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No. 1. MAJOR-GENERAL ALEXANDER McDOUGALL, C.B. 

Director-General Timber Operations, Great Britain 
and France. 



JB=^t?^e 




THE CANADIAN 
FORESTRY CORPS 

Its Inception^ Development 
and Achievements 



PREPARED BY REQUEST OF 
THE RT. HON. SIR ALBERT 
H. STANLEY, M.P., PRESIDENT 
OF THE BOARD OF TRADE 



C. W. BIRD 

{Timber Supply Department) 



Lieutenant J. B. DA VIES 

{Canadian Forestry Corps) 




LONDON : 

PRINTED BY H.M. STATIONERY OIFICE 
1919 



(oOl 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. 



1. — Major-General Alexander McDougall, C.B. . . . . Frontispiece 

Director-General Timber Operations, Great Britain and France, 

2. — A Camp in Hampshire, England . . 

3. — A Camp in the Scottish Highlands 

4. — Felling in Scotland . . 

5. — Carrying Logs by Ropeway across a River in Scotland. . 

6. — Log Chute in Scotland 

7. — Pole Track in Scotland 

8.— Sir James B. Ball, M.Inst.C.E., etc. 

Controller of Timber Supplies, Board of Trade. 

9. — Donkey Engine at work in Scotland 
10. — -Rail Loading Station in Scotland . . 
II. — Piling Logs in Scotland 

12.— Brig.-Gen. B. R. Hepburn, C.M.G., M.P 

Deputy Director-General Timber Operations. 

13._Colonel G. V. White. C.B.E. 

Director Timber Operations, Great Britain. 

14.— Brig.-Gen. J. B. White, D.S.O 

Director Timber Operations, France. 

15.— Lieut.-Col. D. B. Campbell. M.B.E. 

Chief of Technical Staff. 
16. — Railing Logs to Station in Scotland 
17. — Rail Hauling with Horses .. 
18. — Logs in Transit, Bedfordshire, England . . 
19. — Logs entering a Mill in Scotland . . 
20. — Map showing C.F.C. operations in Britain 
21. — Inside a Mill in Scotland 

22. — Typical Mills in Britain (1) 

23.— Do. do, (2) 

24.— Do. do. (3) 

25.— A Lumber Avenue .. 

26. — Dinner Time . . 

27 — Attached Labour. (Portuguese) .. 

28 — Women Timber Measurers in Buckinghamshire . . 

29.— What the Y.M.C.A. provides 

30. — Part of the Technical Warehouse . . 

3 1 . — A corner of the Machine Shop 

32. — -Railing Logs in the Vosges . . 

33. — Truck- load at the end of a 600 ft. Trestle in the Vosges 

34. — On the Trestle 

35. — Map showing C.F.C. operations in France 

36.— Loading on Wagons . . 

37. — Loading on Wagons . . 

38. — Loading at Railhead in the Vosges 

39. — Stables in the Vosges 

40. — A Logging Camp in the Jura Group 

4L — A Mill for Aircraft Timber, Jura Group . . 

42. — A Company and its Mill, Jura Group 

43. — Railing Logs : France 

44.— Railing Logs : Part of a 2,000 ft. Track which drops 195 ft. 

45. — Railhead in the Vosges 

46. — Removing Sawdust, France . . 

47. — Hauhng from a Mill in the Vosges 

48. — Her Majesty Queen Mary presenting Sports Prizes 



To face 

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[Acknowledgment is due to the Canadian Y.M.C.A. for assistance 
in regard to Illustrations.] 



(504) Wt. 41495/321 5/19 1200 D. St. 



CONTENTS. 




Chapter 

I. The First Lumbermen's Battalion 


Page 
5 


II. The Development of the C.F.C 


8 


III. Some Makers of the C.F.C 


15 


IV. Operations in Great Britain . . 


18 


V. Operations in France . . 


34 


VI. An Imperial Link 


50 



1 



5 
Chapter I, 



THE FIRST LUMBERMEN'S BATTALION 
(The 224th). 



Inception. — Among the historic documents of the War must surely be 
reckoned the first appeal from Great Britain to Canada for assistance in 
exploiting British forests so as to save tonnage and help to counter the 
submarine menace. It was on the 15th February, 1916, after a little more than 
18 months of War, that the Colonial Secretary cabled to the then Governor- 
General of Canada, H.R.H. the Duke of Connaught, the following urgent 
message : — 

" H.M. Government would be grateful if the Canadian Govern- 
ment would assist in the production of timber for War purposes. 
Owing to the very serious shortage of freight for munitions, food, 
forage and other essentials, which is a matter of the gravest concern 
to H.M. Government, it is impossible to continue to import Canadian 
timber on a sufficiently large scale to meet War requirements, and 
arrangements must therefore be made for felling and converting 
English forests, 

" Chief difficulty is finding sufficient skilled labour, fellers, hauliers 
and sawyers. 1,500 men are urgently needed, and H.M. Government 
would suggest that a Battalion of Lumbermen might be formed 
of specially enlisted men to undertake exploitation of forests of this 
country. 

" If proposal commends itself to Canadian Government, would 
beg very early action. Suggest that men should be enlisted into 
Canadian Expeditionary Force and despatched in small companies 
under competent supervision. Government is aware that lumber 
season now in progress, but feel sure that men would enlist even at 
sacrifice of present employment if the reason of the appeal were made 
known to them. Incidence of cost will be arranged as agreeable to 
Canadian Government." 

A further cable was sent on the 29th February. So quickly did the 
Canadian Authorities make up their minds that on the 1st March a cable was 
received stating that the Battalion asked for would be provided, with the least 
possible delay, and enquiring for further particulars of the kind of men wanted 
The Governor-General was informed on the 6th March that the Canadian 
Government's action was highly appreciated, and that the lumbermen were 
required for all stages from felling to cutting into sleepers, scantlings, etc. It 
was suggested that the Battalion might be composed of 700 fellers, 450 sawyers 
and assistant sawyers, 250 carters and hauliers, and 100 enginemen. So 
urgent was the need that on the 11 th March it was suggested that the Lumbermen 
should be sent forward in batches of 50 instead of waiting for the whole Battalion 
to be recruited. 

The raising of this Battalion affords a splendid example of the readiness 
of the Canadian Government to assist in a most unexpected direction, and of 
the energy, rapidity and " hustle " for which the Canadians are famous. 
Although the first request for assistance was only sent on the 15th February, 
1916, an establishment was authorised by the Department of Militia and 
Defence as early as 25th February, for the formation of a Forestry BattaUon 
to be known as the 224th Canadian Forestry Battalion. In six weeks, 1,600 
men were recruited and mobilised at Quebec from all parts of the Dominion ; 
machinery to the value of about $250,000 was purchased in Canada, consisting 
of mills, lorries, etc. By the 17th March it was reported that an advance 



party of about 200 would leave for England at the end of the month 
bringing with them a portable mill. Eventually, however, a small advance 
party of two subalterns and 15 men was sent, followed about the middle of 
April by the first draft numbering some 400 all ranks under Lieut. -Col. 
McDougall, who arrived on the 28th April. The second and third drafts 
came soon after, and all had arrived by the end of May. On the 
12th April, 1916, the advance party landed in England. Sawn lumber was 
actually produced in Britain by the Canadian Battalion on the 13th May, 1916 
(an unlucky 13th for the Germans), so that within three months the Battalion 
was not only raised and fully equipped, but despatched to England with its 
machinery, and had produced lumber for the Imperial Government. 

The circumstances which led the British Government to appeal for 
Canadian help arose out of the shortage of freight for munitions, food and other 
essential commodities, which began to make itself seriously felt during 1915, 
after the first year of War. In order to economise tonnage and provide 
timber for the Army, the British Government had decided to develop the 
Home Timber Industry, which before the War had only produced about 
900,000 tons of timber, including pit-wood, as against an importation of about 
11,500,000 tons. To carry out this policy, a Committee was appointed under 
the English Board of Agriculture, known as the Home-Grown Timber Committee, 
and this body quickly set to work by purchasing standing timber in various 
parts of Britain, and making arrangements for working it. By the latter part 
of 1915, the Home-Grown Timber Committee had found that its operations 
were very much handicapped by absence of the necessary labour, especially 
skilled labour. Very naturally, their thoughts turned to the Dominion where 
lumbering has been elevated to a fine art — although under very different 
conditions from those ruling in Britain. Fortunately, the Director of Forestry 
at Ottawa had met some of the Staff of the Home-Grown Timber Committee 
a short time before, and he was approached, the first suggestion being that 
men should be obtained from Canada for timber work on lines similar to those 
on which they had been recruited for munitions. It was felt better, however, 
to raise the men required as a Military body ; and, as a result, the telegram 
above quoted was despatched. 

It is difficult to conceive the multitude of ways in which timber was used 
for War purposes. At the Front, the Army very largely walked on timber, 
lorries drove on timber ; railways, light and heavy, required huge numbers 
of sleepers or ties. Underground no less than above ground was timber used, 
for dugouts, and all the complicated contrivances connected with trench 
warfare. From huts to ammunition boxes, from duckboards to stakes for 
barbed wire, the uses of timber ranged. At home no less intense a demand 
was manifested for different purposes connected with the War, and it will 
suffice to mention that every factory and every locomotive and every 
coal fire in the country, as well as every ship in the Navy driven by steam, 
depended upon an adequate supply of Mining Timber, millions of tons of which 
were required every year. The need for the efforts of the Canadian Forestry, 
Corps will thus be sufficiently evident. 

Equipment. — To save time, and for other reasons, it was arranged that 
the Canadians should bring with them their own machinery and equipment 
of the kind to which they were accustomed, with the necessary modifications 
to adapt it to the conditions in Britain. This matter of equipment is one on 
which a word of special praise is due, for the difference in the working 
conditions in England and Canada is so great that it required expert knowledge 
of the highest order to adapt quickly the Canadian lumbering plant and 
organisation to British needs. Not only was this done in double quick time, 
but the design of the equipment proved so satisfactory that very few changes 
have had to be made ever since. 

Arrangements in Britain. — The Canadian lumbermen were somewhat of 
an unknown quantity to the timber-workers of Britain, and the conditions 




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of working in Britain were equally conjectural to many of the Canadians. 
It is not, then, to be wondered at that careful consideration was given 
to the question of the localities in which the men were to be employed. It 
was first suggested to put 100 men at Windsor and 100 in Scotland. Then, 
when the number of lumbermen immediately expected became larger, it was 
proposed to place 50 in the New Forest, 100 at Stover, in Devonshire, and 140 
in Scotland. After various proposals had been made, it was settled that the 
first 400 should be concentrated in the South of England, to facilitate organisa- 
tion. The small advance party already mentioned was sent to woods near 
Lyndhurst, in Hampshire ; but the first main contingent of about 400 officers 
and men, and also the second party of about 500 officers and other ranks, 
were accommodated in the first instance at Larkhill Camp, near Aldershot. 
Similarly the third party of nearly 700 officers and men, which arrived at the 
end of May, 1916, were first taken to Bramshott Camp. From these Camps 
they were distributed to the areas in which suitable woods had been 
acquired. Lieut. -Col. McDougall's own Headquarters were first established at 
4, The Sanctuary, Westminster, at the Offices of the Home-Grown Timber 
Committee, on the 5th May, 1916. Ten days later they were moved to 
2, Millbank, Westminster, only a short distance away. Equipment had 
been coming forward at the same time as the men ; the first consignment, 
for instance, comprised two sawmills, each of a capacity for cutting 
15,000 sq. ft. in ten hours, together with ten logging wagons, four 
steam winch hoisting engines, four motor cars, one electric lighting plant, 
telephone outfit, tools, harness, metals and miscellaneous stores for 1,500 men. 
Eventually, the first actual lumbering operations were carried out at Virginia 
Water, and by the middle of June over 500 men were at work as follows : — 

Virginia Water (near Egham, Surrey) . . . . . . 124 

Rapley Lake (Bagshot, Surrey) . . . . . . . . 49 

Norley Wood (Lymington, Hampshire) . . . . . . 71 

Stover (Heathfield, near Newton Abbot, Devonshire) . . 217 

Dalbeattie and Kirkconnell (Dumfriesshire, Scotland) . . 75 

It was not long before the entire Battalion, numbering 1,609 officers and 
men, were hard at work exploiting British woods, and so helping to frustrate 
the Huns. 

In connection with these and subsequent arrangements, the Canadians 
received great assistance from tlie Home-Grown Timber Committee, and 
particularly they appreciated the valuable advice and co-operation of the 
Director, Mr. John Sutherland, who was afterwards appointed Assistant 
Director of Forestry in France with the rank of Lieut. -Colonel, later Colonel, 



Chapter II. 



THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE CANADIAN FORESTRY CORPS. 



More, please ! — The subsequent history of the Canadians may be summarised 
by repeating " More " — " More " — and " More." Events marched very 
rapidly, and as the prospects of finishing the War within a relatively short 
time diminished, so did the demand grow for the services of the Canadians to 
increase home production and assist in saving tonnage. 

Hardly had the Canadians arrived in England when Lord Kitchener, 
realising their value, suggested that 500 of them should at once be transferred 
to France, with another 500 to follow, in order to fell and convert certain 
forests which the French Government had placed at British disposal. Lord 
Kitchener wrote personally on the 12th May, 1916, to the above effect to Lord 
Selbome (who was at that time at the head of the Board of Agriculture, and 
therefore of the Home-Grown Timber Committee), but Lord Selbome was 
unwilling to give up any of the Canadians who had so far arrived. German 
prisoners who had been offered to the Committee were by no means a substitute, 
apart from the disorganisation which would have resulted from the upsetting 
of the plans for accommodating the Canadians in Britain. Shortly before 
that, it had been proposed to increase the number of Canadians to 1,800, and 
it was now suggested to the War Office that the extra men who were 
expected might be devoted to work in France as soon as they arrived, and 
that more men should be recruited from Canada for work in France if necessary. 

The 238th, 242nd, and 230th Battalions.— On the 19th May, 1916, a request 
was cabled to Ottawa for an additional 2,000 lumbermen, with plant, to assist 
in exploiting certain French forests. This was prefaced by an expression of 
keen appreciation of the Canadian Government's action in raising the first 
Battalion. The Canadian Government promptly agreed to raise the men, 
and arranged that they should be sent forward in small detachments, on account 
of the urgency of the case. Later, in June, 1916, the Canadian Minister of 
Militia proposed to raise the two new Forestry Battalions, each of about 1,000 
men, to be designated the 238th and 242nd Forestry Battalions, the original 
first Battalion being known as the 224th. Early in November, 1916, it was 
arranged that another Battalion (the 230th) should be converted into a Forestry 
Battalion ; but even this was insufficient, and on the 6th November a request 
for yet another 2,000 men was cabled, the suggestion being made that this 
should consist mainly of men unfit for combatant service. It was felt that a 
number of lumbermen scattered throughout the combatant forces of the 
Canadian Army could do better work as lumbermen owing to physical disabilities, 
such as defective eyesight, flat feet, etc. ; also men over age could be employed. 
The following is an extract from Routine Orders by Major-General Sir R. E W. 
Turner, V.C, General Officer Commanding Canadian Forces in Great Britain, 
dated the 8th December, 1916 :— 

" Canadian Forestry Corps^ — ^Transfer of Technical Officers, N.C.O.'s and Men to. 

" Officers with the following technical qualifications will be permitted to transfer 
to the Canadian Forestry Corps : Actual experience in lumbering operations in its 
various branches, logging, manufacturing, shipping, grading, etc., also experience in 
the handling of men in construction work. Non-Commissioned Officers and Men who 
have experience as mill hands, logging foremen, sawyers, filers, saw hammerers, 
engineers, firemen, and all other branches of the Lumber Trade, felling, transport, 
manufacture and shipping of finished lumber." 

Officers were sent to the various reserve Canadian Bases throughout the 
United Kingdom for the purpose of selection, and the men chosen were 
despatched to the Base Depot of the Corps. 




No. 4. 



Felling in Scotland. 




No. 5. 



Carrying Logs by Ropeway across a River in Scotland. 




No. 6. 



Log Chute in Scotland. 




No. 7. 



Pole Track in Scotland, 



At the end of November, the War Office enquired whether the 119th 
and the 156th BattaUons might be made available to provide the 2,000 men 
asked for early in November, and at the same time asked that about 5,000 
more Canadian lumbermen might be recruited, particularly French Canadians. 

Purchases Ahead. — A point of outstanding interest during the year 1916 
is to be found in the fact that in the month of October Colonel McDougall, 
after due consideration of the situation and with the advice of the Senior Officers 
of the Corps, purchased machinery and equipment for 10,000 men. This was 
done before the men were authorised, having in view the development of the 
submarine warfare and the fact that the greatest saving had to be made in 
timber imports. Later events proved that the purchase was justified, so 
much so, in fact, that had it not been made at the time it is open to doubt 
whether France or Great Britain could have provided the timber their woods 
were ultimately caused to yield during the war. 

Company Organisation Adopted. — Meanwhile the organisation of the 
Canadians in Battalions was modified by breaking up the Battalions into 
Companies, each forming a complete Unit, and the whole of the Canadian 
lumbermen in Britain and France were placed under Col. McDougall as 
Director of Canadian Timber Operations. This decision was formally notified 
by the Canadian Minister of Militia early in November. The Company 
organisation has continued ever since. The strength of the Corps at the end of 
1916 was as follows : — 

Great Britain . . Officers, 103. Other Ranks, 2,303. 
France . . . . Officers, 30. Other Ranks, 602. 

At the close of that year 11 Companies were operating in Great Britain 
and three in France. 

On the 6th January, 1917, a proposed Establishment for the Canadian 
Forestry Corps was approved by the War Office, based upon the result of the 
experience gained during the preceding three months. (Order No. 477. W.E., 
Part XVI., dated War Office (S.D.2), February 22nd, 1917). 

This in turn was superseded by Order No. 880, W.E., Part XVI., dated 
War Office (S.D.2), 5th December, 1917, which provided for :— 

Directorate of Timber Operations, Great Britain and France. 

Directorate of Timber Operations, Great Britain. 

Directorate of Timber Operations, France. 

Audit and Accounting Department, Great Britain and France. 

Forestry Branch, Great Britain and France. 

Forestry Branch, Paris Detachment. 

Mechanical Branch, Great Britain. 

Technical Equipment and Supplies Branch, Great Britain and France. 

Technical Warehouse, Great Britain. 

Technical Warehouse, France. 

Transport Department, Great Britain and France. 

District Headquarters, Great Britain and France. 

Group Headquarters, France. 

Forestry Company, Great Britain and France. 

District Workshops, France. 

Base Depot, Great Britain. 

At the close of hostihties the numbers had grown to 41 Companies working 
in Britain and 60 Companies in France, a total of some 17,000 men, to which 
must be added attached personnel, such as Canadian Army Service Corps, 
Canadian Army Medical Corps, etc., and also Prisoners of War, bringing the 
total up to approximately 33,000. 

On the 6th January, 1917, a Base Depot for the Corps was commenced 
at Smith's Lawn, Sunningdale, Berks., within the confines of Windsor Great 
Park. This site was given to the Corps by His Majesty the King, and a full 
account of the Depot will be found in a later chapter. 



10 

The Headquarters were moved first to 54, Victoria Street, in October, 

1916, and afterwards to 23, Swallow Street, Piccadilly, W., where they 
remained at the conclusion of hostilities. 

Financial Relations with the Imperial Government.- — In the original request 
for help in the shape of a Canadian Lumber Battahon, the British Government 
had offered to arrange the incidence of the cost as agreeable to the Canadian 
Government. Naturally the provision of the ordinary military outfit of the 
men in Canada and the purchase of the Canadian machinery which was sent 
over was undertaken by the Canadian Authorities. Similarly the provision 
of accommodation and food was undertaken in Britain by the War Office. 
Everybody concerned was far too busy getting on with the work to stop to 
discuss details of payment. It was not until the end of 1916 that this matter 
was definitely settled by the Canadian Government most generously agreeing 
to bear the cost of Pay, Pensions and Allowances to the Canadian Units employed 
in this work, as well as their initial personal equipment and the cost of 
transporting them to this country, while all their expenses of every other kind 
connected with their equipment, work or maintenance were to be borne by 
the Imperial Government. This arrangement was confirmed by Sir George 
Perley on behalf of the Canadian Government in a letter dated 17th January, 

1917, in which he says that the arrangement appears to be eminently fair and 
reasonable to both sides. The provision of the equipment required from time 
to time by the Canadians has been arranged by their technical branch through 
the British Timber Supply Department, for the requirements of the operations 
both in Britain and in France. A large part has been made by the Corps in its 
own machine shops. 

Col. McDougall's Report on French Operations. — To return to the earlier 
period in May, 1916, when the proposal was first made that Canadians should 
be employed in France, it was suggested that some of the officers in charge 
of the Canadian technical operations should in the first place proceed to 
France and report on the nature and scope of the work to be done, and the 
technical plant required. Further suggestions were made with regard to 
obtaining and training men and as to the organisation of all the Canadian 
lumbering operations in Europe under one Headquarters. These suggestions 
were conveyed to Lord Kitchener, and early in June it was arranged that 
Col. McDougall should go to France himself, which he did on the 7th of 
that month, accompanied by two other officers. His Report, dated the 
23rd June, 1916, was both interesting and valuable. It is referred to later 
in greater detail in describing the French operations, but is so important 
that a brief summary may be given here. He pointed out the necessity 
of acquiring pine forests in France besides the beech woods that were 
being worked, drew attention to various defects in the existing organisation, 
which had been improvised under considerable stress, and suggested closer 
co-operation between the Departments supplying timber in England and France, 
so that no timber would be imported which could be obtained from French 
forests. He also proposed that the Lumbermen's Battalions should all be 
controlled from London, and made recommendations as to the equipping and 
organising of the Battalions which were then being raised in Canada. 

This Report marks a turning point in the history of the Canadian 
Forestry Corps. It naturally gave rise to considerable discussion, one 
proposal being that a committee should be set up in London representing 
the different departments interested, by whom all demands for timber for 
Government purposes should be considered. Subsequently it was arranged 
that one Canadian Forestry Battalion should be allocated to work for the 
French Armies, half the timber produced being delivered to the British. 

The War Timber Commission. — At length a new body was set up, with 
Headquarters at H.M. Office of Works, London, known as the War Timber 
Commission, in accordance with a Convention dated the 15th November, 1916, 




No. 8. 

SIR JAMES B. BALL, M.Inst. C.E., etc. 
Controller of Timber Supplies, Board of Trade. 



11 

between the British and French Governments. A most important feature of 
this arrangement was that the French Government agreed to the working by 
Canadian lumbermen of forests in districts remote from the zone of the 
Armies, this enabhng more suitable timber to be worked than could be 
found in rear of the British Unes. The whole of the Canadian operations, as 
previously indicated, were at this time put under Lieut. -Col. McDougall as 
Director of Canadian Timber Operations, and he was given the rank of (Temp.) 
Colonel. Directions as to what timber he should endeavour to produce in each 
country were to be received from the War Timber Commission. This Com- 
mission comprised Representatives of the Office of Works, the French War 
Ministry and the Belgian War Ministry, also of the British War Office and 
Admiralty, the French Ministry of Agriculture, the Home-Grown Timber 
Committee, the British Quartermaster-General's Department, and of the 4th 
Bureau of the French Staff. 

The Timber Supply Department. — The progress of events, however, led to 
further modifications of this arrangement. The introduction of unrestricted 
submarine warfare and the possible continuation of the War for an indefinite 
period caused the timber position early in 1917 to give rise to serious 
apprehensions owing to the urgency of further restricting the tonnage available 
for importing timber. In February, 1917, the War Office pointed out to the 
British Commander-in-Chief in France the difficulties in obtaining supplies 
for the Armies from Scandinavia, the White Sea and North America, and drew 
attention to the volume of other more necessary traffic. It was urged that 
every possible economy in timber should be exercised, and that any men who 
could be spared should be put to work in French forests. At the same time it 
was decided to create a new Department of Timber Supplies at the War Office 
whose functions would be to supply, as far as possible, the timber demanded 
for the Armies in France ; to control the use of timber in the United Kingdom 
and to induce economy, while stimulating to the utmost home production, and 
at the same time to regulate the purchase of such timber as might be imported. 
Of this Department, Sir Bampfylde Fuller, K.C.S.I., K.C.I.E., was appointed 
Director. It took over the functions of the Home-Grown Timber Committee 
in respect of home production, and with them the task of providing woods and 
making arrangements for the Canadian lumbermen working in Britain. The 
War Office suggested that a special Officer should be appointed by the 
Commander-in-Chief of the British Armies in France to bring under one control 
the forestry operations carried on by the Director of Works and the Director 
of Canadian Lumber Operations in France. As a result, Lord Lovat was 
appointed as Director of Forestry in France, but the control of the Canadians 
in France working under his Directorate continued to be carried on by 
Col. McDougall from London. The Commander-in-Chief now replaced the 
War Timber Commission as the source of directions to the Canadians in France 
as to what they should cut, and made allowance for their production when 
making demands upon Great Britain for timber. 

Early in March, 1917, Sir George Perley was able to convey to Lord Derby 
the welcome intelligence that a large number of lumbermen would be coming 
out from the woods in Canada after the middle of the month, and that it might 
be possible to raise perhaps 2,000 men more than had been asked for. Needless 
to say, this suggestion was accepted by Sir Bampfylde Fuller, the Director of 
Timber Supplies, and it came at a fortunate time, for at the end of March 
Lord Lovat, the Director of Forestry in France, intimated that he would at 
once be requiring three more Companies, and another a few weeks later, for 
working the Jura and Conches areas, as well as possibly a further four Companies 
for the Bordeaux district. It had been agreed with Lord Lovat that up to 
5,000 officers and men of the Canadian Forestry Corps in all should be 
transferred to France. At the date of the agreement there were about 1,000 
officers and men in France and 4,000 in the United Kingdom, and in addition 
7,000 men were, it was understood, being recruited in Canada, all of whom were 



12 

to be employed in Britain. By the middle of March, 1917, there were at wor] 
in France 66 officers and 1,895 men, while in Britain, including men at the Bas 
and Headquarters, there were 102 officers and 3,661 men. Sir Bampfylde Fulle 
paid a well-deserved compliment to their efficiency when, on the 22nd May, 1917 
he wrote saying, among other things, that the Canadians " are, of course, a 
timber-getters, infinitely more efficient than any other agency which is at th 
country's disposal." It is only fair to add that this statement was mad 
before the arrival of other overseas lumbering units, or the expansion of th 
native timber industry that occurred in 1917 and 1918. 

The programme in regard to further Companies provided for 56 Companie 
in France, of whom 20 had been sent over by the third week in May. Th 
others were to be sent forward at the rate of about 10 Companies a month, s( 
that by September the quota would be made up to about 10,000 men. 

A similar programme was arranged in June, 1917, for Great Britain 
providing for a strength of 40 Companies, numbering in all about 7,000 men 
In view of the great urgency of the demand for timber, it was arranged that th 
Canadians in Great Britain should be assisted by parties of unskilled labourer? 
that day and night shifts should be worked, and that to save time 10 surplu 
mills should be provided which could be erected ahead of the men by a specia 
body of Canadians. 

To make up the total of 17,000 men for Britain and France, of whom abou 
1 1 ,000 were then at work, there were 2,000 still to come from Canada unde 
previous arrangements, and it was hoped to obtain another 2,500. The balano 
of 1,500 men it was proposed should be made up of men of the Canadian Force: 
unfit for front-line combatant service. 

In the sequel, both these programmes were carried out, and at the conclusioi 
of the Armistice the 60 Companies in France and 41 Companies in Britain wen 
hard at work helping to defeat the Germans no less than if they had been in th( 
fighting line. It is a notable feature, of the Canadian Forestry COrps that ■<. 
large number of the officers and men composing it were either not within th< 
military age limits or were unfitted for service in the fighting line. 

The expansion of the operations was marked by the promotion of Col 
McDougall to Brigadier-General from 1st April, 1917, and on June 24th he wa: 
made Director-General of Timber Operations in Great Britain and France 
On 20th December, 1918, he became Major-General. 

In May, 1917, the Timber Supply Department had been transferred to th( 
Board of Trade, and a new Controller appointed in the person of Mr. (now Sir 
J. B. Ball, M.Inst.C.E. M.Inst.M.E., with whom the Canadian Forestrj 
Corps have worked in the utmost harmony. To assist in keeping touch, i 
number of Liaison Officers were appointed in charge of Major G. L. Courthorpe 
M.C., M.P., one of the Assistant Controllers of the Timber Supply Department 
One of these officers has been stationed in each of the districts in Britain intc 
which the Canadians have divided their operations, for administrative purposes 
and these officers have proved very useful in adjusting minor matters anc 
maintaining close co-operation. Major Courthorpe is himself a leading authorit} 
on Forestry questions, and is President of the English Forestry Associatior 
and of the Royal English Arboricultural Society. 

Output Policy. — When the Canadians first started their operations the 
situation was so serious that it was necessary for them to devote all their energies 
to getting the biggest possible output. All concerned have fully realised that 
this would only be achieved at some sacrifice of quality. Day and night were 
the Canadian mills kept running, so great was the demand. This has to be 
borne in mind when comparing their methods and results, either with the 
ordinary commercial methods of the English or Scotch timber merchants, or 
with normal Canadian practice. 

In February, 1918, the Corps was called upon to meet an urgent demand 
for lumber at the Front, and in connection with this the following is a text 




No. 9. Donkey Engine at work in Scotland. 




No. 10. 



Rail Loading Station in Scotland. 




No. U. 



Piling Logs in Scotland. 



13 

of the letter written on April 12th, 1918. by the Rt. Hon. The Earl of Derby, 
Secretary of State for War, to Sir Edward Kemp : — 

" I am writing this letter to let you know on behalf of His Majesty's Government, 
how warmly they appreciate the splendid work done by the Canadian Forestry Corps in 
connection with the urgent demand which was received early in February Icist for some 
40,000 tons of timber to be sent to the Front. This was an unexpected demand, 
and it was requested that delivery should be completed not later than the 31st March. 
Shipment was commenced from the 10th February, and the whole order was completed 
on the 20th March, eleven days ahead of the specified time. 

" I am informed that this satisfactory result is mainly to be attributed to the energy 
put into the work of production by the Canadian Forestry Corps, who supplied no less 
than 34,000 tons of the total. When the Corps understood that it was an order of 
urgency, and that the material was required for the Front, many of the Companies 
voluntarily worked long hours without any extra pay, some of them doing as much as 
90 hours per week. They were at work during the whole of the Easter holidays, 
so that had any further demand been made at that time, it would have been possible 
to deal with it. 

" It is, as you are no doubt aware, largely due to the operations of the Units of 
this Corps in France that we have, with the exception of sudden and unforeseen demands 
such as the present one, practically stopped the shipment of British-grown timber to 
France, thus saving cross-channel tonnage ; while we are also enabled to save the ship- 
ment of foreign timber by having the production of the Corps in England to meet the 
various national demands. 

" 1 hope that the Canadian Forestry Corps will realise the real gratitude which we 
feel for their admirable work, and for the spirit which they have shown throughout 
in sparing no exertions whenever an opportunity has been afforded them of assisting 
the fighting men at the Front." 

At length matters improved, and to the relief of all concerned the Con- 
troller of Timber Supplies in June, 1918, was able to ask General McDougall 
to substitute quality of output for quantity as the great desideratum. Sir 
James Ball's letter is as follows : — 

" Referring to our meeting yesterday regarding future output of the Canadian 
Forestry Corps, I confirm that, in view of the difficulty in obtaining additional labour 
to supplement that of the Corps and in the altered circumstances, it is necessary to 
change the policy which has hitherto been carried out, and pay attention to the quahty 
of manufacture rather than the quantity. It will also be necessary for the Corps to do 
more of the unskilled work than hitherto, which will, no doubt, be an improvement in 
respect of the manner in which it is done. 

" In view of the importance of saving tonnage for pitwood, I also expressed my 
desire that the Canadian Forestry Corps would include pitwood in their output. 

" I do not think at present it is necessary for night work to be continued, and I 
understand that you will arrange for it to be stopped. 

" I should like to take this opportunity of putting definitely on record my apprecia- 
tion of the work of the Corps under your most able direction. This work is specially 
noteworthy, inasmuch as we have allotted to your Corps operations which are both 
inaccessible and difficult. Your Corps, by reason of their experience and engineering 
training, were in a better position to handle such undertakings, especially those of very 
large size, than were the officers working directly under this Department, and the results 
of your work have justified the high expectations formed of them. To regard these 
results from a purely commercial standpoint is quite impossible in view of the exceptional 
circumstances in which they were undertaken, coupled with the fact that the output 
has never hitherto been regulated on a commercial basis, but according to the exigencies 
of the situation as affecting the demands for timber for Military and other purposes 
thrown upon the Department. 

" In conveying the change of policy to your officers and men, I trust you will 
intimate to them my satisfaction with the work they have performed and my reliance 
upon their future efforts being no less strenuous and successful than those of the paist." 

Early in April, 1918, a demand was made upon the Corps for 500 men for 
the Infantry. Volunteers were asked for, and the number offering far exceeded 
the demand. Altogether the Corps sent to Infantry battahons 1,270 men. 

Musketry training was also taken up by the Corps at this juncture, so that 
the men would know how to use a rifle should they be called upon so to do. 

The whole Corps, at the time of the German advance in 1918, volunteered 
to serve as Engineers ; pointing out that its personnel was of such a nature as 
to qualify it for engineering work. Happily for timber production, however, 
it was found possible to leave the Corps to its proper work. 

Work on Aerodromes. — The Canadians have shown their usefulness in 
other directions besides the mere felling and converting of straightforward 



14 



masses of woods. On the 16th September, 1916, the Corps was asked by the 
Home Defence Wing of the Royal Flying Corps for their assistance in the matter 
of clearing land in various parts of Great Britain for the purpose of preparing 
landing grounds, and 12 days after receipt of this communication a detachment 
was at work clearing a site for an aerodrome at Northolt, in the County of 
Middlesex, England. This branch of the work undertaken by the Forestry 
Corps grew with great rapidity, and eventually the Corps undertook work on the 
construction of aerodromes throughout the length and breadth of Great Britain. 
Companies were formed, and split up into detachments varying in strength, 
and the work consisted of clearing sites, ditching, draining, trimming and 
felling trees, hauUng gravel, leveUing, making conduits and drains, grading, 
ploughing, scraping, filling depressions, uprooting hedges, re-sodding, cutting 
pickets, stripping turf, etc. 

Towards the end of 1916 a letter was received from the Heme Defence 
Wing of the Royal Flying Corps to the effect that they felt that the services 
rendered by the Forestry Corps were such as to increase the efficiency of the 
Flying Corps in Great Britain, and were a direct means of assistance in defeating 
raiding Zeppelins, 

In the summer of 1917 the Air Board invited the assistance of the Canadian 
Forestry Corps for similar work, and a few months later the establishment of 
two Forestry Corps Aerodrome Companies was authorised. Nos. 123 and 124 
Companies were allotted for this work, assisted a little later by labourers from 
the Royal Flying Corps. At the end of 1917 a number of companies proceeded 
to France for similar work, described in Chapter V At times, no less than 
32 detachments were engaged on aerodrome construction in different parts of 
England extending from the north of Scotland to Cornwall ; to take one example, 
a party of about 40 men were sent to a site in Sussex in February, 1918, and 
within 20 working days had completed the work laid down for them ; forthwith 
the party was transferred to another area, which in this case happened to be 
on the East Coast of Scotland. The 20 days' work included 4,400 cubic yards 
of excavation and filling, 13,840 yards of grading, with about three acres of 
steam-rolling, as well as the erection of a number of Bessoneau hangars. Each 
party made its own camp, erected its own huts and tents, attended to its own 
transport and other arrangements. Two machine shops were established for 
this work, one at Grantham and the other at Reading, where all the equipment 
such as ploughs, scrapers, turning and cutting machines, etc., were manu- 
factured. In addition, implements were made for use on similar work in France 
and Flanders. In all, during 20 months' work for the Air Board, some 110 aero- 
dromes were constructed and improved, an average of 435 of all ranks being 
engaged on the work with 135 horses. It is interesting to note that the work 
was performed very cheaply. 

In the earliest stages of aerodrome construction, the Canadian Forestry 
Corps detachments worked independently and reported direct to Headquarters. 
Afterwards they were incorporated into No. 54 District, but as the work pro- 
gressed and extended, it was found necessary to form them into a District, 
which was authorised on August 16th, 1918, and was known as No. 56, with 
Headquarters at East Sheen, Surrey. 

From Cyprus to Ireland .—Towaids the end of 1917 the possibihty of 
getting timber from the Island of Cyprus was being considered. Here, again, 
it was proposed to invoke the aid of the Canadians, and, to provide an expert 
opinion, officers were sent out to report. On the way they were torpedoed 
twice, but duly arrived and reported. Eventually the project was dropped. 

Had hostilities continued, it is most probable that the Corps would also 
have extended its work to Ireland, for arrangements to that end were well in 
hand when the conclusion of the Armistice rendered them unnecessary. 




No. 12. BRIG.-GENERAL B. R. HEPBURN, C.M.G., M.P., 

Deputy Director-General Timber Operations 



15 

Chapter III. 
SOME MAKERS OF THE CANADIAN FORESTRY CORPS. 



Maj.-Gen. Alexander McDougall, C.B. (Director-General). 
Brig.-Gen. B. R. Hepburn, C.M.G., M.P. (Canada) {Deputy Director-General). 
Col. G. V. White, C.B.E. {Director of Timber Operations in Great Britain). 
Brig.-Gen. J. B. White, D.S.O. {Director of Timber Operations in France). 
Lieut. -Col. D. B. Campbell, M.B.E. {Chief of Technical Staff). 

Maj.-Gen. Alexander McDougall, C.B. {Director -General of Timber 
Operations). — When the Canadian Government first undertook to raise a 
Lumbermen's Battalion, they were fortunate in being able to put their hand 
on just the right man to command it, in the person of Alexander McDougall, 
whose wide experience under varied conditions, and power of organisation, 
were well known throughout the Dominion. To him in no small measure is 
undoubtedly due the great success which has attended the work of the Canadian 
Forestry Corps. Born in Renfrew, Ontario, in January, 1878, he is the son 
of J. Lome McDougall (who was at one time Auditor-General for Canada) and 
Marion Morris. Educated at Ottawa, Toronto and Cornell, he graduated in 
Civil Engineering, and was Gold Medallist at Toronto University in Mathe- 
matics. He was first employed by a Contractor, M. P. Davis, as an Engineer 
in connection with the abutments of the first Quebec Bridge ; afterwards 
he went to Mexico as a Civil Engineer on the Mexican Light and Power Co. 
Returning to Canada, he was appointed Engineer for the Ottawa Section of 
the Georgian Bay Ship Canal. He then entered into partnership with John 
B. McCrae, with the title of the firm as McDougall & McCrae, Consulting 
Engineers, Ottawa. During his partnership with McCrae he was retained as 
Consulting Engineer for the Canadian Government. In 1907 he formed the 
Eastern Construction Company, Ltd., of which he was Managing Director. 
This Company took over contracts in the Rainy River district for the construc- 
tion of a section of the Transcontinental Railroad. In 1909 he entered into 
partnership with his brother, S. McDougall, and M. J. O'Brien, of Renfrew — 
the firm being known as O'Brien & McDougall Bros., Railroad Contractors 
He is also a partner in the firm of O'Brien, McDougall & O'Gorman, Railroad 
Contractors. In the year 1900 he married Miss Florence Chipman, of 
Waterbury, Connecticut, U.S.A., and they have two sons. On the 25th 
February, 1916, he was appointed Officer Commanding 224th Canadian Forestry 
Battalion, with the rank of Lieut. -Colonel. With the expansion and progress 
of the Canadian Lumbermen came his promotion until, on the 28th September, 
he was appointed Temporary Colonel, and Director of Timber Operations in 
Great Britain and France. On the 1st April, 1917, he was appointed Brigadier- 
General ; on the 24th June he became Director-General of Timber Operations, 
Great Britain and France. In the King's New Year Honours, 1918, he was 
awarded the decoration of Companion of the Most Honourable Order of the 
Bath (C.B.), and a few months later the French Legion d'Honneur. On 20th 
December, 1918, he became Major General. 

Brig.-Gen. William Bernard Rickart Hepburn, C.M.G., M.P. {Deputy 
Director-General of Timber Operations). — Born in Picton, Ontario, the 26th May, 
1876, he is the son of Arthur William Hepburn (for many years engaged in 
steamboat business on the Bay of Quinte, St. Lawrence River and Lake Ontario) 
and Katherine Maria McCuaig, whose father, James S. McCuaig, was Conserva- 
tive Member of the House of Commons, representing Prince Edward County, 
1878-1882. Educated in Public and High Schools, Picton, and Trinity College 



16 

School, Port Hope, Ontario, he began his career as Purser with the Ontario 
and Quebec Navigation Company, Picton, 1894 ; was appointed General 
Manager of the business, 1904 ; President and General Manager, 1907. This 
business was in 1913 merged with the Canada Steamship Lines, Ltd.; President, 
Hepburn Bros., Ltd., Montreal. At the General Election in 1911 he was 
elected to the Canadian House of Commons, representing Prince Edward County, 
and was re-elected Conservative Unionist Member during his absence in 
England, December, 1917, by a large majority. He joined the 224th Battalion 
(first Forestry Battahon) as Major in the spring of 1916. As further Forestry 
Battalions were recruited. Col. Hepburn's duties were enlarged, and he has 
practically been in charge of the detail work of the Corps, his duties taking 
him frequently to France and different parts of England and Scotland. On 
New Year's Day, 1918, he was given the distinguished honour of being made a 
Commander of the Order of St. Michael and St. George. He married Bertha 
E. Wright, daughter of J. B. Wright, San Francisco, California, the 15th 
February, 1901. 

Col. Gerald Verner White, C.B.E., Director of Timber Operations, Great 
Britain. — Born in Pembroke, Ontario, 6th July, 1879, he is the son of the late 
Hon. Peter White, P.C, M.P. (who represented the constituency of North 
Renfrew, Ontario, in the Canadian House of Commons, 1874-1896 and 1904-1906, 
and was Speaker of the House, 1891-1896), and Janet Reid Thomson. Educated 
at Pembroke Public and High Schools and McGill University, Montreal, he 
graduated as Bachelor of Applied Science in Mining Engineering, McGill 
University, 1901. He was employed as Assistant Mining Engineer by the 
Canadian Pacific Railway Company in examination of Iron Ore Deposits at 
Kitchener, B.C., May-December, 1901, and in Mineral Department of Dominion 
Iron and Steel Company, Sydney, N.S., May, 1902-1903. Engaged in lumber 
business, 1904-1916, becoming Director of the Pembroke Lumber Company. 
He was elected to the Canadian House of Commons as Representative for the 
constituency of North Renfrew, Ontario, in October, 1906, at a Bye-Election 
occasioned by the death of his father, and was re-elected at General Elections 
in 1908 and 1911, but was not a candidate in the General Election of 1917. 
His military service is of considerable duration. After being Lieutenant, 
42nd Regiment, Lanark and Renfrew, 1904-1910, and Captain in the same 
Regiment, 1910-1915 (holding a Field Officer's Certificate), he enlisted for 
Overseas Service in November, 1915, and was appointed Second in Command, 
130th Battahon, C.E.F., with the rank of Major, Upon the formation of the 
224th Canadian Forestry Battahon in February, 1916, was offered and accepted 
appointment of Second in Command, and proceeded overseas in May, 1916. 

Appointed O.C, 224th Canadian Forestry Battahon, September, 1916, he 
subsequently became Director of Timber Operations for Great Britain, having 
charge of all Canadian Forestry Corps operations in the British Isles. 

He received the honour of Commander of the Order of the British Empire 
at the New Year, 1918. He married Mary EUzabeth Trites, daughter of 
D. L. Trites, Petitcodiac, N.B., August 15th, 1906. 

Brig.-Gen. John Burton White, D.S.O., Director of Timber Operations, 
France. — Born at Aylmer Road, Province of Quebec, 1st January, 1874, the 
son of Henry White, he was educated at Pubhc and High Schools and Ottawa 
Business College, and then went into the lumber business. He has been 
Manager for the Hill Lumber Company ; Manager, G. H. Perley and Company ; 
Manager, Wood Department and Sawmills, and Director of the Riordon Pulp 
and Paper Company ; and Director of the Canadian Forestry Association. A 
Major in the 17th D.Y.R.C. Hussars, he commanded " B " Squadron, and left 
Canada, 16th April, 1916, as Major in 224th Canadian Forestry Battahon. 
Returning to Canada, 16th July, he raised and commanded 242nd Battalion 
with the rank of Lieut. -Colonel. He was appointed Director of Timber 
Operations (France), 14th June, 1917, having charge of all C.F.C. operations 




Xo. 13. COLONEL G. V. WHITE, C.B.E., 

Director Timber Operations, Great Britain. 




No. 14. 



BRIG.-GENERAL J. B. WHITE, D.S.O., 
Director Timber Operations, France. 



17 

in France. He received the Distinguished Service Order, 1st January, 1918. 
He married Margaret Jane Ferguson, 18th April, 1906. 

Lieut. -Col. David Bishop Campbell, M.B.E., Chief of Technical Staff. — 
Born in Scotland on 18th August, 1880, he was educated at Glasgow and 
Technical College, Portland, Oregon. He engaged in the lumber manufacturing 
business, and resided in Vancouver for 14 years. 

From 1908 he carried on private business as a Mill Architect and Engineer, 
dealing exclusively with Saw Mill and Wood Working plant, and designing new 
machinery of various types. A great many of these machines are now in 
use in British Columbia, such as labour-saving devices for handhng lumber in 
the mills, shingle machines, and machines for preparing shingle timber. 

He enUsted in 224th Battalion in March, 1916, coming to England in May 
of the same year. Was promoted to the rank of Captain in August, 1916, to 
Major in March, 1917, and Lieut. -Colonel, December, 1917. He received the 
M.B.E. in February, 1918, in the New Year's Honours List. 



(504) 



18 



Chapter IV. 



OPERATIONS IN GREAT BRITAIN. 



Work at Windsor. — We have already seen that the Canadians who first 
arrived in May, 1916, were drafted from Base Camps in the South of England 
to various woods selected for them to operate in different parts of the country. 
The same course was followed with successive arrivals, the number of operations 
increasing steadily. At an early stage the Canadians were drafted out by 
Companies, each Company running one or several operations near together. 
The Battalion organisation thus became practically a Company organisation, 
although the change was not officially recognised until November, 1916. In 
all, the Canadians have tackled over 70 different operations in Britain, a list 
of these being given later. 

The Canadians, as experts, have often been entrusted with difficult jobs, 
that is to say, the working of lots of timber in inaccessible positions, at a distance 
it may be, from railways — propositions too large or unremunerative for the 
British timber merchant to exploit with sufficient rapidity to meet the urgent 
needs of the timber position. This was not merely out of compliment to the 
Canadians ; it has to be remembered that the Home-Grown Timber Committee, 
with whom the Canadians were at first working, was set up in order to supple- 
ment the utmost that the timber trade could do. Naturally, then, the 
Canadians, as an organised and expert body, were given large areas where 
comprehensive methods could be adopted. Some typical examples will now 
be described. 

We may well begin with those in the neighbourhood of the Royal town of 
Windsor. It was here that the Canadians produced their first British lumber, 
on 13th May, 1916 — less than four months after the British Government first 
asked for a Lumbermen's Battalion. In the Times newspaper of 10th July, 
1916, a description of the work of the Canadians at Windsor was given from 
which we cannot do better than quote. The article was headed " Yeomen of 
the Axe," and read as follows : — 

" If you would know the lumberman of Canada and how he works, go to the edge 
of Windsor Great Park where the cross-road from Virginia Water Station strikes the 
main road between Egham and Sunningdale. There, on the Clock Case Plantation, 
you will see over 150 men of the 224th Canadian Forestry Battalion converting trees 
into railway sleepers and boards at the rate of anything from 15,000 to 20,000 board 
feet a day. 

" The plantation, which forms part of the lands owned by the Crown and 
administered by the Commissioners of Woods and Forests, included a considerable 
area covered with spruce, fir, Scots pine and larch, with an undergrowth of chestnut. 
Not very long ago a party of experts looked at the trees with the dispassionate 
measuring eye of the undertaker, and gave it as their opinion that from this wood it 
was possible to get 3,000,000 board feet of timber. To-day, whole tracts of it have 
been swept clear by the axe, and the quaint square tower of the old Royal lodge, which 
stands deep-set in the wood, and which, so the story goes, by its resemblance to the 
case of a grandfather's clock gave the plantation its curious name, is visible from the 
roadway for the first time, perhaps, in a hundred years. And still the Canadian 
woodsmen go on, eating their way through the wood with a thoroughness that knows 
no mercy. 

" The lumber camp is all Canadian — men, machinery and methods. The men, 
who are drawn from all parts of the Dominion, have the bronzed, healthy look and 
the easy, confident swing which we have learned to look for in Canadians. The khaki 
under their blue overalls proclaims them soldiers ; they draw military pay and they 
know the rudiments of military drill ; but first and last they are woodsmen with their 
craft at their finger-tips. Every man knows his task and does it with an enviable 
independence of orders or instructions ; yet from the first stage to the last the work 
proceeds smoothly and harmoniously. Let us follow the process, under the guidance 
of the officer in charge and the sergeant who is ' foreman of the bush.' 




No. 15. 



LIEUT.-COLONEL D. B. CAMPBELL, M.B.E. 
Chief of Technical Staff. 



19 

" Facing the main road stands the mill — ' home,' the men generally call it — 
flanked on the one side by piles of logs and on the other by stacks of sawn timber. 
Walk along the winding track of a light railway, not yet completed, which passes 
behind the mill, until you come to a clearing, where burning heaps of ' brush ' lopped 
from the tops of the fallen trees are filUng the air with the refreshing scent of the pine. 
Here and there through the blue smoke you catch a glimpse of a lumberman in a 
picturesque slouch hat. A little further and you are among a gang of ' fallers. ' Watch 
how they fell a tree, 20 in. or more thick at the base. 

" A man with an axe kneels at its foot and with a few dexterous strokes cuts a deep 
notch in the trunk a few inches from the ground. Two others with a cross-cut saw 
cut through the stem on the opposite side. In half a minute the tree begins to lean 
and there is a warning shout. A second or two later, with a loud cracking and rending 
sound, it topples and crashes to the ground. Without any apparent effort, the ' fallers ' 
have controlled the direction of its fall almost to a foot. 

" Next, without any ado, half-a-dozen ' swampers ' set to work with the axe, 
clearing the limbs and straightening up the tree. Simultaneously a ' fitter,' with a 
wooden rod, divides the stem in suitable lengths, marking the cutting points with a 
notch ; while two other men, one carrying a paint-pot, measure the tree, enter the 
size in a book, and mark the stump and the butt of the severed trunk with a blob of 
red paint to show that their work is done. Sawyers then cut the stem according to 
the ' fitter's ' marking, and the sections are ready to go to the mill. They are dragged 
there by horses over deeply scored ' trails ' and ' sloopways,' and take their turn to 
come under the saw. 

" The mill itself is a stoutly-built structure, made of timber cut and prepared on 
the spot, the saws and engines coming from Canada. It is practically a raised platform 
covered by an iron roof, but open at the sides. A log to be sawn is rolled into position 
on a ' carriage,' which moves backwards and forwards to carry it through a circular 
saw. Two men, standing on the carriage, control its movements and the position of 
the log by a number of levers. Opposite them stands the most important man of all, 
the ' sawyer, ' whose trained eye sees at a glance what can be made of this or that log. 
The hum of the engine and the screech of the saw would drown his voice, so he gives 
his decisions by signs. As the carriage brings a log back through the saw with the 
bark removed, he will hold up one finger or two, and the ' setter ' on the carriage, by 
the movement of a lever, adjusts the log so that the next cut shall be one inch or two 
inches thick. 

" It is all done without a pause. For hours the saw screeches and throws off a 
spray of sawdust as it slices up the logs that a short while before were splendid living 
trees, and all the while other saws, trimming the edges of the boards and cutting off 
the ends, join in the chorus. Is it surprising that the daughter of the keeper of the 
wood was reduced to tears when she stood by the mill ? " 

The mill with which the first lumber was cut was a Scotch mill, but a 
Canadian mill was installed on 26th June, 1916. Soon afterwards, on 28th July, 
the whole mill was working day and night, and it was not till June, 1917, that 
continuous night-shifts were stopped. The mill ran until October, 1917, 
without any serious stoppage for repairs, and it was then closed for a week 
and given a thorough overhaul. The production, which amounted to about 
500,000 F.B.M. in July, 1916, reached 1,125,000 F.B.M. in April, 1917, but 
when night-shifts were stopped, the output fell and was about 800,000 F.B.M. 
during the summer of 1917. After the mill had been overhauled the lumber 
produced was of much better quality, but the output was correspondingly 
lower. At first it was about 450,000 F.B.M., but had risen by January, 1918, 
to 730,000 F.B.M. The kind of wood cut naturally affected the output. At 
first soft wood was cut exclusively, but after October, 1916, mixed woods were 
cut until August, 1917, when the mill was engaged almost entirely on hard 
wood, principally oak, except for the re-sawing of slabs. The logs were all 
obtained from growing trees within about five miles of the mill ; some came 
from Windsor Great Park, quite near the mill. 

The mill premises were all home-made, and included, besides the mill 
building, five sleeping huts, dining room, recreation hut, canteens, orderly 
room, kitchen, store-rooms, officers' quarters, officers' and N.C.O.s' messes 
and canteens, hospital, workshop, bath house, stables, etc., etc. The 
Camp was very favourably reported on by the senior Sanitary Officer of the 
Imperial Forces for the district of Woolwich in February, 1918. His report 
shows that there was ample hutment accommodation, the huts being well 
constructed, warm and well ventilated, draughts from the floors being prevented 
by a banking of sawdust and timber to the floor level. The huts were warmed 

(504) c 2 



20 

by stoves constructed to burn wood, and the bath house was provided with an 
ample supply of hot water for showers. It is not to be wondered at that the 
Camp, on the whole, has been very healthy. 

For transporting logs to the mill, some miles of railway were at first 
employed but were sent elsewhere when no longer required. The Camp contained 
about 50 horses and some half a dozen motor lorries, which were supplemented 
by transport hired locally. The strength of the Company, No. 101, at Virginia 
Water was in the early stages about 300, but was gradually reduced until it was 
below 200 " other ranks." In addition, Portuguese were attached for semi- 
skilled work, the number at one time reaching 150. About two-thirds of them 
were accommodated at Kingsmead House, Winkfield, and the remainder at 
Virginia Water Camp. Some were engaged in the woods making pit props, 
others loading lorries, working at the mill, and a few at miscellaneous jobs such 
as cutting fuel wood in Camp, working in stables, shoe making, cooking and 
orderly work. 

Care needed to be taken to keep the felUng and sawing operations properly 
proportioned. At one time the mill used up almost the whole of the pile of 
logs waiting, but by a careful re-arrangement of work and " comb-out " of the 
mill staff it was possible to add to those working in the woods without increasing 
the total establishment. 

Weather affected matters very considerably. In January, 1918, for 
instance, when the operations in the woods were five to seven miles away from 
Virginia Water Camp, extremely bad weather, including rain, snow and floods, 
very much added to the difficulties of logging. Two donkey engines were 
operating in the latter part of the month, but it was necessary to employ 14 
teams to swamp logs in the bush. " Going " was very heavy for the horses, 
but their condition was carefully watched ; the horses needing rest were put on 
light work when necessary. Buildings at Fernstall were used to accommodate 
the Bush Officer, Bush Sergeant, Teamsters and Donkey Engineers to the number 
of 28, but the remainder of the gang working in the woods had to be transported 
morning and night to and from the Camps, and their meals had to be sent out 
into the woods. 

The Camp was well provided with recreation accommodation ; there was 
a dry canteen run by the Church Army, and a wet canteen, which was eventually 
closed on 30th April, 1918. The Virginia Water Camp owes very much to the 
most kind interest taken in the welfare of the men by H.R.H. Princess AUce, 
Countess of Athlone, who arranged many concerts and entertainments and in 
every way possible made the leisure hours of the Canadians as happy as could 
be. The Camp was honoured on many occasions by visits by their Majesties 
the King and Queen, and by various persons of high rank. A visit was also 
paid by the members of the Royal English Arboricultural Society in July, 1916. 

Any description of the Virginia Water establishment would be incomplete 
without reference to the farm operations and the piggery, which were run with 
conspicuous success. A farm of 55 acres was worked in 1917, comprising 
about 10 acres of potatoes, 2 acres of cabbage, 2| acres turnips, 2 acres carrots, 
^ acre onions, | acre lettuce, etc., 2 acres rape, and the remainder under grain. 
The produce has been used to supply all the messes of the Companies, and sold 
to various Companies who had no regimental farm. 

A highly successful piggery had 47 pigs " on the strength " in the early 
summer of 1917 ; the numbers, of course, varied from time to time. This not 
only served as a means of disposing of the Camp swill and refuse, but provided 
supplies of bacon. In January, 1918, there were 25 pigs, all in first-class 
condition, as they ought to have been upon three good meals a day, two of them 
hot, made from the swill of the Camp, with roots and vegetables. Eight of Jthe 
pigs averaged about'lSOlbs., and'the remaining 17 averaged about 117 lbs. 

In January, 1918, revised arrangements were made for deaUng with any 
outbreak of fire, with a new fire piquet and suitable orders. The wisdom of 
this was proved when less than two months afterwards a fire occurred which 
was confined to the mill. This particular fire is presumed to have started in 




No. 16. 



Railing Logs to Station in Scotland. 




No. 17. 



Rail Hauling with Horses. 




No. 18. 



Logs in Transit, Bedfordshire, England. 




No. 19. 



Logs entering a Mill in Scotland. 



21 

the engine room on the south-east side of the building, and with a strong 
south-east breeze the building, which was very dry and oily, could not be 
saved in spite of all efforts. The officers therefore directed operations to save 
the lumber and logs in the mill, and these were practically undamaged. As 
showing the efficiency of the fire alarm arrangements, the alarm was timed 
from the orderly room to the mill at 11.40 a.m., and within three minutes the 
men were on the ground with fire buckets. 

Base Depot. — The Base Depot of the Corps was established on 
6th January, 1917, at Smith's Lawn, Windsor Great Park. This site was 
obtained from His Majesty the King through the courtesy of Mr. Forrest, 
Deputy Surveyor, H.M. Woods and Forests. 

It was located five miles south of Windsor, three miles to the south-west 
of the village of Ascot, with its famous racecourse, and two miles east of the 
towns of Egham and Virginia Water. 

The of&cer originally in command of the Base Dep6t was Lieut. -Col. 
S. L. Penhorwood, and it was under his supervision that this large Camp was 
erected. 

The buildings comprised the following : — 

Orderly Room, Sergeants' Mess, 

Guard Room, Dep6t Hospital, 

Mobilisation Stores Buildings, Medical Office, 

Workshops, Dental Office, 

Blacksmith Shop, Drying Room, 

Lorry Shed, Electric Light Plant, 

Quartermaster's Stores, Shower Baths for Men, 

Post Office, Officers' Huts, 
Young Men's Christian Associa- Sergeants' Huts, 

tion Building, Men's Huts, 

Central Kitchen, Canteen, 
Two Mess Buildings for the Men, Horse Stables, &c. 
Officers' Mess, 

The Orderly Room, Guard Room, Officers' Mess and Y.M.C.A. were 
rustic buildings. The Men's Mess, Sergeants' Mess, Kitchen and Power 
House, Quartermaster's Stores, Mobilisation Stores and Workshops were built 
with rough lumber and covered with tar paper on the outside. The huts for 
all ranks were collapsible, erected out of ready-made sections. 

The acreage covered by the Base Camp was 125 acres. 

The Headquarters' Mess was situated in a rustic building consisting of 
ante-room, dining room, kitchen and canteen, near the Officers' Lines. During 
September and October, 1917, there were so many officers that a second mess 
had to be established to accommodate them. It was also necessary to have a 
separate Officers' Mess to provide for officers direct from Canada, who were 
required to go into segregation for ten days after arrival. 

The Sergeants' Mess was situated near the Sergeants' Lines. The men 
had central messing. There was one large kitchen, with dining rooms 
opening on either side sufficient to accommodate 1,000 men at one sitting. 
The men were paraded by Companies to the cook-house ; each received his 
portion and passed into the dining room, where there were benches and tables. 
In the summer-time there was a separate kitchen and tables and benches in 
the open for the men in segregation. 

His Majesty the King and many of the members of the Royal Family have 
been frequent visitors at the Base Depdt and have taken the greatest possible 
interest in everything connected therewith. 

All the work of selecting and mobilising the Companies has been done 
at the Base Dep6t. This work called for the greatest care in the choice of men 
and material, and required special ability on the part of the Staff of the Base 
Depot. Each Company consisted in all of 6 officers, 14 sergeants, and 171 



22 

other ranks, a total of 191 , including 12 attached. The rank and file included : — 
1 company storeman, 7 scalers and assistant foremen, 8 second foremen, 

1 assistant blacksmith, 20 log-makers, 15 teamsters, 30 rollers and 
chainmen, 10 road-cutters, 2 saw-filers, 2 millwrights, 2 sawyers, 2 log-setters, 

2 edgermen, 3 engineers, 2 grooms, 40 general hands, 6 batmen, and 9 
drivers for vehicles. There were also 73 horses and no less than 40 vehicles, 
including water tank carts, travelling kitchens, lorries, tractors, wagons, etc. 

To give an idea of the number of men handled at the Base, it may be 
stated that from the date it was estabUshed (the 6th January, 1917) to the 
end of April, 1918 (16 months), 24,000 all ranks passed through it, an average 
of 1,500 per month. From Canada during this period no less than 10,454 
of all ranks were received, and from various regimental dep6ts in England, 
6,692 all ranks. 

The greatest credit is due to the hard work done at the Base, because a 
draft-giving Unit such as this is most difficult to operate from an administrative 
point of view owing to the daily changing of personnel. 

The vegetable farm at the Base was one of the largest of its kind in Great 
Britain, and the piggeries have been a great success. 

At Smith's Lawn, in addition to the Base Depot, a Company (No. 140) 
was established whose special task it was to prepare the portable Armstrong 
huts used by the Corps. This Company was equipped with a modified Scotch 
mill having a capacity of 10,000 F.B.M. per 10 hours ; a drying kiln for preparing 
the lumber and a factory or workshop, 25 ft. by 200 ft., in which all the planing, 
re-sawing and carpentering was done. Attached to the workshop was a packing 
and dipping room where the hut sections were creosoted, tarred and passed out 
to a loading platform to be assembled, crated, marked and despatched by 
wagons to Egham Station. This Company commenced in November, 1917, 
felling, hauHng and converting, working oak, chestnut, spruce, fir, Weymouth 
pine, elm, birch, beech and larch. The monthly output was about 200,000 
F.B.M. of wood, or about 72 complete huts. Necessary repairs to roads used 
for hauling in the Park, and new roads at the Camp, were made by this Company, 
together with the men at the Base Dep6t. 

It was this Company which designed and, with the assistance of No. 119 
Company, erected for H.M. the King a memorial of the Corps, known as the 
King's Cabin — a typical log building in front of the West Terrace of Windsor 
Castle, made entirely of fir logs from the Park, six to eight inches in diameter. 
The walls are peeled inside but not out, and the floor, 14 ft. by 16 ft., is of logs 
hewn smooth and flat on the top. Four windows with small panes have 
sashes made from branches about one inch thick. The fireplace is of Kentish 
rag stones, cobble stones not being available. The roof, made entirely of 
slabs, extends over a wide porch the full width of the south side. It is hoped 
that this cabin will stand for many years to come, to recall the work of the 
Canadian Forestry Corps. 

Districts. — With the expansion of the operations it became necessary to 
organise the work into Districts, of which there were eventuaUy six in Great 
Britain {see Map on Page 22) numbered 51 to 56. 

No. 51 District Headquarters were established at Edinburgh, Scotland, 
on the 15th May, 1916, moved to Nairn on the 24th July, 1917, and afterwards 
to Inverness on 24th November, 1917. 

No. 52 District Headquarters were established at CarHsle, Cumberland, 
on the 6th November, 1916. 

No. 53 District Headquarters were estabUshed at London, 6th November, 
1916, and moved to Egham, Surrey, 5th November, 1917. 

No. 54 District Headquarters were estabUshed at Southampon, 22nd, 
August, 1917. 

No. 55 District Headquarters were established at Stirling, Scotland, 
19th November, 1917. 

No. 56 District Headquarters were estabUshed at East Sheen, Surrey, 
16th August, 1918. 




No. 20. 



Map showing C.F.C. Operations in Britain. 



23 

Each District was in charge of a Colonel, the Second-in-Command having 
Major's rank, and the Adjutant that of Captain ; there were also a Quarter- 
master (Hon. Captain), a Transport Officer (Captain), and a Messing Officer 
(Lieutenant), with the necessary assistants. 

Each operation was usually run by an entire Company, with a Major in 
command, comprising about 165 all ranks, and reproducing the District 
organization on a smaller scale. 

It will be noted that District 56 is not shown on the map. This was formed 
of Companies working on aerodrome construction for the Royal Air Force. 
The Companies were in turn split into small detachments scattered throughout 
the length and breadth of Great Britain, and their work has already been 
referred to. 

Close touch with the Timber Supply Department of the Board of Trade 
was maintained by liaison ofhcers under Major G. L. Courthope, M.C., M.P., 
of that Department, as previously mentioned in Chapter II. 

As an example of a district, we may take No. 55, which comprised roughly 
the southern half of Scotland. At the time of its formation several Companies 
were already operating or starting in this area, namely : No. 108, working 
on the Estate of the Earl of Mansfield, about eight miles west of the City 
of Perth, and three miles north of the village of Methven ; No. 110 Company, 
at Abemethy Forest, in the Valley of the Spey, forming part of the Estate of the 
Countess of Seafield, in the County of Inverness ; No. 121 Company, working 
on the Estate of the Duke of Richmond and Gordon, at the foot of Cairn Gorm 
Mountain ; No. 128, in Kincardineshire, on the Estate of Sir James Sivewright ; 
No. 109 Company, at Tulhallan, also on Sir James Sivewright's Estate, about 
two miles from Kincardine-on-Forth. No. 108 Company was the only one 
which was actually producing sawn lumber, the others having only recently 
moved to new areas and being at work erecting their mills. 

The Staff of the District Headquarters consisted of three officers and 29 
other ranks of the Canadian Forestry Corps, and five of the Canadian Army 
Service Corps, the Headquarters itself consisting of a large private residence 
which had been taken over by the War Office. The officers and men were 
billeted in the town, and will have the pleasantest memories of the hospitality 
and courtesy of the inhabitants. 

Gradually the various Companies erected their mills, put them in operation, 
laid down Ught railways where necessary, and in spite of the natural difficulties 
of the operations and the unfavourable conditions, proceeded to turn out 
larger and ever larger quantities of sawn lumber. In December, 1917, Company 
No. 108 cut 341,911 F.B.M., and No. 121 produced 92,709 F.B.M.; both these 
and the other Companies were all carrying on logging operations. By the 
summer of 1918 the six Companies in this district (No. 130 having been added 
in the meantime) produced not far short of 3,000,000 F.B.M. per month. 

In this district the Canadians were assisted by a certain number of surplus 
seamen, Finns and others, recruited by the Timber Supply Department, partly 
from the crews of torpedoed merchant ships. These men were hardy, and had a 
certain aptitude for timber work, with which many of them were to some extent 
familiar in their native country ; consequently their work was good on the 
whole. Over 300 were at one time employed in this district ; later on a few 
German prisoners were also engaged. 

It has already been noted that an additional Company, No. 130, began 
work in the district. This was late in November, 1917, at Kemnay. Other 
new operations were started by the Companies already in the district at 
Kirriemuir and Kilkerran. 

As soon as the district was organised, steps were taken to instruct the 
various Companies in the raising of farm produce and the keeping of pigs. 
In both of these directions very successful work was carried on in almost all 
cases, to the great benefit of the men and of their mess funds. The surplus 
pigs were sold in the local markets and made very good prices. 



24 

At first there was very little in the way of amusement available for the 
men in this district, although^the ladies in Kincardine had been good enough 
to start a Reading and Writing Room for the men. Y.M.C.A. Huts were, 
however, erected in the different Camps, and visits by concert parties, etc., 
arranged. The relations between the officers and men of the Corps and the 
inhabitants were throughout of the most satisfactory character, and it is 
pleasing to record that the behaviour of the men was excellent, the number 
of offences being very small. The officers are much indebted to various ladies 
and gentlemen of the district for abundant hospitality and excellent shooting, 
while perhaps the best testimony to the popularity of the men lies in the fact 
of the numerous requests that were received throughout the whole period 
from the men for permission to marry. No less than 27 men in one Company 
found brides in Scotland in about a year. 

Perhaps one of the most vivid memories which the members of the Corps 
will carry with them to Canada from this district is that of the British climate, 
with which they made an extensive and peculiar acquaintance. In January, 
1918, for instance, it is recorded that the weather was at one time so intensely 
cold that six degrees below zero was registered, while shortly afterwards it 
became excessively mild and misty to such an extent as to make the Canadians 
feel quite depressed. The health of the men was, however, on the whole very 
good, although there was a certain amount of sickness, mostly of the bronchial 
variety brought about by the cUmatic conditions. The influenza epidemic 
in 1918 caused serious trouble here as elsewhere. Accidents happened from 
time to time in this district as in every other part where lumbering operations 
are carried on. The difficult country was responsible for a certain number : 
for instance, on one occasion a runaway truck-load of timber crashed into a 
light locomotive engine, throwing out the driver, and sending the engine 
uncontrolled at increasing speed along the track, which, of course, it eventually 
jumped. However, in a few weeks the engine was back at work again. 

In August, 1918, the Camp Hospital of No. 121 Company was completely 
burnt owing to a spark from an engine setting light to the heather the Hospital 
building. 

A Typical Operation. — Turning our attention from a district to a single 
Camp, we may take as an example an operation in another part of Scotland 
in the neighbourhood of Nairn, a town and locality of great historic interest. 
The timber worked was situated on the Darnaway Estate, belonging to the 
Earl of Moray, and on the Estate of Moyness, the property of the Earl of 
Cawdor. This was one of the first operations to be undertaken in Scotland 
by the Canadians, an advance party of two officers and 30 men arriving at 
Broadshaw from Bramshott on the 30th June, 1916, followed shortly afterwards 
by further parties which brought the numbers up to over 300 officers and 
men of the 8th and 9th Detachments of the 224th Canadian Forestry BattaHon. 
The 9th Detachment was subsequently removed to Keppernach. The Camp at 
Broadshaw was situated at the top of a steep hill overlooking rolling country 
to the shores of the Moray Firth. The men were thus favoured with 
a magnificent view, including at times warships manoeuvring in the Firth. 
It was of course necessary to take precautions to prevent Hght from being 
shown at night, and it is on record that on one occasion when a frozen pipe 
was being thawed at night, an aeroplane swooped down to investigate. The 
Camp was laid out along two sides of a triangle, the third side of which was a 
road, the open space in the middle being used for pihng lumber, A Scotch 
mill was first erected, followed soon after by a Canadian mill. The men were 
accommodated in tents for the first three or four months, during which time 
the weather was unusually wet for this locaUty, but at the end of that time 
huts had been erected. The health of the Camp was good throughout ; 
there were no deaths or very serious accidents recorded. But the country 
was very difficult, on account of the hills and bad roads. Pole tracks were 
used for bringing logs to the mill, one of these tracks being more than a mile 
and a half long. Upon these tracks were run trucks having grooved wheels, 




No. 21. 



Inside a Mill in Scotland. 




No. 22. 



Typical Mills in Britain. (1) 




No. 23. 



Typical Mills in Britain. (2) 




No. 24. 



Typical Mills in Britain. (3) 



25 

each truck being capable of carrying approximately ten tons, drawn by horse- 
power from the skid ways to the unloading platform at the mill, A donkey- 
engine was used for a time in Damaway Forest for dragging whole trees to 
a spot where they could be cross cut into logs, on account of the swampy 
nature of parts of the ground. By far the greater part of the timber worked 
was Scotch fir, but there was a fair quantity of larch, and a httle spruce ; but 
no hardwood. The late autumn and winter of 1916-17 was wet, and made 
the pole tracks in such a condition that haulage was the reverse of easy. But 
it does not appear that this brought about any material delay in feeding the 
mill with the requisite number of logs. The great difficulty at this Camp 
was in relation to the transport of supphes and the sending away of the sawn 
material. It was only possible to get to the Camp at the top of the hill by 
a narrow road up a steep inchne. In many cases fight cars could not go up, 
and the passengers had to walk up the hiU through the heavy mud. There 
was also a valley between the mill and the Camp, and occasionally it was 
necessary to put a traction engine at the top of the incline near the Camp, 
attach a cable to a loaded tractor stuck in the dip, and so haul it up. The 
soft roads in this district suffered from the haulage work so much that there were 
ruts up to 1 ft. deep in places. At the beginning of operations, cars on the way 
to Nairn had to ford a stream called the Muckle Burn. The Company soon 
got to work on the making of a bridge, and before bad weather came a substan- 
tial bridge with cement piers had been constructed, which remains as a 
reminder of the sojourn of the Canadian Forestry Corps at Broadshaw, 

No Portuguese, prisoners of war, or other attached labour was actually 
accommodated at this Camp, although parties of foreign labourers from the 
Keppernach Camp were sent over at intervals in the later stages to load lumber 
and clear buildings, etc. 

Farming operations were not carried on at Broadshaw, where the work ceased 
before this policy was adopted. Three pigs were, however, presented to the 
Company by Lieut, -Col. Miller in August, 1916, and thenceforward a piggery was 
run at a good profit, of which the men's regimental fund obtained the benefit. 

The Y.M.C.A. opened a large and comfortable Recreation Room at 
Broadshaw Camp at the end of February, 1917, which was of great help 
to the Company during its stay in this neighbourhood. Concerts and other 
functions frequently took place, at which guests from the neighbouring districts 
were welcomed. Various local residents were good enough to assist on the 
Y.M.C.A. Amusement Committees, and their efforts were very much appreciated. 
Religious services were held usually on alternate Sundays by Clergy of the 
neighbourhood. Football and baseball, and other sports, it need hardly be 
added, were carried on when opportunity offered. The number of marriages 
between Canadian Forestry men and the girls of Nairn and district was not 
so high, perhaps, as in certain other districts, but a good many letters were 
sent from Nairn to the men from Broadshaw after they had been transferred 
to France, and vice versa. The operations at Broadshaw were finished in April, 
1917, when the last log was cut. The Canadian mill was dismantled and hauled 
away to a new operation, but the men of No. 106 Company were transferred 
to France, the new operation at Kinsteary being taken over by Company 
No. 120. Afterwards the remaining lumber and ground material were gradually 
taken away and the woods cleared by attached labour from Keppernach. Of 
the buildings, some were destroyed by fire in October, 1917, but the remainder 
were either dismantled and the lumber removed, or taken away in sections 
for use elsewhere. The final operation was to plough the site of the Camp. 

The illustrations show various examples of the work of the Corps, and 
include a notable mill at Longmoor in Hampshire, where a special band re-saw 
plant was installed. At this mill the logs were first squared by being passed 
through circular saws, and were then sawn to the required sizes with great 
rapidity by the band-saw plant, to which they were conveyed mechanically. 
This mill also had a plant for resawing slabs, so as to get the greatest 
possible amount of timber from the logs. 



26 

The Technical Warehouse. — ^A description of the operations needs to be 
supplemented by some account of the Technical Warehouse from which the 
Companies were suppUed with their equipment. To trace the history of the 
Technical Warehouse it is necessary to hark back to the early days of the 
original Battalion (224th). 

Equipment was ordered in Canada on behalf of the 224th Canadian Forestry 
Battahon sufficient for six Companies, comprising saw mills, tools and supplies 
for millwrights, loggers, blacksmiths, electricians and farriers. Upon the 
arrival in England of the third and last draft of the 224th Forestry Battalion 
this equipment was already at the seaboard in England awaiting deUvery. 

It was decided that London offered the best facihties for storing, assembling 
and eventually despatching equipment to Companies. On 22nd May, 1916, 
possession was taken of a four-storey warehouse at 18, Marshalsea Road, 
London, S.E., three N.C.O.'s and seven men being attached. After a few 
days' occupancy, this building was found quite insufficient to cope with the 
heavy and bulky equipment then arriving : saw mill parts, wagon parts, 
chain, iron and steel. Approximately 20,000 super ft. of yard space was then 
secured through the Home-Grown Timber Committee in the rear of the National 
Art Gallery, Trafalgar Square. These facilities quickly became inadequate, 
and further yard space at the Bricklayers' Arms Station of the South Eastern 
. and Chatham Railway Company was secured. 

Up to 31st October, 1916, eight Companies of the 224th Forestry 
Battalion were able to start operations with equipment supplied from Marshalsea 
Road and the National Gallery Yard. 

About 1st October, 1916, further premises were acquired at Stewart's 
Lane Station, S.E. & C. Railway, Battersea. The first building to be occupied 
at Stewart's Lane was formerly used as a loading shed, having a single track 
through its entire length ; the yard in front was also acquired. Arrangements 
were made in addition to take possession of a large building formerly used as a 
locomotive blacksmith shop. This building was 400 ft. x 46 ft., and it was 
proposed to share it with the prospective Canadian Forestry Corps Machine 
Shops. A wooden floor was constructed, and shelf accommodation for small 
tools erected. Office accommodation was shared with the S.E. & C. Railway 
at the end of the shed. The yard space in front of the building was also 
occupied for the storage of iron and steel, and eventually all equipment from 
Marshalsea Road and the National Gallery Yard was removed to Stewart's 
Lane. 

Further Companies in Great Britain, and Companies No. 14 and 15 in 
France, were being supplied with equipment to commence operations. 

Equipment for the 224th and 238th Forestry Battahons was arriving 
daily, together with that ordered by the Home-Grown Timber Committee 
for the Corps, and it was found necessary to take over more of the building, 
to erect Armstrong portable huts, acquire further yard space between the 
tracks for the storage of boilers, engines, steel rails, lumber, etc., and to erect 
a large lean-to shed. This shed was ultimately completed in the following 
March, 1917. Early in 1917 the organisation was revised in regard to the 
accounting for and care of Technical Stores, the staff being divided into the 
requisite Departments, each in charge of a capable N.C.O. 

From experience gained in shipping equipment to Companies already in 
operation it was found essential to standardise a Company's requirements. 
Lieut, (later Lieut.-Colonel) D. B. Campbell thereupon standardised the 
equipment necessary for the various operations of a Company. What is now 
known as the " Campbell Sectional List " was the result, and comprised 21 
Sections as follows : — 

Section 1. Material for Construction. 
,, 2. Operating Supphes. 

,, 3. Steam Power Plant, Tools and Supplies. 

4. Blacksmith Outfit. 
,, 5. Construction Tools (other than Mechanics'). 




No. 25. 



A Lumber Avenue. 




No. 26. 



Dinner-time. 




No. 27. 



Attached Labour (Portuguese). 




No. 28. 



Women Timber Measurers in Buckinghamshire. 



27 

Section 6. Millwrights' Tool Kit. 

,, 7. Saws and Saw Tools. 

8. Electric Light Plant. 

,, 9. Telephone Equipment. 

„ 10. Electricians' Tool Kit. 

,, 11. Steam Logging Plant and Supplies, 

„ 12. Loggers' Outfit. 

,, 13. Tools, Miscellaneous for Bushmen. 

,, 14. Chains, Hooks, etc. 

,, 15. Loggers, Blacksmiths' Outfits and Supphes. 
16. Loggers. 

„ 17. Railway Material. 

„ 18. Road Construction Outfit. 

„ 19. Transport. 

„ 20. Harness. 

,, 21. Pipes, Fittings, etc. 
A Base Depot at Havre in France was formed, and to this Dep6t equipment 
was shipped in bulk to provide for the immediate requirements of Companies 
in France. 

On 20th April, 1917, yard space with railway sidings running throughout 
was acquired at Egham, 20 miles from London, on the L. & S. W. Railway, and 
to this yard was diverted all railway material and transport equipment. This 
became necessary on account of inadequate accommodation at Stewart's 
Lane and the encroachment by the Corps on S. E. & C. Railway premises. 
An N.C.O. was placed in charge at Egham Stores, the men required for loading 
and unloading purposes being sent from the Base at Sunningdale (three miles 
away). 

The premises and plant continued to grow with the work, the Machine 
Shop and Technical Warehouse compressing one another into the available 
space, until on 1st October, 1917, notification was received to vacate Stewart's 
Lane Depot and to occupy the London General Omnibus Company's Garage 
at Bromley Road, Catford, then occupied by the Repair Section M.T. Repair 
Depot. About 2,500 tons of Stores had to be moved, but by 1st November 
all buildings at Stewart's Lane had been turned over to the War Department, 
Heavy machinery such as boilers, logging engines, etc., were not moved on 
account of siding accommodation at Catford not being available. During 
the move, the supply of equipment to Companies operating in the Field was 
not interfered with. Some small idea as to the quantity involved in the move 
a distance of about ten miles, may be gathered from the fact that there were 
moved by rail 498 truck loads, and by road 280 lorry loads. At Catford it 
became necessary to provide barrack accommodation. Large semi-detached 
houses situated in Berlin Road were taken over from the M.T., A.S.C. Four 
of these houses were occupied by the men of the Technical Warehouse, and 
two served as a joint Mess for the Technical Warehouse and Machine Shop 
Sergeants. Mess accommodation for the men was provided in the Catford 
Skating Rink. One of the good deeds standing to the credit of the Technical 
Warehouse was that they induced the Local Authorities to rename Berlin Road 
" Canadian Avenue," and a letter was received from the Mayor of Lewisham 
speaking of the pleasure of the Council in being able in some way to perpetuate 
the memory of the Canadian Forestry Corps. 

Between 1st January, 1917, and 31st December, 1917, an average of 278 
railway trucks per month were received and 164 despatched from Stewart's 
Lane. Approximately two tons of equipment from local firms were also being 
received daily. 

On account of the growing operations of the Canadian Forestry Corps 
the work of the Technical Warehouse had to be almost quadrupled, and its 
total strength at 31st December, 1917, had increased to one Officer Commanding, 
four other Officers and 192 N.C.O.'s and other ranks. 

The following list of some of the Stores most in demand and issued by the 



28 

Technical Warehouse between 1st January, 1917, and 31st December, 1917, 
speaks for itself :- 







England. 


France. 


Total. 


Roofing 


Ruberoid . . 


5,464 rolls 


1,613 rolls 


7,077 rolls, 


,, 


Tarred Felt 


3,491 „ 


250 „ 


3,741 „ 


Nails 




167,924 lbs. 


126,422 lbs. 


. 294,364 lbs. 


Iron . . 




264,990 ,, 


133,310 ,, 


. 398,300 „ 


Steel . . 




19,717 „ 


11,805 „ 


31,522 „ 


Pipe . . 




50,854 feet 


72,272 feet 


123,126 feet. 


Cable.. 




285,869 ,, 


168,010 „ 


453,879 ,, 


Oil .. 




33,913 galls. . 


43,043 galls. . 


76,956 galls, 


Grease 




17,694 lbs. 


28,350 lbs. 


46,044 lbs. 


25 lb. Rail . . 


411,186 feet 


174,035 feet 


. 585,221 feet. 


Cement 




157,860 lbs. 


157,740 lbs. 


. 308,600 lbs. 


Bolts 




66,228 No. 


13,271 No. 


79,499 No. 


Files. . 




37,118 „ 


16,583 „ 


53,701 „ 


Belting 




32,819 feet 


22,474 feet 


55,293 feet. 



Eighty-nine Saw Mills and 73 Logging Engines were sent to operations 
in Great Britain and France up to 31st December, 1917. 

Month by month the strenuous work went on of handling equipment, 
making up plant and doing all manner of technical work, not merely for the 
Corps, but for the Timber Supply Department, the American Expeditionary 
Forces, the Newfoundland Forestry Corps, and to a smaller extent the Canadian 
Railroad Troops. A Scotch mill was supplied to the Chief Engineer at Aldershot, 
and one was sent on the request of the Deputy Director of Works, Alexandria. 
Nearly 1,600 truck loads were received in 1918, apart from what came by motor 
lorries and otherwise. During the year 1918 over 13,000 demands from the 
operations in Great Britain and France were received, of which all but 17 were 
completely filled, the remainder being filled in part, or for equipment not in 
stock. 

The Workshop. — At an early stage it was decided that the best way of 
obtaining the mills and equipment required to supplement what was sent from 
Canada was to make them. 

In one of the Scottish Districts a Canadian mill and two Scotch mills had 
been erected, but were not enough. The erecting engineer, Pte. (now Capt.) 
D. T. Cameron, and his men, thereupon built a " Pony " mill out of the trailer 
of the big mill not in use, with spare parts, and castings made at a local foundry, 
a workshop being improvised by means of a discarded lathe, an old drilling 
machine, and such-like plant, some items coming from a blacksmith's scrap 
heap. 

The same engineer was asked to lay out a more adequate workshop in 
London in premises next to the Technical Warehouse at Stewart's Lane, and 
soon the bare shop was tenanted by a small cupola, a brass foundry, four large 
blacksmith's forges of a portable type, planer, shaper, radial drill, etc. In 
February, 1917, the shop was hard at work. Further plant was added — lathes, 
drilling machines, hacksaws, etc., and the organisation developed. Plans were 
prepared, and patterns made for building the Waterous type of Canadian mill 
adopted as the standard. Soon these mills were being turned out with every 
success, but the demand grew apace and even a night shift was not enough to 
meet the calls for mills, spare parts, and repairs. Men had to be trained, and 
the work expanded in all directions. Equipment, too, had to be made for use 
in France. A contract was placed with a Scotch firm for a number of mills in 
addition to those the workshop could turn out. 

A crowning difficulty was the removal from Stewart's Lane to Catford, 
without seriously hampering production ; but within three weeks all was running 
smoothly and the cupola was at work in under 5^ days from the time it was 
dismantled. While wiring for electric power was being done the plant was 
driven by petrol engines, the noise being indescribable. Still the work grew — 
a new foundry was built, 50 ft. x 150 ft., a new cupola, and many other features 
were added, so that the number of men in the workshops when hostiUties 
ceased exceeded 200. 




No. 29. 



What the Y.M.C.A. provides. 




No. 30. 



Part of the Technical Warehouse, 




No. 31. A Corner of the Machine Shop. 



29 

Royal Engineers. — The movement of Companies of the Corps complete 
in personnel and equipment from the Base Dep6t in Windsor Great Park into 
one of the six Military Commands in Great Britain, raised various technical 
questions, especially of an engineering character. About the end of 1916 it 
was felt that the services of an Officer of extensive experience in the Royal 
Engineers were necessary to arrange generally the R.E. services duties 
in connection with the C.F.C. Eventually in February, 1917, Col. G. R. R. 
Savage, C.V.O., late R.E., was appointed by the War Office to command the 
C.F.C. R.E. The work of this branch has to do with the construction of huts, 
obtaining sites for them, accessory buildings, water supply, drainage, sanitation, 
bath accommodation, telephones, care of roads at the Camps, supply of maps, 
etc. In addition, there are the Engineer services connected with prisoners of 
war, Portuguese and other attached labour, the construction for prisoners of war 
of huts according to regular design with barbed wire entanglements and electric 
light outside. Hospital accommodation and arrangements connected with 
buildings taken over for the use of the Corps also fall within the scope of 
Colonel Savage's Department. Every member of the Corps will from experience 
be able to testify how well the work was done. 

Transport. — When the Corps first came over from Canada their first 
thought was to provide the lumber, and transport arrangements were 
carried out by the Home-Grown Timber Committee and the Army Service 
Corps. As the work of the Canadians increased, so did the quantity of lumber 
to be moved, and it will not be surprising to anyone who knows the tremendous 
activity of the Canadian methods of lumbering that the quantity to be lifted 
grew more rapidly than the transport. In the spring of 1917 it was arranged 
that tractors and trailers should be provided through the Timber Supply 
Department. Later it was decided that all mechanical vehicles held by the Corps 
should be taken over by the local auxiliary Mechanical Transport Company of the 
A.S.C. The arrangements even then were inadequate, and in September, 1917, 
Major Bagot (afterwards Lt.-CoL), Chief Transport Officer, in reporting on the 
position, proposed that arrangements should be made with the War Office to 
supply sufficient mechanical transport, so that the Corps might do its own hauling. 

One hundred and ninety-seven three-ton lorries were asked for. By 
the end of 1917 the Transport Department controlled no less than 573 
mechanical vehicles, compared with less than 50 in the previous June, while at 
the end of 1918 the number had increased to 727. It was found necessary to 
appoint a Transport Officer to each of the Canadian Forestry Corps Districts 
in Britain (Nos. 51 to 55). During the first five months of 1918, 202,900 
ton-miles was the average monthly haul of all products, while for the remaining 
seven months the average was 177,650 ton-miles, making a grand total of 
more than 2,250,000 ton-miles for the year. 

Reference has been made in a previous chapter to the manner in which the 
Corps executed an urgent demand for timber for the Front, eleven days ahead 
of the specified time. The maintenance of the motor transport vehicles 
and the supply of sufficient railway trucks through the efforts of the Transport 
Department contributed in no small measure to this result. 

Forestry Branch: Accounts Branch, etc. — It goes without saying that the 
organisation at Headquarters included efficient statistical and forestry sides, 
dealing with instructions as to felling, preparation of maps and records, etc. 
The figures given throughout this record are a sufficient testimony. Accounting 
and other necessary branches were equally efficient. 

Attached Labour. — It has already been mentioned that the Canadian 
Forestry Corps were assisted in many instances by bodies of unskilled or 
semi-skilled labour provided by the Timber Supply Department in order that 
the utmost use might be made of the skilled services of the Canadians. In some 
cases Portuguese, in others Finns or surplus seamen, and in others prisoners of 
war, were tried, and perhaps the best results on the whole were obtained from 
the last named, because of the fact that the Canadians were a Military Force. 



30 

The provision of attached labour became essential when, on account 
of the need of men for the combatant service, some 500 were transferred from 
the Corps. 

Eventually it was arranged in September, 1917, that the Canadians should 
have first call on all the labour that could be made available up to 2,000 
Portuguese and 2,000 Finns, and as many prisoners of war as could be provided. 

In September, 1917, the Department of Attached Labour was opened, 
under the direction of Mr. C. Lloyd, then acting as Liaison Officer, and Capt. 
H. de Burgh Mercer, of the Canadian Forestry Corps. In November Mr. Lloyd 
had to resume his duties at Windsor, and Captain Mercer took over the 
Department. The arrangement was that the Timber Supply Department fed, 
clothed and administered the attached labour through a Quartermaster and 
two interpreters for every 100 men. The Canadians were responsible for 
providing huts and for directing the work of the men, which was of various 
kinds, including the cleaning up of sites, construction of roads and loading of 
timber. 

At every operation where prisoners of war were used a special encampment 
had to be provided, involving about three tons of barbed wire. The first 
was erected at Langley Park, where 150 prisoners were installed early in 
October, 1917. Such an encampment to take 200 men was 4| to 5 acres in 
area, surrounded by a barbed wire fence 8 ft. high, together with an inner 
fence 10 ft. within the outer, and 10 ft. from this fence was the death line, 
consisting of a plain wire on posts about 3 ft. high. Inside were mess room, 
canteen, sleeping quarters, wash and bath houses, tailors' and boot shops, 
laundry, a heated drying room, cook-house, hospital and N.C.O.'s quarters, 
all lit by electricity. The gate of wood and barbed wire had a guard, and there 
was also a guard on all four sides of the Camp. Outside the fence were huts for 
the Officers and other ranks of the guard, who were supplied from the Imperial 
Forces. 

Portuguese labourers were employed at a number of the Camps, including 
Virginia Water, Mortimer, Lyndhurst, Mamhead and Ampthill. As soon as 
accommodation had been arranged, either in premises taken over or in huts, 
Quartermasters and stores were sent, followed by advance parties of 40 
Portuguese, the strength being brought up to 150 men for each C.F.C., when 
the Camp was ready. Similar arrangements were made in connection with 
the surplus seamen, generally described as Finns ; these men were used more 
especially in Scotland, where the climate was too severe for Portuguese. 
Eventually it was found that the Finns and prisoners of war were the most 
satisfactory forms of attached labour, and the Portuguese were largely 
transferred to other work. 

Special arrangements had to be made to ensure not only that the Canadians 
received sufficiently abundant supplies of food for the strenuous work of the 
Corps, but also that the attached labour received appropriate food. The 
diversity of races meant a corresponding diversity of food ; the Portuguese in 
particular were accustomed to a diet consisting largely of fish, bread, potatoes, 
beans, rice and olive oil, together with green vegetables and onions. The 
following shows one month's rations for 100 Portuguese, to which was added 
twice a week fib. of meat per man, and once a week lib. of vegetables or 
beans — 

Fish .. .. 1,500 lbs. Potatoes .. .. 900 lbs. 



Bread 

Maize 

Oil .. 

Salt 

Coffee 

Meat 



2.625 „ 


Beans 


960 ,. 


Rice 


15 gals. 


Lard 


300 lbs. 


Onions 


60 „ 


Greens 


600 „ 





1,500 

3,000 

60 

120 

800 



Woe betide the Quartermaster who issued beans the slightest bit musty, 
or oil that was stale, for these men were connoisseurs, and the whole camp 
would be around him with dishes in hand, every man explaining his grievance 
in his own way. 



31 

Food Production. — Something is said on this head in describing typical 
operations, but the work was of such interest that it deserves a special note. 
Realising the food shortage in Great Britain, the Corps conceived the idea 
of producing as much of their own food as possible, thus reUeving the heavy 
demand on the A.S.C. and the Imperial Forces. The possibility of cultivating 
farming plots at the Camps was discussed, and through Mr. A. J. Forrest, 
Deputy Surveyor H.M. Office of Woods and Forests, a model farm of 32 
acres in Windsor Great Park, near the Base Camp of Sunningdale, was lent by 
H.M. the King for this purpose. Later an additional 66 acres, known as Norfolk 
Farm, near Virginia Water, was also lent by His Majesty, and a further 70 
acres of private land at Virginia Water was rented for ^36 per annum. At 
the Norfolk Farm 47 acres were put under potatoes, 15 under oats, 6 under 
beet, and the remainder small vegetables. The operations were in charge of 
Captain B. G. Rennie, of British Columbia, who was appointed Food Production 
Officer, assisted by two experienced farmer N.C.O.'s, one of whom was specially 
skilled in bacon curing. No man on the work was of a medical category higher 
than B 2, and none of the Officers was eligible for general service. The bacon 
cured was either sent to the A.S.C. or used at the local Forestry Corps Camps. 
The refuse from the messes went a long way towards feeding the stock of 70 pigs 
and 140 head of poultry. Their Majesties the King and Queen took a keen 
interest in these farms, and the Officer Commanding and his Staff bear testimony 
not only to the graceful acts of courtesy and hospitality shown by them, but 
also practical assistance afforded towards making the work at Sunningdale a 
great success. This will certainly be a pleasant memory to the many thousands 
of Canadian Forestry Corps men who have been from time to time quartered 
in that delightfully situated Base distributing Camp, which, in fact, was regarded 
as one of the most beautiful in Great Britain. 

The good work at the Base was naturally followed elsewhere, and within 
a little more than a year the Corps was operating 36 Company Farms in Great 
Britain, occupying 470 acres, and producing potatoes, turnips, parsnips, onions, 
carrots, cabbages and other vegetables and garden produce, besides hay, 
oats, rape, etc., as food for horses and pigs. The breeding of pigs was undertaken 
on a large scale and with very successful results, especially at Sunningdale. 
At each farm it was the rule that at least 10 pigs should be kept so as to utilise 
all the waste from the messes. In July, 1918, there were on all the farms 
461 pigs, 142 fowls, 110 chickens and 40 rabbits. The last named proved a 
very profitable side line, and were bred on a large scale. 

It should be mentioned that most of the land acquired for farming purposes 
was kindly lent rent free or obtained on very easy terms. 

Medical Services. — When it is remembered that the Canadians were 
operating in a country and climate to which many of them were strangers, 
and often in out of the way localities, the need for special Medical arrangements 
is very evident. As early as March, 1916, a Medical Officer was appointed for 
the 224th Battalion, in the person of Captain R. R. Barker, C.A.M.C, who had 
had practical experience of the medical side of a Canadian Lumber Camp. Men 
of the Corps who had already some knowledge of first-aid were put through a 
further course and sent as medical orderlies with the various companies, but 
it soon became necessary to add other Medical Officers to the Corps and to 
extend the organisation by attaching an Officer to each District Headquarters, the 
supervising Medical Officer being in London. 

The Medical Orderlies were at the end of 1916 transferred to the C.A.M.C, 
and attached to the Companies as Medical Sergeants. A medical hut was 
included in the buildings of each Camp, and usually contained two rooms, 
one serving as a dispensary and the other holding six cots. This hut formed the 
centre of the medical work of the Camp, such as sick parades, dressings, etc. 
The services of the nearest Doctor were enlisted where possible to supplement 
these arrangements, and fortunately in most cases there was within a few miles 
of most of the Camps a V.A.D. Hospital or larger institution where serious cases 
could be sent. The fact that Camps, generally speaking, had railway facilities 



32 



for taking away the timber naturally assisted the transport of the sick, but the 
arrangements had to be adapted to the widely differing circumstances of various 
Companies. 

The Medical Services grew with the Corps and it became necessary to have 
a Medical Officer at the Base Depot, where in the autumn of 1917 a sick detention 
hut with 20 beds was erected, and Armstrong huts were reserved for isolation. 
Later a segregation camp was arranged for quarantining men from Canada. 
In March, 1918, a hospital of 75 beds was opened at the Base Depot. Medical 
supplies were at first obtained from the Canadian Medical Service, but at the 
end of 1917 it was arranged that these should be drawn from the Imperial 
Authorities. 

In addition to caring for the sick, the Medical Officers were of course 
interested in various matters affecting the health of the men, such as ventilation 
of the huts, heating and lighting, cooking, messing, bathing, water supply 
and sanitation. The health of the men on the whole has been very good, 
making allowance for the Influenza epidemic. 

Y.M.C.A. and Similar Bodies. — This record would be incomplete without 
mention of the splendid help afforded by the Y.M.C.A., who had a hut at every 
camp, usually containing a piano and facilities for writing, games and amuse- 
ments ; a small dry canteen was also operated in connection with each Y.M.C.A. 
hut, separate from the other canteen arrangements of the camp. The officers 
and men of the Corps owe much to the Y.M.C.A., Church Army and kindred 
bodies, in relieving what might otherwise have been tedious hours in many an 
outlying camp. 

Table of Operations in Great Britain. — In the following table are given 
the names of the operations carried out by the various Companies concerned, 
the period of working and the output : — 

Period Operating. Total Production. 

Coy. 
No. 



Location of Operation. 



51 DISTRICT. 



106 
107 



117 
129 
120 

122 

138 



Broadshaw, Nairn 
Knockando, Elgin 
Keppernach, Nairn 
Achneim, Nairn . . 
Ord, Nairn 
Dornoch, Sutherland 
Dornoch, Sutherland 
Kinsteary, Nairn 
Orton, Elgin 
Forres, Elgin 
Scurrapool, Elgin 
Braemore, Ross-shire 



62 DISTRICT. 



Ill 



112 



113 



115 



127 
131 

132 
133 

139 



Castle Douglas, Kirkcudbright . . 
Southwick, Kircudbright 
Longtown, Cumberland . . 
No. 2 Netherby, Cumberland . . 
Chillingham, Northumberland . . 
Whittingham, Northumberland 
Netherby, Cumberland . . 
Castletown, Cumberland 
Worksop, Notts . . 
Dalston, Cumberland 
Thurstonfield, Cumberland 
Harbottle, Northumberland 
Appleby, Lines . . 
Birkenside, Roxburgh . . 
Cliburn, Westmorland . . 
Geltwood, Cumberland . . 
Mansfield, Notts 
Beaconwood, Cumberland 
Wolsingham, Durham . . 
Lantonhill, Roxburgh . . 



Commence- 


Com- 


Cubic 


^ 

Equivalent 


ment. 


pletion. 


feet. 


F.B.M. 


1- 7-16 . 


. 24- 4-17 .. 


756,267 . 


. 9.075,204 


5-11-17 . 


— 


399,520 . 


. 4.794.240 


27- 8-16 . 


. 27- 8-17 . . 


875,919 . 


. 10,511,028 


27- 8-17 . 


10-12-18 .. 


421,815 . 


5.061,780 


27- 8-17 . 


— 


279,198 . 


. 3,350.376 


22-11-17 . 


— 


238,584 . 


. 2,863,008 


22-11-17 . 


— 


802,490 . 


9.629.880 


14- 5-17 . 


5- 4-18 .. 


728,780 . 


. 8.745.360 


12- 3-18 . 


— 


538,517 . 


. 6.462,204 


1- 6-17 . 


20- 6-18 . . 


599,918 . 


. 7,199,016 


18- 7-18 . 


12-12-18 .. 


166,459 . 


1,997,508 


13- 7-18 . 


— 


27,178 . 


326,136 


6- 6-16 . 


26-11-17 .. 


378,466 . 


. 4,541.592 


27- 3-17 . 


31-10-17 .. 


66,956 . 


803,472 


29-12-17 . 


30- 7-18 . . 


277,226 . 


. 3.326,712 


1-10-18 . 


— 


56,491 . 


677,892 


15-11-17 . 


12-10-18 .. 


456,679 . 


5.480,148 


19-10-16 . 


15-12-17 .. 


572,860 . 


6,874,320 


18-10-16 . 


21- 7-17 .. 


183,115 . 


. 2,197,380 


26- 7-17 . 


8-12-17 .. 


169,720 . 


. 2.036,640 


20-12-17 . 


— 


533,499 . 


. 6,401.988 


8- 1-17 . 


17- 8-17 ., 


326,839 . 


. 3.922,068 


20- 8-17 . 


5-12-17 .. 


193,331 . 


. 2,319,972 


15-11-17 . 


14- 8-18 .. 


581,769 . 


. 6.981,228 


28-6-18 . 


— 


144,514 . 


1,734,168 


4-10-17 . 


11- 1-19 .. 


712,850 . 


8.554,200 


10-11-17 . 


19- 6-18 .. 


308,599 . 


. 3.703,188 


5- 7-18 . 


— 


122,606 . 


1,471,272 


18-12-17 . 


8-11-18 .. 


463,538 . 


. 5.562,456 


10-11-17 . 


1- 7-18 .. 


528,334 . 


. 6.340.008 


1- 8-18 . 


— 


41.169 . 


494,028 


28- 2-18 . 


29-11-18 .. 


297,631 . 


. 3.571,572 



33 



Period Operating. 



Total Production. 



Coy. 
No. Location of Operation. 


Commence 


Com- 


f ■ 
Cubic 


A. _^ 

Equivalent 




ment. 


pletion. 


Feet. 


F.B.M. 


53 DISTRICT. 










101 Virginia Water, Surrey . . 


. . 13- 5-16 . 


— 


.. 2.149,811 


. 25.797.732 


102 Rapley Lake, Surrey . . 


. . 17- 5-16 . 


. 26- 9-17 


482,420 


. 5.789,042 


Mortimer, Berks 


. . 3- 9-17 . 


. 26- 9-18 


957.261 


. 11,487,130 


116 Groombridge, Sussex 


. . 2- 2-17 . 


. 26- 9-18 


857,337 


. 10,288,044 


119 Langley Park, Bucks 


. . 28- 5-17 . 


. 4- 7-18 


625,531 


. 7,506.372 


Wendover, Bucks 


. . 6- 5-18 . 


— 


390,933 


. 4.691,196 


125 Woburn Sands, Bucks . . 


.. 18- 8-17 . 


. 25- 7-18 


.. 1,072,466 . 


. 12.869.592 


126 Ampthill, Beds . . 


. . 25- 8-17 . 


. 16-11-18 


706,696 . 


. 8,480.352 


Downham Hall, Suffolk. . 


. . 27- 7-18 . 


— 


43.940 . 


527,280 


135 Sandhurst, Surrey 


. . 5- 1-18 . 


— 


702,210 . 


. 8.426.520 


1 36 Black Lake, Surrey 


. . 22- 2-18 . 


— 


421,208 . 


. 5.054,499 


140 Smiths Lawn, Berks 


. . 19-11-17 . 


— 


384,689 . 


. 4.616,268 


54 DISTRICT. 










103 Emery Down, Hants 


. . 24- 4-17 . 


27- 5-18 


667,565 . 


. 8,010,780 


Norley Wood, Hants 


. . 20- 5-16 . 


21- 2-17 


121,712 . 


1,460,544 


Longleat, Wilts . . 


. 14- 5-18 . 


— 


231.192 . 


. 2.774,304 


104 Stover, Devon 


. 9- 4-16 . 


13-10-17 


653.888 . 


. 7,846,656 


Mamhead and Starcross, Devon 22- 6-17 . 


— 


917,526 . 


. 11,010.312 


105 Torrington, Devon 


. 3-12-17 . 


22- 7-18 


278.264 . 


. 3.3v39,168 


Wool, Dorset 


. 25- 7-18 . . 


— 


87.781 . 


1,053.372 


114 Esher, Surrey 


. 31- 1-17 .. 


26-11-17 


751.816 . 


. 9.021,792 


Eartham, Sussex 


. 16- 8-17 .. 


— 


. . 1,513.049 . 


. 18,156,588 


117 Llanthony Abbey, S. Wales 


. 19- 3-17 .. 


22-10-17 


257,875 . 


. 3.094,500 


118 Longmoor, Hants 


. 25- 6-17 . . 


— 


. . 1,272,824 . 


. 15,273.888 


137 Longmoor, Hants 


. 18- 1-18 .. 


— 


110,546 . 


1,326,552 


125 Brockenhurst, Hants 


. 28- 8-18 . . 


— 


25,796 . 


309,552 


Tisbury, Wilts 


. 28- 9-18 . . 


— 


3.816 . 


45.792 


134 Plym Bridge, Devon 


. 14- 1-18 .. 


— 


321,081 . 


. 3,852.972 


55 DISTRICT. 










105 Kirkconnel, Dumfries . . 


. 9- 6-16 .. 


6- 4-17 


431.922 . 


. 5.183.064 


108 Taymount, Perth 

Methven, Perth 


. 1-12-16 .. 
. 20-10-17 . . 


7-11-17 
3- 8-18 


•\ 870,779 . 


. 10.449.348 


Kirriemuir, Forfar 


. 16- 7-18 .. 


— 


48,580 . 


582.960 


109 MauchUne, Ayr . . 


. 29- 1-17 .. 


12- 5-17 


206.667 . 


. 2,480,004 


Kincardine, Fife . . 


. 30-10-17 .. 


— 


673.238 . 


. 8.078.856 


1 1 Aviemore, Inverness 


. 10-11-16 .. 


22-10-17 


647.277 . 


. 7.767,324 


Nethy Bridge, Inverness 


. 15-10-17 .. 


— 


668.335 . 


. 8.020.020 


121 Loch Morhch, Inverness 


. 21- 7-17 .. 


— 


643,078 . 


. 7.716.936 


128 Kincardine, Fife 


. 9-11-17 .. 


10- 7-18 


51.381 . 


616.572 


Kilkerran, Ayr . . 


. 27- 5-18 .. 


— 


191,010 . 


. 2.292,120 


130 Kemnay, Aberdeen 


. 27-11-17 .. 




513.251 . 


. 6,159.012 




33.205,588 .. 


398,467,056 



Note. — In the case of Companies which had not completed operations the production 
figures are given up to the end of December, 1918. 



SUMMARY. 



Production in Great Britain from commencement of Operations to 
end of year, 1918. 



Period. 

Commencement to end of year. 1916 
Jan. 1st. 1917, to end of year. 1917 
Jan. 1st. 1918, to end of year, 1918 

GRAND TOTAL 



Sawn 
Material. 
F.B.M. 

18.534.156 

77,120,160 

161,944,332 

257,598,648 



Round 

Material. 

Tons. 

4,403 
31,686 
48.258 

84,347 



Slabs 

and Fuel 

Tons. 

13.515 

56.224 

133,179 

202,918 



(504) 



34 



Chapter V. 



OPERATIONS IN FRANCE. 



Early Stages : Colonel McDougall's Report. — Mention has already been 
made of Lord Kitchener's early request that Canadian lumbermen might be 
sent to France, and how, as the outcome. Colonel (afterwards General) McDougall, 
with two other officers, paid a four days' visit to the timber operations then being 
carried on by the British Armies behind the lines, in June, 1916. 

In his Report Colonel McDougall began by pointing out the importance of 
closer co-operation between the various branches, and of improved equipment 
adapted to cutting beech timber which was at that time chiefly available. 

He then referred to the work already being carried on by the Engineering 
Officers at the Front who were making the best of the limited facilities at their 
disposal. He pointed out the many uses of lumber for mining work, trench 
and road work, sleepers and bridge timbers, and in other directions ; the 
difficulty of fashioning and carpentering the miscellaneous material that could 
be obtained to suit the jobs for which it was needed ; the unsuit ability of beech 
timber for many of the purposes for which timber was needed at the Front. 
His recommendations were as follows : — 

1. That pine forests should be acquired at once, under proper 
advice as to quality and price, and that they should be felled and 
manufactured by the lumbermen. 

2. That the beech forests should only be used for supplying 
firewood and rough timber for roads and mines. 

3. That the organisation for supplies of timber in France should 
be reorganised, and that an Engineering Officer, experienced in 
lumbering, should be sent to France to carry out the work. 

4. That indents from every source in France should pass through 
this Officer, who would pass them to London with his recommendations 
as to the source of supply. 

5. That the persons presently responsible for supplies in England 
and France should be brought into close co-operation, so that no 
timber would be imported from abroad or from England that could 
be obtained through the lumbermen in France. 

With regard to the organisation of the Lumbermen's Battalions, he 
suggested : — 

That the Battalions that were being raised in Canada come over 
in Units of 150 or 200, and that they should not sail from Canada 
without their complete equipment, saw-mills, tools, etc. 

That each Unit should consist of the requisite number of saw-mill 
hands, fellers, horsemen, etc. 

That they should all be controlled from London, under one 
Chief, who would, with a knowledge of the operations in both countries, 
determine their distribution. 

That the complete equipment should not be decided until the 
nature of the forests acquired in France is determined. 
It had previously been suggested that 1,000 Canadian lumbermen might 
usefully be employed in France, where forestry operations were already being 
carried on behind the lines, but the Report showed various ways in which 
improvement was desirable in view of the prolongation of the War and the 
increase in the magnitude of the operations. 

Although the suggestions in this Report were not adopted in their entirety 
they were of great help, and eventually, as already noted in a previous chapter, 




No. 32. Railing Logs in the Vosges. 




No. 33. Truck-load at the end of a 600 ft. Trestle in the Vosges. 




No. 34. 



On the Trestle. 



35 

Colonel McDougall was placed in charge of all Canadian Forestry Units both in 
France and Britain, with the rank, bestowed on the 26th September, of Tem- 
porary Colonel. Major B. R. Hepburn was also appointed Lieut-Col, and 
Assistant Director of Timber Operations. 

The Canadian lumbermen soon made good wherever they went. As early 
as June, 1916, the French Minister of War wrote with regard to them that he 
had no doubt that, thanks to their professional efficiency which had been 
witnessed both in France and in England, and also to their being conscious of 
the importance of their task, the Canadian lumbermen would succeed within 
a short time in making up for the deficiency (of lumber) , or at all events greatly 
alleviate it. 

British Official Mission and its results. — On the 29th September, 1916, 
representatives of various British Departments and of the Canadian Forestry 
Units proceeded to France to meet French officials in connection with the 
supply of timber to the British Army. The Mission comprised Mr. (now Sir) Frank 
Baines, of H.M. Office of Works, etc., Mr. J. Sutherland, Director of the Home- 
Grown Timber Committee, and Mr. F. R. S. Balfour, of the same Committee, 
together with Col. McDougall, Col. Rathbun, Major Hepburn, Major McDonnell 
and Major Miller, of the Canadian Forestry Units, with Mr. James Eggar, of 
the Office of Works. They conferred in France with Gen. Chevalier, Directeur 
de Genie, Ministere de la Guerre, Commandant Joseph Thiollier, Inspecteur 
des Eaux et Forets, and Captain Herbillon, attached to the Ministere de la 
Guerre. Mr. Forges accompanied the deputation as Interpreter. The Mission, 
after meeting the French Officers, proceeded to inspect various forests in 
Brittany, Normandy and the Jura. The arrangements under which felling 
might be carried on were discussed with the French Officers concerned, and 
it was explained that for a continuous lumbering operation an area of at least 
500 hectares should be provided ; also that a storage depot near the British 
Army zone would be required, and that the question of transport was most 
important. The French State Forests are worked on scientific principles, 
according to which thinning to a definite extent only is permitted. It need 
hardly be said that the Canadians would much have preferred working areas 
which could be clear felled. The Mission accordingly recommended that if 
possible a large extent of mature and partially mature woodlands of at least 
500 hectares in the Jura forests should be exploited by the Canadian Battalions, 
and that each of the areas should not be of less than 150 to 200 hectares in 
compact blocks, out of which not less than 200 cubic metres per hectare should 
be felled. This last condition was regarded as imperative if rapid production 
was to be obtained. In addition it was suggested that if possible a forest of 
well-grown pine at least 80 years old, covering not less than 100 hectares, 
should be made available for clear felling nearer the British fines. 

Following upon this visit, Col. McDougall recommended to the Canadian 
Adjutant-General that in view of the organisation of a Directorate of Forestry 
it would be expedient for all the Canadian Forestry Units arriving from Canada 
to be absorbed into a Unit to be created, and designated The Canadian Forestry 
Corps. This proposal was carried into effect, and was eventually embodied 
on the 21st November, 1916, under Headquarters Canadians (Brighton) 
After-Order No. 1. 

Previously, in September, 1916, to meet the urgent needs in France, he 
had arranged to equip 250 men from the supplies in the United Kingdom, and 
to send them, with a mill belonging to the Home-Grown Timber Committee, 
to work in France. At that time the 238th Battalion was coming forward, and 
it was suggested that one of the BattaUons in Britain should be transferred to 
France, and half of the new Battalion be put to work in Britain until arrange- 
ments for receiving it in France were completed. He suggested on the 23rd 
September, 1916, to the Canadian Authorities, that if possible a further 
Battalion, which might be composed of French Canadians, in addition to the 
224th, 238th and 242nd, should be provided, and that this further Battalion 
and the 238th should be equipped for work on pine forests, while the 242nd 

(504) D 2 



36 

was equipped for operating beech woods. As already indicated, the 230th 
Battalion of French Canadians was eventually turned into a Forestry Battalion. 

The formation of the War Timber Commission has already been referred to 
in Chapter II. Under this arrangement, at the end of October, 1916, two 
Liaison Officers between the French Government and the Canadian Forestry 
Units were appointed and given temporary commissions, namely, Lieut.-Col. 
F. R. S. Balfour and Major E. D. Forges, both of whom took part in the visit 
of British ofificials to France in September. It was arranged in November, 1916, 
that the Home-Grown Timber Committee would bear the cost of technical 
equipment, etc., for the work in France as for that in Great Britain. 

Organisation of the Corps in France. — After the formation of the War 
Timber Commission, operations in France were commenced in the centre of 
Normandy, and a Group Headquarters was formed at Conches-en-Ouche, in the 
department of Eure. In a very short time it became apparent that the work 
in France would be as large if not larger than that in England, owing to the 
difficulties of transportation between Great Britain and France, together 
with the amount of time that could be saved in supplying the Armies in the 
Field with the lumber that they required from local sources. 

On 17th March, Colonel J. B. White arrived in France to assume the duties 
of Director of Timber Operations there, making his Headquarters at Paris-Plage, 
where he would be in touch with the Headquarters of the British Directorate 
of Forestry. 

In carrying on this work, an Establishment was drawn up and approved by 
the War Office, providing for the formation of C.F.C. Companies, District and 
Group Headquarters (the District Headquarters to administer three or more 
Companies on one area, and the Group Headquarters to administer two Districts) , 
a Technical Warehouse (to be located at Le Havre), and a Corps Headquarters. 

It was arranged that the forests to be operated were to be supplied 
through the British Directorate of Forestry, who would also prepare the 
sawing specifications required. All trees to be felled were to be marked by the 
Commission Forestiere d'Expertises on behalf of the French Government. As 
soon as Right of Entry to any forest was authorised the Canadian Forestry 
Corps was then to assume full responsibility for the operation. 

To facihtate the exploitation of French forests it was afterwards arranged, 
following upon Conferences on 2nd and 25th May, 1917, between French and 
British representatives, that a Committee should be formed, eventually known 
as " Le Comite InteraUie des Bois de Guerre," to be composed of French, 
British and Canadian representatives, including General McDougall and 
General Lord Lovat, with a standing Executive Board having four members, 
one being Lt. -Colonel Sutherland and one designated by the Canadian Forestry 
Corps. The last-named appointment was filled on 2nd July by the appointment 
of Capt. P. D. L. Lyall. American representation was subsequently added. 

Up to the end of May, 22 Canadian Forestry Corps Companies had arrived 
in France and were operating under the Central Group Headquarters previously 
formed, and under No. 6 District Headquarters, formed in April at Gerardmer, 
Vosges. In June ten additional Companies arrived in France from England, 
and in July No. 1 District was formed with Headquarters at Alengon, and also 
No. 4 District with Headquarters at Orleans. In the latter month six more 
Companies arrived. In August eight more Companies were sent out, and No. 9 
District Headquarters was formed at Albert to administer Companies in the 
Armies Group, working solely for the British Armies. No. 5 District Head- 
quarters was formed at La Joux, Jura, and No. 12 District Headquarters 
at Facture, Gironde. In September three Companies arrived, and No. 2 District 
Headquarters was formed at Conches. In October six more Companies were 
sent out from England, and No. 1 Forest Party and No. 2 Forest Party, 
consisting of Canadians who had been in France working under the direction 
of Imperial Authorities since 6th June, 1916, were taken over by the 
Corps with the titles of Nos. 1 and 2 Companies, Canadian Forestry 
Corps. The Eclaron Detachment was organized in this month, consisting of 



g] luiLiiiiiiiiu.i.iiiiiiiiiiiiiii." I =: 

CANADIAN 
CORPS 

UOCATION •'-<'«i/3/f 

GROUPS 
DISTRICTS 




■" I""" .LI'IIIIIIIIIIIIT! 



No. 35. 



Map showing C.F.C. Operations in France. 



37 

what was previously known as the Noyon Detachment, working for the French 
Armies. In November one more Company arrived from England, making a 
total of 58 Canadian Forestry Corps Companies in France. The Jura Group was 
formed in this month to control Nos. 5 and 6 Districts. In February, 1918, 
No. 10 District was formed from the old Eclaron Detachment, and the Bordeaux 
District was formed for the administration of Nos. 4 and 12 Districts. In 
June, 1918, in connection with work for the Royal Air Force, two Companies 
arrived from England, and in July No. 1 1 District was formed to control these 
Companies. In September three more Companies arrived for this District, 
followed in October by two more. 

The prompt success of the Canadian Forestry operations in France was 
contributed to by the action of General McDougall, with the advice of the 
senior Officers of the Corps, in arranging in October, 1916, the purchase of 
machinery and equipment for 10,000 men before the men were officially 
authorised. The Canadian Pacific Railway, realising the importance of the 
work, helped with the purchase and movement of this machinery. Owing 
to the foresight shown, the Canadian Forestry Corps operations have been 
able to maintain their high standard of efficiency. 

In all operations of the Canadian Forestry Corps in France, they have had 
attached to their Companies unskilled labour, such as Prisoners of War 
Companies, Chinese Labour Companies, and Russian Labour Companies. 

In March, 1918, at the time of the German advance, the Canadian Forestry 
Corps was called upon to train men as reinforcements for the Combatant Forces 
up to about two BattaUons of 800 men. Instructions were sent to all Districts 
for a certain number of men in each District to complete their infantry training, 
which was accordingly done. In October, 1918, the Canadian Forestry Corps 
was called upon for reinforcements for the Canadian Corps, which owing to 
these preparations they were able to supply. 

As showing what the Corps could do, the following record output was made 
in June, 1918. With a standard Canadian mill, driven by a 120 h.p. twin 
Robey engine, having two boilers of 44 h.p. and one of 25 h.p., in 10 hours 
working time, from 7 a.m. to noon and from 1 p.m. to 6 p.m. — 3,931 pieces of 
lumber all cut square, trimmed and of various sizes, were turned out, amounting 
to 130,438 F.B.M. Another cut for 10 hours running time amounted to 1 15,366 
F.B.M. 

A record transfer of a mill from one operation to another in May of the 
same year, was that of a Scotch mill with a Campbell attachment. The last 
log was sawn at the old operation at 9 a.m. on the 29th May. The mill was 
moved a distance of five kilometres, erected on the new site, and sawing 
commenced at 7 a.m. on the 30th May, and was in full swing by 2 p.m. on that 
date. On the 31st of May, 18,000 F.B.M. were produced. On the 1st June, 
this was increased to 23,000 ft. 

Following upon the Armistice, the arrangements made had for their object 
to arrive at a position which would permit operations to be closed down on 
two or three weeks' notice, or to resume their normal production immediately. 
Accordingly the instructions provided that all coupes in which work was actually 
proceeding should be cleared up, and that afterwards felling should be limited 
to the amount necessary to maintain a stock of logs for sawing to allow of a 
one mill shift of eight hours per day for one week. In the meantime sawn timber 
was not to be despatched if avoidable. Logs were to be hauled to mills and 
converted into commercial sizes, and the sawn lumber was to be piled with a 
view to preservation in places convenient for removal, but not where it would 
cause congestion of current traffic. Poles, etc., were to be stacked at the road 
side. In short, the operations were to be carried out on the lines of a commercial 
undertaking, with an avoidance of every unnecessary expense and with a 
careful taking of stock. Shortly after the Armistice, steps were taken to begin 
demobilising the Corps in France, preference being given to married men of 
long service and low medical categories. 



38 

Appreciation of the Corps' Work. — The following is an extract from 
Field- Marshal Sir Douglas Haig's despatch of 25th December, 1917 : — 

"Forestry and Quarry Units. 

" By September, 1917, the Army had become practically 
self-supporting as far as regards timber, and during the active period 
of working, from May to October, over three-quarters of a million 
tons of timber were supplied for the use of the British Army. Included 
in this timber was material sufficient to construct over 350 miles of 
plank roads, and to provide sleepers for 1,500 miles of railway, beside 
great quantities of sawn timber for hutting and defences, and many 
thousand tons of round timber, fascines and fuel. The bulk of the 
fuel wood is being obtained from woods already devastated by 
artillery fire. 

" These Forestry and Quarry Units have proved of great value, 
and have been the source of very considerable economy. My special 
thanks are due to the French Forestry Authorities, as well as to the 
Comite Interallie des Bois de Guerre, for their assistance in our 
negotiations regarding the acquisition of woods and forest areas." 

In addition to supplying themselves with machinery, the Canadian Forestry 
Corps have supplied some equipment and machinery to the Royal Engineers, 
and also to the American Forces, from whom they received the following letter 
written by Colonel Woodruff, American representative on the Comite Interallie 
des Bois de Guerre : — 

" We wish to express our appreciation to the Canadian Forestry 
Corps for the excellent co-operation and assistance they have given 
the Americans in the Vosges, at Besan9on, in the Landes, and in fact 
all over France. 

" They have secured for us five complete saw-mills. 
" In addition to the above, the Canadian Forestry Corps have 
repeatedly loaned equipment to the American Forestry Troops, and 
have extended invitations to them to join in all of their sports and 
entertainments, and have co-operated in the matter of policing near-by 
towns, and in every manner assisted to the fullest extent. 

" The American Forestry Troops are also indebted to the Canadian 
Forestry Corps for the use of their machine shops to make repairs 
to broken parts of the American mills, and for promptly furnishing 
lumber for building barracks on the arrival of the Americans at a 
time when it was most important that shelter be provided for the 
troops. 

". . . I am pleased to thank General McDougall on behalf of 
the American Expeditionary Forces." 

The Paris Office. — Turning to the work of the individual bodies of the 
Corps, we may begin with the Paris Office, started on 24th June, 1917, whose 
work at first consisted of compiUng statistics, translating contracts, etc. Owing 
to the central position of this office it was not long before its usefulness was 
appreciated and its original duties enlarged upon. It became a connecting 
link between Corps Headquarters at Paris-Plage and the Group and District 
Headquarters, which in turn controlled the Canadian Forestry Corps Companies 
scattered over the whole of France. It enabled the Director of Timber Operations 
more easily to meet his Group and District Commanders, and conferences were 
arranged from time to time. On 24th August, 1917, the purchasing of small 
parts of machinery and mill equipment, which had previously been carried out 
by the British Forestry Mission, was taken over. Such orders were invariably 
required urgently to replace some small breakdown or to complete the 
erection of new machinery. These orders were often placed and the material 
shipped within 24 hours after receipt of the necessary information, thus 
preventing what might have caused a serious delay in the milling operations. 




No. 36. 



Loading on Wagons. 




No. 37. 



Loading on Wagons. 




No. 38. 



Loading at Railhead in the Vosges. 



39 

Lt. P. W. Lyall with his Staff of 1 Officer and 8 other ranks started the 
work. In November, 1917, when the establishment was approved for this 
Detachment, Lt. Lyall continued in charge with the rank of Staff Captain, being 
made Lt.-Col. in September, 1918, and Deputy Assistant Director of Timber 
Operations in charge of the Marne Group, Capt. G. N. Ledger taking over 
command of the Paris Detachment. 

From August, 1917, to November, 1918, the total amount of purchases 
made through this Office amounted to 152,192 francs, all accounts approved 
and no accounts standing. 

Medical Services. — During the early days of the Corps in France, httle 
attention was paid to medical services, the Units being too small to necessitate 
a distinct organization. However, as Districts began to multiply and Companies 
began to operate in more out-of-the-way areas, it became apparent that special 
hospitals were necessary to give the attention and everything else required in 
the interests of humanity and efficiency. 

The first step was taken when Lt. -Colonel F. W. E. Wilson was sent to 
the Jura Group as Medical Officer in July, 1917, where a small hospital was just 
being started. The decision that special hospitals should be opened has 
since been justified by a great saving in man power through abiUty to give 
prompt care to all serious ailments or injuries, besides the fact that the patients 
were naturally happier than when placed in large, strange hospitals amongst 
men unknown to them. The C.F.C. Hospital at Champignole in the Jura 
Group, with 150 beds, a good medical staff, and C.A.M.C. nurses, since its 
inception has admitted 4,000 patients and has proved a great success. 

The sanitation of the entire Jura Group of operations was also taken in 
hand, with the result that the arrangements were unsurpassed by any other 
military organization in France They included hot and cold baths for the men 
at all times, clean kitchens and dining halls. 

In the winter of 1917-18 it became necessary that a Senior Officer should 
be appointed to take entire charge of the Corps medical work, as the 
increasingly scattered forestry operations rendered it exceedingly difficult to 
superintend the necessary arrangements. Lt.-Col. Wilson was accordingly 
appointed Senior Medical Officer and Assistant Director of Medical Services 
with the C.F.C, and on 15th April, 1918, he opened an office at Corps 
Headquarters. 

Statistics compiled on 9th October, 1918, show that the Medical Services 
of the C.F.C. had provided 408 beds, of which 330 were then occupied, 26 
Medical Officers, 13 Nurses, and 159 C.A.M.C. personnel. The ambulance 
service, comprising in all 16 ambulances, had been organized so that all Districts 
were well supplied. 

In all this work the Medical Services of the C.F.C. have been greatly assisted 
by the Canadian Red Cross Society, who have freely given ambulances and 
many comforts for the patients, and have assisted in furnishing hospitals 
throughout the Corps. The very good record of health of the C.F.C. in France 
was to a great extent due to the active support and sympathetic consideration 
given to the advice of the Medical Officers by the Director of Timber Operations 
and the various Group and District Commanders. 

Chaplain Services. — The first Chaplain in the C.F.C.in France was appointed 
in February, 1917, when there were only five Companies in the Group. Another 
was appointed in June, 1917. In October, 1917, one was sent to the Bordeaux 
Group. As the work of the Corps developed, the organisation of the Chaplain 
Services was strengthened and the number increased until at the conclusion of 
hostilities there were 15 Chaplains with the Corps in France. 

As the Companies were separated by distances of from 5 to 100 miles, it 
was no easy matter for the Chaplains to maintain constant touch, but 
this difficulty was overcome by the willingness of Corps Headquarters 



40 

to render every available assistance, and by the eagerness of the Chaplains 
themselves to allow of no hindrance to their work. Every possible means of 
transport open to them was utilised, and it was not long before each Company 
was having services at least once a month. The Chaplains soon took up the 
matter of recreation for the men, and Cinemas and Lectures were started. 
The question of Education has also been attended to, and correspondence 
classes arranged through the Khaki University of Canada. 

At regular intervals the Senior Chaplain has visited all the Companies in 
France, delivering addresses to the men during their lunch hours and in the 
evenings, and travelling in all some 17,000 kilometres to keep in touch with 
the men and with the individual work of every Chaplain. 

Technical Warehouse, Le Havre. — This Unit was started in April, 1917, 
and was at first known as the Le Havre Detachment. It was charged with the 
receipt and despatch of all Technical Equipment required by the Corps in 
France, the bulk of this material coming from Headquarters in England, and 
the remainder from the Director of Works and the Chief Ordnance Officer. 
The warehouse was acquired in May, 1917, at the R.E. Base Park, Le Havre, to 
hold spare parts likely to be urgently needed. From 1st June to 31st December, 
1917, over 7,000 tons of material was sent to the Districts in France, in 
addition to mobilisation equipment brought over by Forestry Companies 
arriving from England. Since January, 1917, the Unit at Le Havre has handled 
over 1 1,000 tons of equipment. This constitutes no mean achievement, including 
as it does the loading and despatch of over 800 railway trucks. This was 
accomplished in the face of the shortage of railway trucks, and the fact that 
the Canadians were by no means the only persons needing them. 

Central Group Headquarters. — These Headquarters date from the arrival 
of Lt.-Col. Rathbun and his Staff at Le Havre on 28th November, 1916, whence 
they proceeded to Conches (Eure). No. 14 Company, the first of the Canadian 
Forestry Corps to operate in France, began operations at Bois Normand in 
December, 1917. This Company was followed by Numbers 19, 20, 23 and 24, 
to work additional areas, and all had mills in operation before the spring of 1917. 
Numbers 30, 32, 34, 38, 42 and 44 Companies followed, and later, in July, 1917, 
Numbers 53 and 54. As the work increased it became necessary to form separate 
Districts. No. 1 District was formed in July, 1917, with Headquarters at 
Alengon (Orne), and No. 2 District in September of the same year with 
Headquarters at Conches. 

When the Companies Nos. 51, 53 and 15 were transferred to the Bordeaux 
group in the summer of 1917, the Headquarters were moved in November, 1917. 
from Conches to Evreux. 

As illustrating the doings of one individual Company, No. 20 may be 
taken as an example. This Company was recruited in Canada as a part of 
the 242nd BattaHon, left Hahfax for England in November, 1916, and arrived 
in France on 2nd January, 1917, with a strength of six Officers and 187 other 
ranks. The Company proceeded to Lyre (Bois Normand). Logging operations 
and the erection of a Scotch mill were commenced on 9th January, and on the 
22nd of the same month operations were started at the mill, which were 
completed by 3rd February. The Company then proceeded to Blanchelande, 
where logging operations were started on 7th February, and from 14th May 
to 23rd June sawing operations with a Scotch mill were carried on. On 11th 
June a Canadian mill was put into operation, and the entire exploitation was | 
completed on 23rd July, the Company then moving to the Forest of Perseigne, |' 
commencing logging there on 30th July, and operating a Canadian mill from 
14th August, 1917. A Scotch mill was also put into operation on 9th 
January, 1918, this Company with its two mills working in the same forest 
until the close of hostihties. 

Whilst at Bois Normand, the forest products of this Company amounted 
to 245,000 F.B.M., and the mill products to 150,000 F.B.M. 





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No. 39. 



Stables in the Vosges. 




No. 40. 



A Logging Camp in the Jura Group. 




No. 41. 



A Mill for Aircraft Timber, Jura Group, 




No. 42. 



A Company and its Mill, Jura Group. 



41 

The operations at Blanchelande resulted in the following output : — 

Wood Products 2,000,000 F.B.M. 

Telegraph Poles 10,400 

Defence Poles 1 ,500 „ 

Pickets. E.F.G 6,800 „ 

Jura Group. — The Companies operating in the Jura Mountains were in 
November, 1917, reorganised into two districts. No. 5 with Headquarters 
at La Joux, and No. 6 at Gerardmer. The Group Headquarters were first at 
La Joux, but afterwards moved to Andelot-en-Montaigne, and then in July 
to Besan^on. In April, 1918, the production of spruce for aeroplane purposes 
was begun, and as this material was very urgently required no efforts were 
spared to ensure rapid delivery. The record cut in this district was 159,575 
F.B.M. in a ten-hour shift. The Companies included in this Group were as 
follows : — 

No. 21, which arrived in France on 4th February, 1917, and worked at 
La Joux until February, 1918. The next operation, consisting in the 
production of aeroplane spruce, was started in Malbusson Forest, Labergement, 
where the Company remained until the Armistice. This was the first 
Canadian Company to operate a logging railway in France. 

No. 22 Company, which commenced logging operations at La Joux towards 
the end of March, 1917, and after finishing here were transferred to 
Longesvilles. 

No. 36 Company, also worked at La Joux. Logging operations were 
commenced in July, 1917, and sawing in August. In April, 1918, the Company 
was transferred to Labergement, adjoining No. 21 Company, who did the 
logging for this Company. The mill was a combination rotary cind band saw, 
including also a re-saw and gang saw. 

No. 39 Company proceeded first to Andelot-en-Montaigne, and then to 
Verse, where the mill was erected and sawing operations began on 9th July, 
1917. Light railways were built from No. 47 Company's Camp at Larderet 
to the mill, and from there to the station at Verse. 

No. 40 Company arrived at Andelot on 28th May, 1917, and eventually 
proceeded to Moutoux Forest, sleeping at first under canvas until huts could 
be erected. In November of the same year the Company was relieved by 
No. 57 Company, and proceeded to La Joux, where the Company was spht 
up for miscellaneous work. Shortly afterwards logging operations were 
started for Companies 22 and 50, and later an advance party left for Rochejean, 
where a new operation was started. 

No. 47 Company proceeded first to La Joux and afterwards to La Fresne 
district, working with No. 39 and 49 Companies. 

No. 50 Company arrived at La Joux in July, 1917, and took over from 
No. 28 Company shortly afterwards. For a time the Company carried on 
logging operations for No. 58 Company, delivering logs to Nos. 52 and 70 
Companies. Subsequently they again began operations with the mill until 
26th August, 1918, when they took over the Mill from No. 21 Company. The 
total cut in the La Joux operation was nearly 4,600,000 F.B.M. 

No. 52 Company arrived at La Joux in July, 1917, and while awaiting 
arrival of their own mill helped to lay out the Camp and assist other Companies, 
In August an operation was started at Villers, and in the following month 
logging for the new mill was handed over to the 58th Company. The erection 
of hutments was commenced towards the end of September. 

No. 58 Company arrived at La Joux in July, 1917, and eventually took 
over the logging at ViUers from No. 52 Company, also providing logs for No 70's 
mill. This Company has been used entirely for logging purposes in the one 
area. 



42 

No. 70 Company, which was known at first as the Manufacturers' 
Independent Forestry Company, arrived at La Joux in August, 1917. Camp 
was erected at Montraincon, in La Joux Forest. In September the Company 
was moved to Villers, and on the 24th of that month logs were run through 
the mill. A month later the mill was operated at full capacity, and, as showing 
what this means, turned out in one week in April, 1918, 378,000 F.B.M. in six 
shifts. This Company in July, 1918. installed a new pumping plant at 
Boujailles Mountains, near Villers-sous-Chalamont. The foregoing Companies 
were included in No. 5 District. 

Those in No. 6 District were as follows : — 

No. 28 Company arrived at La Joux in April, 1917, and after completing 
operations in July moved to the Forest of Gehant, where they remained to the 
conclusion of hostilities. 

No. 51 Company arrived at Conches in July, 1917, and shortly afterwards 
proceeded via Rouen to Apilly and pitched camp in Couchy Forest at the end 
of June. Sawing operations began early in August and were completed by 
January, 1918. This Company was not employed for logging, and was one 
of the Companies forming the Noyon detachment, which Operated in the French 
Army area, and was then under No. 10 District. The next operation of this 
Company was at Noiregoutte, where they were still working at the time of the 
cessation of hostilities. 

No. 56 Company arrived at Gerardmer early in August, 1917, and proceeded 
thence to Martimprey, pitching Camp next day at La Chaume, where they 
were split up into reinforcing Battalions, some assisting adjacent mills and 
others being employed in logging operations. Work in the Foret de I'Envergoutte 
was complete by this Company on 30th July, and they then assisted No. 69 
Company in their operations at Foret de Plaineau. Drafts from this Company 
have from time to time assisted in the operations of Companies 28, 51, 69 and 
77. The next operation of this Company was in the Forest of Gehant, where 
they remained until the commencement of demobilisation. 

No. 77 Company arrived at Gerardmer in the middle of October, 1917, 
and pitched Camp at Martimprey. Construction of the mill was completed 
on 9th November, both milhng and logging operations being carried on here. 
These were completed on 27th November. The next operation carried on by 
this Company was at Noiregoutte, where they were still operating at the time 
of the cessation of hostilities. 

Army Areas. — It was decided in May, 1917, to form a District Headquarters 
to administer the Companies operating in the Army Areas. At that date 
there were six Companies in this District. These Headquarters, with a 
technical warehouse and stores, were installed at Albert on May 14th, 1917. 
In October of the same year three new Detachments commenced work as 
Fuel Groups, and were sent to this District ; they were principally operated 
by Indian labour, supervised by Officers and N.C.O.'s from the C.F.C. The 
German Advance in 1918 caused these Headquarters to be withdrawn from 
Albert and installed temporarily at the Camp of No. 25 Company at Lucheux. 
On 30th March they were again transferred to Pont Remy, and finally on 
4th April, 1918, were permanently installed at Mautort, near Abbeville. 

Later in the year two Canadian Forest Parties were added, and were 
known as Nos. 1 and 2 Companies of the C.F.C. The Companies in this District 
which is known as No. 9, were as follows : — 

No. 25 arrived in the District in February, 1917. Both logging and 
mining operations were carried on, the original operations being at Eois de Faye 
and Robemont, with Headquarters at Blavincourt. Commencing operations 
here on 6th March, 1917, work was completed on 15th September. In the 
meantime several detachments were carrying on operations at — 

(1) Auxi-le-Ch§.teau, Bachimont Forest, which was later taken over 

by No. 26 Company. 

(2) Bonniere, 



43 

(3) Ligny-sur-Conches. 

(4) Blangy, where three mills were taken over to operate in conjunction 

with the central workshops. 

(5) Forestel, which was later taken over by No. 37 Company. 

On 9th October, 1917, Headquarters and mill were moved to Lucheux, 
and operations have been completed in Haravenne, Pare and Hayette, work 
being carried on at Robemont, Foret and Watron until the end of hostiUties. 
A Canadian mill was used for sawing, and was erected in seven days. In the 
original operations at Blavincourt Forest, Infantry were employed to assist, 
and the timber had to be hauled 6J kilos to be sawn at a French mill. It is 
interesting to note that this was the first Company to arrive in the War Area. 
During these operations in France this Company produced the following : — 



Sawn Lumber 


..14,L36,735 F.B.M. 


or 33,657 Tons. 


Fuelwood . . 


77,966 steres 


or 34,153 „ 


Pickets 


. . 594,759 pieces 


or 4,547 „ 


Hurdles 


. . 102,250 „ 


or 4.090 „ 


Fascines . . 


55,615 „ 


or 2,224 „ 


Continuous Revetting 


23,934 bundles 


or 957 „ 


Faggots . . 


50,158 


or 891 „ 


Pit Props . . 


6,252 pieces 


or 250 „ 


Parry Sticks 


40,130 „ 
Total Tonnage 


or 4 ,, 




80,773 Tons 



No. 26 Company arrived at Bois Bachimont in the Army Area in March, 
1917. Operations were commenced here with a French band saw mill at 
Auxi-le-Chiteau, and were completed on 10th August, 1918. This Company 
carried on both logging and sawing operations. 

No. 29 Company arrived at Mont St. Eloi towards the end of April, 1917. 
Logging and milling operations were commenced with a Scotch mill in Bois 
de Bray, and 11th July this operation being completed, moved to the Bois de 
Moreil, and later to Hendecourt-les-Ransart, where the Chateau Wood 
demolished by the Germans in their retreat three months previously, was 
exploited. 

The next move was made to Boiry Ste Rectrude, and constituted a record 
move, being completed in a little over 24 hours. At Fait de Guerre roadside 
trees were converted. 

On 1st September the Company Headquarters were moved to Meaulte, 
a Detachment of 100 men remaining at Boiry to complete operations there. 
Salvage timber of all kinds from the old battlefields was converted here, the 
Ancre Valley as far as Corbie, and the Somme as far as Suzanne and Eclusier, 
supplying timber. On 20th November, 1917, the Company took over the 
operations of the 3rd Army workshops, and here prisoners of war labour 
under the supervision of the Company N.C.O.'s supplied what was needed by 
this Army in the way of duck walks, huts, Decauville railway trucks, gas 
chambers, etc. 

Operations on the Somme were completed on 23rd March, 1918, and the 
Detachment operating at Boiry and that logging at Bray were withdrawn to 
Meaulte as a result of the German Advance. The entire Company then proceeded 
to Namps-au-Val. In the meantime a loading party remained at Meaulte 
until the railway had been destroyed and it was found impossible to secure 
further transport to remove the rest of the sawn timber. For three weeks 
personnel was employed in making pickets, after which another move was 
made to Bois Bacouel. On 10th July the Company again moved, this time 
to Pas-en-Artenois, the move from the shutting down of the mill at Bacouel 
to the cutting of the first log at Pas having been completed within 
53 hours. For the first few weeks fields of fire were cleared for G.H.Q. Defence 



44 

Lines, the logs thus cut being converted into road planks and scantlings. 
Latterly small woods and groups of trees along the Authie River were cut. 
This Company was in the Bois de Mormal on 5th November, 1918, the 
Germans having left only the previous day. 

No. 35 Company commenced operations at Logeast Wood in May, 1917, 
with a small French bench saw mill, a Canadian mill being installed shortly 
after. Both logging and milling operations were carried on, the product being 
chiefly road planks and sleepers. Detachments worked at St. Leger, Loupart 
Wood and Blair ville, until compelled to withdraw, also later at Havrincourt 
to repair and make roads. In February, 1918, a move was begun to Pont 
Remy, where milling operations started in the middle of March. Much of the 
work of the Company had to be carried out under ensmy fire. 

No. 37 Company arrived at Villers Brettoneux towards the end of May, 
1917, and took over a mill from the Imperial Forces at Bois d'Aquenne. Shortly 
afterwards felUng was commenced in Gentelles Wood. In September a move 
was made to Bois Biad, near Peronne, and subsequently a Detachment was 
sent to cut 2| miles of road through Havrincourt Forest, this being done in 
17 hours. In the German Advance in March, the Camp came under fire and 
had to be closed down. All important parts of machinery were buried, and as 
much of the lumber (sleepers) removed as possible, the Germans then being 
only about 2,000 yards away. The Company then trudged to Wail and took 
over a mill from No. 26 Company on 25th March, 1918, since when it 
exploited the small woods in that area. The Company's Horse Transport 
assisted in hauling up suppUes during the Cambrai Advance. 

No. 1 Company was formerly a Canadian Forestry Company formed from 
the Canadian Remount Section. Operations in the Forest of Rouvray near 
Rouen were commenced in October, 1915, this operation being completed by 
the end of September of the following year. Immediately afterwards new 
operations were started at St. Evrout Notre Dame de Bois Forest, which were 
completed about a year later, and the Company then moved to Crecy Forest 
and took over the logging and milling operations from a Company of the 
Royal Engineers. In March, 1918, the Company was absorbed into the Canadian 
Forestry Corps, a new mill was erected and the personnel strengthened. In 
August, 1918, the Company was honoured by a visit from His Majesty 
King George V, who saw the mill and logging operations, and expressed 
great satisfaction at the manner in which they were being carried out. 

No. 2 Company, which was originally No. 2 Forest Party of the Canadian 
Engineers, began logging operations in January, 1917, at Bois des Alleux, 
using a French hand-feed saw bench, and subsequently a French band re-saw 
mill. On finishing this operation in July, 1917, work was begun next day at 
Chateau d'Acq, where a swing saw and breast bench was added to the mill. 
In October work was begun at Bois d'Oldhain and continued there until the 
Armistice, logs being brought in from 12 miles around. At the conclusion of 
hostilities work was just being commenced at a new operation in the Foret 
de Raismes. 

Bordeaux Group. — The Forestry operations in the Gironde and Landes 
Districts originated in the summer of 1917 with the arrival of Companies 
45 and 46 at Ares, Gironde, and the establishment of the administrative area 
known as No. 12 District C.F.C., with Headquarters at Bordeaux, By the end 
of the year a new Headquarters was organized as No. 4 District C.F.C., on 
29th December, 1917, to carry on the operations being conducted by Companies 
55, 78, 79 and 80, in the southern portion of the Landes. This District was 
temporarily under the supervision and control of No. 12 District, but in order 
to keep pace with the continued growth and expansion it became necessary to 
establish a Group Headquarters, and this new administration became an 
accomphshed fact on 16th February, 1918. On this date the Headquarters 
of No. 12 District was moved to Facture, where its Q.M. Stores, M.l. Park 
and Technical Warehouse had already been for some time situated. Under 




No. 43. 



Railing Logs, France. 



Cj'. 



the altered conditions No. 12 District comprised Companies 45, 46, 48, 49, 
79 and 80. The average weekly output at this time amounted to approximately 
2,000,000 F.B.M.. the total personnel being 94 officers, 2,848 other ranks, 
and 845 horses. 

In August, 1918, two additional Companies arrived in the area. No. 15 
going to Bicarosse, Landes, under the administration of No. 12 District 
Headquarters, and No. 27 Company to Laluque, Landes, under No. 4 District. 

Sufficient has been said with regard to the Districts and individual 
Companies already noted to render a detailed description of the work of these 
Companies in the Bordeaux District superfluous. 

The Noyon Detachment.— This Detachment consisted of three Companies, 
Nos. 51, 55 and 76. They were sent from No. 10 District, then located at Apilly, 
to work in the French Army area on sawing salvaged timber which had been 
cut down by the Germans before their retreat in 1917. The first of these three 
Companies arrived at the end of July, and the last by the end of September. 
No. 51 Company worked in the Forest of Coucy for the production of sawn 
lumber, and No. 76 in the same forest for making fuel wood and small defence 
timber. No. 55 Company began work at Quesny, producing sawn timber 
from woods in the vicinity. These operations were completed by the middle 
of January, 1918, although they were exceedingly difficult, both on account 
of the very rough nature of the ground and of the frequent and heavy artillery 
fire from enemy guns during the exploitation. As an appreciation of this 
work on behalf of the French Government, certain Officers, N.C.O.'s and men 
were decorated with the Croix de Guerre, and highly recommended by 
General Humbert, then in command of the 3rd Army. 

The Marne Group. — Early in June, 1918, it was decided to arrange a new 
Group Headquarters to cover No. 10 District, and a new District No 11 for 
Aerodrome Contruction work. Companies Nos. 31, 33 and 76 were included 
in No. 10 District, and Nos. 12, 13 and 75 in No. 1 1 District. The Headquarters 
were established at the office of the Paris Detachment at 14 Place des Etats 
Unis, Paris. At the beginning of September, Companies 9, 10 and 11 were 
added to No. 11 District, and a little later Nos. 7 and 8 to the same District. 
Just afterwards No. 10 District took over No. 75 Company, and No. 69 Company 
was transferred to the same District. No. 10 District was originally known as 
the Eclaron Detachment from its situation at Eclaron, Haute Marne. No. 75 
Company, while working a Scotch mill in that part of the Foret Domaniale de 
Retz known as " Villers-Cotterets," near Boursonne-Coyelles, and situated 
about a mile from the front line, was obliged to camouflage its mill. Operations 
were carried on both night and day, although from time to time interrupted by 
air raids and shell fire. 

No. 11 District originated from a request by Major-Gen. H. Trenchard 
of the Independent Air Force, R. A.F., through the Air Ministiy, for two Canadian 
Forestry Companies to undertake the construction and preparation of aerodrome 
grounds for the Independent Air Force. Nine sites were named, and in order 
to carry on the work it was decided to organise a special District. The first 
two Companies required were mobilised in England, and arrived on the scene 
of operations early in July, 1918. Work was pressed forward as rapidly as 
possible, but many of the areas were under crop which could not be taken off 
before the end of August, so it was arranged that the Canadians should help 
the farmers to lift their crops. Trenches and dug-outs had to be constructed, 
and the horses kept in small bunches scattered among the woods on account of 
the Uability to attack from enemy air squadrons. These Companies were first 
assisted by prisoners of war, but afterwards by Chinese. Three further 
Companies, Nos. 9, 10 and 11, arrived at the end of August, further sites having 
been arranged. On completing their work for the Independent Air Force the 
Companies moved to the British Army areas, where they were engaged upon 
miscellaneous work such as filling trenches, clearing barbed wire, etc., working 



46 

53, 59. 60, 71, 72, 73 and 74, whilst in No. 4 District were Companies 55, 78, 
with the R.A.F. Groups until the conclusion of hostilities. During the Advance, 
work was done by the C.F.C. Companies in preparing aerodromes for occupation, 
by erecting hangars, filling depressions, levelling knolls, building stretches of 
road, and generally clearing up. The high appreciation in which the Canadians' 
work was held by the British Authorities is illustrated by the following : — 
Letter from the War Office, 21st October, 1918 :— 

" I am commanded to inform you that it is with great pleasure 
that the Army Council learn from the Secretary of the Air Ministry 
that a letter conveying high appreciation of the work done for 
the Independent Air Force by your Corps has been sent to you on 
the 12th inst." 

Extract from letter of Sir John Hunter, K.B.E., Administrator of Works 
and Buildings, Air Ministry : — 

" You will observe from the attached letter the high terms of 
praise in which General Trenchard speaks of the work carried out by 
your Companies. I desire to associate myself with this expression 
of praise, and hope to have the pleasure of meeting you in the near 
future and of explaining to you personally how grateful we feel for 
the assistance you have given me." 

Extract from letter of Major-General Trenchard : — 

" I am most grateful for the work they (Forestry Corps) have 
done, for which I have nothing but praise." 

We may conclude this chapter with some opinions expressed by French 
Authorities upon the work of the Canadians. At the meeting of the CT.B.G., 
on 27th December, General Chevalier said :■ — 

" Since the last Committee Meeting, there have been great events, 
owing to the gallantry of the Allied Armies and to their Chief's science. 
Our enemies have been defeated everywhere, and they finally let go, 
imploring Armistice, which has been the consecration of our glorious 
Army and of the Allied Armies. These events have a consequence 
as far as we are concerned, in that they put an end to the task we had 
of supplying timber to the Armies. We now mostly have to proceed 
to the liquidation of existing organizations, and this will be the chief 
object of this meeting. In any case I believe I am entitled to say in 
the name of all of us, that in spite of the great difficulties we have 
met, our main duty has been accomplished, and I have never heard 
that any Allied Army lacked the timber which was indispensable 
for the War. I therefore thought we might establish that to-day, 
before opening this last meeting of the C.I.B.G. (Comite Interallie 
des Bois de Guerre)." 
In referring to a letter from Mr. Thirien, Conservator of Waters and Forests 
at Alenfon, he said : — 

" I wish to particularly thank the Canadians for all they have 
done in order to assist us. Most of the Canadian Companies have given us 
half of their output, and this has been of a great importance in the War. 
They have executed very difficult work for the aviation timber in 
the Jura, where the Labergement Mill has been a very remarkable 
installation. 

" I wish to thank the Allies for the efficient aid they have brought 
us in the exploitation of burnt pines in the Landes, where the fires 
have been a real disaster in the region. I must add that it had not 
depended upon me to give them a more tangible proof of our gratitude, 
but I hope to be able to do so before the end of the War. 
(Addressing Col. Donnelly): 

" I very much regret that General McDougall is not here, which 
prevents me from thanking him personally, and you will please 
transmit my thanks to him." 




No. 44. Railing Logs : Part of a 2,000 ft. Track which drops 195 ft. 




iNo. 45. 



Railhead in the Vosges. 



47 

Table of Operations in France. — In the following table are given the 
names of the operations carried out by the various Companies, the period of 
working, and the production. The location of the Districts and Groups is 
shown on the map, page 



Coy. 
No. 




Period Operating. 

A 




Total Produced. 


Location of Operation. 


Commence- 


Com- 




Cubic 


Equivalent 






ment. 


pletion. 




feet. 


F.B.M. 


CENTRAL GROUP. 












14 


Bois Normand 


. 27-11-16 . 


. 17- 4-17 


" 








Bois Anzeray 
Beaumesnil 


. 18- 4-17 . 
. 10- 8-17 . 


. 9- 8-17 
. 18- 4-18 


> 


2,131,957 . 


. 25,583,484 




Conches . . 


. 19- 4-18 . 


. 10- 1-19 








15 


Pare de Conches . . 


. 17-12-16 . 


. 22- 5-17 










Le Chapelle 


. 23- 5-17 . 


. 18-11-17 








Montiers Hubert 


. 19-11-17 . 


. 27- 7-18 




2,618,482 . 


. 31,421,784 




Chambray Detach 


. 4- 2-18 . 


. 3- 8-18 






19 


Conches . . 
Dreux 


. 22- 1-17 . 
. 23- 7-17 . 


. 29- 9-17 
. 8- 1-19 


} 


1,994,123 


. 23,929,476 


20 


Bois Normand 


. 9- 1-17 . 


— 


1 








Blanchelande 


. 10- 2-17 . 


. 29- 7-17 


[ 


1,590,362 


. 19,084,344 




Perseigne 


. 30- 7-17 . 


. 16- 1-19 


J 






23 


Rouvray . . 

Bord 


. 25- 3-17 . 
. 19- 6-18 . 


. 29- 6-18 
. 15- 1-19 


} 


3,303,888 


. 39,646,656 


24 


Conches (Det. Beautry) 
Conches H. and R. 


, 31- 7-18 . 
. 4- 3-18 . 


. 12- 9-18 


} 


1,503,376 


. 18,040,512 


30 


Bois L'Eveque . . 
Belleme . . 


. 22- 4-17 . 
. 7- 1-18 . 


. 12- 1-18 
. 12- 1-19 


} 


1,667,344 


. 20,008,128 


32 


Dreux 
La Trappe 


. 19- 6-17 . 
. 21-10-18 . 


. 19-10-18 
. 2- 1-19 


} 


1,185,930 


. 14,231,160 


34 


Dreux 
Beaumont 


. 21- 6-17 . 
. 17- 6-18 . 


. 29- 6-18 


} 


1,542,464 


. 18,509,568 


38 


Andaine . . 


. 31- 7-17 . 


. 8- 2-18 


1 








Perseigne 


. 9- 2-18 . 


. 24- 4-18 


[ 


1,285.424 


. 15,425,088 




Belleme . . 


. 25- 4-18 . 


. 16- 1-19 


J 






41 


Montembert 
Senonches 


. 15- 6-17 . 
. 6- 6-18 . 


. 5- 6-18 
. 13- 1-19 


} 


854,784 


. 10.257,408 


42 


Andaine . . 


. 23- 7-17 . 


. 21-10-17 










Bois du Chateau 
L'Eveque 


. 22-10-17 . 
. 18- 5-18 . 


. 1- 3-18 
. 3- 8-18 


> 


1,542,314 


. 18,507,768 




D'Ecouves 


. 3- 3-18 . 


— 








43 


Bois Villette 


. 1- 7-17 . 


. 5- 5-18 


1 








Les Sausseux 


. 31-12-17 . 


. 15- 6-18 


[ 


1,369,424 


. 16,433,088 




La Bourse 


. 25- 5-18 . 


. 11- 1-19 


i 






44 


Andaine . . 
Bagnoles . . 


. 31- 7-17 . 
. 29- 5-18 . 


. 13- 7-18 
. 21-12-18 


} 


1,681,045 


. 20,172,540 


54 


Bois L'Eveque . . 


. 16- 7-17 . 


. 27-10-17 


1 








Bois Pelay 


. 22-10-17 . 


. 30- 4-18 


[ 


1,601,376 


. 19,216,512 




Senonches 


. 30- 5-18 . 


. 15- 1-19 


J 






53 


Le Ferrier 
Le Haut Brau 


. 15- 9-17 . 


— 


} 


39,946 


479,352 


78 


Mortree . . 

Bois L'Eveque . . 

TOTAL .. .. 


. 10-10-17 .. 1-12-17 
Central Group . . 


}_ 


20,533 
25,932,772 


246,396 




. 311,193.264 


JURA GROUP. 












21 


La Joux . . 
Labergement 


. 5- 3-17 . 
. 3- 6-18 . 


. 1- 6-18 
. 25- 1-19 


} 


1,043,280 


. 12,519.360 


22 


La Joux . . 
Rochjean 


. 26- 3-17 . 
. 19- 9-18 . 


. 18- 9-18 
. 31-12-18 


} 


1,588,907 


. 19,066,884 


36 


La Joux . . 
Labergement 


. 13- 8-17 . 
. 26- 6-18 . 


. 1- 4-18 
. 25- 1-19 


} 


1,266,347 


. 15,196,164 


39 


La Fresse ' . . 


.. 30- 5-17 . 


. 17-12-18 




2,046,763 


. 24,561,156 



48 



Coy. 
No. 



Location of Operation. 



Jura Group — continued. 
40 Montoux (La Fresse) 

La Joux , . 
47 La Joux . . 

Larderet (La Fresse) 

La Fresse 

50 La Joux . . 
52 La Joux . . 

Levier (Villers 
La Fresse 

57 La Joux . . 
Montoux (La Fresse) 
La Fresse 

58 La Joux . . 
Levier (Villers) 

70 La Joux . . 

Villers 

28 La Joux . . 

Martimprey (Vologne) . 

Gehant 

51 Noiregoutte (Rochesson) 
56 Vologne . . 

Gehant 

69 Vologne 

77 Vologne 

Noiregoutte 

TOTAL 
BORDEAUX GROUP. 



15 


Parentis . . 


45 


Saussouze . . 




Biscarrosse 


46 


La Saussouze 




Parentis . . 


48 


Saussouze . . 




Marcheprime 
Andernos 




Hourtin . . 


49 


La Saussouze 




Biscarosse 


53 

57 
59 


Marcheprime 
Le Renent (Lanton) 
Esley (Parentis) . . 
Cez (Beliet) 
Parentis . . 


60 


Cez 




Parentis . . 


71 


Marcheprime 
Audenge . . 


72 


Marcheprime 
Lanton 


73 


Le Porge . . 
Caudos 


74 


Esley (Parentis) . . 
Caudos 


27 
55 

78 


Esley (Parentis) . . 
La Luque 
Lesperon (Tirbiste) 
Lesperon (Choy) 
Bouscaldy (Jean de Lon 
Leon-les-Landes . . 


79 
80 


Lesperon (Old) . . 
Lesperon (New) . . 
Lesperon (Old) . . 
Lesperon (New) . . 




TOTAL 



Period 


Operating. 


Total Produced. 


Commence 


Com- 


Cubic 


Equivalent 


ment. 


pletion. 


Feet. 


F.B.M. 


. 28- 5-17 


. 3-11-17 


\ 




. 4-11-17 


. 31-12-18 


> 373 . 


4.476 


. 28- 6-17 


. 7- 7-17 


1 




. 8- 7-17 


. 25-12-17 


> 12,469 . 


149.628 


. 26-12-17 


. 30-12-18 




15- 7-17 . 


. 18- 1-19 


. 1,422,437 . 


. 17.069,244 


17- 7-17 . 


. 7-8-17 


[ 1,526,261 . 




. 15- 9-17 . 


. 25-10-18 


. 18,315,132 


26-10-18 . 


. — 


J 




28- 7-17 . 


. 3-11-17 


1 




4-11-17 . 


. 25-12-17 


y 8,176 . 


98,112 


26-12-17 . 


— . 


J 




3- 8-17 . 


. 2- 9-17 ■ 


\ 




3- 9-17 . 


. 18- 1-19 


\- 597 . 


7,164 


16- 8-17 . 


. 15- 9-17 ' 


I 




21-10-17 . 




\- 1,704,379 . 


. 20,452,548 


26- 4-17 . 


'. 23- 7-17 ' 


t 




29- 8-17 . 


. 25-10-18 


y 2,142,149 . 


. 25,705,788 


26-10-18 . 


. 4- 1-19 


J 




2- 2-18 . 


. 27-12-18 .' 


. 1,201,835 . 


14,422,020 


9- 8-17 . 
28-10-18 . 


: 2M2:l8 } 202.869 . 


2,434,428 


20- 8-17 . 


. 14- 9-18 . 


186,928 . 


2,243,136 


13-10-17 . 
26- 3-18 . 


. 19- 3-18 ^ 
. 17- 1-19 ^ 

roup 

. 13- 1-19 . 


204,624 . 


2,455,488 


JuraG 


14,558,394 . 


174.700.728 


30-10-18 . 


1,344 . 


16.128 


28- 7-17 . 


. 15- 4-18 1 






27- 3-18 . 


— 


^ 3,089,109 . 


37,069,308 


17- 6-17 . 


. 23- 2-18 1 






3- 2-18 . 


— 


^ 3,406,517 . 


40,878,204 


28- 6-17 . 


. 25- 8-17 1 






21- 8-17 . 
16- 4-18 . 


. 27- 7-18 \ 
. —12-18 f 


> 1,857,109 .. 


22,285,308 


21-10-18 . 


. - , 






16- 7-17 . 


. 4- 5-18 ] 






27- 3-18 . 


— / 


"■Logging Only 




9-11-17 . 


2- 2-18 1 






30- 1-18 . 


— ; 


- 1,347,472 .. 


16,169,664 


31-10-18 . 




66,229 .. 


794.748 


17- 9-17 . 


10- 3-18 \ 






26- 2-18 . 


— J 


• 2,516,901 .. 


30.202.812 


16- 8-17 . 


31- 1-18 \ 






26- 2-18 . 


— / 


62.570 .. 


750,840 


1- 9-17 . 


9- 3-18 \ 






10- 3-18 . 


— / 


■ 1,017,893 .. 


12,214.716 


17- 8-17 . 


1- 3-18 1 






25- 2-18 . 


I 


453.861 .. 


5.446,332 


23-11-18 . 


— J 






24- 9-17 . 


18- 7-18 \ 


1,910.682 .. 


22,928,184 


25- 6-18 . 


— / 






24- 9-17 . 


24- 8-18 i 


45,621 .. 


547.452 


25- 6-18 . 


— J 






2- 8-18 . . 


— 


316.474 .. 


3,797,688 


30- 1-18 .. 


29- 5-18 ^ 






30- 5-18 . . 


19-10-18 } 


1.046.453 .. 


12.557,436 


4-11-18 .. 


- J 






7-11-17 .. 




1.664.581 .. 


19,974.972 


30-10-17 .. 
20- 7-18 . . 


26- 6-18 \ 


26,954 .. 


323,448 


1- 4-18 .. 
13- 8-18 .. 


20- 9-18 i 
Group . . 


1,746,901 .. 


20.962.812 


Bordeaux 


20,576.6.71 .. 


246,920.052 




No. 46. 



Removing Sawdust, France. 




No. 47 



Hauling from a Mill in the Vosges. 




3 

o> 



49 









Period 


perating. 


Total Produced. 


Coy. 

No. 


A 






.j< 


Location of Operation. Commence 


Com- 


Cubic 


Equivalent 




ment. 


pletion. 


feet. 


F.B.M. 


DISTRICT No. 9. 








1 


Crecy 


.. 1- 3-18 . 


. 25- 1-19 . 


. 2.071.851 . 


. 24.862.212 


2 


Bois D'Olhain . . 




. 25- 5-18 . 


. 27-10-18 ' 








Bois Bailleul 




. 17- 6-18 . 


. 10- 8-18 


> 523,824 . 


. 6.285,888 




Raismes . . 




. 28-10-18 . 


— 






25 


Blavincourt 




. 13- 2-17 . 


. 17-11-17 ' 








Lucheux 




. 9-10-17 . 




* 3,037,963 . 


. 36.455,556 


26 


Auxi le Chateau . . 




. 4- 3-17 . 


'. 16-11-18 ' 








Meserolles 




. 12- 8-18 . 


— 


* 1,861,851 . 


22,342,212 


27 


Toutencourt 




. 3- 3-17 . 


. 20- 7-17 








Vadencourt 




. 21- 7-17 . 


. 9- 3-18 


y 1.163,941 . 


. 13,967,292 




St. Just de Merais 




. 9- 3-18 . 


. 10- 8-18 J 






29 


Bois de Bray 
Moreiul . . 
Hendecourt 




. 22- 4-17 . 
. 2- 6-17 . 
. 7- 7-17 . 


. 1- 6-17 ' 
. 7- 7-17 
. 10- 8-17 








Boiry Ste. Rectrude 
Meaulte . . 




. 11- 8-17 . 
. 2- 9-17 . 


. 19- 1-18 
. 23- 3-18 


> 1,652,747 . 


. 19,832.964 




Bois d'en Haut . . 




. 24- 3-18 . 


. 11- 7-18 








Pas 




. 12- 7-18 . 


. 5-11-18 








Mormal 




. 21-11-18 . 


. 19- 1-19 






35 


Logeast . . 




. 6- 5-17 . 


< 








Loupart Blainville 




— 


'. 23- 2-18 


s 1,194,219 . 


. 14.330,628 




Pont Remy 




. 13- 2-18 . 


. 11- 1-19 , 






37 


Bois L'Abbe 

Bois Bias 

Cherrywood 




. 19- 5-17 . 
. 27-10-17 . 
. 27-10-17 . 


•> 








Chuignes . . 
Delville Wood . . 




. 31-12-17 . 
. 9 1-18 . 


— 


> 1.989.120 . 


. 23,869,440 




Maricourt Wood . . 




. 2- 1-18 . 


— 






Forestel . . 




. 25- 3-18 . 











Havrincourt 




. 11-11-18 . 


^o. 9 








TOTAL District 1 

INE GROUP. 


13,495,516 . 


. 161,946,192 


MAI 






DISTRICT No. 10. 








31 


Der 7-11-17 . 





976,752 . 


. 11.721,024 


33 


Der 


. 24-11-17 . 


— 


666,773 . 


8,001,276 


69 


St. Etienne (Compeigne) 


. 11-11-18 . 


. 31-12-18 . 


. Logging only 




75 


CoyoUes . . 


. 1-10-17 . 


. 10- 4-18 ^ 


1 300,645 . 


'. 3,607,740 




Lusigny . . 


. 26- 4-18 . 


. 15-12-18 J 


r 




76 


Pierremande 


. 24- 9-17 . 


. 26- 1-18 1 


1 306.693 . 


. 3,680,316 




Der 


. 4- 2-18 . 


— J 


r 




51 


Coucy 


. 30- 7-17 . 


. 1- 2-18 . 


240.016 . 


. 2.880,192 


55 


Coucy 


. 23- 7-17 . 


. 29- 1-18 . 
•To. 10 
icts 


181,328 . 


. 2,175,936 




TOTAL District 1 

GRAND TOTAL . . . . AU Distr 


2.672.207 . 


. 32.066.484 




77,235,560 . 


. 926.826,720 



Note. — In the case of Companies which had not completed operations the production 
jures are given up to the end of December, 1918. 

SUMMARY. 



Production in France from commencement of Operations to end 

of year, 1918. 



Period. 

Commencement to end of year, 1917 
Jan. 1st, 1918, to end of year, 1918 

GRAND TOTAL 



Sawn 
Material. 
F.B.M. 

131,691.903 
424.251.009 

555,942.912 



Round 
Material. 
Tons. 

53.567 
170,715 

224,282 



Slabs 

and Fuel 

Tons. 

149,483 
454,101 

603.584 



(504) 



I 



^