, Rocky Mountain Laboratory, Ha- 
milton, Mont., U.S.A. 

Jenezon, Olive, 1925 Stafford Ave. SW, Grand 
Rapids, Mich., U.S.A. 

Johanson, E. B., Norway House, Man. 

Johnson, Edward J., 20 Albert St., Watertown, 
Ont. 

Johnson, M. L., 3810 No. 35th St., Tacoma 7, 
Wash., U.S.A. 

Johnstone, W. B., P.O. Box 704, Cranbrook, 
B.C. 

Jones, Mrs. H. W., 371 Banting Ave., Ottawa, 
Ont. 

Jorae, Irene F., Central Michigan College of 
Education, Mt. Pleasant, Mich., U.S.A. 

Judd, W. W., Depa^-tment of Zoology, Univer- 
sity of Western Ontario, London, Ont. 
— K— 

Kansas, University of. Library, Periodical 
Department, Lawrence, Kansas, U.S.A. 

Kajitola, K., 319 Tupper St., Port Arthur, Ont. 

Kayes, Walker H., Apt. 6, 59 Mark Ave., Ot- 
tawa, Ont. 

Kelly, W. A. B., Apt. 12A, 2177 Lincoln Ave., 
Montreal, P.Q. 

Kelsall, John P., Yellowknife, N.W.T. 

Kenny, C, Apt. 12, 136 Slater St., Ottawa, 
Ont. 

Ketchum, Mrs. J. D., 181 Rosedale Heights 
Drive, Toronto, Ont. 

Kindle, C. H., Department of Geology, City 
College, New York 31, N.Y., U.S.A. 

Kowall, J., Buford, Alta. 

Krug, Bruce A., P.O. Box 405, Chesley, Ont. 



Laing, H. M., Box 82, Comox, B.C. 

Laker, Robert E., 57 St. Clair Gardens, To- 
ronto, Ont. 

Lanceley, W. H., 23 Elmdale Ave., Ottawa, 
Ont. 

Landon, Sadie E., 591 MacLaren St., Apt. 2, 
Ottawa, Ont. 

Lanning, Robert G., 257 Coleman St., Belle- 
ville, Ont. 

La Rocque, A., Department of Geology, Ohio 
State Univ., Columbus 10, Ohio, U.S.A. 

Lawrence, A. G., 104 Shelburn St., Winnipeg, 
Man. i 

Laval Universite, Faculte des Sciences, Bou- 
levard de I'Entente, Quebec, P.Q. 

Lawrence, Mrs. Louise de K., Rutherglen, 
Ont. 

Leafloor, Mrs. Jean, 475 Somerset St., Ot- 
tawa, Ont. 

Leechman, Douglas, National Museum of 
Canada, Ottawa, Ont. 

Leftly, Violet, 314 Bell St., Ottawa, Ont. 

Legget, Robert F., 531 Echo Drive, Ottawa, 
Ont. 

Lehigh University, Library, Bethlehem, Pa., 
U.S.A. 

Leith, E., University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, ■ 
Man. 

Leith, L., Apt. 2, 21 Fentiman Ave., Ottawa 1, 
Ont. 

Lemieux, Louis, 144 Grande-Allee, Apt. 46, 
Quebec, P.Q. 

Leopold, A. S., Museum of Vertebrate Zoo- 
logy, University of California, Berkeley 4, 
Calif., U.S.A. 

Le Sueur, Edna, 106 Grove Ave., Ottawa, Ont. 

Lillington, J. N., B.C. I.E. Co. Ltd., Kemano, 
B.C. 

Lilly, J. E., 194 Bayswater Ave., Ottawa, Ont. 

Linda Hall Library, 5109 Cherry St., Kansas 
City 6, Mo., U.S.A. 

Lloyd, Hoyes, 582 Mariposa Ave., Rockcliffe, 
Ont. 

Lloyd, Mrs. Wilmot, 582 Mariposa Ave., Rock- 
cliffe, Ont. 

Logier, E. B. Shelley, Royal Ontario Museum, 
Bloor St. W., Toronto, Ont. 

London Public Library, London, Ont. 

Loughrey, A. G., Canadian Wildlife Service, 
Norlite Bldg., Ottawa, Ont. 

Loughridge, Gasper A., Botany Department, 
Davis and Elkins College, Elkins, W. Va., 
U.S.A. 

Louisiana State University Library, Univer- 
sity 3, La., U.S.A. 



April- June, 1953] 



The Canadian Field-Naturalist 



83 



Loveday, Violet C, 512 Cooper St., Ottawa, 

Ont. 
Lowe, C. W., 1826 Hollywood Cres., Victoria, 

B.C. 
Lumsden, H. G., Department of Lands and 

Forests, Tweed, Ont. 

— M— 

Mack, H. G., c/o Gilson Manufacturing Com- 
pany, Guelph, Ont. 

Mackay, R. H., Dept. of Zoology, University 
of British Columbia, Vancouver, B.C. 

MacKinnon, L., 197 Cartier St., Ottawa, Ont. 

MacLachlan, Dr. Lome E., 55 Sunset Blvd., 
Ottawa, Ont. 

MacLulich, D. A., 342 Marshall Court, Ot- 
tawa, Ont. 

MacPherson, Andrew Hall, 16 Rupert St., Ot- 
tawa, Ont. 

Macrae, Ruth, Division of Botany, Science 
Service Bldg., Ottawa, Ont. 

Maddox, D. C, 167 Faraday St., Ottawa, Ont. 

Maine, University of. Library, Orono, Maine, 
U.S.A. 

Mair, W. W., Canadian Wildlife Service, Nor- 
lite Bldg., Ottawa, Ont. 

Malcolm, W. C, Huxley, Alta. 

Manitoba, Department of Mines, Game and 
Fisheries Branch, 254 Legislative Bldg., 
Winnipeg, Man. 

Manitoba, University of. Science Library, 
Winnipeg, Man. 

Mann, David, Jasper National Park Fish 
Hatchery, Jasper, Alta. 

Mann, Peter, 565 Cheapside St., London, Ont. 

Marcotte, Abbe Leon, Seminaire Saint-Char- 
les, Sherbrooke, P.Q. 

Marine Biology Laboratory, Woods Hole, 
Mass., U.S.A. 

Marsh, Miss Mary, 286 Queen St. W., Guelph, 
Ont. 

Marshall, Herbert, 109 Renfrew Ave., Ottawa, 
Ont. 

Marshall, Mrs. H., 109 Renfrew Ave., Ottawa, 
Ont. 

Martin, John E., 1068 Fisher Ave., Ottawa, 
Ont. 

Martin, Norman Duncan, 110 York Mills Road, 
York Mills, Ont. 

Massachusetts, University of, Goodell Library, 
Amherst, Mass., U.S.A. 

McCalla, W. C, 1312 Ninth St., N.W. Calgary, 
Alta. 

McDonald, G. V., Apple Hill, Ont. 

McEwen, E. H., c/o District Administrator, 
Aklavik, N.W.T. 

McFadden, R. W. E., 4 Hart St., Brantford, 
Ont. 



McGill University Library, 3459 McTavish St., 
Montreal, P.Q. 

McGinn, Mrs. F., 449 East 8th St., North Van- 
couver, B.C. 

McGuffin, W. C, Fourth Floor, Customs Bldg., 
Calgary, Alta. 

Mcllwraith, T. F., 30 StrathaUan Blvd., To- 
ronto 12, Ont. 

McKeever, J. L., 7 Middleton Drive, R.R. 3, 
Peterborough, Ont. 

McMaster University, Hamilton, Ont. 

McQuarrie, H., Gore Bay, Ont. 

Meredith, R., 80 St. Peter St., Quebec, P.Q. 

Merrill, Anne, 181 Beachview Cres., Toronto 
13, Ont. 

Michigan State College, East Lansing, Mich.. 
U.S.A. 

Michigan, University of, General Library, Ann 
Arbor, Mich., U.S.A. 

Millman, B., 4 Windsor Ave., Ottawa, Ont. 

Mills, R. Collin, 48 Balsam Ave., Hamilton, 
Ont. 

Ministerstvo, zagotovok, Chistye Prudy, Mos- 
cow, USSR. 

Minnesota University , Museum of Natural 
History, Minneapolis, Minn., U.S.A. 

Minshall, W. H., Science Service Laboratory, 
University Sub. P.O., London, Ont. 

Missouri Botanical Garden, 2315 Tower Grove 
Ave., St. Louis, Mo., U.S.A. 

Missouri, University of, Columbia, Mo., U.S.A. 

Mitchell, George J., Fish and Game Commis- 
sion, Administration Bldg., Edmonton, Alta. 

Mitchell, Mrs. 0. S., c/o Brazilian Traction, 
25 King St. W., Toronto, Ont. 

Mitchener, A. J., Collingwood, Ont. 

Montana State University, Library, Missoula, 
Montana, U.S.A. 

Montgomery, F. H., Department of Botany, 
Ontario Agricultural College, Guelph, Ont. 

Montgomery, G. H., 4689 Westmount Ave., 
Westmount, P.Q. 

Montreal Botanic Garden, Dr. Jacques Rous- 
seau, 4101 Sherbrooke St. E., Montreal, P.Q. 

Montreal Mechanics Institute, 1200 Atwater 
Ave., Westmount 6, P.Q. 

Montreal Public Library, 1210 Sherbrooke St. 
E., Montreal, P.Q. 

Montreal, University of, Botanical Institute, 
4101 Sherbrooke St. E., Montreal, P.Q. 

Montreal, University of, Central Library, Box 
6128, Montreal, P.Q. 

Montreal, University of, Game and Fisheries 
Department, c/o Director of Biological Of- 
fice, 2900 Mt. Royal, Montreal 26, P.Q. 

Montreal University, Service de Biogeogra- 
phie, Boul. Mont-Royal, Montreal 26, P.Q. 



84 



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Mont Saint-Louis Institute, Biology Library, 
224 Sherbrooke St. E., Montreal, P.Q. 

Moore, G. A., Box 99, Walkertown, Ont. 

Moore, J. E., Department of Zoology, Univer- 
sity of Alberta, Edmonton, Alta. 

Moore, R. J., Division of Botany, Science Ser- 
vice Bldg., Ottawa, Ont. 

Morland, Cmdr. T., University Club, Elgin St., 
Ottawa, Ont. 

Moskowskoje Otdelenije, Biblioteka Akad. 
Nauk, ul. Kujbysheva 8, Moscow, 12, USSR. 

Muise, Annette Genevieve, Nurses' Residence, 
Ottawa Civic Hospital, Ottawa, Ont. 

Mulligan, Mrs. K. P., 197 McLeod St., Ottawa, 
Ont. 

— N— 
National Audubon Society Library, 1130 Fifth 

Ave., New York 28, N.Y., U.S.A. 
National Museum of Canada, Ottawa, Ont. 
National Research Council Library, Sussex 

St., Ottawa, Ont. 
Neatby, K. W., Director, Science Service, 

Science Service Bldg., Carling Ave., Ottawa, 

Ont. 
Nesbitt, H. H. J., 34 Lakeside Ave., Ottawa, 

Ont. 
New Brunswick Museum, St. John, N.B. 
New Brunswick, University of, Library, Fre- 

dericton, N.B. 
Newfoundland Fish Research Station, Water 

St. E., St. John's, Nfld. 
New Hampshire, University of, Hamilton 

Smith Library, Durham, N.H., U.S.A. 
New York Academy of Medicine, 2 East 103rd 

St., New York 29, N.Y., U.S.A. 
New York Botanical Garden, Bronx Park, 

Fordham Branch P.O., New York, N.Y., 

U.S.A. 
New York State College of Forestry, Forest 

Library, Syracuse, N.Y., U.S.A. 
New York State Library, Albany, N.Y., U.S.A. 
Nice, Mrs. M., 5725 Harper Ave., Chicago 37, 

111., U.S.A. 
Nichols, C. K., 212 Hamilton Rd., Ridgewood, 

N.J., U.S.A. 
Nieder Sachsische, Staats und Universitets 

Bibliothek, Prinzenstrasse 1, Gottingen, 

Germany. 
Nieghom, C. L. A., 61 Ruskin, Ottawa, Ont. 
Nijhoff, N. V. M., Lange Voorhout No. 9, The 

Hague, Holland. 
Nobles, Mildred K., Division of Botany, Sci- 
ence Service Bldg., Ottawa, Ont. 
Nordiska Bokhandeln, Drottninggatan 79, 

Stockholm, Sweden. 
North Carolina State College, D.H. Hill Li- 
brary, Raleigh, N.C., U.S.A. 



North Central Saskatchewan, Regional Li- 
brary, 56-12th St. W., Prince Albert, Sask. 

Normandin, Jacques, Dept. of Fish and Game, 
Government House, Quebec, P.Q. 

Nova Scotia Agricultural College, Biology 
Division, Truro, N.S. 

— O— 

Odium, Gordon C, Race Rocks Light, c/o 
Pilotage, 200 Dallas Road, Victoria, B.C. 

Office International de Librairie S.P.R.L., 184 
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Ohio State University Library, Columbus 10, 
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Oklahoma Agricultural and Mechanical Col- 
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Oldenburg, M. E., c/o First Trust Co., St. 
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Ommanney, G. G., Hudson Heights, P.Q. 

Ontario Dept. of Lands and Forests, District 
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Ontario Dept. of Lands and Forests, Research 
Library, R.R. 2, Maple, Ont. 

Ontario Fisheries Research Laboratory, Dept. 
of Zoology, University of Toronto, Toronto, 
5, Ont. 

Ontario Legislative Assembly Library, Toron- 
to, Ont. 

Oregon State College, Library, Corvallis, 
Oregon, U.S.A. 

Organ, R. J., P.O. Box H219, St. John's, Nfld. 

Outram, A. A., 175 Rumsey Rd., Leaside, Ont. 

— P— 

Pacific Biological Station, Nanaimo, B.C. 

Parliamentary Library, Ottawa, Ont. 

Patuxent Research Refuge, Fish and Wild- 
life Service, Laurel, Md., U.S.A. 

Pearse, Theed, Box 159, Comox, V.I., B.C. 

Pengelley, W. G., 140 Lyndhurst Ave., Toron- 
to, Ont. 

Pennsylvania State College, Agricultural Li- 
brary, Room 101, Patterson Hall, State Col- 
lege, Pa., U.S.A. 

Pennsylvania, University of. Library, 34th St. 
& Woodland, Philadelphia, Pa., U.S.A. 

Peterborough Public Library, George St., Pe- 
terborough, Ont. 

Peters, Harold S., Fish and Wildlife Service, 
Peachtree 7th Bldg., Atlanta, Ga., U.S.A. 

Peterson, Randolph L., Division of Mamma- 
logy, Royal Ontario Museum of Zoology, 
100 Queens Park, Toronto, Ont. 

Pettingill, 0. S., Dept. of Zoology, Carleton 
College, Northfield, Minn., U.S.A. 

Petty, Raymond, 1119 Bank St., Ottawa, Ont. 

Phelps, Frank M., 312 Fifth St., Elyria, Ohio, 
U.S.A. 



April- June, 1953] 



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85 



Pirnie, Miles D., 201 Conservation Bldg., Mi- 
chigan State College, East Lansing, Mich., 
U.S.A. 

Pollock, David, 10822-107 St., Edmonton, Alta. 

Poole, Cecil A., 1764 Topeka Ave., San Jose 
11, Cal., U.S.A. 

Porsild, A. E., National Museum of Canada, 
Ottawa, Ont. 

Porsild, M. P., Brondbyvester pr. glastrup, 
Denmark. 

Port Arthur Public Library, Port Arthur, Ont. 

Princeton University Library, Princeton, N.J., 
U.S.A. 

Pritchard, A. L., Dept. of Fisheries, Ottawa, 
Ont. 

Provincial Library, Victoria, B C. 

Pugsley, Wm., 390 First Ave., Ottawa, Ont. 

Putman, W. L., Entomological Laboratory, 
Vineland Station, Ont. 

— Q— 

Quebec Zoological Gardens, Charlesbourg, 
P.Q. 

Queens University, Douglas Library, Kings- 
ton, Ont. 

— R— 

Racey, Kenneth, 6542 Lime St., Vancouver, 

B.C. 
Radforth, Norman W., Faculty Apts., Mc- 

Master University, Hamilton, Ont. 
Raines, W. C, Dundurn, Sask. 
Rand, A. L., Curator of Ornithology, Chicago 

Museum of Natural History, Chicago, 111., 

U.S.A. 
Rasch, Otto, Bahnhof Strasse 5, Marburg Lahn, 

Germany. 
Rashty, A. H., P.O. Box 86, Naharia, Israel. 
Rawson, 0. S., Dept. of Biology, University 

of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Sask. 
Resources and Development, Department of, 

Development Services Library, Norlite 

Bldg., 150 Wellington St., Ottawa, Ont. 
Reynolds, Keith, 251 Richmond St., London, 

Ont. 
Rhodes, H. L. J., Division of Botany, Science 

Service Bldg., Ottawa, Ont. 
Richards, A. E., Apt. 25, 407 Elgin St., Ot- 
tawa, Ont. 
Richards, J. P., 420 Sunnyside Ave., Ottawa, 

Ont. 
Richardson, L. R., P.O. Box 1580, Victoria 

University College, Wellington W.I., New 

Zealand. 
Flicker, Wm. E., Pacific Biological Station, 

Nanaimo, B.C. 
Riley, Mrs. G. C, 4 Elm Ave., Hudson Heights, 

P.Q. 



Risebrough, R. W., Box 224, Richmond Hill, 
Ont. 

Ritchie, R. C, 165 Alexandra Blvd., Toronto 
12, Ont. 

Ritching, W. R., Gore Bay, Ont. 

Robb, Donald L., 272 Sheldrake Blvd., Toron- 
to 12, Ont. 

Robinson, J. W., 216 Redfern Ave., Apt. 6, 
Montreal 6, P.Q. 

Roger, Ruth M., 68 Wayling Ave., Kings- 
view Park, Ottawa, Ont. 

Rocky Mountain Laboratory, Hamilton, Mon- 
tana, U.S.A. 

Ross, C. Chandler, 7924 Lincoln Dr., Philadel- 
phia 18, Pa., U.S.A. 

Ross, Douglas A., Forest Insect Laboratory, 
Vernon, B.C. 

Ross, Edna G., Box 385, Almonte, Ont. 

Ross, Verna, Apt. 5, 179 Patterson Ave., Ot- 
tawa, Ont. 

Rowe, J. S., 813 Dominion Public Bldg., Win- 
nipeg, Man. 

Royal Botanical Gardens, Box 399, Hamilton 
Ont. 

Russell, L. S., National Museum of Canada, 
Ottawa, Ont. 

Rutter, R. J., Huntsville, Ont. 

~S— 

Salt, C. C, 4134 Old Orchard Ave., Montreal 

28, P.Q. 
Saskatchewan, University of. Saskatoon, Sask. 
Savile, D. B. 0., 6 Oakland Ave., Ottawa, Ont. 
Savile, Mrs. D. B. 0., 6 Oakland Ave., Ottawa, 

Ont. 
Schokker, Mr., Singe L7, Deventer, Holland. 
Science Museum, Library Accessions Depart- 
ment, South Kensington, London, S.W. 7, 

Eng. 
Scientific & Industrial Research, Department 

of, Box 18, Government Bldgs., Wellington, 

N.Z. 
Scientific Information Centre, Defence Re- 
search Board, Army Headquarters, Ottawa, 

Ont. 
Scoggan, H. J., Dept. of Biology, National 

Museum of Canada, Ottawa, Ont. 
Scott, Dr. D. M., Dept. of Zoology, University 

College, University of Western Ontario, 

London, Ont. 
Scott Polar Research Institute, Lensfield Rd., 

Cambridge, Eng. 
Sharp, F. B., 208 Bloor St. W., Toronto, Ont. 
Shaub, B. M., 159 Elm St., Northampton, Mass., 

U.S.A. 
Shephard, J., Box 421, Kaslo, B.C. 
Sheppard, R. W., 1805 Mouland Ave., Niagara 

Falls, Ont. 



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Sherrin, John, 1425 Bloor St. W., Toronto, Ont. 

Sherwood, Angus, Norman Wells, N.W.T. 

Shinners, Lloyd H., Southern. Methodist Uni- 
versity, Dallas 5, Texas, U.S.A. 

Shumway Junior High School, 31st & Main 
Sts., Vancouver, Wash., U.S.A. 

Sinclair, G. Winston, Dept. of Geology, Ohio 
Wesleyan Univ., Delaware, Ohio, U.S.A. 

Sir George WiUiams College, 1441 Drummond 
St., Montreal, P.Q. 

Smith, Allan G., Box 603, Brigham City, Utah, 
U.S.A. 

Smith, D. A., 540 St. Clements Ave., Toronto 
12, Ont. 

Smith, J. E., 656 Edison St., Ottawa, Ont. 

Smith, John, 9 Second Ave., Ottawa, Ont. 

Smithsonian Institution, Library, Washington 
25, D.C., U.S.A. 

Snell, C. H., 491548th Ave., Red Deer, Alta. 

Snure, Pauline, Canadian Journal of Research, 
National Research Council, Ottawa, Ont. 

Snyder, L. L., Royal Ontario Museum, Bloor 
St., Toronto, Ont. 

Solman, V. E. F., Canadian Wildlife Service, 
Norlite Bldg., Ottawa, Ont. 

Soper, Harold W., 1118 Royal Bank Bldg., 
Montreal, P.Q. 

Soper, J. Dewey, 10520-75th Ave., Edmonton, 
Alta. 

Soper, J. H., Dept. of Botany, University of 
Toronto, Toronto, Ont. 

Southern Methodist University, Dallas, Texas, 
U.S.A. 

Speirs, J. Murray, Cobble Hill, R.R. 2, Pick- 
ering, Ont. 

Spencer, G. J., Dept. of Zoology, University 
of British Columbia, Vancouver, B.C. 

Spencer, M. D., National Film Board, John 
& Sussex Sts., Ottawa, Ont. 

Squires, W. A., Curator, New Brunswick Mu- 
seum, St. John's, N.B. 

St. Francis Xavier University, Dept. of Bio- 
logy, Antigonish, N.S. 

Stefansson, V., Dartmouth College Library, 
Hanover, N.H., U.S.A. 

Stephens, Helen E., 407 Elgin St., Apt. 4, 
Ottawa, Ont. 

Sternberg, C. M., National Museum of Canada, 
Dept. of Resources and Development, Ot- 
tawa, Ont. 

Stevens, Ward E., Defence Research Service, 
Operational Research Group, A Bldg., Car- 
tier Square, Ottawa, Ont. 

Steward, Charles C, 31 Hunter St., Toronto, 
Ont. 

Stewart, Mrs. J. G., 197 Fifth Ave., Ottawa 1, 
Ont. 



Stewart, R. M., Massett, B.C. 

Stewart, Miss S., 12 Bayswater Place, Ottawa, 
Ont. 

Stirrett, G. M., Wildlife Service, Old Arts 
Bldg., Queens University, Kingston, Ont. 

Strong, A. M., West Port, Ont. 

Stuart, Mary E., 410 Queens St., Ottawa, Ont. 

Suomen Riistanhoito-Saatio, P. Rautatienkatu 
13, Helsinki, Finland. 

Sutton, W. D., 313 Wharncliffe Rd. N., Lon- 
don, Ont. 

Swedish Royal University Library, Lund, 
Sweden. 

— T— 

Tanguay, Rene, College of St. Anne, St. Anne 
de la Pocatiere, Kamouraska Co., P.Q. 

Taschereau, L. A., 187 Grande Allee, Quebec, 
P.Q. 

Taylor, B. W., Director of Fish Culture, Bio- 
logy Bldg., McGill University, Montreal, 
P.Q. 

Teeple, Stanley, Perth Road, Ont. 

Tener, John S., Canadian Wildlife Service, 
Norlite Bldg., Ottawa, Ont. 

Terrill, L. M., Ulverton, P.Q. 

Texas, Agricultural & Mechanical College of. 
College Station, Texas, U.S.A. 

Texas University, Austin, Texas, U.S.A. 

Thacker, T. L., Little Mountain, Hope, B.C. 

Thompson, A. W., Box 80, St. Mary's, Ont. 

Toronto, University of, Toronto, Ont. 

Towers, Mrs. Graham, 260 Park Rd., Rock- 
cliffe Park, Ottawa, Ont. 

Tuck, Leslie M., P.O. Box E5366, St. John's, 
Nfld. 

Tufts, Harold F., Port Mouton, Queens Co., 
N.S. 

Tufts, R. W., Wolfville, N.S. 

TUrnau, Edmund A., Dept. of Biology, Carle- 
ton College, Ottawa, Ont. 

Turnbull, J. F., R.R. 3, Orillia, Ont. 

Turner, G. H., Fort Saskatchewan, Alta. 

Turnham, Mrs. A. J., Director, Redpath Mu- 
seum, Montreal, P.Q. 

Tyrrell, J. B., 44 King St. W., Toronto 1, Ont. 

— U— 

U.S. Geological Survey Library, 1033 General 
Services Bldg., Washington 25, D.C., U.S.A. 

Universitetets Zoologiske Museum, Krystal- 
gade, Kobenhaven K., Danmark. 

University Farm, Library, St. Paul 1, Minn., 
U.S.A. 

Urquhart, F. A., Royal Ontario Museum of 
Zoology, Toronto, Ont. 

Ussher, R. D., 101 Grandview Ave., Newton- 
brook, Ont. 



April- June, 1953] 



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87 



Utah State Agricultural College, Forestry Li- 
brary, Logan, Utah, U.S.A. 

— V— 

Van Camp, J. L., Canadian Forestry Associa- 
tion, 4795 St. Catherine W., Montreal 6, P.Q. 

Vancouver Public Library, Main & Hastings 
Sts., Vancouver, B.C. 

Van Home, H. B., 122 E. Lewis Ave., Chilli- 
wack, B.C. 

Victoria Public Library, Victoria, B.C. 

— W— 

Walkinshaw, C. A., 187 Highbourne Rd., To- 
ronto 12, Ont. 

Walkinshaw, L. H., 1705 Central Tower, Battle 
Creek, Mich., U.S.A. 

Wallace, H. A. H., Dominion Laboratory of 
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Wallace, Roy, 63 Dupont St., Toronto 5, Ont. 

Waller, Sam, The Pas, Man. 

Waltho, E., 140 Balliol St., Toronto 12, Ont. 

Washington, State College of, Pullman, Wash., 
U.S.A. 

Washington, University of. Library, Seattle 
5, Wash., U.S.A. 

Waters, 0., Apt. 22, 223 Somerset St. W., Ot- 
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Waterton Lakes Park, Superintendent, Water- 
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Wayne University, Kresge-Hooker Scientific 
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U.S.A. 

Webster, H. M., Box 213, Brighton, Ont. 

Webster, H. R., Room 433, Post Office BIdg., 
Edmonton, Alta. 

Weems, F. C, 270 Park Ave., New York 17, 
N.Y., U.S.A. 

Western Ontario, University of, Lawson Me- 
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Wheeler, Iris, M., Apt. 3, 314 Somerset St. E., 

Ottawa, Ont. 
White, E. F. G., 1238 Palmer Road, Victoria, 

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Whitehead, A. B., 302 Grande Allee, Quebec, 

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Wisconsin State Conservation Department, 830 

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Wisconsin, University of. Periodicals Division, 

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Wright, B. S., Northeastern Wildlife Station, 

New Brunswick University, Fredericton, 

N.B. 
Wright, S. Elizabeth, 347 Gilmour St., Ottawa, 

Ont. 
Wynne, J., Enderby, B.C. 
Wynne-Edwards, V. C, Marischal College, 

Aberdeen, Scotland. 
Wyoming, University of. Library, Laramie, 

Wyoming, U.S.A. 

— Y— 

Yale University Library, New Haven, Conn., 

U.S.A. 
Yliopiston Elainieteellinen Laboratoria, Poh- 

jois-Rautatienkatu 13, Helsinki, Finland. 

— Z— 

Zoological Society of London, Regent's Park, 
London, N.W.I, Eng. 



A COLONY OF THE LAND SNAIL CEPAEA NEMORALIS (L.) 
rHELICIDAE) IN THE VICINITY OF LONDON, ONTARIO ' 

W. W. JUDD 

University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario 



THE OCCURRENCE of the land snail 
Cepaea nemoralis (L.) in southern Ont- 
ario has been noted by Pilsbry (1928, 1939), 
Latchford (1930) and others and its distribu- 
tion in this region has been summarized by 
Oughton (1948) who makes reference to a 
living snail collected by H. B. Hitchcock in 



1 Received for publication May 10, 1952. 



London. During April of 1952 the writer 
located a colony of this species of snail in 
Westminster Township near the western 
limits of the city. The snails were abundant 
in grassy plots at the southern end of Green- 
wood Street. They were concentrated almost 
entirely in three adjacent residential lots on 
the west side of the street and, opposite 



88 



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[Vol. 67 



these, in four lots on the east side of the 
street. Each of these groups of lots com- 
prised an area of dimensions about 100 yards 
by 75 yards. Outside these areas the shells 
were sparsely scattered. The snails were 
first seen on April 23 when several shells 
were found embedded in mud and a few live 
snails were noted. On April 27 more than 
1,000 shells were collected in an hour. The 
grass had recently been burned and many of 
the shells were lying exposed on the ground 
and had been scorched. Others were found 
in clusters beneath loose moss and in cracks 
in the soil. About 40 live snails were col- 
lected and were placed in a glass bowl, being 
fed on lettuce. Several shells were examined 
by Dr. J. Oughton, Ontario Agricultural Col- 
lege, Guelph, Ontario, who kindly identified 
the species as Cepaea nemoralis (L). 

Residents in the vicinity reported that the 
snails had been present in considerable num- 
bers for at least ten years and that during 
damp weather they would crawl over side- 
walks, up the sides of buildings, on the 
leaves of garden plants and over the trunks 
and leaves of trees. It was asserted that the 
snails did not cause noticeable damage to 
foliage. 

Cepaea nemoralis is a pentataeniate spe- 
cies, having five bands on the shell, three 
above the periphery and two below. The 
distribution of these bands has been studied 
by several authors in shells taken from 
various localities and the frequencies of the 
variations in the banding pattern have been 
tabulated. The inheritance of the banding 
pattern has been investigated by Stelfox 
(1918). In North America the banding of 
the shells in a colony at Lexington, Virginia 
was studied by Howe (1898) and again by 
McConnell (1935) in 1930. McConnell com- 
pared his findings with those of Howe to 
show what changes had occurred in the fre- 
quencies of the variations of the banding 
pattern over the intervening years. 

From the colony at London, 1,000 mature 
shells have been studied and the banding pat- 
terns have been examined. The frequencies 
of the different patterns occurring in these 
shells are presented in Table 1, the band 
formula used being that adopted by McCon- 
nell (1935). Howe did not distinguish be- 
tween complete and partial fusion of bands, 
but McConnell did, indicating complete 
fusion of bands by round brackets and partial 



fusion by square brackets, e.g. complete 
fusion of bands four and five: (45), partial 
fusion: [45]. 

In the colony at London, the predominant 
patterns are those which have five separate 
bands: 12345, three separate bands with four 
and five partially fused: 123 [45], and three 
separate bands with four and five completely 
fused: 123 (45) (Table 1). The other twenty- 
Table 1. — Frequencies of banding patterns 
occurring in 1000 shells. 



Pattern 


Frequency 


Pattern 


Frequency 


#12345 


353 


123,5 


1 


#123 [45] 


429 


02345 


8 


#123(45) 


102 


0(23)45 


1 


1(23)45 


1 


023 [45] 


2 


1(23) [45] 


1 


023(45) 


5 


1[23]45 


2 


020 [45] 


2 


1[2345] 


1 


020(45) 


1 


12(345) 


1 


003 [45] 


1 


#(12)3[45] 


1 


#10345 


1 


#[12]3(45) 


19 


#12045 


7 


[123] [45] 


1 


[12] 045 


2 


#[12345] 


15 


120 [45] 


4 


#i2345 


13 


^2045 


1 


#i23[45] 


19 


j20[45] 


2 


#i23[45] 


3 


12305 


1 



# : Patterns recognized by McConnell (1935). 

seven patterns recognized are present in 
much smaller numbers. This distribution of 
frequencies contrasts strongly with that 
found by McConnell (1935) in the colony at 
Lexington where 31% of the shells were 
bandless: 00000, 11.2% showed band three 
only: 00300, while five separate bands: 12345 
occurred on 19.5% of the shells and other 
patterns showed less frequently. Bandlessness 
has been shown by Stelfox (1918) to be dom- 
inant and in the colony at Lexington the pro- 
portion of bandless specimens increased ap- 
proximately five-fold during thirty-two years. 
Bandlessness did not appear in any of the 
shells found at London. If it had occurred 
it probably would have become predominant 
over the ten years during which the colony 
has evidently been present. The distribution 
of banding patterns in this colony, with the 
predominance of many-banded snails, in- 
dicates that it more closely resembles 
European colonies, in which banding pre- 
dominates (Stelfox, 1918), than it does the 
colony at Lexington. 



April-June, 1953] 



The Canadian Field-Naturalist 



89 



LITERATURE CITED 

Howe, J. L. 1898. Variation in the shell of 
Helix nemoralis in the Lexington, Va., 
colony. American Naturalist, 32: 913-923. 

Latchford, F. R. 1930. Some introduced 
mollusks. Canadian Field-Nat., 44: 33-34. 

McConnell, D. 1935. Changes in the fre- 
quencies of the variations of Cepaea nemo- 
ralis (Linne). American Naturalist, 69: 
614-620. 

Oughton, J. 1948. A zoogeographical study 
of the land snails of Ontario. Univ. To- 



ronto Studies, Biological Series, No. 57. 

Pilsbry, H. A. 1928. Helix nemoralis L. in 
Ontario. Nautilus, 42: 42-43. 

Pilsbry, H. A. 1939. Land Mollusca of North 
America (north of Mexico). Acad. Natural 
Sciences Philadelphia, Monograph No. 3, 
vol. 1, part 1. 

Stelfox, A. W. 1918. Researches into the 
hereditary characters of some of our 
British mollusca. Part 2. Helix aspersa 
Miill. and H. nemoralis L. Jour. Concholo- 
gy, 15: 268-275. 



M- 



NOTES ON ELLESMERE ISLAND BIRDS' 

W. Earl Godfrey 
National Museum of Canada, Ottawa 



RECENTLY the National Museum of Can- 
ada received two small bird collections 
from Ellesmere Island, N.W.T. John S. 
Tener, Mammalogist, Canadian Wildlife 
Service, spent the period April 19 to August 
24, 1951, at Eureka, Slidre Fiord, in the 
central western coastal area of the island, 
during which time he covered most of the 
Fosheim Peninsula. In addition to his mam- 
malogical investigations, he made valuable 
notes on the birds; and, for the National 
Museum, he brought back a collection of 35 
well-prepared bird skins. ' Mr. Tener gen- 
erously made his bird field data available for 
use in the present connection and all field 
data here recorded from the Slidre Fiord 
region are his. 

S. D. MacDonald, of the National Museum 
staff, spent the period April 14 to September 
30, 1951, collecting and observing birds and 
mammals in the vicinity of Alert, in the 
northeast coastal part of Ellesmere Island. 
He secured 73 birds. Mr. MacDonald's re- 
port will be published in the forthcoming 
Annual Report of the National Museum of 
Canada, for the Fiscal Year 1951-52; con- 
sequently only occasional reference is made 
here to his observations, except in the case 
of species of special taxonomic interest. 

In addition to the two collections mention- 
ed above, the writer has examined a few 
Ellesmere Island specimens, also in the 
National Museum, taken by J. Dewey Soper 
in 1923, R. M. Anderson in 1928, and John 
Kelsall in 1948. Affinities of the Ellesmere 
Island birds with the Greenland avifauna are 



1 Received for publication May 10, 1952. 



noteworthy, involving breeding range ex- 
tensions of such Old World races as Arena- 
ria interpres interpres, Calidris canutus ca- 
nutus, and probably Acanthis hornemanni 
hornemanni, into Canada. 

Red-throated Loon. Gavia stellata (Pontop- 
pidan) 

Tener saw a pair on June 16 at Slidre 
Fiord, and on June 23 he located a nest with 
one egg on a small point at the edge of a 
pond south of Eastwind Lake. He estimated 
the Slidre Fiord area population at about 
four breeding birds. 

Brant. Branta bernicla subsp. 

Eleven in northerly flight on June 7 was 
Tener's only observation. 

Greater Snow Goose. Chen hyperborea atlaw 
tica Kennard 

Specimen examined: 
Alert area: 1 juv. S (?), August 14, 1951. 

MacDonald secured a flightless juvenal, 
the head and neck of which are still mainly 
downy, on August 14 at Hilgard Bay, near 
Alert. Two adults accompanied it. At 
Slidre Fiord, Tener's earliest observation was 
on May 31 when seven were seen. Later 
small flocks were noted which broke up into 
solitary pairs shortly after arrival. Tener 
saw 32 moulting birds on Romulus Lake, two 
miles east of the end of Slidre Fiord, on July 
8. These were unable to fly. He encounter- 
ed no evidence of nesting. 

Although the Alert juvenal examined is 
not subspecifically identifiable, the writer 
has examined adults of atlantica from Devon 



90 



The Canadian Field-Naturalist 



[Vol. 67 



Island and there appears to be little reason 
to doubt that the Ellesmere Island birds are 
also of that race. 

Old-squaw. Clangula hyemalis (Linnaeus) 

First noted at Slidre Fiord by Tener on 
June 16 when two pairs were seen. Flocking 
of males was observed early in July. 

King Eider. Somateria spectabilis (Linnaeus) 
Tener first observed it at Slidre Fiord on 
June 16 when two pairs were noted. Males 
in flocks were seen early in July but not after 
July 9. 

White Gyrfalcon. Falco rusticolus candicans 
Gmelin 
Specimens examined: 

Slidre Fiord: 2 juv. unsexed; Septem- 
ber 4, 1950. 

Craig Harbour district: 1 near-adult un- 
sexed, 1939. 

Tener observed one at Slidre Fiord on 
August 13, 1951, and he secured two speci- 
mens that had been collected there by D. 
Simon on September 4 of the previous year. 
MacDonald, in the Alert area, observed 
single birds on May 23, June 10, 28, 29, and 
30; saw three on June 25; and six on both 
June 27 and 28. All individuals seen by both 
observers and the specimens collected were 
white-phased. Neither observer found evi- 
dence of breeding. 

Salomonsen (1951) who has examined a 
very large series of specimens from Green- 
land and has had extensive field experience 
with the species, considers candicans a valid 
subspecies. A great deal more breeding 
material from Canada is needed to shed light 
on the perplexing taxonomy of this species. 

Rock Ptarmigan. Lagopus mutus subsp. 
Specimens examined: 
'Craig Harbour: 2 ad. 5 , 1 ad. $ ; June 
12 — July 10, 1936. 

Slidre Fiord: 2 ad. $; May 28 — June 
13, 1951. 

Wing (flattened) measurements of the 
specimens listed above are (in mm.): Craig 
Harbour, 2 ad. S, 204.5, 197.0; 1 ad. 2 , 195.0. 
Slidre Fiord, 2 ad. $, 205.0, 205.5. Their 
large size indicates tendencies toward captus 
but these are less pronounced than in a 
larger series examined by Salomonsen (1951) 
from northwest Greenland (Inglefield Land 
and Thule District) and northeastern North- 
west Territories (Ellesmere Island and Axel 
Heiberg Land) which measured: 14 $, 206- 



212 mm.; 9 $, 192-208 (one 187). Salomon- 
sen regards the latter series as captus < — > 
saturatus. However, Salomonsen considers the 
perplexing breeding populations of Baffin 
Island (except the southern part) closer to 
saturatus than to rupestris in which case the 
Ellesmere Island birds would indeed be cap- 
tus-saturatus intergrades. The A.O.U. Check- 
list Committee (1952), however, gives its 
conception of the range of saturatus as that 
part of western Greenland between the Up- 
pernavik District and the Egedesminde Dis- 
trict and presumably still regards Baffin 
Island populations as being nearer rupestris. 
In the latter case, Ellesmere Island birds 
would seem to be captus-rupestris inter- 
grades. The writer does not have access to 
adequate Greenland material and therefore 
is unable to express an opinion on the sub- 
ject at this time. 

Ringed Plover. Charadrius hiaticula hiaticula 
Linnaeus. 

Specimens examined: 
Alert area: 1 ad. $; July IB, 1951. 

On July 18, MacDonald saw two in the 
Alert area, one of which he collected. It had 
a brood patch and the testes measured 6 mm. 
It agrees with the nominate race in lacking 
a distinct web between the basal parts of the 
inner and middle toes and in possessing a 
broader pectoral band than in semipalmatus; 
but it is small (wing, '125; exposed culmen, 
13.8 mm). Schi0ler (1915) pointed out that 
specimens from Greenland and Iceland 
average smaller than birds from southern 
Scandinavia and he applied the name septen- 
trionalis of Brehm to the smaller birds. Salo- 
monsen (1930), however, showed that this 
name cannot be used and he proposed a new 
name psammodroma. More recently, how- 
ever, Salomonsen (1951) found the alleged 
smaller size of Greenland and Iceland birds 
too inconstant to merit separate subspecific 
status for them. Earlier Peters (1934) ex- 
pressed doubts as to the propriety of recog- 
nizing psammodroma. The Ellesmere bird 
is therefore here referred to the nominate 
race despite its small size. 

European Turnstone. Arenaria interpres inter- 
pres (Linnaeus) 
Specimens examined: 

Alert area: 6 ad. 5, 2 ad. 9,1 juv.; 

June 13 — July 30, 1951. 

Slidre Fiord: 7 ad. S , 3 ad. 5 ; May 31 

— June 14, 1951. 

Slidre Fiord: 2 juv.; August 28, 1948. 



April- June, 1953] 



The Canadian Field-Naturalist 



91 



Craig Harbour: 12 juv.; August 6-12, 
1923. 

Craig Harbour: 2 juv.; August 9, 1928. 
Although intermediate in size between 
the nominate race and morinella, the 18 
adults from both Alert and Slidre Fiord 
are in colouration (much restricted 
cinnamon-rufous areas and correspondingly 
much more extensive black areas as 
compared with morinella) decidedly closer 
to the European bird and the writer 
has little hesitancy in referring them to the 
nominate race. The crowns of the Ellesmere 
Island adults also are more heavily streaked 
than in birds examined from other parts of 
Arctic Canada. The series of 17 immatures 
from Ellesmere is remarkably uniform and 
differs surprisingly and definitely from a 
series of 22 comparable birds from other 
parts of Canada, the former being much 
darker above including the crown and nape. 
Only 3 of 22 specimens of morinella (Go 
Home Bay, Ontario, September 20, 1902; 
Port Frank's, Ontario, September 5, 1883; 
and Last Mountain Lake, Saskatchewan, 
August 19, 1920) closely approach the palest 
extremes of the Ellesmere Island series. The 
only considerable tendency of the Ellesmere 
Island series toward morinella is in size as 
is shown by the following wing measure- 
ments (in mm.): 

Alert area: 5 ad. $: 145.0-152.5 (av. 147) 
Slidre Fiord: 7 ad. S : 142.0-154.0 (147) 
Alert area and Slidre Fiord: 4 ad. 2 : 
149.0-152.6 (150.9) 

This species was first noted at Slidre Fiord 
by Tener on May 31 when eight were seen. 
At Alert, MacDonald's first date was June 2, 
when one was noted. Latest date on which it 
was seen at Slidre Fiord was August 20; at 
Alert, September 1. Tener noted large 
flocks at Slidre Fiord until June 3. After 
that date the flocks were broken up into 
courting groups of a female and one or more 
males. After June 14 only paired birds were 
seen on their territories. Nesting appeared 
to be confined to dry ridges and gentle 
slopes covered with Dryas and some Cassiope. 
Young were seen flying short distances on 
July 24 and 25. This race was not previously 
known to breed in Canada. 

Old World Knot. Calidris canutus canutus 
(Linnaeus) 

Specimens examined: 
Alert area. 3 ad. ,J, 2 ad. 9,1 juv. $, 
1 juv. 9, 2 downies; June 16-August 11, 
1951. 



Slidre Fiord: 2 ad. ^ , 2 ad. 9 ; June 3- 
7, 1951. 

'Most ornithologists heretofore, presuma- 
bly because of lack of adequate study 
material, include northwestern Greenland 
and Ellesmere Island in the range of the 
American Calidris canutus rufa. Conover 
(1943), however, referred all Greenland 
material to canutus and recently Salomonsen 
(1951) did the same. The latter was able 
also to examine specimens in the British 
Museum from Discovery Bay and Floeberg 
Beach, both in Ellesmere Island, and these 
specimens too he referred to the nominate 
race. The material listed above also is un- 
questionably referable to canutus. 

In the Ellesmere Island adults the dorsel 
aspect is markedly darker than in specimens 
of rufa from other parts of Canada. The 
black areas are much more extensive and the 
buffy parts are both more extensive and 
darker. Ventrally the rufous colour of the 
Ellesmere Island birds is darker and this 
colour extends, except in one female, poste- 
riorly to include the under tail coverts. In 
the two birds from Alert, the grey colour of 
the upper parts is trenchantly darker than in 
any of the nine specimens of rufa of similar 
age and season with which they were com- 
pared. The pale edges of the feathers of 
upper back, scapulars, tertials, and wing 
coverts are buffy instead of white. The two 
downies from Ellesmere Island are a little 
huffier (less greyish) than are four from 
eastern Victoria Island, N.W.T. 

This species was first noted at Slidre 
Fiord on May 27 when Tener saw one. On 
June 3 he noted more than 75. Courting 
was observed for about two weeks, then not 
at all. A nest with four eggs was found on 
top of an 800-foot sandstone ridge on June 
23. Downies, only a few hours old, were in 
another nest on July 12. Young able to fly 
short distances were seen on July 23. Tener 
concluded that this species prefers, as nesting 
habitat on Fosheim Peninsula, weathered 
sandstone ridges and elevations, characteris- 
tically vegetated with scattered clumps of 
willow, dryas, and poppy. 

Sanderling. Crocethia alba (Pallas) 
Specimens examined: 
Alert area: 1 ad. S, 2 juv. $, 2 juv. 9; 
June 25- August 9. 
Tener saw an adult with three young 
thought to be not more than 12 hours old in 
the Slidre Fiord area on July 12. He saw no 
others. 



92 



The Canadian Field-Naturalist 



[Vol. 67 



Long-tailed Jeager. Stercorarius longicaudus 
Vieillot. 

Slidre Fiord: 3 ad. 2; June 7-13, 1951. 
Alert area: 2 ad. 5, 3 ad. 5,1 sub-ad. 
S, 1 sub-ad. ?; June 14-30, 1951. 

Earliest individual noted by Tener in the 
Slidre Fiord area appeared on June 7. Five 
were observed on June 13 and the species 
was noted on almost every later trip afield. 
Although behaviour of adults strongly sug- 
gested breeding, diligent search failed to re- 
veal actual location of nests. Stomach of the 
June 7 female contained feathers and bone 
of what appeared to be a Snow Bunting. An 
adult female taken on June 13 had eaten 
three moth caterpillars and the stomachs of 
single females taken on June 15 and 17 were 
empty. 

Salomonsen (1951) states that American 
birds and those of Greenland are paler than 
European birds and he calls the American 
and Greenland specimens S. I. pallescens 
L0ppenthin. Shortt (1951) says that this 
view is borne out by specimens in the Royal 
Ontario Museum of Zoology. No European 
material is at present available for examina- 
tion by the writer. 

Glaucous Gull. Larus hyperhoreus hyperbo- 

reus. Gunnerus 

Tener saw two on June 3 and six were 
present in the Slidre Fiord area during the 
summer. 

Herring Gull. Larus argentatus subsp. 

Two individuals, probably thayeri, were 
seen by Tener at Slidre Fiord on June 12. 

Arctic Tern. Sterna paradisaea Pontoppidan 
Specimens examined: 

Slidre Fiord: 1 ad. $ ; June 17, 1951. 

Alert area: 4 ad. $ , 1 ad. 2 ; June 22- 

August 9, 1951. 
In the Slidre Fiord area Tener first ob- 
served this tern on June 16. Stomach of a 
male collected revealed that it had been 
eating the amphipod Pseudalibrotus. A nest 
found on July 14 contained one egg. Two 
nests on July 23 contained newly-hatched 
young. 

Short-billed Guillemot. Cepphus grylle ulti- 
mus Salomonsen 
Specimens examined: 
Alert area: 1 ad. 5; July 30, 1951. 
Fram Haven: 1 ad. $ ; August 3, 1928. 
While not quite typical in size (length of 
exposed culmen 27.7 and 29.0 mm.) these two 
specimens appear to be best referable to 
ultimus. 



Snowy OwL Nyctea scandiaca (Linnaeus) 

Tener observed apparently the same in- 
dividual four times at Slidre Fiord. All pel- 
lets examined contained lemming remains. 

Hornemann Redpoll. Acanthis hornemanni 
hornemanni (Holboell) 
Specimens examined: 
Alert area: 1 post-juv. unsexed, 1 juv. 
$, 1 juv. 2; July 25-August 11, 1951. 

Wing measurements of these immature 
specimens are: 77, 78, and 84 mm. respective- 
ly. They are apparently too large, consider- 
ing their age, to be exilipes and thus they 
appear to be best referable to the nominate 
race. 

Although MacDonald suspected the breed- 
ing of this species in the Alert area, he 
could find no nests. He collected two in 
Juvenal plumage on July 25 that apparently 
had been flying for some time, and on August 
11 he took a specimen in almost complete 
post-juvenal plumage. He observed the 
species on April 29 (2); May 25 (2), 31 (1); 
June 11 (1), 12 (2); July 25 (2); August 11 
(4), 12 (1), 13 (6). 

Lapland Longspur. Calcarius lapponicus lap- 
ponicus (Linnaeus) 
Specimens examined: 

Slidre Fiord: 2 juv. $ ; August 5, 1951. 

Two males, in juvenal plumage, were col- 
lected on August 5 by Tener at Eastwind 
Lake, near Slidre Fiord. No others were 
seen and as these birds were in well- 
developed juvenal plumage and apparently 
good fliers, they may not have been raised in 
the immediate area. These appear to 
constitute the northernmost Canadian record 
of the species. 

Snow Bunting, Plectrophenax nivalis nivalis 
(Linnaeus) 
Specimens examined: 

Slidre Fiord: 5 ad. $ , 3 ad. 2 ; May 9- 

June 5, 1951. 

Alert area: 3 ad. 5 ; May 25-31, 1951. 

Tener found this the commonest bird on 
the Fosheim Peninsula. He noted singing 
individuals first on May 5. On May 24 paired 
birds were on their territories and males were 
defending these vigorously. Preferred areas 
included mud ravines, rocky slopes, ridges, 
and river banks. A nest on June 25 con- 
tained six eggs. First flying juvenals were 
noted on July 19. 



April- June, 1953] 



The Canadian Field-Naturalist 



93 



Literature Cited 

American Ornithologists' Union Check-list 
Committee. 1952. Twenty-seventh Sup- 
plement to the American Ornithologists' 
Union Check-List of North American 
Birds. Auk, 69(3); 308-312. 

Conover, Boardman. 1943. The Races of the 

Knot (Calidris canutus). Condor, 45 (6): 

226-228. 
Peters, James Lee. 1934. Check-list of Birds 

of the World. Vol. 2. Harvard University 

Press, Cambridge. 



Salomonsen, Finn. 1930. Bemerkungen iiber 
die geographische Variation von Chara- 
drius hiaticula L. Journal fiir Ornitholo- 
gie, 78 (1): 65-72. 

Salomonsen, Finn. 1951. The Birds of Green- 
land. Parts 2 and 3. Ejnar Munksgaard, 
Copenhagen. 

Schi0ler, E. Lehn. 1915. Lidt om Praestekra- 
ven, Aegialitis hiaticula L., og dens Racer. 
Dansk Ornith. Forenings Tidsskr, 9; 161- 
181. 

Shortt, T. M. 1951. (Review of) The Birds of 
Greenland. Arctic, 4 (3); 218-219. 



CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE FLORA OF NOVA SCOTIA 
III : SOME INTERESTING WHITE FORMS ' 

W. B. ScHOFiELD and E. C. Smith 

Perry Biological Laboratories, Acadia 

University, Wolfville, Nova Scotia 



THESE newly or rarely reported white 
forms of plants from Nova Scotia, were 
discovered, for the most part, in the course 
of forest ecology surveys sponsored by the 
Nova Scotia Research Foundation. These 
survey parties, during the past four sum- 
mers, explored areas of the province rarely 
visited by botanists and therefore had an un- 
usual opportunity for studying frequency of 
occurrence of colour forms and for gathering 
information of some value to those interested 
in variability in flower colour. 

The summer party of 1948 was made up of 
E. C. Smith, D. S. Erskine, E. H. Collins and 
W. B. Schofield, and their collections are 
designated by the letters SECS; the collec- 
tions of the party of 1949, E. C. Smith, E. H. 
Collins, J. M. Bruce, D. R. Sampson and F. 
C. Bent are designated by SCBSB; and those 
of the party of 1951, E. C. Smith, W. B. 
Schofield, D. R. Sampson and F. C. Bent are 
designated by SSSB. 

SCHIZACHNE PURPURASCENS (Torr.) 
Swallen forma ALBICANS Fern. Victoria 
County: in rock crevices and between 
boulders at river edge, Salmon River, Bay 
St. Lawrence, SSSB 2657 (and A. E. Roland 
1941); rare on dripping cliffs. Big Southwest 
Brook, SSSB 4542. In both of the above 
locations the forma albicans made up a 
large percentage of the plants collected. In- 
verness County: clearing in woods at five 
hundred feet, north of Cheticamp, W. G. 
Dore 894. 



1 Received ior publication May 28, 1952. 



IRIS VERSICOLOR L. forma MURRAYA- 
NA Fern. Only one clone of this white- 
flowered form has been seen thus far in the 
province, growing with the typical form. 
Guysborough County: swale, Auld's Cove, 
SSSB 4194. 

HABENARIA PSYCODES (L.) Spreng. 
forma ALBIFLORA (Bigel.) Hoffm. Plants 
intermediate in colour between the typical 
magenta-flowered and white-flowered plants 
are frequent but the white form is rare. 
About twelve of these plants were found 
growing among many typical individuals. 
Victoi'ia County: alder swamp near Cape 
North Village, SSSB 4466. 

CALOPOGON PULCHELLUS (Salisb.) R. 
Br. forma ALBIFLORUS (Britt.) Fern. 
Guysborough County: wet bog, rare with 
typical form and pale-flowered intermediates, 
SECS 630; Richmond County: rare in bog 
north of Arichat, Isle Madame, growing with 
intermediates and typical plants, SECS 858. 
This form was reported previously from only 
one station in Nova Scotia, the peaty margin 
of Lake Annis, Yarmouth County, a single 
plant collected by M. L. Fernald in 1920. 

RUBUS STRIGOSUS Michx. forma AL- 
BUS (Fuller) Fern. This white-fruited 
form was collected by Bell, Bassett, Gorham 
and Hockey, August 13, 1944 at Cape Split, 
Kings County. 

VICIA CRACCA L. forma ALBIDA 
(Peterm.) Gams. Colchester County: railway 
embankment, Truro, R. W. Ward, July 29, 
1927. 



94 



The Canadian Field-Naturalist 



[Vol. 67 



KALMIA POLIFOLIA Wang, forma leu- 
cantha forma nova, forma typicae habita sta- 
tura etc. similis, floribus omnibus albis. New- 
foundland: one plant only in a bog where the 
typical form was very common, Hodgewater 
Line, Trinity South, E. C. Smith & A. C. 
Smith, June 29, 1945. TYPE in Acadia 
University Herbarium. 

This form, though unknown from N.S., 
appears to be undescribed, and is therefore 
considered worthy of inclusion. 

CAMPANULA ROTUNDIFOLIA L. forma 
ALBIFLORA Rand & Redf. The white-form 
of this species has not been reported from 
the province before. It is extremely rare, 
each of the following collections consisting 
of a single plant. Inverness County: very 
rare among typical plants on cliff face. Rig- 
wash Valley, SSSB 4685. Victoria County: 



very rare, growing with the typical form, ex- 
posed headland. White Point, SSSB 4404. 

LOBELIA KALMII L. forma LEUCAN- 
THA Rouleau. Inverness County: rare, 
growing with abundant typical plants in 
alkaline bog, Black River, SSSB 4955. The 
typical form is rare in the province, having 
been seen only twice by the authors, once 
as noted above and in Cape Breton County: 
wet quaking mat at the edge of a lake, one 
mile north of McAdam Lake, SSSB 5466. 

SOLIDAGO PUBERULA Nutt., forma 
albiradiata forma nova, A typica differt 
radiis albis, baud aureis, radiis. Nova Scotia: 
dry roadside near Goat Lake, Lunenburg 
County, J. S. Erskine & D. S. Erskine 845, 
August 25, 1946. TYPE in Acadia Univer- 
sity Herbarium. 



NOTES AND OBSERVATIONS 



Song Sparrows in Central Alberta in 
Winter. — The Song Sparrow, Melospiza 
melodia, is normally seen in the Edmonton 
district from mid-April to late September or 
early October and has never, to our knowl- 
edge, been recorded during the winter months 
in this region or indeed anywhere in Alberta. 
The following records of song sparrows near 
or in Edmonton are therefore of some interest. 

On February 23, 1952, the writers were 
driving slowly along a side road near Spruce 
Grove some 15 miles west of Edmonton when 
one of us noticed what appeared to be one 
of the native sparrows (none of which winter 
in Central Alberta) hopping about on a brush 
pile in the wide road-side ditch. We stopped 
to examine the bird with binoculars and came 
to the conclusion that it was either a Lin- 
coln's or a Song Sparrow. The bird was 
collected to establish its identity beyond all 
doubt and to substantiate the record. It 
proved to be a male Song Sparrow and showed 
no signs of past injury which might have 
prevented it from migrating normally in the 
preceding fall. It is of course a matter of 
opinion whether this bird should be consi- 
dered to have wintered in the district or to 
have made a very premature spring migration. 
It was in any case about 500 miles north of 
the nearest area where others of its species 
could be found at the date in question. A 
second Song Sparrow was seen by A. Oeming 
alone, on December 21, 1952, on the outskirts 



of Edmonton. The bird was in good view on 
the ground and the breast spot was clearly 
noted through binoculars (in the February 
bird the breast spot was very indistinct). 

It should be noted that while the weather 
of the winter of 1951-52 was quite average for 
this district, the present winter has been 
exceptionally mild up to the end of December, 
1952, (time of writing this) and there are 
already indications that other species of 
migrants have stayed abnormally late. — 
E. O. HOHN, Department of Physiology, Uni- 
versity of Alberta, and A. OEMING, Edmon- 
ton. 

European Starling on Vancouver Island, 

B.C. — On December 21, 1951, two European 
Starlings (Sturnus vulgaris Linnaeus), an 
adult and bird of the year, were feeding on 
the lawn in my garden here. They stayed 
for some minutes. So far as I know this is 
the first record for Vancouver Island north 
of Victoria. 

It would be interesting to know how these 
birds reached here, especially in the winter. 
It is not likely that they arrived in the hold 
of one of the ships coming from Vancouver, 
B.C., to coal at Union Bay, some six miles 
away, as there is no supply of the birds, to 
draw from, there. The birds did not appear 
again nor have I heard of any being seen in 
this district. — THEED PEARSE, Comox, 
Vancouver Island, B.C. 



AFFILIATED SOCIETIES 



NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY 
OF MANITOBA 



VANCOUVER NATURAL HISTORY 
SOCIETY 



OFFICERS FOR 1951-52: 

President Emeritus: Charles W. Lowe; Honorary Presi- 
dent: A. G. Lawrence; President: RAYMOND R.' LE- 
JEUNE; Vice-Presidents: Mrs. D. B. SPARLING. Prof. 
R. K. STEWART-HAY; General Secretary: Mrs. W. A. 
CARTWRIGHT; Executive Secretary: Mrs. G. I. KEITH; 
Treasurer: H. MOSSOP; Auditor: W. A. CARTWRIGHT; 
Social Convenor: Miss LOUISE M. LOVELL. 

SECTIONS— 

Ornithology: Chair. F. J. COUTTS; Sec. Miss W. 
DOWNES. Entomology: Chair. R. J. HERON; Sec 
J. A. DROUIN. Botany. Chair. Mrs. D. B. SPARLING; 
Sec. JOHN S. ROWE. Geology: Chair. P. H. STOKES; 
Sec. P. W. GRANT. Mammalogy: Chair. C. I. TILLE- 
NIUS; Sec. O. P. GIBSON. Herpetology: Chair. R. K. 
STEWART-HAY; Sec. H. MOSSOP. Archeology: Chair. 
Mrs. P. H. STOKES; Sec. Mrs. R. K. HELYAR. 

Lectures on the first and third Monday evenings of 
each month will be held in the 4th floor Board Room 
of the Free Press. Friday evening lectures wil be held 
in Room 200 of the University Extension Service, Me- 
morial Boulevard, Winnipeg. Field Excursions ore held 
on Saturdays or Svtndays during May, June and Sep- 
tember, and on public holidays in July and August. 
Membership fee: $1 a year for adults; 25 cents for 
juniors. 



PROVANCHER SOCIETY OF NATURAL 
HISTORY OF CANADA 

OFFICERS FOR 1953 

President : F. DONALD ROSS; 1st Vice-President : JOS. 
MORIN; 2nd Vice-President : J. C. PRICE; Secretary- 
Treasiuer : GEO. A. LECLERC; Chief of Scientific 
Section : FRANCOIS HAMEL; Chief of Protection 
Section : REX MEREDITH; Chief of Propaganda Section : 
DR. D. A. DERY; Chief of Information Section : J. A. 
BIGONESSE. Other directors : G. H. CARTWRIGHT, 
T. J. A. HUNTER, DR. V. PLAMONDON, J. J. DION, 
J. K. HILL, J. G. COOTE. 

Secretary's address : GEORGES A. LECLERC, 12 Desy 
Avenue, Quebec, P.Q. 



THE TORONTO FIELD-NATURALISTS' 
CLUB 

OFnCEHS FOR 1950-1951 

President : A. A. OUTRAM; Vice-President j J. L. 
BAILLIE; Secretary-Treosttrer: MRS. J. B. STEWART, 
21 Millwood Rd., Toronto; President of Junior Club: 
MRS. J. MURRAY SPEIRS; Vice-President of Junior Club: 
MRS L. E. JAQUITH. Executive Council: G. M. BART- 
MAN, J. BARNETT, MRS. N. BROWN, ALFRED BUNKER. 
MISS F. BURGESS, ALEXANDER CAMERON, MISS VERA 
CLARK, MISS B. DOUGLAS, PROF. T. W. DWIGHT, DR- 
M. FRITZ, W. W. H. GUNN, DR. L. E. JAQUITH. MRS. 
J. D. KETCHUM, MBS V. KOHLER, MRS. H. H . MARSH. 
C. S. McKEE, D. S. MILLER, JOH N M ITCHKT.E. R. M. 
SAUNDERS. EARL STARK, H. H. SOUTHAM. Ex. Officio: 
A. J. V. LEHMANN, C. A. WALKINSHAW. T. F. McIL- 
WRATTH. 

Meetings are held at 8.15 pjn. on the firtt Monday of 
each month from October to May at the Royol Ontario 
Museum, unless otherwise announced- Field trips ar* 
held during the spring ond autumn and on the second 
Saturday ot eoch month during the winter. 



OFFICERS 



1951-1952 



Hon. President: DR. N. A. M. MacKENZIE; Past Presidem 
A. H. BAIN; President: DR. V. C. BRINK; Vice-President; 
DR. T. M. C. TAYLOR; Hon. Secretary; C. B. W. ROGERS; 
Recording Secretary: MISS C. PLOMMER; Program Sec- 
retary: S. F. BRADLEY; Hon. Treasurer: F. J. SANFORD; 
Librarian: MRS. S. F. BRADLEY; Editor of Bulletin: N. 
PURSSELL; Chairmen of Sections: Botany — PROF. j. 
DAVIDSON; Geology — DR. J. E. ARMSTRONG; En- 
tomology — A. R. WOOTTON; Ornithology — W. M. 
HUGHES; Mammology — DR. L McT. COWAN; Marine 
Biology — R. W. PILLSBURY; Photography — H. C 
FRESHWATER; Junior Section — A. R. WOOTTON; 
Mycology — F. WAUGH; Aubudon Screen Tours — A. 
H. BAIN; Additional Member of Executive: J. J. PLOIA- 
MER; Auditors: H. G. SELWOOD, J. H. PROSSER 

All meetings at 8 p.m.. Room 100, Applied Science- 
Building, University of British Coliimbia, unless other- 
wise ormounced. 



McILWRAITH ORNITHOLOGICAL CLUB 
LONDON, ONT. 

OFFICERS FOR 1953 

Past President : Mr. W. D. SUTTON, 313 Whamcliffe 
Rd. N., London; President : Mrs. R. G. CUMMINGS, 
R.R. 4, London; Vice-President : Mr. H. KEAST, 1239 
Gleeson St., London; Secretary : Miss M. EDY, R.R. 4, 
London; Secretary-Treasurer : Dr. W. W. JUDD, 685 
Stratlimeyer St., London; Migration Secretary : Mr. J. 
LEACH, West London, P.O., London. 

Meetings ore held at 8.00 p.m. in the Public Ubzaxy 
biulding on the second Monday ol each month iron 

September to May. 

Field trips are held during the spring and a special 

excursion in September. 



PROVINCE OF QUEBEC SOCIETY FOR 
THE PROTECTION OF BIRDS INC. 

OFFICERS FOR 1952-53 

President: G. H. MONTGOMERY; Vice-President: W. H. 
RAWLINGS; Vice President: J. P. ANGLIN; Treasurer: D. 
G. ELLIOT; Asst.-Treosurcr: Mrs. D. G. ELLIOT; Secretary: 
Miss R. S. ABBOTT, 166 Senneville Road, Senneville. P.Q. 

COMMITTEE 

Miss R. S. ABBOTT, J. P. ANGLIN, W. R. B. BERTRAM, 
Miss R. B. BLANCHARD, J. D CLEGHORN. Dr. M. J. DUN. 
BAR, D. G. ELLIOT, Mrs. D. G. ELLIOT. DeLISLE GAR- 
NEAU, G. H. HALL, W. S. HART, Miss G. HIBBARD. 
Miss A. HORSFALL, A. R. LEPINGWELL, IAN McLAREN. 
G. H. MONTGOMERY, W. H. RAWLINGS. J. W. ROBIN- 
SON, C. C. SAIT, Miss M. SEATH, H. F. SEYMOUR. 
Dr. J. H. SUMMERBY, L. McI. TERRILL, Mrs. L. McI. 
TERRILL, Miss F. M. WALLACE. 

Meetings held the second Monday of the month except 
during summer. Field Trips held in spring and autumn. 



BRITISH COLUMBIA BIRD AND 
MAMMAL SOCIETY 



President : KENNETH RACEY; Vice-Prseident : H. M. 
LAING; Secretary: IAN McT. COWAN. Dept "d 
Zoology, University of British Columbia, VancouT*r. B.C 











WANTED 


In order to meet 


the demand for back numbers of the publications 


of the Ottawa Field-Naturalists' Club, 


the following are urgently needed: 


Transactions 


i. Otta. Field-Nat Club, No. 1, 1880. 


OUawa Natairalist 








Vol. 


4. 


No. 


6, 


Sept., 


1890 


Vol. 


7. 


No. 


9, 


Dec, 


1893 


VoL 


11, 


No. 


10, 


Jan., 


1898 


Vol. 


11, 


No. 


11. 


Feb., 


1898 


Vol. 


11, 


No. 


12, 


Mar., 


1898 


Vol. 


12, 


No. 


1. 


Apr., 


1898 


Vol. 


12, 


No. 


4, 


July, 


1898 


Vol. 


12. 


No. 


7 & 8, Oct-Nov., 


1898 


Vol. 


12, 


No. 


9, 


June, 


1901 


Vol. 


15, 


No. 


3, 


June, 


1901 


Vol. 


15, 


No. 


4, 


July, 


1901 


Vol. 


15, 


No. 


8. 


Nov.. 


1901 


Vol. 


17, 


No. 


12. 


Mar., 


1904(This was marked Vol. 18, No. 12) 


Vol. 


18, 


No. 


4, 


July. 


1904 


Vol. 


19. 


No. 


10, 


Jan., 


1906 


Vol. 


20, 


No. 


4. 


July, 


1906 


Canadian Field-Nahiralist 




Vol. 


34, 


No. 


8, 


Nov., 


1920 


Vol. 


36, 


No. 


5, 


May, 


1922 


Vol. 


37, 


No. 


3, 


Mar., 


1923 


Vol. 


39, 


No. 


5, 


May, 


1925 


Vol. 


44, 


No. 


9, 


Dec, 


1930 


Vol. 


45, 


No. 


5. 


May, 


1931 


Vol. 


56, 


No. 


6, 


Sept., 


1942 


Members and subscribers who are 


able to spare any of these nimibers 


would greatly assist the Club by forwarding them to : 












Mr. W. J. Cody. 












Division of Botany 












Science Service, 












Dept. oi Agriculture, 












Ottawa. Ontario. 



"le Droit" Printers, Ottawa, Canada. tBEJ ^^^ gQ 



Vol. 67 JULY-SEPTEMBER 1953 No. 3 

The CANADIAN 
FIELD -NATURALIST 



Contents 



MU. COM?. Bui. I 
OCT 5 1953 j 



The Helvellaceae of the Ottawa District. v - 

By J. Walton Groves and Sheila Hoare 95 

^ Birds of the Saint Elias quadrangle in the southwestern Yukon Territory. 

By William H. Drury, Jr 103 

Records of the Creek Northern Chub from Ontario. By A. E. Allin 128 

3>"Phyllodoce coerulea in North America. By W. J. Cody 131 

'■ Notes on food habits of waterfowl in the interior of Ungava Peninsula. 

By Nicholas Polunin and Carl R. Eklund 134 

Notes and Observations: — 

Echinochloa walteri re-instated in Ottawa District flora. By W. G. Dore .... 138 
Does the Scheffer Mole drink? By R. Glendenning 138 

An addition to the list of mammals of Nova Scotia: the Eastern Red Bat. 

By N. R. Brown 139 

Northern extensions of range of som? reptant decapod Crustacea 

of British Columbia. By Josephine F. L. Hart 139 

Wilson's Petrel, Oceanites oceanicus oceanicus (Kuhl), at 

Lake Deschenes, Quebec. By Hoyes Lloyd 140 

California Sea Lion (Zalophus californianus (Lesson) ) in 

British Columbia. By C. J. Guiguet 140 

Reviews 141 



-^ 



Published by the 
OTTAWA FIELD-NATURALISTS' CLUB 

Authorized as second class matter, Post Office Department, Ottawa. 



Wl^t (^ttatoa Sitlh'Matuv&liit&' Cluii 



I 



Patron: 
His Excellency, The Rt. Honourable Vincent Massey, C.H., Governor-General of Canada. 

President: Mr. R. Frith 
1st Vice-President: Mr. W. K. W. Baldwin 2nd Vice-President: Dr. H. A. Senn 

Treasurer: Raymond Moore, Secretary: H. J. Scoggan, 

Division of Botany, National Museum of Canada, 

Science Service, Dept. of Ottawa. 

Agriculture, Ottawa. 

Additional Members of Council: Mrs. J. W. Groves, Mrs. Hoyes Lloyd, Miss Ruth 
Horner, Miss Violet Humphreys, Miss Verna Ross, Miss Pauline Snure, Miss 
Mary Stuart, The Reverend Father F. E. Banim, Messrs. R. M. Anderson, J. Arnold, 
J. S. Bleakney, B. Boivin, A. E. Bourguignon, E. L. Bousfield, K. Bowles, A. W. 
Cameron, W. J. Cody, I. L. Conners, J. P. Cuerrier, W. G. Dore, C. Frankton, W. E. 
Godfrey, H. Groh, J. W. Groves, R. D. Harris, S. D. Hicks, W. Illman, W. H. Lan- 
CELEY, H. Lloyd, W. W. Mair, T. H. Manning, H. Marshall, A. E. Porsild, H. L. J. 
Rhodes, L. S. Russell, D. B. O. Savile, V. E. F. Solman, J. S. Tener. 

Auditors: I. L. Conners, C. Frankton. 



Editor 

Dr. H. a. Senn, 

Division of Botany, 

Science Service, Dept. of Agriculture, Ottawa. 

Associate Editors 

W. G. Doee Botany R. M. Anderson Mammalogy 

A. LaRocque Conchology A. G. Huntsman Marine Biology 

H, G. Crawford Entomology W. E. Godfrey Ornithology 

F. J. Alcock Geology W. A. Bell Palaeontology 

Sherman Bleakney Herpetology J. R. Dymond Ichthyology 

Business Manager 

W. J. Cody, 

Division of Botany, 

Science Service, Dept, of Agriculture, Ottawa. 



The official publications of The Ottawa Field-Naturalists' Club have been 
issued since 1879. The first were The Transactions of the Ottawa Field-Naturalists' 
Club, 1879, 1886, two volumes; the next, The Ottawa Naturalist, 1886-1919, thirty- 
two volumes: and these have been continued by The Canadian Field-Naturalist to 
date. The Canadian Field-Naturalist is issued quarterly. Its scope is the publication 
of the results of original research in all departments of Natural History. 
Price of this volume (4 numbers) $3.00; Single copies 90c each. 



Subscription ($3.00 per year) should be forwarded to Dr. R. J. Moore, 

Div. of Botany, Science Service, Dept. of Agriculture, 

OTTAWA, CANADA. 



The Canadian Field-Naturalist 



Vol. 67 



OTTAWA, CANADA, JULY-SEPTEMBER, 1953 



No. 3 



THE HELVELLACEAE OF THE OTTAWA DISTRICT ^' ' 

J. Walton Groves ^ and Sheila C. Hoare ^ 



rpHE FAMILY Helvellaceae includes a 
^ group of large, fleshy Discomycetes in 
which the fruiting body is differentiated into 
a fertile, spore-bearing cap of various shapes 
and a sterile stalk or stipe. The spores are 
produced within specialized cells or asci 
which, in this group, are long, cylindric, taper- 
ing below to a stalk-like base, and opening at 
the apex when mature by means of a little 
lid or operculum through which the spores 
are forcibly discharged. 

Nannfeldt (1937) has suggested that the 
family is an artificial one in the sense that 
the various genera included in it do not ap- 
pear to represent a single evolutionary line 
of development. It is as if the various lines 
of development in the Discomycetes were 
represented by vertical lines and this family 
were constituted by drawing a horizontal line 
across them, thus representing a level of 
development rather than a line of develop- 
ment. However, the species of the operculate 
Discomycetes are so little known and their 
relationships so poorly understood, that this 
is the most practicable basis of classification 
at our present stage of knowledge. 



In the Discomycetes the asci are borne in a 
definitely organized layer perpendicular to 
the surface. This fruiting layer or hymenium 
is not enclosed by other tissue but is exposed 
to the air. The genera of the Helvellaceae 
are based principally on the form of the hy- 
menium. Six genera are usually recognized 
as occurring in North America and, of these, 
representatives of four have been collected 
in the Ottawa District. These studies have 
been based on the specimens preserved in the 
herbarium of the Division of Botany and Plant 
Pathology, Science Service, Ottawa, and, when- 
ever possible, on fresh material. 

MORCHELLA 

The most important genus in the family is 
Morchella which includes the morels. In 
this genus the cap is usually more or less 
cone-shaped or rounded and the surface is 
pitted in a manner suggesting a sponge. The 
interior of the pits is lined with the hy- 
menium but the edges are sterile. These 
fungi are well known to most amateur col- 
lectors and are eagerly sought as food since 
they have, perhaps, the finest flavour of all 



KEY TO THE GENERA 

Surface of cap pitted 2 

Surface of cap even, wrinkled, or ridged but not pitted 3 

Fruit body with a stem and fertile cap Morchella 

Fruit body lacking a stem and fertile to the base Daleomyces 

Fruit body columnar, furrowed Underwoodia 

Fruit body with distinct cap wider than the stem 4 

Cap bell-shaped, attached to the stem only at the apex Verpa 

Cap saddle-shaped to conical or irregular 5 

Surface of the cap irregularly contorted and convoluted, colours of the cap 

in shades of reddish-brown or yellowish-brown Gyromitra 

Surface of cap smooth to slightly uneven, colours of the cap 

in shades of gray or cream colour to black Helvella 

edible fungi. They are easily recognized 
although care must be taken not to confuse 
them with the poisonous Gyromitra esculenta 
which has a convoluted rather than pitted 
cap. The fruiting period of the morels in the 



1 Contribution No. 1170 from the Division of Botany and 
Plant Pathology- Science Service, Department of 
Agriculture, Ottawa. 

2 Received for publication April 22, 1952. 

3 Senior Mycologist, Central Laboratory, Ottawa. 

4 Assistant Technician, Central Laboratory, Ottawa. 



Vol. 67, No. 2, April-June, 1953, was issued June 26, 1953. 
— 95 — 



OCT 5 1953 



96 



The Canadian Field-Naturalist 



[Vol. 67 



Ottawa District is rather brief, extending 
through May to early June. 

Odell (1926) reported five species of Mor- 
chella for the Ottawa District, M. angusti- 
cepts Peck, M. bispora Sor., M. conica Fr., 
M. deliciosa Fr., and M. esculenta Fr., and 
there are a number of specimens in the 
herbarium identified as M. crassipes (Vent.) 
Pers. The fungus Odell called M. bispora 
is now considered to be a species of Verpa 
rather than a Morchella and is discussed in 
that genus under Verpa bohemica. 

M. esculenta Fr. (Fig. 1, 2, 3, 4) is the 
commonest and best known species of the 
genus and is very variable in size and shape. 
As a result of field observations by the 
junior author in the spring of 1949, some 
doubt arose concerning the validity of the 
species concepts of M. deliciosa and M. 
crassipes and subsequent observations in 1950 
and 1951 have confirmed the view that these 
two species are merely developmental stages 
of M. esculenta. 

Overholts (1934) and Seaver (1928) de- 
scribe M. deliciosa as a rather small species 
with the interior of the pits grayish and 
much darker than the edges of the ribs 
which are thick and nearly white. Overholts 
notes that it appears early in the season 
and rarely has spores. M. esculenta was con- 
sidered to differ from M. deliciosa in the 
somewhat larger size of the fruit body with 
the interior of the pits about the same colour 
as the edges and the edges thinner than in 
M. deliciosa. M. crassipes is distinguished 
by the generally larger size, broad, shallow 
pits with the edges of the ribs very thin 
and often torn or lacerated, and the very 
broad stipe which is usually furrowed and 
lacunose. It is considered to be a late sea- 
son species. 

Over a period of three seasons, careful 
observations have been made in the field on 
a number of fruit bodies. Individual sporo- 
phores have been marked in the field and 
visited periodically for about ten days to two 
weeks. In addition, fruit bodies have been col- 
lected and placed in moist sphagnum in moist 
chambers in the laboratory and greenhouse 
and kept under observation until they de- 
cayed. 

It was noted repeatedly that a fruit body 
that is typical of M. deliciosa with grayish pits 
having thick, whitish edges, and usually at 
this stage producing no spores, will, in a 
few days, become typical M. esculenta, and 



some days later will have greatly increased 
in size with the swollen stipe and thin-edged, 
shallow pits typical of M. crassipes. A period 
of dry weather may arrest this development 
at one or the other stage and, if prolonged, 
may cause the fruit body to wither and dry up 
before reaching the final stage, but under 
suitable moisture conditions individual fruit 
bodies go through this complete sequence of a 
development. " 

Overholts (1934) claimed that the spores 
of M. deliciosa were slightly smaller than 
those of M. esculenta, but he only observed 
spores under conditions of withering and 
this might account for the slightly smaller 
size. Furthermore, there is some evidence 
that the spores increase slightly in size with J 
the development of the fruit body. For f 
example, a fruit body at Kingsmere, Que. 
with dark pits and whitish ribs typical of 
M. deliciosa was examined on May 15, 1951, 
and found to have no spores. On May 18 
the spores were well formed although still 
within the ascus, and measured 12-16 x 
7.5-9.0 n. This is almost exactly the size 
given by Overholts (1934) for M. deliciosa. 
On May 22 the same fruit body had the ap- 
pearance of M. esculenta, approaching a 
small M. crassipes, and many free spores 
were present measuring 16-26 x 10-14 [i. An- 
other fruit body at Kingsmere with the ap- 
pearance of M. deliciosa, on May 18, 1951, 
had spores maesuring 13-18.5 x 8-9.5 \i, and 
on May 22 it had taken on the appearance 
of M. esculenta and the spores measured 
21-24 X 11-13 |Li. Another specimen was col- 
lected at Hartwell's Locks, Ottawa, on May 
17, 1951, with the appearance of M. delicio- 
sa. The spores were still in the asci and, 
although clearly delineated, were obviously 
quite immature and measured 10-14 x 6-8 m-- 
The fruit body was placed in moist sphag- 
num in the greenhouse and on May 19 the 
spores were 13.5-17 x 9-11 \i but still im- 
mature. On May 22 they measured 16.5-20 
x 10-12 n and were apparently fully mature, 
but the fruit body had begun to decay and 
could not be observed further. Other fruit 
bodies examined showed the same trend of 
development. It is suggested that the smaller 
spore size reported for M. deliciosa has been 
based on measurements of immature spores. 

Morchella esculenta Fr., therefore, may be 
considered a very variable species with the 
fruit body varying in height from 5-20 cm. 
tall or even taller, and the cap more or less 
ovoid to subglobose, or elongated to conic, 




Fig 1 Cluster of fruit bodies of Morchella esculenta photographed at Kingsmere, Que., May 15. 1952. 
Fig 2 Same cluster photographed May 18. Fig. 3. Same cluster photographed May 22. Fig. 4. Mor- 
chella esculenta. two fruit bodies. Fig. 5. M. angusticeps. Fig. 6. Verpa bohemica, single fruit body. 
Fig 7 V. bohemica, section showing cap attached at apex of stem. Fig. 8. V. conica. single fruit body. 




Fig. 9. Helvella crispa, two fruit bodies. Fig. 10. H. lacunosa, cluster and single fruit body. Fig. 
11. H. elastica, cluster. Fig. 12. Gyromitra esculenta, single fruit body. Fig. 13. G. inlula, single fruit 
body. Fig. 14. G. gigas, single fruit body. 



July-Sept., 1953] 



The Canadian Field-Naturalist 



97 



usually about 2.5-10 cm. long and 1.5-6 cm. 
broad. The ribs are usually irregularly ra- 
ther than longitudinally arranged and anas- 
tomose to form slightly elongated to isodia- 
metric pits, giving rise to a sponge-like ap- 
pearance. The pits are at first grayish with- 
in, with thick paler to nearly white ribs, 
then become more open and yellowish-brown 
with the ribs thinner and concolorous, final- 
ly broad and shallow with the ribs becoming 
very thin and lacerated. The stipe is white 
to cream colour or yellowish, hollow, at first 
cylindric usually about 2.5-10 cm. in length 
and 1-2 cm. in diameter, in age becoming 
more or less compressed and lacunose, and 
greatly thickened, up to 6 cm. in diameter 
at the base, surface glabrous to slightly 
floccose-mealy. The asci are cylindric, eight- 
spored, 225-325 x (15) -18-22- (27) ^i; the asco- 
spores ellipsoid, one-celled appearing hyaline 
under the microscope but yellowish in de- 
posits, (12)-16-22-(26) X (7.5)-ll-13-(14) \i; 
paraphyses filiform with the tips swollen to 
8-12 n. 

It is found in open woods, orchards, and 
grassy places. 

In the light of these observations the fol- 
lowing species illustrated by Boudier (1905- 
10) would appear to be indistinguishable 
from M. esculenta: — M. crassipes Krombh. 
(PI. 194), M. rotunda Pers. (PI. 195), M. ro- 
tunda var. fulva Fr. (PI. 196), M. rigida 
Krombh. (PI. 198), M. ovalis (Wallr.) Sacc. 
(PI. 199), M. spongiola Boud. (PI. 200), M. 
vulgaris Pers. (PI. 202) and var. alba (PI. 
202 bis), and M. rudis Boud. (PI. 203). 

Morchella angusticeps Peck (Fig. 5) is a 
distinctive species about 4.5-10 cm. in height 
with the cap more or less elongated to nar- 
rowly conic, occasionally nearly ovoid, usual- 
ly about 2-6 cm. in length and 1-3 cm. broad 
at the base, with the ribs more or less 
longitudinally arranged and 0.5-1.5 mm. in 
thickness, irregularly anastomosing or con- 
nected with cross ribs; the pits vertically 
elongated, 1-35 mm. long and 1-5 or occasion- 
ally up to 11 mm. wide, yellowish or yellow- 
ish-brown within, becoming smoky brown to 
black at the margins and on the edges of 
the ribs; the stipe is white to yellowish, 
usually about 2-4 cm. long and 1-2 cm. broad, 
hollow, cylindric or sometimes broader be- 
low, often somewhat furrowed at the base, 
the surface strongly floccose-mealy; asci cy- 
lindric, eight-spored, 200-300 x 16-22-(26) \i; 
spores ellipsoid, one-celled, appearing hya- 



line under the microscope but yellowish in 
spore deposits, 18-25-(29) x 11-15 |.i; para- 
physes filiform, the tips clavate and swollen 
up to 6-12 \i. 

It is usually found in open woods or in 
the edges of woods. 

This species can be readily recognized by 
the longitudinally arranged ribs with black 
edges, and by the somewhat scurfy stipe. 

The ^concept of M. conica Fr. appears to be 
somewhat confused. Overholts (1934) sug- 
gested that it was only a form of M. escu- 
lenta and the description by Seaver (1928) 
distinguished it from M. esculenta only by the 
more conic shape of the cap. During the 
summer of 1950 the senior author had the 
opportunity of examining the collections of 
morels at Kew, the British Museum, and in 
the Persoon Herbarium at Leiden. In these 
collections it is apparent that no clear-cut 
concept of the species existed among Euro- 
pean collectors. Some of the specimens were 
simply more or less conic forms of M. escu- 
lenta and some were apparently identical 
with M. angusticeps, but a good many were 
collections consisting of a rather small fruit 
body with a narrow, conic cap and rather 
definitely longitudinal ribs, and the dried 
specimens were grayish in colour. 

In the herbarium of the Division of Botany 
and Plant Pathology there is a collection. 
No. 4535 from Burnet, Que., consisting of 
five fruit bodies agreeing closely with the 
European specimens referred to above, but 
the specimens identified by Odell as M. co- 
nica are clearly the same as M. angusticeps. 
The fungus figured by Boudier (1905-10) as 
M. conica is apparently indistinguishable from 
M. angusticeps, although the spores are shown 
as slightly larger. 

The elongated, narrow cap and longitudinal 
ribs of these small specimens in No. 4535 
suggested that they might be immature speci- 
mens of M. angusticeps which, on further 
development, would become more brown 
than gray and develop the black edges of the 
ribs. Insufficient immature material of M. 
angusticeps has been studied to justify any 
definite conclusions, but on one occasion two 
small, conical fruit bodies with the edges of 
the ribs grayish were collected and put in 
a moist chamber and in a few days the edges 
of the ribs had turned dark and the fungus 
took on the appearance of M. angusticeps. 
We are, therefore, of the opinion that these 



98 



The Canadian Field-Naturalist 



[Vol. 67 



small, grayish fruit bodies may prove, on 
further study, to be immature stages of M. 
angusticeps. 

This view is supported by Boudier's plates 
210 (M. intermedia Boud.) and 212 (M. cos- 
tata Vent.), both of which appear to be in- 
distinguishable from M. angusticeps, and in 
both of which he has illustrated, in addition 
to typical mature fruit bodies, some im- 
mature fruit bodies lacking the dark edges 
to the ribs. The following species illustrated 
by Boudier (1905-10) all appear to be the 
same: — M. conica Pers. (PI. 205), M. angus- 
ticeps Peck (PI. 206), M. distans Fr. (PI. 
207), M. eximia Boud. (PL 208), M. inter- 
media Boud. (PI. 210), M. intermedia var. 
acuta Boud. (PI. 211), M. costata Vent. (PI. 
212), and M. elata Fr. (PI. 213). 

Until the types of these species have been 
studied it is impossible to be certain whether 
they are all actually synonyms, or what the 
correct name of the fungus we are calling 
M. angusticeps should be. If this synonymy 
proves correct the fungus should be called 
M. elata Fr. since this name was published 
by Fries (1822) with specific rank, whereas 
conica was only given varietal rank under 
M. esculenta. In the meantime we are not 
recognizing M. conica as a distinct species 
but are Teferring all these specimens to M. 
angusticeps Peck. 

Another species, M. semilibera (DC.) Fr., 
has been found in New York and Pennsyl- 
vania and should occur here but, so far, 
there is no record of its. It is distinguished 
by its small size, longitudinally arranged 
ribs, and the cap only attached about half 
way down the stem leaving the lower margin 
free. This species is somewhat intermediate 
between the genera Morchella and Verpa. 

VERPA 

The genus Verpa is characterized by having 
a bell-shaped cap which is attached only to 
the upper end of the stalk and hangs down 
around it with the lower margin free (Fig. 
7). The cap is not deeply pitted like a morel 
although it may be very uneven and pro- 
minently ridged. Only two species are known 
in North America and both have been col- 
lected in the Ottawa District. 

Verpa bohemica (Krombh.) Schrot. (Fig. 6, 
7,) is remarkable in that the asci are two- 
spored, whereas in all the other species of 



5 Since the manuscript was submitted, M. semilibera 
has been collected by the junior author at South 
March, Ont. 



this family they are eight-spored. The cap 
is ridged, approaching the genus Morchella 
in gross appearance. It was formerly known 
as Morchella bispora Sor. and, under this 
name, it was reported and well illustrated 
by Odell (1920). 

The fruit bodies are variable in size, mostly 
5-15 cm. tall. The cap is more or less bell- 
shaped, about 1.5-4 cm. long and 1-3 cm. in 
diameter, yellowish-brown to reddish-brown, 
with the surface usually prominently ridged 
and reticulated. The stipe is whitish to yel- 
lowish, glabrous to somewhat floccose, 
especially toward the base, stuffed, soon be- 
coming hollow, cylindric or somewhat com- 
pressed, 3-12 cm. long and 0.5-3 cm. thick. 
The asci are cylindric, two-spored, about 
200-325 X 18-24-(27) (i; ascospores ellipsoid, 
one-celled hyaline to yellowish, yellowish in 
deposits, (45)-50-75-(84) x 15-22 m,; para- 
physes filiform, swollen at the tip to 6-8 m- 

It is found during May in open woods. 

Verpa conica (Miill.) Swartz (Fig. 8) can 
be distinguished by the smaller size, smoother 
cap, and eight-spored asci. The fruit bodies 
are about 5-10 cm. tall. The cap is bell- 
shaped, about 1-2 cm. long and about the 
same in diameter, olive brown to dark brown, 
the surface smooth or slightly reticulated. 
The stipe is whitish to cream colored, slight- 
ly floccose or scaly, hollow or very loosely 
stuffed, cylindric, about 4-8 cm. long and 
0.5-1.0 cm. in diameter. The asci are cy- 
lindric, eight-spored, 250-350 x 15-23 |li; asco- 
spores ellipsoid, one-celled, hyaline to yel- 
lowish in deposits, 19-24-(26) x (10.5)-12-14- 
(16) iLi; paraphyses filiform, swollen at the 
tips up to 9-12 M-. 

It is found in May in open woods. 

V. conica can be readily distinguished by 
its generally smaller stature, smaller cap 
with a smooth surface and olive tinge in the 
colour. Microscopically it can be recognized 
at once by its eight-spored asci and the spores 
which are much smaller than those of V. 
hohemica. 

GYROMITRA 

The type species of the genus Gyromitra 
is G. esculenta (Pers. ex Fr.) Fr. which was 
originally described as Helvella esculenta 
Pers. ex. Fr. and was separated later from 
the genus Helvella principally on the basis 
of the irregularly shaped, much convoluted 
cap. Kanouse (1948), Smith (1949), and other 
authors have noted the close relationship 
between G. esculenta and Helvella infula 



July-Sept., 1953] 



The Canadian Fiei-d-Naturalist 



99 



Schaeff. ex Fr. and have argued that the 
convoluted cap was not a difference worthy 
of generic rank, and that it should be re- 
tained in Helvella. Seaver (1920, 1928, 1942) 
has maintained that G. esculenta and H. infula 
were not even specifically distinct but that 
G. esculenta was merely a gyrose form of 
H. infula. 

Nannfeldt (1932, 1937), on the other hand, 
has studied a number of species of this group 
and discussed their relationships, and he was 
of the opinion that G. esculenta and a group 
of related species, including Helvella infula, 
formed a natural unit and were not closely 
related to H. crispa Scop, ex Fr. and allied 
forms. As a result of our observations we 
would agree with this viewpoint and have 
decided, therefore, to retain Gyromitra. As 
treated here, the genus includes three spe- 
cies found in the Ottawa District, G. escu- 
lenta (Pers. ex Fr.) Fr., G. infula (Schaeff. 
ex Fr.) Quel., and G. gigas (Krombh.) Cke. 

Gyromitra esculenta (Fig. 12), sometimes 
called the False Morel, is the best known 
species. The fruiting bodies are mostly about 
5-12 cm. tall. The caps are very variable in 
size and shape, irregularly subglobose or 
rarely conic, to transversely elongated, usual- 
ly more or less lobed, sometimes depressed 
on top but not distinctly saddle-shaped, most- 
ly 3-8 cm. broad and 2-6 cm. high, the surface 
irregularly wrinkled and convoluted but not 
pitted, yellowish to yellowish-brown, or light 
to dark reddish-brown, the margin partly free 
but attached to the stem at various points. 
The stipe is whitish to pale flesh-coloured, 
sometimes tinged with grayish-lavender, 
especially toward the base, glabrous to 
slightly floccose, stuffed becoming hollow, 
cylindric to somewhat compressed, sometimes 
wrinkled or furrowed, usually about 2-5 cm. 
long and 1-2.5 cm. in diameter. The asci are 
cylindric, eight-spored, 225-325 x 15-18 \.i; 
ascospores (Fig. 15, A) ellipsoid, one-celled, 
hyaline under the microscope, (17)-20-28 x 
11-16- (17) jj,; paraphyses filiform, swollen 
at the tips to 6-9 \i. 

This species is to be found in May or June, 
growing on the ground in the woods, usually 
associated with conifers. 

Contradictory opinions concerning the 
edibility of this fungus are to be found in 
the literature. Undoubtedly many people 
regularly eat it and suffer no ill effects. 
Giissow and Odell (1927) stated categorical- 
ly that it is edible and that they had both 




^ ,, 



<z> 



Fig. 15. Drawings of spores of Gyromitra spp. 
A. G. esculenta, B. G. infula, C. G. gigos. 

eaten it. Nevertheless there are undoubtedly 
authentic cases of severe poisoning and even 
deaths resulting from the use of this species 
as food, even, in some cases, with people who 
had habitually eaten it for years. There is 
some evidence that the poisonous principle 
may be produced in ageing, aged or over- 
mature fruit bodies. In the light of the 
evidence available we are of the opinion that 
this is an exceedingly dangerous fungus and 
should on no acount be used as food. 

Gyromitra infula (Fig. 13) can, in our 

opinion, be readily distinguished from G. 
esculenta. The fruiting bodies are about 3- 
10-(15) cm. tall. The cap is typically saddle- 
shaped, sometimes irregular, mostly 3-8 cm. 
broad and 2-7 cm. high, the surface usual- 
ly smooth, sometimes becoming slightly 
wrinkled to convoluted, usually some shade 
of tan or brownish-cinnamon, the margin in- 
curved and partly free. The stipe is tinged 
the colour of the cap, usually paler to 
whitish, the surface finely floccose, hollow, 
cylindric to compressed, even or with irregu- 
lar folds, 2-6 cm. long and 0.5-1.5 cm. in 
diameter. The asci are cylindric, eight- 
spored, 225-300 X 10-14 ^; the ascospores 
(Fig. 15, B) ellipsoid, one-celled, hyaline un- 
der the microscope, 16-18-(21) x 7-9 |li; para- 
physes filiform, enlarged at the apex to 
7-9 H. 

This species is to be found in September 
and October growing in the woods, on or in 
close association with rotting wood. 



100 



The Canadian Field-Naturalist 



[Vol. 67 



The close relationship between G. escu- 
lenta and G. infula has been recognized by 
all students of the group. As noted above, 
Seaver (1920, 1928) expressed the view that 
they were merely forms of the same fungus 
and placed the names in synonymy. Later 
(1942) he published some correspondence in 
which this view was disputed but he main- 
tained his opinion that they were the same. 

It is of interest to note that in the Persoon 
Herbarium at Leiden there is a specimen. 
No. 910.261.996, labelled Helvella infula 
Schaeff., which had evidently been sent to 
Persoon by Mougeot and bears the following 
note "Morille d'automne. Elle croit dans 
les bois de sapin sur les emplacements de 
fours a charbon. Notre Helvella esculenta 
est un champignon du printemps tandis que 
celui-ci croit en automne": This difference 
in the time of fruiting of the two species has 
been noted by many other mycologists. 

In the correspondence published by Seaver 
(1942) this point was emphasized by G. S. 
Bell, but although Seaver agreed that this 
was a good point, he admitted that he had 
not checked carefully on the time of oc- 
currence of the species, referring to G. escu- 
lenta. The senior author has collected both 
of these species a number of times in differ- 
ent localities over a number of years and 
this difference in fruiting period has been 
consistently observed. In one locality at 
Merivale, southwest of Ottawa, G. esculenta 
has been collected regularly each spring for 
several years, but no trace of G. infula has 
been found there in the fall although it was 
searched for. 

Kanouse (1948) has summarized the evi- 
dence for considering these two fungi to be 
distinct species. G. esculenta grows in the 
spring on the ground, whereas G. infula 
grows in the summer and fall, either on or 
closely associated with rotten wood. G. 
esculenta is associated with conifers whereas 
G. infula is associated with deciduous trees. 
G. esculenta is a larger and stouter plant 
with a very irregular, gyrose cap and stouter 
stipe, whereas G. infula is more slender in 
stature and has a generally even, saddle- 
shaped cap. The colours of G. esculenta tend 
toward shades of reddish-brown whereas 
those of G. infula are shades of tan. With 
all of these points we are in complete agree- 
ment except that we do not feel in a position 
to verify the invariable association of G. 
infula with deciduous trees, although we 
think this may be true. 



The most important point brought out by 
Kanouse, however, is that there is a pro- 
nounced difference in spore size. She ex- 
amined a wide range of specimens and 
found that the spores of G. esculenta were 
24-28 X 12-16 II, whereas those of G. infula 
were 16-18 x 7-8 ix. The junior author has 
made a careful study of all the material in 
the herbarium of the Division of Botany and 
Plant Pathology, comprising 23 specimens of 
G. esculenta from Ontario, Quebec, Labra- 
dor, Manitoba, British Columbia, Idaho, and 
Michigan, and 12 specimens of G. infula from 
Ontario, Quebec, British Columbia, and Mi- 
chigan. She is in complete agreement with 
Kanouse that these two species can be re- 
cognized on the basis of spore size. The 
ascospores of G. esculenta are mostly 20-28 
X 11-16 M- (Fig. 15, A) and those of G. infula 
are 16-18 x 7-9 m- (Fig. 15, B). There may 
be a slight overlap in the length, especially 
if slightly immature spores of G. esculenta 
are measured, but the width is a clear-cut 
diagnostic character. The plates of Boudier 
(1905-10) also show this difference in spore 
size. 

Seaver (1928) gave the spore size of G. 
infula as 18-24 x 8-12 \i, including G. esculen- 
ta in his species concept. This is an in- 
explicable dimension that does not apply to 
either species. It might possibly have been 
obtained by taking the average of a series of 
measurements of both species but, if so, it is 
an illustration of the danger of applying a 
mathematical concept, such as the average, 
to biological material and thereby obtaining 
a figure which is not applicable to either 
form. 

Gyromitra gigas (Krombh.) Cke. (Fig. 14) 
appears to be rare and has not been seen 
by either of us in fresh conditions, but there 
are two specimens in the herbarium col- 
lected by Odell near Graham Bay, Ont. This 
is a rather large massive species reaching 
at least 15 cm. in height. The cap is very 
irregular in shape with the surface folded 
and convoluted, about 4-12 cm. broad and 
4-7 cm. high, smoky brown to reddish- 
brown, often cracked when dry. The stipe is 
3-7 cm. long and 3-5 cm. broad at the base, 
becoming wider above, irregularly folded 
and lacunose, whitish to cream colour or 
tan, hollow. The asci are cylindric, eight- 
spored, 315-390 x 14-19 \x; ascospores (Fig. 



6 Since the manuscript was submitted, G. gigas has 
been collected by the senior author at Bells Comers, 
Ont., and by the junior author at Kingsmere, Que. 



July-Sept., 1953] 



The Canadian Field-Naturalist 



101 



15, C) ellipsoid to subfusoid with an apiculus 
at each end, one-celled, smooth, hyaline, 
(27)-30-39 X 12-14-(15) n; paraphyses fili- 
form, swollen at the tips to 6-9 n. 

It is found in spring and early summer on 
the ground under conifers. 

Apparently two species occur in North 
America that are very similar in appearance, 
G. gigas and G. caroliniana (Bosc) Fr. The 
latter differs in having spores with a rough 
or sculptured wall. Seaver (1928) did not 
distinguish between these two. He treated 
G. gigas as a synonym of G. caroliniana and 
described the spores as rough. Kanouse 
(1948) pointed out this error and described 
the spores of both species. In the Ottawa 
collections the spores are smooth and we 
have no Canadian record of G. caroliniana, 
although it should occur here. 

Nannfeldt (1932) has pointed out that the 
apiculate spores of G. gigas are quite unlike 
those of other Gyromitra species and sug- 
gest a close relationship to the genus Discina 
in which the apothecia are not stipitate, and 
usually considered to belong in the Peziza- 
ceae. This relationship seems very probable 
and an improved classification of this group 
will probably remove G. gigas from Gyromi- 
tra and place it near Discina. The genus 
Neogyromitra Imai is available for those who 
prefer to remove G. gigas and G. caroliniana 
from Gyromitra. 

Helvella sphaerospora Peck, which pro- 
bably also belongs in the Gyromitra group, 
was reported by Odell (1926) but apparently 
no specimens were preserved. There is no 
material of this species in the herbarium 
and neither of us has seen it. 

HELVELLA 

The genus Helvella is characterized by the 
more or less saddle-shaped, smooth cap with 
the colour varying from whitish to gray to 
nearly black, although H. elastica may be 
somewhat brownish. In general, Helvella 
species are plants of a more slender stature 
than the Gyromitras. The genus is divided 
into two sections, depending on the stem 
characters. In one section, including Hel- 
vella crispa and H. lacunosa, the stem is ir- 
regular and deeply fluted, whereas in the 
other section, including H. elastica, the stem 
is cylindric and smooth. The three species 
above are the only ones reported from the 
Ottawa District so far. 



Helvella crispa (Scop.) Fr. (Fig. 9) is con- 
sidered to be the type of the genus and is 
the commonest species in this district. The 
fruiting bodies are about 3-8 cm. tall. The 
cap is saddle-shaped, irregularly lobed, re- 
flexed, with the margin free from the stipe, 
whitish to cream coloured, or buff to pale 
yellowish in age, about 1.5-6 cm. broad, 
smooth or sometimes slightly convoluted. 
The stipe is white or coloured like the cap, 
about 2-6 cm. long and 0.5-2.0 cm. in dia- 
meter, very uneven and deeply fluted with 
longitudinal furrows. The asci are cylindric, 
eight-spored, 225-300 x 14-18 \i; ascospores 
ellipsoid, one-celled, hyaline, (16)-18-20-(22.5) 
x 10.0-13.0 iii; paraphyses filiform, swollen 
at the tips to 6-8 \i. 

It is found on the ground in damp woods 
from August to October. 

Helvella lacunosa Afz. ex Fr. (Fig. 10) is 
distinguished from H. crispa principally by 
the dark colour of the hymenium. It is simi- 
lar in shape and stature to H. crispa but 
the cap is smoky gray to nearly black. The 
stem is also deeply fluted, usually paler 
than the cap, but becoming smoky gray. The 
asci and spores are very similar to those of 
H. crispa. 

Helvella elastica Bull. ex. Fr. (Fig. 11) is 
easily recognized by the smooth, cylindric 
stem. The fruiting bodies are 2-10 cm. tall. 
The cap is irregularly 2- to 3-lobed, usually 
more or less saddle-shaped, smooth or slight- 
ly convoluted, smoky gray, sometimes yellow- 
ish to smoky brown or nearly black, 1-3.5 
cm. broad, the margin free. The stipe is 
slender, cylindrical or slightly compressed, 
not fluted, white to yellowish or smoky, paler 
than the cap, 3-10 cm. long, 0.3-1.0 cm. in 
diameter, hollow. The asci and spores in 
these three species are all very similar. 

Helvella klotzschiana Corda apparently dif- 
fers from H. elastica only in the size of the 
stem, which is said to be 1.5 cm. long and 3-4 
mm. wide. There are some specimens in the 
herbarium that could be placed in this spe- 
cies, but all the species of this group are well 
known to vary considerably in size and 
shape, and an unusually short stem does not 
seem to be a character of sufficient im- 
portance to justify recognition of a distinct 
species. More field studies of these small 
forms are required to see whether or not 
they do develop further under favourable 
conditions. 



102 



The Canadian Field-Naturalist 



[Vol. 67 



Helvella atra Oed. ex Fr. is distinguished 
from H. elastica by the whole plant, in- 
cluding cap and stem, being smoky black in 
colour. Otherwise it is very similar to H. 
elastica and may be only a colour form. It 
has not been reported from the Ottawa Dis- 
trict but should occur here since there is a 
specimen in the herbarium from Petawawa. 

DALEOMYCES AND UNDERWOODIA 

The two remaining genera, Daleomyces and 
Underwoodia, have only one species in each. 
They are very rare fungi and seldom col- 
lected. Neither of them has yet been found 
in the Ottawa District although they are 
known from New York and Michigan and 
might be expected to occur here. 

Daleomyces phillipsii (Massee) Seav. has 
been called the cabbage-head fungus. The 
fruiting bodies are large, 20-25 cm. in dia- 
meter, with numerous, irregular, branching 
ribs, forming irregular cavities, lined every- 
where with the hymenium which is whitish 
to rosy or pale violaceous. It is well il- 
lustrated by Seaver in Mycologia 25: pi. 24. 
1933. 

Underwoodia columnaris Peck is a peculiar 
form with columnar fruiting bodies which 
are deeply fluted, resembling the stem of 
H. crispa but with the whole surface covered 
by the hymenium. It has only rarely been 
collected. 

CULTURAL STUDIES 

Some years ago the senior author, in col- 
laboration with Dr. F. L. Drayton, undertook 
the study of several species of this family in 
culture with the aim of studying the sexual 
behaviour and trying to obtain fruiting bo- 
dies in culture. The species cultured were 
Morchella angtisticeps, M. esculenta, (in- 
cluding what was considered at that time to 
be M. deliciosa and M. crassipes), Verpa bo- 
hemica, and Gyromitra esculenta. G. infula 
was later cultured by the junior author. 

All of the isoltes were very similar in 
appearance in culture. The spores germinated 
readily arid produced a rather coarse, red- 
dish-brown, rapidly-grov/ing mycelium which 
sometimes became aggregated into sclero- 
tium-like masses, but no sexual structures 
were observed. 

The cultures were grown on various media 
and combinations of media, such as wheat, 
bran, cornmeal, apple pommace, filter paper, 



sawdust, and soil, but all attempts to induce 
fruiting were unsuccessful. 

The cultural characters of the species 
studied appeared to be of little value in dis- 
tinguishing between species and the great 
similarity would suggest that these species 
were fairly closely related. 

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS 

The photographs reproduced in Figs. 4, 5, 
9, and 11-14 are from the files of the Division 
of Botany and Plant Pathology, Science Ser- 
vice, and Fig. 10 is reproduced by courtesy 
of the National Museum of Canada. Every 
facility was extended to the senior author 
for examining the specimens in the herbaria 
at Kew, British Museum, Uppsala, Leiden, 
and Paris. 

LITERATURE CITED 

Boudier, E. Icones mycologicae. Vol. 2, pis. 
194-421. Paris. 1905-1910. 

Fries, E. M., Systema mycologicum. Vol 2. 
Lundae, 1822. 

Giissow, H. T., and Odell, W. S. Mushrooms 
and toadstools. Ottawa, 1927. 

Kanouse, Bessie B. Some studies in the genus 
Helvella. Pap. Mich. Acad. Sci., Arts and 
Letters 32: 83-90. 1948. 

Nannfeldt, J. A. Bleka Stenmurklan, Gyro- 
mitra gigas (Krombh.) Cke. Friesia 1: 
34-45. 1932. 

Contributions to the mycoflora of 

Sweden. 4. On some species of Helvella, 
together with a discussion of the natural 
affinities within Helvellaceae and Peziza- 
ceae trib. Acetabuleae. Svensk. Bot. Tidskr. 
31: 47-66. 1937. 

Odell, W. S. A rare fungus new to Canada. 
The Canadian Field-Naturalist 34: 10-13. 
1920. 

List of mushrooms and other fleshy 

fungi of the Ottawa District. Victoria 
Mem. Mus. Bull. No. 43. Ottawa. 1926. 

Overholts, L. 0. The morels of Pennsylvania. 
Proc. Penn. Acad. Sci. 8: 108-114. 1934. 

Seaver, F. J. Photographs and descriptions of 
cup-fungi VIII. Elvella infula and Gyro- 
mitra esculenta. Mycologia 12: 1 - 5. 1920. 

North American cup-fungi. (Opercu- 

lates). New York. 1928. 

-The North American cup-fungi. 



(Operculates). Supplement. New York. 
1942. 
Smith, A. H. Mushrooms in their natural 
habitats. Portland, Oregon. 1949. 



July-Sept., 1953] 



The Canadian Field-Naturalist 



103 



BIRDS OF THE SAINT ELIAS QUADRANGLE 
IN THE SOUTHWESTERN YUKON TERRITORY ' 

William H. Drury, Jr. 
Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass. 



THE NOTES for this material were col- 
lected in the summer of 1948, from June 
1 to September 9, spent in the Yukon Terri- 
tory in the area of the Alaska Highway be- 
tween Whitehorse and the Alaska boundary. 
June was spent in the Shakwak valley be- 
tween Champagne and Bear creek; July 
and August were spent in the vicinity of 
Kluane lake and in the mountains north of 
that lake. The author was botanical assist- 
ant to Dr. Hugh M. Raup, one of the leaders 
of the party which was locating a late Pleis- 
tocene stone culture in area and time. The 
trip was primarily a botanical and archeo- 
logical reconnaissance, and birds were studied 
only as opportunities appeared. 

The author is grateful to Dr. Raup for ex- 
tensive help with the botanical material and 
to Messrs. James L. Peters and Ludlow Gris- 
com of the Museum of Comparative Zoology 
at Cambridge, Massachusetts, for help in the 
preparation of this paper. I would also like 
to thank W. Earl Godfrey of the National 
Museum of Canada for very careful and 
constructive criticisms of the manuscript. 

The area lies within the boundaries of 
the circumboreal needle-leaved forest, but it 
is modified under this broad heading by its 
geographical position. It lies within the rain 
shadow of the Saint Elias range and for this 
reason has a rainfall of only about ten 
inches. It is at the southeastern limit of the 
great interior unglaciated area of Alaska 
and near the northern end of the Rocky 
Mountain chain as well as being a northwest 
limit of prairie vegetation of the Great Plains 
types. This position gives the area a very 

' varied plant life that shows the following 
influences: 1) the flora of circumboreal 
northern forests; 2) the flora of the Great 
Plains; 3) the varied flora of the unglaciated 
Alaskan "Refugia", and 4) the vegetation of 
"Refugia" in the northern Rocky Mountains. 
For a further discussion of this see H. M. 

I Raup (1946). 

The high latitude of the area makes tree- 
line exist at a relatively low level. As a re- 
sult there are considerable areas classified 



1 Received for publication March 8, 1951. 



as tundra. It is this high latitude, and 
therefore cold climate, that preserves the 
effectiveness of the low rainfall through low 
evaporation rates, and permits the existence 
of forests. 

The higher altitudes represent Arctic- 
Alpine life zones, while the forests of most 
of the valleys are either Hudsonian or Can- 
adian. Hudsonian Zone is much more wide- 
spread, but the presence of ruffed grouse, 
white birch, aspen and so on indicates that 
there are Canadian elements. 

When A. L. Rand published his "List of 
Yukon Birds and those of the Canol Road" 
(1946), his was essentially the first com- 
prehensive list of birds of the Yukon. Previ- 
ous to the building of the Alcan Highway, 
this had been a very remote region indeed, 
but since that time a number of ornitho- 
logists have been through the area covered 
in this paper, viz: Stuart Harris, C. H. D. 
Clarke, and T. M. Shortt. Reports of their 
observations are not available. For a very 
complete list of the activities of all those 
who have contributed to a list of Yukon 
birds see Rand's 1946 publication. Before 
his paper, visits to this southwestern Yukon 
area had followed water courses, the 
standard lanes of old-time communication, 
and nearly all the data are scattered com- 
ments by untrained observers. There were, 
however, L. B. Bishop's report of a U.S. 
Biological Survey trip down the Yukon in 
1899, Elliott Blackwelder's report of a trip 
from Whitehorse down the Yukon in 1915, 
and H. S. Swarth's report on a series of 
trips to the Atlin lake area (southeast of 
this) from 1924-1934. 

Anyone, who has had the opportunity of 
travelling in the north by waterways and 
cross-country, will realize how one-sided a 
picture of the bird-life as well as vegetation is 
given by travel by water. Mile on mile is 
travelled through tall forests of white spruce, 
birch and poplar, and you never see the 
sloughs, flats, black spruce muskegs, varieties 
of hillside and plateau forests and solifluction 
slopes except in glimpses here and there. 
The overall picture from river travel is an 
inaccurate idea of healthy, uniform forest. 



104 



The Canadian Field-Naturalist 



[Vol. 67 




Map of Northwestern North America. 
The area where the studies were made is outlined near the centre of this map. 



Rand gives a good summary by regions of 
the most conspicuous birds in the Yukon 
Territory, quoted below, but it seems he has 
rather overemphasized the scarcity of birds. 
Bird populations are low and are variable 
within the area depending on a series of in- 
tangible factors. Either a short visit or a 
three-months' stay, however, leaves you with 
a vivid impression that this forest and its 
bird life are similar to those you find in 
northern Maine, New Hampshire, Quebec, 
and New Brunswick. Anyone brought up 
near northern New England feels he has 
travelled 4,000 miles to the Yukon and found 
the same thing he could by travelling 400 at 
home. 

The following quotation is from Rand 
(1946): 



"On the Arctic coast in summer are such birds 
as arctic and red-throated loons, whistling swans, 
old-squaw, common rough-legged hawk, willow and 
rock ptarmigans, little brown crane, golden plover, 
semipalmated and Baird sandpiper, long-tailed 
jaeger, glaucous gull, arctic tern, snowy owl, 
horned lark, pipit, common redpoll, savanna spar- 
row, Lapland longspur, and snow bunting. 

Some of these, such as the ptarmigan, pipit, and 
horned lark, follow the tundra south on the moun- 
tain tops, where in addition a few alpine birds 
occur, such as white-tailed ptarmigan, wandering 
tatler, and rosy finch. 

At timberline along the Canol Road occur such 
species as willow ptarmigan, boreal shrike, tree 
sparrow, and golden- crowned sparrow. 

The forests along the Canol Road were charac- 
terized by such birds as the following, being at 
least fairly common and widespread: goshawk, 
spruce grouse, horned owl, hawk owl, ladder-backed 
woodpecker, olive-sided flycatcher, brown-headed 
chickadee, Swainson thrush, ruby-crowned kinglet, 
Bohemian waxwing, myrtle warbler, and junco. 



July-Sept., 1953] 



The Canadian Field-Naturalist 



105 




Map o* the southwest corner of the Saint Elios quadrangle. 
The map shows the Alaska Highway, the Heine's Road, and localities mentioned in the paper. 



For the most part along the Canol Road bird 
Ufe was scarce in regard to both species and indi- 
viduals. This, too, was the experience of Bishop 
(1900, p. 49) who wrote '....The Yukon Valley 
seems wanting in bird Ufe — not the center of 
abundance of its avifauna, but rather a deposit for 
the overflow from more favoured regions. There 
are exceptions to this rule, notably wandering flocks 
of crossbills, the colonies of bank swallows of 
Fiftymile and Thirtymile rivers and the Yukon 
proper, the spotted sandpipers that continually 
flitted across our bow, the intermediate ( = white- 
crowned) sparrows and juncos that seldom failed 
to greet us as we stepped ashore, and the Alma 
( = Swainson) thrushes whose songs sounded all 
night wherever we happened to camp. Bird life is 
fairly abundant, too, in certain favoured places 
such as Log Cabin, Caribou Crossing, the swampy 



shores of Lake Marsh, and the ponds and level 
country at the lower end of Lake Laberge .... 
In the entire Upp>er Yukon Valley breeding colonies 
of shore and water birds were conspicuously absent.' 

On the Canol Road, too, there were occasional 
exceptions to this scarcity, as about the marshy 
lakes in the Pelly River Valley where in the willow 
and alder thickets were many yellow and orange- 
crowned warblers, fox and white-crowned sparrows, 
and alder flycatchers, nearby lesser yellow-legs, 
short-billed and Bonaparte gulls, and rusty black- 
birds were common, and on the marshy lakes were 
many horned grebes, mallard, green-winged teal, 
pintail, baldpate, shoveller, and lesser scaup." 

It seems there may be at least two explana- 
toins for these impressions: 1) If you travel 
the rivers in middle June when the birds 



106 



The Canadian Field-Naturalist 



[Vol. 67 



are singing you get the impression of many 
birds around, but after the first of July, they 
suddenly become quite silent and you can 
drift for miles with few signs of bird life 
where two weeks before there were birds 
every fifty or hundred yards. 2) The con- 
struction of highways follows the solid base 
of the uplands and in general the white 
spruce forest rather than marshy areas. It 
has been the author's impression too, that 
birds are much less common right next to 
the highways than they are farther into the 
forest. The spruce forest is the most sparse- 
ly populated of the vegetation types as far 
as birds are concerned and routes of travel 
seem to follow this vegetation type. A 
student of vegetation ranging across all the 
types he can find and struggling through 
swamps and flats and pond margins, finds 
quite a different sample of the bird life. 
Perhaps in its own way it is less typical, 
but this is a subjective impression and de- 
pends on what percentage of the area you 
consider to be vegetated by white spruce 
forest. This does not mean that the birds 
are abundant, but that their populations 
seemed to be similar to those of the rest of 
the boreal forest. 

Description of the area 
A pre-glacial valley runs along the north- 
ern flank of the Saint Elias mountain range 
through what is now the Dezadeash, Shak- 
wak and Kluane valleys. It is blocked by an 
esker at Champagne and by till between Bear 
creek and Kluane village. The present topo- 
graphy in this ancient valley is controlled by: 
1) the glacial deposits, now modified by long 
periods of frost action; 2) the presence of 
post-glacial lakes; and 3) deposition of wind- 
blown silts. This deposition of silt is con- 
tinuing today and there are living Indians 
whose parents built a cache on the shore of 
a lake that once covered part of the Dominion 
Experimental Substation at Pine creek. The 
pre-glacial valley now exists as a rounded, 
shallow valley floor 10-15 miles across, occu- 
pied on the northwest end by Kluane lake in 
the southeast by the prairies, aspen groves, 
and spruce forests on the ancient lake beds 
of the Dezadeash valley. 

On the southwest shore of Kluane lake the 
forest extends 3-4 miles from the beach to 
tree-line, and on the northeast shore the 
spruce extends many miles up the valleys of 
the creeks that empty into the lake on that 
side. The lake is at an altitude of 2500 feet 
and tree-line is at about 3500-4500 feet. 



The present creeks and rivers have high 
terraces lining their courses, indicating the 
former extent of their channels. On the 
margins of the terraces in the main valley are 
areas of prairie vegetation. In the Shakwak 
valley, between Pine lake and Bear creek, 
where the Haines Cut-off leaves the Alaska 
Highway, there are a number of natural 
prairie openings. These are in the lower part 
of the valley floor, below the level of the lake 
which covered most of the Dominion Experi- 
mental Substation. It would seem that these 
openings, and the aspen groves that are 
advancing into them, occupy the youngest 
land surfaces covered by fine-grained, silt 
soils. On the equally young, coarse gravels 
of the abandoned channels of glacial streams, 
a poplar-spruce-willow vegetation appears. 

The next older land surface higher than 
the above lake shore is occupied by an open 
park-like forest of Porsild's white spruce 
(Picea glauca var. Porsildii). This seems to 
occupy the margins of the main stand of 
spruce which is Alberta white spruce (Picea 
glauca var. albertiana). These two types of 
forest: the dry open forest of Porsild's 
spruce and the more familiar dense and 
moss-floored forest of Alberta spruce cover 
the main floor of the valley. Porsild's spruce 
occupies the younger areas and seems to be 
a pioneer variety for that reason; while, 
behind it and often mingling with it, the 
Alberta white spruce occupies the more 
definitely forested areas. The open park-like 
forest supports a much richer bird population 
both in numbers and in species, than does 
the dense forest. 

The same conditions exist in the area 
around Kluane lake, except that there are 
no recently exposed lake beds, and there- 
fore the prairie is limited to the margins 
of terraces and the very recently abandoned 
river channels. Most of the aspens around 
Kluane lake are stunted, scattered, and less 
than twenty years old, although there are a 
few eighty-year-old trees on the Duke river 
terraces near Burwash Landing. This may 
be because aspens are just moving into the 
area or that there is simply a lack of suit- 
able habitat. Whichever may be the reason, 
it seems that this lake is on the edge of the 
distribution of the species. 

Most of the area is covered with white 
spruce forest. This varies from quite open 
to the familiar dense, dark northern type. 

In general, the area studied has no black 
spruce forest (Picea mariana). Colonies do 



July-Sept., 1953] 



The Canadian Field-Naturalist 



107 



occur in the valleys north of Kluane Lake and 
extensive muskegs to the northwest of the 
area near the Alaskan border. Pine (Pinus 
contorta) also occurs, in small stands in the 
southeast corner of this area near Champa- 
gne. 

When the white traders first moved into 
the country near the end of the last century, 
they found it was possible to over-winter 
horses by turning them loose on the natural 
ranges found on the margins of the terraces 
and recently abandoned channels of the 
Duke, Donjek and White rivers. They found, 
too, that if the forest were burned off, the 
first stage of the fire succession produced 
an association of willows (Salix glauca, Beb- 
biana, and arbusculoides) and grasses (Cala- 
magrostis purpurascens, Poa glaiica, Poa 
nemoralis, Bromus Pumpellianus, Hierochloe 
odorata, Agropyron trachycaulum, Agropy- 
ron latiglume, Festuca altaica), in which the 
horses could feed. Large parts of the val- 
leys are occupied by this type of vegetation. 
They are relatively barren of bird life. 

In areas of morainic topography there are 
numbers of kettle holes, some with and some 
without ponds or grassy wet meadows. A 
few water birds visit these, but most stay 
close to the larger ponds. The birds found 
in the vegetation of the damp hollows of 
the kettle holes occur just as freely in the 
willow muskegs that line the sluggish 
streams. 

North of the arms of Kluane lake the 
country gradually rises along the streams; 
then, starting at about 4,000 feet, which is 
the height of the valley floor at Henry creek, 
there is a broad zone of quite unstable habitat 
which is "tree-line". On seemingly sheltered 
slopes or where, for some reason, there is 
protection from frost slumping, the tree-line 
extends up perhaps another 500 feet. Where 
slumping is most active, tree-line is on the 
valley floor. In other words, it seems that 
in this region the contours of the slope (and 
thus solifluction) governs the presence of a 
forest, and not that the presence of a forest 
governs the contours of the slope. The val- 
leys in this area are occupied by spruce 
forest, aspen groves, heath-willow muskegs, 
grassy wet meadows, and tussock-tundra mus- 
kegs ("nigger-heads" as they are called in 
the north). 

Above tree-line, great expanses are cover- 
ed by a willow-birch association. There 
are also tussock-tundra, grass-sedge wet 



meadows, and, at the highest levels, an un- 
organized aggregation of arctic-alpine species. 

These large areas above tree-line are 
moulded by very intensive frost action into 
gentle slopes and smooth rounded hilltops. 
However, here and there, ragged rock out- 
crops of pinnacles of stone or chimney-like 
piles of blocks stick out and prove beyond 
question that the tops were not covered by 
the last ice sheet. 

Vegetation and Bird Life 

The birds seem to distribute themselves 
among nine major vegetation types. In de- 
scribing these, only the primary species and 
the most conspicuous secondary species will 
be mentioned. By primary species is meant 
those that are most characteristic and pro- 
minent when the association is seen from a 
distance. The secondary species included 
here are those others that seem to have 
some significance. The birds listed as charac- 
teristic of these types are those you are 
liable to see during a visit to them. It in- 
cludes birds that do not nest in that associa- 
tion but feed there or fly over it regularly. 
This should be kept in mind or else several 
of the notes below will seem quite mis- 
leading. These notes, then, try to indicate 
what birds will be evident to anyone in a 
certain vegetation type, no matiter what 
reasons there may be for the bird's presence. 

A. Prairie association: 

The primary species vary depending on 
the locality, but are some combination of two 
to all of the following: 

Poa glaxica Vahl 

Calamagrostis purpurascens R.Br. 

Hierochloe odorata (L.) Wahl. V 

Juncus balticus Willd. var. ? ^ 

Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng. var.^ 
coactilis Fern, and Macbr. 

Artemisia frigida Willd. 
Secondary species: 

Bromus Pumpellianus Scribn. 

Agropyron trachycaulum (Link) Malte 

Agropyron latiglume (Scribn. and Smith) 
Rydb. 

Agropyron yukonense Scribn. and Merr. 

Salix glauca L., esp. var. acutifolia (An- 
ders.) Schneider 

Salix Bebbiana Sarg. 

Cerastium beeringianum Cham, and Schl. 

Pulsatilla hirsutissima Britt. 

Potentilla nivea L. vars. 

Rosa acicularis Lindl. 



108 



The Canadian Field -Naturalisi 



[Vol. 67 



Astragalus frigidus (L.) Gray var. ameri- 

canus (Hook.) Wats. 
Oxytropis splendens Dougl. 
Hedysarum alpinum L. ssp. americanum 

(Michx.) Fedtsch. var. grandiflorum 

Rollins 
Linum Lewisii Pursh 
Shepherdia canadensis (L.) Nutt. 
Androsace septentrionalis L. 
Penstemon procerus Dougl. 
Penstemon Gormanii Greene 
Solidago decumbens Greene 
Antennaria sp. 
Achillea Millefolium L. var. 

Very few birds actually occupied this type 
of vegetation, but nearly all of the occupants 
of the aspen groves visited it occasionally to 
feed. 

Short-billed gull (Larus canus brachyrhyn- 
chus), mourning dove (Zenaidura macroura 
marginella) and magpies (Pica pica hudsonia) 
seemed to feed regularly in the prairie open- 
ings as, presumably, did the single killdeer 
(Charadrius vociferus vociferus) that was 
heard at Pine creek. Nighthawks (Chordeiles 
minor minor), violet-green swallows (Tachy- 
cineta thalassina lepida), bank swallows (Ri- 
paria riparia riparia) and cliff swallows (Pe- 
trochelidon pyrrhonota hypopolia) hawked 
over them commonly, while Say's phoebe 
(Sayornis saya saya) and mountain bluebird 
(Sialia curru^oides) occupied the margins of 
the prairies. 

B. Aspen grove association: 

Primary species: 
Populv^ tremuloides Michx. 

Secondary species: 
Grasses and others that extend in from 
the surrounding prairies. 
Populu^ balsamifera L. 
Salix myrtillifolia Anders. 
Salix Bebbiana Sarg. 
Cerastium beeringianum Cham, and 

Schlecht. 
Potentilla Anserina L. 
Astragalus frigidus (L.) Gray var. ameri- 

canus (Hook.) Wats. 
Hedysarum. Mackenzii Richardson 
Polemonium pulcherrimum Hook. 
Mertensia paniculata (Ait.) G. Don 

The groves are found in their clearest form 
near the Dominion Experimental Substation 
at Pine creek, where they are just like the 
"poplar bluffs" of the plains of Alberta. 
They usually are pure stands of aspen and 



are often entirely surrounded by prairie, 
yet many border on a muskeg or grade into 
the spruce forest. This association has a sur- 
prisingly rich bird fauna. 

Yukon ruffed grouse (Bonasa umhellus 

yukonensis) 
ring-necked pheasant (Phasianu^ colchi- 

cus torquatus) 
yellow-shafted flicker (Colaptes auratus 

luteus) 
hairy woodpecker (Dendrocopos villosu^ 

septentrionalis) 
eastern phoebe (Sayornis phoebe) 
western wood pewee (Contopus richard- 

sonii richardsonii) 
American magpie (Pica pica hudsonia) 
black-capped chickadee (Parus atricapillus 
' subsp.) 
Hudsonian chickadee (Parus hudsonicus 

polumbianus) 
eastern robin (Turdus migratoriu^ migra- 

torius) 
olive-backed thrush (Hylocichla vstulata 

swainsoni) 
hermit thrush (Hylocichla guttata subsp.) 
Tennessee warbler (Vermivora peregrina) 
orange-crowned warbler (Vermivora cela- 

ta subsp.) 
black-poll warbler (Dendroica striata) 
myrtle warbler (Dendroica coronata hoo- 

veri) 
slated-colored junco (Junco hyemalis hye- 

malis) 
chipping sparrow (Spizella passerina pas- 

serina) 

The following birds occurred as visitors 
to the groves or seemed to feed in the air 
over them or, because the distribution of 
aspen forests coincides with old lake beds 
and thus correlates with present marshes and 
feeding areas, were so often seen from the 
groves that the groves constitute a good 
place to look for them. 

sharp-shinned hawk (Accipiter striatus 

velox) 
sparrow hawk (Falco sparverius sparve- 

rius) 
short-billed gull (Larus canus brachyrhyn- 

chus) 
nighthawk (Chordeiles minor minor) 
violet-green swallow (Tachycineta thalassi- 
na lepida) 
cliff swallow (Petrochelidon pyrrhonota 

hypopolia) 
Canada jay (Perisoreus canadensis cana- 
densis) 



July-Sept., 1953] 



The Canadian Field-Naturalist 



109 



raven (Corvus corax principalis) 
blue-headed vireo (Vireo solitarius ? so- 

Utarius) 
pileolated warbler (Wilsonia piisilla pi- 

leolata) 

C. Open, park-like forest: Posild's spruce 
association 

Primary species: 
Picea glauca Voss var. Porsildii Raup 
Salix glauca L. 
Salix glauca L. var. acutifolia (Anders.) 

Schneider 
Shepherdia canadensis (L.) Nutt. 
Arctostaphylos Uva-ursi (L.) Spreng. var. 

coactilis Fern, and Macbr. 

Secondary species: 
Equisetum arvense L. 
Picea glauca Voss var. albertiana (S. 

Brown) Sarg. 
Festuca rubra L. 

Calamagrostis purpurascens R. Br. 
Zygadenus elegans Pursh 
Populus balsamifera L. 
Salix arbusculoides Anders. 
Anemone multifida Poir. 
Anemone Richardsonii Hook. 
Draba 2 spp. 

Erysimum ? cheiranthoides L. 
Arabis ? hirsuta (L.) Scop. 
Saxifraga tricuspidata Rottb. 
Dryas Drummondii Richards. 
Dryas integrifolia Vahl 
Lupinus arcticus S. Wats. 
Astragalus alpinus L. 
Oxytropis foliolosa Hook. 
Oxrjtropis gracilis (A. Nels.) K. Schum. 
Hedysarum alpinum L. ssp. americanum 

(Michx.) Fedtsch. var. grandijlorum. 

Rollins 
Pyrola grandijlora Radius 
Solidago multiradiata Ait. 
Solidago decumbens Greene 
Achillea Millefolium L. 
Artemisia frigida Willd. 
Artemisia borealis Pall. 
Arnica alpina (L.) Olin ? ssp. angusti- 

folia (Vahl) Maguire 

The breeding birds of this association 
are: 

nighthawk (Chordeiles minor minor) 
western wood pewee (Contopus richard- 
sonii richardsonii) 
Canada jay (Perisoreus canadensis cana- 
densis) 
raven (Corvus corax principalis) 
black-capped chickadee (Parus atricapil- 
lus subsp.) 



Hudsonian chickadee (Parus huAsonicus 

columbianus) 
red-breasted nuthatch (Sitta canadensis) 
eastern robin (Turdus migratorius migra- 

torius) 
olive-backed thrush (Hylocichla ustulata 

swainsoni) 
mountain bluebird (Sialia currucoides) 
myrtle warbler (Dendroica coronata hoc- 

veri) 
pileolated warbler CWilsonia pusilla pi- 

leolata) 
pine siskin (Spinus pinus pinus) 
white-winged crossbill (Loxia leucoptera 

leucoptera) 
slate-colored junco (Junco hyemalis hye- 
malis) 
The presence of birds occupying coniferous 
and deciduous types of vegetation in this 
association is explained by the heterogeneous 
texture of the association as far as the birds 
are concerned. The large areas between the 
scattered spruce trees are occupied by tall 
deciduous willows. This vegetation type often 
grades into the willow muskeg. 

The following birds were seen in this 
vegetation type, but probably were not 
breeding in it in the area visited by the 
author. They bred in neighboring vegetation 
types or were seen on migration. 

sparrow hawk (Falco sparverius sparve- 

rius) 
American magpie (Pica pica hudsonia) 
varied thrush (Ixoreus naevius meruloi- 

des) 
hermit thrush (Hylocichla guttata subsp.) 
ruby-crowned kinglet (Regulus calendula 

calendula) 
Bohemian waxwing (Bombycilla garrula 

pallidiceps) 
purple finch (Carpodacus purpureus pur- 
pureus) 

D. Northern spruce forest: Alberta spruce 
association 

Primary species: 
Picea glauca Voss var. albertiana (S. 

Brown) Sarg. 
Pleurozium schreberi Bry. Eu. 
Hylocomium splendens (Hedw.) Bry. Eu. 

Secondary species: 
Peltigera, Cladonia and Cetraria lichens 

(These are primary in many places.) 
Festuca rubra L. var. arenaria (Osbeck) 

Fries 
Poa glauca Vahl 
Kobresia myosuroides fVill.) Fiori and 

Paol. 



110 



The Canadian Field-Naturalist 



[Vol. 67 



Salix glauca L. 

Salix glauca L. var. acutifolia (Anders.) 

Schneider 
Lupiniis arcticus S. Wats. 
Astragalus alpinus L. 
Hedysarum alpinum L. ssp. americanum 

(Michx.) Fedtsch. var. grandiflorum 

Rollins 
Hedysarum Mackenzii Richards. 
Shepherdia canadensis (L.) Nutt. 
Pyrola grandiflora Radius 
Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Sprang, var. 

coactilis Fern, and Macbr. 
Arctostaphylos rubra (Rehd. and Wils.) 

Fern. 
Where the floor of the forest is fairly 
moist, there is a thicker moss mat and an 
increase in the numbers of the following spe- 
cies. 

May become primary: 
Equisetum scirpoides Michx. 
Empetrum nigrum L. 
Ledum groenlandicum Oeder 
Vaccinium Vitis-Idaea L. var. minus Lodd. 

Secondary species: 
Habenaria hyperborea (L.) R. Br. 
Geocaulon lividum (Richards.) Fern. 
Rosa acicularis Lindl. 
Lupinus arcticus S. Wats. 
Moneses uniflora (L.) Gray 
Pyrola secunda L. 
Pyrola grandiflora Radius 
Rhododendron lapponicum (L.) Wahl. 
Pedicularis labradorica Wirsing 
Linnaea borealis L. 
Saussurea angustifolia (Willd.) DC. var. 

yukonensis A. E. Porsild 

The nesting birds of this association 
are: 
pigeon hawk (Falco columbarius colum- 

barius) 
spruce grouse (Canachites canadensis os- 

goodi) 
great horned owl (Bubo virginianus lago- 

phonus) 
great gray owl (Strix nebulosa nebulosa) 
hairy woodpecker (Dendrocopos villosus 

septentrionalis) 
Arctic three-toed woodpecker (Picoides 

arcticus) 
Alaska three-toed woodpecker (Picoides 

tridactylus fasciatus) 
western wood pewee (Contopus richard- 

sonii richardsonii) 
Canada jay (Perisoreus canadensis cana- 
densis) 
raven (Corvus cor ax principalis) 



black-capped chickadee (Parus atricapil- 

lus subsp.) 
Hudsonian chickadee (Parus hudsonicus 

columbianus) 
eastern robin (Turdvs migratorius migra- 

torius) 
Townsend's solitaire (Myadestes town- 

sendi) found at high altitudes, near 

tree-line 
ruby-crowned kinglet (Regulus calendula 

calendula) 
myrtle warbler (Dendroica coronata hoo- 

veri) 
black-poll warbler (Dendroica striata) 
pine siskin (Spinus pinus pinus) 
white-winged crossbill (Loxia leucoptera 

leucoptera) 
slate-colored junco (Junco hyemalis hye- 

malis) 

E. Willow muskeg association: 

This association is found at the level of 
the valley floors. 

Primary species: 
Tall shrubs of Salix glauca L., S. glauca 

L. var. acutifolia (Anders.) Schneider, 

and S. pulchra Cham.; these may grow 

to be twelve feet high. 
Calamagrostis canadensis (Michx.) Nutt. 

var. scabra (Presl) Hitchc. 
Carex capillaris L. 
Salix myrtillifolia Anders. 

Secondary species (many of these may 
be primary in places): 
Festuca rubra L. 
Carex Garberi Fern. 
Carex aquatilis Wahl. 
Tofieldia palustris Huds. 
Habenaria hyperborea (L.) R. Br. 
Salix reticulata L. 
Betula glandulosa Michx. 
Potentilla fruticosa L. 
Dryas integrifolia Vahl 
Arctostaphylos rubra (Rehd. and Wils.) 

Fern. 
Vaccinium uliginosum L. 
Vaccinium Vitis-Idaea L. var. minus Lodd. 
Primula sp. 

Pedicularis sudetica Willd. 
Valeriana capitata Pall. 

The nesting sparrows of the margins of 
these shrubby muskegs contribute most of 
the colour to the morning and evening bird 
songs. The general impression given by the 
countryside is usually of them and their 
songs.' The kingfisher, shorebirds and ducks 
are probably actually attracted to this type 



July-Sept., 1953] 



The Canadian Field-Naturalist 



111 



of vegetation by the occurrence in it of 
sedgy meadows and bodies of water. The 
swallows occur not in but over the associa- 
tion. Mr. Godfrey tells me he found pileo- 
lated warblers nesting in this type of 
vegetation in this area. 

mallard (Anas platyrhynchos platyrhyn- 

chos) 
blue-winged teal (Anas discors) 
lesser scaup (Aythya affinis) 
goshawak (Accipiter gentilis ? atricapillus) 
marsh hawk (Circus cyaneus hudsonius) 
Wilson's snipe (Capella gallinago delicata) 
spotted sandpiper (Actitis macularia) 
lesser yellow-legs (Totanus jlavipes) 
kingfisher (Megaceryle alcyon ? caurina) 
alder flycatcher (Empidonax trailUi trail- 

Hi) 
barn swallow (Hirundo rustica erythro- 

gaster) 
cliff swallow (Petrochelidon pyrrhonota 

hypopolia) 
ruby-crowned kinglet (Regulus calendula 

calendula) 
yellow warbler (Dendroica petechia am- 

nicola) 
myrtle warbler (Dendroica coronata hoo- 

veri) 
rusty blackbird (Euphagus carolinus) 
Savannah sparrow (Passerculus sand- 

wichensis anthinus) 
tree sparrow (Spizella arborea ochracea) 
Gambel's white-crowned sparrow (Zono- 

trichia leucophrys gamhelii) 
fox sparrow (Passerella iliaca iliaca) 

F. Lake and pond margins: aquatic associa- 
tion: 

Nearly all of the birds listed here seem 
to require that a pond have a grassy or 
marshy margin before they will occupy it. 
The vegetation is of: 

Equisetum fluviatile L. 

Calamagrostis canadensis (Michx.) Nutt. 
var. scabra (Presl) Hitchc. 

Eriophorum angustifolium Honckeny 

Carex aquatilis Wahl. 

Carex rostrata Stokes 

The pond margins generally are occupied 
by pure stands of the above species in pat- 
ches along the shore. The spruce forest may 
come down to the shore along most of the 
beach, as long as there is an area of marsh 
of considerable size. Occupied ponds vary in 
size from an area of about 1500 square yards 
up to Kluane lake itself. 

common loon (Gavia immer subsp.) 

horned grebe (Colymbus auritus) 



mallard (Anas platyrhynchos platyrhyn- 
chos) 

shoveller (Spatula dypeata) 
canvasback (Aythya valisineria) 
lesser scaup duck (Aythya affinis) 
American golden-eye ( Glaucionetta clan- 

gula americana) 
Barrow's golden-eye (Glaucionetta islan- 

dica) 
bufflehead (Glaucionetta albeola) 
white-winged scoter (Melanitta fusca dixo- 

ni) 
ruddy duck (Erismatura jamaicensis ru- 

bida) 
red-breasted merganser (Mergus serrator) 
bald eagle (Haliaetus lev^ocephalus wa- 

shingtoniensis) 
spotted sandpiper (Actitis macularia) 
lesser yellow-legs (Totanus flavipes) 
herring gull (Larus argentatv^ subsp.) 
short-billed gull (Larus canus brachyrhyn- 

chus) 
Bonaparte's gull (Larus Philadelphia) 
arctic tern (Sterna paradisea) 
kingfisher (Megaceryle alcyon ? caurina) 
Surf scoter (Melanitta perspicillata and 
semi-palmated plover (Charadrius hiaticula 
semipalmatus) probably nested at Kluane 
lake, but were not found anywhere else. 

G. Burned over forest (fire succession): 

Primary species: 
Poa glauca Vahl 
Hordeum jubatum L. 
Calamagrostis purpurascens R. Br. 
Salix glauca L. 
Salix glauca L. var. acutifolia (Anders.) 

Schneider 
Salix Bebbiana Sarg. 
Arctostaphylos Uva-ursi (L.) Spreng. var. 

coactilis Fern, and Macbr. 

Secondary species: 
Bromus Pumpellianus Scribn. 
Festuca altaica Trin. 
Agropyron trachycaulum (Link) Malte 
Agropyron latiglume (Scribn. and Smith) 

Rydb. 
Deschampsia caespitosa (L.) Beauv. 
Calamagrostis canadensis (Michx.) Nutt. 

var. scabra (Presl) Hitchc. 
Anemone multifida Poir. 
Pulsatilla hirsutissima Britt. 
Rosa acicularis Lindl. 
Lupinus arcticus S. Wats. 
Astragalus frigidus (L.) Gray var. litto- 

ralis Hook. 
Oxytropis gracilis (A. Nels.) K. Schum. 



112 



The Canadian Field-Naturalist 



[Vol. 67 



Oxytropis splendens Dougl. 

Epilohium angustifolium L. 

Solidago decumbens Greene 

Artemisia frigida Willd. 

The birds of this association include: 

Harlan's hawk (Buteo jamaicensis harlani) 

eastern sparrow hawk (Falco sparverius 

sparverius) 
yellow-shafted flicker (Colaptes auratus 

luteus) 
arctic three-toed woodpecker (Picoides 

arcticus) 
Alaska three-toed woodpecker (Picoides 

tridactylus fasciatus) 
Say's phoebe (Sayornis saya saya) 
western wood pewee (Contopus richard- 

sonii richardsonii) 
raven (Corvus corax principalis) 
Gambel's white-crowned sparrow (Zono- 

trichia leucophrys gamhelii) 
Most of these birds are attracted to this 
type of vegetation by the standing dead trees. 

H. Tussock-tundra association: 

This is open, grassy-appearing country 
that is usually found near or above tree-line. 
Perenially frozen ground is found only a 
few inches below the surface. For this 
reason, the ground is very wet in summer 
even though these meadow-like lands may 
appear on quite steep slopes. The peren- 
nially frozen ground is a source of water 
all summer. There is no primary species for 
the whole, but there does exist a series in 
species' abundance, progressing from the wet- 
test regions to the forest edges or willow- 
heath type. 
Usually, the wettest places are occupied by: 

1) Eriophorum brachyantherum Trautv. 
Eriophorum angustifolium Roth 
Carex aquatilis Wahl. 

Carex rostrata Stokes 
In some areas, very wet localities are occu- 
pied by: 

2) Eriophorum alpinum L. 

Scirpus caespitosus L. ssp. austriacus 

(Pall.) Aschers. and Graebn. 
Carex scirpoidea Michx. 
Carex lugens Holm 
Then the usual sequence is: 
Primary species: 

3) Sphagnum, Polytrichum, Pleurozium 
and Hylocomium mosses appear between the 
tussocks and, with them, the following: 

Betula glandulosa Michx. 

Ledum palustre L. var. decumbens Ait. 

Vaccinium uliginosum L. 



Vaccinium Vitis-Idaea L. var. minus 
Lodd. 
then: 

4) Arctagrostis latifolia (R.Br.) Griseb. var. 

? arundinacea (Trin.) Griseb. 
Salix reticulata L. 
Potentilla fruticosa L. 
Empetrum nigrum L. 
Ledum groenlandicum Oeder 
Rhododendron lapponicum (L.) Wahl. 
Arctostaphylos rubra (Rehd. and Wils.) 

Fern, 
and 

5) Salix glauca L. 

Salix glauca L., var. Aliceae Ball 

Salix pulchra Cham. 
Secondary species: 

Equisetum pratense Ehrh. 

Polygonum viviparum L. 

Polygonum Bistorta L. ssp. plumosum 
(Small) Hult. 

Claytonia sp. 

Saxifraga Hirculus L. 

Dryas Drummondii Richards. 

Hedysarum alpinum L. ssp. americanum 
(Michx.) Fedtsch. 

Pedicularis labradorica Wirsing 

Pedicularis sudetica Willd. 

Petasites frigidus (L.) Fries 

Senecio ? yukonensis A. E. Porsild 

Saussurea angustifolia DC. 

Saussurea angustifolisL DC. var. yuko- 

... nensis A. E. Porsild 
The birds are: 

upland plover (Bartramia longicauda) 

lesser yellow-legs (Totanus flavipes) 

herring gull (Larus argentatus subsp.) 

short-billed gull (Larus canus brachy- 
rhynchus) 

Bonaparte's gull (Larus Philadelphia) 

American magpie (Pica pica hudsonia) 

Savannah sparrow (Passerculus sand- 
wichensis anthinus) 

tree sparrow (Spizella arborea ochracea) 

Gambel's sparrow (Zonotrichia leuco- 
phrys gambelii) 

Magpies seem to require a combination 
of the open meadows of the tussocks and 
the trees on the margins of the openings. 
Gambel's sparrows live in patches of willow 
or heath bushes either in the open or along 
the edges. W. Earl Godfrey tells me he found 
pileolated warblers in willow and ground 
birch zones at the edge of tree-line during the 
breeding season. I missed them. 



July-Sept., 1953] 



The Canadian Field-Naturalist 



113 



I. Willow-heath tundra association: 

This is the association that occupies the 
great areas above tree-line. It covers the 
gently rounded, green slopes whose topo- 
graphy is probably molded by frost action. 
Most of it was not covered by glacial ice 
during the last ice advances. 
Primary species: 

Salix glauca L. chiefly var. Aliceae Ball 

Salix pulchra Cham. 

Betula glandulosa Michx. 
Secondary species: 

Festuca altaica Trin. 

Calamagrostis purpurascens R.Br. 

Calamagrostis canadensis (Michx.) Nutt. 
var. scabra (Presl) Hitchc. 

Carex lugens Holm 

Tofieldia palustris Huds. 

Salix reticulata L. 

Polygonum viviparum L. 

Polygonum Bistorta L. ssp. plumosum 
(Small) Hult. 

Claytonia sp. 

Stellaria longipes Goldie 

Cerastium heeringianum Cham, and Schl. 

Potentilla fruticosa L. 

Dryas octopetala L. 

Astragalus frigidus (L.) Gray var. litto- 
ralis Hook. 

Empetrum nigrum L. 

Epilohium angustifolium L. 

Epilobium latifolium L. 

Ledum groenlandicum Oeder 

Arctostaphylos Uva-ursi (L.) Spreng. var. 
coactilis Fern, and Macbr. 

Arctostaphylos rubra (Rehd. and Wils) 
Fern. 

Vaccinium uliginosum L. 

Vaccinium Vitis-Idgea L. var. minus Lodd. 

Gentiana prostrata Haenke 

Mertensia paniculata (Ait.) G. Don 

Castilleja pallida (L.) Spreng. var. 

Pedicularis labradorica Wirsing 

Pedicularis sudetica Willd. 

Valeriana capitata Pall. 

Artemisia frigida Willd. 

Artemisia arctica Lessing 

Petasites frigidus (L.) Fries 
. Arnica alpina (L.) Olin ssp. ? attenuata 
(Greene) Maguire 

Senecio ? frigidus (Richards.) Less. 

Saussurea angustifolia DC. 

Saussurea angustifolia DC. var. yukonen- 
sis A. E. Porsild 

It is inaccurate to speak of primary and 
secondary species in this association, because 
the shrubby species take turns in becoming 



primary. The real relation is probably one 
of many species struggling for position in 
an unstable habitat. Whenever any one gains 
a foothold, that seems primary there. But 
the concept is actually meaningless. If that 
plant loses its position because of some 
movement of the slope, it may well be suc- 
ceeded by any one of the other species near it. 

The birds are: 

golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos canaden- 
sis) 
marsh hawk (Circus cyaneus hudsonius) 
willow ptarmigan (Lagopus lagopus lago- 

pus) 
upland plover (Bartramia longicauda) 
Savannah sparrow (Passerculus sand- 

wichensis anthinus) 
tree sparrow (Spizella arborea ochracea) 
golden-crowned sparrow (Zonotrichia co- 

ronata) 
The following birds are often seen in this 
association, but are visitors from the other 
types. 

lesser yellow-legs (Totanus flavipes) 
herring gull (Larus argentatus subsp.) 
short-billed gull (Larus canus brachy- 

rhynchus) 
Bonaparte's gull (Larus Philadelphia) 
Gambel's sparrow (Zonotrichia leucophrys 
gambelli) (visits from near tree-line) 

The usual method of describing bird popu- 
lations is by taking a "sample acreage" on 
which the bird territories are counted and 
mapped. This is equivalent to the European 
method for description of vegetation, the 
Braun-Blanquet method of plant sociology; 
or the one that has been used with success 
in descriptions of prairie associations in the 
middle west of the United States by plant 
ecologists of the Clements school. The value 
of this method depends on the statistical 
probability that the sample is typical of the 
whole habitat. It involves making a map of 
the area and plotting the position of each 
individual species, and the counting of every 
plant. In the north, and in most areas not in 
the prairies, this method has not proven 
practical because of the variations within 
plant associations. It is nearly impossible to 
find any two samples in one area that are 
identical. Instead, a more subjective method 
has been used which is the one used in de- 
scribing the vegetation in this paper. The 
plants that are most evident, and that 
characterize the association in the mind of 
the describer are listed as "primary", and 
other species, although they may be limited 



114 



The Canadian Field-Naturalist 



[Vol. 67 



to the same association, are listed as "second- 
ary". This is necessary because of the lack 
of regularity in plant groupings, and it seems 
to the author that the same subjective method 
of description of bird populations may be 
the best for this region, for the same reason. 
The first system claims statistical objectivity 
but skips over the subjective element in the 
selection of the sample area. This basic sub- 
jectivity certainly is a major factor in the 
statistics. The second system admits sub- 
jectivity throughout. 

The following notes are, then, impressions 
of the most familiar or "characteristic" birds 
of the various types. They are intended to 
give the picture of the average area. The 
numbers should not be considered as specific, 
but as a general indication of abundance. 
The purpose of this part of the paper is in 
part to explain what is meant by the 
terms "common" or "unusual", of relative 
abundance that are used in the systematic 
list of species. In many cases the birds listed 
together in these plant associations are 
strange bed-fellows. This part of the paper 
is written based on vegetation units to de- 
cribe what birds can be found there; for 
example: golden eagle and Bonaparte's gull 
are not nesting species of the willow brush 
above tree line nor of the aspen groves, but 
they are seen regularly from these habitats 
because of the areal distribution of these 
vegetation types. These distributions are in- 
dicated in the geographical description of 
the area. In a real way this approach is not 
accurate in accepted ecological usage, but I 
think it is more realistic than restricting 
golden eagle and raven to barren rock cliffs 
and Bonaparte's gull to spruce forest. It 
would be more accurate to subdivide the 
classifications according to the type of occu- 
pancy, but this seems to me to be unjustified- 
ly detailed on the basis of the field data 1 
have. 

A. The prairie openings. These did not 
have a characteristic bird population as such. 
There was a pair of magpies for about every 
four miles of highway through the area of 
openings and in the same distance you would 
see none or as many as six short-billed gulls. 
There was a pair of mountain bluebirds on 
the borders of each of the six creek terraces 
that we stopped at between Champagne and 
Summit. In the evening, the gulls, night- 
hawks and swallows were very much in 
evidence flying over or hawking after insects. 
One pair of violet-green swallows was seen 



about every mile along the highway, but cliff 
and bank swallows were restricted to the 
neighborhood of creeks. Where found, bank 
swallows were in flocks of six to thirty, and 
cliff swallows forty to one hundred and fifty. 
Say's phoebe was especially common around 
buildings of all sorts. Nearly every occupied 
or abandoned highway maintenance camp or 
small settlement had one or two pairs. The 
other birds listed within the prairie associa- 
tion were seen once or twice during the sum- 
mer; thus they have no place in generaliza- 
tions of populations. Actually the most 
characteristic birds of the openings were 
what we heard singing in the surrounding 
woods: robin, olive-backed thrush, hermit 
thrush, myrtle warbler, pine siskin, white- 
winged crossbill and Gambel's sparrow. These 
species do not belong to the prairie openings, 
but a person "birding" in these openings 
would be constantly more aware of them than 
of the residents of the openings themselves. 

B. The aspen groves. Ruffed grouse was 
present in the larger groves of the Pine creek 
area. In a three hours' walk, you might see 
as many as three pairs. Flicker was easily 
the commonest woodpecker. Nearly every 
burned area and large stand of aspens had a 
pair. They seemed to be occupying a com- 
bination of the two vegetation types, but were 
especially conspicuous in the burns. Hairy 
woodpecker was much less common; there 
were two along fifteen miles of highway near 
Pine creek. Flycatchers were very uncom- 
mon. Magpies were one of the most charac- 
teristic birds found where there was a com- 
bination of prairie openings and aspen groves, 
as mentioned above. Either travelling or stay- 
ing in the same place all day, you would 
usually see four or five flocks of chickadees, 
six black-caps and two or three brown-heads. 
You were constantly conscious of the presence 
of robins and olive-backed and hermit 
thrushes during evening and morning. From 
camp at Pine creek we could hear four robins, 
four olive-backed thrushes and three hermit 
thrushes at once. You would hear about this 
many anywhere in the aspens. Tennessee, 
orange-crowned and black-poll warblers were 
seen or heard on the average twice a day at 
Pine creek, but were very scarce otherwise. 
There were perhaps three occupied areas of 
Tennessees and orange-crowns along ten 
miles of highway there. Myrtle warblers 
seemed to occupy every aspen grove and 
junco about every other one. Chipping spar- 



July-Sept., 1953] 



The Canadian Field-Naturalist 



115 



row was very scattered and clearly not a 
primary bird. 

C. Open Porsild's spruce forest. The fol- 
lowing species are the primary ones of this 
association. During a three hour walk you 
might see: one nighthawk, two Canada jays, 
two pairs of black-capped chickadees, one 
pair of brown-headed chickadees, three robins, 
three olive-backed thrushes, four myrtle and 
two pileolated warblers, a flock of ten siskins, 
a couple of flocks of eight white-winged cross- 
bills and three juncos. Western wood pewees 
and red-breasted nuthatches were scattered, 
but could be seen regularly at half a dozen 
places. Mountain bluebird was regular in its 
distribution but restricted to combinations of 
this type of vegetation with open prairies (see 
under the latter type). Raven, like the other 
large birds, ranged farther and occupied a 
greater variety of types. There seemed to 
be a pair in each of thirteen localities in the 
hundred miles between Champagne and Bur- 
wash Landing. The pileolated warblers 
occupy the tall willows. W. Earl Godfrey has 
suggested that the numbers of black-capped 
chickadees recorded in this type is atypical 
and I agree completely. I also agree that the 
black-caps are more characteristic of tall 
deciduous shrubbery than of spruce woods. 
The reason for this impression of abundance 
appears to me to be caused by the character 
of the open spruce forest in this valley, full 
of openings with willow shrubs. Marginal 
areas are very numerous in the region visited 
and therefore my impression is not accurate 
beyond the immediate vicinity. This is true 
too for the appearance of pileolated warbler 
in this association. 

D. The moss-floored northern spruce forest. 

The primary birds were: Canada jay. black- 
capped chickadee, brown-headed chickadee, 
robin, myrtle warbler, white-winged crossbill 
and junco. These species are just about half 
as common in the moss-floored deep forest as 
they are in the open Porsild's spruce forest. 
Spruce grouse is a characteristic bird but 
spotty in distribution. You can travel many 
days through the forest without seeing one. 
Pigeon hawk and the owls were seen only at 
individual localities, as were the woodpeckers 
and Townsend's solitaire. Western wood 
pewee and black-poll warbler were about as 
common as spruce grouse. 

Hawk owls were not seen in the area al- 
though Rand (1946) speaks of them as charac- 
teristic of the spruce forest of the Canol 



Road area and the Indians said they occur 
regularly here. 

E. Willow muskeg association. The primary 
birds seen in an average muskeg about three 
miles long were: one pair of mallards, four 
snipe, three spotted sandpipers, three pairs 
of lesser yellow-legs, five alder flycatchers, 
four myrtle warblers, five tree sparrows, ten 
Gambel's sparrows and four fox sparrows. 
You are reasonably sure of seeing these in 
every willow muskeg on the valley floors. 
Teal, goshawks, kinglets and yellow warblers 
were seen at single localities. Scaup, marsh 
hawks, swallows and Savannah sparrows were 
seen in most, but not all of these muskegs. 
Kingfishers spent a lot of time in these 
places, but were restricted in distribution to 
large areas of water. 

F. Lake and pond margins. Around a lake 
two miles long you might see one pair each of 
common loons, scaup, American and Barrow's 
goldeneyes, two pairs each of bufflehead and 
spotted sandpipers, three pairs of lesser yel- 
low-legs, one pair each of herring gull, short- 
billed gull and kingfisher; then five robins 
and two pairs of rusty blackbirds in the 
vegetation on the shores. Other species were 
not uncommon, but were seen on only a few 
of the many ponds and lakes visited. 

G. Burned areas. These were very ex- 
tensive on the south and west shores of 
Kluane lake. Their primary birds were: Har- 
lan's hawk, sparrow hawk, flicker, and Gam- 
bel's sparrow. There were probably a pair 
of Harlan's and sparrow hawks for every four 
miles along the highway through the burns; 
flickers were about as common, while four 
Gambel's sparrows per mile is a conservative 
estimate. Occasionally western wood pewee. 
Say's phoebe, three-toed woodpeckers and 
ravens were seen. 

H. and I. The meadow-like or tussock-tun- 
dra and willow-heath tundra associations. 

These can be considered as one unit because 
the primary birds all range widely across 
these vegetation types. Shorebirds and gulls 
were seen perched in low trees or shrubs and 
the others were frequently seen feeding in the 
open. The meadow areas near ponds were 
characterized by lesser yellow-legs, herring 
gulls, short-billed and Bonaparte's gulls. These 
meadow areas are usually found in high val- 
leys- A typical meadow of about five acres 
with a pond would average two pairs of each 
species. When the meadows were on flat open 



116 



The Canadian Field-Naturalist 



[Vol. 67 



hilltops, they usually had none of these, in- 
stead Savannah sparrows and upland plovers. 
There were about four sparrows and one plover 
seen in two miles of travel. In valleys where 
the meadows were surrounded by brush and 
forest, you might see in one mile, four Savan- 
nah sparrows, one tree sparrow and three 
Gambel's sparrows. There seemed to be one 
family of magpies per valley of this type. 

In brush above tree-line, there was about 
one golden-crowned sparrow per hilltop. One 
marsh hawk and one group of willow ptarmi- 
gan was usual for each mountain visited. 

GEOGRAPHICAL AFFINITIES OF 
THE BIRD SPECIES 

The presentation of the geographical affi- 
nities of the birds is to show the similarity 
of these patterns to those already suggested 
to exist for plants. That plants and animals 
in this northwestern region agree quite well 
in the general areas or patterns of distri- 
bution supports an idea presented by Eric 
Hulten in his "Outline of the History of 
Arctic and Boreal Biota during the Quatern- 
ary Period", 1937. His idea is that there 
were great areas of refuge or persistence 
during the last stage of the Pleistocene ice 
advances. If these areas were populated by 
plants, certainly they were populated by 
animals. H. M. Raup discussed the implica- 
tions of this theory as it applies to the rela- 
tions of the flora of the southwest Mackenzie 
region, 1947. He pointed out the source areas 
for the revegetation of the Mackenzie Moun- 
tains after the last ice retreat, and these are 
suitable sources for the bird population. 

It seems advisable to mention briefly the 
geological concepts that are the basis for 
these ideas. The various theories on the 
history of the Pleistocene Glaciation are 
legion, but there seems to be general agree- 
ment on the major outline. At least four 
major ice advances are recognized between 
which climate was milder across the north 
than it is today. These major advances are 
in turn divided into minor advances between 
which the climatic conditions were about the 
same as they are now. As many as fifteen 
minor advances have been suggested (Sergei 
and Zeuner). 

The main ice sheets advanced from major 
centers which in North America seem to have 
been three; in Labrador, in the area west of 
Hudson Bay, and in the Rocky Mountains. 
It is not proven that all centers were active 
at any one time and it is entirely possible 



that great areas of the so-called "glaciated 
regions" were free of ice during major ad- 
vances. Any area that has ever been covered 
by any one of the advances is included in 
the "glaciated area" by geologists, even though 
during much of the time, it may have been 
free of ice. 

Another assumption that is not proven is 
that the climate was any considerable 
amount colder during the major ice advances 
than it is now. In southern Alaska the largest 
mountain glaciers in the world run down the 
south slope of the Saint Elias Range to the 
sea. On the north slope, towards the interior, 
the climate is much colder, but no extensive 
glaciers run into the interior valleys. The 
reason for this is rainfall, which may be a 
hundred odd inches on the coast and as little 
as ten in the rain-shadowed interior. During 
the periods of ice advance then it is possible 
that huge areas near the ice supported a 
healthy forest vegetation. This does not deny 
the existence of large areas of barren tundra 
as well, but the point is that forested areas 
and tundra are not mutually exclusive. On 
the snouts of many glaciers in the north, 
healthy coniferous and deciduous forests exist 
today. 

These assumptions are presented to show 
that there is evidence that will allow nearly 
limitless possibilities of migrations of plants 
and areas where they could have existed. 
Plants that are adapted to arctic environ- 
ments clearly would feel no pinch during 
these migrations and changes in climate. They 
would flourish in the huge areas of tundra. 
Some species, on the other hand, in their 
migrations would get trapped in small areas 
and survive as a small population or become 
extinct. These areas of survival are called 
"Refugia" by Hulten. 

Where and what were the areas of per- 
sistence during the last ice advance ? As just 
mentioned, there must have been large areas 
where arctic species survived and these spe- 
cies today are the common- ones all around 
the north, the Circumboreal or Holarctic 
species. There were also refugia of more 
limited extent but still of large area south 
of the ice in eastern and western America. 
These were separated by a dry interior. Other 
smaller refugia have been suggested for 
1) the Newfoundland area, 2) the northwest 
Pacific coast and islands from British Colum- 
bia to the central Gulf of Alaska, 3) the 
Aleutian Islands, 4) the Bering Sea islands 
and coasts including Seward Peninsula, 5) the 



July-Sept., 1953] 



The Canadian Field-Naturalist 



117 



arctic slope of Alaska north of the Brooks 
Range, 6) the interior unglaciated plateau of 
central Alaska, and 7) areas in the northern 
and central Rocky Mountains. Hulten (1937) 
discusses the details of how these conclusions 
were reached for the existence of refugia 
and their locations. The refugia really need 
refer only to the last advance, the Wisconsin- 
three (Mankato) or Wurm-three (Pomera- 
nian). 

The size of the area of persistence had an 
important effect on the species that survived 
there in that it affected species variability. 
Present understanding in genetics indicates 
that variability is an ever present factor. In 
large populations this variation is maintained, 
but in small populations, because of in- 
breeding, there is a tendency towards statis- 
tical elimination of some variations. This is 
the Sewall Wright effect. The smaller the 
population, the stronger is the tendency to- 
wards homozygosity. Persistence in refugia 
during the ice age in small populations 
isolated from related populations would lead 
to restriction of variation (such as is found 
in the northwestern population of American 
larch) or could affect specific identity. These 
variations in morphology must be paralleled 
by variations in physiology and the trend 
toward homozygosity reduces the ability of 
the species to adapt itself to different environ- 
ments. This is probably a genetical explana- 
tion for Fernald's "species senescence". 

What this means in the history of the re- 
vegetation of the glaciated regions is that 
the species occupying the large refugia are 
aggressive and have spread over most of the 
north. Those of small areas have not spread 
far if at all. Most of the species of the 
boreal needle-leaved forest seem to have 
existed in large refugia south of the ice and 
have retained their vigor. Even in these 
there is clear indication of east-west separa- 
tion in species of white pine, Banks-lodgepole 
pine, hemlock, fir, white spruce, larch, aspen 
and white bu'ch. This same separation exists 
among bird species. The meeting ground of 
the two migrant populations seems to lie in 
the area betwen Lake Athabasca and the 
northeast corner of British Columbia. 

In a glaciated area like the Mackenzie 
Mountains, as Raup shows, most of the spe- 
cies are related to an arctic-circumboreal 
vegetation or to the needle-leaved forests of 
North America. But there are also a num- 
ber of species that have migrated into the 
area from other refugia such as those in the 



northern Rocky Mountains, "Beringia" and 
the Yukon Plateau. The number of these 
species depends on the size of the refugium 
and its distance from the area under examina- 
tion, which takes us back to the vigor of the 
migration of the species. 

The bird species of the southwestern Yukon 
were examined against this background of 
plant distributions. The birds were listed 
according to similarities in ranges and these 
related areas were found to correspond to 
vegetational areas. In the course of investiga- 
ting the ranges, the "Beringia" area was 
looked at. There are twenty-three species 
whose breeding range is limited to the area 
of Seward Peninsula and the delta area of 
the Yukon and Kuskokwim. These both sup- 
port Hulten's "Northern Beringia" and point 
to strong Siberian relationships. Many of 
these species, like the plants of the area, 
have not spread far from the shores of the 
sea. The variety of endemic species on the 
Aleutian islands supports Hulten's "Southern 
Beringia" refuge. Because the ranges of birds 
were tested against previously recognized 
plant geographical patterns, it must be ad- 
mitted that the pattern which emerges is 
biased. 

In the Kluane Lake-Shakwak valley region, 
the bulk of the species is related like the 
flora to three great geographical groups: 1) the 
holarctic or circumboreal species found in 
the forests and tundra around the northern 
hemisphere, 2) the species of the forests, 
lakes and swamps of northern North America, 
and 3) species extending up from the moun- 
tain systems of western America. The holarc- 
tic species number forty-one, with ten of these 
the same subspecies all around the north. 
Sixty-three species extend all across the 
boreal forest region of North America and 
of these forty are called the same sub- 
species. These two groups, then, comprise 
the populations that were free to move and 
mix during the ice advances. They are 
adapted to vegetation types that would seem 
to have been of general distribution during 
glaciation. But the influence of the separa- 
tion of the eastern and western forests is 
shown in the species, nine, that extend from 
the eastern forests about to the northeast 
corner of British Columbia. Of the last geo- 
graphical group, the Cordilleran species, 
twelve are subspecific identities and ten are 
full species clearly differentiated from eastern 
American species. Two have interesting split 
distributions, occurring in the Rocky Moun- 



118 



The Canadian Field-Naturalist 



[Vol. 67 



tain system and on the northeastern arctic 
coast, harlequin duck and Barrow's goldeneye. 
Fernald has discussed plants with similar 
distributions in his studies of the Newfound- 
land flora. 

Fifteen species have ranges in the Cordil- 
leran system that extend east across the 
northern Great Plains as far as Manitoba. 
These perhaps show the eastward extension 
of biological types from the Rocky Mountains 
that Raup discussed in his flora of the Atha- 
basca-Great Slave Lake regoin (1946). 

Turning next to the populations that can 
be pictured as coming from smaller refugia 
and, therefore, as being less aggressive, the 
majority of the species listed as North Ameri- 
can tundra species (including tundra-nesting 
Canada geese) occur in the western arctic. 
This seems to suggest the repopulation of the 
tundra from the west for them and agrees 
with the existence of a refugium north of 
the Brooks Range in Alaska. However, the 
real evidence from these birds of the north- 
western interior is for a large, open-forested 
refugium in interior Alaska. In this area, 
local subspecies of forest birds could dif- 
ferentiate, such as spruce grouse, ruffed 
grouse, herring gull, short-billed gull, Canada 
jay, black-capped chickadee, Alaska chickadee, 
varied thrush, boreal shrike, myrtle warbler, 
pine grosbeak, and tree sparrow. 

There is strong indication of lack of 
spreading by the endemic species of the 
northwest Pacific coast islands. Of the large 
number of species that are described from 
that area, perhaps only rusty song sparrow 
can be thought of as having spread inland. 
It is hard to guess just what area could be 
suggested for wandering tatler as it extends 
from the interior of the Yukon and Prince 
William Sound to eastern Siberia, but judging 
from its present nesting sites, it should have 
found no lack of ideal country during the ice 
advances. 

In the lists, it will be noticed that certain 
species appear twice, for example species oc- 
curring across the northern forests with a 
subspecies in the Cordilleran region are in- 
cluded as showing relations to both; Cordil- 
leran species with local subspecies in the 
north also show relations to two areas. These 
are larger patterns of relationships that, per- 
haps, can point out the status of the larger 
species complexes before they were split by 
latest climatic changes of the Pleistocene. 
The presence of all of these species groups; 



the circumboreal, those with relationships to 
eastern Canada, those with relationship to 
the species of the mountain systems and the 
local Alaskan endemics seem to indicate that 
the area of this paper is one occupied by 
migrations from a series of persistent popu- 
lations and is a collecting and mixing ground 
of related forms. It also agrees with the 
botanical observation that species of the 
Cordilleran area are less vigorous in their 
expansions to the northeast. Rather, it 
seems that "Refugia" or persistence areas of 
the East (probably south of the glacial 
boundary) were larger and the populations 
of these more varied and therefore vigorous 
and capable of spreading into a new habitat. 

It would be unprofitable to draw far- 
reaching conclusions from these geographical 
relationships, but they do indicate corre- 
lations with patterns pointed out in the 
studies of geographical botany that should 
not be mere coincidence. Birds are well re- 
cognized to adjust themselves remarkably to 
vegetation types, and certainly, then, these 
patterns are no surprise. They merely in- 
dicate that the correlations exist as historical 
patterns as well as present-day observations. 

Lists of species by their geographic rela- 
tionships, including species recorded by Rand 
(1948) but not seen by this author. 

CIRCUMBOREAL SPECIES 

(* — indicates the same subspecies) 
black-throated (arctic) loon 

* red-throated loon 
Holboell's red-necked grebe 

■= horned grebe 

'■ common mallard (subspecies in Greenland) 

pintail 

shoveller 

greater scaup 

American golden-eye 

old-squaw 

white-winged scoter 

* red-breasted merganser (subspecies in 
Greenland) 

eastern goshawk 
American rough-legged hawk 
American golden eagle 
American marsh hawk 
American osprey 
American duck hawk 

* gyrfalcon 

* (black-shafted) willow ptarmigan 
southern rock ptarmigan 
semi-palmated ringed plover 

* northern phalarope 



July-Sept., 1953] 



The Canadian Field-Naturalist 



119 



herring gull 
mew gull 

* arctic tern 
American hawk owl 
great grey owl 

* northern short-eared owl 
Richardson's owl 
horned lark 

■^ common bank swallow 
American barn swallow 
American black-billed magpie 
North American raven 
wheatear 

eastern American pipit 
American Bohemian waxwing 
boreal shrike 
common redpoll 
red crossbill 

BOREAL NORTH AMERICAN FORESTS 
AND SWAMPS 

(* — indicates the same subspecies) 

* common loon 
Canada goose 

* blue-winged teal 

* green-winged teal 

* bufflehead 

* northern sharp-shinned hawk 
red-tailed hawk 

* northern bald eagla 
eastern pigeon hawk 

* eastern sparrow hawk 
spruce grouse 
ruffed grouse 

* northern killdeer plover 

* upland plover 

* lesser yellow-legs 
eastern solitary sandpiper 

* spotted sandpiper 

* Wilson's snipe 
mourning dove 
horned owl 

* eastern nighthawk 

* eastern belted kingfisher 

* northern yellow-shafted flicker 

* northern hairy woodpecker 

* arctic three-toed woodpecker 
American three-toed woodpecker 

* eastern phoebe 

* Traill's alder flycatcher 

* olive-sided flycatcher 

* tree swallow 
greater cliff swallow 

* purple martin 
eastern Canada jay 
black-capped chickadee 
brown-headed chickadee 

* red-breasted nuthatch 



* eastern American robin (subspecies in 
Ungava-Newf oundland ) 

* hermit thrush 

* olive-backed Swainson's thrush 

* northern grey-cheeked thrush 
^' eastern ruby-crowned kinglet . 

* blue-headed vireo 

* Tennessee warbler 

* northern yellow warbler 
myrtle warbler 

"^^ black-poll warbler 
black-capped warbler 
northern water-thrush 
yellow-throat 

* rusty blackbird 
purple finch 
pine grosbeak 

* northern pine siskin 

* northern white-winged crossbill 
Savannah sparrow 

* eastern slate-colored junco 

* eastern chipping sparrow 
tree sparrow 
white-crowned sparrow 

* white-throated sparrow 

* eastern fox sparrow 

* northern Lincoln's sparrow 
song sparrow 

SUBSPECIES FROM THE EASTERN 

FORESTS TO ABOUT THE NORTHEAST 

CORNER OF BRITNSH COLUMBIA 

(From this list are eliminated such species 
that are very much subdivided into subspecies 
east of this point, such as ruffed grouse, 
horned owl, horned lark, black-capped chick- 
adee, and yellow-throat.) 

Canada goose (?) 

eastern pigeon hawk 

eastern solitary sandpiper 

eastern Canada jay 

myrtle warbler 

black-capped warbler 

pine grosbeak 

tree sparrow 

white-throated sparrow 

CORDILLERAN SPECIES 

Species: 
blue grouse 
white-tailed ptarmigan 
rufous hummingbird 
northern violet-green swallow 
northern American dipper 
varied thrush 
Townsend's solitaire 
Townsend's warbler 
grey-crowned rosy finch 



120 



The Canadian Field-Naturalist 



[Vol. 67 



golden-crowned sparrow 

Subspecies: 
Harlan's hawk 
western pigeon hawk 
western solitary sandpiper 
northwestern horned owl 
western belted kingfisher 
Alaska three-toed woodpecker 
pallid horned lark 
Columbian brown-headed chickadee 
Rocky Mountain orange-crowned warbler 
northern pileolated warbler 
Bendire's red crossbill 
Cassiar slate-colored junco 

ROCKY MOUNTAIN AND NORTHEAST 
ARCTIC COAST 

Barrow's goldeneye 

Harlequin duck (different subspecies) 

CORDILLERAN, NORTHWEST GREAT 

PLAINS AND WESTERN CANADIAN 

SHIELD 

lesser loon (?) 
baldpate 
canvas-back 

lesser scaup (not cordilleran) 
ruddy duck 

Alaskan sharp-tailed grouse (not cordille- 
ran) 

Bonaparte's gull 
western mourning dove 
Say's phoebe 
western wood pewee 
American magpie 
mountain bluebird 
Bohemian waxwing 
Northwestern shrike 
orange-crowned warbler 
Grinnell's northern waterthrush 
Gambel's white-crowned sparrow 

LOCAL SUBSPECIES IN ALASKA AND 
YUKON 

Alaska spruce grouse 

Yukon ruffed grouse 

Alaska willow ptarmigan (if a good 

subspecies) 

Kenai white-tailed ptarmigan 

long-billed dowitcher 

short-billed gull 

Alaska jay 

Yukon black-capped chickadee 

Alaska chickadee 

northern varied thrush 

Alaska hermit thrush 

Alaska myrtle warbler 



Alaska pine grosbeak 
western tree sparrow 
kodiak Savannah sparrow 

WESTERN ARCTIC TUNDRA 

Pacific loon 

whistling swan 

lesser Canada goose 

western white-winged scoter (if a good 

subspecies) 

eastern golden plover 

pectoral sandpiper 

NORTH AMERICAN TUNDRA 

surf scoter 

Kellogg's rock ptarmigan 
little brown sandhill crane 
least sandpiper 
semipalmated sandpiper 

ANNOTATED LIST OF SPECIES 

The assignment to subspecies follows the 
conclusions of A. L. Rand (Nat. Mus. of Can- 
ada, Bulletin No. 105, 1946). An attempt has 
been made to include the latest changes 
in nomenclature. 

Common Loon [Gavia immer subsp.] 
nested on the larger lakes and ponds. They 
were seen on Pine lake, Sulphur lake, Kluane 
lake and flying overland as if they trade 
between lakes frequently. 

Pacific Loon [Gavia arctica pacifica (Law- 
rence)]. About four birds were seen in late 
July and August on Kluane lake. 

Holboell's Grebe [Colymbus grisegena 

holbolli (Reinhardt)]. Three birds in fall 

plumage were seen in Kluane lake, August 
26. 

Homed Grebe [Colymbus auritus Lin- 
naeus]. Six or eight birds were seen in 
breeding plumage on Kluane lake, in August. 

Whistling Swan [Cygnus columbianus 
(Ord)]. Three, then one, were seen flying 
over Pine creek in June. According to Rand 
(1946), on the basis of locality and time, 
these might have been trumpeter swans 
[Cygnus buccinator Richardson]. The Indians 
say that swans are common in the fall, but 
they had not migrated through when we left 
in early September. These would be whistling 
swans. 

Lesser Canada Goose [Branta canadensis 
leucopareia (Brandt)]. The status of this 
species complex is still doubtful. Geese were 
very common in late August. They were 
seen especially on the grassy (Deschampsia 



July-Sept., 1953] 



The Canadian Field-Naturalist 



121 



caespitosa) shores of lakes and were often 
heard flying over at night. Six were seen 
July 1. 

Mallard [Anas platyrynchos platyrhyn- 
chos Linnaeus] was fairly common in the 
shallow, meadowy sloughs and streams in 
the low altitude muskegs (Calamagrostis cana- 
densis-Carex types). They were also seen on 
grassy lake-margins (Deschampsia caespitosa 
type). 

Blue-winged Teal [Anas discors Linnaeus] 
nested at Whiskers creek. 

Green-winged Teal [Anas carolinensis 
Gmelin] nested in the grassy margins of 
streams north of Kluane lake. They were 
common in migration in August on the 
grassy shores of lakes where they fed in 
areas of Deschampsia caespitosa flooded by 
the rise of the lakes. 

American Pintail [Anas acuta tzitzihoa 
Vieillot] was common on the grassy shores of 
Kluane and the smaller lakes (Deschampsia 
caespitosa type). 

Shoveller [Spatula clypeata (Linnaeus)] 
hred on Pine lake and Sulphur lake, and 
occurred on migration on Kluane lake. They 
were not as common as the above. 

Canvas-back [Aythya valisineria Wilson]. 
Four pairs were seen in late June on Sulphur 
lake. 

Greater Scaup Duck [Aythya marila ne- 
arctica Stejneger]. Flocks of from fifty to 
one hundred were seen on migration in Aug- 
ust on the small ponds just north of Kluane 
lake. Some few were feeding in stands of 
Carex aquatilis, but most were out in the 
center of the ponds. They all seemed to be 
feeding on Potamogeton or algae. 

Lesser Scaup Duck [Aythya affinis 
(Eyton)] nested at Pine lake. Sulphur lake, 
in muskegs (along Jarvis creek), and in 
many grassy sloughs (along Little-arm creek 
and Whiskers creek). They were common 
during migration on Kluane lake, but in 
smaller flocks than greater scaup. 

American Golden-eye [Bucephala clangula 
americana (Bonaparte)] probably nested at 
Pine lake. Sulphur lake, Kluane lake and 
along Little-arm creek. Rand (1950) says the 
summer and breeding status in the Yukon 
is unknown. 

Barrow's Golden-eye [Bucephala islandica 
(Gmelin)]. This was actually the commoner 
species of golden-eye. They seemed to be 
nesting on Pine lake. Sulphur lake and the 



small ponds near Kluane lake. They were 
seen along Little-arm creek, near Whiskers 
creek, Ptarmigan Heart and Deep lake. On 
August 23, after there had already been 
a three inch snow-fall on the lake shore, 
two 3-to-4-weeks-old young were seen with 
their mother. As a young boy had shot them, 
it was possible to be sure of the identity. 
The mother had nested by a pond whose 
margin was covered with spruce woods, wil- 
low-birch muskeg and Calamagrostis cana- 
densis meadow. 

Buffle-head [Bucephala albeola (Lin- 
naeus)] was common on Pine lake. Sulphur 
lake, Kluane lake, the small ponds just north 
of Kluane lake and several small lakes and 
ponds near Redtail lake and Ptarmigan Heart. 
A hunter killed two young, still unable to 
fly, on August 24. 

Harlequin Duck [Histrionicus histrionicus 
pacificus Brooks]. A pair was seen on the 
Rancheria river on May 23. This is near 
Watson lake, and does not belong in this 
quadrangle. 

White-winged Scoter [Melanitta fusca 
subsp.]. About ten were seen on Sulphur lake 
in June and twenty on Kluane lake in late 
August. 

Surf Scoter [Melanitta perspicillata (Lin- 
naeus)]. Twenty were seen on Kluane lake in 
early July. They were common in small 
flocks on Kluane lake in August. 

(Ruddy Duck [Oxyura jamaicensis rubida 
(Wilson)] was seen on a grassy slough near 
Sulphur lake in late June. This species has 
not previously been reported from the area 
according to Rand's list (1946) or those 
previous lists he summarizes. A single adult 
male bird in rather poor plumage was seen 
once on the only visit in this area. The 
bird had the black cap and white cheeks 
of full male plumage, but its body was 
splotched with chestnut and gray-brown. It 
was seen clearly, in good light, at about 60 
yards with eight power binoculars.) 

Red-breasted Merganser [Mergus serrator 
Linnaeus] was seen on Pine lake in June 
and was common on Kluane lake in August. 
Some ten 2-to-3-day-old young were seen on 
Kluane lake on August 10. These were still 
unable to fly on August 26. 

Goshawk [Accipiter gentilis atricapillus 
(Wilson)] was seen in a black spruce muskeg 
near Snag in early September. 

Sharp-shinned Hawk [Accipiter striatus 
velox (Wilson)] was seen flying over aspen 



122 



The Canadian Field-Naturalist 



[Vol. 67 



or poplar groves at Pine creek in June, Bridge 
creek in July and Burwash Landing on August 
27. 

Harlan's Hawk [Buteo jamaicensis harlani 
(Audubon)] was not seen in the Pine creek 
region, but was very common in the burned 
areas near Kluane lake. There were at least 
ten individuals along the southwestern side 
of the lake in a distance of twenty miles. 
One was seen at Bridge creek. 

Golden Eagle [Aquila chrysaetos cana- 
densis (Linnaeus)]. There were at least two 
birds in the region between Bear creek and 
Jarvis creek. Another was seen over Deep 
lake. 

Northern Bald Eagle [Haliaeetus leuco- 
cephalus washingtoniensis (Audubon)]. These 
eagles were seen near Mile 95 on the Haines 
Road, at Christmas creek, at Burwash creek, 
at Burwash Landing, four between Bridge 
creek and Whiskers creek, near Ptarmigan 
Heart and near Deep lake. This species 
seemed to keep near timbered country, while 
golden eagles seemed to be above tree-line. 

Marsh Hawk [Circus cyaneus hudsonius 
(Linnaeus)] was seen over open country, 
willow-heath muskeg, near Pine creek. Bridge 
creek, near Burwash Landing and occasionally 
above tree-line. 

Gyrfalcon [Falco rusticolus obsoletus 
Gmelin]. One grey-phase individual was seen 
in late August: first chasing a raven, then 
sitting on the beach, and finally circling 
and hawking over the lake near Burwash 
Landing. The falcon was noticeably larger 
than the raven, but the latter seemed to be 
a better flyer. This species is not included 
in Rand's list (1946). 

Pigeon Hawk [Falco columbarius ? colum- 
barius Linnaeus]. Rand (1946) calls Yukon 
specimens F. c. columbarius, the eastern 
subspecies, but J. L. Peters (1927) calls them 
bendirei. These birds were seen at Cham- 
pagne and Bridge creek in spruce forests. 

Eastern Sparrow Hawk [Falco sparverius 
sparverius Linnaeus] was common through- 
out, especially on the edges of open places 
and in burned areas. 

Alaska Spruce Grouse [Canachites cana- 
densis osgoodi Bishop] were fairly common 
in deep spruce woods in the Dezadeash 
and Kluane valleys. A pair was seen at 
Henry creek. 

Yukon Ruffed Grouse [Bonasa umbellus 
yukonensis Grinnell] were seen in the aspen 
and poplar groves near Pine creek. 



Black-shafted Willow Ptarmigan [Lagopus 
lagopus lagopus (Linnaeus)]. Rand follows 
Peters (1934, Check list of Birds of the 
World, Vol. 2, p. 30) in calling these the 
typical subspecies. Ptarmigan were common 
everywhere above tree-line. Probably Lagopus 
rnutus rupestris (Gmelin) was present in the 
regions we visited, but the only birds defi- 
nitely identified (two) were willow ptarmigan. 

Ring-necked Pheasant [Phasianus colchicus 
torquatus Gmelin] was heard near the Dom- 
inion Experimental Substation at Pine creek, 
in June. 

Little Brown Crane [Grus canadensis cana- 
densis (Linnaeus)]. The Indians said this 
bird is very common on migration near 
Kluane lake, but they had not come by the 
first week of September. 

Semi-palmated Plover [Charadrius hiati- 
cula semipalmatus Bonaparte]. A pair was 
seen on the gravel and mud shores of the 
lake near Burwash Landing on July 1. They 
behaved as though there were a nest near. 
A few were seen in August on migration. 

Killdeer [Charadrius vociferus vociferus 
Linnaeus] was heard in the prairie openings 
near Pine creek in June. Killdeer are rare 
stragglers in this area. Rand (1946) includes 
one sight record and Bailey (1948) two 
collections from Point Barrow, Alaska. 

Golden Plover [Pluvialis dominica domi- 
nica (MUller)] was seen singly or in groups 
up to eight on Kluane lake in August. 

Wilson's Snipe [Capella gallinago delicata 
(Ord)] was seen and their song and chatter 
heard in willow muskegs near Pine creek 
in June. A few were seen on migration in 
August near Kluane lake. 

Upland Plover [Bartramia longicauda 
(Bechstein)] was found quite commonly near 
grassy meadows or sloping bogs of Eriopho- 
rum brachy anther um in the willow-heath 
scrub country. At least twenty-two pairs were 
seen north of Kluane lake in July. They were 
still flying over the shores of Kluane lake 
during the first week of September when 
their nesting areas had been covered with 
snow for two weeks. 

Spotted Sandpiper [Actitis macularia (Lin- 
naeeus)] was common along all lake-shores 
and most streams below timber-line. They 
were not seen in the first week of September. 

Solitary Sandpiper [Tringa solitaria 
subsp.]. Probably both eastern and western 
subspecies occur in this area. Two were 



July-Sept., 1953] 



The Canadian Field-Naturalist 



123 



seen and heard in a migrating flock of lesser 
yellow-legs on July 22 at Boulder creek. 
According to Conover, 1944, T. s. cinnamomea 
breeds to the north of this area and Mr. 
Godfrey tells me that the three June and 
July specimens he took in this area were all 
undoubtedly closer to solitaria. Because my 
birds were clearly migrating, it would be 
dangerous to assign them to subspecies. 

Lesser Yellow-legs [Totanus flavipes 
(Gmelin)] nested in grassy sloughs near 
Pine lake, above tree-line near Mile 85 on 
the Haines road, near Kluane lake, Bridge 
creek and Boulder creek. They were still 
present around the lake during the first 
week in September. 

Pectoral Sandpiper [Erolia melanotos 
(Vieillot)]. Six were seen near Burwash 
Landing on August 27. 

Semipalmated Sandpiper [Ereunetess pu- 
villus (Linnaeus)] was seen during the first 
week of July and again in August on the 
shore of Kluane lake. They were not seen 
well enough to make absolutely sure they 
were not western sandipers [Ereunetes 
-mauri]. Rand (1946) lists only the present 
species. 

Northern Phalarope [Lobipes lobatus 
(Linnaeus)]. Flocks of from a dozen to about 
fifty were seen on Kluane lake from August 
10 until the first week of September. 

Herring Gull [Larus argentatus subsp.]. 
The breeding herring gulls of all this region 
seemed to differ from subspecies recognized 
at present, in the color of their wing-tips. 
They may be an undescribed race. On two 
occasions gulls were examined from less than 
fifty feet with 8 x 40 binoculars in perfect 
light. The "black" on the tips of the primaries 
was actually a slatey color, not the familiar 
color found in eastern birds. This slatey 
region was restricted to a margin around the 
wing-tip. When one bird stretched its wings, 
it showed clearly that the tenth (outermost) 
primary of the right wing had a long white 
tip without a black spot cutting off a "mir- 
ror". This pattern is similar to that found in 
skins of the described race "thayeri" of 
Brooks. The voice of the gulls in this area 
was higher and hoarser than that of the 
eastern birds; the usual "kee-ow" cry was 
consistently given as: "keeeeeeee-yow, ke-yow- 
ke-yow-ke-yowwww", always with the same 
three divisions of the second half and the 
shrill quality. No comparisons could be made 
of bill size, but the impression was the same 
as given in skins of L. a. thayeri. 



Herring gulls were seen on Pine lake, 
Sulphur lake, Dezadeash lake, Kluane lake, 
Boulder creek and in small sloughs above 
tree-line on the Haines road. They were often 
seen flying from Pine lake to the Alsek river. 

Short-billed gull [Larus canus brachy- 
rhynchus Richardson] was common around 
Pine lake and was frequently seen in the 
prairie openings near Pine creek. They used 
to feed in the grass of the prairie openings 
and would come for scraps thrown to them. 
Eventually, they came to sit on the ridge 
poles of our tents waiting for them. They 
were seen above tree-line on the Haines 
road, at Sulphur lake, near Bridge creek. 
Ptarmigan Heart, and Boulder creek, and 
on Kluane lake. However, they did not come 
around the village of Burwash Landing nor 
our camp there for scraps. 

Bonaparte's Gull [Larus Philadelphia 
(Ord)]. Two pairs were often seen on Pine 
lake and flying over the muskegs of the 
neighborhood. This gull was also seen above 
tree-line on the Haines road, near Little 
Arm of Kluane lake, at Bridge creek, above 
tree-line near Ptarmigan Heart and near 
Jarvis creek. 

Arctic Tern [Sterna paradisaea Pontop- 
pidian] seemed to be nesting on Pine lake. 
Sulphur lake, Kluane lake and near Ptarmi- 
gan Heart. None were seen after August 19. 

Western Mourning Dove [Zenaidura ma- 
croura marginella (Woodhouse)]. One was 
seen in the prairie openings near the Domi- 
nion Experimental Substation at Pine creek 
in June. 

Northwestern Horned Owl [Bubo virginia- 
nus lagophonus (Oberholser) ] was seen near 
Pine lake, Mile 1013, in deep spruce forest, 
and heard at Bridge creek in a burned area. 
The Indians say that when this owl hoots, 
he says "people are fighting". When an 
Indian says this he sounds just like a horned 
owl. 

Great Gray Owl [Strix nebulosa nebulosa 
Forster]. The author had a fleeting glimpse 
of this bird in the deep spruce woods on 
the edge of the Duke river, near Kluane 
lake. Dr. Johnson saw the bird a few minutes 
later and perfectly described an owl of this 
species, although he did not know the species 
existed. 

The Indians described two other owls that 
they know around Burwash Landing which 
could only be Richardson's owl [Aegolius 
funerea richardsoni (Bonaparte)] and Ameri- 



124 



The Canadian Field-Naturalist 



[Vol. 67 



can hawk owl [Surnia ulula caparoch (Mtil- 
ler)]. 

Eastern Nighthawk [Chordeiles minor 
minor (Forster)] was very common in areas 
occupied by open spruce forest (Porsild's 
spruce) in the Dezadeash valley and near 
Kluane lake. Several pairs were seen in an 
old burn near Bridge creek. 

Rufous Hummingbird [Selasphorus rujus 
(Gmelin)]. A hummingbird was reported by 
Mrs. Abbott, wife of the Superintendent of 
the Dominion Experimental Substation. It 
had spent some time around her house dur- 
ing July. This species is the only one probable. 

Belted Kingfisher [Megaceryle alcyon 
subsp.] was seen along all the creeks in 
the Dezadeash valley from Champagne to 
Bear creek. Around Kluane lake they were 
seen at Burwash Landing, the Little Arm, 
the Big Arm, Christmas creek, Little-Arm 
creek and Kluane river. 

Northern Yellow-shafted Flicker [Colaptes 
auratus luteus Bangs] was common in the 
Dezisdeash valley in both deciduous and 
coniferous woods. They were common, too, 
around Burwash Landing, Little-Arm creek, 
Whiskers creek, Henry creek. Ptarmigan 
Heart and Coulte's creek. They seemed to 
have left by the 20th of August. Rand (1944) 
does not accept borealis for the northwestern 
flicker. He considers the series a cline and 
includes borealis in luteus. 

Northern Hairy Woodpecker [Dendroco- 
pos villosus septentrionalis (Nuttall)] was 
seen and heard in the aspen groves near 
Pine creek, at Burwash Landing, at Whiskers 
creek and at Boulder creek. They were much 
less in evidence than flickers. 

Arctic Three-toed Woodpecker [Picoides 

arcticus (Swainson)] was seen in early June 
in a burned area near Pine lake and on 
August 15 in Porsild's spruce near Burwash 
Landing. 

Alaska Three-toed Woodpecker [Picoides 
tridactylus fasciatus Baird] was seen in the 
deep spruce forests, near the Duke river in 
August and two adults with three young at 
Boulder creek in August. 

(Eastern Phoebe [Sayornis phoebe (La- 
tham)] was seen in the aspen groves at Pine 
creek during June. This species is not in- 
cluded in Rand's list (1946). The bird was 
seen several times in the region of our 
campsite near Pine creek. It was recognized 
by lack of wing-bars, large dark head, and 
tail-wagging. The bird could be confused 



with an olive-sided flycatcher, but that bird 
does not wag its tail and in my experience 
in the northwest, is a bird of wet, especially 
black spruce muskegs, making itself con- 
spicuous with its cries.) 

Say's Phoebe [Sayornis saya saya (Bona- 
parte)] was found around buildings on the 
edges of prairie openings and in some burned 
areas along the highway. They were seen 
at Whitehorse, Champagne, Canyon, Haines 
Junction, the Experimental Substation, Bear 
creek, Kluane village, Burwash Landing and 
the Duke river meadows. The last were seen 
after snow had fallen, on August 23. 

Alder Flycatcher [Empidonax traillii 
traillii (Audubon)] nested in the willow 
muskegs at Mile 1013 and Pine creek. 

Western Wood Pewee [Contopus richard' 
sonii richardsonii (Swainson)] was found in 
both aspen and spruce woods at Pine creek, 
in spruce woods at Burwash Landing and 
in aspen-birch woods above Whiskers creek 
on the pass to Teacup. There were several 
still left in the Burwash Landing region on 
August 23. 

Northern Violet-green Swallow [Tachyci- 
neta thalassina lepida Mearns] were seen 
over prairie openings, usually near houses, 
at Champagne, Canyon, the Experimental 
Substation and Burwash Landing. They were 
seen flocking on August 1 and had left by 
August 23. 

Bank Swallow [Riparia riparia riparia 
(Linnaeus)] nested in the silt banks of 
stream terraces at Canyon and near Kluane 
village. 

American Barn Swallow [Hirundo rustica 
erythrogaster Boddaert] nested under the 
highway bridge at Jarvis creek in June. 

Greater Cliff Swallow [Petrochelidon 
pyrrhonota hypopolia Oberholser] nested at 
Champagne, Canyon and Burwash Landing. 
Ninety-four nests were built this year on 
the barn at the Experimental Substation. 
A flock of about thirty was seen far above 
tree-line between Bridge creek and Deep 
lake in the evening of July 23. All the 
swallow left Burwash Landing about the 
twentieth of August. 

(Purple Martin [Progne subis subis (Lin- 
naeus)]. Either two or three of these were 
seen at Whitehorse on the last two days 
of May. These birds were identified by their 
large size, slow wing beat and all dark colora- 
tion. They clearly lacked the white underparts 
of tree and violet-green swallows. This species 
is not included in Rand's list (1946).) 



July-Sept., 1953] 



The Canadian Field-Naturalist 



125 



Eastern Canada Jay [PerisoreiLS canadensis 
canadensis (Linnaeus)] was very common 
everywhere. They soon appeared at every 
camp we made except those far above tree- 
line. They were present in all types of forest, 
but were not as numerous in aspen woods 
as in spruce. 

American Magpie [Pica pica hudsonia 
(Sabine)] was seen and seemed to be nesting 
at Champagne, Canyon, Pine creek, Bear 
creek, Dezadeash lake, Christmas creek. Bur- 
wash Landing, Whiskers creek, Ptarmigan 
Heart and the Duke meadows. They were 
only found close to some open, grassy or 
prairie country. At Whiskers creek and Ptar- 
migran Heart, the tussock muskeg provided 
this type, but in the other places magpies 
were near regular prairie openings. 

Northern Raven [Corvus corax principalis 
Ridgway] was seen at Champagne, Pine lake. 
Pine creek. Bear creek, along the Haines 
road, at Slim's river, Christmas creek, at at 
least six localities along the highway beside 
Kluane lake, at Bridge creek and Ptarmigan 
Heart. Ravens were as common as could be 
expected of a bird of this size and habits. 
We were told near Watson's lake that they 
were seen the winter before flying around 
and feeding when the temperature was 85° 
below zero, fahrenheit. Along the highway, 
they were seen near highway camps, but 
didn't seem to be attracted to them any more 
than to the lake shores. 

Back-capped Chickadee [Parus atricapillus 
subsp.]. Duvall (1945, Auk, 62, pp. 49-66) 
suggests these birds may be an undescribed 
race. He refers them tentatively to P. a. 
turneri of Ridgway. 

They were seen in the aspen groves at 
the Experimental Substation near Pine lake 
in Spruce forest, at Marshall creek, at Cham- 
pagne and were common near Burwash Land- 
ing in the open spruce woods. They did not 
extend into the country north of Kluane 
lake and whenever seen, they were in the 
company of brown-capped chickadees. 

Columbian Brown-headed Chickadee [Parus 
hudsonius columhianv^ Rhoads] were com- 
mon in spruce and aspen woods through the 
whole region. Sooner or later we would find 
a flock of them wherever there were trees. 

Red-breasted Nuthatch [Sitta canadensis 
Linnaeus] was seen and heard in spruce 
woods near Pine lake in June, near Burwash 
Landing on August 10 and at Mile 1073 on 
August 13. 



Eastern American Robin [Turdus migrato- 
rius migratorius Linnaeus] were common in 
the open spruce forests except near Boulder 
creek and were especially common in the aspen 
groves at Pine creek. They appeared wherever 
there were trees along the Haines road. They 
had begun to flock by August first, but 
were still present in the first week of Sep- 
tember. 

Northern Varied Thrush [Ixoreus naevius 
meruloides (Swainson)] was heard near Dal- 
ton Post in June and both seen and heard 
near Burwash Landing on August 25. 

Hermit Thrush [Hylocichla guttata subsp.] 
Both subspecies, guttata of Pallas and faxoni 
of Bangs and Penard, are reported from the 
Yukon Territory near this area. Songs were 
heard in the aspen groves on the Experimen- 
tal Substation and in other scattered places 
in the Dezadeash valley and at Bridge creek. 

Olive-backed Thrush [Hylocichla ustulata 
swainsoni (Tschudi)]. Songs of these birds 
were heard heard commonly in both spruce 
and aspen woods in the Dezadeash valley and 
they were seen on several occasions. They 
were common, too, near Kluane lake. A nest 
was found on the ground among Calamagrostis 
purpurascens, Arctostaphylos uva-ursi and 
Lupinus arcticus, near a Salix glauca bush 
in the Porsild's spruce-balsam poplar open 
forest on the lake shore. Although this is 
an unusual nesting site, I am sure of the 
identification because I saw the bird twice 
from about fifteen feet in excellent light. 

Mountain Bluebird [Sialia currucoides 
(Bechstein)]. Pairs were seen in June at 
Champagne, Canyon, Pine creek and near 
Bear creek. They were seen in July and 
August near Burwash Landing, the Duke 
river meadows and the Donjek river. A flock 
of twenty was seen near Burwash Landing 
from August 15 to 19. None were seen after 
the 20th. 

The birds at Canyon nested in an old 
bank swallow hole. Everywhere found, these 
birds were in the open forest of Porsild's 
spruce near grassland. One pair, that at Bear 
creek, was on the edge of a large cleared 
area beside the highway. 

Townsend's Solitaire [Myadestes townsendi 
(Aubudon)] was seen at the summit near 
Bear creek and at Mile 134 on the Haines 
road in June, and near Bridge creek in 
July. They seemed to stay in the scattered 
spruces near tree-line during the breeding 
season. With the first snows, they came down 
from higher land and several were seen 



126 



The Canadian Field-Naturalist 



[Vol. 67 



near Burwash Landing in the last two weeks 
of August. 

Eastern Ruby-crowned Kinglet [Regulus 
calendula calendula (Linnaeus)] was seen in 
several deeply wooded muskegs of Alberta 
white spruce in the Dezadeash valley during 
June. Two were seen near Burwash Landing 
with a migrating flock of myrtle and pileo- 
lated warblers on August 26. 

Eastern American Pipit [Anthus spinoletta 
ruhescens (Tunstall)] appeared in flocks of 
10-30 on the Kluane lake beaches and along 
the highway from the Donjek river to Christ- 
mas creek after August 20, as soon as the 
first snows covered the tops of the mountains. 

Bohemian Waxwing [Bombycilla garrula 
palUdiceps Reichenow] was seen at Kathleen 
river in mid-June and at Bridge creek, 
Whiskers creek and Ptarmigan Heart in July. 
They were common along the highway near 
Kluane lake through July and August. Wher- 
ever found, they seemed to prefer the more 
open spruce forests. 

(Blue-headed Vireo [Vireo solitarius subsp.]. 
One of these was seen in the aspen groves 
near Pine creek in June. This species is 
not included in Rand's list (1946).) 

Tennessee Warbler [Vermivora peregrina 
(Wilson)] nested in the vicinity of Salix 
glauca and Salix Tnyrtillifolia bushes on the 
margin between the aspen groves and willow 
muskeg at Pine creek. They were missed 
near Burwash Landing. 

Orange-crowned Warbler [Vermivora ce- 
lata subsp.]. Both subspecies seem to occur 
in this region, but C.H.D. Clarke collected 
an adult male of V. c. orestera of Oberholser 
at Burwash Landing, July 6, 1943. Mr. Godfrey 
suggests orestera seems to be the breeding 
form and says that they collected two ap- 
parently migrant specimens of the nominate 
race in August at Carcross. 

Northern Yellow Warbler [Dendroica pe- 
techia amnicola Batchelder] nested on the 
edges of the willow muskegs at Pine creek 
and was seen in July at Burwash Landing and 
Bridge creek. 

Alaska Myrtle Warbler [Dendroica coro- 
nata hooveri McGregor] was common every- 
where in the Dezadeash valley in June. They 
were seen in July in the spruce woods near 
Burwash Landing, at Bridge creek. Whiskers 
creek, Henry creek, Ptarmigan Heart and 
Boulder creek. They were still migrating 
through Burwash Landing on August 26. 



These, chickadees, juncos, and Canada 
jays seemed to be the only inhabitants of 
most of the Alberta spruce forest. 

Black-poll Warbler [Dendroica striata 
(Forster)] was seen in the aspen groves at 
Pine creek in June. This is a departure from 
the familiar habits of the species in the 
East where it is in general a bird of spruce 
forests. However, the bird has been seen 
regularly in Alaska in 1949 and 1950 in flood 
plain forests, 60% white birch and 40% white 
spruce, where it seems to prefer this type. 
It is also commonly found in birch thickets 
near tree-line in the mountains of New En- 
gland and eastern Canada. 

Northern Pileolated Warbler [Wilsonia 
pusilla pileolata (Pallas)] was seen in June 
at scattered places in the Dezadeash valley 
and in August in migrating flocks of myrtle 
warblers near Burwash Landing. They were 
found in both types of forest, but especially 
in spruce. They were seen August 26. 

Rusty Blackbird [Euphagus carolinus 
(Miiller)] was seen in June at Canyon creek, 
Jarvis creek and near Pine lake. They were 
seen on migration near Burwash Landing on 
August 27 and 31. 

(Purple Finch [Carpodacus purpureus 
subsp.]. An timmature male was seen rather 
poorly at Canyon in early June. This species 
is not included in Rand's list (1946).) 

Common Redpoll [Acanthis flammea flam- 
mea (Linnaeus)]. A flock of thirty was seen 
near Burwash Landing on August 26. 

Pine Siskin [Spinus pinus pinus (Wilson)] 
was abundant in all the spruce woods along 
the highway from Champagne to the Duke 
river and in the valleys of the creeks that 
flow into Kluane lake from the north. They 
were seen even above tree-line, but were 
entirely absent from Ptarmigan Heart valley 
probably because there was a relatively poor 
cone-crop there. The spruces were in an 
especially good cone-crop year and these and 
white-winged crossbills were, very common 
indeed. 

Red Crossbill [Loxia curvirostra bendirei 
Ridgway]. A flock of about tv/elve were seen 
and heard at Kluane lake on August 19, 
although there is no pine forest within nearly 
two hundred miles. They were in a stand 
of Porsild's spruce. 

Northern White-winged Crossbill [Loxia 
leucoptera leucoptera Gmelin]. These were 
common everywhere in the spruce forests in 
the Dezadeash valley during June and around 



July-Sept., 1953] 



The Canadian Field-Naturalist 



127 



Kluane lake in late July and August. They 
were seen everywhere there is spruce north 
of Kluane lake, but were not especially 
common. These and siskins were seen in 
numbers as late as the first week in Sep- 
tember. The spruce cone crop in 1948 was 
especially heavy in the Shakwak valley, but 
not noticeably so in the rest of the area. 

Kodiak Savannah Sparrow [Passerculus 
sandwichensis anthinus Bonaparte] was com- 
mon in open prairies along streams at Pine 
lake, near Pine creek and near Jarvis creek. 
They were common everywhere above tree- 
line in the willow-birch scrub and in the 
Eriophorum tussocks area near Henry creek, 
near Ptarmigan Heart and near Boulder creek. 
They seem to prefer areas of heath shrubs 
where there is a lot of grassy vegetation lOo, 
rather than pure grassy regions. 

Eastern Slate-colored Junco [Junco hye- 
vialis hy emails (Linnaeus)] was common in 
both types of woods in the Dezadeash valley 
in June and around Kluane lake in August. 
They were seen everywhere north of Kluane 
lake, even some distance above tree-line. 
They are one of the most characteristic birds 
of the region and were still present the first 
week of September. 

Western Tree Sparrow [Spizella arborea 
ochracea Brewster] were common and often 
heard singing in the lower altitude birch-wil- 
low muskegs in the Dezadeash valley and 
near Kluane lake. North of the lake, they 
were common in the muskegs and were the 
most conspicuous bird above tree-line wher- 
ever we went. They were still present the 
first week of September. 

Eastern Chipping Sparrow [Spizella pas- 
serina passerina (Bechstein)] was seen on 
the edges of open country in thin spruce or 
aspen woods in the Dezadeash valley and 
near Burwash Landing. There were at least 
six occupied localities. 

Gambel's White-crowned Sparrow [Zono- 
trichia leucophrys gambelii (Nuttall)] was 
very abundant and conspicuous on all shrubby 
muskegs throughout, and they seemed to be 
restricted to the higher shrubs on the mar- 
gins. Thus they were absent above tree-line 
and in the forests. 

Golden-crowned Sparrow [Zonotrichia 
coronata (Pallas)] Several ere heard sing- 
ing in late June above tree-line about Mile 
99 on the Haines road. 

White-throated Sparrow [Zonotrichia al- 
bicollis (Gmelin)] was heard singing at Pine 
creek in early June. 



Eastern Fox Sparrow [Passerella iliaca 
iliaca (Merrem)] was seen and heard in the 
willow muskeg at Pine creek. Their song was 
a departure from the already variable songs 
heard in the East. 



- - - - - - chidichidichidi 

zee - - - pur-zee-Iee-chew 

zay 

zew 
slow very fast trill 

Lincoln's Sparrow [Melosiza lincolnii 
lincolnii (Audubon)] was doubtfully seen in 
Pine creek muskeg in early June. 

LITERATURE CITED 

American Ornithologists Union, 1931. Check- 
list of North American Birds. Fourth 
Edition, pp. I-XIX + 526. Lancaster, 
Penna. 

Bailey, A. M., 1948. Birds of Arctic Alaska. 
pp. 1-317. The Colorado Museum of 
Natural History, Popular Series No. 8. 

Bent, A. C, 1919-1950. Life Histories of 
North American Birds. Bull. U.S. Nat. 
Mus. Nos. 107, 113, 121, 126, 130, 135, 142, 
146, 162, 167, 170, 174, 176, 179, 191, 195, 
196, 197. 

Brandt, Herbert. 1943. Alaska Bird Trails, 
pp. 1-XVIl + 464. The Bird Research 
Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio. 

Conover, Boardman, 1944. The Races of the 
Solitary Sandpiper. The Auk, Vol. 61, pp. 
537-544. 

Dwight, J., 1925. The Gulls (Laridae) of the 
World; their Plumages, Molts, Variations, 
Relationships and Distribution. Bulletin 
of the American Museum of Natural 
History, Vol. Lll, Art. Ill, pp. 63-401. 

Fernald, M. L., 1925. Persistence of Plants 
in Unglaciated areas of Boreal America. 
Mem. of the Amer. Acad, of Arts and 
Sciences, Vol. XV, No. Ill, pp. 239-342 
(page 303). 

Forbush, Edward H., 1925-1929. Birds of 
Massachusetts and the other New England 
States, Vol. MIL Commonwealth of 
Massachusetts. 

Hulten, E., 1937. Outline of the History of 
Arctic and Boreal Biota during the 
Quarternary Period. Stockholm. 

., 1941-1949. Flora of Alaska and 

Yukon. Band MX. Lunds Univ:s Arss- 
krift 38:1-45:1. 

Nichols, G. E., 1923. A Working Basis for the 
Ecological Classification of Plant Com- 
munities. Ecology 4: 11-23, 154-179. 



128 



The Canadian Field-Naturalist 



[Vol. 67 



Peters, J. L., 1927. The North American 
Races of Falco columbarius. Bulletin of 
the Essex County Ornithological Club 
for 1926, vol. 8., p. 22. 

Peters, James L., and Griscom, Ludlow, 
1938. Geographical Variation in the Savan- 
nah Sparrow. Mus. of Comp. Zool., Bull. 
Vol. 80, No. 13, pp. 445-477. 

Peterson, R. T., 1941. A Field Guide to 
Western Birds. Boston, Houghton Mifflin 
Company. 

., 1947. A Field Guide to the Birds. 

Boston, Houghton Mifflin Company. 

Pleske, Theodore, 1928. Birds of the Eura- 
sian Tundra. Memoirs Boston Society of 
Nat. Hist., Vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 485 + PI. 
16-35. 

Rand, A. L., 1944. A Northern Record of the 
Flicker and a Note on the Cline Colaptes 
auratus and auratus-luteus. The Canadian 
Field-Naturalist, Vol. 58, pp. 183, 184. 

., 1946. List of Yukon Birds and 

those of the Canol Road. Bulletin No. 105, 
Nat. Mus. of Canada, 76 pp. 

., 1950. H. B. Conover's Bird Work 



Raup, H. M., 1946. Phytogeographic Studies 
in the Athabasca-Great Slave Lake Re- 
gion, II. Journ. Arnold Arboretum, Vol. 
XXVII, No. 1, pp. 1-85 -f PI. I-V. 

., 1947a. The Botany of South- 



western Mackenzie. Sargentia VI. 275 pp. 
+ PI. I-XXXVII. 

., 1947b. Some Natural Floristic 



in the Yukon. The Canadian Field- 
Naturalist, Vol. 64, p. 217. 



Areas in Boreal America. Ecological 
Monographs, Vol. 17, No. 2., pp. 222-234. 

Stebbins, G. L., 1942. The Genetic approach 
to Problems of Rare and Endemic Species. 
Madrono 6: 241-258. 

Taverner, P. A., 1947. Birds of Canada. 433 
pp., The Musson Book Co., Toronto. 

Weaver, J. E., and F. E. Clements, 1929 
(1938). Plant Ecology, xx + 520 pp. (2nd 
ed. 1938). McGraw-Hill, New York. 

Witherby, H. F., Jourdain, F. C. R., Tice- 
hurst, N. F., and Tucker, B. W., 1941. The 
Handbook of British Birds, Vol. V, pp. 
79-103, H. F. and G. Witherby, London. 

Zeuner, F. E., 1946. Dating the Past. pp. I- 
XVIII -f 444 + PI. I-XXIV, Methuen and 
Co., London. 



RECORDS OF THE CREEK NORTHERN CHUB 
FROM ONTARIO^ 

A. E. Allin 

Fort William, Ontario, Canada 



TNURING the past ten years, we have col- 
■*->' lected fishes in that portion of the 
District of Thunder Bay, Ontario, extending 
in a narrow strip along the north shore of 
Lake Superior from the Minnesota-Ontario 
boundary, northeast 160 miles to Rossport. 
On twelve occasions from nine localities, we 
have taken specimens of the Lake Chub, 
Couesius plumbeus (Agassiz). The single in- 
dividual collected at one station proved to 
be a Lake Northern Chub Couesius plum- 
beus plumbeus (Agassiz) the form considered 
common throughout much of Ontario but 
the fish comprising the other eleven col- 
lections were Creek Northern Chub Couesius 
plumbeus dissimilis (Girard) a form not 
previously reported from the Province. 

Most of our collecting was done while 
angling for Eastern Brook Trout Salvelinus 

1 Beceived for publication July 18, 1952. 



fontinalis fontinalis (Mitchill). Some speci- 
mens were taken while angling, but the 
majority were caught in a small trap-net. 
A few fish were received from fellow anglers 
who wished them identified. Throughout the 
investigations I received the co-operation of 
my son, David. On August 13, 1946, while I 
was fishing in Beartrap Lake, west of Ross- 
port, David set a trap-net and later brought 
me a large number of cyprinid fishes which 
have been identified by Dr. Samuel Eddy, 
Department of Zoology, University of Minne- 
sota, as the Creek Northern Chub, Couesius 
plumbeus dissimilis (Girard). Dr. Eddy has 
identified as the same form collections taken 
as follows: 

Current River, McGregor Township, June 
5, 1949 (collected by E. Heslop). 

Nishin Lake, 15 miles west of Rossport, 
June 11, 1949. 



July-Sept., 1953] 



The Canadian Field-Naturalist 



129 



Mclnitosh Lake, Dorion Township, Sep- 
tember 3, 1949. 

Stuc^ of material previously collected, 
revealed a single specimen taken in Loch 
Lomond near Fort William, July 5, 1942 and 
two small specimens taken by David and my- 
self angling in the Mclntyre River, Port Ar- 
thur, July 26, 1946. 

Further collecting has added the following 
records: 

Nishin Lake, July 4, 1948; June 21, 1952. 
Corbetts Creek, Oliver Township, July 13, 

1949 (collector C. E. Garton). 
Mcintosh Lake, June 24, 1950. 
Whitefish River, Strange Township, July 

8, 1951. 

A. further specimen of Couesius plumbeus 
was collected June 10, 1945 in the Cypress 
River, 400 yards from where it flows into 
Lake Superior, 20 miles west of Rossport. 
Both Dr. Eddy and Dr. W. B. Scott, Curator 
of Ichthyology and Herpetology, Royal 
Ontario Museum of Zoology and Paleonto- 
logy, Toronto, identified it as the typical 
form plwmbeus, the Lake Northern Chub. 

Couesius plumbeus (Agassiz) is widely 
distributed across Canada in one of three 
forms. According to Dymond (1947), greeni 
occurs in northern British Columbia, plum- 
beus from the Mackenzie River region to the 
Great Lakes, and dissimilis, a more southern 
form, from the eastern slope of the Rocky 
Mountains across the northern portion of 
the Great Plains. Hubbs and Lagler (1949) 
give the range of dissimilis "from Wyoming 
to the Mackenzie drainage on the plains of 
Canada . . . .; eastward across the northern 
part of the Great Plains ... to the Kewee- 
naw Peninsula of Michigan. Almost entire- 
ly in creeks." Although Nash (1908) stated 
"The Lake Superior form is C. p. dissimilis", 
Radforth (1947) recorded the Ontario popu- 
lation as "largely if not entirely subspecies 
C. p. plumbeus which occurs throughout 
northern Canada chiefly in lakes except 
when it enters tributary streams in spawn- 
ing season." She included on her spot-map 
records from areas adjacent to the region 
we have studied, probably including those 
of Dymond (1926) and Koelz as reported by 
Hubbs and Brown (1929). Dymond investi- 
gated Lake Nipigon and vicinity in 1922-23. 
He found this species frequently in the 
lower stretches of small streams and noted 
its occurrence in Lake Nipigon. Dr. Walter 
Koelz took specimens in 1922 while studying 



the coregonid fishes of the area. Neither of 
the above authorities reported the form 
which they collected. 

Eddy and Surber (1943) have reported the 
subspecies plumbeus from the Arctic and 
Lake Superior drainages of Minnesota. Col- 
lections from the Lake Superior drainage 
include specimens from the Brule River, 
Cook County, adjacent to our southern 
boundary. They add, however, that "Hubbs 
has found the subspecies C. plumbeus dissi- 
milis in streams tributary to Lake Superior." 
One might assume these were the Keweenaw 
records of Hubbs and Lagler (1949), but in 
a personal communication Dr Eddy empha- 
sizes these streams were ones draining into 
the north side of Lake Superior. Smith 
and Moyle (1944) in a study of the Minne- 
sota streams flowing into Lake Superior 
found this cyprinid "the most abundant spe- 
cies in the mouths of most north shore 
streams and [it] occurs commonly in wide, 
slow stretches back from the shore in . . . 
rivers." They ascribed their specimens to 
C. p. plumbeus. Extensive investigations of 
Isle Royale, Mchigan, have been made by 
various workers. Hubbs and Lagler (1947) 
reported C. p. plumbeus as one of the com- 
monest fishes in the lower reaches of streams 
and about the entire shore of the island. 
They also found it in Lake Desor, an inland 
lake, with an elevation of 235 feet above 
Lake Superior. 

From the above review of the literature 
it would appear that our collections of 
Couesius plumbeus dissimilis are the first 
from Ontario and the second from the Lake 
Superior drainage apart from indefinite 
records for unnamed north shore streams. 
It has been considered a stream fish, hence 
its name Creek Northern Chub but we have 
found it in rock-bound inland lakes of moder- 
ate size as well as in the headwaters of local 
streams. We have never taken it in the 
small boggy lakes so numerous in the region 
and inhabited by Chrosomus eos (Cope) 
Pfrille neogaea (Cope), Pimephales prome- 
las promelas Rafinesque and Eucalia in- 
constans (Kirtland). Its one constant asso- 
ciate has been the Brook Trout but we have 
taken twenty other species in waters in- 
habited by this cyprinid. It may be more 
than coincidence that the specimen typical 
of plumbeus was taken from the lower 
stretch of a stream near its Lake Superior 
outlet. It was in such locations that Ameri- 



130 



The Canadian Field-Naturalist 



[Vol. 67 



can ichthyologists took the majority of their 
specimens of the typical form. 

Due to its relative abundance and dis- 
tribution, the Creek Northern Chub is pro- 
bably of considerable economic importance 
as food for the Brook Trout as well as for 
the common Lake Trout Cristivomer namay- 
cush namaycush (Walbaum) which also oc- 
curs in the lakes preferred by this species. 
Recently the Northern Smallmouth Bass 
Micropterus dolamieu dolomieu Lacepede 
has been introduced into local lakes in- 
cluding Beartrap. It, too, will undoubtedly 
utilize this minnow as food. It is a hardy 
species and anglers use it for bait, frequently 
transporting a supply from one body of 
water to another which may be 100 miles dis- 
tant. There is a suggestion that the species 
was introduced into Nishin Lake from Bear- 
trap during the past 15 years. In the latter 
lake they rarely attain a total length of 
100 mm. but in Nishin they frequently ex- 
ceed 150 mm. in length and may weigh 
50 gr. This is a common phenomenon where 
a species is introduced into a new area. In 
Nishin Lake its vertebrate competitors are 
Pimephales pro7nelas promelas Rafinesque 
which is present in small numbers, the 
Common Newt Triturus viridescens (Rafi- 
nesque), and the Mink Frog Rana septen- 
trionalis Baird. Angling for Brook Trout 
has rapidly deteriorated in recent years and 
I believe the introduction of the Northern 
Chub is directly involved. It occurs in im- 
mense numbers, schools covering the gravel 
bottoms in late June when they prepare to 
spawn. Undoubtedly it provides ample food 
for adult trout, and it may compete with the 
young trout for food. Unfortunately we 
have not had time to study the food of the 
species. Were it larger, angling for the 
species would provide good sport for it takes 
both live bait and the artificial fly readily. 
This also interferes with angling in Nishin 
Lake since it is almost impossible to make 
a cast wthout catching one of these minnows. 

SUMMARY 

1. The Creek Northern Chub Couesius plum- 
beus dissimilis (Girard) is reported from 
the southern portion of Thunder Bay Dis- 
trict, Ontario. 



2. It occurs commonly in the rock-bound lakes 
and upper stretches of streams and rivers 
of the area. 

3. The minnow is of some economic im- 
portance as food for Brook and Lake Trout 
which are the principal game fishes of the 
region. 

4. It is also utilized as bait by fishermen 
angling for the above species. In this 
manner it may be introduced into new 
lakes, upsetting balances previously exist- 
ing. It is believed this has occurred in 
Nishin Lake with a resultant deterioration 
of Brook Trout fishing. 

LITERATURE CITED 

Dymond, John Richardson. 1926. The Fishes 
of Lake Nipigon, Univ. Toronto Studies, 
Biol. Ser. Publ. Ont. Fish Res. Lab. 27: 
52-54. 

Dymond, J. R. 1947. A List of the Fresh- 
water Fishes of Canada east of the Rocky 
Mountains. Misc. Publ. Roy. Ont. Mus. 
ZooL, 1:19. 

Eddy, Samuel and Surber, Thaddeus. 1943, 
Northern Fishes with Special Reference 
to the Upper Mississippi Valley. The Uni- 
versity of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis, 
pp. 129-131. 

Hubbs, Carl L. and Brown, Dugald E. S. 
1929. Materials for a Distributional Study 
of Ontario Fishes. Trans. Roy. Canad. Inst., 
17, Pt. 1:23. 

Hubbs, Carl L. and Lagler, Karl F. 1947. 
Fishes of Isle Royale, Lake Superior, 
Michigan. Reprinted from Pap. Mich. Acad. 
Sci. Arts and Letters. 33:114. 

Hubbs, Carl L. and Lagler, Karl F. 1949. 
Fishes of the Great Lakes Region. Bull. 
Cranbrook Inst. Sci., 26:63. 

Nash, C. W. 1908. Check list of the Fishes 
of Ontario. In Vertebrates of Ontario. Ont. 
Dept. of Educ. Toronto, p. 46. 

Radforth, Isobel. 1947. Some Considerations 
on the Distribution of Fishes in Ontario. 
Contrib. Roy. Ont. Mus. Zool. 25:43-45. 

Smith, Lloyd L. Jr. and Moyle, John B. 1944. 
A Biological Survey and Fishery Manage- 
ment Plan for the Streams of Lake 
Superior North Shore Watershed. Minn. 
Dept. Cons. Div. Fish and Game, Tech. 
Bull. 1:120. 



July-Sept., 1953] 



The Canadian Field-Naturalist 



131 



PHYLLODOCE COERULEA IN NORTH AMERICA ^' ^ 

W. J. Cody 



Hulten 3 in his comprehensive study of 
arctic and boreal plants postulated two types 
of species, viz. rigid and plastic. Rigid spe- 
cies are those which were removed from large 
areas during the Pleistocene glaciation, and 
thereby, either wholly or for the most part, 
have lost the power to spread and populate 



1 Received for publication August 13, 1952. 

2 Contribution No. 1200 from the Division of Botany 
and Plant Pathology, Science Service, Canada Dept. 
of Agriculture, Ottawa, Canada. 

3 Hulten, E.: Outline of the History of Arctic and Boreal 
Biota during the Quarternary Period. Stockholm, 1937. 



new areas. These species remain today ap- 
proximately in the same areas as those occu- 
pied by them when the ice was at its maxi- 
mum extension. Plastic species are those 
which did not lose the power to spread, and 
which have re-occupied areas from which 
they were removed during the Pleistocene. 

The distribution of Phyllodoce coerulea 
(L.) Bab. was described by Hulten (loc. cit. 
page 74) as one of the most difficult of the 
Arctic-montane species to interpret. By 




Fig. 1. Actual and hypothetical area of Phyllodoce coenilea (after Hulten). 



132 



The Canadian Field-Naturalist 



[Vol. 67 




Fig. 2. Major elementary areas of the circumpolar plants (after Hulten). 



comparing the distribution pattern of P. 
coerulea with species of similar range but 
less disjunct occurrence, he deduced the 
probable routes through which this species 
migrated to attain its then known distribu- 
tion. The hypothetical area once populated 
by P. coerulea and from which it has since 
been removed by glacial action and climatic 
factors, was demonstrated in his fig. 7 (loc. 
cit. page 95), here reproduced as fig. 1. On 
this map, the actual distribution of this spe- 
cies as known to Hulten, is represented by 
hatched lines, the hypothetical area is cir- 
cumscribed by a broken line. This hypo- 
thetical area, in North America, included 



all of Alaska and Yukon, with the exception 
of the northern coast, the continental North- 
west Territories, Southampton Island, south- 
ern Baffin Island, southern Greenland, Ice- 
land, northern Quebec and Labrador south 
through western Newfoundland and Gaspe 
to the New England States. 

Fig. 2 (Hulten fig. 11 loc. cit. page 119) 
illustrates the major elementary areas of cir- 
cumpolar plants. A comparison of fig. 1 
with fig. 2, shows that P. coerulea is pre- 
sent in nearly all but the most southern of 
these rigid or elementary areas. This spe- 
cies would therefore have been an excellent 
example of a rigid species. 



July-Sept., 1953] 



The Canadian Field-Naturalist 



133 




134 



The Canadian Field-Naturalist 



[Vol. 67 



Recent collections in northeastern North 
America have shown, however, that P. coeru- 
lea is not a rigid species in that region, for 
it has been found to be widely distributed 
throughout an area which was heavily 
glaciated during the Pleistocene (see fig. 3). 
It has thus repopulated much of the area 
which Hulten described as its probable 
migration path across northern North Ame- 
rica. 

The known distribution for North America 
can now be given as follows: western Alas- 
ka, eastern Mackenzie District, continental 
Keewatin District, northern Manitoba (D. K. 
Brown 388, Sept. 15, 1950, decumbent in 
shade of spruce-larch grove at edge of lake 
in sandy peaty soil, MacLeod Lake, (approx. 
59°10'N 97°30'W) DAO; new to the flora of 
Manitoba), southern Baffin Island ■*, around 
the coast of Greenland north to at least 
74° north latitude in West Greenland 5 and 
to 72° 10' north latitude in East Greenland « 
Northern Peninsula and Long Range Moun- 
tains of Newfoundland '^. 8. 9. the mountains 
of Gaspe, and New England lo. 

In a recent letter Dr. Hulten has kindly 
provided the following interesting informa- 



4 Polunin, N.: Botany of the Canadian Eastern Arctic. 
Part 1. Pteridophyta and Spermatophyta, Canada 
Department of Mines and Resources, Nat. Museum 
Bulletin. No. 92: 310. 1940. 

5 Porsild, M. P.: The flora of Disko Island and the 
adjacent coast of West Greenland, Medd. om Gron- 
land 58: 133. 1920. 

6 Seidenfaden, G., and T. Sorenson: The vascular 
plants of northeast Greenland from 74° 30' to 79° 00' 
N. Lot. Medd. om Gronland 101 (4): 176-177. 1937. 

7 Femald, M. L.: A Botanical expedition to Newfound- 
land and southern Labrador. Rhodora 13: 133. 1911. 

8 Femald, M. L.: Two summers botanizing in New- 
foundland. Rhodora 27: 116, 223. 1926. 

9 Femald, M. L.: Recent discoveries in the New- 
foundland flora. Rhodora 35: 279. 1933. 

10 Femald, M. L.: The vascular plants of Mount Ka- 
tahdin. Rhodora 3: 175. 1901. sub nom Bryonthus 
taxifolius. 

11 Rikli, M.: Die arktisch — subarktischen Arten de 
Gattung Phyllodoce Salisb. Vierteljahrasshrift der 
Naturforschenden Gesellschaft in Zurich, LXVI: 324- 
334. 1921. 



tion regarding the distribution of this spe- 
cies: "A locality west of Great Slave Lake is 
very remarkable as also one in Manchuria 
on the Corean border. The locality in north- 
ern Italy is given in old floras and may be 
doubtful". The author has seen no speci- 
mens from these areas. 

Rikli 11, has given the following distri- 
bution of this species for eastern North Ame- 
rica: "In N. Amerika tritt sie in den Gebir- 
gen der atlantischen Staaten der Union, von 
den White-Mountains New Hampshires durch 
Maine, Ontario, Quebec bis Labrador, so 
noch in der Umgebung von Ramah (c. 59° n) 
auf." The author has seen no specimens 
from Ontario and has not been able to find 
any other record of its occurrence in that 
province. The presence of P. coerulea, at 
least in the southern part of Ontario as in- 
dicated by this distribution, is highly doubt- 
ful. 

Specimens have been examined in the Her- 
barium of the Division of Botany and Plant 
Pathology, Science Service, Canada Depart- 
ment of Agriculture, Ottawa (DAO) and the 
Herbarium of the National Museum of Can- 
ada at Ottawa. The author is indebted to 
Mr. Marcel Raymond, Montreal Botanical 
Garden, for listing the specimens in the 
Herbarium of that Institution and the Her- 
barium of the University of Montreal. He is 
also indebted to Dr. Bernard Boivin for his 
advice in the preparation of this manuscript, 
and to Dr. Eric Hulten for his permission to 
reproduce the maps from his work. 

Conclusion 

Phyllodoce coerulea is shown to be an ex- 
ample of what Hulten has described as a rigid 
species. It is demonstrated here, however, 
that at least in northeastern North America, 
it is not a rigid but a plastic species. 



NOTES ON FOOD HABITS OF WATERFOWL IN THE 
INTERIOR OF UNGAVA PENINSULA ' 

Nicholas Polunin ^ and Carl R. Eklund ^ 



THE INTERIOR of Ungava Peninsula in 
northern Quebec was studied in the sum- 
mer of 1949 for the primary purpose of de- 
termining waterfowl species-distribution and 

1 Received for publication October 4, 1952. 

2 Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass. 

3 Biologist, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Washing- 
ton, D.C. 



productivity. This study was part of the 
annual survey of the Canadian waterfowl 
breeding grounds conducted jointly by the 
Canadian Wildlife Service and the U.S. Fish 
and Wildlife Service, as reported upon by 
Crissey, et al. (1949). The survey was carried 
out in cooperation with the Arctic Institute 



July-Sept., 1953] 



The Canadian Field-Naturalist 



135 



of North America and was financed by a 
grant from the Institute with funds provided 
by the United States government^. The field 
party consisted of Leon D. Cool, Game 
Management Agent — Pilot of the Fish and 
Wildlife Service, and Eklund, with Polunin 
joining in for a few days toward the end. 

Bird skins representing twenty-one 
species and skins and skulls of three mam- 
mal species were collected, together with 
stomach contents of Canada geese, a Black 
Duck, and an Old-squaw, and crop contents of 
Willow Ptarmigan and Rock Ptarmigan. In 
addition, plants were collected at seven 
ground stations occupied in the interior. 
Polunin made the stomach analyses of the 
geese and identified all plant collections. 
Contents of the duck stomachs were de- 
termined at the U.S. Fish and Wildlife 
Service Patuxent Research Refuge. 

Field work was carried out between June 
29 and August 3, 1949. The main bases of 
operation were the military air base at Fort 
Chimo on the Koksoak River, and Payne 
Lake at Latitude 50°19'N., Longitude 73 "27' 
W. The U.S. Air Force parachuted oil and 
gasoline at the camp on Payne Lake, and 
from this point it was possible to occupy 
other ground stations within a 200-mile 
radius. Operations were carried out with a 
single-engine Fairchild 24 equipped with 
pontoons. 

Aquatic plants which are of importance 
for waterfowl food appeared to be almost 
entirely lacking in the area studied. In any 
event, the aquatics are relatively un- 
important in comparison with the semi- 
aquatic or terrestrial plants. In an effort to 
obtain an indication of important food 
sources, stomach contents of an Ungava 
Canada Goose (Branta canadensis interior 
Todd), and an Old-squaw (Clangula hyemalis) 
were collected at Payne Lake on July 22. 
Three other geese of this same subspecies 
and a Black Duck (Anas rubripes) were 
taken on Gregory (Octopus) Lake at Lati- 
tude 58°29' N., Longitude 70°06' W. on July 
27. Stomach contents from these specimens 
are the basis for these notes. While this is 
an extremely small sample it may be of some 
interest and value as apparently no water- 
fowl-stomach collections had previously been 
made in these areas. 

Payne Lake is the largest of the Ungava 
lakes within the tundra region, and vegeta- 
tion on the surrounding terrain is character- 
ized by a vast array of mosses and lichens, 
sedges (Car ex spp.), grasses, willows, dwarf 



4 Data obtained will be used by Eklund in a doctorate 
thesis at the University of Maryland. 



birch (Betaula glandulosa), baked-apple or 
cloudberry (Ruhus chamaemorus) , narrow- 
leaved Labrador tea (Ledum palustre var. 
decumbens), and arctic blueberry (Vaccini- 
mum uliginosum var. alpinum). The plant 
communities are in general comparable with 
those described for nearby coastal localities 
by Polunin (1948). Gregory Lake is located 
not far south of the tree line in what is 
commonly termed forest tundra, and the 
terrain and vegetation of the area have been 
described in outline by Polunin (1949). 

STOMACH ANALYSES 

The gizzard contents of the goose speci- 
men collected at Payne Lake looked like 
gritty grey mud with some intermixed 
organic shreds. It gave the impression that 
the bird had been feeding on algal-invested 
mudflats or lake-bottoms, but microscopic 
examination immediately showed the organic 
material to be of vascular plant origin, most 
of it evidently resulting from the break- 
down of leaves of sedges and/or grasses. 
Organic material composed about half of 
the bulk, and about half of this was of nar- 
row shreds of leaf, up to nearly 1 cm. long, 
containing usually a single vascular bundle; 
the other half consisted of still further 
broken down, more or less colloidal, 
particles. The remainder was of mineral 
origin and consisted of coarse sand or grits 
up to 3 mm. in diameter, and finer material 
including a considerable proportion of 
whitish sand. The total contents of the giz- 
zard measured about 20 cc. The oesophagus 
was empty. 

In goose specimen 1 from Gregory Lake 
the oesophagus and gizzard contents totaled 
about 18 cc, of which approximately one- 
quarter by bulk was mineral material of 
fine whitish sand, with some coarse sand or 
grits from 1 to 3 or occasionally 4 mm. in 
diameter. The remaining three-quarters by 
bulk was of organic material, much the greater 
part being of portions of leaves of Carex spp. 
(mostly of C. aquatilis) up to 10 cm. in 
length. Also determined were the tip of a 
branch of Vaccinium uliginosum var. alpi- 
num bearing three small leaves; four small 
leaves of Polygonum viviparum; a scrap of 
coniferous "touch-wood" (such as is often 
found floating on lakes and pools in forest- 
ed areas, and which is apt to be left on 
herbage or shores when the water recedes); 
the shoot of a dicotyledonous plant locking 
leaves; five leaves of Pedicularis flammea; 
and a few small leaves apparently of a 
grass. This last could have been the almost 
ubiquitous Pea arctica. Most of the leaves of 



136 



The Canadian Field-Naturalist 



[Vol. 67 



the Polygonum and the Pedicularis were 
complete with petioles, and almost all of the 
material appeared to have been browsed 
when fresh. These are typically marsh 
plants, though not exclusively so. No algal 
or other cryptogamic material was found. 

The contents in the gizzard and the 
oesophagus of the second goose specimen 
from Gregory Lake totaled about 27cc. 
About one-quarter of the bulk was of 
mineral material, largely coarse sand and 
grits up to 4 mm. in diameter. The re- 
mainder consisted of plant material, of which 
about two-thirds was too disintegrated to 
identify although clearly it was for the most 
part of monocotyledonous origin — chiefly 
shreds of leaf material of sedges and/or 
grasses. Identifiable among the larger pieces 
were fairly numerous scraps of leaves of 
Carex spp.; about ten stems of Juncus spp.; 
fifteen pieces of leaves of, apparently, Luzu- 
la parviflora (several were clearly of this 
species, being characteristic and nearly 1 
cm. wide); several scraps of Stellaria lon- 
gipes s. 1. stems with attached leaves; and 
four scraps of Polytrichum cf. alpinum. 
Other, smaller scraps of mosses (2 of Hyp- 
num sp. and 3 of Bryum sp. or spp.) were 
included, perhaps by chance; pieces of leaf 
of Polygonum viviparum; scraps of two dif- 
ferent, black and withered leaves of Salix 
sp.; the top of an inflorescence of Calama- 
grostis neglecta; three short pieces of slender 
grass stem which could have been from the 
Calamagrostis; and two fresh-looking leaves 
of Cochlearia officinalis s. 1. which suggest- 
ed seashore feeding although this plant in 
some forms is apt to occur in marshy and 
some other habitats inland. Although there 
was little flowering or fruiting material on 
the whole, there was found one character- 
istic part of an inflorescence of Carex vagi- 
nata and another of Poa arctica, and what 
might have been young fruits of Luzula par- 
viflora. Far more important in contributing 
such bulk as to suggest some degree of 
selective feeding were (1) stems of Equise- 
tum arvense which comprised perhaps one- 
seventh of the total bulk, and (2) a lesser but 
still considerable amount of leaf material of 
Achillea millefolium s. 1., which suggested a 
drier habitat than most of the other de- 
terminable material. Equisetum arvense, 
while often plentifully scattered in marshes, 
grows gregariously in drier, especially sandy 
situations which it may colonize vigorously, 
and its bulk in this material suggested that 
the bird might have been feeding in such 
an area, where it would be more likely to 



find the Achillea than in moist habitats. This 
is supported by the dense branching of the 
Equisetum material, which in this form is 
more typical of dry than of moist habitats. 
Some very narrow, indeterminable grass 
leaves up to 8 cm. in length v/ere also found 
in this sample. 

The stomach contents of the third goose 
specimen from Gregory Lake were very 
similar to those of specimen 1 from this 
lake, though the total volume was larger, 
being about 30 cc. The pieces of Carex leaf 
tended to be larger, some being as much as 
15 cm. long. There appeared to be less 
mineral matter than in the other specimens, 
the amount being roughly estimated as 
about one-sixth of the total volume. Leaves 
or portions of leaves of Carex spp. compos- 
ed most of the bulk. These tended to be 
softer and narrower than in specimen 1, and 
they appeared to consist substantially of C. 
canescens, of which there were also about a 
dozen young flowering axes represented in 
the material. Some were advanced enough 
for determination but others may possibly 
have belonged to C. brunnescens, as suggest- 
ed by some of the narrow leaves. There were 
also at least four flowering axes of what ap- 
peared to be Carex aquatilis, although they 
were too young for certain determination. 
Also identified were a single flowering axis 
of Juncus albescens and several "budding" 
ones apparently of J. filiformis. The only 
dicotyledonous material detected consisted 
of ten more or less whole leaves of Pedicu- 
laris flammea and two of Polygonum vivi- 
parum, all of which appeared to have been 
in a fresh condition when eaten. There were 
also included a few very narrow and scabrous 
leaves apparently of some grass. In this 
sample the material seemed to be less 
broken down than in the second specimen 
from Gregory Lake, although practically all 
probably came from the Carex leaves which 
appeared to form the main article of diet. 

Stomach contents of an Old-squaw Duck 
contained 3.5 cc. by volume, of which 75 
percent was composed of grit. The food 
content was 100 percent animal matter, and 
this consisted of fragments of several Cad- 
disfly larvae and their cases (Trichoptera). 

The contents of the Black Duck stomach 
contained 3.8 cc. by volume of which 2 cc, 
or 53 percent, was grit. The food eaten con- 
sisted of 97 percent vegetable matter and 
the remainder was animal matter. The plants 
consisted of 5 percent crowberry seeds 
(Empetrum nigrum); 3 percent marestail 
seeds (Hippuris vulgaris); 3 percent butter- 



July-Sept., 1953] 



The Canadian Field-Naturalist 



137 



cup seeds (Ranunculus sp.); 1 percent seeds 
of cinquefoil (Potentilla sp.); 5 percent im- 
mature Carex sp. seeds; 35 percent finely- 
ground fibers from a seed plant, possibly 
Carex; and 45 percent finely-ground fila- 
mentous algae. The latter may have been 
taken incidentally to the feeding on more 
desirable plant foods. The animal matter was 
composed of fragments of diving beetle (Co- 
lymhetes sp.), traces of water mites, and frag- 
ments of operculi from several snails. 

Only the most tentative conclusions can 
be drawn from these limited samplings. It 
may be said that the geese in these areas, 
and at this time, tend to feed predominantly 
on monocotyledonous plants that grow in 
damp situations, since in all stomach con- 
tents collected the main bulk was of leaves 
of sedges, grasses, or grass-like plants, 
though on occasion there was a substantial 
admixture of stems of Equisetum and, in 
others, what appeared to be mere than 
chance scraps of leaves of Pedicularis flam- 
mea, Polygonum viviparum, and even in one 
instance of Achillea millefolium s.l. One-sixth 
to one-half of the total volume of contents 
consisted of mineral matter. The Black 
Duck, likewise, fed principally on vegetable 
matter. Food taken by the Old-squaw Duck 
consisted of animal matter, as would be ex- 
pected. In this respect it might be said that 
lack of insect food in Ungava during the 
summer, would never be a limiting factor in 
the distribution of the Old-squaw! 

No sign of Algae, Lichenes, Bryophyta, 
or Fungi was observed in the geese, except 
for what looked like a smut on one of the 
sedges, and the few, probably chance, scraps 
of mosses found in one sample. Apart from 
the predominant sedges and/or grasses, a 
considerable range of both monocotyledonous 
and dicotyledonous material was found, ap- 
parently indicating a lack of precise selectiv- 
ity, though its total bulk seemed usually to 
be negligible. 

In goose specimens 1 and 3 from Gregory 
Lake the birds appeared to have been feed- 
ing largely or entirely in marshy or other 
wet areas along the lakeshore, for with one 
exception all of the plants identified in 
the gizzards and oesophagi were typical 
marsh plants, and although some are able 
to grow in other habitats they rarely do so 
in abundance or together. The exception is 



Juncus filiformis, which in this region is 
more characteristic of sheltered grassy 
slopes and late-snow areas, although it also 
occurs on wet shores and occasionally in 
marshes. There seems no reason to doubt 
that the goose taken at Payne Lake had also 
been feeding in a similar area. Nothing was 
identified from the contents of it? gizzard, 
but the material appeared to be all of mono- 
cotyledonous origin, and other land habitats 
are not populated predominantly by such 
plants in this region. 

Plants found in the second goose speci- 
men taken at Gregory Lake can occur in 
marshes, and some are largely restricted 
thereto (including the frequent hummocks 
in them), while several are more character- 
istic of other habitats — Cochlearia of sea- 
shores, Stellaria longipes and Polytrichum of 
drier areas, and Equisetum arvense and 
Achillea millefolium of well-drained situa- 
tions, at least when growing in any 
abundance in the vicinity. Accordingly, the 
impression is gained that this bird fed 
partly in marshes and partly on sandy banks 
nearby, such as are plentiful around the 
shores of Gregory Lake. In general, how- 
ever, the sedgy marshes that develop most 
luxuriantly around lakes and tarns in the 
North, with perhaps some of the damper 
grassy plains of extensive flat areas, appear 
to constitute the favorite summer browsing 
grounds of geese, as has frequently been ob- 
served in Spitsbergen as well as in various 
parts of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago 
(Polunin, 1948). 

REFERENCES 

Crissey, W. F., et al. 1949. Waterfowl pop- 
ulations and breeding conditions — summer 
1949. U.S. Dept. of the Interior, Fish and 
Wildlife Service, Special Scientific Report: 
Wildlife No. 2, pp. 19-23. 

Polunin, Nicholas, 1948. Botany of the Cana- 
dian Eastern Arctic, Part III, Vegetation 
and Ecology. Canada: Dept. of Mines and 
Resources, National Museum Bulletin No. 
104. 

, , 1949. Arctic Unfolding: ex- 
periences and observations during a Cana- 
dian airborne expedition in northern Ungava, 
the Northwest Territories, and the Arctic 
Archipelago. London, New York, etc. Hut- 
chinson & Co. 



138 



The Canadian Field-Naturalist 



[Vol. 67 



NOTES AND OBSERVATIONS 



Echinochloa walteri re-instated in Ottawa 
District floral. — In Macoun's Catalogue of 
1888 there is the record under Panicum Cms- 
gain var. hispidum Ell., "Along the Nation 
River, at Casselman. (Fletcher, Fl. Ott.)". No 
specimen was preserved and Dr. Malte in his 
manuscript notes, prepared about 1930, was 
led to state, "Correctness of record extreme- 
ly doubtful." Considering that the nearest 
authentic specimen available to him was from 
the St. Clair River at Point Edward, Malte's 
suspicion was justified at the time. 

In 1952, plants were collected near Bour- 
get at a site where Zizania aquatica var. aqua- 
tica and Phragmites communis are also local- 
ized. The label data read: "Echinochloa walte- 
ri (Pursh) Nash. On muddy flood-bank of 
Cobb Lake (a fluctuating expansion of a slow 
stream entering South Nation River), 2.5 
miles east of Bourget, Russell County, On- 
tario. Several plants seen at this the only 
station in Ontario east of Lake Erie. Sep- 
tember 8, 1952. W. G. Dore and W. J. Cody 
No. 14048." Since this site is but ten miles 
due north of Casselman, the old Fletcher 
record is presumed to be correct. 

Another Ontario record unsubstantiated by 
specimen, "In alluvium along the Salmon 
River, above Shannonville, Hastings County, 
Ontario (Macoun)", remains in need of in- 
vestigation. — W. G. DORE, Division of 
Botany, Department of Agriculture, Ottawa. 



1 Contribution No. 1243 from the Division of Botany 
and Plant Pathology, Science Service, Department of 
Agriculture, Ottawa, Canada. 

DOES THE SCHEFFER MOLE DRINK? — 

After 15 years study of the habits of the 
Scheffer mole Scapanus orarius schefferi 
Jackson, in the coastal areas of southern 
British Columbia, its need for drinking water 
cannot be decided. That it can, and does go 
for periods of several weeks without drinking, 
has been proved with many individuals 
kept up to three months in soil cages and 
fed earthworms. Tins of water placed in 
the cages were not used apparently, but were 
filled with soil repeatedly. Scheffer how- 
ever records that the common eastern mole 
Scalops aquaticus L. drank eagerly under 
similar conditions, putting their snouts into 
the water in the manner of hogs. 

Under natural conditions in the field 
during long dry summers, no surface water 
is available without long overland journeys 
which are most unlikely, also no footprints 



have ever been seen in the marginal mud of 
ponds. Dew could supply the moisture re- 
quired, but at Agassiz periods of low humidity 
occur when continental air-masses move west- 
ward, and no dew dampens the grass. 

It is possible that sufficient water is 
obtained from earthworms which comprise 
99 percent of the Scheffer moles' diet; the 
earthworms themselves containing approxi- 
mately 90 percent water. 

W.H. Hudson, the incomparable observer 
and recorder of nature wherever he happened 
to live, discussed the matter of drinking by 
the European mole, Talpa europea L. in his 
book "Nature in Downland". He was con- 
vinced apparently that moles had to drink, 
and wondered how the mole population in- 
habiting the high and dry chalk downs of 
southeast England found sufficient moisture 
to survive during hot rainless periods in 
summer. He states that he had been taught 
that moles must drink often or at regular 
intervals, and drink deeply, but does not 
give the source of this idea. He also states 
that to satisfy their thirst they make runs to 
the nearest water-courses, and that when none 
is available they sink a well. As no water- 
courses are present on the tops of chalk 
downs, and subterranean water would be 
very scarce and deep in that porous rock, 
Hudson failed to see how wells could be 
sunk in such material. 

Hudson's doubts were confirmed by talks 
to shepherds and other regular frequenters 
of these arid South Downs. These observers 
are recorded as having found "a good many 
moles lying about dead on these hills every 
morning" —^ "in very dry windy summers 
when there is no dew". This chapter (5) 
of Hudson's delightful book is well worth 
reading again. 

Coming back to the Scheffer mole of the 
humid Pacific slope, we still do not have 
any clear evidence for or against drinking. 
However in May 1950, an extremely interest- 
ing fact on the tunnelling habits of this 
species was accidentally discovered, though 
at the time of observation and recording, its 
possible connection with drinking habits 
was not realized. 

At that time a new well was being sunk 
on the Experimental Farm here, when at a 
depth of 7 feet a mole tunnel was disclosed 
running diagonally from one side of the 6 
foot-wide shaft to the other, and even as 



July-Sept., 1953] 



The Canadian Field-Naturalist 



139 



the workmen dug, a mole came out of the 
tunnel, fell into the bottom on the mud 
and was despatched and thrown out by the 
workmen. I confirmed the presence of the 
tunnels, their depth and the species of mole. 
The sandy alluvium was saturated with water 
at this depth, and baling was necessary to 
continue digging. The comparatively high 
water table at the site of the well is due 
to the Fraser river freshet at this time of 
year, and the close proximity of subterranean 
gravel bars extending from the river. 

At the time no reason could be ascribed 
for such a deep tunnel. The subsoil at that 
depth is quite without humus and no earth- 
worms or other life forms suitable for mole 
food occur. Earlier investigations on the 
depth of tunnels had shown a series of 
runways at a depth of from 3 to SVz feet, 
no deeper, in sandy well drained land at 
Agassiz. These tunnels might provide some 
food during dry spells but were thought to 
have been dug by moles to avoid the frost 
line, though at Agassiz this does not as a 
rule ever go below iy2 to 2 feet. The usual 
depth of the hunting runs are from 6 to 8 
inches in winter, while in summer surface 
runs without "hills" are most common. 

The thought therefore occurs that this 
7-foot deep runway might have been dug to 
reach water, and would provide drinking 
facilities during the hot dry dewless periods 
in summer. So possibly Hudson's information 
was sound after all. 

Summarizing, it can be said that under 
normal conditions in the Lower Fraser valley 
the Scheffer mole obtains sufficient moisture 
from its natural foods or from the rain-wet 
grass or dew. It is much too dangerous for 
it to drink at any surface water in ponds or 
streams. In dry spells, when even earth- 
worms, now with lower water content, fear 
desiccation and tie themselves into knots, 
moles use these deep tunnels to quench their 
thirst. 

If this was not the purpose of this 7 foot 
deep tunnel, what was it dug for? — 
R. GLENDENNING, Agassiz, B.C. 

An addition to the list of the mammals of 
of Nova Scotia: the Eastern Red Bat. In 

October 1952 a bat was captured when it 
came aboard the fishing vessel "Janet 
Louise", out of Liverpool, N.S. and under 
command of Captain Warren Levy. The 
position of the ship at that time is reported 
as over 150 miles SSE of Liverpool buoy, 



Latitude 42°42' N, Longitude 62° 58' W. It 
was believed by the ship's crew that the bat 
may have been driven out to sea by strong 
winds. The date of capture is placed by the 
writer as on or about October 7. 

The bat died in captivity shortly after 
being brought to shore and was put in the 
freezer of Nickerson Bros. Limited at Liver- 
pool. In a letter to the writer, Mr. J. F. Don- 
ly of Mill Village, N.S. requested identifica- 
tion of the bat and enclosed a brief descrip- 
tion. The specimen was sent to the writer 
after subsequent correspondence with Mr. 
R. M. Nickerson. 

The bat was identified by the writer as 
the Eastern Red Bat, Lasiurus borealis bo- 
realis (MUller). A study skin was made of 
this specimen, which is No. 1533 in the 
writer's collection. Details of measurements, 
etc. as taken after the specimen was thawed 
out are as follows: sex — ■ female; length — 
112 mm.; 'wing' — 132+ mm.; tail — 58 
mm.; hind foot — 9 mm.; forearm — 41 
mm.; thumb — 7 mm.; tragus — 6 mm.; ear 
past nose — 1.5 mm.; ear from meatus — 11 
mm.; ear from crown — 8 mm.; stomach — 
not examined. 

Smith (1940) does not mention this 
species in his list of Nova Scotia mammals 
and Anderson (1946) does not include Nova 
Scotia in the range of the species. Morris 
(1948), in his list of New Brunswick mam- 
mals, mentions the one existing Nova Scotia 
record of the closely-related Hoary Bat, 
Lasiurus cinereus (Beauvois) but no ref- 
erence is made to the Red Bat in Nova 
Scotia. 

The specimen described above apparently 
constitutes the first record of the occurrence 
of the Eastern Red Bat in Nova Scotia. 

Literature Cited 

Anderson, R.M. Catalogue of Canadian Recent 
Mammals. Nat. Mus. Canada. Bull. No. 
102. Biol. Ser. No. 31. 1946. 

Morris. R.F. The Land Mammals of New 
Brunswick. Jour. Mamm. 29(2); 165- 
176. 1948. 
Smith, R.W. The Land Mammals of Nova 
Scotia. Amer. Mid. Nat. 24(1): 213-241. 
1940. 

N.R. Brown, 
Faculty of Forestry, 
University of New Brunswick, 
Fredericton, N.B. 

Northern extensions of range of some 
reptant decapod Crustacea of British Colum- 



140 



The Canadian Field-Naturalist 



[Vol. 67 



bia. — Of recent years the staff of the Pro- 
vincial Museum of British Columbia has made 
a number of small shore collections of decapod 
Crustacea in conjunction with a study of the 
fauna and flora of various coastal islands. In 
these collections three species have been 
found in a more northerly location than had 
been previously recorded. A fourth species, 
new to the Province, has been found on the 
south-east coast of Vancouver Island by the 
author. 

A porcelain crab, PetroUsthes eriomerus 
Stimpson, was previously recorded from 
Flamingo Harbour, on the south-west tip of 
Moresby Island of the Queen Charlotte group 
(Josephine F. L. Hart. "Reptant decapod 
Crustacea of the west coasts of Vancouver and 
Queen Charlotte Islands, British Columbia" 
Canadian Journal of Research, D, 18:86-105. 
1940). On May 24, 1952, six specimens were 
taken on Langara Island, some 140 miles 
farther north. 

Another species of the same family, 
Pachycheles pubescens Holmes, was taken in 
1948 at Goose Island, about 52° north lati- 
tude. The former northern limit was Esper- 
anza Inlet, Vancouver Island (Hart ibid). At 
Goose Island also was found a spider crab, 
Pugettia richii Dana. This species too had 
been found previously as far north as Esper- 
anza Inlet (Hart ibid). 

The pea crab, Pinnixa eburna Wells, was 
originally found and described from San Juan 
Island, Puget Sound, Washington. This spe- 
cies lives as a commensal in the burrows of 
the lug worm, Arenicola pusilla Quatrefages. 
During the spring of 1952, it was found to 
occur near Victoria, at Oak and Cordova Bays, 
which extends its known range slightly north- 
ward and across the International Border 
adding another species to those crabs previ- 
ously reported from British Columbia. — 
JOSEPHINE F. L. HART, Volunteer Assist- 
ant, Provincial Museum, Victoria, B.C. 

Wilson's Petrel, Oceanites oceanicus ocea- 
nicus (Kuhl), at Lake Deschenes, Quebec. — 

While checking pelagic birds in the National 
Museum collection, Ottawa, with Mr. W. Earl 
Godfrey we found an unrecorded specimen 
of Wilson's Petrel. This specimen is a female 
taken on the Quebec side of Lake Deschenes 



near Ottawa on September 23, 1938, after a 
great Atlantic storm. The specimen is num- 
ber 28908 in the collection and its identifica- 
tion has been carefully confirmed by Mr. 
Godfrey. This is the first record for the Ot- 
tawa area. 

Eliot (The Auk, 1939, Vol. 56, p. 178) pub- 
lished a report, which he said was passed on 
to him in verbis by Dr. R. C. Murphy, of 
Wilson's Petrels having been blown to Mon- 
treal by the same 1938 storm, but this ap- 
parently was a result of a misunderstanding. 
The National Museum files contain an ex- 
cerpt from a letter written by Dr. Murphy 
on January 12, 1940, to the late P. A. Ta- 
verner in this connection which reads : 

"It is my opinion that Eliot is in error 
in crediting a Montreal record to me. On 
the other hand, it is possible that through 
a slip of the tongue I said Montreal when 
I meant Ottawa. I evidently made the re- 
mark while chatting with Professor Eliot 
during a visit to Smith College and my 
authority was from a communication from 
you that a Wilson's Petrel had been collect- 
ed on Lake Deschenes on September 23, 
1938." 

Apparently, then, the Montreal report was 
incorrect and the Lake Deschenes specimen 
seems to be the first valid record for the 
Quebec interior. From Ontario there appears 
to be only one valid record : a specimen found 
dead at Lake Muskoka as recorded by Fleming 
(The Auk, 1901. Vol. 18. p. 35). — HOYES 
LLOYD, Rockcliffe Park, Ont. 

California Sea Lion (Zalophus californianus 
(Lesson)) in British Columbia. — The occur- 
rence of California sea lion in British Colum- 
bia has previously been based on a single 
unweathered skull "picked up" at Clayoquot, 
Vancouver Island, British Columbia, by Capt. 
Hughes, (Cowan, I. McT., Canadian Field- 
Naturalist Vol. L, pp. 145-148, December 1946). 
This questionable record has been validated 
by the appearance of two large bulls near 
Ucluelet, British Columbia in February, 1953. 
The skull of one of these animals was sub- 
sequently collected for the Provincial Mu- 
seum by Mr. George Hillier of Ucluelet, and 
is now in the museum collections. — C. J. 
GUIGUET, Provincial Museum, Victoria, B.C. 



July-Sept., 1953] 



The Canadian Field-Naturalist 
REVIEWS 



141 



EVOLUTION IN THE GENUS 
DROSOPHILA 

J. T. PATTERSON and W. S. STONE 

The Macmillan Company of Canada Limited, 
Toronto. 610 pp. $8.50 

This is by no means a book for casual 
armchair reading, nor is it solely concerned 
with Drosophila. The former is well illustrat- 
ed by the following excerpt: "The primitive 
II arose from I by two overlapping inver- 
sions in the sex chromosome, Xab, and this 
line produced texana, americana, and nova- 
mexicana. Primitive III also arose from I by 
two inversions in the 2 chromosome, 2de. 
Either d or e, which is the pericentric in 2, 
could have occurred first". The latter by the 
inclusion among the more than 700 ref- 
erences cited of some 70 dealing with 
animals exclusive of Drosophila, and an equal 
number concerned with plants. These are 
included to show that the systems discussed 
are not peculiar to Drosophila but are 
general evolutionary ones which have played 
their roles elsewhere. 

The enormity of the task so admirably 
accomplished by Professors Patterson and 
Stone can perhaps in no way better be ap- 
preciated than by a perusal of the 37 pages 
of references. To point out here that there 
are only some 15 as recent as 1951 and 1952 
(most of which are quite naturally publica- 
tions from among their own group at the 
University of Texas) is in no sense an in- 
tended criticism — it is meant simply to 
emphasize the magnitude of their self- 
assignment. It is of interest to note, how- 
ever, that more than one-half of the citations 
specific to Drosophila originated in the 
nineteen-forties; a truly great decade of pro- 
duction, including as it does the crippling 
war-years. 

In view of the tremendous amount of 
labour involved in compiling and proof-read- 
ing this work, the paucity of typographical 
errors is surprising. There are in addition a 
small number of apparent slips: on p. 170, 
for example, in differentiating heterochro- 
matin from euchromatin, the latter is equat- 
ed with "the ordinary gene chromosome" — 
surely gene chromatin! 

The text, which includes over 100 tables 
crammed with fact and 74 diagrams, maps, 
drawings, and photographs, is divided into 
eleven chapters. The problem is clearly set 
forth in the first, an adequate exposition of 



the systematics of Drosophila takes up the 
next, and geographic distribution and rela- 
tionships are dealt with in Chapter 3. Gross 
chromosomal evolution, as seen through 
visible structural alteration of metaphase 
configurations, is treated, in so far as is 
possible, separately from the more detailed 
information to be gleaned from analyses of 
salivary gland chromosomes. The comparison 
of metaphases brings out the important con- 
tribution made by "whole-arm" fusions, for 
60 per cent of the known types show a re- 
duction from six to five, four, or even three 
pairs of chromosomes. On the other hand, 
only one species (0.5%) is known to have 
an increased chromosome number. About 
the salivary gland work, the authors aptly 
remark: "These inversions and fusions 
(detectable in salivary gland chromosomes) 
are very remarkable tracers, in many ways 
more remarkable than the more spectacular 
isotope tracers of chemistry. Any chromo- 
some arrangement that is characteiustic of 
one or several species, but which differs 
from other gene orders, demonstrates that 
all individuals of even a tremendous species 
or species group descended from the one 
ancestor that first possessed it". What a pity 
for the study of phylogeny that these giant 
chromosomes do not occur outside of the 
Diptera! 

Chapter 6 reviews gene variation, selec- 
tion, and genie balance, while Chapters 7 and 
8 deal in considerable detail with the 
evidence for isolating mechanisms, and the 
barrier they afford to gene flow between 
related forms. Hybrids and their sterility 
take up Chapter 9 and serve to point up the 
genetic differences that characterize related 
groups. Chapter 10 is devoted to origin and 
relationships in the virilis group, and the 
final one is entitled "Comparisons and con- 
clusions". 

Chapters 3 to 10 each conclude with a 
discussion. For those who are chiefly in- 
terested in getting an authoritative state- 
ment on the contribution being made by 
genetics to an understanding of evolutionary 
processes, they are required reading. To- 
gether with the first and last chapters, they 
comprise little more than one-third of the 
text; they are admirably written, and most 
assuredly will serve to whet the appetite of 
all but the most lackadaisical reader. To the 
serious student of phylogeny, the volume 
will be particularly valued for its lucid and 



142 



The Canadian Field-Naturalist 



[Vol. 67 



penetrating correlations; to the Drosopholo- 
gist, it will doubtless soon become a well- 
thumbed indispensability. — S. G. SMITH. 

The Frogs, Toads and Salamanders of East- 
ern Canada. By E. B. S. Logier. Clarke, Irwin 
and Co. Ltd., Toronto, 1952, pp. i-xii, 1-127, 
5 plates, 57 drawings. $3.75. 

This is the first book of its kind that is 
strictly Canadian and its author may be justly 
proud. The need for a volume concerning 
the amphibians in Canada has been obvious to 
many. By providing an introduction to the 
amphibians as a group and presenting up to 
date and accurate information on our twenty- 
six eastern Canadian species, this book seems 
designed to answer those many questions with 
which teachers, camp directors and museum 
staffs are so often confronted. 

Mr. E. B. S. Logier has been on the staff 
of the Royal Ontario Museum of Zoology and 
Palaeontology for thirty-five years where he is 
now Associate Curator of the Division of 
Ichthyology and Herpetology. 

It is a pleasure to read Mr. Logier's precise 
and accurate yet flowing style. Exceptions to 
statements and further detail are neatly en- 
closed in brackets or foot-notes eliminating 
the pitfall of so many popular works where 
accuracy is sacrificed for generalizations. The 
author's excellent illustrations enhance the 
value of the book and it is noteworthy that 
they appear on the same page with the text 
which refers to them. 

The whole work bespeaks organization 
towards making it readable and informative. 
The first fifty-seven pages are intended to 
acquaint the reader with the amphibians, their 
past and present relationships. Their anato- 
my including skin shedding and regeneration, 
their senses, instinct and intelligence. The 
rest of this excellent section concerns life 
histories, the effect of temperature and 
moisture on the distribution of amphibians, an 
emphatic and worthy discourse on economic 
importance and conservation, and finally 
"Some Technical Procedures", wherein 
methods of collection, measuring, sexing and 
recording are explained with the aid of 



drawings. This last chapter deserves the 
highest praise for Mr. Logier emphasizes the 
importance of stating precisely how measure- 
ments were taken, since such terms as "foot 
length" and "leg length" used by many au- 
thors can mean any of several measurments. 
The lack of standardization in herpetological 
methods is at times disheartening. 

The rest of the book contains keys to and 
descriptions of our eastern Canadian species. 
The keys are accompanied by detailed draw- 
ings which are indeed welcome crutches to 
those who are stumbling for their first time 
through a "Key to Species". Each species 
discussion is provided with a drawing of the 
animal. The species are rather thoroughly 
covered under the headings Range, Distribu- 
tion in Eastern Canada, Size and Structure, 
Colour, Habits and Habitats. In addition the 
tadpoles of many species are described. Colour 
descriptions and distributional data will be 
of especial interest to students of herpetology. 
Mr. Logier's views on the wood frog sub- 
species complex are heartily agreed with by 
the reviewer. 

The book concludes with a nine page 
Glossary, a Bibliography in which there is an 
asterisk marking each of the more helpful re- 
ference books, and an index. 

The reviewer has only a few criticisms. No 
mention is made of the distinct dark edge 
characteristic of the spots on the back of the 
Fowler's Toad. In the drawing of the wood 
frogs (opposite page 108) the individual best 
depicted (foreground) is the form least likely 
to be seen by Canadians in southern Ontario, 
Quebec and the Maritime Provinces. The stark 
plate of the mink frog is not in keeping with 
the rest of the book. Finally, had the distri- 
butional descriptions been presented as black- 
ened areas on small outline maps of eastern 
Canada the value of the book would be further 
enhanced for such maps published thus far 
have been most inaccurate. However, these 
are minor criticisms and should certainly not 
deter one from reading this excellent contri- 
bution to our knowledge of Canadian ver- 
tebrate faunas. — SHERMAN BLEAKNEY. 



AFFILIATED SOCIETIES 



NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY 
OF MANITOBA 



VANCOUVER NATURAL HISTORY 
SOCIETY 



OFFICERS FOR 1951-52: 

President Emeritus: Charles W. Lowe; Honorary Presi- 
dent: A. G. Lawrence; President: RAYMOND R.' LE- 
JEUNE; Vice-Presidents: Mrs. D. B. SPARUNG, Prof. 
R. K. STEWART-HAY; General Secretary: Mrs. W. A. 
CARTWRIGHT; Executive Secretary: Mrs. G. I. KEITH; 
Treasurer: H. MOSSOP; Auditor: W. A. CARTWRIGHT; 
Social Convenor: Miss LOUISE M. LOVELL. 

SECTIONS— 

Ornithology: Chair. F. J. COUTTS; Sea Miss W. 
DOWNES. Entomology: Chair. R. J. HERON; Sec 
J. A. DROUIN. Botany. Chair. Mrs. D. B. SPARLING; 
Sec. JOHN S. ROWE. Geology: Chair. P. H. STOKES; 
Sec. P. W. GRANT. Mammalogy: Chair. C. I. TTT.T.E- 
NIUS; Sec. O. P. GIBSON. Herpetology: Chair. R. K. 
STEWART-HAY; Sec. H. MOSSOP. Archeology: Chair. 
Mrs. P. H. STOKES; Sec. Mrs. R. K. HELYAR. 

Lectures on the first and third Monday evenings of 
each month will be held in the 4th floor Board Room 
of the Free Press. Friday evening lectures •wU be held 
in Room 200 of the University Extension Service, Me- 
morial Boulevard, Winnipeg. Field Excursions are held 
on Sahirdays or Sundays diiring May, June and Sep- 
tember, and on p^iblic holidays in Jiily and August. 
Membership fee: $1 a year for adults; 25 cents for 
juniors. 



PROVANCHER SOCIETY OF NATURAL 
HISTORY OF CANADA 

OFFICERS FOR 1953 

President : F. DONALD ROSS; 1st Vice-President : JOS. 
MORIN; 2nd Vice-President : J. C. PRICE; Secretary- 
Treasurer : GEO. A. LECLERC; Chief of Scientific 
Section : FRANCOIS HAMEL; Chief of Protection 
Section : REX MEREDITH; Chief of Propaganda Section : 
DR. D. A. DERY; Chief of Information Section : J. A. 
BIGONESSE. Other directors : G. H. CARTWRIGHT, 
T. J. A. HUNTER, DR. V. PLAMONDON, J. J. DION, 
J. K. HILL. J. G. COOTE. 

Secretary's address : GEORGES A. LECLERC, 12 Desy 
Avenue, Quebec, P.Q. 



THE TORONTO FIELD-NATURALISTS' 
CLUB 

OFFICERS FOR 1950-1951 

President : A. A. OUTRAM; Vice-President j J. L. 
BAELLIE; Secretary-Treasurer: MRS. J. B. STEWART, 
21 Millwood Rd., Toronto; President of Junior Club: 
MRS. J. MURRAY SPEIRS; Vice-President of Junior Club: 
MRS L. E. JAQUITH. Executive Council: G. M. BART- 
MAN, J. BARNETT, MRS. N. BROWN, ALFRED BUNKER, 
MISS F. BURGESS, ALEXANDER CAMERON, MISS VERA 
CLARK, MISS B. DOUGLAS, PROF. T. W. DWIGHT, DR. 
M. FRITZ, W. W. H. GUNN, DR. L. E. JAQUITH, MRS. 
J. D. KETCHUM, MISS V. KOHLER, MRS. H. H. MARSH, 
C. S. McKEE, D. S. MILLER, JOHN MITCHELE, R. M. 
SAUNDERS, EARL STARK, H. H. SOUTHAM. Ex. Officio: 
A. J. V. LEHMANN, C. A W'ALKINSHAW. T. F. McLL- 
WRAITH. 

Meetings ax0 held at 8.15 p.m. on the first Monday of 
each month from October to May at the Royal Ontario 
Museum, unless otherwise announced. Field trijis or* 
held during the spring and autumn and on the second 
Boturday ol! each month dtiring tho wintor. 



OFFICERS — 1951-1952 

Hon. President: DR. N. A. M. MacKENZIE; Past Presidenk 
A. H. BAIN; President: DR. V. C. BRINK; Vice-Presidente 
DR. T. M. C. TAYLOR; Hon. Secretary; C. B. W. ROGERS; 
Recording Secretary: MISS C. PLOMMER; Program Se» 
retary: S. F. BRADLEY; Hon. Treasurer: F. J. SANFORD; 
Librarian: MRS. S. F. BRADLEY; Editor of Bulletin: N 
PURSSELL; Chairmen of Sections: Botany — PROF. J. 
DAVIDSON; Geology — DR. J. E. ARMSTRONG; En- 
tomology — A. R. WOOTTON; Ornithology — W. M- 
HUGHES; Mammology — DR. I. McT. COWAN; Marin© 
Biology — R. W. PILLSBURY; Photography — H. C. 
FRESHWATER; Junior Section — A. R. WOOTTON; 
Mycology — F. WAUGH; Aubudon Screen Tours — A. 
H. BAIN; Additional Member of Executive: J. J. PLOM- 
MER; Auditors: H. G. SELWOOD, J. H. PROSSER 

All meetings at 8 p.m.. Room 100, Applied Science- 
Building, University of British Colunibia, imless other- 
wise announced. 



McILWRAITH ORNITHOLOGICAL CLUB 
LONDON, ONT. 

OFFICERS FOR 1953 

Past President : Mr. W. D. SUTTON, 313 Whamcliffe 
Rd. N., London; President : Mrs. R. G. CUMMINGS, 
R.R. 4, London; Vice-President : Mr. H. KEAST, 1239 
Gleeson St., London; Secretary : Miss M. EDY, R.R. 4, 
London; Secretary-Treasurer : Dr. W. W. JUDD, 685 
Strathmeyer St., London; Migration Secretary : Mr. J. 
LEACH, West London, P.O., London. 

Meetings are held at 8.00 p.m. in the Public Library 
biulding on the second Moiiday of each month team 

Sepiember to May. 

Field trips are held during the spring and a special 

excursion in September. 



PROVINCE OF QUEBEC SOCIETY FOR 
THE PROTECTION OF BIRDS INC. 

OFFICERS FOR 1952-53 

President: G. H. MONTGOMERY; Vice-presidents: J. P. 
ANGLIN, Dr. M. J DUNBAR; Treasurer: W. H. RAW- 
LINGS; Secretary: Miss R. S. ABBOTT, 166 Senneville 
Road, Senneville, P.Q. 

COMMITTEE 

Miss R. S. ABBOTT, J. P. ANGLIN, W. R. B. BERTRAM, 
Miss R. B. BLANCHARD, Miss S. BOYER, Mrs. P. H. du 
BOULAY, J D. CLEGHORN, Dr. M. J. DUNBAR, D. G. 
ELLIOT, Mrs. D. G. ELLIOT, DELISLE GARNEAU, G. 
HARPER HALL, W. S. HART, Miss G. HIBBARD, A. R. 
LEPINGWELL, LR.N McLAREN, G. H. MONTGOMERY, 
W. H. RAWLINGS, J. W. ROBINSON, Dr. JACQUES 
ROUSSEAU, C. C. SAIT, Miss M. SEATH, H F. SEY- 
MOUR, Dr. JOHN SUMMERBY, J. L. VAN CAMP. 

Meetings held the second Monday of the month ex- 
cept during summer Field Trips held in spring and 
autumn. 



BRITISH COLUMBIA BIRD AND 
MAMMAL SOCIETY 



President : KENNETH RACEY; Vice-Prseident : H. M. 
LAING; Secretary: IAN McT. COWAN, Dept M 
Zoology, University of British Columbia, VaneouT»i, B.C. 



WANTED 



In order to meet the demcmd for back numbers of the pubUcations 
of the Ottawa Field-Naturalists' Club, the following are xurgently needed : 
Transactions, Otto. Field-Not Club, No. 1, 1880. 

Ollawa Nataralist 



Vol. 4, 


No. 


6, 


Sept., 


1890 




Vol. 7, 


No. 


9, 


Dec, 


1893 




Vol. 11, 


No. 


10, 


Jan., 


1898 




Vol. 11, 


No. 


11. 


Feb., 


1898 




Vol. 11. 


No. 


12, 


Mar., 


1898 




Vol. 12, 


No. 


1, 


Apr., 


1898 




Vol. 12, 


No. 


4, 


luly. 


1898 




Vol. 12, 


No. 


7 & 8, 


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1898 




Vol. 12, 


No. 


9, 


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1901 




Vol. 15, 


No. 


3, 


June, 


1901 




Vol. 15, 


No. 


4, 


July, 


1901 




Vol. 15, 


No. 


8, 


Nov., 


1901 




Vol. 17, 


No. 


12, 


Mar., 


1904(This was marked Vol. 18, No. 


12) 


Vol. 18. 


No. 


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1904 




Vol. 19, 


No. 


10, 


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No. 


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madlsn Field-Maiurailsl 








Vol. 34, 


No. 


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1920 




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No. 


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No. 


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No. 


5, 


May, 


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No. 


9. 


Dec, 


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No. 


5, 


May, 


1931 




Vol. 56, 


No. 


6, 


Sept., 


1942 





Members and subscribers who are able to spare any of these numbers 
would greatly assist the Club by forwarding them to : 



Mr. W. J. Cody, 
Division of Botany 
Science Service, 
Dept. of Agriculture, 
Ottawa, Ontario. 



"Lo Droit" Printers, Ottawa, Canada. 



Vol.67 OCTOBER-DECEMBER, 1953 No. 4 

The CANADIAN 
FIELD -NATURALIST 

Contents 



A comparative study of adults of two Canadian races of Redwings. 

By L. L. Snyder and E. D. Lapworth 143 

i^ Birds observed on a canoe trip in northern Manitoba. By William F. Davis 148 

Notes on the Pallid Vole and the Grasshopper Mouse in Alberta. By J. E. Moore 154 

i- Botanical investigations in northeast Ellesmere Island, 1951. 

By P. F. Bruggemann and J. A. Calder 157 

Notes on the life history of the muskrat in southern Ontario. By L. E. Wragg .... 174 

Notes on the birds of Kluane Game Sanctuary, Yukon Territory. 

By A. W. F. Banfield 177 

Additions to the list of Banff National Park birds. By A. W. F. Banfield 179 

Notes and Observations: — 

Breeding-bird census 1952. By J. W. Arnold 180 

Mating of the Red-necked Grebe, Colymbus grisegena Boddaert. 

By Walter B. Johnstone 181 

Gavia adamsi on Devon Island. By L. L. Snyder 181 

^ Northern Swamp Tree Frog, Pseudacris nigrita septentrionalis (Boulenger) 

from Churchill, Manitoba. By Donald A. Smith 181 

The European Praying Mantis, Mantis religiosa L. at London, Ontario. 

By W. W. Judd 182 

Index to Volume 67 183 



-^ 




NOV 3 1953 


Published by the 
OTTAWA FIELD-NATURAUSTS' 


CLUB 


........: iY 



Authorized as second class mail, Post Office Department, Ottawa. 



(Kjje (^ttatna jfielb^^aturaUsitg' Club 



Patron: 

His Excellency, The Rt. Honourable Vincent Massey, C.H., Governor- General of Canada. 

President: Mr. R. Frith 
1st Vice-President: Mr. W. K. W. Baldwin 2nd Vice-President: Dr. H. A. Senn 

Treasurer: Raymond Moore, Secretary: H. J. Scoggan, 

Division of Botany, National Museum of Canada, 

Science Service, Dept. of Ottawa. 

Agriculture, Ottawa. 

Additional Members of Council: Mrs. J. W. Groves, Mrs. Hoyes Lloyd, Miss Ruth 
Horner, Miss Violet Humphreys, Miss Verna Ross, Miss Pauline Snure, Miss 
Mary Stuart, The Reverend Father F. E. Banim, Messrs. R. M. Anderson, J. Arnold, 
J. S. Bleakney, B. Boivin, A. E. Bourguignon, E. L. Bousfield, K. Bowles, A. W. 
Cameron, W. J. Cody, I. L. Conners, J. P. Cuerrier, W. G. Dore, C. Frankton, W. E. 
Godfrey, H. Groh, J. W. Groves, R. D. Harris, S. D. Hicks, W. Illman, W. H. Lan- 
CELEY, H. Lloyd, W. W. Mair, T. H. Manning, H. Marshall, A. E. Porsild, H. L. J. 
Rhodes, L. S. Russell, D. B. O. Savile, V. E. F. Solman, J. S. Tener. 

Auditors: I. L. Conners, C. Frankton. 



Editor 

Dr. H. a. Senn, 

Division of Botany, 

ScieiKe Service, Dept. of Agriculture, Ottawa. 

Associate Editors 

W. G. Do££ Botany R. M. Anderson Mamnudogy 

A. LaRocque Conchology A. G. Huntsman Marine Biology 

H. G. Crawford Entomology W. E. Godfrey Ornithology 

F. J. Alcock Geology W. A. Bell Palaeontology 

Sherman Bleakney Herpetology J. R. Dymond Ichthyology 

Business Manager 

W. J. Cody, 

Division of Botany, 

Science Service, Dept. of Agriculture, Ottawa. 



The official publications of The Ottawa Field-Naturalists' Club have been 
issued since 1879. The first were The Transactions of the Ottawa Field-Naturalists* 
Club, 1879, 1886, two volumes; the next. The Ottawa Naturalist, 1886-1919, thirty- 
two volumes: and these have been continued by The Canadian Field-Naturalist to 
date. The Canadian Field-Naturalist is issued quarterly. Its scope is the publication 
of the results of original research in all departments of Natural History. 
Price of this volume (4 numbers) $3.00; Single copies 90c each. 



Subscription ($3.00 per year) should be forwarded to Dr. R. J. Moore, 

Div. of Botany, Science Service, Dept. of Agriculture, 

OTTAWA, CANADA. 



Vol. 67 



The Canadian Field-Naturalist 



OTTAWA, CANADA. OCTOBER-DECEMBER, 1953 



No. 4 



A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF ADULTS OF TWO 
CANADIAN RACES OF RED-WINGS ' 



L. L. Snyder and E. D. Lapworth 
Royal Ontario Museum of Zoology and Palaeontology, Toronto 



mum 

NOV 3 19 



Introduction 

TWO RACES of the Red-wing, Agelaius 
phoeniceus, are recognized in Canada 
east of the Rockies, A. p. arctolegus and A. 
p. phoeniceus (see 1931 edition of the A.O.U. 
Check-List). The present study is an evalua- 
tion of the taxonomic characters of these 
forms as displayed by adults, an exposition 
of their variability, and the determination 
of the geographic boundaries of the races in 
Ontario. 

The race A. p. arctolegus was described 
by Oberholser (1907) who reallocated the 
application of the name A. p. fortis of Ridg- 
way (1901) and restricted the latter to the 
population occupying the southern Great 
Plains. Concomitantly he applied the new 
name to the population occupying the 
northern Great Plains from Montana (and 
northern Michigan) north to Mackenzie and 
Keewatin. After distinguishing A. p. arcto- 
legus from A. p. fortis Oberholser stated 
that the former is much like the nominate 
race in colour, males being practically in- 
distinguishable and females barely less 
blackish above and below. However, with 
respect to size, he points out that A. p. arc- 
tolegus is much larger. 

Specimens and Procedure 

In the present study a selection of 
specimens from the collection of the Royal 
Ontario Museum of Zoology and Palaeonto- 
logy was made to eliminate transients and 
immatures. Specimens taken prior to May 
24 or after August 16 in southern areas were 
excluded. Thus the southern material used 
in all probability represents adults establish- 
ed within their normal breeding zone. A 
few specimens collected on earlier and later 
dates from northerly areas were permissible 
since they were obviously in their breeding 
zone. Actually all but a few were collected 



1 Received for publication August 27, 1952. 



9wm 

from breeding colonies during the months bf~ 
June and July. The selected series comprised 
a total of 176 specimens representing both 
populations, 110 adult males and 66 ap- 
parently adult females. 

A preliminary sorting of specimens ac- 
cording to size, using as a guide both the 
measurements of Oberholser and those ob- 
tained from specimens taken in the heart of 
the range as ascribed to the two forms, 
developed a geographic boundary between 
them in central and northern Ontario. It 
became obvious that specimens from north- 
ern Ontario as far east as James Bay were 
referable to the larger form of the west. The 
collection divided into 103 specimens rep- 
resenting a northern and northwestern race 
and 73 representing the more southern and 
eastern race. Both the number of specimens 
and their geographic representation are 
considered adequate and satisfactory to re- 
veal the range of variability of the two 
populations. 

Measurements of seven characters were 
used for comparison. Linear measurements 
here presented are in millimeters and weight 
measurements are in grammes. Total length, 
wingspread and weight measurements are 
those of the collector as recorded on speci- 
men labels. All other measurements were 
taken by the authors. The wing length and 
culmen length represent the chord of these 
members. The depth of bill measurement 
was taken as the vertical height through the 
nostril. As will be noticed in table 1, the 
number of measurements of some characters 
is less than the total of available specimens. 
This is owing to incomplete data on speci- 
mens or, in some cases, to damaged parts. 

Statistics of size variation presented as 
part of table 1 are graphically presented in 
figure 1. The central horizontal line in the 
graph represents the arithmetic mean; the 



Vol. 67, No. 3, July-September, 1953, was issued October 2, 1953. 



— 143 



144 



The Canadian Field-Naturalist 



[Vol. 67 



Table 1. Statistics of size variation of specimens of Agelaius phoeniceus arctolegus 
and A. p. phoeniceus. 



feature 


OBSERVED 
RACE NO. OF MINIMUM- 
SPECIMENS MAXIMUM 


ARITHMETIC 
MEAN 


STANDARD 
DEVIATION 


i MEAN ± 2S 


STANDARD ^.^ ^i ^ 7 « 
ERROR MEAN ± 2 SE 


Wing 


arctolegus 


66 


119-131 


125.7 


2.58 


120.5-130.9 


.32 


125.1-126.3 




phoeniceus 


44 


116-126 


121.3 


2.77 


115.8-126.8 


.42 


120.5-122.1 


Tail 


arctolegus 


66 


84.5-96.5 


90.1 


3.29 


83.5-96.7 


.40 


89.3-90.9 




phoeniceus 


44 


81.5-95 


88.4 


3.46 


81.5-95.3 


.53 


87.3-89.5 


Culmen 


arctolegus 


65 


22-26 


24.3 


.92 


22.5-26.1 


.12 


24.1-24.5 




phoeniceus 


42 


21-26 


23.2 


1.06 


21.1-25.3 


.16 


22.9-23.5 


Depth 


arctolegus 


66 


10-12.8 


11.1 


.56 


10.0-12.2 


.06 


11.0-11.2 


of Bill 


phoeniceus 


44 


9-11 


10.0 


.55 


8.9-11.1 


.08 


9.8-10.2 


Total 


arctolegus 


42 


225-252 


237.6 


7.79 


222.0-253.2 


1.21 


235.2-240.0 


Length 


phoeniceus 


33 


218-247 


231.6 


7.21 


217.2-246.0 


1.27 


229.1-234.1 


Wing- 


arctolegus 


20 


376-409 


395.1 


8.66 


377.8-412.4 


2.0 


391.7-399.1 


spread 


phoeniceus 


12 


364402 


383.0 


13.28 


356.4-409.6 


4.0 


375.0-391.0 


Weight 


arctolegus 


13 


62.5-75 


70.4 


5.22 


60.0-80.8 


1.50 


67.4-73.4 




phoeniceus 


10 


58.5-74 


66.2 


5.36 


55.5-76.9 


1.78 


62.6-69.8 


5? 
Wing 


arctolegus 


37 


99-109 


104.0 


2.54 


98.2-109.8 


.42 


103.2-104.8 




phoeniceus 


29 


95-105 


100.5 


2.38 


95.7-105.3 


.45 


99.6-101.4 


Tail 


arctolegus 


37 


68.5-80 


73.2 


3.09 


67.0-79.4 


.51 


72.2-74.2 




phoeniceus 


29 


67.5-78.5 


73.1 


2.91 


67.3-78.9 


.55 


72-74.2 


Culmen 


arctolegus 


37 


18-21 


19.8 


.81 


18.2-21.4 


.13 


19.5-20.1 




phoeniceus 


29 


17.5-20 


19.1 


.73 


17.6-20.6 


.11 


18.9-19.3 


Depth 


arctolegus 


36 


8.5-11 


9.3 


.50 


8.3-10.3 


.08 


9.1-9.5 


of Bill 


phoeniceus 


28 


7.5-8.9 


8.2 


.34 


7.5-8.9 


.07 


8.1-8.3 


Total 


arctolegus 


25 


189-216 


201.2 


5.27 


190.7-211.7 


1.07 


199.1-203.3 


Length 


phoeniceus 


23 


188-209 


199.3 


5.45 


188.4-210.2 


1.16 


197.0-201.6 


Wing- 


arctolegus 


13 


320-336 


327.6 


4.84 


317.9-337.3 


1.40 


324.8-330.4 


spread 


phoeniceus 


12 


305-329 


317.5 


7.84 


301.8-333.2 


2.36 


312.8-322.2 


Weight 


arctolegus 


12 


37-52 


45.9 


4.94 


36.0-55.8 


1.49 


42.9-48.9 




phoeniceus 


5 


40-49 


44.6 


4.04 


36.5-52.7 


2.02 


40.6-48.6 



vertical box, two standard errors; the vertical 
line two standard deviations; and the crosses 
indicate observed minima and maxima. 

Average pattern, tone and colour dif- 
ferences exist between females of A. p. arcto- 
legus and A. p. phoeniceus. The former is in- 
clined to exhibit with greater frequency 
pinkish on the throat which character often 
extends to the upper breast. Also, as pointed 
out by the describer, females of A. p. arctole- 
gus tend to be less blackish above and below. 
The dark pigment in the stripes of the ventral 
feathers is frequently more dilute, i.e., paler 
in tone. In this respect females of A. p. arcto- 
legus tend slightly toward A. p. fortis. 
Furthermore, females of A. p. arctolegus tend 
to be less blackish below owing to some 
restriction of the dark stripes and a cor- 



responding widening of the white markings. 
A measurement of this feature has been 
carried out as follows: 

A standard of four grades was selected 
from the total series of 66 adult females rep- 
resenting both races. These arbitrary grades 
were carefully adjudged to represent ap- 
proximately equal steps. Grade one represents 
cases in which dark markings of the ventral 
surface are broad, exceeding white markings. 
Grade four represents cases in which white 
predominates. Grades two and three rep- 
resent intermediate conditions. 

Each individual specimen in the whole 
series of females was compared with the 
selected standard and scored accordingly. The 
tendency of A. p. arctolegus females to be 



Oct.-Dec., 1953] 



The Canadian Field-Naturalist 



145 



Wing 



Tail 



Culmcn 



132 -| 




^'-I 


131 — 


^ 96- 


150 -- 


95- 


129- 


94- 


128- 


95- 


127- 


92- 


126- 


il 


91- 


125- 


r 


90- 


124- 




89- 


IZ3- 




88- 


122- 




-1 87- 


121 - 


' 


86- 


120- 




85- 


119- 


X 


84- 


118- 




83- 


117 - 




82- 


116- 




81- 


115- 




80- 



27-, 



26- 



25- 



24 



25 



22 



20 



e 



Depth of Bill 



125 



Total Length 



11-5 



105- 



9-5- 



9 - 



255 



250 - 



245 - 



240 



255 



230 



225 



220 - 



215 



410 - 

405- 

400 

595 

590 

585 -I 

580 

575 

570 

565 

560-1 

355 



Wingspi-ead WeigKt 

90-1 



es- 



se 



75- 



70- 



65 



60 



55- 



50 



Wing 



Tail 



Culmen 



no 


j 


1 


109- 


c 80- 


108- 


79- 


107- 


78- 


106- 


77- 


105- 


u 


76- 


104- 


4 


75- 


103- 


T 


74- 


102- 




73- 


101- 


r 


72- 


100- 




71- 


99- 


:: 


70- 


98- 


•• 


69- 


97- 




68- 


96- 




67- 


95- 




< 



/ 



22-, 



21- 



20 



19- 



17-1 



9? 

Depth of Bill Total Length Wingspread Weight 

11.0-, X 



10.5 



10 0- 



9.5 



9.0- 



8,5 



8 



Y//)^ A.p. arctolcgus 
I I A. p. phoeniceus 



7.5- 



e 



215 



210 



205 



200- 



195- 



190- 



i 



335 



330 



325 



320 



315- 



310- 



305 



55- 



50- 



45 



40- 



35. 



V\ 



Fig. 1. Size variation in Agelcdus phoeniceus aictolegus and A. p. phoeniceus. 



146 



The Canadian Field-Naturalist 



[Vol. 67 



Table 2. Colour differences between $ 2 of A. p. arctolegus and A. p. phoeniceus. 



Predominance of black 



Predominance of white 



Grade 


1 


2 


3 


4 


% of 37 9 5 arctolegus 
% of 29 5 5 phoeniceus 


2.7 
17.3 


27.0 
44.9 


59.5 
37.8 


10.8 




generally lighter ventrally and A. p. phoeni- 
ceus to be darker is revealed by the per- 
centage figure in Table 2. 

Figure 2 presents the geographic phase 
of the present study. The solid and open 
circles on the map indicate the places from 
which specimens used originated. The 
boundary limits of the two recognized races 
in Canada east of the Rockies are indicated 
by lines. Suitable ecological conditions for 
this species occur rarely on the pre-Cambrian 
shield determining the rarity or sporadic 
distribution of Red-wings in the more 
northerly districts of Ontario, and in part 
account for the complete lack of specimens 
in the area between the lines demarcating 
racial limits. Specimen material from the 
Province of Quebec is needed in order to 
complete and refine the distributional 
picture there. 

Discussion 

Our comparison of a satisfactory sample 
of two populations of Red-wings from east 
of the Rockies in Canada show that the most 
significant size differences and useful 
diagnostic characters concern two append- 
ages, namely, length of wing and vertical 
thickness of the bill at, (or near) the base. 
This applies to both sexes. In addition, 
there is a significant average difference in 
length of the culmen in both sexes. Other 
measurements involving the bill and wing, 
i.e., total length and wingspread, show 
average differences in males. There is no 
significant difference in total length measure- 
ments of females but their wingspread dif- 
ference is significant. Length of tail and 
weight measurements show no significant dif- 
ference in either sex. 

Details of distribution of the longer 
winged, thicker billed, western race, A. p. 
arctolegus, are of particular interest. As 
stated, specimens from western and north- 
ern Ontario, east to James Bay, are clearly 
related to the western population. This 



affinity of northern Ontario faunal elements 
to western faunas is a point previously 
mentioned in the literature (Snyder, 1928, 
p. 5; Snyder, 1935, p. 62-63) and the sugges- 
tion that this zoogeographic pattern is 
linked with redistribution following glacia- 
tion has been made (Snyder, 1939, p. 6). The 
present study has indicated a boundary be- 
tween races of Red-wings in Ontario which 
extends from the northeast shore of Lake 
Superior northeastward to the tip of James 
Bay. This boundary approximates, parallels, 
or corresponds to a number of zoogeographic 
boundaries which are known, some of which 
have not been discussed in the literature. 
Thus this regional study of the Red-wing 
adds supporting evidence to the hypothesis 
that faunas from two directions have con- 
verged in their reoccupation of northeastern 
North America following glacial retreat, 
one moving into northern Ontario from the 
west and southwest, and the other from the 
south and east, thus converging north of the 
Great Lakes. 

It has been remarked that Red-wing 
colonies are relatively scarce in much of the 
region covered by the Pre-Cambrian Shield 
in Ontario. The slow disintegration of hard 
rock is not conducive to the development of 
silted basins and marsh situations which 
constitute optimum ecological conditions 
for the species. However, the absence of 
specimens in the Museum's collection from 
the area between the lines marking limits of 
range of the two races of Red-wings in 
Ontario does not mean the species is un- 
represented there since there are sight re- 
cords at Chapleau (Baillie and Hope, 1947, 
p. 27) but it is rare. It is possible that the 
nominate race has extended its range north- 
ward in comparatively recent times with the 
removal of much of the forest about settle- 
ments, especially in the clay belt of the 
central east. Finally, the recognition of A. 
p. arctolegus in northern Ontario east to 
James Bay tends to explain occurrences of 



Oct.-Dec., 1953] 



The Canadian Fiei.d-Naturalist 



147 




• A p arctolcous 

O A p pfiocniceus 



Fig. 2. Distribution of specimens of Agelaius phoeniceus examined. 



this form as a transient in Michigan (Van 
Tyne, 1938, p. 36), New York and Connec- 
ticut (Brodkorb, 1937) and probably other 
eastern localities. 

Literature Cited 

Baillie, J. L. and C. E. Hope 

1947. The summer birds of Sudbury Dis- 
trict, Ontario. 

Contr. Roy. Ont. Mus. of Zool., no. 
28, pp. 1-32. 

Brodkorb, Pierce 

1937. Giant red-wing in New York. 
Auk, vol. 54, no. 3, p. 396. 

Oberholser, H. C. 

1907. A new Agelaius from Canada. 
Auk, vol. 24, no. 3, pp. 332-336. 

Ridgway, Robert 

1901. New birds of the Families Tana- 
gridae and Icteridae. 



Proc. Wash. Acad. Sc, vol. 3, pp. 
149-155. 

Snyder, L. L. 
1928. A fauna! investigation of the Lake 
Abitibi region, Ontario. 
Uni. of Toronto Studies, Biol. Series, 
no. 32, pp. 1-46. 

1935. A study of the sharp-tailed grouse. 
Uni. of Toronto Studies, Biol. Series, 
no. 40, pp. 1-66. 

1939. On Melospiza melodia in Ontario. 

Occa. Papers, Roy. Ont. Mus. Zool., 
no. 5, pp. 1-8. 

Van Tyne, Josselyn 

1938. Check list of the birds of Michigan. 
Occa. Paper Mus. of Zool., Uni. 
Mich., no. 379, pp. 1-44. 



148 



The Canadian Field-Naturalist 



[Vol. 67 



BIRDS OBSERVED ON A CANOE TRIP IN NORTHERN MANITOBA' 

William F. Davis 
Michigan State College, East Lansing, Mich. 



DURING the summer of 1951, my ambition 
of several years' standing — to make a 
canoe trip from Lake Winnipeg to Hudson's 
Bay in northern Manitoba, Canada — was 
finally realized. While the major objective 
of the trip was simply to see the northern 
wilderness, I took careful notes on the bird 
life along the way. 

The most recent list of the birds of this 
area was published in 1902 as a result of a 
general biological investigation made of the 
region immediately west of Hudson's Bay 
by Edward A. Preble of the Bureau of Bio- 
logical Survey in 1900. As might be expected, 
numerous changes have occurred during the 
51-year interval. Fifteen species here report- 
ed were not recorded by Preble on the por- 
tion of his trip from Selkirk to York Factory, 
and the status of many others in this area 
has apparently changed. Unfortunately, many 
birds were missed on this trip due to my 
scanty knowledge of bird songs. I was also 
handicapped by an inability to discern red 
in certain shades or under certain light con- 
ditions. As a result, I was never able to 
distinguish between Common and Arctic 
Terns (Sterna hirundo and S. paradisaea) 
since their bills looked uniformly dark with 
no trace of red. 

I left Selkirk, Manitoba, a few miles north 
of Winnipeg on the Red River, aboard the 
S. S. KEENORA on the fourth of June for 
the 350-mile trip down the Red River and 
up Lake Winnipeg to Norway House, a Hud- 
son's Bay Post situated on Little Playgreen 
Lake about 20 miles north of Lake Winnipeg. 
En route to here, stops were made at Mathe- 
son Island and Berens River along the way, 
and at Warren's Landing at the northern 
end of the lake. 

In the company of an Indian guide I left 
Norway House on June 8 and followed the 
long-travelled Nelson-Echimamish-Hayes River 
route to York Factory, a Hudson's Bay Post 
at the mouth of the Hayes River on Hudson's 
Bay. Little Playgreen, Hairy, Robinson, Lo- 
gan, Max, Opiminegoka (Pine), Windy, Ox- 
ford, Back, Knee and Swampy Lakes were 
successively crossed in that order on the 
way to the Bay. At the Hudson's Bay Post on 



1 Received for publication August 5, 1952. 



Oxford Lake I left my first guide and en- 
gaged another who took me down the Hayes 
River to within 110 miles of York Factory, 
from which point I proceeded on alone, ar- 
riving at the Bay June 18 after a trip of 375 
miles from Norway House. With the excep- 
tion of the portion of the route through Max 
Lake, which the guide insisted we follow to 
avoid a rapid-filled section of the Hayes River, 
I took the exact route taken by Preble to 
York Factory. In his report, confusingly 
enough, the various sections of the Hayes 
River between lakes all have different names. 

Paddling was the means of propulsion to 
Oxford House, but my second guide had a 
motor which we used until I left him and 
resumed paddling to York Factory. 

I joined a party of three Indians with 
a "kicker" June 20 at York Factory and ac- 
companied them around the narrow peninsula 
separating the Hayes and Nelson Rivers at 
this point, up the Nelson about 45 miles to 
the mouth of the Weir River, and along the 
tortuous path of the latter stream to the 
Hudson's Bay Railway. 

After spending one day in Churchill, 
Manitoba, at the northern terminus of the 
railway, I made my way by train to 
Thicket Portage, 189 miles south of the Weir 
River intersection. From this point I planned 
to return to Norway House by canoe, but 
after travelling 20 miles east through Land- 
ing Lake, Sabomin Lake, and over the two- 
mile Cross Portage to Sipiwesk Lake it was 
found that the lake and the ensuing stretch 
of the Nelson River which I would have to 
traverse were too high and swift for one 
man to paddle alone, so I was forced to 
retrace my route to the railway and return 
to Winnipeg by train. 

Except for a strip of Silurian sediments 
along the coast of Hudson's Bay, the entire 
route lay across the Pre-Cambrian rocks of 
the great Canadian Shield. Bare rock was 
exposed in varying degrees along the way, 
but the layer of soil was generally thin, and 
trees sometimes grew on nothing more than 
a layer of moss and the merest trace of soil 
overlying the bed-rock. The country was low 
and rolling or with moderate ridges. 



Oct.-Dec., 1953] 



The Canadian Field-Naturalist 



149 



The banks of the waterways were generally 
rocky, and low to moderate until the lower 
Hayes and Nelson Rivers were reached. Here, 
high, steep clay banks, both wooded and bare, 
put in their appearance. 

The cover consisted of white and black 
spruce (Picea glauca and P. mariana), balsam 
poplar (Populus tacamahaca), jack pine 
(Pinus banksiana) , white birch (Betula papy- 
rifera), tamarack (Larix laricina), balsam fir 
(Ahies balsamea), willows (Salix sp.), and 
alders (Alnus sp.). Northward, the spruce 
becomes progressively more numerous, and 
on the lower Hayes and Nelson Rivers the 
forest is composed almost entirely of stunted 
spruce. Vast burned areas in varying degrees 
of reforestation occur throughout the region 
and lend a desolate touch to the scene. Preble 
(1902) states that the transition from Can- 
adian to Hudsonian zone occurs on the east- 
ern shore of Swampy Lake. 

My list of birds does not include those 
seen at Churchill during the single day I 
was there, since Taverner and Sutton (1934), 
and various others, including Allen (1946), 
have covered the area quite thoroughly. How- 
ever, since the above papers do not mention 
them, I do want to note the occurrence of 
a small flock of Rock Doves (Columbia livia) 
in the rail yard, by the roundhouse. A few 
House Sparrows (Passer domesticus) , as well 
as several Song Sparrows (Melospiza melo- 
dia), were seen and heard around the town, 
and a few Tree Swallows (Iridoprocne hi- 
color), were also noted. 

I should like to express my thanks to 
Dr. George J. Wallace of Michigan State Col- 
lege for his generous aid and advice in the 
preparation of this paper. 

An annotated list of the birds seen on 
the trip follows. 

Common Loon. Gavia immer. With the 
exception of the lower Hayes and Nelson 
Rivers and the Weir River, loons were seen 
along the entire canoe route. They were 
especially common on the larger lakes, and 
the greatest numbers were seen during 
sessions of evening paddling. 

Holboeirs Grebe. Colymbus grisegena. 
This species was first met with on the Nelson 
River below Little Playgreen Lake. One was 
also noted and one was heard on Hairy Lake, 
an enlargement of the Echimamish River a 
few miles above its mouth, five on the Hayes 
River below Painted Stone Portage, three 



on the Hayes between Robinson Lake and 
Robinson Falls, two on Knee Lake, and two 
on the Hayes River below the outlet of 
Swampy Lake. This species was not reported 
by Preble. 

White Pelican. Pelecanus erythrorhynchos. 
A few were noted on the Red River north 
of Selkirk in a broad lake-like area. 

Double-crested Cormorant. Phalacrocorax 
auritus. A cormorant was seen between Lake 
Winnipeg and Norway House, two more on 
the Nelson River between Little Playgreen 
Lake and Sea River Falls, about twenty miles 
north of Norway House, and one on the 
Hayes River some distance below Swampy 
Lake. Preble saw one on Pine Lake on his 
southward trip in September. 

Great Blue Heron. Ardea herodias. Two 
were seen flying along the bank of the Red 
River below Selkirk. 

Black-crowned Night Heron. Nycticorax 
nycticorax. Many night herons were observed 
along the banks of the Red River north of 
Selkirk. This species was not seen by Preble. 

American Bittern. Botaurus lentiginosus. 
At Norway House I was surprised to hear 
the pumping call of the bittern emanating 
from a bog in a dense spruce woods not 
far from the lake. Several bitterns were call- 
ing from a marsh bordering the Hayes River 
below Opiminegoka Lake, and a few were 
heard in riverside marshes below Swampy 
Lake. On the return trip one was flushed 
from a marsh near Sabomin Lake. 

Canada Goose. Branta canadensis. The 
waterfowl-barren Weir River yielded the only 
geese seen on the entire trip. Three single 
adults and a pair of adults with five well- 
advanced goslings were noted on June 21. 

Mallard. Anas platyrhynchos. A pair of 
mallards was first seen at Norway House, 
and many were noted on the Nelson River 
between Little Playgreen Lake and the Echi- 
mamish River. This locality yielded more 
mallards than any other of the entire trip, 
although a few were seen in most lakes and 
stretches of the Hayes River until a point 
a short distance below the outlet of Swampy 
Lake was reached. The mallard was not ob- 
served during the rest of the trip, even in 
the Landing Lake area where more suitable 
habitat was encountered. Of course, the Pre- 
Cambrian area of Canada is not noted for 
its waterfowl populations. 

This duck has increased considerably since 
Preble's trip, very likely because the natives 



ISO 



The Canadian Field-Naturalist 



[Vol. 67 



are being educated to forego the killing of 
waterfowl until after the breeding season. 

Pintail. Anas acuta. Only one pintail, a 
male, was seen during the entire trip. This 
bird was noted on June 15 when it flew 
across the Hayes River in front of the canoe 
just below Swampy Lake. 

Blue-winged Teal. Anas discors. Two teal 
were observed on the trip. One was seen on 
the Red River north of Selkirk on June 4, 
and one on the Echimamish River between 
Hairy Lake and Painted Stone Portage June 
10. This species was not reported by Preble. 

Baldpate. Mareca americana. One at Hairy 
Lake, one on the Hayes River below Windy 
Lake, a few on the Hayes below Swampy 
Lake, and one on the Nelson River above 
Hudson's Bay were my only records for this 
species. Preble did not record this duck. 

Ring-necked Duck. Ay thy a collaris. A pair 
was noted on a pond-like expanse of the 
upper Echimamish, and a few were seen by 
an extensive marsh at the western end of 
Robinson Lake around the inlet of the Hayes 
River. Preble did not record this species. 

Canvas-back. Aythya valisineria. A single 
pair was seen on the Nelson River below 
Sea River Falls on June 9. This duck was 
also not reported by Preble. 

Scaup. Aythya sp. I made no attempt 
to determine the species in the scaups. These 
ducks were noted periodically between Nor- 
way House and the Hayes River below Swampy 
Lake, and a few were seen in the Landing 
and Sabomin Lake areas on the return trip. 
They were the most common duck on the 
Echimamish River, but ducks were generally 
very scarce there. Preble did not report this 
species south of York Factory. 

American Golden-eye. Bucephala clangula. 
The Golden-eye is the most abundant duck of 
the region and was encountered continually 
from Lake Winnipeg to the Hayes River below 
Swampy Lake. It was especially numerous 
on the Nelson River below Norway House, 
and between Oxford House and the final 
stretch of the Hayes. Several flocks of males 
were noted along the way. In the stunted 
spruce area of the lower Hayes River only 
one golden-eye was seen, and but a very 
few were seen on the lower Nelson River. 
The last one noted on the trip was a single 
bird on the Weir River. 

Hollow trees must be extremely scarce in 
the stunted spruce area. The guide whom 
I engaged at Norway House informed me 



that Golden-eyes nested in hollow birch and 
poplar trees in that region. 

Buffle-head. Bucephala albeola. Four 
Buffle-heads were seen on the Nelson River 
a few miles above the mouth of the Echima- 
mish River, one on the Echimamish, one by 
the marsh at the western end of Robinson 
Lake, and two pairs on the Hayes River be- 
tween Opiminegoka and Windy Lakes. During 
his return trip in September Preble noted a 
single Buffle-head near Swampy Lake. 

White-winged Scoter. Melanitta fusca. A 
few scoters were observed on Back Lake, and 
a flock, plus several singles, on Knee Lake. 
Several of these ducks were last noted on the 
marshy-bordered stretch of the Hayes River 
below the outlet of Swampy Lake. This latter 
area, incidentally, was the last good duck 
breeding area passed on the way to the Bay. 

Surf Scoter. Melanitta perspicillata. Sev- 
eral of these ducks were noted at the north- 
ern end of Knee Lake. 

American Merganser. Mergus merganser. 
The American Merganser is the second most 
numerous duck of the region. It was noted 
regularly along the entire route with the 
exception of the Landing Lake area, and was 
most abundant on Oxford Lake. Even mer- 
gansers, however, along with all other ducks, 
were absent from a bird-barren stretch of 
the Hayes River extending from about 20 
miles above the mouth of the Fox River to 
the mouth of God's River. 

The likewise barren Weir River yielded 
only one pair of American Mergansers on 
June 22. The female was moulting her wing 
feathers and was unable to fly. 

On the deep, rocky-shored lakes mergan- 
sers together with golden-eyes and loons com- 
prise most of the waterfowl population. 

This duck has undergone an enormous 
increase since 1900. Preble reported it only 
twice outside of Oxford Lake where he noted 
"several". 

Red-breasted Merganser. Mergus serrator. 
This species was recorded at three localities 
only : one on the Hayes River above Oxford 
Lake, four on Oxford Lake, and two on Knee 
Lake. 

Red-tailed Hawk. Buteo jamaicensis. A 
single pair of Red-tailed Hawks was ob- 
served soaring over the upper Echimamish 
River on June 10. 

Bald Eagle. Haliaeetus leucocephalus. Two 
eagles were observed on the south shore of 



Oct.-Dec., 1953] 



The Canadian Field-Naturalist 



151 



Robinson Lake and an adult and immature 
were seen flying by the south shore of Oxford 
Lake. 

Osprey. Pandion haliaetus. One was noted 
on the Nelson River above the mouth of the 
Echimamish, two on Knee Lake, an excited 
pair was observed circling and calling by 
their nest in the top of a dead spruce near 
a rapids on the Hayes River about midway 
between Swampy Lake and the Fox River, 
and one on the Nelson River a few miles 
above York Factory. 

Sparrow Hawk. Falco sparverius. Three 
were seen along the Echimamish River be- 
tween the Nelson River and Hairy Lake, and 
three along the course of the Weir River. 

Spruce Grouse. Canachites canadensis. One 
hen with three small young able to fly, a 
single hen, and a single youngster also able 
to fly were encountered on Cross Portage 
June 29. Preble saw several of these birds 
on the way to York Factory while I saw none 
on this portion of the trip. 

Strangely enough, not a single Ruffed 
Grouse (Bonasa umbellus) was seen or heard 
during the entire trip. The natives told me 
that they were more abundant two or three 
years ago. 

Willow Ptarmigan. Lagopus lagopus. Al- 
though I did not see this bird, Tommy Single- 
ton, a trapper with whom I stayed on Cross 
Portage, stated that the ptarmigans came to 
that region in large numbers during the win- 
ter. They usually stay from September until 
May, or until the snow leaves. 

Killdeer. Charadrius vociferus. A killdeer 
was heard during the S. S. KEENORA's stop 
at Matheson Island, and a few were seen and 
heard at the Berens River stop. One bird 
was noted at Warren's Landing, at the north- 
ern end of Lake Winnipeg, and two on the 
grassy, open area behind the Oxford House 
Hudson's Bay Post. This species was not 
reported by Preble south of York Factory. 

Wilson's Snipe. Capella gallinago. A single 
snipe, looking very much out of place perched 
in a tree, was seen along the course of the 
Echimamish River on June 9. Preble saw sev- 
eral of these birds in September on his re- 
turn trip. 

Spotted Sandpiper. Actitis macularia. This 
sandpiper was numerous during the entire 
trip, and was seen and heard almost continual- 
ly except during the ascent of the Echimamish 
River when they became rather scarce, prob- 



ably due to the thick growth of willows, 
sedges, etc. on the low soil banks of the 
stream. This species was about the only bird, 
with the exception of the robin, which was 
seen on the above mentioned barren stretch 
of the lower Hayes River and was more 
abundant here than at any other point on 
the trip. 

For a vertical distance of about six or 
eight feet from the summer water level the 
banks of the Hayes in this area are well 
cleared of all woody vegetation due to the 
scouring action of the ice. 

The Spotted Sandpiper was last noted on 
the Weir River. 

Eastern Solitary Sandpiper. Tringa solita- 
ria. A lone bird was noted at one of the 
dams on the Echimamish River June 10. 

Herring Gull. Larus argentatus. With the 
exception of the Echimamish and Weir Rivers 
and the barren stretch of the Hayes River 
previously mentioned, where only two were 
seen, the Herring Gull occurred in moderate 
numbers along the entire route. On June 16 
a nest with two downy young was found on 
a rock below a rapids in the Hayes River 
north of Swampy Lake. 

Ring-billed Gull. Larus delawarensis. Even 
allowing for a high percentage of these birds 
being overlooked, the Ring-billed Gull was 
decidedly uncommon in the area travelled. 
One was noted at Matheson Island, several 
on the trip from Lake Winnipeg to Norway 
House, one at Norway House, one at Hairy 
Lake, and a few on a small unnamed lake 
between Landing and Sabomin Lakes on the 
return trip. Preble reported this species as 
common between Norway House and the Bay. 

Bonaparte's Gull. Larus Philadelphia. Few 
were seen on the trip. One was observed 
over a burn by the Echimamish River, a few 
on Knee Lake and the Hayes River below 
Swampy Lake, and several on the Hayes a 
short distance above York Factory. 

Common and Arctic Terns. Sterna hirundo 
and S. paradisaea. Terns were noted during 
most of the trip, but due to my partial color 
blindness I was unable to identify them as 
to species. They were not as abundant as 
I expected them to be on the many lakes 
along the route. 

Black Tern. Chlidonias nigra. Black Terns 
were abundant between Selkirk and the 
marshy-bordered stretch of the Hayes River 
below the outlet of Swampy Lake. They were 
particularly numerous in marshy areas, and 



152 



The Canadian Field-Naturalist 



[Vol. 67 



the extensive marsh at the western end of 
Robinson Lake where the Hayes River enters 
contained several thousand of these birds. 
None were noted on the Nelson and Weir 
Rivers or on Landing Lake. 

This species was apparently more numer- 
ous than during Preble's trip, as he noted 
their abundance at only two points along the 
route. 

Nighthawk. Chordeiles minor. Two were 
seen at Norway House and a considerable 
number were noted over a burn by the Echi- 
mamish River. The species was heard at 
Logan, Max and Knee Lakes, and a few were 
noted on the Hayes River below Swampy 
Lake, along the course of the Weir River, 
and at Thicket and Cross Portages. They are 
partial to burns. 

Belted Kingfisher. Megaceryle alcyon. The 
first of these birds was observed at Sea River 
Falls on the Nelson River about twenty miles 
below Norway House, one on the Echimamish, 
two on Max Lake, two on Oxford Lake, three 
on the Hayes River below Swampy Lake, and 
one just above York Factory. A single king- 
fisher was noted on Landing Lake. The 
species has presumably decreased since 
Preble's trip. 

Flicker. Colaptes auratus. Flickers were 
seen and heard occasionally from Norway 
House to the lower Hayes River above the 
mouth of the God's River, and three more 
were observed and one heard on an extensive 
burn on the Weir River. They apparently 
frequented the few large trees left standing 
after the fire. 

Plicated Woodpecker. Dryocopus pileatus. 
One Pileated Woodpecker was seen in flight 
and another was heard on Robinson Lake. 
Their workings were seen in the base of a 
dead spruce by Robinson Portage, below 
Robinson Lake, and a few were heard at 
Thicket Portage, Landing Lake and Cross 
Portage. Tommy Singleton told me that they 
often become a nuisance near Cross Portage 
by pecking holes in the cabin logs. Sometimes 
the holes go completely through the wall, 
neccessitating repairs. Preble did not note 
this bird. 

Eastern Kingbird. Tyr annus tyr annus. A 
kingbird was noted by the Red River below 
Selkirk, one at Berens River, and one was 
seen in a marsh on the Echimamish River 
above the fourth dam. Kingbirds were ex- 
tremely abundant along the Hudson's Bay 
Railway between Cormorant Lake and The 
Pas, northwest of Lake Winnipeg. 



Eastern Phoebe. Sayornis phoehe. I did 
not hear or see a phoebe until I was on the 
return leg of the trip at Thicket Portage on 
the Hudson's Bay Railway. Here a pair had 
a nest containing five downy young on the 
porch of a cabin which, incidentally, housed 
a cat. A pair also had a nest in Tommy 
Singleton's cache on Cross Portage. Preble 
recorded several nests along Hell Gate Gorge 
on the Hayes River, but it was this stretch of 
the river that my guide avoided by detouring 
through Max Lake. 

Alder Flycatcher. Empidonax traillii. There 
were just two instances on the trip when I 
felt certain in my identification of the Alder 
Flycatcher. Its call, and the bird itself, was 
noted in an alder thicket in the marsh at 
the western end of Robinson Lake, and the 
bird was again met with on the Hayes River 
above Oxford Lake. Many miles of suitable 
habitat were passed and flycatchers were seen 
therein, but none voiced the wee-be-o call of 
the alder, and I did not attempt to identify 
them. 

Least Flycatcher. Empidonax minimus. On 
the northward trip this bird was encountered 
by the third dam of the Echimamish, on the 
Logan-Max Lake portage, on the Hayes River 
below Windy Lake, and finally on the Hayes 
River between the mouths of the Fox and 
God's Rivers. On the return trip, one was 
heard at Thicket Portage and one at Cross 
Portage. 

Tree Swallow. Iridoprocne bicolor. Tree 
swallows were seen at Berens River, on the 
trip from Lake Winnipeg to Norway House, 
Norway House itself, on the Nelson River 
below Sea River Falls, one on the Echimamish 
River, and a few swallows were noted over 
the marsh at the western end of Robinson 
Lake. This bird has apparently decreased 
in numbers since Preble's trip. 

Bank Swallow. Riparia riparia. Many were 
flying about the Red River near the S. S. 
xiENORA'S dock at Selkirk. Preble noted 
several colonies of these swallows on his 
trip to York Factory. 

Barn Swallow. Hirundo rustica. Several 
were seen in with the Bank Swallows flying 
about the S. S. KEENORA'S dock at Selkirk, 
and a few were seen near a bam on Matheson 
Island. Preble did not report this bird south 
of York Factory. 

Northern Cliff Swallow, Petrochelidon pyr- 
rhonota. The railway station at Gillam, on 
the Hudson's Bay line, supported a colony 



Oct-Dec., 1953] 



The Canadian Field-Naturalist 



153 



of cliff swallows under its eaves, and a few 
more were seen at Pikwitonei, on the rail- 
road south of Gillam. 

Canada Jay. Perisoreus canadensis. Not 
many jays were seen on the trip. Several 
were seen on the Echimamish, one on Oxford 
Lake, and a few on the Hayes River above 
York Factory. On the return trip a few were 
noted on the Weir River and several on 
Cross Portage. The young birds were noted 
most often and readily responded to squeak- 
ing, coming very close. Tommy Singleton 
stated he saw little of them until the end 
of the summer. 

American Magpie. Pica pica. No magpies 
were met with, but Tommy Singleton inform- 
ed me that for the last two years they have 
come to the Cross Portage area during the 
winter, and have made a nuisance of them- 
selves by robbing and springing traps. 

Raven. Corvus corax. This species was 
seen regularly, but in small numbers, from 
the Nelson River below Little Playgreen Lake 
to Knee Lake, and again on the Weir River 
and at Cross Portage. Many times, however, 
I did not attempt to distinguish between 
crows and ravens. 

Crow. Corvus hrachyrhynchos. Crows 
were noted irregularly, in small numbers, 
from Berens River to the Bay, but none were 
seen or heard on the return trip. 

Black-capped Chickadee. Parus atricapillus. 
I saw but one chickadee on the entire trip. 
The bird was noted June 14 on a portage 
on the Hayes River below Back Lake. 

Robin. Turdus migratorius. A robin was 
seen at Berens River, and the species was 
seen or heard throughout the rest of the 
trip. Curiously, and directly opposed to 
Preble's observations, very few robins were 
seen in the vicinity of posts and cabins. The 
bird is extremely wary in the wilderness. 
It is often heard rather than seen. Along 
the Hayes River from Swampy Lake to the 
mouth of God's River the robin was more 
numerous than at any other time on the trip, 
and together with the Spotted Sandpiper com- 
prised the bulk of the bird observations in 
this area. The above mentioned region was 
predominantly stunted spruce muskeg. 

Olive-backed Thrush. Hylocichla ustidata. 
The song of this thrush was heard daily on 
the trip north to the Bay. None were heard 
at York Factory, but several were noted on 
the trip up to the railway. A few were last 
heard at Thicket Portage and in the Cross 
Portage area. 



Red-eyed Vireo. Vireo olivaceus. The song 
of this species was heard at Selkirk, and it 
was noted very frequently from Lake Win- 
nipeg to the Hayes River between the mouths 
of the Fox and God's Rivers. From this point 
the bird was not heard again until Thicket 
Portage, mile 185, on the Hudson's Bay Rail- 
way. It was also heard near Landing Lake 
and Cross Portage. 

Philadelphia Vireo. Vireo philadelphicus. 
A pair of these vireos carrying nesting ma- 
terial was seen by the third dam of the 
Echimamish River on June 10. 

Tennessee Warbler. Vermivora peregrina. 
This warbler was heard frequently from the 
Echimamish River to Oxford House, and again 
at York Factory. A few were also heard at 
Thicket Portage and Cross Portage. Preble 
mentions the species only at Oxford House 
and York Factory. 

Yellow Warbler. Dendroica petechia. One 
was seen at Selkirk, one at Warren's Land- 
ing, and a pair at the Oxford House Hudson's 
Bay Post. It was later noted below the out- 
let of Swampy Lake, on the Hayes River 
above York Factory, and at York Factory 
itself. On the return trip it was noted on the 
Nelson River between the Bay and the mouth 
of the Weir River. It did not appear common 
at any point. Preble found it common at 
Norway House, Oxford House and York 
Factory. 

Myrtle Warbler. Dendroica coronata. A 
few were noted in the vicinity of the Nor- 
way House Post. 

Oven-bird. Seiurus aurocapillus. The call 
of the Oven-bird was heard at Norway House 
and at intervals until the section of the Hayes 
River connecting Back and Knee Lakes was 
reached. It was again noted at Thicket Port- 
age on the Hudson's Bay Railway. Preble 
did not report this warbler. 

House Sparrow. Passer domesticus. A few 
were seen at Selkirk, Matheson Island and 
at Berens River. Livestock is found at the 
latter two stops. Presumably, this species 
has appeared since Preble's observations. 

Red-wing. Agelaius phoeniceus. The Red- 
wing was not numerous at any point along 
the route, and was not met with at all on 
the return trip. A few were seen from the 
Nelson River below Norway House to the 
passage connecting Oxford and Back Lakes in 
most suitable marshy locations. 

Baltimore Oriole. Icterus galbula. A bird 
assigned to this species was seen at a range 



154 



The Canadian Field-Naturalist 



[Vol. 67 



of perhaps forty feet by myself and a com- 
panion in Selkirk. It flew from a low bush 
to a tree, so we had a good view of its back. 
The bird had the Baltimore's pattern and 
coloring with the exception of the tail. This 
was solid orange, like the back; and in the 
upper, center portion was a small, black, 
diamond-shaped mark with its long axis in 
the long axis of the bird's body. My com- 
panion and I agreed perfectly on this point. 
Preble noted a single Baltimore Oriole along 
the Red River between Winnipeg and Selkirk. 

Bronzed Grackle. Quiscalus quiscula. The 
grackle was scarce throughout the trip. One 
was seen at Selkirk, one on Little Playgreen 
Lake, tv/o on the upper Echimamish River, 
and two on the Hayes River below Swampy 
Lake. On the return trip several were noted 
at Pikwitonei on the railway. Preble made 
numerous observations of this bird on the 
first half of his trip to the Bay, so it has 
apparently decreased in numbers. 

Cowbird. Molothrus ater. A single cowbird 
was noted at Berens River, and a few were 
seen at Warren's Landing. This species was 
not reported by Preble. 

Purple Finch. Carpodacus purpureus. Sev- 
eral were seen and heard around Norway 
House. This bird was not reported by Preble 
beyond the northern end of Lake Winnipeg. 

Savannah Sparrow. Passerculus sandwich- 
ensis. One was seen in the field behind the 
Norway House Post, and one was heard at 
Gillam on the railway. The species was com- 
mon on Preble's trip. 

Chipping Sparrow. Spizella passerina. One 
was seen at Berens River, one at Norway 
House, a few about the Oxford House Post, 
and several at Thicket Portage. I believe I 



heard the chippy's song several times between 
these points, but not being too familiar with 
the similar song of the Slate-colored Junco 
(Junco hyemalis) I cannot be sure. 

I did not see a junco on the trip, although 
Preble recorded them at Norway and Oxford 
Houses and on the lower Hayes River. 

White-crowned Sparrow. Zonotrichia leu- 
cophrys. This sparrow was noted only along 
the Weir River, where its song was heard 
frequently. Preble observed it at York Fac- 
tory. 

White-throated Sparrow. Zonotrichia albi- 
collis. Two white-throats were noted at Nor- 
way House, and it was heard almost daily 
to York Factory. A few were noted on the 
Weir River also. 

Song Sparrow. Melospiza melodia. Song 
Sparrows were encountered along the entire 
route from Warren's Landing to York Factory. 
On the southward trip the bird was noted 
on the Nelson River above the Bay and a 
few were seen and heard on Cross Portage 
by Tommy Singleton's cabin. This sparrow 
has apparently increased in numbers since 
1900 and has advanced farther north, since 
Preble did not meet with it beyond Knee 
Lake. 

LITERATURE CITED 

Allen, Arthur A. 1946. Birds of Timberline 
and Tundra. National Geographic Maga- 
zine, 89 (3): 313-339. 

Preble, Edward A. 1902. A Biological In- 
vestigation of the Hudson Bay Region. 
North American Fauna No. 22. (Govern- 
ment Printing Office, Washington), 140 pp. 

Taverner, Percy A. and George Miksch Sutton. 
1934. The Birds of Churchill, Manitoba. 
Annals of the Carnegie Museum, Vol. 23. 



NOTES ON THE PALLID VOLE AND THE GRASSHOPPER 
MOUSE IN ALBERTA ^ 



J. E. Moore 
Dept. of Zoology, University of Alberta, Edmonton. 



THE LITERATURE dealing with Alberta 
mammals contains few records of the pal- 
lid vole and the grasshopper mouse. Pallid 
voles have been reported from Calgary 
(Bailey, V., N.A. Fauna 17, 1900), Lodge 



1 Received for publication October 25, 1952. 



Creek, 26 miles north of the International 
Boundary (Soper, J.D., Can. Field-Nat. 45, 
1931) and Little Sandhill Creek, near Steve- 
ville (Anderson, R. M., Nat. Mus. of Can. 
Bull. 102, 1946). The grasshopper mouse has 
been recorded from Calgary and Medicine 



Oct.-Dec., 1953] The Canadian Field-Naturalist 

Table 1. Data for Pallid Voles Collected in Southern Alberta, 1951. 



155 



No. 


Locality 


Date 




Sex 


Length 


Tail 


Hind Foot 


Ear 


Weight (gms. 


) Remarks 


123 


Compeer 


June 


23 


F. 


112 


19 


18 


9 


25.0 


5 embryos (7 mm.) 


132 


Alsask 


June 


25 


M. 


101 


16 


18 


9 


18.6 


Subadult 


137 


Youngstown 


June 


27 


M. 


111 


16 


17 


9.5 


34.0 


Adult 


138 


Youngstown 


June 


27 


F. 


111 


17 


17 


10 


31.1 


7 embryos (13 mm.) 


157 


Pollockville 


July 


10 


F. 


121 


19 


18 


10 


27.4 


7 embryos (16 mm.) 


174 


Ralston 


July 


17 


M. 


101 


18 


17 


9.5 


14.5 


Subadult 


190 


Cardston 


July 


21 


F. 


119 


20 


18 


9 


30.0 


4 placental scars 


239 


Foremost 


Aug. 


12 


M. 


126 


18 


17.5 


9.5 


29.2 


Adult 


240 


Foremost 


Aug. 


12 


F. 


125 


18.5 


18.5 


10 


29.0 


4 embryos (12 mm.) 


241 


Foremost 


Aug. 


12 


F. 


134 


18 


17.5 


9.5 


31.5 


5 placental scars 


244 


Milk River 


Aug. 


13 


M. 


113 


16 


18 


10 


27.0 


Adult 


258 


Milk River 


Aug. 


16 


M. 


106 


17 


18 


9 


21.0 


Subadult 


287 


Big Stone 


Aug. 


28 


F. 


108 


17 


16.5 


10 


— 


6 embryos (10 mm.) 


288 


Big Stone 


Aug. 


28 


M. 


111 


15 


17 


9.5 


— 


Adult 



Hat (Hollister, N., U.S. Natl. Mus. Proc. 47, 
1914) and from Little Sandhill Creek (An- 
derson, R.M., loc. cit). Studies made in 
recent years have provided much additional 
information about these two species in 
Alberta. 

PaUid Vole 

During the summer of 1951 the writer 
and Mr. R. Lister obtained 14 specimens of 
Lemmiscus curtatus pallidus (Merriam) 
from 9 widely separated points in southern 
Alberta. These included Cardston. Milk 
River, Foremost, Ralston, Pollockville, Big 
Stone, Youngstown, Alsask and Compeer. 
An additional record was obtained near 
Wardlow where a partially consumed pallid 
vole was found to constitute the larder of a 
white-rumped shrike (Lanius ludovicianus 
excubitorides). On the basis of all available 
information it is believed that the range of 
this subspecies in Alberta includes practical- 
ly the whole of the prairie region extending 
from latitude 49° north almost to 51° and 
from 110° to approximately 114° west longi- 
tude. Our record for Compeer extends the 
range of Lemmiscus to a point some 200 
miles north of the International Boundary. 
Table 1 presents the data for our speci- 
mens with all measurements in millimeters 
(ear length is measured from notch). 
Average measurements of adults from this 
area were 117-17.5-17.5 mm., and the average 
weight was 29.4 grams. Study skins are de- 
posited in the collection of the Zoology 
Department, University of Alberta. 



We collected pallid voles from a rather 
wide variety of habitats although generally 
these consisted of highland areas where the 
scanty vegetation included grasses, cactus, 
sagewort, winter fat, mallow and club-moss. 
In only one locality did we note evidence of 
extensive runways and that was in a patch 
of tansy mustard growing around a gravel 
pit near Cardston. 

The food habits of this subspecies in 
North Dakota and Saskatchewan have been 
discussed by Bailey (N.A. Fauna 49, 1926) 
and Soper (loc. cit.). Dr. E. H. Moss of the 
Botany Department, University of Alberta, 
has kindly examined the stomach contents of 
10 of our specimens. His report indicates 
that grass fragments usually formed the bulk 
of the recognizable material and in 7 cases 
there were considerable quantities of spores 
and sporophylls of the prairie club-moss, 
Selaginella densa Rydb. 

Coupling our data with those of Soper 
(loc. cit. and Jour. Mammal. 27, 1946) it is 
evident that the breeding season of the pallid 
vole in the Alberta-Saskatchewan portion of 
its range extends over a period from at 
least June to September. Also, gravid fe- 
males contained from 4 to 8 embryos, the 
average number being 6. Furthermore, 
Soper's collections indicate that at least three 
litters may be produced in a season. 

Of the 14 specimens which we obtained, 
2 from Foremost proved to have diseased 
livers. Further examination by Dr. R. B. 
Miller of this Department revealed that in 



156 The Canadian Field -Naturalist 

Table 2. Data for Grasshopper Mice From Southern Alberta. 



[Vol. 67 



No. 



Locality 



Date 



Hind 
Sex Length Toil Foot Ear 



Weight 



Remarks 



6 Pollockville July 29/49 M. — — — — — — 

7 San Francisco July 25/49 F. 130 34 20 — — 4 embryos (12 mm.) 



Lake 

124 Compeer 

183 Taber 

200 Vulcan 

235 Foremost 

243 Foremost 

M-50-4 Compeer 

M-51-21 Hanna 



June 23/51 F. 129 33 22 16 26.0 Adult 



July 19/51 F. 138 32 22 16 35.1 

July 27/51 M. 125 31 20 15 26.4 

Aug. 11/51 F. 126 30 21 17 27.1 

Aug. 12/51 F. 137 31 21 17 31.3 

July 20/50 F. 143 41 18 — — 

July 3/51 M. 138 43 20 — — 



6 placental scars 

Adult 

Adult 

3 placental scars 



each instance there was a moderate infesta- 
tion of nematodes, which as yet have not 
been identified. Collections of ectoparasites 
included the fleas Monopsyllus wagneri sys- 
taltus (Jord.) and Megabothris clantoni 
Hubb. as determined by Dr. G. P. Holland 
of the Department of Agriculture, Ottawa. 

Grasshopper Mouse 

Specimens of Onychomys leucogaster 
missouriensis (Audubon and Backmann) 
were collected at Foremost, Taber, Vulcan 
and Compeer in the summer of 1951. In ad- 
dition, two former students, Mr. R. C. An- 
derson and Mr. W. S. Haynes have taken 
this subspecies at Pollockville and San Fran- 
cisco Lake (south of Cassils) and at Com- 
peer and Hanna respectively. It is apparent 
that the grasshopper mouse in Alberta has a 
range comparable to that of the pallid vole. 
Both are typical inhabitants of the Transi- 
tion Life Zone of this region. 

Data for all specimens mentioned above 
are given in Table 2. Average measure- 
ments were 133-34-20.5 mm. and the average 
weight was 29.2 grams. The specimen from 
Taber was in brown pelage while the rest 
were buffy grey in color. All individuals 
were taken on the open plains where cover 



was almost negligible. Four of the animals 
were caught in traps set beside abandoned 
badger holes which possibly served as 
homes. Study skins prepared by Mr. Haynes 
are in the Museum of the Alberta Depart- 
ment of Public Health while the remainder 
are in the University of Alberta Zoology 
Department Collection. 

The stomach contents of 4 specimens 
have been examined by Professor E. H. 
Strickland of the Entomology Department, 
University of Alberta. His study reveals that 
from 50 to 95% of the material was of 
animal origin mainly derived from insects. 
Beetles, especially ground beetles, were 
present in sufficient quantities to indicate 
that they constitute a favored diet. Grass- 
hoppers, caterpillars, cutworms, dipterous 
larvae and adults were also represented. Two 
of the stomachs contained small amounts of 
hair. The vegetable material consisted main- 
ly of leaf fragments. 

Although our data are not sufficient to 
provide detailed information about repro- 
ductive activities, it is evident that 3 to 6 
young may be born during late summer. 
Also, it seems reasonable to believe that at 
least one litter is produced earlier in the 
season. 



Oct.-Dec., 1953] 



The Canadian Field-Naturalist 



157 



BOTANICAL INVESTIGATIONS IN NORTHEAST ELLESMERE 

ISLAND, 1951 '■'•' 

P.F. Bruggemann and J. A. Calder 



Introduction 

THE SENIOR AUTHOR spent the season of 
1951 at Alert, Ellesmere Island, N. W. T., 
as a member of one of the field parties sent 
out in the Northern Insect Survey, a project 
sponsored jointly by the Defence Research 
Board of Canada and Science Service of the 
Canada Department of Agriculture. Although 
the main object of the survey was the study 
and collecting of insects, with special emphasis 
on biting flies, botanical investigations were 
carried out when time permitted. 

On account of the restricted accommoda- 
tion available at the Alert weather station, 
the senior author was the sole member of 
the Ellesmere party. Mr. Stuart D. Mac- 
Donald, of the National Museum of Canada, 
however, was doing field work for his institu- 
tion at the same time at Alert. He proved 
to be a very delightful companion and his 
valuable help was greatly appreciated. 

Grateful acknowledgment is also made to 
the United States Weather Bureau and the 
Meteorological Service of the Canada Depart- 
ment of Transport, for providing accommoda- 
tion and board at the joint United States- 
Canada weather station; to the officers and 
personnel of the station, for helping in great 
measure to make the season successful and 
enjoyable; and to the United States Military 
Air Transport Service and the Royal Cana- 
dian Air Force, for providing transportation. 

The party arrived at Alert on April 16. 
During the first two months a preliminary 
survey of the district was carried out, mainly 
on skis. This extended for about 25 miles 
along the coast and from 5 to 10 miles inland. 
Lack of transportation made it difficult to 
carry the work farther afield. However, in 
early June, immediately before the beginning 
of the snow-melt, a sledge journey — with- 
out dogs — of 75 miles into the mountains 
of the northern part of the United States 
Range was undertaken. During this excursion 
the edge of the local ice cap in the vicinity 
of Mt. Grant was reached at a height of 
approximately 4300 feet, and a ridge of 4800 
feet ascended. Near the middle of August a 



1) Contribution No. 3009, Division of Entomology, and 
No. 1218, Division of Botany Plant Pathology, Can- 
ada Department of Agriculture, Ottawa, Canada. 

2) Project No. D49 68-01-07, Defence Research Board, 
Department of National Defence, Ottav/a, Canada. 

3) Received for publication January 29, 1953. 



forty mile pack trip to lower Wood Creek 
Valley ended in a snow-storm, which heralded 
the unexpectedly early and sudden return 
of winter. The resulting snow cover, which 
reached a depth of over one foot by the end 
of August, put a stop to field work several 
weeks before the party returned south on 
September 30. 

Previous Botanical Investigations in Northeast 
Ellesmere Island 

The first to explore the north coast of 
Ellesmere Island were members of the British 
Arctic Expedition under the command of 
Sir George Nares. One of his ships, H.M.S. 
Alert, wintered at Floeberg Beach, some ten 
miles east of the weather station, from early 
September, 1875, to the end of July, 1876. 
Capt. H. W. Feilden, the naturalist of the 
expedition, made a collection of plants in the 
district (Hart, 1880). He listed 37 species as 
occurring north of the 82nd parallel. 

Peary visited the area several times when 
he attempted to reach the North Pole. His 
ship, the Roosevelt, wintered twice at Cape 
Sheridan, in 1905-06 and 1908-09. Among the 
meagre scientific results of his expeditions 
are three collections of plants, made by Dr. 
L. J. Wolf in 1906, Capt. R. A. Bartlett in 
1908, and Dr. J. W. Goodsell in 1909. The 
species collected by Wolf and Goodsell are 
listed by Rydberg (Rydberg, 1911-12). Among 
these are five new records for the region. 
Nothing appears to have been published about 
the collections made by Bartlett except the 
citations by Polunin (Polunin, 1940); six 
species, including one doubtful one, were 
added to the records. Finally, Godfred Han- 
sen, the leader of the Danish Third Thule 
Expedition, visited the north coast of Elle- 
smere in 1920. Nothing has been published 
about the work of this expedition, but, accord- 
ing to Polunin's citation (I. c, p. 49), there is 
among Hansen's specimens at least one spe- 
cies that had not been recorded previously. 

H. G. Simmons, who was a member of the 
Sverdrup Expedition of 1898-1902, contributed 
greatly to our knowledge of the flora of 
Ellesmere, through both his field work and 
a valuable paper (Simmons, 1906). Since 
he visited only the southern half of the island, 
he made no additions to the records for 
the north coast, which thus comprised a total 



158 



The Canadian Field-Naturalist 



[Vol. 67 



of approximately 50 known vascular species 
at the time the present investigations were 
undertaken. 

The Area 
TOPOGRAPHY 

The area surveyed extends along the coast 
of the extreme northeast corner of Ellesmere 
Island from 61°15'W to 63°40'W, that is, 
from Cape Rawson to a few miles west of 
Black Cliffs Bay. It lies between 82°25'N 
and 82°32'N and is therefore a part of 
one of the northernmost lands on the globe. 
Ellesmere Island itself extends, at Cape 
Columbia, a scant 40 miles closer to the 
Pole than Alert; only the north tip of Green- 
land exceeds Cape Columbia, by approximately 
an equal distance. 

In striking contrast with the rugged east 
coast of Ellesmere, which rises abruptly from 
the sea to elevations of a thousand feet or 
more, the land from Cape Rawson to a point 
halfway between Dumbell and Colan Bay 
slopes rather gradually to the shore. About 
two miles inland the steep edge of a plateau 
runs roughly parallel to the coast, which 
is rather irregular in outline and is indented 
by numerous bays and inlets. The plateau, 
which lies at an elevation of 500 to 700 feet, 
is generally fairly level, but it is dissected 
by a great number of water courses. The 
larger of these have cut deep ravines and 
gorges that are often more than one hundred 
feet deep and have nearly vertical walls. To 
the south the plateau abuts against a chain 
of elongated, rounded hills extending to the 
west-southwest from Mt. Pullen, which, with 
an elevation of 1650 feet, is the highest point 
in the vicinity of the weather station. 

In the west half of the area, at Colan and 
Black Cliffs Bay, hills, from 400 to 1000 
feet high, rise steeply from the sea and form 
bold headlands and frowning cliffs. Viewed 
from Mt. Pullen, the country to the south and 
south-southwest rises very gradually in broad 
undulations to over 3000 feet. To the west- 
southwest, west, and northwest the sharp 
peaks and ridges of the northern end of the 
United States Range form the sky line. 
Pyramid-shaped Mt. Grant rises, according to 
the latest maps, to 6800 feet and is the high- 
est, although not the most conspicuous, 
point visible. An ice cap, some 300 square 
miles in extent, sends glaciers through gaps 
between the peaks into the numerous valleys. 
The north-facing slopes of the mountains are 
covered by what appears to be perpetual 
snow, but the opposite sides become snow- 



free for short periods during the summer. 
From Black Cliffs Bay the coast runs nearly 
due north for about 25 miles to the cliff- 
like Cape Joseph Henry, from where the 
land trends west-northwest to Cape Columbia. 
In the east, beyond the frozen Lincoln Sea 
and Robeson Channel, looms the coast of 
Greenland in the clear arctic air visible for 
more than 100 miles. 

The Alert area contains four moderate- 
sized lakes and numerous ponds and pools. 
All of these, except Egerton Lake, became 
ice-free during the summer; the smaller 
ones cleared shortly after the snow had dis- 
appeared from the land, whereas the Dumbell 
Lakes, elevation about 25 feet, and Hawkins 
Lake, elevation about 75 feet, retained central 
sheets of ice until the second week of Au- 
gust, when winds of gale force broke them 
up and speeded their disappearance. Egerton 
Lake, at an elevation of 475 feet, had on 
July 26 only a narrow strip of water between 
the shore and the central mass of ice. This 
water was covered by about one inch of 
ice on August 11. The shallow ponds and 
pools froze over solidly during the night of 
August 27-28; the Dumbell Lakes stayed open 
until September 7 and a week later they were 
covered with about eight inches of ice. 

GEOLOGY 

Geologically the area is rather uniform. 
The country rock consists of highly calcareous, 
strongly metamorphosed sediments of pre- 
sumably Palaeozoic age, the so-called Cape 
Rawson beds. The generally thin-bedded 
shales and slates have been severely and in- 
tricately folded. The strata often stand ver- 
tical and the strike of the folds is generally 
from west-southwest to east-northeast. No 
easily recognizable fossils were observed in 
these rocks. 

The strata vary greatly in hardness and 
only the softer shales appear to disintegrate 
readily into stiff, fast-drying clays and silts. 
The beds of clay that accumulate on gentle 
slopes and more or less level areas lead to 
the development of polygon formations. Most 
of the finer silt particles are carried away 
by the large amount of run-off water result- 
ing from the melting of the snow, which takes 
place with astonishing rapidity during the 
second half of June. 

No unmistakable signs of glaciation were 
observed. The rocks are probably too soft 
and weather too easily to retain glacial striae 
for any length of time, and furthermore no 
trough-shaped valleys or cirques were ob- 



Oct.-Dec., 1953] 



The Canadian Field-Naturalist 



159 



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160 



The Canadian Field-Naturalist 



[Vol. 67 



served. The plateaus, the flat-topped or 
rounded mountains and ridges, and the con- 
spicuously V-shaped valleys suggest that the 
present topography of the area as well as that 
of the country along Wood Creek has been 
shaped entirely by water erosion and frost 
action. 

On the other hand there are many and 
obvious signs that the land has risen several 
hundred feet during post-glacial time. Many 
beds of marine silts and clays occur, con- 
taining masses of recent marine shells, that 
have been eroded into "bad lands" after 
emerging from the sea. Stepped gravel out- 
wash fans and plains are well developed at 
the mouth of Parr Creek, on Hawkins Creek 
above the lake of the same name, and for 
some three miles along lower Wood Creek. 
Water-worn rocks and pebbles were found at 
an elevation of 450 feet between Colan Bay 
and Black Cliffs Bay. No arenaceous rocks 
occur and sand is entirely absent in the 
district. The shingle that covers present and 
ancient beaches consists almost entirely of 
flat fragments of slate varying in size from 
tiny flakes to pieces an inch or two in length. 

CLIMATE 

As is to be expected in this high latitude, 
the climate of northern Ellesmere Island is 
very severe. The scant records available, 
which are summarized in Table 1, indicate 
that the monthly mean temperatures for the 
coldest period, January to March, are about 
-30° or lower, and that those for June, July, 
and August seldom exceed 40°. The growing 
season is short, and the ground is generally 
snow-free for only seven to nine weeks and 
during this time less than 30 days appear to 
be without frost, i.e., with a minimum of 
32° or higher. The sun is continually above 
the horizon from March till September, but 
the daily temperature fluctuations are some- 
times rather large. They vary from a few 
degrees on overcast days to 30° during clear 
periods, and occasionally reach 40°. Once 
or twice during the summer the temperature 
attains 60° or even 65°, but as a rule the 
daily maximum is well below the 50° mark. 

The precipitation is very small and pro- 
bably does not average more than five inches 
annually. Most of it falls as snow and, some 
as rather light rain, in June, July, and August. 
The summer months are not only the period 
of greatest precipitation and heaviest cloud 
cover, but also the windiest time of the year. 
The prevailing winds are westerly. During 
the summer they are generally only light to 



fresh and are more frequent than duWng the 
winter, when they are also weaker. However, 
sudden violent gales, of usually short dura- 
tion, may spring up at any time. 

There is sufficient wind to cause drifting 
and the snow accumulates in large drifts, 
fills in valleys and depressions, and obliterates 
the finer topographical features, leaving only 
a thin cover on exposed and level tracts. It 
seldom becomes very tightly packed or heavily 
crusted. Once started, the melting of the 
snow progresses very rapidly and after a 
week or ten days only the largest drifts 
remain. Some of these rarely or ever disap- 
pear completely and their cores consist of 
firn or solid ice. Practically all the resulting 
melt-water runs off and the ground dries very 
quickly in spite of the humid atmosphere. 
The relative humidity is generally between 
80 and 100 per cent and very seldom drops 
lower than 50 per cent for more than a 
few hours. These climatic factors produce 
desert conditions, which, combined with the 
scant and rather infertile soil, leave only a 
few small areas where a closed or luxuriant 
vegetation can develop. 

VEGETATION 

During the preliminary survey in April 
and May the country had all the aspects of 
a dreary waste of ice, snow, and rock, and 
only closer examination revealed a few 
withered blades and heads of grasses, and 
widely scattered, small groups of empty poppy 
seed pods barely overtopping the surface of 
the snow. 

Here and there, bare windswept mounds 
serve snowy owls and falcons as perches. 
Foxes also frequent these places and lem- 
mings burrow there under the rocks. The 
resulting liberal manuring favours a rather 
luxuriant growth of grasses and other flower- 
ing plants on these mounds. The flora of 
this type of community may conveniently 
be divided into two parts. The first is made 
up of the following species, which are almost 
invariably present in these habitats: Poa 
abbreviata, Cerastium alpinum, Stellaria 
monantha, Papaver radicatum, and Draba al- 
pina. The second part is extremely variable 
from place to place and may contain from 
one to several of the following species, which 
are mentioned in approximate order of fre- 
quency: Oxyria digyna, Polygonum vivipa- 
rum, Salix arctica, Saxifraga oppositifolia, 
Alopecurus alpinus, Puccinellia angustata 
(near the coast), Saxifraga cernua, Lychnis 
apetala, and Potentilla pulchella. One of 



Oct.-Dec., 1953] 



The Canadian Field-Naturalist 



161 



these mounds was exceptional in that it was 
covered with a small, dense mat of the 
very rare Lychnis triflora to the exclusion 
of all other vegetation but a few tufts of 
grass. 

In the vicinity of the weather station the 
general impression of barrenness persisted 
after the snow had disappeared. The tracts 
of very stony polygon soil support only a 
scant vegetation, which moreover tends to 
congregate in the cracks. These give protec- 
tion and provide a better supply of the all- 
important moisture than the surface of the 
fast-drying, rounded hummocks, but they also 
hide the plants more or less effectively from 
casual view. In this type of habitat the 
following species occur in addition to those 
listed in the preceding paragraph : Festuca 
brachyphylla, F. haffinensis, Luzula nivalis, 
Juncus biglumis, various Draba spp., and 
Saxifraga caespitosa. Along the many tem- 
porary water courses the polygon formation 
is but poorly developed and few of the 
species mentioned above can tolerate the 
erosional disturbance that recurs every year 
during the early summer run-off. Cerastium 
regelii alone appears to maintain here a 
precarious foothold. 

North-facing, gentle, and rather dry 
slopes along the coast support a fair growth 
of Saxifraga oppositifolia. Its drab, brown- 
ish mats cover about one-half of the surface 
of the ground and are interspersed with 
widely scattered tufts of grasses, Papaver 
radicatum and a few species of Draba. At 
the beginning and towards the end of the 
season these slopes look rather dreary and 
well deserve the name Saxifraga oppositifo- 
lia barrens; however, during the height of 
its flowering period this plant makes a most 
beautiful show and covers the hillsides with 
a mantle of purple. 

Only a few, widely scattered areas provide 
all the conditions necessary for the establish- 
ment of a more or less closed, luxuriant 
vegetation. The main requirements appear to 
be: (1) a certain measure of fertility and 
depth of soil, which depends on the composi- 
tion of the underlying rocks; (2) a sufficient 
amount of snow cover, which depends on the 
topography and the direction of the prevailing 
winds; (3) an ample and continuous supply 
of moisture. According to the source of the 
last the areas can conveniently be divided 
into three groups: (a) the margins of shallow 
ponds, e.g.. Ravine Pond, a small pond one 



mile southwest of Cape Belknap, and the 
ponds above Hawkins Lake; (b) the margins 
of sluggish streams, e.g., those of a tributary 
of Ravine Creek in the gap between Mt. 
PuUen and 'Dean'; (c) the flats or gentle 
slopes below persistent, slow-melting snow- 
drifts, e.g., the slopes at the bases of Mt. 
Pullen and 'Dean', the slope at the coast, 
two and one-half miles west of Cape Belknap, 
the slope at the mouth of Colan Bay opposite 
Cape Woollen, and the flat at the south 
shore of Hawkins Lake, 

The composition of the plant assemblies 
of the different areas varies so much that it 
is difficult to group them according to com- 
munities or to associate them with different 
habitats. Detailed ecological studies were 
postponed until the end of the season because 
of other, more pressing work, and, unfortun- 
ately, the early heavy fall of snow made it 
impossible to carry them out. As a rough 
approximation it may be said that the patches 
of closed vegetation occupy only a small frac- 
tion of one per cent of the total land surface 
of the district under discussion. 

In the following paragraphs some of these 
areas are described in detail. 

Station 1 is a small, shallow pond on 
nearly level ground, about 95 feet above sea 
level, one mile southwest of Cape Belknap. 
Its shores and bottom are composed of very 
fine silt, so soft that snowshoes were used 
to collect the aquatic plants that are the most 
interesting feature of this locality. Around 
the outer margin of the pool, as well as those 
of several low islands, grows a compact belt 
of mosses, a few feet wide. Among the moss 
and in the open water occur rather con- 
spicuous stands of Ranunculus hyperboreus, 
which reaches here its most northerly known 
point. Growing in the very edges of the 
moss mats and infrequently in open shallow 
water a second aquatic species of Ranunculus 
was found, quite by accident, as it was dif- 
ficult to see, even when its presence was 
known. It has now been determined as R, 
circinatus var. subrigidus — a species hither- 
to unrecognized in the eastern Canadian 
Arctic. A third species that attains its high- 
est latitude here is the fine and easily re- 
cognized grass Pleuropogon sabinei. It grows 
in conspicuous circles a few feet outside of 
the moss girdles of the islands and in short 
rows along the shore of the pond. 

Station 4, two and one-half miles west of 
Cape Belknap, was the most accessible of 
the small, well-vegetated areas and therefore 



162 



The Canadian Field-Naturalist 



[Vol. 67 



the one most frequently visited. Here a cliff 
rises to 200 feet about 100 yards inland from 
the seashore. It is covered in its upper part 
by a large, persistent snowdrift, which as- 
sures abundant moisture for the gentle 
marshy slope at its foot. This supports a dense 
growth of mosses, Eriophorum angustifolium 
var. triste, Salix arctica, Luzula nivalis, Jun- 
cus higlumis, Oxyria digyna, and Polygonum 
viviparum. Among these the following grow 
more or less scattered: Equisetum variegatum, 
Alopecurv^ alpinus, Phippsia algida, Poa ab- 
breviata, Puccinellia angustata, Festuca 
brachyphylla, F. baffinensis, Car ex misandra. 
Lychnis apetala, Cerastium alpinum, Stella- 
ria monantha, Saxifraga cernua, S. nivalis 
and its var. tenuis, S. caespitosa, and S. 
flagellaris. Near the lower edge of the snow- 
drift the vegetation begins to thin out and 
here are found Ranunculus sabinei and Draba 
alpina, and on the terrace-like, well-drained 
steps of the cliff, in addition to the species 
mentioned above, the following flourish: 
Festuca brachyphylla var. vivipara, Papaver 
radicatum, Saxifraga oppositifolia, Potentil- 
la pulchella, and Taraxacum phymatocarpum. 

The cliff faces due north and the shore is 
here much exposed to ice action. Gale-driven 
floes push up large mounds of shingle and 
muck along the beach. The disturbed soil of 
these is colonized by scattered tufts of 
Puccinellia angustata, Festuca brachyphylla, 
Cerastium alpinum, C. regelii, and Stellaria 
monantha and here are also found rather 
stunted rosettes of Cochlearia officinalis var. 
groenlandica. 

Another well-vegetated, north-facing slope 
occurs between Jolliffe and Golan Bay. At 
its very narrow western end, opposite Cape 
Woollen, is one of the two known stations of 
Equisetum arvense. Towards Jolliffe Bay the 
slope widens and is not so marshy and here 
a fine stand of Pedicularis hirsuta was found. 
The slope east of Jolliffe Bay, which faces 
northwest, is cut into narrow ridges by a 
network of interconnected, more or less 
parellel runnels. In these grow elongated 
mats of Dryas integrifolia, which is other- 
wise very scattered in the vicinity of the 
weather station. The areas described here, 
as well as the Saxifraga oppositifolia 
"barrens" mentioned above, may account for 
Feilden's remark that north-facing slopes sup- 
port the most luxuriant vegetation in this 
part of Ellesmere Island. This is true only 
for a narrow strip along the coast between 



Golan Bay and Black Gape. Towards the 
west, where the topography is different, slopes 
with a southern aspect are usually better 
vegetated. 

The mountainous country to the west 
contains many deep, sheltered valleys. 
Their floors, which are often very nar- 
now, frequently provide conditions favour- 
able for the development of rich plant growth. 
Here was also found evidence that elevation 
has little influence on the amount and com- 
position of the vegetation. For instance, a 
gravel flat at the head of Wood Greek 
valley, at a height of 1900 feet, supported 
a plant community comparable to that of a 
similar habitat near sea level. 

The following general remarks on the 
flora may be of interest: the species that 
here reach the northern limit of their dis- 
tribution are usually widely scattered or 
found only at single stations, but sometimes 
in great numbers, e.g., Equisetum arvense 
(two stations), Epilobium latifolium (one 
station), whereas three or four, like Equise- 
tum variegatum, Arenaria rossii, Cochlearia 
officinalis var. groenlandica, and Saxifraga tri- 
cuspidata, are of fairly general, if somewhat 
discontinuous, occurrence. Most of those 
species that reach still higher latitudes in 
northern Greenland are found practically 
everywhere; as exceptions to this may be 
cited: Arctagrostis latifolia (two or three 
stations), Carex misandra (very scattered), 
Cardamine bellidifolia (very rare), and Dryas 
integrifolia (in only a few patches). 

The most characteristic features of the 
vegetation, apart from its not unexpected 
scantiness, appear to be the lack of zoning, 
which is so prominent in the more southern 
part of the Arctic, and the complete absence 
of the so-called late snowdrift communities. 

Phenological Data 

The dates of first flowering of a number 
of the species collected in the Alert area 
are given in Table 2. The conspicuous crowd- 
ing about June 26 and on July 10 is explained 
by the fact that both dates were preceded 
by days of unusual warmth following a 
prolonged spell of low temperatures and 
overcast skies. For comparative purposes 
first flowering dates have been included in 
the table, for those species of which we 
have records at three other localities in the 
southern part of the eastern Canadian Arctic: 
(1) Chesterfield Inlet (63°21'N 90°42'W), 
Keewatin District (D.B.O. Savile and C.T. 
Watts, 1950); (2) Coral Harbour i(64°09'N 



Oct.-Dec., 1953] 



The Canadian Field-Naturalist 



163 



Table 2 
EASTERN ARCTIC PHENOLOGY 





Alert, 






Coral Harbour, 




Species 


Ellesmere 


Chesterfield 


Southampton 


Frobisher Bay, 


Island 




Inlet 


Island 


Baffin Island 




82°30'N 


63''21'N 


64°09'N 


63''45'N 


Saxifraga oppositifolia 


June 8 


June 


22 (—14) 






Salix arctica 


" 15 


)> 


30 (—15) 






Cerastium alpinum 


" 21 


July 


4 (—13) 




June 24 (—3) 


Draba alpina 


" 21 








" 22 (— 1) 


Papaver radicatum 


" 24 


" 


5 (—11) 


June 28 ( 4) 


24 (0) 


Oxyria digyna 


" 26 






" 28 (—2) 


24 (+2) 


Saxifraga nivalis 


" 29 


" 


10 (—11) 


" 30 (— 1) 


" 25 (+4) 


Saxifraga caespitosa 


" 29 


5) 


7 ( —8) 


July 2 (—3) 


" 29 (0) 


Dryas integrifolia 


July 1 


" 


6 ( —5) 




" 22 (+9) 


Lychnis triflora 


" 10 








July 3 (+7) 


Lychnis apetala 


" 10 








June 22 (+8) 


Arenaria rubella 


" 10 


)) 


10 (0) 


2 (+8) 


" 22 (+18) 


Stellaria monantha 


" 10 


June 


30 (+10) 






Pedicularis hirsuta 


" 16 


July 


8 (+8) 


3 (+13) 


24 (+22) 


Saxifraga tricuspidata 


" 24 


" 


4 (+20) 


2 (+22) 


25 (+29) 


Saxifraga hirculus 


August 5 


)) 


14 (+22) 


7 (+29) 





83°05'W), Southampton Island, Keewatin 
District (W.J. Cody, 1948); (3) Frobisher 
Bay (63°45'N 68°34'W), Baffin Island (H. A. 
Senn and J. A. Calder, 1948). 

Nearly all the dates recorded in the table 
are based on field observations; however, it 
has been necessary in a few cases to estimate 
the first flowering dates on the basis of the 
earliest made collections. When the Alert 
figures are used as a basis the spread in the 
first flowering dates for each species, in 
comparison with those from the other three 
localities, may be expressed as a positive or 
negative figure (in brackets) depending on 
whether they flowered at an earlier or later 
date. One of the striking features is the 
early flowering dates of Saxifraga opositi- 
folia, Salix arctica, and Cerastium 
alpinum at Alert as compared with those 
at Chesterfield Inlet, some 19° farther 
south. This is in part accounted for by the 
severe weather conditions at Chesterfield in 
June, 1950, the average maximum and mini- 
mum monthly temperatures being 37.7° and 
29.9° respectively (mean 33.8°), and the 
absolute maximum reaching only 43°. The 
absolute maximum at Alert during the same 
period was 57.1° although the average mean 
temperature for the two localities was almost 



the same (Table 1). The generally higher 
maximum daily temperatures and total day- 
light conditions with a subsequent rapid melt- 
ing of the relatively light snow cover are 
important factors governing first anthesis. 
In comparable seasons and with similar ex- 
posures the gap in flowering dates would no 
doubt be substantially reduced. In the table 
there are no first flowering records from 
Coral Harbour or Frobisher Bay for the two 
earliest blooming species; however, the dates 
and figures suggest that anthesis of these 
takes place in the far north earlier than, or 
at least as early as, in localities farther south. 
As the growing season progresses the more 
southern localities with their higher daily 
temperatures close the gap in first flowering 
dates and by late June or early July surpass 
the more northerly localities, substantially 
widening the gap by the time the late 
flowering species come into bloom. A number 
of factors, the most important of which are 
the climatic conditions, exposure, topography, 
and habitat, have a decided bearing on the 
dates of anthesis. For example, the vegeta- 
tion at Coral Harbour, situated on the south 
coast of Southampton Island with its relatively 
low relief and full exposure to cold sea winds, 
averaged about 6 days behind the Frobisher 



164 



The Canadian FielehNaturalist 



[Vol. 67 



Bay station, which had a more favourable 
climate due to its inland location and more 
varied topography. 

The Flora 

In the following list 56 species are re- 
corded from the vicinity of Alert. The 
majority of these have been previously re- 
ported from the area; however, the following 
15 species represent additions to the local 
records: Equisetum arvense, E. variegatum, 
Deschampsia brevifolia, Trisetum spicatum 
var. maidenii, Phippsia algida, Pleuropogon 
sabinei, PuccinelUa phryganodes, P. pauper- 
cula, Eriophorum scheuchzeri, Arenaria ros- 
sii, Ranunculus circinatus var. subrigidus, R. 
hyperboreus, Draba cinerea, Saxifraga hir- 
culus, and Erigeron eriocephalus. 

The following species collected by either 
Feilden or Bartlett were not noted during the 
survey: 
CYSTOPTERIS FRAGILIS (L.) Bernh. — 

Grant Land, 82° 30'N, Bartlett, 1908. 
POA GLAUCA M. Vahl — Grant Land, 

82°30'N Bartlett, 1908. 
PUCCINELUA VAHLIANA (Liebm.) Scrib- 

ner & Merrill — Grant Land, 82°27'N, 

Feilden, 1876. 
CAREX NARDINA E. Fries — Floeberg 

Beach, Feilden, 1876. 
DRABA NIVALIS Lil. — Dumbell Bay, 

Feilden, 1876. 
ERYSIMUM PALLASII (Pursh) Fern. — 

Recorded by Polunin (I.e., p. 248); how- 
ever, not reported by Hart from the 

Alert region. 
POTENTILLA HYPARCTICA Malta — 

Floeberg Beach, Feilden, 1875. 
CASSIOPE TETRAGONA (L.) D. Don — 

Grant Land, 82°30'N, Bartlett, 1908. 
During the final stages of the preparation 
of this paper a list of plants collected by 
Mr. S. D. MacDonald at Alert during the 
summer of 1951 was received. This collection 
has been determined by Mr. A. E. Porsild 
and is in the National Museum of Canada. 
It contains one new record for the Alert 
area: 

CAREX STANS Drej. 

There is therefore a total of 65 species 
of vascular plants represented in the eastern 
Canadian Arctic north of latitude 82 °N. The 
families represented and the respective 



number of species in each are as follows: 

EQUISETACAE 2 

POLYPODIACEAE 1 

GRAMINEAE 16 

CYPERACEAE 5 

JUNCACEAE 2 

SALICACEAE 1 

POLYGONACEAE 2 

CARYOPHYLLACEAE 7 

RANUNCULACEAE 4 

PAPAVERACEAE 1 

CRUCIFERAE 9 

SAXIFRAGACEAE 7 

ROSACEAE 3 

ONAGRACEAE 1 

ERICACEAE 1 

SCROPHULARIACEAE 1 

COMPOSITAE 2 

Table 3, column 1, lists those species that 
represent new northern range extensions for 
the Arctic and Ellesmere Island; column 2 
the collection number(s) or sight record of 
the senior author; columns 3 and 5 the 
previous northernmost records for the Arctic 
and Ellesmere Island respectively; and 
column 4 the northernmost latitude at which 
the species was noted in the Alert area. Many 
of the records represent a northward exten- 
sion of only a few miles. At such a latitude 
the distance, however, is of a significance. 

The writers would like to express their 
appreciation to the following individuals for 
determinations: Drs. B. Boivin (Lychnis) and 
W. G. Dore (Gramineae in part) of the Divi- 
sion of Botany and Plant Pathology, Canada 
Department of Agriculture; Mr. J. R. Swallen 
(PuccinelUa in part) of the Smithsonian 
Institution, Washington, D.C. 

EQUISETACEAE 

EQUISETUM ARVENSE L. 

On small tussocks among mosses, grasses, 
and willows, mouth of Colan Bay opposite 
Cape Woollen, 82°31'N 62°45'W, No. 1864; 
marshy, mossy flat along small stream, 500 
foot saddle between Egerton Lake and Hil- 
gard Bay, 82°28'N 63°20'W, No. 221. 

Apparently rare in the Alert area although 
possibly overlooked. Noted only on two occa- 
sions: No. 186, July 4, was restricted to a 
small area on a steep, wet, north-facing slope 
at the foot of a snow-covered cliff, 15 to 30 
feet above sea level — the fertile shoots 

4) All the collections cited by niimber were made by 
the senior author, and are in the herebarium of the 
Division of Botany and Plant Pathology. 



Oct.-Dec., 1953] 



The Canadian Field-Naturalist 



165 



Table 3 
ARCTIC AND ELLESMERE ISLAND NORTHERN RANGE EXTENSIONS 



Species 



Equisetum arvense 
Equisetum variegatum 
Deschampsia brevifolia 
Trisetum spicatum 
Phippsia algida 
Pleuropogon sabinei 
Poa hartzii 

Puccinellia phryganodes 
Puccinellia paupercula 
Puccinellia angustata 
Festuca baffinensis 
Eriophorum scheuchzeri 
Eriophorum angustifolium 
Carex misandra 
Juncus biglumis 
Oxyria digyna 
Polygonum viviparum 
Lychnis apetala 
Cerastium regelii 
Stellaria monantha 
Arenaria rossii 
Ranunculus circinatus 
Ranunculus hyperboreus 
Cochlearia officinalis 
Draba fladnizensis 
Draba cinerea 
Braya purpurascens 
Saxifraga caespitosa 
Saxifraga tricuspidata 
Saxifraga flagellaris 
Saxifraga hirculus 
Pedicularis hirsuta 
Erigeron eriocephalus 
Taraxacum 

phymatocarpum 



Collection 

No(s). 



186 

178 
244, 245 

265 

240 
225, 286 

277 
253, 284 

279 

246 

236 

261 

185 

234 

193 

212 

207 

194 

251 

237 
252, 262 
224, 285 
198, 226 
179, 184, 242 
201, 203 
181, 205 
200, 222, 223, 231 

223 
sight record 

199 

271 

208 

280 

206 



Previous 

Northernmost 

Record * 

N. Lat. 



82° 29' Gr. 
82° 03' Gr. 
82° 28' Gr. 



82° 29' Gr. 

?82°30' Ell. 

82° 03' Gr. 

74°35' D.I. 



82° 27' Ell. 
82° 28' Gr. 



82° 29' Gr. 
? 

82° 29' Gr. 

82° 30' Ell. 



82° 27' Ell. 



82°27' Ell. 



79° 57' Sp. 



82° 28' Gr. 
& Ell. 



Alert 

Area 

Records 

N. Lat. 



82°31' 
82°31' 
82°30' 
82°30' 
82°32' 
82°31' 
82° 32' 
82°29' 
82° 32' 
82° 32' 
82°32' 
82° 30' 
82°32' 
82°32' 
82°32' 
82°32' 
82°32' 
82° 32' 
82° 30' 
82° 32' 
82°30' 
82°31' 
82°31' 
82°32' 
82° 28' 
82°32' 
82° 28' 
82°32' 
82°31' 
82°30' 
82°3r 
82°3r 
82°31' 
82° 32' 



Previous 

Ellesmere 

Northernmost 

Record 

N. Lat, 



81°44' 
81° 44' 
81°44' 
81°44' 
81°44' 
76°52' 
?82°30' 
78° 49' 



82°27' 
82° 27' 
81°44' 
82° 27' 
82° 27' 
82° 27' 
82° 27' 
82°27' 
?82°30' 
82°27' 
82° 27' 
81°44' 

78° 48' 
82°30' 

? 

?81°44' 
82° 27' 
82° 30' 
82°27' 
82° 28' 

?76°52' 
82° 30' 
81°44' 
82°28' 



- 79° 00' 



- 78°57' 



* The latitudes and localities listed are those recorded by Polunin (1950); Gr. = Greenland, Ell. = Elles- 
mere Island, D.I, = Devon Island, Sp. = Spitzbergen. 



were fully developed and the strobili were 
producing large quantities of spores; No. 221, 
July 6, consisted of a sterile colony among 
mosses and Eriophorum angustifolium. 

A slight northward range extension for 
Ellesmere Island and the Arctic. 

EQUISETUM VARIEGATUM Schleich. 

Marshy slope of stiff clay below persistent 



snowdrift near seashore, among mosses and 
Eriophorum angustifoliurp,, west shore of 
Joliffe Bay, 82°31'N 62°40'W, No. 178. 

Rather generally distributed throughout 
the area in suitable habitats to beyond 500 
feet in elevation. 

A northern range extension of 47' for 
Ellesmere Island and 28' for the Arctic. 



166 



The Canadian Field-Natubalist 



[Vol. 67 



GRAMINEAE 

ALOPECURUS ALPINUS Sm. 

Wet, mossy clay and gravel slope below 
old snowdrift, mouth of Parr Inlet, 82°30'N 
62°18'W, No. 243. 

Probably the most common grass in the 
district, growing mostly in pure stands in 
marshy areas, and in and around shallow 
ponds and pools. 

ARCTAGROSTIS LATIFOLIA (R. Br.) 
Griseb. var. LATIFOLIA. 

Marshy, gentle north-facing slope near 
shore, growing in widely scattered, small 
stands among mosses and Eriophorum an- 
gustifolium, Parr Inlet, 82°29'N 62°21'W, 
No. 283. 

Rare, found only in small stands in widely 
scattered stations. 
DESCHAMPSIA BREVIFOLIA R. Br. 

Damp clay and gravel slope above shore- 
line and below old snowdrift, mouth of Parr 
Inlet, 82°30'N 62°18'W, Nos. 244, 245. 

Frequent, forming densely caespitose, 
compact, roundish cushions up to 10 cm. in 
diameter on damp, marshy slopes and flats 
near the shore and inland. 

A slight northern range extension for 
Ellesmere Island and the Arctic. 
TRISETUM SPICATUM (L.) Richt. var. 
MAIDENII (Gand.) Fern. 

Small, damp solifluction slope, valley of 
Wood Creek, 82°30'N 63°26'W, No. 265. 

Apparently very rare as it was noted only 
once during the survey. Represented by two 
small clumps in the habitat cited above, 
where it was growing with Salix arctica, 
Saxifraga nivalis, Oxyria digyna. Polygonum 
viviparum, mosses, and other grasses. It is 
only in the most favourable seasons that T. 
spicatum is likely to set seed at this latitude. 
The collection, made on August 13, had 
young flowering spikes which undoubtedly 
did not reach maturity in 1951, and from an 
examination of the previous year's spikes 
this was also the case in 1950. 

A slight range extension northward for 
Ellesmere Island. 
PHIPPSIA ALGID A (Sol.) R. Br. 

Gravel and shingle mounds along sea- 
shore, 2 miles west of Cape Belknap, 
82°32'N 62°28'W, No. 240; damp silt at high- 
water mark, head of Parr Inlet, 82°29'N 
62°21'W, Nos. 254, 255; open, damp, silt and 
clay flats and slopes along shore, Parr Inlet, 
82°30'N 62°18'W, No. 275. 

Common along the coast and in marshes 



inland. The culms, up to 8 cm. in length, 
are usually prostrate and the plants form 
fan-shaped or circular clumps up to 10 cm. 
in diameter. It flowered freely during 1951 
and set viable seed. 

A slight range extension northward for 
Ellesmere Island. 
PLEUROPOGON SABINEI R. Br. 

Shallow drying-up pond, 1 mile southwest 
of Cape Belknap, 82°31'N 62°17'W, Nos. 225, 
286. * 

A rare species in the area, found only in 
the locality cited, where it was growing (in 
narrow bands) on the silt bottom of a shallow 
pond, adjacent to the mats of mosses which 
lined the margin. It occurred also around 
the numerous small islets. 

A slight northern extension for the Arctic 
and one of 5° 39' for Ellesmere Island. 
POA ABBREVIATA R. Br. 

Dry, open clay and gravel slope, 2 miles 
west of Cape Belknap, 82°32'N 62°28'W, No. 
239; damp to dry, clay and gravel slope, 
and open silt and clay flats, Parr Inlet, 
82°30'N 62°18'W, Nos. 247, 276; small, damp, 
solifluction slope, valley of small tributary of 
Wood Creek, 82°30'N 63°26'W, No. 268. 

The most common species of Poa in the 
area and, next to Alopecurus alpinus, the 
most abundant grass species. Widely distrib- 
uted both inland and along the coast. Prev- 
iously collected by Feilden at Floeberg Beach 
and Dumbell Bay. 

POA HARTZII Gand. var. VIVIPARA Polu- 
nin 

Open, dry, rocky clay and gravel plains 
and slopes, 2 miles west of Cape Belknap, 
82°32'N 62°28'W, No. 277. 

P. hartzii is apparently a rare species in 
the Alert area although possibly overlooked. 
It is represented by the single viviparous 
collection cited and, according to Polunin 
(I.e., p. 71), was also collected by Bartlett 
(as P. cenisia — Grant Land) in the area. 
POA ARCTICA R. Br. 

Manured silt-gravel mound on spur of 
valley slope, valley of tributary of Wood 
Creek, 82°30'N 63°40'W, No. 260. 

Only noted at the above station, where 
a few plants were found in an area of about 
one square metre. 

PUCCINELLIA PHRYGANODES (Trin.) 
Scribner & Merrill 

Silty shore below and at high-water mark, 
forming loose mats up to one metre in length, 
head of Parr Inlet, 82°29'N 62°21'W, Nos. 
253, 284. 



Oct.-Dec., 1953] 



The Canadian Field-Naturalist 



167 



Rare in the Alert area, where it was 
noted (but not plentiful) only on three 
occasions; head of Parr Inlet, at the outlet 
of Lower Dumbell Lake in Colan Bay, and 
at the head of Hilgard Bay. It grows on the 
silty seashore, at and below highwater mark 
but only in situations sheltered from severe 
ice action and abrasion such as the heads of 
deep, narrow inlets. It forms loose mats up 
to about one metre in length, frequently 
becomes covered with silt during the spring 
run-off, and then sends up a mass of erect, 
sterile shoots 4 to 6 cm. high. It apparently 
does not flower at this latitude since all 
colonies noted were sterile with no evidence 
of flowering in the previous season. Its 
restricted distribution is due no doubt to 
the fact that it reproduces solely by vegeta- 
tive offshoots. 

A range extension northwards of approxi- 
mately 3°29' for Ellesmere Island and 26' for 
the Arctic. 

PUCCINELLIA PAUPERCULA (Holm) 
Fern. & Weath. 

Silt and shingle mounds at seashore, form- 
ing small tufts 3 to 6 cm. in diameter, 2 
miles west of Cape Belknap, 82°32'N 62°28'W, 
No. 279 (det. J. R. Swallen). 

Occasional along the seashores in habitats 
similar to those of P. angustata. 

A considerable range extension north- 
wards for the Arctic. 
PUCCINELLIA ANGUSTATA (R. Br.) Nash 

Gravel and shingle mounds along sea- 
shore, forming flattened tufts, 2 miles west 
of Cape Belknap, 82°32'N 62°28'W, No. 241 
(det. J. R. Swallen); damp clay and gravel 
slope, forming roundish clumps up to 30 cm. 
in diameter, Parr Inlet, 82°30'N 62°18'W, 
No. 246. 

Rather common along the seashores on 
gravel or shingle mounds pushed up by ice- 
floes, on damp silt and clay flats, and on 
well-manured areas (fox mounds) near the 
shoreline. 
FESTUCA BAFFINENSIS Polunin 

Rocky gravel and clay slope, 2 miles 
west of Cape Belknap, 82°32'N 62°28'W, No. 
236; small, damp solifluction slope, valley of 
small tributary of Wood Creek, 82°30'N 
63°26'W, No. 267. 

Common on damp clay and gravel slopes. 
A slight northern range extension for Elles- 
mere Island and the Arctic. 

This species was described by Polunin 
(I.e., p. 91) on the basis of material from 



Pond Inlet and Cape Dorset in northern and 
southern Baffin Island respectively, and from 
Ellesmere Island. There is now at hand a 
good series of this species from the following 
widely scattered localities in the Canadian 
Arctic: Frobisher Bay, Baffin Island; Coral 
Harbour, Southampton Island; Repulse Bay, 
Melville Peninsula; Resolute Bay, Cornwallis 
Island; King William Island; Spence Bay, 
Boothia Peninsula; Cambridge Bay, Victoria 
Island. Although the material as a whole 
agrees well with Polunin's original descrip- 
tion, there is considerable variation in anther 
length, and in the colour and shape of the 
panicle. The anthers (dry), which are usually 
about 0.4 or 0.5 mm. in length, are occasional- 
ly longer (up to 0.7 mm.); the panicle, al- 
thought in most cases darker coloured than 
in F. brachyphylla, at times lacks the dark 
purple pigmentation, and its shape is occa- 
sionally "lance-ovate." It seems advisable, 
however, to maintain this as a species rather 
than a varietal segregate of F. brachyphylla, 
on the basis of the distinguishing characters 
pointed out by Polunin, its geographic dis- 
tribution, and cytological studies that have 
been made by Dr. W. M. Bowden which will 
be published at a later date. 

FESTUCA BRACHYPHYLLA Schultes 

Small, damp solifluction slope, valley of 
small tributary of Wood Creek, 82°30'N 
63°26'W, No. 266; rocky clay and gravel 
slope, 2 miles west of Cape Belknap, 82°32'N 
62°28'W, No. 235. 

F. brachyphylla is common in habitats 
similar to that of the preceding species and 
widely distributed throughout the area. The 
viviparous form is represented only by the 
second collection cited, which was made on 
a well-drained (but not dry) clay terrace 
below a persistent snowbank. 

CYPERACE AE 

ERIOPHORUM SCHEUCHZERI Hoppe 

Closed marsh near head of valley, a 
scattered stand among E. angustifolium var. 
triste, grasses, and mosses, valley of tributary 
of Wood Creek, 82°30'N 63°40'W, No. 261; 
closed marsh, forming a dense stand among 
grasses, mosses, and E. angustifolium var. 
triste, delta of tributary of lower Wood Creek, 
82°31'N 63°23'W, No. 269. 

A relatively rare species widely scattered 
in the area. In addition to the two collec- 
tions cited three other stations were discover- 
ed, two in the Hilgard Bay region, and a' 



168 



The Canadian Fiexd-Naturalist 



[Vol. 67 



third in a marsh about one-half mile south- 
west of Hawkins Lake. 

A northern range extension of some 39' 
for Ellesmere Island and 3' for the Arctic. 
ERIOPHORUM ANGUSTIFOLIUM Honck. 
var. TRISTE Fries 

Wet, mossy clay and rock slope below 
large snowdrift, 2^/2 miles west of Cape Belk- 
nap, 82°32'N 62°30'W, No. 185; marshy, north- 
facing, gentle slope near shore, head of 
Parr Inlet, 82°29'N 62°21'W, No. 281. 

Common everywhere in marshy and damp 
situations. Collection No. 281 consists of 
plants ranging from 9-18 cm. in height, the 
smaller ones having 2-3 heads, and the larger, 
more robust individuals having up to 13 
heads per inflorescence. It was first observed 
in flower on June 26. 

A slight northern range extension for 
Ellesmere Island. 

CAREX MISANDRA R. Br. 

Damp, mossy clay and gravel slope, 2 
miles west of Cape Belknap, 82°32'N 62°28'W, 
No. 234. 

Common, but found only scattered in 
marshy or at least damp situations. A slight 
northern range extension for Ellesmere 
Island, 

JUNCACEAE 

LUZULA NIVALIS (Laest.) Beurl. 

Damp, mossy clay slope, scattered clumps 
among mosses, 2 miles west of Cape Belknap, 
82°32'N 62"'28'W, No. 197; wet, mossy slope, 
forming tufts 10 to 15 cm. in diameter, foot 
of 'Dean', 82°26'N 62°10'W, No. 217; marshy, 
north-facing, gentle slope near shore, form- 
ing loose tufts up to 20 cm. across. Parr 
Inlet, 82°29'N 62°21'W, No. 282. 

Common in moist and marshy situations 
throughout the area, and occasionally domi- 
nant in some of the associations. 

Flowering specimens first noted on July 10. 

JUNCUS BIGLUMIS L. 

Damp, mossy clay slope, growing scattered, 
singly, or a few together, 2 miles west of 
Cape Belknap, 82°32'N 62°28'W, No. 193. 

Common, growing everywhere in marshy 
and damp areas. Usually found as single 
individuals or in small colonies, but occasion- 
ally forming small, pure stands especially 
in polygon soil cracks. First seen in flower 
on July 10. 

A slight northern range extension for 
Ellesmere Island. 



SALICACEAE 

SALIX ARCTICA Pall. 

Damp gravel and clay slope, mouth of 
Parr Inlet, 82°30'N 62°18'W, No. 248. 

Common, growing everywhere in a wide 
variety of habitats, setting and ripening fruit 
abundantly in favourable seasons even at this 
latitude. It is heavily browsed by musk- 
oxen, which were plentiful in the area and, 
along with the grasses, is one of their principal 
sources of food. In addition to the collection 
cited, rust-infected plants were obtained at 
the station two miles west of Cape Belknap 
and on a clay slope northeast of Parr Inlet. 

POLYGONACEAE 

OXYRIA DIGYNA (L.) Hill 

In cracks in polygon soil on open, exposed, 
clay flats, 2 miles west of Cape Belknap, 
82°32'N 62''28'W, No. 212. 

Common, growing everywhere in a great 
variety of habitats. A slight northern range 
extension for Ellesmere Island. 
POLYGONUM VIVIPARUM L. 

Damp clay and rock slope, growing 
gregariously in small stands, 2^/2 miles west 
of Cape Belknap, 82°32'N 62''30'W, No. 207; 
marshy, rock and scree slope, Shirley Creek, 
Hilgard Bay, 82°27'N 63°12'W, No. 258. 

Common, growing everywhere in a wide 
variety of habitats and rarely attaining more 
than 8-10 cm. in height. The spikes are 
usually few-flowered (2-5) at the apex with 
the lower axils bearing bulbils, although 
entirely bulbiferous spikes are rather com- 
mon. Plants with the greater portion of the 
inflorescence floriferous are relatively rare 
(No. 258). 

P. viviparum is extremely variable in the 
far north as to the colour of the flowers, 
which ranges from white to pink, and in 
the size and shape of the basal leaves, which 
even on individual plants may vary from 
oblong-ovate to lance-linear. From field ob- 
servations at various localities in the Arctic 
and sub-Arctic, forma alpinum (Wahl.) Po- 
lunin with ". . . foliis inferioribus ellipticis, 
floribus roseis. . ." seems hardly worthy of 
recognition. 

CARYOPHYLLACEAE 

LYCHNIS TRIFLORA R. Br. (= L. furcata 
sensu Polunin) 

Cracks in polygon soil on dry, clay and 
gravel slope, growing somewhat gregariously, 
apparently very local and scarce, between 
Parr Inlet and Ravine Bay, 82°30'N 62''14'W, 
No. 230; marshy, open gravel flat. May Creek 



Oct.-Dec., 1953] 



The Canadian Field-Naturalist 



169 



delta, Lower Dumbell Lake, 82°29'N 62°35'W, 
No. 257; small, damp solifluction slope, valley 
of tributary of Wood Creek, 82°30'N 63°26'W, 
No. 264. 

Widely scattered and noted only on four 
occasions, growing gregariously in cracks of 
polygon, soil, and exceptionally on "fox 
mounds" or solifluction slopes. The latter two 
collections cited consisted of but single 
specimens each, whereas that from the Parr 
Inlet-Ravine Bay region was from a dense 
colony about one square metre in extent. 
Flowering specimens were first noted on July 
10. 
LYCHNIS APETALA L. var. ARCTICA 

(Fries) Cody (= L. apetala var. nutans 

Boivin; L. apetala sensu Polunin) 

Damp, mossy clay slope, scattered among 
mosses and on bare soil, 2 miles west of 
Cape Belknap, 82°32'N 62°28'W, No. 194. 

A common species in the area, growing 
gregariously on marshy slopes, in polygon 
cracks, and on gravel flats. First noted in 
flower on July 10. 
CERASTIUM ALPINUM L. 

Well-manured, low rocky knoll, Alert, 
82°30'N, 62°25'W, No. 176; clay and rock 
slopes, 2 miles west of Cape Belknap, 82°32'N 
62°28'W, Nos. 180, 238; shingle and clay 
ridges pushed up by icefloes, 21/2 miles west 
of Cape Belknap, 82°32'N 62°30'W, No. 189. 

Common, growing everywhere in a great 
variety of habitats. It is as widely scattered 
as Saxifraga oppositifolia but not quite as 
abundant. 
CERASTIUM REGELII Ostenfeld 

Damp to dry, open clay and gravel slopes, 
near mouth of Parr Inlet, 82°30'N 62°18'W, 
No. 251. 

Common, growing on damp gravel and clay 
slopes, gravel flats, along melt-water streams 
and on mounds of disturbed soil along the 
seashore, forming compact rounded cushions 
or loose mats. It apparently does not flower 
at this latitude. 
STELLARIA MONANTHA Hulten var. MO- 

NANTHA (S. longipes Goldie, in part) 

Gravel slope about 20 feet above high- 
water mark, Hilgard Bay, 82°27'N 63°12'W, 
No. 209; gravel and shingle mounds along 
the seashore, 2 miles west of Cape Belknap, 
82°32'N 62°28'W, No. 237; damp, mossy flood- 
plain, delta of tributary of lower Wood Creek, 
82°31'N 63°23'W, No. 270. 

Common, forming dense colonies in areas 
of shingle and gravel along the seashore, 
and inland on moist floodplains and damp 



gravel slopes. 

ARENARIA ROSSII R. Br. 

Marshy clay and gravel flat, south of 
Hawkins Lake, 82°28'N 62°53'W. No. 202; 
damp, open clay and gravel slope, forming 
hemispherical cushions up to 10 cm. in diame- 
ter, Parr Inlet, 82°30'N 62°18'W, No. 252; 
damp, mossy, gravelly valley floor, south of 
lower Wood Creek, 82°30'N 63°35'W, No. 262. 

Frequent, growing in compact hemispheri- 
cal cushions on marshy flats and damp slopes. 
It flowers late and sparingly, but must deve- 
lop mature seed in less severe seasons since 
a few mature capsules from the previous 
year were present on No. 262. The collec- 
tions represent a slight range extension north- 
wards for the Arctic. 

A var. daethiana Polunin has been de- 
scribed as "having petals acute and distinctly 
exceeding the sepals" (Polunin I.e., page 201). 
Flowering material of A. rossii has been 
examined from Southampton Island, King 
William Island, Melville Peninsula, Boothia 
Peninsula, Cornwallis Island, and Ellesmere 
Island, and in these cases the petals are 
distinctly longer than sepals. The excess of 
the petal length over that of the sepals is 
extremely variable, ranging from about 0.2- 
(0.6) -1.0 mm.; the shape of the petals also 
varies greatly. Thus it seems that the com- 
mon phase in the area is var. daethiana. 
However, the specific description by Robert 
Brown reads in part "petala. . . calyce paulu- 
lum longiora". Var. daethiana. is therefore 
the same as the typical plant and the name 
should be relegated to synonymy. 
ARENARIA RUBELLA (Wahl.) Sm. f. EPI- 
LIS (Fern.) Polunin 

Silt, gravel, and shingle mound at seashore, 
forming tufts 2-5 cm. in diameter, Floeberg 
Beach, 82°27'N 61°25'W, No. 227. 

Occasional, forming compact cushions on 
mounds of disturbed soil at the seashore, and 
on damp, gravel flats and slopes inland. It 
both flowers and sets seed freely. 

Although reported by Hart (I.e., p. 182) 
from north of 82° 27' he lists no localities, 
nor does Polunin or Simmons. 

RANUNCULACEAE 

RANUNCULUS CIRCINATUS Sibth. var. 
SUBRIGIDUS (W. Drew) Benson 

In open, shallow water and among mosses 
in pond, 1 mile SW of Cape Belknap, 82°31'N 
62°17'W, Nos. 224, 285. 

This species was found only in the locality 
cited, where it grew in association with R. 
hyperboreiis Rottb. f. hyperboreus. A few 



170 



The Canadian Field-Naturalist 



[Vol. 67 



colonies were noted in open, shallow water 
(5 cm. in depth), forming small mats on the 
fine silt bottom; however, it occurred mostly 
along the margins of large mats of mosses. 
The plants are unusually small, being about 
2-3 cm. in length and proportionately reduced 
in size in all their parts. Collection No. 285 
(August 24) is sterile and No. 244 (July 28) 
is in the same condition except for one plant, 
which bears a single flower which has the 
petals and sepals of almost equal length, a 
little less than 2 mm. long. There is some 
evidence that this flower is not fully 
developed. 

The collections were originally determined 
as such by Dr. B. Boivin and at a later 
date were sent to Dr. Lyman Benson, who has 
made the following comments "... I think that 
the best disposal of these two collections, Nos. 
224, 285, for the time being, is as R. circinatus 
var. subrigidus ... I am not certain whether 
this single flower is a mature one, or that 
the petals are fully expanded ... in many 
species of Ranunculus there is a considerable 
elongation of the petals after the flower 
opens, and the petals elongate rapidly from 
a length of a little longer than the sepals to 
one perhaps twice as long. If these petals 
have attained their full length, their propor- 
tion to the sepals certainly is in marked con- 
trast to that of var. subrigidus . . . There is 
a possibility of course, that this may be a 
new species or variety. However, the fact 
that the evidence is from a single flower 
which may not be mature, together with the 
lack of fruit makes it impossible to tell at 
this time. . . " . 

It is possible that some of the Arctic and 
sub-Arctic material that has been recorded 
by various authors under R. aquatilis L. var. 
eradicatus Laestad. (= R. trichophyllus 
Chaix var. eradicatus (Laestad.) Drew should 
be referred either to this species or to R. 
codyanus Boivin. In any event, the collec- 
tions cited represent a major northern range 
extension for the subgenus Batrachium (DC.) 
Gray. 

RANUNCULUS HYPERBOREUS Rottb. for- 
ma HYPERBOREUS 
Wet, mossy margin of drying-up pond, 
growing both in open water and among 
mosses, forming loose mats from 25 square 
dm. up to 100 square dm. in extent, no indica- 
tion of flowering observed, 1 mile SW of 
Cape Belknap, 82°31'N 62°17'W, Nos. 198 
(July 13), 226 i(July 28); shallow pond on 
silt and gravel flat, growing in open water 



and among mosses, between Parr Inlet and 
Ravine Bay, 82°30'N 62°14'W, No. 229. 

Frequent in open water or among mosses 
in shallow ponds and sluggish streams. The 
two collections from near Cape Belknap are 
sterile and show no indication of flowering, 
whereas that from the Parr Inlet-Ravine Bay 
region has fully developed flowers. Flowering 
colonies were also observed at the outlet of 
Egerton Lake. Although it probably produces 
mature fruit in favourable seasons, its prin- 
cipal means of propagation in the far north 
seems to be by vegetative offshoots. It was 
noted in flower only on a few occasions. 

The above collections represent a con- 
siderable northern range extension for Elle- 
smere Island and a northernmost record for 
the species. 
RANUNCULUS SULPHUREUS Solander 

Wet, marshy ground and hillsides below 
lasting snowdrifts, plants growing singly or 
in small clumps, between Mt. Pullen and 
'Dean', 82°26'N 62°11'W, No. 191; damp, 
mossy ravine, growing gregariously in com- 
pact clumps of about a dozen plants. Cape 
Sheridan, 82°28'N 61°28'W, No. 204; marshy 
clay and silt slope above shore, associated 
with R. sabinei, Hilgard Bay, 82°27'N 63°14'W, 
No. 210; damp to wet mossy slopes, marshy 
ground along streamlets, plants growing 
gregariously, often in tight clumps, foot of 
'Dean', 82°26'N 62°10'W, No. 214; wet, mossy, 
silt bottom of ravine, plants growing singly 
or in small tight clumps. Cape Sheridan, 
82°28'N 61°28'W, No. 228. 

A common species in the Alert area, 
growing almost everywhere in marshy situa- 
tions both inland and along the coast. It is 
occasionally associated with R. sabinei, in the 
coastal areas. Although Hart and Simmons 
record the closely related R. nivalis from 
the area (Floeberg Beach), Polunin is un- 
doubtedly correct in referring Feilden's col- 
lection to this species. 

RANUNCULUS SABINEI R. Br. (= R. 
auricomus sensu Hart, I.e., p. 144) 

Marshy slope at foot of snow-covered cliff, 
mouth of Colan Bay, opposite Cape Woollen, 
82°31'N 62°45'W, No. 188; damp to wet clay 
slopes below long-lasting snowdrifts near 
coast, 2 miles west of Cape Belknap, 82°32'N 
62°28'W, No. 195. 

From field observations in the Alert area 
there is little doubt that R. sabinei is a good 
species, which, although closely related to 
R. nivalis and R. sulphureus, is markedly 
distinct. It may readily be distinguished in 
the flowering stage from the more southern 



Oct.-Dec., 1953] 



The Canadian Field-Naturalist 



171 



R. pygmaeus by its much larger flowers with 
reddish-coloured sepals and thick, fleshy 
leaves; in the fruiting stage, by the stiffly 
erect pedicels. The distinguishing characters 
for R. sabinei and the three species men- 
tioned have ben clearly set out by Simmons 
(I.e., pp. 111-113, pi. 3, figs. 2-8), and our 
specimens are an almost perfect match for 
the material he has illustrated. 

In addition to the gross morphological 
characters by which R. sabinei may be 
determined, it is, at least in northernmost 
Ellesmere Island, a species of marshy flats 
and slopes, restricted to a narrow belt along 
the coast. It was not noted on any of the 
surveys made inland. Its flowering period, 
although showing some overlap, is consider- 
ably earlier than that of R. sulphureus, 
the only other species of the section Epirotes 
found in the area. R. sabinei which is barely 
2 cm. high, when the flowers first open, 
was first noted in full bloom on June 29 and 
subsequently collected in flower on July 4 
and July 10. R. sulphureus, first appeared in 
flower on July 5, and further flowering 
collections were made on July 8, 19, 20, 24, 
and August 1. These observations confirm 
those made by Hart (I.e., page 144) in the 
Discovery Bay region a short distance to the 
south. R. sabinei was collected by Feilden 
at Dumbell Bay and Floeberg Beach {fide 
Simmons). . 

PAPAVERACEAE 

PAPAVER RADICATUM Rottb. 

Damp to dry, open clay and gravel slope, 
growing singly or more often gregariously 
especially about lemming holes and bird 
rocks. Parr Inlet, 82°30'N 62°18'W, Nos. 249, 
250; ridges of shingle and clay pushed up by 
ice-floes, mouth of Colan Bay opposite Cape 
Woollen, 82°31'N 62°45'W, No. 187. 

Common in the Alert area, growing almost 
everywhere. The last two collections cited 
are referable to the predominantly far 
northern var. albiflorum Porsild, which is 
occasionally found in pure stands but more 
often intermixed with the typical phase. It 
is estimated that approximately 30% of the 
individuals in the area were of the white- 
flowered phase. Flowers were noted first 
on June 24 and by mid-July it was at its 
Tieight of bloom. It ripens seed in favourable 
seasons but did not do so in 1951 as the 
plants were buried by a heavy snowfall on 
August 14. 



CRUCIFERAE 

COCHLERIA OFFICINALIS L. var. GROEN- 
LANDICA (L.) Gelert 

Shingle, gravel and clay mounds and 
ridges along seashore, 2 miles west of Cape 
Belknap, 82°32'N 62°28'W, Nos. 179, 242; 
shingle and clay ridges pushed up by ice 
along shore, 2y2 miles west of Cape Belknap, 
82°32'N 62°30'W, No. 184; low, marshy 
ground along creeks and ponds, 5-6 miles 
from seashore, between Mt. PuUen and 
'Dean', 82°26'N 62°11'W, No. 192. 

Frequent, growing in damp situations all 
along the coast and in marshes inland, where 
it is more luxuriant than near the sea. It 
forms small rosettes up to 15 cm. in dia- 
meter with the outer flowering axes radially 
procumbent and the centre one(s) erect, 
1-3 cm. in height. In favourable seasons it 
ripens seed but little was produced in 1951; 
it is either an annual or a biennial in the far 
north, as pointed out by Simmons. The 
specimens cited are perhaps best referred to 
var. groenlandiea (L.) Gelert, which has 
ovoid siliques with short stigmas. 

A slight northern range extension for 
both Ellesmere Island and the Arctic. 
CARDAMINE BELLIDIFOLIA L. 

Small, damp solifluction slope, valley of 
tributary of Wood Creek, 82°30'N 63°26'W, 
No. 263. 

Apparently very rare in the area as only 
a single specimen was found during the sur- 
vey. It grew on a small solifluction slope in 
an otherwise barren valley. Possibly over- 
looked but certainly not common. 

Hart dit not record this species from the 
Alert area, nor was it recorded by Simmons 
from this far north. Polunin, however, has 
cited two collections of Feilden, one from 
Dumbell Harbour and the other from Floe- 
berg Beach. 
DRABA ALPINA L. 

Dry, exposed clay slope, near mouth of 
Parr Inlet, 82°30'N 62°20W, No. 211. 

Common everywhere in a wide range of 
moist and dry habitats. It flowers and fruits 
profusely in favourable years but only one 
plant, in a very sheltered habitat, was ob- 
served to have set ripe fruit in 1951. 
DRABA SUBCAPITATA Simmons 

Clay and rock slopes, 2 miles west of Cape 
Belknap, 82°32'N 62°28'W, No. 182. 

This species was described by Simmons 
on the basis of Ellesmere Island material 



172 



The Canadian Field-Naturalist 



[Vol. 67 



(I.e., p. 236) and our specimens are a good 
match for the flowering and fruiting speci- 
mens illustrated in plate I, figures 3-7. No 
ecological notes are available for this species 
or the two that follow because of some con- 
fusion with various other species of Draba. 
DRABA FLADNIZENSIS Wulfen 

Open, dry to damp clay and scree slopes, 
ridge, south of Hawkins Lake, 82°28'N 
62°56'W, No. 201; top of wet mossy slope, 
600 foot hill SW of Hawkins Lake, 82°28'N 
62°55'W, No. 203. 

D. fladnizensis has not been recorded by 
(Polunin (Lc, p. 238) north of Discovery 
Harbour (81°43'N 64°45'W) in Ellesmere 
Island. Simmons, however, states "Occurrence 
. . . North Coast . . . this species is not mention- 
ed by Hart yet I have seen specimens among 
collections of the Nares expedition, referred 
to D. rupestris." 
DRABA CINEREA Adams 

Slope of stiff clay, 2 miles west of Cape 
Belknap, 82°32'N 62°28'W, No. 181; open, 
exposed, clay and gravel plain near seashore, 
growing widely scattered and forming dense, 
round cushions, 2^2 miles west of Cape Belk- 
nap, 82°32'N 62°30'W, No. 205. 

A slight northern range extension for 
Ellesmere Island. 
BRAY A PURPURASCENS (R. Br.) Bunge 

Open, dry to damp clay and scree slopes 
and plains, ridge north of Hawkins Lake, 
82°28'N 62°55'W, No. 200; marshy to dry 
clay and gravel slope, south shore of Hawkins 
Lake, 82°28'N 62°53'W, Nos. 222, 223; marshy 
flat in ravine. Cape Sheridan, 82°28'N 
61°28'W, No. 231. 

Frequent in marshy, wet habitats to an 
elevation of approximately 500 feet above 
sea level. 

A slight northern range extension for 
Ellesmere Island and the Arctic. 

SAXIFRAGACEAE 

SAXIFRAGA CERNUA L. 

Exposed, open clay and gravel slopes, 
growing gregariously in small clumps, about 
1 mile east of Ravine Pond, 82°27'N 61°48'W, 
No. 219. 

Common, growing everywhere in almost 
every type of habitat. There is rarely more 
than a single flower terminating the spike, 
and frequently none (f. bulbillosa Engler & 
Irmscher). 

SAXIFRAGA CAESPITOSA L. 

Moist clay and gravel slope, cracks in 



polygon soil, 2 miles west of Cape Belknap, 
82°32'N 62°28'W, No. 233. 

Common, growing everywhere on open 
clay and gravel plains and slopes and in 
cracks of polygon soil. There are two phases 
in the area which grow intermingled in ap- 
proximately equal proportions; one has 
greenish-yellow flowers, and the other white 
flowers which in comparison are larger and 
more open. All the material belongs to 
Engler and Irmscher's ssp. eucaespitosa. 
SAXIFRAGA NIVALIS L. 

Damp to wet mossy slopes, marshy ground 
along streamlets, between Mt. Pullen and 
'Dean', 82°26'N 62°11'W, Nos. 215, 216. 

Frequent throughout the area, growing 
singly or in small stands among mosses in 
marshy areas. Var. tenuis Wahl. (No. 216), 
which is smaller and fewer-flowered, is 
usually associated with the typical phase, 
SAXIFRAGA TRICUSPIDATA Rottb. 

Dry, exposed clay and gravel slopes, 
densely caespitose, forming mats up to 50 
cm. in length, 2 miles east of Ravine Pond, 
82°27'N 61°48'W, No. 218. 

Rare in the vicinity of Alert, where it 
was collected only at the above station. It 
was noted as common on gravel plains and 
slopes in and near Wood Creek valley, where 
it was almost past flower on August 11. 

A slight northern range extension for 
Ellesmere Island and the Arctic. 
SAXIFRAGA FLAGELLARIS Willd. 

Wet, marshy ground, between Mt. Pullen 
and 'Dean', 82°26'N 62°11'W, No. 190; damp, 
open clay and silt slope a few feet above sea 
level, mouth of Parr Inlet, 82°30'N 62°18'W, 
No. 199. 

Frequent, growing singly or in small colo- 
nies among open or closed vegetation in 
marshy or damp situations, never on barren 
or exposed ground. It was first seen in flower 
on July 5. 

A slight northern range extension for 
Ellesmere Island. 
SAXIFRAGA HIRCULUS L. 

Closed marsh, growing in small, dense 
clumps or singly among grasses and mosses, 
delta of tributary of lower Wood Creek, 
82°31'N 63°23'W, No. 271. 

A rare species in the area, growing in 
association with Eriophorum scheuchzeri, E. 
angiLStifoliwm var. triste, and mosses at the 
station cited, where it was represented by a 
flourishing colony spread over some 200 
square metres on swampy ground. In addition 



Oct.-Dec., 1953] 



The Canadian Field-Naturalist 



173 



to the above collection it was noted in full 
flower on August 11 on marshy ground along 
the west shore of Egerton Lake. 

An Arctic range extension of 2° 34', and a 
northward extension for Ellesmere Island of 
5^39'. 
SAXIFRAGA OPPOSITIFOLIA L. 

Open, exposed, gravel and clay plains and 
slopes, generally closely pulvinate, near mouth 
of Parr Inlet, 82°31'N 62°25'W, No. 213. 

The most common and numerous species 
in the district, growing in almost every situa- 
tion from the driest to the wettest, even in 
closed marshes. It flowers profusely, setting 
and ripening seed abundantly at least in 
normal seasons. 

ROSACEAE 

POTENTILLA? PULCHELLA R. Br. 

Dry, exposed clay and gravel slopes, form- 
ing cushions up to 15 cm. in diameter, 2 
miles east of Ravine Pond, 82°27'N 61°48'W, 
No. 220; open, gravel outwash plain, delta 
of tributary of lower Wood Creek, 82°31'N 
63°24'W, No. 272. 

Common throughout the area in the more 
exposed and drier habitats. 
DRYAS INTEGRIFOLIA M. Vahl 

Dry, open clay and gravel slope, occasional 
and rather local, 2 miles west of Cape Belk- 
nap, 82°32'N 62°28'W, No. 232. 

Only occasional in the immediate vicinity 
of Alert, where it grows in a few places in 
cracks in polygon soil and on scree slopes. 
It is more abundant in Wood Creek Valley, 
where it occurs on gravel plains and slopes. 
Its flowers are perhaps the least frost-resist- 
ant of all those occurring in the district. 

ONAGRACEAE 

EPILOBIUM LATIFOLIUM L. 

Marshy, rock and scree slope, mouth of 
Shirley Creek, HUgard Bay, 82°27'N, 63°12'W, 
No. 259. 

A very rare species in the area, found only 
at the single station cited, where it covered 
a damp silt and gravel terrace of about 1,000 
square metres with a dense luxuriant growth 
about 15 cm. high. All the plants noted were 
sterile except a few growing in the shelter 
of a boulder; these had well-developed flower 
buds which, however, failed to open as the 
season progressed. There was no concrete 
evidence that flower buds had opened in the 
previous season. The above collection was 
made at the same latitude as that of Feilden 
(Floeberg Beach), which is a northernmost 
record for the species. 



SCROPHULARIACEAE 

PEDICULARIS HIRSUTA L. 

Marshy silt and gravel flat near seashore, 
mouth of Colan Bay opposite Cape Woollen, 
82°32'N 62°45'W, No. 208. 

Frequent in the western half of the area, 
where it grows gregariously on damp or 
marshy gravel plains and slopes. It was first 
noted in flower on July 16, and in favourable 
seasons apparently sets and ripens seeds 
abundantly. 

COMPOSITAE 

ERIGERON ERIOCEPHALUS J. Vahl 

South-facing, damp slope, found among 
stand of Eriophorum angustifolium on a snow- 
free spot. Wood Creek Valley, 82°31'N 63° 
44'W, No. 280. 

A rare species in the Alert area. The 
collection cited comprises a few plants of 
the previous season with fruiting heads col- 
lected on June 8 on a small, marshy, snow- 
free slope on the north side of Wood Creek. 
This spot was inaccessible in August and in 
spite of a prolonged search on the south side 
of the Creek no further colonies were located. 

A slight northern range extension for 
Ellesmere Island. 
TARAXACUM PHYMATOCARPUM J. Vahl 

Dry to damp clay and rock slope, growing 
gregariously in small colonies, 2^/2 miles west 
of Cape Belknap, 82°32'N 62°30'W, No. 206; 
damp, rocky, clay and scree slope. Wood 
Creek, 82°30'N 63°27'W, No. 274. 

Frequent in small colonies on dry to damp 
clay and gravel slopes, the decumbent scapes 
1-5 cm. long. It normally sets seed abundant- 
ly and ripens it, except in unfavourable sea- 
sons as the one in 1951. It was first observed 
in flower on July 10. 

A slight northern range extension for 
Ellesmere Island and the Arctic. 

REFERENCES 

Feilden, H. W. and C. E. de Ranee. Geology 
of the coasts of the Arctic lands visited 
by the late British expedition under Sir 
George Nares; Quart. Jour, of Geol. Soc. 
of London, Vol. XXXIV, 556-639, 1878. 

Hart, H. C. On the botany of the British Polar 
Expedition of 1875-76, Journal of Botany, 
N.S., Vol. IX, p. 52 et sequ,, 1880. 

Polunin, N. Botany of the Canadian eastern 
Arctic, Part I, Canada Dept. of Mines & 
Resources, Nat. Mus. Bull. No. 92, 1940. 

Rydberg, P. A. List of plants collected on the 
Peary Arctic Expedition of 1905-06 and 
1908-09 with a general description of the 



174 



The Canadian Field-Naturalist 



[Vol. 67 



flora of northern Greenland and Elles- 

mere Island, Torreya, Vol. XI (12), pp. 

249-259, 1911; Vol. XII (1), pp. 1-11, 1912. 

Simmons, H. G. The vascular plants in the 



flora of Ellesmereland, Report of the 
Second Norwegian Arctic Expedition in 
the "Fram" 1898-1902, Vol. I. No. 2, 
pp. 1-197, 1906. 



NOTES ON THE LIFE HISTORY OF THE MUSKRAT IN SOUTHERN 

ONTARIO '■ 2 

L. E. Wragg 
Dept. of Anatomy, University of Wisconsin, Madison 



METHOD 

MOST of these data were gathered during 
three months of study in a 20-acre section 
of a 175-acre marsh at Oshawa, Ontario. Dur- 
ing winter and early spring the marsh was 
observed periodically, but during the trapping 
season (early April) and from April 29 to 
May 15, it was visited daily. The marsh was 
examined once or twice each following month 
until October. 

Houses were conspicuously numbered in 
the marsh and plotted on a map. In search- 
ing for litters the upper half of the house 
on the side under the peak was carefully lift- 
ed. Nests were usually on that side of the 
house. After recording data the house was 
allowed to resettle — the whole procedure 
causing very little disturbance to the cabin. 

Much of the data on adults is from trap- 
pers' catches, some animals of which had been 
tagged during this study. 

OBSERVATIONS 

A. Breeding and Litter Size. 

1. Breeding Season. The breeding season 
of the muskrat lasts all year in southern 
United States, for example in Texas, and 
California (6, 9). Further north, in Mary- 
land, and Wisconsin, earliest breeding is in 
March (7, 2). 

From the Lake St. Clair area of southern 
Ontario, Hewitt (4) reports rutting about 
the second week in March with the first 
litter arriving in April. 

To further check the season, particularly 
along the Lake Ontario shore, 41 uteri, taken 



during the run of 1947 (April), were exam- 
ined but no embryos were visible macrosco- 
pically. This indicates breeding had not 
generally occurred earlier. Females mature 
at this time, however; three pairs of ovaries 
selected during the run of the following year 
(March) contained ripe follicles. Each ovary 
of two females in their first year contained 
from four to seven large ripe follicles, and 
an older female with a greatly enriched 
uterine blood supply had four large and three 
smaller follicles. That first breeding of the 
year is occurring at this time is substantiated 
.by trappers who first find females with em- 
bryos two or three weeks after the run. 

Thus the breeding season is longer where 
climate is consistently warm, but in southern 
Ontario it did not generally occur before the 
spring thaw of March 1948, and April 1947. 

2. Gestation. According to the U.S. Fish 

and Wildlife Service (11) carefully controlled 
matings of pen-raised animals show gestation 
to take 29 to 31 days. Similarly in southern 
Ontario, captive animals have been observed 
to take 28 days (10) and a period of about 
30 days is suggested by the birth of a large 
per cent of litters in a marsh on May 7, 8, 
and 9, one month after the run of April 8, 
1947. 

3. Litter distribution. In the spring of 
1947 at Oshawa, the first litter found was 
born April 29, the highest per cent arrived 
between May 7-9, and others appeared until 
July. The actual numbers found in 20 acres 
were as follows : 



1 From an M.A. thesis submitted to the Department of 
Zoology, University of Toronto; linanced in part by 
the Research Council of Ontario and the Royal Ontario 
Museum of Zoology. 

2 Received for publication October 27, 1952. 



April 15 

May 1 

16 


- 30 

- 15 
31 


1 
8 
3 


June 1 
16 


15 
30 


3 

1 



Oct.-Dec., 1953] 



The Canadian Field-Naturalist 



175 



July 1 - 15 : 2 
16 - 31 : 

After July, no houses were examined for 
litters but other observations indicate that 
further litters were unlikely. Forty-one ani- 
mals live-trapped in September and October 
did not appear in breeding condition, nor 
were any of them young enough to have been 
born as late as August. 

Apparently then, a large number of musk- 
rats breed during the run, thus having first 
litters together early in spring. Second or 
late first litters are more haphazard in time 
of arrival, seconds being born to only a 
fraction of animals having an early first litter. 

4. Litter Size. Although factors such as 
population density and food must have their 
effect, litters seem to be smaller where the 
breeding season is longer. Embryo counts 
gave averages of 3.85 and 4.1 for litters in 
the warmer states of Louisiana and Texas 
respectively (6). Further north in Iowa they 
vary from one to 11 but average 6.3 (3). In 
Ontario Hewitt found embryos increased from 
6.6 to 7.3 to 8.0 from March 21 to April 1 (4). 

Actual litter counts were made by the 
author from April to July. Of 19 litters found, 
15 were believed complete. Their size ranged 
from two to 13, averaging 6.1. A litter of 
13 is unusually large. Although female pelts 
show only 10 mammae, this litter of 13 was 
being successfully raised. The young were 
estimated to be six days old and all appeared 
healthy. 

Actual counts of litter size were : 
2344566666777 10 13 

5. Number of Litters per Year. According 
to trappers' opinions the number of litters 
produced annually varies from one to four. 
Most who said "three" or "four" based their 
opinion on hearsay or sports magazines. How- 
ever some thought "two" because they had 
seen young in both early and late summer, 
and had caught what they considered a young 
and also a very young grade of animal in 
spring. Although these two observations are 
suggestive, they are not entirely valid evid- 
ence that two litters are born in one season. 

Young seen late in the year are not ne- 
cessarily from a second litter. Forty-two 
litters, raised in captivity from muskrats pair- 
ed in spring before April 5, arrived at various 
times from May until as late as August, but 
all were first litters (10). 

Similarly, small animals caught in spring 
could well be from such single litters of the 
year born as late as August, or they might 



be members of an earlier litter whose growth 
through some cause had been stunted. 

Nevertheless a number of factors suggest 
that more than one litter is sometimes born. 

a) Several trappers and naturalists have 
seen two litters of young in the same locality 
— one in May, the other in July or August, 
where confusion with other muskrat families 
was unlikely. 

b) A female taken in September had 14 
placental scars. These were probably from 
at least two litters born that summer. 

c) Population increases 11 times that of 
the previous year have been estimated by 
house counts in Manitoba (1). This could 
hardly be accounted for on the basis of one 
litter. 

e) In captivity in southern Ontario one 
litter is the rule from one-year-old females 
according to Toole (12) who raised approxi- 
mately 40 litters a year, and Irwin who had 
as many as 500 penned animals. In Washing- 
ton, however, breeders say three litters may 
be produced between May and September 
although two is more usual. (8). 

An idea widespread among trappers is 
that animals from an early litter have young 
of their own late the same summer, but 
neither Johnson (5) nor the writer found 
any evidence to substantiate this belief. None 
of three first year females taken in September 
and October contained either embryos or 
placental scars, and as has been mentioned, 
no females tagged during October appeared 
to be breeding. 

B. Care of Young. 

Presumably in preparation for their young, 
many muskrats were repairing their houses 
two weeks after the run in 1947, and the fol- 
lowing week 21 repaired houses and 20 in 
disrepair were examined and tabulated. 

Old unused nests were wet and cold, but 
in occupied houses nests were rebuilt much 
higher in the house and were lined with dry 
leaves of cat-tail, sedges, bur-reed, or other 
plants. Special preparation is made immedi- 
ately preceding the birth of a litter. If clean 
dry leaves have been shredded to form a soft 
ball of nesting material, young may be ex- 
pected there within two or three days. 

Sudden floods or rising water may swamp 
nests or float houses away. In such conditions 
adults may build the house larger and move 
the nest higher, put the young on top of the 
house, or move them to some floating body. 

Moving the nest higher is very common, 



176 



The Canadian Field-Naturalist 



[Vol. 67 



for example on May 14, after water had risen 
13 in. in three days, a pair of muskrats were 
building their house larger. One was piling 
vegetation on the outside, and the other, judg- 
ing from the bulging movements of the top 
of the house, was inside pushing and excavat- 
ing a nest higher in the cabin. When opened, 
the nest was found to be eight inches higher 
than its position four days earlier, and still 
contained two young in a dry nest of shredded 
leaves. 

Animals may move to the roof, or leave, 
if the house is floated from its foundation. 
Eighty feet from one such house, in a new 
open nest on a floating cat-tail clump, four 
young were found, with an adult nearby. 

In spite of such care given young in the 
nest, they are frequently found emaciated, 
floating in cold water of the plunge hole, 
scratched, cut, or with such mutilations as 
foot amputation and injured eyes. 

Two examples of the hardiness of young 
muskrats follow. 

One, about four days old, and still naked, 
was picked out of the cold water of a plunge 
hole where it had been for some time. It 
was quite stiff and cold to the touch and was 
taken for dead. It was left in a canoe for 
about 20 min. but showed no sign of life so 
was put in a six-ounce jar and the cap screw- 
ed on. When, after six hours, the jar was 
opened the muskrat was squirming and squeak- 
ing but still cold. It took milk readily, and 
the next day was returned in lively condition 
to the nest. 

While a litter of young was being tagged, 
one animal 17 days old, weighing only dVz oz. 
swam away and escaped. About one hour later, 
it came swimming back. It had probably been 
in water the whole hour, since only sparse 
grasses grew for some distance from the 
cabin, and there was no other place to climb. 
After the hour's swim, it was floating lower 
in the water, was wet, shaky, appeared tired, 
and did not try to evade capture a second 
time. 

C. Period of House Construction. 

The following observations, contrary to 
widespread opinion that a pair of muskrats 
inhabit a house for a summer or even several 
years, suggest they maintain the winter house 
in spring, only if an early litter arrives. Other- 
wise the house is abandoned, and adults live 
in open nests. During the summer they build 
and maintain a house only while actually 
raising a litter. In fall, however, practically 
all marsh animals construct houses in prepara- 



tion for winter. 

House repairing was first noted from two 
to three weeks after the spring run or mating 
period. By the time litters were arriving, 26 
houses showing fresh work were found in 25 
acres under study, and nine of these contain- 
ed litters. 

When revisited in June, (one month after 
the birth of young) only five of the 26 cabins 
were inhabitated; the tops of two were being 
used as open nests; and ten were in complete 
disrepair (nine not recorded). Evidently 
houses were being abandoned as young be- 
came independent, and animals were living 
in open nests — five of which were noted. 
In spite of such abandonment, four new 
houses had been built, possibly by animals 
anticipating litters, since one of the new 
houses did contain young muskrats. 

The following month (July) similar 
changes had occurred. Of the nine houses 
inhabitated in June, only one was being used, 
and four were in disrepair (four not record- 
ed). As in the previous month new houses 
had been constructed — probably for new 
litters, since one of these already contained 
a litter. Muskrats without young were living 
in open nests, for many were seen in these 
structures. 

By the end of July vegetation was so high 
and dense that it was difficult to make way 
through the marsh, and houses could be seen 
only when very close. In one brief tour 
through the marsh, two litters were found 
and both were in houses constructed since 
July 2. A number of open nests were seen, 
frequently containing adult muskrats. 

In fall activity increases. In 12 acres which 
contained only two houses in July, 12 were 
under construction on Oct. 23, and six addi- 
tional ones were started in the two succeeding 
days. 

In six acres of a different marsh similar 
fall changes occurred. In July three houses 
— two used as feeding stations and one as 
an open nest — and two additional feeding 
stations were the only signs seen. In August 
one new feeding station appeared, and by 
September one house was started. By the 
middle of October four houses and numerous 
feeding stations appeared, and by the end 
of that month 14 houses and many feeding 
stations were evident. 

It seems reasonable to conclude that in 
the marshes studied houses were built for 
raising young — a new house and nest for 
each litter; whereas 'rats without dependent 



Oct.-Dec, 1953] 



The Canadian Field-Naturalist 



177 



families abandoned houses and used open 
nests. 

During summer, in the marshes studied, 
there were few houses, few animals were 
trapped, comparatively few seen, and their 
feeding signs and droppings were unusually 
scarce. Just why muskrats disappeared in 
summer is not clear. A common belief is 
that they "lay up" in banks. Additional 
factors possibly involved are : a) many live 
in inconspicuous nests, and b) feed only in 
sheltered locations; c) such signs are hidden 
by dense summer growth. 

SUMMARY 

Although muskrats may breed all year 
round in southern United States, they do not 
generally do so before ice goes out in spring 
in southern Ontario. After a gestation period 
of 28-30 days, a litter averaging six, somewhat 
larger than litters of southern U.S., is born. 
A family inhabiting a cabin does so until the 
young become independent at 4-6 weeks, when 
it is usually abandoned. 

These animals, and other adults without 
young, may live in open nests, building a 
cabin only when a litter is expected. In fall 
probably all marsh muskrats construct winter 
houses. 

REFERENCES CITED 

1. Allan, D. J. Marsh management for fur 
production. Trans. Seventh N. Am. Wild- 



life Conf. 263-71. 1942. 

2. Beer, J. R. The reproductive cycle of the 

muskrat in Wisconsin. Journ. Wildlife 
Mgt. 14: 151-6. 1950. 

3. Errington, P. L. The breeding season of 

the muskrat in northeast Iowa. Journ. 
Mammal. 18 (3): 333-7. 1937. 

4. Hewitt, O. H. Ecology of an artificial fresh 

water marsh with special reference to 
ducks and muskrats. Cornell Univ., M.A. 
Thesis, Unpublished, 1941. 

5. Johnson, C. E. The muskrat in New York; 

its natural history and economics. Roose- 
velt Wild Life Bui. 3 (2): 205-320. 1925. 

6. Lay, E. W. Muskrat investigations in Texas. 

Journ. Wildlife Mgt. 9 (1): 56-76. 1945. 

7. LeCompte, E. L. Muskrat industry in Mary- 

land. Maryland Conserv. Dept., Game 
Division, Baltimore. 1934. 

8. Leonard, W. W. and R. F. Gorman. Beauti- 

ful new mutations in muskrats. Fur 
Trade Journ. of Can. 24 (1). 1946. 

9. Storer, T. I. The muskrat as native and 

alien : a chapter in the history of animal 
acclimatization. Calif. Fish and Game, 
24 (2): 159-75. 1938. 

10. Toole, S. Personal communication, and 

record books. 

11. United States Department of the Interior 

Fish and Wildlife Service. Raising musk- 
rats. Wildlife Leaflet 198. 1941. 



f^ 



NOTES ON THE BIRDS OF KLUANE GAME SANCTUARY, 
YUKON TERRITORY ^ 

A. W. F. Banfield 
Canadian Wildlife Service, Banff, Alberta. 



WILDLIFE investigations were undertaken 
in the Kluane Game Sanctuary of south- 
western Yukon Territory during June, 1951. 
Although big game and fur-bearers were the 
major species studied, incidental notes were 
kept upon the birds observed. 

The bird life of the region has been de- 
scribed by Godfrey (1951) and Rand (1946). 
However, several additional bird observations 
made during the present investigation merit 
recording. 



1) Received for publication November 29, 1952. 



The Kluane Game Sanctuary, comprising 
an area of approximately 10,000 square miles, 
is situated in extreme southwestern Yukon 
Territory. Alaska and the 60th parallel of 
latitude form its western and southern bound- 
aries. About two-thirds of the area is com- 
posed of the glacier-clad St. Elias Mountain 
and much of the remainder is alpine tundra. 
The boreal forest extends up the valleys to 
an elevation of about 3,800 feet. 

The Sanctuary was reached on June 4 
and the interior was explored by pack-train 
from June 6 to 19. On the 20th and 21st 



178 



The Canadian Field-Naturalist 



[Vol. 67 



the White River was visited and the Haines 
road was traversed on the 22nd and 23rd. The 
ground investigation was terminated at the 
Haines Junction on the 24th. On June 28 
an aerial reconnaissance flight was made over 
the Sanctuary. 

Annotated List 

Swan. Olor sp. 

A pair of swans, the species of which 
could not be determined, was seen on Tepee 
Lake on June 13. 
Black Brant. Branta nigricans (Lawrence) 

Three black brant were observed on Teslin 
Lake, Y. T., on June 3, on the trip to the 
Sanctuary. 
Golden Eagle. Aquila chrysaetos (Linnaeus) 

Golden eagles were commonly distributed 
about the higher elevations of the Sanctuary. 
A nest was found in Sheep Creek canyon on 
June 21. Both adults were present. Two 
observations upon eagle-white sheep (Ovis 
dalli) relationships made during the investiga- 
tion, led me to conclude that these raptors 
take a number of young lambs. 

I watched an eagle harry a ewe on a 
mountain slope above Tepee Lake on June 
11. The bird plummeted down with closed 
wings, from a great height. It checked its 
fall with open wings about 15 feet above 
the sheep, and soared up in a steep climb. 
This procedure was repeated several times. 
The sheep was disturbed and fled across the 
slope. The eagle then landed on a rock 
where the first swoop was made, but I could 
see no prey. 

An eagle was watched circling above a 
ewe and lamb on the same mountain on 
June 15. The ewe made a number of short 
runs towards a cliff. Each time, the lamb 
followed closely and pressed against the 
ewe's flank. The eagle made one shallow 
swoop. The sheep soon reached the cliff 
and stood huddled on a narrow ledge. They 
remained on the alert for some time after 
the eagle departed. 
Golden Plover. Pluvialis dominica (Muller) 

These plover were observed commonly on 
the alpine tundra of the Sanctuary at Bur- 
wash Creek summit; above Tepee Lake; near 
Klutlan Glacier; Edith Creek summit; and 
Haines Road summit. From their actions 
they were thought to be on their nesting 
grounds. 
Wilson's Snipe.. Capella gallinago !(Ord) 

A snipe was flushed from a nest, contain- 
ing four eggs, in a sedge meadow at Tepee 



Lake, on June 13. 

Hudsonian Curlew. Numenius phaeopus hud- 

sonicus (Latham) 

Five curlews were seen on the alpine 
tundra at Burwash Creek summit on June 7. 
From their bold actions and cries it was 
thought that they were on their nesting 
grounds. 

Upland Plover. Bartramia longicauda 
(Bechstein) 

Upland plovers are commonly distributed 
in timberline bogs. On June 11, a plover was 
flushed from a nest, containing four eggs, 
situated at the base of a dwarf birch in a 
spruce-sphagnum bog at Wolverine Creek pass. 
Long-tailed Jaeger. Stercorarius longicaudus 
(Vieillot) 

One was observed quartering low over 
the tundra at Edith Creek summit on June 17. 
Grey-cheeked Thrush. Hylocichla minima 
(Lafresnaye) 

One was observed near Burwash Landing 
on June 5. These thrushes were common in 
the shrubs along the banks of streams at 
the Haines Road summit on June 23. 
American Pipit. Anthus spinoletta (Linnaeus) 

Pipits were commonly distributed on the 
alpine tundra. A pair were noted carrying 
food, on a rock talus, at Edith Creek summit, 
June 17. 

Common Redpoll. Acanthis flammea 
(Linnaeus) 

These are commonly distributed in the 
boreal forest near treeline. A nest containing 
four eggs was found in a small spruce at 
Tepee Lake, on June 11. 
Timberline Sparrow. Spizella breweri 
taverneri (Swarth and Brooks) 

Several singing males were observed on 
Sheep Mountain, on June 21. 
Golden-crowned Sparrow. Zonotrichia 
coronata (Pallas) 

A singing male was observed at Burwash 
Creek summit, on June 7. 
Fox sparrow. Passerella iliaca (Merrem) 

A singing male was seen at Wade Creek 
summit, on June 9. 

Lapland Longspur. Calcarius lapponicus 
(Linnaeus) 

These longspurs were noted only at Bur- 
wash Creek summit, June 7, and Edith Creek 
summit, June 17. 

LITERATURE CITED 

Godfrey, W. Earl 

Notes on the birds of southern Yukon 



Oct.-Dec., 1953] 



The Canadian Fieold-Naturalist 



179 



Territory. Nat. Mus. Canada, Bull. 123, 
pp. 88-115. 1951. 
Rand, A. L. 



List of Yukon birds and those of the 
Canol Road. Nat. Mus., Canada, Bull. 105, 
76 pp. 1946. 



ADDITIONS TO THE LIST OF BANFF NATIONAL PARK, BIRDS ' 

A. W. F. Banfield 

Canadian WUdlije Service, Banff, Alberta. 



AN excellent description and an annotated 
list of the birds of Banff National Park 
were presented by Clarke and Cowan (1945). 
Devitt (1947) recorded three additions to 
this list. The purpose of this paper is to 
record several additions and changes in status 
that have been observed during the period 
of my residence at Banff, since August, 1950. 

ANNOTATED LIST 

Western Grebe. Aechmophorus occidentalis 
(Lawrence). 

A regular and abundant autumn migrant 
on Third Vermilion Lake and Lake Min- 
newanka. Earliest date observed, October 8, 
1952; latest, November 12, 1950. Flocks of 
these grebes numbered as many as 63. 
Whistling Swan. Olor columbianus (Ord). 

A single whistling swan was observed 
regularly on Second Vermilion Lake from 
May 4 to 21, 1951. 
Snow Goose. Chen hyperborea (Pallas). 

A single snow goose was observed regular- 
ly on First Vermilion Lake from April 22 to 
May 3, 1952. 
Pintail. Anas acuta Vieillot. 

A regular, common, summer visitor to 
the lower Bow Valley. Earliest date observed, 
April 11, 1951, at Two Jacks Lake. Latest 
date observed, October 31, 1952, on First 
Vermilion Lake. 

Green-winged Teal. Anas carolinensis Gmelin. 
Regular, common, summer visitor to the 
lower Bow Valley. Earliest date observed, 
April 27, 1951, on the Vermilion Lakes. 
Latest date observed, September 26, 1950. 
Blue-winged Teal. Anas discors (Linnaeus). 

First reported by Devitt (1947). I saw 
a pair on the Vermilion Lakes on September 
21, 1951. 
Shoveller. Spatula clypeata (Linnaeus). 

Uncommon summer visitor to the Bow 



1) Received for publication January 21, 1953. 



Valley. First observed April 24, 1952, on 
Two Jacks Lake. 

Redhead. Aythya americana (Eyton). 

A flock of eight was seen on Second 
Vermilion Lake on April 21, 1951. 
Lesser Scaup. Aythya af finis (Eyton). 

A single drake was observed on Horseshoe 
Lake on April 24, 1951. On April 24, 1952, 
a pair was seen on Lake Minnewanka. 
White-winged Scoter. Melanitta deglandi 
(Bonaparte). 

A casual migrant. Flocks were seen on 
Lake Minnewanka on May 17, 1951, and 
October 15, 1950. 

Hooded Merganser. Lophodytes cucullatus 
(Linnaeus). 

A regular migrant in small numbers near 
Banff from April 21 to 30, 1951 and 1952. 
Red-breasted Merganser. Mergus serrator 
(Linnaeus). 

Occurs regularly in small numbers in the 
lower Bow Valley. Earliest date seen, April 
22, 1952. Latest date seen. May 9, 1951. 
Greater Yellowlegs. Totanus melanoleucus 
(Gmelin). 

A single bird of this species was observed 
April 22 to 24, 1952, on the recreation 
grounds. 
Dowitcher. Limnodromus griseus (Say). 

A group of seven dowitchers was seen 
on September 21, 1951, at First Vermilion 
Lake. 
Ring-billed Gull. Larus delawarensis Ord. 

A pair of adults was observed on First 
Vermilion Lake on April 27, 1951. 
Bonaparte's Gull. Larus Philadelphia (Ord). 

First reported by Devitt (op. cit.). A 
flock of 25 was observed in migration at the 
park gate on May 3, 1952. 
Short-eared Owl. Asio flammeu^ (Pontop- 
pidan). 

Three short-eared owls were observed near 
Sawback on November 3, 1951. 



180 



The Canadian Field-Naturalist 



[Vol. 67 



Belted Kingfisher. Megaceryle alcyon 
(Linnaeus). 

Occasionally kingfishers remain about the 
Banff fish hatchery late into the winter. 
Single birds were observed on November 25, 
1952, and December 9, 1950. 
Raven. Corvus corax Linnaeus. 

Ravens became common winter residents 
during the elk reduction programs of 1946 
and 1947, when they subsisted on the elk 
offal. In recent years they have become 
less frequent winter visitors. 
Starling. Sturnus vulgaris Linnaeus. 

Since Clarke and Cowan's list was pub- 
lished, starlings have become increasingly 
common in the lower Bow Valley. A speci- 
men in the Banff Museum was secured in 
Banff (no date). I have observed these birds 
on April 21, 1952; May 23, 1951, and Novem- 
ber 2, 1951. 

Rusty Blackbird. Euphagus carolinus 
(Muller). 

I have observed these birds at Banff on 
three occasions: March 26, 1952, October 30, 
1951, and November 7, 1951. 
Bronzed Grackle. Quiscalis versicolor 
Vieillot. 

A single bird of this species was seen 
at Banff on September 26, 1950. 
Hoary Redpoll. Acanthis hornemanni 
(Coues). 



Three hoary redpolls were observed at 
close range in a flock of common redpolls 
at Banff on November 15, and 17, 1952. 

Oregon Junco.^ Juncus oreganus Ridgway. 

These j uncos are regular spring and au- 
tumn migrants in the park. They precede 
the slate-coloured juncos. Earliest date of 
arrival, April 1, 1951; latest date of departure, 
November 17, 1952. 

Tree Sparrow. Spizella arborea (Wilson). 

These sparrows are sporadic migrants in 
the lower Bow Valley. First seen on April 
13, 1952. They are more common in autumn. 
They appeared in large numbers between 
October 31 and November 2, 1951. 

Lapland Longspur. Calcarius lapponiciis 
Linnaeus. 

Longspurs are sporadic autumn migrants 
in the Bow Valley, occasionally appearing in 
large flocks. The earliest date of observa- 
tion was September 13, 1951, and the latest, 
November 15, 1952. 

LITERATURE CITED 

Clarke, C. H. D. and I. McT. Cowan. 1945. 

Birds of Banff National Park, Alberta. 

Can. Field-Nat., 59 (3): 83-103. 
Devitt, 0. E. 1947. 

Some recent observations on the birds 

of Banff National Park, Alberta. Can. 

Field-Nat, 61 (3): 117. 



NOTES AND OBSERVATIONS 



Breeding-Bird Census 1952 

Location: Estate of the late W. L. Macken- 
zie King, Kingsmere, Quebec. 

Size: 75,625 square yards, (approx. 15 
acres). 

Description: A typical Gatineau deciduous 
woodland, somewhat disturbed. Square plot 
located largely on a hill-top. Land at the 
south boundary dropping sharply to the main 
stream of the area. A broad walking path 
parallel to the south boundary just beyond 
the stream. Land at the north sloping sud- 
denly to a small swamp. Land on the east 
dropping sharply to a small tributary stream. 
A deep valley and stream traversing the plot 
near the west boundary, the stream spreading 
to a swampy grove at the south-west corner 
and joining the main stream beyond. The 



ground generally high and rocky. Two small 
ponds within the plot, one permanent, the 
other dry in early summer. Dominant trees 
beech and maple, mixed mature and immature, 
mostly with high crowns. Few small clear- 
ings and one area of maple sapling growth. 
Occasional ironwood, basswood, and white 
birch. Ground cover sparse, typical of beech- 
maple forest. Surrounding area similar for 
not less than 250 yards on all sides. 

Coverage: May 18 to July 6 inclusive; 12 
visits totalling 45 hours. Hours varied from 
7.15 A.M. to 9.30 P.M. Usually only one ob- 
server. 

Census: (Actual numbers of breeding pairs 
and in parentheses number of pairs per 100 
acres). Least Flycatcher 3 (20); Ovenbird 2 
(13); Red-eyed Vireo 2 (13); Wood Pewee 



Oct.-Dec, 1953] 



The Canadian Field-Naturalist 



181 



1 (7); Yellow-bellied Sapsucker 1 (7); Rose- 
breasted Grosbeak 1 (7); Olive-backed Thrush 
1 (7); Veery 1 (7); Hairy Woodpecker 1 (7). 
Total pairs 13 per 15 acres, (87 per 100 acres). 
Visitors: (Bird pairs frequently seen on the 
plot, obviously nesting in the vicinity but not 
within plot limits). Hermit Thrush 1, Wood 
Thrush 1, Blackburnian Warbler 1, Black- 
throated Green Warbler 1, Redstart 1, Cooper's 
Hawk 1, Barred Owl 1, Scarlet Tanager 1, 
Crested Flycatcher 1. Other species seen in 
the area but never on the plot, Pileated Wood- 
pecker, Downy Woodpecker, and White-throat- 
ed Sparrow. 

Remarks: Majority of birds nesting high 

in trees, even those normally near ground. 

J. W. ARNOLD, Ottawa 

MATING of the RED-NECKED GREBE, 

Colymbus grisegena Boddaert. — On May 18, 
1952, while observing some ducks on a small 
lake in the Kootenay Valley, a few miles 
north of Cranbrook, B.C., the writer's atten- 
tion was drawn to the activities of a pair of 
Red-necked Grebe. Both birds were obvious- 
ly in a state of great excitement, frequently 
submerging for short durations, coming to- 
gether, bobbing heads and occasionally touch- 
ing beaks. 

Surfacing after a dive, one of the pair 
proffered the other a gift, which appeared 
to be a small portion of water weed, this 
was accepted and swallowed. Immediately 
following, both birds, one close behind the 
other, started swimming towards a small 
island, from the shore of which there pro- 
jected, almost horizontally into the water, 
the bole of a fallen yellow pine, the diameter 
of which was approximately twelve inches 
where it made contact with the water. The 
grebe that was ahead, on reaching the fallen 
pine, slid up the tree for about two feet from 
the point where it was totally submerged, 
came to rest lying flat on its breast with 
neck out-stretched and the posterior slightly 
elevated; its mate immediately followed up 
the tree and reared up to take an almost 
vertical stance, seemingly using the posterior 
and legs for support, made contact and coition 
took place, lasting for ten to fifteen seconds, 
then both birds slid into the water and com- 
menced preening. According to Jourdain and 
Ticehurst (Handbook of British Birds, 1940, 
Vol. 4, p. 94) coition is usually on the nest 
(or nest platform) as in other grebes. 

WALTER B. JOHNSTONE, 

Cranbrook, British Columbia. 



Gavia adamsi on Devon Island. — Constable 
Donald Nelson, R.C.M.P., has forwarded to 
the Royal Ontario Museum the skull of a 
loon found at Dundas Harbour, Devon 
Island, in 1949. The specimen. No. 76508, is 
of the form Gavia adamsi, and represents a 
mature example. This constitutes a con- 
siderable northeastward extension of range 
within the Canadian Arctic though probably 
occurrence beyond the limits marked by the 
Boothia Peninsula is more or less casual. — 
L. L. SNYDER, Royal Ontario Museum of 
Zoology and Palaeontology, Toronto. 

Northern swamp tree frog, Pseudacris 
nigrita septentrionalis (Boulenger) from 
Churchill, Manitoba. — On 30 July, 1952, the 
author accompanied by Harold E. Welch 
found an adult northern swamp tree frog, 
Pseudacris nigrita septentrionalis (Boulenger) 
at Landing Lake near Churchill, Manitoba. 
Subsequently, on 12, 15 and 16 August, 1952, 
while engaged in field work for the Defence 
Research Board, C. A. Barlow and the author 
collected three more specimens — all small, 
recently transformed individuals. 

These four specimens apparently are the 
first of the species to be recorded from the 
Churchill region, although the occurrence 
of P. n. septentrionalis in this part of north- 
ern Manitoba was not altogether unexpected. 
Logier (1952) states that the range of this 
subspecies is : 'From Minnesota and northern 
and western Ontario to the Canadian North- 
west Territories and the Peace River District 
of British Columbia.' 

Although many naturalists and profession- 
al biologists have carried out active field 
work in the Churchill region, no report of 
the presence of the swamp tree frog has 
hitherto been published. Indeed, on the basis 
of extensive field studies at Churchill, Shel- 
ford and Twomey (1941) state that, 'The 
northern frog is the only tailless amphibian...' 
in the vicinity of Churchill, Man. (They else- 
where refer to the 'northern frog' as Rana 
cantabrigensis latiremis (S and B), which 
species Logier (1952) considers synonymous 
with the wood frog, R. sylvatica Le Conte.) 

The Landing Lake area from which all 
our specimens were collected lies several 
miles to the south of the townsite of Churchill. 
Here the great boreal forest of the south 
and west grades into the strip of flat tundra 
which occupies most of the Hudson Bay coast- 
al area. Numerous small, sedge-bordered 
ponds, and hummocks of lichens and heaths 
cover most of the area. On this tundra, 



182 



The Canadian Field-Naturalist 



[Vol. 67 



scattered groups of stunted larches and white 
spruces are interspersed with a few scrubby 
willows and dwarf birches. 

Our specimens were collected in or near 
water in this open forest-tundra transition 
zone. The first was found on the side of a 
Ciadoma-heath hummock, just one inch above 
the water level of a sedgy pond. The second 
was swimming in another small pool. Both 
the third and fourth were found on the tundra 
within a few feet of water. 

Each specimen had a dark lateral band 
from the snout through the eye and posterior- 
ly along the side. Each one had a slightly 
pebbled, creamy-white belly, and dull green 
legs with darker blotches. The ground colour 
and stripes of the dorsal surface of the body 
exhibited the most variation. The largest 
specimen, which in life measured 30 mm. 
in head-body length, was grass green with 
pearly grey stripes. The first young indivi- 
dual, taken 12 August, was 15 mm. long; 
it had not fully resorbed the larval tail. Its 
colour was dull green with grey stripes. The 
other two immature specimens were dull 
green with grass green stripes. 

The first specimen captured was kept in 
the laboratory for a week and was fed small 
flies which it ate readily. To our great dis- 
appointment it disappeared mysteriously and 
was not relocated. However, the three young 
specimens were preserved and have been 
deposited in the collection of the Royal 
Ontario Museum of Zoology and Palaeonto- 
logy. 

Acknowledgement is hereby made to the 
Defence Research Northern Laboratory under 
whose auspices the field work was carried 
out, and to the Defence Research Board for 
permission to publish this paper. 

References : 

Logier, E. B. S. 1952. The frogs, toads and 
salamanders of eastern Canada. Clarke, 
Irwin & Co., Ltd., (Toronto) 1-127. 
Shelford, V. E. and A. C. Twomey. 1941. 
Tundra animal communities in the vicini- 
ty of Churchill, Man. Ecology 22: 46-69. 
DONALD A. SMITH, 

Department of Zoology, University 
of Toronto, Toronto 5, Ontario. 
The European Praying Mantis, Mantis re- 
ligiosa L., at London, Ontario. — The distri- 
bution of Mantis religiosa L. in Ontario has 
been studied by Urquhart and Corfe (1940), 
James (1949) and Judd (1947, 1950) who 
show that this insect has been steadily in- 
creasing its range westward from counties 



north of Lake Ontario into southwestern 
Ontario. James (1949) plotted on a map 
the distribution of M. religiosa, using records 
up to the year 1948, and showed that this 
species had ranged as far westward as a line 
joining Goderich (Huron Co.) on the north 
and Simcoe (Norfolk Co.) on the south. The 
following records of collections at London, 
Ontario show that M. religiosa was present 
in Middlesex County at least as early as the 
fall of 1950: green 5, Sept. 9, 1950; green $, 
August 12, 1952; brown 5, Aug., 1952; green 
5, Sept. 1, 1952; green 5, Sept., 1952. The 
specimens were collected by citizens of Lon- 
don in backyards, on lawns and in a railway 
yard in the city and are deposited in the 
collections of the University of Western 
Ontario. 

REFERENCES 

James, H. G. 1949. The distribution in Ont- 
ario of the European mantis. Mantis re- 
ligiosa L. 79th. Ann. Rep. Entomol. Soc. 
Ontario (1948) 41-44. 
Judd, W. W. 1947. The European praying 
mantis (Mantis religiosa L.) at Hamilton, 
Ontario. Can. Field-Nat., 61 : 197. 
Judd, W. W. 1950. Further records of the 
occurrence of the European praying 
mantis (Mantis religiosa L.) in southern 
Ontario. (Orthoptera). Entomol. News, 
61 : 205-207. 
Urquhart, F. A. and C. E. Corfe. 1940. The 
European praying mantis (Mantis reli- 
giosa L.) in Ontario. Can. Field-Nat., 54: 
130132. 

— W. W. JUDD, 

Department of Zoology, University 
of Western Ontario, London, Ontario 
International Ornithological Congress. — 
The 11th International Ornithological Congress 
will be held in Basel, Switzerland, from May 
29 to June 5, 1954. During the week of the 
Congress, five days will be devoted to meet- 
ings and two to excursions. Before and after 
the Congress (May 25-28 and June 7-19), ex- 
cursions will be arranged to enable members 
to become acquainted with the Swiss avifauna^ 
especially of the Alps and Lower Alps. The 
Congress fee is thirty Swiss franks. 

The prospectus, containing registration 
form and detailed information, will be dis- 
tributed shortly. Applications to attend, and 
to contribute scientific papers, should be sent 
in before February 28, 1954 and addressed to: 
11th International Ornithological Congress, 
Zoological Garden, 
Basel, Switzerland. 



Oct.-Dec., 1953] 



The Canadian Field-Naturalist 



NOV 3 1953 183 



INDEX TO VOLUME 67 



— A— 



Acanthis flammea, 178; flammea flammea, 
126; hornemanni, 180; hornemanni home- 
manni, 92 

Accipiter gentilis atricapillus, 121; striatus 
velox, 121; 

Actitis macularia, 122, 151 

Addition to the list of the mammals of Nova 
Scotia: the Eastern Red Bat, An, by N. R. 
Brown, 139 

Additions to the list of Banff National Park, 
birds, by A. W. F. Banfield, 179 

Aechmophorus occidentalis, 179 

Agelaius phoeniceus, 143, 153; phoeniceus arc- 
tolegus, 143; phoeniceus phoeniceus, 143 

Allin, A. E. 

Records of the Creek Northern Chub from 
Ontario, 128 

Alopecurus alpinus, 166 

Anas acuta, 150, 179; acuta tzitzihoa, 121; ca- 
rolinensis, 121, 179; discors, 121, 150, 179; 
platyrhynchos, 149; platyrhynchos platy- 
rhynchos, 121; rubripes, 135 

Annual meeting of the Ottawa Field-Natur- 
alists' Club, December 2, 1952, 30 

Annual report of the Province of Quebec 
Society for the Protection of Birds, Mont- 
real, 1951, reviewed by H. A. Senn, 46 

Anthus spinoletta, 178; spinoletta rubescens, 
126 

Aquila chrysaetos, 178; chrysaetos canaden- 
sis, 44, 122 

Arctagrostis latifolia, 40; latifolia var. latifo- 
lia, 166 

Ardea herodias, 149 

Arenaria interpres interpres, 90 

Arenaria rossii, 169; rossii var. daethiana, 
41; rubella f. epilis, 169 

Armeria maritima var. sibirica, 42 

Arnold, J. W. 

Breeding-bird census 1952, 180 

Asio flammeu^, 179 

Astragalus alpinus, 42 

Aythya, 150; affinis, 121, 179; americana, 179; 
collaris, 150; marila nearctica, 121; valisi- 
neria, 121, 150 

— B— 

Baldpate, 36, 38, 39, 150 

Banfield, A. W. F. 
Additions to the list of Banff National Park, 
birds, 179 

Notes on the birds of Kluane Game Sanc- 
tuary, Yukon Territory, 177 
White-tailed deer Odocoileus virginianus in 



Jasper National Park, Alberta, 44 
Bartramia longicauda, 122, 178 
Bat, Eastern Red, 139 
Beckett, Mrs. Eva 

Starling nesting at Churchill, Manitoba, 44 
Birds observed on a canoe trip in northern 

Manitoba, by William F. Davis, 148 
Birds of the Saint Elias quadrangle in the 

southwestern Yukon Territory, by William 

H. Drury, Jr., 103 
Bittern, American, 149 
Blackbird, Brewer's, 38, 39; Red-winged, 34- 

36, 39; Rusty, 37, 126, 180 
Bleakney, Sherman 

Review of: The frogs, toads and salaman- 
ders of Eastern Canada, 142 

Starlings in the Ungava District, Quebec 

Province, 44 
Bluebird, Mountain, 125 
Bombycilla garrula pallidiceps, 126 
Bonasa umbellus yukonensis, 122 
Bondar, G. F. 

See McLeod, J. A. and G. F. Bondar 
Botanical investigations in northeast Elles- 

mere Island, 1951, by P. F. Bruggemann 

and J. A. Calder, 157 
Botaurus lentiginosus, 149 
Brant, 89; Black, 39, 178 
Branta bernicla, 89; canadensis, 149; cana- 
densis interior, 135; canadensis leucopareia, 

120; nigricans, 178 
Bray a pur pur asc ens, 172 
Breeding-bird census 1952, by J. W. Arnold, 

180 
Brief study of the Double-crested Cormorant 

on Lake Winnipegosis, A, by J. A. McLeod 

and G. F. Bondar, 1 
Brown, N. R. 

An addition to the list of the mammals of 

Nova Scotia: the Eastern Red Bat, 139 
Bruggemann, P. F. and J. A. Calder 

Botanical investigations in northeast Elles- 

mere Island, 1951, 157 
Bubo virginianu^ lagophonus, 123 
Bucephala albeola, 121, 150; clangula, 150; 

clangula americana, 121; islandica, 121 
Buffle-head, 33, 35, 36, 38, 39, 121, 150 
Bunting, Snow, 33-38, 92 
Buteo jamaicensis, 150; jamaicensis harlani, 

122 

— C— 

Calcarius lapponicus, 178, 180; lapponicus 

lapponicus, 92 
Calder, J. A. 

See Bruggemann, P. F. and J. A. Calder 



184 



The Canadian Field-Naturalist 



[Vol. 67 



Calidris canutus canutus, 91 

California Sea Lion (Zalophus californianus 
(Lesson) ) in British Columbia, by C. J. 
Guiguet, 140 

Calopogon pulchellus f. albiflorus, 93 

Cameron, Austin W. 
Review of: A review of the living repre- 
sentatives of the genus Alces, 45 

Campanula rotundifolia f. alhiflora, 94 

Canachites canadensis, 151; canadensis osgoo- 
di, 122 

Canvas-back, 36, 39, 121, 150 

Capella gallinago, 151, 178; gallinago delica- 
ta, 122 

Cardamine hellidifolia, 171; pratensis, 42 

Cardinal, 36, 37 

Carex atrofusca, 40; bigelowii, 40; membra- 
nacea, 40; misandra, 40, 168; nardina, 164; 
stans, 40, 164 

Carpodacus purpureus, 126, 154 

Cassiope tetragona, 42, 164 

Cepaea nemoralis, 87 

Cepphus grylle ultimus, 92 

Cerastium alpinum, 41, 169; regelii, 169 

Charadrius hiaticula hiaticula, 90; hiaticula 
semipalmatiLS, 122; vociferus, 151; vociferus 
vociferus, 122 

Chat, Yellow-breasted, 32 

Chen hyperborea, 179; hyperborea atlantica, 
89 

Chickadee, Acadian, 33; Black-capped, 32-39, 
125, 153; Brown-capped, 32, 33, 37; Brown- 
headed, 33; Chestnut-backed, 39; Columbian 
Brown-headed, 125; Mountain, 38 

Chlidonias nigra, 151 

Chordeiles minor, 152; minor minor, 124 

Christmas bird census — 1952, 32 

Chrysanthemum integrifolium, 42 

Chrysosplenium ioense, 42 

Chub, Creek Northern, 128; Lake, 128; Lake 
Northern, 128 

Circus cyaneus hudsonius, 122 

Clangula hyemalis, 90, 135 

Clay-colored Sparrow nesting in Grey Coun- 
ty, Ontario, by A. J. Mitchener, 43 

Cochlearia officinalis var. groenlandica, 41, 
171 

Cody, W. J. 
A plant collection from the west side of 
Boothia Isthmus, N. W. T., Canada, 40 
Phyllodo.ce coerulea in North America, 131 

Colaptes auratus, 152; auratus luteus, 124 

Colony of the land snail Cepaea nemoralis 
(L.) (Helicidae) in the vicinity of London, 
Ontario, A, by W. W. Judd, 87 

Colymbus auritus, 120; grisegena, 149, 181; 
grisegena holbolli, 120 

Comparative study of adults of two Canadian 



races of Red-wings, A, by L. L. Snyder and 
E. D. Lapworth, 143 

Contopus richardsonii richardsonii, 124 

Contributions to the flora of Nova Scotia III: 
Some interesting white forms, by W. B. 
Schofield and E. C. Smith, 93 

Coot, 37, 39; American, 35, 38 

Cormorant, Baird's, 39; Brandt's, 39; Double- 
crested, 1, 39, 149; European, 33; Pela- 
gic, 39 

Corvus brachyrhynchos, 153; corax, 153, 180; 
corax principalis, 125 

Couesius plumbeus, 128; plumbeus dissimilis, 
128; plumbeus plumbeus, 128 

Cowbird, 35, 154 

Crab, Pea, 140; Porcelain, 140; Spider, 140 

Crane, Little Brown, 122 

Creeper, Brown, 33-38 

Cringan, A. T. 
Recent records of the Magpie in north- 
western Ontario, 43 

Crocethia alba, 91 

Crossbill, Northern White-winged, 126; Red, 
37, 126; White-winged, 32-34 

Crow, 32-37, 153; Northwestern, 39; West- 
ern, 39 

Curlew, Hudsonian, 39, 178 

Cygnus columbianus, 120 

Cystopteris fragilis, 164 

— D— 

Daleomyces, 95, 102 

Davis, William F. 
Birds observed on a canoe trip in north- 
ern Manitoba, 148 

Dawn Song and All Day, reviewed by H. A. 
Senn, 46 

Dead Golden Eagle at Perkins Mills, Quebec, 
by Hoyes Lloyd, 44 

Deer, White-tailed, 44 

Dendrocopus villosus septentrionalis, 124 

Dendroica coronata, 153; coronata hooveri, 
126; petechia, 153; petechia amnicola, 126; 
striata, 126 

Deschampsia brevifolia, 166 

Dipper, 38 

Does the Scheffer mole drink ? by R. Glen- 
denning, 138 

Dore, W. G. 

Echinochloa walteri re-instated in Ottawa 
District flora, 138 

Dove, Mourning, 34, 36, 38; Rock, 32-38; West- 
ern Mourning, 123 

Dowitcher, 179 

Draba alpina, 42, 171; cinerea, 172; fladnizen- 
sis, 172; fladnizensis var. heterotricha, 42; 
nivalis, 164; subcapitata, 42, 171 

Drury, William H., Jr. 



Oct.-Dec, 1953] 



The Canadian Field-Naturalist 



185 



Birds of the Saint Elias quadrangle in the 
southwestern Yukon Territory, 103 

Dryas integrifolia, 42, 173 

Dryocopus pileatus, 152 

Duck, Black, 33-37, 135; Greater Scaup, 33, 
35, 121; Harlequin, 33, 39, 121; Lesser 
Scaup, 121; Mallard, 35; Ring-necked, 34, 
35, 37, 150; Ruddy, 39, 121; Scaup, 39 

Dupontia fisheri, 40 

_E— 

Eagle, Bald, 33, 35, 36, 39, 150; Golden, 44, 

122, 178; Northern Bald, 122 
Echinochloa walteri, 138 
Echinochloa walteri re-instated in Ottawa 

District flora, by W. G. Dore, 138 
Eider, Common, 33; King, 36, 90 
Eklund, Carl R. 

See Polunin, Nicholas and Carl R. Eklund 
Empidonax minimus, 152; traillii, 152; traillii 

traillii, 124 
Epilohium davuricum var. arcticum, 42; lati- 

folium, 42, 173 
Equisetum arvense, 164; variegatum, 40, 165 
Ereunetes pusillus, 123 
Erigeron eriocephalus, 173 
Eriophorum, angustifolium, 40; angustifolium 

var. triste, 168; russeolum var. leucothrix, 

40; scheuchzeri, 167 
Erolia melanotos, 123 
Erysimum pallasii, 164 
Euphagus carolinus, 126, 180 
European praying mantis. Mantis religiosa 

L., at London, Ontario, The, by W. W. 

Judd, 182 
European Starling on Vancouver Island, B.C., 

by Theed Pearse, 94 
Eutrema edwardsii, 42 
Evolution in the genus Drosophila, reviewed 

by S. G. Smith, 141 

— F— 

Falco columbarius columharius, 122; rustico- 
lus candicans, 90; rusticolus ohsoletus, 122; 
sparverius, 151; sparverius sparverius, 122 

Felis concolor, 15 

Festuca baffinensis, 40, 167; brachyphylla, 
167 

Finch, Purple, 32-37, 39, 126, 154 

Flicker, 33, 34, 39, 152; Northern Yellow- 
shafted, 124; Red-shafted, 38, 39; Yellow- 
shafted, 32, 36 

Flycatcher, Alder, 124, 152; Crested, 181; 
Least, 152, 180 

Frog, Northern Swamp Tree, 181 

Frogs, toads and salamanders of Eastern 
Canada, The, reviewed by Sherman Bleak- 
ney, 142 



Further notes on the panther in the north- 
east, by Bruce S. Wright, 12 

— G— 

Gadwall, 39 

Gavia adamsi, 181; arctica pacifica, 120; 
immer, 120, 149; stellata, 89 

Gavia adamsi on Devon Island, by L. L. 
Snyder, 181 

Glendenning, R. 
Does the Scheffer mole drink ?, 138 

Godfrey, W. Earl 
Notes on Ellesmere Island birds, 89 

Golden-eye, 39; American, 33-39, 121, 150; 
Barrow's, 39, 121; Common, 35, 38 

Goldfinch, 33, 35-37; American, 34-36, 38 

Goose, Canada, 33, 34, 38; Greater Snow, 89; 
Lesser Canada, 38, 120; Snow, 179; Ungava 
Canada, 135 

Goshawk, 34, 37, 38, 121 

Crackle, Bronzed, 33, 34, 154, 180; Purple, 37 

Grebe, Eared, 39; Holboell's, 39, 120, 149; 
Horned, 33, 35, 36, 38, 39, 120; Pied-billed, 
37, 38; Red-necked, 36, 181; Western, 38, 
39, 178 

Grosbeak, Evening, 33-39; Pine, 32-38; Rose- 
breasted, 181 

Grouse, Alaska Spruce, 122; Ruffed, 33-38; 
Sharp-tailed, 37, 38; Spruce, 151; Yukon 
Ruffed, 122 

Groves, J. Walton and Sheila C. Hoare 
The Helvellaceae of the Ottawa District, 95 

Grus canadensis canadensis, 122 

Guiguet, C. J. 
California Sea Lion (Zalophus California- 
nus (Lesson) ) in British Columbia, 140 

Guillemot, Black, 32, 33 

Gull, Bonaparte's, 35, 36, 123, 151, 179; Glau- 
cous, 32, 35, 36, 92; Glaucous-wiaged, 39; 
Great Black-backed, 32-36; Herring, 32-39, 
92, 123, 151; Iceland, 32, 33, 36; Ivory, 37; 
Kumlien's, 36; Little, 35; Ring-billed, 34- 
36, 151, 179; Short-billed, 39, 92, 123; 
Thayer's, 39 

Gyrfalcon, 38, 122; White, 90 

Gyromitra, 95, 98; esculenta, 99; gigas, 100; 
injula, 99 

— H— 

Habenaria psycodes f. albiflora, 93 

Haliaetus leucocephalus, 150; leucocephalus 
washingtoniensis, 122 

Hart, Josephine F. L. 
Northern extensions of range of some rep- 
lant decapod Crustacea of British Colum- 
bia, 139 

Hawk, American Rough-legged, 37; Common 
Rough-legged, 35; Cooper's, 36, 38, 181; 



186 



The Canadian Field-Naturalist 



[Vol. 67 



Eastern Sparrow, 122; Harlan's, 122; Marsh, 
33, 35-37, 122; Pigeon, 34, 39, 122; Red- 
shouldered, 37; Red-tailed, 36, 37, 150; 
Rough-legged, 33, 34, 36; Sharp-shinned, 38, 
39, 121; Sparrow, 34-36, 38, 151 

Helvella, 95, 101; crispa, 101; elastica, 101; 
lacunosa, 101 

Helvellaceae, 95 

Helvellaceae of the Ottawa District, The, by 
J. Walton Groves and Sheila C. Hoare, 95 

Heron, Black-crowned Night, 149; Great Blue, 
34-36, 38, 39, 149 

Hierochloe alpina, 40; pauciflora, 40 

Hirundo rustica, 152; rustica erythrogaster, 
124 

Histrionicus histrionicus pacificus, 121 

Hoare, Sheila C. 

See Groves, J. Walton and Sheila C. Hoare 

Hohn, E. 0. and A. Oeming 

Song sparrows in central Alberta in win- 
ter, 94 

Hummingbird, Rufous, 124 

Hylocichla guttata, 125; minima, 178; ustulata, 
153; ustulata swainsoni, 125 

— I— 

Icterus galbula, 153 
Iridoprocne bicolor, 152 
Iris versicolor f. murrayana, 93 
Ixoreus naevius meruloides, 125 

— J— 

Jaeger, Long-tailed, 92, 178 

Jay, Blue, 33-38; Canada, 33, 37, 153; East- 
ern Canada, 125; Steller's, 38, 39 

Johnstone, Walter B. 

Mating of the Red-necked Grebe, Colymhus 
grisegena Boddaert, 181 

Judd, W. W. 

A colony of the land snail Cepaea nemoralis 
(L.) (Helicidae) in the vicinity of London, 
Ontario, 87 

The European praying mantis. Mantis reli- 
giosa L., at London, Ontario, 182 

Junco hyemalis hyemalis, 127; oreganus, 180 

Junco, 33, 34; Eastern Slate-colored, 127; 
Oregon, 38, 39, 180; Slate-colored, 33, 35-38 

Juncus biglumis, 41, 168 

— K— 

Kalmia polifolia f. leucantha f.n., 94 

Killdeer, 36, 38, 39, 122, 151 

Kingbird, Eastern, 152 

Kingfisher, 36; Belted, 36-39, 124, 152, 180 

Kinglet, Eastern Ruby-crowned, 126; Golden- 
crowned, 32-34, 36-39; Ruby-Crowned, 34, 
36, 38, 39 



Kittiwake, 32; Black-legged, 37 
Knot, Old World, 91 
Kobresia hyperborea, 40 

— L — 

Lagopus lagopus 151; lagopus lagopus, 122; 
mutus, 90 

Lapworth, E.D. 

See Snyder, L.L. and E. D. Lapworth 

Lark, Horned, 32, 33, 38 

Larus argentatus, 92, 123, 151; canv^ bra- 
chyrhynchos, 123; delawarensis, 151, 179; 
hyperboreus hyperboreus, 92; Philadel- 
phia, 123, 151, 179 

Lasirius borealis borealis, 139 

Lawrence, Louise de Kiriline 

Nesting life and behaviour of the Red-eyed 
Vireo, 47 

Lemmiscus curtatus pallidus, 155 

Leucosticte, 38 

Limnodromus griseus, 179 

Lloyd, Hoyes 
Dead Golden Eagle at Perkins Mills, Que- 
bec, 44 

Review of: Proceedings of the Xth Inter- 
national Ornithological Congress, Uppsala, 
June 1950, 45 

Wilson's Petrel, Oceanites oceanicus oceani- 
cus (Kuhl), at Lake Deschenes, Quebec, 140 

Lobelia kalmii f. leucantha, 94 

Lobipes lobatus, 123 

Longspur, Lapland, 92, 178, 180 

Loon, Common, 33, 35, 36, 38, 39, 120, 149; 
Pacific, 39, 120; Red-throated, 89 

Lophodytes cucullatus, 179 

Loxia curvirostra bendirei, 126; leucoptera 
leucoptera, 126 

Luzula confusa, 41; nivalis, 41, 168 

Lychnis apetala var. arctica stat. n. 41, 169; 
apetala var. arctica f, palea stat. n., 41; 
triflora, 168 

— M — 

Magpie, 37, 38, 43; American, 125, 153; Black- 
billed, 38 

Mallard, 34-39, 121, 149 

Mantis religiosa, 182 

Mantis, European Praying, 182 

Mareca americana, 150 

Martin, Purple, 124 

Mating of the Red-necked Grebe, Colymbus 
grisegena Boddaert, by Walter B. John- 
stone, 181 

Matricaria ambigua, 42 

McLeod, J. A. and G. F. Bondar 
A brief study of the Double-crested Cor- 
morant on Lake Winnipegosis, 1 

Meadowlark, 39; Western, 38, 39 



Oct.-Dec, 1953] 



The Canadian Field-Naturalist 



187 



Megaceryle alcyon, 124, 152, 180 

Melanitta deglandi, 179; fusca, 121, 150; 

perspicillata, 121, 150 
Melospiza lincolnii lincolnii, 127; melodia, 

94, 154 
Members of the Ottawa Field-Naturalists' 

Club and subscribers to the Canadian 
. Field-Naturalist, 1953, 77 
Merganser, American, 33-39, 150; Hooded, 

34-36, 39, 179; Red-breasted, 33, 34, 36, 39, 

121, 150, 179 
Mergus merganser, 150; serrator, 121, 150, 

179 
Mitchener, A. J. 

Clay-colored Sparrow nesting in Grey 

County, Ontario, 43 
Mole, Scheffer, 138 
Molothrus ater, 154 
Moore, J. E. 

Notes on the pallid vole and the grass- 
hopper mouse in Alberta, 154 
Morchella, 95; angusticeps, 97; esculenta, 

96 
Mouse, Grasshopper, 154, 156 
Murre, Brunnich's, 34-36; California, 39; 

Common, 39 
Murrelet, Marbled, 39 
Muskrat, 174 
Myadestes townsendi, 125 

— N — 

Nesting life and bahaviour of the Red-eyed 
Vireo, by Louise de Kiriline Lawrence, 47 

Nighthawk, 152; Eastern, 124 

Northern extensions of range of some rep- 
tant decapod Crustacea of British Co- 
lumbia, by Josephine F. L. Hart, 139 

Northern swamp tree frog, Pseudacris ni- 
grita septentrionalis (Boulenger) from 
Churchill, Manitoba, by Donald A. Smith, 
181 

Notes on Ellesmere Island birds, by W. Earl 
Godfrey, 89 

Notes on food habits of waterfowl in the 
interior of Ungava Peninsula, by Nicholas 
Polunin and Carl R. Eklund, 134 

Notes on the birds of Kluane Game Sanctuary, 
Yukon Territory, by A. W. F. Banfield, 177 

Notes on the life history of the muskrat in 
southern Ontario, by L. E. Wragg, 174 

Notes on the pallid vole and the grasshop- 
per mouse in Alberta, by J. E. Moore, 154 

Numeniiis phaeopus hudsonicus, 178 

Nutcracker, Clark's, 38 

Nuthatch, Red-breasted, 33-38, 125; White- 
breasted, 33-37 

Nyctea scandiaca, 92 

Nycticorax nycticorax, 149 



— O — 

Oceanites oceanicus oceanicus, 140 

Odocoileus virginianus, 44; virginianus 
ochrourus, 44 

Oeming, A. 
See Hohn, E. 0. and A. Oeming 

Old-Squaw, 32, 33, 36, 39, 90, 135 

Olor, 178; columbianus, 179 

Onychomys leucogaster missouriensis, 156 

Oriole, Baltimore, 33, 153 

Osprey, 151 

Ottawa Field-Naturalists' Club, Annual Meet- 
ing, December 2, 1952, 30 

Ottawa Field-Naturalists' Club, Members of 
the, and Subscribers to the Canadian Field- 
Naturalist, 77 

Ottawa Field-Naturalists' Club, Statement of 
financial standing, November 27/52, 29 

Oven-bird, 153, 180 

Owl, Barred, 181; Great Gray, 123; Great 
Horned, 33, 35, 37, 38; Horned, 34-37; 
Long-eared, 36; Northwestern Horned, 123; 
Pygmy, 38; Screech, 36, 37; Short-eared, 
34, 38, 39, 179; Snowy, 37, 38, 92 

Oxyria digyna, 41, 168 

Oxytropis arctohia, 42; maydelliana, 42 

Oxyura jamaisensis rubida, 121 

Oyster-catcher, Black, 39 

— P — 

Pachycheles puhescens, 140 

Pandion haliaetus, 151 

Panther, 12 

Papaver radicatum, 41, 171 

Parrya arctica, 42; arctica f. albiflora f.n., 42 

Partridge, European, 38; Hungarian, 34, 35, 
37, 38 

Parus atricapillus, 125, 153; hudsonicus co- 
lumbianus, 125 

Passer domesticus, 153 

Passerculus sandwichensis, 154; sandwicherir 
sis anthinus, 127 

Passerella iliaca, 178; iliaca iliaca, 127 

Pearse, Theed 

European Starling on Vancouver Island, 
B.C., 94 

Pedicularis capitata, 42; hirsuta, 173; lanata, 
42; langsdorffii, 42; sudetica, 42 

Pelecanus erythrorhynchos, 149 

Pelican, White, 149 

Perisoreus canadensis, 153; canadensis cana- 
densis, 125 

Petrel, Wilson's, 140 

Petrochelidon pyrrhonota, 152; pyrrhonota 
hypopolia, 124 

Petrolisthes eriomerus, 140 

Pewee, Western Wood, 124; Wood, 180 



188 



The Canadian Field-Naturalist 



[Vol. 67 



Phalacrocorax auritus, 149; auritus auritiLS, 1 

Phalarope, Northern,123 

Phasianus colchicus torquatus, 122 

Pheasant, Ring-necked, 33, 34, 36-39, 122 

Phippsia algida, 166 

Phoebe, Eastern, 124, 152; Say's, 124 

Phyllodoce coerula, 131 

Phyllodoce coerulea in North America, by 

W. J. Cody, 131 
Pica pica, 43, 153; pica hudsonia, 125 
Picoides arcticus, 124; tridactylus fasciatus, 

124 
Pinnixa eburna, 140 

Pintail, 34, 37-39, 150, 179; American, 121 
Pipit, American, 178; Eastern American, 

126; Water, 36 
Plant collection from the west side of Boothia 

Isthmus, N.W.T., Canada, A, by W. J. Cody, 

40 
Plectrophenax nivalis nivalis, 92 
Pleuropogon sabinei, 166 
Plover, Golden, 122, 178; Killder, 35; Ringed, 

90; Semi-palmated, 122; Upland, 122, 178 
Pluvialis dominica, 178; dominica dominica, 

122 
Poa abbreviata, 166; arctica, 40, 166; hartzii 

var. vivipara, 166 
Polunin, Nicholas and Carl R. Eklund 

Notes on food habits of waterfowl in the 

interior of Ungava Peninsula, 134 
Polygonum viviparum, 41, 168 
Potentilla hyparctica, 164; pulchella, 173; 

rubricaulis, 42; vahliana, 42 
Proceedings of the Xth International Orni- 
thological Congress, Uppsala, June 1950, 

reviewed by Hoyes Lloyd, 45 
Progne subis subis, 124 
Pseudacris nigrita septentrionalis, 181 
Ptarmigan, Black-shafted Willow, 122; Rock, 

90; Willow, 151 
PuccinelUa angustata, 167; paupercula, 167; 

phryganodes, 40, 166; vahliana, 164 
Pugettia richii, 140 

— Q — 

Quail, California, 39 

Quiscalus quiscula, 154; versicolor, 180 

— R — 

Ranunculus circinatus var. subrigidus, 169; 

hyperboreus, 41; hyperboreus f. hyperbo- 

reus, 170; nivalis, 41; sabinei, 41, 170; 

sulphureus, 170 
Raven, 33, 37-39, 153, 180; Northern, 125 
Recent records of the Magpie in northwestern 

Ontario, by A. T. Cringan, 43 
Records of the Creek Northern Chub from 

Ontario, by A. E. Allin, 128 



Redhead, 36, 38, 179 

Redpoll, 33, 34, 36-38; Common, 32-38, 126, 

178; Hoary, 34, 38, 180; Hornemann, 92 
Redstart, 181 
Red-wing, 143, 153 
Regulus calendula calendula, 126 
Review of the living representatives of the 

genus Alces, A, reviewed by Austin W. 

Cameron, 45 
Riparia riparia, 152; riparia riparia, 124 
Robin, 33, 34, 36-39, 153; Eastern American, 

125 
Rubus strigosus f. albus, 93 

— S — 

Salix arctica, 168; arctica var. brownei, 41; 
arctophila, 41; reticulata, 41; richardsonii, 
41 

Sanderling, 91 

Sandpiper, Aleutian, 39; Eastern Solitary, 
151; Pectoral, 123; Purple, 33, 36; Semi- 
palmated, 123; Solitary, 122; Spotted, 122, 
151. 

Sapsucker, Yellow-billed, 181 

Saxifraga aizoides, 42; . caespitosa, 172; cer- 
nua, 42, 172; flagellaris, 172; hieracifolia, 
42; hirculus, 42, 172; nivalis, 42, 172; op- 
positifolia, 42, 173; tricuspidata, 42, 172 

Sayornis saya saya, 124; phoebe, 124, 152 

Scapanus ovarium schefferi, 138 

Scaup, 34, 35, 39, 150; Greater, 34, 36; Les- 
ser, 33, 36, 38, 179 

Schizachne purpurascens f. albicans, 93 

Schofield, W. B. and E. C. Smith 
Contributions to the flora of Nova Scotia 
III: Some interesting white froms, 93 

Scoter, American, 37, 39; Surf, 39, 121, 150; 
White-winged, 34, 35, 37, 39, 121, 150, 179 

Sea Lion, California, 140 

Seirus aurocapillus, 153 

Selasphorus rufu^, 124 

Senn, H. A. 

Review of: Annual report of the Province 
of Quebec Society for the Protection of 
Birds, Montreal, 1951, 46 
Review of: Dawn Song and All Day, 46 

Shoveller, 39, 121, 179 

Shrike, Great Northern, 38; Loggerhead, 38; 
Northern, 32, 34, 37, 39 

Sialia currucoides, 125 

Silene acaulis var. exscapa, 41 

Siskin, 36; Pine, 32-39, 126 

Sitta canadensis, 125 

Smith, Donald A. 
Northern swamp tree frog, Pseudacris ni- 
grita septentrionalis (Boulenger) from 
Churchill, Manitoba, 181 

Smith, E. C. 



Oct.-Dec., 1953] 



The Canadian Fielek-Naturalist 



189 



See Schofield, W. B. and E. C. Smith 

Smith, S. G. 
Review of: Evolution in the genus Droso- 
phila, 141 

Snail, Land, 87 

Snipe, Wilson's, 38, 122, 151, 178 

Snyder, L. L. 

Gavia adamsi on Devon Island, 181 

Snyder, L. L. and E. D. Lapworth 
A comparative study of adults of two Can- 
adian races of Red-wings, 143 

Solidago puberula f. albiradiata f.n., 94 

Solitaire, Townsend's, 38, 39, 125 

Somateria spectabilis, 90 

Song sparrows in Central Alberta in winter, 
by E. 0. Hohn and A. Oeming, 94 

Sparrow, Chipping, 33, 154; Clay-colored, 43; 
Eastern Chipping, 127; Eastern Fox, 127; 
English, 32-39; Fox, 39, 178; Gambel's 
White-crowned, 127; Golden-crowned, 127, 
178; House, 33, 36, 153; Kodiak Savannah, 
127; Lincoln's, 127; Savannah, 33, 39, 
154; Song, 33-36, 38, 39, 94, 154; Swamp, 
36; Timberline, 178; Tree, 33-38, 180; 
Vesper, 33; Western Tree, 127; White- 
crowned, 38, 154; White-throated, 33, 36, 
127, 154, 181 

Spatula clypeata, 121, 179 

Spinus pinus pinus, 126 

Spizella arborea, 180; arborea ochracea, 127; 
breweri taverneri, 178; pallida, 43; passe- 
rina, 154; passerina passerina, 127 

Starling, 33-38, 44, 180; Common, 32, 33, 35, 
36; European, 44, 94 

Starling nesting at Churchill, Manitoba, by 
Mrs. Eva Beckett, 44 

Starlings in the Ungava District, Quebec 
Province, by Sherman Bleakney, 44 

Statement of financial standing, the Ottawa 
Field-Naturalists' Club, November 27/52, 29 

Stellaria laeta, 41; longipes, 41; monantha 
var. monantha, 41, 169 

Stercorarius longicaudus, 92, 178 

Sterna hirundo, 151; paradisaea, 92, 123, 151 

Strix nebulosa nebulosa, 123 

Sturnus vulgaris, 44, 94, 180; vulgaris vulga- 
ris, 44 

Swallow, American Barn, 124; Bank, 124, 
152; Barn, 152; Greater Cliff, 124; North- 
ern Cliff, 152; Northern Violet-green, 124; 
Tree, 152 

Swan, 178; Mute, 36; Whistling, 120, 179 

— T — 

Tachycineta thalassina lepida, 124 

Tanager, Scarlett, 181 

Taraxacum lacerum, 43; phymatocarpum, 173 



Teal, Blue-winged, 121, 150, 179; Green- 
winged, 37-39, 121, 179 

Tern, Arctic, 92, 123, 151; Black, 151; Com- 
mon, 151 

Thrush, Grey-cheeked, 178; Hermit, 34, 35, 
37, 125, 181; Northern Varied, 125; Olive- 
backed, 125, 153, 181; Varied, 39; Wood, 
181 

Totanus flavipes, 123; melanoleucus, 179 

Towhee, Oregon, 38,39 

Tringa solitaria, 122, 151 

Trisetum spicatum var. maidenii, 166 

Turdus migratorius, 153; migratorius migra- 
tor ius, 125 

Turnstone, Black, 39; European, 90 

Tyrannus tyrannus, 152 

_U — 

Underwoodia, 95, 102 

— V — 

Veery, 181 

Vermivora celata, 126; peregrina, 126, 153 

Verpa, 95, 98; bohemica, 98; conica, 98 

Vicia cracca f. albida, 93 

Vireo olivaceus, 47, 153; philadelphicus, 153; 

solitarius, 126 
Vireo, Blue-headed, 126; Philadelphia, 153; 

Red-eyed, 47, 153, 180 
Vole, Pallid, 154, 155 

— W — 

Warbler, Alaska Myrtle, 126; Blackburnian, 
181; Black-poll, 126; Black-throated Green, 
181; Myrtle, 33, 37, 153; Northern Pileo- 
lated, 126; Northern Yellow, 126; Orange- 
crowned, 126; Palm, 32; Pine, 33; Tennes- 
see, 126, 153; Yellow, 153; Yellow Palm, 
33 

Waxwing, Bohemian, 37, 38, 126; Cedar, 33, 
36-38 

White-tail deer Odocoileus virginianus in 
Jasper National Park, Alberta, by A. W. F. 
Banfield, 44 

Wilsonia pusilla pileolata, 126 

Wilson's Petrel, Oceanites oceanicus oceani- 
cus (Kuhl), at Lake Deschenes, Quebec, by 
Hoyes Lloyd, 140 

Woodpecker, Alaska Three-toed, 124; Arctic 
Three-toed, 124; Downy, 33-38, 181; Gaird- 
ner's, 39; Hairy, 33-38, 181; Harris', 39; 
Northern Hairy, 124; Pileated, 33-39, 152, 
181 

Woodsia glabella, 40 

Wragg, L. E. 
Notes on the life history of the muskrat in 
southern Ontario, 174 



190 The Canadian Field-Naturalist [Vol. 67 

Wren, Bewick's, 39; Carolina, 34, 36; Long- Yellow-throat, Common, 36 
billed Marsh, 38; Seattle, 39; Winter, 34, 

36-39 — Z — 

Wright, Bruce S. 

Further notes on the panther in the north- Zalophus cahformanus, 140 

east 12 Zenaidura macroura marginella, 123 

Zonotrichia albicollis, 127, 154; coronata, 127, 
178; leucophrys, 154; leucophrys gamhel- 
Yellow-legs, Greater, 179; Lesser, 123 lii, 127 



OTTAWA FIEID-NATURAIISTS' CLUB 
ANNUAL MEETING 



•5f ^ * 



The Annual Meeting of the Ottawa Field-Naturalists' 
Club ivill be held at 8 p.m., December 3, 1953, in 
the Auditorium, Carleton College, Ottawa, Ontario, 



AFFILIATED SOCIETIES 



NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY 
OF MANITOBA 



VANCOUVER NATURAL HISTORY 
SOCIETY 



OFFICERS FOR 1951-52: 

President Emeritus: Charles W. Lowe; Honorary Presi- 
dent: A. G. Lawrence; President: RAYMOND R.' LE- 
JEUNE; Vice-Presidents: Mrs. D. B. SPARLING, Prof. 
R. K. STEWART-HAY; General Secretary: Mrs. W. A. 
CARTWRIGHT; Executive Secretary: Mrs. G. I. KEITH; 
Treasurer: H. MOSSOP; Auditor: W. A. CARTWRIGHT; 
Social Convenor: Miss LOUISE M. LOVELL. 

SECTIONS— 

Ornithology: Chair. F. J. COUTTS; Sec. Miss W. 
DOWNES. Entomology: Chair. R. J. HERON; Sec 
J. A. DROUIN. Botany. Chaix. Mrs. D. B. SPARLING; 
Sec. JOHN S. ROWE. Geology: Chair. P. H. STOKES; 
Sec. P. W. GRANT. Mammalogy: Chair. C. I. TILLE- 
NIUS; Sec. O. P. GIBSON. Herpetology: Chair. R. K. 
STEWART-HAY; Sec. H. MOSSOP. Archeology: Choir. 
Mrs. P. H. STOKES; Sec. Mrs. R. K. HELYAR. 

Lectures on the first and third Monday evenings of 
each month will be held in the 4th floor Board Room 
of the Free Press. Friday evening lectures wil be held 
in Room 200 of the University Extension Service, Me- 
morial Boulevard, Winnipeg. Field Excursions are held 
on Saturdays or Sundays during May, lune and Sep- 
tember, and on piiblic holidays in July and August. 
Membership fee: $1 a year for adtdts; 25 cents for 
juniors. 



PROVANCHER SOCIETY OF NATURAL 
HISTORY OF CANADA 

OFFICERS FOR 1953 

President : F. DONALD ROSS; 1st Vice-President : JOS. 
MORIN; 2nd Vice-President : I. C. PRICE; Secretary- 
Treasurer : GEO. A. LECLERC; Chief of Scientific 
Section : FRANCOIS HAMEL; Chief of Protection 
Section : REX MEREDITH; Chief of Propaganda Section : 
DR. D. A. DERY; Chief of Information Section : J. A. 
BIGONESSE. Other directors : G. H. CARTWRIGHT, 
T. I. A. HUNTER, DR. V. PLAMONDON, J. J. DION, 
J. K. HILL, I. G. COOTE. 

Secretary's address : GEORGES A. LECLERC, 12 Desy 
Avenue, Quebec, P.Q. 



THE TORONTO FIELD-NATURALISTS' 
CLUB 

OFFICERS FOR 1950-1951 

President : A. A. OUTRAM; Vice-President j J. L. 

BAILLIE; Secretary-Treasurer: MRS. J. B. STEWART, 
21 Millwood Rd., Toronto; President of Junior Club: 
MRS. J. MURRAY SPEIRS; Vice-President of Jixnior Club: 
MRS L. E. JAQUITH. Executive Council: G. M. BART- 
MAN, J. BARNETT, MRS. N. BROWN, ALFRED BUNKER, 
MISS F. BURGESS, ALEXANDER CAMERON, MISS VERA 
CLARK, MISS B. DOUGLAS, PROF. T. W. DWIGHT, DR. 
M. FRITZ, W. W. H. GUNN, DR. L. E, JAQUITH, MRS. 
J. D. KETCHUM, MISS V. KOHLER, MRS. H. H. MARSH, 
C. S. McKEE, D. S. MILLER, JOHN MTTCHELE, R. M. 
SAUNDERS, EARL STARK, H. H. SOUTHAM. Ex. Officio: 
A. J. V. LEHMANN, C. A- -W'ALKINSHAW, T. F. McIL- 
WRAITH. 

Meetings are held at 8.15 p.m. on the first Monday ol 
each month from October to May at the Royal Ontario 
Museum, unless otherwise announced. Field trips or* 
held during the spring and autumn and on the second 
Eatuzday of each month daring the winter. 



OFFICERS — 1951-1952 

Hon. President: DR. N. A. M. MacKENZIE; Past Presideifc 
A. H. BAIN; President: DR. V. C. BRINK; Vice-Presidentj 
DR. T. M. C. TAYLOR; Hon. Secretary; C. B. W. ROGERS; 
Recording Secretary: MISS C. PLOMMER; Program Seo- 
retary: S. F. BRADLEY; Hon. Treasurer: F. J. SANFORD; 
Librarian: MRS. S. F. BRADLEY; Editor of Bulletin: N. 
PURSSELL; Chairmen of Sections: Botany — PROF. I. 
DAVIDSON; Geology — DR. J. E. ARMSTRONG; En- 
tomology — A. R. WOOTTON; Ornithology — W. »(L 
HUGHES; Mammology — DR. I. McT. COWAN; Marine 
Biology — R. W. PILLSBURY; Photography — H. C 
FRESHWATER; Junior Section — A. R. WOOTTON; 
Mycology — F. WAUGH; Aubudon Screen Tours — A. 
H. BAIN; Additional Member of Executive: J. J. PLOM- 
MER; Auditors: H. G. SELWOOD, J, H. PROSSER 

AH meetings at 8 p.m.. Room 100, Applied Science- 
Building, University of British Columbia, unless other- 
wise aimounced. 



McILWRAITH ORNITHOLOGICAL CLUB 
LONDON, ONT. 

OFFICERS FOR 1953 

Past President : Mr. W. D. SUTTON, 313 Whamcliffe 
Rd. N., London; President : Mrs. R. G. CUMMINGS, 
R.R. 4, London; Vice-President : Mr. H. KEAST, 1239 
Gleeson St., London; Secretary : Miss M. EDY, R.R. 4, 
London; Secretary-Treasurer : Dr. W. W. JUDD, 685 
Strathmeyer St., London; Migration Secretary : Mr. J. 
LEACH, West London, P.O., London. 

Meetings aze held at 8.00 p.m. in the Public Library 
biulding on the second Monday of each month from 

September to May. 

Field trips are held during the spring and a special 

excursion in September. 



PROVINCE OF QUEBEC SOCIETY FOR 
THE PROTECTION OF BIRDS INC. 

OFFICERS FOR 1952-53 

President: G. H. MONTGOMERY; Vice-presid«nts: J. P. 
ANGLIN, Dr. M. J DUNBAR; Treasurer: W. H. RAW- 
LINGS; Secretary: Miss R. S. ABBOTT, 186 Senneville 
Road, Senneville, P.Q. 

COMMITTEE 

Miss R. S. ABBOTT, J. P. ANGLIN, W. R. B. BERTRAM, 
Miss R. B. BLANCHARD, Miss S. BOYER, Mrs. P. H. du 
BOULAY, J D. CLEGHORN, Dr. M. J. DUNBAR, D. G. 
ELLIOT, Mrs. D. G. ELLIOT, DELISLE GARNEAU, G. 
HARPER HALL, W. S. HART, Miss G. HIBBARD, A. R. 
LEPINGWELL, IAN McLAREN, G. H. MONTGOMERY, 
W. H. RAWLINGS, J. W. ROBINSON, Dr. JACQUES 
ROUSSEAU, C. C. SAIT, Miss M. SEATH, H F. SEY- 
MOUR, Dr. JOHN SUMMERBY, J. L. VAN CAMP. 

Meetings held the second Monday of the month ex- 
cept during summer. Field Trips held in spring and 
autumn. 



BRITISH COLUMBIA BIRD AND 
MAMMAL SOCIETY 



President : KENNETH RACEY; Vice-Prseident : H. M. 
LAING; Secretary: IAN McT. COWAN, Dept it 
Zoology, University of British Columbia, Vancouv«»i, B.C 











WANTED 


In order to meet 


the demand for back numbers of the pubHcations 


of the Ottawa Field-Naturnlists' Club, 


the following are urgently needed: 


Transactions, Otta. Field-Nat Club, No. 1, 1880. 


OUavra Naliualisi 








Vol. 


4, 


No. 


6, 


Sept, 


1890 


Vol. 


7, 


No. 


9, 


Dec., 


1893 


Vol. 


11, 


No. 


10, 


Jan., 


1898 


Vol. 


11, 


No. 


11, 


Feb., 


1898 


Vol. 


11, 


No. 


12. 


Mar., 


1898 


Vol. 


12. 


No. 


1. 


Apr., 


1898 


Vol 


12, 


No. 


4, 


July, 


1898 


Vol. 


12, 


No. 


7 & 8, Oct.-Nov.. 


1898 


Vol. 


12, 


No. 


9, 


June, 


1901 


Vol. 


15, 


No. 


3, 


June, 


1901 


Vol. 


15, 


No. 


4, 


July, 


1901 


Vol. 


15, 


No. 


8, 


Nov., 


1901 


Vol. 


17, 


No. 


12, 


Mar., 


1904(This was marked Vol. 18, No. 12) 


Vol. 


18, 


No. 


4, 


July, 


1904 


Vol. 


19, 


No. 


10, 


Jan., 


1906 


Vol. 


20, 


No. 


4, 


July, 


1906 


Canadian FieM-Haiuralist 




Vol. 


34, 


No. 


8, 


Nov., 


1920 


Vol. 


36. 


No. 


5. 


May, 


1922 


Vol. 


37, 


No. 


3, 


Mar., 


1923 


Vol. 


39, 


No. 


5, 


May, 


1925 


VoL 


44, 


No. 


9, 


Dec, 


1930 


Vol. 


45, 


No. 


5, 


May, 


1931 


Vol. 


56, 


No. 


6, 


Sept., 


1942 


Members and subscribers who are 


i able to spore any of these numbers 


would greatly assist the Club by forwarding them to : 












Mr. W. I. Cody, 












IHvision of Botany 












Sdence Service, 












Dept. ol Agriculture, 












Ottawa, Ontario. 



"Le Droit" Printers, Ottawa, Canada, ^x^^^aii} 



EHNST MAYR LIBRARY 




3 2044 114 198 062 



Date Due 



JUL 3^53