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Full text of "The Canadian horticulturist [monthly], 1914"

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Toronto Public Library, 



Reference Department. 



THIS BOOK MUST NOT BETAKEN OUT OF THE ROOM. 



'AL 




1914 
THE CANADIAN HORTICULTU 

INDEX TO VOLUME XXXVII 




tog't \i J*"' 



Civic Improvement — 

Park Svstem for Small Towns 5 

Rochester the City of Parks 174 

Accomplishmemts of the High Park 

Horticultural Society 195 

Conventions, Reports of — 

Canadian Horticultural Association . . 2tJo 
Dominion Fruit Conference Resolu- 
tions • • ■ • ^' 

The Fourth Dominion Fruit Cornfer- 

ence • • ^^^ 

The Ontario Horticultural Associa- 
tion '^^ 

Ontario Fruit Growers' Convention 294 

Editorials — 

Death of Alexander McNeil 12 

Hii>h Cost of Living 12 

The Front Lawn Problem 12 

Spraying ^^ 

Ontario Fruit 38 

Selling Fruit by Post 70 

The Jordan Station 7(i 

Big Business 70 

Planni.ng the Small Garden 102 

I'ruit Commissioner Wanted 102 

V Widening Vision 102 

The Improvement Tax 132 

Cooperative Principles 132 

Two Welcome Announcements 132 

The late Linus Woolverto^n 156 

.\n Entomological Division 156 

Civic Beautification 156 

I'nited Action Needed 178 

A Plea for Parks 178 

Fighting Orchard Pests 178 

More School Gardens 178 

An Kconomic Impossibilitv 200 

Protection of Bird Life 201) 

The Sod Mulch 200 

School Gardens 200 

The European War 224 

i:ifect of the War 224 

Ship onlv Good Fruit West 224 

Methods of The Future 248 

Civic Improvements 248 

The late Dr. Wm. Saunders 268 

A Lesson for Ontario '■ . . . 268 

A New Situation to Face 268 

• Signs of Progress 292 

The Middleman's Problem 292 

Ready for an Advance 292 

Fertilizers — 

Commercial 130 

Some Uses for Fallen Leaves 220 

Soil Sterilization for Ginseng 223 

Flowers — 

Home Culture of Chrysanthemums.. 67 
Orchids — The Godess of the Flower 

Families 95 

Planting Roses and the Time 96 



Rose Culture 99 

The Culture of Sweet Peas 127 

Making Flower Beds 127 

Experimental Work With 128 

Art of Potting 129 

Summer Care of Roses 150 

Results from Home Grown Seeds . . . 152 

Chrysanthemums and their Culture.. 153 

Exhibiting the Sweet Peas 174 

Seasonable Paragraphs for the Gar- 
dener 193 

Treatment of Calla/ Lily 194 

The Growing of Roses 196 

Modern Herbaceous Pasony 218 

Planting Notes for the Fall 241 

The Hyacinth 261 

The Hardy Border for Manitoba . . . 265 
Floral Effects in an Amateur's Garden 285 
The Best Roses for Amateur Garden- 
ers 286 

The Charm of the Chrysanthemum . . 287 

The Sweet Pea : A Queen of the Annuals 289 

Fruit — 

Wrapped and Unwrapped Fruit in 

Boxes 3 

Apple Crop Prospects viii. 

Realty vs. Fiction in the Business ... 57 
Cooperation in Marketing Apples ... 72 

Better Fruits at Less Cost 90 

Varieties of Currants and Gooseber- 
ries 92 

The PoUinization of 124 

Admiinistration of the Fruit Marks Act 133 

Reducing the Cost of Production 145 

The Production of Gooseberries .... 146 
The Culture of Raspberries and 

Strawberries 147 

Factors in Fruit Growing 148 

Tomatoes under Glass 156 

Successful Methods with Strawber- 
ries and Tomatoes 154 

Cooperative Marketing of Fruit 134, 180 

Growing Grapes under Glass 189 

Exhibition of 213 

Modern Marketing Problems ; How 

we are Meeting Them 215 

Packing for Export 226 

Common Mistakes in Barrel Packing 

of Apples 230 

First Sales of Ontario Pr*-Cooled 

Fruit 233 

The Exhibition of 238 

Pre-cooling of 239 

The Barrel Packing- of Apples 240 

Packing for Exhibition aind Market 

216, 253 
Should Fruit Inspectors give out Cer- 
tificates ? 255 

Choosing Varieties of Apples for 

British Columbia 257 

Needed Improvement in Marketing 

Methods 259 

Protecting Trees from Mice and Rab- 
bits 264 

Conditions in Winnipeg and the West 270 



Yield of Apple Trees at Different Ages 282 
The Apple, The National Dish of 

Canada 284 

Fruit Business from the Retailer's 

Standpoint 297 

An Apple Consumption Campaign . . . 301 
Apple Advertising Campaign Com- 
mended 302 

Advantages of Cooperative Marketing 303 

Gardens — 

Of Bagnell Hall 7 

New Year's Plans for Next Summer's 9 

Pergolias in the > 35 

The Beeches 63 

Plans for this Year's 97 

Making a Lawn 125 

Of Cottesmore Hall . 149 

.'Vnd Lawm Hints for June 151 

Fall Notes for the Flower 219 

Simple Plans 221 

Fall W?ork in the 242 

Greenhouse — 

Suitable Types for Vegetable Culture 10 
March Work in Indoor Garden and. . . 64 
Managing for Profits 198 

Horticultural Societies — 

13, 39, 71, 103, 133, 157, 178, 201, 249, 269 

Hotbeds — 
Concrete — and Cold Frames 266 

Insects and Diseases — 

The Apple Scab — How the Fumgus 

Spreads 1 

Plants and their Insect Pests 31 

Orchard Aphids and their Control... 59 

Fruit Tree Borers 122 

Orchard Aphids and their Control... 123 

Potato Scab 155 

Specific Diseases of Ginseng 176 

Fire Bligfit and How to Fight It . . . 191 

Garden Enemies 197 

Diseases of Ginsemg 246 

Cherry Fruit Flies 281 

Peach Canker 283 

Markets — , , 

" • * • 

Ontario and North-Wesf.,. . . .•;*.'*.vV.>**'S2 
The Western Market fpt^titario Fruit '^H 

:::•• •::■ 

Nova Scotia — '••• •" 

• • 
Cooperative Work ill ''the Annapolis 

Valley '.'■.. 1^. 

How Growers have <3v^^ome Trade •, '• 

Conditions '.'J / _.^ . , ...'.VqTd 

Success of Cooperative Effort iK*.»/.*a08 



Orih.r.l 

TtiinniinK tho Apple M8 

Cover Crops for thp 169 

Profits from an Apple 171 

Sod Mulch vs. Cultivation 190 

Pe.iches — 

Tree Borer, Methods of Control ... 30 

Pears— 

And Pear Culture 91,122 

Perennials- 
Border at Small Cost 93 

Hardy 129 

Preparations for the Perennial Border 173 

Plants — 

Startinu- Indoors 33 

The Tuberous Beddiinjc Bejronia 65 

Short Hints on Planting 99 

Summer Care of Palms IS** 

Wintering' Flowering SC! 



£hrub<;— ' |^ 

PhuitinK and Pruning I2U 

Plantinjf for Winter Effect 243 

Hardy Conifers 244, 288 

Sprayinjf — 

Why we Spray, When we Spray, and 

How we Spray 25 

Mixtures for Currants and Gooseber- 
ries 26 

Results in Neglected Orchards 27 

To Prevent Apple Scab 28 

Suggestions 29 

Efficient .'\pparatus Required 61 

What Spray Mixtures shall we use in 

1914 in Ontario 89 

Last Year's Test of Soluble Sulphur. 92 

The New Soluble Sulphur Spray 121 

Killing Dandelions 152 

Transportation — 

O. ¥. Growers and Transportation 

Problems 14 



\'f;^etablr- 

I'l ^1? II 

Toin.itoc^ under Glass 37 

The Goal of Modem Vegetable Grow- 
ing 68 

Results Obtained from Potato Seed 

Selection 69 

Progressive Culture of KM) 

Sowing Seeds lOil 

Karly Potatoes 131 

Seasonable Paragraphs for the Gar- 
dener 176 

Growing Pickling Onions Success- 
fully 177 

Tomato Pruning 177 

Growin" under Glass 199 

Forcing Rhubarb 217 

Mushroom Culture on a Large Scale. 222 

Hints to Horticultural Exhibitors . . . 222 

Helpful Pointers on Gardening 245 

Reminders 267 

Pointers -. . . 2!)I 

Ontario Growers Discuss Seed Pro- 
duction 298 






s*^ ^ 



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i 



The Ginadiaii Hortlcu lturi^ 



ol. XXXVII 



JANUARY, 1914 



No. 



The Apple Scab— How the Fungus Spreads 



* 



L. Caesar, Provincial Entomologist, Ontario 



I 



I 



APPLE scab, or Fungus as it is 
sometimes called, is by far the 
most destructive apple disease 
found in Ontario. It occurs in every 
part of the province where the apple 
i,rro\vs. It is not the same disease as 
the Pear Scab, so common on Flemish 
Beauty and some other varieties of pears, 
but is very closely related. Its presence 
is of course most familiar to us in the 
form of the black spots on the fruit, the 
skin of the apple always being destroyed 
beneath these spots. 

It attacks the leaves just about as 
readily as the fruit. This fact is per- 
haps not so well known to fruit growers. 
On the leaves it causes at first small 
nearly circular areas about one-fourth of 
an inch in diameter, and of an olive col- 
or. .After a while the affected parts of- 
ten become somewhat elevated making 
the surface of the leaf irregular or more 
or less crinkled. Before long these spots 
die. Sometimes there are nume'rous 
spots on the leaves. I have seen leaves 
of crab apple trees so badly attacked on 
blade and petiole or stem that most of 
them fall off by about the first of July. 

♦Kxtract from an address delivered at the re- 
cent annual convention of the Ontario Fruit 
Growers' Association. 



A fresh set soon took their place. Oc- 
casionally but not oYdinarily the tender 
twigs themselves are attacked. 

LOSS CAUSED BY THE DiSEASE 

Loss oomes in the following ways : 

First: Scabby fruit must be rejected, 
as culls at any rate can never go as 
number one. 

Second : In moist warm autumns the 
scabby areas on apples in a barrel will 
soon become attacked by a whitish or 
pinkish mould, known as pink rot. This 
makes the apple not only unsightly but 
unmarketable. Greenings arc especially 
subject to the rot. Even apart from this 
disease scabby apples will not keep so 
well as clean apples. 

Third : The scab fungus commonly at- 
tacks the stems of the fruit while it is 
still small and causes large numbers to 
fall. Sometimes it is evidently in a large 
degree responsible for the failure of a 
crop. 

Fourth : By attacking the leaves and 
killing areas on these it not only inter- 
feres with the power of a tree to manu- 
facture food (the food of a tree is manu- 
factured chiefly in the green leaves) but 
also permits spray injury around the 
areas where the protecting skin has 




Ijeen destroyed. Consequently the \'ig()r 
of a tree may be greatly lessenf'd by 
these combined injuries to the leaves. 
The following year the chances of a 
good crop are, therefore, greatly less- 
ened through the failure of a tree to 
form fruit buds. This is one of the rea- 
sons why well sprayed orchards regu- 
larly yield larger crops than unsprayed 
and are healthier unless injured by over 
cultivation or over fertilizing and conse- 
quent winter injury. 

LIFE HISrum OF THE FUNGUS 

The fungus which causes apple scab 
is a very small microscopic plant which 
unlike green plants cannot manufacture 
its own food but feeds entirely upon 
other plants, or in other words is a para- 
site. It passes the winter almost en- 
tirely upon the old diseased dead leaves 
on the ground beneath the tree or wher- 
ever they may be blovim by the wind. 
Occasionally it may also winter on the 
twigs. In the spring, about the time the 
leaves are expanding, the diseased spots 
on the dead leaves by a peculiar device 
liegin to shoot out into the air in moist 
weather tiny little spores which are car- 
ried by the Wind especially to the lower 
leaves. 

These spores correspond to seeds, and 





\ Portion of an Eighty-Acre Orchard in the Tranton Di»trict of Ontario 

Dj vv. A. rr.wrei. apple ilistrittB of the oontincui. 



THE CANADIAN HORTICULTURIST 



January, 1914 




Young Trees Girdled bjr Rabbits 

- Photo bv K S. Duncan. B.S.A.. Port Hope. Ont 

like seeds they cannot germinate unless 
they get an abundance of moisture ; 
hence if the days are bright and sunny 
they will not grow but if rain falls and 
does not dry off for about twelve or 
eighteen hours they will germinate, and 
begin to enter the leaves. Once the 
fferm tube has worked through the skin 
of the leaf it grows rapidly and forms 
many little threads or rootlets as we 
may call them. From these in a few days 
a host of little threads burst up through 
the skin and keep producing on their 
tips crops of countless spores. These 
are constantly being blown by the wind 
from leaf to leaf and everywhere through- 
out the orchard, and get also on the 
stems of the young fruits, and on the 
fruits themselves. Here, again, if given 
sufficient moisture, they will germinate " 
and produce scabby areas on all these 
places. 

It is while the fruit and leaves are still 
small that the fungus spreads most. 
Once the fruit is three quarters of an 
inch in size it is not nearly so subject to 
attack. This is probably due to two rea- 
sons : First, the skin has been growing 
thicker and so is more difficult for the 
fungus to penetrate. Second, the weath- 
er is warmer and brighter, the nights are 
shorter and so there is seldom a suffic- 
iently prolonged period of moisture for 
the spores to germinate. As to the time 
necessary for this, I have had them in 
the laboratory at a temperature of about 
sixty degrees F. germinate in between 
twelve and eighteen hours; at about fif- 
ty degrees they were a little longer, and 
outside at a temperature varying from a 



little below freezing to forty degrees F. 
they had just begun to germinate in 
forty-eifirhty hours. 

It is probable that the germ tube soon 
enters the apple after beginning to grow. 
Once it enters it cannot be killed by any 
spray, hence spraying is to cover leaves 
and fruit and prevent sf>ores from ger- 
minating. From about the middle or 
end of June until the last week in Aug- 
ust there is seldom any noticeable in- 
crease in the amount of scab, but with the 
return of longer nights and lower tem- 
peratures, if there -is an abundance of 
continuous wet or foggy weather, as hap- 
pened in the fall of 191 2, we may look 
for a fresh outbreak of the disease, and 
should spray to prevent it. The inky spot 
or sooty fungus of the fruit is also favor- 
ed by this kind of weather. Leaves are 
apparently even more subject to this late 
attack than the fruit and hence there are 
always plenty of these diseased to carry 
the fungus through the winter. 

Methods of Cultivation 

E. S. Archibald, WoUville, N. S. 

Mv experience with a part of my or- 
chard for six or seven years in sod is 
that it gave returns both in quantity and 
quality equal to any other parts of the 
orchard of same variety of trees (Grav- 
ensteins.) I applied the same kinds and 
Quantities of fertilizers as to the part of 
the orchard that was cultivated, and 
whatever grew on the ground I mowed 
and left as a mulch. I am strongly in- 
clined to put one-half of the older orchard 
under this treatment from now on and 
test it as against that of annual cultiva- 
tion and cover crop. 

My feeling is that with heavy clay 
land not well drained it would not be 
good but with dry, gravelly or sandy 
land it might be better than our present 
method. The mowing of grass 01 weeds 
and application of fertilizer will keep a 
mulch that seems to suit the trees al' 
right. I am not writing as an authority 
on this matter but have noted for many 
years trees that have no cultivation (in 
orchards not my own) and found them 
doing as well and sometimes better than 
where cultivation was thorough. Of 
course fertilizers of some kinds were an- 
nually applied. 

T would not dare recommend sod cul- 
ture as a general practice throughout the 
Annapolis Valley, for many farmers 
would rake up the grass mown and haul 
it to the barn for winter feed without 
putting anything back for mulch. I no- 
tice an up-to-date neighbor orchardist 
is treating his old orchard by alternate 
plowing and clover. That is, one side 
of the trees growing clover and the other 
sid^ cultivated and clover sown for the 
next year's growth. It means half rha 
orchard cultivated one year and the other 
half the next. This will enrich the 




A Young Tree in Mr. G. W. Neble'i Orcnara Mrappe 

with Tar Paper to Prerent Injar; b; Rabbits 
—Photo by R. S. Duncan, BS.A.^Port Hope, Ont. 

ground, but is probably hard on the 
feeding roots to be cut off the second 
year. 



When to Prune 

When is the best season to prune fruit 
trees?— W.L.K. 

A heavy pruning of either young or 
old trees is conducive to wood growth, 
rather than fruit bearing, no matter at 
what season of the year the pruning is 
done. A pinching back of the growing 
shoots during the summer months is 
conducive to fruit bearing. Care should 
be taken not to pinch back too severe- 
ly as severe heading in is equivalent to 
pruning and stimulates wood growth. 
If trees are making from twelve to 
eighteen inches of terminal growth, one- 
quarter or one-third of this may be tak- 
en off. This heading in tends to pro- 
duce short twigs or branches in the 
centre of the top and with all fruits 
which bear from spurs this is the first 
requisite to fruitfulness. As a rule we 
should not expect results from pruning 
during the season when it is done, but 
the following year at the earliest. The 
German practice of bending the end of 
the shoot back and twisting it around 
the main branch lower down is probably 
better than pinching, as it checks the 
growth without removing the leaves. 

To induce fruitfulness in mature 



January, 1914 



THE CANADIAN HORTICULTURIST 



trees the practice of girdling is well 
known and in some cases advisable. 
Removing a circle of bark two-thirds of 
,n inch wide right around the branch 



I^Kan in 



early in the spring, thus permitting the 
sap to run up in the tree but preventing 
its return, will produce heavy bearing. 
Of course this practice cannot be fol- 



lowed too closely or one might ruin the 
tree. The fruit buds that determine the 
crops of the succeeding year are formed 
the spring of the year previous. 



Wrapped and Unwrapped Fruit in Boxes 

E. T. Palmer, Assistant Horticulturist, Ontario Department of Agriculture 



THE question of wrapping is attract- 
ing more and more attention each 
year from eastern growers, and 
rightly so. In the western states and 
British Columbia practically all number 
one fruit is wrapped. Conditons, how- 
ever, are somewhat different in Ontario, 
so that wrapping should be governed by 
the variety of apples and the market. 
Western growers are building up a high- 
class market with this high-class pro- 
duct, .'^t present, however, it is doubt- 
ful if it would pay the ordinary grower 
who has no special market for his fruit. 
Briefly, the advantages of wrapong 
are as follows : 

First : It improves the keeping r|ii,il- 
ity by preventing disease spreading f.tn-. 
fruit to fruit. 

Second : Apart from the control oi di- 
sease, it improves the keeping v|uaii';v-, 
in that wrapped fruit may be firm and in 
prime condition several weeks after un- 
wrapped fruit has become mealy from 
over-ripeness. 

Third: It protects the fruit from sud- 
den changes of temperature and absorbs 
surplus moisture. 

Fourth : It makes an elastic but firm 
pack, much less liable to shift than un- 
wrapped fruit. This applies particularly 
to easily bruised varieties ; it prolongs 
their life and good appearance. 

Fifth : It gives a more finished appear- 
ance to the package. It indicates a 
high-grade product and the fruit finds a 
readier sale and a higher price in many 
markets. 

Sixth : Once the knack of wrapping 
has been acquired, it is much easier in 
almost every way to pack wrapped fruit, 
as any packer skilled in both methods 
will testify. 

WRAPPED VS UNWRAPPED 

The main disadvantage of wrapping is 
that in rases where the fruit is not cool- 
ed at the time of packing, the wrapper 
prevents rapid cooling. There may be 
a difference of fen degrees F. at the end 
of one day between a box of unwrapped 
fruit and one wrapped. ' Wrapping, 
however, has so many advantages that 
this one disadvantage may be practical- 
ly disregarded. 

It seems to be the general opinion of 
those unfamiliar with wrapping that it 
adds to the cost of packing. As a mat- 
ter of fact the cost of the paper is al- 
most saved by the weight of fruit dis- 
placed by it. Further, experienced 
packers can do as quick or even quicker 
work wrapping than without. 



Again, it is easier to procure the pro- 
per bulge with wrapping, as the firm- 
ness of the pack can be varied consider- 
ably from the middle of the box to the 
ends without injuring the pack in any 
way. 

By packing the apples closer in the 
centre the pockets between the apples 
are closed up more. The next layer then 
will not sink so deep, and therefore 
builds up the centre. The ends being 
left a little looser, the pockets are open- 
ed a little more and the apples drop in 
further, and therefore do not build up so 
high. Practice alone will give the know- 



ledge of just how tight to pack the cen- 
tre or how loose to pack the ends. 

As this difference in firmness cannot 
be made with unwrapped fruit it is con- 
siderably harder to pack it and have as 
nicely finished a box. Again, as al- 
ready noted, there is more latitude in 
the style of pack when wrapping the 
fruit. 

Only number one fruit and possibly 
number two of the winter varieties 
should be wrapped. Usually all fruit 
intended for distant markets as Great 
Britain should be wrapped unless the 
market calls for unwrapped fruit, as the 



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AjWell LoadedgBritish Columbia Peach Trae 

(Photo by G. H. B. Hudaon, Kelowna). 



THE CANADIAN nORTICULTTTRTS T 



January, 'T i 




A Duchess Tree After Thinning 

'Phis tree was in one of the demonstration 

orchards in Durham <;ounty, Ont., where 

experiments in thinning showed a profit 

of over four dollars a. tree in favor 

of thinning. 



fruit carries mucii better. Wrap, too, 
for markets where there is competition 
wilh wrapped fruit from other districts. 

In wrapped fruit the top of the box 
sliould be packed last, while in unwrap- 
ed fruit the top is packed first. Packing 
the top of wrapped fruit first is a very 
poor method and should be discouraged, 
as the smooth side of the wrapped fruit 
lias to he turned down, and the loose 
ends sticking up are very confusing to 
the packer, making his work slower. 

WKAPPING PAPEK 

Tlie wrapping paper most commonly 
used is called the "Duplex," from the 
fact that one side is calendered and the 
other rough. Ihis latter side is turned 
to the fruits as it more readily absorbs 
any surplus moisture. A white colored 
wrapper is decidedly preferable as it 
looks cleaner and neater than any others. 

Having paper with the name or trade 
mark of the grower or association is an 
excellent method of advertising. It is 
not necessary to wrap all the apples in 
such paper, but if the outside layers are 
done and the trade mark is neat it adds 
much to the attractiveness of the pack- 
age. 

The pajxrr is cut into scver;d sizes to 
correspond with the diflerenl sizes of ap- 
ples. The following figures give a good 
idea of the sizes most commonly in use : 

Eight by eight inches, for five-tier and 
the smaller four and a half tier fruit. 

Eight by nine inches and eight by ten 
for four and a half tier. 



Ten by ten inches foi' four li<'i' .nid the 
sm.iller three and a half tier. 

Ton by twelve inches for \ery largo 
fruit. 

These sizes should Ix; adhered to fair- 
ly closely, as fruit packed with too large 
a size paper gives a box light in weight, 
and also gives the consumer the impres- 
sion thai the price of the fruit is too 
high. Using paper too small is also ob- 
jectioniible in that a great deal of the ad- 
vantage of wrapping is lost. It also in- 
creases the labor (jf wrapping and pack- 
ing to a considerable extent, as does also 
paper that is too largx-. 

Unstenciled Duplex costs .ibout twelve 
cents per ream f.o.b. shippinR point in 
small quantities. For larger quantities 
the price is correspondingly less. A 
ream contains five hundred sheets, which 
will pack about three boxes of apples, 
making the cost per box four cents. 
TRAY FOR WKAPPING PAPER 

For convenience and speed in wrap- 
ping, a tray for holding the paper is 
very necessar\ . They arc made so that 
they can be placed on the side of the 
packing box. 

To make one an applebox-end is usu- 
ally taken and strips which project over 
the edge about two inches are nailed on 
three sides of it. On the under side a 
three cornered block is nailed so that 
one endge of it is even with the ofjen 
side of the tray. This forms a bracket 
or brace for supporting the tray when in 
position on the box. 

Two. long nails are driven into the 
open side of the tray, leaving about 
three-fourths of an inch of their length 
out. The heads are then cut off and the 
nails bent down over a piece of iron or 
wood a trifle thicker than the side of the 
box. This forms hooks for hanging the 
tray oh to the packing box. 

METHOD OF WRAPPING 
Practically no time is lost in the op- 
eration of wrapping as a skilled packer 
picks up the apples wilh his right hand 
while he reaches for the paper with the 
left. To aid in picking up the paper it 
is advisable to use a rubber stole on the 
thumb or first fing.;;r. The apple is 
placed in the centre of the paper in the 
left hand with the side or end of the fruit 
down which is to be packed uppermost. 
The w rap is then made with both hands 
by a couple of quick half-turns of the 
wri?;t, the last of which brings the 
smooth surface up and the bunch of 
paper on the bottom. An expert packer 
should wrap and pack fifty to one hun- 
dred boxes a day, depending upon the 
size and grading of the fruit. 



Summer Pruning 

When asked recently for his opinion 
ctjiicerning the summer pruning of fruit 
trees, Prof. C. L. Lewis, of the Oregon 
.Agricultural College, replied a^ 
follows: "I believe with trees three 
to ten years old summer pruning, 
il properly done, will have a very good 
influence in keeping up certain charac- 
teri.stics and tend to bring the trees into 
Ijearing earlier. Certain trees, like the 
Xfjrlhern Spy, have been materially 
lx;nefitted. I have .seen indications all 
over the coast of its being a hindrance. 
In some cases the work has been over- 
done and I feel that the trees have l)ecn 
damaged. The tendency in mature and 
bearing trees is to overdo. I have seen 
rr.en cut off branches six inches in dia- 
meter. I have watched a number of 
orchards, two or three years old, and I 
fail to .see any benefit from such work, 
in fact the effect, if anything, was in- 
jurious to the trees. 

"Of course summer pruniii^ (.,i, Ix; 
done in two ways. One is to lielp shape 
the tree, correct the habit of growth, 
and perhaps time can be gained in that 
way, and this type can Ix; done any 
time you desire. I believe; however, it 
should be done moderately and that one 
should work with the idea of avoiding 
undesirable growth and development by 
early pinching and moderate cutting. I 
believe in doing considerable work of 
this kind with trees from three years 
up, and perhaps two-year-old trees. 

"The second type of summer pruning 
is to induce fruitfulness. You can in- 
crease the accumulation of tissues 
around the buds and around the bran- 
ches by summer pruning, but whether 
this will result in more fruitfulness and 
stronger growth, is an open question. 
Probably it would, like everything else, 
be influenced by the general treatment 
of the soil, the drainage it is getting, 
any artificial stimulation it is receiving, 
and similar factors. This second prun- 
ing for fruit has to be done when the 
trees are just in the right condition of 
activity. If the frees are growing too 
strongly the results are not secured." 



.\ny permanent organization, with a 
large quantity of fruit to sell every vear, 
under a uniform brand which will be a 
guarantee of excellence, can make an im- 
presion on the market. — Prof. Crow. 



Six fe"t by three feet anart is not too 
much soace to devote to raspberries. 
We find growing them in hills about six 
canes to a hill is the most orofitable way 
to have them. — W. |. Kerr, Ottawa, 
Ont. 

Mildew, the great enemy of the Eng- 
lish goo.seberry in this country, results 
from planting in sandy .soil. The roots 
of gooselx^rry bushes run close to the 
surface and con.sequently they become 
scorched. They should be planted in 
soil that won't heat, such as hea^^ clay 
lo.im. Mulch for the surface will also 
overcome it. -R. B. Whyte, Ottawa, 
Ont. 



A Park System for Small Towfijst* 

C. E. Chambers, Park Commissioner, Toronto, Ont. 



NO town, however small, can afford 
to grow up without providing 
suitably for the parks and open 
spaces it will surely need if its beautifica- 
tion and healthfulness are to receive pro- 
per consileration. In practically all of our 



requirements when development has pro- 
bably extended its boundaries far into the 
environs. In the preparation of the plan 
the location and distribution of the park 
areas should be given careful thought, 
to the end that each section or district 




older cities we have examples of how 
rapid development and attending con- 
gestion have crowded out the open spaces 
which should have been preserved for 
the creation and enjoyment of the people. 
Railways and other undesirable features 
have been allowed to thrust themselves 
upon the lake or river front, despoiling 
it for ever of its natural charm and 
beauty, and robbing the city or town of 
its chief attractiveness, and areas which 
at one time f)Ossessed infinite possibili- 
ties in scenic value are pre-empted and 
needlessly destroyed for commercial pur- 
poses. There is no excuse for such con- 
ditions obtaining in the growing town if 
the lesson of properly planning for its 
development is learned in due season. 
With the wide world furnishing, as it 
does, a school in which this knowledge 
may be freely had there is no excuse for 
neglect to learn this lesson. 

PREPARATION OF PLAN 

The early preparation of a comprehen- 
sive plan is the first step in the conser- 
vation of the features of natural beauty 
with which a town may be endowed or 
surrounded, and for the setting apart of 
areas for park and recreation purposes 
and the estabilishmenit of 'boufcvards, 
playgrounds, squares, or open spaces. 
This plan will have largely in mind not 
only the town's needs of to-day, as evi- 
denced within its present limits, but the 

•An addresa delivered at the recent annual 
oonvenUon of the Ontario Horticnltural Acao- 
oiation. 



may have its proper complement of 
parks, squares, recreation grounds, and 
playgrounds, properly related in their 
location to the purposes to be served 
by them. 

The most striking scenery of a dis- 
trict will naturally be reserved for park 
purposes, and especially the banks of a 
stream or the water front — where such 
exist. Waste or marshy areas may be 
profitably reclaimed and converted into 



pleasure grounds. Wooded areas acf- 
joiningr the town will, of course, be con- 
served, and park lands will be secured 
within its probable boundaries, as finan- 
cial means will permit. 

THE PARK SITE 

In selecting a park site attention 
should be particularly paid to the mat- 
ter of its boundaries. It is a somewhat 
common error to neglect this. Where 
necessary to a complete picture, the 
whole of a hillside should be secured, the 
whole of a body of water, or the whole 
of a glen or ravine. The appearance of 
many parks is marred by an impression 
of incompleteness, brought about by the 
unnatural restriction and limitation of 
their boundaries. The park within the 
town will necessarily be bounded by 
streets, but on no account should its 
boundaries be built upon. Back yards 
as a frame to a park should not be tol- 
erated. The park should be an aid to 
the town's beauty, instead of being con- 
cealed in the rear of buildings, however 
desirable . 

REVELOPMENT OP SITE 

The development of the park site in- 
volves a serious responsibility. It calls 
for the preservation of natural beauty, 
and the creation of that which should 
add its share of charm to the town's 
attractiveness. The location and topo- 
graphy of the site will, of course, govern 
to a considerable degree the treatment 
to be accorded it, but great care must 
be exercised in this, lest, in too great 
straining for ornamentation, the natural 
advantages whidh nearly every well- 
chosen area possesses be lost in the 
effort to improve, and an artificial and 
undesirable result be substituted there- 
for. 




Racrcation Aica, B«llwco<l* Faik, Toiocto, Onl. 



THE CANADIAN HORTICULTURIST 



January, 1914 




Drives and pathways will be neces- 
sary to lead from pwint to point. These 
should be so arranged as to disclose 
along the way the most striking of a 
park's scenery and lead to points of 
greatest vantage. It is particularly es- 
sential that the roadways be good, if 
the popularity of the park is to be de- 
veloped. Let at least the foundation for 
this be laid in their proper location, 
while the work of improving them is 
undertaken as resources will allow. 

STORM SHELTERS 

Where planting is necessary, it should 
be the aim to have this in accord with 
the surroundings, and it should be made 
with a view to its future effect on the 
landscape. Use largely native trees and 
shrubs, and do not make formal beds 
of flowers in natural parks — t'here is 
plenty of room for these in the town 
park or square. Water courses should 
be preserved, and where feasible, may 
be supplemented by artificially created 
lakes or ponds, stocked with water fowl. 
This may be made a most attractive 
feature in the park. 

Certain buildings will be necessary in 
the park : shelters in case of storm, and 
booths where refreshments may be ob- 
tained. These, while being located in 
the most useful situations, s'hould not 
be unduly obtruded upon the landscape, 
but placed where they will best har- 
monize with their surroundings. They 
should be simple in design and quiet in 
tone, for if we gain in the outstanding 
appearance of the building, we almost 
surely lose in the appearance of the park. 

Gateways of proper character may be 
made a pleasing feature of the park 
plan, and serve to indicate the separa- 
tion of the life of the town from the 
quiet restfulness to be found within the 
park. 



A parks system is lacking in one of 
its essential features where the park 
areas are not linked together by suitable 
parkways or connecting links. It is a 
usual practice to omit parkways from 
the town plan until the thoroughfares 
which might have been used for that 
purpose are rendered more or less un- 
suitable by the laying of ill-placed pave- 
ments, sidewalks and boulevards; while, 
on the other hand, with a properly con- 
ceived plan, a street of even usual width 
might have a boulevard reservation suffi- 
cient to allow of a planting of shade 
trees and shrubbery which would serve 
to carry the park through from point to 
point in a pleasing and appropriate 
manner. 

BOULEVAHDS OR DRIVEWAYS 

The boulevards or driveway, as differ- 
ing from the parkway, will aim to give 
access to all points of special interest 
within driving distance of the town, and 
reaches of mountain, woodland, lake or 
river front will preferably be chosen for 
it. Land not being held for building 
purposes in the country traversed, it 
will be mostly available at low cost, 
making reservation for the boulevard 
feasible, from the financial standpoint, 
before the upbuilding of the country has 
interfered with its possibilities. Adjoin- 
ing municipalities mig'ht well enter into 
a concerted plan for the acquisition and 
construction of the country boulevard, 
and thus secure to each the advantage 
of the linking up of their respective ex- 
ternal driveways. 

It is imperative that provision be 
made in every town for its adornment 
with open spaces or squares. Reserva- 
tion should be made for these at impor- 
tant street intersections, in front of the 
railway station and public buildings, and 
in the residential district. These may 



be furnished with fountains, monuments 
or ornamental lamps, or suitably plant- 
ed, and lend much to the embellishment 
and attractiveness of the town, besides 
maintaining breathing spots where, as 
congestion increases, one may rest for 
a moment from the everyday stress and 
turmoil . 

PLAyOROUNUS AND RECRKATION ARK AH 

The supervised playground and the 
recreation area are among the most 
vital considerations in the life of a grow- 
ing community, and it is the positive duty 
of every municipality to see well to it 
that every reasonable opportunity is 
taken to provide for the development of 
t^iese features. The supervised play- 
ground, under the care of competent 
supervisors, and equipped with .gym'r 
nasium apparatus, a swimming or wad- 
ing pool, and a building in which are 
shower and other baths, and rooms 
which may be used during the winter 
for the instruction, enjoyment, and en- 
tertainment of the young folks, is an 
indispensable factor in their training for 
good citizenship, promoting, as it 
sTiould, the development of the best 
qualities of body and mind. Locate the 
playground amid pleasant surroundings 
if possible. A relatively small part of a 
park will furnish the necessary accom- 
modation, and the children will receive 
a lasting good impression through its 
elevating influence. If only a barren lot 
is available, plant the corners with 
shrubbery and flowers, and so bring to 
it something of beauty and refinement. 

RECREATION' AREAS 

The recreation area is likewise indis- 
pensable, and here should be found faci- 
lities for the various summer games 
and winter sf)orts, including baseball, 
cricket, football, tennis, skating and 
hockey rinks, etc., tending to the en- 
couragement of a healthy outdoor life, 
and offering enjoyment, near at hand, 
to the toilers released for a time from 
the workshop, .factory, or office. 

The responsibility for the operation of 
the playground and recreation area 
should rest with a single organization, 
and should not be divided, as is com- 
monly the case, between the school 
authorities, the town authorities or other 
bodies. 

The carrying out of the phases of 
park development outlined will involve 
serious consideration on the part of the 
smaller town of the financial ways and 
means to that end, but with the needs 
of the situation fully recognized by its 
fjeople, and with a olan of development 
determined upon, the raising and setting 
apart of a sum sufficient in each year 
to forward at least some part of its 
features should not be a task beyond 
those earnestly striving towards the 
ideals of a progressive municipality. 



The Gardens of Bagnell Hall 



AMONG the many folk that, from 
lands afar, come to Cobourg 
for rest or pleasure, for scen- 
ery or superlative ozone, there are 
very few who do not visit and 
admire the beautiful gardens of Bagnell 



T. S. Hall-AbcU, B. Sc, Cobourg, Ont. 

any rate, the work was a complete suc- 
cess, and not one of the trees thus plant- 
ed succumbed. 

Looking east one sees part of the gar- 
den in figure two. This view was taken 
from the tennis court. 




Bagnell Hall : Front Approach, Showing Porte Cochere and Elm* planted only three 

years ago — Fig. 1 



Hall, the residence of Willis F. McCook, 
Esq. Surely this gentleman^who lis 
widely known, being a prominent Pitts- 
burg barrister — can truly say as did the 
Roman warrior of old, "Veni, vidi, 
vici." 

He came. 

He saw — a brickyard — a claypit — a 
mangold wurtzel patch — and by the all- 
powerful compound of brains plus brawn, 
he turned this place of ashes and brick- 
bats into such a garden as one some- 
times dreams of — old courts scented with 
sweetbriar and roses — shady nooks and 
nodding hollyhocks — a bowling green 
that Sir Francis Drake might have play- 
ed upon, and in the centre of all a resi- 
dence such that the most exacting critic 
cannot find the wherewithal to criticize. 

He conquered. 

His coming was in 1909. In October 
of tihat year work was commenced under 
the watchful eyes and to the plans of 
well-known landscape architects. A 
general idea was given to them to which 
to work ; other than this, a free hand 
was theirs. 

In figure one, one sees the driveway 
from the old Kingston Road about half 
a mile east of the Cobourg Post Office. 
This leads in a graceful curve up to and 
through a Porte Cochere, below and ad- 
joining the south-west tower. 

Notice the elms on either side of this 
drive. They were planted less than 
three short years ago by means of the 
misnamed tree-planting machines. At 



Figure three shows the beds for cut 
flowers — on the left front where bloom 
asters, verbenas, gladioli, and roses. 
The ribbon border on the right of this 
picture was picked out with red and 
white geraniums and blue lobelias. One 
is thankful that a combination of red, 
white and blue is correct in Canada as 
well as in the United States of America. 

Looking west and to the right of. the 
drive may be discerned a small brick 
building. This is the one remaining 
vestige of brick kiln days. It is the hut 
in which the men's implements were 
stored. 

The interior courtyard shows up well 
in figure four, the decorative effects be- 
ing done in Roman Stone. To the left 



of this, but not showing here, is the 
howling green, where one might 

Sit and dream the hours away 

While Raleigh and his Captains play; 

The time they wait for Spain. 

It seems almost impossible that such 
a complete transformation, of which 
only a most incomplete account has been 
given, could have been effected in so 
short a period ; and any visitor to Co- 
bourg possessed of a desire to see the 
"garden beautiful," should certainly not 
miss the opportunity of paying a visit 
to Bagnell Hall and its gardens. It is 
one of the beauty spots of Cobourg, and 
this is saying a great deal, as Cobourg 
itself is one of the beauty spots of 
Canada . 

Utilizing the Small Greenhouse 

By Htnry Gibson, Staatibnrf 

A popular plant that is easily grown, 
likes a comparatively cool temperature, 
and is perhaps as serviceable as any- 
thing that an amateur can grow, is the 
cyclameni. The one drawback to grow- 
ing these plants is the length of time it 
takes them to reach the flowering stage. 
From twelve to fifteen months is re- 
quired to produce a good specimen. 
Seed should be sown in August or Sep- 
tember in pans of light, sandy soil, and 
kept growing right along for flowering 
the following autumn and winter. As 
soon as the seedlings appear, place them 
near the glass so that they do not get 
drawn, and when large enough to 
handle, prick off several inlto a six-inch 
pot. In the spring they may be potted 
singly into three-inch pots and grown in 
a cold frame all summer, with plenty of 
air, after becoming established, and 
shade enough to prevent bright sun from 
reaching them. By July they will re- 
quire shifting into five or six inch pots, 
in which they will flower, and an extra 
good specimen would be better placed 
in a seven-inch pot. Good drainage 
must be ensured and a compost used of 




Bagnell Hall from the Tennis Court, Looking East— Fig. 2 



THE CANADIAN HORTICULTURIST 



January, 1914 




Bagnell Hall Looking We»t, Showing Ribbon Border and Cut Flower Bedi - Fig. 3 



equal parts of loam and leaf soil. Never 
use all rank manure. 

The roots of cyclamen proceed from 
the fleshy rootstock or corm, and this 
should be about half-covered in potting, 
leaving the top roots, whence the leaves 
develop, clear. The after-culture con- 
sists of keeping the plants at all times 
in a light, airy place, and as near the 
glass as possible to prevent drawing and 
consequently weakening. Shade in 
bright weather only and syringe on fine 



days to keep the plants clean and en- 
courage growth. 

Cyclamen may be grown on a second 
year by drying moderately and resting 
for a time, afterwards reducing the soil 
about the roots anid repotting. They 
should receive similar treatment as that 
suggested for young plants, but the 
flowers are generally earlier and smaller 
the second year. It is not advisable to 
save plants after this age, as young 
stock is far more satisfactory. 



My 



Favorite Flower — The Sweet Pea* 

J. H. Wills, Mitchell, Ont. 



EACH year I plant my sweet peas in 
the fame place along by a wire 
fence on the west side of my gar- 
den. The ground is clay loam and well 
drained. In the fall, after the old vines 
have been pulled up, I throw out the 
earth about ten to twelve inches wide 
and one foot deep. I then put in fresh 
earth, giving it a good coating of well- 
rotted manure and mix it thoroughly. 
Later on, before ti freezes for the win- 
ter, I throw this earth outside of my 
trench into a ridge, keeping it as lumpy 
as possible so as to let it get full the ad- 
vantage of the frost. 

My experience has taught me that the 
earlier you get the seed planted the 
better bloom you have, and the flowers 
bloom for a longer period. As soon, 
therefore, as the ground is ready to 
work, I clean out the trench and put in 
about two inches of good manure. This 
is dug into the subsoil. On top of this 
I put about five inches of the prepared 
earth and then plant my seed, planting 
them in double rows. The seed is sown 
four to six inches apart and covered with 
about two inches of earth. This is 
pressed down with the hoe. As the 
vines grow up I gradually draw more 
earth around them till it forms a slight 
ridge about two inches higher than the 
surrounding earth, leaving a shallow 

•This article won the third prize in the eeaa.y 
oompetitiooi on "Ity FavoriU Flower ajid How I 
Otow It." 



trench along the row for watering pur- 
poses. 

My sweet peas are planted where they 
get lots of sunshine and plenty of fresh 
air, and I try to keep the soil cool and 
moist, but not wet and heavy, as this 
would cause a weak, yellow vine, and 
they would not get a good growth. As 
mine are well drained I always have a 
strong, healthy, tall vine. 

For supporting the vines I prefer for 
a trellis a six foot wire netting. The 



netting is put in place when the vines 
are two or three inches high so that the 
vines can get early support. The net- 
ting is left about two inches from the 
ground. 

To help retain the moisture, keep the 
soil around the vines fine, and especially 
after heavy rains. Cultivate about two 
inches det-p. This lets in the air and 
helps keep down the weeds. You can- 
not have the best flowers and weeds. 

If the plants need watering give them 
a good soaking at least once or twice 
a week, as that is better than a sprinkl- 
ing every night. I always water at night 
as I am away early in the morning. 
Water with a rather weak liquid man- 
ure, putting the liquid in the trench 
along the vines. 

If the weather keeps dry and hot, 
spray the under part of the foliage with 
cold water or soap suds to keep down 
red spider and aphis. 

When cutting the flowers pick them 
every day. Pick every flower that has 
all the flowers on the stem in bloom. 
Do not allow seed-pods to form if you 
want long continuance of bloom. Select 
certain plants for seed purposes. 

To prolong the season of bloom, pick 
off the tops of the plants. They will 
then branch out again. If after a long 
period of blooming the flowers become 
small and the stems short, prune the 
vines. This brings longer stems and 
larger flowers. 

If you decide to save your own seed, 
pick out the sturdiest vine, cut the poor- 
est flowers, and save the seed from vines 
having a long, strong stem with three or 
four flowers to a stem. When they are 
ripe pick the pods and save the largest 
seeds. The smaller seeds are at the 
end of the pods. Discard these. By 
this method I have had stems sixteen 
to eighteen inches long and flowers two 
inches across. 




Bagnell Hall : The Inner Court— Fig. 4 



NcAv Year's Plans for Next Sufntner s Garden 



WITH the advent of the New Year, 
most of us resolve that we are 
going^ to do something more 
satisfactory, or should I say accom- 
plish something which comes nearer 
to our ideal, than we achieved dur- 
ing the year that is just past. To 
make such a resolution materialize is no 
mean accomplishment, and particularly 
is this so with gardening. This gardefi 
business is very much in the nature of a 
race — a race against conditions, weeds, 
insects, and last but not least, against 
time. If we only had time enough in 
spring, summer, and autumn, what a 
splendid garden we could have. But our 
time is always too short. The only way 
to get ahead is to save time in every 
possible way, and if you have resolved 
to do this and start to do it now, you 
have decided upon something well worth 
while. Anyone who intends having a 
garden, even if only a small one, and 
who wastes time, even in mid-winter, is 
accepting a severe handicap. 

There is no greater saver of garden 
time than the planting plan. It means 
that when things open up in the spring 
every minute can be put into actual 
work, and that everything- needed — 
seeds, plants, fertilizers, and so forth — 
will be on hand and in proper quanti- 
ties. Thus there will be no waste of 
time or materials. More than this, it 
means vastly better results. 

Perhaps you have not done anything 
as yet to improve your place, beyond 
keeping the front lawn cut and planting 
a few vegetables. Even so, if you only 
have a piece of ground twenty by twenty 
feet, make a plan of it now. This should 
be drawn to scale, using a T square and 
triangle for convenience, and should in- 
dicate the space for and amount of each 
vegetable wanted. Plan to have such 
vej?etables as onions, beets, and carrots, 
which remain in the ground all the sea- 
son, in one section as far as possible, 
and tall-growing ones, as corn, north 
of the dwarfer kinds, in order to avoid 
undue shadjng. 

In preparing your plan, make careful 
use of the seed catalogues. The new- 
ones will soon be out. Studv them thor- 
oughly, but be careful in (he choice of 
novelties, as they may not he adapted 
to your locality. Try out a few, but go 
easy. 

If you have no regular flower garden, 
devote part of the vegetable garden to 
flowers, or better still, mark off a long 
narrow bed or border along some path. 
Even if it means less vegetables, have 
a few flowers. Some of the choicest an- 
nuals and perennials are as easily grown 
as carrots. You can start them yourself 
with your early vegetables in the ihoMse 
or in a hotbed. 



Henry Gibson, Staatsburg 

The hotbed should be got ready to- 
wards the end of the month. A few 
hours' work will see it an accomplished 
fact. Select a warm, sunny, sheltered 
position on the south side of the house 
or some outbuilding. Clear the ground 
off level, and if it is not frozen too hard, 
dig it out to the depth of a foot or eigh- 
teen inches, six feet square. This will 
give room for two three by six standard 
size sash, which you can buy either glaz- 
ed or unglazed for a few dollars. 

The frame you can easily build your- 
self or have someone do it for you. Make 
the back six inches higher than the 
front. ^ Ordinary three-quarter - inch 
boards, supported by three by three posts 
and banked on the outside with rough 
manure, are all that are required, and 
fhe labor is slight when one considers 
the advantage of having a garden six 
weeks ahead of time. 

Into the frame place the heating ma- 
terial, twelve to eighteen inches of stable 
manure. Some persons make a practice 
of taking the manure directly from the 
pit and using it. A far better way is to 
take a sufficient quantity, and build it 
into a square heap. This should be wet, 
but not soaked, while being put up. 
After the lapse of a' week turn it, and 
build it up into a heap again, putting 
the "outside inside" as much as pos- 
sible. After a few days, put this into 
the frame, tramping it down well, then 
cover with about four inches of good 
rich garden loam. 

If you have your soil protected from 
frost in some convenient place, you will 
be saved the none too pleasant task of 
thawing it out over the furnace. When 
the temperature of the bed 'has receded 
to seventy degrees Fahrenheit, as indi- 
cated by a thermometer plunged into the 
.soil, the seeds may be sown. 



In the greenhouse, January is a busy 
month. Towards the latter part of the 
month the first sowings of early vege- 
tables will have to be made. Stock 
plants slhould be given more heat and 
moisture to start new growth for pro- 
pagating purposes. 

Tomatoes that were sown in Decem- 
ber, for early fruiting indoors, will now 
need repotting preparatory to being put 
into the beds or fruiting boxes. Cu- 
cumbers should be brought along to 
follow the last crop of lettuce, which 
should now be in the beds. If you are 
short on pansies start more now, and 
sow seeds of annuals for setting out 
in the spring. 

If you are desirous of prolonging 
your display of bloom indoors next 
spring, start a batch of tuberous be- 
gonias now. There are many excellent 
varieties of these persistent blooming 
plants that may be purchased at a 
nominal cost. Start the tubers in boxes 
(flats) of sand and leaf mould, keep 
them warm and moist, and after the first 
watering damp rather sparingly until the 
young growth appears. Pot them into 
suitable sized pots (preferably two and 
one-half or three inch) before the shoots 
become too far advanced, using a light 
but ridh compost, made porous by the 
addition of plenty of sand. Continue 
to pot them on as they permeate the soil 
with roots, until a six or seven inch 
size is reached. In these they should 
be allowed to flower. Feeding with 
liquid manure or some approved fertil- 
izer is advisable at this stage if the best 
results are to be obtained. Don't, how- 
ever, overdo it. Once a week or every 
ten days is quite often enough to apply 
stimulants. Once started and growing 
well, tuberous begonias succeed best in 
a compartively cool house, fifty two de- 
grees at nig/ht being sufficiently high. 




Note the Floral Effect in Connection with thi> Modest Home, that of Mr. andMri. Wro. 

Knapton, London, Ont. 



Types of Greenhouses for Vegetable Culture' 



VEGETABLE growing under glass 
is be(X)mLng one of the im- 
portant features of agricutture. 
The demand for more vegetables dur- 
ing the winter months is necessitat- 
inj,' building more houses to grow 
such crops as lettuce, tomatoes, and cu- 
cumbers. The market is large and prices 
good, and the main point which the 
growers are trying to overcome is that 
of cost of production. The improved 
methods of growing and the improved 
forms of construction are cutting this 
down considerably. The following points 
are those which interest the prospective 
builder, and which may prove of some 
value : 

SITE 

The selection of a suitable location 
for a greenhouse plant demands careful 
consideration. The progressive grower 
looks ten years ahead and works toward 
that end by building in an economical 
position, using good materials and grows 
produce of good quality which assure 
him an increase in trade. The first point 
which he should consider is location. 

Long hauls of fuel and supplies cut 
down profits, and in locating a green- 
house plant the proximity to a railroad 
should be carefully considered. A man 
seeking a fresh location should select 
one close to a railroad, either steam or 
electric, which hauls freight. Nowadays 
the growers instal a siding and arrange 
their coal chutes so that the handling of 
coal is minimized. One handling is 
sufficient where a siding is used and no 
hauling is necessary. Some ' growers 
erect a trestle work so that the coal is 
simply dumped into the coal hoppers. 
Coal is one of the largest items of ex- 
pense which the growers have annually 
to contend with, and anything that can 
be saved in its handling adds so much 
to the returns from the plant for the 
year. If a distant market is to be sup- 
plied in the future, shipping facilities 
.should also be looked into and possibili- 
ties of quick transportation either by 
express or freight considered. 
POINTS TO CONSIDER 

The grower who already has his land 
and is now ready to build should con- 
sider the following points and build ac- 
cordingly. Ample means of drainage 
should be obtained and cold, wet spots 
avoided. There should be no possibility 
of spring floods ever reaching the houses, 
as was the case in several 'houses in the 
United States this past season where 
the crop was totally destroyed. Again 
the house should not be located in the 
direct line of drainage of any tract of 
land, for trouble mav occur. 



•Extract from an address delivered at the 
recent Annual OonvenUon of the Ontario Vege- 
table Growers' Association. 



S. C. Johnson, B. S. A. 

If the houses are to be erected in the 
path of the prevailing winds, wind- 
breaks of .some description should be 
provided to break the force of thfe wind 
from a direct blow on the glass. Green- 
house vegetable growers are realizing 
the value of the windbreak more than 
ever before, and are securing shelter by 
means of high light board fences, clumps 
of trees, and by planting rows of quick 
growing trees. If windbreaks of trees 
are used, the houses should be sufficient 
distance away from them that there is 
no danger of falling limbs. 

In selecting the site for his first house 
the grower will do well to erect his house 
so that he can either add to it or have 
plenty of room for adding more houses 
in a line with it. The house first built 
should be of a size which can be dupli- 
cated right alongside of it. Many of the 
largest growers in the United States 
started some ten years or more ago with 
one small house, but at the same time 
laid out their ground so that they could 
expand and cover a certain area econ- 
omically if the first venture proved a 
success. Some now have five, six, and 
ten acres under glass, with houses of 
the same length, and all joined by a. main 
alley. No tearing down and rebuilding 
of 'houses was necessary, as each addi- 
tional house went into the place left for 
it at the start. 

FOUNDATIONS 

The question of foundation is the next 
point to confront the builder. Cement 
blocks, solid concrete, wooden sides 
with a shallow concrete base, are com- 
mon. Solid concrete is generally used 
by growers. The walls are made eight 
to twelve inches in width, and are set 
in the ground to a depth of from eight 
incihes to two feet as the grower sees 
fit, or the form of construction requires. 
The solid concrete is usually made in 
the proportions of six by one, and care 
is taken to keep all stones from the out- 
side face in order to give an attractive 
and clean cut appearance to it. 

Concrete blocks are rapidly coming 
into favor for the sidewalks of a green- 
house, and a good app)earance is given 
by their use. The main p)oint about 
blocks is that they should be so moufded 
that they will fit the wall posts or lone 
supports and not cause any extra cutting. 
In many instances these blocks were 
made by the growers during the winter 
months. They are made in all lengths, 
but the most common I have seen were 
sixteen inches by eight and eight. The 
cost of materials for a block this size is 
estimated to be twelve cents. The price 
of lumber has risen so much during later 
years that it is advisable to build as 
muoh of the foundation of concrete work 
as is oossible_ Thp iinl<-«»pn fnr cAmont 



work is practically nothing, and a good 
solid, Ia.sting job is made at first. 

It is advisable in houses where benches 
are to be used to leave doors along the 
side walls whereby earth may be thrown 
out or in. In smaller houses where no 
side ventilation is thought advisable, 
.these small doors should be put in in 
the cement work for convenience. 

JOINED OR SEPARATE HOUSES 

Opinions of various growers in differ- 
ent sections differ as to which type of 
house is the better. Each has its own 
supporters. Some prefer the joined 
houses and others as emphatically assert 
that they could not grow half the crops 
they are now doing if they had to use 
joined houses. In sections where land 
is very valuable joined houses will cover 
all available land space and returns can 
be had from practically every inch. Con- 
nected houses cost less in the initial cost 
than separate ones, although the upkeep 
expenses are greater for them. Separate 
houses afford an easy control of side 
ventilation. Growers now realize the 
importance of this for their crops in late 
fall and early spring; in fact, their use 
is spread over the whole year. Side 
ventilation can be secured and controlled 
satisfactorily in the separate house, while 
in the joined house side ventilation is 
not so readily received when there are 
several houses in the range. Separate 
houses also give more light to the crop 
owing to the increased amount of glass, 
and with these houses the least amount 
of shading is received by the plants ow- 
ing to the distance from the ridge of 
the next house. 

Separate houses are usually built with 
a wider span, and while this does not 
use more glass than two joined houses 
the same width, the volume of air is in- 
creased, improving conditions for the 
plants. Some growers who have con- 
nected houses have had trouble with 
snow lodging at the gutters and break- 
ing the glass on the roof. This is over- 
come in the separate houses, and no 
trouble has occurred where Iron cane 
plates have been used. These seem to 
be the main points about the separate 
and joined houses, and there seems to be 
no question as to which it is advisable 
to build. 

Where land is not too high in value it 
is best to select a good construction and 
build separate houses and connect them 
up by an alley house at one end or in 
the centre. In some plants this alley 
house is built large enough to accom- 
modate beds or benches for growing 
young plants, and there is no waste 
room. With the separate hou.ses the 
land between can be utilized by the grow- 
ing of such crops as staked tomatoes. 




}mm^ 




The L.a«i„Kto„ Di.tHct. Ontario. Ha. Lon. «>«" Not,a a. . Gre.tVe8et.b..Growi^« Section T^^^^^^^^ one of the 

Largest in the Dominion, ha. Recently been completed by R. H. EUi., Leamington, Unt. 



often hotbeds and cold frames are placed 
in it. In one case a permanent crop of 
rhubarb was giving good returns an- 
nually, in another an arrangement for 
forcing rhubarb in spring was in use, 
but the returns from the former method 

were larger. 

WIDE housh;s 

The tendency seems to be to build one 
wide house to take the place of the two 
or three of narrower widths that were 
commonly built some fifteen years ago. 
The day is here when wide houses are 
being built by progressive growers. The 
twenty feet house of a few years ago 
is being replaced by thirty-five and forty 
feet houses. All of the newest additions 
to extensive greenhouse plants are be- 
ing made with wide houses, and it is 
evident that the wide house has come to 
stay. It is quite common to see seventy- 
five feet houses in course of erection, 
and some are wider than this, running 
as wide as one hundred and twenty-five 
feet. 

SWING LABOR 

Growers agree that the only way to 
overcome the labor problem is to use 
more horse-drawn machinery in the 
houses, and the wide house permits all 
operations of horse cultivation. Gable 
ends are so arranged that waggon loads 
of manure may be hauled in as if the field 
were simply enclosed with glass. Plows 
and harrows are then used to cultivate. 

Wide houses are of necessity higher 
at the ridge. This gives an increased 
volume of air above the plants, and the 
atmosphere will not undergo such sud- 
den changes as in the houses which are 
not so high. It may take somewhat 
longer to heat the wide house, but once 
it is heated it will be more satisfactory, 
as the temperature changes more grad- 
ually owing to the large volume of air. 
Tomatoes and cucumbers suffer a check 
cisily frorp a lowering of temperature, 
,ind in the wide house this condition may 
1)0 easily prevented. 

Growers have told me everywhere that 
it takes less fuel to heat a wide house 



than it does a range of two or three 
narrow ones making the same width. 
These houses also allow more light to 
reach the plants from the increased 
length of the sash bar and the glass sides 
which are usually built from six to eight 
feet above the grade lines. Full length 
side ventilators are being used and the 
whole side is of glass. Plants can be 
grown close up to the side walls, and aJl 
available spaces can be put under culti- 
vation. The question of what is a suit- 
able width must be answered by the 
grower himself. Judging from houses 
visited last summer, the prevailing width 
seems to be seventy-five feet, but a con- 
siderable number of forty feet houses 
are also being built. There are very few 
wide houses in Ontario, but they are be- 
ginning to become more popular, and 
growers never regret building the wide 
house once they have it up and have ob- 
tained a crop from it. 

The high eaves and the increased ven- 
tilators have made the growing of cu- 
cumbers more simple and the vines can 
now be planted close to the eaves, as 
there is plenty of head room. Lettuce 
can be grown successfully on the solid 
beds and practically no land wasted. 
Some growers may raise the objection 
that they may not want a house so large 
for one crop or they may want to grow 
two crops w^hich demand temperatures 
which are different. This difficulty has 
been overcome by one firm, and is ac- 
complished by the building of partitions 
where required. This and the arrange- 
ment of their heating plant has given 
them what they require and yet they have 
the wide house. In short, the advan- 
tages of the wide house are : 

First, atmospheric conditions can be 
tjetter controlled. 

Second, less heat is needed in a wide 
house. 

Third, more light is received by the 
plants in wide houses. 

Fourth, plants grow to mgirketable 
size without danger of a check. 
U 



Vegetable Pests* 

A. H. MacLenoan, B.S.A., Goelph, Ont. 

Two very important troubles of the 
market gardener are celery blight and the 
maggots which attack onions, cabbage 
and raddish. Late blight of celery (Sep- 
toria Petroselim), appears first as rusty 
brown spots on the outer leaves. These 
gradually spread under favorable condi- 
tions until the leaf dies. The spots will 
also be found on the stems. A season of 
warm, moist weather is most suitable for 
its spread, and it will also appear in the 
storage house. It can be prevented by 
the use of Bordeaux mixture if applied at 
the right season. Our work here the 
past two years has shown that if we wish 
to grow celery at a profit, we must spray 
often and thoroughly. 

Cabbage, onion and radish maggots 
are the larvae stage of two winged flies 
almost identical in appearance. The adult 
appears generally about May fifteenth till 
June fifteenth. The eggs are laid close 
to the host plant and are hatched in three 
to ten days time. The worm which 
batches being without wings or legs, is 
helpless unless against its host plant. For 
the cabbage maggot the tarred felt paper 
disc is a sure cure. For the onion and 
radish maggot no sure cure has been 
found. Carbolic acid wash and kerosene 
and sand have been used. As a Vegeta- 
table Growers' Association we should try 
lo have these tested commercially. In 
each branch of the Association where the 
crops are grown, a demonstration could 
l>e carried on to show the results obtained 
from such treatment. 



For early celery, for cutting in Au- 
gust, the seed should be sown about the 
middle of February. It should be sown 
on a greenhouse bench, in flats or in a 
hotbed ; if sown in a greenhouse it 
should be on the shady side of it. — F. I'". 
Reeves, Humber Bay, Ont. 

•Extract from a paper read at the recent con- 
vention in Toronto of the Ontario Vegetable 
Growers' Aflsoclation. 



12 



THE CANADIAN HORTICULTURIST 



January, 1914 



The Canadian Horticulturist 

COMHrNKI) wiTn 

THE CANADIAN HORTICULTURIST 
AND BEEKEEPER 

with which hn« been incorporated 

The Canndlan Bee Journal. 

PublUhed by The Horticultural 

Publithinv Company, Limited 

r'KTKKnORO, ONTAKIO 

The Only Magazine* in Their Field in the 

Dominion 

OKKiciiL Oroank ok thk Oktario and Quebkc 

Frturr Oroweks' Associations 

AND OF The Ontario Bekkeei-krs' Association 

H. Bronson Cowan Manat^ing Director 

UNITED STATES RERESENTATIVES 

STOOKWELL'S SPEOIAIj AGENOT 
Chicago Office— Peoples Ga« Building. 
New York Office— 286 5th Avenue. 



1 EDITORIAL 



^^ 



1. The Canadian Horticulturist is published in 
two editions on the 25th day of the month pre- 
ceding date of is.sTie. The first edition is known 
a« The Canadian Horticulturist. It is devoted 
exclusively to the horticultural interests of 
Canada. The second edition is known as The 
Canadian Horticulturist and Beekeeper. In this 
edition several pages of matter appearing in the 
first issue are replaced by an equal number of 
pages of matter relating to the bee-keeping in- 
terests of Canada. 

2. Subscription price of The Canadian Horti- 
culturist in Canada and Great Britain. 60 cents 
a year: two years. $100, and of The Oanaxiian 
Hort iculturi.st and Beekeeper, $1.00 a year. For 
United States and local subftcrip'ione in Peter- 
boro (not called for at the Post Office) 25 cents 
extra a year, including- postage. 

3. Remittances should be made by Poet OfHce 
or Exnresfl Money Order, or registered Letter. 

4. The Law is that subecriberg to newspapers 
are held responsible until all arrearages are 
paid and their paper ordered to be discontinued. 

5. Change of Address — When a change of ad 
dress is ordered, both the old and the new ad 
dresses mnst be given. 

6. Advertising rates. $1.40 an Inch. Oop.v 
received up to the 20th. Address all advertising 
correspondence and copy to our Advertising 
Manager, Peterboro. Ont. 

CIRCULATION STATEMENT 
The following Is a sworn statement of the net 
paid circulation of The Canadian Horticulturist 
for the year ending with December, 1911. The 
figures given are exclusive of samples and spoiled 
copies. Most months, including the sample cop- 
ies, from 13,000 to 15.000 copies of The Canadian 
Horticulturist are mailed to people known to 
be interested in the growing of fruits, flowers 
or vegetables. 



August. 1913 12,676 

September 1913 ..12,0% 
October. 1913 ...12.085 
November, 17913 ..11.193 



January. 1913 — 11,570 
February. 1913 ...11.600 

March, 1913 V.?fl9 

Aprii 1913 12,000 

May, 1913 12,368 

Jtinc, 1913 12,6'8 _, . , ,^,^ 

July. 1913 12,626 Total ..132,029 

December, 191,') 12,967 

Average each Issue in 1907, 0.627 

" 1908, 8.695 

" " " " 1909, 8,970 

" " 1910, 9.067 
1911, 9,541 
1912.11,037 
1913. 12,002 
will be 



statements 



mailed 



Sworn detailed 
upon application. 

OUR GUARANTEE 

We guarantee that every advertiser in this 
issue is reliable. We are able to do this because 
the advertising columns of The Canadian Hor- 
ticulturist are as carefully editerl as the read- 
ing columns, and because to protect our readers 
we turn away all unscrupulous advertisers. 
Shoiild any advertiser herein deal dishonestly 
with any subscriber, we will make good the 
amount of his loss, provided such transaction 
occurs within one month from date of tils issue, 
that it is reported to us within a week of its 
occurrence, and that we find the tacts to be as 
seated. It is a condition of this contract that in 
writing to advertisers you state: "I saw your 
advertisement in The Canadian Horticulturist " 

Rogues shall not ply their trade at the expense 
of our subscribers, wiho are our friends, through 
the medium of these columns; but we sliall not 
attempt to adjtiet trifling disputes beween sub- 
scribers and honotirable business men who ad- 
vertise, nor pay the debte of honest banlirupts. 

Pominnnioations should be addressed 

THE CANADIAN H0RTICULTUB13T. 

PETEEBOEO. ONT. 



DEATH OF ALEXANDER NcNEILL 

In the death of .Mexander McNeill, Chief 
of the Domiinion Fruit Division and a 
former president of the Ontario Fruit 
Growers' Association, the fruit growers of 
Canada have lost one of their staunchest 
friends, warmest advocates, and greatest 
benefactors. First as a practical fruit 
grower, next as a farmersi' itistitute 
speaker and officer of the provincial fruit 
growers' association, and of late years 
as Chief of the Dominion Fruit Division, 
Mr. McNeill has been a leader in all move- 
ments for the uplift of fruit growing in 
Canada. 

The late Mr. McNeill was one in whom 
the elemcmt of selfishness was lacking. 
The public weal always took precedence 
with him to his own welfare. Again and 
a.gain he allowed his own interests to 
suffer in order that those of the fruit grow- 
ers and of his friends generally might be 
promoted. His neglect to take due precau- 
tions in regard to the care of his own 
health while he was engaged in his official 
duties was largely instrumental in bring- 
ing about sickness which ultimately led 
to his death. 

The spread of cooperation in the fruit 
industry of Canada, but more particularly 
in Ontario, is due in a large measure to 
the earnest efforts of the deceased. Many 
years ago Mr. McNeill pointed out the ad- 
vantages of cooperation, and later wrote 
various bulletins dealing with cooperation, 
which were exhaustive and practical in their 
treatment of the subject. These have had 
n wide circuation. A recent bulletin by 
him entitled "Modern Methods of Packing 
Apples and Pears" is the best of the kind 
that has ever been published in Canada, 
amd one which compares favorably with the 
best issued in any country. The fruit crop 
reports that have been issued of late years 
by the Dominion Fruit Division with much 
benefit to fruit growers were the result of 
his efforts. 

Mr. McNeill accepted office with the 
Dominion Government about the time the 
Fruit Marks Act was being brought into 
force. Much of the credit for its success- 
ful working is due to his earnest efforts 
on its behalf. The great success of the 
last two Dominion fruit conferences also 
were due in a large degree to the careful 
preliminary work of Mr. McNeill. His 
death has created a vacancy in the ranks 
of our fruit growers which will long be 
felt and deplored. 



THE HIGH COST OF LIVING 

One of the enigmas of our day is the 
solution of the problem involved in dis- 
covering the reason or reasons for the in- 
creased cost of living. Learned authorities 
have advanced various and sundry explan- 
ations that do not seem to satisfy the 
public. In the meantime the cost of living 
continues to advance. 

Sir Wilfrid Laurier claims that it is due 
to the tax on foodstuffs, and hopes to 
climb back into power by advocating a 
reduction in the tariff on such articles. 
His remedy would benefit the consumer to 
some extent but very little. This is proved 
by the fact that in spite of the reductions 



that have been made in the United States 
tariff, the problem has not been solved in 
that country. 

One of the main reasons, in our opinion 
the main reason, is found in our inrrcas. 
ing land values. This tendency of land 
to inrreas*- in value is apparent in all 
coiiiitries as is also the increase in the 
cost of living. 

Three factors enter into the production 
of material necessities: Land, labor, cap- 
ital. Land receives its return in the form 
of rent, labor in the form of wages, and 
capital in the form of interest. If any one 
of these factors receives more than its fair 
share the other two of necessity receive 
proportionatly less than their just' dues. 

All wealth, including food and clothing, 
IS produced out of the land. Anything that 
makes it difficult for the people at large 
to produce wealth from the soil, restricts 
to a corresponding degree, the production 
of those things which the people require 
to maintain life. The tendencv of land to 
increase in value has this effect. 

Wherever land is high in value it is 
difficult for people to acquire its control 
or to pay the rentals demanded for its 
use. Thus production is restricted. In 
Ontario, for example, there are hundreds 
of thousands of acres of good fruit and 
farm land that are not being worked be- 
cause they are being held at valuesi which 
are just high enough, when other factors 
are considered, to keep them out of the 
reach of those people who would be glad 
to use them were there better reason to 
believe that they could be worked with 
profit. Anything which will help to bring 
this land into use will imemdiatelv tend 
to reduce the cost of living to a corre- 
sponding extent. The reason there are 
over fifty thousand less farmers on the 
farms of Ontario to-dav than there were 
ten years ago is because farm land on 
the average is so high in value farmers 
have found that they could not earn from 
It enough to allow themselves a fair in- 
terest return for their investment and wage 
return for their labor. Therefore, they 
have preferred to sell their land and in- 
vest the proceeds in other wavls. In con- 
sequence, production has been decreased, 
the cost of living has increased, and people 
do not seem anxious to try and bring into 
cultivation the land which has been thus 
^•scarded. This feature of the situation 
siiould receive due consideration whenever 
the high cost of living is under discussion. 

THE FRONT LAWN PROBLEM 

Most of us like to keep our front lawns 
in the best possible condition. Most of us 
also, who live in the larger towns and cit- 
ies, have to contend with serious difficulties 
in the achievement of our desire. These 
very often take the form of postmen, paper 
boys, and messengers, who persist in walk- 
ing across our lawns and cutting corners 
whenever they think that they are not likelv 
to be detected in so doing. The officers 
of the horticultural societies in Ontario 
fnight accomplish a good work bv dealing 
with this situation. A protest made to the 
postmaster, to the newspaper offices, and 
other agencies which emplov such offend- 
ers, would soon tend to bring about an 
improvement, especially if followed up 
vigorously upon the committal of second 
or third offences. Were members of hor. 
tiwulturai societies encouraged to report 
such incidents, improvements would soon 
become possible. If necessarv, bv-laws 
might be passed by our different niunici- 
palities which would make it more easy to 
deal with offeinders. 



January, 1914 



THE CANADIAN HORTICULTURIST 



»S 



The sug-g-estion of Sir Wilfrid Laurier 
that the tariff on foodstuffs, including fruit 
and vps'Ptables, should be reduced in order 
to benefit the consumer is not likely to 
meet with the approval of our producers. 
Sir Wilfrid has not made any sugtrestion 
that the duty should be taken off insecti- 
cides and sprayiny materials, off sprayincr 
marhinery, fruit baskets, amd a hundred 
and one other articles req'uired bv the 
average fruit and vegetable grower in the 
production and marketing of his crops. 
Were the duty to be lowered on fruit and 
vegetables and not on these other articles, 
our producers would be placed under a tre- 
mendous handicap, as compared with the 
producers in the United States, and these 
industries in Canada would soon show the 
effect of .such a policy. Sir .Wilfrid Laurier 
will show more of the qualities of a states- 
man when he takes all such factors into 
consideration, and not just those that are 
likely to meet with approval by the con- 
sumer. 



At the time of the recent annual conven- 
tion in Toronto of the Ontario Horticul- 
tural .Association the suggestion was ad- 
vanced by one of the delegates that the 
Department 6f Agriculture should send out 
speakers to meetings of horticultural soci- 
eties as is done in the case of Farmers' 
Institutes. The superintendent of horti- 
cultural societies should follow up this sug- 
ge.stion more thoroughly than has been 
done in the past. With proper encourage- 
ment more societies might be induced to 
en.^age speakers than have yet done so, 
and a better arrangement of dates could be 
effected. What has been done in a more or 
less haphazard way hitherto, might be 
systematized with advantage to the depart- 
ment, and to the societies concerned. 




15n 

Our front cover illustration shows the 

interior of the magnificent conservatory in 

the private residence of Sir Montague Allen 

in Montreal. It reveals the comforts and 

pleasures which may be derived from a 

home conservatory. We would that all the 

readers of The Canadian Horticuclturi.st 

who delight in having flowers in their 

homes might have similar conservatories. 
» * » 

The year 1913 proved the most successful 
in the history of The Canadian Horticul- 
turist. This encourages us to anticipate 
even better things for 1914. Well we real- 
ize that the paper which is not better to- 
day than it was a year ago is falling behind 
in the race. Therefore, it will be our aim 
to make The Canadian Horticulturist dur- 
ing 1914 stronger and better in every way 
than it has been hitherto. 
* * * 

The February issue of The Canadian 
Horticulturist will be our Third Annual 
Spraying Number. It will include a special 
front cover, which will be in harmony with 
the issue and an attractive feature in itself. 
The articles and illustrations will give spe- 
cial emphasis to spraying. They will be 
furnished by some of Canada's leading 
authorities. Watch for this issue. It will 
be a particularly good one. 

The February, March, and April issues 
of The Canadian Horticulturist are always 
crowded with advertising. Every year we 
find it difficult to give those advertisers 
whose copy is received late in the (tiuntli 



as advantageous positions as w'e otherwise 
niieht. Advertisers are urged, therefore, to 
prepare for this issue and to cooperate with 
us by forwarding the copy for their adver- 
tisemeints as earlv in the month aspossible. 
* * * 

May the year 1914 be crowded with bless- 
ings for the readers of The Canadian Hor- 
ticulturist, is the wish of its Publishers. 




Plant Registration 

At the recent convention in Toronto of 
the Ontario Horticultural Association, 
the committee on "Names and Varie- 
ties" suggested the inauguration of work 
in connection with an official registration 
of plants, which it was pointed out will need 
the support and cooperation of kindred so- 
cieties. The work of preparing lists givinq- 
'he correct pronunciation of words frequent- 
ly mispronounced had been continued and a 
commencement made on a series of lists 
giving the most .generally accepted English 
or Common names of popular and desir- 
able plants. Progress had been made also in 
the preparation of a series of lists giving 
various common terms used in plant 
nomenclature, together with the meanings 
of such names. The report wais signed by 
Messrs. H. J- Moore, of Niagara Falls, and 
by Mr. F. E. Buck, of Ottawa. 

Mr. C. W. Nash of Toronto gave an en- 
tertaining talk on "Wild Life About the 
Home." 



Weston 

The Weston Horticultural Society has 
had the most successful season in its his- 
tory. Great interest has been taken in the 
lawn and flower competitions, and in many 
respects the appearance of the whole town 
has been transformed. In presenting his 
report to the society. S. A. Frost, of Tor- 
onto, who judged the competitions, said 
in part : 

"During the past three years the im- 
provement in the lawns, gardens and flow- 
ers of your town has jjeen most marked. 
When in 1911 I judged the gardens, I saw 
some very nice ones and a few that were 
fair. In 1912 I noticed a great improve- 
ment. The lawns were cleaner, the grass 
was better grown, the edges were more 
neatly cut, and the surroundings improv- 
ed. This year I have noticed a still 
greater improvement. Many lawns have 
been reseeded and are just like velvet. 
Although we have had a drier season, they 
have been better watered. Weeds have 
been kept down and flowers have been 
better arranged. The asters were fine. I 
have seen some asters in Weston better 
than I could buy in Toronto. 

"This shows what the Horticultural So- 
ciety has done for Weston. If we could 
only show other towns what an improve- 
ment can be made when a few people take 
an interest in their gardens and surround- 
ings, what a lovely country we would have. 
Members, get busy ! Hustle up some more 
candidates for the W.H.A. Get them 
interested in prize gardens. Push the good 
work along and make Weston worth 
while!" 




Ottawa 

Last summer there were one hundred and 
cighteem entries in the garden competi- 
tions inaugurated by Her Excellency lady 
Grey, ancj now continued by the Ottawa 



J. H. Bennett, Barrie, Ont. 

President. Ontario Horticultural Association. 

Horticultural Society. Greater interest 

than ever is being shown in the work. 
A garden that has often been a prize 
winner is that of W. G. Black. Year after 
year it has been praised by the best 
judges of floral displays who have visited 
this city. A. G. Acres was the winner of 
the first prize for verandah effect. Some 
beautiful palms formed a suitable back- 
ground for the various oher splendid col- 
lections of flowers. Wm. Holtz, who this 
year exhibited for the first time, was much 
surprised when he learned that he had 
won first prize for box of flowers mot ex- 
ceeding five feet. 

A garden that presents a splendid ap- 
pearance from the street is that of Mr. 
J. B. Spencer. The garden of Mr. Wm. 
Graham is a fine example of what can be 
accomplished within a limited area. That 
the backyard can be made as attractive as 
the front lawn is the belief of Mr. C. A. 
Glemdennin. The beautiful garden in the 
rear of Mr. Glendennin's residence is 
ample evidence that he has made his ideal 
a reality. 

Berlin 

That the citizens of Berlin appreciate the 
work that is being done by the Berlin Hor- 
ticultural Society is evidenced by the inter- 
est which they take in the workings of the 
Society, the membership of which mow 
numbers two hundred and eighty. The 
lawn and garden competitions are open to 
all. Last year the rivalry was even keener 
than ever. 

On August 27 and 28 a most successful 
flower show was staged in the market build- 
ing. Eightv-nine exhibitors showed over 
one thousand entries. The receipts from 
admission were one hundred per cent, ahead 
of last year's record. More prize money 
too was paid out — over four hundred and 
fiftv dollars in all. During the season sev- 
eral lectures on gardening, which were 
open to the general public, were given in 
the hall of the public library. 

The Canadian Horticulturist — It is 
strictly high-class, and I prize it very 
much -Geo. E Falconer, Port Elgin, 
Qintsno. . 



Ontario Fruit Growers and Transportation Problems* 



A YEAR ago your Transportation 
Committee honored me by my 
appointment as transportation agent 
of your association to look into 
the conditions governing the transpor- 
tation of fruit, and the facilities af- 
forded by the different carriers. The work 
has become deeply interesting. It is high 
time the education being advanced by the 
various rural fruit growers' associations 
and also by the mother association be not 
directed only towards production, but to 
transportation and marketing. 

The fruit grower must prepare his fruit 
for the consuming public in accordance with 
certain legislation under a penalty. No 
matter how great the quantity, or how good 
the quality, the success of the industry is 
then largely dependent upon the condition 
in which the common carriers of this pro- 
vince deliver it to the various markets. 

The products of agriculture are second 
only in quantity ol railway tonnage to the 
products of mines. Fruit and vegetables, 
of which the railways carried over a million 
tons last year, are third highest in the list 
of agricultural products, contributing to the 
railway receipts. In other words, the agri- 
culturists are the second best customers 
the railways of the Dominion of Canada 
have, and are therefore entitled to at least 
equal advantages with the shippers of other 
commodities. 

The problem of rates — and we believe 
they are all the traffic will bear — is not the 
essential iwint, nor is it the most important 
of the many complaints or grievances of 
the fruit growers and shippers. It is lack 
of railway equipment, inefficient terminal 
facilities, a service in transit that assures 
no certainty of reaching a market in proper 
time, delays in supplying cars, rough hand- 
ling, lack of shelter, pilfering, neglect in 
icing cars or attending heaters according 
to season, and certain privileges that are 
accorded shippers of other commodities, but 
not for fruit. These are a few of the more 
important matters, attributable to some of 
which are the serious losses fruit frowers 
have experienced, and to which the province 
as a whole is suffering because our On- 
tario fruit is not reaching the markets, 
escpecially the western markets, in a pro- 
per condition, to meet the competition it is 
subjected to there. 

The task, therefore, confronting your 
Transportation Committee is one of great 
importance. I beg to submit, herewith, 
a synopsis of what has been attempted and 
accomplished during the past year. 

.Application was made to the Railway 
Commission to compel the railway com- 
panies under their jurisdiction to allow part 
carloads of fruit charged at carload rate 
and weight from original point of ship- 
ment to final destination to be stopped in 
transit for completion of load at an addi- 
tional charge of three dollars a car for 
each stop. In support of this request it 
was pointed out that British Columbia fruit 
shippers had the advantage of an inward 
rate, covering a sixty mile radius of ten 
cents a hundred pounds, for assorting car- 
loads, and that shippers of horses, cattle, 
hogs, sheep, live poultry, grain, canned 
goods, lumber, and poles were permitted 
to ship part carloads at carload rate and 
weight from point of shipment to destina- 
tion and stop for completion of load for 
three dollars. 

•Eiracts from a report nresented at the recent 
annual meetine of the Ontario Fruit Growers' 
^ssodation. • 



:G. E. Mcintosh, Forest, Ont. 

The ruling of the Board upon this re- 
quest was given on March 6th, 1913, and 
was as follows : "That the application for 
the stop-over privilege be, and is hereby 
refused." It is established by various de- 
cisions of this Board, says Commisisoner 
McLean, as well as by decisions of the 
Interstate Commerce Commission, that the 
tra/nsit practice is a privilege, not a right, 
and the Board is without power to direct 
that this privilege be given by the railway. 

Section 317 of the Canadian Railway Act 
reads: "No Company shall make or give 
any undue or unreasonable preference or 
advantage to, or in favor of, any particular 
person or Company, or any particular de- 
scription of traffic, in any respect what- 
ever." Yet the Board of Railway Com- 
missioners allow such to exist, and have 
ruled that they have not the power to com- 
pel a railway company to extend this three 
dollar stop-over privilege, preference, or 
advantage, or whatever you may call it, to 
the fruit shippers who are paying a rate 
double that of live stock, two and one-halt 
times that paid for lumber, three times the 
rate paid for grain, and four times greater 
than that on poles. 

MtNIMUM INWARD BATES 

From December, 1904, when tariffs were 
first filed with the Railway Commission, 
down to March 28, 1911, both the G.T.R. 
and C.P.R. carried apples to concentration 
points for storage, inspection, or comple- 
tion of carloads and reshipment, at a re- 
duction of one-third from the local tariff 
rates. The combination of the in and out 
rates not to be less than the through rate 
from the first shipping point to the final 
destination, plus two cents per hundred 
pounds ; and if to the concentration point 
a joint route had to be used, the reduction 
applied only to that portion of the earn- 
ings of the company that received the se- 
cond haul, or reshipment from that point. 
On March 29th, 1911, the arrangement was 
modified by withdrawing the completion of 
carloads concession, and restricting the 
storage and inspection privileges to car- 
loads. 

The Commission was asked jointly by 
the Simcoe Fruits and your Transportation 
Committee to order the re-establishment of 
these concessions in the event of not grant- 
ing the stop-over privileges. The Board's 
ruling upon this request, dated March 6th, 
1913, was as follows: "That the railway 
companies subject to the jurisdiction of 
the Board re-establish the arrangement for- 
merly in effect, whereby apples were car- 
ried to concentration points for storage, 
inspection, and for completion of carloads 
and reshipment, subject to certain condi- 
tions, at a reduction of one-third from the 
local tariff rate to the concentration points, 
so as to become effective within thirty days 
from the date of this order, the railways 
having not satisfactorily justified the abro- 
gation of the arrangement which has been 
shown to have been in existence in On- 
tario for a number of years." 

On July 5th, 1913, I am informed by Mr. 
Cartwright, secretary of the Commission, 
that the railway companies had applied for 
permission to refer this ruling to the Su- 
preme Court, on the grounds that the 
Board had not jurisdiction to issue such an 
order. Their request was granted, but I 
am given to understand the order issued by 
the Board on March 6th, as above read, re- 
mains in effect until either quashed or 
withdrawn, and the rebate concession is 
therefore available for those requiring it. 



As several shippers were annually paying 
out large sums of money for providing slat 
floors for refrigerator cars or box cars 
when refrigerators could not be supplied, 
to protect their shipments, the Commission 
was asked for a ruling compelling the rail- 
ways to pay shippers for providing such. 

Their request was granted bv an order 
issued June 30th, 1913, No. 19570, reading :i- 
follows : 

"It is ordered that where shippers fur- 
nish slats for the floors of refrigerator cars 
not equipped with permanent slatted or 
double floors, or for the floors of box cars 
tendered to and accepted by shippers in 
lieu of refrigerator cars, for the carriage 
of fresh fruits, railway companies subject to 
the jurisdiction of the Parliament of Can- 
ada shall allow the shipper three dollars 
per car for the said slatting ; the shipper 
to be permitted to deduct the said allowance 
from the freight charges payable by him 
upon the shipment in such car in which 
the said slatting has been furnished ; the 
shipper's receipt for the amount so allowed 
to be given the railway company's agent at 
the forwarding station, and to be accepted 
by him as so much cash in the prepayment 
of the freight charges on such car." 

This is three dollars better than it was 
up till this order went into effect, but your 
Transportation Committee are not yet sat- 
isfied in this matter. Some shippers put 
in floors and have done so this season that 
cost considerably over three dollars, and 
weigh probably one thousand pounds, but 
under the Canadian classification no reduc- 
tion is allowed off the minimum carload 
weight for these floors, and consequently 
the shipper has to pay freight on same. 
We might take the case of a Sarnia ship- 
per fitting a car as outlined ; he gets no 
allowance from his freight minimum. In 
Port Huron — a mile away — another shipper 
fits a car, and under the official classifica- 
tion he is allowed one thousand pounds for 
such fittings, from the car minimum. 

RBCIPKOCAL DEMTTRRAGE 

The Ontario Fruit Growers' Association, 
the Toronto and Montreal Boards of Trade, 
the Canadian Millers' Association, the On- 
tario Associated Boards of Trade, the On- 
tario Coal Dealers' Association, and the 
International Harvester Co. were heard in 
Ottawa, June 16th and 17th, by the Railway 
Commission on the question of reciprocal 
or average demurrage. It was my privilege 
to also represent your Transportation Com- 
mittee at this hearing, to endeavor to show 
the great need of something being done to 
ensure a better service in the supplying of 
cars, a better mileage rate in transit, and 
a more prompt delivery at terminals for 
fruit shipments. 

At present a shipper who allows his car 
to remain more than twenty-four hours of 
free time at intervals before unloading is 
fined one dollar a day for every day beyond 
such free time. Last winter the Board 
raised this to two dollars and three dollars 
for the first and second day, for four 
months as an experiment, but the experi- 
ment did not bring about the results which 
the railways claimed would be forthcom- 
ing, viz., that cars would be released, by 
consignees, and could then be supplied 
promptly to the shippers. The fact then 
is apparent that the fault is really conges- 
tion at terminals, which can only be reme- 
died by the railways providing better ter- 
minal facilities. 

{Continued on page 16) 



January, 1914 



THE CANADIAN HORTICULTURIST 



15 



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under the Kellogg sure-crop 
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Nova Scotia 

The Nova Scotia Department of Agri- 
culture is determined that the apple mag- 
gots shall not gain a hold in the orchards 
of that province. So far this pest has not 
made its appearance, except in a very few 
localities. Infested fruit, however, has 
been coming in from Ontario and the New 
England states. When preventative mea- 
sures are taken in time this pest can be 
controlled. It spreads very slowly, some- 
times confining its attack to only a few 
trees for a number of years. This habit 
is a very fortunate one. It is hoped that all 
persons interested in the fruit industry in 
that province will be on the lookout for 
this insect and report any appearances to 
Roberit Matheson, the Provincial Entom- 
ologist. 

Ottawa Flower Guild 

The Ottawa Flower Guild continues to 
progress. At a meeting last fall over forty 
new members were admitted. The bulbs 
chosen for this season are Narcissus Trum- 
pet Victoria, Narcissus Trumpet Princeps, 
and Hyacinth Gigantea. The plants are 
Whitmanii Fern, Begoaiea Luminosa 
Asparagus Plumosus. 

Children up to twelve years of 
receive three of each set of bulbs. Child- 
ren over twelve are given a choice between 
plants or bulbs. A bulb exhibition will be 
held in February at which the children will 
be given an opportunity to compete for 
prizes. President R. B. Whyte has been 
giving instructions recently on the growing 
of bulbs. Marked benefit is following tne 
work of the society. 



and 



age 



With one organization handling a large 
volume of apples it will be possible to se- 
cure better terms from the railways. 



Douglas Gardens 

OAKVILLE, ONT. 



A Happy and Prosperous 

New Year 

To All the Readers of 

The 
Canadian Horticulturist 



Our Spring Planting List will be 
ready for mailing on the Ist of 
February. 



U not now on uur mailing list please send Post Card 
givins name and address, and a copy mil be sent. 



JOHN CAVERS 




On Greenhouses 



HAS it ever ocotirrod to you that the 
congtrnction of greenhousea is de- 
cidedly different, and that a great 
doal of the snocees of your flowers de- 
pends on the confitruction? 

Haven't you thought that practically 
the only difference in greenhou.'ies. aeido 
from design, was the difference in prict;? 

With everythini? else, isn't there always 
some one kind that is generally conceded 
to be better than the rest, and taken as 
a standard for comparisons? 

Then, isn't it only logical it should b> 
so with greenhouses? When other green- 
house builders clnim their houses are 



"as light as the U-Bar's." it's significant that the TJ-Bar 
is the lightest of them all. 

If the other builders are constructing their houses 
with curved eave.s as near as possible like the TJ-Bar's. 
there must be a distinct advantage in the U-Bar curved 
eave. 

Now. the truth of the matter Is: No one can or does 

U-BAR GREENHOUSES 

PI EPSON U-BAR CO 

ONE MADISON AVt. NtWYORK 

CANADIAN OFFICE:. lO PMlLLirS PLACt . MONTHLAl 



build a bouse anything like the tT-Bar. 
because it's a patented construction and 
we are lt« sole users. 

That it has distinct advantages, green- 
house erperts admit. Wh-^ther these ad- 
vantages are worth the difference in cost 
Is a question that you can settle only 
after a careful comparison. 

Before you put any money in a green- 
house, it might be well to go into the 
matter a bit. 

Our catalog will be a great help. 

To have one of our representatives call 
would doubtless be the most satisfactory. 

Which shall it be? 



i6 



THE CANADIAN HORTICULTURIST 



January, 1914 



GLORIOUS GARDENS 
from ENGLAND 



V 



y> 



KELWAY'S famous Hardy 
Herbaceous Perennials— Gail- 
lardias, Pyrethrums, Paeonies, 
Delphiniums and others— are from 
strong, country-grown stocks which 
flourish under almost all conditions of 
soil and climate and make it possible 
to reproduce successfully in this 
country much of the charm and beauty 
of the finest old English gardens. 

Choice named collections (specially 
picked to suit Canadian conditions) 
of Paeonies from $3.75 to $17.00; 
Delphiniums from $2.25 to $13.50 ; 
Gaillardias from $1.50 to $4.50 ; Pyre- 
thrums, $1.50, $3.00 and $5. 10 a dozen. 

Full particulars and illusl rations are g-iven 
m the Kelivav Manual of Horticulture 
mailed Free on receipt of 60 cents, by 

KELWAY & SON 

LANGPOHT - SOMERSET 

■_>IB7n ."..I ENGLAND 



>' 



■.ocasv 



Kelway's Perennials 

For 
Canadian Gardens 






%^' 



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% KELWAY&SON 

TTieRoyal Horticulturists 

lANGPORT ENGLAND 



This is the K^lwky 
Book which every 
Garden lover should 
write for to-day 



Ontario Fruit Growers and 
Transportation 

{Continued friim paye Ml 
Our request was for reciprocal demur- ] 
rajfe, that is, a system by which the rail- ' 
ways as well as the shipper would be fire 
for delay in unloadims:, accordinjr as o; 
or the other was responsible. The same 
would apply in the orderinjf of cars, if cars 
were not supplied in forty-eight hours, the 
railways would pay the shipper demurrage 
for each day's delay ther:ifter, and if sup- 
plied and not loaded in proper time, then 
the shipper would pay the same rate. De- 
lays in transit or in plarimK would or should . 
be in the form of a penalty. 

By the v'Tage demurraRC system the 
charse on all ears held for loading or un- 
loading: by shipper or receiver would be 
computed on the basis of the average time 
of detention to all such cars released dur- 
ing each calendar month as follows: 

First — k credit of ome day allowed for 
each car released within twenty-four hours 
of free time, and a debit of one day charg- 
ed for each twenty-four hours beyond the 
first forty-eight hours of free time. ' 

Second — At the end of the month the 
total number of days credited will be de- 
ducted from the total number of days 
debited, and one dollar a day charged for 
the remainder. 

In supporting the reciprocal plan, 1 be- 
lieve its adoption would be a fair settle- 
ment of the question, whereas the average 
plan would discriminate against the small 
shipper in favor of the big one. Let the 
railway as well as the shipper be penalized, 
but we must be prepared and willing to 
accept any ruling whereby the service will 
be improved. 

From returns furnished me by shippers 
who kept records of shipments, as request- 
ed, last season, I was enabled to present 
to the Board acurate data showing losses 
sustained by shippers throuirh delays in 
supplying refrigerator cars, etc. Out of 
forty shipers, requiring one thousand one 
hundred and eighty-six refrigerator cars, 
twenty-siz experienced delays of from four 
to thirty-eight d.ays in getting them, and 
in some instances were compelled to use 
box cars. An instance mav be given of 
one shipper,' who ordered eight refrigera- 
tor cars from the M.C.R Co. on October 
24th. He received two on November 28— 
3.'j days; one on November 30 — thirty-seve<n 
davs-.' one December 1st— thirty-eight days; 
and no more until December 13th. Another 
ordered six refrigerators from th« P.M. 
Railwav Co. on November 4th, and re- 
ceived the first car on December 10th, and 
so on all through the list. 

Regarding delays in transit, the evidence 
submitted covered everything required b> 
the fruit grower, from the nursery stock 
to the orchard product, including spray 
material. On fruit shipments to the west- 
ern market, Winnipeg shipments traveller 
as slow as two and three-quarter miles ar 
hour; Bramdon. from four and three-quartei 
to ten miles an hour: Regina, four anc 
three-quarter, five and one-half, and si> 
miles an hour, and several other point: 
al50ut as bad. Conditions at export point: 
were also referred to, instances being quot 
rd where cars were held a full week ant 
more durin.g severe cold weather, and wer< 
badlv frosted. Fifty-seven shipments o 
nurs'erv stock bv one shipper to points 11 
Ontario, durimg the month of May, wa; 
even acknowledged by the railway repre 
B.Mitatives to be a most shameful conditioi 
of affairs. Some of these required seven 
teen days gojngf twenty-three miles, fifteei 



January, 1914 



THE CANADIAN HORTTC TJT.T0RTST 



tt 



BLACK CURRANTS 

We have some eroellent plant* of the 
Black Naples variety, erown from the 
most productive patch in the district. Also 
some I.awton Blackberry plants. 

Apply for prices. 
I. E. HENRY & SON ■ WINONA. ONT. 



STRAWBERRIES 



Your copy of our Strawberry Cata- 
logue is now ready. A Post Card 
will bring it. It describes ail the 
best varieties of Strawberries and 
Raspberries. Cultural directions and 
lots of other valuable information. 

THE LAKE VIEW FRUIT FARM 

H. L. McConoell & Son Crovesend, Ontario 



Strawberries 

(Summer and Fall Bearing) 

and 

All Small Fruit Plants - 

Strawberrii'S and all Small 
Fruit Planus mean big and 
quick profits for you at a 
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Blackberries. Gooseberries. Currants, 
Grapes, Fruit Trees. Roses, Ornamental 
Shrubs, Eggs for Hatching, Orates, Bas- 
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lowest price 30 years' experien'-c. Free 
catalogue is fullof valuable informaikm, Write today 
1. .1, lARMER. nOX 196. PULASKI X. V 




Bee=keepers' Supplies 

SEASON 1914 

Early Cash Order Dis- 
count 5% — November 
I St to December 3 1 st. 

Send for our New Catalogue 

Bees'ivax Wanted 

Best Market Price 
Cash or Exchange 

The Ham & Nott Co., Ltd. 

BHANTFOHD, ONT. 



THE CHAS. E. HOPPER COMPANY 

Successors to 

E. GRAINGER & COMPANY 

BEEKEEPERS ' SUPPLIES 

BEES, QUEENS, HONEY and WAX 

IVritffor a Catalogitf 
185 Wright Avenue Toronto, Ont. 



THE BEEKEEPERS' REVIEW 

would like very much to enroll a goodly number of new subscribers for the year 1914. 
Listen ! Besides the .3,000-colony series managed from one office, we will begin with 
the January number of the REVIEW a series of articles by a beekeeper "grey with 
experience" that we will call the Farmers' Series; or. How to Produce Comb Honey 
with Two Visits a Year. The editor of the REVIEW has looked into this system quite 
thoroughly, and believes that, with this method that will be described in the RE- 
VIEW during 1914, the busy man or farmer can harvest much more comb honey 
per colony, with about a fourth the wofk that is required with the ordinary system 
now in vogue. We are printing 400 extra sets of the REVIEW for the last half of 
191.3 ; and as lojig as they last they will be included free to all new paid-in-advance 
subscribers for 1914. All progressive beekeepers should subscribe for two or three 
good bee journals. We are making a special low price on the REV^IEW when club- 
bod with other bee journals. 

Hor^ is a|(JLEANINGS one year, W 00 j „„t|,, „„e year, for $1.50 

cood one: V. The REVIEW, one year, $1 00 J 
To take advan- Here ( GLEANINGS, one year, $1.00 

ta«e of thks low is an- \ AMER. BEE JOURNAL, ] yr.. SI 00 

price all remit- other: I The REVIEW, one year, $100 

tances should be Extra for CSanadian postaee: Oleanings. 30c; 

addressed— AH three listed above 40c. 



All Thr 



for $2.00 



American Bee Journal, 10c. 



THE BEEKEEPERS' REVIEW 



NORTHSTAR, MICHIGAN 




> "c li ^y^**" View of James 

C--^ i^ Carter & Company** trial 

grounds at Raynes Park. London, England. 

Best Seeds 
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It pays to get the best seeds grown. That's why you will be interested 
in the new Catalogue of Carter's Tested Seeds. Write fior it to-day. 

At Raynes Park, London, Messrs. James Canter & Company have the 
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For generations they have been selecting, cultivating and perfecting their 
seeds to a lineage that insures quality. 

Carter's Seed^s are cleaned and packed by unique methods and come to 
you absolutely true to name. 

We maintain complete stocks in our Toronto store and warehouses to 
insure Immediate delivery of your order. 

Our catalogue, "Garden and Lawn," ready about January 1st, lists not 
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It gives also many useful hints on 
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133A rCing Street Ea«t, Toronto 




iR 



THE CANADIAN HORTICUT.TTtrtST 



Janii:ir\', iqi^ 




ALLOW ME TO PRESENT I 
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Hitch Your Sleeping Schedule 
to Big Ben 



Big Ben will wake you early enough 
for profitable before-breakfast action. 
His gentle get-up call starts the day 
with n flying start on thousands of 
farms. 

For your accommodation he rings 
TWO WAYS. He'll get you up by 
degrees or in a hurry. Set him either 
way you wish — to give one long five- 
minute ring, or ten short rings at 
one-half-minute intervals, until you're 
wide awake. 

lie stands 7 inches tall; ia triple-nickel plated 
over a tested implement steel coat, the handsomest 
and truest tborouebbred in the clocJc world. He 
has h\z. bold numerals and hands that show the 
time pLiinly at a stance, large keys that anyone can 
wind easily, and such a pleasant tone that you are 
glad tc £ct up when he calls. 

Bit Ben makes early rising easy. He's the 
leader of the early morning brigade. His cheerful 



good morning" ring calls millions of liyc wires to 
action. Thousands of successful farms are run on 
a Big Ben schedule. He starts you off right in the 
morning and keeps you right all day. From "Sun 
up" to "Lights out" he regulates your day. He'll 
work for 36 hours at a stretch and overtime, if 
necessary. The only pay he asks is one drop of 
oil a year. 

He is sturdy and strong — built to last a lifetime. 
Yet under bis dust-proof steel coat is the most deli- 
cate "works." That's why his on-tbe-dot accuracy 
has won him fame. 

Big Ben's wonderful sales are due to his having 
"made good." His biggest bit has been with fcBks 
with tbc "make good" habit. He sunds for suc- 
cess — that's why you'll like him for a friend. 

When 3 million families find Big Ben a good 
clock to buy and 20,000 dealers pnrve he's a good 
clock to sell, it's evidence that he is worth S*,00 of 
jmr money. Suppose you trade &1. 00 for him today. 

A community of clockmakera stands back of btm. 
Their imprint, Madt in La Sallt, UJinois, h tf'est- 
clox, is the best alarm-clock insurance you can buy. 



days goinff twenty-eight miles, twenty-two 
days going thirty-seven miles, twenty-six 
days going seventy-two miles, etc., through- 
out the whole fifty-seven shipments. Simi- 
lar reports to the foregoing were submitted 
on the placing of carload shipments of fruit 
after arrival at destination. 

In reply to Chairman Drayton's inquir\ 
as to what rate of transit the fruit ship- 
ments should be given, my suggestion was 
ten miles an hour, and I am satisfied this 
is not an unreasonable request, consider- 
ing the freight rate, and the volume of 
business we tender. For instance, between 
New Orleans, La., and Chicago, for fruit 
and vegetable shipments, the run is made 
in fifty-five hours, a distance of nine hun- 
dred and twenty-two miles ,or an average 
speed of sixteen miles an hour, while the 
actual running speed would be greatly in 
excess of this. The schedule for banana 
trains betwen these points is forty-seven 
hours and thirty minutes, an average of 
.twenty miles an hour. Fruit trains from 
Southern Illinois are run from Centralia, 
111., to Chicago, two hundred and fifty-two 
miles, in ten hours and five minutes, about 
twenty-five miles an hour, and this service 
dates back as far as 1901. In the district 
comprising Delaware and the eastern shores 
of Maryland and Virginia, which ship pro 
bably ninety per cent, of its production 
north of Philadelphia, growers have the 
accommodations of specially constructed 
cars for fruit, and a service almost on pas- 
senger schedule. 

FAST SF.RVICE EL8EWHEKE 

From Wilmington, N.C., to New York, 
fruit trains average better than sixteen 
miles an hour. Florida, like other southern 
states, is provided with a special fast 
freight service for the transportation of 
fruits, trains making the run between Jack- 
sonville and New York, including all de- 
lays, at the rate of over seventeen miles 
an hour. All through the fruit producing 
states, we find similar service provided. 
From the Jacksonville, Palestine and Tyler 
districts in Texas to New York, one thou- 
sand five hundred and twenty-three miles 
in five days, and even to Montreal we find 
deliveries of peaches and cantaloupes made 
for sixth morning market. Between Sou- 
thern California and New York, three thou- 
sand and twenty miles, an average speed of 
nearly thirteen miles am hour is attained. 
Washington, Oregon, and Idaho, competi- 
tive states in Western Canada with our 
Ontario producers, also have a special 
sechedule during the heavy movement, and 
in some instances fruit shipments are 
handled on passenger trains. 

To the great fruit industry of the pro- 
vince, then, the decision of the Railway 
Commission upon this problem means con- 
siderable, as it is a stepping-stone to the 
more important requirement — that of bet- 
ter service in transit. 

We pay high rates because of the per- 
ishable nature of our commodity and de- 
serve, therefore, the service for which we 
pay. The reports now coming in from 
Ontario shippers are an improvement o-ver 
last year, but show a serious state of affairs 
vet. No company obtaining its right of 
operation from the Government, which in 
reality is the people, should be allowed to 
so serve or humbug those who make their 
operation possible. 

When the decision of the Board will be 
given, I cannot say. I hoped it would be 
in time to apply this season, but was ad- 
vised under date of October 13th, 1913, that 
it will be some time yet before the question 
can be disposed of. 



j.inii.iry, 1914 



THE CANADIAN HORTICULTURIST 



t^ 





No. 16 1 

Planet Jr 
Single 
^Wheel Hoe, 

Cultivator, Rake 
and Plow 



The highest type of Single Wheel Hoe 
made. It is light, handy, and adapted to 
use by man, woman, or child. Has leaf 
guard for close work, and a durable steel 
frame. 




No. 76 



Planet Jr 

Pivot-wheel 

Riding Cultiva* 

tor, Plow, 

Furrower, and 

Ridger 



A wonderful implement in extensive cul- 
tivation of corn, potatoes, etc. Light in 
draft, simple and strong in construction and 
comfortable to ride upon. Works rows 28 
\.Q 44 inches, and cultivates crops until 5 
feet high. _^_^ 



Nearly two million soil-tillers all over the 
world are saving time, lightening labor and 
getting better results by using Planet Jr 
guaranteed farm and garden tools. For all 
requirements, $2 to $100. 

iri>p]p* Our new 72-page illustrated cata- 
logue describes 60 tools for all 
kinds of horse and hand cultivation. Write 
for it today. 

S L ALLEN & CO 

Box 1106G Ptiiladelphia 

Write tor the name of our nearest agency 



No. 11 



Planet Jr 

Double 




Wheel Hoe, 
Cultivator, 
Plow and 
Rake 



The greatest cultivating tool in the world 
for the grower of garden crops from drilled 
seeds. It has steel frame. The plow opens 
furrows for manure, seed, etc., and can be 
reversed for covering. The cultivating 
teeth are adapted for deep or shallow work 
and for marking out. Crops can be worked 
both sides at once until 20 inches high. 




Planet Jr 
Combined 
ill and 
Drill Seeder, 
Wheel Hoe, Cul- 
tivator and 
Plow 



This is a practical every day time-, labor., 
and money-saver. It combines in a single 
implement a capital seeder, an admirable 
single wheel hoe, furrower, wheel-cultiva- 
tor, and a rapid and efficient wheel garden 
plow. Every owner of a vegetable gar- 
den can save the cost of this tool in a single 
season. 



No. 72 




Planet Jr 2-row 

Pivot-wheel 
Cultivator* 
Plow, 
Furrower 
and 
Ridger 



Cultivates at one time two rows of pota- 
toes, corn, beans, etc. in rows 28 to 44 inches 
apart. Works like a charm in check rows, 
crooked rows, and rows of irregular width. 
Can be equipped with roller-bearings, 
spring-trip standards, and discs. 



Apple Shippers 

Read this before dispos- 
ing of your Apples 




IT' S ONLY NATURAL to 

give your own property THE 
PREFERENCE — Blood is 

thicker than water. 

Having no bought apples of our 
own, we are in a position to look 
after your interests. Consign 
your apples to us — we can take care of them for you. 

Have ample storage to hold for improved market. 

Dawson - Elliott Co. 

32 West Market St., TORONTO 

PHONE MAIN 1471 



For the Land' s Sake 

Use the best Manure 
and get 

GOOD CROPS 

For Nurseries, Fruit Growers 
and Gardeners. 

Sure Growth Compost 

Makes poor land fertile and keeps fertile 
land most productive. 

Supplied by 

S. W. Marchtnent 

133 Victoria St., TORONTO 

Telephones: Main 2841; Residence, Park 951 
Say you saw thim ad. in The Canadian Horticulturist 



THF. CANADIAN HOl^TTC trtTU RtST 



i 



unuarv, /'/(-! 



CENTRAL NURSERIES, ST. CATHARINES, ONT. 

Have a Fine Assortment of 

Trees, Vines, Plants, Ornamentals, Etc. 

For Spring Plantinii 
For SatiifactioB, Plant St. Rigo, Himalajra and Ever Beariof Bom't 

Our prictMare right ami so are llie trees. Send for pricoii cuta- 
loi;ue if you liave none, aiso your want list for special prices 
on Apple Trcea. We can please you. 

Look over our Price List No Aigents 

A. G. HULL & SON 





TTTTTl 



i!sm 



BEATS ELECTRIC 
OR GASOLINE 
10 Days FREE— Send No Money 



We don t ask you to pay us a cent until you have used 

this wonderful modem light in your owA home for ten days, then 
you may return it at our expense if not perfectly satisfied. We 
want you to prove for yofarself that it gives five to fifteen times as 
much light as the ordinary oil lamp; beats electric, gasoline or 
acetylene. Lights and is put out just like the old oil lamp 

BURNS 70 HOURS ON 1 GALLON OIL 

Gives a powerful white light, burns common coal 
oil (keroHene), no odor, smoke or noise, simple, 
clean, won't explode. Guaranteed. 



\>m 



$1000.00 Reward 

will be K .en to the person who shows us an 
oil lamp equal to this Aladdin in every way (de- 
tails of otfer given in our circular). Woultl wo 
dare make sucli a challenge to the world if there 
was thesllKhtest doubt as to the merits of the 
Aladdin? We want one person in each locality 
to wliom we can refer customers. Write qnicfc 
for our JO Day Absolutely Free Trial I'rop- 
osltion. Agents' Wlioiesale Prices, and learu 
bow to get ONE FREE. 

MANTLE LAMP CO., 715 AladdinBldg.. Montreal & Winnepeg 



AGENTS 
WANTED 

to denionBtrate in ter- 
ritory where oil lamps 
are in use. Kxpericnce 
unnecessary. Many 
agents average live 
sales a day and make 
etiW.OO per month. 
One farmer cicareil 
over S800.00 in 6 weeks. 
You can make money 
t'veninira «n<i Ri>are time. 
Write <rtiick for tarriUiry 



TREE PgUNERS 

ALL PATENTED 

BEST IN QUALITY 
EASY TO OPERATE 

THE STRONGEST MADE 



-,IK .. .^ 




Happy Thought 




Orchard King 
Sold by all good Hardware Stores 



MADE ONLY BY 



Taylor-Forbes Company 



Limited 



Kansas 



GUELPH, ONTARIO 



In conclusion, I beg to submit for con- 
sideration, the following recommendation : 

(1) That an effort be made to have all 
navigation companies handling freight, and 
operating upon Canadian waterways, plac- 
ed under the jurisdiction of the Railway 
Commission. 

That power be given the Railway Com- 
mission to adjudicate claims against rail- 
way or express companies not settled in 
60 days. 

That the Railway Commission be given 
jurisdiction in the matter of fixing a pen- 
alty for rought handling and pilfering of 
freight and express shipments. 

That fruit inspectors be also cargo in- 
spectors. 

That the express minimum be reduced 
from twenty thousand pounds to fifteen 
thousand pounds. 

That, if necessary, the Railway Commis- 
sion be asked to compel the railway com- 
panies to allow free transportation both 
ways for a man sent in charge of heated 
cars. 

That the railway companies be asked to 
provide a special fruit train service from 
central points in Ontario to VVineipeg, dur- 
ing the shipping season. 

Packing in Barrels 

D. E. Lothian, B. S. A. 

In beginning to pack a barrel of apples, 
we lay in first of all what is known as the 
heading, which is the first layer of apples. 
According to their size the outer ring 
should consist of fifteen or sixteen, the 
second ring of ten or eleven, and the third 
or inner ring of three or four. Apples 
under that size will be of inferior grade, 
and mav be packed with five in a ring 
and one in the centre, the centre apple 
should never be larger than those on the 
outside of it, otherwise the surface will 
not be smooth, and when pressure is ap- 
plied the centre apple will suffer and the 
package as a whole will not be a tight fit. 
The stems, if long, should be removed and 
the stem end placed downward, that is to 
say, next to the head. 

KACKI-NG IMPOKTAXT 

After the first layer has been placed in 
position the succeeding baskets of fruit 
should not be allowed to drop into the bar- 
rel, but the basket should be lowered close 
down to the layer and poured in gently. 
Damage is frequently done by allowing 
apples to drop even six or seven inches 
from the surface of the first layer. The 
damage varies with the particular variety 
in question. After the addition of each 
basket the barrel should receive what is 
known as racking, which consists in giv- 
ing th« barrel a sharp jerk. This allows 
the apple to settle into a good secure posi- 
tion, hence when the lid is nailed on there 
is no sinking, and consequent loosening of 
the package. When the barrel is nearly 
full a flat board should be applied to smooth 
the surface. 

After the follower has been applied, 
which is the name used by apple packers 
for this board which they utilise to smooth 
out the surface, what is known as tailing 
may be performed. This consists in finish- 
ing the barrel by putting in the last two 
rows of apples, stem upwards. The top 
of the last row should be as nearly in line 
as possible with the chime of the barrel, 
or if anything, a little higher. The lid may 
then be' applied and the barrel subjected 
to preferably a hoop press. In nailing on 
the hoop care should be taken not to dnve 
the nails through so that they will pro- 
ject on the inside of the barrel and so 
damage the fruit. 



,inu;ii'\', 1914 



THE CANADIAN HORTICULTURIST 



21 



•'Wherever Fruit Excels, NIAGARA SPRAYS are Used" 



?, NIAGARA 



Ui 






z 
o 
o 




""^ MARK REGlSTtW^'' 



The spray that makes fruit growing profitable. 

The spray that always gives results. 

The spray that produces all the prize winners. 

The spray used by all successful fruit growers. 

if you are not getting the results you should, 

don't experiment any longer — 

Cet in the winning row. Use NIAGARA 

SOLUBLE SULPHUR The most talked of spray in 

America. In powder form. Dissolves immediately in 
cold water. Keeps indefinitely. A 100-lb. can makes 
more spray than a 600-lb. barrel of Solution. No leak- 
age or loss. No heavy barrel to handle, return or pay 
for. Easy to mix and apply. No clogging: of nozzles. 
SOLUBLE SULPHUR is a perfect control of Sam Jose 
Scale and all other Scales. It is stronger and better 
Fungicide than Lime-Sulphur Solution. It is cheaper and more efficient than any other spray. SOLUBLE SUL- 
PHUR was used by hundreds of growers in Ontario this past season with wonderful results. It will be used 
by thousands this year. No grower will ever use anything else after using Solubk Sulphur. Our supply is 
limited. We were forced to disappoint many growers last year. Order now so as to be sure and be supplied. 

Remember — Soluble Sulphur is a patented product. It can only be procured from us. Let us send you further 
information and testimonials from growers and experts you know. 

LIME SULPHUR — We will still supply the famous Niagara Brand. 

ARSENATE OF LEAD — Swift's Brand — The highest grade only. Evei-ybody says so. 

SPRAY PUIWPS — Bean and Niagara — Hand and Power, Famous from coast to coast for their High Pressure, 
Large Capacity, Durability, Efficiency, Low Cost of Maintenance. Thiey are built for work. These pumps 
will run all day and every day and maintain their uniform high pressure and capacity. Always cm the job. 
Never balk when there is work to do. We would like to send you full particulars of our patented pressure regu- 
lator and other special features and testimonials from hundreds of satisfied customers. 

Write for complete information on SPRAYS and SPRAY PUMPS. 

NIAGARA BRAND SPRAY CO., LIMITED 

BURLINGTON, ONT. 



V 

o 

2 



•0 
> 

m 


X 

H 

O 

2 

> 

H 

m 
73 




Fruit and Vegetables Solicited 



Branch Warehouics: 

Sudbury, North Bay, 

Cobalt, Cochrane and 

Porcupine 

Send for 
Shipping Stamp 



WE GET YOU BEST PRICES 

OUR facilities enable us to realize top prices at all times for your fruit, vegetables 
or general produce. A.side from our large connection on the Toronto market, 
we have established branch warehouses with competent men in charge at 
Sudbury, North Bay, Cobalt, Cochrane and Porcupine. In time of con- 
gestion on the Toronto market we have a ready outlet through these branches. We 
never have to sacrifice your interests. 

H. PETERS 

88 Front St. East, Toronto 



Reference* : The Canad- 
ian Bank of Commerce, 
(Market Branch) and 
Commercial Agencie*. 




THE CANADIAN HORTICULTURIST 



January, 191 4 



THE BRANTFORD IDEAL POWER SPRAYER 



CANNOT BE EXCELLED 




^e also manufacture complete Hnea of Gas and Gasoline Engines, Windmills, Tanks, Grain Grinders. 
Steel Saw Frames, Water Boxes, Pumps, etc- 

Catalogues describing our different lines, sent on request 

GOOLD, SHAPLEY & MUIH CO. Ltd., Bratvtford, Ont. 




Ttie "Friend" Motor-Pump 



cludin? motor-pumps. * >.fits on bed 
without tnicks, and complete ma- 
cliinee — built in large and small 
sizes. The SIMPLEST. MOST OOM- 
PAOT. MOST POWERFUL and FIN- 
EST WORKING power sprayers ever 
produced. Many Westerns sold in 
Canada last year to growers who are 
STAUNCH FRIENDS this year. 

WRITE FOR CATALOG TO-DAY, 
STATING REQUIREMENTS. 



Fruit Growers' Requests 

Durinir December Messrs. D. Johnson 
and G. E. Mcintosh, represemting the On- 
tario Fruit GroT\'ers' Association and a 
larsre delegation of the fruit growers of 
Lambton County, met J. E. Armstrong, 
M. P. for East Lambton, at Forest, and 
laid before him certain complaints regard- 
ing railway facilities and service in hand- 
ling fruit shipments. The resolutions, as 
annroved by the Ontario .Association and 
submitted to Mr. .Armstrong, were as fol- 
lows : 

That an effort be made to have all navi- 
gation companies handling freierht and op- 
erating upon Canadian waters placed under 
the jurisdiction of the railway commission. 

That power be given the railway commis- 
sion to adjudicate claims against steam- 
boats, railway and express companies.which 
have not been settled in sixty days. 

That an amendment be made to the crim- 
inal code whereby handlers of perishable 
shipments will be liable to a fine for rough 
handling and for pilfering. 

That fruit inspectors be also made cargo 
inspectors. 

That where a privilege has been given by 
a railway company under section 317 of the 
Railway Act, the railway commission be 
given power to order the extension of such 
privilege. 

REQIESTS REASONABLE 

Mr. .Armstrong said 'he believed the rr 
quests reasonable, and he would see they 
were placed before Parliamemt, with a view 
to bring about legislation that would ad- 
just at least some of them. 

Mr. Armstrong touched upon a mat- 
ter that met with approval, that of nation- 
alizing the express companies of Canada. 
The express companies are demanding six 
million dollars for handling the parcel post 
husimess to be inaugurated very soon, and 
Mr, Armstrong thought that the Postmas- 
ter-General should direct attention to gov- 
ernmental control of the express companies. 



"FRIEND" MFG. CO., GASPORT, NEW YORK 



Nova Scotia 

The annual meeting of the Xova Scotia 
Fruit Growers' -Association will take place 
at Kentville, January 20th. 21st and 22nd. 
\ three days programme is being prepared 
The question of the control of black spot 
uill be especialy dealt with. 



British Columbia 

Developments in the system of fruit pro- 
duction and distribution in British Colmu- 
bia, which may involve changes in methods 
now used by the orchardists, are possible as 
a result of a recent toiir of the Pacific coast 
undertaken by J. Kidston of Vernon, a 
member of the Provincial .Agricultural 
Commission, and R. M. Winslow, provincial 
horticulturiist and secretary of the B. C. 
Fruit Growers' .Asociation. They have re- 
cently returned from a trip which took them 
through .American fruit grooving districts 
extending from the boundary line south 
into the heart of the California ••trus beit. 
They interviewed the officers of many 
growing and selling organizations and se- 
cured a large amount of valuable informa- 
tion covering the growing and distribution 
of deciduous and citrus fruits. 

In the orchard districts of the Northwest 
the idea of close cultivation between trees 
is not looked upon with general f.ivor, al- 
though this method is accepted ;here in 



January, 1914 



THE CANADIAN HORTICULTURIST 



23 



The question of se- 
lecting an Arsenate 
of Lead for fruit-tree 
spraying is an im- 
portant one. 

There are a great many 
brands on the market, but 
only a few of them have 
all the requisite characteristics 
which will make your spraying 
successful. 




TRADE ^^""^^ MARK 

THE CANADA PAINT CO 

LIMITED 

NEUTRAL 
ARSENATE OF LEAD 

(Paste) 

This product is soft and fluffy 
in character and mixes readily with 
water and other spray mixtures, 
and stays well in suspension. It 
is very fine in texture so covers 
the foliage evenly and goes far- 
ther than more graular and coarser 
Arsenates. 

Before putting our new Neutral 
Arsenate of Lead on the market, 
we experimented and thoroughly 
tested it out in practical use, and 
we are confident here is no super- 
ior Arsenate of Lead made. .As 
manufacturers of Arsenate of Lead 
we have been enabled to make use 
of a new formula for the manu- 
facture of a Dry, Powdered Ar- 
senate. Hitherto Arsenate of Lead 
in dry form was not satisfactory 
but this new product has all the 
good qualities of a paste Lead and 
some advantages beside. It is 
lighter in gravity and more fluffy 
in texture and so has greater cov- 
ering qualities. It can be safely 
carried over from one season to 
another without deterioration. Pro- 
bably the greatest advantage is 
the saving effected in freight 
charges, as the dry Lead weighs 
just half the amount of the paste 
Lead. Ask us for prices on our 
Paste and Dry Arsenates before 
you decide on the Lead you will 
use this year. 

THE 

CANADA PAINT CO. 

LIMITED 

PAINT-VARNISH AND DRY COLOR 

MAKE.C5-LINSEED OIL CDU5HER5 

MONTREAL- TORONTO- W'NNIPEC- CALGARY- HALlfM 

OXIliE MINES- RLDMILL QUEBEC 



Gladioli at Less than 
Wholesale Prices 

AMERICA, the standard pink. IVi in. and 
up in diameter. $1.50 per 100. 

TACONIC, Lively pink (perfect). 2 in. 
up. $4.00 per 100. 

Order now before too late. These prices 
■,i:e made to close out circular. 

P. VAN WAGNER 



H. 

R R. No. 5 



HAMILTON ONT. 



600,000 ft. Belting for Sale, all makes, at ^ 
to '/a less than regular value. Also 500,000 ft. 
Iron Piping, SO.OCO rods new Wire Fencing, 
Rails. Cable, Galvanized Iron, etc., at Vi to 
'/a saving. Price list free. Write to 

IMPERIAL WASTE & METAL CO. 

6 Queen St., MONTREAL 



Imperial Bank 

E«.bii.h.d OF CANADA i875 

Capital Authorized - $10,000,000 
Capital Paid Up - 6.925,000 
Reserve and Undivided 

Profits - - - 8,100,000 

D. R. WILKIE, PrMidcnt and Gaaaral Manacar 



Open a SAVINGS BANK 
ACCOUNT. Deposits of 
$ 1 .00 and upward received 






Massey-Harris 
Spray Outfits 




Double Cylinder Vertical Pump 
with Bronze Plungers. 

Tank is made of selected Cypress 
put together by Experts. 

Simple, direct connection between Engine and Pump -No Sprocket 
Chains to get tangled up in branches of trees. 

Agitator is positive in its action and is operated from the top — No 
holes through side of Tank to leak and cause trouble. 

The Cab protects all working parts from the solution. 

Front Wheels turn under the Frame— Handy in close quarters. 

The Engine is described below. 

•■■■•«■■■ 

Massey-Harris Gasoline Engines 

The Ideal Engines for Spraying and general farm work as they run 

in ail kinds of weather and under changes of position caused 

by working on side hills, etc. 

Hopper cooled with exceptionally large water space. 

No gaskets or packing about the Cylinder to blow out or leak. 

Valves are in Removable Cages — either can be taken out by 

removing two Screws. 

Carburetor has no moving parts — is simple, effective and 
" easy on the Gasoline." 

— li to 20 Horse Power— Stationary, Portable, Semi-Portable. — 

Massey-Harris Co^ Limited. 

Head Officea-TORONTO, CANADA. 
— Branches at — 
Montreal, Moncton, Winnipeg, 

Regina, Saaliatoon, Yorltton, 

Swift Current, Calgary, Edmonton. 

— Agenciea Everjrwhere.— 




24 



THE CANADIAN HORTICULTURIST 



January, 1914 



NEW AKD RARE SEEDS 

L'nluiie collection. Iluidrcdtof varrcticn adap- 
ted for the Canadian climate. Perennial and 
perfectly hardy. Own saving. Catalog free. 

Perry's Hardy Plant Farm 

ENFIELD, MIDDLESEX, ENG. 



Roses Roses 

Irish, Dutch and American. Hybrid Perpetual 
Hybrid Teas and Climbing. Strong 2 year 
field-grown bushes that will bloom the first 
year— none better, none cheaper. 

AI,KO 

Trees, Shrubs, Vines, Perennials 

Get Cataloiiue 

A. W. GRAHAM 

St. Thomas - Ontario 



Make your garden a blaze oT glorious 

colour from Early Spring to late 

Autumn. Learn how, from 

KELWAY & SON 

The A'oyal ffortuttllurists 

Lantfport, Somerset, Cntfland 



ARE YOU GOING 

To BulM 

GREENHOUSES 

We Design and M.-inufaclurc 

Iron Franve, Pipe Frame and All Wood 

We Use Only The Best 

All Heart Red Gulf Cypress Woodwork 

We Also Supply 

Ventilatinii Machinery, Bench Material and 

all kinds of Greenhouse Hardware 

PARKES CONSTRUCTION CO. 

167» KING ST. E. - HAMILTON, ONT. 



130-Egg incubator and Brooder F.? $13,90 

If ordered together we send both machines for only $13.90 and we fRCIGHT 
pay all freight and duty charges to any R. R. station in Canada. fl/VD DUTY 
We have branch warehouses inWinnipeg, Man, and Toronto.Ont. PAIO 

Orders shipped from nearest w^arehouse to your R. R. station. 
_ Hot water, double walls, dead-air space between. d(mble glass 
/■ 11 \ doors, copper tanks and boilers, self-regulating. Nursery undt-r 
' CKK tray. Especially adapted to Canadian climate. Incubator and Brood-r 
shipped complete with thermometers, lamps, egn testers — ready to use when you get them. Five 
year Kuarantee — 30 days trial. Incubators finished in natural colors showing the hi^h grade Cali- 
fornia Redwood lumber used — not painted to cover inferior material. If you will compare our] 
mai'hincs with others, we feel sure of your order. Don't buy until yon do this — you'll savemoneyEU^ 
— it pays to investigate before you buy. Remember our price of fil3.90 is for both Incubator and »^ 
Brooder and covers freight and duty charges. Send for FREK catalog today, or send in your onicr and save time. 

^tedllkt'' WISCONSIN INCUBATOR CO.> Box3!6 , Racine, Wis., U. S. A. 





Progressive Jones, Says: 



"Good for Your SOIL and 
Your CROPS" 

Your soil will receive the proper plant foods to stimulate your crops 
and the land will also be nourished if you use 



Harab 

FERTlHgJ 



There are other fertilizers which, while they force your crops the first 
year, impoverish \our land and eventually put it in such condition as to 
ije almost worthless. Do not run any risks of this kind. Consider results 
mot only for this year but for many to come. 

Harab Fertilizers are true plant foods. They are fiood for both I.md and 
crop. 

B(* well advised and write to The Harris .\bbatoir Co. for a copy of their 
Fertilizer Booklet. That's the first step in the right direction. 







The Harris Abattoir Co. 

Limited 

Toronto, Canada 



mamy instances for young: orchards. It 
claimed that ol<'ain cultivation /h-ts the re- 
sult of permitting the disappearance ^f 
humus and thus the soil fertility decreases 
and the tree foliage turns yellow, tli» •.ree''« 
fruitfulness naturally becomin^f les.,. In 
the V'akima and Wenatchec districts the 
growers have adoptid the plan u( xrowinj? 
alfalfa between the row.' and have foutid 
that where this policy was in force ' r 
some years orchard production was thcrei 
greatly increased 

In Hood River dover is grown in the 
orchards with similar results and the 
deep concern of the grower over this pro- 
blem of keeping the fertility of the orchard 
soil is giving pJace to confidence. In the 
younger districts im Southern Oregon and 
.SiM)kane the soil fertility problem as in 
British Columbia is not yet so acute. It has 
been found in Hood River that whereas for- 
merly forty thousand doll, rs wo'th of hay 
was imported every year, now there is no 
importation of ha\ whatever, the green 
crops in the orchards being sufficient for 
hay purposes. This method ha,s resulted 
i.n a lower cost of cultiv.ition although more 
irrigation water has been retiuired. It is 
considered that a good deal of experimental 
work will be necessary before it is decided 
absolutely how far the s\-stem of growing 
alfalfa or clover between the rows of trees 
may be followed out in British Columbia; 

(Generally speaking, wages are from twen- 
ty to thirty per cent, below those paid in 
the fruit districts of British Columbia, 
while the cost of materials, such as boxes, 
|5aper, o'chard etjuipment and so forth, was 
from thirty to fo.rty per ce^t. lower. Taxes 
were on the whole higher. The cost of 
fruit production generally, would seem to 
be about thirty per cent, lower than in Brit- 
ish Columbia. This fact would lead to the 
conclusion, it is thought, that more general 
study will have to be given in this province 
to reducing the cost of growing, packing 
and marketing. 

One difficulty now facing the fruit men 
of British Columbia lies in the fact that the 
.American growers market their best ap- 
ples, caled "extra fancy," and "fancy," in 
the high-priced city markets at a figure 
about twice as high as that obtained for 
the third grade apples, described as 
"choice." These "choice" apples are sold 
at little above cost, the profit being made 
on the others ; mevertheless the third 
.grades are good apples, forming between 
ten and forty jx-r cent, of the crop. Thev 
are in demand on the Canadian prairi. 
w^here an extra fancy apple is not desired 

In British Columbia the growers have no 
large cities im which to seU their finest ap- 
ples, and the prairies do not seem to de- 
sire to pay the extra price for the British 
Columbia "fancy" and "number ones, "con- 
sequently, in many cases the British Colum- 
bia growers have to put them on to the 
prairie markets at prices low enough to 
compete with the .Vmerican "choice." The 
duty on apples is only thirteen cents a box, 
which is not enough to cover the margin of 
difference. Were the British Columbia 
growers to find a market willing to absorb 
the high-priced fruit it could meet the Amer- 
ican competition and make money in the 
same way as followed across the line. 

Kn effort is mow being undertaken here 
to develop a market in Australia where, it 
is pointed out, there is a demand- for the 
very cheapest apples, but then the advan- 
tage of any duty on .American apples is 
lost. 

.Some attention was paid by the secretary 
of the B. C. Fruit Growers' Association to 
the qeustion of fruit marketing. It was 



f.miiary, tqT4 



THE CANADIAN HORTTC ULTURTST 



Spraying with proper ma- 
terials will increase both 
the quantity and the qual- 
ity of your crops in orchard 
and garden. 




A Pfofiabte In%estmeitt 



SPRAYING 

A Profitable Investment 

.4 ne-.v edition of this book has 
Just bf-rn printed fo^ distribution 
among fruit grtrtvcrs -who ivis/i 
a complete and reliablr guide for 
exterminating insect Pests, This 
book cofitains 120 pages nit dm any 
illustrations, regarding the life 
history of the important insect 
pests and the best methods of 
destroying them. Send us your 
nayne and address on a Post 
card, asking for the book, ive 
send it free of cost or obligntiou. 

Here are six reasons why 
it will pay you to use 

The Sherwin-Williams Co. 

of Canaiia, Limited 

NEW PROCESS 

ARSENATE OF LEAD 

J. — It kills all leaf eating- insects 
and is used and recommended by 
larRC Kfowprs in all the fruit ctow- 
injc districts. 

2. — It is a neutral Lead amd can- 
not cause arsenical poisoninjf of 
your trees, foliag-e burninR, or fruit 
russeting-. 

3. — It is very fine, fluffy and 
floury in texture so stays well in 
suspension and 

4. — So will s:ive a thorouKh and 
uiniform distribution over the fol- 
iage. 

5. — It has a peculiar adhesive- 
ness that enables it to stick to the 
foliage in spite of rain. 

6. — It is sold in both paste, and 
dry, powdered form, and is very 
economical in use. 



The Sherwin-Williams Co. 

of Canada, Limited 

MANUFACTURERS OF INSECTICIDES 

Offices and Warehouses : 

Montreal. Toronto, Winnipeg, Calgary, Vancouver, 

Halifax, N. S., London, Sng. 



ANNUAL 

FEBRUARY SPRAYING NUMBER 

OUT FEBRUARY 1st 

This is the largest and the nnost important issue of the year to the Fruit interests of Canada. 
Thus you will want to reserve your best and biggest copy for it and secure full advantage 
of this special service. 

As usual special articles on Spraying, and other special articles have been secured. 

Forms Close January 15th - 25th 

Send in space reservation early 
RATES. Page - $42.00 Hall Page - $21.00 

Quarter Page $10.50 One Inch - $1.40 





^^^^^^^^H^' 


Sprayers 

Sulfur Dusters 

For Fighting Erery Disease of Cnltiyated Plants 


Knapsack, Pack Saddle or Horse Drawn 
Power Sprayers 

Send for Catilognet 1/PDMADPT Manofactnrer, 
and psrticnlars to : V CfKIUUKCflrf VILLEFRANCHE 
(Rhone), FRANCE 



ENGLISH Hud-Made LACE 

MADE BY THE COTTAGERS OF BUCKINGHAMSHIRE. 

This IS the old-fashioned lace made on the cushion, and was first introduced into England 
by the Flemish Refugees. It is still made by the village women in iheir quaint old way. 

Our Laces were awarded the Gold Medal at tlie Festival of Empire and Imperial 
Exhibition, Crystal Palace, LONDON, ENGLAND, for general excellence of workmanship. 

DUY some of this hand-made Pillow Lace, it lasts MANY times longer than machine made 
variety, and imparts an air of distinction to the possessor, at tho same time supporting 
the village' lace-makers, bringing them little comforts otherwi^^e unobtainable on an agricultural 
man's wage. Write for descriptive little treatise, entitled "The Pride of North Bucks," 
containing 200 striking examples of the lace makers* art. and is sent post free to any part of the 
world. Lace (or every purpose can be obtained, and within reach of the most modest purse. 




COLLAR— Pure Linen. 
$1.U0. 




DAINTY HANDKIB— TOO, 

No. 910.— Laoe li in. deep. 



Collars, Fronts, 
Plastrons, Jabots, Yokes. 
Fichus, Berthes, Hand- 
kerchiefs, Stocks, Cami- 
soles, Chemise Sets, Tea 
Cloths, Table Centres, 
D'Oyliea, Mats, Medal- 
lions, Quaker and 
Peter Pan Sets, etc., 
from I'Sc. 00c., $1.00, 
$1.50, $2.00. >ip to $5.00 
each. Over 300 denigns 
in yard lace and inser- 
tion from 10c., 15c., 25c., 
45c., up to $3.0U per 
yard. 

IRISH CROCHET. 

Mrs. Amis'.iorig having 
over 100 Irish peasant 
girls connected 
with her industry, 
some beaiitifulex- 
r*mplcs of Irish 
hand made laces 
may be obtained. 
All work being sold 
direct from the 
lace-makers, both 
the workers and 
customers derive 
great advantage. 



Every sale, however small, is 
a support to the industry. 




ill in. deep.) STOCK— Wheel Design. 
Price 25g. each. (Half shown.) 




No. I22.~a0o. per yard. 



MRS. HORACE ARMSTRONG, OLNEY, BUCKS, ENGLAND 



THE CA'NADIAN HORTICULTURIST 



January, 1914 



FHUITLAND NURSERIES 

are offerinir for sale a general aasortment of 
flrstolaas Fruit Trees. Bushes, Vines and 
Ornamental Shrubs, etc.. at very low prices. 
Our oatalognet) arc just out. It will pay you 
to send for one. 
G. M. HILL, Box 42, FRUITLAND. ONT. 



Dahlia Bulbs for Sale 

Order early lor sprint' delivery. All varie- 
ties of Dahlia bulbs offered for sale, being 
the best that money could obtain. 
Send for Price List 

J. T. Payne gri.'ii.fR'st^lStrathroy, Ont. 



Fruit Machinery Co. 

INGERSOLL, ONT. 

Mantifaoturors of Sprayers and a complete 
line of 

Apple Evaporating Machinery 

Installing Power Kvaporatora a specialty 
OUR LEADERS 

Ontario Power Sprayer 

Model 2-B, and the 

Improved Pacific Apple Parer 

Writt tor catalogue on Spraying and Evaporating 



FVerBoo^ Brown's 

on 
Spray^ 

ing . 



|( 1 



300.000 ^ 
■use these won- 
derful sprayers to 



Auto 
Spray 



I rid fields, fruit trees, grar-*^! 

Vdens of blight, disease and ^^ 

jin.sects— to make all pro- 

Pduce big. Auto Spray No. 

Capacity 4 Gallons. Auto Pop Nozzle 

throws from line mist to tfrenching 

stream. Does not clog. 40 styles and 

sizes of Hand and Power Outfits. Large 

sprayers fitted with 

Non-Clog Atomic Nozzle 

only nozzli.' that will spray any solution for (Jays 
without I'loKK'inK. Kits anv make of Bpraytr. 
Write for valuable Spraying Guide Free. 
The E. C. Brown Co., 5 7 JAY ST.. ROCHESTER, H. Y. 



FLOWER POTS 



iHtBESTMAOt 



FOSTEPS 

Standard 

POT 



Large stock of all 
sizes for the Spring 
trade. 

Send us your order 
NOW and receive 
your supply before 
the Spring rush. 



THE FOSTER POTTERY CO., Ltd. 

HAMILTON, ONT. 






FINE FIRM FRUIT 

Largest crops of high-grade ^ 
No. 1 fruit can be secured 
by using Davies Special 
Mixed Fertilizer!. 
This applies to small fruits 
as well as Orchard fruits. 
Let us tell you how. Write 
for free booklet. 

r DAVIES feT 

' WEST TORONTO ' 

Wc have an Agent near you 




SMALL FRUIT PLANTS 

Qooseberrles, Josselyn! Josselynlt Bed Jacket, Oownisc, Pearl, 
Houghton.— Currants, Perfection, Perfection!! Ruby, Cherry, White 
Grape, Lee's ProUflc, Ohampion, Black Naples. Victoria. — Raspberries, 
Herbert! Herbert!! Herbert!!! Outkbeirt, Ma.rlboro, Brinckle's Orange, 
Golden Queen, Strawberry -Baspberry. — Garden Roots, A8para8ru.s, 
Rhubarb. Write for OatalortM 

WM. FLEMING, Nurseryman, Box 54, Owen Sound, Ont. 




We paq highest Prices For 



RAW 
FURS 



FREE 



And Rennit 
Prompt I q ^ 



Sixty 
Thousand 
trappers send 
us their Raw 
Fnra. Why not you? 
We pay highest prices 
and express charges, charge 
no commission and send money 
same day goods arc received. Mil- 
lions of dollar* are paid trappers each 
year. Deal with a reliable house. We 
are the largest in our line in Canada. Write to-day 



AddccM JOHN HALLAM. limited lUFronrs"..E..., 



HALLAM'S TRAPPERS 6UIDE 

French or English 

A hook of 96 pages, fully illus- 
trated. Game Laws revised to 
dale — tells you how, when and 
where to trap, bait and traps to 
use, and many other valuable 
facts concerning the Kaw Fur 
Industry* also our " Up-to-the- 
minute " fur qxiolations, sent 
ABSOLUTELY FREE for the 
asking. 4g9 

««'l»'pi . TORONTO 



foumd that in the United States the organi 
zations fall into three classes: First, where 
the growers simply pack and sell to local 
jobbers ; second, where the Rrowers pack 
and sell f.o.b. cars, thus retaining control 
of the fruit until shipped. In the third 
class the growers' organization have selling 
agencies or brokers to which they consign 
fruit, or else through auctioms upon arrival. 
In either course, the fruit is generally dis- 
posed of to jobbers. There seems little 
eivdence of direct selling to retailers as it 
is shown that this would demand a great 
credit system. No serious effort has been 
made to eliminate the jobber. 

'The one note of doubt was sounded by 
the peach growers across the line, who fail- 
ed o make money this year, even with the 
shortage in peaches. Thousands of trees 
are being removed in the peach belts to the 
south." 



Eastern Annapolis Valley 

Emice Bnchaau 

The weather continues mild and damp, 
although we had a few days' sleighing in 
the beginniiig of December. Mayflowers 
were gathered as late as December ninth. 

The potato crop is very short owing to 
alternate rains and frosts during the pro- 
longed harvest. For the past few years sev- 
eral apple growers have found it more pro- 
fitable to buy potatoes for home use than to 
grow them ; now they are finding it a dif- 
ficult matter to buy them as many of the 
little growers have only enough for them- 
selves or are holding them for better 
prices. The present market price is one 
dollar and sixty cemts a barrel at the ware- 
house. Nova Scotia supplies much of the 
seed of special varieties of potatoes to Ber- 
muda farmers, who grow three crops a year 
for American markets. This year they 
have been disappointed as many barrels of 
their seed have been frozen in Nova Scotia, 
and prices have gone up. 

Reports from Old Country markets are 
discouraging, but the low prices may be a 
blessing in disguise, emphasizing the fact 
that we need cold storage, amd that it neith- 
er pays to grow or to (ship number three 
apples. In London the number threes and 
spotted special twos will not make enough 
to pay shipping expenses, not counting the 
trouble and toil of growing them. 



Silver black, 
patched, blue, 
and red Foxes 
supplied for 
stocking fur 
farms. 

$40.00 per 
pair paid for 
sound live Mink 

JOHN DOWNHAM, Strathroy, Ont. 





SURE GROWERS 
GOVERNMENTTESTED 

Writt for Catalogue ' . 

Wm. RENNIE Co., Umited 

Cor. Adelaide and JarYii Streets, TORONTO. 



f.inu.'iry, 1914 



THE CANADIAN HORTICULTURIST 



Fighting the Railways 

The proposed abolition by the Canadian 
Pacific Railway of certain less than carload 
and concentrating- privileg-es formerly af- 
forded to the fruit districts near Toronto, 
occupied part of a session of the Railway 
Comission during- December. The main 
point at issue was the question of the Rail- 
way Board's jurisdiction in the matter. 

The privileges hitherto afforded by the 
C.P.R. were those for the movement of 
fruit in carload lots to distributing centres 
such as Brighton, Ont., their concentration 
into carloads there amd reshipment, all at a 
low rate. These the railway proposes to 
abolish. The Canadian Pacific took the 
stand that the Railway Commission had -no 
jurisdiction in the matter. 



Items of Interest 

Experiments with rot in apples, particu- 
larly with the dry black spots which appear 
on the surface of the fruit, are being con- 
ducted at St. Catharines by W. A. McCub- 
bin, M..^., of the Dominion Laboratory of 
Pathology. He is inoculating perfect speci- 
mens with the rot to observe the effect. He 
is also treating the peach tree canker, and 
has discovered an apparently new rot on 
tomatoes which he is following up. Mr. 
McCubbin, who has found that many shade 
trees in the city are suffering from sores 
caused by injuries in which a fungus dis- 
ease gets into the wood and eats it up, re- 
commends painting- these sores, as no fun- 
gus can thrive under paint. 



GouMs No. 423 

A Great Farm 

Pump for ' 

General Use. 



This Is one of our 
latest types— adjust- 
able stroke, force 
pump standard. 

The adjustable 
stroke adapts the 
standard for connec- 
tion to any windmill 
or pump-jack. 

Revolving bearer 
top permit the lever 
to be setand operated 
at any angle with the 
spout.. 

Large air chamber 
gives steady, even 
flow at spout. 

Nut and hose tube 
spout for connection 
with garden hose. 

Outlet back of spout 
tapped for iron pipe 
connection. 

Extra strong con 
structlon throughout. 
Ask your dealer for 
Goulds No. i23. 



Avoid Pump-Buying Mistakes 




Before you buy a pump or water system of any kind, be sure it's 
the very one best adapted to your needs. 

You can choose from over 300 types of Goulds Reliable Pumps. 
And we will tell you which type will j^ive the best results when 
used uudcr your particular service conditions. By gel ting exact 
information first, you'll save yourself worlds of trouble and ex- 
pense. Write OTir Mr. Gould, in charge of our Consultation De- 
partment. His lifelong knowledge and experience are at your 
service. You can get his help without charge on any water 
supply problem. 



RELIABLE 

i»xj3vi:i»^ 



THE GOULDS MFC CO., W. Fall St.,S 



OUTSELL ALL OTHER PUMPS 

For 65 years Goulds Pumps have been preferred by 
pump buyers who wanted longest and most satisfactory 
service. As a result, today we make more pumps than 
any other concern. 

And due to our enormous output, you pay no more 
for Goulds quality than for pumps of less merit. The 
best dealers in every locality handle Goulds Reliable 
Pumps. Look up the one in your section. 

HOW TO HAVE RUNNING WATER 

This luxury is possible on your farm. Send for our 
free book, "Water Supply for Country Homes." It de- 
scribes and pictures the most practical systems — hard, 
windmill, power, and hydraulic ram, with i he most de- 
sirable type of pump necessary. Write for book today. 
eneca Fall*, N.Y. Largest Manufacturers of Pumps tor Everv Purpose 



I read The Canadian Horticulturist with 
pleasure and profit. — J. D. Murray, Sas- 
katchewan. 




Cronk's Pruning Shears 

To introduce a high-grade pruning shear at a 
very low price, we are now offering direct, pro- 
vided your dealer do«s not have them, our 25- 
inch No. 09V2 guaranteed pruner at $1.25 per 
pair, via parcel post, prepaid; cash with order. 
CRONK & CARRIER MFG. CO., ELMIRA. N.Y. 




THE aasumption that a greenhouse 
on a private place caunot be made 
to pay; or that it is an out and 
out luxury— is a fallacy. 

By way of comparison— the man who 
buys a touring car and devotee it solely 
to pleasure jaunta and then states that 
"it is nothing but a continuous bill of 
expense," certainly is not to be classed 
with the one who. in addition to the 
pleasurable side, also uses his oar to 
the undoubted advantage of his busi- 
ne.sa. either direct or indirect. 

By the same token, grcenhoiises can 
be either a delightful expenditure; a 
combination of pleasure and profit; or 



a, strictly bnai ess p < posi- 
lioii. 

The owner of the houses' 
above makes his living by 
furnishing flowers and vegetables to a 
big city hotel, in addition to a local 
trade of no mean proportion. 

Why don't you investigate the three 
above named phases and convince your- 
self that you ought to have a green- 
house? 

We will gladly help you in every way 
by sending our piinted matter, sugge«t- 
ir.g places to visit, or better yet. come 
right to your home and tall; i over. 
Which shall it be? 

6CTS1 



hord^Sl Burnham Co., Ltd., of Canada.;! 



Greenhouse Desienerslandi Builders I Toronto, l2lQueen Street East 

New York Boston Philadelphia Chicaao Rochester 



THE CANADIAN HORTICULTURIST 



Tanuftrv. loi 



FOR SALE AND WANTED 

Advertliements in this department In- 
serted at rate of 3 cents a word for each 
nsertion, eacli flgure, sigrn or single letter 
to eount as one word, minimum cost. 30 
eents, strictly cash in advance. 

ALL KINDS OF FARMS— Fruit farms a epecialty. 
— W. E. Oalder. Qrimsby. 

MAOAKA DISTRICT FRUIT FARMS— Before 

buying it will pay you to consult me. I make 
a specialty of fruit and Erain farms— Melvln 
dayman A Oo.. St. Catharinee. 

RELIABLE HELP, SKILLED AND unskilled, 
supplied horticulturiats and others. Canadian 
Employmect Bureau, Proprietor meml)er of 
B. G. A.. London. England. 65'/, James St. 
South. Hamilton. Ont 

ASK DAWSON. He kows. 

IF YOU WANT to sell a farm consult m«. 

If YOtI WANT to buv a farm consult me. 

I HAVE some o' the best Fruit Stock. Grain 

end Dairy Farms on my list at right prices. 

H. W. Ji)aw8on Ninety Oolborne St. Toronto. 

FOR SALE — Ijarge Greenhouee establishment 
paying big dividends. Over fifty thousand 
feet of glass, 3 dwelliiiff houses, bartis. fruit, 
etc Will sell all or part. Owner retiring 
from bu.sinesB.— Frank Whitehall. B. E. No. 2. 
linden. Ont. 



WANTED— ICO Oloniee 


of Bees; also a small 


Farm of 1 to 5 acro-s. 


with a cottage, in good 


bee pasturage— B. P. 


Wood, 159 Keele St., 


Toronto, Ont. 


• 



SALMON ARM. Shusway Lake, B.C. has the 
finest fruit an<1 dairy land in B.O. No Irriga- 
tion necessary; mild winters, moderate sum- 
mers, no bliizarde or high winds; delightful 
climate; enormous yields of fruit, yegetables 
and hay; good flehing; fine boating amidst the 
most beautiful scenery, and the Salmon Arm 
fruit has realized 25 cents per box more than 
other fruit in B.O. Prices of land moderate, 
and terms to suit. Apply to F. 0. Haydock, 
Salmon Arm. B.O. 



RHODES DOUBLE OUT .- 


^ Cuts ^rom 


FRUIIINa SEEAB gft/^KM 


1 limbanddoes 


^^^^^^^^^^ PAT. 


' not bruise 
the bark. 
We pay Ex- 
press charges 
on all orders. 

1 Write tor 


RHODES MF6. CO. "^^ 


1 circular and 
1 prices. 


636 S. Division Ave. GRAND RAPIDS, MICH. | 



Notice tc 
Horticultural Societies 

Give Bezzo's Famous Prize As'«r Plants 
us premiums next spring. Prizes at New 
York State Fair, 1910-11: Canadian Nation- 
al Exhibition. 1912. Highest awards at 
BerUn Horticultural Society Exhibitions, 
1911-12-13. Write for prioe;i. 

C. MORTIMER BEZZO - BERLIN. ONT 



MAX STOLPE 



Ex-Superintendent Royel Gardening Institute 

Sexony - Germany 

Holder of Gold and Silver Medals 

Artistic Plans, Sketches furnished for all 
kinds ol LANDSCAPE CONSTBUCTION 
WORK. 

Ornamental Trees, Shrubs, Conifers, 
Hardy Perennials, etc. 

ASK FOR PRICE LIST 



17 Main Str. East • HAMILTON. Ont. 

Phone U8 



Stanton K.i;ii, Uic tuilvc >(-;n old son of 
VV. J. Kerr of Ottawa, secretary of the Otta- 
wa Hranch of the Ontario Vegetable Grow- 
ers' Association, was accidentally kilied on 
.Saturday, November 22nd. .iXt the tim of 
the accident the father was in Toronto on a 
lecturing- tour, and the mother had gone 
into the city. Stanton had been riding one 
of his father's horses. When he went to 
alight his foot caught in one of the stir- 
rups, and the horse became frightened :und 
dashed off, dragging and mortally injuring 
the lad, who expired in a few minutes. 
Stanton wais in every way a promising boy, 
and thi- highest hopes for a useful life were 
entertained by all who knew him. 



Ontario Agricultural College 

The Fruit Growers' Short Course and 
Packing School wil be hcJd at the Guelph 
.Agricultural College from January 27th to 
February 6th, inclusive. These short 
courses are most valuable to experienced 
fruit growers and also to beginners. The 
date^ for the packing schools, which are 
entirely separate from the short course pro- 
per, are February 2nd to 7th, and February 
9th to 14th. The instructors in Ixix aind 
batrel packing wil be \V. F. Kydd and Mr. 
Leslie Smith, of the Fruit Branch, Toronto. 

Those who may not find it convenient to 
spend the entire week in the packipg school 
may arrange for two or three days instruc- 
tion in either the first or second week. 



British Columbia 

F.stimates made in the agricultural de- 
partment at Victoria of the probable fruit 
crop of the interior for 19)4 indicate that 
the fruit crop, particularly of apples, will 
be from one and a half times to twice as 
large next year, as in 191.3, and one of the 
largest on record. 

.AM records in the rapid transit of fruit 
were broken in the shipment of two cars of 
apples, which recently went forward to the 
Old Country. The apples were exactfly 
eleven days on the journey from Vernon to 
Liverpool. 

The suggestion has been made that the 
Provincial Government agricultural depart- 
ments establish pruning classes in the var- 
ious frait districts and it is said that the 
departmemt is now giving serious attention 
to this question. 

A resolution will also be presented at the 
provincial convention urging the provincial 
government to appoint a permanent official 
whose duty it would be to conduct an edu- 
cational campaig-n in various parts of Brit- 
ish Columbia regarding cooperative mar- 
keting and to aid in the formation of ar- 
ganizations 

The provincial fruit pests inspector and 
his assistants have been active during the 
past year. In a recent fruit condemmation 
in Vancouver four car loads of apples from 
Hood River were condemned for codling 
moth and sent back to the United States, 

The Vernom Fruit Union reports that 
Chinese grow fully two-fifths of the vege- 
tables handled by the Union. 



EGGS 



EXPRESS PREPAID-iU the staidirl breeds sf 

Oilckens. Ducks, Geese ssd Turkeys. HIGH-CLASS 

STRAINS. Write lodsjr^ for cauieg describioi 

breefc-sjss pooltr r ssmilies. ITS FREE. 

J.H.RUTHERFORD. B<i«2 

Csledsi Estf, Otfins 






llllttktIinilllkliillttK 

iiiitiiiiiEiiiiiiFiiiini 



llllltlllltfekltiiflll. 
■riiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiili 



...l;!,:: 



Protect Your Property With 
Peerless Lawn Fencing 

Ornamental fencing serves a dotihic pur- 
pose. It not only enhances the beauty of 
your prcmi.ses. but also protects it and your 
children, as well. It keeps out maraudinit 
uniniif's and tre.spassers. It protects your 
lawn.s and flowers and always jfives your 
prui>erty that orderly, pleasing appeara!>ce. 

Paerless Ornamental Fencing 

is the result of years of fence buildiiiR. It 
is liuilt to last— to rcU'iin its beauty and 
KHice for ye.Trs to come and should not be 
confused with the cheap, shoddy fencini; 
offered by catTlog- houses. Peerless fence 
is built of strong, stiff wire which will not 
sajf and the heavy gnWuinzmfi plus the 
heavy zinc enamel is the best possible as- 
surance against rust. 

Send for Literature 

Shows many beautiful designs of fencing 
suitable for Uiwns, parks, cemeteries, etc. 

Agencies almost evcr\where. AgrenLs 
wanted in nnassiyned territory. 

The Banwell-Hoxle Wire Fence Co.. Ud. 

Winnipeg* Man. Hamilton, Ont. 



Send your consignments of APPLET to the 
Home Country to 

Ridley Moulding & Co. 

COVENT GARDEN 

LONDON, ENGLAND 

who specialize in APPLES and PEARS dur- 
ing the Season. Personal attention, promp 
account sales and remittance 



Correspondence invited 



The Call 
of the 
North 



Do you know of the many advan- 
tages that New Ontario, with its 
millions of fertlls acres, offers to the 
prospective settler ? Do you know that 
these rich agricultural lands, obtain- 
able free, and at a nominal cost, are 
already producing grain and vegeta- 
bles second to none in the world f 

For literature descriptive of this 
great territory, and for information 
as to terms, homestead regulations, 
settlers' rates, etc.. write to 

H. A. MACDONELL 

Director ol Colonization 
ParliameDt Bldgs., TORONTO, Ont. 



Hie Canadian Horticulturi^ 



Vol. XXXVII 



FEBRUARY, 1914 



No. 



Why, When and How Wc Spray 

M. B. Davis, B.S.A., Bridgetown, N.S. (Manager Sunnyside Farm Ltd.) 



Spraying is probably the most scien- 
tific and complicated operation in con- 
nection with fruit growing, yet how often 
it is conducted in a careless manner, re- 
sulting in poor success and a waste of 
money. 

The first spraying we make is about 
the first of March, the dormant spray. 
This application is made to combat scale 
insects such as the oyster shell bark 
louse and the San Jose Scale. It consists 
of lime-suphur solution of the strength 
1.03 specific gravity. This has proved 
an efficient check in the control of the 
scale insects. In old neglected orchards 
it should be made every year. 

Our next spraying, or second applica- 
tion, takes place just as the leaf buds 
are bursting out green. This time we 
use lime-sulphur of the strength of i.oi 
specific gravity and two pounds of lead 
arsenate to every forty gallons of the 
lime-sulphur wash. The lead not only 
acts as insecticide, but it also increases 
the fungicidal value of lime-sulphur. In 
fact, lime-sulphur when used alone has 
not proved a thoroughly reliable fungi- 
cide, whereas with lead arsenate added 
it has given consistently good results. 

It might be well to mention at this 
point the importance of using the tri- 
plumbic or neutral arsenate of lead in- 
stead of the acid arsenate. A very large 
per cent, of the burning found in or- 
chards whore lime-sulphur has been used 
is caused by the acid arsenate and not 
by tlie lime-sulphur. The acid arsenate 
is a lead which carries a much higher 
oer cent, of arsenic oxide than does the 
neutral lead. Hence the reason why 
nany are gulled into purchasing it, for 
he arsenic is the product w hich does the 
wisoning. But, although the neutral 
ead has less arsenic per pound, it is 
.afer to use. The acid arsenate, con- 
aining as it does a certain per cent, of 
ree arsenic or arsenic acid, is found to 
Ijive unsatisfactory results. So beware 
:)f this product when you purchase. 
THIKD SPRAYING 

Our third spraying and also the fourth 
ne are probably the most important ones 
ye make for the control of apple scab. 
>cab is a disease which spreads by 
pores, and these spores will germinate 
nd produce the di.sease in from twelve 
o twenty-four hours under proper con- 
litions, which are henf and moisture. A 



fungicide can only prevent the germin- 
ation of these spores ; it cannot prevent 
or cure the scab after it has once started. 
The only way, therefore, to keep fruit 
clean is to keep the spores from germin- 
ating on it from the time it is formed. 
The third spraying, applied as it is just 
before the buds show pink, prevents 
these spores from getting a foothold on 
the pistil or ovule. The fourth spraying, 
which is made just as the blossoms are 
falling, will keep the young apple, or 
fertilized ovule at the base of the pistil, 
free of disease. These sprayings must 
be made on time, and that time can only 
be set by the time the different varieties 
bloom. 

Many growers find the Gravenstein an 
apple impossible to keep clean . Why? 
Because by the time the rest of their 
trees are in bloom this variety is out, and 
as they wait for the later ones before 
spraying, the Gravenstein is missed 
every time. Get after the early ones by 
themselves. Don't wait. Be on time 
and you will see better results. 

It is not so much how to spray, but 
when to spray, that counts in the pack 
out in the fall. These sprayings not 
only assist in keeping the fruit clean, 
but they ensure you a good crop, for if 
the young apple becomes affected with 



scab it withers up and falls off. A great 
deal of the so-called poor pollination or 
blossoms not setting good is nothing 
but scab being on the young ovules and 
sapping out its life. This is another 
reason why you should get there on the 
dot. Keep the young fruit and all new 
surface coated with spray so that no 
spores will get an opportunity to ger- 
minate. 

The fifth spraying we make about 
three weeks after the fourth spraying, 
and this may be followed by another. 
Two years ago we sprayed up to Aug- 
ust loth, and got results from our late 
sprayings. The latter part of the sum- 
mer was so damp that the fruit began to 
spot very late, and people who had spot 
under control during the first part of 
the summer became overwhelmed with it 
later because they neglected to spray. 
The apples had formed a lot of new sur- 
face for the spores to develop on, as this 
new surface was not coated with spray. 
Orchards which were sprayed well at 
first and which were clean in July, were 
dirtier in the fall than orchards neglect- 
ed at first but cared for later, and it was 
simply on this account. Do not be afraid 
to keep up spraying. Let the good work 
go on, and if you have a damp season 
drive the spray pumps right along. 




Up-to-date Method* a* Applied in a Nova Scotia Orchard 

—Photo by Eunice Buolianan. 



THE CANADIAN HOR TTT ULTF R T S T 



February, 191^ 



Don't make up your mind to spray only 
three times, but spray just as often as 
you think the weather conditions de- 
mand. 

If you find it impossible to spray as 
many as five times, omit the first two 
of these sprays, but never omit any of the 
last. In spraying, a good outfit is ne- 
cessary to do the work well. If you have 
a large orchard, say ten acres or more, a 
power sprayer will pay for itself many 
times over. Use two leads of hose, hav- 
ing one man on the ground and one 
man in the tower. Do not be afraid of 
putting too much on a tree. Spray until 
it drips off in large drops from all over 
the tree. See that all parts of the foliage 
and fruit are drenched. In using lime- 
sulphur remember that more is needed 
than when using Bordeaux to obtain the 
same results. If your spray is not too 
strong you can drench the trees without 
fear of injury. 

A SntPLE DEVICE 

For the purpose of ascertaining the 
strengths of your dilutions, you should* 
have a hydrometer reading from one to 
1.3 specific gravity. These may be ob- 
tained for seventy-five cents at any drug 
store. In places where the water pres- 
sure is not very great, filling a two hun- 
dred gallon tank is slow work. It may 
be quickened by a simple method. Ele- 
vate two one-hundred-gallon casks eight 
feet in the air, and connect these at the 
bottom with a two inch pipe. This will 
keep the water at the same level in both. 
From one of the casks lead a two-inch 
pipe with a shut oif or gate attached. 
Make this long enough so that you can 
drive under it with the spray tank and 
fill up. One tap will fill a two hundred- 
gallon tank in two hours, while these 
casks run out in fifteen minutes, making 
quite a saving in time. The hose from 
the top fills the casks while we are away 
spraying, so that all is in readiness when 
we return. 

The arsenate of lead is mixed as fol- 
lows in a stock solution : In a one hun- 
dred-gallon cask place one hundred 
pounds of lead paste and mix well with 
water to a thin paste, add water up to 
one hundred gallons, making sure that 
all the lead paste is in suspension. One 
gallon of this solution then contains one 
pound of lead, so that this greatly facili- 
tates the mixing and weighing of the 
paste when you are in a hurry some fine 
day. As spraying is an expensive opera- 
tion, we must give attention to these 
little details of operation. They help 
to reduce the time we spend at the work 
and thus to increase our profits. 



Spraying Mixtures for Currants and 
Gooscbcrys* 

L. B. Henry, B.S.A., Winona, Ont. 



GROWERS of currants and goose- 
berries have their share of insect 
pests and diseases to combat. A 
description of some of the chief of these 
with methods of control may be of in- 
terest. 

San Jose Scale sometimes becomes 
very bad on black currants. It is ra- 
ther hard to stamp out entirely on ac- 
count of the closeness of the canes at 
the base. The canes that are badly in- 
fested should be cut out and burned and 




For our future apple markets we must 
look mainly to the western provinces, 
and to the local market in Ontario cities. 
—P. W. Hodgetts. 



Reaching the Top Branches 

Photo by S. G. Freeborn, B.S.A.. District 
Representative. Walkerton. Ont. 

the patch sprayed thoroughly with lime- 
sulphur at winter strength just before 
the buds open. 

Red currants are sometimes badly at- 
tacked by green aphides, which may also 
be found on black currants and goose- 
berries. The foliage curls up and be- 
comes a light greenish color. On the 
under side of the curled leaves the yel- 
lowish green plant lice may be found. The 
eggs of this insect are laid in late fall 
in the twigs and hatch out as the buds 
are bursting. 

They are very tender at this time and 
the young aphids are also, and if the 
winter .spraying of lime-sulphur is post- 
poned until this time, many young 

•Extract from an addrese delivered at the last 
annual convention in Toronto of the Ontario 
Fruit Qrowera' Anociation. 



aphids and eggs are destroyed. The 
may also be controlled by such contac 
sprays as kerosene emulsion, whale o 
soap, or tobacco extracts, but the spra 
cnust be applied before the leaves be 
come badly curled. 

The Imported Currant worm is a ver 
voracious worm, which chiefly, attack 
gooseberries and red currants, sometime 
entirely defoliating the bushes. Th 
eggs are glued to the under side of th 
veins of the leaves and hatch in four o 
five days into a whitish worm, whici 
changes to a greenish color as it grows 
The head is black and there are man; 
black spots on the body until the las 
molt, when the body becomes gras 
green and is about three-quarters of ai 
inch long. They then pupate in tb 
ground and emerge as adults in lat 
June and produce another brood, whicl 
usually does the most damage. 

They can be easily controlled by spray 
ing thoroughly with arsenate of lead a 
the rate of three pounds to the barrel, a 
soon as their appearance is noted. 

One of the worst pests of the curran 
and gooseberry is the Imported Curran 
borer. The adult is a clean-winged moth 
but the worm which does the damage i 
a yellowish color, with a black head an( 
numerous tubercles on the body. Whei 
the eggs hatch the young larvae bor 
into the cane and down the centre am 
spend the winter at the bottom of th 
burrow. Affected canes can be recog 
nized by the dwarfed and yellow foliage 
and should be removed. If the renews 
system is practised in pruning the los 
will not be noticeable as the old cane 
are the worst attacked. 

The Currant Stem girdler and Fou 
Lined Leaf bug also attack these fruits 
but are not serious in Ontario. 

Currant Leaf Spot attacks currant 
and gooseberries, and if bad will cause : 
premature dropping off of the leaves 
The spot is dark around the edge, will 
a clear centre, on which are numerou 
black specks. 

Currant Anthracnose attacks red am 
black currants, and may be found 01 
gooseberries, but is worst on red cur 
rants. Fay's and Raby Castle being th 
varieties most seriously affected, whili 
Prince Albert is practically free from at 
tack. Affected leaves are more or les 
covered with brown spots, and when th" 
disease becomes serious the leaves be 
come yellow and drop. 

Both of the above diseases can be con 
trolled by spraying with lime-sulphu 
sp. gr. i.oog just after the fruit ha: 
set. 

Mildew is the most serious diseasi 
attacking gooseberries. English varietie 



February, 1914 



THE CANADIAN HORTICULTURIST 



27 




Success in Spraying Depends on Spraying all Parts of the Tree Thoroughly 

A power sprayer at work in the orchard ot W. H. Heard, St. Thomas. Ont. 



in America are the most susceptible, and 
it sometimes causes injury to the young 
growth on currant bushes. 

It attacks the leaves and stems of the 
gooseberry, but causes the most serious 
damage on the fruit, producing a white 
furry growth and making the fruit un- 
marketable. 

It can be controlled by the lime-sul- 



phur spray. Spray the bushes when 
they are dormant, with lime-sulphur at 
winter" strength. Then just before the 
blossoms appear spray again with a 
weaker .solution sp. gr. 1.005. To make 
a complete job the bushes should be 
sprayed when the fruit is about half 
grown with the summer strength of 
lime-sulphur, sp. gr. 1.009. 



Spraying Results in 

R. S. Duncan, B.S.A., Port Hope, Ont 

IN view of the fact that so many of the 
old orchards in the province of On- 
tario were being seriously neglected, 
a campaign for better orchard manage- 
ment was commenced in the spring of 
191 1 in the counties of Northumberland 
and Durham. Four demonstration or- 
chards, one each at Colborne, Cobourg, 
Port Hop)e, and Newcastle, which had 
been very badly neglected, were taken in 
hand for a period of three years to be 
treated according to the best orchard 
practices. The orchards were situated 
near the main road where they could be 
under observation by passers-by through- 
out the season so that the results of the 
demonstrations could be noted. 

CONDITION OF ORCHARDS IN 1911 

These orchards had been planted some 
thirty or forty years, but had been almost 
■ totally neglected as to pruning, cultiva- 
tion, fertilization, and spraying. They 
had never been sprayed, and hence the 
quality of the fruit was of a very low 
grade — the percentage of No. I's vary- 
ing from thirty to sixty per cent. They 
were full of bark lice and blister mite, 
and had suffered severely from canker 
and sunscald, but it was hoped that with 
careful management, liberal feeding, and 
thorough pruning and spraying that they 
would respond and give satisfactory re- 
.sults. Two of the orchards were in sod 
and had not been ploughed for years. 



Neglected Orchards 

,, District Representative for Durham 

The soil in the Colborne orchard is a 
light sandy loam and in the others a 
clay loam. 

TREATMENT 

The orchards were all pruned in 191 1, 
not very severely, but more of a cutting 
out of the dead wood and a thinning out 
of the top. In 1912 the greater num- 
ber of the high trees were "dehorned," 
as much as twelve feet being taken off. 
Our object in doing this was to make 
a more spreading tree, have the fruit 
borne on the lower branches and thus 
economize in picking. In 1913 a lot of 
small twigs and branches were cut out to 
open up the trees thus giving the fruit 
a better chance to color. 

All cuts of one and one-half inches 
in diameter and over were given a coat 
of white lead and oil. The rough, loose, 
shelly bark was scraped off the trees to 
facilitate spraying operations. The or- 
chards were all manured each year at 
the rate of ten to twelve tons of farm- 
yard manure per acre. In two orchards 
the manure was supplemented by an ap- 
plication of two hundred pounds of 
muriate of potash and four hundred 
pounds of acid phosphate per acre. 

The orchards were ploughed in each 
year as early in the spring as it was 
possible to get on the land, and then 
they received thorough cultivation up lo 
the middle of June, when a cover crop of 



red clover, buckwheat, or hairy vetch 
was sown. 

The orchards were sprayed very thor- 
oughly three times each year as follow: 

First, before or as the leaf bud bursts 
with commercial Jime-sulpbur, one to 
ten to control oyster shell bark louse and 
leaf blister mite. 

Second, just before the blossoms open- 
ed with commercial lime-sulphur, one to 
thirty-five with two pounds of arsenate 
of lead added per forty gallons of mix- 
ture to control apple scab, caterpillars, 
case breakers, canker worms, bud moths, 
etc. 

Third, immediately after the blossoms 
fell with commercial lime-sulphur, one to 
forty with two pounds arsenate of lead 
added per forty gallons mixture to con- 
trol codling moth and apple scab. 

In spraying we used a double acting 
hand pump and a tank, a home-made 
affair, holding two hundred gallons, with 
a tower attachment for reaching tall 
trees. We used two lines of hose and 
two angle nozzles of the "Friend" type 
on each line of hose. One man was on 
the tower equipped with fifteen feet of 
hose and a rod eight feet long ; the other 
man being on the ground with thirty 
feet of hose and a ten-foot bamboo rod. 
Two men acted as power on the pump, 
giving a pressure of from one hundred 
to one hundred and fifty pounds. All 
solutions were strained into the tank. 
The arsenate of lead was first brought 
into suspension before being strained 
into the spray tank. We always endea- 
vored to spray with the wind and do as 
much of the trees as possible. 

One side of the tree was sprayed as it 
was approached; we then drove directly 
opposite and sprayed the central parts 
thoroughly ; then we completed the other 
side at the third stop. We aimed to 
cover every portion of the tree though 
not wasting any material. For the spray 
after the blossoms fell we tried to do 
most thorough work — our object was to 
fill every calyx cup. Ninety per cent, of 
the codling worms enter the apple in the 
calyx end, hence it is important to have 
the poison placed where it will do the 
most effective work. We used from five 
to eight gallons of mixture on each tree 
for each spraying. 

THE EESTTLT8 

Accurate account has been kept of all 
expenses pertaining to each orchard in 
each of the three years. All labor with 
the exception of pruning, which is valu- 
ed at two dollars a day, was calculated 
on the basis of one dollar fifty cents a 
day per man, and a man and a team at 
three dollars a day. Farmyard manure 
was valued at one dollar a ton. These 
figures, it will be agreed, were quite 
reasonable. 

In figuring out the results, no allow- 
ance was made for rental of land, as it 



28 



THE CANADIAN HORTICULTURIST 



February, 1914 



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Spraying a Quebec Orchard 

A modem power ma«tiine in the orchard of the 
Oka Agricultural College, La Trappe, Que. 

was difficult to arrive at a fair valua- 
tion of the orchard ; it differs in different 
localities. No account was taken of the 
interest on the investment or overhead 
charges, nor depreciation in value of the 
implements used. 

I append herewith a tabulated state- 
ment of the expenses and receipts for the 
orchard of Mr. F. W. McCkjnnell, at 
Colborne. in each of the past three years. 
The number of barrels, the percentage of 
No. I apples and the receipts are also 
given for the three years previous to our 
taking charge. This will be a basis of 
comparison between the orchard when in 
a neglected condition and after being 
properly cared for. 

NOETHTJMBEELAND AND DUKHAM 
DEJIONSTEATION OKOHAEDS 

"T, W. MoConneU'a Oroliard, Colborne. 117 treee 
—approximately 2Vi acres. Soil— Light sandy 
loam. Orchard 32 years old. 

EESULTS 

After oared for 

EXPENSES- 1911 1912 1913 

Scraping $1125 

Pruning 34 00 $22 00 $39 00 

Painting woundo 10 28 7 05 

Gathering brush 6 75 4 00 4 50 

SPEAYING— 

First 2590 2190 20 56 

Second 15 75 15 70 13 13 

Third 23 17 23 35 15 60 

Cementing holes In trees ... 125 

Bracing trees with wire 1 37 

EemoTing dead wood and 

thinning suckers 90 1 80 

FEETILIZEE- 

Manure 25 00 30 00 30 00 

500 lbs. Muriate of Potash . . 13 00 11 70 12 60 

1,000 Ibe. Acid Phoerphate ... 11 00 11 00 16 00 

Applying 100 100 100 

Freigfct 2(75 

Cultivation 7 50 18 00 5 70 

Total expenses 202 60 178 22 174 63 

Expenses per acre 81 04 7129 6985 

Yield in bajrrels 551 533% 234 

Receipts from sale of apples $74" 55 $449 80 $49,^ 58 

Per Cent. No. I'e 87 6 80 5 82 5 

Net profit 537 96 27158 318 95 

Net profit per acre 215 18 108 63 127 58 



Id necleoted state 
1908 1909 1910 

Yield in barrels 300 250 73 

Eeceipts from sale of apples $300 00 $200 00 $100 00 
Per Cent. No. I's 30 60 30 60 30 60 

Figures from the other orchards could 
be given, but the foregoing will be suffi- 
cient to show in detail the expenses and 
returns. 

The results obtained were in striking 
contrast tx> the smajl and indifferent 
crops yielded in unsprayed and uncared 
for orchards of the same locality. The 
quality of the fruit in each of the three 
years was exceptionally high — the per- 
centage of number one's being raised 
from thirty to sixty in 1908, 1909, and 
1910, prior to our having charge, to 
seventy-five to eighty-seven decimal six 
per cent, while under our care. Further, 
from ninety-five to ninety-eight per cent. 



of all the apples grown in these orchards 
was absolutely free from any insect pest 
or fungus disease. Scarcely an apple 
could be found with a worm in it, and it 
was only an odd apple here and there 
that showed a spot of scab. 

In conclusion, let me say that as a 
result of these demonstrations, the old 
orchards are being cared for in a man- 
ner as never before. Carloads of spray 
material and a great number of spray 
machines, both hand and power outfits, 
have been sold to fruit growers in the 
counties. The demonstration orchard 
method has proved its effectiveness as a 
means of stimulating interest in up-to- 
date methods. Special requests now 
reach my office asking me to take charge 
of an orchard for a p)eriod of years. 



Spraying to Prevent Apple Scab^ 

Prof. L. Caesar, Provincial Entomologist, Ontario 



FOR several years I have been im- 
pressed with the great importance 
of spraying very thoroughly at as 
nearly the right time as possible.' Most 
of the spraying that is done is not really 
thorough, or else it is not applied at the 
right time ; in fact, too many men are 
trying to cover too much ground with 
a single spray outfit. 

I believe in gasoline outfits for large 
orchards, especially for large trees. You 
can spray such trees much more thor- 
oughly and easily with these outfits. 
Keep your machine in excellent condi- 
tion ; spray at the right time ; miss none 
of the first three applications ; cover 
every leaf and young fruit or opening 
blossom thoroughly. Never mind how 
much the tree drips. Do not stop until 
you are satisfied it is done right. 

Instead of being discouraged by fail- 
ure a single year like 1913, remember 
that James E. Johnson, of Simcoe, our 
most experienced apple grower, says he 
never before 1913 saw a season when 
good spraying would not thoroughly 
control scab. It is not probable if he 
lives for thirty years longer, as we hope 
he will, that he will again see another 
such season. I might perhaps mention 
here in passing that good pruning, al- 
lowing plenty of light and air circula- 
tion will help to make it easy to keep 
off apple scab. 

SUMMARY OF EULES 

The following rules are given as a 
guide with special reference to prevent- 
ing apple scab : 

First Application — Before or as leaf 
buds are bursting. Use lime-sulphur, 
hydrometer strength 1.030 (1.035 f**"" 
San Jose Scale). 

Second Application — Just before blos- 
soms open. Use either lime-sulphur, 
■Strength i.oio or 1.009, or Bordeaux 

•Extract from an address delivered at the 
annnal conventions of the Ontario and Nova 
Scotia Pmit Growers' Associations. 



mixture 4.4.40 formula, and to every 
forty gallons of either wash add two to 
three pounds arsenate of lead. 

Third Application — At once after the 
blossoms have nearly all fallen (say 80 
per cent. off). Use lime-sulphur 1.008 
and two pounds arsenate of lead to every 
forty gallons. 

The second and third applications ma;i 
begin with early varieties, as the blot)'n 
on these opens and drops (n •,* 

Fourth Application — About two weeks 
after bloom falls. Use the same mixture 
as for the third application. This should 
be applied in the St. Lawrence Valley 
on varieties subject to scab every year, 
but in most parts of the province may be 
dispensed with, if we have fine warm 
weather beginning a week or ten days 
after the third application. 

Autumn Application — These should be 
applied only if the weather becomes wet 
or foggy and cool the latter part of 
August or early in September. Use lime- 
sulphur 1.008 or Bordeaux 4.4.40. 

Note. — Lime sulphur 1.030 hydrome- 
ter reading, commercial lime-suphur, one 
gallon, water nine gallons. Lime-sul- 
phur 1.035 hydrometer reading, com- 
mercial lime-sulphur one gallon, water 
seven and one-half gallons. Lime-sul- 
phur I.OIO hydrometer reading, com- 
mercial limesulphur one gallon, water 
twenty-nine to thirty gallons. Lime- 
sulphuri.009 hydrometer reading, com- 
mercial lime-sulphur one gallon, water 
thirty-two to thirty-five gallons. Lime- 
sulphur 1.008 hydrometer reading, com- 
mercial lime-sulphur one gallon, water 
thirtyseven to forty gallons. 



I believe that lime and sulphur puts a 
bloom and a freshness on apples that you 
cannot get from Bordeaux, and I believe 
it is a greater stimular^ to the fruit 
and the apples will hang on better.— M. 
C. Smith, Burlington, Ont. 



Kebriiary. iqi4 



THE CANADIAN HORTICULTURIST 



29 



Spraying Suggestions 

Rev. Father M. Leopold, La Trappe, Que. 



BE thorough. This is one of the essen- 
tials in proper spraying. Do not 
leave a tree until you have covered 
it entirely with the spray solution, trunk, 
branches, and foliage. With a good an- 
gle nozzle it is very easy to drench the 
leaves from underneath and on top. Each 
tree should receive a liberal quantity of 
the spray mixture. I never leave a tree 
lx;fore seeing the solution dripping from 
the leaves. In spraying for the codling 
moth it vi^ould be better to use the drive 
type nozzle. 

Get good constant pressure from your 
spraying machine. The manner in 
which spraying is done determines very 
often the quality of the crop of fruit that 
you may produce. The very best re- 
sults in spraying are hard to obtain with 
the use of poor machinery. Power spray- 
ing is bound to become one of the best 
factors in the management of the mod- 
ern orchard. Power sprayers are cap- 
able of giving a pressure impossible with 
a hand machine. Any one who has 
worlced the handle of a barrel pump hour 
after hour knows that with its use a 
pressure of more than one hundred 
pounds is almost out of the question. 
Our modern gasoline outfits will easily 
maintain a pressure of one hundred and 
fifty to two hundred pounds and more 
with three leads of hose- 
Do not ask one machine to do the 
work of two or more. Generally speak- 
ing, only two acres a day can be well 
sprayed, with one power machine, al- 
lowing that nine tanks can be applied in 
a day. Allowing also the maximum time 
of ten days for the calyces to remain 
open, only twenty acres of orchard can 
be treated with one machine. 

A GOOD AGITATOR EEQUIEED 

Have a good agitator fixed to your 
pump and outfit ; the agitation of the 
liquid in the tank is an important mat- 
ter. In the case of most of our sprays, 
like arsenate of lead and bordeaux mix- 
ture, the individual particles that make 
up the fungicide or insecticide, are sus- 
pended in the water. Unless the liquid 
is kept well agitated, these particles will 
settle in the bottom of the tank, thus 
rendering the mixture in the top of the 
tank weaker than it should be, and that 
in the bottom stronger, possibly too 
strong for the foliage. The use of soap 
to retard settling of certain arsenicals 
is said to be beneficial. Avoid all hap- 
hazard methods in spraying, and you 
will be well repaid for the trouble. It is 
not sport indeed to handle lime-sulphur 
wash in the orchard ; but if you intend 
to ma'ke things good, then take the 
trouble to see for yourself that every- 
thing is ready for each spraying. Per- 
sonally I enjoy spraying, no matter what 



sort of spray mixture I use, if I feel that 
by my efforts I am saving my crop of 
apples. 

Prof. J. R. R. Parker, in a practical 
article in Better Fruit, has shown that 
the addition of soap to arsenate of lead 
will help very much in keeping this valu- 
able insecticide in suspension for a long 
time. He summarizes the w^hole mat- 
ter in the following lines : 

"The addition of common laundry 
soap at the rate of two bars to fifty gal- 
lons, to an arsenate of lead mixture, re- 
tards the settling of the arsenate of 
lead, only half as much settling out of 
a soap mixture in fifteen minutes as set- 
tled out of a non-soap mixture in the 
same time. Above a certain quantity, the 
amount of soap used appears to have 
little influence upon the amount of set- 



tling. Two bars to fifty gallons is about 
the least to be used, and in practical 
work it would be safer to use three bars 
to every fifty gallons. Whale oil soap 
gave slightly better results than the more 
expensive laundry soaps. By the addi- 
tion of soap a more even distribution of 
arsenate of lead was secured, and the 
amount left in the bottom of the spray 
can was reduced to about twenty-five 
per cent." 

As we have obtained very godd results 
in following out Prof. Parker's advice, 
in spraying our orchards at La Trappe, 
I can not help saying it would be a 
good thing for others to try also. 



It is more important for almost every 
disease that the spraying should be done 
just before rain rather than after. The 
rain won't wash it off, provided it has 
dried after it has been put on. — Prof. 
L. Caesar, O'A.C, Guelph, Ont. 




Rev. Father Leopold, Past Preiident of the Province of Quebec Fruit Growers' Association, 

under a Fameuse Apple Tree in the Orchard of the Agricultural College at La Trappe, 

Que., where Thorough Spraying is Practised 



-fO 



THE CANADIAN HORTTCULTURIST 



February, 1914 





A Well Sprayed and Cultivated Orchard 

Formerly the proporty of Mr. A. E. Sherrington, Walkerton Ont., the well- 
known Institute speaker. 



The Peach Tree Borer — Methods of Control 

L. Caesar, B.S.A., Provincial Entomologist, Ontario 



* 



THE following are the chief insects 
attacking the peach in Ontario: — 
Peach-borer, Lesser Peach-Borer, 
Plum Curculio, Fruit-tree Bark-beetle or 
Shot-hole Borer, and San Jose Scale. 
There are a number of minor insects 
sometimes found but doing very little 
damage, such as Green Peach Aphis, 
Black Peach Aphis, Peach Twig-borer, 
Tarnished Plant Bug, and Red Spider. 

The Peach Borer when full grown is a 
rather stout, cream colored or yellowish 
larva about an inch long. It nearly al- 
ways attacks the trees just at or slighty 
beneath the ground. Frequently it is 
necessary to remove the earth a little 
around the trunk to be sure whether one 
of these insects is present or not, but 
usually its presence can be ascertained 
by seeing the dirty gum mass that exudes 
from the part where it feeds. The in- 
jury is caused by the borer or borers 
(there may be several to a tree), working 
just beneath the bark and girdling or 
partly girdling the tree. A tree thus af- 
fe*ed becomes sickly in appearance 
somewhat as if attacked by Yellows, and 
may die the same season or be killed by 
the succeeding' winter. Young and old 
trees are alike attacked. Fortunately in 
a great many orchards this insect is very 
scarce, but this is not true of all dis- 
tricts, and in some it is far the most 
destructive and difficult enemy the peach 
grower has to contend with. It often 
seems to be worst in districts where there 
are comparatively few peach orchards. 

PLANTS ATTACKED 

In addition to the peach it attacks to 
some extent the plum, cherry and apri- 

*Extra«t from an address delivered at tb« 
recent annnal oonvention of the Ontario Froit 
Growere' Aaeoclation. 



cot, but the peach is the favorite. To 
intelligently understand the methods of 
combating the pest it is necessary to give 
briefly its life history : 

The winter is passed as a partly grown 
(usually about half grown) larva beneath 
the bark. In the spring, with the return 
of warmth, this larva begins to feed 
ravenously and increase rapidly in size. 
By the end of June it is usually full 
grown, and then leaves its tunnel or 
burrow to form a brown cocoon on the 
outside of the bark or on the ground 
close to the trunk. 

About the end of July this pupa 
changes into a pretty little steel-blue 
moth, about an inch long, looking to 
most people more like a wasp than a 
moth. The female has around her ab- 
domen a broad orange band that makes 
her conspicuous. Moths may be found 
from about August first to the end of 
September. They soon lay their eggs, 
placing them on the trunks, branches, 
leaves and even weeds growing close to 
the trees. In about ten days these hatch 
and the tiny borers drop to the ground, 
and work their way into the soft inner 
bark through crevices. Here they feed 
on the inner bark against the sap wood. 
At first little brownish saw-dust-like 
castings are thrown out where they feed, 
but after a time gum exudes. Large 
masses of this may sometimes be seen. 
Gum, of course, in peach trees, tends to 
be produced by any wound especially in 
the early part of the summer. There is 
but one brood a year. 

MEANS OF CX)NTROL 

There is no easy means of control and 
many that are advocated are useless or 
dangerous to the tree. The best method 
I know of is to combine the practice of 



'''Sf>'"'K ""* 'f'c borers by mcan.s of a 
knife or wire with mounding up the 
earth around a tree or wrapping the 
base of the trunk with paper. The dig- 
ging out with a knife should be done 
twice a year, first about the end of May, 
so that as few borers as possible may 
escape to transform into moths and lay 
eggs, and again about the end of October 
to deslrf>y the new larvae. Mounding 
up the trees with earth to a height of 
about ten inches has been found very 
useful. Such trees are freer from injury 
than unmounded trees. The mounding 
also cau.ses the borers to attack nearer 
the top of the mound instead of down at 
the crown so that when the earth is re- 
moved their presence can be easily seen, 
and they can be readily killed with a 
knife. 

The mounding to be of value must be 
clone about the end of July and left on 
until about the middle of October, that 
is during the period when the moths are 
flying around and eggs being laid and 
hatched. Wrapping with paper may be 
substituted for mounding. Two or three 
ply of common newspaper placed around 
the tree to a height of about eighteer 
inches is very satisfactory. This should 
be tightly fastened with a cord at the top 
and loosely the rest of the way down. 
To secure against larvae getting in be- 
low it, a little of the earth should firsi 
be removed to let the paper lower dowr 
and then this earth heaped up about foui 
inches around the base of the paper. 
Common building paper is good and ii 
more durable. Tar paper is often used 
but may do some damage to the trees. 
The mounds should be replaced to avoic 
danger of winter injury. 

VARIOUS WASHES 

Many kinds of washes have been tried t( 
keep out the borers. Most of these an 
either useless or dangerous. The onb 
two that have given fair satisfaction ar( 
first ordinary gas tar, and asphaltum 
The former of these has been known ii 
some cases to injure the trees. Thi 
latter is highly recommended by a Cali 
fornia entomologist, who says that ii 
four years it has done no damage what 
ever and has given excellent results, 
have not had an opportunity to test as 
phaltum. It is a cheap substance cost 
ing, I think, from two to five cents ; 
pound and should be procurable througl 
any of the wholesale drug stores. It i 
applied warm with an old paint brush 
In applying, remove the soil to a deptl 
of about four or five inches, then cove 
this to a height of about six inche 
above ground. It is better to put a ligh 
coat on first. This dries or harden 
almost at once, then put on another coa 
so that there will be a good unbroke 
coat all around. It is necessary to re 
touch the part each year. Some sort c 
heater is necessary to melt the asphi 
turn or keep it liquid when melted. 



Plants and Their Insect Pests 



MANY plants, whether grown for or- 
namental or for utility purjxjses, 
and whether grown under glass 
or in the open air, are threatened during 
the spring and summer months with in- 
sect pests of various kinds. The first 
thing to do when a plant is not thriving 
is to decide what disease or insect pest 
it is that is injuring it. The next thing 
is to know what is the right antidote to 
apply. If we make ourselves masters of 
these matters, the rest should be easy of 
accomplishment. 

One of the greatest enemies of every 
gardener is the great family of aphides. 
Nearly all plants, whether grown in the 
garden or under glass, are subject to the 
ravages of these pests. The aphides are 
known by a variety of names, such as 
plant lice, green or plant fly, and are 
often named after the plant on which 
they particularly live, while the disease 
they produce is often called "blight." 
Aphides are provided with a mouth, and 
they damage our plants principally by 
sucking out the sap and so weakening 
its vitality. These insects multiply at a 
surprising rate owing to the fact that 
the young attain the age of reproduction 
after about ten days. 

Certain kinds, such as rose aphis, at- 
tack not only the leaf but the young 
shoots of the plant. Other kinds of 
aphis — the bean aphis, for example — will 
attack the fruit p>ods, while others, the 
woolly aphis, attacks the roots, stems, 
or twigs. Plant -lice migrate from plant 
to plant, and some can live both above 
and below ground. Towards the end of 
the year, as cold weather comes on or 
food becomes scarce, males as well as 
females are produced, the femaJes de- 
positing their eggs at the base of the 
buds and on the stems and leaves of the 
plant. These eggs remain over winter, 
hatching into larvae in the early spring. 
In addition to the green aphides there 
are the blue and red kinds, and the 
black aphides commonly found on chrys- 
anthemum plants. Then there are quite 
a number of other insects, such as the 
mealy-bug, the red spider, and the 
Ihrips, which, although small, are none 
the less voracious in their habits. The 
amount of destruction they can do in a 
short space of time if left unmolested is 
istonishing. Our common foe — the 
slug — must not be overlooked. 

DIST.NGUISHING I>OINTS 

The aphides make up in numbers what 
they lack in size. They may be readily 
identified by their rather long antennae, 
their soft pulpy bodies, and conspicuous 
round eyes. They are found on the rose 
bush usually crowded together on the 
under side of the leaves and smothering 
the young buds and flowers. 



R. A. Tillett, Hamilton, Ont. 

The mealy-bug has a scaly body and 
derives its name from its being covered 
with a white powder. 

A tiny little insect is the red spider, 
which is really a mite and so small that 
it may easily escape detection ; it gen- 
erally goes by the name of the red spi- 
der. It is not until they reach the adult 
age that they acquire their red color, 
for in their younger stages they are usu- 
ally yellow or green. The red spider 
only attacks plants — especially violets in 
frames — when the soil is too dry. If the 
soil is kept moist and the plants given 
a good syringing with water, the red 
spider will disappear. 

Thrips are generally associated with 
corn where many species attack the in- 
florescence. In hothouses we find them 
destroying the leaves of plants, and to 
distinguish them from the aphides or 
"green fly," they are often called "black • 
fly." Thrips have suctorial mouths, ra- 
ther long bodies, and are winged. 

Slugs inhabit the damp shady parts of 
gardens and greenhouses, and feed at 
night. They are found under old rubbish 
heaps, under the bark of decaying trees, 
and in similar places. They lay numer- 
ous eggs in decaying vegetation, and are 
fond of attacking tender, young plants, 
such as lettuce and peas. The most 
effecual way of ridding a garden of them 
is to gather them up and destroy them, 
but if numerous, the best course is to 
dig: in one of the advertised insecticides. 



Another effectual way of dealing witfr 
them is to fork in ground lime, using of 
the latter four ounces per square foot. 

OTHER DISEASKS 

We notice on certain plants diseases 
known respectively as "rot" and "rust" 
and fungus — diseases which require spe- 
cial treatment. Fungus is usually brought 
about by too much watering ; it attacks 
the stems of seedlings. It is this that 
causes potato disease and the mildew of 
the vine. The same mouldy growth is 
found on decayed bread, preserves, and 
other household provisions. 

The destruction and prevention of gar- 
den pests and plant diseases is of the 
utmost importance, and a consideration 
of the most efficacious and economical 
remedies brings its own reward. 

Practical experience of this subject 
among a great variety of plants has 
taught me the use of several excellent 
remedies which, if properly applied, are 
beneficial in the distribution of aphides. 
One of the best washes I know of 
that can be used is obtained from dis- 
solving six pounds to ten jx)unds of soft 
soap in one hundred galljons of soft 
water. When the solution is thorough- 
ly mixed let this be freely sprayed on 
any plants on which aphides are found. 
The soft soap blocks up their breathing 
pores and quickly destroys them. This 
solution can be used in any less propor- 
tion, according to requirements. 

For black fly on cherry and for all 











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Begonia Gloire de Lorraine 


Thia beautiful plant meamired three feet across and waji prown at Castle Loma, 
tha raiddenoe of Sir Henry Pellatt, Toronto. 



THE TANADTAN HOTITTC TT l/P T RT S T 



February, iqi4 




A Collection o( Wild Flower* ■* Gathered, near Peterboro, by an Enthusiast 

Owing to the ignorance and oarelessneee of the public many of our native wild flowers are 
already almost extinct- Can not the Ontario Horticnltnral Association and the local horti- 
cultural societies take steps to preserre them? 



those species which produce a copious 
flow of honey dew, quassia is a most 
useful ingredient to add. It acts as an 
astringent to the leafage and cleans it 
of all the honey dew and excreta formed 
by aphides. The quassia chips should 
be boiled and the extract added to the 
soft soap wash. 

For those aphides which attack the 
roots of plants, there is no better cure 
than bisulphide of carbon. Inject about 
one-quarter ounce to every four square 
yards. This substance being both a 
deadly poison and highly inflammable, 
care must be taken in its use. The va- 
por of bisulphide of carbon liquid used 
in the beekeeper's "smoker" is another 
good remedy for green fly, and does not 
injure even delicate flowers. 

In all cases aphides should be attack- 
ed directly they show themselves, espe- 
cially when the species of aphis has the 
habit like the plum aphis of curling up 
the leaves and so protecting themselves 
from the spray. 

For the destruction of mussel scale, 
woolly aphis, mealy-bugs, thrips, and 
red spider in glass houses, there is no 
more effectual remedy than fumigation 
with hydrocyanic acid gas. Nursery 
stock will be freed from insect enemies 
at all stages if fumigated with this 
poison . 

The materials used for fumigation with 
hydrocyanic acid gas are: First, potas- 
sium cyanide of ninety-eight per cent, 
purity; second, sulphuric acid of a sjje- 
cific gravity, not less than one decimal 
eighty-three; third, water, four jars and 
a glass measure. The following propor- 



tions of cyanide of potassium, sulphuric 
acid, and water to be used, and the 
amount of space jjer unit of cyanide are 
recommended, viz., One ounce of cyan- 
ide of ninety-eight per cent, purity to 
every two hundred, or three hundred or 
five hundred cubic feet of space respect- 
ively . 

The amount of cyanide to be used 
necessarily depends to some extent on the 
character of the plants to be fumigated, 
and their strength, whether they are dor- 
mant or active, evergreen, or deciduous, 
and on the season. With tender plants 
one ounce of cyanide will serve for five 
hundred cubic feet of space, while hardy 
plants may be treated with one ounce 
of cyanide to two hundred cubic feel of 
space. 

The first step is to render the glass 
house or other place to be treated as 
air-tight as possible. The sulphuric 
acid must then be very carefully and 
slowly poured into the water, which may 
be put into a jam jar or disused crock. 
Wrap the cyanide of potassium in thin 
blotting paper, which should then be 
dropped into the sulphuric acid. The 
vessel containing the solution should be 
placed within reach of a window so that 
the operator can drop the cyanide of 
potassium into the diluted sulphuric acid 
at the end of a long stick or lower it 
by means of a string and pulley. The 
window must be immediately closed so 
that the operator escapes the fumes. See 
that the door is already closed tightly, 
and all chinks filled with raps or paper, 
and that the window shuts close. It is 
important that the fumes should be dis- 



iributed into .ill parts of the house. This 
can be effected by an arrangement of 
l.ins which can be worked from the in- 
side. 

Fumigation should be carried out in 
the evening and not in a strong sunlight. 
The plants should be dry and the tem- 
perature between fifty to sixty degrees. 
The work must be done by a skilful 
operator, for the fumes of cyanide are 
deadly jX)isonous. 

The place which has been fumigated 
should be kept closed for an hour. Th>- 
windows and doors should be opened 
from the outside and no one should enter 
until another hour has elapsed. When 
opening the windows after fumigation, 
be careful that no escaping fumes of the 
cyanide are inhaled. It is safer not to 
fumigate plants which are in bloom. 

OUTDOOR PLANTS 

It is of the utmost importance to re- 
member that both cyanide of potassium 
and hydrocyanic acid gas are highly dan- 
gerous fX>isons. The cyanide should be 
kept in a stoppered bottle labelled "poi- 
son." The gas generated must on no ac- 
count be inhaled. 

Fumigation with cyanide wUl destroy 
all forms of insect life, except the eggs 
of the woolly aphis. Where there has 
been previous trouble with these pests, 
the treatment should be repeated in about 
ten days. Eggs of the apple mussel 
scale are also unaffected by gas of the 
strength mentioned. 

Fumigation with tobacco is a simple 
and effectual means of exterminating 
many kinds of insect pests, and has the 
advantage of being harmless to those us- 
ing it. In employing this method of 
fumigation, procure first of all a wire 
basket about twelve inches wide and say 
six inches deep, and fasten to each cor- 
ner a strong wire with which to suspend 
it. Into the bottom of the basket throw 
a few hot cinders, and over them a hand- 
ful of charcoal. Swing the basket about 
for a few minutes until there is a good 
red fire. The best tobacco to use is 
common shag. When using it get a 
handful of wet litter from the stable and 
chop it into pieces about an inch long, 
and fix well with the tobacco. Then place 
the whole on the fire and give the bas- 
ket a good swing in the air. The smoke 
will fill the greenhouse in a few seconds. 
Hang the basket in the house, and 
should it burst into flame, damp it. All 
plants in flower should be removed. Re- 
peat this exterminator in two or three 
davs in the evening, and in the morning 
give plants a thorough syringing with 
clean water. 



Moss roses are, if anything, hardier 
than most of the hybrid perpetual bush 
roses, almost as hardy as the Japanese 
or Rugosa roses.— Wm. Hunt, O.A.C., 
Guelph, Ont. 



starting and Growing Plants Indoors 



Now is the time to sow seed of early 
vegetables and annuals that you 
intend to grow during the summer. 
Of course you have looked over the cata- 
logues, and selected just what you want 
in order to prevent delay and consequent 
disappointment. 

If you have your hotbed prepared you 
can sow your seed at once. Sow the 
seeds in rows about three inches apart, 
and cover very lightly. Deep covering 
is a thing to be avoided, as is sowing too 
thickly. Save some of the seeds for a 
second planting. If the seedlings come 
up too thick and crowded, they will be 
unable to get sufficient light and air to 
develop into strong, sturdy plants. Fair- 
ly large seeds, as cabbage and lettuce, 
may be covered an eighth of an inch or 
so, but very small seeds should be press- 
ed into the soil with a smooth, flat piece 
of wood and just covered from sight. 
This treatment applies to most seeHs, 
whether they be started in the hotbed, 
greenhouse, or living rooms. 

HOUSE CONDITIONS 

There are many amateurs who lack 
lx)th hotbed and greenhouse. They must 
make the most of the conditions that ob- 
tain in the house. Even then there is no 
need to despair, for with a little thought- 
ful preparation very fine plants can be 
raised under such adverse conditions. 
The equipment needed to accomplish this 
is of the simplest, and incurs no very 
great exfjense. 

A light, sunny window where there is 
room for a generous table or shelf, and 
where the temperature is not likely to 
drop below forty-five degrees on average 
nights, is the first essential. An occa- 
sional drop below forty will not prove 
fatal, but each time this occurs it means 
the progress is just so much retarded. If 
repyeated at all frequently, it will be at- 
tended with very unsatisfactory results. 

GOOD SOIL NEEDED 

The next essential thing to light and 
warmth is soil, one light and porous be- 
ing the most satisfactory. No doubt you 
have some stored in the cellar. Turn this 
over and ascertain its "physical condi- 
tion." Richness is no advantage, in fact 
it is often a drawback. A soil that will 
retain moisture, and at the same time be 
porous enough to allow any surplus 
moisture to drain off at once and which 
will not tend to form a crust, is the most 
important factor in success with seeds. 
If your soil is not in this condition you 
can easily make it so by the addition of 
leaf mould or very old spent manure and 
sand. 

If you are not able to get soil in such 
a condition as this, better purchase .1 
bushel or two from the local florist, hut 
whatever you do have it in just the right 



Henry Gibson, Staatsburg 

condition, for "well begun is half done," 
and with proper soil half the trouble of 
raising seeds is overcome. 

SUITABLE BOXES 

From your grocer you can get a few 
haddock boxes, which are of a very con- 
venient size for this purpose, and have 
the advantage of being very light. Fail- 
ing these, you can get some cracker 
boxes. These sawed lengthwise into two 
inch sections and bottomed so that nar- 
row spaces, say half an inch, are left 
between the boards, will provide you 
with the most useful of boxes for starting 
vegetable and large flower seeds. 

For very fine seeds, such as begonias, 
heliotrope, and petunias, a few seed pans 
— which are easily obtained from any 
florist for a nominal sum — are more con- 
venient to handle. Cigar boxes are use- 
ful for this purpose, but they are apt to 
dry out too quickly. 

ENSURE GOOD DRAINAGE 

The matter of thorough drainage is so 
important that besides having porous soil 
and open-bottomed boxes, still further 
precaution should be taken by filling the 
boxes about one-third full of some coarse 
material. The coarser pieces of soil or 
sphagnum are the most desirable for this 
purpose. On this place enough of the 
prepared soil to come just a little below 
the edge of the box, so that when water 
is applied later it will not run over the 
top. Press the soil down in the corners 
and along the edges firmly with the fin- 
gers and level and firm off the surface. 



Plenty of moisture in the soil is neces- 
sary to ensure good germination. Give 
the boxes a good soaking the day before 
planting, or place them in a sink or tub 
after planting and let just enough water 
soak up through the soil from the bot- 
tom to moisten the surface. This is in- 
dicated by the soil turning a darker 
color. Let them drain until all drip 
ceases before placing them where they 
are to remain until the seedlings appear. 

The next problem is to get the seeds 
to come up strong. This should take 
place in anywhere from four days to ai» 
many weeks, according to variety. The 
surest way of doing this is to apply what 
florists term "bottom heat." Where 
steam, hot water, or hot air radiator> 
are installed this is easily arranged. 
.Simpy place the seed box over it, ele- 
vated- on two or three bricks. Other- 
wise the kitchen range may be utilized or 
an oil heater may be broug'ht to serve a 
useful purpose. Care should be taken in 
the latter case to have a piece of metal 
between the direct heat of the flame and 
the box, which should be far enough 
from it to prevent it getting more than 
nice and warm. 

Such a degree of heat as' is hereby 
obtained will tend to dry out the soil 
very rapidly. This may be counteracted 
to some extent by placing panes of glass 
over the boxes, raised about a quarter of 
an inch at one end. Until the seeds be- 
gin to break ground they are as well kept 




Phlox •nd Petunia* in the Garden of Mr. Jai. Gad«by, Hamilton, Ont. 

a 



.14 



THE CANADIAN IK) Rl' I (' U l/r H R T ST 



February, 1914 






>5Xl^v 






Prize Winning Acters 

in the dark as not. If they are placed 
where the sun strikes them directly they 
should be shaded with sheets of news- 
paper laid on the glass covering. The 
minute they are up they should receive 
all the light possible and be kept near 
the window. 

From the time the seed leaves appear 
until the seedlings are big enough to 
transplant is the critical period of the 
plant's growth. Prepared as suggested, 
the boxes will need no further watering 
until the seeds have germinated. If 
watering really appears necessary, use 
the sub-irrigation method as you did 
when preparing the boxes for sowing. 
As the seedlings develop care should be 
taken not to over-water, as they will do 
better if kept on the dry side. When 
watering is done, however, it should be 
done thoroughly, and again sub-irrigation 
is the method to be adopted. In this 
way the soil is saturated through, the 
seedlings are not bent over by the force 
of water, nor the foliage left wet to start 
damping off. Where rooms are steam or 
hot air heated, some difficulty will be ex- 
perienced in keeping a normal degree of 
moisture in the atmosphere. This un- 
favorable condition may be to a large 
extent overcome by giving all the fresh 
air possible and evaporating water near 
the plants, shallow flat pans being best 
to use for this purpose. 

In admitting air be careful to avoid 
cold draughts striking plants. In many 
cases it may be convenient to admit air 
through an adjoining room, or to put 
a layer or two of newspapers, which are 
splendid non-conductors of heat or cold, 
between the window and the plants. 
While most of the seeds sown will do 
nicely ns suggested in a night tempera- 
ture of forty-five to fifty degrees, with a 
rise to sixty or seventy degrees during 



the day, there are several that require 
fifty-five to sixty degrees at night to do 
as they ought. These include tomatoes, 
peppers, egg plants, melons, cucumbers, 
and such heat-needing plants as l-)egon- 
ias, salvias, and heliotropes. These, 
however, may be brought along after the 
early vegetables. For instance, if cab- 
bage and lettuce seeds are planted in 
February and tomatoes and peppers a 
inonth or so later, they will be sprout- 
ed about the lime the former are trans- 
planted, and can occupy the space thus 
made vacant. By the time these are 
ready to transplant the earlier vegetables 
will be ready to go to the cold frame, and 
in many locajities into the garden, to 
make room for the newcomers. 

All this may seem a lot of trouble, but 
when one has spring vegetables and 
(lower beds weeks ahead of neighbors 
who have not troubled at all, you will 
feel amply repaid for having started your 
seeds in the house windows. 



leaving only the tip or crown bud to 
each branch. About one week later give 
a dressing of pulverized sheep manure, 
and keep the hoe going freely, as long 
as it is possible to get among the plants. 



Asters (Callistephus Chinensis) 
"Marquis" 

The aster is generally known as one 
of the most beautiful of all our annuals, 
as well as one of the easiest grown, 
when its requirements are known. It 
will grow in any good garden soil, but 
is best in a rich loamy soil. The plant 
may be raised from seed, any time from 
the beginning of March to the end of 
May, and good results obtained. 

The seedlings should not be allowed 
to become crowded at any time, but as 
soon as large enough to handle they 
should be transplanted singly in boxes 
or in beds, and as the season advances, 
about the end of May or beginning of 
June, they should be planted where they 
are intended to bloom, the ground hav- 
ing been previously prepared and man- 
ured. The planting should be carried 
out, if possible, in showery weather. 

The plants require a lot of room. 
They should never be less than one foot 
apart for Daybreak, Hohenzollern, and 
Queen of the Market, and one and one- 
half to two feet for Semples, Vick's 
Branching, and similar varieties. At no 
period of their growth should the plants 
be allowed to suffer for want of moist- 
ure. I prefer to keep them moist by a 
judicious use of the hose. During a dry 
time use the hose once a week. When 
the plants are about one foot in height, 
they should be given a light sprinkling 
of fertilizer, hoed into the soil. The 
plants should be watched for aster bug. 
The only relief known to the writer 
that can be recommended is hand pick- 
ing. All sprays tried so far have to be 
handled with such extreme care that it 
makes the remedy as bad as the pests. 

As soon as the flower bud shows, it 
is well to remove all secondary buds, 



Hot Frames 

R. B.Rom, Ptterbore, Out. 

A hot frame is just the same kind of a 
structure as the cold frame, but is placed 
upon a quantity of fermenting manure. 
To prepare this manure, get all you can 
from the nearest horse stable ; make it 
into a good sized heap; water well if 
dry. Leave it for a few days until fer- 
mentation sets in ; then turn it over, wat- 
ering again if you think it necessary, 
that is, if it appears to be dry. The idea 
is to get the manure into an active and 
uniform fermentation and have it con- 
tinue for some time after putting the 
soil in it. 

Use the same position for the manure 
heap as for a cold frame. Have the 
heap about one to one and a half feet 
wider than the frame, with a depth of 
from one and a half to two feet ; tramp 
it down good and firm, then place the 
frame on top, and put in the soil to the 




A Hot Frame Made of Cement 

depth of, say, three or four inches. 
Throw some manure up around the out- 
side of the frame. This will help to 
hold in the heat. Put on the glass and 
let it stand for four or five days, when 
the heat should be even. I would ad- 
vise a thermometer placed in the frame 
where it can be easily seen. \\ hen the 
temperature falls to about seventy-five 
degrees seed can be sown. .At night 
do not allow the temperature to fall 
too low, but keep it as near sixty de- 
grees as you can. It should not go be- 
low forty-five degrees at any time. In 
sowing seeds, sow them the same as in a 
cold frame. At first keep a small open- 
ing in the sash to allow the steam 
caused by the manure to escape, other- 
wise a damp mould will get on the earth 
or the seedlings will rot. 

Keep all seedlings that come up first 
by themselves, and the ungerminated 
ones keep well under the glass ; give the 
seedlings that are showing up more 
light and ventilation. When they get a 
little stronger take the flat out of the 
frame and place in the warm sunlight, 
so that the young plants may harden be- 
fore transplanting out in the open beds. 
Vegetables or flowers can be started in 
either of the frames, and one can obtain 
much satisfaction from theiti. 



February, 1914 



THE CANADIAN HORTICULTURIST 



35 



Pergolas in the Garden 

A. V. Main, Ottawa, Ont. 

IN our Canadian gardens the use of per- Many people construct pergolas of 

golas is as yet limited. Some have been cedar or wire material and have a poor 
erected that have not been a sue- pathway also. Cedar in its untrimmed 
cess. Others again see fit to criticize state soon looks shabby and is of short 




their u.sefulness, in our severe climate, 
which interferes with their splendour. 
To my mind we might as well say that 
our verandahs, arbours, and summer 
cottages were unnecessary. If pergolas 
present some difficulties as regards hav- 
ing them clothed with beautiful climbers, 
it only means that we must be more 
consistent in our efforts to overcome this 
obstacle to success. 

What is a pergola, anyway? It might 
be termed a continued archway, with 
climbers overhead : A leafy canopy, par- 
tially shaded : A retreat for rest and 
quietude : An avenue situated near the 
mansion, that stands out in dignity and 
adds to the beauty of all around it, by 
its open entrances and majestic stateli- 
ness. It bids us come forth and admire. 

Many pergolas, particularly those of 
amateur construction, remind me of the 
hermit build. They are out of propor- 
tion and lack space in which to stand 
iip properly. They are inclined to be 
dingy, pokey affairs. Pergolas are not 
dungeons. The one here illustrated was 
built last spring. Where it now stands 
a row of lilacs and viburnums stood re- 
lics of many a wintry blast, which pro- 
vided an excellent breeding space for 
sparrows and aphis and also shaded a 
twelve-foot strip of ground. With some 
reluctance they were beheaded. 



duration. In winter it does not furnish 
a pleasant contrast to the snow. 

The beautiful pillars or columns here 
shown are seven feet six inches, and are 
placed on cement pillars eight feet apart. 



down two sides. There are twelve col- 
umns to a side. Beams six-inch by four- 
inch are placed parallel on the top of the 
column. Cross rafters are then placed 
overhead two feet apart. These are 
twelve feet in length, two feet being 
allowed to project over the columns, the 
ends being of an ornamental nature. 

The walk is eight feet wide and pro- 
jects to the outside line of columns. It 
consists of a solid four-foot foundation 
of stone and has a red cement finish. The 
columns are set on cement three inches 
above the walk to avoid decay, and the 
walk itself is situated several inches 
higher than the ground at each side to 
avoid splashing of earth in time of rain 
or washing off. 

Four wires should be evenly distribut- 
ed up and down the pillars about two 
inches from the wood. Along the top, 
galvanized wire should be stretched the 
entire length about eighteen inches apart 
to provide assistance for the climbers. 
White is the best color of paint. 

This is a substantial pergola, and 
pleasant to look at in winter as well as 
in summer. It is a work of some dura- 
tion. The entire length is one hundred 
feet. It is probably the only one of its 
kind in the Dominion. These pergolas 
are a specialty of some United States 
firms and are very much in use across 
the border. They vary in some small 
details of design. Very often they are 
linked with the house, like the conser- 
vatory. 

The work of the carpenter or builder 
is an easy matter, and is soon finished, 
but the gardener, wh.o has to make the 
dress for Miss Pergola, has many mis- 
fits. He fails to see a finish to his work. 




.•?6 



THE CANADIAN HORTICULTURIST 



February, ig 



I'o be fashionable many dresses arc called 
for. Graf)e vines for the rafters, roses 
for the pillars. Clematis, Dutchman's 
Pipe, Honeysuckle, Wistaria, Begonia, 
Radicans, Nasturtiums, Canary Creepers 
and Bittersweet, all find a place. Any 
shade trees overhanging the structure 
shut out light, rain, and another valuable 
item, the refreshing dew. 

A good perennial border is the best 
possible set-off to the sunny front side 
of the pergola . The primary object is 
to have the tall five and six feet peren- 
nial planted at the back, right between 
the pillars, say one section between 
two pillars, first helenium, second peren- 
nial asters, third hollyhocks, fourth heli- 
anthus, and so on. Nothing can surpass 
this arrangement of the flowering heads 
as they nod in the leafy promenade. 

A strong arrangement of flowers on 
either side must be an accepted part of 
the plant. Extra trenching of the soil 
and manuring is imperative if the 
climbers are to grow luxuriantly. On the 
sunny side we have tried Tausendschon 
Rose on the pillars, also Clematis, Aris- 
tilochia, Wistaria, and grape vines. The 
idea is to establish permanently the wild 
grape vine to cover the overhead rafters 
and to allow them to remain all winter 
without pulling them down for winter 
protection as has to be done with most 
other climbers. The fruiting grape vines 
could be introduced and if successful 
they might replace parts of the wild 
vine. The vine leaf provides a pleasant 
canopy of foliage. A water tap and 
hose is convenient. 

For several years, before the climbers 
and suitable material have attained their 
full growth, the wide and spacious walk 
can be fittingly decorated with large 
tubs of hydrangeas, bay trees, palms, 
coleus, and small groups of geraniums in 
pots, begonias, abutilons, and several 
baskets and boxes of summer flowering 
plants. Chairs, tables, and other acces- 
sories of the "five o'clock" period, fur- 
ther enhance the utility of pergolas and 
igive an acceptable environment to well 
kept gardens. 

As this pergola was not finished till 
June ist, 1912, annuals were resorted to 
for a summer display. Nasturtiums, co- 
bea, and canary creepers were rapidly 
reaching the rafters by August. Annuals 
were braced up on each side. Sunflowers, 
seven feet cosmos, marigolds, and zin- 
nias made a fair show. Patience we 
must have, for the first year's growth of 
the permanent plants can not possibly 
produce complete results. 



The Care of Cuttings 



Henry Gibson, 

The plants of bedding stock which 
were started into growth as suggested 
last month, will soon furnish you with 
a good supply of cuttings. These should 
be put into sand and rooted at once in 
order to have fair-sized plants by bed- 
ding-out time. 

The rooting of cuttings seems to have 
lost favor with many amateurs, owing 
possibly to many past failures. Do not, 
however, be discouraged by failures. 
They should only be an incentive to 
greater effort. The majority of cuttings 
can be rooted under precisely the same 
conditions as you raise your seedlings 
under, save that a little higher tempera- 
ture is required. For the novice, sand is 
perhaps the most satisfactory rooting 
medium. If only a few dozen cuttings 
are required, make use of shallow pans 
such as are suggested for use when sow- 
ing begonia seeds. Fill the pan to within 
half an inch of the top with sand and 
press it down firmly. Cuttings that are 
in right condition and inserted an inch 
in the sand, watered freely, and shaded 
from say nine or ten a.m. until four p.m., 
will root in from ten to twenty days, ac- 
cording to the kind of plants that are 
being rooted and the temperature of the 
sand. 

The right condition of a cutting is 
quite a problem to the uninitiated, yet it 
is easy of solution. Take a shoot of 
any plant you intend to take cuttings 



I Staatsburg 

from, and liend it over. If it snaps 1 
you have a cutting in right condition i 
rooting. If, on the other hand, the she 
simply bends and does not break, it 
too hard and is not suitable for prop 
gating purposes. Cuttings of this nj 
ure will throw out roots, yet it will 
slower in doing so, and the roots emitt 
will be weaker and more wiry than the 
from a cutting that breaks. Hence t 
resultant plant will not be so healthy a 
vigorous. 

Every care should be taken to mai 
tain a somewhat close and moist ; 
mosphere during the rooting pverio 
Draughts should be avoided at all tim« 
.^mong the many plants that can be ro< 
ed in this way are geraniums, pansi< 
verbenas, petunias, lobelias, ageratunr 
and fuschias. 

While the plants named may be ro< 
ed under practically cool conditior 
there are many others which require 
much higher temperature, especially b< 
torn heat, in order to get them to ro 
readily. Of these, crotons, ficus (ru 
ber plant), begonias, Lorraine, and Ci 
cinnata, duaseneas and bouvardias a 
the most popular with amateurs. T 
tops of ficus may be rooted in sand, b 
a better way is to root them on the plar 
This is done by making an incision 
the stem half way between two joint 
then turn the knife upwards and c 
through the first joint. Place a piece 



Barnyard manure not only furnishes 
plant food for growing the crop, but 
greatly improves the texture of the soil 
by adding: the necessary humus. — F. F. 
Reeves, Hiimber Bay. 




A Modern Greenhouse A iVlodel ot Its Kind 

Mr. Jobn H. Dunlop, Toronto's leading retail and wholeeale florist, has recently erected at 
Riohmond Hill, Ont., a range of greenhouse.'! tiat are the most modem and complete on the 
continent. An interior view of one of these hotiaes is here shown. 



February, 1914 



THE CANADIAN HORTICULTURIST 



37 




An Exterior View of Two of Mr. Dunlop't Greenhouses. They are 61 by 400 feet. They 'are worth a visit 



malch stalk or a grain of corn into this 
incision to prevent it closing and healing 
up, cover with moss (asphagnum is best), 
and wrap securely. Keep the moss moist 
at all times, and place the plant in a 
warm, moist place. If you have a warm 
greenhouse so much the better. When 
the young roots show through the moss 
it should be removed, and the young 
plants severed from the old one and pot- 
ted up into a good growing medium. The 
old stems of these plants may be used 
for increasing your stock by cutting them 
up into short lengths, taking care to have 
one or more joints to each piece and 
placing them in sand with a good bot- 
tom heat. 

Bouvardias are rather shy in throw- 



ing out suitable material for propagat- 
ing purposes. A better way than wag- 
ing for the old plants to throw out young 
growths is to make root cuttings. Re- 
move the soil to get at the roots, and 
take off cuttings half an inch to an inch 
and a half long. Place some coarse soil 
in a box and over this an inch of sandy 
soil. On this place the cuttings and 
cover with the same material. Water 
well and place where a little bottom heat 
is to be obtained. Within a month you 
will have young plants. 

When rooted all cuttings should be 
potted into a good, light soil in jxits two 
to three inches in diameter, and treated 
carefully by shading- and watering for a 
few days until they become established. 



Tomatoes Under Glass 

Jack W. Collins, Moncton, N.B. 



Mow I grew one of my best crops of 
lomatoes in Canada, will perhaps be in- 
teresting to some readers of The Cana- 
dian Horticulturist at this time of tTie 
year. 

The variety selected was Livingstone's 
'ilobe. The seed was sown the begin- 
ning of Etecember. The plants were 
planted in fruiting hou.ses 'in February, 
and ripe fruit was gathered in quantity 
by the end of April. I had forty-two hun- 
dred plants planted in five houses. From 
these I sold thirty-five thousand pounds 
of fruit. This gives an average of eight 
and one-third f)Ounds f>er plant. The 
plant.s were planted at an average dis- 
tance of two feet apart. This gave a 
fairly good return per square foot of 
ground. 

The method of growing was as fol- 
lows : Seed was sown in flats in a tem- 
jKirature of from sixty to sixty-five de- 
grees, covered until the seed had ger- 
minated, and then transplanted toa light, 
sunny position to develop into strong, 
stocky plants ; as soon as large enough 
they were potted into three and a half 
inch pots, and kept growing rapidly, but 
with plenty of light and air until about 
two weeks before planting out, when 
they were transferred to a cooler temper- 



ature to make the plants good and hardy. 
I find they do not flag when planted and 
start off much more quickly when given 
this treatment. I planted in the row at a 
distance of two feet between rows, as 
follows : The first two rows at a dis- 
tance of one and a half feet, then a space 
left qf two and a half feet, then two 
more rows of one and a half feet, and 
so on. This gave an average of two feet 
for each plant. The two and a half 
feet between each two rows, made it 
much easier to get along each row, to 
trim, tie and to gather the fruit. In 
training the plants a wire was stretched 
over each row right along the houses, 
eight feet from the ground. A cane was 
placed to each plant, and then made fast 
to the wire overhead. The plants were 
tied to this as they needed it, which 
kept them in position, and also present- 
ed a very neat appearance. In trimming 
out some of the foliage I never cut out 
more than was absolutely necessary, and 
then always the entire leaf. Cutting a 
leaf only half back tends to make that 
leaf sprout again. That is only wasted 
energy on the part of the plant. Another 
method which I pursued, which I know 
does not find favor with many growers, 
was tp train two stems to each plant. 



Als» I never used 
stable manure or 
any manure at all 
when preparilngthc 
ground but gave 
fertilizers after five 
to six trusses of 
fruit had set. 1 
find this makes 
shorter jointed 
plants and the 
fruit sets more 
freely. 

The only fault 
to find with Liv- 
ingstone's Globe, 
if there is a fault 
to Ix; found with it, is that it is thin-skin- 
ned and liable to crack under certain 
conditions. One reason for cracking is 
shutting down with a lot of moisture in 
the houses. I found it much more pro- 
fitable to keep a little steam going and 
the ventilators open a little all night. 



Success With Garden Annuals 

p. D. Powe, CainsTille, Ont. 

Good seed is a prime essential in at- 
taining success with any class of plants. 

Nothing but the best seed is cheap in 
the end. Cheap seed as sold by some 
firms, is nearly useless. It is apt to be 
largely the left over stock of former 
years or seed that has been bought from 
a grower who having allowed his stock 
to degenerate, is forced to sell it ch^ap 
in order to procure a market. No re- 
liable firm sells cheap seed, or will han- 
dle it under any consiideration. Mo.st 
firms demand that growers send them 
samples of their seed, which they then 
put through the most rigid tests. 
Though seed may be procured from 
many of the general stores we would 
advise its purchase from some reliable 
seed company, as by so doing you can 
get your own choice of seed and not be 
bound down to a small assortment. 

Before beginning to plant assort your 
seed into two classes, namely, those for 
starting in house, hotbed or cold frame, 
and the seed that succeeds best when 
planted out of doors. As many of our 
best annuals cannot be started with suc- 
cess, except in a hot or cold frame, that 
may be said to be the most commonly 
used rhethod. First obtain a shallow 
box (such as baddies come in) from your 
grocer. These usually cost five cents 
each. If these are not obtainable, any 
box about two and one-half inches deep 
by about twenty-four inches long, and 
fifteen inches wide, will do. These boxes 
are known to the florist as flats. 

In the bottom of this box place an 
Inch of coarse soil and place on top of 
this an inch of rich soil mixed with one- 
fifth sand. Level the soil with a piece 
of lath or other smooth wood, and you 
will then be ready to sow. 



THE r'ANADTAN FTO TJ T T C TT L T I ' R T S T 



February, 1914 



The Canadian Horticulturist 

COMBINED WITH 

THE CANADIAN HORTICULTURIST 
AND BEEKEEPER 

With which ha« been Incorporated 

The Canadian Bee Journal. 

Publiihed hr Ths Horticultural 

Pubjiihinc Company, Limited 

I^KTICRBORO, ONTARIO 

The Only Magazine* in Their Field in the 

Dominion 

Okkicial Organs ok the Ontario and Quebec 

Fru:t Growers' Associations 

AND of The Ontario Beekeepers' Association 

H. Bronson Cowan Managing Director 



^ EDITORIAL 



UNITED STATES RERESBNTATIVES 

STOOKWELL'S SPECdAIi AGENCY 
Chicago Offlce— People's GtaB Building. 
New York Offlce— 286 5th ATemue. 



1. The Canadian Horticulturist ia published in 
two editions on the 2Sth day of the month pre- 
ceding date of issue. The flrst edition is known 
ae The Canadian Horticulturist. It is devoted 
exclusively to the horticultural interests of 
Canada. The- second edition is known as The 
Cana^lian Horticulturist and Beekeeper. In this 
edition several pages of matter appearing In the 
first issue are replaced by an equal number of 
pages of matter relating to the bee-keeping In- 
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2. Suhswription price of The Canadian Horti- 
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3. Remittances should be made by Poet Office 
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CIRCULATION STATEMENT 
The following is a sworn statement of the net 
paid circulation of The Canadian Horticulturist 
for the year ending with December, 1911. The 
figures given are exclusive of samples and spoiled 
copies. Most months, including the sample cop- 
ies, from 13,000 to 15,000 copies of The Canadian 
Horticulturist are mailed to people known to 
be interested in the growing of fruits, flowers 
or vegetables. 

January, 1913 ...11,570 August, 1913 12,675 

February. 1913 ...11,560 September, 1913 ...13.729 

March, 1913 11,209 October, 1913 13.778 

April, 1913 11,970 November. 1913 ...12.967 

May, 1913 12.368 December. 1913 ...13,253 

June, 1913 12.618 

July. 1913 12.626 Total 150,293 

Average each issue In IM7, S.W 

■' 1908. s.ms 

• 1909. 8.970 

" 1910, 9.067 

' ' 1911. 9,541 

" ' 1912.11.037 

1913. 12,524 

8wom detailed statements will be mailed 
upon application. 

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We gTiarantee that every advertiser in this 
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the advertising columns of The Canadian Hor- 
ticulturist are as carefully editerl as the read- 
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we turn away all unscrupulous advertisers. 
Should any advertiser herein deal dishonestly 
with an.v subecriber, we will make good the 
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Oommunlcations should be addreesed 

THE CANADIAN HORTICULTUEiST, 

PETEEBOBO. ONT 



SPRAYING 

The successful fruit growers and well- 
known authorities on spraying, who have 
contributed articles on spraying to this is- 
sue of The Canadian Horticulturist, are 
agreed that two essentials to success involve 
the thorough spraying of all parts of the 
tree, at exactly the right time. Only within 
the past few years have many even of our 
leading growers, been led to appreciate 
the importance of these two points. Com- 
mercial spraying is still a sufficiently new 
operation in orchard practice to leave no 
reason for wonder. 

The experience of growers in many sec- 
tions of the country has now demonstrated 
to a certainty that im the great majority of 
cases where spraying operations have ap- 
parently proved to be a failure.that the work 
was either not done withsufiicientthorough- 
ness, or at the right moment. Where an 
unsprayed portion of a tree is left it be- 
comes a breeding place for insects and a 
seeding ground for fungus diseases, and 
lea.ds to much of the work of the grower 
being lost. There are mainy other factors, 
such as the proper preparation of the fluids 
and the use of suitable appliances, that 
must be attended to if success is desired, 
but these are points that generally are 
watched more carefully than the two al- 
ready specified. 

A wise man once said that "Wisdom con- 
sists in knowing what to do next, and doing 
it." Our fniit growers will profit if they 
act on this suggestion. Prepare now for 
the approaching spraying season by seeing 
that everything necessary for the success 
of the work is ordered in time to ensure 
your being able to attend to it without de- 
lay and with the proper degree of thorough- 
ness, when the season for spraying ar- 
rives. 

ONTARIO FRUIT 

Three boxes of Baldwin apples, shown re- 
cently in an open competition at the exhi- 
bition of the New York Horticultural Asso- 
ciation, held recently in Rochester, N.Y., 
added to the already high reputation for 
quality held by Ontario fruit by winnuig the 
sweepstakes prize. This victory, together 
with the premier honors that were captured 
by Ontario fruit last fall in the competi- 
tion open to the continent held in Cleve- 
land, Ohio, and later at the Land Exhibi- 
tion, in Winnipeg, where Ontario fruit cap- 
tured first and second prizes, should prove 
a source of encouragement to Ontario fruit 
.trrowers. 

During the past few years we have heard 
much criticism of the poor quality and poor 
packing of a large portion of the fruit crop 
of Ontario. The fruit that has been sent 
to the western provinces, where it has met 
the competition of the British Columbia and 
Pacific Coast States' products, has been 
criticized with especial severity. Much of 
this criticism has been deserved. It has 
been beneficial inasmuch as it has drawn 
the attention of Ontario fruit growers to the 
need for improvement. The critics for the 
most part have been friends who have de- 
sired to see Ontario fruit maintain its repu- 
tation in competitive markets. 

Speaking generally, the Ontario fru-; 
grower is just as capable, and just as .%;11- 
ing to make improvements as the fruit 
grower of any other section. The rouble 
lies in the fact that he is faced by condi- 



tions that fruit growers in the newer fruit 
districts of the west do not have to meet. 
In the west the orchards are mostly nev; 
and it has been possible for the grower to 
introduce modern methods of culture, pack- 
ing and marketing with a minimum of op- 
position. In the east the orchards are 
mostly old and fruit growers are burdened 
with practices that are relics of the past 
but which are none the less difficult to set 
aside on that account. 

In the east the barrel pack has been popu- 
lar for years. There has been a steady de- 
mand for this package. This has encour- 
aged methods of buying which have en- 
abled growers to dispose of their crops in 
bulk, and thus has made it difficult for them 
to appreciate the importance of following 
modern methods of orchard practice. We 
agree with the critics that the time has 
come for a change. We are inclined to 
think, however, that we may possibly de- 
vote a little less criticism to the grower and 
possibly more elsewhere. 

An examination, for instance, of the as- 
sistance given by the Department of Agri- 
cullure in British Columbia to the fruit 
growers of that province, and of the work 
being done by the Ontario Department of 
.Agriculture, would not prove compliment- 
ary to the latter. In British Columbia, for 
instance, compulsory spraying has been fol- 
lowed for some years. The mere sugges- 
gestion of introducing such a measure in 
Ontario would be likely to strike conster- 
nation to the heart of the Ontario Minister 
of Agriculture. Yet the time has come 
when a move along this line is required. 
Some years ago it was felt that it was im- 
practical to require the sanitary inspection 
of cheese factories and creameries. It was 
anticipated that the opposition to such a 
movement would be pronounced and influ- 
ential. Yet such a measure was enacted 
and has been successfully enforced with a 
minimum of opposition and with results 
that have been a benefit to the industry. We 
believe that the time is ripe for the Minis- 
ter of Agriculture of Ontario to have legis- 
lation enacted which will give his depart- 
ment power to enforce compulsor>' spraying 
in the leading fruit districts at least of the 
province. This would protect the largest 
and best fruit growers and ensure a great 
improvement in the quality of a large pro- 
portion of the apple pack of the province. 
Later the principle could be extended to 
other districts as conditions permitted. 

The British Columbia Department of Ag- 
riculture has a much stronger staff in its 
horticultural division than is the case ir 
Ontario. On the whole it is showing more 
leadership. By its example it is doing much 
to encourage and inspire the fruit grower? 
of that province. The Minister of Agri- 
culture for Ontario has made several for- 
ward moves of late, but should make more. 
Additional assistance should be given to the 
horticultural division of his department, and 
it should be permitted and encouraged tc 
show more leadership. A portion of all the 
criticism of the fruit growing industry oi 
Ontario may properly be laid at the dooi 
of the Ontario Department of .\griculture. 
.\ forward move on its part will meet with e 
ready response from the fruit growers. 



February is a month when many of the 
good resolutions that we made last fall ir 
regard to the garden we are going to have 
this year, will be broken if we are not or 
our guard. By starting many of our plant; 
indoors now we will obtain a start that wil 
do much to help and encourage us durinji 
the late spring and early summer months 
Don't let this opportunity slip and later re 
gret your negligence. 



February, 1914 



THE CANADIAN HOETICULTURIST 



39 




Our front cover illustration shows a 
scene in the orchard of Mr. J. C. Harris, 
of Injfersoll, Ontario. Mr. Harris controls 
a number of orchards, in which he uses 
six power sprayers of the type shown. 

* * * 

This is the Third Annual Sprayingf Num- 
ber of The Canadian Horticulturist. We 
have made an effort to fill it with informa- 
tion by well-known authorities that will be 
of practical value to our readers. We feel 
sure that you will like it. Year by year 
these special numbers have prown in popu- 
lar favor. In this issue no less than four- 
teen firms are advertising: spraying: ma- 
chinerj', in which they believe our readers 
should be interested. Thus our advertis- 
inif, as well as our reading: columns, con- 
tain much helpful information. We have 
other reasons for being: pleased with this 
issue, inasmuch as it exceeds all previous 
issues of The Canadian Horticulturist, 
both in the volume of advertising' carried 
and in its paid circulation. No better evi- 
dence of the popularity of a paper can be 
furnished than the fact that both its sub- 
scribers and advertisers continue their 
support from year to year in an increas- 
ing' measure. 

* » * 

Some of our readers who looked at the 
circulation statement published on the edi- 
torial pag:e in our January issue, which 
showed an averag:e circulation during- €he 
year 1913 of 12,002, _and at the statement 
which appears in this issue revealing- an 
averajfe circulation of 12,524, may be mys- 
tified by the apparent contradiction. Both 
statements are correct. The statement pub- 
lished last month showed the averag-e cir- 
culation last year of the first edition only 
of The Canadian Horticulturist. La,st May, 
as we announced at the time, we com- 
menced the publication of a second edi- 
tion of The Canadian Horticultiurist, 
which is known as The Canadian Horti- 
culturist and Be-ekeeper. The two papers 
are practically one and the same, the se- 
cond edition differing: from the first only 
in its front cover and in a few pages of 
reading matter. This month, therefore, 
we decided to show the average circulation 
for last year of both editions. This repre- 
s<-nts an increase in average circulation 
during 191.3 over 1912 of 1,500. This is the 
largest increase we have ever show-n in one 
year. Naturally we are pleased to be able 
to report it. 

* » * 

The March issue of The Canadian Hor- 
ticulturist will contain some features of 
special interest. The introductory article 
will be by a British Columbia contributor. 
It will expose the misleading statements 
issued by land agents in regard to the 
possible profits of fruit growing in that 
province, and will! show what intending 
purchasers of British Columbia fruit land 
may reasonably expect to realize therefrom. 
There will be a special article in the floral 
department by Mr. H. J. Moore, of Queen 
Victoria Park, Niagara Falls, and an in- 
teresting, well illustrated description of a 
beautiful London, Ontario, garden. A 

western contributor will have an illustrat- 
ed article in the vegetabYe department. 
The issue all through will be especially 
helpful. Our readers will appreciate it. 
» • » 

Watch for our Spring Gardening and 
Planting Number in .\pril. The front cover 
'>f this issue will show one of the finest 



gardening scenes ever reproduced in The 
Canadian Horticulturist. It will be the 
best gardening number of the year. 
» » * 

Advertisers desiring space in the March 
and April issues should make application 
at as early a date as possible to ensure a 
service which we may not be able to give 
them if they are late in forwarding their 
copy and instructions. 



SOCIETY NOTES 



Hamilton 

The Hamilton Horticultural Society has 
elected for its president, Mr. J. W. Jones, 
and for its secretary, Mrs. Ada L. Potts. 
It w-as Mrs. Potts who delivered the in- 
teresting address on "School Children and 
Horticulture" at the recent annual con- 
vention of the Ontario Horticultural As- 
sociation. Two flower shows held by this 
society last year were the most successful 
ever conducted in the city. Several help- 
ful lectures were also given during 1913. 

In tendering his resignation from the 
office of secretary-treasurer, Mr. McCul- 
loch presented to the society three hand- 
some medals, neatly engraved, and said 
that the medals might be given as prizes 
in some of the competitions. Then, on be- 
half of the society. President Jones gave 
the retiring secretary-treasurer a medal 
which has been in the possession of the 
society since 1862. The medal, which is 
engraved in curious figures, -was presented 
to the Hamilton Society by the Royal Hor- 
ticultural Society of Canada. 

Ottawa 

The Ottawa Horticultural Society has ar- 
ranged a programme of meetings, which 
promise to prove particularly helpful and 
interesting. These meetings are schedul- 



ed for every two weeks during January, 
February, March, and April. They will be 
held in the Carnegie Library. Each ad- 
dress will be accompanied with practical 
demonstrations of how the points touched 
on in the address should be carried out. 
iJifl^erent varieties of flowers will be dealt 
with at the different meetings. It is be- 
lieved that better results will be obtained 
by holdin'^- more meetings during the win- 
ter months when by holding one meeting a 
month and continuing the meetings dur- 
ing the summer. Officers of societies 
might write to Mr. J. F. Watson, 19 James 
Street, Ottawa, for a copy of the programme 
of these meetings. 

St. Catharines 

The St. Catharines Horticultural Society 
is mow coming into its own. The Society, 
which has a membership of seven hundred 
and fifty, has really made St. Catharines 
the beautiful city that it is. It has been 
a large struggle to bring the society to its 
present splendid standing but the result 
is well worth the effort. 

The last Fruit and Flower Show- was 
the most successful in the history of the 
organization. The members feel much en- 
couraged by the splendid support received 
from the fruit growers of the district. 
Special attention was paid to the children 
who exhibited in classes for asters, ar- 
rangement of flowers, the decoration of 
dolls' carriages and small tables. 

It has been the policy of the Society to 
distribute asters and sweet pea seed among 
the children but last year the sweet peas 
were dropped. Nearly six thousand glad- 
ioli bulbs were sold to the youngsters at 
five for four cents. For each gladiolus 
bloom produced they receive from the So- 
ciety four tulip bulbs. Increased interest 
is being taken in the work carried on by 
the Society at the public schools. The 
young folks of St. Catharines are receiv- 
ing a training that will count for much in 
future years. 



Nova Scotia Fruit Growers' Convention 



THE fiftieth anniversary meeting of this 
association met at Kentville, January 
20-23, and was marked by a record 
attendance and deep interest in the 
discussion of problems confronting the fruit 
growers of the province. 

The opening meeting was held on Tues- 
day evening and was addressed by the 
Premier, Hon. P. H. Murray. The people 
of Kentville also put on a splendid musi- 
cal entertainment. Wednesday was devoted 
chiefly to a discussion of the greatest ene- 
my of the fruit growers of the province 
the Black Spot or scab of the apple. 

Prof. Caesar, of Guelph, set the ball 
rolling and didn't leave it until those pre- 
sent knew all about its life history, condi- 
tions of devcloijment and control. 

The ijrincipal points brought out in the 
address will be published in The Canadian 
Horticulturist. 

/ SPRAYING PAYS 

The experience of some of the best fruit 
growers in the province was given. These 
showed that thorough spraying pays a biir 
dividend on the expense of application, 
even in a year like this when many are in 
doubt whether or not spraying is efficient. 

Mr. J. M. Robinson, of the Experiment 
Station, Kentville, gave tabulated results 
of spraying experiments in three orchards 
in the Valley. In brief these experiments 
showed that commercial lime sulphur gave 
better results than the home boiled, that 
lime sulfur is preferable to Bordeaux, and 
that the difference between sprayed and un- 



sprayed fruit per acre gave a gain in favor 
of the sprayed fruit of over one hundred 
dollars an acre. 

A very able address on cooperation and 
one which should be published all over the 
Dominion, was given by A. E. Adams, of 
the United Fruit Companies of Nova Scotia. 
He went into history, and showed how co- 
operative organizations had benefited such 
countries as Denmark, England and Ger- 
many, and then took up the work and aims 
of the United Fruit Companies. This or- 
ganization bids fair to become one of the 
strongest factors in the progress of our 
province industrially and agriculturally. Al- 
ready, by scientific marketing and cutting 
down expenses of shipping, thousands of 
dollars had been saved to the farmers, and 
not only had money been saved in the sell- 
ing- but also in the buying of supplies. The 
organization was becoming stronger every 
day. 

APPLE APRIDS 

Prof. Brittain, of Nova Scotia Agricul- 
tui-al College, gave an instructive talk on 
the apple aphids and their control. He 
recommended adding to the ordinary spray 
mixture Black Leaf 40, a mixture prepara- 
tion on the market, and spraying after the 
young aphis have hatched out. Because we 
are able to put Black Leaf 40 in with the 
spray we use for scab, and so forth, it is, 
therefore, better than the emulsions which 
have to be sprayed by themselves. 

Dominion Entomologist Saunders told of 
(Continued on page 54) 



40 THE CANADIAN HORTICULTURIST February. 1914 

>illlllllllllllllllllinilinilllllllilllllMIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIMIIMIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIII|||||||||MIIIMIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIMIIIII^ 




NIAGARA 



THE 



MARK PEGl 



-,ist«^^ 



Sprays of Quality 

HIGHEST IN STRENGTH 

ALWAYS UNIFORM 

FAMOUS FOR RESULTS 

RELIABLE OLDEST AND iBEST 

ALWAYS READY TO USE 



NIAGARA SOLUBLE SULPHUR 

(Patented in United States and Canada) 

THE MOST TALKED-OF SPRAY IN AMERICA 

A Sulphur Spray in Powder Form. Dissolves immediately in water. No sediment. .^ positive Fungicide and Insecti- 
cide. Worl<s quiclter and better than Solution. It does all the work of Lime-Sulphur and has the following- advan- 
tages : Is cheaper — Easieir to handle—No leakage — Keeps indefiniteiy^Saves freight and storage. 100 lbs. of Sol- 
uble Sulphur will make more spray than a 600-lb. barrel of Solution. Soluble Sulphur was used by hundreds of g^rowers 
in Ontario in 1913 with excellent results. Those who experimented last year will use it entirely this year. 

More Soluble Sulphur will be used this year than the combined output of all Lime-Sulphur factories. 

Remember this material can only be procured from us. Last year we were forced to disappoint many growers. Our 
supply is limited again. Order at once so as to be sure of being: supplied. We will be pleased to send additional in- 
formation about this great spray. Write for it. 

DON'T PAY FREIGHT ON WATER 

ARSENATE OF LEAD 

SWIFT'S BRAND — The highest grade of .Arsenate of Lead in the world. Will not burn foliage. Mixes easiest and 
stays mixed. Sticks best and kills best. 15% Arsenic oxide. Guaranteed. When you use Swift's you don't lose that 
half-hour dissolving your lead every time you fill your tank. You don't find that dark sediment in your tank, either. 
You can buy cheaper brands, but you cannot buy any Lead as good. SWIFT'S is the STAND.ARD. 

NIAGARA LIME SULPHUR 

The Pioneer Sulphur spray — Oldest and most reliable Solution made. Highest in Beaume test — Absolutely clean and 
uniform . 

Because of the success of NIAGARA we have had many imitations. Get the original. 

WHERE EVER FRUIT EXCELS NIAGARA SPRAY IS USED 

NIAGARA BRAND SPRAY CO. Ltd. 

BURLINGTON, ONTARIO 



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February, I9I4 THE CANADIAN HO E T I C U L T U R I S T 4' 

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SPRAY PUMPS 

THAT GIVE 

CAPACITY HIGH PRESSURE SIMPLICITY EFFICIENCY 

DURABILITY LOW COST OF MAINTENANCE 




POWER PUMPS 



BEAN DUPLEX POWER OUTFIT— 2 cylinders— Operates with IVi, 2'/^ or 3% h.p. engine— Capacity : 6 to 7 gallons per minute— Pree- 
Bure: 200 to 250 Ibe. The perfect sprayer- 

BEAN GIANT POWER OUTFIT— 3 cylinders— Large ca paoity— Will supply four lines of hose— Operates with iVi or Sy^ h.p' engine- 
Host powerful sprayer made. 

NIAGARA POWER OUTFIT— 3 cylinders— Capacity : 6 to 7 gallons per minute— High pressure— Light and very compact— ZVi to 5% 
h.p. engine, 

BEAN MIDGET POWER OUTFIT— The one man outfit— Operates with 1% h.p. engine — Pressure: 175 to 200 lbs- — Best light power 
sprayer ever made. 

These power sprayers have many exclusive features. All have porcelain-lined oyUnders, so are proof against the chemical action 
of corrosive sprays. Valvee are large and very accessible. No threaded joints. No stuffing box packings to leak. Direct connected. 
No bolts or connecting rods. 

PATENT PRESSURE REGULATOR— The greatest invention ever put on a power sprayer. Maintains a uniform pressure whether 
nozzles are turned on or off. Saves one-third the gasoline and the same proportion of wear and tear. With this regulator the engine 
can be started as easily against full pressure in the pump as it can when there is no pressure. 

This pressure regulator is the simplest, safest and most efficient and dependable pressure controlling appliance on the market. It 
eUminates 90% of the troubles so common in other power sprayers. 

HAND PUMPS 

MAGIC NO. 9— Largest hand pump made— Oan be easily operated by one man at a pressure of 140 lbs.— Convertible into a power 
sprayer 

LITTLE GIANT NO. 70— The most powerfu' barrel sprayer on the market. High pressure. 

THE PIPPIN NO, 50— Barrel pump— Made for smaller orchards. 

Write for our new complete catalogue No. 29, which illu stratee and describee in detail all our equipment. 

We would like to refer you to our thousands of eatisfled customers. We have no dissatisfied ones. If you need a pump of any 
kind it will pay you to investigate the BEAN. 

WHERE PROFITS ARE THE BIGGEST, THESE POWER PUMPS ARE USED 

NIAGARA BRAND SPRAY CO. Ltd. 

BURLINGTON, ONTARIO 



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42 



THE CANADIAN HORTICULTURIST 



Februai f, 191 4 



Ontario and the Northwest Market 

E. F. Palmer, Ontario Fruit Branch, Toronto, Ont. 



F Ontario is to retain a fair portion of the 

I northwest market, apple growing must be 
made a business. During the past 
year Ontario has shown that she can pro- 
duce just as good fruit in every respect as 
British Columbia. The Canada Land and 
.-\pple Show is evidence of this statement, 
whore Ontario carried off first and second 
prizes in the competition in apples, while 
British Columbia came third. We can pro- 
duce the fruit but we have got to advertise 
it. Ontario should have fruit at every large 
exhibition throughout the northwest, not 
just one or two. British Columbia spends 
ten dollars annually advertising her fruit 
where Ontario spends one. What are we 
doing to advertise ours? 

.-Mready Ontario has lost much of the 
Northwest fruit market. Why? Because of 
our iwlicy, or rather lack of policy, in send- 
ing to this valuable market too much 
poorly packed, poorly colored and poor- 
ly graded fruit. We have made no effort to 
retain or extend our market there, but rath- 
er the reverse. -Xnd the expected is hap- 
pening. Western grown fruit is forcing On- 
tario out of market after market, for the 
western growers realize the importance of 
this Northwest market, and they are extend- 
ing it by puttiing up good fruit in good 
packages, and by judicious advertising. 

What has Ontario done to advertise her 
apples in the morthwest .'' Little, but try"- 
ing to see how much poor fruit she can 
send without the fruit inspectors detecting 
it. There is much good Ontario fruit, too, 
of course, but there is enough, and more 
than enough poorly packed and poorly 
graded fruit to give all Onitario stuff a 



black eye. Only in few cases is fruit being 
put up that will successfully compete with 
fruit from British Columbia and the west- 
ern states. .'\nd what encouragement is 
there for a few to put up an honest pack 
when they have to sell their fruit in the face 
of an existing prejudice ? Just this — that, 
while Ontario fruit as a whole has a bad 
name, and will have until better cultural and 
packing methods are more generally used, 
yet those who are putting their fruit up as 
•veil packed and graded as western fruit, 
are receiving prices that more than pay 
them for their extra trouble. They are 
selling to dealers, however, who know their 
pack and who therefore have confidence in 
them. Mow much confidence have western 
fruit dealers in the average Ontario pack 
that goes to the west ? 

NOT IMl'UOVI.V(i 

I have said that we have made no effort 
to extend or evem retain our share of the 
northwest market — no continued effort. We 
have done even less. We have persisted in 
sending poor grade fruit, while our western 
competitors have improved their grade and 
increased their advertising year by year. 

It is now time for someone to say that 
western fruit hasn't the (|uality of Ontario 
fruit. I hear that statement wherever I go, 
and I hate to hear it, not because I am 
originally from British Columbia, but be- 
cause it sounds too much like trying to jus- 
tify poor grading and packing. But why 
avoid the real issue by harping on quality? 
We are losing this market, and it is poor 
methods that are losing it. Extra quality 
of fruit alone will not save us. The past 
has proved that. How much is there in this 



"superior" quality anyway.' Thk>«e who are 
in the habit of comparing an Ontario Snow 
and a British Columbia Snow, an Ontario 
Mcintosh and a British Columbia Mcin- 
tosh, just for a change compare a British 
Columbia Jonathan and an Ontario Jona- 
than, a British Columbia Spitzenberg and 
an Ontario Spitzenberg, a British Columbia 
Yellow Newtown and an Ontario N<*wtown. 

I>OI.VT» T<l XOTK 

Further it must be icmembered that the 
-Northwest is a market of comparatively low- 
grade fruit. The west has not shipped her 
fancy varieties there in any quantity but 
has sent such varieties as Ben Davis and 
Rome Beauty. .Also the average age of the 
orchards in British Columbia is only nine 
or ten years, and everyone knows that fruit 
from young trees is not as high quality a!> 
from mature orchards. Much, too, of west- 
tern fruit has in the past been over-irrigat- 
ed. This produces poorer quality, poorer 
keeping fruit. However, these poor quality 
varieties of apples, and apples from young 
orchards, have been compared by the north- 
west people, many of whom are from On- 
tario, to high quality varieties as King, 
Spy and Russet, from mature Ontario or- 
chards. Hemce largeh- the impression that 
western fruit is of inferior quality. 

I.n.SIXG THl': -M.VKKKT 

However, if we have better quality fruit, 
that doesn't alter the fact that the north- 
west market is slipping away from us. For 
in addition to poor grading, we have not 
the color nor the pack, nor the attractive- 
nes of package of our western competitors. 
That is, as a general rule, our apples are 
inferior to western apples in color and at- 
tractiveness of pack. The exhibitions in 
which there has been a chance to compare 
fruit from the two provinces have proved 
that Ontario can produce just as good fruit 



No. 28 



Planet Jr 
Combined 
Hill and Drill Seed- 
er, Wheel Hoe, 
Cultivator, 
Rake and 
Plow 



The newest and most 
accurate Planet Jr seeder. 
Sows all garden seeds in 
hills or drills, opens the 
furrow, covers, rolls down, 
and marks next row all at 
once, lias steel frame and 
bandies, and complete set 

of attncliments. Light enoueh 

for woman's use. 



Scientific Cultivation 

Getaway from Useless drudgery and 
old-time wasteful cultivating methods in 
your family garden and on your farm. 
Use the Planet Jr and do the work of 3 to 
6 men better, quicker, cheaper. Planet 
Jrs are light, strong, lasting. $2 to $100. 
Ful ly guaranteed. 

■t'Uirir Our new 72-paBe illustrated catalogue of 60 
^ •^■-•'-i implements for all farm and garden uses. 
Write postal today, 

S L ALLEN & CO 

Box 1106G PiUladelpliIa 

Write !or llie name ol our nearest ageocr 



Planet Jr 
Combined 
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Hoe, Culti- 
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^^^^^ ^_ Wnle lor Ibe name ol our nearest ageocr B^p 

Planet Jr. 



A capital implement for 
large-scale gardening es- 

fiecially. It has a steel 
rame. and complete seed- 
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ments. The hoes run close 
to row without danger to 
leaves or roots. , 
Two acres a day can be 
worked with this tool. 



Planet Jr 12-tooth 
Harrow, Cultivator 
and 
Pulverizer 



N. 



30 1 Planet Jr Single 



I Wheel Hoe, 
Cultivator, Plow, 
Rake and 
Marker 



[7J—J^ Planet Jr Horse 
I I Hoe, Culti- 



vator, and Hiller 






An invaluable tool in tlie niarket-crarden, 
truck and strawberry patches. lias new 
steel wheel which prevents clogging. Its 
12 chisel-shaped teeth cut out all weeds, stir 
and mellow the soil and leave the ground in 
the finest condition without throwing dirt 
plants. 



A new Planet Jr Single Wheel Hoe thnt 
is light, strong and practically indestructible 
— the frame and handles are steel. It is 
completfly equipped for plowing, hoeing, 
cultivatine. and raking. The marking at- 
tachment insures rapid, economical wheel- 
jioeing. 



Does more and better work than any other 
horse-hoe ever invented. It is light and 
easily handled, yet unusually strong. Has 
new steel wheel which prevents clogging 
with trash. Quickly adjusted to rows up to 
3M feet apart. Vine-turner attachment is 
great for many crops at last workin.g3;_ 



February, 1914 



THE CANADIAN HORTICULTURIST 



43 



in every respect as British Columbia. But 
we are not producing or packing the quan- 
tity of good fruit that British Columbia is. 
To retain a fair part of the northwest mar- 
ket we have got to put up a higher grade 
of fruit in a better package than the bar- 
rel. For what quality is it that sells am 
article? Its appearance? In the majority 
of cases, yes. Thus it is the color of the 
fruit, the perfect grading and the appear- 
ance of the package that are the main fac- 
tors in selling western grown fruit. Further, 
people have come to know that they can 
rely on fruit from the west. They know 
that when they buy a box of apples from 
British Columbia or the western states that 
the fruit will be practically the same 
throughout the box. It is honestly packed. 
If it is marked No. 1 it really is No. 1. If 
they could rely on Ontario fruit the same 
way it would meam thousands of dollars to 
the apple growers of this province. 

It is said that Ontario fruit is preferred 
in the northwest on account of better dessert 
and cooking quality. It is preferred, but it 
does not sell fruit because of the several 
reasons already outlined — appearance of 
fruit, appearance of package, and honesty 
of packing, as compared to western ap- 
ples. 

In the Winnipeg Tribune for November 
29, 1913, western jobbers are quoted as say- 
ing "that the American fruit is the best 
seller because it is better sorted and packed 
and that Ontario can recapture the western 
market and drive out American competitive 
fruits as soon as it standarizes its product 
and overcomes the efFects on the western- 
ers of past carelessness and dishonesty in 
packing." 

WHAT MUST HE DONE 

And so, as I have already intimated, if 

wp r\rc going to build up a market for our 



fruit in the Canadian northwest, we have 
got to produce a higher grade of fruit as to 
color and freedom from blemishes ; we have 
got to put up an honest pack, and we have 
got to use the western package — the box. 
For though a few of the western towns still 
prefer the barrel, amd there will doubtless 
l5e a market for barreled fruit for many 
years to come, yet the box is coming into 
greater favor. It is a handier package and 
— -it has a reputation. The barrel has lost 
its if ever it had one. And further, though 
the day of high prices for box-packed ap- 
ples is probably gone forever, this fact in 
itself brings the box-packed apples in more 
direct competition with barrel-packed fruit. 
The result is that the market for barreled 
fruit will become more and more restricted 
each year and there will be a demand for 
larger and larger quantities of boxed fruit. 
The fact is evident and we must accept it. 

MUST HAVE AN HONEST PACK 

Then as to an honest pack. We have got 
to produce it, that's all. We are not com- 
peting with British Columbia until we do. 
We are simply out of the competition. And 
here again the argument is all for the box 
package. Here is an extract from a west- 
ern paper. "Barrels are going out of fash- 
ion. The demand for them is giving place 
to the demand for the boxed product." The 
barrels encourage carelessness in grading 
for quality and size. It has been the pack- 
age not so much of inferior grades of ap- 
ples, as ungraded apples. Let the top and 
the bottom of the barrel be nicely "faced" 
and the space between invites ungraded 
fruit. The box, on the contrary, requires 
close grading for size, as the apples must 
be uniform to pack properly. This close 
grading further insures that all blemished 
fruit will be found and culled out. The box 
then does not encourage improper grading. 



Douglas Gardens 

OAKVILLE, ONT. 

Our Spring 

(1914) 

Planting List 

Is now ready for mailing 
A copy will be sent promptly on application 



Early orders from our list are re- 
spectfully solicited. It is almost cer- 
tain that there will not be sufficient 
plants this year to go around. Early 
orders will save • disappointment. 



The newer Snapdragons (Antirrhin- 
ums) give much satisfaction and they 
should be in all gardens. We shall 
have a limited number of the new 
Silver Pink, which is especially fine. 

Our China Asters and Stocks are 
also of high quality. 



JOHN CAVERS 



Make Your 

Own 
Crop Prices! 




With a Goulds Reli- 
able Sprayer you not 
only increase your 
yield, but you grow 
e. higher grade of 
fruit. Thus you take 
two extra profits— on© on qjiantity and one on quality. 

Spraying i8 uselifle unless It is done effectively. Every 
loaf, every crevice must be saturated with solution. Goulds 
Sprayers apply the mixture in just the right form and quan- 
tity. They are made by experts in the largest exeluaive 
pump factory in America. 



-f==- 



RELIABLE 



The pump, fittings, entire equipment are oonstruoted to 
last, to withstand chemical action. All workinff parts are 
made of bronze. The improvements are new, practical. They 
are the result of countles.s experiments, of the application of 
skill and long experience by trained engineers. Get the beet 
spray outfit to .start with Chenp outfits are time and money 
wasters, more costly in the long run. 

GET FREE SPRAY BOOK 
pages, iUuBtrated, Packed full of facts you want to 

know. Spray formu- 



40 




*** ,^2V.-'-.-.,t;^ 



las, 

how 

ply. 

and 

and 

sort 

use, a 

able 

Write 

THE GOULDS MFG. CO 

l7W.F>IISt..SeicuFalli,N.Y. 
Largest M.-inuf.-icturers of 
Piiinps for Kvery Piirpo^ic 



spray calendar, 

to mix and ap- 

how to prevent 

destro.y insects 

diseases, what 

of sprayers to 

volume of valu- 

informatlon. 

for it to-day. 



For the Land' s Sake 

Use the best Manure 
and get 

GOOD CROPS 

For Nurseries, Fruit Growers 
and Gardeners. 

Sure Growth Compost 

Makes poor land fertile and keeps fertile 
land most productive. 

Supplied by 

S. W. Marchment 

133 Victoria St., TORONTO 

Telephones: Main 2841; Residence, Park 951 
Say you saw this ad. in The Canadian Horticulturist 



44 



THE CANADIAN HORTICULTURIST 



February, 191 4 



■AUTIFUL 

OLD-FASHIONED 

GARDENS 
ofENGLAND 



KELWAY'S famous Hardy 
Herbaceous Plants are modern 
developments of the old English 
favourites. The cottage " Piny 
Rose " has become the Paeony, 
incomparable in form, colour and fra- 
grance. The old-fashioned Larkspur 
has developed into the stately blooms of 
the Delphiniums ; Gaillar- 
dias, Pyrethrums and the 
rest, all serve to bring back 
the charm of the old-world 
English garden. Special 
care is taken in packing 
plants to arrive in Canada 
in good order, and they can 
be relied upon to thrive with 
a minimum of attention. 




Last, and of most importance, Ontario 
a provincp, has ffot to produce a better 
Krade of fruit. Herein lies the most diffi- 
cult problem, for in Ontario the apple or- 
chard is usually a side line to general farm- 
ing. It is umsprayed, unprutied and uncul- 
tivated, for the farmer does not realize its 
money value to him. He sells the fniit foi 
whatever he can get, and every dollar he 
jfets he considers money found. I would 
.Tgain quote the Winnipeg Tribune as fol- 
lows: "The whole trouble lies with the 
Ontario fruit grower. Fundamentally, he is 
not a fruit grower at all, but a mixed farm- 
er, who devotes most of his time to his 
grain and his stock. He neglects the foui 
fundamentals of scientific fruit growing, 
which are judicious pruning, adequate 
spraying, careful thinning and thorough 
cultivation of the orchard ground. Onl> 
when these are attended to can really first 
class fruit be secured. .A man cannot worli 
his farm and neglect his orchard and raist 
good fruit. This is the fundamental faull 
which has brought Ontario fruit into dis- 
repute in the west." 

The farmers of Ontario as a whole have 
got to be taught the value of cultivating 
pruning and spraying. Then, and not un- 
til then, can we look for a general improve- 
ment in the grade of Ontario apples. Th< 
western apple growing districts have th« 
advantage of us in that fruit growing is s 
comparatively new industry there. The? 
are not troubled to nearly the same extend 
with insect pests and fungous diseases 
and in the majority of cases, fruit growins 
is the sole means of livelihood of the ppop1( 
in the fruit growing districts. It is theii 
occupation, their business, and they havi 
irot to make it pay. It is not a side lin< 
to be neglected and the crop sold for wha' 
it will bring. 

PICKLING MKTHODS AT FAfLT 

I believe also that much of Ontario's ap 
pie crop is picked before it is fully mature 
and some after it is over mature. This i; 
partly due to the fact that Ontario grower; 
take all the fruit off the trees at one pick 
ing. Immature and over-ripe fruit has lo^ 
storage and shipping quality. Green imma 
ture fruit is subject to scald, and if ver] 
greon will shrivel in storage, while the sam( 
variety fully matured holds much longer an< 
in better condition. This principle ha; 
been found to hold true for all kinds o 
fruits except pear? and lemons. These an 
apparently the only fruits which are bette: 
when picked before full maturity or ripe 
ness as the term is ordinarily interpreted 
By full maturity is meant full color, witl 
iirm flesh, and the seeds fully grown an< 
colored. It is best, especially with th( 
earlier ripening varieties, to make mon 
than one pickine. selecting each time thi 
fully colored fruits, and allowing the unde 
veloped to remain. The fruit grown on th( 
outer branches develops more rapidly an< 
consequently ripens first. 

FRIENUI.y CRITICISM 

I have had the opportunity recently o 
reading a letter from an Ontario man wh( 
has lately gone to the northwest. He ha: 
made a special study of market conditioni 
there. He writes as follows: 

"I feel keenlv with regard to the mar 
keting of Ontario apples in the west, and ' 
am strongly of the opinion that althougl 
Ontario is rapidly losing that market, ye 
it is not too late, were proper methods o 
holding it adopted. 

"The most serious phase of the quesfioi 
is this : The people of British Columbi; 
are making a rapid advance in the matte: 
of apple nroduction. They are not onb 
packing their apples well, but they are im 
proving- the quality as quickly as possible 



February, 1914 



THE CANADIAN HOETICULTURIST 



45 



"The Hardie Power Sprayers" 

The Sprayer that is Free from Experimental Risks 

OVER 6,000 IN USE 



PLACE 

ORDERS 

EARLY 




SEND 
FOR OUR 
CATALOG 

NOW 



THE HARDIE TRIPLEX 

Known as the " The Sprayer with the Trouble Left Out" used in over 6,000 of the best orchards of America. Many 
have been used for over ten years. They are noted for their Simplicity of Construction, Large Capacity, High 
Pressure, Light Weight and most important of ail. Their Dependability. 

Thousands of the most successful growers say their success is in a large measure due to the reliable and 
effective operation of this machine, which never fails,, and which is always ready to_deliver the spray to the tree 
in large volume and under high pressure. 

HARDIE FEATURES 



SIMPLICITY OF CONSTRUCTION— Obtained by leaving oui 
everything of a compUoat«d and troublesome nature, oaing only 
Buoi construction as long experience has proven beet. 

LIGHTNESS— Obtained by usins hieh carbon pressed steel 
frames such aa ere u.scd under all automobiles, in place of the 
big heavy timbers or heavy soft steel frames. We get tour times 
as much strength with le^'s than one-half the weight. Our 
machine frames only weigh seventy pounds and will carry a 
load ft three tons. This same principle is carried out through 
the entire machiae. 

STRENGTH — Obtained by bearing in mind that anything is 
only as strong as Ite weakest part, by knowing where strength 
l9 neeled and bv using material which will stand the wear and 
tear of high prcesiir© work. 

ACCESSIBILITY— (Get-»t.»bleneB8)— we build our maohinee so 
that you oaji get at any part in a moment. Tou never need) to 
take a " Hardie " to the machine shop if an accident happens. 
You can fljt it generally in the orchard. Any one who has ever 
need a power sprayer knows the importance of Accessibility. 

BIG CAPACITY— Our pumps are properly designed and are 
specially built by "Sprayer Specialists." Wo know the import- 
ance of lots of liqtiid at the nonle and build accordingly. 

HIGH PRESSURE — We use a powerful engine on our machines 
and our pumps are so light running that we get the highest 
pressure. All of our machines are guaranteed to maintain a 
steady, working pressure of 200 pounds. 

FROST PROOF ENGINE— We use the IDEAL Engines. R. E. 
Olds, the Pioneer Gas Engine Builder of America, the R. E. Olds 
of Automobile fame, la at the head of the firm tiat builds them. 
There is no engine Juit as good as the Ideal. It cools with 
water, but it JB carried in such a way that freezing will not 
Injure it. 

STAY-THERE HOSE COUPLINGS — The kind that you can't 
blow off. 



MILO SPRAY ROD— Throws the spray three feet or thirty feet 
as you want. Juat a movement of the thumb does it 

ORCHARD SPECIAL SPRAY HOSE- The hose that has made 
good. 

THREE SIZES OF POWER MACHINES 

The Triplex, shown above. Specifloatlons : 
BED: High Carbon pressed steel. 
TANK: i% in. Bed Cypress. Capacity, 200 gallons. 
PUMP: Three 2-in.cvlinderB; Capacity 6^/2 gallons per minute. 
ENGINE: Full 3 H.P. Water cooler. Magneto ignition. 
TRUCK: Steel wheel "Havana" truck, wheels 28 in. front, 

34 in. rear, % in. x 5 In. tirea. Complete with neck yoke 

and double tree. 
PRICE : Lower than any other machine of like Speciflcatione. 
The Duplex— A smaller machine of the same type. Specifloatlons: 
BED: High Carbon pressed steel. 
TANK: I'/j in. Red Cvprees. Capacity, 150 gallons. 
ENGINE: IVa HP. Water cooler. Magneto ignition. 
PUMP: Two 2-in. cylinders. Capacity 4% gallons per minute. 
TRUCK: Havana Steel truck, front wheels 28 in., rear wheels 

34 in , with % in. x 5 in. tires. Complete with neck yoke 

and double tree. 
PRICE : Lower than any other machine of like Speciflcatione. 
The Hardie Junior— A still smaller machine. Specifioations : 
BED: 4 in. X 4 in. Maple. 

TANK: VA in. Red Cypress. Capacity 100 gallons. 
PUMP: Single Cylinder, double acting. Capacity 3 giallons 

per minute. 
ENGINE: Air cooled 1 H. P. Battery Ignition. 
PRICE: Lowir than any ever put on a practical power 

sprayer. 

The Hardie Hand Pumps— The World's Best. Made almost 
entirely of Brass. So simple a "Boy with a Monkey Wrench" 
can take them apart and put them together again. Made In 
twenty sizes and styles 



Get our catalog and prices before you buy. You will save money, time and trouble by so doing. 
DISTRIBUTORS FOR CANADA 

The Biggs Fruit & Produce Company, Burlington, Ont. 



46 



THE CANADIAN HORTICULTURIST 



February, 191 4 



Imperial Bank 



E>.bii.h«<i OF CANADA 



1875 



Capital Authorized - $10,000,000 
Capital Paid Up - 6.925,000 
Reserve and Undivided 

Profits - - - 8,100.000 

D. R. WIUCIE. Pruidant and Genaral M«iia«*r 



Open a SAVINGS BANK 
ACCOUNT. Deposits of 
$1.00 and upward received 



PAINT WITHOUT OIL 

Remarkable Discovery That Cnti Down the Cott 

of Paint Seventy-Five Per Cent. 

A Free Trial Package la Mailed to Everyone 
Who Writes 

A. L. Kice, a iirominent manufacturer of 
Adams, N. Y., has di»ooveir«d a prooeas of 
making a new kind of paint without the use 
of oil- He calls it Powdrpaint. It oomes in 
tihe form of a dry powder and all that is 
required is oold water to make a paint wea- 
ther proof, fire prcxif and ae durable as oil 
paint. It adheres to any surfaee, wood, 
stone «r brick, spreads and looks like oil 
paint and coste about one-f&urth ae much. 

Write to Mr. A. L. Eice. Manuf'r., 441 North 
St., Adams, N. Y., and he will send you a 
free trial package, also color card and full 
information showing you how you can save 
a good many dollars. Write to-day. 



First-Class Cotninercial Gardeners Wanted 

A few good market garden properties for sale or rent. Locations 
good, prices and terms attractive. Cheap natural gas for green- 
house fuel. Write for details to 

O. PATTERSON FARMER - Jcanncttc's Creek, Ontario 



Beautify and Protect Your Property 



Peerless Ornamental Fencing accomplishes 

two great purposes. It beautifies your premises 

by giving them that symmetrical, pleasing, orderly 

appearance, and it protects them by furnishing rigid, 

effective resistance against marauding animals, etc. 

Peerless Ornamental Fencing IK 

, is made of strong, stiff, galvanized wire that will not ■ |{^ 
sag. In addition to galvanizing, every strand is given ■ 
, a coating oj zinc enamel paint, thus forming the best Jf 
^ possible insurance against rust. Peerless ornamental 
^ fence is made in several styles. It's easy to erect ^, 
^ and holds its shape for years. Mpl'l-iwr, 
Send for free catalog. If interested, ask about our ^RULllll!': 
farm and poultry fencing. Agents nearly every- ^^■■■■■■■■■l.. 
k where. Agents wanted in open territory. ^MlIBIIIIIIII 

R— illliV!'"*''' Hoxie wire Fence Co. Ltd^4»fj»,';s^^,';«,;^f: 

Illlllllllllimilllllinl^J"'""'"^' "•"— Hamillon, Ont^^^pffnijllllllllllllllllllljljlllll 

^limiimiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiijii;: 



■piiWS 



minnf 

iiiiiiii 



THE BEEKEEPERS' REVIEW 

would like very much to enroll a goodly number of new subscribers for the year 1914. 
Listen! Besides the 3,000-colony series managed from one office, we will begin with 
the January number of the REVIEW a series of articles by a beekeeper "grey with 
experience" that we will call the Farmers' Series ; or, How to Produce Comb Honey 
with Two Visits a Year. The editor of the REVIEW has looked into this system quite 
thoroughly, and believes that, with this method that will be described in the RE- 
VIEW during 1914, the busy man or farmer can harvest much more comb honey 
per colony, with about a fourth the work that is required with the ordinary system 
now in vogue. All progressive beekeepers should subscribe for two or three 

good bee journals. We are making a special low price on the REVIEW when club- 
bed with other bee journals. 



To take advan- 
tage of this low 
price ail remit- 
tances should be 

nddreFse-i— 



Here is a /GLEANINGS, one year. $1 00 J B„t,,_ ^„^ yj^r, tor $1.50 



good onelThe REVIEW, one year. $100 
Here f ULEANINfiS. one vear. $1.00 
ia an- \ AMEB. BEE JOUKNAL, ] yr . $100 
other: V The EEVIEW, one year. $100 J 

Extra for Canadian postage: Gleaninga. 30c: American Bee Journal. 10c. 
All three listed above 40c. 



All Three for $2.0fl 



THE BEEKEEPERS' REVIEW 



NORTHSTAH, MICHIGAN 



In that province poor varieties are destroy- 
ed and replaced by better varieties, and al- 
though much is said against the quality of 
Uritish Columbia apples, yet the fact re- 
mains that some of the varieties are almost, 
if not quite as good, as those produced in ' 
Ontario. 

"Then, too, the British Columbia fruit 
grower is becoming very aggressive. The 
bad season of 1912 has caused him to be- 
come almost desperate, and this year great 
efforts were put forth to market their fruit 
more satisfactorily, and I have good reason 
to believe that they have succeeded in doing 
so." 

Canadian Markets* 

Robert Tbonpfon, St. Catbiriaei 

During the past year many of the fruit 
growers have asked the question : If we 
continue to increase our planting as rapidly 
as we have during the last few years, will 
we be able to find markets for the fruit 
grown ? I wish to answer this question 
very emphatically, and say. Yes, if we use 
comrnon sense and business methods in the 
distribution. There are consumers enough 
in Canada to use all the tender fruits that 
can be grown from Toronto around the 
head of the lake and to the Niagara River 
if all the suitable soil were planted. This 
statement may seem pretty strong, but I 
wish to state that it is based on years of 
study given to the distribution of our fruit 
as the president of one of the oldest, larg- 
est and most successful of our cooperative 
fruit growers' associations. If the fruit 
can be placed before the consumer in good 
shape and at reasonable prices there is hard- 
ly any limit to what may be consumed. 

First: Our own Ontario market can be 
doubled, trebled, yes and quadrupled, if 
we go after it. There is hardly a town buV 
what will take at least five tons — ^twice or 
three times each week, if arrangements 
could be made to get the fruit dealers to 
ifet in their supply by freight — the fruit can 
be landed in perfect condition at less than 
half the cost by express, and no pilfered or 
broken baskets. If we continue to depend 
on the express companies to furnish trans- 
portation for us, so long will we have com- 
plaints, dissatisfaction and poor distribu- 
tion. During the past season several of 
the smaller towns have been supplied as I 
suggest, and in every case with satisfaction 
to every one, and the quantity consumed 
was a surprise to the grower. 

Second : The lower provinces also furnish 
.1 ver\' large opening that has never been 
worked to amy great extent. 

Third : The western provinces present an 
enticing field to the grower. We read a 
good deal about Ontario fruit not holding 
its own and that western fruit is gradually 
crowding out the Ontario growers, which if 
half were true, would mean ruin to otu in- 
dustry iti Ontario. Unfortunately a lot of 
writers and others come back from visits 
to the west and hasten to present to the 
public here the tales they have listened to 
told by certain wholesale jobbers who are 
doinir their best to get control of the fruit 
trade of the west, and then rob the public 
>'orse than ever, or to the complaints of 
some few who expect to purchase ^ruit as 
cheaply as in Ontario, or to those who 
have purchased some of the poor fruit that 
is sometimes sent out from here, or who 
have received shipments from Ontario not 
properly packed or loaded, and that has ar- 
■-ived in poor condition. 

* A paper presented at the recent annual 
meeting of the Ontario Fruit Growers' Associa- 
tion 



February, 1914 



THE CANADIAN HORTICULTURIST 



47 



I think I have a right to speak with some 
confidence when I give you this informa- 
tion, viz. : That the St. Catharines Cold 
Storage Company has been giving this 
market special attention for over ten years ; 
that their shipments have increased year 
by year until the past season they sent out 
to the west one hundred and seventy-eight 
car loads containing two thousand four 
hundred and thirty boxes aind forty-four 
thousand four hundred and eighty baskets 
of peaches, ninety-one thousand four hun- 
dred and fifty packages of tomatoes, one 
thousand five hundred and fify boxes and 
fifty-eight thousand two hundred and twen- 
ty baskets of pears, eight hundred and 
sixty boxes and ten thousand three hundred 
baskets of apples, fifty-seven thousand five 
hundred and thirty packages of plums, 
fourteen hundred and sixty baskets of pep- 
pers, twelve hundred baskets of crabs, fif- 
teen hundred amd seventy baskets of quin- 
ces, one hundred and forty-nine thousand 
four hundred packages of grapes, besides 
several hundred baskets each of egg plants, 
onions, cucumbers, beans, melons, black 



Let Me Send You 

My New Big Boar 

Wljy, How and When to Spray" 



E; 



^VERY farmer, truck- or fruit-grower needs this book. It is more than a catalog. 
Contains 74 different illustrations from photographs of insects and plant diseases that 
' rob the grower of his profits. It gives full details as to how to combat these i>ests 
the various remedies which experiment has proven successful and directions as to how 
and when to apply them. The book also contains illustrations, some in colors, of the 
famous HURST SPRAYERS — 28 different styles and sizes — from small hand power outfits to large 
ga,-*oline engine sprayers for field and orchard. It explains in detail the liberal terms on which 
HURST SPRAYERS are sold — 

10 Days FREE Trial -S Year Guarantee 

No Money In Advance— No Freight To Pay 

I will ship you any HURST SPRAYER on 10 days free trial, without one 
cent in advance— no bank deposit — no agreement to keep and pay for 
the machine unless you are thoroughly satisfied. Our liberal selling plan 
gives you your own terms of payment. The sprayer will pay for itself 
in the extra profits of one season. I want to tell you about our 

Mon<"ir'^»vir»<T Off**** This offer goes to the first buyer in each locality 
money OaVing ^rrer ^^^ season. So write today. Tell me what 
size sprayer you need or what you have to spray and get my big tree book and 
raise bigger, better crops, and increase your profit. 

£. H. XjAMTELIj. General ACanag^er 
THE H. L. HURST MFG. CO., 987 North St.. Canton. O. 






Gardening 
By the Sense of Sense 

Or the Reason Why of Garden Boosters 

There are lots of us, who are "put-offs." We put off yester- 
day, what should have been done the day before yesterday. It's 
very human — but very bad for gardening. 




Before expandinir on the actual get Teady phrase, let's 
digress for a moment into the "I-teld-you-so" class. 

The last part of last Winter, you will remember, was Just 
the kind that made you think that "Spring is going to be early 
this year." 

But it wa<^n't. It lagged along until some of lis had to plant 
our garden.s all over again, and others said "what'.s the use 
anyway of trying to have an early garden any more in this 
confounded climate?" 

Along in February we reminded yon that Cold frames or 
Hot beds were the only sure Insuranoe against a late garden. 
We even went so far as to say pretty strongly that yon ought 
to buy some of our frames— even if only ten of tie single plant 
ones for $6.26. 

We endeayored to make It plain to you how. with the help 
^f frames, you eould boost vour garden along anywhere from 



two to BIX weeks. It being entirely up to you which. 

But some of you trusted to luck again. That's why we can 
now say. "I-told-you-so." 

But to the real point; This yeaar you are going to buy frames 
—you made up your mind to that eight months ago. 

This being so, a,s it certainly is so, then the thing for you 
to do is: send .at once for our 'Two P's Booklet which tells you 
about the Pleasure and Profits of Cold Frames and Hot Beds. 
We haye seven different kinds and sizes of these frames or gar- 
den boosters. 

Every one of them ia illustrated, described and priced in that 
boklet. There's several pages of Helpful Hints, and a Planting 
Time Table, both of which you want right handy under one 
cover. 

S?nd tor this Two P's Booklet. Pick out your frames. Order 
them. The only wav to be rendv— Is to sr<>t ready 



LORD AND BURNHAM CO. LTD. OF CANADA 



GREENHOUSE DESIGNERS AND BUILDERS 

TORONTO - 12 QUEEN STREET, E. 

NF.W YORK BOSTON PHII-XI) ELPHIA CHICAGO 

I ■ I .1 . . ■ . II Q i I ■ ~^ m l " I . ' L I i J ii i jm i I ■■I' lw. I . 



ROCHESTER 

U.,1 .1 I ■ g 



THE CANADIAN HOR TTC T' T/n R T ST 



February, 1914 







Market Gardeners 
Make Big Profits 
from Small Acreage 
by Modem Cultivation 
smd Spraying 

If a business doesn't pay there's a reason, 
and the same may be said of a farm. Many 
10 acre market gardens are producing 
greater profits than 150 acre farms simply because modern culti- 
vation and spraying are applied on the former and disregarded on 
the latter. Adopt the spraying policy but, in doing so, seleci 

Sherwin-Williams 

NEW PROCESS ARSENATE OF LEAD 

to effectively exterminate all leaf-eating insect pests. 

This spraying material is used exclusivelv by many of the largest growers and 
societies in the fruit growing districts of the country. These people are busi- 
ness mem as well as fruit growers, and they prefer to use Sherwin-Williams 
New Process .'Xrsenate of Lead because they find it pays them better. 
It is very fine and fluffy in character, so remains well in suspension, making 
a spray, uniform and efficient in poisoning capacity, that covers the largest 
amount of foliage. S-W New Process Arsenate of Lead, is absolutely safe — it 
cannot burn the foliage or russet the fruit, because all the .Arsenic acid is 
thoroughly combined with the Lead. This arsenate can be used with Bordeaux 
Mixture or Lime Sulphur. 

S-W NEW DRY 
ARSENATE OF LEAD 



has all the requisite qualities of a 
good paste lead and the advantage of 
being in dry powder form for dusting 
on garden truck. It mixes readily 
with water or spraying mixtures and 
is somewhat lighter in gravity than 
the paste lead. One pound of the dry 
lead wiU do the work as effectively 
as two pounds of paste lead. This 
enables you to make a saving of prac- 
tically half your freight bill. 
Write for full particulars and prices. 



The Sherwin-Williams Co. 

of Canada, Limited 

MANUFACTURERS OF INSECTICIDES 

Offices and Warehouses ; 

Montreal. Toronto, Winnipeg, Calgary, Vancouver, 

Halifax, N. S., London, Eng. 



ind red currants, cherries and gooseberries, 
making a total of four hundred and twentr- 
three thousand three hundred and twenty 
packages, or very nearly one-third of the 
total shipments from the comoamies' shii 
pers. If Ontario is not holding her ow; 
then all I have to say is that this compai 
is steadily shipping more each year. Thi 
have been selling to the same firms year 
after year, and at the end of each season 
very flattering letters are received from pur- 
chasers of these cars in the west. 

While T say that the west presents a 
great opening for Ontario fruit, and while 
our company has made a great success in 
supplying a portion of their wants, it has 
only been accomplished after years of pat- 
ient watching, studying and learning all 
the ins and outs of the business. This has 
cost, time, money and hard work, and I do 
not wonder, nor am I surprised when I 
hear or read of the many who think all 
they have to do is to have a car of any kind 
of fruit brought in and packed, without any 
experience, in a car and sent west; of 
course it is only by the merest chance that 
such shipments turn out well. 

The only way that shipments to the west 
can be successful is for a mumber of grow- 
ers to arrange to plant the varieties that 
will carry well, to agree in the early part 
of the season that they will pick their fruit 
at the proper stage of ripeness, furnish a 
stated regular supply, have it properly 
packed, placed in good cars promptly that 
have been well cooled and see that these 
cars are loaded so that the fruit will carry 
safely. Tf this is done then all of the Ni- 
agara District will not furnish too much 
fruit. The railways will then give us regu- 
lar or special fruit trains making the trip as 
far as Winnipeg in from three to four days, 
and more rapid and cheaper transportation 
to more western cities and towns. 

The citizens of Ontario could have 
peaches, plums, pears, and so forth, landed 
:>t a cost of from three to five cents a bas- 
ket for freight charges — the quantity con- 
sumed would be so much greater that the 
merchant could handle the fruit at a small- 
er cost per package, and he would not suf- 
fer any loss by delay in sales, nor from the 
pilfering that takes place when shipped by 
express. 

If we had a good fast freight service it 
would mean a revival of the fruit business, 
and we older men would be besieging the 
nursery men for mpre trees to supply our 
Canadian markets. 



An exhibit which attracted favorable at- 
tention at the recent Ontario Horticultural 
Exhibition comprised ten plates of fine ap- 
ples grown by D. W. Wright, of Cashmere, 
State of Washington, U.S. .A. They were 
not entered for competion. The object of 
the exhibit was to show the effect of extra 
care and plenty of water in the production 
of large high colored apples. This exhibit 
was all the more interesting in view of the 
well known reputation of apples grown in 
the State of Washington. The exhibit bore 
out the high reputation of this fruit. One 
Northern Spy apple weighed twenty-six 
ounces. Other varieties included Stay- 
man's Winesap, Winesap, Missouri, Gano, 
Delicious, Winter White Pearmain, Winter 
Banana, Ortley (White Bellflower), .Arkan- 
sas Black. 



1 think it is very important that we 
should have one size in the Dominion for 
apple barrels and that this should be fixed 
by law. — Prof. Saxby Blair, Kings Co., 
N. S. 



•ebrunrv, 1914 • 



THE CANADIAN HOBTICULTURIST 



49 



AT LAST 

JUST THE OUTFIT YOU ARE LOOKING FOR 

The Most Practical, Efficient and Simplest High Pressure POWER SPRAYING OUTFIT ever offered- 



Goes Like Sixty 

Light Weight 

High Pressure 

Direct Geared 

No Racking Pump Jack 



K 


TV 






«. ^MHRHn 


"""TK 


s '""^M 






BttF^'" 


l^pipp'^ - "S 




^^^^^ 




^ 


Xa/ 



100^ Service 

Engine can be used for other 
work all the year round. 

Truck makes a capital farm 
wagon. 

Sills of channel steel, with 
steel platform. 



Price o! Complete Outfit, Only $230.00 

This includes all Accessories, Engine, Pump, Tank, Truck, Bamboo Elxtensions, Agitator, Hose, Nozzles, etc. 

Do not buy a Sprayer until you have investigated the "Goes Like Sixty" Power Sprayer. 

Send for Sprayer Catalogue to-day. 

GILSON MFG. CO., 244 York St., GUELPH, ONT. 





One Horse Spring Tooth Cultivator 






HAS NO EQUAL 






.Read the Following Testimonials : 




"^b 


The One-Horse Spring Tooth Cultivator I 
got from you is the best I ever hitched a 
horse to ; it does more than you claim. 

W. P. WILLSON, 

Union, Ont. 

ANOTHER 

The One-Horse Spring Tooth Cultivator 
that I got from you will equal two others in 
cleaning out Berry Bushes. 

J. INGRAM, 

Union, Ont. 




If there is not an agent in your locality handling the One Horse 
to give you prices and particulars. 

THE HALL ZRYD FOUN 

HESPELER 

MAKERS OF PILOT STOVE, BANG 


Spring Tcx)th Cultivator, write us to-day. Pleasetl 

DRY CO. LIMITED 

ONTARIO 

ES AND FURNACES. 



;o 



tHK CANADIAN HORTICULTURIST 



kFebruary, 1914 



li"'f-im»iiiiiM irnffgl 



READ THE LABEL 



JJimruiBucui 

~ LOtWCCTl' 



Hagic 

BAKING 
POWDEB 





POR THE PROTECTION OF THE CON- 
• SUMER THE INGREDIENTS ARE 
PLAINLY PRINTED ON THE LABEL. IT 
IS THE ONLY WELL-KNOWN MEDIUM- 
PRICED BAKING POWDER MADE IN 
CANADA THAT DOES NOT CONTAIN 
ALUM AND WHICH HAS ALL THE 
INGREDIENTS PLAINLY STATED ON 
THE LABEL. 

MAGIC BAKING POWDER 

CONTAINS NO ALUM 

ALUM IS SOMETIMES REFERRED TO AS SUL- 
PHATE OF ALUMINA OR SODIC ALUMINIC 
SULPHATE. THE PUBLIC SHOULD NOT BE 
MISLED BY THESE TECHNICAL NAMES. 



'■ouiiicoiHirruK'i' 



^iSffiasaQS^ 



E. W. GILLETT COMPANY LIMITED 

WINNIPEG TORONTO. ONT. MONTREAL 



:>E 




Hitch Your Sleeping Schedule 
to Big Ben 



Big Ben will wake you early enough 
for profitable bef ore-breakfast action. 
His gentle get-up call starts the day 
with '^Jlying start on thousands of 
farms. 

For your accommodation he rings 
TWO WAYS. HeMI get you up by 
degrees or in a hurry. Set him either 
way you wish — to give one long five- 
minute ring, or ten short rings at 
one-half-minute intervals, until you're 
wide awake. 

He stands 7 inches tall; is triple-ntckc] plated 
over a tested implement steel coat, the handsomest 
and truest tborciusbbred in the clock world. He 
has bif, bold numerals and hands that show the 
time plainly at a gEance. large keys that anyone can 
wind easily, and such a pleasant tone that you arc 
flad tc get up when he calls. 

Bi? Ben makes early risine easy. He's the 
leader of the early morning brigade. His cheerful 



"good morning" ring calls millions of live wires to 
action. Thousands of successful farms arc run on 
a Big Ben schedule. He starts you off right in_ the 
morning and keeps you right all day. From "Sun 
up" to "Liglils out" be regulates your day. He'll 
work for 36 hours at a stretch and overtime, if 
necessary. The only pay be asks is one drop of 
oil a year. 

He is sturdy and strong — built to last a lifetime. 
Yet under bis dust-proof steel coat is the most deli- 
cate "works." That's' why his on-lhc-dot accuracy 
has won bim fame. 

Big Ben's wonderful sales are due to bis having 
"made good." His biggest bit has been with fdlks 
with the "make good" habit. He stands for suc- 
cess — that's why you'll like him for a friend. 

When 3 million families find Big Ben a good 
clock to buy and 20.000 dealers prttv* he's a good 
clock to sell, it's evidence that he is worth S4.00 of 
your money. Suppose you tradeH.OO for bim today. 

A community of clockmaker* stands back of him. 
Their imprint. Made in La SalU. Ul'mois, h l^fst- 
clox, ia the best alarm-clock insuraiKe yon can buy. 




Fruit Season at Montreal, 1913 

E. H. Wartnun, Dominion Frnil Intpector 

Commencing the last of April with North 
Carolina strawberries, and followed by Bal- 
titnor.; and Delaware, quite a trade was 
done of a very satisfactory nature to buy- 
ers. The fruit generally landed in good 
condition in imperial quart boxes. Our own 
strawberries followed about June 12th, when 
American ceased. Our own crop being 
light good prices ruled all the season. 

Raspberries being short long prices pre 
vailed. Compiaints were few as to over- 
facing crates. .\ few complaints were 
heard in reference to slack filled boxes, but 
these grumblers were told by inspector 
they were easily examined in this respect, 
and they should pay according to amount 
of fruits received. 

Following closely came plums, peachc- 
and pears. At times these were in larg' 
quantities and of ungraded poor quaJit> 
which brought low prices, but good larg 
graded fruits of these kinds brought good 
prices all season. 

Th;- breakage in six and eleven quart 
baskets that were in car lots was large, du- 
partly on account of poor material in has 
kets and loading too deep when the whole 
car was in one compartment. To avoid this 
three compartments by stanchions and not 
over seven feet high may be the remedy. 

Our apples as a whole were poor. This 
is verified by the large percentages of num- 
ber twos and number threes. Some partici: 
larly fine lots went forward from favorer 
places where conditions were good. Ther 
were 209,025 barrels of apples exported fron 
Montreal, against 300,000 barrels last sea- 
son, and the record for the port is over 
700,000 barrels. Some of the conditions on 
arrival at this port were anything but sat- 
isfactory but I am glad to announce condi- 
tions were generally good in eight hoop 
barrels well coopered and dry. I examined 
two tars that arrived in a soaked through 
and through condition. The fruit was 
good. The effect of too much moisture is 
very damaging to both fruit and barrels. 
The wood so softened, heads and staves 
warp, nails do not hold, linens slip out, 
causing in one case ten barrels to break 
open befoi e reaching the steamer, and many 
more would break open when lowered for pil- 
ing in the hold. We have to draw on our 
imagination as to where this excessive wet- 
ting came from. The car seemed quite 
water proof. Likely they were piled in 
the orchard or at the station or on the dock 
unprotected. There must have been care- 
lessness somewhere which would be a great 
loss to the shipper. The shipments of 
pears were the largest on record in boxes 
and barrels. The varieties were Anjou, 
Keiffer, Duchess and Bartlett. 

One steamer left fo- London with six car 
of fruit. Of these only twenty-four barrel 
were of apples, the rest being pears. In re 
ference to our Elberta and Crawford peaches 
that went forward the system of packing 
and quality of f-niit was excellent, amd no 
doubt would meet with good results. The 
inspectors at this port were obliged to 
brand several lots marked number one that 
lacked in grading and quality. These lots 
were no credit to the packers. The grad- 
ing and packing generally speaking was 
never better. This should increase our 
trade wherever they are sent and bring 
credit to our country. 



A large association can take more effec- 
tive measures for ensuring a first class pack 
than a small association, and thus the stan- 
dard of quality will be raised. 



A 



f'"ehruary, 191/ 



THE CANADIAN HORTIC tJLTtT RIST 



s* 



MAX STOLPE 

Landscape Architect 

Ex-Superintendent Royal Gardening Institute 

Saxony - Germany 

Holder of Gold and Silver Medals 

Artistic Plat\s, Sketches furnished lor all 
kinds of LANDSCAPE CONSTRUCTION 
WORK. 

Ornamental Trees, Shrubs, Conifers, 
Hardy Perennials, etc. 

ASK FOR PRICE LIST 

17 Main Str. East - HAMILTON, Ont. 

Phone 148 




The "FAULTLESS" Lamp 

Simplest, Strongest, most Beautiful and Perfect Portable 
Lamp In the World 

Cannot Explode 



Can Roll it on the Floor while Burning 



Requires No Cleaning 



Costs Less than One Cent a Night to produce 

Three Hundred Candle Power of 

Bright White Light 

Write for circular 

MACLAREN & CO., Main St., Merrickville, Ont. 



The Call 
of the 
North 



Do you know of th* many advan- 
tages that New Ontario, with its 
millions of fertile aorea, offers to th« 
prospective settler ? Do you know that 
these rich agricultural lands, obtain- 
able free, and at a nominal cost, are 
already producing grain and vegeta- 
bles second to cone im the world? 

For literature descriptive of this 
great territory, and for information 
as to terms, homestead regulations, 
settlers' rates, etc.. write to 

H. A. A\ACDONELL 

Director of Colonization 
ParliamcDt Bldgs., TORONTO, Ont. 




SMALL FRUIT PLANTS 

Gooseberries. Jossel.vn ! Josw^^Iyii ! ! Ked Ja«ket. Downing, Pearl. 
Houghton.— Currants, Perfo«tion! Perfection!! Euby. Oherry, White 
Grape, Lec'e Prolific. OhamDion, Black Na.ples, Block Victoria. Boe- 
coop.— Raspberries, Herbert! Herbert!! Herbert!!! Outhb<>rt,. Marlboro. 
Briiickle'a Orange. Gol<leii Queen, Strawberry - Raephcrry. — Garden 
Roots, Asparagii«5. Rhubarb. Write for Catalogtie. 

WM. FLEMING, Narseryman, 496 -4th Avenue W., OWEN SOUND, ONT. 




Spray 



raycrs 



Sulfur Dusters 

Ftr Fifhtiog Every Disease of Cultivated Plants 

Knapsack, Pack Saddle or Horse Drawn 
Power Sprayers 

S«sd for Catalogues l/Ii^D]L|/\DI^f Maonfactarer, 
and particnlan to : V EfK ITlUKErlrf VILLEFRANCHE 



(Rhona), FRANCE 



HARA? 

I^IUZERSl 

Grow Bigger Crops 






Progressive Jones Says : 

-^ "Watch 

for this 

Sign" 

If you want to get right on the fertilizer question, 
friend, take my advice and visit the nearest agency for 

Harab 

You will know the Harab agency by the sign shown 
above. It will be found over the door of our dealer in your 
nearest town or village. Every agent is thoroughly posted 
about profitable fertilizing. I say here — that fertilizing the 
Harab way is like sowing pennies to harvest dollars, for it 
not only gingers up the present profits by providing a bigger 
crop — but also nourishes the soil for future dividends. 

Every one of the Harab Fertilizers is a proven success — 
one of them is the right fertilizer for your soil and for the crop 
you wish to raise. Harab experts will give your encjuiry 
individual attention. By their aid your proper fertilizer is 
easily selected. 

The Harris Abattoir Company have an interesting booklet 
of information about their twenty-five successful fertilizers. 
Just write for a copy to-day — and 
keep a weather eye open for the 
Harab sign — visit the Harab agency. 







^i^/f^.^ 



Fertilizer Department 

The Harris Abattoir Co., Limited 
Toronto 



THE CANADIAN FTORTTCULTURTST 



February, 1914 



STOVE ^^POLISH 



FOR Brightness 

Black 



A Paste 
NoWaste 



AND Lightness. USE 

'Knight 



No Dust 

THE V.f. Dalley Q LTD. Hamilton, Ont. I No Rust 




PERSISTENT SPRAYING WITH A 

MASSEY-HARRIS SPRAYER 

PAYS BIG RETURNS 



Long experience with Fruit Growers has enabled us to produce a 
Power Sprayer adapted to the most difficult conditions. 

Double Cylinder Vertical Pump with Bronze Plungers. 

Tank is made of selected Cypress put together by Experts. 

Simple, Direct Connection between Engine and Pump — no Sprocket 
Chains to get tangled in branches of trees. 

Agitator is positive in its action and is operated from the top — no 
holes through side of Tank to leak. 

The Cab protects all working parts. 

Front Wheels turn under the Frame. 

Engine is Hopper-cooled ; runs in any weather and on the steepest 
side-hill; is efficient and economical in its operation. 



MASSEY-HARRIS CO., Limited. 



^= Branches at — Montreal, 



Head Offices— TORONTO. CANADA. 
Moncton, Winnipeg, Regina, Saskatoon, 

Calgary, Yorkton, Edmonton. 



Swift Current, 




United States Activities 

At a ( onference of fruit (growers held at 
Spokame in connection with the annual 
national apple show, November 17 to 22, 
the gathering under the leadership of E. H. 
Shepard, editor of "Better Fruit," went 
thoroughly into the question of taking meas- 
ures to secure the adoption of a standard 
apple box and pack. The bill finally draft- 
ed for presentation to Congress contains 
the following provisions: (1) Dimensions, 
18 X 10 J^ X UK, inside measurements, o^ 
2,173^ cubic inches; (2) Boxes containing 
less than this number of cubic imches to be 
marked "Short Box;" (3) Boxes to be 
stamped with number of apples contained, 
style of pack used, name of "person, firm or 
organization which first packed them or 
caused them to be packed, locality where 
grown and variety, a variation of three 
from the actual number contained beimg al- 
lowed;" (4) Apples packed and offered for 
sale to be "well grown specimens of one 
variety, reasonably uniform in size, pro- 
perly matured, and practically free from 
dirt, insect pests, diseases, bruises and 
other defects;" (5) Violations of the Act, 
or offering apples for sale in a standard 
box other than those originally packed in 
it, without first Obliterating the markings, to 
be punished by penalty of one dollar a box 
up to one hundred dollars on any one ship- 
ment. 

COI.U STOBARB RESULTS 

In the discussion a strong sentiment 
showed itself in favor of a decided and im- 
mediate action in the direction of providing 
proper facilities for the manufacture of fruit 
by-products of all kimds. 

BV-PR01)U(T.S ORGAXIZATION 

A vaJuable address was given by A. W. 
McKay of the United States Department of 
Agriculture setting forth the results of ex- 
periments with Northwestern apples in cold 
storage. One set of experiments showed 
conclusively that the percentage of decay is 
greater when apples are placed in cold stor- 
ag^e immediately after picking tham when 
storage is delayed ; another that a storage 
temperature of thirty-two degrees gives bet- 
ter results than one of thirty degrees ; a 
third, that picking before the proper degree 
of ripeness has been obtained results in 
high percentage of decay compared with 
more matured fruit. 



Items of Interest 

A Mississippi inventor has patented and 
put on the market a new collapsible crate j 
that folds into small space for storage and 
can be put into box form in a few moments 
without the use of nails. This crate may 
be utilized for shipping berries, fruit, vege- 
tables and poultry. The two sides and two 
ends are permanently hinged together with 
wire hooks. The top and bottom when 
slipped into place are held by the same 
hooks. Two of the hooks are loose so that 
they can be clamped over the cover to hold ^ 
it in place. j 

The ainnual use of a medium quantity of 
manure is better than either too little or ' 
too much. Demonstration orchards re- 
ceiving over ten loads of manure per acre 
yearly, with one exception, have not yield 
ed so much as those receiving from six 
to ten loads. — H. K. Revell, Northumber- 
land Co., Ont. 



Education is the first and most import 
ant step to take before you can start a suc- 
cessful cooperative association. — James E. 
Johnson, Simcoe, Ont. 



February, 1914 



THE CANADIAN HORTICULTURIST 



53 



uLADlULi Wholesale Prices 

America— The standard pinli, I/2 in., $1.50 
per 100. 

Taconlc— Bright pink (perfect), 1% in., $4.00 
per 100. 

Klondyke— Lig-ht Yellow, Crimson, Uaroon 
blotch (fine), 1 in., $1.00. 

Augusta— White, 1 in., $1.00. 

Mixed— $1.00— 25 of each at 100 ratea. Ex- 
press charges collect. 

H. P. VAN WAGNEB 
R. R. NO. 5 • ■ HAMILTON, ONT. 



r/: 



30 



A Garden 
of Beauty 
and Fragrance 

VVTHETHER you love the 
^^ dear old Marigolds, 
Heliotrope, Nasturtiums and 
Petunias — the gorgeous 
Poppys and Asters— the many- 
hued Sweet Peas— the heavy- 
scented Nlcotiana — or the 
huge and picturesque Ricinus 
■you'll find in Swing's Cata- 
logue the particular varieties 
which will make your flower 
garden a real satisfaction. 

Ewlng's Reliable Flower 
Seeds have been delighting 
beauty lovers for more than 
forty years. Write for Illus- 
trated Catalogue to-day, and 
if your Dealer hasn't Ewing's 

Seeds, order from 

us direct. 

THE 

WILLIAM, 

EWING 

CO., 

LIMITED, 

Seed Merchants, 

McGill St., 
MONTREAL. 



P^ruive 
3 trees. 



in the same time your ^^ Qave 
neighbor is pruning ^^^ time 

TTT 1 v^^ s'"! fflonej' and 
one tree. WOrk^^ do better work by pru- 

J- .1. ^.^^ n ing your orchard and shade 

irom the ^^ trees with the 

ground^^MONARCH 

PRUNER 

No ladders required. No injury to the trees. No 
stripping of the bark or bruising the limbs. The 
Monarch cuts clean and smooth leaving no scars or 
stumps. One thrust severs a large branch. Saw 
blade attached in ten seconds. Removes dead limbs 
iua jiffy. Thousands of orchardists endorse them. 
In an ordinary orchard the saving on one 
day's work will more than pay for a Monarch. 
A lifetime of service will not wear it 
out. Extra saw blades can be secured as needed. 
Satisfaction guaranteed or money back. For 
sale by all live dealers. If your hardware 
man does not handle the Monarch write 
us direct. 

Monarch Pruner & Mfg. Co. 

1310 Lafayette St. 

Detroit, Mich. 



FRANK 



COX, Dist. Agt., BEAMSVILLE, ONT. 



McCormick Drills 
For Eastern Canada 





^ 



AMcCORMICK drill prepares the 
best possible seed bed, and McCor- 
mick drills are longest-wearing. Any man 
who owns one of these implements will as- 
sure you that these are facts. When you 
buy a drill, buy a McCormick. 

McCormick single disk and hoe drills have 
continuous axles, strong, light, thoroughly 
braced frames of angle steel, and durable, wide run- 
niug drive wheels. They have a double run force 
feed which adapts them perfectly to the sowing of 
all kinds of seed. 

Bearings are simple, as nearly as possible dust- 
proof, and easily oiled. Grain boxes are of large 
capacity, and they are too firmly supported to allow 
sagging. 

See McCormick drills at the nearest I H C local 
agent's. All their features are explained in our 
catalogues. Get catalogues from the dealer, or drop 
a line to the nearest branch house. 

International Harvester Company of Canada, Ltd 

Hamilton, Ont. London, Ont. Montreal, Quo. 

OtUwa, Ont. Quebec, P. Q. St. Jobn, N. B. 

These machines are huill at Hamilton, Ont. 




54 



THE CANADIAN HORTICULTURIST 



February, 1914 




130 -Egg Incubator and Brooder f^^ $13,90 



FREIGHT 
AND OUTV 



If ordiTiMl tdKetlicr wi; send both machines for only $13.90 and we 
pay all freight and duty cliarKes to any R. K. station in Canada. 
We have branch warehouses in Winnipeg, Man. and Toronto.Ont. 
Orders shipped from nearest warehouse to your R. R. station. 
Hot water, double walls, dead-air space between, double glass 
doors, copper tanks and boilers. self-regulatinK. Nursery under 
eua tray. Especially adapted to Canadian climate. Incubator and Brooder 
BhipiMil complete with thcrmometera. lamps, eag testers — ready to use when youget them. Five 
year Kuarantee — 30 days trial. Incubators finished in natural colors showinR the hiah (trade Cali- 
fornia Redwood lumber osed^not painted to cover inferior material. If you will compare am 
machines with others, we feel sure of your order. Don't buy until yon do thm — you'll HavemonQr| 
— it pays to investigate before ynu buy. Rpmrmberour price of fii:i.oo is for both Incubatorand . 

Brooder and eovcrn fnittht nriil ilnty chariria. Send for KltEK caialofi today, or send in your order and save time. I 

'^.i!'* n'r'r Wisconsin incubator co., boxsis , Racine, wis., u. s. a.[ 




FRIEND Sprayers 



Mr. Fruit Grower 

You have heard of the cele- 
brated 

"Friend" 
Power Sprayer 

But you have not heard of 
the 1914 .MODELS. 

Western King 

and Queen 




The "Friend" Motor.Pump 



clndine motor-pnmps. < »,flts on bed 
without trucks, and complete ma- 
ohinee — built in large and small 
sizes. The SIMPLEST. MOST OOM- 
PACrr. MOST POWERFUL and FIN- 
EST WORKING power sprayers ever 
produced. Manr Westerns sold in 
Canada last year to growers who are 
STAtTNOH FRIENDS thia year. 

WRITE FOR CATALOG TO-DAY, 
STATING REQUIREMENTS. 



FRIEND" MFG. CO., GASPORT, NEW YORK 



Nova Scotia Fruit Growers 

(Ciintinnrd from page .Hi) 
the thorough work done by the .^jjricultui;!] 
Department in the control of the brown tail 
moth and the San Jose Scale. 

A ver>' pleasinsr feature of the conven- 
tion was the presentation to R. W. Storr, 
of a- resolution of conj^ratulation on havinjr 
attended fifty consecutive annual meetings 
of the association, not havinjf missed a 
meetinff since its org^anization fifty years 
.1K0. 

The officers for the ensuing year ar' 
President, F. W. Bishop, Paradise; vir^ 
A. E. McMahon. Ayle^sford : secretary-treas- 
urer, Mr. K. Ells, Port Williams; dele- 
k'ates to the fourth fruit conference, S. B. 
Chute, M. K. Ells, W. W. Rineo. S. C. 
Powker. 

The following: resolutions passed : 

That we place on record our sorrow at 
tho death of Alex. McNeill. 

That because the Provincial Exhibition is 
held too early to make a creditable display 
of winter fruit on account of its immatur- 
ity, we recommend that winter varieties of 
apples be cut out of prize list and more 
money be offered on the early varieties to 
insure a more attractive display. 

That we ask the Federal Government to 
define a number three j^rade of apple, with 
a view of raising- the standard of the pre- 
sent pack. 

That we join with the other associations 
in asking- for a arrant of .$2500 per year for 
the National Fruit Growers' Association. 

That the Valley exhibition be held at a 
later date. 

That we recommend the appointment of a 
nrnvinri.nl plant patholoifist. 



GLADIOLI 



GROFF'S HYBRIDS are now more lirgely 
grown in the United States and Canada, 
than any other strain They are in good 
demand in AUSTRALASIA, and English or- 
ders have nearly exhausted some varieties. 

AMERICA (Groff'e 1191 stands easily at 
the head of commercial varieties. 

PEACE, WAR. DAWN. BLUE JAY. 
LAVANDULA, PEACHBLOW. and others, will 
soon be found in all gladioli listfi. 

We try most of the European kinds, as 
they come out, but so far have fotind very 
few, that are likely to secure a i>ermaiient 
place. 

CATALOGUES ON APPLICATION 

CAMPBELL BROS. 

SIMCOE, ONT. 




We Solicit Your 
Consignments 

Send for 
Shipping Stamp 



Good Prices Alvyays 

For Your Fruit and Vegetables 

OUR facilities enable us to realize top prices at all times for your fruit, vegetables, or general 
prod-uce. Aside from our large connection on the Toronto market, we have established 
branch warehouses with competent men in charge, at SUDBURY, NORTH BAY, COBALT, 
COCHRANE AND PORCUPINE. In time of congestion on the Toronto market we have a 
ready outlet through these branches. We never have to' sacrifice your interests. 




Branch Warehouses: Sudbury, 

North Bay, Cobalt, Cochrane 

and Porcupine 



H. PETERS 

88 Front St. East, Toronto 



References: The Canadian Bank 
of Commerce, (JWaj-ket Branch) 
and Commercial Atencie*. 



February, 1914 



THE CANADIAN HORTICULTURIST 



55 





THIS WASHER 

MUST PAY FOR 

ITSELF. 

A MAN tried to sell me a horse once. He sai»^ 
f\ It was a fine horse and bad nothing the mat- 
'■■■terwithlt. I wanted a fine horse, but, I didnt 
know anything about 
horses much. Anal didn't 
know the man very well 
either. 

So I told him I wanted to 
try the horse for a month. 
He said "All right," but ' 
pay me first, and I'll give 
you back your money If 
the horse Isn't all right. •' 

Well, I didn-t lilte that J 
I was afraid the horse I 
was'nt "all right" and that I 
I might have to whistle fori 
my money if I once partedF 
withlt. So I didn't buy the 
horse, although I wanted 
it badly. Now, this set me 
thinking, i , 

You sea I make Wash- , JPV/ 
ing Machines— the "1900^--</' 
Gravity" Washer. — ~ 

And I said to myself, lots of people may thini 
about my Washing Wachine as X thought about 
the horse, and about the man who owned it. 

But I'd never know, because they wouldn't 
write and tell me. You see I sell my Washing 
Machines by mail. I have sold over half a mil- 
lion that way. So. thought 1, it is only fait 
enough to let people try my Washing Machines 
for a month, before they pay for them just as I 
wanted to try the horse. 

Now,! know what our "IflOO Gravity" Washer 
will do., I know it will wash the clothes, without 
wearing or tearing them, in less than half thd 
time they can be washed by band or by any other 
machine. ^ 

I know it will wash a tub full of very dirty 
clothes in Six Minutes. 1 know noother machine 
ever invented can do that, without wearing the 
clothes. Our "liKIO Gravity" Washer does the 
work soeasy that a child can run It almost as 
well as a strong woman, and it don't wear the 
clothes, fray the edges, nor break buttons, the 
way all other machines do. 

It just drives soapy water clear through the 
fibres of the clothes like a- force pump might. 

So, said 1 to myself, I will do with my "1900 
Gravity" Washer what 1 wanted the man to do 
with the horse. Only I won't wait for people to 
ask me. I'll offer first, and I'll make good the 
offer every time. 

Let me send yon a "1900 Gravity" Washer on a 
month's free trial. I'll pay the freight out of 
my own Docket, and if you don't want the ma 
chine after you've used it a month, I'll take it 
back and pay the freight.too. Surely that is fair 
enough, isn t it. _ . _ 

Doesn't it prove that the "1000 Gravity" 
Washer must be all that I say It Is? 

And you can pay me out of what It laves for 
you. < It will save its whole cost in a few months 
in wear and tear on the clcthes alone. And then 
it will -save 50 to 75 cents a week over that in 
washwoman's wages. If you keep the machine 
after the month's trial, I'll let you pay for it out 
Df what It saves you. If it saves you 60 cents a 
week, send me 50 cents a week '(.ill paid for. I'll 
take that cheerfully, and I'll wait for my money 
until the machine itself earns the balance. 

Drop ma a lino to-day. and let me send you a 
book about the "MOO Gravity- Washer UM 
lf^M^■!S eUjtot* '» ff r cUBVt** 

Address mo personally : 
K. E. MORRIS. Manager, 1900 Washer 
Co . 357 Yonge St.. Toronto. Ont. 



ESTABLISHED 1856 



SIMMER'S SEEDS 



-Have Stood the Test for- 



NEARLY 60 YEARS 

That Means - - THE QUALITY IS RIGHT 

CATALOGUE for 1914 is now ready, and is 
FREE to all who write for a copy. 

It contains a complete list of the very best in 
Vegetable and Flower Seeds — the kinds that . 
are sure to please. Write for a copy NOW. 

J. A. SIMMERS, Ltd., TORONTO, Ont. 

BULBS SEEDS PLANTS 



Deering Drills 








GIVE your seed a chance to produce 
a record crop by sowing it with a 
Deering drill. Deering disk and hoe con- 
struction puts the right amount of seed in 
the right position at the bottom of the fur- 
row, to insure your getting a full even stand of 
grain. 

No matter whether your ground is hard or soft, 
gravel or clay, smooth or rough, level or hilly, there 
IS a Deering drill in the line that will plant your 
seed as it should be planted. 

Examine Deering drill construction and the many 
features. Note the light draft, the large capacity 
grain boxes, the double-run force feed that handles 
all kinds of grain and seed, the ease of regulation 
to suit soil and seed — and a dozen other points to 
grow enthusiastic over. 

See the drills themselves at the I H C local agent's 
place of business. Our catalogues tell you all the 
features of all the types. Get catalogues from the 
local agent, or write the nearest branch house. 



International Harvester Company of Canada, Ltd 




ss 



THE CANADIAN TIORTICULTURT ST 



February, 1914 




Why Not Cut Off the Two Cars of Filler ? 

It takes 400,000 cars to carry American Fertilizers to our fanners and plant- 
ers every season. Forty per cent — 2 cars out of 5— of this stufi is Filler, 
which requires i6o,000 cars ! Order less filler, higher grade and 

Nitrate of Soda 

for your active Nitrogen and save freight bills. 

The greater productive capacity of high-grade fertilizers without so much 
filler means a greater outbound tonnage for railroads and greater purchasing 
power for farmers, so that railroads and everybody would be benefited. 



DR. WM. S. 

KO BRANCH OFFICES 



MYERS. Chilean Nitrate Propaganda 

25 Madison Ave., 



New York 




Cronk's Pruning Shears 

To introduce a high-grade pruning shear at a 
very low price, we are now offering direct, pro- 
vided your dealer does not have them, our 25- 
inch No. 09% guaranteed pruner at $1.25 per 
pair, via parcel post, prepaid; cash with order. 
CRONK & CARRIER MFG. CO., ELMIRA. N. Y. 



COMB FOUNDATION 

Made by the "Weed Patent Process" 




The Weed Foundation Sheeter. 

JTOUNDATION made by this process excells all other in strength of texture. 
This combined in nice, straight uniform sheets, with good cell walls and thin 
base, gives it world-wide reputation for g-eneral excellence of quality. So much 
better than the ordinary, and costs no more— Try it. 

Customers Wax made up by "Weed Patent Process" 
Beeswax taken in payment of making at trade prices if desired 



THE HAM SI NOTT CO. Limited 

BHANTFORD, ONTARIO 



Quebec Fruit Growers' Conven- 
tion 

The annual convention of the Quebec 
Pomological Fruit Growing Society was 
held in Westmount, Quebec, during De- 
cember. In his presidential address, Rev. 
Father Leojwld, Oka, an illustration of 
whom appears on page thirty-three of this 
issue, referred to the light crop of apples 
last fall in many districts, that had been 
caused by the unfavorable nature of the 
season. Tent caterpillars had defoliated 
many orchards where spraying was not 
practised. Power sprayers were becoming 
more popular, eleven now being operated 
in the province. The orchards of the La 
Trappe Monastery at Oka last season 
yielded two thousand five hundred barrels. 
While many growers have had fair suc- 
cess leaving trees in sod. Father Leopold 
stated that it was being demonstrated in 
the experimental orchards at Rougemont. 
St. Hilaire, and .Abbotsford that stirring of 
the soil in May and June followed by a 




BUY CARNIOLANS 

IN CARNIOLA 

Pure Carniolan Alpine Bees 

Write in English for Booklet and 
Price List. Awarded 60 Honors. 

Johann Strgar. - Wittnach 

P.O. Wooheiner Fatstritz 
Upper-Carniola (Krain', Austria 



THE CHAS. E. HOPPER COMPANY 

BEEKEEPERS' SUPPLIES 



Sole Distributors of 

ROOTS GOODS 



General Agents for 

DADANTS FOUNDATION 



We also Handle 

HAM & NOTT QOOD8 

Poultry Supplies Seeds 

IVriiefor a Catalugur 

185 Wright Avenue, TORONTO, Ont. 



FOR SALE 

Italian Queens and Bees by the pound. 
Ready for delivery April Ist Having over 
600 ooloniee of bees and 500 nuclei from 
which to draw, we expect to fill all orders 
very promptly. For a number of years we 
have been constantly improving in stock 
with commercial queen-rearing in view. Now 
we are in a position to guarantee satisfac- 
tion to our customers. Untested Queens, 
each 75c, 6 J4.25; tested, each $1.25, 6 S7.25 
Bees by the pound without queen, 1 pound 
$1.26, 5 $4 26. Write for complete price lifit. 

BROWN 81 BERRY 



HAYNEVILLE 



ALABAMA 



A FARMER'S GARDEN 



IS without real serious meaning: to 
many thousand farmers because 
they think it is too hard work or 
it is not convenient to work a horse. 
So many farmers fail to understand 
what truly wonderful possibilities 
there arc in modem hand tools 



Wheel Hoei 
and Dtillf 



mHM 



(Now mkda In C»imtta) 

do all of the sowing", hoeing, cultiva- 
ting, weeding, furrowing, ridging,etc., 
in any garden with better results, far 
less work and some real pleasure for 
the operator. :iH q^ more combina- 
tions at $iM to yi5.00. Ask your 
dealer about thtm and write us for 
new booklet. "Gardening 
with Modem Tools" also 
copy of our paper "Iron _ 
Age Farm and Garden. ,,^^ 
News" — both arc free. 

Tli8 Batem&n-WUkinion Co. 




462 Symington Ar«., 



Toronto, Ontuio. 



February, 1914 



THE CANADIAN HORTICULTURIST 



XI. 



For Sale 

Cedardale Fruit Farm, 60 aores, finest farm 
in Norfolk county for fruit, 'tobacco and 
poultry raising, one and a quarter miliee 
from Simcoe, and a quarter mile from New' 
Lake Erie and Northern Electric Road. 

Buildings in A 1 condition. House, bunga- 
low style, frame, nine rooms, surrounded by 
lawns, drives and ornamentals. Outbuild- 
ings, two good barns, one recently built 
costing $2,500. with ^ment basement and up- 
to-date fixtures. Four poultry hou-ses and 
cement hoghouses, and two good wells. 

Bearing fruit trees consist of 50 apples. 
500 peach and Bartlett pears, 1 acre straw- 
berries, 1 acre raspberries, set last season. 
The farm ia of sandy loam soil, adapted to 
strawberries, being protected by thirteen 
acres of standing timber valued at $3,000. 

Farm could be divided for speculation into 
three subdivisions, each with timber at rear 
and fronted! with maples. 

THIS IS A SNAP 

For further particulars apply 

CEDARDALE FARM 

R. R. No. 3 - SIMCOE, ONT. 

O. MARSHALL, Proprietor 



PRIZE DAHLIA ROOTS 

15 for one dollar by mail prepaid. 15 larger 
roots one dollar by express, not prepaid. Low 
rate to Horticultural Societies who give 
Dahlias as prei>iinms. 

GEO. E. EGERTON 

112 CHALMERS ST. ■ • GALT. ONT. 



STRAWBERRIES 



Your copy of our Strawberry Cata- 
logue is now ready. A Post Card 
will bring it. It describes all the 
best varieties of Strawberries and 
Raspberries. Cultural directions and 
lots of other valuable information. 

THE LAKE VIEW FRUIT FARM 

H. L. McConoell & Son Qrovesend, Ontario 



TO THE TRADE 



ELWAY' 

(Of LANQPORT, Eng.) 

RENOWN ED 

PLANTS & SEEDS 

ai advertised, are offered at 
SPECIAL RATES TO 
CANADIAN NURSERYMEN. 

I NO AGENTS 

NO BRANCH STORES { 



Our House is open to every leoitl- 
mate Nurseryman and Seedsman In 
the Dominion. ASK FOR PRICES 

KELWAY & SON, Sf^Wau?? 

LANGPORT, ENGLAND. 



FOR SPRING, 1914 

We have a large assorted stock of the best 
varieties of FRUIT and ORNAMENTAL 

TREES, SHRUBS, ROSES and PER- 
ENNIALS. 

A specially selected stock of Specimen 
Evergreens, Box and Bay Trees, Rhodo- 
dendrons, Kalmias and other plants in 
demand for modern gardening. 

Plans and estimates for landscape w^ork. 

Ross & Son 



Toronto Nurseries 



1167 Queen St. E. 



Oliver Plows 





OLIVER Plows for .Eastern Canada 
stand in a class by themselves as 
satisfaction givers. 

The Oliver plow line includes walking 
plows, three-wheel sulkies, walking gangs, hill-side 
plows, high and low lift gangs, and riding cultiva- 
tors. There are plows in the line which are specially 
adapted for most Eastern Canadian conditions. 
Among these are the Oliver 1-C sulky and 1-C gang. 
In both these plows most of the weight of the plow 
is carried on the two furrow wheels which, of course, 
ride on a smooth surface all the time. There is a 
spring on the land wheel which, in connection with 
the two bails on which the plow is hung, insures an 
even depth of plowing. 

You can see any plow in the Oliver line at the 
place of business of the I H C local agent. If you 
will tell him what kind of plowing you want to do, 
he can show you an Oliver plow that will do your 
work best. See him for catalogues and full infoi^ 
mation, or write the nearest branch house. 

International Harvester Company of Canada, Ltd 

At Hamilton, Onl.; London, Onl. ; Monlrral, P. Q.; OtUwa, Ont.; 
St. John. N. B.; Qutbec. P. Q. 

Oliver plows are built at Hamilton, Oot. 




Nil. 



THE CANADIAN HORTICULTURIST 



February, 191 4 




There's 

a great difference m 

spray adhesiveness 

Arsenates of Lead, which are coarse in 

construction and contain more arsenic oxide 

than will remain permanently combined with 

the lead, cannot be adhesive. To obtain maximum 

adhesiveness together with effectiveness and safety, use 




THE CANADA PAINT CO. 



LIMITED 

Neutral Arsenate of Lead 

(Paste) 

This arsenate is neutral in character and so cannot russet the fruit or 
burn the foliage. This means unblemished fruit and more of it. This 
arsenate is sufficiently strong in poisoning power to destroy all leaf- 
eating insect {jests. 

It has a peculiar adhesiveness that enables it to remain on the foliage 
in spite of ordinary rain. It is very fine in texture and is light in 
gravity, so stays well in suspension. It mixes readily with Bordeaux 
Mixture or Lime Sulphur without danger of injuring the foliage or 
the fruit. 

As manufacturers of insecticides we have been 
able to obtain a new formula for the manufacture 
of dry Arsenate of Lead. 

CP. LIGHT GRAVITY 

Dry Arsenate of Lead 

All the good qualities of our paste lead are embodied in this product, 
and it has the advantage of being proof against deterioration, and so 
can be kept over from one season to another. Half a pwund of the 
Light Gravity Dry Arsenate goes as far as a pound of paste lead. To 
many orchardisls and gardeners considerable saving in freight may 
be effected by using this material. It mixes readily with water or 
other spraying mixtures, and can be dusted on such plants as potatoes 
if desired. Descriptive folders and prices sent on request. 



TRADE 




MARK 



THE CANADA PAINT CO 

LIMITED 

PAINT-VAPNISHfe DRYCOLOD AV\KL2S-LINS£ED OIL CRUSHERS 

MONTREAL' TORONTO'WINNIPEG 'CALGARY-HALIFAX 
OXIDE MINES -RED MILL-QUEBEC 



com cro|. of the best !< 

suits. 

The advisability of heating orchards dur- 
ing a frost such as occurred last May was 
also discussed. Although such a killing 
frost might occur only once in ten years 
the expense of providing burners or smudge 
materials might be more than made up by 
the saving of a single crop. Growers in 
Colorado have adopted heating outfits in 
many cases and have found that they can 
offset the effects of ten or twelve degrees 
of frost. 

. OFFICERS RLECTEO 

Hon. Pres., Rev. Father Leopold, I 
Trappe ; president, Prof. T. G. Bunting, 
Macdonald College, Que. ; vice-president, 
R. A. Rousseau, .Acton Vale; secretary- 
treasurer, Peter Reid, Chateauguay Basin; 
directors— G. B. Edwards, Covey Hill, Rev. 
H. A. Dickson, Rectory Hill; G. P. Hitch- 
cock, Massawippi ; J. Crossfield, Abbots- 
ford ; A. D. Verreault, Village des Aul- 
naies: F. X. Gosselin, Ste. Famille ; N. 
E. Jack, Chateauguay Basin; W. H. 
Thompson, Hudson Heights; Robert Bro- 
die, Montreal. 

A paper dealing largely with technicali- 
ties in orchards was read by Mr. J. M. 
Fisk, of Abbotsford. In the discussion 
which followed, Mr. BrodSe maintained 
that the Fameuse apple was not dying out. 



The "FRIEND" Hand and 
Power Outfits are still in the land. 
Don't buy any spraying equipment 
until you have seen the new cata- 
logue just issued by the "Friend" 
Mfg. Co. of Gasport, N.Y. Get 
their best prices. 



Send your contignment* of APPLES to tke 
Home Country to 

Ridley Moulding & Co. 

COVENT GARDEN 

LONDON, ENGLAND 

who .peclalize in APPLES and PEARS dur- 

ing the Season. Peiaonal attention, promp 

account tales and remittance 



Correspondence invited 



Roses Roses 

Irisb, Dutch and American. Hybrid Perpetual, 
Hybrid Teas and Climbing. Strong 2 year 
field-grown bushes that will bloom the first 
year— none better, none cheaper. 

ALSO 

Trees, Shrubs, Vines, Perennials 

Git Catalogue 

A. W. GRAHAM 

St. Thomas - Ontario 



Feljriiary. 1914 



THE CANADIAN HORTTCULTU R T S T 



■l?!^^ Write For 

|}I>^ ,, >^ Guide 

i^ K>y' Brown s Auto Spray 

/// does its work thorough' 

/^/ ly. Actually does banish 

/ bligrht, disease, insects in less 
J time, with less work and less so- 

Ilution. Keeps vines, trees, plants 
in perfect condition; 40 different 
sizes and styles. 

■ BROWN'S 

AUTO SPRAYS 



I 
I 



I 



Hand and power outfits 
300.t)00 farmers, or- 
chardists, garden- 
ers now use them. 

Spray No. 1, here 
shown— 4 gfid. ca- 
pacity—easily car- 
ried over should- 
ers — suitable for 5 
acres of tield crops 
orl acre of trees 
^has Auto Pop 
Kon - cloK^ging: 
nozzle-all kinds 
of sprays. 

Liaru'er sprayers 
use Brrnvn's Nan 
Clog Atomic Noz' 
zle. Cannot clog — 
sprays any solution 
equally well. Fits any 
Bprayer. 

The E. C. Brown Co. 
5< Jay SI.. Rochesler, N. T. 




Silver black, 
patched, blue, 
and red Foxes 
supplied for 
• tockingr fur 
farms. 

$40.00 per 
pair paid for ^^ ^ _ 

sound live Mink * "" "' 

JOHN DOWNHAM, Strathroy, Ont. 



ISiSi!! 



BLACK CURRANTS 

We have some excellent, plante of the 
Black Naples variety, erown from the 
most productive patch in the district. Also 
some Lawton Blackberry plants. 

Apply for prices. 
.1. E. HENRY & SON ■ WINONA. ONT. 



Luscious^ 
rrOMATOEl 

C: To raise the largest and best qual- 

r: ity and most jprofitable crop of 

•'. Tomatoes and 'garden truck'* use 

V. DAVIES Special Mixed FERTI- 

S;: UZERS. Send for free booklet 

:iv'^.DAViES^rrir."' 

WEST TORONTO ONT. 



'HtBESTMAOt 



FOSTER'S 

stanoaro 

POT ' 



FLOWER POTS 

Hanging Baskets and Fern Pans 

FOR THE SPRING TRADE 

We make the "Standard" Pot. the beet 
Pot In the world— uniform, beat of clay, 
well burned, in every respect superior to 
all others. 

All our pots have rim on shoulder, thus 
allowing them to be placed together per- 
fectly and preventlne breakage in shipping 
and handling. 

Place your Spring Order NOW. 

A complete line and large stock of all 
sizes kept on hand to ensure prompt ship- 
ment. 
Send for NEW CATALOG and PRICE LIST 

The Foster Pottery Co. 

HAMILTON - - ONTARIO 

Main Street West 



Guaranteed Fencing 



Strongly made and closely spaced — making it a complete barrier 

against large animals as well as small poultry. Top and bottom wires 

No. 9— intermediates No. 12 wire— made by the Open Hearth processwhich time 

and other tests have proven to be the best material made for the manufacture of 

wire fencing. Send for literature. Ask about our farm and ornamental fencing. 

Agencies nearly everywhere. Uve agents wanted in unas»lffned territory. 

Tha Banwell-Hoxie Wire Fence Co., Ltd., Winnipeg. Man., Hamilton. Ont. 



It Pays to Get Real Tested Seeds 



For every cent you spend for 
seeds this spring you expect to 
reap dollars next fall. 

If these fail you, you lose not 
only the cents you pay for them, 
but the dollars you should get 
in crops. You lose the labor, 
time and use of land In which 
you plant them. 

That's why it is so important to 
get seeds that are tested and 
proven. 

Carter's Tested Seeds are really 
tested by actual growing on the 
famous trial and testing grounds 
of James Carter & Co. at Raynes 
Park, London, England. They 
are tested for purity, germina- 
tion, quality and production. At 
the same time other brands are 
tested alongside them to make 
certain that Carter's are su- 
perior. 

Carter's Tested Seeds have 



Tested 



made a big success in Canada 
because they have given most 
profitable results. They are 
your best seed investment. 

Write to-day for a copy of the 
new Carter Catalogue of flowers 
and vegetables with all prices in 
American currency. 

Carters Tested Seeds, Inc. 

133 A King SL E., Toronto 

United SlalM Offictt, 100 Clumber of Commerce 
BIdg.. Boston. Mass. 



If you are interested in upkeep 
of Lawn Tennifi-court r or Golf- 
Course. write for the 'Practi- 
cal Oreenlteeper." Every 
Championship Golf-Course in 
America is today using 
Carter's Tested Graj» Seed. 



^■*m 



',m 



111 M*JK9TVHIN0 0C0n0I>^ 



KIT. 



THE CANADIAN ^ORTIC^LTUEIST 



Fehruary, 11)14 



FHUITLAND NURSERIES 

axu offering for sale a general aaaorUnent of 
flnt«lAa8 Fruit Treei, Btuhe*. Vine* and 
Ornamental Shrubs, etc, at very low prices. 
Our catalogues are Just out. It will pay you 
to send for one. • 
G. M. HILL, Box 42, FRUITLAND, ONT. 



NEW AND RARE SEEDS 

Untque collection, Iliiodredvof varieties adap- 
ted tor the Canadian climate. I'erennial and 
_ pertecUy hardy. Own saving. Catalog free. 

Perry's Hardy Plant Farm 

ENFIELD, MIDDLESEX, ENG. 



A— Oookiuif I'auk 
B-Hot Water Tank 
O— Firo Box 
I>— A«h Pan 
E— Smoke ifl»e 



Make Your Ow^n Spray 

Hume Bulled Lime Sulpbur in t>uiu|j; uuetl In increasing quau 
titles uy leadiui; Iruit growers and fruit growers' aBSociatiouii. 
They find that by making their own spray they can «tl<x>t a con- 
siderable money saving, and at the same time produce a pro- 
paration that will do the work thoroughly. 

It is an easy matter to make home boiled lime sulphur. The 
chief essential is a proper spray cooker. We manufacture two 
kinds of cookers, one with a, single tank, and one with a double 
tank. (Se« illustration.; They aro designed especially for this 
purpose, and wlU give the greatest efficiency with the greatest 
saving of fuel. They can be used for either wood or soft coal. 
The tanks are made of heavily galvanized steel, thoroughly rivetted and 
(soldered. Will not leak. They are built to give satisfaction, and are 
guaranteed. Made in five sizes, capacity 30 to 75 gals. Prices and full par- 
ticulars on application. Got your outfit now. Write us to-day 

Send for pamphlet illustrating the finest pruning saw on the market. 

STEEL TROUGH & MACHINE CO., Ltd., TWEED. Ont. 




For Use 
in any 
wagon, 
cart, etc 




No. 190. Horizontal, SO-Gallon 



The Right Kind of Sprayer 



Means the one that just tits your pur- 
pose. You need to consider capacity, 

pump, engine, pressure, mixing, straining sedi- 
ment, stability on hillsides, using your own 
wagon, engine or sprayer with balance of the out- 
fit to fit what you already have. Get the right 
sprayer for YOUR wori< and you won't have 
any cause to be dissatisfied. We show here 
but three of the 70 



IS0HM 



Built up 
from 
No. X90 



Bucket, Knapsack, 
Barrel, Power, and 
Traction Sprayers 

They are built up in units so that you can 
buy what you need now and add to the out- 
fit later if necessary. All have the best 
pumps in use on any sprayers — least slip- 
page among eight of the best in a disin- 
terested test. Solutions touch only brass 
or galvanized parts. Hemp packing, bronze 
ball valves, both easy to get at. Pumps 

outside. Power Sprayers are 50, 100, 150, 

or 250 gallons capacity. 200 pounds press- ^l^ SO-Gallon Power 

ure with 6 or 8 nozzles. V=6^ Sprayer 

Ask your local dealer about this Lin© and write us for our new "Spray" 
book, spray information and copy of Iron Age Farm and Garden News. 

The Bateman- Wilkinson Co. Ltd., 46o Symington Ave., West Toronto, Ont. 

Gear-Driven 

Double-Acting 

Pump 

2-H.Four-Cyclc 

Air-Cooled 

Engine 

Outside. 

Sediment 

Chamber and 

Strainer 




Furnished with 
or without truck 




He referred to an orchard at Havelock, 
where five barrels to the tree were aver^ 
aged. Such orchards, where special at- 
tention to the standards was paid, were 
valuable to the province. 

WORK RECOGNIZED 

Mr. W. T. Macoun, Dominion Horticul- 
turist, spoke on the extension of the work 
in conection with the Experimental Farms. 
There are sixteen of these farmci, and 
several more in prospect, entailing an ex- 
penditure of eight hundred thousand dol- 
lars each year. In Mr. Macoun 's depart- 
ment there are now four assistants who 
are si>ecialists in their lines of work. These 
include pomology, plant breeding, orna- 
mental gradeniag, and vegetable growing. 
In plant breeding there is a wide field in 
the originating of new varieties hardy 
enough for the latitude of Ottawa, and at 
the same time equal to Mcintosh Red and 
other standard sorts. Recognition has been 
given by the American Pomological Society 
to the work already done in originating 
varieties. Mr. Macoun had just returned 
from Washington, where he exhibited one 
hundred and forty varieties, all of Cana- 
diyi origin. For these he had been award- 
ed a silver medal by the Pomological So- 
ciety, an honor given only in cases of ex- 
ceptional merit. 

COOPERATION ADVOCATED 

A paper on what cooperation had done for 
fruit growers in Nova Scotia was read by 
Mr. M. B. Davis, who has recently been 




BEZZO'S 
Famous Prize Asters 

Plants ready last week in May. Everybody 
should plant them- Special prices to Horti- 
cultuxal Societies. Prizes at New York State 
Fair, Canada National Exhibition, highest 
awards at BerUn Horticultural Exhibitions. 
1911-12-13. Write tor prices. 

C. MORTIMER BEZZO - BERUN. CANADA 




Watch ForThe^ 
Trade Mark 

Know \ftiAT\bu Get 

teEMAN'S 
fERTILlZERS 

A SPECIAL FORMULA FOR 

EVERY REQUIREMENT. 

Do not buy a " A Pig in a Poke." 

Send for booklet showing Just what 
Fertilizer you should use and the 
exact composition of it. Your copy 

will be sent for a post card. 
The W. A. FREEMAN CO., Ltd. 

223 HUNTER ST. E. 
HAMILTON, ONTARIO. 



Fehriiarv, 



U)T4 



THE (CANADIAN PTORTICULTURT S T 



XV. 



GREAT CROPS OF 

STRAWBERRIES 

AND HOW TO GROW THEM 

IS the title of a beautifully illustrated book of ex- 
pert information written m every-day language by 
America's most successful strawberry grower. It 
explains how the Kellogg Pedigree plants arc grown 
on the great Kellogg plant farms m Oregon, Idaho 
and Michigan. It contains pictures of the best va- 
rieties of strawberries, including fall-bearing kinds, 
and gives full descriptions. It tells how to grow big 
crops of fancy berries, and how to market them at 
big prices. Explains in detail The Kellogg Way. 

OUR FAMILY STRAWBERRY GARDEN 

Whether you have a small garden only or a big 
farm you should grow your own strawberries. Kel- 
logg's Big Red Strawberry Garden will produce all 
the delicious strawberries your entire famdy ca n eat, 
summer and winter. You can have shortcake, straw- 
berries and cream, preserves, jam and canned berries, 
the year 'round for less than one cent per gallon. 
Our Book gives full 
information. 

Strawberries 

yield more dollars per 
acre and give quicker 
returns than any other 
crop. Set one acre t« 
Kellogg*B Pedigree 
plants this year, and 
put from $500 to $800 
in the bank next year. 
Our Book tells you 
how. IT IS FREE. 

R. M. Kellogg Co., Box 570 THREE RIVERS, MICH. 




SPECIAL GUARANTEED 

LIME- SULPHUR HYDROMETER 

Both specific gravity and Beaume 

readings; submitted to Mr. Caesar 

O. A. C, Guelph, and reported 

" quite satisfactory.' 

Sent Postpaid on 'receipt of 80 cents 

Also the TYCOS INCUBATOR THERMO- 
METER, absolutely accurate postpaid. 6.5c. 

PADKF K/ PADKP Wholewle Druggist. 
fH.Kn.Ct a fHKIVCf HAMILTON. ONT. 



If you are a 

MARKET GARDENER 

it will pay you to look carefully over our 
Price List of 



POSITIVELY. ABSOLUTELY our seed, will 

give you satisfaction. 

Be friendly Write us about your wants 

GEO. KEITH 81 SONS 

Seed Mrrckauts shice iSi-/} 

124 KING ST. EAST - TORONTO 



SAFETY FIRST 






THE MOST 

I'p-to-date 

WARNING ^rVv--^ 

Applies 
To Those Contemplating; Building: 

GREENHOUSES 

And Is Typical of the 

PARKES 

Up-to-date 

CONSTRUCTION 

Get our Prices on 

Iron Frame, Pipe Frame and All Wood 

Also 

Ventilating Apparatus and all kinds of 

Greenhouse Hardware. 

U'ritv for information and Question Blank to 

PARKES CONSTRUCTION CO. 

i67i King Street E. 
HAMILTON - ONTARIO 



BUY BRUGES SEEDS 

The most successful of the market jfardeners in Canada, many of them custom- 
ers for two generations, and some for three, buy Bruce's Seeds, because ever 
since this business was established by us sixty-four years ago, they found they 
could lely on them in every way, getting better results than from any other seeds. 

To these men quality and germination is the big consideration, as their 
bread and butter depends on their ctop. 

We would say to the amateur, and also the farmer, who are not customers — 

"It Will Pay You to Buy Bruce's Seeds" 

for it takes the same time and trouble to pla'nt and care for poor seed as for 
good, and poor seed means dissatisfaction and loss for a surety. 

Write for our 112-page illustrated and descriptive catalogue of Vegetable, Farm 
and Flower Seeds, Plants, Bulbs, Poultry Supplies, and Garden Tools and Imple- 
ments, etc. It will be mailed FREE to all applicants. WRITE TO-DAY. 

JOHN A. BRUCE CO., LIMITED 

SEED MERCHANTS 

HAMILTON - ONTARIO 



International Harvester 
Manure Spreaders 




TflElHCLfNE 
GRAIN AND HAT 

MACHINES 
Binders, Reapers 
Headen. Mowera 
Rakei, Stackers 
Hay Loader! 
Hay Presses 

CORN MACHINES 
PlaDters. Pickers 
Binders, CaltiTatora 
Ensilage Cutters 
Shcllers, Shredders 

TILLAGE 
Combination, 
Pec and Spring-Tootli, 
and Disk Harrows 
Cultivators 

GENERAL LINE 
Oil and Gas Engines 
Oil Tractors 
Manure Spreaders 
Cream Separators 
Farm Wagons 
Motor Trucks 
Threshers 
Grain Drilli 
Feed Grinders 
Knife Grinders 

Kiider Twins 



INTERNATIONAL Harvester ma- 
-■■ nure spreaders have a score of good 
features in their construction. Each one is 
the result of careful field experiment. 

An I H C spreader is low enough for easy loading, 
yet it has plenty of clearance underneath. The rear 
axle is well under the load, rear wheels have wide 
rims and Z-shaped lugs, insuring good traction un- 
der all conditions. Frame, wheels, and all driving 
parts are of steel. Apron tension is adjusted by a 
simple device. Winding of the beater is prevented 
by large diameter, and beater teeth are strong, square 
and chisel-pointed. 

International manure spreaders are built in several 
styles and sizes, low or high, endless or return apron, 
for small farms or large. Examination will show 
sturdiness of construction in every detail. Repairs, 
if ever needed, may always be had of the local dealer. 

Examine International spreaders at the dealer's. 
We will tell you who sells them, aod we will send 
you interesting catalogues. 




International Harvester Company of Canada, lid 

At Hamaton, Onl.; London. Onl. ; Monlrenl, P. Q.; OtUwa, OaLs 
St. John, N. B.: Qneboc, P. Q. 




THE CANADIAN HORTICULTURIST 



February, 191 4 



MAN WANTED 

to operate greenhouse for Dominion Canners 
FarmB at Wellington. Must have expert 
knowledge of growing tomato plants in lart'e 
quantitiea. Apply, stating experience, salary 
cxpeot<!d, eto. 
M. B. CI.ARK ■ • WEI.l-INOTON. ON T. 



It's easy to have a Beautiful 

Garden if you deal with 

KELWAY & SON 

The Koyal Horticulturists 

Langport, Somerset, England 



We pau highesh Prices For 

RAW 
FURS 



And Remih 

Prompt I n 



Sixty 

Thousand 
trappf^ra send 
us their Raw 
Furs. Why not you? 
We pay highest pripcs 
and express rtiarges, charge 
no commission and send monpy 
same day goods are received. Mil- 
lions ofdoilara are paid trappers each 
year. Deal with a reliable house. We 
are the largest in our line in Canada. Write to-day 



Address JOHN HALLAM* limited m From St. East. 



FREE 

HALLAM S TRAPPERS GUIDE 

Fr«^nch or Englinb 
A hook of 96 pages, fully illus- 
trated. Came Laws revised to 
date — tells you how, when and 
where to trap, bait and traps to 
use, and many other valuable 
faets concerning the Paw Fur 
Industry, also our •* Up-to-the- 
minute '* fur quotations, sent 
ABSOLUTELY FREE for the 
asking. 4gg 

M-iiDep., ^ TORONTO 



CENTRAL NURSERIES. ST. CATHARINES, ONT. 

Have a Fine Assortment ol 

Trees, Vines, Plants, Ornamentals, Etc. 

For Spring Planting 
For Satitfaction, Plant St. Riget, Himalaya and Ever Bearing Berries 

Our prices are right and so are the trees. Send for priced catalogue 
if you have none, also your want liat for special prices on Apple 
Trees. We can please you. Try Seed Potatoes, Lincoln, New. 
Look over our Price List. No Agents, Wanted, a Nurseryman 

A. G. HULL & SON 





appointed an assistant to Mr. Macoun. In 
■.\ detailed explanation of the workings of 
the United Fruit Company of Nova Scotia, 
Ltd., the speaker described the success 
which has attended its operations. Last 
year about three hundred and sixty-seven 
thousand barrels of apples were dealt witi 
and by scientific handling of the market 
by the agents and by the chartering 01 
special steamers, the growers sometimes 
netted handsome returns. The organiza 
tion also bought supplies on the coopera- 
tive plan. 

BEES AND KRUIT GROWING 

K paper was read by Mr. F. W. L. Sladen, 
of the Experimental Farm, Ottawa, on the 
importance of bees to the fruit grower. 

The matter of undertaking cooperative 
work in the province was advocated by Rev. 
H. Dickson, and favorably considered by 
the meeting. It was left to the executive 
to investigate the possibilities of doing 
anything. 

Opposing the Combines 

A despatch from London, England, states 
that a movement is on foot among those 
concerned with the sale of Canadian ap- 
ples in the London market to break down 
the combine which exists among London 
dealers under which Canadian apples are 
sold practically at any price the combine 
chooses to fix. Arrangements are being 
made on behalf of the apple shippers of 
New Brunswick, Ontario and Briitsh Col- 
umbia to' institute an independent sale cen- 
tre in London, solely for Canadian apples. 



YOUR ORDER FOR 

Apple Trees 



Should be placed NOW 

We expect|to see an3' Apple- Tree-Planting 
Spring, The Apple Growers generally, last 
Fall received good prices for first-class apples and 
the man who does not own an Orchard would 
like some of that money, but he must plant the 
right kind of Nursery Stock to get it. 

Make up your list of requirements and send itto 
us now while we have a full assortment on hand. 

In addition to our enormous stock of Apple Trees 
we have a general line of other Nursery Stock. 





E. D. Smith & Son 



LIMITED 



NURSERYMEN 



(900 Acres) 



WINONA 



ONT. 



Catalogaes &c.. Mailed Free on Request 



The Canadian Horticultun^ 



Vol. XXXVII 



MARCH, 1914 



No. 3 



Reality vs. Fiction in the Fruit Business 



PERHAPS there has been no branch 
of horticulture so much boomed and 
advertised as fruit farming. By this 
'{ mean tree fruits, particularly apples. 
The public are gulled and misled in many 
s (I don't bay all, mind) by flowery 
ten advertisements, highly drawn 
ires of the imagination from the pen 
man who has probably never in his 
seen an apple nearer its native state 
iiiii in a grocery shop window. But— 
ie has land to sell ! 

!iese advertisements do an enormous 

11 to the fruit industry at large, as 

make the reader expect his fortune 

..lie in a few years at the business. The 

;iilied one is persuaded to put his hard- 

arned money into some of these enter- 

irises only to find his fortune does not 

ome as soon as he was expecting. Thus 

ii^ appointed and disgusted, he does not 

et to let other people hear of it (usu- 

with emandations) and in so doing 

^ a lot of harm to some other man's 

eally meritorous proposition. 

. Now, if this same man had been told in 

!jfie first place in an honest and straight- 
|Drward way, the real standing of the 
jruit industry, he would not have looked 
jr a fortune lying in wait for him to 
ick up, but would have been contented 
/ith a reasonable thing ; that is, a good 
(ling, and some money put aside for a 
jainy day. In this way a good booster 
(f the fruit industry would have been 
lade, instead of a backbiter. 



T. W. Palmer, Victoria, B.C. 

As an indication of how some of the 
literature of these land sharps is worded 
the following will give an idea of how 
the reader is led to expect an Eldorado, 
viz. : 

"Do you wish peace and prosperity?" 

"Your answer is 'Yes.'" 

"If you are earning less than $2,000 a 
"year, would you like to double it?" 

"Again your answer will be 'Yes.' " 
— THEN— 

"Our land is only (some small figure) 
'per acre. Suppose as a working basis 
'you buy only six acres of our land. Fig- 
'ure on one hundred trees to the acre; 
'total, 600 trees. These will bear when 
'from four to five years old. When eight 
'years old you should get at a low esti- 
'mate five boxes to the tree. This is, 
'then, for six hundred trees at five boxes 
'boxes per tree, three thousand boxes 
'of apples. These you should sell for 
'one dollar and a half per box, making 
'four thousand five hundred dollars for 
'your season's apples. Does this look 
'good to you?" 

INPOEHATION SUPPRESSED 

So far so good, but — , what they don't 
tell you in their literature is, first, that 
your apples won't be all No. i apples; 
second, that there is a certain cost at- 
tached to the marketing of said apples ; 
third, no allowances are made for off- 
seasons, bad prices, diseases, and so 
forth. That these things have to be 
found out by the grower is all the more 



to be censured. When experience teach- 
es these things to the farmer he is nat- 
urally disgusted at having his ideals 
battered, when, had he been told in the 
first place he would have been prepared 
and on the look out to "beat the game." 

THE TRUE SITUATION 

I shall endeavor to give a rough esti- 
mate as to the real cost of marketing six 
acres of apples in full bearing eight year 
old trees, figuring on a full crop and no 
di.sease. I will tell of the different works 
that have to be done during the year 
before the crop, and also the labor in- 
volved in marketing the same. But it 
must be bore in mind that in no two dis- 
tricts is the cost the same, nor is it pos- 
sible to give an exact estimate in any 
case. In this illustration it is based on 
marketing the fruit on Vancouver Island, 
in vicinity of Victoria. 

First, then, is pruning. This will have 
to be done in the fall, after the sap is 
withdrawn, or in the spring before it has 
risen again. This may be done by the 
owner of the orchard, so that he need not 
deduct any money from the amount re- 
ceived at the end of the year, as it is 
part of his living. 

After this the first spraying of the 
year has to be attended to. This is done 
by a mixture of lime, salt and sulphur. 
This is sold in handy form now by manu- 
facturers in British Columbia at about 
six dollars for a thirty gallon barrel. This 
only needs diluting with water in pro- 




J 



phe Ontario Fruit which carried off the Premier Honors La*t Summer at the Convention of the International Apple Shippers Atiociation 
held in Cleveland, Ohio. It competed againit fruit from Oregon, Waihington, Colarado and other states 

47 



5« 



THE CANADIAN HORTICULTURIST 



March, 191 



:'i£^n i>n7 i 




Praparations for a Clean Crop in a Waterloo County Orchard 

—Photo furnished Dy F. C. 



Hart. VJ.8A 



portions of one gallon of spray to nine 
gallons of water to be ready for use. For 
an average six acre apple orchard it 
would require about four barrels of this 
spray, or twenty-four dollars. Being put 
on before the leaves are on the trees it 
takes much less of this preparation than 
is required when the foliage is on. 

A SECOND SPRAYING 

The next spraying is with commercial 
arsenate of lead. This is sold in kegs of 
different sizes at about eleven cents a 
pound. For the six acres the quantity 
required would be about forty pounds of 
this, which makes about thirteen hun- 
dred gallons of spray at a cost of about 
four dollars and a half. This spraying is 
to kill all codlin moth, apple worms, and 
so forth, and is applied directly the bloom 
falls. If a late hatch of these pests ap- 
pear of course another spraying has to 
be done. But as I am figuring on a sea- 
son fairly clear of pests we will cut out 
this second spraying of the trees with 
arsenate. 

The third spraying will have to be 
made to insure the absence of all aphis 
(green), foliage pests, and so forth; for 
this Black Leaf Tobacco Spray is admir- 
able. This spraying would cost probably 
thirty dollars to do as the trees are dense 
with foliage, and the spray itself is ex- 
pensive. 

Of course, it goes without saying that 
the orchard has to be properly plowed 
and cultivated, and kept cultivated. This 
would cost probably thirty-five dollars 
for the season. 

Thinning the fruit is the next item. 
No up-to-date orchardist would expect 



large fruit if no thinning was done, let 
alone the damage done to the trees by the 
weight of fruit breaking off the branch- 
es. This would cost perhaps aboui: one 
hundred dollars, but this is almost im- 
possible to determine, owing to the dif- 
ferent things to be taken into considera- 
tion, namely the dexterity of the men 
employed, size of trees, size of crop, and 
so forth. This is figuring on a full crop. 
Now, as the booster's advertisement 
says, figure your six acres as having one 
hundred trees per acre, or six hundred 
trees altogether, eight years old, and five 
boxes of apples from each tree (very good) 
and you arrive at three thousand boxes 
of apples. Of this, say, sixty per cent., 
or eighteen hundred boxes, are number 
ones; thirty per cent., or nine hundred 
boxes, number twos ; and the balance, ten 
per cent., or three hundred boxes, culls. 
Your account would figure out something 
like the following: 

RECEIPTS 

1800 boxes No.' I apples @ $1.50.. $2700 

900 boxes No. 2 apples @ $1.00.. 900 

300 boxes culls @ 40c 120 



Your total $3720 

Now, for the part the land shark does 
not tell about, namely, the expenditure 
incurred before you receive this amount. 
(Also bear in mind that I have been figur- 
ing on a full crop and top prices, a com- 
bination that rarely happens). But to 
proceed : 

008T OP PRODUCTION 

No. 1 No. 2 Culls 

Packing, i>er box 06c 06c Not packed 

Picking, per box OSc 03c 03c 

Hanline to market, per box 06c 06c 06c 



Paper for paokinx.per box 04o 02c No papei 

Put in asm 
The box itaelf, per box .. 14o 14o O60 

Wholesalers 10%oom., per box 15o 10c 04c 

Incidentals 02c 02c 02c . 

Total expense per box. SOc 43o 20c 

Thus for the whole crop it works o 
as follows for expanses : 

1800 boxes No. 1 applee at 50o t 900 

900 boxee No. 2 applee at 43o 387 

300 boxee culls at 20c 60 

Thinning $100, Spraying S80 and 
cultlTating $J5 215 

Tot*l $1,562 

Thus it figures this way: 

Gross receipts $3,720 

Cost of production 1.562 

Bal. net $2,158 

And this is an absolutely full seasc 
and the prices figured in are very hig 
If two thousand dollars was cleared 
would be good indeed. 

Now, in finishing it would be well 
say that if it is possible, it would 
by far and away the best policy to 
the man, ignorant as yet of fruit far 
ing, know the business as it is, and tl 
is, as a good honest, splendid heal 
giving means of making a livelihood, 1 
a tremendous fortune, and to prohibit 1 
use of the mails to all those ingenic 
frauds who are daily catching so ms 
poor suckers ! 

Use of Soap in Spray Mixtu 

Prof. L. Caesar, O.A.C., Gntlph, Ont. 

A contributor in the February isi 
of The Canadian Horticulturist intima 
that soap helped to make arsenate 
lead spread and adhere better. There 
just a little danger of those who are 
ing lime-sulphur with arsenate of 1< 
thinking that they can increase the va 
of the mixture by adding soap. If ; 
get a chance to put some lime-sulp! 
in water in a glass vessel and add so 
dissolved soap to it, do so, and see w 
will take place. The soap at once chan 
the mixture and causes it to cur< 
breaking down the compound. No ■ 
should use soap with lime-sulphur. 
is very probable that soap can be u 
with the so-called soluble-sulphur, wl 
is not a lime-sulphur, but 1 soda sulpl 
It does not cause this to curdle, and 
far as one can see without a chem 
examination, does not alter its charac 

.At an exfjerimental station in f 
Hampshire they have found that 
method of treatment of an orchard wl 
gives the best results is ..-ultivatioii 
the early part of the season. They 
crimson clover in midsummer, and I 
that in early the following spring. 1 
method has given good results. — W. 
Kydd. Simcoe, Ont. 



Marcli, 1914- 



THE CANADIAN HORTICULTURIST 



59 



Orchard Aphids and Their Control* 

Prof. W. H. Brittain, B.S.A., Provincial Entomologist, Truro, N.S. 



IX taking into consideration the most 
economical and effective method to 
control any insect, we cannot unfor- 
tunately, confine our attention to that 
pest alone, for many other factors inter- 
vene to influence our results. It fre- 
quently happens that the time to spray 
for some insect pest coincides with the 
time to spray for some fungous disease, 
so that it is often possible by combining 
\arious sprays, to make one operation 
take the place of two or even of three. 
This is true of the aphids in that the 
most important aphis sprays coincide 
with important sprays for other insect 
[jests and fungus diseases, and it is im- 
portant to remember at this point in con- 
sidering how we can best reduce the 
cost of keeping the orchard free from 
pests. We must also remember that pro- 
per pruning, careful thinning, adequate 
cultivation, the judicious use of cover 
crops and fertilizers with thorough and 
timely spraying are all factors in the 
production of better fruit, and none must 
be neglected if our work is to prove pro- 
fitable. In taking up this subject, I 
realize that you are already thoroughly 
acquainted with the apfiearance and life 
history of the different orchard aphids, 
and that you are only interested in hear- 
ing of some way to kill them. I will, 
therefore, only deal very briefly with the 
former side of the subject, confining my 

•Extract from an address delivered at the 
annual convention last January of the Nova 

Scotia Fruit (irowers' Association. 



remarks very largely to control methods. 

Three species of aphids are commonly 
found in orchards: First, Green Apple 
.\phis; second. Rosy Apple Aphis; third, 
Woolly Apple .'Vphis. 

The first is by far the most common 
species in Nova Scotia. All of you arc 
familiar with the small, oval black shiny 
eggs of this insect, found upon the twigs 
of the last year's growth during fall and 
winter. These eggs begin to hatch early 
in spring, and by the time the leaf buds 
are showing green most of the aphids 
have emerged. The tirjie of hatching 
usually extends over a period of several 
weeks. The newly hatched aphids are 
all wingless females that give birth to 
young without the intervention of the 
males. A small percentage of the second 
generation give rise to winged females, 
which fly to other trees and establish 
colonies there. The aphids breed con- 
tinuously throughout the season, some 
being winged and others, again, wingless. 
Toward fall true males and females are 
produced that pair in the ordinary way ; 
the true females subsequently depositing 
their eggs upon the twigs. 

The life-history of the Rosy Aphis is 
similar to that of the green apple aphis. 
The eggs are laid on the apple, though 
not nearly so abundantly as in the case 
of the previous species. The newly 
hatched young are dark green in color, 
but later reddish and brownish forms 
are produced. During the summer the 



aphids migrate to some unknown food 
plant, returning in the fall to deposit 
their eggs. , 

The Woolly Apple aphid is in some 
countries the worst pest of all, owing 
largely to the fact that it may attack 
both roots and tops. It is very different 
in its habits from the two preceding spe- 
cies, for whereas they are leaf eaters, 
this species feeds for the most part upon 
the tender bark of roots or stems. On 
the roots they form gall-like swellings, 
and may not be detected until the tree 
is seriously injured. The chief source of 
the lice found upon the trees in spring 
is those that migrate from the roots and 
those which have remained concealed up- 
on the trunk of the tree in cracks and 
crevices of the bark. In spring and early 
summer they will be found abundant 
around wounds in the bark or upon 
stumps of limbs that have been cut back, 
or in similar locations. Later in the sea- 
son they are found farther out on the 
branches, the small limbs, twigs, or 
leaves being often completely encrusted 
with the insects. The aphids have an 
irritating or poisonous effect upon the 
b^rk, their work causing open cankers 
upon the twigs. Small galls also result 
in some cases. 

Probably the most valuable aphidiscide 
that has been developed in recent years 
is a preparation of Nicotine Sulphate, 
called Black Leaf 40, manufactured by 
the Kentucky Tobacco Product Company 
of Louisville, Ky. 

I do not wish to enter into the ques- 
tion of spr;iying for the apple scab, but if 




The Exhibit of Ontario Fruit which carried off the Firit aad SeconJ Prizes in the das* for Five Boxes, at the Canada Land and Apple 
Show, held in Winnipeg last October. This was the only Open Competition for Apples. British Columbia was Third 



6o 



THE CANADIAN HORTICULTURIST 



March, 1914. 




A I Well Loaded Tree 

Orchard of T. W. Pa/lmer, Victoria, B.C. 

you intend giving the first or dormant 
spray with lime and sulphur it is advis- 
able under some conditions to defer that 
spray until the buds are bursting, adding 
the Black Leaf 40 to this spray. This 
combination is an excellent control for 
tfie aphis, besides the good it may do m 
controlling scab. 

Black Leaf 40 may, moreover, with 
equally good results be added with the 
next application, i.e., just before the 
blossoms open and when the petals begin 
to show pink at the tips. This is pro- 
bably the more important spray for aphis 
and scab as well. Lead arsenate for bit- 
ing insects may likewise be added with- 
out impairing the value of the wash, as 
far as we have determined, for aphis or 
scab. If necessary the Black Leaf may 
again be added to the codling moth 
spray, applied just after the blossoms 
fall. In these sprays. Black Leaf 40 It 
u.sed in the strength of one-third of a 
pint to forty gallons of the wash. When 
used alone a pound of good laundry soap 
should be added as well. 

Soap must never be added to a spray 
containing lime-sulphur. 

Another sprav that has been in use for 
many years and has been used with su?- 
c->ss for all kinds of sucking insects is 
Kerosene Emulsion. It is made as fol- 
lows : Soap, one-half pound ; kerosene. 
two gallons : water, one gallon. 

Dissolve th" ■io'ip va hot wat^r, bM oil 



and churn violently until a creamy emul- 
sion is produced. This gives a stock 
solution that may be kept for some time. 
For use again.st aphids, dUute every 
three gallons of stock solution with ten 
gallons of water. 

The disadvantages of kerosene emul- 
sion are: 

First, it cannot be used in combination 
with other insecticides or with fungi- 
cides ; second, if a good emulsion is not 
.secured the spray will be sure to "burn the 
foliage. The oil will collect on the top 
of the mixture and some of the trees will 
receive a pure oil spray. I have seen so 
much damage done in this way that I 
am reluctant to urge the general use of 
kerosene emulsion. 

There is another spray that is very 
popular with some orchardists. For 
u.se one pound is dissolved in five of 
water. It may be used with Black Leaf 
40, but must not be added to lime-sul- 
phur. There are several brands on the 
market, differing in cost and eflficiency. 

Quassia chips are often added to whale 
oil soap and improves it as an aphidis- 
ride. The following is the formula: 
.Soap, three pounds; quassia chips, three 
pounds; water, forty gallons. 

Soap sprays are usually fairly satis- 
factory and are easily prepared. 

The soap or emulsion sprays can be 
used at the same time as has been re- 
commended for Black Leaf 40. All 
wooly aphis is harder to kill owing to 



its protective covering of wax, and ac- 
cordingly the sprays must all be used 
.somewhat stronger. It, is usually most 
easily destroyed by a spray applied in 
the fall when the aphids are out on the 
terminal shoots. 



Hardy Apples and Plums 

Angatt Dnpait, Dirfctor of Frnil Stationi, Vill*(c de 
AoUaiet, Que. 

The varieties of apples and plums here 
mentioned have been cultivated in the 
north-west part of the province of Que- 
bec for twenty-five to fifty years with 
success. The severest winters have not 
injured them. I could add to this list 
several varieties which are doing well, 
but they have not been tested long 
enough by the orchardists and at the 
Experimental Station to warrant me in 
recommending them as yet for general 
plantation. 

Nurserymen having agents to sell 
stock in Quebec province, east of .Mon- 
treal, ought to offer to their customers 
only the varieties that have proved 
hardy and productive after several years 
of culture. The nurserymen having at 
heart the success of the fruit industry 
ought not to sell Baldwin, R. I. Green- 
ing, King, Newton, and Pippin trees in 
this northern part of Canada. All at- 
tempts to cultivate them have failed. 
Their wood does not mature, our season 
of growth being too short. 



Vigor. Hardi- 



HARDY PLUMS FOR QUEBEC* 

Fumid- Season. Use. Size. Qual. Cook- 







ness. 


ity. 




Bradshaw 


75 


75 


75 


Sept. 


Doe's Golden D. .. 


75 


90 


90 


Sept. 


Gneii 


80 


75 


90 


End Sept 


Grand Duke 


75 


75 


90 


Oct. 


Hudson Elver 










Quackenboes .. .. 


90 


90 


90 


Oct. 


Imperial Gage .... 


SO 


75 


75 


Rept 



Lombard 



90 



Mirabelle (native).. 75 

Moor's Arctic . . . . 75 

Pond's Seedling- ... 75 

Agen 75 

Reine Olaude 

Montmorency — 90 

Damaa bleu 75 

Shipper's Pride .. 75 

Green Gage 76 

Washington ... . . 75 



90 

90 

90 
75 
55 



90 
90 
75 
75 
50 



100 
90 

90 

75 
75 

90 
90 
75 
75 
75 



8. A Oct. 

Aug. 

Sept. 
Oct. 
Oct. 

Sept. 
Rent. 
Sept. 
Sppt. 
Sept. 



d. 
d.c 
d. 
d. 

do. 
d. 

dc. 

d.c 

d.c. 
dc 
d. 

d. 

d. 

dc 

d. 

d. 



vl 
ml 

1 
vl 

vl 



ml 
sm 



vl 
m 

ml 

8 

vl 
m 
vl 



ity. 
B 

e 
g 
vg 

e 

vg 

g 

vg 

f 
f 
g 

vg 
vg 

f 

vg 

e 



ing. 
75 
75 
75 
90 

90 
90 

90 

90 

90 
90 

75 

90 
90 
75 
90 
90 



Ship. 

ping. 
50 
90 
75 
76 

90 
50 

90 

90 

90 
90 
90 

90 
90 
90 
75 
7S 



Dessert. 



50 
'.5 
75 
90 

90 

90 Extra for 

canning. 
75 V. g. for 

canning 
90 V. g. for 
proi?crvcs- 
50 

50 Varieties im- 
90Pprtcd from 
France 1K» 
-^ and the most 
f^ generally 
" cultivated n 
50 North-Kasti- 
91^ em Quebec 
9' on ownroot". 



HARDY APPLES FOR QUEBEC 



Vigor 

.\etraohan 75 

Y. Transparent ... 90 

Peach of Montreal. 90 

Duchess 76 

E. Strawberry .... 50 

Alexander 75 

Longfleld 75 

St. Lawrence .. .. 50 
Wolfe River .. ..76 

Wealthy 90 

Am. Gold. Russet.. 75 

Bethel 75 



90 
90 

75 
75 
50 
75 



Tree 

Ha.rdy. Prolific Season 
75 
90 
90 
90 
60 
90 
90 
75 
75 
90 
75 
76 
90 



9" 
75 
75 
fin 



50 
90 
90 
90 
50 
«0 
75 
50 
re 
90. 
75 
50 
90 
on 
75 
75 
75 
75 



Sept. 

Aug 

Sept- 
.Sept . & Oct. 

Sept. 

Oct. 

Nov.. 

Oct. 
Nov. -Dec. 
Dec .-Feb. 
Nov. -May 
Nov. -Feb. 
Oct. -March 
Oct. -Feb. 
Oct. -May 
Oct.-Mny 
Nov.-T'eb. 

N'%v -■'f-T 



Use. 
dc 
dc 
d. 
d.c 

d. 

o. 

c 

d. 

d. 

dc. 
d. 
d. 
d. 
d. 
d. 
d. 

c 



Fruit. 

Size. Qualitv. Cook, 
m g 50 



Ship. Dessert 
50 75 



1 
vl 

1 
m 
ml 
m 
ml 



Fameuee (Snow) 

Mcintosh Red .. 

Roi. Russet . . . 

Scott's Winte'- . 

Winter Arabka 

T tpTi Davis .... ^ 

•In the foregoing tables, in the column headed "use" the '«*<*'• ''^^l.'Xm'^sile'' "rTVr^e 



e 

g 
f 
f 
f 
f 

vg 

g 
g 

g 
g 

vg 

vg 

g 
g 
f 
f 



90 
75 
75 
75 
50 
50 
50 
75 
75 
25 
50 
75 
75 
IS 
25 
75 
50 



25 
25 
90 
75 
90 
90 
90 
90 
90 
90 
90 
90 
75 
90 
90 
9^ 
90 



75 
50 
SO 
50 
50 
50 
90 
75 
75 
75 
75 
90 
90 
90 
75 
5" 
40 



March, 1914. 



THE CANADIAN HOETTC ULTTJTITST 



CI 



Efficient Spraying Apparatus Required* 

J. M. Robinson, B.S.A., Assistant for Horticulture, Kentville, N. S. 

iRUIT growers are waking up to 



the fact that we need more effi- 
cient apparatus if we are to do 
our best work in spraying. Power 
sprayers are in use in a great many Nova 
Scotia orchards, and it is a great pity 
that some of these are not of the best 
type. A power sprayer should be able 
to force not less than one hundred and 
fifty gallons of spray through two lines 
, of hose, with moderately coarse nozzles, 
in from twenty-five to thirty minutes in 
order that thorough and the most econ- 
omical work may be done. One or two 
points outside of the sprayer might be 
discussed briefly with profit. 

BAKBOOS 

Any one visiting orchards in the An- 
napolis Valley is at once impressed with 
the enormous per cent, of scabbed fruit 
on the tops of our large and even moder- 
ate-sized trees. The reason for this is 
obvious when we look closely at the 
spraying apparatus used in the general 
orchard. Very few towers are used on 
outfits, and dependence for reaching the 
tops of the trees is placed entirely in the 
rod used. These rods are with few ex- 
ceptions too short for the purpose. Long 
rods are not purchased by the wholesalers 
as they claim there is no sale for them. 

No one can reach the tops of trees 
twenty-five feet in height with a pole ten 
feet long. This fact was brought 
strongly to my notice while thinning in 
the orchard of E. I. Loomer on July 
22nd. Mr. Loomer, who is a thorough 
sprayer and gets results much above the 
average, was spraying. After the tree 
which I was thinning had been sprayed, 
I took the trouble of investigating the 
thoroughness of the work done. The 
lower part of the tree was drenched, but 
on examining the upper portion I found 
the leaves absolutely dry and without a 
sign of any spray. The rods used were 
ten feet long, while the tree was some 
twenty-three feet high, and though the 
spray seemed to be reaching its destina- 
tion, the top of the tree, it failed to do 
. so. 

At the time of thinning even a careful 
observer from the ground would fail to 
detect scabbed fruit, but a high per cent, 
of spotted fruit, mostly from the top of 
the tree, was harvested. This state of 
things is not the exception, but the rule. 
One way of remedying this evil is to 
purchase longer bamboos or to get a 
tower arrangement so that we are sure 
that we reach the top of the trees from 
every side. 

NOZZLES 

In order to do thorough work and 
drive spray through dense foliage, it 

•Extract from an address delivered at the 
last annual oonventlon of the Nova Scotia Fruit 
Growers' Aesooiation. 



seems necessary to have a spray of some 
coarseness. If too coarse, however, it 
does not spread, is wasteful, and there 
is great danger of skipping. It is there- 
fore, advisable to use a whirlpool type of 
nozzle, with moderately coarse discs. 

TANK FILLING 

The cost of spraying depends to quite 
an extent on the time required to fill 
the tank. The first thing required for 
quick filling is an abundant water supply, 
and the second an outlet pipe or hose so 
that the water may be had quickly. 

Mr. S. B. Chute, of Berwick, has an 
ideal plant, with four inch outlet for 
re-filling and a two hundred gallon spray 
tank that can be easily filled in three 
minutes. This means that the sprayer is 
working practically all the time, and 
this means reduced cost in spraying. 
Often where water in any quantity is 
obtainable the outfit is kept waiting for 
fifteen to twenty-five minutes to refill on 
account of too small an outlet. The cost 
of installing a lead sufficient to do the 
work in one-fifth of the time is not great 
and the money lost by not doing so is at 
times hard to estimate. 

An old-fashioned dash churn is cheap 
and very effective for creaming arsenate 
of lead. 

COST OF SPEAYING 

The cost of spraying an acre of or- 
chard will depend on the efficiency of 
equipment on the number of trees per 
acre and on the size of the trees. Rough- 
ly the cost of spraying an acre of forty 
medium-sized trees, taking eight gallons 



per tree for each application, would be 
as follows : 

The cost will embrace the cost of 
three hundred and twenty gallons of 
lime-sulphur testing 1.0085 specific grav- 
ity, using five pounds of Sherwin Wil- 
liams lead to one hundred gallons of 
spray. 

The cost of application will allow forty 
cents an hour for sprayer and gasoline, 
operating nozzles. The following figures 
would result : 

Lime-Sulphur 9.7 gals, at ITj^c per 

sal. $1.70 

Arsenate of lead, 16 lbs. at 10c 1.60 

Power outfit, 3 hrs., at $1 per hr 3.00 

Total $6.30 

Each application per acre thus costs 
the grower either under or over this 
amount, according to whether his trees 
take under or over eight gallons per 
tree, according to whether he has more 
or less than forty trees to an acre, and 
according to whether his equipment will 
put on more or less than approximately 
one hundred gallons an hour or one 
thousand gallons a day. 

This is, of course, a rough estimate. 
It is given only for the information of 
those having limited or no experience in 
spraying. 

White grubs do a great deal of damage 
to strawberries. They are difficult to 
handle when they once get into the soil. 
It is wise to plant in soil that has not 
been in sod very long. The grub re- 
quires two years in the soil, and the sec- 
ond year it does the damage. — W. J. 
Kerr, Ottawa, Ont. 




THE CANADIAN HORTICULTURIST 



6s 

Experimental Work with Shrubs and Flowers* 

F. E. Buck, Experimental Farm, Ottawa 

used. Many of the hedges are over 
twenty years old, while others are only 
one or two. Most are in fine condition, 



March, 1914- 



At the very beginning of the experi- 
mental farms syjstem in Canada, the 
work of testing, recommending and m 
some cases distributing hardy and de- 
sirable ornamental trees, shrubs, and 
flowers was undertaken on a fairly ex- 
tensive scale. The wohk was under the 
direct supervision of the late director. 
Dr. Saunders, and the present Dominion 
Horticulturist, Mr. W. T. Macoun, who 
was at that time curator of the Botanic 
Garden or Arboretum. In a young coun- 
try like Canada, work of this character 
undertaken by the Federal Government 
on such a scale had an outstanding value. 
In the first place it allowed reliable in- 
formation to be issued in the form of 
semi-popular bulletins, such as those of 
"Hardy Trees and Shrubs" and "Her- 
baceous Perennials Tested at Ottawa," 
very large editions of both these bulle- 
tins being now nearly exhausted ; and in 
the second place the judicious distribu- 
tion of such plants to the branch farms, 
public and other institutions, where they 
attracted the attention of the public, has 
meant that for some years past, and at 
the present more than ever before, the 
possibility of beautifying the individual 
home and making it a beauty spot has 
appealed to a large number of people 
who otherwise to-day might have homes 
as unattractive as those of many districts 
of the old world or the desolate homes 
of new settlers in our own land. 

Countless shrubs have been tested and 
discarded. Others have proved of great 
value and the good results rewarding 
the efforts put into this line of work 
make it stand out surely as of large im- 
portance in encouraging the strivings 
after ithose things which develop the 
moral and ethical phases of our life. 

This work is still going forward. Just 
now, to mention but one of its phases, 
we have under observation a number of 
new shrubs and varieties of well-known 
shrubs which were introduced a few 
years ago from China and other coun- 
tries by E. H. Wilson, of the Unite<l 
States Department of Agriculture, as 
well as other shrubs both donated and 
purchased. We are also putting shrubs 
to the test with regard to their suitabil- 
ity for certain purposes around the home. 
This is a phase of work rather new with 
us. 

HEDGE PLANTS 

The test of plants for hedge purposes 
is beiiig expanded and kept up-to-date. 
Nowhere in the world, as far as I am 
aware, is there such a coniplete and 
thorough test of plants suitable for hedge 
purposes as that which may be seen 
under way at Ottawa. About 100 differ- 
ent varieties of trees and shrubs are 

*Extra«t fTom on address delivered before the 
Ontario Horticultural Association. 



and many are very handsome and at- 
tractive. Visitors from all parts of the 
world compliment the farm on this col- 
lection, and inquiries are very numer- 




A Coantiy Driveway, Hamber Valley Park, Toronto 

ous about plants for this purpose. A 
bulletin on the experiments will be pub- 
lished before long. 

The following trees make almost per- 
fect hedges: 

All of the hardy birches, namely, lutea, 
populifolia, nigra, and lenta. 

The larches, both the American and 
European. 

And several other trees ; while some 
trees that might be expected to do better 
when grown for hedge purposes are not 
successful ; of these the elm, the Mani- 
toba maple, and the Russian mulberry 
are examples. 

It is always a source of disappoint- 
ment to attempt growing any plant with 
the dual purpose in mind of a floral effect 
and a good hedge, because in pruning a 
plant to keep it tx> a hedge form the 
flower buds have to be sacrificed, con- 
sequently several of the most handsome 
shrubs make poor hedge plants. How- 
ever, if a hedge with a distinctive char- 
acter is required, any one of the follow- 
ing might be used : 

Purple-leaved Barberry, Golden Nine- 
bark, Red-leaved Rose, Cut-leaved Al- 
der, Red-twigged Dogwood, American 
Beech, and the following evergreens: 
Douglas' Golden Arbor-Vitae, Silver- 
tipped Arbor-Vitae, Irish Juniper, and 
Swiss Stone Pine. 



Ordinarily we score a plant as perfect 
for hedge purposes when it measures up 
to the following requirements: It must 
grow vigorously, but not too rapidly, 
otherwise it will require too much prun- 
ing. It must have an attractive appear- 
ance throughout most of the year and 
must regain that appearance quickly 
after pruning. It must permit being 
pruned to a symmetrical form and a 
form which will not hold the snow on 
the top in the winter. It must fill out 
well at the base when planted in single 
rows at eighteen inches apart in the 
row. It must not winter-kill in places, 
and must not suffer from attacks of in- 
sects or fungous diseases. These are 
the main paints of a good hedge. At 
Ottawa we have many which meet these 
requirements. 

WORK WITH PERENNIAL FLOWEHfi 

A few words only on jjerennial flowers. 
Mr. Macoun's bulletin on "Herbaceous 
Perennials," published in 1898, shows at 
a glance the immense number of these 
imporlant plants. This group has been 
eulogized of late as being responsible for 
most of the recent good work in Home 
Beautification. 

Our most recent work with perennials 
has been to test them for their effect un- 
der certain conditions. All of the best 
of these flowers previously tested for 
other information, are now grown in a 
border twelve feet wide and four hundred 
and fifty feet long, prepared especially 
for the purpose in 191 1. In this border 
the five or six great season groups of 
perennials are well represented. Such 
being the bulbs as: tulips, narcissi, and 
so forth, for the first effect in spring, then 
the irises, then the paeonies, after which 
come the great bulk of bloom which is 
followed by the phloxes for late summer 
effect, and the asters for autumn effects 

It should be mentioned here perhaps 
that there are certain times during the 
summer when the amount of bloom in a 
perennial border is very small. One of 
these periods is that which occurs just 
after the bulk of the early summer plants 
have bkxjmed. Since this is a time of 
the year when a large number of people 
are expecting the flowers to look at their 
best, we are just now working to find 
suitable flowers to fill in these gaps in the 
floral year. 



Dahlias require good rich soil, good 
uniform moisture conditions, and plenty 
of sunlight, to do well. If the soil has 
not been sufficiently enriched, or the 
bed may be more shaded than it should 
be, or the ground become too dry, the 
bloom will be disappointing. The Dah- 
lia requires moderately cool soil condi- 
tions to do best, and both the applica- 
tin of water and humus to the soil 
brings these conditions about. — Prof. 
W. S. Blair, Kentvile, N.S. 



The Beeches — A Garden Beautiful 



unr' 



«HE Beeches" is the fitting title 
of the lovely home, on Grand 
Avenue, London, Ont., of Mr. 
R. W. Puddicombe, manager of the 
I-ondon Loan Society. A fine home it is. 




Mr. Puddicombe's Garden, Looking North 
Toward the House 

This was revealed during a visit when 
the grounds and garden were at their 
best. Embowered in grand old beeches, 
evergreens, and deciduous trees and 
shrubs, and draped in its summer suit of 
close-fitting Virginia Creeper and Am- 
pelopsis Veitchii, the house reminded one 
of the southern colonial home because of 
its wide and hospitable, pillared veran- 
dah, garnished everywhere with boxes, 
pots and other receptacles for flowers. 
It might easily be passed by a person on 
the road without ever imagining that so 
large a home was so near. 

As you enter the gate from the avenue 
the driveway describes a circle through 
the ancient forest, and returns to the 
gateway. Passing up a rather sharp 
elevation, and arriving at the top and 
I)assing the front elevation of the house 
on the left, you find the primeval and 
modern hand in hand in great beauty. 
The only connecting link between the 
two is a single rank of Scottish firs, 
[)lanted by a former resident, which seem 
to stand on tiptoe to make themselves as 
lall and grand as the lordly beeches they 
.ire guarding. 

At their feet stretches a large tennis 
court, level as a billiard table, closely 
shaven and well kept, surrounded by 
lawn, till cut off from the garden by a 
fine row of syringas, backed by a border 
of perennial plants. The driveway is left 
here, and walking across the small pla- 
teau, on which the house stands, the 
beauty of the place bursts upon you. 

THE EOSB GARDKN 

The ground dips from your feet as 
rapidly as it rose at the entrance. On 



A. J. Elliot, Aylmer, Ont/ 

this decline is situated the rose garden. 
At the bottom of this descent the lawn 
proper commences. It is embellished in 
the centre with a bed of magnificent 
paeonies. The lawn still rises till the full 
height of the ascent is reached on the 
top of which is planted a grand row of 
pampas grass. Then some eight feet 
more, and a row of spruce ends the 
scene. The general view is lovely. 

Descending to the path at the bottom 
of the incline, and turning, the full 
beauty of the roses struck me forcibly. It 
was a glorious day in June when I first 
was there, and an ideal day for roses. 
There they stood, some five hundred 
bushes, all of strong and vigorous 
growth, fairly bending under the load 
of blossoms they bore, from the purest 
white through all the shades of pink, 
cream, and scarlet, to the darkest shades. 
It was a panorama of beauty. I could 
not see a bug, worm, or aphis in the 
garden. Questioning Mr. Puddioomlx' 




The Middle of the Garden, Looking South 

as to their absence, he told me that he 
had used tobacco water and helebore, 
but his panacea for rose enemies was no- 
thing more than the garden hose. The 
rich clay soil is where the rose luxuri- 
ates, and the only manure given is in 
the fall when strawy manure is put on 
deep for their protection and raked off in 
the spring, the fine humus left being dug 
in. 

A good lesson might be learned by 
rose growers as to pruning. The severe 
winter two years ago froze about all the 
wood grown the previous year. Yet the 
following season the roses never blos- 
somed finer nor were more prolific. Mr. 
Puddicombe's favorites are La France, 
Marvel de Lyons, Baroness Rothschild, 
Gen. Jaqueminot, Polonnaise, and Gen. 
Grant, all of which are well represented 
in his garden, besides a great many 
others. 



Now, as the rose unfortunately gets 
through blossoming soon after the month 
of June is out, the beds would have ra- 
ther a deserted look ; so in the diamond 
centre bed, geraniums are planted, and 
the other beds are filled in with Japanese 
Pinks, Phlox Drummondi, asters, scabi- 
osa, salvia, heliotrope, and on either side 
liberal perennial borders run the whole 
length of the enclosure, rioting in bloom. 
Here was found sweet rocket, the lark- 
spurs, corn flowers, perennial phloxes, 
garden heliotrope. Sweet William, col- 
umbine, hollyhocks, paeonies, and many 
other flowers. 

This enclosure is in its turn cut off 
from the vegetable garden by a lattice 
fence covered with clematis, entrance be- 
ing gained through arched ways, where 
the paths command. Entering by the 
south path a surprise was exjjerienced . 
Another lawn met the view. It was sur- 
rounded on three sides with perennials 
and on the fourth by rows of currants 
and gooseberries, while a"centre bed was 
a mass of splendid cannas. 

North of this was the vegetable gar- 
den proper in which in profusion is grown 
in rows currants, gooseberries, beans, 
tomatoes, beets, carrots, peas, sweet 
peas, and asparagus, and all around this 
part, under the spruces that mark the 
line of property, are grown raspberries. 
Adjoining this section is the greenhouse, 
in which some fine chrysanthemums were 
showing good work for late fall blos- 
soms. 

I stated at the out.set that the front 
was a mass of trees and shrubs. Mr. 
Puddicombe has spared neither expense 
nor trouble to gain his desired effect. 
He has the Mahonia Aquafolia, the seeds 
of which he got while on a visit to Hei- 
delberg in Germany ; the Retinospora, 
Barberry, Thunbergia, Juniper, Azaleas, 
and the Sciadopitys Virticillata, besides 




The Ea*t End, Looking West 



64 



THE CANADIAN HORTICULTURIST 



March, 1914. 




A Shady, Bordered Path 

the more commonly known varieties of 
shrubs. He also gjrows successfully the 
Magnolia, which had just got through 
blooming before my visit. Cuddled up 
at the foot of this shrubbery is a fine 
row of Japanese anemones. 

There are some three acres to this fine 
place, and it would be impossible for 
Mr. Puddicombe, who is a busy man, to 
attend to it. He has a man who has 
been with him for years, and between 
them they have made a success of The 
Beeches, and it is hard to know which 
takes the most interest in developments 
there — the proprietor or the gardener 
Jacques. 

There is one magnificent beech, close 
to the house, that has a spread of over 
70 feet, and during hot Sundays a nephew 
who frequently visits them holds the 
Church of England service under the 
leafy dome. 



Planting New Shrubberies 

John Gall, Inglewood, Ont. 

Whether the proposed new shrubberies 
are to be on a large scale or otherwise, 
every effort should be made to prepare 
the soil well, to put in the most suitable 
kinds of shrubs, and to arrange them in 
the most attractive way. Even a very 
small shrubbery makes the home look 
more substantial and comfortable. Not 
only does the cultivator derive great in- 
terest from watching the growth of his 
shrubs, but in association with them he 
can, all the more effectively, arrange 
other subjects in his garden. 

Very fine shrubs can be grown in quite 
poor soil if it is well treated. Many cul- 
tivators are under the impression that 
it is useless for them to attempt the 
growing of shrubs, or to form a shrub- 
bery, because the rooting medium is 
different in regard to quality. Of course 
good rich soil helps matters consider- 
ably; but there is a large amount that 
is of poor quality, and those who have 
to grow shrubs in such, should make it 



a2> suitable a* pu&kiblc bclorc puLliu^ in 
their plants. 

~ In preparing the ground, it is absol- 
utely necessary to have it dug as deeply 
as possible, adding a good quantity of 
manure. This being done, it is always 
wise to mark out the stations, before 
commencing to plant. The need for a 
careful spreading out of the roots and 



for firm planting must be insisted upon. 
After the operation is completed, water 
must be applied freely, so that it may 
sink deep down to the roots. 

A few deciduous kinds of shrubs, judi- 
ciously mixed with the evergreen sorts, 
always add to the general appearance, 
and give additional interest to those of 
a non-floworing character. 



March Work in Indoor Garden and Greenhouse 

Henry Gibson, Staatsburg 



With the advent of March the pro- 
gressive amateur finds plenty to do to 
keep everything in good shape and pre- 
pare for Easter. Decorative foliage 
plants will be greatly improved in ap- 
pearance by a good spraying with some 
such insecticide as Lemon Oil, Fir Tree 
Oil or Aphine. No matter how careful 
and attentive you may have been, either 
scale or mealy bug will have found an 
abode somewhere around the stem or fol- 
iage. A thorough going over with any 
of the insecticides mentioned when they 
are used according to directions accom- 
panying them, wilJ account for these 
pests and leave your plants in fine shape. 

After the cleaning each plant should 
be unpolled or some new soil added as a 
top dressing. In the latter case, remove 
the old soil down to the active roots. 
This should be done very carefully with a 
piece of wood, so as not to injure the lit- 
tle rootlets. For a compost use good 
loam that has been enriched with thor- 
oughly decayed barnyard manure and 
bone-meal. Give the tubs or pots plenty 
of drainage material in the bottom to 
allow the water to pass off freely. 

As the sun gains more power to raise 
the temperature, more air should be giv- 
en, and as the weather becomes brighter 
some means of preventing the direct rays 
of the sun from striking the plants will 
have to be devised. This can be accom- 
plished by placing them in a somewhat 
shaded corner of the house, and in the 
greenhouse by whitewashing the glass of 
the section they occupy. 

EASTEE FLOWERS 

If you are bringing along a few lilies 
for Easter these should be showing buds 
now. It takes on an average six weeks 
for these buds to develop without undue 
forcing, which leaves nothing to spare, 
as Easter falls on April 12th this year. 
Keep them well watered and the atmos- 
phere moist, and you will have fine 
blooms for the holidays without much 
trouble. Liquid manure applied weekly 
until the buds begin to turn from green 
to white will be beneficial, but as soon 
as this happens it should be discontin- 
ued. Spraying or fumigating should be 
attended to regularly to prevent aphis 
from getting a hold on your plants. 

Should any plants color so early as to 
be past their best by the holidays, place 



ihem in a cool room. This treatment will 
retard their progress considerably. 

Where it is intended to have Dutch 
bulbs in bloom for the holidays these 
should be attended to about the middle 
of the month. It takes very little over 
three weeks to flower tulips, narcissus 
and hyacinths, after being brought into 
the house. Avoid giving them a warm 
place. They do not need it and they will 
only become drawn up. The cooler you 
can grow them the sturdier they will be, 
and consequently they will keep better 
and longer. A few hot days will forward 
these subjects far ahead of all your ex- 
pectations, but such fxjssibililies should 
be guarded against by ample ventilation, 
and if in the greenhouse some shade on 
ihe glass. Do not forget to lay news- 
papers on the tulips on hot sunny days 
when the flowers are opening. 

sow PRIMULA SEED 

The middle of March is a good time to 
sow seeds of primula that are wanted to 
furnish bloom next fall. Prepare seed 
boxes or pans with a mixture of loam, 
leaf mould and sand. Sift some of this 
mixture very fine for the top and on this 
sow the seeds. Place in a moist, close 
place, where a temperature of about six- 
ty degrees at night can be obtained, 
cover with glass and a sheet of news- 
paper until all the seeds germinate, 
which should be in two or three weeks. 
When sufficiently large to handle prick 
them off into flats, and keep well up to 
the light so as to ensure a sturdy growth 



1 




f ' 





The South End of the Garden, Looking Weit 



March, 1914. 



THE CANADIAN HORTICUT.TURTvST 



6S 



in a temperature of fifty degrees at night. 
As they begin to get crowded pot them 
off into small pots, using a compost of 
loam with the addition of sufficient leaf 
mould and sand to make it light and 
porous. To this should be added a fair 
sprinkling of pulverized sheep manure. 
Continue to pot them on as the roots 
show around the side of the pots. 

It is not advisable to sow seeds of the 
baby Primrose (Primula Malacoides) at 
this time. P. Malacoides is a very de- 
sirable plant which should have a place 
in every amateur's collection. It makes 
a better Easter plant than it does a 
Christmas plant and to start seeds now 
would result in many losses by damping 
off before the plants could be carried 
through to another Easter. Damping off 
is about the only thing that can be urged 
against this primula, and this to a large 
extent can be overcome by sowing the 
seeds later. June first is soon enough to 
start the seeds. 

CANNAS 

Cannas are very popular bedding 
plants and they are becoming more so 
each year as the new and improved var- 
ieties are being tried out. Where a large 
bed is to be planted nothing will give 
more satisfaction than these plants. They 
are showy and bloom throughout the 
summer until frost cuts them down. 

To make the best showing the roots 
should be started early enough to produce 
good strong stock by bedding out time 
next June. They should be started as 
early in March as possible. If there are 
any varieties you wish to add to your 
collection now is the time to get them. 

Remove the clumps from the place , 
where they have stood all winter, shake 
off all the old soil, and cut away the dried 
up stalks and roots. They should then 
be cut into small pieces, and if stock is 
plentiful, left with two or three "eyes" 
to each piece. If, however, you are 
short of stock they may be cut to one 
"eye," although by so doing weak plants 
are often produced. 

Have a few boxes ready such as you 
would use for sowing seeds in but pre- 
ferably a little deeper. Place an inch of 
soil in the bottom of these, on which put 
the divisions of the cannas closely to- 
gether, cover with light sifted soil and 
water thoroughly. 

Very often some of the clumps are 
found to have started into growth before 
being taken from the winter quarters. 
Where this happens the eyes should be 
sorted and those with growths on them 
should be placed in a box by themselves, 
and all the dormant eyes together. Have 
but one variety in a box and mark the 
name plainly on it. When ail the pieces 
are boxed up and watered they should be 
placed in a warm position where some 
"bottom heat" is to be obtained. 
Cannas will grow and do well in a tem- 



perature of from fifty to sixty degrees, 
after they are once started, but to get 
the dormant eyes into an active condition 
bottom heat is indispensable. This is 
where a great many amateurs fail when 
attempting to grow cannas with such 
conditions as generally obtain in the 
dwelling house. 

Arrange matters so as to have the 
boxes elevated above the radiator, the 
kitchen range, or even an oil stove, as 
was suggested for starting warm blood- 
ed seeds last month. Don't have the 
boxes get real hot but maintain a steady 



brisk heat and your cannas will respond 
handsomely. If such an arrangement is 
impossible indoors, make up a mild hot- 
bed out doors, and start them in a sandy 
soil. When they have made a few inches 
of growth they should be potted into 
three and a half or four inch pots, and 
grown along until bedding time in a 
temperature of fifty to sixty degrees. It 
should always be borne in mind that 
cannas are sub-tropical plants and are 
easily injured by frost, therefore plant- 
ing out should be delayed until all chance 
of frost is over. 



The Tuberous Bedding Begonia 

H. J. Moore, Queen Victoria Park, Niagara Falls, Out. 



WHERE the culture and require- 
ments of the tuberous bedding be- 
gonia are understood the plant is 
very popular. The tjiree outstanding es- 
sentials to successful cultivation are 
shade, moisture and a soil of light tex- 
ture. These are as necessary as light 
and air to human beings. Who would 
not grow tuberous begonias, were such 
possible? Among the singles we find 
flowers five to seven inches in diameter, 
the colors ranging from pure white 
through all the shades to intense crim- 
son, while the doubles, many of them 
resembling roses, are equally as varied 
in color, and as desirable. The frilled 
singles of recent Introduction attract at- 
tention more quickly than the ordinary 
singles or doubles, and in many locali- 
ties could be grown successfully. Less 
known, but equally beautiful, are the 
varieties Bertiniana, a tall vermillion 
single with pointed petals ; Count Zep- 
pelin, a dark orange double of dwarf 
habit ; Lafayette, likewise of dwarf hab- 
it closely resembling Count Zeppelin ; 
and Worthiana, a vermilion single, the 



flowers somewhat resembling those of a 
fuschia. 

For our beautiful tuberous bedding 
begonias, all of which are annual stem- 
med, we are indebted to the Andean spec- 
ies of South America, such as B. Pearcei, 
Veitchii, and probably Davisii, these be- 
ing the first tuberous sp)ecies introduced, 
and being readily crossed have proved 
worthy progenitors of our magnificent 
garden types. 

It is not advisable to attempt to grow 
any tuberous variety on a large scale in 
localities where the temperature hovers 
around 85 or 90 degrees for weeks at 
a time, and foolish to attempt to grow 
any with a higher temperature, or where 
an abnormally dry atmosphere exists. If 
such be attempted doubles alone should 
be planted, as their closely arranged 
petals are more resistant to heat than the 
singles, whose petals do not afford pro- 
tection to each other. An average sum- 
mer temperature of 75, a humid atmos- 
phere, and a light soil containing humus, 
retentive of moisture, are ideal condi- 
tions for promoting vigorous growth, 




jifamw 



A Bed of Mixed Tuberous Begonia^ 



These are not so effective as a 



bed of one variety. 

—Photo by H. J. Moore. 



f,f> 



THE CANADIAN HORTTC TTLTURTST 



March, 1914. 




The Ordinary Sweet Aly*«um Grow* Too Tall and Soon Smother* the Begonia*. 
Grow Dwarf Varietie* *ach a* "Minimum," "Snow Carpet," or "Little Gem." 

—Photo by H. J. Moore 



and splendid flowers. Where the atmos- 
phere is not sufficiently humid shade 
must be afforded, otherwise scorching 
will result. A surface mulch of well 
rotted stable manure or leaf soil is also 
advantageous. 

Those who possess a greenhouse may 
propagate the plants annually by seeds, 
or by division of the largest tubers. Sow 
the seeds in January or early February, 
if desirous of obtaining plants to bed 
out in June. It is, however, preferable 
to sow in March or April, and grow the 
seedlings in pots during the first year. 
Disappointment will thus not accrue 
through failure of many to flower satis- 
factorily out of doors. By pot culture 
the first yea^ the small tubers may be 
readily cared for, and after the growth 
decays they are not so liable to be lost 
which often happens when planted out- 
side. 

Prepare the seed pans by placing 
cracks in the bottom and on this a layer 
of fibrous material. Fill to within one 
inch of the top with finely sieved soil, 
composed of sand and leaf soil two parts, 
and loam one part. The mixture should 
also contain a small quantity of finely 
broken crocks and charcoal. Press down 
gently and u{X)n this layer of soil sift 
through a very fine screen sufficient soil 
to fill to within one-half inch of the top. 
Do not leave the surface flat, but con- 
vex, so that water may pass to the sides 
of the pan, and so prevent damping of 
the seedlings, this damping being caused 
by the fungus "Pythium." Immerse the 
seed pans in water without disturbing 
the surface soil until the soil is thor- 
oughly saturated. Sow the seed evenly 
and thinly. Do not cover with soil, place 
in a temperature of 65 degrees Fahren- 
heit, cover the pans with a piece of glass, 



and shade from sunlight. Do not at any 
time water the seedlings overhead, but 
partly immerse the pans. The water will 
thus rise by capillary attraction and the 
seedlings remain undisturbed. 

After germination, afford light (not 
direct sunlight) until the plants strength- 
en, and are large enough to handle, then 
plant singly one-half inch apart into 
larger pans. When about to crowd each 
other, pot off into two-inch pots, and 
finally, ere flower buds show, shift into 
four-inch pots. Afford occasional appli- 
cations of Clay's fertilizer or guano, one- 
half ounce to a gallon of water. Dampen 
the floors, benches, and other • surfaces 
to create humidity, and to prevent the 
attacks of red spider, but avoid spraying 
the plants during sunlight, otherwise 
scorching will result. Shade from in- 
tense sunlight at all times. 



Propagate by division during the first 
week in April. Select large tubers which 
possess at least two crowns. A sharp 
knife is essential to sever the tubers di- 
rectly between these, each portion will 
thus bear buds, without which they are 
useless. Expose the cut surface to air 
for some time until they cease "bleed- 
ing," after which dip them into slacked 
or powdered lime; this will act as an 
antiseptic, and also check the attacks of 
slugs, grubs, and other insects which 
prey upon them. Place the tubers on 
finely sieved leaf soil in flats, keep the 
.soil moderately moisi, spray them occa- 
siosally to encourage growth, and main- 
tain a temperature of at least 60 de- 
grees . 

When two or three inches of growth 
has been made pot off into four-inch or 
five-inch pots, and when well rooted re- 
move to a cold frame to inure to out- 
door conditions. Air well during warm 
days, but close the frames on cold nights. 
By the first of June the plants will be 
sufficiently hardened to allow of the 
sashes being entirely removed, and after 
a week's exposure to outdoor tempera- 
. tures, shaded, of course, from direct sun- 
light, they may be planted in their per- 
manent f)osition. 

Tuberous begonias, when massed, are 
always effective, especially when the 
singles and doubles are separated, for in 
their distinctiveness lies their attraction. 
Effective even to a greater degree are 
they when arranged in beds of separate 
colors, the merits of each variety being 
thus readily seen. Also, when so ar- 
ranged, it is possible to select and mark 
desirable kinds, and to eliminate weak- 
lings. As the begonia reproduces itself 
tolerably true from seed isolation of the 
varieties it renders seed selection pos- 
sible, there being little danger of the in- 
tervention of foreign pollen through nat- 




Dark Tuberous Begonia* and Al]r**um Minimum in Queen Victoria Park 

—Photo by H. J. Moore. 



March, 1914. 



THE CANADIAN HORTICULTURIST 



67 



ural or insect agencies. All who desire 
to see the tuberous begonia at its best 
should plant a small bed with dark blood 
red singles or doubles, about ten inches 
apart, and between these plant alyssum 
minimum as a ground work. The snow- 
like carpet of the latter will bring out the 
color of the former in bold relief, the 
combination being magnificent. Begonia 
Bertini nana, B. Count Zeppelin, and B. 
Lafayette are likewise admired to a 
greater extent when treated in this man- 
ner than when planted pure. 

When the stems commence to decay or 
when they are cut down by frost, lift the 
tubers with the remaining foliage, and if 
possible with a quantity of soil adhering 
to them. Pack them in shallow boxes, 
stems upward, place these on a green- 
house bench or in a shed near a window, 
so that light may have access to them 



until the growth entirely decays. Re- 
move all decayed stems to facilitate the 
drying of the tubers, otherwise they may 
become diseased. Carefully remove all 
soil and spread the tubers on a shelf for 
a day or so, and finally store them in 
layers, in boxes containing dry sand, two 
inches of sand or so between each layer 
of tubers. 

Place the boxes away for the winter 
in a dry frost proof shed, cellar, or green- 
house, the latter being preferable. Aim 
to maintain an average temperature of 
50 degrees, not allowing it to fall for 
any length of time below 40 degrees or 
to rise to 60 degrees. These winter 
temperatures are deleterious, inasmuch 
as the former will chill, and catise the 
tubers to decay, while the latter will in- 
fluence growth to start at an unnatural 
and undesirable time. 



Home Culture of Chrysanthemums 



W. Hunt, Ont. Agri. 

THE chief reason why these popular 
autumn flowers are not more 
commonly grown by amateurs is 
because they are so liable to attacks of 
insect pests. Some twenty-five or thirty 
years ago the greater part of these plants 
grown by commercial florists were field 
grown. To-day one seldom if ever sees 
a field-grown plant ; they are almost all 
grown under glass. The small pest call- 
led the Tarnish Plant Bug (Lygus pra- 
ctensis) is mainly responsible for this. 
This is the same pest that is so de- 
structive to the aster bloom, causing so 
many blooms to be imperfect in form, 
large gaps often being seen in the petals, 
spoiling the appearance of the flower. 
The buds and terminal points of growth 
of dahlias, too, are often spoiled by the 
same insect. 

These pests are very common on many 
garden plants besides those named, es- 
pecially on garden corn. They usually 
appear in June and continue their attacks 
all through the- hot weather. As they 
apparently do very little harm to any 
of the economic plants in the garden, 
having a particular liking for the de- 
corative plants only, they have not re- 
ceived much attention from entomolo- 
gists, as there does not appear to be any 
really effective remedy found yet for 
them. 

Another insect that attacks the chry- 
santhemum is the Black Aphis, a black 
and near relative of the Green Aphis, so 
common on house and garden plants. In 
very dry seasons the Red Spider (Tet- 
ranychus telarius) is troublesome, but it 
is not as injurious as the two hrst- 
named if the plants are given proper 
attention. 

There are three methods by which 
chrysanthemums can be propagated, 
viz., from cuttings, divisions of the old 



College, Guelph, Ont. 

roots, and from seed. The best method 
for an amateur is by dividing up the old 
plants. This can be done every year or 
at least every second year, to prevent the 
plants becoming too large and cumber- 
some. Old plants that have been kept 
in a cool window or a light basement or 
cellar all the winter should be brought 
up into a cool, sunny window, away 
from fire heat in March. 

When the young growth is about one 
or two inches in length, divide the plants 
with a large knife into small divisions 
or sections, each section having good 
roots and three or four shoots of top 
growth. Pot these sections into pots 
just large enough to hold the plant nice- 
ly, not too large, four-inch usually, in 
good potting soil, with about one part 
sand to eight or ten parts of potting 



soil. As soon as the roots have fairly 
well filled these, re-pot them into a two 
or three sized larger pot, a six-inch pot. 
This can be done usually about the first 
week in May, using good, rich, loamy 
potting soil. Place nearly an inch of 
broken flower pot or similar material 
for drainage in the bottom of the pot 
before potting. 

One point in potting chrysanthemums, 
at any time, is that the soil must be 
packed very firm around the roots. Use 
a small piece of hardwood for this pur- 
fKDse. Water the plants well once as 
soon as potted. Shade them from hot 
sun for a few days. Keep the soil they 
are growing in well moist at all times. 
The soil should never become really dry. 
Spray the growth with water, especially 
on the under side of the foliage at least 
every few days, oftener if possible, in 
bright, sunny weather. 

The cuttings are taken from the young 
growth that starts near to and around 
the base of the old flowering stem about 
March or April, or from the top growth 
of young plants. The stem of the cut- 
ting should be from two to four inches 
in length. The base of the cutting 
should be just below a node or point of 
the stem. Remove about half of the 
lower leaves, leaving three or four of 
the top leaves on. Leave the terminal 
point of growth intact. 

The best material to root the cuttings 
in is clean, gritty sand, sand that will 
make gtood stone mibrtar. The sand 
should be well moistened and packed 
firmly in a flower pot, seed pan, or a 
shallow flat box, each having good 
drainage. Set the cuttings upright in 
the sand about one and one-half inches 
apart, inserting rather more than half 
the length of the main stem in the sand. 
(To be continued) 




A Conrer of the Roae Garden of Mr. E. E. Starr, Whitby Ont. 



68 



THE CANADIAN HORTICULTURIST 



March, 1914. 



The Goal of Modern Vegetable Growing 



L. A. Waitzinger, B.S 

THE growing of vegetables is recog- 
nized as increasing in importance 
year by year. By the use of vege- 
tables we get the highest yield of human 
food from the soil, not entirely from the 
nutriment they contain, but mainly from 
the quality they possess of rendering 
more digestible the proteins and carbo- 
hydrates of other constituents of our 
food. The rapid growth of our cities 
and towns, which are mostly without big 
gardens, makes truck farming very pro- 
fitable with good paying crops. 

The providing of the vegetable grower 
with seeds is surrounded by many diflfi- 
culties — witness the recently issued vol- 
ume for 1913 of the Canadian Seed 
Growers' Association. One of the reme- 
dies for the improving of these conditions 
is the selection of seed. Of course the 
breeding of seeds for the improvement 
of crops is a very intricate and expensive 
work, e.g., the quantity of seed produced 
in relation to the area is often very small, 
this in part causes the expense. Again, 
foreign competition, climatic and tech- 
nical difficulties, not to mention the great 
labor problem, make the vegetable seed 
raisers path one of many tribulations. 

Seeds to produce improved crops can 
be raised in different ways. One of these 
is by mass selection, which means the 
selecting of the best plants and fruits 
from a crop and saving them for seed. 
The seed from these best plants are mix- 
ed and sown and the same process goes 
on from year to year. This method is 
defective inasmuch as a plant may be su- 
perior to its neighbors but only because 
it had specially good conditions of soil, 
light, water or protection, not because it 
has an inherited superiority. 

INDIVIDUAL SKLE-CTION 

Individual selection is the selecting of 
single plants, saving the seed therefrom 
and planting the progeny under condi- 
tions which gives each plant the same 
advantages. The seed from the best 
plants is then saved and kept separate. 
The process goes on as long as the inves- 
tigator likes. In mass selection you can- 
not guarantee that you have picked' out 
the best, you only think so. In individ- 
ual selection you are in a position to be 
sure. You can apply accurate tests to 
prove it. One is a hit or a miss; the 
other gets a bull's eye every time. 

These methods are generally used in 
animal breeding. Ordinarily a sheep 
farmer will let his ram run with a num- 
ber of ewes. The resulting lambs may 
be likened to the plants selected in the 
mass. When the same farmer wishes to 
produce something which shall do him 
credit he picks out a specially good ewe 
and his best ram and breeds from them. 



A., Echo Place, Ont. 

The lamb or lambs may be likened to in- 
dividual selection in plants in this case. 
The parentage is known and when the 
samie thing goes on for generations the 
final results are infinitely superior to 
those obtained by the first method. When 
a farmer wishes to test his herd of cows 
for milk production he treats all exactly 
alike, gives them the same water, food 
and shelter. The product from each is 
noted separately and after deducting the 
expense of production, he soon finds 
which cows are profitable. This is in- 
dividual selection for milk — similar to 
what should be done in plant life. If the 
farmer fed some of his cows well, housed 
them well, and ill-treated others, after- 
wards testing the results he would or' 
could only guess which was best. He 
would not be sure. This is similar to 
mass selection in plants. People should 
get firmly fixed in their minds that plants 
are living organisms, as responsive to 
treatment as animals, as amendable to 
improvement under certain conditions. 
The same lots of heredity rule in the 
vegetable and animal kingdoms. 

SIMPLIFYING THE WORK 

In order that the important work of 
breeding plants "for improved seed pro- 
duction may be encouraged, the question 
of simplifying the work should be con- 
sidered. This can be materially helped 
by the reduction in the number of varie- 
ties of each kind of vegetable. It is 
far better that the breeder and grower 
should devote their energies to the in- 
dividual improvement of the present old 
varieties rather than be perpetually cross- 
ing for new varieties. With what a 
flourish of trumpets is a new variety in- 
troduced ; what a plethora of adjectives 
are used to describe it and in a few years 
it is as dead as Queen Anne. It is bet- 
ter that improvement should take place 
along scientific lines. 

What is recommended is that certain 
districts should grow only one or at mo.st 
two varieties of the kind which can be 
grown successfully in the district. Then 
the breeders can proceed with their work 
knowing that their efforts can be con- 
trolled. Varieties of proved merit should 
be taken in hand and improved and one 
name given to each variety. This is 
another point which should be consider- 
ed by those anxious to simplify matters. 
We often find that many names are ap- 
plied to the one variety. Instead of 
breeders and growers frittering away 
their time on hundreds of different varie- 
ties, the differences only discoverable un- 
der a microscope (and often not then) 
they should come together and breed one 
good variety to a state of excellence. 
Two advantages would accrue by a dis- 



trict devoting its attention to only one 
variety. First from the commercial point 
of view the crops would command higher 
prices, because by the formation of small 
associations transit charges would be re- 
duced to a minimum. The district would 
become identified with the particular kind 
of vegetable specialized in. Instances of 
how this system has revolutionized num- 
erous districts could be cited. 

It would benefit such a district to grow 
its own seeds for two or three years, by 
the methods of individual selection men- 
tioned Ijefore. One or more men support- 
ed by the association, should be in charge 
of the .breeding of the stock seed, and 
after the neighborhood generally had a 
pure line of a certain vegetable, new seed 
from another pure line could then be in- 
troduced and in some cases could be used 
for crossing purposes. By having the 
district restricted to one variety a great- 
er chance of obtaining a pure line in a 
short time is present. 

The difficulties of a pure line breed- 
er of any vegetable are very evident in a 
district where many varieties of one kind 
are grown. Cross fertilization when it 
takes place without knowledge is work of 
no value. 

But the difficulties in the way of hav- 
ing specially trained breeders in each 
district would perhaps be too great to 
overcome. It would be a good thing to 
have breeding stations established in a 
few well-chosen centres supported by the 
government if private enterprise was un- 
able to cope with the problem. These 
stations would be in charge of men scien- 
tificaly equipped in every way, whose 
duty it would be to raise pure bred stock 
seed. These stock seeds could be sent to 
their respective districts where the vege- 
table growers could establish multiply- 
ing plots. From the plots the seed could 
be supplied for two or three years — not 
for very much longer as deterioration 
might sent in. Then fresh stock seed 
could be procured from the station and 
the district could proceed as described. 

The Glass Culture of Tomatoes 

R. H. Ellis, LeaminftoD, Ont. 

The tomato crop, an illustration of 
which appears on the front cover of this 
issue of The Canadian Horticulturist, 
was benched last August, started fruit- 
ing in October and finished in January. 
The plants were trained to a singe stem. 
We used twine and tied them to an over- 
head wire for support. The plants were 
set twenty by twenty-four inches. We 
find that three pounds to the plant is a 
very good average for this season of the 
year. The growers who get less than 
that are more plentiful than those get- 
ting that, let alone more. The house 
shown is one of our sixty-five by two 
hundred foot houses. The photo was 



M.irch, 1914. 



THE CANADIAN HORTICULTURIST 



69 




Vegetable Growers are Rapidiy Discarding the Old in Favor of the Modern Styles of Greenhouse Construction 

These houses are the Lord & Burnham Construction. Toronto, Oni. 



J 



taken about the middle of November. It 
was a good average crop. 

Some people would have you think 
that the growing of tomatoes under glass 
was just about like going into a mint 
and helping yourself to gold coin with 
no restriction. My opinion is that they 
will know more about it after they have 
had a little experience. I know several 
growers who have been getting some of 
that experience this past winter. Their 
gross receipts will not pay for the fuel 
consumed, let alone any of the other ex- 



penses. It has been said by one inex- 
perienced grower that he would be quite 
safe in saying that it would not cost more 
than ten cents a plant to produce a crop. 
Most winters it would cost that for fuel 
alone. It costs four to five cents a pound 
after the fruit is ripe, to pick and pack it, 
and deliver it at the express office, saying 
nothing of the abundance of work re- 
quired to bring a crop up to that stage. 
There is good reason, therefore, for 
warning the would-be tomato grower un 
der glass not to be misled. 



Results Obtained fron\ Potato Seed Selection 

W. E. Turner, Duval, Sask. 



I COMMENCED during the fall of 
1909, when harvesting my Irish 
cobbler potatoes, to select the best 
roots for planting the next year by dig- 
ging carefully and keeping each root sep- 
arate. I then went over the plot and 
picked out the most productive roots of 
uniform quality. These I stored in a 
large box in the cellar, to be planted in 
the spring of 1910 as a special seed plot. 

I selected again from this special plot 
in the fall of 1910 in the same manner, 
but during the summer of 191 1 I saw 
the annual report of the Canadian Seed 
Growers' Association and I found that the 
Association had a much better system of 
selection, so I sent for full particulars 
and rules and when digging in the fall 
of 191 1, selected twenty-two of the most 
productive roots and stored each root sep- 
arate in compartments in boxes. 

In the spring of 1912 I .selected apiece 
of land that was uniform throughout, 
using no manure, and planted whole, 
eight of the best potatoes of each of the.se 
roots in a separate row, numbering each 
row. Of cour.se I expected to find some 
improvement, but I had no idea the im- 
provement would be so great. When 
digging in 191 2 I kept each row and root 
separate and then by counting the pota- 



toes found the most productive rows. 
The best row had an average of twenty- 
one potatoes per root, the worst row only 
thirteen per root. This is where the ad- 
vantage of planting the pro- 
duct of each root in a separate row is 
found. One can see which row has the 
best pedigree. In this special seed plot 
there were eight roots with twenty-five 
or more potatoes per root, one root hav- 
ing twenty-nine. I selected again twen- 
ty-seven of the best roots from the most 
productive rows, keeping each root sep- 
arate as before, and the remainder of 
this plot was put in a special bin for the 
improved seed plot of 1913. 

The special seed plot of twenty-seven 
rows was planted as before. Eight of 
the best potatoes were planted whole per 
row. These were planted on land that 
had been cropped five times since it had 
been broken, so I sprinkled a quart of 
hen manure around each root just as they 
were coming through the surface. Al- 
though the season was too dry for the 
best results the most productive row av- 
eraged twenty-five potatoes per root, and 
the worst was eighteen per root. 

In this special seed plot there were 
thirty-five roots with twenty-five or more 
potatoes per root, one root having forty. 



Although the season was not as good as 
1 91 2 for high production, this shows an 
improvement on the 191 2 crop. Here 
again is shown the importance of pedi- 
gree. The three best rows were from 
the most productive row of 1912. I do 
not expect to make much more improve- 
ment but by careful selection each year 
under the Canadian Seed Growers' Asso- 
ciation rules I hope to keep the strain at 
least as good as it is now. In view 
of the satisfactory results obtained with 
the Irish Cobbler, I have commenced to 
select the Rochester Rose, Wee McGreg- 
or and Ashleaf Kidney potatoes on the 
same plan. 



Growing Ginseng in Ontario 

Dr. H. F. HacKendrick, Gait, Ont. 

A few years ago I commenced grow- 
ing ginseng. The root is the part that 
brings the money, and at present the 
grade of roots grown in Canada are 
bringing the highest price in the open 
market, being much finer grained and 
firmer than those grown farther south. 

Plant your seeds in September or Oc- 
tober, and they will come up in the fol- 
lowing spring. Put them in a well drain- 
ed piece of garden, sandy loam, or any 
well drained good soil will do, and you 
will be surprised at the progress of your 
crop. By raising your own seeds and 
planting them, each three year old plant 
will produce about fifty seeds, a four 
year old about seventy-five seeds and a 
five year old plant about one hundred 
seeds, so that quick reproduction may 
be attained and suflficient seed for sow- 
ing purposes may be acquired. This fact 
if often brought forward as an argument 
against the growing of ginseng, but to 
prove the fallacy we have only to consider 
that it takes ten years to produce a crop 
of apples, which in past years have also 
remn'red constant attention and its con- 
sequent expense. 



THE CANADIAN HORTIC ULTU R T S T 



March, 1914. 



The Canadian Horticulturist ^^^ssiiis^^^^^^^is^ 



rOMBINKC WITH 

THE CANADIAN HORTICULTURIST 
AND BEEKEEPER 

with which hni been Incorporated 

The Canadian Bee Journal. 

Publi«hed br The Horticultural 

Publithinc Company, Limited 

PKTKKBORO, ONTA-RIO 

The Only Magazine* in Their Field in the 

Dominion 

Ofkicial Organs ok thk Ontario and Quebec 

PRurr Growers' Associations 

and ok Thk Ontario Bekkkepers' Association 

H. Bronson Cowan Managing Director 



REPRESENTATIVES 

UNITED STATES 
STOOKWELL'S SPECIAL AGENCY. 
Chicago Office— People's Gas Building. 
New York Office— 286 5th Avenue, 



GREAT BRITAIN 
W. A. Mount Stephen. :! Rejjent St.. London. S.M'. 



1. The Canadian Horticnltnrlst ia published in 
two editione on the 25th daT of the month pre- 
ceding date of issue. The first edition le known 
aa The Canadian Horticulturist. It is devoted 
exclusively to the horticultural interests of 
Canada. The second edition is known aa The 
Canadian Horticulturist and Beekeeper. In this 
edition aereral pafres of matter appearlnp in the 
first Issue are replaced by an equal number of 
paffcs of matter relating to the bee-keepine In- 
terests of Canada. 

2. Siibsoription price of The Canadian Horti- 
culturist In Canada and Great Britain. 60 cents 
a year; two years. $100, and of The Oanadian 
Horticulturist and Beekeeper. 151 00 a year. For 
United States and local subscriptions in Peter- 
boro (not called for at the Poet Office) 25 cents 
extra a year, Inoltidinir postage. 

3. Bemittances should be made by Post Office 
or Express Money Order, or registered Letter. 

i. The Law la that Bubscribers to newepapere 
are held responsible until all arrearages are 
paid and their paper ordered to be discontinued. 

5. Change of Address— When a change of ad 
drees is ordered, both the old and the new ad- 
dresses must be given. 

6. Advertising rates. $1.40 an Inch. Oopy 
received up to the 20th. Address all advertising 
correspondence and oopy to our Advertising 
Manager, Poterboro. Ont. 

CIRCULATION STATEMENT 
The following is a sworn statement of the net 
paid circulation of The Canadian Horticulturist 
for the year ending with December, 1911. The 
figures glyen are exclusive of samples and spoiled 
copies. Most months, including the sample coll- 
ies, from 13,000 to 15.000 copies of The Canadian 
Horticulturist are mailed to people kuown to 
be interested in the growing of fmits, flowers 
or vegetables, 

January, 1913 ...11.570 August. 1913 12,675 

February. 1913 ...11.550 September. 1913 ...13.729 

March, 1913 11,209 October, 1913 13.778 

April, 1915 11,970 November, 1913 ..,12.967 

May, 1913 12.368 December, 1913 ...13,233 

June, 1913 12.618 

July, 1913 12,626 Total 150,293 

Average each issue In H«7, «.827 
" " 1913. 12,524 

Sworn detailed statements will be mailed 
upon appUoation. 

OUR GUARANTEE 

We guarantee that every advertiser in this 
issue is reliable. We are able to do this because 
the advertising columns of The Oanadian Hor- 
ticulturist are as carefully edited as the read- 
ing columns, and because to protect our readers 
we turn away all unscrupulous advertisers. 
Should any advertiser herein deal dishonestly 
with any subscriber, we will make good the 
amount of his loss, provided such transaction 
occurs within one month from date of this issue, 
that it is reported to us within a week of its 
occurrence, and that we find the facta to be as 
stated. It is a condition of this contract that in 
writing to advertisers you state: "I saw your 
advertisement in The Oanadian Horticulturist." 

Rogues shall not ply their trade at the expense 
of our subscribers, who are our friends, through 
the medium of these columns: but we shall not 
attempt to adjust trifling disputes beween sub- 
scribers and honourable business men who ad- 
vertise, nor pay the debts of honest bankrupts. 

Communications should be addressed 

THE OANADIAN HORTICULTCTKiBT. 

PETBEBOEO. OUT 



^ EDITORIAL i 

BH BS 



SELLING FRUIT BY POST 

The introduction into Canada, although 
as yet only on a very restricted scale, of 
th*" system of parcels post, adds inter- 
est to a postal arrangement now in 
force in New Zealand. In New Zealand the 
government has a post and telegraph de- 
partment. The railways arc publicly own- 
ed. The government has made arrange- 
ments by means of which lists of the dif- 
ferent fruit growers' associations partici- 
pating in the scheme are posted in the vari- 
ous post offices. The lists include the price 
lists for the various sized packages of fruit 
offered for sale. 

The purchaser on paying four cents to 
the local post master, is supplied with a 
stamped coupon. Having decided with 
which association he will place, his order, 
he writes the address of the fruit growers' 
associatiom on the stamped side of the cou- 
pon ; then on the lower portion of the re- 
verse side he fills in his order. He then 
hands to the postmaster the coupon, togeth- 
er with a postal note for the amount of the 
purchase price of the fruit plus the neces- 
sary carrying charges, as set out in the re- 
gulations. Thus, he prepays for the fruit 
and the postal charges. The postmaster 
then forwards the order to the fruit grow- 
ers' association, the four cents covering the 
charge for forwarding the order. 

When the secretary of the association re- 
ceives the order he forwards the fruit, and 
then fills in the top portion of the coupon 
and sends it into the post office from which 
it was delivered, where it is retained as a 
receipt for six months. Cases of fruit must 
be delivered by the vendor at a railway sta- 
tion or at a wharf served by a steamer 
having contract with the railway depart- 
ment. House to house delivery of the fruit 
is undertaken at places where the railway 
department has a cartage contract. 

The post office acts as agent for the buy- 
er only and therefore assumes no respon- 
sibility with reference to the quantity, qual- 
ity or condition of the supplies, nor for any 
delays that may arise in execution. In 
sending fruit forward shippers are permit- 
ted to bulk the individual parcels that go 
to the same destination. 

The New Zealand system has been in 
operation only a few months. Should it 
prove successful it ultimately may mean 
much to Canadian fruit growers. 

THE JORDAN STATION 

For years The Canadian Horticulturist has 
contended that the Jordan Harbor Experi- 
ment Station should be devoted principally 
to the advancement of the tender fruit and 
vegetable interests. Situated, as it is, in 
the heart of the only tender fruit district in 
Eastern Canada, it is largely a waste of 
time, opportunity, and money to conduct 
experiments at this station with the more 
hardy varieties of fruit, which might be 
conducted to even better advantage in other 
sections of the province. 

The addition of a number of experienced 
fruit growers to the advisori- board of the 
station has already tended to effect an im- 
provement in the management of the sta- 
tion. We understand that it is their desire 
that the land at the station shall be re- 
served chiefly for plant breeding and var- 
iety experiments. If this is the case, the 



provincial Minister of Agriculture may rest 
assured that if a move in this direction is 
decide<i upon' it will meet wth the hearty 
approval of all those most interested in 
the success of the station. Most of the ex- 
periments that have been conducted in 
apple culture might better be carried out at 
other points in the province. Ontario has 
an opportunity to make the Experiment 
Station at Jordan Harbor one of the most 
noted on the continent. 



"BIG BUSINESS" 

This is the age of "Big Business." In 
every line of industry we see mergers and 
combines being formed. Nor are such 
combinations unnatural. Centralization 
means economy ; and economy means 
greater profits. 

The fruit growing industry has not been 
exempt from the centralization idea. From 
small beginnings we have seen a large 
number of cooperative associations spring 
up in the various fruit growing sections 
of Canada. The tendency is towards still 
greater centralization. In Nova Scotia, 
upwards of thirty cooperative societies 
have combined to buy supplies and sell 
fruit through a central organization. In 
the Okanagan Valley, B.C., the various 
local fruit unions have formed a central 
selling agency. Within the past year 
twenty-four Fruit Growers' Associations in 
Ontario have organized a similar selling 
organization. 

This is as it should be. In the Anna- 
polis Valley previous to the formation of 
the "United Fruit Companies," the various 
associations were in competition with one 
another. Now all fruit is sold on the same 
basis and the growers' returns are increas- 
ed. At the same time the consumer has 
mit paid any more than formerly because 
the large number of agents and dealers 
who before handled the crop are not now 
necessary. 

The formation of these central agencies 
has meant that each separate association 
could do away with its own selling de- 
partment. As a result, greater economy 
and uniformity in methods have been pos- 
sible. Fruit growing needs "Big Busi- 
ness" methods as much as do other of our 
important industries. The orgajiization of 
central associations is in harmony with 
the trend of the times. 



Elsewhere in this issue appears a refer- 
ence to the splendid work that has been ac- 
complished in the Dominion Capital by the 
officers of the Ottawa Flower Guild, in- 
cluding those two well-known enthusiasts, 
Messrs. R. B. Whyte and W. T. Macoun. 
The gratifying results that have attended 
the work of the Guild afford inspiration for 
the growing number of enthusiasts who are 
advancing similar work in other towns and 
cities throughout Canada. In Ottawa thou- 
sands of children have been led to take a 
deep interest in horticulture through the 
efforts of the Flower Guild. Similar me- 
thods followed in other cities should b<^ 
attended with equal results. Societies that 
are thinking of conducting this work this 
vear will be able to obtain much helpful 
information by writing to the officers of the 
Ottawa Flower Guild for particulars re- 
garding their methods. 



The strenuous opposition that has been 
raised to the efforts of the members of th'P 
Ontario Vegetable Growers' Association to 
cooperate in the purchasing of supplies has 
not dampened, apparently, the determina- 
tion of the officers of the association to 



March, 1914. 



THE CANADIAN HORTICULTURIST 



71 



proceed with this line of work. This is only 
what might be expected. Opposition of 
this character only tends to convince those 
who are at the back of such movements that 
it springs from selfish motives that are in- 
imicable to their interests, and thereby* is 
likely to lead them to put forth renewed 
efforts. 



PUBLISHER'S DESK 





Our front cover illustration this month 
shows the interior of one of the green- 
houses of Mr. R. H. Ellis, Leamington, 
Ontario. Mr. Ellis is one of the most suc- 
cessful growers of early tomatoes in On- 
tario. The splendid crop shown in the il- 
lustration is an indication of his ability. 
♦ #_ * 

The .'Vpril issue of The Canadian Horti- 
culturist wil be our Third Annual Spring 
Planting and Gardening Number. In 
.■\pril the gardening fever seizes most ama- 
teurs with its greatest force. This issue 
will be filled with articles that will give 
them just the information they are most 
likely to need at this season of the year. 
Our gardening numbers in 1912 and 1913 
proved most popular. We anticipate that 
this year's number will please our readers 
even more. The front illustration will show 
a beautiful garden, the attractiveness of 
which is heightened by a well-arranged 
pergola. This will be the finest front cover 
of the kind we have ever published on The 
Canadian Horticulturist. Among the spe- 
cial articles the issue will contain one en- 
titled "Orchids, the Goddesses of the Flower 
Family," by Mr. F. E. Buck, of the Cen- 
tral Experimental Farm, Ottawa. This 
article will be a description of the successful 
methods followed by ex-Mayor J. A. Ellis, 
, M.L.A., of Ottawa, an amateur grower of 
orchids who has met with great success. 
An article on orchids written by Mr. Ellis, 
and published in The Canadian Horticul- 
turist some time ago, attracted so much 
attention we have been led to obtain this 
special article as the result of a special 
request that we -should do so. 

"A Perennial Border at Small Cost," il- 
lustrated with a diagram, will be the title 
of a practical article by a young woman 
contributor in Quebec, • whose record of 
practical experience should prove most 
helpful. Mr. Wm. Hunt, of Guelph, will 
write on "Planting Notes for the Spring- 
time," and Mr. J. McPherson Ross, of Tor- 
onto, on "Plans for This Year's Garden." 
One of the most successful rose growers 
.in Canada is Mr. Jas. M. Bryson, gardener 
for Mr. Moore, the well-known rose en- 
thusiast of Toronto. A feature of our April 
issue will be an article by Mr. Bryson on 
rose growing. The foregoing are only som« 
of the interesting subjects that will be dis- 
cussed in the garden section of our April 
!-=;ue. « » » 

In the vegetable department of the April 
issue of The Canadian Horticulturist two 
articles of special interest that will appear 
will be entitled "Progressive Vegetable 
Culture," by S. C. Johnson, B.S.A., who 
will give the results of a visit to the estab- 
lishments of some of the large vegetable 
growers in the United States. A second 
article will be entitled "Irrigation and Its 
Practical Results." This wiU be a report 
of one of the best addresses delivered at 
the last annual convention of the Ontario 



Vegetable Growers' Association by Mr. J. 
J. Davis of London, Ontario. The fruit de- 
partment of the paper will as usual be 
strong. It will include an article by a 
prominent Nova Scotia grower, pointing 
out the necessity for Canadian fruit growers 
so perfecting their methods now that they 
will be ready for the greatly increased pro- 
duction of fruit that it is anticipated wiii 
take place during the next few years. Don't 
miss our April issue. 

• « « 

Last year the April issue of The Cana- 
dian Horticulturist made a record that re- 
mained unbroken throughout the year. This 
indicates that advertisers who desire to en- 
sure their advertisements receiving the best 
positions and attention in our April issue 
should endeavor to have their copy reach us 
early. As the April issue will be a money- 
getter for the. advertisers who take advan- 
tage of the opportunities it offers our ad- 
vertisers are advised to have their copy 
reach us by the 10th to the 15th of the 
month, .^fter that date it will be more 
difficult for us to give them the service 
we would like. 



SOCIETY NOTES 

We Invite the oCBcera of Hortd- 
oultural Societies to send In short, 
pithy rei>orta of work that wonld in- 
terest mem/bers of other Horticultural 
Sodetiee. 




A Progressive Society* 

Dr. F. E. Bennett, St. Thomai, Ont. 

Back in the fall of 1910, when I was elect- 
ed president of the St. Thomas Horticul- 
tural Society, I found a membership of one 
hundred and twenty-four, but not much work 
being done. Nothing had been done along 
the lines of public flower beds and little 
along educative lines. Realizing that some- 
thing must be done if the society was to be- 
come a power in St. Thomas, I consented 
to accept the presidency only on condition 
that one hundred dollars be grantea lor tue 
laying out of fifteen flower beds on the wide 
boulevard which parallels the Michigan 
Central tracks for over a mile. These flow- 
er beds cost us six dollars each, the flowers 
being bought of a local florist. 

From the first the people of the city* 
showed their apreciation of our work, with 
the result that when we canvassed for new 
members we secured three hundred and 
thirty-seven. In the following summer we 
revived the lawn and garden contests, one 
hundred and twenty-five members entering. 
Liberal prizes were offered, but we found 
that the number of classes was too limited, 
as, for instance, in the garden competi- 
tions, the working men's gardens coming 
in the same class as the gardens of those 
who could afford to employ gardeners to 
tend them. 

Monthly flower shows were organized, 
starting with tulips and spring flowers, then 
peonies, then roses, and so on through the 
summer and fall, each class of flowers in 
its turn. Where did you hold these shows, 
you ask ? We held them in store windows, 
and to this fact I largely attribute the big 
growth of the St. Thomas Society. Each 
succeeding show was an increasing success 
until with the last it was a problem to 

accommodate the entries. The shows were 

J 

•Rxtract from an address delivered at the last 
annual convention of the Ontario Horticultural 
Association. 



always held on Saturdays, which being mar- 
ket day, and a kind of parade day, enabled 
large crowds of sightseers to see something 
of what the society was doing. The show 
windows were the objective of large crowds 
all day and especially in the evenings. 

With the store windows exhibits the peo- 
ple can hardly help seeing the beautiful 
flowers and becoming first interested and 
then converted to the aims and objects of 
the Horticultural Society. We charge no 
fees for these shows, because the people 
who can afford to pay and would pay are 
those who already grow flowers and are 
already converted. The society furnishes 
receptacles for the flowers which become 
the property of the society. 

Now there is always a big demand for 
these prize winning and show flowers, and 
much money could be made by selling them, 
but we have adopted in St. Thomas what 
rve believe to be the better way, in that it 
has helped immensely in popularising the 
society and its work. We ask the pastors 
of all the churches to provide us with the 
names of any sick and aged people of whom 
they know, and early on Sunday morning 
autos are called into service and the bou- 
quets distributed, each bearing a neat lit- 
tle card, tendering the compliments of the 
society to the recipient. Try this in your 
own town if you wish to make friends for 
your society. 

Then, too, in this distribution of one of 
nature's finest gifts to man, "the stranger 
within our gates" is not forgotten, the poor 
foreigner in the hospital receiving a bou- 
quet along with the rest. Nor are the old 
folks in the Home forgotten; some of the 
best are always saved for them, and I wish 
some of you could be with me and see the 
faces of the poor old ladies, "somebody's 
mothers" brighten as they gaze on and 
touch with almost reverent care, the flowers 
that remind them of days when fickle for- 
tune smiled on them from some almost for- 
gotten flower bed. 

Another membership campaign is on, and 
from a membership of three hundred and 
thirty seven we have jumped to seven hun- 
dred and eight, with every prospect before 
the campaign of 1914 closes of over twelve 
hundred. Here are some of the many rea- 
sons given for joining the society: "We 
like the flower shows"; "We like the public 
flower beds"; "Everybody sieems to be 
cleaning up" : "We value the premium you 
give"; etc., etc. 

It has been customary to give each mem- 
ber a rose or shrub and a dozen bulbs, and 
The Canadian Horticulturist. This year 
sixteen optional premiums have been ar- 
ranged. Last fall we gave away sixteen 
thousand bulbs and have imported ninety 
thousand more for our members at cost 
price ; some of the options are one hun- 
dred and fifty bulbs, another is four of the 
best hybrid roses. 



Vancouver 

The members of the horticultural society 
assembled in the small Pender Hall on the 
evening of February 4th, to listen to Mr. D. 
D. England, special lecturer for the pro- 
vincial government, deliver an address on 
"Lawns and how to make them." Mr. 
England spoke very interestingly on the 
subject of seeding, the proper time, the 
right kinds of seed to use under certain 
conditions, and also on the subject of water- 
ing lawns to the best advantage. Many 
questions were asked. 



THE CANADIAN HORTTC UT.TU RT S T 



March, 191 4. 



Cooperation in Marketing Apples 



S. C. Parker, Berwick, N. 

THE apple growing- area in Nova Scotia 
is limited and always will be. For 
practical, commercial purposes the An- 
napolis Valley is the orchard area of 
Noya Scotia. This valley is about one hun- 
dred miles long and from two to ten miles 
• in width, protected on the north and south 
by ranges of hills, called by courtesy moun- 
tains. This is where we grew two million 
barrels in 1911, and expect to grow five mil- 
lion barrels before 1920. 

The beginning of apple growing in Nova 
Scotia was many years ago. The early 
Acadians had their apple trees, and small 
orchards were planted up and down the 
Valley from Annapolis to Windsor. There 
are trees now bearing apples that are known 
to be more than two hundred years old. Pro- 
ducing apples on a commercial basis, how- 
ever, is ofimuch more recent origin. About 
thirty years ago the increase was such that 
the growers began to look for markets away 
from home. The English market seemed 
the best opening and shipments were made 
from time to time to those markets. There 
were few local buyers, the business was too 
small to draw in outside capital and these 
early shipments were usually consigned. 
The farmer was not only grower but packer 
and consignor. Out of this method grew a 
system of cooperation. .\ number of grow- 
ers would often be represented in the same 
carload and hundreds in the same cargo. 
In the meantime the English commission 
houses were catering to the growing trade 
and placing representatives in the orchard 
sections to solicit consignments. More 
than a score of English houses had their 
representatives in the Annapolis Valley. 
These had their agents and sub-agents at 
every station in the fruit district, and these 
subs had subs. Indeed, it recalled the 
old story of the parasites : 

"The greater fleas had little fleas 
Upon their backs to bite 'em ; 
The lesser fleas had smaller fleas, 
.And so ad infinitum." 

Thus, there was an army of middlemen 
preying on the producer. These people 
would take charge of a consignment, no 
matter how small, combine them in carload 
lots, and forward to the English houses. 
The return commission, rebates and steals 
often gave them fifty cents a barrel on the 
fiirmers' crop; and when this crop ran into 
the hundreds of thousands of barrels it was 
^1 good business. This was a species of 
cooperation but under this system the mid- 
dleman was getting rich and the producer 
often growing poorer. 

METHOD OF ORG \NI7.ATION 

The question of cooperation had been 
talked about manv times. Several attempts 
were made and failed, possibly because the 
proposed scheme was too ambitious. About 
seven years aeo the first successful scheme 
was launched on a very modest scale. The 
Berwick Fruit Company. Limited, was or- 
ganized, made up of six members with a 
pominal capital of -$10,000. . In the first 
rear this companv handled about seven 
fhousnnd barrels. It was a success from its 
inception. The second year the member- 
hip increased and eighteen thousand bar- 
vels were handled. The third year, although 

•An addreso d<»livered before the annual con- 
ventio-' of the Ontario Fruit Growere' As»<:cia- 
tion, NoTomber. 1913. 



S., Put President N.S.F.G.A. 

the capital was increased, the stock was 
quickly taken up and it was found neces- 
sary to refuse any more members admis- 
sion. That year the company packed and 
shipped thirty thousand barrels. 

At the end of seven years they have a 
packing house one hundred and seventy- 
five by sixty feet, an evaporator and all 
facilities for handling seventy-five 'thou- 
sand barrels annually. Encouraged by the 
signal success of the Berwick Company new 
organizations sprang up. Three others 
were organized at Berwick and some thirty- 
five or forty operated in the Valley this 
season. 

The organization is extremely simple. A 
general act was passed by the Provincial 
Legislature entitled : An .Act to Encourage 
the Organization of Cooperative Fruit - 
Packing and Shipping Companies. This 
act provides that any three persons may 
organize for the purpose of packing, ship- 
ping, marketing, warehousing fruit or farm 
produce, buying and selling flour, feed, fer- 
tilizers, farming tools, making barrels or 
practically anything used on the farm. 

The barrels used are often made by the 
farmer, usually in cooper shops near the 
farm. Every village has its cooper shop. 
The Nova Scotia barrel is crude in appear- 
ance but it is cheap and strong. I do not 
think we would consent to change it ; it 
serves as a trade mark in markets where 
best known. 

In the cooperatives there is no individual 
packing. The farmer picks his apples and 
delivers them in barrels to the packing 
house. There they lose their identity and 
become part of the company output. Each 
variety is averaged and the farmer is paid 
the price of his apples, less the packing 
charges. 

-After a few years' experience of the local 
companies it was felt that the time was 
ripe for the next step in cooperation. There 
were some twenty local companies at work, 
each independent of the other and compet- 
ing with the same goods in the same mar- 
kets. After a year of experimenting the 
lacal companies got together and organ- 
ized a central company — the United Fruit 
Companies of Nova Scotia. In this central 
organization the local company is the unit, 
taking the same place in the larger organ- 
ization that the individual does in the 
smaller. Each local unit must subscribe 
twenty per cent, of its capital stock to 
make up the capital of the central ; and 
each local appoints a representative, usually 
the manager, on the board of directors of 
the central. All the apples packed by the 
local companies arc marketed by the United 
Fruit Companies, and in this organization 
the fruit is also pooled, the local being paid 
the average price for the season on the 
output. 

.\ LARGR ENTERPRISE 

The most sanguine of the builders of 
this organization did not realize what a 
tremendous scheme they were floating. 
Neither did they expect the great machine 
would run without friction as it has done, 
and become in one year a power in the fruit 
. market of the world. In 1912 and 191.3, the 
first year of its operation, the United Fruit 
Companies handled three hundred and six- 
ty-seven thousand barrels of apples, nearlv 
one-half of the output of Nova Scotia. T-he 
price returned was very satisfactorv,, for 
instance : 



Gravensteins netted. No. 1, $2.07; No. 2, 
$1.77; Duchess netted, No. 1, $2.09; No. 

2, $1.99; Kings netted. No. 1, $2.25; No. 

3, $2; Golden Russets netted. No. 1, $3.05; 
No. 2, $2.32. 

The central office bought and distribut- 
ed among the subsidiary companies : Eight 
hundred thousand pulpheads, seventy-one 
thousand pounds of grass seed, fifty-four 
thousand pounds vetches, five thousand 
eight hundred tons of fertilizer, eight hun- 
dred and thirty-five barrels lime sulphur, 
five hundred kegs nails, fourteen hundred 
barrels of flour, eight thousand bags feed, 
fifty-six thousand pounds of arsenate of 
lead. 

It paid for the foregoing, spot cash, one 
hundred and fifty-three thousand dollars. 
It is estimated that on fertilizers alone we 
saved eighteen thousand dollars to the 
farmers in the companies, while those out- 
side reaped a corresponding benefit, prices 
falling generally, three dollars a ton. 

The United Fruit Companies have in ad- 
dition to their office at Berwick, offices in 
London and Halifax. They employed a 
traveller during the fruit season, and an 
organizer and instructor during the entire 
year. Now, just a word in regard to the 
cost of this efficient organization. The 
total cost of the central association amount- 
ed to fourteen thousand six hundred and 
sixty-one dollars. In earning and saving 
for the year, the central made twenty-four 
thousand seven hundred and sixty-six dol- 
lars. Thus the entire expenses of the Unit- 
ed Fruit Companies, including salaries, 
traveling, cable, telephone and telegraph, up- 
keep of offices in Berwick, Halifax and 
London, have been paid out of direct earn- 
ings and savings, all effected, and could 
only have been effected, by centralization. 
In addition, five thousand dollars were plac- 
ed in reserve on capital account and more 
than five thousand dollars rebated to the 
subsidiary companies. 

Just one concrete instance of how sav- 
ings are effected by centralization. The 
Carters' Union in London have from time 
immemorial charged four pence per barrel, 
cartagg. Our representative there last year 
found people who would do the same work 
for three pence. This one item saved the 
companies eight thousand dollars. 

In conclusion I may say that the few 
years' experience in cooperation, have prac- 
tically revolutionized the fruit business in 
Nova Scotia. Some" thirty-five local com- 
panies are working this season, most of 
them in cooperation with the central. The 
people generally, are watching its progress 
carefully. The machine seems to be work- 
ing perfectly, and if no serious errors are 
made a very few years will see the enor- 
mous apple business of the .Annapolis Val- 
ley controlled by one organization — the 
L'nited Fruit Companies of Nova Scotia. 



Important Regulations 

The following additional regulation under 
The Destructive Insect and Pest Act was 
passed by Order in Council, December 
4th, 1913: Regulation 18— "The importation 
of all nursery stock, including trees, 
?ihrubs, plants, vines, grapes, scions, cut- 
tings or buds, through the mail is pro- 
hibited, excepting greenhouse-grown flor- 
ists' stock, cut flowers, herbaceous peren- 
nials, and bedding plants, which will be 
admitted, provided that a detailed state- 
ment of the contents is attached to such 
parcels." This regulation is to take effect 
on and after the first day of March, 1914. 



March, 1914. 



THE CANADIAN HORTICULTURIST 



73 



freeman's 
^^"^^ Bone 

Meai 




More J 
phosphoricacid 
to the dollars 
worth than in 
ANYOTHER Fertilizer 



Send for Booklet 

on Fertilizers and 
Fertilizing with 
Guaranteed Analysis 

The W. A. FREEMAN CO., Ltd 

223 HUNTER ST. E., HAMILTON. 



FLOWER POTS 



Large stock of all 
sizes for the Spring 
trade. 

Send us your order 
NOW and receive 
your supply before 
the Spring rush. 

THEATER POTTERY CO., Ltd. 

HAMILTON, ONT. 



'HtBESTMAPt 



FOSTER'S 

StandaRP 



Vegetable Growers are Active 

The annual meeting- of the directors of 
the Ontario Vegetable Growers' Associa- 
tion was held in the office of the secretary, 
J. Lockie Wilson, Parliament Buildings, 
Toronto, on February 4th. Delegates from 
the different branches were present, and 
were enthusiastic over the work being done 
by the association. 

The purchasing agent, Mr. W. J. Kerr, 
stated that the cooperative buying had been 
a financial success. He was perfectly satis- 
fied with the work that had been accom- 
plished during the year. The last bulletin 
issued to the members contains quotations 
on flower seeds, fertilizing and spraying 
materials, as well as on vegetable seeds. 

It was decided to continue the vegetable 
field crop competitions in onions, tomatoes 
and celery. 

A vegetable tying machine was on exhi- 
bition during the afternoon, and after the 
delegates had examined the work done by 
this machine, they passed the following re- 
solution : 

"That the Saxmeyer Vegetable Tyer ex- 
hibited and operated at our annual meet- 
ing is a labor, saver and would be of ma- 
terial assistance to vegetable growers, and 
as these machines cost $90 in the United 
States and the duty is $26, we would re- 
spectfully recommend that the duty be re- 
moved from tying- machines until such time 
as they are manufactured in this country." 

There was a pleasant break in the routine 
of business when the delegates presented 
Mr. Thos. Delworth, of Weston, with a gold 
watch as a token of their appreciation of 
the practical interest he had taken in the 
work of the association. The secretary, J. 



Douglas Gardens 

OAKVILLE, ONT. 



Early orders for the following 
Plants are specially recommended 
for the coming Spring season, viz. : 

Antirrhinum (Snapdragon), including 
pink, 10 for 60c. 

Aster, China, 6 vars., 10 for 25c, 100 for 
$1.25. 

Geraniums, 5 var»., 10 for $1.00. 
Salvia, 2 vars., 10 for 75c. 
Scabiosa, 10 for 60c. 
Stocks, 2 vars., 10 for 25c. 
Dahlias, plants only, 1 1 vars., 10 for $1.25. 
Delphiniums, Gold Medal Hybrids, 10 
for $1.50. 

Aquilegia (Columbine), 2 vars., 10 for 

$1.25. 

Iris, 22 vars., 10 for $1.25 and up. 

For descriptions, etc., of the 
above and of many other plants, ■ 
see Spring Planting List sent free 
on application. 

Above prices include carriage 
prepaid. 



JOHN CAVERS 



RED CYPRESS HOT BED SASH 



- . -...-. ,: — 



Size 3 ft. 2 in by 6ft. for 4 rows 

of 8 in. butted glass. 
Price, $1.20 in Clear Cypress. 



What a pleasure to have home-grown 
vegetables and flowers weeks ahead of the 
regular season. A' hot bed fitted with our 
superior Hot Bed Sash will ensure this. 

DURABLE 

Our Hot Bed Sash are made of the very best 
material, put together to withstand the most severe 
usage, and are guaranteed to last for years. 

All the joints are tight fitting, blind mortised and 
white leaded before being put together. A half-inch 
oak rod runs through the bars and into the stiles. A 
metal pin is driven into each of the bars and stiles 
through the rod. in this way each bar is held in the 
proper place and prevented from sagging. 

Folder Sent on Request 



size 3 ft. by 6 ft. for 3 rows 

10 in. lapped glass. 

Price, $1.15 in Clear Red Cypress. 



BATTS LIMITEDp.r.eWcst Toronto 



74 



THE CANADIAN HORTICULTURIST 



March, 1914. 



hov/ you can nave a 

BEAUTIFUL OLD 
ENGLISH^ARDEN 



zir^ 



^:^ 



''^: 



K^ 



t---^^t 



M 



^f 



THE OLD ENGLISH 

GARDEN owes much of its 
charm to the beauty of its simple 
herbaceous plants. 

KELWAY'S COLOUR 
BORDERS of Paeonies, 
Delphiniums, Pyrethrums, Gail- 
lardias and the like will enable 
you to reproduce this picturesque 
effect under almost all conditions 
of soil and climate. Borders are 
planned to fill any space, and 
on receipt of dimensions, care- 
fully selected plants are sent 
beautifully packed, labelled and 
numbered in order for planting. 

The cost is $6.00 for every 
1 square yards. 

Full particulars and illustrations are 
given in the Kelway Manual of Horti- 
culture mailed Free on receipt of 60c, by 

KELWAY & SON 

LANPOHT - SOMERSET 

ENGLAND 



i^^ 



CXJrileior a copy of this uscfuLtoQk^ 
It corofis toyoix.by retixm, rnxxiJl ^ 



'^•^H^T' 



Q KELWAYS PERENNIALS f ^i.a; iai 

Q FOR i ^ r^ •-« 

n CANADIAN GARDENS S 



Direct from 

KELWAY&SON 

The Royal Horticulturists 

LANCPORT ENGLAhfD 



4 



.■•5CKrj^,-CiCV: -,-»5«;«K&-. r^SsCrV-TTea 



Lockie Wilson, was also the recipient of a 
token of esteem of the representatives pre- 
sent. 

The foUowinjf officers were re-elected by 
acclamation for 1914: 

President, C. VV. Baker, London; 1st 
vice-president, W. J. Kerr, Woodroffe ; 2nd 
vice-president, F. F. Reeves, Humber Bay ; 
secretary-treasurer and editor, J. Lockie 
Wilson, Toronto. Representative to Cana- 
dian National Exhibition, "thos. Delworth, 
Weston, Representatives to Horticultural 
Exhibition, Messrs. J. W. Rush, F. F. 
Reeves, Thos. Delworth, and James Dan- 
drid>fe. 



Annapolis Valley Notes 

The annual meeting of the Nova Scotia 
Fruit Growers' Association is looked for- 
ward to by larg'er and larjfer numbers each 
year as something that no up-to-date fruit- 
grower can afford to miss. This associa- 
tion held their fiftieth convention in Janu- 
ary at Kentvillc, and had one member pre- 
sent, Mr. R. W. Starr, of Wolfville, who 
has been in attendance at every meeting 
since the Association was organized in 1863. 

In no other place in Canada' is apple scab 
quite so troublesome and hard to control 
as in the Annapolis Valley, and the fruit- 
growers gave the closest attention to Prof. 
L. Caesar of Guelph, in his address on the 
"Apple Scab and its Control." Many who 
had almost despaired in tr>'ing to grow 
clean apples, had their faith restored after 
listening to Prof. Caesar, and this coming 
season will use the spray pump more vigor- 
ously than ever. The time of application 
seems to be the vital factor, but thorough- 
nfss in applying and a gotd pump are also 
essential. 

.-Ml winter apples bring record breaking' 
prices, some good number three netting 
PS hi'^h as three dollars, and number ones 
from four to six dollars according to var- 
iety. Like the forty cent eggs, however, 
the big prices only come when there are 
few apples to ship. 

The United Companies are just closing 
th" most successful year since their organi- 
zation, and have handled no less than sixty 
ner cent, of the crop of the Valley during 
the present season. Their next fonvard 
step will be in th*" direction of some sys- 
tetm of pre-coolinc^ for fall varieties of 
apples at their various warehouses. Thou- 
sands of dollars were lost to the fruit- 
q-rowers last autumn from the rapid ripen- 
ing and decay of the softer varieties dur- 
ing the warm weather of the fall. — M.K.E. 



Okanagan Valley North 

Charles Webster, ArmstroBf, B.C. 

The past season has proved that the 
"Okanagan United Growers" is thoroughly 
organized for its purpose — selling and buy- 
ing cooperatively. It must be said of 
members in this northern part of the valley 
that they stood lovally bv their association. 
Mistakes have nerhaps been made. Oppo- 
sition from a few established firms, who 
refused to sell their business, has been 
keen. This, however, does not alter the 
fart that the countries or districts where 
cooperation is established are the most 
prosperous. .Another year of earnest en- 
deavor should put the big concern on a 
thnrouehly satisfactory footing. 

We have a contribution to the high cost 
iif living: Celerv. for which Armstrong is 
justly famous throughout Western Canada, 
realized the growers here %'% and VA cents 



\Tarch, 1914- 



THE CANADIAN HORTICULTURIST 



75 



NEW AND RARE SEEDS 

Unique collection. Hundred! of varieties adap- 
ted for the Canadian climate. Perennial and 
perfectly hardy. Own saving. Catalog free. 

Perry's Hardy Plant Farm 

ENFIELD, MIDDLESEX, ENG. 



COMB FOUNDATION 

Write for our prices before getting your 

wax made up. We can please you. 

Wax taken in exchange at market prices. 

LEWIS MINOR, SMITHVILLE, ONT. 




BUY CARNIOLANS 

IN CARNIOLA 
Pure Carniolan Alpine Bees 

Write in English for Booklet and 
Price List. Awarded 60 Honors. 

Johann Strgar. - Wittnach 

P.O. Wocheiner Feistritz 
Upper-Carniola (Krain), Austria 



Bees and Bee Supplies 

Roots, Dadants, Ham & Nott's goods. 
Honey, Wax, Poultry Supplies, Seeds, etc. 

IVrt'/e /or a Catalogue 

THE CHAS. E. HOPPER COMPANY 

185 Wright Avenue, Toronto, Ont. 



FOR SALE 

Swarms of young bees in packages. Re- 
place winter losses and strengthen weak 
colonies with young, healthy Italians. J-lb. 
packages, 90c. each; i-lb. packages, $1.25 
each ; 2-lb. packages, $2.45 each. Untested 
Italian Queens, the three-banded hustlers, 
75c. each. We guarantee safe arrival. Write 
for wholesale prices. 

BROWN & BERRY 

HAYNEVILLE - - ALABAMA 



QUEENS 

Bred from Doolittles best Italian 
stock. It is to your advantage to 
book your order now. One dol- 
lar each. 

P. TEMPLE 

438 Gladstone Ave. - Toronto, Ont. 

Sa/f arrii'al guaranteed 



STRAWBERRIES 



Your copy of our Strawberry Cata- 
logue is now ready. A Post Card 
will bring it. It describes all the 
best varieties of Strawberries and 
Raspberries. Cultural directions and 
lots of other valuable Information. 

THE LAKE VIEW FRUIT FARM 

N. L. McConneil & Son Qrovesend, Ontario 



First-Class CommerciAl Gardeners Wanted 

A few good market garden properties for sale or rent. Locations 
good, prices and terms attractive. Cheap natural gas for green- 
house fuel. Write for details to 

O. PATTERSON FARMER - Jcanncttc's Creek, Ontario 



THE BEEKEEPERS' REVIEW 

would like very much to enroll a goodly number of new subscribers for the year 1914. 
Listen ! Besides the 3,000-colony series managed from one office, we will begin with 
the January number of the REVIEW a series of articles by a beekeeper "grey with 
experience" that we will call the Farmersi' Series; or, How to Produce Comb Honey 
with Two Visits a Year. The editor of the REVIEW has looked into this system quite 
thoroughly, and believes that, with this method that will be described in the RE- 
VIEW during 1914, the busy man or farmer can harvest much more comb honey 
per colony, with about a fourth the work that is required with the ordinary system 
now in vogue. All progressive bee keepers should subscribe for two or three 

good bee journals. We are making a special low price on the REVIEW when club- 
bed with other bee journals. 



To take odran- 
tag-e of this low 
price all remit- 
tances should be 
addressed — 



Here ia a / OLE ANINQS one year, $100)Both, one year, for $I.5fl 
good on«:lThe REVIEW, one year. $1.00 J 
Here ( (JLEANING8. one year, $1.00 
is an- \ A.MEE. BEE JOURNAL. 1 yr.. $100 
other: I The REVIEW, one year. $1.00 
Extra for Canadian postage: Gleanings, 30c ; American Bee Journal. 10c. 
All three listed above 40c. 



\ All 



Three for $2.00 



THE BEEKEEPERS" REVIEW 



NORTHSTAR, MICHIGAN 



COMB FOUNDATION 

Made by the "Weed Patent Process" 




The Weed Foundation Sheeter. <^ 

FOUNDATION made by this process excells all other in strength of texture. 
This combined in nice, straisrht uniform sheets, with good cell walls and thin 
bajse, gives it world-wide reputation for general excellence of quality. So much 
better than the ordinary, and costs no more — Try it. 

Customers Wax made up by "Weed Patent Process" 
Beeswax taken in payment of making at trade prices if desirrd 



THE HAM 8L NOTT CO. Limited 

BRANTFORD, ONTARIO 



7ft 



THE CANADIAN HORTICULTURIST 



March, 191 4. 



A— <Jookmtt 'i"uiik 
B— Hot Water Tank 
0— Fire Boi 
D— Ash Pan 
S-Smoke i'ipe 



Make Your Own Spray 

Home Boiled Lime Sulphur ui b«inic used Id increaeine quan> 
titiea by leadlnir fruit growers and fruit growers' associations 
They find that by making tiieir own spray they can effect a con- 
siderable money saving, and at the same time produce a pre- 
paration that will do the work thoroughly. 

It Is an easy matter to make home boiled lime sulphur. The 
chief essential is a proper spray cooker. We manufacture two 
kinds of cookers, one with a single tank, and one with a double 
tank. (See Illustration.) They are designed especially for this 
purpose, and will give the greatest efficiency with the greatest 
saving of fuel. They can bo used for either wood or soft coal. 
The Unks are made of heavily galvanized steel, thoroughly rivettcd and 
soldered. Will not leak. They are built to give satisfaction, and are 
guaranteed. Made In five sizes, capacity 30 to 76 gals. Prices and full par- 
ticulars on application. Get your outfit now. Write us to-day 

Send for pamphlet illnBtratiner the finest pruning saw on the market 

STEEL TROUGH & MACHINE CO., Ltd.. TWEED, Ont. 




ence 

First 





fcJAJ.^'>Mt* //» 



On Both 
Sides of 
the Fence 

You can judge a FROST FENCE by both sides— the 
outside and the inside. 
Outwardly, a FROST FENCE is a pleasing thing to see. 
It stands straight and strong, well made and even all along it's 
length. The extra heavy galvanizing it receives, defies rust 
and weather and makes it look well year after year. Observa- 
tion will prove to your complete satisfaction that 

A Frost Fence is 

Good to Look At 

when it is first put up and when it has been up for yean. 

Inwardly — and here's where it counts mast — the quattty of FROST 
FENCE is the quality of the best Number 9 Hard Steel Wire, for we use 
nothing else. By"using a wire of smaller gauge here and there, we could 
produce a lighter and cheaper fence, but then it wouldn't be FROST 
FENCE as you knaw it »ai as Canada expects it. 

Did you k-now that we get a long start over other fence firms by 
making our own wire? Only that way are we sure, of the sterling quality 
and fault-free perfection of every foot of wire in FROST FENCE. We 
have a strong claim to your trade in the very fact that 

We Make Our Own Wire 

The lock we use is unique in fence-making. Notice how it is wrapsed 
around both stays and laterals, with a doubly secure wrap. That lock is 
a big factor in FROST FENCE satisfaction. 

The nearest FROST dealer can give you more facts and a practical 
demonstration. If you are not already acquainted let us introduce you. 

Write us direct if you can't get FROST FENCE. 

We may need an agent in your district. 82 

Frost Wire Fence Co. 

LIMITED 
HAMILTON - ONTARIO 



per pound, and was selling in Calgary for 
15 cents a pound. Of course, handling, 
crating, and expressage has to be allowed 
for. Nevertheless, someone is getting 
more out of it than the producer. The 
public market, somewhat despised at pre- 
?^ent, I fear, may yet have to be called into 
service to reduce the cost to the consumer. 
.Anyway, the producer and consumer must 
get closer together by their own efforts, 
those who stand between will not volun- 
tarily reduce their charges. 



Tnc New Tariff Conditions 

R. R. Sloin, PajKeld, Oit. 

Just what effect the change recently 
made in the tariff regulations of the Uni- 
ted States will have on the Canadian fruit 
industry is hard to foretell. Speaking from 
a producer's standpoint, T believe they will 
somewhat stimulate the prices of some of 
our Canadian fruit, more especially in On- 
tario. 

There is always a certain amount of de- 
mand for such varieties of apples as Spies 
and Russets on the American market. Now 
the duty is somewhat lower, I think this 
demand will gradually increase. 

When the crops are light in the States 
then we may look for a good market there, 
but when the .American crop is heavy then 
we will have more difficulty selling in the 
United States markets. A few years ago 
we disposed of two crops of apples to a 
Chicago firm, but they found that the duty 
was too high to continue the business. 
We found Chicago to be a good market 
for Spies, Golden Russets, and Talman 
Sweet. Now the tariff has been lowered, 
this market mav be again available. One 
thing we may be certain of it that if we 
grow good Ontario fruit of any kind, we 
need not fear the competition on any 
market. ______ 

Canning Aoples 

C. Smith. Highland Creek, Ont. 

One of the problems before the apple 
trrowcrs is to increase the consumption of 
aoples. One way to do this is to can ap- 
ples after they have been peeled, cored, 
sliced thin, sweetened and baked about four 
hours. Prepared in this way they are de- 
licious. They compare with apnle sauce 
about the same as strawberries with 
prunes. They can be used in various wavs. 

With the use of modern machinen,' for 
peeling, coreing. and slicing, they can be 
prepared much more economically thnn by 
the small consumer; the fact is the con- 
sumer will not take the time to prepare 
them. 

The advantages over evaporated apples 
would be: they retain their flavor; they will 
keep indefinitely ; they are not exposed to 
dust and dirt. 

If the factories were located in produc- 
ing centres it would solve the problem of 
transportation, cold storage and commis- 
sion men and save the cost of barrels and 
packing. The grower would haul his ap- 
ples to the factory as needed during the 
winter. I don't say that it would save all 
the cost of transportation, storage and 
commission, but thev would be much more 
simole and less costly. 

The factories now in operation would 
be able to keep their capital and employ- 
ees busy the year around. The difference 
in the price now paid by the consumer and 
that received by the producer is too great. 
I advance this suggestion for the consider- 
ation of others better informed than myself. 



March, 1914. 



THE CANADIAN HORTICULTURIST 



77 





THINK of the pleasure of going 
into your glass-enclosed grape 
arbor and picking such fine 
big full clustered grapes as these! 

Then think of having a continu- 
ou8 ffupply of various varieties 
from Mu-skat of Alexandria to Gros 
Colemans. from May Day to 
Christmas Day! 

Not just grapes, mind you. but 
twautifully colored, meaty, winey 
flavored fruit, the finest that can 
be grown. 

A three - compartment grapery 
will give you the extreme Umit of 
crop extension 

A simple lean-to, cool grai>ery 
built against a wall, will force 
your crop along a month to six 
weeks, without any fuel expense 
whatever. 



So you see graperies are not the 
luxury imagined. 

If you can afford an automobile 
for instance, you surely caai afford 
one of our graperies or green- 
houses. 

Wouldn't you like to know what 
a house like the one below costs? 

And by the way— why not attach 
your greenhouse directly to your 
garage. It has several advantages, 
done that way. 

Let us send you our printed 
matter particularly pertaining to 
greenhouse and garage link-ups. 



Lord & Burnham Co., Ltd. of Canada 

Greenhouse Designers and Builders 

12 Queen St. East, TORONTO 

New York Boston Philadelphia Chicago Rochester 




BEZZO'S FAMOUS PRIZE ASTERS 

Prizes New York State Fair, Canada Xatioiial 
Exhibition and Berlin Horticxiltural Society. Price 
$1.00 per hundred. Watch this space next month 
for list of varieties. Special prices to Horticultural 
Societies. 

C. MORTIMER BEZZO - BERLIN. CANADA 



COMING 



Annual Spring Garden- 
ing and Planting Num- 
ber, out April I at. (See 
Publisher's Desk). 



Send your conaignments of APPLES to the 
Home Country to 

Bidley Houlding & Co. 

COVENT GARDEN 

LONDON, ENGLAND 

who specialize in APPLES and PEARS dur- 
ing the Season. Personal attention, promp 
account sales and remittance 



Correspondence invited 



THE BRANTFORD IDEAL POWER SPRAYER 



CANNOT BE EXCELLED 




We also manufacture complete lines of Gas and Gasoline Engines, Windmills. Tanks, <lrain Grinders, 
Steel Saw Frames. Water Boxes, Pumps, etc. 

Catalogues describing our different lines, sent on request 

GOOLD,: SHAPLEY & MUIH CO. Ltd., BrantJord, Ont. 



rx 



THE CANADIAN HORTICULTURIST 



March, 1914. 



RENNIE'S 

LX.L. 
TOMATO 

EXTREMELY EARLY, 

WONDERFULLY 

PROLIFIC 

A ueek earlier thaD the Earliana. 
More productive than the ('halk's 
Jewel. Asl arge as (he Plentiful. Am 
solid as the New (ilobe. In fact, (he 
world's leading eitremely early 
Tomato. 

.In our ficKl tests, I.X.L. Tomato 
proved to bo a week to ten days 
earlier than the Spark's Earliana, 
with anabundanceofi ruitlargerand 
more prolific than Chalk '8 Jewel: in fact, any number of specimens could be found as largo as the 
Plentifu I Tomato. The I.X.Ij. Tomato is without a single exception the leading extremely early 
Tomato. Do not experiment with it, but plant your ontire early crop in I.X.L. Tomato. Your 
crop will net you big ret urns. 

1. A beautiful, brillian ired color. 

g. Vines are a perfer i mass oft arge, smooth fruit, a single plant yielding ) bushel. 

t- Fruiti sextremely early, enormously abundant, ripens alia toDce. 

4. Vines compacfand can be placed (wo" eetapartin three-foo trows. 

5- Thelargest growers tell usthal wecannotsay too much in Favor of the I.X.L, Tomato. 
Price: Jib. S2M,o£, 76c, ^ oz. 40c, pkt 16c 

OUR SPECIAL OFFER 

We want every person who uses seeds to see our 1914 Seed Book and try this Splendid Early 
Tomato, and we willsend a packet for lOc. with Seed Book. This book is full of new photographs 
of \'egetables. Fruits and Flowers. Send your address to-day. 

W^- RENNIE C°- Limited Cr. AdeUM^^jd^arvis S.re..«. 

Branches at Montreal. Winnipeg and Vancouver 




Progressive Jones, Says: 



Harab Fertilizers Make 
Champion Crops 



Hara 

rERTlU^ 



b 



The success my friends have had with Harab Fertilizers has 
made me proud. Mr. A. (iilchrist, of Runnymede Road, Toronto, 
used Harab Fertilizers and raised Gladioli 
which won the Gold Medal Diploma at 
Toronto Exhibition. .Another Harab user 
was a prize winner at the International 
Apple Growers' Association, Chicago. Mr. 
F. G. Bridge of St. James Park, London, 
used Harab Fertilizers for tomatoes, which 
grew to giant dimensions, eight of them weighing 8 lbs. 6 oz. 

I am sure you will get champion results, too, if you will use 
Harab Fertilizers according to directions. The Harab Fertilizer 
booklet tells why these animal fertilizers 
are superior to other fertilizers. If you'll 
take my advice, you' 11 write for a copy 
rigiit now. 

The Harris Abattoir Co., Limited 

Fertilizer Dept., Strachan Ave., TORONTO, Canada 




Lin\e-Sulfur Injury 

In discussing the prevention of lime- 
sulfur injury with reference only to that 
injury to fruit or foliage caused by the 
dissolved sulfur in the spray. Prof. V. I. 
Savro, of the Oregon Agricultural College, 
in a recent bulletin, writes as follows: 

A fine mist spray would not be as in- 
jurious as a coarse or drenching spray. It 
is good horticulture, in fact, to apply only 
a light even coating of spray, where pos- 
sible. Though this procedure can be fol- 
lowed in many parts of the country, how- 
ever, it is difficult for some regions. In 
some of the fruit growing sections, a fine 
mist spray can be rarely used. Frequently 
the winds are strong enough to necessi- 
tate a coarse spray in order that the tree 
may be sprayed thoroughly. In such cases 
no choice remains ; a coarse spray must 
necessarily be applied. Drenching, how- 
ever, may be avoided by using care and 
judgment. 

In cases of lime-su!fur injury induced by 
previous fungus infection, there is no ques- 
ion as to the proper procedure. It is much 
more advisable to destroy the leaves by 
means of the spray than to allow the fungus 
to become destructive. 

The most simple method that presents 
itself of avoiding lime sulfur injury is to 
weaken the soluble sulfides by increased 
dilution. From our own experiences and 
those of several others we are led to_ be- 
lieve that lime-sulfur properly made (i.e., 
boiled for not more than one hour) is not 
injurious at the strengths generally re- 
commended. Home-boiled preparations are 
rarely injurious for this reason. On the 
other hand, we know of lime-sulfur fac- 
tories that prolong boiling for three or 
four hours. This gives a concentrate that 
is more injurious (on account of the greater 
proportion of sulfides in solution) than a 
properly made concentrate testing the same 
specific gravity. It is rather difficult to 
recommend a practical method of deciding 
whether the concentrate is liable to be in- 
jurious or not, and the procedure to follow 
upon ascertaining this point. In general, 
a concentrate that has been boiled for not 
more than one hour, may be considered 
safe at the dilutions generally recommend- 
ed (1 to 30, at -30 degrees B. for apples, 1 
to 40 for pears). Again we wish to call 
attention to the fact that we are consider- 
ing only that injury caused primarily by 
the sulfides in the spray. Our own ex- 
periments have shown, in one case, that 
injurv followed an application of lime-sul- 
fur diluted 1 to 75. This, however, was 
not strictly lime-sulfur injury, but injury 
due to other causes to be explained later. 

Another method of avoiding lime-sulfur 
injurv is by rendering the sulfides insol- 
uble. This may be done by adding various 
substances to the spray that will break 
down, not necessarily all the sulfides in 
solution, but enough to render the remain- 
ing sulfides non-injurious. It may be 
argued, however, that in breaking down 
the polvsulfides the insecticidal properties 
of the sprav are impaired. In reply it may 
be noted that lime-sulfur is used dunng 
the growing season primarily as a fungi- 
cide, and its insecticidal value at the 
strength used upon foliaare is questionable. 



I have found The Canadian Horticultur- 
ist a gem as regards its relation to the 
fruit interests. — Ernest 
Ont. 



Flindall, Lovett 



-NTarch, 1914. 



THE CANADIAN HORTICULTURIST 



79 




How Home Mixing 

Makes European 
Farmers Prosperous 

They buy straight materials and 
mix them into balanced fertilizers 
containing two or three times as much 

Nitrate 
of Soda 

as high-priced American complete 
fertilizers contain. Your fertilizer 
should contain 4% of active nitro- 
gen. Does it? 

On land farmed for centuries, 
England raises 33 bushels of wheat 
per acre. We raise but 14. Europe 
imports 100% active Nitrate of Soda. 
You use dried blood, tankage only 
60% to 70% active and you pay 
more for it. 

"Home Mixinsr" is a book to help you 
increase your yields. Send your address 
to me on a postal card. 

Dr. WM. S. MYERS 

Director Chilean Nitrate Propaganda 

23 Madison Ave. New York 

No Branch Offices 





Perfect hearing is now being re- 
stored in every condition of deaf- 
ness or defective hearing from 
causes such as Catarrhal Deaf- 
ness, Relaxed or Sunken Drumsu 
Thickened Drums, Roaring anil 
Hissing Sounds, Perforated, 
Wholly or Partially Destroyed 
. Drums,Discharge from Ears, etc 

Wilson Common-Sense Ear Drums 

"Little Wireless Phones for the Ears" require no 
medicine but effectively replace what is lacking or 
defective in the natural ear drums. They are simple 
devices, which the wearer easily fits into the ears 
where they are invisible. Soft, safe and comfortable. 
Write today for our 168 page FREE book on DEAF- 
NESS, giving you full particulars and testimonials. 

WILSON EAR DRUM CO.. Incorporated 
699 Inter-Southern Bldg LOUISVILLE, KY. 



MAX STOLPE 

Landscape Architect 

Ejc-Superintendent Royal Gardenins Institute 

Saxony - Germany 

Holder of Gold and Silver Medala 

Artistic Plans, Sketches furnished for all 
kinds of LANDSCAPE CONSTRUCTION 
WORK. 

Ornamental Trees, Shrubs, Conifers, 
Hardy Perennials, etc. 

ASK FOR PRICE LIST 

17 Main Str. East - HAMILTON. Ont 

Phone 14S 



^^f==^^-^^-^^-=^-^^h=^f-^^ 



PEERLESS POULTRY FENCE 



^^ 



W^T 



Does all you could wish of a poultry fence and more. 
Built close eiiuush to keep chickens in and slronKetiougb to 
keep cattle out. Even Binall chicks cannot get between the 
close mesh of lateral and vertical Wires. The heavy, hard steel 
top and bottom wires, together with Intermediate laterals, will 
take care of a care essly backed wagon, or an unruly animal 
and eprlngback intosbape immediately. The wires are securely 
held together at every intersection by the PEEULESS Lock. 

ThB Fence That Saves Expense 

It never ncfida repairs. It Is the (^heappst fence to erectbe-- 
cause, owing to Its exceptionally lieavy top and bottom wires, 
but half the usual amount of imjiber and posts are required. 

Send for UteraturB 

and address of nearest ncrent. AVo also make a complete line 
of farm and ornamental fencing. Agents nearly everywhere. 
Agents wanted la unasslgued territory. 

Banwell Hoxie Wire Fence Co., Ltd. 
Winnipeg, Manitoba Hamilton, Ontario 




8,760 Hours 
On a Drop of Oil 



7,000 Canadian dealers say that Big 
Hen (ioes more evident Tuork for less 
pay tlian any otlitir eJock built. He's 
a rcj^iilar glutton for good work. 

In return for one little drap of oil 
Big Ben will work for you a full year. 
I'rom "Boots on" to Lights out" — 
365 times — he'll guarantee to tell you 
the time o'dijy with on-the-dot accu- 
racy. He has made the same guar- 
antee over 3,000,000 times and made 
good every time. He'll make good 
for you. More than $8,000,000 has 
passed over good dealers' counters 
for Big Ben and his brothers. 

A Big Ben battalion, over 3,000 
strong, leaves I,a Salle, Illinois every 
day. Every one of them feels proud 



of his triple nickel-plated coat of im- 
pltjmcnt steel; his dominating seven- 
inch height; his large, bold figures 
and hands, and his big, easy to-wind 
keys. No other clock can match 
their looks and ability to serve. 

Thinirs move with a will when timed v/ilh Big 
Iteii. He'll \takc you erjduii/Iit by rintinf every 
other hatf-minutc for ten minutes or rout you out 
in 3 Iiurry with one loTtir niusicnl rint. Suit your- 
self how be does it. You tan shut him off short 
ill the middle of bis call, if you wish. 

He is built in a live town for live wires. And 
his best work has been on the farm.* Before-brcak- 
fast chores are started riefit an time when Big Ben 
time is set. Ht rtnvr ui'frslfepi. He ruhs on lime, 
rinns on time and stays on time. 

If your dealer doesn't sell Bi^ Ben. send a money 
order for SJ.OO to his malcers — U^tstt/ox, La $<iile. 
Illithit. He will come to your bouse by express 
duty charges prepaid. 



I 



ft 



A> 



THE CANADIAN HORTICULTURIST 



March, i«)ii. 



Use the Available 
Kind o£ Fertilizer 



For many crops all the availaUk plant food 
that is needed is one grain to each pound of soil. 

When such a small quantity of food must do 
all the work for your crop, it is exceedingly 
important that what you put into the soil in the 
form of fertilizer shall be avai/ak/e^that it shall 
have not only the right quantity, but the right 
quality and right crop value. 

It has cost us forty years of experience to 
know how to mix the right kinds and the right 
quantities of ingredients for fertilizer. 

Bowker's Fertilizers 

accomplish also the more difficult task of getting the right 
blending, the right solubility into a mixture which will 
run readily and freely from the farmer's planter, and 
which will remain dry an^l drillable as well as efficient 
until used in the field. We make a brand to fit every 
crop need. 

Write and tell us what your crops are, and we will 
send you our illustrated catalogue. 

ROAA/l^FP FERTILIZER COMPANY 

JD V^ YY ^^f^fX 43 Chatham Street, Boston, Mass. 

60 Trinity Place, New Yor.k. P. O. Box 806, Buffalo, N. Y. 



Try Something New In 
Your Garden Next Spring 

Have you ever groven Asparagus — Pole Beans 
— Cress — Kohl Rabi — Salsify ? Get the new 
Catalogue of 



E^^^ing's 



Reliable Seeds 

and study up some of these uncommon but delicious 
vegetables. Plant them along with some of your 
regular "stand-bys" — they'll add interest to your 
gardening and pleasurable variety to your meals. 

Ewing's Seed selections are strictly up-to-the- 
minute, and at the same time they are backed by a 
reputation of over 40 years of sterling satisfaction on 
Canadian farms and gardens. 

Write at once far our Illustrated 
Catalogue, and if your Dealer 
hasn't Ewing's Seeds, buy Direct 
from us. 

THE WILLIAM EWING CO., LIMITED, 
Seed Merchants, 
McGUI Street. MONTREAU 3J 




British Columbia 

Secretary W. J. Bonavia, of the Depart- 
ment of Agriculture, reports that the work 
of the Interior Fruit Pests Inspector, who 
has had a total staff of sixteen men under 
his direction was greatly increased last 
year by the outbreak of fire blight in the 
Okanagan and Boundary districts. This 
disease, which is so prevalent in the Paci- 
fic Coast States to the south, has been 
vigorously combated, and by the coopera- 
tion of orchardists, has been largely 
stamped out. 

D. D. McLennon, of Fruitvale, a suburb 
of North Yakima, recently sold his forty- 
six acre orchard to H. J. Madill of Calgary 
for one hundred and fifteen thousand dol- 
lars. Mr. McLennon realized thirty thou- 
sand dollars from his crop last year. 

At a meeting of the members of the 
provincial horticultural staff, held shortly 
before the first of the year, the opinion 
was freely expressed that the Canadian 
apple box will be discarded in the Okana- 
gan district in favor of its American rival. 
The packing schools, which assemble in 
various parts of the province, will still re- 
tain the Canadian box for demonstration 
purposes during the coming season, ex- 
cept in the Okanagan Valley where the 
.'Vmerican box will be employed, although 
this year the American box may become 
the recognized standard throughout the 
province. 

The Canadian box measures ten inches 
by eleven inches by twenty inches. It is 
longer, narrower, and shallower than the 
.'Vmerican box, which measures eighteen 
inches by eleven and a half inches by ten 
and a half inches. "As will be seen from 
these measurements the cubic capacity of 
the two boxes is practically identical," said 
Provincial Horticulturist R. M. Winslow, 
after the meeting, "so that the retailer will 
not suffer, provided that the box price re- 
mains the same. At the same time there 
will be an advantage to the trade in a 
slightly lesser cost in handling, while 
the standardization of these boxes, with 
the shocks used in packing other fruits, 
will slightly lower the cost to the packer. 
In addition to these slight gains, the 
American standard has the appearance of 
holding more apples, which will have some 
effect in the marketing of the fruit." 



Bulletins 

Recent bulletins include one on "Lettuce 
Drop," by the University of Florida Ex- 
periment Station, author O. F. Burger. 
Bulletin 217, of the Maine Agricultural Ex- 
periment Station, Orono, is entitled Woolly 
Aphis of the Apple. Corpemrcial Peach 
Growing in Michigan is dealt with in spe- 
cial Bulletin 63 of the Michigan Agricul- 
tural College Experiment Station, East 
Lansing, Michigan. The authors are F.' 
M. Barden and H. J. Eustace. The Con- 
necticut Agricultural Experiment Station, 
New Haven, Connecticut, has issued Bulle- 
tin 179, dealing with Soy Beans. 

"A Preliminary Report on the Pollina- 
tion of the Sweet Cherry" is the title of 
Bulletin 116 of the Oregon Agricultural 
College Experiment Station, Corvallis, 
Oregon. The author is V. R. Gardiner. 
Another bulletin just issued by the same 
station is entitled "An Investigation of 
Lime-Sulphur Injury: Its Causes and Pre- 
vention." The author is V. I. Savro. 



March, 1914. 



THE CANADIAN HORTICULTURIST 




J 



6^=1^^ 



ftBFUMEB 



pOiKOtRtO 




1/ 

w 



L^fGlLLETT COMPANY LIMITED 

«Z::ii TORONTO ONT •'""""■ ' 



Spring Spraying 

The first spray in the spring is the most important one, 
and the results obtained from the use of Gillett's Lye have 
demonstrated that there is nothing to equal it, especially 
when used properly before the buds begin to swell. 

One can of Gillett's Lye dissolved in five gallons of water makes a 
proper solution for full grown trees, but a weaker solution, say, about one 
can of Gillett's Lye to about 10 gallons of water, is suitable for young 
trees and vines. 



A strong solution used on trunks and limbs of the older trees will 
cleanse the bark of all moss and fungus growth and kill all insects. The 
earth should be well scraped back from the foot of the trees, and the trunk and limbs should be well sprayed, 
and in three or four days the bark will be perfectly clean and look bright. The earth around the trees should be 
well saturated, thus acting as a preventive and fertilizer as well. In a short time the tree will be vigorous and 
healthy . 

If you have not received a copy of our spraying pa mphlet, send name and address on postal card, and this 
valuable little book will be mailed you free of charge. 

E. W. Gillctt Company Limited 



Winnipeg 



TORONTO, ONT. 



Montrea.1 



Sr 






500,000 FEET BELTING FOR SALE 

Leather, Rubber Canvas, etc. 100.000 rods Wire 
Fencing, 40,000 lbs. Barb Wire at 2c. per lb., 
300.000 ft. Iron Pipe, also 1,000 other bargains at 
Ifi't to 50;: less than regular value. New lists just 
issued, sent free on request. Write immediately. 

IMPERIAL MFG. & SUPPLY CO.. 

6 QUEKN ST. MONTRBAI,, Qi:E. 

All kinds of Machinery Bought and Sold. 



FREE LAND 

FOR THE 

SETTLER 

IN 

NEW ONTARIO 

Millions of acre« of virgin soil obtainable 
free and at a nominal cost are calling for 
cultivation. 

Thousands of farmers have responded 
to the call of this fertile country and are 
bting made comfortable and rich. Here, 
right at the door of Old Ontario, a home 
awaits you. 

For full information as to terms, regula- 
tions, and settlers rates, write to 

H. A. MACDONELL 

Director of Colonization 
Parliament Buildings., TORONTO 

HON. JAS. S. DUFF 

Minister of .\griiulturc 
Parliament BldCs., Toronto 



ENGLISH HUD-MUE LACE 

MADE BY THE COTTAGERS OF BUCKINGHAMSHIRE. 

This IS the old-fashioned lace made on the cushion, and was first introduced into England 
by the Flemish Refugees, It is still made by the village women in their quaint old way. 

Our Lace* were awarded the Gold Medal at tbe Festival of Empire and Imperial 
Exliibition^ Crystal Palace, LONDON, ENGLAND, for general excellence of workmanship. 

DUY some of this hand-made Pillow Lace, it lasts MANY times longer than machine made 
variety, and imparts an air of distinction to the possessor, at the same time supporting 
the village* lace-makers, bringing them little comforts otherwise unobtainable on an agricuUnral 
man's wage. Write for descriptive little treatise, entitled "The Pride of North Bucks," 
containing 200 striking examples of the lace makers' art. and is sent post free to any part of the 
world, Laoe for every purpose can be obtained, and within reach of the most modest purse. 

Every sale, however small, is 
a support to the Industry. 




OOIiLAB— Pnre Linen. 
$1.00. 




DAINTY HANDKIB-7(to. 
Na 9ia— Iaoo \\ in. deep. 



Collars, Fronts, 
Plastrons, Jabots, Yokes. 
Fichus, Berthes, Hand- 
kerchiefs, Stocks, Cami- 
soles, Chemise Sets, Tea 
Cloths, Table Centres, 
D'Oylies, Mats, Medal- 
lions, Quaker and 
Peter Pan Sets, etc., 
from 25c.. 60c., $1.00, 
$1.50, $2.00. up to $5.00 
each. Over 800 designs 
in yard lace and inser- 
tion from 10c.. 15c., 25c., 
45c., up to $3.00 per 
yard. 

IRISH CROCHET. 

Mrs. Armstrong having 
over 100 Irish peasant 
girls connected 
with her industry, 
some beautiful ex- 
amples of Irish 
hand made lacea 
may be obtained. 
All work being sold 
direct from the 
loce-makers, both 
the workers and 
cnstomers derive 
great advantaga. 




i\\ in. deep.) STOCK— Wheel Design. 
Price 25o. each. (Half shown.) 




No. 122.— tt>o. p«r yarO* 



MRS. HORACE ARMSTRONG, OLNEY, BUCKS, ENGLAND 



THE CANADIAN HORTTCUT.Tr R TS T 



March, 1914. 



Peerless Ornamental Fencing accomplishes 

two great purposes. It beautifies your premises 

by giving them that symmetrical, pleasing, orderly 

appearance, and it protects them by furnishing rigid, 

' effective resistance against marauding animals, etc. 

Peerless Ornamental Fencing 



11^ 



is made of strong, stiff, galvanized wire that will not 
sag. In addition to galvanizing, every strand is given 
a coating of zinc enamel paint, thus forming the best K<r'r- 
possible insurance against rust. Peerless ornamental 
fence is made in several styles. It 's easy to erect ^. 
and holds its shape for years. mfif^-'-^-^-'i^'^' 

.^ Send for free cataloe. If interested, ask about our ^RiiiiilS 

llllll^^ farm and poultry fencing. Agents nearly every- ^^■liillllil 
inniH^ where. Agents wanted in open territory, ^anilllllllll 

iiiiiiiiiiiiinnW''^"*:" ,""'' *"^';''"." ^i\ "''vCiimii""niiii" 

^^- Winnipeg, Man Hamilton, Onl.^^jp 

ramiiiiiiiniimiiniiiiiiii 



ILIIIIIIII 

iiiiiiin 




Sprayers 

Sulfur Dusters 

F^r Fifiitmg Erery Disease of Cnltirated Plants 

Knapsack, Pack Saddle or Horse Drawn 
Po'wcr Sprayers 

Scad for Catalocnet 1/|?D]LX/\DPT Muniactorer, 
and particolart to : " Cflf lUUKCfly VILLEFRANCHE 



(Rhona). FRANCE 



TO DESTROY APHIS, THRIPS, ETC. 

Without Injury to Foliage 
SPRAY WITH 

"BLACK LEAF 40" 

Sulphate of Nicotine 

"Black Leaf 40" is highly recommended by experiment stations and spray- 
ing experts throughout the entire United States, also by Canadian experts. 

Owing to the large dilution, neither foliage nor fruit is stained. 

Black Leaf 40" is perfectly soluble in water; no clogging of nozzles. 

PACKING : 

In tins containing 10 lbs. each, 2 lbs. each, and % lb. each. 

A 10-lb. tin makes 1,500 to 2,000 gaUons for Pear Thrips, with addition of 
D ^^""r."?!*' ?'s'''l^'e oil emulsion; or about 1,000 gallons for Green Aphis, 
^e;ir Psylla, Hop Louse, etc., or about 800 gallons for Black Aphis and Wool-'y 
Aphi;— with addition of 3 or 4 pounds of anv good laundry soap to each 100 
gallons of water. The smaller tins are diluted in relatively the same propor- 
Uons as are the 10-lb. tins. 

, .^^I^ES: In the United States, our prices for the respective sizes are as 

10-U>. tin, $12.50; 2-lb. tin, $3.00; >^-lb. tin, 85c. 

IN CANADA, Dealers usually charge about 25% to 30% over the above 
prices because of the Canadian duty, etc. Consult your dealer about this. 

THE KENTUCKY TOBACCO PfiODUCT CO. 

(Incorporated) 

LOUISVILLE - KENTUCKY 



Items of Interest 

At a farmers' club meeting held ai 
Smithdale, Simcoe county, Ont., on Janu 
ary 6th, it was decided to organize a co 
operative fruit growers' society on the linei 
of the Norfolk Fruit Growers' Association 
A committee composed of F. E. Webster 
Ben. Kerr, T. H. Conner, Dan. Carmichael 
and Lockey Paterson were appointed t( 
canvass apple growers not present, and t< 
call a meeting for the purpose of framinj 
by-laws, and other business. 

In Oregon, fruit growers are required t< 
maintain their orchards in good conditioi 
or stand the consequences. Recently everj 
apple tree in a forty-four acre orchard neai 
Portland — two thousand eight hundred it 
all — was cut down by the state fruit in 
spector and a force of men. The ownei 
stood by protesting, but was unable to stoj 
the destruction of his orchard. Neighbor; 
claimed the trees had every disease knowi 
to apples. The owner was given a monti 
in which to comply with the law requiring 
annual spraying. Failing to do so th< 
trees were cut down and burned. 

Messrs E. D. Smith & Son, Limited, o\ 
Winona, Ont., the well-known nurserymen 
recently forwarded a shipment of a gen 
eral assortment of the best varieties oi 
American grape vines to one of the Gov 
ernment Experimental Stations in Aus- 
tralia, a shipment of apple trees to Ma- 
deira, Spain, and a general assortment ol 
apple, pear, and plum trees and shade 
trees to Manchuria, China. These ship- 
ments were arranged and dug with th« 
utmost care, and the Ontario Govemmeni 
Inspector, who examined the trees, express- 
ed the opinion that he had never before 
seen nursery stock that had been packet 
so thoroughly or carefully. 

The Canadian Trade Commissioner al 
Auckland, New Zealand, under date of De- 
cember 22, 1913, reports as follows : "Tht 
V'ancouver boats bring large quantities ol 
apples, and your commissioner accompan- 
ied the inspector, who said they were a 
very fine lot. This business is capable ol 
great expansion. Many boxes of United 
States apples arrive by each boat, so it is 
quite evident there is a large demand. The 
Canadian shipper does not appear able to 
transact business on a sufficiently extensive 
scale in this regard." 

At a mass meeting of citizens of Arm- 
strong held recently, the following resolu- 
tion was passed : 

"That this meeting is against Chinese oi 
Orientals owning farm lands within the city 
of Armstrong, and in the municipality of 
Spallumchen, and requests owners of farm 
lands to bind themselves and their heiis 
and assigns for a period of five years not to 
sell to Chinese or Orientals nor to lease land 
to them within that period." 

Recent Publications 

Among the publications that have reach- 
ed The Canadian Horticulturist recently is 
a book entitled "Every Day in My Gar- 
den," by Virginia E. Verplanck. It is 
beautifully bound and well illustrated, the 
illustrations including a number of colored 
plates. The book is intended to be a guide 
for work in the garden and home, during 
each month of the j'ear, and is based main- 
ly on the latitude of Eastern New York. 
The actual reading matter is short. The 
publishers are Wm. R. Jenkins Company, 
Gth .Avenue and 48th Street, New York. 
Price $2.50. 



March, 1914. 



THE CANADIAN HORTICULTURIST 



Let the 
Gas Engine 
help your 
wife to do 
her w^ashing 

HAS it occiorred to you that your other business partner — your good wife 
— is still ufeing the out-of-date, back-aching methods of years ago — 
wearing herself out with the drudgery of the old-fashioned washday ? If you have a gas 
engine on your farm you need a 




^'€;fiX>U^e^^ 



That little 1 J H.P. gas engine that works your chum 
and cream separator and operates your Pump Jack, 
Root Pulper and other small implements, will do the 
clothes washing and wringing for your wife — and do 
It quickly and satisfactorily. This Maxwell "Hydro" 
Power Bench Washer works equally well by gas 
power or by electricity, and can be driven by a one- 



"HYDRO" 
BENCH WASHER 



sixth H.P. motor. We make it in one, two and 
three tub machines, and the mechanism is as perfect 
as science can invent. 

One of these machines would be a genuine boon to 
your Tvife when washday comes round. M&ke her a 
present of one — and let your gas or electric power 
help her to do her part of the work and lighten the 
burden of washday I 



1 Write to-day for further particulars of this 

Maxwell "Hydro" Power Bench Washer. 

DAVID MAXWELL fie SONS, DEFT. "H" 



ST. MARY'S, ONT. 



AT LAST 

JUST THE OUTFIT YOU ARE LOOKING FOR 

The Most Practical, Efficient and Simplest High Pres- 
sure POWER SPRAYING OUTFIT ever offered. 

"GOES LIKE SIXTY" 

Light Weight High Prettnre Direct Geared No Racking Pomp Jack 




100% SERVICE 

Engine can be used for other work all the year round. Truck makes a capital 
(arm wagon. Sills of channel steel, with steel platform. 

Price of Complete Outfit, Only $230 

This includes all accessories. Engine, Pump. Tank, Bamboo Extensions, 
Agitator. Hose, Nozzles, etc. 

Do not buy a Sprayer until yon have investigated the " Goes Like Sixty " 
Power Sprayer. Send for Sprayer Catalogue to-day. 

GILSON MFG. CO.Yorst.GUELPH,ONT. 




Get One 

Barrel 

More 

per Tree 

Tha,t's what a good 
sprayer will add to 
your fruit crop year- 
ly- 
Over 400,000 fruit 
growers ajoA. orchard- 
ists are proving this fact eryery season with Goulda Sprayers- 

BeoauBO Goulds Sprayers apply the spray in such a uniform 
way that every loaf, every twig is saturxted'; every crevice is 
treated. The proi>er amount of solution is used and no more- 
This saving in mixture alone pays for a Goulds Sprayer over 
and over aga-in- Made in 50 sizes and styles. Guaranteed to 
give abeolute satisfaction- 



RELIABLE 



^^LaaiBd 



are dteign d by engineers whose training and experience have 
worked out countless improvements- Don't fool with out-of- 
date sprayers. Their waste eats 
up many times what a Goulds 
Reliable Sprayer would have 
cost you first. 

40-Page Book Free 

Brimful of practical spray 
facts. Tells what mixtures to 
use. what amount and how to 
apply them, proper time to 
spray, how to conquer insects 
and fungous growths of all 
^x)rta. Sent Free- Write for it- 
(21) 

THE GOULDS MFG. CO. 

17 W. Fall St., Seneca Fallt, N.Y. 

Largest Mfrs. of Pumps for Every Purpose 




THE CANADIAN HORTICULTURIST 



March, 1914. 



r 



EVERY 
FARMER 
KNOWS 

That fertilizers are an absolute 
necessity to successful farming. 
The only question that confronts him 
is getting the right fertilizer. 

GUNNS 

SHUR-CROP FERTILIZERS 

are prepared under tlie supervision of chemical experts — are backed by 
forty years' reputation, and are guaranteed to be in perfect condition 
chemically and mechanically. 

Gunns' fertilizers are finely ground, insuring an even, easy distribution . 
For users of our fertilizers we are ready at all times to analyze samples 
of soils and recommend the fertilizer best suited, making it up especi- 
ally if necessary. 

For fertilizer book and other information, write 1 



GUNNS LIMITED, 



WEST TORONTO 




■^^ssir"— *^ 



Motor-Pump 



cludine motor-pumps. « '.fltg on bed 
without tmoks, and complete ma- 
chines — built In larfe and small 
sizes. The SIMPLEST. MOST OOM- 
PAOr. MOST POWERFUL and FIN- 
EST WORKING power sprayers ever 
produced. Manr Westerns sold in 
Canada last year to srrowers who are 
STAUNCH FRIENDS this year. 

WRITE FOR CATALOG TO-DAY, 
STATING REQUIREMENTS. 



"FDIEND'MFG. CO., GASPOfiT, NEW YOftK 



Nova Scotia 

The apple shipments from the Annapolis 
Valley for the last four months of 1913 were 
105,5.32 barrels less than the corresponding 
four months of 1912, which were also about 
forty per cent, less than for the four cor- 
responding months of 1911. This drop 
was' caused by the weather conditions of 
the spring of 1912 being bad for the apple 
crop, and the spring of 1913 being still 
worse than for a number of years. The 
apple shipments from Halifax the last four 
months of 1913 were 354,397 barrels, 
against 459,929 barrels during the same 
period of 1912. The shipments for the 
month of December, 1913, were 69,974 bar- 
rels, against 91,147 barrels for December, 
1912, showing a decline of 21,173 barrels. 

While the quantity of apples grown in 
Nova Scotia has been declining for two 
years, the prices have so enhanced that it 
is considered by many that the past sea- 
son will be more remunerative than for 
a number of years. 

The cooperative movement started three 
years ago has given wonderful results, en- 
abling the grower to obtain the best prices 
for his apples and potatoes at the least 
possible expense. The latter maintained 
throughout the heaviest shipments the re- 
cord price of fifty cents a bushel to the 
grower, who also effected a great saving 
in the prices he had to pay for the feed and 
fertilizer he required. 



The United States Markets 

D. Johnson, Forest, Oat. 

I had some experience last year in the 
United States markets, which was very un- 
satisfactory. Friends in Cleveland and De- 
troit advised us that they were paying two 
dollars fifty cents a bushel for peaches. 
We found this to be true, so in company 
with some neighbors we shipped to com- 
mission merchants in those cities five cars 
of peaches. I consider that we would have 
made two hundred dollars a car more had 
we sold these peaches in Canada, or that 
my neighbors and myself would have made 
one thousand dollars more had we not 
shipped the five cars across the line. The 
fruit was of the finest quality, carefully' 
packed and shipped in good refrigerator 
cars. It appears to me that the .-Ameri- 
can consumers are paying big prices for 
their i>eaches, but these big prices are not 
enjoyed by the producers. 

Regarding apples, I had heard of the 
big prices for apples, and had hoped for 
a good market right at our door for our 
apples. .A.ccordingly, as soon as the new 
tariflf came into effect, I visited a number 
of the big United States cities with the 
intention of selling our pack to them. I 
found that I could not make a satisfactory 
sale there, so returned home and sold at. a 
much better price to a western firm than 
we could get on the other side. In view 
of these facts I can only say that I do 
not expect much from the United States 
markets in future years when their prices 
were so much below our own last season 
in the midst of one of the shortest crops 
the United States has had for years. 



Most of the standard varieties of fruit 
could be delivered to market in better con- 
dition and with less loss from decay if they 
were promptlv cold stored after picking.— 
J. A. Ruddick, Dairy Cold Storage Com- 
missioner. 



il March, 1914. 



THE CANADIAN HORTICULTURIST 



^'s 



EGGS 



EXPRESS PREPAID->li lb« jUndirJ kretJl if 

f Qicknis, Docks. G«« Mil Turkeys. BIGB-CLASS 

STRAINS. Wrile Itdji fof calilcj destriUiii 

kfttfa— »lso penlti r amUa- ITS FREE. 

J. H. RUTHERFORD, ««« 

CiMm Eut. Oriim 





■X;W 



The Earliest 
Tomato Grown 

Without exception D & F's O. K. 
Tomato yields an earlier crop than any 
other on the market. 

Grown from single plant selections cover- 
ing a period of five years. Fruit is exception- 
ally large, a beautiful red and full of strong 
healthy new blood. 

D. 81 F's 
HIGH GRADE SEEDS 

are used by successful Gardeners in every 
section of the Dominion. 

58 FIRST PRIZES were awarded at the 
Montreal Horticultural iExhibition, Sept.. 
191J, to Mr F. S. Watson, on products grown 
from D- & r.'e High-Grade Seeds- 

Send to-day for our Seed Annual- 
It is a complete garden guide. We 
mail it free- 

DUPUY 81 FERGUSON 



38 St. Jacques-Cartier Square 



Montreal 




Rennie's Seeds 
Grow 



the Finest Vegetables 
and the Best Flowers 
in the Land 

success in planting, 
whether it be in planting an en- 
tire garden, a bed of either simple 
or intricate design, or an exten- 
sive farm tract, depends upon 
many things, the principal one 
being the Quality 
of the Seeds. 






are absolutely 
dependable — have been since 
1870 — 44 years ago. Their re- 
putation for uniform purity and 
fertility — a reputation that has 
always been strictly maintained 
— is YOUR assurance of success 
in planting. 



Rennie's Catalogs are unusually comprehen- 
sive and mighty interesting and instructive. 
They contain innumerable hints and sug- 
gestions of great value on cultivation. And 
the descriptions are not exaggerated, but can 
in every case be relied upon. 



Send UJ your name to-day and tve tuilt jend you Iheje 
injtructitJe Calalo^j aJ ijjued 



W^ RENNIE C° Limited 



Also at Montreal, Winnipeg and Vancouver 



Cor. Adelaide and Jarvis 
Streets. TORONTO 



Glorious New Spencer Sweet Peas 



KING WHITE— It attains perfection in 
every detail, which goes to make up a 
Spencer Sweet Pea. It is the experts' 
ideal for perfect form. Tlie improve- 
ment in form, size, vigor, waviness and 
purity stands eminently out when com- 
pared to other White Spencers, and calls 
for unstinted admiration- The number 
of four-blossomed sprays and the great 
length of stem will appeal strongly to 
those wishing a good White for decora- 
tive work. Packet, 20c. 

"EMPRESS EUGENIE" — The color is a 
delicate tone of Oight gray flaked with 
light lavender- A va«e ocr bunch gives a 
most charming effect. The flowers are of 
large size, beautifully waved and crimiv 
ed. A vigoroua grower and very free 
bloomer, throwinjr a largo proportion of 
four-flowered sprays. Packet. 20c. 

FREE— Our 112-pnfie illustrated cntnlnffue 
pt'>ntR !fu*hs Implements. Pou 



ILLUMINATOR — A glorious orange- 
aalmon Sweet Pea- In dull light the 
color appears to be a flat orange scar- 
let, but when in bright sunshine or arti- 
ficial light, the color is completely 
changed, and it appears a bright salmon 
cerise, sparkling witi orange- It intro- 
duces a new shade of color to Sweet Pea, 
enthusiasts of rare beauty, and with it« 
additional attributes of greet vigor, flori- 
forousnces and symmetry, it is sure to 
captivate all who give it a place in their 
garden. Packet, 20c. 

"WEDGEWOOD"— It is a troe sell and 
Is appropriately named, as its color 
throughout is a unique shade of wedge- 
wood blue, a color so popular in Ohina. 
It produces profusely flowers of good 
size, borne almofrt uniformly in four- 
flowered sprays, well placed, upon long 
stout stems. Of flneet Spencer form, the 
standard and wings are well waved- 
Packet. 2O0- 
of Ve.i?etnble, Farm and Flower Seeda, 
Itry Suppl.es. ct-- Write for it. 



JOHN A. BRUCE & CO., Ltd., Hamilton, Ont. 



I 



SFED MERCHANTS 



ESTABLISHED 1850 



1,,,11'Uii 



86 



THE CANADIAN HORTICULTURIST 



March, 1914. 



W 



SMALL FRUIT PLANTS 

Gooaeberrlet, Josselyn! Joesclyn!! Red Jacket. Downing, Pearl. 
Houirhton.-CurranU, Perfection! Perfection I! Euby. Cherry, White 
Qrapo. Ijce's Prolific. Ohatnplon, Blaxjk Naplce, Black Victoria, Bos- 
coop- Rn»pberrle«. Herbert! Herbert!! Hprb<>rt!!! Cuthbert. Marlboro. 
BriiK-kle'8 Orange, GoMen Qoeen, Strawberry - Raspberry. — Garden 
Roots, AsparaRus. Rhubarb. Write for Catalogiie. 

WM. FLEMING, Nnruryman, 496 ■ 4th ATenue W., OWEN SOUND, ONT. 



I( you are a 

MARKET GARDENER 

it will pay you to look carefully over our 
Price Lt«t of 



POSITIVELY. ABSOLUTELY our seeds will 

give you satisfaction* 

Be friendly Write us about your wants 

GEO. KEITH & SONS 

S^rd Afprvhants since lS(/> 

124 KING ST. EAST - TORONTO 



ARE YOU GOING 

GREENHOUSES 

We Design and Manufacture 

Iron Frame, Pipe Frame and All Wood 

We Use Only The Best 

All Heart Red Gulf Cypress Woodwork 

We Also Supply 

Ventilating Machinery, Bench Material and 

all kinds of Greenhouse Hardwrare 

PARKES CONSTRUCTION CO. 



I67t KING ST. E. 



HAMILTON, ONT. 



For Use 
In any 
wagoOi 




No. 190. Horizontal. 50-Gailon 



The Right Kind of Sprayer 



Means the one that just fits your pur- 
pose. You need to consider capacity, 

pump, engine, pressure, mixing, straining sedi- 
ment, stability on hillsides, using your own 
wagon, engine or sprayer with balance of the out- 
fit to fit what you already have. Get the right 
sprayer for YOUR work and you won't have 
any cause to be dissatisfied. We show here 
but three of the 70 

Bucket, Knapsack, 
Barrel, Power, and 
Traction Sprayers 



IBONM 



Built up 
from 
No. 190 




SO-Gallon Power 
Sprayer 



They are built up in units so that you can 
buy what you need now and add to the out- 
fit later if necessary. All have the best 
pumps in use on any sprayers — least slip- 
page among eight of the best in a disin- 
terested test. Solutions touch only brass 
or galvanized parts. Hemp packing, bronze 
ball valves, both easy to get at. Pumps 
outside. Power Sprayers are 50, 100, 150, 
or 250 gallons capacity. 200 pounds press- 
ure with 6 or 8 nozzles. 

^8k your local dealer about this line and write us tor our new "Spray" 
book, spray information and copy of Iron Age Farm and Garden News. 

The Bateman- Wilkinson Co. Ltd., 46o Symington Ave., West Toronto, Ont. 

Gear-Driven 

Double- Acting 
Pump 

2-H.Four-Cycle 

Air-Cooled 

Engine 

Outside 

Sediment 

Chamber and 

Strainer 



Furnished with 
or without truck 




Eastern Annapolis Valley 

Eunice Bacbanan 

On January 16th a meeting was held in 
Berwick, attended by a director from each 
fruit company, to decide whether or not to 
put in a cold storage plant. It was con- 
cluded th.-it the Central Office of the United 
Fruit Companies, Limited, should go ahead 
with a trial plant. As yet the location is 
not decided, but it will probably be near 
to a source of natural ice, supplying about 
seven hundred tons which would be re- 
quired to run this proposed Cooper-Madi- 
son system size of cold storage plant. It 
is estimated that the cost will be less than 
fifteen cents a barrel, and that this will l)c 
the beginning of a series of cold storage 
plants through the Valley. Another fruit 
company has been organized at Hortonville, 
and a warehouse is to be built there. 

At the request of the United Fruit Com- 
panies a subsidy of five thousand dollars 
was granted by the Government for a 
steamship service to run from .Annapolis, 
N'ova Scotia, to ports in England. 

Yarmouth, to the west of us, closed its 
first annual seed fair on February 8th. In 
addition to growing wheat, oats, peas, 
buckwheat, beans, beets, and potatoes, the 
Federal authorities are offering bonuses for 
raising cabbage and turnip seed in com- 
mercial quantities. 

In addition to the seed fair, a short course 
in agriculture, with a staff of instructors 
from the .Agricultural College, Truro, has 
also been held in Yarmouth. The attend- 
,ince began with 122, and 50 more applica- 
tions were received. .Another short course 
of this description will be held in Bridge- 
water. 

The winter has gradually been growing 
more severe. On February 12th the ther- 
mometer dropped to twenty-two degrees be- 
low zero in Berwick, where it was said to 
have been the coldest day within the last 
thirty years. 

As another good step in cooperation, our 
local paper, the Register, is devoting a 
large space each week to the doings of the 
United Fruit Companies, which is now 
their official organ. 



Bulletins 

Recent publications that have reached 
The Canadian Horticulturist include the 
following: "Plum Culture and District Lists 
of Plums Suitable for Canada, with Des- 
criptions of Varieties," by W. T. Macoun, 
Dominion Horticulturist, Experimental 
Farm. Ottawa; "The Box Packing of .Ap- 
ples," by E. F. Palmer, B.S.A,, being 
Bulletin Number 216 of the Ontario De- 
partment of Agriculture. This bulletin is 
well illustrated and contains much helpful 
information. "The San Jose and Oyster 
Shell Scale." by Prof. Caesar, B.S..A., be- 
ing Bulletin Number 219 of the Ontario De- 
partment of Agriculture, Toronto. 

The Utah Agriculture College has issued 
two bulletins, one Number 128, entitled 
"Blooming Periods and Yields of Fruit in 
Relation to Minimum Temperatures," by A. 
M. Ballantyne, Logan, L'tah, and the other. 
Bulletin Number 129, by E. D. Ball and W. 
M. Ball, of Logan, Utah, entitled, "Cod- 
liner Moth studies." "Success with Hens" 
is the title of a book by Robt. Joos. This 
book covers the subject of poultry raising 
with unusual fullness. It is published by 
Forbes & Company of Chicago and sells 
at .$1.00 a copy. 



March, 1914. 



THE CANADIAN HOETICULTURIST 



s- 



Parks, Gardens and Lawns 
Planned 

Exi>ert advice regarding varieties of trees, 
fhrubs and plants- No stock for sale. 

CHARLES ERNEST WOOLVERTON 

Landscape Gardener, GRIMSBY, Ont. 



The Kclway Manual of Horticulture 

is THE Gardening Book, 60c. post 

free from 

RELWAY 81 SON 

T/te Royal Horticulturists 

Langport, Somerset, England 



A BETTER HOME LIGHT 

Costs less than Ic. a night 
for 300 Candle Power light. 



Here is 
a lamp that ia truly 
a wonder. "The Fault- 
leee Lamp" makes ite 
own gas from <Jo«i/>- 
oil — will produce 300 
O a n d 1 e Power of 
bright, white light at 
less than Ic a night. 
Simple, strong, most 
beautiful portable 
lamp. 

CANNOT EXPLODE. 
CAN BE ROLLED ON 
THE FLOOR WHILE 
BURNING. REQUIRES 
NO CLEANING. 

Why sacrifloe your 
eyes with a poor Light 
when the saving of 
oil alone will pay 
for a " Faultless " in 
a short time. 

Write for free book- 
let "M," showing how 
it works, and giving 
other valuable infor- 
mation- 




THE FAULTLESS 
LAMP 



mac:lahen & CO. 

Drawer D. Merrickvillc, Ont. 






More- 
Finer 
Fruit 



JSE 
the ^^^ 

quickest. "^^^^ 
surest, most econom- 
ical method of spraying; 
preventing disease, blislit; 
' killing bugs; assuring bump- 
er crops o£ finest fruit. 300,000 
farmers, gardeners have found 

Brown's Auto Spray 

most efficient— Style No. 1 shown here. 
Capacity 4 gallons. Easily carried over 
shoulder. IDoes more work than 3 ordi- | 
nary sprayers. Patented Auto Pop Nozzle 
—throws any kind of spray— does not clog. 



Better Vegetables, Bigger Crops 



Just the size for small trei>F», fields 
up to 6 acres, poultry houses, utc. 
For large sprayers— Browns 

NON-CLOG ATOMIC NOZZLE | 

sprays a-ay solution 
without cloKKing, 
GuaranteecT 40 
styles, sizes — 
hand — power. 
WriU for Free\ 
S p r a y in i 
Guide. 

The E. C. 
Brown Co. 

57 Jay St. 




Rochester, ^ 
' H. Y. i 




^ Turns the soif 
better" 



Because of their 
Bhape, plates 
of " Bissell" 
Orchard Harrov/s turn over soil cleaner, 
better than you've been accustomed to 
have it done. Attach wingsand Harrow 
extends out 12 ft. or more to cultivate 
under limbs of trees — closes up narrow 
enough to cultivate between grape vines. 
Combination Harrow too— reversible 
from "Out Throw" to "In Throw." 
Low seat, well-braced frame. Ask your 
dealer for information or write Dept. N 
_ T. E. Bissell Co. Ltd., Elora, Ont. ' 
J NO. DlitKE PLOW CO., Ltd., 77 Jarvis 
St., Toronto— Selling Agents for Ontario 
and Quebec. 



PAINT WITHOUT OIL 

Remarkable Discovery That Cuts Down the Cast 

of Paint Seventy-Five Per Cent. 

A Free Trial Package Is Mailed to Everyone 
Who Writes 

A_ L. Rice, a prominent manufacttirer of 
Adame, N. Y., hae dieoovered a process of 
making a new kind of paint without tJie use 
of oil- He calls it Powdrpaint. It cornea in 
tJhe form of a dry powder and all that ia 
required is cold water to make a paint wea- 
ther proof, fire proof and ae durable ae oil 
paint. It adheres to any surface, wood, 
etone or brick, spreads aJid looks like oil 
paint and costs about one-fourth aa much. 

Write to Mr. A. L. Bice. Manuf'r., 441 North 
Bt., Adams, N. Y., and he will send you a 
free trial package, also color card and full 
information showing you how you can save 
a good many dollars. Write to-day. 



CENTRAL NURSERIES, ST. CATHARINES, ONT. 

Have a Fine Assortment oT 

Trees, Vines, Plants, Ornamentals, Etc. 

For Spring Planting 
For Satisfactira, Plant St. Rigts, Himalaya and Erer Bearing Berries 

Our prices are right and so are the trees. Send for priced catalogue 
if you have none, also your want list for special prices on Apple 
Trees. We can please you. Try Seed Potatoes, Lincoln, New. 
Look over our Price List. No Agents. Wanted, a Nurserymzui 

A. G. HULL 8i SON 





Fertilizer "Actions" that 
Speak Louder Tlian Words 

Every farmer desiring to increase his farm profits will be interesited in this De- 
partment of Agriculture Eeport on the "Acre Profit" competition held in Welland 
County last summer under the supervision of K. Austin, B. S. A., District Repre- 
.sentative- 



"Home Mixed" 

Such as would be recommended by "Raw 

Materials" combines. 
Competitor— Koy Mackenzie Barron, 

Ponthill. Ont. 
Crop: POTATOES 

Fertilizer Used on Acre: 600 pounds. 
lOO lbs. Nitrate of Soda^ 
300 lbs. Basic Slag } "Home Mixed" 

2O0 lbs. Potash J 

Also 8 loa*38 of Manure- 
Yield: 135 Bushels. 

Cost of Production: $44.25 

(Inoludiug rent of land, labor, cost o» 

fertilizer, etc.) 

Net Profit from Acre: $33.15 



"Davies Factory Mixed" g 

As recommended by those who realize 
that "Eesulta speak loudesr than Words." 

Competitor: Will Crysler, Allanburg, Ont. 

Crop: POTATOES 

Fertilizer used on Acre: 600 pounds- 

Daviee 3-6-10 Potato Grower 

(Factory mixed) 

Also 6 loads of Manure. 

Yield: 296 Bushels. 

Cost of Production: $42.35 
{Including rent of land, labor, cost of 
fertilizer, etc.) 
Net Profit from Acre: $135.25 



(Average yield for Province, 1913-U6 bushels. Marketable rotatoes valued at 60c 

per bus. in each case.) 
These results show that increased profits cam be made hy farmers who use 
Factory Mixed fertilizers, and particukurly those who tise 



DAVIES 



SPECIAL 
MIXED 



FERTILIZERS 



The results of this competition show that although 100 pounds more of the Home 
Mixed fertilizer and two extra loads of bern-yard Manure ^l^^^^^f^''^^"'.!^^^ 
Mixed fertilizer netted a profit of $102.10 per acre more than the Home Mixed fertilizer. 

^Xt°rheSIfetTakr^t!:n.''"Grtr"yr Prtlu^r"Xaler to^y, arrange 
withTim^ f-the";u!ShLt^f^r.Scien%aviJ special Mix^ fortius. ^^ on your 
farm crons this spring.-SOO pounds per acre ia a good average application. 
^emeXr-Davf<S' PERTlLIZElU^not only produced '''''^"^J^^J^^-^L^ 
so economically and also imp.x>ve the quality "'J^ ^^''-..^^^^X^e^' Way^' ^ 
profitable harvest in eveery way- Write for our free book, tarm itevies way. we 
have or want to have an Agent near You." 

IS£ DAVIES £?«"™" 

H. INNES, B-S-A., Manager, W. TOBONTO, ONT. 



I 



88 



THE CANADIAN HORTICULTURIST 



March, 191 4. 



Vinegar Plants 
Cider Presses 

Wo ttri> th« exclusive Oanadian Agreiits for 
the HydrnuLio Preea Mfg. Co., Mount Giload. 
Ohio. If .vou want a Oid«r Press of any kind 
or a Vincifar Plant, write ub. 

The Brown Boggs Co. 

Limited 

HAMILTON, CAN. 




Choice Fruit 

is the result of systematic 
cultivation, and spraying 
with 

SHERWIN-WILUAMS 

NEW PROCESS 
ARSENATE OP LEAD 



The Sherwin-Williams Co. 

of Canada, Limited 

MANUFACTURERS OF INSECTICIDES 

Offices and Warehouses : 

Montreal, Toronto, Winnipeg, Calgary, Vancouver, 

Halifax, N. S., London, Eng. 



Northern Grown Trees 

A-pple, I'ear, I'ium. Cli«rry, l'<*a<'ti. 
Orapes, Small Frait«, D«oiduoQ8 and 
flvorgrecn Ornamental*, Eosee, Flowering 
Shrub.i, OlirnlK'rs, eto, 
C'atj).Io?iK! Fr<«. It tellH tho whole Story. 

J. H. WISSHER. Nurseryman, Port Elgin, Ont. 



50,000 
FIRST CLASS FRUIT TREES 

Two year old, 3 to 5 ft. high. To introduce our 
stock will Bell while they laHt at $20.TO per 100, $2..'>0 
per 10. All varieties of Plums. Pears, Peachen, 
Cherriesand Apples. Special prices to Associations. 



W. p. POWE & SON 



CAINSVILLE. ONT. 



SUPERIOR 

Plant Boxes 




PRICES RIGHT 



Delivery in March and 
April. Order NOW 
to ensure prompt ship- 
ments. 



Canada Wood Products 

Co. 

ST. THOMAS - ONT. 



Use The Owen Compressed Air 
Spraying System — Save Money 



The Owen system embodies a central plant in which is 
installed an air compressor driven by a gasoline or steam 
engine. Two heavily galvanized, high pressure steel tanks are 
also provided complete with valves, fixtures, etc. The tanks are 
mounted on a suitable platform which can be placed on any 
ordinary farm wagon. When spraying, one tank is filled with about 
200 lbs. of compressed air and the other with the spraying liquid. 
The tanks are filled at the central station at the same time. 

The Owen Compressed 

Air Spraying System 

provides an even, steady pressure at all times. The spraying mixture Is 
kept thoroughly agitatecf by an air agitator. One man with one set of tanks 
can thoroughly apply 1200 gallons of mixture per day. With two rigs, one 
man can apply 2000 gallons per day. There is no complicated machinery- 
no pump cylinders coming in contact with the liquid — no engine to be 
hauled around courting trouble. It's the most simple, most satisfac- 
tory spraying system ever devised. 

When not used for spraying, the engine can be used for any 
other purpose and the compressor will furnish air for pneu- 
matic water systems, eto. 



^ V 



Write todav for free Catalog 

W. H. Owen Sprayer Co., Sandusky, Ohio 



Directors for Vineland 

F. M. Clement. B.S.A.. has been 
appointed director of the Provincial 
fiovernment Experimental Station at 
Vineland, in succession to A. D. 
Harkncss, who recently resig-ned. Mr. 
Clement is a graduate of the On- 
tario A(?ricultural College, where he 
specialized in horticulture. He after- 
wards acted as district representative 
for some years in Elgin county, dis- 
tinguishing himself in the horticul- 
tural branch. Over a year ago he 
was appointed assistant in the hor- 
ticultural departmept of Macdonald 
College, at Ste. Anne de Bellevue, 
which position he now holds. He will 
assume his new duties about the first 
of April. 



Ontario Hose Society 

The annual meeting of the Rose Society 
of Ontario was, held in Toronto, February 
16th, with E. T. Cook, vice-president of the 
Canadian Rose Society, in the chair. The 
officers' reports showed that the society had 
made encouraging progress. Not only had 
the membership been extended, but the 
financial position of the society had been 
placed on a sound basis by contributions, 
not only from members, but from others 
interested in rose growing in Ontario. 

The president spoke of the enthusiasm of 
the members. Their efforts had shown their 
determination to make the rose the flower 
of Ontario. The society, he said, was 
rapidly attaining one of its greatest objects, 
which was to have as large a number of 
affiliated societies as possible. Mr. J. T. 
Moore, of Moore Park, he said, had help- 
ed the society greatly by his influence and 
financial support. It was seldom that any 
society had secured and retained so much 
real support as the Rose Society of On- 
tario had. Three large rose shows were 
planned to be held this year. 

Ottawa Flower Guild 

The Y.W.C.A. was filled with happy chil- 
dren, Saturday afternoon, February 14, 
bringing their bulbs and plants to the 
sixth bulb exhibition of the Ottawa Child- 
ren's Flower Guild. The affair was entire- 
ly informal, and as cards had been sent 
only to the one hundred and twenty children 
to whom bulbs and plants had been given 
last November, a great many of the children 
were absent. The hall was crowded, many 
parents and friends being present. Mr. W. 
T. Macoun was judge. The result of the 
children's work was surprising to every one, 
the majority of the plants being fit for any 
florist's window. Mr. R. B. Whyte, the 
president, presided. 

Mr. W. T. Macoun expressed his surprise 
at finding that the children under twelve 
years of age far surpassed the elder mem- 
iDers of the Flower Guild. He had found it 
exceedingly hard work to decide which were 
the best plants, so keen was the competi- 
tion, and therefore he had added seven ex- 
tra prizes to those given by the committee. 
One plant taking a prize, to which Mr. 
Macoun drew attention, was planted in 
builders' sand, so that no one could ofTer 
the lack of good soil as an excuse for not 
growing bulbs. Mr. Macoun held up each 
prize plant for public inspection, giving tte 
reasons for and against excellence and 
form. It was a delightfully instructive ad- 
dress. 



March, 1914. 



THE CANADIAN HORTICULTURIST 



U 



DON'T PAY FREIGHT ON WATER 

NIAGARA SOLUBLE SULPHUR 



The Sulphur 
Peach Curl and 



Spray 
other 



powder form- 
fungus diseaees. 




'""'^Oe mark REOISTERV-T) 



Controte Scale® quicker and better than Lime-Sulphur. A positive control for Apple Scab, 

It has the following advantages over Lime^ulphur: Is cheai>er, eafiier 
to handle, no leakage or loss, no sediment, keepa indefinitely, saves 
freight and storage- 

100 lbs. of Soluble Sulphur will make more spray than a 600-lb. 
barrel of solution. 

Remember Soluble Sulphur wa9 used by over 5O0 growers in Ontario 
last year. It will be uaed by thousands this year. There is a reason 
for this. Soluble Sulphur does the work. Saves time and money and 
eliminates maJiy of the objectionable features of spraying. This ma- 
terial can only be procured from us. Place your order early so as to 
be sure and be supplied. 

If you have never usied this great sipray let us send you full par- 
ticulars. 

ARSENATE OF LEAD 

The highest grade only. The kind that mixes easiest Does not 
burn foliage. Contains the highest analysis of arsenic. 

SWIFT'S is made up to a quality, not down to a price. It ia al- 
ways full weight, guaranteed. The beet is always the cheapest. 

NIAGARA LIME-SULPHUR 



The pioneer and reliable solution, 
and uniform. 

Write us for spraying supplies. 



Highest in Beaume test. Olear 



Wherever Fruit Excels Niagara Spray is used 

Niagara Brand Spray Co., Ltd. 



BURLINGTON 



ONTARIO 



FOR SALE 



25 Acres of Choice, Early, Warm Land, specially 
adapted for the growing of Virginia Leaf Tobacco, 
and all early Fruits and Vegetables. Five acres 
in Peach and Cherry Trees about six years old. 
Buildings consist of Tobacco Barn, Stable and 
small house, and also a Hot House 20 ft. x 80 ft. 
This property is beautifully located, and only three 
quarters of a mile from the Leamington Post 
Office, a bargain at ^ ^ ^ ___ 

$12,000 

Apply to P.O. Box 504, Walkerville, Oi\t. 



16 Acres beautifully located, choice early land Fruit 
Farm, situated on the Lake Front Road, near 
Leamington, Ont. Twelve acre.s in fruit trees 
from one to five years old. Peaches, Plums and 
Apples. Buildings consist of a new six room 
Bungalo, Stable and Packing House. 
Price $9,500 

Apply to P.O. Box 504, Walkerville, Ont. 



SPRAY? ANTIKLOG 




They Rive the hig-hest efficiency through long hard 
terms of service. There is an ANT l-KLOC of the right 
capacity for those who have much and those who have lit- 
tle spraying to do. 

They spray better — spray bettor longer — and represent 
more downright sprayer value — than any other spraying 
devices manufactured. 

Ease of operation, simplicity, strength and a number 
of other individxial features appeal to every user. The 
ANTI-KLOC nozzcls make it very difficult for any mixture 
to clog the outlet. 

GUARANTEED FOR 5 YEARS 

^ou are absolutely guaranteed when you buy an ANTI- 
KLOC, as each is sold under an unqualified guarantee of 5 
years' service. 

Send for our new free catalog and give your dealer's 
name. You should now make preparations for spring 
spraving. 

ILLINOIS METALS COMPANY 



2420 West 22nd Street 



CHICAGO, ILL. 



THE CANADIAN HORTICULTURIST 



March, r i; 



Strawberry Plants 

FOR SALE 

For IflH we are ofTorlndr strong, vigorous, well 
rootfld Rtock of twelve standard varieties. Price 
List Free. 

ONTARIO NURSERY CO., Wellington, Ont. 



I 




Mtt«d pairs of 
Silver.blackand 

f latched foxea 
or sale. 

Also options on 
I9M puppies 
for summer de- 
livery. 

JOHN DOWNHAM. Box N, Strathroy. Ont. 



>V TouCan Make Your Orchard 



my BIG l-KKIC liUUK., "Why, How and When to Spray." Contains 74 illii::- 
trations of insects and fungus diseases and gives the remedy for each. A book that 
every farmer, truck- or fruit-grower should have. Also shows a complete line of sprayers— 
28 dillerent styles — man- power ^barrel — horse — and gasoline engine power for field and orchard. 

10 Days FREE Trial— 5 Year Guarantee 

No Money in Advance^' No Freight to Pay 




Our liberal selling plan enables yon to btiy'a HURST SPRAYER without 
any risk, and pay for it at your convenience. Write today and tell me 
what size sprayer you need or what you have to spray and get my great 

Monev Savinir Offer ^""^ '"^' ^'^^f ^^^- " ""' ™^= 

iT*<Jllcjr K^txvuifC v^lici you money in buying a sprayer and 
increase your profits. \Vrite at once. E- H. LAMIELL, General Manager, 

THE H. L. HURST MFG. CO.. 986 North Street, Canton, O. 





.TMSf^ 



r.-. 




* 



.; 




Tested 

If yon are interested in upkeep of Lawn, 
Tennis - Courts or Golf - Course, write 
for the "Practical Oreenkeeper." Every 
Championship Golf - Course in America 
is to-day using Carters Tested Grass Seeds. 



Seeds with 
a Lineage 

Lovers of gardens and grounds 
should know that at Raynes Park, 
London, England, Messrs. James 
Carter & Co. have the finest and most 
complete testing and trial grounds in 
the world. 

Their equipment and the unique 
methods employed guarantee the 
quality of their seeds. For genera- 
tions they have been cultivating, se- 
lecting and perfecting until Carters 
Tested Seeds have reached the high- 
est percentage of purity and geripina- 
ation. 

In England, where the art of gard- 
ening is most highly developed, Cart- 
ers Seeds rank first. Ask any gard- 
ener with experience in Great Britain 
— he will know Carter. 

In Canada, Carters Seeds liave achieved 
a tremendous success, botli on large estates 
and in smaller gardens. 

We import .these seeds direct from Raynes 
Park and carry a complete stock at our 
Toronto warehouse. We issue an American 
Catalogue, with all prices in American money. 
It includes selected varieties of Flower and 
Vegetable Seeds, with valuable directions for 
planting and cultivation. 

A copy of this Catalogue will be mailed you 
FREE. Write for it tc-day. 

CARTERS TESTED SEEDS, Ie- 

133 A King Street, Toronto 



Fruit Growers Convene 

The annual mef-tinK of the Northu' 
land and Durham Fruit Growrs' A= 
tion was held in Cobourg- recently. 1 1 
feature of the convention was the attenti< 
that was devoted to matters connected wv 
he proper marketing of fruit. Mr. D. 1 
Pauline, of Brandon, Manitoba, sujfgesO 
that ifrowers in the fast should obtain! 
list of western buyers and send them 
monthly statement of the number of bs 
rels and the varieties of each that th 
have on hand. This would give a belt 
and wider market and lead to more comp« 
tion in buying^. It was stated by M 
Pauline that some sections have effect 
a marked improvement in their pack by i 
quiring- the packers to insert their nanj 
and adresses in each box or barrel of fnj 
packed by them. j 

Mr. P. J. Carey, Dominion Fruit Inspectc 
pointed out that west of Brandon the api 
trade is confined atoiost exclusively ' 
boxes. He was of the opinion that a mui 
larger portion of the Ontario crop shou 
be box packed. 

The following officers were elected : Pi 
sident, F. B. Lovekin, Newcastle, Ont 
secretary, R. S. Duncan, Port Hope, Ont 
treasurer, Thos. Montague, Ont. Dir< 
tors : W. J. Bragg, Bowmanville, Ont. ; \ 
H. Gibson, Newcastle, Ont. ; W. S. Dri 
ber, Perrytown ; J. H. Hayden, Cobour 
Ont. : J. G. Wait, Wicklow, Ont. ; J. \ 
Turpin, Colborne, Ont. : R. B. Scriptui 
Brighton, Ont. ; W. H. Dempsey, Trento 



South African Fruit Trade 

Reporting from South Africa to the E 
partment of Trade and Commerce, Tra. 
Commissioner W. J. Egan, stationed 
Cape Town, writes as follows in regard 
Canadian apples shipped to that mark 
last fall: 

Opinion among the various dealers van 
in reference to Canadian apples received 
South Africa this year. Durban deale 
report trading and packing of Nova Scot 
fruit to be all right in every particuls 
They complain, however, that Nova Scoti; 
Kings ana Wagners on the whole were 
great disappointment, as they were poor 
color and in keeping qualities. The O 
tario fruit, such as Ben Davies, King 
Russets, and Spies, left nothing to be d 
sired. 

Port Elizabeth dealers were well satisfii 
with the consi.gnments to them, but sta 
that they did not receive all they had i 
ranged for, one large dealer claiming th 
although he booked space early last Ma 
he failed to secure accomodation for 1 
second shipment. 

The apples which arrived in Cape To? 
were, with the exception of one lot of Goldi 
Russets on the s.s. Benguela, in very go( 
condition, but were not graded in all cas 
as they should be for export. The differen 
in grading of the apples received in Ca] 
own and other ports must be attribute-d 
the fact that almost all the apples shippi 
to this port are purchased by local dealer 
who visit Canada annually, while the frt 
to other ports is consigned by Canadii 
producers or dealers. 

The South .African market during Oct 
ber, November, and December is a spl^nd 
one for good Canadian appleSi and w 
command hiirh prices. This office invit 
early correspondence this year with a vie 
of consignments for next year and advisi 
the securing of space in cold storage chat 
bers early in the season. 



tarcb, 191 ^ 



THE CANADIAN HORTICULTURIST 



A FARMER'S GARDEN 



IS without real serious meaning: to 
many thousand farmers because 
they think it is too hard work or 
it is not convenient to work a horse. 
So many farmers fail to understand 
what truly wonderful possibilities 
there are in modem hand tools 



(Mow aiAdt in C&titds) 

do all of the sowing, hoeing-, cul iiva- 
ting, weeding, furrowing, ridging.etc, 
in any garden with better results, far 
less work and some real pleasure for 
the operator. HA or more combina- 
tions at $;i.00 to ;f 15.00. Ask your ■ 
dealer about them and write us for ' 
new booklet. "Gardening 
with Modem Tools*' also ( 
copy of our paper "Iron 
Age Farm and Gardei 
News'' — bt)th are free. 

The Pateman- Wilkinson Co., Limited 
462 Symington Ave., Toronto, Ontario. 





THIS WASHER 
MUST PAY FOR 
^ ITSELF. 

A MAN tried to sell me a horse once. He said 
it was a fine horse and had nothing the mat. 
ter with it. I wanted a fine horsej.but, I didn't 
know anything atx)Ut 
horses much. And I didn't 
Icnow the man very well 
either. 

So I told him I wanted to 
try the horse for a month. 
He said "All richt," but 
pay me first, and I'll give 
you back your money if 
the horse isn't all right." 

Well, I didn't like that. 
I was afraid the horse J 
was'nt "all right" and U' 
Imighthaveto whibtli i 1 
my money i f I once p.n t ' 1 1 , 
with it. So I didn't buy the(^ 
horse, although I wanted^ 
it badly. Now, this set meff 
thinking, r 

You see I make Wash-' 
ing Machines — the "1900'' 
Gravity" Washer. 

And I said to myself, lots of people may think 
about my Washing Machine as I thought about 
the horse, and about the man who owned it. 

But I'd never know, because they wouldn't 
write and tell me. You see I sell my Washing 
Machines by mail. I have sold over half a mil- 
lion that way. So. thought I, it is only fair 
enough to let people try my Washing Machmes 
for a month, before they pay for them, just as I 
wanted to try the horse. 

Now, I know what our "1900 Gravity" Washer 
will do. I know it v/ill wash the clothes, without 
wearing or tearing them, in less than half the 
time they can be washed by hand or by any other 
machine. 

I know it will wash a tub fuU of very dirty 
clothes In Six Minutes. I know no other machine 
ever invented can ''o that, without wearing the 
clothes. Our "I9tx> Gravity" Washer does the 
work so easy that a child can run it almost as 
well as a strong woman, and it don't wear the 
clothes, fray the .dges, nor break buttons, the 
way all other machines do. 

It just drives soapy water clear through the 
fibres of the clothes like a force pump might. 

So, said I to myself, I will do with my "1900 
Gravity" Washer what I wanted the man to do 
with the horse. Only I won't wait for people to 
ask me. I'll offer first, and I'll make good the 
offer every time. 

Let me send you a "1000 Gravity" Washer on a 
month's free trial. I'll pay the freight out of 
my own pocket, and if you don't want the ma- 
chine after you've used it a month, I'll take it 
back and pay the freight.too. Surely that is fair 
enough, isn't it. ., „ , „ 

Doesn't it prove that the "1900 Gravity" 
Washer must be all that I say it is? 

And you can pay me out of what It saves for 
you. Wit will save its whole cost in a few months 
In wear and tear on the clothes alone. And then 
It will save 50 to 75 cents a week over that in 
washwoman's wages. If you keep the machine 
after the month's trial, I'll let you pay for it ouf 
of what it saves you. If it saves you 60 cents a 
week, send me 60 cents a week 'till paid for. 1 U 
take I hat cheerfully, and I'll wait for my money 
until I he machine Itself earns the balance. 

Drop me a line to-day, and let roe send you a 
book about the "1000 Gravity" Washer that 
washes clothps In six minutes. 
AddretJH mo persona-Uy : 
K. F. MOIIRIH, Manager, 1900 JVaaher 

Co., J57 YonKe St., Toronto, Ont. 



International Harvester 
Manure Spreaders 




THEIHCtlNE 

GRAIN AND HAY 

MACHINES 

Binders. Reaper* 

Header!. Mowers 

Rakes, Stackers 

Hay Loaders 

Har Presses 
CORN MACHINES 

Planters, Pickers 

Binders, Caltivators 

Ensilage Cutters 

Shellers, Shredders 
TILUGE 

CombinatioD, 

Pes and Sprinx-Tooth. 

and Disk Harrows 

Cnltivators 

GENERAL LINE 

Oil and Gas Engines 

Oil Tractors 

Manare Spreaders 

Cream Separators 

Farm Wagons 

Motor Tracks 

Threshers 

Grain Drills 

Feed Grinders 

Knife Grbders 

Binder Twine 



STEEL frame on steel wheels — that 
is the lasting basis on which Inter- 
national manure spreaders are built. All 
parts, including box, beater, spreading 
mechanism, apron, are built by experts, 
using best materials, from careful designs 
based on field tests. 

Every detail is strong and durable, built 
for long life and ease or draft. Among the 
features that will interest you are these: Simple 
protected beater driving mechanism, all of steel; 
load carried on rear axle, insuring traction; reversible! 
gear and worm; low, easily loaded box, with ample 
clearance underneath; end gate, preventing clogging 
of beater while driving to the field; etc. 

All styles are in the I H C spreader line, high and 
low, endless and reverse apron, and various sizes 
for small and large farms. Our catalogues will tell 
you more. Write for them and let us tell you also 
where you may see I H C maaure spreaders. 



International Harvester Company of Canada, Ltd 

Al Hamilton, Ont.; London, Ont. ; Montreal. P. Q.; Ottawa, Ont.; 
St. John, N. B.; Qnebec. P. Q. 



NA-DRU-CO 

TASTELESS PflEPARATION 

GOD LIVER OIL 



The Wonderful Spring Tonic 



If you have had a hard winter, 
Na-Dru-Co Tasteless Preparation of 
Cod Liver Oil will help you to 
recuperate quickly and avoid the 
coughs and colds so prevalent during 
the changeable spring weather. 

In this preparation the nutritive 
and curative properties of the best 
Norwegian Cod Liver Oil are 
combined with Hypophosphites, 
Cherry Bark and Malt Extract in 
a. form that is really pleasant to take 
and easily digested even by the 
most delicate. 



Thus the great objection to Cod 
■ Liver Oil Is removed and every one 
who is run down or suffering from 
throat or lung troubles can take 
advantage of Its unique medicinal 
and strengthening qualities. 

Add to this the Tonic Hypophos- 
phites, the healing Cherry Bark and 
the invigorating Malt Extract, and 
you have probably the finest food- 
tonic known. , 

Get a 50c. or $1.00 bottle from 



your Druggist. 



314 



NATIONAL DRUG AND CHEMICAL CO. OF CANADA, LIMITED. 



THE CANADIAN HO RTICULTU R T ST 



March, 1914^ 



SKIPPED HILLS RAISE 

NO POTATOES 

Every hill you misa in planting 
means money lost out of 
your pocket. No ma- 
chine can plant per- 
fectly unless there 
is hand cor 




c^fS>^^^^'' 



e.\»\* 



,0 ^* Mfd 

plecclnevery 
space and one on- 
ly. No picket* used — no 
Injury to seed. Perfect placing 
of seed and uniform spacini^r. 
can't you seethat it must pay 
' for itself? Write for Ixwklet, 
■'/'» per ctMt potato 
planting" We make full 
liiie Potato Machines, Gar- 
.tsn Tools. Sprayers, etc. 

The Bateman- 
Wllkinson Co., L*tnite<l 

4^ Symington Ave. 
Toronto. Ont. 



EHODES DOUBLE OUT 

PEDNINQ BHRAR 



'Juts from 
Doth flidea oi 
limband does 
not bruise 
the bark. 
We pay Ex- 
press charges 
on all orders. 

Write tor 
circular and 
prices. 



^36 S. nivlslon Ave. GRAND RAPIDS, MICH. 




FHUITLAND NURSERIES 

are offering for sale a Bcneral assortment of 
first-olasa Fruit Trees, Bushes, Vines and 
Ornamental Shrubs, etc., at very low prices. 
Our catalogues are just out. It will pay you 
to send for one. 
G. M. HILL, Box 42, FRUITLAND, ONT. 




130- Egg Incubator and Brooder Fo? $13.90 



FREIGHT 

AND ovrv 



If ordered together we send both machines for only $13.90 and we 

pay all freight and duty charges to any R. R. station in Canada. 

We have branch warehouses inWinnipeg, Man. and Toronto, Ont. 

Orders shipped from nearest warehouse to your R. R. station. 

Hot water, double walls, dead-air space between, double glass 
{■\\\ doors, copper tanks and boilers, self-regulating. Nursery under 
' e^ff tray. Especially adapted to Canadian climate. Incubator and Brooder 
shipped complete with thermometers, lamps, eg^r testers — ready to use when you get them. Five 
year guarantee — 30 days trial. Incubators finished in natural colors showing the high grade Cali- 
fornia Redwood lumber used — not painted to cover inferior material. If you will compare our 
maohincs with others, wc feel sure of your order. Don't buy until you do this — you'll saveraoneyl 
— it pays to investigate before you buy. Remember our price of SX3.90 is for both Incubator and 
Brooder and covers freight and duty charges. Send for FREE catalog today, or send in your order and save time. 




International 
Harvester 
Cream 
Separators 




THEIHCUNE 

GRAIN AND HAY 

MACHINES 

Binders, Reapers 

Headers, Mowers 

Rakes, Stackers 

Hay Loaders 

Hay Presses 
CORN MACHINES 

Planters, Pickers 

Binders, Cultivators 

Ensilage Cotters 

Shellers, Shredders 
TILUGE 

Com1)inatioD, 

Peg and Spring-To«tb, 

and Disk Harrows 

Cultivstors 

GENERAL LINE 

Oil and Gas Eiuiiies 

Oil Tractors 

Manure Spreaders 

Cream Separators 

Farm Wagons 

Motor Tracks 

Threshers 

Grain Drills 

Feed Grinders 

Knife Grinders 

BisdcrTwin 



A DAIRY farmer who does not use 
a cream separator is losing up to 
$15 per cow per year. Complete your 
dairy equipment by the purchase of an 
International Harvester cream separator — Lily, 
Bluebell or Dairymaid. These separators skim 
closely — leaving barely a drop of cream in a galloa 
of milk — and they will do it for years. 

These machines are furnished with pulleys for the 
use of power. Belted to a small I H C engine, you 
have the best outfit it is possible for you to buy. 
Note the low supply can on I H C separators, the 
height of the milk spout which allows a lO-gallon 
can to be used for the skim milk, the strong frame 
with open base which can be kept perfectly clean, 
and the dozen other features which make these 
I H C machines the best. 

Your local dealer should have one of these ma- 
chines on sale. If he has not, write us before you 
buy and we will tell you where you can see one; 
also send you an interesting book on separators. 




International Harvester Company of Canada, Ltd 

At Hamilton, Ont.; London, Ont.; Montreal, P. Q.; OtUwa, Ont.: 
St. John, N. B.; Quebec, P Q. 




British Columbia Fruit 
Growers' Convention 

The 24th annual conv-erition of the BiiUbl 
Columbia Fruit Growers' Association wa! 
held in Victoria, B.C., during the last weel 
in January. It was crowded with importan' 
discussions relating not only to provincia 
but to broader issues as well. 

President VV. C. Ricardo, in his presiden 
tial address, stated that the industrj 
stands to-day in a stronger position than i 
did this time last year. He reviewed th< 
work done in the past year, the success o 
Messrs Abriel and Foggo's interview witi 
the Dominion authorities in regard to men 
rigid enforcement of the Sales and Insp<;c 
tion Act, the starting, by the aid of thi 
Provincial Government, of eight local co 
operative associations in the Okanagan witl 
a central agency, which on the whole havi 
worked together successfully, and he end 
ed with a warning that "if there ever wai 
a year in which the British Columbia grow 
ers should watch the cost of production an< 
the grading of their product, it is this yeai 
of 1914, with the largest crop in the North 
western States and our own Province ahea< 
of us." 

The transportation Committee's report re 
ferred to the .growing popularity of expresi 
service over freight for fruit, and found thi 
complaints of railway rates far fewer thai 
in former years. 

Messrs Foggo and Abriel strongly ad 
vocated in the advertising committee's re 
port the need of advertising by the Provinci 
as a whole by the grower and by the ship 
per. They advocated joining with the Al 
berta Government in running an exhibi 
tion train through that province and pos 
sibly through Saskatchewan. J. Johnstoni 
betlieved the best method was through thi 
Provincial exhibits at the different fairs. 

CRVTIPYINO REPORT.S 

The report of the executive and secretarj 
noted that the fruit growers of the foui 
North-western states of America had form 
ed a "Deciduous Protective League" to dt 
for their fruits what the Citrous Protectiv) 
League had -done for other fruits. Th( 
Provincial Government grant was increasec 
from $3,500 in 1912 to $6,500 in 1913, anc 
the total number of members showed ar 
increase of one hundred and one, there be 
ing now six hundred and ninety-six al 
told. Hearty endorsement was made o* 
the work of the British Columbia Entomo 
logical Society and the association was urg 
ed to support its executive in the suppor 
they had given to the National Fruit Grow 
ers' Association. 

Fruit growers were urged to encourage 
the sentiment for inter-provincial trade anc 
two delegates had already gon© to tht 
prairies to interview the governments anc 
the grain growers. 

Parcels post received the hearty support 
of the executive, who saw in it the prospect 
of wider distribution and greater facility it 
the shipping of consignments. They point 
ed out that for every railway station there 
were two post offices in Western Canada. 
They had recommended to the Postmaster- 
General a twenty-five-pound minimum. 

IRRIGATION PROIiLEMS 

Hon. W. R. Ross, Minister of Lands, 
addressed the convention on "Public Irri- 
gation Corporations" and the proposed 
legislation authorizing their formation. He 
reminded his audience that water had come 
to be looked on as one of the resources ol 
the province, and one which could be con- 
servedthrough wise use and careful admin- 
istration. The need for this was not so ap- 



March, 1914. 



THE CANADIAN HOBTTC ULTU R T ST 



parent in former days, when bottom lands 
were sufficient for the settlers, and it was 
natural that it was not realized that the 
water problem was one that required tech- 
nical training- to solve. More recently con- 
tentions over conflictine water rights had 
become serious and widespread and had 
aroused public sentiment to demand legis- 
lation. 

Prior to 1909 men believed that all they 
had to do was to record a notice to take 
water, and it was theirs for ever, no mat- 
ter how little land they had to use it on or 
whether they made due development. They 
might even have subdivided or sold their 
water holdings. 

Mr. Ross referred to the impossibility in 
many cases of the individual settler bring- 
ing water on to his land, whereas by the 
combination of fifty or one hundred this 
was made feasible. Education along these 
lines was necessary in the province. They 
had stores of experience to draw on in the 
Tnited States. 

To form a public irrigation company a 
petition signed by landowners representing 
fifty per cent, of the value of the lands to 
be incorporated would be necessary. Then 
after careful survey and investigation the 
whole matter would be laid be?fore the 
people of the district affected and a vote 
taken. 

OTMER SPEVKERS 

Other addresses were delivered on Fruit 
Growing and Marketing in the Yakima Val- 
ley by VV. P. Sawyer, The Methods of the 
North Pacific Fruit Distributors, by H. C. 
Sampson, secretary to that organization; 
by E. Robinson, on the North-western Fruit 
Exchange ; and by R. Robertson, of the 
Okanagan United Growers, Ltd. 

Mr. Robertson sketched the growth of 
the cooperative movement in the province. 

SALES METHODS 

Mr. Sampson, equipped with facts to 
his fingertips, told of the five hundred thou- 
sand acres planted with fruit in the North- 
western States, which will come into bear- 
ing in twelve years, and of the dispositions 
they were making to market the one hun- 
dred and twenty-five thousand carloads. 
He laid down the principle that the indi- 
vidual grower cannot sell his own crop. 
Both the selling and buying of fruit whole- 
sale are a life study, and unless the seller 
is equipped with reports and knowledge 
equal to those in the buyer's possession he 
must come off second best. He told of the 
power of his company over railways, who 
in certain districts, where there was no com- 
petition, put on unfair rates, and of how 
quickly these climbed down when told that 
retaliation would take place in Washing- 
ton or some place where competition did 
exist. He told of the amount recovered for 
the growers for fruit damaged or ruined by 
the railways, and that within a few weeks, 
and he outlined what he believed would be 
the future of the company's career of use- 
ulness. 

ASIATIC EXCLUSION 

The last day's proceedings witnessed a de- 
cision at last arrived at on the Asiatic ques- 
tion. On such an important matter it was 
felt that any representations made to the 
Government should have the weight of the 
whole association behind them. The re- 
solution ultimately passed petitions the 
Provincial Government to persuade the Do- 
minion and Imperial Governments to total 
exclusion for the future of all Orientals 
from Canada, and that in the meantime 
relief should be jfiven as far as possible to 



BEES FOR SALE 

For Sale — Early swarms at fall prices, '/a 
lb. boes $100. 1 lb. bees Sl-50, f.o.b. here. Add 
price of Queen if wanted. Untested Ita-lian 
Queens, 75c each, Tested Italian Queens. .$1..25 
each. These are bred from best honey- 
gal hering strain. No disease. Safe arrival 
and satisfaction I guarantee to any Express 
Office in Man.. Out. and Que., which has con- 
nection with Detroit, Mich. Thia is un- 
doubtedly the best way for Northern honey- 
prod<icers to increase and Imtprovo their 
stock. Delivery begins about April 5th. 
Capacity. 40 swarms per day. You will get 
your bees when wanted, or money back by 
return mail. 

W. D. ACHORD, FITZPATRICK, MA., U.S.A. 



Bee Supplies 
Bees and Queens 

Improved Model Hives 
Sections Connb Foundation 

Italian Queens 
Bees by the Pound Packages 
Etc., Etc. 
EVERYTHING for the BEEKEEPER 

Catalogue Free 
Highest Price paid for BEESWAX 

F. W. JONES - BEDFORD, QUE. 




MASSEY-HARRIS 



Orchard Disc Harrow 



This Disc Harrow 
has ten 16 inch 
discs. Extra discs 
and spools can be 
supplied for convert- 
ing it into a twelve 
disc size. 



The Harorw with 
ten discs cuts 5 ft. 6 
in., and when the 
long Extension 
Frame is used, the 
machine measures 
10 ft. 1 in. in width. 




It is reversible — covers the roots or not, as you wish. The gangs are inter- 
changeable in their position on the frame so as to throw the soil to or from 
the trees and vines. 



It is adjustable to any 
depth, in the middle or 
at the ends, by means of 
gang hinges. Levers ad- 
just each gang separate- 
ly to any angle, regulat- 
ing the amount of dirt 
thrown. In grape cultiva- 
tion the Massey-Harris 



MASSEY-HARRIS 
I.MPLE.MENTS FOR 
THE FRUIT GROWER: 
ORCHARD HARROWS 
ORCHARD CULTIVA- 
TORS 
SPRAY OUTFITS 
VINEYARD PLOWS 
SPRI.NC TOOTH 
HARROWS 
GRAPE and BERR 
HOES, Etc. 



cultivates all of the 
ground. A plow cannot 
do this. It is a good side- 
hill harrow. The steel 
frame is in one piece. 
Strong arches or yokes 
support the gangs ; separ- 
ate bearing boxes take up 
the friction. 



We furnish as an extra attachment, a steel extension frame. With it the 
operator can cultivate under the trees, close to the trunks. 

MASSEY-HARRIS CO., Limited 

HEAD OFFICES: TORONTO, CANADA 

Branches at 

MONTREAL MONCTON WINNIPEG REGINA SWIFT CURRENT 

SASKATOON YORKTON CALGARY EDMONTON 

Agencies Everywhere 



XI*. 



THE CANADIAN HORTICULTURIST 



Mawti, 1914. 



BLACK CURRANTS 

Wc have some excflUent plante of tie 
Black Naples variety, irown from the 
most productive patch In the district. AlBfi 
6om« Lawton Blacliberry plants. 

Apply for prices. 
.1. E. HENRY & SON - WINONA. ONT. 



PLOUGHS- 



TKADE MARK 

. Wilkinson 

UKlilHTKKKD 



U.S.S. SoU" Centre Steel Moldboards, highly 

i trmpt-red and guaranteed to clean in any soil. 

' Steel beams, steel landsides and high carbon 

steel coulter. Clevises can be used either stiff 

<^r swings. Each plough is fitted eipecially with 

its own pair of handles— rock elm, long and 

heavy and thoroughly braced. The lon^ body 

makes it a very steady running plough. Shares 

of all widths— specials for stony or clay land. 

: The plough shown turns a beautiful furrow, 

with minimum draft and narrow furrow at 

finish. Ask for catalogue. 

The Bateman-Wilktnton Co. 
461 SyminstonAve. Ltd. 
^ Tortnto Caiada 

No. 3 ^^ 




FOR SALE AND WANTED 

AdTertlsements in this depaptment in- 
serted at rate of 3 eents a word for each 
insertion, eacli figure, sign or single letter 
to eount as one word, minimum cost, 30 
eents, strictly cash in advance. 



.CL KINDS OF FARMS— Fmit f arms a Bpeoialty 
— W. B. Oalder, Grimsby. 



NIAGARA DISTRICT FRUIT FARMS.-Betore 

buying it vriil pay yon to consult me. I make 
a specialty of fruit and grain farms. — Melvin 
Gayman &■ Co., St. Gathaiinea. 



RELIABLE HELP. SKILLED AND unskilled. 
snppUed hoTtioultorists and others. Oanadian 
Employment Bureau, Proprietor member of 
B. Q. A., London. England. 66% James St. 
South, Hamilton. Ont. 



AJK DAWSON. He kows. 

IF YOU WANT to sell a farm consult me. 

IF YOU WANT to buy a farm consult me. 

I HAVE some o' the best Fruit. Stock, Grain 

and Dairy Farms on my list at right prices. 

H. W. OawBOn. Ninety Oolbome St.. Toronto. 



SALMON ARM. Shusway Lake, B.C. has the 
finest fruit sjk' dairy land In B.C. No irriga- 
tion neoeesary: mild winters, moderate sum- 
mers, no bliziardd or higb winds; delightful 
climate; enormous yields of fruit, vegetables 
and hay ; good fishing ; fine boating amidst the 
mofft beautiful scenery, and t.he Salmon Arm 
fruit has realized 2& cents per box more than 
other fruit in B.C. Prices of land moderate, 
and terms to suit. Apply to F. 0. Haydook, 
Salmon Arm. B.C. 



WANTED— Young Man. single, with some ex- 
perience, as beekeeper, to begin about May 
aoth. Must be strictly temperate. indTistrious 
and willing to work hard in busy season. 
State age, experience and wages expected, 
with board supplied, in first letter. — Ewart 
MoEvoy, Woodburn. Ont. 



BEES wanted, up to 250 colonies. Partloulais 
to Box 23, Fisherville. Out. 

WANTED — Empty top storey Hives (Lang 
stroth) ; Elxtractor and Apiary eQuiQ;nnent gen- 
erally— J. E. Black, Aurora, Ont. 



BEES WANTED— Either with or without other 
equipment. Give full particulars to Wm» 
Weir, J4 Chester Ave., Biverdale, Toronto. Ont. 



GLADIOLUS 

AMERICA (pink), tho Wading oommorcial 
variety— $1.50 per lOO — exprens charges collect 
—mailing size, $120 proi>aid. TACONIC, 
Oroff's beet pink. Twi<vo the price of America 

H. P. VAN WAGNER 
R. R. NO. 5 ■ HA.MII.TON, O.NT. 



Geraniums Geraniums 

S. A. Nutt, .John Doyle, Madame Harney, etc., 
2% inch potH, at ?3.50 per hundred. 
Madam Salleroi at $2.(*0 per hundred. 

JOHN GOLBY, Florist 



West Main Street 



GALT, Ont. 



GLADIOLI 



GROFF'S HYBRIDS are now more Uurgcly 
grown in the United States and Canada, 
than any other strain. They are in good 
demand in AUSTRALASIA, and English or- 
ders have nearly exhausted some varieties- 

AMERICA (Groff's 119) stands easily at 
the headi of commercial varietiea 

PEACE, WAR, DAWN, BLUE JAY, 
LAVANDULA, PEACHBLOW, and others, will 
soon be found in all gladioli lists. 

We try moat of the European kinds, as 
they come out, but so far have found very 
Jew, that are likely to secure a permanent 
place. 

CATALOGUES ON APPLICATION 

CAMPBELL BROS. 

SIMCOE, ONT. 



Increase your 

PROFITS 

from orchard 

and garden 




Neutral Arsenate 
of Lead 

is safe, economical, and sure be- 
cause it contains the maximum 
amount of arsenic vyhich will 
combine completely with the lead. 
Write for descriptive folders and 
prices, before buying elsewhere. 

THE 

CANADA PAINT CO, 

LIAMTED 

PAINT-VARNI5H AND DRY COLOR 

nAKLG5-LINSttD'0IL CDUSHERS 

MONTREAL- TORONTO- WlNNIPEC-CALGARY-HAUmX 

OXIDE MINES- RtDMlLL QUEBEC 



what has become to white people an intol- 
erable situation. 

The followinjf?- officers were elected : Pri- 
sident, W. C. Kicardo ; vice-president, Thos. 
Abriel, Nakusp; executive committee, R. 
M. Palmer, James Kooke, Grand Falls, F. 
D, Nicholson, W. S. Fog go ; new directors, 
J. J. Thornton, A. J. Clarke, J. Reekie, 
Mr. BuJmer. 



British Columbia 

At a conference held in January the fruit 
growers of British Columbia and the United 
Farmers of Alberta considered a proposi- 
tion to patronize one another and to handle 
each other's products. The British Col- 
umbia fruit growers were represented by 
W. S. Foggo, of Vernon, and Mr. Abriel 
of Nakusp, and the Alberta farmers by 
President Tregillus and Secretary Wood- 
bridge, of the United Farmers of Alberta, 
and E. J. Fream, vice-president of the 
growers' association. 

It was proposed that the Fruit Growers' 
Association of British Columbia and the 
Farmers' Association of Alberta should co- 
operate in marketing produce, and when 
the Alberta farmer wanted fruit he should 
purchase it from the British Columbia 
growers, and when the fruit growers wanted 
hay or grain they should secure it from the 
.Alberta farmer. 



Mr. J. E. .A^rmstrong, M.P. for East 
Laimbton, purposjes obtiaini-ng leg^ation 
making it a criminal offence for employees 
of express companies to damagfe fruit by 
rough handling. Mr. Armstrong also pro- 
poses to amend the Fruit Marks' Act so as 
to make fruit inspectors cargo inspectors 
also at shipping points. 



PRIZE DAHLIA ROOTS 

15 for one dollar by mail prepaid. 15 larger 
root.i one dollar by express, not prepaid. Low 
rate to Horttcultnral Societiee who give 
Dahlias as preniums. 

GEO. E. EGERTON 

112 CHALMERS ST. • ■ GALT. ONT 



Roses Roses 

Irish, Dutch and American. Hybrid Perpetual, 
Hybrid Teas and Climbing. Strong 2 year 
field-grown bushes that will bloom the first 
year— none better, none cheaper. 

ALSO 

Trees, Shrubs, Vines, Perennials 

Gtt Catalogue 

A. W. GRAHAM 

St. Thomas - Ontario. 



Remember 

Next issue will be our big Spring 
Number. Your advertisement in 
it will mean dollars to you this 
Spring. 

Copy should be sent in early, 

(See Publisher's Desk) 



The Canadian Horticultun^ 



Vol. XXXVII 



APRIL, 1914 



No. 4 



What Spray Mixtures Shall Wc Use ? 

Prol. L. Caesar, Provincial Entomologist, Guelph, Ont. 



I HAVE been asked several times what 
spray mixtures I should recommend 

for fruit trees this coming season. The 
following in my opinion are the best : 

For the dormant spray lime-sulphur, 
either commercial or home-made. If there 
is San Jose Scale in the orchard the com- 
mercial should not be used weaker than 
about one gallon diluted to eight, or a 
specific gravity reading on the hydrome- 
ter of 1.032 to 1.035. Weaker solutions 
often fail to give good results. If there 
is no scale, either Oyster Shell or San 
Jose, the wash may be diluted one gallon 
to eleven or twelve. On peaches this 
should be applied early before the buds 
have any more than begun to swell, but 
on apples or pears it may be applied any 
time, say from two or three weeks be- 
fore the buds burst right up to the time 
they are bursting. On plums and cher- 
ries it is better postponed until a few 
days before the buds burst. 

For the second application on apples 
and pears, which should be just before 
the blossms begin to open, — the earliest 
varieties being sprayed first, — either 
lime-sulphur of the specific gravity 
strength of i.oio or 1.009, which is 
equivalent to the commercial diluted not 
more than about one gallon to thirty, or 
bordeaux mixture four-four-forty, should 
be used as the fungicide, the latter being 
given the preference. To each forty gal- 
lons of either of these mixtures two or 
three pounds of paste arsenate of lead 
should be added as a poison. 

To prevent apple scab this application 
should be done very thoroughly and as 
near the time advocated as possible. 
Many tend to overlook the importance of 
this spraying but after such a bad season 
for scab as we had last year, the greatest 
care should be taken this season. 

The second application for plums and 
cherries should be in about. a week after 
the blossoms have fallen or as soon as 
the fruit is well set. The same mixtures 
should be used as for apples but in the 
case of Japanese plums and possibly 
sweet cherries the lime-sulphur should be 
a little weaker. 

If peaches receive a second application 
paste arsenate of lead alone, two or three 
pounds to forty gallons of water should 
be used when the fruits are formed, and 
about one-third of an inch in size. The 
object of this spray is to destroy the 
plum curculio in the peach. 

The third application for apples and 



pears should be, especially in the case of 
apples, as soon as from eighty to ninety 
per cent, of the blossoms have fallen, be- 
ginning with the earliest varieties. By 
this time the bees will have almost aban- 
doned the trees and gone to other flow- 
ers. For this application it is not advis- 
able to use bordeaux mixture for these 
fruits as it often causes russeting, in- 
stead I prefer lime-sulphur of the strength 
of about 1.008 specific gravity, which is 
equivalent to one gallon of the commer- 
cial diluted to from thirty-five to forty 
gallons. To every forty gallons of this 
diluted mixture two pounds of the paste 
arsenate of lead should be used. More 
than this is not necessary but does no 
harm. This is the great application for 
codling moth and apple scab, and the 
trees cannot be loo thoroughly and 
promptly sprayed. 

For cherries and plums the third ap- 
plication should be about two weeks after 
the second and the same fixtures as for 
the second may be used. 

If the weather in about ten days after 
the third application is cold, dark and 
wet it will be absolutely necessary to 



give a fourth application for apples and 
pears with the same mixtures as for the 
third, otherwise there will be an attack 
of apple scab, especially in varieties like 
Snow and Mcintosh. If the weather, how 
ever, is dry and warm there is no need 
for this application except in the far 
eastern part of the province where it 
should always be given. 

Cherries should receive a fourth ap- 
lication with the above mixture or bor- 
deaux as soon as the fruit is off to pre- 
vent leaf spot. Plums that are inclined 
to rot should be sprayed as late as pos- 
sible without danger of staining the fruit 
for market, either lime-sulphur or bor- 
deaux being used. Peaches may receive 
an application of the so-called self-boiled 
lime-sulphur about one month after the 
blossoms fall to ward off brown rot. For 
method of making this see Spray Calen- 
dar or Bulletin 198. 

Towards the end of August or in early 
September cold, wet weather sometimes 
requires an extra application to keep off 
late attacks of scab and sooty fungus on 
apples. I should use the same mixtures 
as for the third application. 





A Power Sprayer Po*tei«ing Uteful Feature* 

Thia atrt-aymotor etoos and starte up automatically by moaJiB of the preesure. No safety valvo 
is required Tho pump only pumps up the pressuro when it etopa itself. 



i)0 



THE CANADIAN HORTICULTURIST 



April, 1914 



In the foregoing it will be noticed that 
I have not included the new spray, Solu- 
ble Sulphur, or the powder forms of 
arsenate of lead. I think that Soluble 
Sulphur will prove satisfactory against 
San lose Scale; it gave me good results 
on this pest last year, but even for this 
it would be better to test it further before 
strongly recommending it. As a sum- 
mer wash I should advise every grower 
to be very careful in using it with arse- 
nate ol lead as a substitute for lime-sul- 
phii- and arsenate of lead. There were 
not many cases of burning last year from 
its use but I am not at all sure that under 
different weather conditions it may not 
cause serious injury. Therefore, my ad- 
vice would be to use it only in an experi- 
mental way. I doubt very much whether 
it will prove to be nearly so safe as lime- 
sulphur or bordeaux mixture. It is a 
soda sulphur compound, not a lime- 
sulphur. Further study by chemists as 
to the reactions that take place when 
arsenate of lead is added to it may help 
us to supplement the knowledge we shall 
soon have obtained as to its safety and 
efficiency. I do not find that this wash 



will kill aphids as claimed by many of 
its advocates. 

As for the powdered forms of arsenate 
of lead, some experiments in the labora- 
tory tend to show that it will be necessary 
to test these considerably before recom- 
mending them as a substitute for the 
paste form. The claim that they stay up 
in suspension much better than the paste 
form did not seem to be justified either 
when mixed alone in water or with lime- 
sulphur. Moreover the sticking qualities 
were seen to be not quite so good as 
those of the paste forms, though differ- 
ent makes differ in these respects. The 
particles are not quite so fine as in the 
paste. The greater convenience, how- 
ever, in using, shipping and storing jus- 
tifies their being used on a small scale 
by fruit growers. 

In conclusion, I should mention that 
for grapes and potatoes bordeaux mix- 
ture should always be used instead of 
lime-sulphur. For potato beetles most 
men will get better results from paris 
green than arsenate of lead. Use from 
one to two pounds to every forty gallons 
of bordeaux. 



Better Fruits at Less Cost 



Prof. 

The two points involved in this topic 
are, first, the production of fruits of 
higher quality, and second, the reduc- 
tion of the cost of production. 

Before proceeding far upon a discus- 
sion of quality, we should establish a 
definite basis by defining this much abus- 
ed word. Perhaps we should go farther 
liack and explain what quality is not. 
Therefore, we are prepared to say that 
quality does not mean huge size. Com- 
pare a Jonathan apple with a Wolf River, 
for example. Neither does this word 
mean the production of giants within any 
one variety. Let it be remembered that 
the scoring rules of the American Pomo- 
logical Society properly provide for the 
scoring down of specimens of any var- 
iety if they are over size, or above a 
fair standard. 

Quality is not red color. Compare Ben 
Davis and Grimes. Neither is it fine 
appearance alone. Compare a western 
l)Oxed apple of any variety with a rough- 
ly-handled eastern grown Northern Spy, 
BaWwin, Mcintosh, Tompkins, King, 
(Crimes, Jonathan, or Stayman Winesap. 
Neither is quality produced by boxing 
what should be put into a barrel. Nei- 
ther is it to be found in naturally low 
grade or mediocre varieties. 

Quality in fruits is an epitome of those 
desirable features embraced in pleasing 
fl£\or; fair, uniform size for a certain 
variety; good, uniform color for the var- 
iety: freedom from injury by insects, or 

•Extract from an address deliveiXKl before th? 
Niagara District Fruit Growers' Association 



H. A. Surface, Pennsylvania 

by fungous diseases, and the absence of 
artificial injury, such as bruises. 

Now comes the very important ques- 
tion : "Will one-tenth of our fruits mea- 
sure up to this standard?" and the more 
important reply, that the average of the 
crop for .America does not. Why not? 
Because there are more persons growing 
fruit trees who absolutely neglect them, 
producing nothing but culls and seconds, 
than there are who attempt to care for 
them and produce a first-grade product. 
We have shown in the demonstration or- 
chards of the Bureau of Zoology of the 
Pennsylvania Department of Agriculture, 
trees bearing apples ninety-eight per 
cent, free from worms, which but two 
years ago produced fruit ninety-five per 
cent, wormy. The difference is due 
chiefly to negligence on the one hand, 
and care on the other. 

With all orchardists the greatest pro- 
blems involve the questions of how to 
improve quality, and how to reduce cost. 
To such men we venture to speak from 
personal experience in our own orchards 
which are, we believe, the largest in the 
Keystone State, and which produced, this 
year, carloads of fancy fruits that sold 
at record prices. 

ESSENriALS TO 8UOOE8S 

To produce fruit of better quality, first 
select "fruit soil." This must be deep, 
loose, and originally fertile. This pro- 
duces good growth and large fruits. The 
"abandoned farm" proposition for suc- 
cessful fruit growing is generally a mis^ 



take. Starved trees usually produce poor 
crops of small size fruit. 

-Select land with elevation for air drain- 
age. Dead or stagnating air is as sure 
to foster diseases of trees and fruits as 
of human beings or live stock. Low 
lands cannot produce fruits of highest 
color, free from fungous injury. Actual 
elevation above sea level is not nearly as 
impcrtant as relative elevation, above 
immediate surroundings. 

Plant the orchard in soil with good 
water drainage. A tree cannot thrive 
with wet feet any more than can a man. 
Wet soil means poor growth, diseased 
trees, and small, pale, insipid fruit. If 
your orchard has been planted in wet 
soil, nothing will pay better in the pro- 
duction of fruit of quality and quantity 
than to drain it well. 

I'lant good varieties, and top-work 
the older frees of poor varieties if they 
are vigorous enough. In an orchard 
there will be no figs from thistles, and no 
Rome Beauty or Stayman Winesap from 
Smith Cider or Ben Davis. 

In any region plant only those var- 
ieties that do best there. It would he 
a mistake to reduce the quality of the 
ensuing product by planting the Spy in 
the Albemarle region, or the Rome 
Beauty in the Snow region, however ex- 
cellent each of these may be when grown 
"at home." 

Plant only healthy trees from reliable 
nurserymen, but pay no attention to the 
"old fogy" notion that hardy trees are 
to be obtained only from the north ov 
young-bearing trees only from the south. 

Plant at such distance between trees 
as to permit abundant growth without 
crowding, and also provide for the 
spreading of low broad tops, without that 
crowding and shading which must re- 
sult in light-colored fungus-specked 
fruits. 

Help to obtain color by so pruning as 
to grow low, open spreading tops. Top 
back old tall trees to spreading branches. 
Get sunshine and air to each fruit, 7f ptos- 
sible, to give color and flavor. 

Obtain color by (a) growing in suit- 
able soil, (b) at some elevation, (c) with 
potash and phosphoric acid fertilizers, 
(d) reducing the nitrogen so as to avoid 
too rank growth where greater color is 
wanted, (e) not cultivating too late in 
the season, and (f) not pushing too much 
leafy growth by severe dormant prun- 
ing, but (g) remove suf)erfluous small 
growth by judicious midsummer pruning. 

Strive for uniformity of color by adopt- 
ing a definite, uniform system of prun- 
ing that wiH keep the tops open and 
spreading ; avoid dense masses of foli- 
age or spch arrangement of branches as 
will close and become dense by weight 
of fruit ; adopt a system of uniform feed- 
ing. 



April, 1914 



THE CANADIAN HORTICULTURIST 



9' 



1^ 






^^ . -V >.-!:" ^ '■« f ■■* , "^^>. 


■■^; 


-*, ^ . -' 


mm^, iipim 


^^:. ■ 


,iiiiiiiiiL»^ im 


lib 




•1^^^^ 


- ■-^>^^i«J5^S^*3^iw2i»^t^a^<»«!88ss^ s*. . 


mti^^.:- 




...-., 



Orchard of W. Palmer, near Victoria/^B. C, in 1903 

■iMrhe trees aj« aucib' mere whips as to be i>ractlc aily indistlnguistiable. 



Where growth is liable to be too rank, 
and thus reduce color, as it usual on low 
or damp g-round, or where dormant prun- 
ing has been too severe, manuring too 
heavy, or cultivation too long continued, 
better color for any one season may be 
obtained by summer pruning. 

SECURE PROPER SIZE 

Obtain size by those methods that give 
strong leaf and twig growth, and by 
thinning; but, in so doing, avoid produc- 
ing that extreme rankness of growth 
which detracts from color of fruit. Do 



this by (a) securing a fertile soil, (b) by 
retaining moisture by mulching or by 
cultivation and cover crops, (c) by re- 
placing removed fertility and organic 
matter by commercial fertilizers, manure 
and cover crops, especially the legumes, 
(d) by stimulating growth when needed 
b\' dormant pruning, and (e) by thinning 
early and vigorously, and (f) by keeping 
the leaves healthy through spraying with 
proper insecticides and fungicides. 
Healthy leaves mean large, healthy, late 
fruit. 



Pears and Pear Culture 

A. W. Cook, O.A.C., Guelph, Ont. 



IF one were to listen to a fruit grower 
giving his experiences with twig or 
pear blight, the sad experiences that 
had spelled disaster, one would naturally 
be under the impression that there was 
not the least chance to make pear grow- 
ing profitable. The writer remembers 
very clearly listening to such an experi- 
ence. The grower said: "Why, do you 
know, the thing kills them in a night," 
' and it does as far as their knowledge is 
[concerned. The truth, however, is that 
; rK'ar blight can be controlled, and is be- 
ing kept in check to-day. Those who 
; contemplate growing pears should not 
i start unless they do so with a thorough 
knowledge of this bacterial disease, and 
a strong determination to control it. If 
ore does this, (here is monev to be made 
, in pears. 

The pear situation is taking on bright- 
er prospects. In the past fifteen years 
pear growing has been a doubtful busi- 
ness for many an average grower, sim- 
ply lxx:au.se of their neglect to give pro- 
per attention to the work. We do not 
(hear of pear orchards being planted to 
; such a large extent as some of the other 
fruits that are not nearly so popular with 
the consumer. This i,s on account of 



there having been a very suspicious sen- 
timent held against this industry because 
of a few negligent fruit growers. This 
condition is diminishing. Fruit growers 
have begun to awaken to the fact that 
there is money in pears when judicious 
care, systematic pruning and thinning, 
and the proper food elements are given 
to the producing tree. 

The pear is a fruit that will grow in a 



large geographical area. In Ontario 
there is hardly a section in the older por- 
tion of the province where the pear will 
not thrive. I cannot vouch for the abili- 
ty of this fruit to withstand the severe 
low temperature of the northern parts. 

There is nothing to be gained by plant- 
ing a large number of varieties of pears. 
The consumer should be encouraged to 
purchase nothing but the best, and the 
grower should strive to produce a high 
class article. There is a steadily grow- 
ing demand for the very best, and it 
should be the ideal of every grower to 
produce this grade and place on sale this 
grade only. There is nothing to be gain- 
ed by the man who tries to undersell a 
man who has a good uniform article, no 
matter what the competition may be. The 
best article will always command the 
very highest price, and sell first. 

Plant just a few, well selected varie- 
ties, that are strong, hardy trees and 
which bear uniformly every year. The 
Ijest to plant would include pears that 
would bear one after the other, so that 
all the crop would not have to be har- 
vested at once. Among the varieties 
that are .seemingly the best, judging from 
the experience of various growers, are 
such varieties as Rartlett, Kieffer, An- 
jou, Duchess, Rose and Clapp's Favor- 
ite. 

Like many other lines of agriculture, 
the pear should be chosen to suit the 
market, location, and the demand from 
outside sources. Some markets have 
very little use for certain varieties, while 
for export or canning purposes there is a 
steady demand for such varieties as the 
Kieffer. For the city trade there is some 
demand for an early fruit, which would 
naturally be the Clapp's Favorite. If one 
wants a g(xid all-round pear that is a uni- 
versal favorite with the purchasing pub- 
lic and a profit producer for the grower, 
there is nothing like the Bartlett. It has 
one strong characteristic that distin- 




The Orchard of Mr. W. Palmer in 1913 

Note the differeiico in tun years in the sruwth ol tho tree<i. 



92 



THE CANADIAN HORTICULTURIST 



^pril, 1914] 




Prniini in Orchard of T. W. Palmtr, Victoria, B.C. 

guishes it from all other varieties, that is 
its adaptability to soils and location. Its 
demands for soil conditions are few com- 
pared with those of some of the other 
varieties. If one were to plant Bartletts 
as their chief crop, then Keiffer, Duch- 
ess, Anjou and the Bosc for winter fruit, 
they would have a good combination. 

The pear is not very exacting- as to soil 
conditions. There is, however, one very 



important point in selecting' a location. 
Choose a soil that will produce a slow- 
growing tree. This is a very essential 
factor in pear growing. Neglect to at- 
lond to it has often spelled disaster for 
[>ear growers. The p>ear tree should be 
•I slow growing tree. The pear tree that 
i^rows rapidly is very tender. This con- 
dition is conducive to pear blight. On 
the other hand, the slow, sturdy growing 
tree often wards off attacks of this dis- 
ease, and is sure to put up a stronger 
fight for existence. 

The pruning of the tree is another es- 
sential factor in the successful pear busi- 
ness. The trees should be headed low, 
with an open centre. Some growers 
make it a practice to cut back each year's 
growth after the tree has come into the 
bearing stage of life. By following out 
this method they argue that they can ob- 
tain the fruit near the centre of the tr;e. 
One must remember that in all pruning 
operations, where severe pruning is prac- 
ticed, it encourages strong wood growth. 
This naturally increases the amount of 
labor each year for the pruning of the 
orchard. Some of the varieties, such as 
the Anjou and the Bosc, are spreading in 
their natural growth. If they are plant- 
ed closer than twenty-three feet they are 
apt to crowd, which will necessitate un- 
necessary pruning. The other varieties 
are more upright in their growth and con- 
sequently can be put close together. The 
distance of planting is governed by the 
nature of the soil and variety. 



A Last Season's Test of Soluble Sulpher 

J. G. Mitchell, Clarksburg, Ont. 



SOME seven years ago I was induced 
to experiment with what at that 
time was considered a new spray, 
lime sulphur. As soon as I heard 
of this spray, I felt confident that 
it should soon do away with the 
troublesome bordeaux mixture. The 
professors at Guelph said that it was not 
safe to use as a summer spray, and prac- 
tically forbade its use, but the splendid 
results obtained with lime sulphur over 
the old spray were so pronounced that 
the following season it was strongly rec- 
ommended by growers and professors, 
and became the standard as a fungicide. 

However, growers have been asking 
and hoping that some more convenient 
way of using the sulphur spray would be 
devised and we now have this in the lat- 
est form called "Soluble Sulphur." In 
my opinion it is just as much superior to 
lime sulphur solution as the latter is to 
the old bordeaux spray. 

In the way of convenience there is no 
comparison. I always used to dread the 
loading and unloading of the heavy six 
hundred pound barrels of lime sulphur, 
and the men would nearly go on strike 



when asked to handle it. Last vear I 
got the spraying done for about half 
what it cost the previous year. I used 
two barrels of the lime sulphur solution 
and soluble sulphur for the rest of the 
spraying. As soon as we used the first 
hundred pounds of soluble sulphur, I 
could see there was no use asking the 
men to go back to the old spray. We 
had absolutely no trouble with nozzles 
clogging and never had a stoppage from 
the time we commenced using soluble 
sulphur. 

Of course I insisted on the spray tank 
being cleaned out every night, all the 
water being strained, and a screen kept 
over the feed pipe to the pump. We fill- 
ed the spray tank about half full of water, 
then put in our soluble sulphur, eight to 
ten pounds to forty gallons. This was 
well agitated by the time the tank was 
filled. We put this spray on just as the 
buds were bursting, in fact on some 
trees the blossoms were nearly open. In 
the summer spray we used from one to 
two pounds to forty gallons of water, 
putting the soluble sulphur in when the 
spray tank was half full of water, and 



adding arsenate of lead last, two and a j 
half pounds to forty gallons. Doing it 
in this way there is ab.solutely no trou- 
ble. Where aphis appeared in our orch- 
ards we used nearly two pounds of solu- 
ble sulphur to forty gallons for summer 
spray, and only about one f>ound in or-, 
chards where there was no aphis. Scab 
and fungi were controlled perfectly in all 
our orchards. I do not consider it nec- 
essary to use the mixture stronger than 
one and a half pounds to forty gallons, 
except for aphis. 

Our Mcintosh Red apples were abso- 
lutely clean and beautifully colored ; nine- 
ty-nine apples out of every hundred went 
into number one boxes. The Greenings 
were just as nice, having a lovely bright 
glossy appearance. If these varieties 
come out in this way there is no need to 
worry about others. We also had good 
results in fighting aphis, having practi- 
cally no loss from this pest, while in 
191 2, when we used lime sulphur, our 
loss was well up to two thousand dollars. 

It is now a recognized fact that solubl' 
sulphur is bound to take the place of the 
old material. It is just as eflficient as a 
fungicide, if not better, than lime sul- 
phur, and is so much more convenient 
that every grower should be made thor- 
oughly acquainted with it. 



Varieties of Currants and 
Gooseberries * 

L. B. Henry, B.S.A., Wiaon*, Oat. 

The best varieties of black currants 
are Naples, Champion, and Victoria. 
The Naples is a strong, upright, vigor- 
ous bush, healthy and very productive, 
and the berry is large, of good quality, 
and borne on .short clusters. It is pro- 
bably the most widely planted in Ontario. 

The Champion is a very good variety. 
The bush does not become as large as 
the Naples, but it is productive and quite 
hardy. The fruit does not ripen uniform- 
ly, and is five days to a week later than 
the former variety. Victoria is vigorous 
and hardy, but from my experience is 
not as productive as Naples or Cham- 
pion. 

There are many varieties of red cur- 
rants. A few of the best ones are Cherry, 
Fay, Prince Albert, Chatauqua, Perfec- 
tion, and Raby Castle. The Cherry is 
the principal red currant grown in sou- 
thern Ontario for commercial purposes. 
The berry is large and the bunch short 
and compact, and the bush very pro- 
ductive. 

Fay's Prolific has been widely adver- 
tised as superior to the Cherry, but is 
very similar in fruit and productiveness, 
the bunch being a little longer, but loose 
towards the base. 

The bush of the Prince Albert is a 

•Extract from an addreeg delivered at the 
last annual conTention of the Ontario Fruit 
Growers' Aeeooiation. 



April, 1914 



THE CANADIAN HORTICULTURIST 



93 



poor grower while young,, but becomes 
more vigorous and productive with age. 
The berry is medium in size and very 
BKid. 

^^BChatauqua has the same fault as the 
■Prince Albert, being a very slow grower 
when young, but very productive. The 
berry is large, light red, and the seeds 
are very large. 

" Perfection is a cross between White 
Grape and Fay's. The berry is very 
large, clusters are long and a beautiful 
bright red. Ripens with Fay's. 

Raby Castle or Victoria is exceeding- 
ly productive, but is rather out of favor 
on account of its small size, larger cur- 
rants having a preference on the market. 

GOOSEBERRIES 

People have been planting gooseber- 
ries extensively during the past few 
years, and at present prices they are pro- 
fitable. Up to a few years ago the pre- 
ference was for American varieties on 
account of their resistance to mildew, 
but recently, in the light of improved 
spraying methods, the English varieties 
have been largely planted. On the whole 
the latter sorts are much larger, but not 
of better quality. 

There are innumerable varieties of 
English gooseberries, but only a few 
are grown commercially in Ontario, 
among the best being Industry, Lanca- 
shire Lad, Crown Bob, Keepsake, and 
Whitesmith. The Industry is a vigor- 
ous, upright grower and a heavy crop- 
per. The berry is red when ripe, hairy, 
and has a pleasant, rich flavor. Lanca- 
shire Lad is not as strong a grower as 
Industry, nor as heavy a bearer. The 
berry is smooth and roundish-oblong, of 
medium size. 

Crown Bob is another red berry favor- 
ed by some, but we pulled ours all out, 
as they were poor growers and shed their 
leaves prematurely. The fruit is large, 
oblong, and hairy. The Keepsake is a 
large, straw-colored berry of excellent 
flavor, and can be pulled very early for 
green gooseberies. The Whitesmith, in 
my opinion, is the best of them all. It 
is very vigorous and an excellent bearer 
of large, oblong, smooth, greenish-white 
berries, the ribs of which are plainly 
marked. 

There are practically only three Ameri- 
can varieties that are worth planting 
commercially, namely, Pearl, Downing, 
and Smith's Improved. The Pearl is an 
exceedingly productive variety of good 
size and quality. It is as productive as 
Houghton, and larger than Downing. 
The Downing produces large, roundish, 
light green fruit which has distinct veins 
and a smooth skin. The bush is vigor- 
ous and productive. The Smith's Im- 
proved is a vigorous grower, and the 
berry is larger, oval, light green, and has 
'■lla bloom. The flesh is moderately firm. 



A Perennial Border at Small Cost 



H.R.H. 

THE perennial border is a "thing of 
beauty" which is within the reach 
of every garden-maker, and yet, 
except in very large gardens tended by 
professional gardeners, very few suc- 
cessful ones are seen. Many amateurs 
shrink from undertaking a perennial bed 
for the same reasons which for many 
3'ears caused me to confine my horticul- 
tural efforts to the cultivation of annuals, 
in spite of the fact that these require 
much more care and attention and re- 
ward one's best care but for a single 
season. These reasons are, firstly, the 
by no means trifling expense of establish- 
ing a well-filled bed of good perennial 
plants ; and secondly, the mental vision 
of a semi-naked bit of garden forming an 
eyesore during the two or three years that 
must elapse before the plants grow to 
sufficient size to cover the ground and 
produce the abundance of bloom desired. 
As an amateur who has successfully 
overcome both these difficulties I should 
like to give others the benefit and en- 
couragement of my experience. 

Having decided that I would have a 
perennial border, and having likewise 
determined that the cost must not be 
great, I started operations in the fall, 
marking out my bed along the west side 
of my lot, a length of eighty feet, and 
making the bed eight feet wide. This 
area I had dug up and the soil thor- 
oughly worked to a depth of three feet. 
A large load of well rotted manure was 
distributed over the surface and dug in- 
to the soil, then the bed was raked over 



> Qu«. 

and made ready for the fall setting-in 
of plants. Spring planting, of course, 
is often practised. 

Behind the bed was an ugly wire fence 
separating my lot from that of my neigh- 
bor ; to cover this completely, perman- 
ently and promptly was my first problem, 
and a serious one it proved, for to buy 
enough plants to set out a hedge eighty 
feet long involved too much expense, 
and the plants would take several years 
to grow to the height required to con- 
ceal the fence and form an adequate 
background for my border. After care- 
ful consideration I decided to plant a 
thick row of common elder which grows 
wild in large quantities in most parts of 
the country, and is extremely easy of cul- 
tivation. A man with a. cart dug, hauled 
and planted, with my supervision and 
assistance, enough thrifty young bushes 
to line the entire fence ; every single root 
grew and flourished, and, the following 
season, formed a complete screen of its 
own peculiarly effective, light green foli- 
age, surmounted with, white blossoms 
and later with clusters of red berries. 
The result has given me cause for much 
self-congratulation. By the time my 
background was established, the per- 
ennial roots and plants I had ordered 
from the seedsmen had arrived, and these 
were duly set out in their allotted posi- 
tions, as shown in the diagram. Thi; 
supply was modest, not to say meagre, 
considering the extent of the bed. It 
consisted of : 

Ten large-sized delphinium roots, ten 









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A Veteran Amateur Geu-dener: Mr. J. G. Graham, St. Thoma*, Ont. 

Mr. Qra,tiam was awiarded &r8t prize Last yo3.r for hia ve^table trtirdeu, ia a ooatest conducted 
by the St. Tbomafi Uortaoultaraa Society. 



94 



THE CANADIAN HORTICULTURIST 



April. 1914 



I, I 2 1 3 ■ 4 , i g ■ fc I ? , » . 9 , 10. n.ig ,13.14 .,.5 ^,^ ■,7..^..0 jp^ 
Jder,H edoe 




a 



Q © 



'Po>,|ale& - (Idfer, A s/e>^s ) 



J>wa>f Masruvriuyy, s 



-Dwarf ^weet- /^|l<)^s u>^ T^ny^^v 



QuarleYnSection of 3ofcie-r C2.0ft> 
J>=Jelb|,ineu^ "P = P*o^. L= LiL 



paeonies, ten phloxes, ten lilies, twenty 
dahlias, and twenty gladiolus bulbs. 

The gladioli and dahlias were saved 
for spring planting ; the rest were plant- 
ed immediately and, ine fall work t>e- 
ing now completed, 1 staked, labelled, 
and mulched the various plants in pre- 
paration for their winter rest. 

Early in April the mulching was re- 
moved ; every one of my plants had sur- 
vived the winter and sent up fine strong 
shoots. I had the bed covered once more 
with a layer of good manure and dug 
it in thoroughly, being careful not to dis- 
turb the plants, after which I worked 
and pulverized the top soil and smoothed 
the surface ready for planting. The last 
week in April I put the gladioli bulbs and 
dahlia tubers into the ground and on the 
first of May I planted quantities of poppv 
seed, the pompone variety, just scatter- 
ing it and raking it lightly into the 
ground, between and around the peren- 
nials and in a solid strip two feed wide 
in front of them. It was a risk planting 
poppies so early in this climate, but I 
had plenty of seed saved from my own 
garden the previous year and could re- 
plant if the frost cut down the first seed- 
lings. Fortunately they were spared, 
and I consequently had poppies in bloom 
nearly a fortnight earlier than usual. 

In front of the poppies I planted a 
single, perfectly straight row of dwarf 
nasturtiums, and at the edge of the bed 
as a border I set out plants of dwarf 
sweet alyssum. These latter I had 

planted early in March in the house and 
later transferred to the hotbed so that at 
the time of setting out they were already 
starting to bloom and kept right on with- 
out setback, making a solid white border 
from the middle of May until after the 
heavy fall frosts had killed every other 
flower in the garden. 

By the middle of May, when the pop- 
pies were up, the bed was well covered 
with green; besides the alyssum, a few 
paeonies were in blossom, the delphin- 



iums were sending up promising flower 
spikes and the border began to be at- 
tractive to the eye. It was quite con- 
trary to all rules and to my better judg- 
ment to allow the paeonies and delphin- 
iums to bloom the first year after setting 
out, but it was very gratifying to see 
something of what was coming, and 
served to endourage my efforts. 

The real show began about the middle 
of June when the pompon poppies came 
into bloom, and for nearly three weeks 
they were one glorious profusion of 
beautiful paeony-like flowers forming one 
of the most magnificent masses of color 
that I have ever seen, and that, too, at 
a time of the year which, in this part 
of the country, is an "off^ season" in the 
flower garden. Earlier we depend upon 
the paeonies, delphiniums, and spring- 
dowering bulbs for massed color eff'ects ; 
later we have phlox, asters, nasturtiums, 
Jahlias and a wealth of other heavy 
jloomers, but in between are a couple of 
Weeks when the poppies fill a felt want 
and are aimost alone. 

As soon as the glory of the poppy-bed 
began to show signs of departing, and 
the plants began to yellow at the base, 
although many were still in blossom, I 
ruthlessly rooted up every poppy plant, 
worked a little more fertilizer into the 
soil and set out in their place the asters 
which I had planted in the house early 
in March, cherished in the hotbed, and 
finally potted off and plunged into a 
cold frame to await their turn in the 
border. By this time, the first of July, 
the plants were already branching freely 
in preparation for the flowering season, 
and, receiving no setback from careful 
transplanting, they were soon in bloom, 
and gave abundance of beautiful flowers 
from mid-July till killed by severe frosts 
in the late fall. They were of the Os- 
trich Plume variety which, to my mind, 
are the most satisfactory where a long- 
continued, showy mass of bloom is de- 
sired—I have counted forty to sixty good 
flowers on a single plant. 



In the meantime the dahlias, phlox, 
gladioli, and lilies grew and blossomed, 
making a very fair show indeed for th. 
first year's planting, while the dwan 
nasturtiums, according to their wont, al- 
most obscured their own foliage com- 
pletely with their wealth of blossom, 
throughout the entire season. 

At no time from May to late October 
did my border fail to show abundant 
color. A study of the accompanyin 
diagram will show how, by careful pla 
nmg and taking into account the habit „. 
growth of each variety the plants were 
placed quite close to one another with- 
out, in the least, interfering with one 
.mother above ground or crowding each 
other for root room. Of course, care 
should always be taken to see that taller- 
growing sorts be placed behind those ot 
smaller growth so as not to obscure 
them, also that deep-rooted plants be 
alternated with those requiring little 01 
shallow root room ; finally one should 
plan to have plants flowering at the same 
season to harmonize in color so as not 
to "kill" one another. For that reason 
I have not yet ventured to introduce in- 
to my border the gorgeous oriental poppy 
which I have known to ruin many other- 
wise charming borders of more delicately 
tinted flowers. 

SUOCESSION OF BLOOM 

The following table will show the suc- 
cession of bloom : Late May and June, 
delphineums, paeonies, alyssum, pop- 
pies; July, nasturtiums, dahlias, alys- 
sum, gladioli, asters; August, asters, 
alyssum, elder hedge, lilies, dahlias, nas- 
turtiums; September and October, as- 
ters, alyssum, nasturtiums, dahlias, 
phlox. 

Now to consider the cost of that 
eighty-foot bed : Two loads manure, five 
dollars; digging of ground in fall, two 
dollars fifty cents; hired help on elder 
hedge, two dollars; ten delphineum 
plants, one dollar twenty-five cents; ten 
phlox plants, one dollar fifty cents; ten 
paeony plants, two dollars fifty cents; 
ten lilies, one dollar; twenty gladiolus 
bulbs, one dollar fifty cents ; twenty 
dahlia tubers, three dollars fifty cents; 
seeds, one dollar; total, twenty-one dol- 
lars seventy-five cents. 

Thus at the small initial cost of twenty- 
one dollars seventy-five cents (which 
could have been even more reduced had 
I been willing to wait a year or two and 
raised some of the plants from seed) I 
established an entirely satisfactory per- 
ennial bed eighty feet by eight feet, 
which made a splendid showing from the 
very first year of planting, and which has 
greatly increased in beauty and value 
during the two years that have passed 
since it was planted. 

In the meantime, in a sheltered, sunny 
corner of the kitchen garden. I establish- 



mt i 
:rej 



April 



1914 



THE CANADIAN HORTICULTURIST 



ed a Jittle nursery, out of which I got * 
more enjoyment to the square inch than 
froTH any other spot on the place, here 
I raised rows upon rows of thrifty per- 
ennial plantlets, delphineums, shasta 
daisies, perennial chrysanthemums, Can- 
tirbury bells, gypsophila (baby's breath), 
foxgloves, and many others, which, as 



they became large enough, I transplant- 
ed to the perennial bed, so that now, 
after three years, I have my border fill- 
ed to overflowing, and could do away 
entirely with the annuals, although I 
still reserve a strip in front of the bed 
for the gorgeous, annual display of pop- 
pies, succeeded by an equally beautiful 



display of asters, and I still outline the 
border with the staunch alyssum. The 
result every season is a bed which is the 
object of interest and admiration to every 
passerby, as well as the unfailing source 
of supply for cut flowers throughout the 
summer, and so a joy also even to my 
inose distant friends. 



Orchids: the Goddesses of the Flov^er Families 



ALD. J. A. ELLIS, M.L.A., of Ot- 
tawa, is one of the very few men 
in Canada who has grown orchids 
successfully. As an amateur who has 
grown them for many years he speaks 
appreciatively of the rewards they have 
given him. 

On the occasion a short time ago of a 
visit to his home to see his plants, I 
asked him if he did not experience a 
good deal of pleasure in being able to 
grow the flowers of a millionaire on the 
income of an ordinary man. To this he 
replied that the flowers which could be 
grown with the very minimum of care 
and with a maximum of results, were or- 
chids. He added, of course, that this is 
provided one does not attempt the high 
temperature section, or some of the ex- 
[jensive varieties which are often less 
beautiful than those of reasonable price. 

"As a matter of fact,' said Mr. Ellis, 
"I haven't spent a cent on orchids for 
the past five years. Some of the plants 
I have to-day are those I began with 
many years ago. Of course they have 
Increased, as most orchids do, until to- 
day the increase of some has been per- 
haps fifty-fold." 

Mr. Ellis took me into several rooms 
of the house where orchids were used for 
table decorations, and similar purposes, 
instead of palms or ferns. He remarked 
about one fine flowering plant that "it 
had been brought out of the greenhouse 
when it started to bloom three weeks 
ago, and was good for another month, 
when another one from the greenhouse 
would take its place." Varieties which 
flower in winter are his choice, because, 
as he says, "in the summer there ari- 
plenty of flowers in the garden which can 
be used as cut flowers in the house. 

WHY OllClIIDS 

Orchids are seldom grown. Most peo- 
ple think that they cannot be grown by 
the amateur, or that they are the flowers 
of the millionaire. Such opinions in 
some cases are well founded, although 
only in some cases. The experience of 
Mr. Ellis and others who have grown 
them, refute such an idea. Actually 
there is a strong case in favor of the or- 
chid as a plant for home use, and espec- 
ially for the winter season. The case is 
supported by the following facts : 

First : Orchids require a minimum of 
care and attention. 



F. E. Buck, C.E.F., Ottawa, Ont. 

Second : The expense of growing or- 
chids is not prohibitive, and after one 
has started, less than that of other 
plants. 

Third : As suitable house plants, won- 
derful in their beauty of coloring and 
charm of form, they are unsurpassed. 

,WHY EXPENSIVE 

The varieties which the amateur should 
attempt to grow are not expensive, but 
rare varieties fetch sums which only a 
millionaire could dream of giving for 
them. Such varieties are bought on the 
same basis as curioes are bought, to add 
tQ priceless collections. Some few years 
ago I was visiting a commercial estab- 
lishment which has a fine colection or or- 
chids, and in discussing prices with the 
manager I was told this : That a short 
time before his firm made a purchase of 
several hundred bulbs, paying, I think, 
on the average about a dollar apiece for 
them. In this collection were one or two 
rare plants. About the time they were 
in bloom another orchid specialist visited 
this collection and asked to be given a 
price on two of the rare plants. One 



was quoted to him at seventy-five dollars, 
and the other, a very beautiful plant, at 
one hundred and fifty dollars. He bought 
them at these prices and a few months 
later the one hundred and fifty dollar 
plant was shown by him at a world-fam- 
ed exhibition where it took the first prize, 
and was then sold to some admiring rich 
man for five hundred dollars. An inci- 
dent like this explains high prices, but 
the amateur is not to be frightened by 
such incidents, and they should not keep 
him from trying his hand at a most in- 
teresting, even if sometimes a rich man's 
hobby. 

There are three essentials to success 
in growing orchids. Should you be able 
to supply these essentials try a few or- 
chids. 

First : The greenhouse, or that part of 
it set aside for the orchids, must always 
be heated to a temperature ranging from 
55 degrees F. to 70 degrees F. It would 
prove fatal to the plants if it fell below 
45 degrees F. We shall see why, later. 

Second : Proper ventilation must be 
provided. But it must be provided so 




The Viae, Clemitit Panicnlat*, Growing on the Residence of Mr. Herman Simmeri, Toronto, Ont. 

Thia is an c^a^.v growing, hardy, free flowcriiiB, fra-grant climlK-.r. The vine on the vorandali 

is a Clematis Virginiana, a rapid growing, very bardy, native variety of Clematia. It ie not 

aa nice a vine nor has it as flno foliage as the PanicuLata. 



96 



THE CANADIAN II O UT [ P IM. T l' R TST 



April, KiM 




Lady's Slipper or Showy Orchid 

that the cold air of winter is warmed be- 
fore it reaches the plants. 

Third : A method of watering must be 
followed which is not too far removed 
from Nature's method of supplying water 
to these plants. 

As one writer says, "common sense" is 
necessary for success in growing orchids. 
And what common sense does is to recog- 
nize that orchids are wonderful and 
"to be desired" plants, which can be 
grown quite easily if we provide for them 
a few simple conditions. In other words 
as Mr. Ellis says, we must appreciate the 
fact that the habitat from which they 
come is quite different to what it is in 
the case of most flowers. 

TREAT ORCHIOS RiiASONABLY 

Orchids come from damp, swampy 
places, where the air is humid, the tem- 
perature never cold, and the soil a partic- 
ular type. They grow on dead trees and 
the like, — in many cases at least, and 
their roots never feed in ordinary soil. 
In practice we find that jjeat will answer 
as the best material in which they will 
thrive. With regard to water, they like 
it with the chill off, in fact they must 
have it so, they can't stand the cold bath. 
And then, if a nice warm balmy atmos- 
phere is supplied they will blossom as 
if they felt all the better for the change. 
In fact they like to be tamed if they are 
not poorly treated, or "herded with the 
common herd of plants." They soon for- 
get their native haunts, especially those 
varieties which have been reared under 
strange conditions. Many of the children 
of the older races, the hybrids, are most 
beautiful, in fact so beautiful that one 
feels like acknowledging that perhaps 
they are the very angels and goddesses 
of the flower world. 

POINTS IN ORCJIID CtTI/TURE 

Orchids need very little attention. 

Orchids are generally free from insects. 

Orchids need re-potting only about 
once in three years. 

Orchids do not need to be trimmed up, 
or fussed over like other plants. 



Orchids have healthy and lairly attrac- 
tive leaves when not in bloom. 

"Orchids,' says Mr. Ellis, "are easier 
to grow than fuchsias, begonias or ger- 
aniums. 

ESSENTIALS 'TO SUOOEBft 

A correct temperature; from fifty-five 
to seventy degrees in summer, and from 
forty-five to seventy-five degrees in win- 
ter. 

Shade from the strong rays of the 
summer sun. 

Abundant moisture, especially in sum- 
mer, in winter, watering with tepid 
water twice or three times a week is 
sufficient. 

.Abundant fresh air secured by a good 
\entUation system. 

When these four conditions are pro- 
vided for orchids, a general condition ap- 
proximating that which exists in their 
native haunts is secured. Success is then 
practically certain. 

Never take a chance during cold snaps 
in winter. Watch the temperature. Any 
temperature below forty-five degrees is 
fatal, even for one night. 

For watering, Mr. Ellis has an at- 
tachment to the kitchen heater, similar to 
those used in bathrooms. He warms 
the water by the turn of a tap. This is 
an ideal plan. 

The floor, or part of the floor, of the 
greenhouse should be earth. This will 
keep the air humid. 

Pots, cribs, or baskets may be used 
in which to grow orchids. If pots are 
used they must be well drained. 

Soil is seldom used ; in its stead, peat, 
moss, or fern-fibre are used. 

Excessive heat and drought are both 
to be carefully avoided. 

The night temperature for orchids 
should be about ten degrees lower than 
the day temperature. 

VARIETIES FOR THE BEGINNER 

In the matter of varieties, Mr. Ellis 
grows only those which will bloom in 
winter. Of these he has tried about fifty 
different varieties. The following are 
recommended by him : 

First best six — Cattleya Trianae or 
Labiata, Cattleya Schroderae, Oncidium 
variocosum Rogersii, Odontoglossum 
grande, Laelia Anceps, Cypridedium in- 
signe. 

Second best six— Cypripedium nitens, 
Laelia autemnale, Oncidium Forbesii, 
Vanda coerulea, Lycaste Skinneri, Laelia 
praestans. 



To enrich the lawn and cause a more 
luxuriant growth, there is nothing bet- 
ter than raw bone meal evenly strewn 
over the surface at the rate of ten pounds 
to three hundred square feet. Or one of 
the many patent lawn enrichers may be 
used in the same manner. A brisk go- 
ing over with a sharp steel rake should 
follow application of enricher or bone. 



Planting Roses and the Time 

Jas M. BrywD, ToroDto, Oit. 

Ihe planting of roses should always be 
deferred until the soil is in a proper 
condition to receive the plants. There 
is no greater mistake than planting roses 
in wet .soil. The soil to be in proper 
condition for planting should be dry and 
free. The best time to plant roses which 
have been raised or grown in Canada, is 
the last week in October, and for import- 
ed roses the second week in April. With 
good culture roses may be planted safely 
up till the middle of June. Care must be 
taken not to plant loo deeply. By plac- 
ing the union or callus three inches below 
ground you will be about right. For 
dwarf roses see that the roots do not 
cross or coil around. This is most im- 
portant. Be particular also to see that 
no manure comes in contact with the 
roots directly, and always firm the soil 
by treading it down with the feet, but 
leave a rough surface. 

The best soil is a strong holding ar- 
gillaceous loam, so tenacious as to al- 
most touch clay in some of its more in- 
viting forms. Not a few soils that are 
called clay when wet, turn into strong 
loam when dry. Though such loams are 
on the whole most favorable for the per- 
fect cultivation of roses it must not be 
a.'^serted that they cannot be grown on 
cihers. I have seen prize roses grown on 
soil so light that it could be driven and 
drifted like sand during a protracted 
drought, and also on sheer peat. The 
natural quality of rose soils is often of 
less vial importance than might at first 
sight appear, inasmuch as in many cases 
the soil is the mere dish, shell or basin 
to hold the materials which are freely 
given to roses to feed upon. While say- 
ing this much, so that nobody may des- 
pair of growing fair roses with soils such 
as they have, or can make with the ma- 
terials within reach, it should be added 
that no loam can be too good or too rich 
for roses. In selecting a site for a rose 
border or rose garden, the cultivator 
should endeavor to marry the three S's, 
namely, sun, shade and shelter to air. 

Making Garden Paths 

JohQ Call, In|lew*od 
With the necessary materials at hand, 
it is a simple matter to make a firm, 
sound pathway anywhere. The first 
thing to be done is to peg out the site 
at the width desired, and the next to 
dig out a V-shaped trench along the 
whole length. Then, if the soil is of a 
light and porous description, it is only 
necessary to place a -quantity of rubble, 
composed of broken bricks and large 
clinkers in the bottom, then a thickness 
of coarse gravel, and finally enough fine 
binding gravel to bring the surface up 
to the required height when well rolled 



April, 1914 



THE CANADIAN HORTICULTURIST 



97 



It 



down. Should the soil be heavy, or the 
situation damp, it is necessary to put in 
a two or three inch drain pipe along the 
lx>ttom of the trench. The joints of the 
pipes must be covered with a turf, grass 
side downward, then cover with the 
rubble, coarse and fine gravel as before. 
A foot is about deep enough to dig 
the trench. These directions serve for 
all ordinary purposes, remembering, of 
course, wherever a drain-pipe is put in. 



that it must have a slight slope in the 
direction of the outlet. Paths may be 
surfaced with gravel, ashes, flagstones, 
concrete or cement. Where gravel or 
ashes are employed, the middle of the 
path must be slightly higher than the 
sides, and it is most important where 
these are used, that the rubble and coarse 
gravel is well pounded before the fine 
gravel is put on. The gravel should be 
about three inches deep. 



Plans for This Year's Garden 

J. McPherson Ross, Toronto, Ont. 



WHEN planning the improvement 
of your home surroundings, have 
in mind some special feature of 
ornamentation, either by trees, shrubs, or 
flowers, different from your neighbors 
within the bounds of good taste. See in 
your mind's eye your house as a picture 
and your grounds surrounding as the 
frame to set it off. 

When an artist paints a picture he has 
first the story to tell. Then with the aid 
of his canvas, paints and brushes and 
technical skill he tells the story as best 
he can. 

The gardener gives us the real pic- 
ture. True he has the real sky above him 
and real nature and things to work with. 
Then on the canvass of his ground he 
spreads the green grass, either by sod- 
ding or seeding it. With real plants he 
produces real flowers. Real trees grace 
his lawn, and real roses climb up his 
cottage window. 

To have a nice front lawn it should be 
pro[>erly laid out, and to do this let me 
point a few rules to observe : Never 
plant anything in front that will obstruct 
the view from the window to the street, 
or obstruct the view from the street to 
the house. In other words, plant your 
garden so that it will look nice from the 
house or the street. 

Have as much grass as you can. Noth- 
ing looks better than a nice, green, neat- 
ly-kept lawn. Place your walk as much 
to the side of your lot as possible and on 
that side which you use when you leave 
your house going or returning from busi- 
ness. Leave enough room on the nar- 
rowest side to allow a shrub or group of 
three to grow in. This enables you to 
have a larger lawn in front of the house 
curving your walk gracefully to the 
steps, and to branch the walk to a side 
path to suit children and the butcher and 
baker for kitchen demands. 

If your ground is low raise it up so 
as not to have water standing on it after 
the spring thaws or heavy rains. Noth- 
ing is more disagreeable than to have to 
wade through water on the paths. 

if your plot is large enough to have a 
border let it commence ten or fifteen feet 
back from the front fence, running back 



with dividing fence as far as you wish 
and desire to plant. If your neighbor 
and you are good friends, get him to 
start his border opposite yours having 
both front outlines run back irregularly, 
that is never a straight line but vary it 
as nature does planting your tallest 
shrubs at the back, the tallest perennials 
also, tapering down to the front, finishing 
with some plant that serves as an edg- 
ing, such as sweet alyssum or sea thrift, 
pinks. 

Start your border on the other side on 
the large side of the lawn in front of your 
house by the steps, and carry it around 
to the fence and down towards the 
street. Never put a bed in the centre of 
your lot or lawn as it spoils the effect, 
and breaks it up. A bed of geraniums in 
the centre of your lawn looks like a scar- 
let patch on a green coat. 

Aim to make your lawn or grounds 
look as large as possible and also at sim- 
plicity of design, so as to have a grander 
effect of masses of growth in flowers and 
shrubs. This is done by having one or 



two borders full of plants, not breaking 
it up by numerous meaningless small 
beds. 

Another important feature of your 
home improvement is to make your place 
attractive in winter. This can be done 
by having a few evergreens grouped in 
threes or singly. The contrasting effect 
of evergreens with the winter snow is 
fine. Evergreens give an air of com- 
fort to the place by their appearance. If 
you have a steep terrace or bold bank 
its stiffness and barrenness is removed 
by planting a few dwarf evergreens start- 
ing near the bottom and gradually work- 
ing your way diagonally across till you 
come to the top, dotting an evergreen 
here and there, just as you may notice 
them growing up some farm hillside. For 
this purpose the junipers are just the 
thing or a few shrubs may be sparingly 
planted for the same purpose. 

In the way of manuring, dividing and 
keeping the weeds down you may have 
by a judicious selection, plenty of flow- 
ers and foliage the season through. 

The earliest flowering plants should al- 
ways be planted in the most conspicuous 
place. Such plants as the Bleeding 
Heart follow any bed you may have of 
tulips or hyacinths. On the edge of the 
border or bed in front have a mass of 
pansies and forget-me-not, or a clump of 
daisies are pleasant to see. In the shady 
place caused by a fence or the side of 
the house, close to a walk, have a clump 
of lily-of-the-valley and some ferns. Two 
or more paeonies in variety are indis- 
pensable. Their bold character of foliage 
and flower make them fine lawn plants, 
either singly or in a group. 




The Firat Prize Lawn of Ex-Mayor Guait, St. Thoma*, Ont. 



98 



THE CANADIAN HORTICULTURIST 



April, 1914 



I'^or t.-ill lH'r(),-!<'('Oiis plants we select 
larkspur, rudbeckia, Bostonia, phlox, 
campanula, fox glove and hollyhock. For 
shorter growing kinds we have colum- 
bine, oriental poppy, dwarf phlox, iris in 
variety, achillea and chrysanthemums. 

In our garden we must find room for 
annuals such as asters, petunias, nas- 
turtiums, stocks, antirrihums and Indian 
pinks. For a small circular bed at 
the end of the walk nothing looks 
better than one of pink geraniums mass- 
ed and margined with a circle of sweet 
alyssum. If our space allows and we have 
room for one of a more ambitious nat- 
ure let the centre be a castor oil plant 
encircLd by a row of canna, next a row 
of ooleus Verschappildint of Perilla 



Nankiinaii, :i row of scarlet geraniums, 
margined by a circle of suitable edging;. 
A little study and observation combined 
with experience gives anyone interested 
the necessary knowledge to make any 
number of combinations. 

Climbing plants have an imj)ortant 
partin our decorative work. For brick 
houses or stone the Boston ivy is unsur- 
passed, but for training up on a veran- 
dah or trellises roses are first, and then 
clematis. 

For annuals, the most valuable would 
be cobea scandens, morning glory, doli- 
chos and scarlet runner. 

Make it a point to have some floral 
effect by one flower to dominate your 
garden. 



Home Culture of Chrysanthetnums 

W. Hunt, Ontario Agricultural College, Guelph 



(Continued from 

WHEN the roots of chrysanthe- 
mums are aboutaninch inlength, 
which should be in about five or 
six weeks from the time they were 
set, they can be potted off singly into 
small two and a half or three inch pots. 




Chrysaathemuin Cattiogi, Rooted and Not Rooted 

or set about one and one-half inches 
apart in shallow boxes. Use the same 
kind of soil and treatment as recom- 
mended for the root divisions, and re-pot 
them into larger pots as soon as the 
roots fill the smaller ones. About the 
end of June or early in July the plants 
may be potted into quite large seven or 
eight inch pots. The pots may be sunk 
to the rim out of doors in the open gar- 
den early in June. Place a piece of slate 
or stone, or an inch or two in depth of 
coal ashes underneath the pots outside 
to keep out earth worms and prevent the 
roots from getting through the bottom. 
The plants may be planted out of the 
pots in the open ground instead of pot- 
ting them. Give the plants plenty of 
water at the roots and keep the tops 



March issue.) 

sprayed every day with clear or soapy 

water, in hot weather, as well as with 
insecticides. 

Plants can be raised from seed that 
will flower the first season if the seed 
is sown early in February indoors. The 
young seedlings should be transplanted 
singly into small pots, or be set about 
two inches apart in shallow boxes in 
good potting soil when four or five small 
leaves have developed. Grow these on 
indoors until about the middle of May, 
when they may be stood out of doors to 
harden, and be planted out in the open 
garden, or be potted into large pots, 
and the pots sunk out in the garden, 
and treated as before described for 
plants, from divisions and cuttings. The 
summer care and insect enemies of 
chrysanthemums will be described in a 
later issue. 

During the winter place the plants in 
a sunny window away from fire heat as 
much as possible to flower. A temper- 
ature of fifty to fifty-five degrees will 
suit them. After the plants are through 
flowering, cut the tops down and place 
the plants in a cool window, tempera- 






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MP-' 


w 


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^K 




'^'^^^^H 


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B 


^P 


k.-'^n 


w* 


W^-:\ 



Section of Plant Before Dividing 

ture forty to forty-five degrees, or they 
may be put in a light cellar or base 
ment in about the same temperature. 
Keep the soil moist, not too wet, all win- 
ter. Bring the plants out in the spring 
early in March, and start them into 
growth on the window before dividing 
them up or taking cuttings. 

White — Early Snow, Smith's Ad- 
vance, and White Cloud. 

Yellow — Golden Glow, Golden Gate, 
and Golden Chadwick. 

Pink — Glory of Pacific, Pacific Su- 
preme, and Uganda. Nellie Pockett, 




Young Chrysanthemum Plant Before and After 
" Pinching " or " Topping " 



Section of Plant After Dividing 

cream color; Brutus, orange red; and 
Black Hawk, crimson, are other good 
varieties. 

Good pompon (small floweiing) varie- 
ties are : Rose Travenna and Alena, 
pink; Snowdrop, Anna and Nic, white; 
Klondike, yellow ; Mme. Beau, bronzy 
old gold ; Julia Lagravere, red ; Lady- 
smith, pink. 

Liquid solutions of manure water 
should be given chrysanthemum plants 
as soon as the buds show, or earlier if 
necessary. It is best to discontinue the 
liquid manure as soon as the flowers 
show color. Clay's Fertilizer or Bon- 
ora, sold at seed stores, are good com- 
mercial fertilizers. One-fourth part of a 
pail of cow manure and about one fXJund 
of chicken manure put in a pail, the pail 
filled up with water, well stirred, and 



April, 1914 



THE CANADIAN HORTICULTURIST 



99 



then allowed to settle, makes an ideal 
liquid fertilizer for all pot or garden 
plants out of doors, if diluted with an 
equal quantity of water before using. 
Half a pint of the diluted solution once 
week or so would be beneficial to the 
plants before the blossoms show. The 



commercial fertilizers named are best 
for indoor use for sanitary reasons. Half 
an ounce of nitrate of soda dissolved in a 
gallon of water is a good substitute fer- 
tijizer. About half a pint of this once 
every week or ten days will benefit the 
plants. 



Short Hints on Planting 



I 



Wm. Hunt, O.A, 

IN transplanting fibrous rooted, or in- 
deed almost any perennial plants, the 

height and density of habit are the 
main points to consider as to the dis- 
tance apart. A good general rule is to 
have the very tall plants at least two or 
three feet from any other plant. By 
setting the taller plants four or five feet 
apart toward the back or centre of the 
border, plants of medium height could 
then be planted between them. The 
same rule could be followed to some ex- 
tent with the medium height plants. 
Plants of medium height should be 
planted mainly toward the middle of the 
border. One or two feet apart is a 
good distance apart for these last. Plant- 
ed two or three feet apart would allow 
of dwarf plants and clumps of spring 
flowering bulbs, such as tulips, narcis- 
sus being planted between them. These 
last named bulbs should, of course, be 
planted in the fall. 

A plant or two of perennial larkspur or 
Anchusa Italica dotted here and there 
about twenty or thirty feet apart may 
Ix; planted in about the centre of the 
border. These plants stand out in con- 
spicuous relief. The plants used for 
this purpose should be of a fairly com- 
pact habit, the kinds named are well 
suited for this purpose. The dwarf per- 
ennials should be planted about a foot 
apart. The clump or group system of 
planting is best for perennials. I consid- 
er spring the best time for transplanting 
fibrous-rooted perennials, as the spring 
flowering bulbs are all showing, and 
there is not so much danger of disturb- 
ing them as there is by planting in the 
.fall. Otherwise, early fall planting for 
[all perennials is desirable. 

MOSTBRETIAS 

The pretty, late-flowering plants 
known as Montbretias belong to the 
i bulbous-rooted class. To be correct, 
[they are produced from corms similar 
Lto the crocus and gladiolus. Indeed, the 
[Montbretias might very justly be called 
'"miniature gladiolus," being much like 
' the last named flower, not only in the 
form of growth and the reproduction of 
their corms, but also from the habit of 
their growth and the form of their flow- 
ers. In the color of their flowers, how- 
[ever, there is not found the wide range 
found in the gladioli, the dominant colors 
rinrl sh.idcs f)f Monlbri-tins Ix-ing main- 
ly of a yellow or brown, or shades of 
these colors. They are, however, very 



C, Guelph, Ont. 

pretty and attractive. A vase of them 
with their wavy, graceful, dark green 
foliage interspersed with their oddly- 
shaped trumpet-like blossoms of all 
shades of orange, brown and bronze, 
make them very acceptable for cut floral 
decorations toward the end of summer, 
when flowers are sometimes scarce in 
the garden. 

The best time to plant the corms is 
very late in the fall or very early in the 
spring, just as soon in spring as they 
can be got into the ground. The corms 
(or bulbs) cannot sometimes be obtained 
early enough in the fall to plant, as the 
plants are often green and vigorous and 
in flower until winter sets in for good. 
If the corms can be obtained, they may 
be planted successfully In November. 
They are not quite as hardy as tulips and 
narcissus, therefore it is best to protect 
them during winter by placing over them 
four or five inches of strawy manure. 
Most of the varieties will come through 
the winter all right treated In this way. 
Some growers make a point of digging 
the corms very late in fall after the tops 
have been frozen and winter them over 
in a cool, fairly dry cellar in a tempera- 
ture of about forty degrees Fahrenheit. 
They should not be kept in a hot, dry 
cellar during winter. I have found it 
a good plan to lay the corms in a shal- 
low box and cover them with an inch or 
two of dry sand or dry sandy soil, leav- 
ing the tops on and standing out from 



the soil. The tops and the old dry black 
corms, under the corm to be planted, 
should be cleaned off just the same as 
with gladiolus before planting. The 
culture of the Montbretia is very similar 
to the culture of the gladiolus. 

It is [best to plant Montbretias 'in 
clumps or groups about twelve to fifteen 
corms in a group. Set the corms about 
three inches apart and cover them with 
about three inches of soil. They will 
grow in any good garden soil, but suc- 
ceed best in a fairly rich, loamy soil. 
Like the gladioli and other bulbs, fresh 
strawy manure for a fertilizer should not 
be used when planting them. No man- 
ure or fertilizer should come in direct 
contact with the corms when planted. 
I have often wondered that more of these 
pretty little bulbs with their quaint, oddly 
colored flowers are not oftener seen in 
our gardens. Most of our seedsmen 
catalogue them for sale. Plant a few 
of them as early as possible this spring. 



Rose Culture 

By an Amateur 

Whatever shade you have for your 
roses must not be provided by trees. 
The roots of these rob the soil and their 
leaves prevent a free circulation of air. 
Close proximity to buildings and fences 
should be avoided, as the reflection of 
the sun's rays upon the flowers causes 
them to wither very quickly, and in 
winter the snow is liable to drift too 
deeply over the plants, breaking them 
down. 

LOCATION OF TffE BED 

The location of the rose bed should 
be on ground thoroughly drained either 
naturally or artificially. The matter of 
soil is of less importance than location, 
as roses will grow in almost any soil 
short of pure sand. You will, however, 
give them the best sort you have or can 
procure. 




A Prize Verandah ia a Compelition Conducted Last Year hj the Ottawa Horticullaral Saciaty [ 

Ifosiilcuoo of iAiiv. D. T. .\l.u!lja,iifin. 



lOO 



THE CANADIAN HORTICULTURIST 



April, 1914 



Progressive Vegetable Culture^ 



PROGRESSIVE vegetable growers 
are looking for new and improv- 
ed ideas regarding the growing of 
their products, and any method by which 
they can realize increased returns from 
their gardens interests them. The fol- 
lowing methods and appliances are be- 
ing adopted by vegetable men in parts 
of the United States, and may prove of 
interest and value to Ontario vegetable 
growers. 

From the greenhouse vegetable grow- 
ers' standpoint let me say that steriliza- 
tion of soil is being extensively carried 
on by practically all progressive growers. 
In some cases steam boilers are pur- 
chased for the sole purpose of treating 
the soil. Some are using the inverted 
pan method, others the spike method, 
and one progressive grower in Grand 
Rapids (Mr. Yonkers) has made a ster- 
ilizing apparatus which amounts to put- 
ting a modified skimmer irrigation line 
under the soil to a depth of four to six 
inches and forcing live steam through 
the nozzles. He claims to have had 
better success from this method than 
from any other employed. Sterilization 
will give results. This has been proved 
by many growers on the other side, and 
many make an annual practice of treat- 
ing all soil in the greenhouse. 

Some growers make a point of grow- 
ing only one or two crops and making 
a specialty of those particular ones and 
improving as they can. They select their 
own seed and do their own cross-breed- 
ing and aim to supply the market with 
the best possible varieties of that par- 
ticular vegetable that can be found. Some 
make a specialty of cucumbers, others 
tomatoes, and others lettuce, and dur- 
ing their season the quality of the pro- 
duce from these specialists can be seen 
on the markets realizing ten and fifteen 
per cent, more than that of their com- 
petitors. Improved varieties are due 
largely to selection of seed. These men 
do not depend on seedsmen for their 
seed, but at different times go through 
the growing crops themselves and pick 
out the best plants and select their speci- 
mens from these. The progressive grow- 
er knows what his market demands, and 
the main point on his score card is pro- 
bably his selection of specimens for seed. 

CUCUMBER CaOWING 

The large greenhouse plants around 

Toledo are devoted to extensive growing 

of cucumbers, and they have adopted a 

device for training their cucumbers on a 

stake one-half inch by one inch by seven 

feet in length. It is fitted with a simple 

nail lock, one naU being driven through, 

and another, somew hat longer, being 

• Extract from an addreas deliTored at the 
laet annual convention of the Ontario Vete- 
ta,ble Growers' Association. 



C. Johnston, B.S.A. 

driven through the stake and bent so 
that it forms a lock with the small nail, 
the bottom of the stake is either driven 
into the ground beside the plant or is 
fitted with a small resting shoe, and 
stands on top of the ground beside the 
plant. The tops are let into a piece of 
ribbon wire which is permanently 
stretched through the houses. This wire 
holds the cucumbers solidly in place and 
excellent results are given. 

Skinner irrigation cannot be spoken of 
too much. Growers in all sections are 
beginning to use this system on gardens 
from an acre to forty acres in size with 
remarkable results. Satisfied growers 
are everywhere the best answer to any 
question regarding Skinner irrigation. 

It is the custom of some vegetable 
growers to hold their manure before ap- 
plying it to the greenhouse. They have 
told me that they find it worth consider- 
ably more to them. Some of them have 
built concrete manure pits. They pile 
the manure to a depth of three or four 
feet in these pits and turn the water on 
to the manure at intervals to keep down 
the fire fanging. Some turn the manure 
at different times. These pits are built 
with concrete walls about one foot thick 
and eighteen inches to two feet high. As 
a rule paving brick is laid in an inch or 
so of concrete for the bottom. They are 
higher at the ends than at the centre and 
are made wide enough to permit hauling 
manure right into them. 

Several growers are now making an 
annual practice of holding their manure 
four or five months in this way. They 
advocate this method especially for the 
manure that is to go into the greenhouse. 
The liquid manure is soaked up by the 
coarse manure and its full benefit is thus 
gained. Some growers make pits for 
this manure only and build it entirely of 
concrete and do not drive in them, sim- 
ply throwing the manure into a pile in 
them and watering as they see fit. 

A New York firm has a patented celery 
bleacher which is being tried out by 
several growers. It consists of a strip of 
material very similar to some of the com- 
mon ready roofings, twelve inches wide, 
and in rolls of one hundred feet in 
length. This is placed around the celery 
instead of boards or paper, and is held 
together by means of I 1 shaped wire 



holders, which fit over both sides of the 
pajDer. This method is not more than a 
year or so old and it has been tried with 
some degree of success by some growers. 

8T.AKING OF TOMATOES 

Possibly the staking of tomatoes is 
being tried out more than any other 
method by progressive vegetable grow- 
ers. Fully fifty per cent, of the growers 
visited last summer were either experi- 



menting with it or were beyond that 
stage and carrying it on as part of their 
yearly work. There are different meth- 
ods of staking employed and as yet it is 
mainly the early varieties that are being 
staked and in quantities ranging from a 
few plants to one and a half to two acres. 
The commonest method is to drive a 
stake into the ground beside the plant and 
tie the plant to it with either twine or 
raffia. The stakes are of one and one and 
a half inch material, and are made from 
five to seven feet in length. The plants 
are set eighteen to twenty inches apart in 
the rows and three to four feet between 
the rows. The vines are trimmed to one 
stem. Growers claim that they get earl- 
ier fruit by nearly a week, and that the 
quality of the fruit is improved. The es- 
timated cost of staking plants is between 
five and ten cents a plant. 

Sowing Vegetable Seeds 

Mr<. Dell Gnttaa, Port Atthor, Ont. 

THE time for sowing vegetable seeds 
out of doors varies greatly. Firsi 
of all have the ground well pre- 
pared and enriched. Before starting to 
sow, remove all stones and rubbish and 
pulverize the soil thoroughly. Be neat 
in all you do. 

Onions, peas, spinach, carrots, par- 
snips and other hardy vegetables may be 
planted as soon as the ground is fit. 
Leave cucumber, squash and corn until 
danger of frost is passed. Sow the seeds 
in moist or freshly stirred soil. Do not 
plant too deeply. Sow radish in good 
rich soil in order to have quick growth. 
For a succession, sow every two weeks. 
Cauliflower seed is very expensive, so 
when I do not plant in the hot bed but 
out in the open garden I always put in 
with it about a cupful of turnip seed, mix 
them and sow. The turnip plants may be 
removed before they smother the cauli- 
flower plants. Early Snowball or Dwarf 
Erfurt are fine for the garden. A great 
many sow cauliflower and cabbage in 
the hot bed. It is all right to plant a 
few seeds so as to have early ones to 
use, but as a rule the better plan is to 
sow them directly in rows in the garden 
as soon as the weather will permit. Mix 
cabbage seed with turnip seed the same 
as with cauliflower. This saves time, 
and I have had good heads just as quick- 
ly from plants grown from the start out 
in the open, although it is hardly consid- 
ered possible by some. Try both ways. 

Cabbage is a gross feeder, and needs 
lots of rich manure. Most of the best 
growers apply manure broadcast. In 
growing early cabbage it is an excellent 
plan to apply a little dry hen manure 
around the hills when the plants are 
half grown. This should be put close 
to the plants, but scattered over a radius 
of a foot or more from the plants and 
then cultivated into the .soil. The Early 



April, 1914 



THE CANADIAN HORTICULTURIST 




The Skinner System of Irrigation at Used at Several Places in Essex County, Ont. 

_a*l —Photo by W. E. J- Edwards. B.S.A. 



Winningstadt, Early Express and Glory 
of Enkhuizen are good varieties. 

Corn should not be planted until the 
soil is warm as the seed is apt to perish 



if the season is backward and wet. I 
have tried several varieties and have 
found the Malakoff and Squaw to be the 
most suitable for the west. 



Irrigation and Its Practical Results 



I 



ONE of the most practical and in- 
structive addresses delivered at the 
convention of the Ontario Vege- 
table Growers' Association in Toronto 
last November was that of J. J. Davis, 
of London, Ont. 

"In the course of a year," said Mr. 
Davis, "we have a great variety of wea- 
ther. I have never seen a season in 
which there have not been periods that 
I could use water very profitably. Of 
course, there is a great difference in sea- 
sons. Sometimes we get very nearly as 
much rain as we want, but at other times 
not nearly a sufficient supply. 

"Our business is in one way a great 
deal more favored than that of some 
thers. For instance, the milkman must 
ot introduce water into his business, 
■and there are men behind prison bars 
Sto-day for selling watered stock. But 
|we can introduce water into our business 
nd get a premium for doing so. 
"The first time I started watering was 
on a fine patch of pickling cucumbers. 
fit was a very dry season, and I was 
needing money. I had a well sixty feet 
deep, and I pumped the water by hand, 
raised it into a barrel, and drew it to the 
cucumber patch. I got fifty feet of hose 
to run it over something el.sc growing in 
I he same patch. Athough this was a 
very crude system the results were so 
good that it opened my eyes to the value 
of water, and I began to turn my at- 
tention to a better system. 

"I got a windmill and tanks and did 
some watering that way. After that I 
purchased a gasoline engine. I laid 
pipes out through the fields, and when 
water was wanted I would start the 



engine and attach hose to the piping. 
That worked pretty well. One can sup- 
ply a lot of water in a day with that kind 
of an outfit. The trouble, however, was 
that it took a great deal of time to apply 
the water. 

"A neighbor of mine had seen the 
Skinner system in operation, and we got 
our heads together and came to the con- 
clusion that the Skinner system was 
about the thing we needed. The advan- 
tage that this system has over any other 
that I have ever tried is that it applies 
the water itself. The system is direct 
lines of pipe and the water is applied 
with pressure from an engine. All you 
have to do is to start the engine, and 
by simply sending a boy to oil the pump 
it will run half a day without being 
loked at. , 

"With the old system of watering I 
found that as long as there was a cloud 
in the sky a person would put off water- 
ing in the hope that rain would come. 
In a dry period every day that the crop 
is going without water a certain amount 
is lost. It takes so little time to start 
the Skinner .system one does not depend 
on the rain." 

Mr. Davis strongly advised any mem- 
ber who was starting to irrigate to start 
on a large enough scale. If a small plant 
is put in on the start one cannot add to 
it, but has to start right at the begin- 
ning again, for usless you have suffi- 
cient power it will not operate more than 
a certain amount of piping. 

"A man who has never had any ex- 
perience," continued Mr. Davis, "has 
no idea how much water it takes to water 
a small piece of ground. Some soils wil' 



take a great deal more than others. With 
the outfit that I have I can apply about 
two thousand seven hundred gallons an 
hour. There is practically no water wast- 
ed, and on account of having plenty of 
water I very rarely have a poor crop. 
If it wasn't for the water I would go out 
of the gardening business and find some- 
thing more profitable." , 

Mr. Davis was asked if he had founS 
it necessary to put in more drains since 
using this system. Mr. Davis replied 
that he had not. The idea is not to fill 
the soil full of water, but just to keep 
things in good growing condition. 

Mr. J. Lockie Wilson asked what was 
the cost of Mr. Davis' outfit and how 
much land he could irrigate. 

Mr. Davis replied that as near as he 
could figure it out, the full equipment 
had cost him about one thousand dol- 
lars, and that he had about four acres 
of garden. 

Another member asked what widlth 
apart the pipes were paced and how often 
they had to be turned when watering. 
The pipes were fifty feet apart, Mr. 
Davis said, and a handle was arranged on 
the pipe so that one could turn it one 
way and it would throw water for twenty- 
five feet, then gradually keep turning it 
until a space of fifty feet was watered 
with one pipe. 

The question was asked, "What time 
of day is best to water?" to which Mr. 
Davis replied that he considered four 
o'clock in the afternoon the most satis- 
factory. A member remarked that a 
neighbor of his tried watering in the 
morning and evening and found that 
the crop that was watered in the evening 
was nearly sixty per cent, better. This, 
Mr. Davis said, was easily explained, 
as the water applied in the evening would 
have all night to evaporate. 

"What pressure do you use?" was an- 
other question. Mr. Davis replied that 
he had a five horse-power engine which 
he runs for all it is worth. One can run 
it with ten pound pressure or a seventy 
or eighty pound pressure. 

Before leaving the platform, Mr. Davis 
was asked if he was in the habit of keep- 
ing an account of his receipts and ex- 
penses for each year, to which Mr. Davis 
replied: "The only book I have around 
my hou.se is a bank book. It tells mc 
at the end of the year how much money 
I have." 



We should rotate cabbage and potatoes 
because these are the most exhaustive 
crops we grow. A ton of potatoes con- 
tains about twelve pounds of potash, 
four pounds of sulphuric acid, four 
pounds of phosphoric acid, and one 
pound of magnesia. We may replace 
these substances by abundant manuring, 
but if we follow a well-planned rotation 
the amount of manure required will be 
greatly reduced. 



THE CANADIAN HORTICULTURIST 



April, 1914 



The Canadian Horticulturist 

COMBINKD WITH 

THE CANADIAN HORTICULTURIST 
AND BEEKEEPER 

with which hai been Incorporated 

The Canadian Bee Journal. 

Publiihed by The Horticultural 

Publithing ..Companr, Limited 

PKTKRBORO, ONTARIO 




EDITORIAL 




The Only Magazines in Their Field in the 
Dominion 

Official Organs ok the Ontario and Quebec 

Fru:t Growers' Absociations 

AND OF The Ontario Beekeepers' Association 



H. Bronson Cowan Managing Director 



REPRESENTATIVES 

UNITED STATES 
STOOKWELL'S SPECIAL AGENCY 
Chicago OfiSce— People's Ga« Building 
New York Office— 286 5th ATenue. 



GREAT BRITAIN 
W. A. Mountstephen, 3 Regent St., London, S.M". 



1. The Canadian HorficnltnrlRt is pnbllshed in 
two editions on the 25th dav of the month pre 
oedinsr dote of Issue The first edition Is knowTi 
ae The Canadian HortlcnltTirlflt. It Is devoted 
exdnslvely to the horticultnTal Interests of 
Canada. The second edition Is known as The 
Canadian Horticulturist and Beekeeper. In this 
edition eeToral pafres of matter appearing in the 
first Issue are replaced by an equal number of 
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2. Subscription price of The Canadian Horti- 
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a year: two years. «1 00. and of The Canadian 
Horticulturist and Beekeeper. .I] 00 a year For 
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boro (not called for at the Post Office) 25 cents 
extra a year. Includlnir postape. 

3. Remittances should be made by Post Office 
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4. The Law Is that subscribers to newspapers 
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6. Change of Address— When a change of ad 
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CIRCULATION STATEMENT 

The following Is a sworn statement of the net 
nald circulation of The Canadian Hortlcnltnrlst 
for the year ending with December. 1911. The 
figures given are exclusive of samples and spoiled 
copies. Most months. Including the sample cop- 
ies, from 13,000 to 15.000 copies of The Canadian 
Horticulturist are mailed to people known to 
be Interested In the growing of fmlts, flowers 
or vegetables. 

January, 1913 ....11.570 August. 1913 12.675 

February. 1913 ...11.550 September. 1913 ...13 729 

March. 1913 11.209 October. 1913 .. .13 778 

April, 1913 11.970 November, 1913 ...12 967 

May. 1913 12.368 December, 1913 ...13.233 

June, 1913 12.618 

July, 1913 12.626 Total 150.293 

Avernite each Issue In IM7. 1(177 
• " I91S. 12,524 

Sworn detailed statements will be mailed 
upon application 

OUR GUARANTPn 

We guarantee that everv advertiser In this 
issue is reliable. We are able to do thin because 
.. "<J';ertiBing columns of The Canadian Hor- 
tlcnltnrlst are as carefully edltcr) as the read- 
ing columns, and because to protect our readers 
we turn away all unscrupulous advertisers. 
Should any advertiser herein deal dishonestly 
with any subscriber, we will make good the 
amount of his loss, provided such transaction 
occurs within one month from date of this Issue 
that It is reported to us within a week of Its 
occurrence, and that we find the facts to be as 
stated. It Is a condition of this contract that In 
writing to advertisers vou state: "I saw your 
advertisement In The Canadian Horticulturist." 

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Communications should be addrewsed 
THE OAKADIAN HORTTOUT/rTTBIST 

PETBKBOBO. OUT 



PLANNING THE SMALL GARDEN 

We cannot expect satisfaction in the 
planting and developing of the home sur- 
roundings unless we have a definite con- 
ception of what is to be done. The trouble 
with home grounds is not so much that 
there is too little planting of trees and 
shrubs as that the planting is meaningless. 
Every plot should be a picture in itself. 
Happy is the lover of gardening who finds 
himself in a positioii so fortunate that, 
either as the owner or the tenant of a 
virgin strip of land, he is able to design 
his own garden so that it becomes, as it 
ought to, a true image of his own per- 
sonality. However, it is not every owner 
of a garden to whom is offered the oppor- 
tunity of taking part in the planning and 
laying out of this plot of ground. If we 
live in the city or in the suburbs of a town 
the chances are that when we take posses- 
sion of our new home we find inexorably 
fixed for us the shape of our garden ; its 
walks constructed ; its borders made ; and 
the lawn already laid. This has been either 
the work of the builder, who may have had 
no soul above stone and lime, or of a pre- 
vious occupier, who had neither the time 
nor inclination to make his plot a thing 
of beauty. When this has been our fate, 
there is nothing to be done but, at some 
considerable expense, design anew our mis- 
shapen and disfigured plot, and to bring it 
by hard work and perseverance into shape 
in which the plants of our choice will 
thrive. 

The perfect garden is that which, at a 
first embracing glance, satisfies the artistic 
sense of the beholder. Therefore, where 
the garden is to be transformed into a de- 
lightful setting for the home, it will be 
necessary to consider other things than 
the. successful culture of perfect flowers. 
Should there be any feature of it out of 
proportion, which attracts the eye and de- 
tains it to the exclusion of other things, 
then is the garden ill-planned. 

Have your plot so planned that the ob- 
server catches its entire effect and pur- 
pose without hesitating to analyze its parts, 
every feature contributing its part to one 
strong and homogeneous effect. This stvle 
of designing and planting makes a land- 
scape, even though the garden be no larger 
than your parlor. 

A mistake that is commonly made in 
garden planning is to make the principal 
borders subservient to the paths. Their 
consideration should be in the reverse 
order. If the desire of the owner be to 
cultivate perfect flowers, he must not stint 
his beds and borders for space. The two 
feet border only tends to cramp and over- 
crowd, whereas a border five or six feet 
m width gives scope for bold massing and 
tasteful arrangement. 

Retrardihg the paths, it rarely occurs 
that we have much say in this matter, as 
these are generally fixed for us, and we 
must make the best of them. Whether 
they be triangular, rectangular, or curved, 
we are compelled, in the maiority of cases, 
to make our plan conform to the outlines 
which other people have decided for us. 
We may, however, if we desire, so har- 
monize our paths that they shall work in 
with the design chosen for the' principal 



borders and beds. It should always be 
borne in mind that the path is meant to 
serve a useful purpose ; that it is intended 
to lead somewhere. The straight, broad 
path, leading past the principal border, 
has superior advantage over all others, es- 
pecially where space is limited. The wind- 
ing path is difficult to plan tastefully, and 
tends to eat up ground which might be 
devoted more satisfactorily to the cultiv 
tion of flowers. 

We must each decide for ourselves the 
features we wish to introduce ; whether, for 
instance, if we love roses, we shall devote 
a section for this flower; whether we will 
introduce a pergola and arches for the sup- 
port of the many climbing plants that go 
a long way in adding to the splendor of the 
garden ; whether we will construct a rock- 
ery ; or whether we will have space enough 
for the erection of a summerhousc. Ac- 
cessories, such as seats and benches, and 
tubs for ferns, if good taste be displayed, 
add to the beautifying of the garden pic- 
ture. The greatest returns from our labor 
will be obtained if we plan our gardens so 
that they will have a pictorial effect, that is 
restful and satisfying. 

FRUIT COMMISSIONER WANTED 

The death of Alejcander McNeill has left 
the Dominion Fruit Division without a chief 
executive officer. Hon. Martin Burrell, 
Dominion Minister of Agriculture, will do 
well if he takes advantage of the situation 
to fulfill the promises made when his party 
was in opposition, by raising the status of 
the Fruit Division through the appointment 
of a fruit commissioner responsible only 
to the Deputy Minister and the Minister of 
Agriculture. 

Hitherto the Fruit Division has been one 
of three divisions under the charge of the 
dairy and cold storage commissioner. For 
ten years the fruit growers of Canada have 
been agitating that the Fruit Division 
should be given the same standing in the 
department as is occupied by the seed, 
live stock, and veterinary divisions, each 
of whom have commissioners at their head 
who have the entire responsibility for the 
work conducted in their lespective divi- 
sions. Such a change was strongly advo- 
cated at the Dominion Fruit Conference 
held some six years ago. The change was 
ai-ain urged at the fruit conference held in 
Ottawa two years ago. 

The great development that has taken 
place during the past two years in the 
fruit interests of the Dominion has mad 
it imperative that this change should 1 
made without further delay. Nothing Hon. 
Martin Burrell can do would please the 
fruit growers more than the making of thi 
change at this time. Knowing the interes 
the_ Minister of Agriculture takes in the 
fruit industry we are assured that whoever 
may be appointed as fruit commissioner 
will be a man thoroughly w-ell qualified to 
administer the important position Tie will 
occupy. 

A WIDENING VISION 

The rapid development that is taking 
place in the fruit interests of Canada is 
evidenced by the business-like view thi 
officers of our l"ading fruit growers' asso- 
ciations are taking of the future of the in- 
dustry. .A few years ago most of our fruit 
erowers paid but little attention to fruit 
interests outside of their respective pro 
vinces. The improvement in transporta 
tion facilities and the development of the 
cooperative marketing of fruit has brought 



April, 1914 



THE CANADIAN HORTICULTURIST 



10.1 



the fruit of the diffierent provinces into 
competition in the western and British mar% 
kets of late years in a manner that is forc- 
ing- our fruit growers to investigate con- 
ditions more thoroughly than ever before. 

Our leading fruit growers to-day look 
forward not only to the prospect for the 
current year's crop, but to the probable 
production of fruit for the world's markets 
for years to come. In their survey of con- 
ditions apple growers are now taking into 
consideration the competition that may be 
expected from the growers of other varie- 
ties of fruit, such as oranges and bananas. 
On one point a unanimous decision has 
been reached: The markets of the future 
are going to demand a better quality oi 
fruit, packed strictly according to grade. 
The sooner the rank and file of our fniit 
arowers recognize the impending change in 
methods, the better will it be for them and 
for the fruit industry. 



One of the chief elements of success in 
the work of a horticultural society is eii- 
thusiasm. Without exception those horti- 
cultural societies in Ontario which are do- 
ing the best work are those which are man- 
ned by enthusiastic officers. In most cases 
the enthusiasm is provided in the main by 
some one individual who has succeeded in 
grouping around himself other horticul- 
turists who have caught his enthusiasm, 
and who therefore render willing and ready 
support. Most of the horticultural societies 
in Ontario are doing effective and efficient 
work. Some are not doing as well as they 
might. Where members or officers of socie- 
ties feel that they are not doing all that 
is easily possible they might well, as a first 
step towards improvement, ask themselves 
if this little element of enthusiasm is pre- 
sent to the requisite extent. 





W« In-rite the offloerg of Horti- 

oultural Societiee to send in ehort, 

pithy report* of work tha.t would in- 

tereet mombera of other Horticultural 

Sooletiee. 



Society Work* 

H. W. BrowD, Berlin, Oct. 

I am strongly in favor of horticultural 
societies holding at least one exhibition 
each year, and more than one where condi- 
tions are right. Societies which omit ex- 
hibitions spare themselves a great deal of 
work (possibly not unknown to themselves) 
but they lose one of their most potent forces 
for stimulating interest among their own 
members for actually increasing their 
membership, and for creating enthusiasm 
^mong the public generally. Healthy com- 
petition is an influence for good which 
must not be thoughtlessly cast to the winds. 
I would like to see exhibitions, modest or 
otherwise, made compulsory. The prize 
lists, of course, must be drafted to suit con- 
ditions, but to many new societies, and in- 
deed to some older on;'s, a circular from the 
superintendent outlining a model or type 
of prize list for a small society, with hitits 
- to how and along what lines its value 
I a society might be increased, would bo 
very welcome, for where a new society is 
organized, having as one of its members a 
man really competent to arrange these and 
other details for his society, ten other so- 
' ieties are not so fortunately situated. 

'Bxtraot from a jMiper read at the last annual 
convention of the Ontario Horticultural Afwo- 
ciation • 



In our city, which is pretty generally re- 
garded as a city of homes and gardens and 
home-like surroundings, the short three- 
year period of organized work in horticul- 
ture has taught mam of us to see to de- 
tails of grounds and jjitdening before over- 
looked, has brought to the front vegetable 
and flower growers hitherto unknown ex- 
cept to their immediate neighbors, and has 
produced incipient horticulcuralists where 
before none existed. It is gratifying to 
know that abundant assistance lies within 
the reach of every society which shows 
merit or progress. My plea is not for 
more and for greater assistance, but for a 
wider, more direct and more certain dis- 
tribution of the assistance which is already 
available, but to som-; extent not appre- 
hended. 



Suggestions for Societies 

In the talk he gave at the last annual 
convention of the Ontario Horticultural As- 
sociation, a portion of which was published 
in the March issue of The Canadian Horti- 
culturist. Dr. Frank E. Bennett, the en- 
thusiastic president of the St. Thomas Hor- 
ticultural Society, gave the following ad- 
ditional suggestions to the officers of so- 
cieties : 

During the winter of 1912-13 we planned 
a larger and broader "awn and garden com- 
petition, giving the working man a class 
■ of his own and the man who had a gar- 
dener a class of his own. Some good prizes 
were also offered to the janitors of the pub- 
lic schools and Collegiate Institute for the 
best kept lawns and flora] effects, with 
wonderful results. 

The cooperation of the Board of Trade 
was secured and a splendid cup offered for 
the best kept factory ground, while another 
very popular contest was the school child- 
ren's contest. Prizes in cash and goods 
totalling three hundred dollars were award- 
ed, in addition to several valuable medals 
and cups. The usual monthly flower shows 
were held during 1913 and at the last show 
five hundred entries were received, taxing 
to their utmost two large store windows, 
and making it almost compulsory to secure 
larger quarters for the shows of 1914. 

The merchants, banks, and factories lo- 
cated on corner lots were especially can- 
vassed and their interest in the beautifica- 
tion of the city secured, with the result that 
nearly every corner in the city now has its 
small boulevard, lawn, and flower bed. 
Fifty-two public flower beds, most of them 
twenty feet by four feet, were planted, as 
many as possible being placed along the 
route of the street car belt line, where the 
most people would be able to enjoy the 
beauty of the flowers. Eight more beds 
have been added this fall, and have been 
planted with tulips. Flower beds have been 
placed at the City Hall, the Public Library 
and the Post Office, and in each place the 
lawns have been improved, while the rival- 
ry for the Board of Trade cup has created 
the keenest possible competition among the 
factories of the city. 

I had almost forgotten one big factor 
in our success. I refer to the splendid ser- 
vice and support given to the work of the 
society by the local press. When you have 
printing to do, don't go round the corner to 
a cheap shop, give it to your newspaper ; 
even if the price is a little higher, you will 
reap your reward. 

As I have said before, new members are 
joining by dozens and every old member 
is renewing his subscription and member- 



ship, and with a combined effort we shall 
reach the 1,200 mark. We'll do it. 

I would like to give you a few pointers 
on your canvassing. Send out enthusiasts, 
send out workers and not drones. Have 
several good arguments to offer as to why 
a citizen should be a member. Then, if all 
other arguments fail, try this one; I have 
tried it and I know. Whenever I meet one, 
I say to him, "Is it worth a dollar to you 
to have St. Thomas made the finest city 
in Ontario?" and hardly ever have I any 
answer but "Yes." At this point pull out 
a membership card( fill it in, and hand it to 
him, with a receipt, and wait for the dollar. 
You will not have to wait long ; that inher- 
ent civic pride germ works quick, andi you 
have another member. 

To concliude and summarize, put out 
plenty of public flower beds, hold frequent 
flower shows, arrange lawn, garden, and 
floral beautification contests; form street 
improvement societies ; give liberal prem- 
iums ; elect none but workers on the exe- 
cutiyet — and here just a word of warning, 
avoid as much as possible placing semi- 
professional horticulturists in official or 
executive positions as it has an unfortunate 
tendency to dampen the interest and ardor 
of the (entirely amateur. By following these 
rules you may soon have a society like unto 
ours. . 



Shade Trees Suffer 

Dr. Fernow says that in "walking along 
the streets of any city one will find at least 
from twenty-five to fifty per cent, of the 
trees in a damaged condition." In the 
small tOAQs of eastern Canada, it is safe 
to say that at least seventy-five per cent, 
of the shade trees need attention, for, un- 
like the cities, these towns employ no "tree 
doctors" to guard the health of the trees, 
and even trimming is done but irregularly, 
and often carelessly. Yet if the shade trees 
in many of these towns were destroyed one 
of their chief attractions would be gone. 

There are several reasons why the trees 
in these old towns require special attention. 
The chief is probably due to defective 
crown development, the result of overcrowd- 
ing. Misshapen and weakened crowns re- 
sult in excessive windbreak, and ragged 
break, if left untrimmed, provide the best 
possible entrance for fungi and insect 
pests, so that a great number of these fine 
old shade trees, which because of their very 
age are unable, unassisted, to shake off 
these foes, are slowly dying through 
neglect. 

Mature trees of whatever species should 
be at least thirty feet apart and the; muni- 
cipal act empower municipal councils to 
remove trees within this limit without the 
owner's consent. If this provision were 
judicioirsly acted upon in the old towns of 
eastern Canada, the remaining shade trees 
would be given a new lease of life. The 
Forestry Branch of the Department of the 
Interior, Ottawa, has on its staff a skilled 
silvicurist, whose services are available to 
woodlot owners. Municipal shade trees are 
not, strictly speaking, woodlots, but muni- 
cipalities so desiring could doubtless secure 
the advice of this ext>ert regarding the 
trees requiring removal. 



Even if no more trees are planted in Brit- 
ish Columbia than are there now, the apple 
production of the province will be ten times 
as great as it is at present when immature 
trees now out come into bearing. — C. J. 
Thorntoai, M.P. 



I04 



THE CANADIAN HORTICULTURIST 



April, 1914 



Nova Scotia Fruit Growers Face the Future 



AT the annual convention of the Nova 
Scotia Fruit Growers' Association, 
held in January, President S. C. Par- 
kf-r of Berwick, discussed frankly the 
work of the year and the prospects for 
the future. As his remarks were of more 
than usual interest, we srive them here al- 
most in full. Mr. Parker spoke as follows : 
We are R-athered to-day to review the 
successes and failures of the past year, to 
look into the present situation, and to con- 
sider what can be done in the futurei to 
place our business on a better basis. The 
results of the past year have been far from 
satisfactory. We had our chance and failed 
to take advantage of it. On the first day 
of May, 1913, this Valley had a chance to 
make good. We had a good show of blos- 
soms, with a prospect of, at least, a fair 
crop of apples. We gathered a very mod- 
erate crop of very poor apples. Nineteen 
hundred and thirteen was a year, when to 
make good in apples meant a lot of money 
and much free advertising of our orchards 
and their products. The markets of the 
world were open to us — ^no apple growing 
section on this continent had a full crop. 

The markets were ready to absorb all 
good fruit available at a good price. We 
have not made good, and, in my opinion, 
this failure is the fault of the fruit grow- 
ers rather than that of Providence, upon 
whom too many of us are inclined to put 
all blame. I know there are hundreds of 
fruit growers in this Valley, and doubtless 
some here to-day, who will hasten to dis- 
pute this assertion. I am prepared to back 
this statement to the limit. Show me any 
orchard in the Valley that in the season of 
1913 grew a few measly barrels of scabby 
apples, and I will guarantee to find within 
five miles of this orchard a farmer who, 
under practically the same conditions with 
the same environment, had a fair to good 
crop of comparatively clean apples. I will 
make another assertion that some may rise 
to dispute. Thorough spraving will not 
only make apples grow clean, but it will 
make apples grow when otherwise there 
would be none. I can give you concrete 
proof, and much evidence to this end will 
be offered before the meeting is dosed 
And, just now, all will concede that there 
Y^j"°l-* crop of clean apples in any or- 
chard this season that was not sprayed in 
the most thorough manner. 

There is only one salvation for apple 
growing in this Annapolis Vallev, and that 
is in the gospel of e-ood spraying. We 
must grow clean apples— nothing else 
counts. The grower of spotted apples is 
certain to grow poor, and the more apples 
he grows the poorer he will become. Scabby 
apples will not be worth anvthing in the 
near future, and the man who grows them 
will not earn his board. 

Apples can be kept clean even in the 
worst season, for we have men here to-dav 
who have succeeded in doing so; and what 
one has done others may do. 

THE world's crop 

The world's crop of apples for the year 
1913 was small. Ontario had a small crop, 
and patchy both in quantity and qualitv 
Ontario, of course, is a large province and 
the apple areas are widelv distributed 
^K>me sections had good quality and others 
very spotted; New York and New England 
had an off year. The crop of the middle 
umhJT- ^"^P^^t'^'^'y li^ht; British Col- 
un.bu had the most appks she has ever 



had. The western states had about half of 
last year's crop. 

THE SHADOW OF OVERPRODUCTION 

It is from the western states that the 
shadow of overproduction looms large. 
New York and New England are giving 
their orchards better care, and improving 
rapidly in quantity and quality; but the 
enormous population in the east will take 
care of an increasingly large quantity! of 
apples. Ontario this year shipped nearly 
400,000 barrels to western Canada and that 
growing country will consume any On- 
tario surplus, if she can hold the market. 
The four states of Oregon, Montana, Utah, 
Washington, produced in 1911, 18,000 car- 
loads. This year, with an off crop, 10,000 
carloads. Next year they expect to produce 
25,000 carloads. This tier of western states 
is said to have 120,000 acres of orchard 
just coming into bearing. At 100 barrels 
per acre, or 300 boxes, as they count them 
there, we are to face 20,000,000 barrels of 
apples added to the world's production. 
That is the problem we are facing, and that 
is why I say it is useless for us to face that 
tremendous flood of big, red and yellow 
apples with a few thousand barrels of 
miserable spotted trash that is scarcely 
worthy a place in the cider mill. 

Many of you who keep in touch with the 
foreign markets, know that two years ago 
thousands of boxes of Oregon Newtons, the 
highest priced apple in the world, were sell- 
ing in Liverpool and London at four shil- 
lings a box. This is what increased pro- 
duction may mean ; and that is the reason 
this Association is calling on all interested 
to get busy and grow clean apples, and 
only clean apples in competition for the 
world's market. 

ORG.ANIZATION NEEDED 

The next step in the fight for supremacy 
in the struggle, is good organization in 
marketing. The United Fruit Companies 
have taken a prominent place in the great 
selling factors of this country. For an 
organization in the first year of its history 
to handle nearly one-half of the output of 
apples of this province, is certainly a re- 
markable record. If there had been no 
central organization to manage the output 
I am convinced there would have been a far 
different record, both last year and this. 
The flood of scabby apples poured on the 
London market, as without the guiding 
hand of the central organization would have 
been the case, must have resulted disas- 
trously to aU fruit interests. 

I am convinced that one organization, 
controlling all the export apples of this 
province, is essential to the best interests 
of all progress. The United Fruit Company 
may well feed proud of its record and its 
work, and this association may certainly be 
proud of the part it had in effecting the 
organization. 

BRITISH COLTTMBIA ALERT 

The British Columbia Government sent 
their Secretary for Agriculture to the head 
office at Berwick to inquire into the me- 
thods of organization. British Columbia is 
organizing cooperative companies, with 
Government assistance and Government 
capital. The United Fruit Companies has 
its present standing without Government 
grants or Government assistance of any 
kind. In fact, more than once, the organi- 
zation has been effected in spite of Legis- 



lative indifference, if not active opposi- 
tion. 

Your president was invited by the Ontario 
Fruit Growers' Association to visit their 
annual meeting in November and address 
them on Cooperative Marketing in Nova 
Scotia. I had the honor of giving that 
association a brief history of the organiza- 
tion of the United Fruit Companies, in the 
presence of the Minister of Agriculture and 
Dr. C. C. James, adviser to the Minister, 
both of whom expressed a great interest 
in the work being done in this province. 

In listening for two or three days to the 
discussion of the Ontario fruit men, I found 
their problems much the same as ours. 
Transportation is a big question with them 
owing to their long rail haul and enormous 
output of soft fruit. Their troubles cause 
ours to shrink into insignificance. They 
have a permanent transportation commit- 
tee with a paid secretary. This committee 
is kept busy in looking after matters in 
this connection. 

THE COOPERATIVE AS80CUTION8 

Second, only, to the importance of grow- 
in <» clean apples is the importance of 
standing close by the cooperative organi- 
zations ; the next five years means five 
years of struggle to maintain our ground. 
We have many advantages that none of our 
competitors can ever have. The fittest only 
will survive, and it is up to us to make 
j/ood . 

In the death of .Alexander McNeill, for 
many years Chief of the Federal Fruit 
Division, this association and the great 
fruit interests of Canada have lost a tried 
and proven friend. Mr. McNeill was a 
familiar figure in these meetings. He came 
to us many times at much personal sacri- 
fice. He was always ready to assist when 
needed, to speak the cheering word and 
work for the advancement of the fruit in- 
terests of Canada. Personally, and, I am 
sure I speak for every member, we deplore 
the death of our late chief and feel the loss 
of a friend and co-worker, who was always 
ready to work for the advancement of a 
true Canadian nationality. 

While the Fruit Division is without a 
head, it seems an opportune time to press 
on the Government the growing importance 
of the fruit interests, and to urge the 
Minister of Agriculture to establish horti- 
culture as an independent department under 
a commissioner, rather than remaining sub- 
sidiary to some other department. 



A Wasted Fertilizer 

Jas. SackTille, Bewdley, Oit. 

Docs it not seem strange that more at- 
tention has not been turned to the utiliza- 
tion of the sewerage of the cities and towns 
for manurial purposes? This material 
should increase the productiveness of the 
soil and return an increased supply of food 
to the markets instead of polluting, as it 
now does, the rivers and lakes with the filth 
of towns and cities. 

There are many thousands of acres all 
over this fair Dominion, lying almost waste, 
which under proper cultivation and by the 
use of the manure husbanded from the 
sewerap'e and waste of towns and cities 
might have their productiveness increased 
in some cases tenfold their present yield. 
We hear a good deal about government 
ownership and municipal and governmental 
control. Why could not city and town coun- 
cils and municipalities secure the necessary 
land and turn this filthy nuisance into a 
profitable asset? 



April, 1914 



THE CANADIAN HORTICULTURIST 



los 




Mated pairs of 
Silver.black anci 
patched foxes 
for sale. 

Also options on 
1914 puppie 8 I 
for summer de- 
livery. 

JOHN DOWNHAM. Box N. Sirathroy. Ont. 



<^45Sfe 



'HtBESTMAB'^ 



FOSTEPS 

StandaR" 

POT 



FLOWER POTS 

Hanging Baskets and Fern Pans 

FOn THE SPRING TRADE 

We make the "Standard" Pot. the beet 
Pot In the world— uniform, best of olay. 
well burned, in every resBect superior to 
all others. 

All our pots have rim on shoulder, thus 
allowing them to be placed together per- 
fectly and preventing breakage in shipping 
and handling. 

Place your Spring Order NOW. 

A complete Une and large stock of all 
sizes kept on hand to ensure prompt ship- 
ment. 
Send for NEW CATALOG and PRICE LIST 

The Foster Pottery Co. 

HAMILTON - - ONTARIO 

Main Street West 



Ontario Fruit in the West 

E. F. Palmer, Ontari* Fruit Branch 

AT the convention of the Interna- 
tional Apple Shippers' Association, 
Cleveland, Ohio, Ausrust, 1913, On- 
tario fruit carried off premier hon- 
ors, in competition with fruit from Oregon, 
Washington, Colorado, Virginia, and other 
states. At the Canada Land and Apple 
Show, Winnipeg, October 10th-18th, 1913, 
Ontario fruit was awarded first and second 
prizes in the five box lots of apples. This 
was the only open competition for apples. 
British Columbia fruit came third. At 
Rochester, at the annual meeting of the 
New York Stale Fruit Growers' Associa- 
tion, January 7th to 9th, 1914, Ontario rrun 
won first prize in the three box lots of 
apples — the only open competition. Ore- 
gon and New York State were "also rans." 
Ontario, in the only three competitions 
in which she entered, carried off the prem- 
ier honors in each case. Who says On- 
tario cannot produce as good or better fruit 
both as to quality and appearance, as can 
be grown anywhere in the world, or, com- 
ing nearer home, in America ? British 
Columbia, Oregon, Washington, Virginia, 
and New York States among others had 
to take a back seat when Ontario chose to 
compyete. 

That is one side of the question : On- 
tario produces the finest apples in the 
world. The other and vital side of the 
question, as I stated in the February issue 
of The Canadian Horticulturist, is that 
Ontario, as a whole, is not producing such 
fruit — or what is almost, if not quite, as 
important, she is not, as a province, put- 
ting her fruit up in such a njanner that 



Douglas Gardens 

OAKVILLE, ONT. 



The short list published in this 
space in the March issue is continued 
as under: 

Anemone Japonica, 3 vars., each 
15r; 10, $1.25. 

Artemisia iactiflora, new, each 25c. 

Asters (Michaelmas Daisies) 13 
vars.; each 15c; 10, $1.25. 

Astilbe, (Spirea) 4 vars., each 15c; 
25c: 30c; and 35c. 

Beilis Perennis (English Daisv), 2 
vars., each 15c; 10, $1.25. 

Boltonia astercldes, each 15c ; 10 for 
$1.25. 

Campanula (BelMower) 4 vars., 1 yr 
plants; each 20c; 10, $1.50. 

DIcentra (Bleeding Heart), each 20c 

Digitalis (Fo-xglove), 5 vars., 1 vr. 
plants, each 20c; 10, $1.50. 

Helenium, 5 vars., each 15c and 20c. 

Hemerocaills, 3 vars., each 15c, 20c; 
10, $1.25, $1.50. 

Heuchera, each 20c; 10, $1.50. 

Kniphofia (Tritoma), each 15c; 10 
$1.25. 

Sliasta Daisies, 3 vars., each 25c; 
10, $2.00. 

Above prices include carriage prepaid 

These and many other plants are described in 
our Spring Planting List sent free on applica- 
tion. Early orders are recommended. 

JOHN CAVERS 



RED CYPRESS HOT BED SASH 




Size 3 ft. 2 in . by 6 ft. for 4 rows 
of Sin. butted glass. 

Price, $1.20 in Clear Cypress. 



What a pleasure to have home-grown 
vegetables and flowers weeks ahead of the 
regular season. A hot bed fitted with our 
superior Hot Bed Sash will ensure this. 

DURABLE 

Our Hot Bed Sash are made of the very best 
materia], put together to withstand the most severe 
usage, and are guaranteed to last for years. 

All the joints are tight fitting, blind mortised and 
white leaded before being put together. A half-inch 
oak rod runs through the bars and into the stiles. A 
metal pin is driven into each of the bars and stiles 
through the rod. In this way each bar is held in the 
proper place and prevented from sagging. 

Folder Sent on Request 



size 3 ft. by 6 ft. for 3 rows 

10 in. lapped glass. 

Price, $1.15 in Clear Red Cypres*. 



BATTS LIMITEDp.r..Wcst Toronto 



)o6 



THE CANADIAN HORTICULTURIST 



April, 1914 



■ «^n 



GLORIOUS GARDEN! 
i;om ENGLAND 



KE LW AY ' S famous Hardy 
Herbaceous Perennials— Gail- 
lardias, Pyrethrums, Paeonies, 
Delphiniums and others— are from 
strong, country-grown stocks which 
flourish under almost all conditions of 
soil and climate and make it possible 
to reproduce successfully in this 
country much of the charm and beauty 
of the finest old English gardens. 

Choice named collections (specially 
picked to suit Canadian conditions) 
of Pseonies from $3.75 to $17.00; 
Delphiniums from $2.25 to $13.50; 
Gaillardias from $1.50 to $4.50 ; Pyre- 
I'' thrums, $1.50, $3.00 and $5. 10 a dozen. 

Full particulars and iUustralions are given 
in the KeVway Manual of Horticnlture 
mailed Free on receipt of 60 cents, by 



\ 



KELWAY 8L SON 

LANGPOHT - SOMERSET 

2087o:ZJLir England: 



asEK. <eci«s> 






f> 



^!sJ 



Kelway's Perennials 

For 
Canadian Gardens 






Direct fivm 

KELWAY&SON 

The Royal Horticulturists 



f 




I 



&Sc->S 



LANGPOKT ENGLAND 



.^ 




'3f^&- ■.a*W;!g&.-. =-3S;e>::-^ 



This is the Kelway 
Book which every 
Garden lover should 
write for today 



it appeals to the consumer. Western deal 
ers are accused of being unjustly prejudifl 
ed as:ainst Ontario fruit, and while thef 
is some truth in this, yet they also haV 
reason to be prejudiced, to some extent 
any rate. 

THE CRITICISM OF A FRIEND 

The following are the contents of a let- 
ter, written from Regina, under date ot 
January 13, 19H, and recently received by 
P. W. Hodg^etts, Director of the Fruit 
Branch, from one of Ontario's leading app' 
glowers 

"Being desirous of finding out, for m- 
self, first hand as to the requirements ' 
the apple market at Regina and Moo 
Jaw, I took our last car at the beginnii. 
of December and accompanied it to R' 
gina, where I placed it in storage. It coi 
sisted of boxes and barrels, about half a 
car of each. They were all Spy and No. 1 
stock throughout. 

"I have met practically every dealer of 
importance in Regina and Moose Jaw (re- 
tailers only), and could find none who had 
boxed apples from Ontario. Several cars 
of Ontario barrel stock were placed here 
and the most of it was horrible to behold. 
The only barrel stock I saw, which I was 
not ashamed of, was put up by a Fruit 
Growers' .-Association, and sold at Moose 
Jaw. 

"Fully 90 per cent, of the retailers here, 
being so dubious of Ontario stuff, havr- 
quit it entirely and stock up with the we 
em fruits. 

"I have been able in almost every case to 
interest the retailers sufficiently to have 
them examine these apples, and they all 
appear enthusiastic about the wrapped and 
boxed apples. It was a big surprise to me 
to hear most of them remark that 'this was 
the first lot of Ontario boxed stuff they had 
seen . ' 

"The one feature which has been most 
gratifying is the fact that this car of fruit 
is superior to any Western fruit I have been 
able to find on sale. 

"I will list as briefly as possible my ob- 
servations of conditions as they at present 
exist at Regina, Moose Jaw, and surround- 
ing country. 

"Ontario apples are admitted to possess 
the highest quality. 

"Ninety per cent, of the dealers state 
that they will never buy barrel apples 
again. 

"Ninety per cent, of the dealers here 
are stocked entirely with western boxed 
apples now. They buy western stuff on 
account of getting an honest and uniform 
grade throughout. 

"Seventv-five per cent, of the retailers are 
prejudiced against the Ontario pack. These 
retailers state that they would favor the 
Ontario apple if they could get it wrapped 
and boxed and honestly put up. 

"Ontario can grow the best apples 
known, but in spite of this Ontario apples 
have a bad reputation. 

"It is high time that the crooked dealer? 
wore roughly handled. 

"This lot of apples will net us approxi 
mately five dollars a barrel and two dol- 
lars a box." 

I believe I voice the desire of the greater 
part of the fruit growers and shippers ot 
Ontario when I say that we want the In- 
spection and .Sales .Act changed as to give 
us iinspection at point of shipment, and 
that inspection there shall be final. — D 
Johnson, Forest, Ont. 



April, 1914 



THE CANADIAN ROI^TI C ULTUR 1ST 



107 




BUY CARNIOLANS 

IN CARNIOLA 
Pure Carniolan Alpine Bees 

Write in English for Booklet and 
Price List. Awarded 60 Honors. 

Johann Strgar. - Wittnach 

P.O. Wocheiner Feistritz 
Upper-Carniola (Krain), Austria 



BEES FOR SALE 

For Sale — Early swarms at fall prices. Vi 
lb. bees $1.00. 1 lb. bees $1.50. f.o.b. here. Add 
price ol Queen if wanted. Untested Italian 
Queens. 75c each. Tested Italian Queens, $1.25 
each. These are bred from be«t honey- 
gathering strain. No disease. Safe arrival 
and satisfaction I guarantee to any Express 
Office in Man., Ont. and Que., which has con- 
nection with Detroit. Mich. Thia is un- 
doubtedly the best way for Northern honey- 
produoers to increase and imDrove their 
stock. Deliveo-y begins about April 5th. 
Capacity, 40 swarms per day- You will get 
your bees when wanted, or money back by 
return mail. 

W. D. ACHORD, FITZPATRICK, ALA., U.S.A. 



FOR SALE 

Swarms of bees in packages. Replace 
your winter losses and strengthen weak 
colonies with young, healthy Italians. J-lb. 
packages, 90c. each; i-lb. packages, $1.25 
each ; 2-lb. packages, $2.45 each. Young, un- 
tested Italian Queens, 75c. each. No disease. 
Safe arrival and satisfaction guaranteed. Let 
us send you our little circular and price list 
on our queens and bees, 

BROWN & BERRY 

HAYNEVILLE - - ALA., U.S.A. 



Bees and Bee Supplies 

Roots, Dadants, Ham & Nott's goods. 
Honey, Wax, Poultry Supplies, Seeds, etc. 

IVrtte for a Catalogue 

THE CHAS. E. HOPPER COMPANY 

I8S Wright Avenue, Toronto, Ont. 



Bee Supplies 
Bees and Queens 

Improved Model Hives 
Sections Comb Foundation 

Italian Queens 
Bees by the Pound Packages 
Etc., Etc. 
EVEHYTHING for the BEEKEEPER 

Catalogue Free 

Higheet Pric^ paid for BEESWAX 

F. W. JONES - BEDFORD, QUE. 




STRAWBERRIES 



Your copy of our Strawberry Cata- 
logue is now ready. A Post Card 
will bring it.' It describes all the 
best varieties of Strawberries and 
Raspberries. Cultural directions and 
lots of other valuable information. 

THE LAKE VIEW FRUIT FARM 

H. L. McCoanell & Son Qroveseod, Ontario 



COMB FOUNDATION 

Write for our prices before getting your 
wax made up. We can please you. 
Wax taken in exchange at market prices. 

LEWIS MINOR, SMITHVILLE, ONT. 



THE BEEKEEPERS' REVIEW CLUBBING LIST 

The Review and Gleanings one year, #1,50- 

The Review and Ajnerican Bee Journal one 
yenr, $1 5U. 

AU three for one year only t2.00. 

Canadian Subscribers add for postag-e as fol- 
lows: Gleanings, 30c. ; A. B. J.. 10c. 

Address 
THE BEEKEEPERS' REVIEIT, North Star, Mich. 



50,000 
FIRST CLASS FRUIT TREES 

Two year old, 3 to 5 ft. liigh. To introduce our 
stocli will sell while they last at $20.00 per 100, $2.50 
per 10. All varieties of I'lums. Pears, Peaches. 
Cherries and Apples. Special prices to Associations. 

W.P.POWE&SON - CAINSVILLE. ONT. 



QUEENS 



Bred from Doolittles best Italian 
stock. It is to your advantage to 
order now. 

ONE DOLLAR EACH 

The bees from my breeding queens are 
very gentle and good honey gatherers. 

P. TEMPLE 

438 Gladstone Ave. - Toronto, Ont. 

Saje arrival guaranteed 



POWER 
HONEY EXTRACTORS 







(6 Frame L. Extractor with !<. H. P. Engine) 

Cut Gears, Heavy Steel Brake, Remove- 
able Comb-Baskets 

This outfit combines Simplicity, Strength 
and Efficiency 

IVKITE 

THE HAM & NOTT COMPANY 



BHANTFORD, ONT. 



LIJVIITED 



Apple Shippers 



Read this before dispos- 
ing of your Apples 




IT'S ONLY NATURAL to 

give your own property THE 
PREFERENCE - Blood 
thicker than water. 

Having no bought apples of our 

own, we are in a position to look 

after your interests. Consign 

we can take care of them for you. 



your apples to us 

Have ample storage to hold for improved market. 

Dawson - Elliott Co. 

32 West Market St., TORONTO 

PHONE MAIN 1471 



io8 



THE CANADIAN H O RTT C LM.T U RIST 



April, 1914 



^-^ff^-O^-l^^fh^^P^IT^ 



PEERLESS POULTRY FENCE 



DoeB all you could wish of a poultry fiuico and more. 
Built close enough to kurp clHckcng In and BtronK tMiongh to 
kocp cattlfl out. Kven Biuall chicks cannot get hctwecn the 
cloHO mesh of lateral and vertleel wires. The heavy, hard steel 
topan'l hotiora wires, together with luterniedlato laterals, will 
take; eare of a caro essly backed wagon, or an unruly uulmal 
and sprlngbai-.klntoshape Immediately. The wires are securely 
held together at every Intersection hy the I'KEULKSS Lock. 

ThB Fonoo That Savos Exponso \j 

It neverneeds repairs. It Is the cheapest fence to erect be- 
cause, owing to its exceptionally heavy top and bottom wires, 
but half the usual amount of lumber and posts are required. 

Send for Llteratui-m 

and address of nearest agent. We .ilso make a complete line 
of farm and ornamental fencing. Agents nearly everywhere. 
Agents wanted In unasslgnod territory. 

^ Banwell Hoxie Wire Fence Co., Ltd. 
Winnipeg, Manitoba Homilton, Ontario 

IS5 




He's Big All Over 
And Good All Through 



Big Ben is built for endless service. 
He has no "off-days," no shut-downs. 
His four years of existence have been 
one long record of on-the-dot accu- 
racy. 7,000 Canadian dealers say that 
he does more efficient 'work for less 
pay than any other clock alive. 

A Big Ben battalion, over 3,000 
strong, leaves La Salle, Illinois, every 
day. Their sparkling triple nickel- 
plated coats of implement steel; their 
dominating seven-inch height; their 
big, bold, blaak, easy-to-read figures 
and hands; their big, easy-to-wind 
keys — all make Big Ben the world's 
master clock. 

In return for one little drop of oil, 
he' 11 work for you a full year. From 
"Boots on" to "Lights out" — 365 
times — he'll guarantee to tell you the 



time o'day with on-the-dot accuracy. 
He'll guarantee to get you up either 
of TWO WAYS— with one long, 
.steady, five-minute ring if you need :i 
good big call, or on the installment 
plan, with short rings one half-minute 
apart for ten minutes, so you'll wake 
up gradually y and he'll stop short in 
the middle of a tap during either call 
if you want to shut him off. 

Big Ben is a mighty pleasant look- 
ing fellow. His big, open honest face 
and his gentle tick-tick have earned 
him a place in thousands of parlors. 

The next time you go to town call 
at your dealer's and ask to see Big 
Ben. If your dealer hasn't him, send 
a money order for 53.00 to his makers 
— Westclbx, La Salle, Illinois — and 
he'll come to you prepaid. 



British Columbia 

The fruit growers of the Okanagan dis- 
trict were encouraged by the reports pre- 
5iente<l at the recent annual mectinjf of th 
Okana«-an United Growers' Limited. The 
showed a balance on hand on December 31, 
ini.3, of $21,400. The total shipment-^ 
throujfh the central body up to Decemb' 
31st included five hundred and forty-oi 
cars of fruit valued at three hundred ai^ 
twenty-two thousand five hundred and sixt\ 
three dollars. The operatinK expens-, 

( harged to the Central Organization totalli 
four decimal four per cent., including th- 
sum of five hundred dollars, which had been 
set aside to offset possible bad debts an'' 
similar charges. To this should be add* 
the brokerage charges, amounting to t\\ 
decimal forty-three per cent., making th 
total operating expenses of the C«entr;il 
Company six decimal eighty-three per cent. 
The reserve fund amounted to twelve thou- 
sand three hundred and sixty-seven dol- 
lars, which will be returnable to the share- 
holders after three years at four per cent. 

The strongest competition the compan\ 
had to meet was furnished by the Nort" 
Pacific Fruit Distributors, representing th 
four States of Washington, Oregon, Idah 
and Montana, whic'h maintained aboir 
thirty wholesale fruit houses in the Cana- 
dian west, on whose behalf two large brok- 
erage firms were operating. The Unite' 
Growers Limited early in the season a: 
ranged to sell much of its product to th 
Mutual Brokerage Company of Calgary. 

The company expects to make consider- 
able improvements in its business arrange- 
ments this year. These include an estimat- 
ed saving of four thousand dollars in the 
purchase of box material and one-half cent 
a pound on all wrapping paper needed. 
.Arrangements are in progress for the pur- 
chase of vegetable seeds from an association 
in Ontario which will effect a great saving. 



Niagara District 

.\ series of verv successful meetings wa 
held the first of March bv the Niagara 
Peninsula Fruit Growers' Association. 
Meetings were held at Grimsby and St. 
Catharines. The speakers included Dr .H. 
A. Surface, of Harrisburg, Pa., who gav^ 
several excellent addresses. Extracts froi 
one of these addresses appear elsewher 
in this issue. A report of a second addre? 
will be Dublished later. 

Prof. R. Harcourt of the Ontario .Agricu'- 
tural College spoke on "The Most profit- 
able Commercial Fertilizers for the Or- 
chard." Mr. W. T. Macoun, Dominion 
Horticulturist, spoke on "The Best Varie- 
ties of Strawberries" and "The Influenc- 
of Chemistrv on Fruits and Fruit Grow 
ine," as well as several other subjects. Ffi 
a commercial plantation nf strawberries 
Mr. Macoun recommended Senator Dunlap 
Glen Marv. Parson's Beautv, William Splen- 
did. Warfield, and Grenville. For raspber- 
ries he recommended the Marlboro for early 
nnd Cuthbert for the main crops, with Her- 
bert as a special for the colder parts of the 
province. 

Prof. W. W. Farnsworth. of the Ohio 
.Agricultural Collce, spoke on the general 
manas-ement of the orchard. Mr. W. A. 
McCubbin was another speaker. The meet- 
ings concluded with the holding of a ban- 
nuet in St. Catharines, which was largely 
attended and most successful. 



Spravimg intellicrently done will control 
ill the orchard insects in the district.— 



April, 1914 



THE CANADIAN HORTICULTURIST 



log 



Parks, Gardens, La^vns 
' Planned and Planted 

Expert Advice 
CHARLES ERNEST WOOLVERTON 

Landscape Gardener, GRIMSBY, Ont. 





THE CLIPPER 

Therearethree things that destroy your 
lawns — Dandelions, Buck 
Plantain and Crab Grass. 
In one reason the Clipper will 
drive them all oat. Your de- 
aler should have them— If he 
has not drop us a line and we 
willsendcirculars and prices 
CLIPPER LAWN MOWER CO. 
Box 10, DtiM, III. 




THIS WASHER 

MUST PAY FOR 

ITSELF. 

A HAN tried to sell me a horse once. He s^u 
It was a fine horse and had nothing the mat- 
ter with It. I wanted a fine horse, but, I didnt 
know anything about 
horses much. Ancfl didn't 
know the man very well 
either. 

So I told him I wanted to 
try the horse for a month. 
He said "All riKht," but * 
pay me first, and I'll give 
you back your money If 
the horse Isn't all right. •' 

Well, I didn-t like that I 
I was afraid the horse J 
was'nt "all right" and that I 
I might have to whistle for I 
my money if I once partedB 
wfthit. Soldidn'tbuythe' 
horse, although I wanted 
it badly. Now, this set me 
thinking, ( . 

You see I make Wash.\ 
Ing Machines— the "1800^ 
Gravity" Washer. 

And I said to myself, lots of people may thini 
about my Washing Machine as I thought about 
the horse, and about the man who owned it. 

But I'd never know, because they wouldn't 
write and tell me. You see I sell my Washing 
Machines by mail. 1 have soldover half a mil- 
lion that way. So. thought I, It is only fair 
enough to let people try my Washing Machines 
for a month, t>efore they pay for them just as I 
wanted to try the horse. 

Now,! know what our "1000 Gravity" Washer 
will do, , 1 know it will wash the clothes, without 
wearing or tearing them, in less than half the 
time they can be washed by hand or by any other 
machine. (.> 

I know it will wash a tub fuU of very dirty 
clothes in Six Miontes. I knownoother machine 
ever invented can do that, without wearing the 
clothes. Our ••WOO Gravity" Washer dots the 
work so easy that a child can run it aimost as 
well as a strong woman, and It don't wear the 
clothes, fray the edges, nor break buttons, the 
way all other machines do. 

It Just drives soapy water clear through the 
fibres of the clothes like a force pump might. 

So, said I to myself, I will do with my *'1900 
Gravity" Washer what I wanted the m-in to do 
with the horse. Only I won't wait for people to 
ask me. I'll offer first, and I'll make good the 
offer every time. 

Let me send yon a "1900 Gravity" Washer on a 
month's free trial. I'll pay the freight out of 
my own Docket, and If you don't want the ma 
chine after you've used It a month, I'll take It 
back and pay the freigbt.too. Surely that Is fair 
enough, isn t it. _ _ 

Doesn't it prove that the "IfiOO Gravity" 
Washer must be all that ' cay it is? 

And you can pay me out of what it Mves for 
you, . It will save its whole cost in a few months 
fa wear and tear on the clothes alone. And then 
It will lave 50 to T5 cents a week over that in 
washwoman's wages. If you keep the machine 
after the month's trial, I'll let you pay for it out 
of what It saves you. If It saves you 00 cents a 
week, send me SO cents a week 'lill paid for. I U 
take that cheerfully, and I'll wait for my money 
until the machine Itself earns the balance. 

Drop me a line to-day. and let me send you a 
book about the ■'IBOD Gravity" Wasber t^iat 
WflKM clothw te Ms mMNMK 

Address me porsonally : 

K. G- -MORRIS, Mauagcr, 1900 Wnaher 
Oo., 367 Ton«e St., Toronto. Ont. 



Why Not Cut Off the Two Cars of Filler ? 

It takes 400,000 cars to carry American Fertilizers to our farmers and plant- 
ers every season. Forty per cent — 2 cars out of 5 — of this stuft is Filler, 
which requires 160,000 cars ! Order less filler, higher grade and 

Nitrate of Soda 

for your active Nitrogen and save freight bills. 

The greater productive capacity of high-grade fertilizers without so much 
filler means a greater outbound tonnage for railroads and greater purchasing 
power for farmers, so that railroads and everybody would be benefited. 



DR. 

NO BKANCH OFFICES 



WM. 



S. MYERS. Chilean Nitrate Propaganda 

25 Madlsoo Ave., 



New York 




1 



.'Ti^^Vrl?^ 



t' >»-. 



lifM '' '^ ' ^'•■* 





Tested 

Tf you Hfo iiitorcflted in upkcop of Lawn, 
TenniH - Cnurtw or Golf - Coume, writr 
for tlio "I'rm:tical Greonkeeper." Every 
ChampionHtiip Golf - Oourse in Amortca 
Ib to-day using Carters Tested Grass Seeds. 



5ee c/s voith 
a Lineage 

Lovers of gardens and grounds 
should know that at Raynes Park, 
London, England, Messrs. James 
Carter & Co. have the finest and mo.3t 
complete testing and trial grounds in 
the world. 

Their equipment and the unique 
methods employed guarantee th.^ 
quality of their seeds. For genera- 
tions they have been cultivating, se- 
lecting and perfecting until Carters 
Tested Seeds have reached the high- 
est percentage of purity and germina- 
ation. 

In England, where the art of gard- 
ening is most highly developed, Cart- 
ers Seeds rank first. Ask any gard- 
ener with experience in Great Britain 
— -he will know Carter. 

In Canada, Carters Seeds have achieved 
a tremendous success, both on large estates 
;ind in smaller gardens. 

We import -these seeds direct from Raynes 
Park and carry a complete stock at our 
Toronto warehouse. We issue an American 
Catalogue, with all prices in American money. 
Tt includes selccten varieties of Flower and 
Vegetable Seeds, with valuable directions for 
planting and cultivation. 

A copy of this Catalogue will be mailed you 
FREE. Write for it to-day. 

CARTERS TESTED SEEDS, Ins. 

133 A King Street, Toronto 



no 



THE CANADIAN HORTICULTURIST 



April, 1914 



A— CuokiDK Tank 
B-Ilot Water Tank 
O— Firo B"X 
D— Aeb Pan 
E}— Smoke ''IP' 



Make Your Own Spray 

Home Boiled Lime Sulphur ie beins used in increaslnK quan 
titles by leading fruit growers and frnit erowerg' a«8ociationR 
They find that by maklug their own spray they can effect a con- 
siderable money saving, and at the same time produce a pre- 
paration that will do the work thoroughly. 

It is an easy matter to make home boiled lime sulphur. The 
chief essential Is a proper spray cooker. We manufacture two 
kinds of cookers, one with a single tank, and one with a double 
tank. (See iUuBtration.i They are designed especially for this 
purpose, and will give the greatest efficiency with the greatest 
saving of fuel. They can be used for either wood or soft coal. 
The tanks are made of heavily galvanized steel, thoroughly rlvetted and 
BOldered. Will not leak. They are built to eive satisfaction, and are 
guaranteed. Made in Ave sImb, capacity 30 to 75 gale. Prices and full par- 
ticulars on applic-<tion. Oet your outfit now. Write us to-day 

Rpr,/i for p-.Tnr>>i'et ill-Mrntin? tbe finest pruning saw on the market. 

STEEL TROUGH 81 MACHINE CO., Ltd.. TWEED, Ont. 




Dollar - Saving Facts 

Before buying any fence, consider the following points care- 
fully: Then you'll discover why so many shrewd farmers 
declare the 

"Frost Fence" ^ 

Canada's Best Fence, worth more than it costs 

We manufacture every inch of wire woven into FROST 
FENCES in our own mills right here in Hamilton. 
Therefore we know the Quality of both Laterals and Stays. 

Our process of galvanizing is thorough and assures a thick, 

even coat — so we can guarantee it to be free from the 

» » » ^^ ^^^^ —., corrosive and destruc- 

JIPOSV Fence tive influence of 

JFir'St ^ varying climatic 

conditions. 

The Laterals are deep- 
ly waved in the 
making — hence we 
can guarantee that 
heavy spring, the 
come-back qualities 
for which the FROST FENCE is famed. 

The Stays, you will see, are straight and uniformly 
spaced. That's the reason why we can guarantee eten 
distribution of strain. 

The Tie Wire is wrapped around both Laterals and Stays 
several times, making a pemiauient lock — a double surety 
of strength and lastingness. 

Examine fences every chance you get — Study the FROST 
FENCE in particular — Then, when you buy, you'll make 
a good investment. 

If you do not know the FROST FENCE man, write 
us — we may need an agent in your locality. 51 

Frost Wire Fence Co. Limited 




HAMILTON 



ONTARIO 



Annapolis Valley Notes 

The United Fruit Companies hav« mad 
arranjfements with a Local newspaper t 
edit and publish one pajfe each week und' 
the name of the Cooperative News. Th' 
name of every member in the local com- 
panies is on the lists, and in this way th 
central body is kept closely in touch wi- 
the members. Part of the space each wei p. 
is R-iven up to a report on the condition 
of the apple market, prices, and similar in 
formation. From time to time articles of 
an educational nature pertaining to frur 
Krowinjf are printed. Before this the m 
jority of the jjrowers did not know wh. 
was being done, and were easily deceivi 
by interested parties, thus causing: di 
satisfaction with the management. 

Apple prices are still a little stronger, 
ranging from two to five dollars a barrel, 
according to grade and variety. The qualitv 
of the late winter apples is excellent. Fn; 
growers are beginning to realize that the: 
is a market for their more tender varieti( 
packed in boxes. 

The agents for power sprayers are doinj^ 
a rushing business, as the experiences of 
the past two seasons have about convinced 
the fruit grower that it is either spray well 
or look to some other line of farming for 
his living. In fact, the orchardist who 
does not spray to-day should be ashanff 
to look a full grown tree in the face. 

The duty on basic slag, which came in 
force this winter, is a serious tax on the 
farmers of this Valley. On the order of 
the United Fruit Companies alone the duty 
means all of three thousand dollars extra 
charge. Almost as many tons of slag are 
now bought as all other kinds of fertilizer 
taken together. Uplands that would not 
yield one half ton of hay to the acre, are 
by the application of ei.ght hundred pounds 
of slag made to grow clover most luxuri- 
antly. By using vetches as a cover crop, 
and putting on a dressing of slag every 
few years, apples can be grown with no 
other expense for fertilizer, .\fter seeing 
how this and other fruit grower raw ma- 
terials are taxed, anyone with a sense of 
humor must have the face ache who reads 
in his morning paper that the Government 
have appointe<l another commission to find 
out the reason for the high cost of livintr. 
--M.K.E. 



Eastern Annapolis Valley 

Eonice Bachanan 

Early last sprin,g I put some apple twigs 
in water in order to watch the flowers de-* 
velop, but they hatched out aphis and the 
flowers were sickly. I remarked that these 
insects would be troublesome in the sum- 
mer, but I had no idea that they were go- 
ing to be as bad as they were. This yeari 
I do not see any sign of aphis on the shoots '• 
in the house which will shortly be in bios-! 
som. By the way, lilac shoots will well re-i 
pay the trouble of placing them in water if I 
the flower buds are selected. 

Farmers' meetings to discuss sprayirf 
are to be addressed between March IP 
and 21st in eight different centres of King ; 
county. Addresses will be given by Messrs. 
Woodwirth and Robinson. 

During the week ending March 7th, 
7,972 barrels of apples were shipped from 
Nova Scotia to England ; of these 7,263 
were sliippid by the United Fruit Com- 
panies. Prices for Ben Davis and Non- 
pariels were very goo4. 



April, 1914 



THE CANADIAN HORTICULTURIST 



III 



Write for 
Free Book 



Spray- 
'ing. 



Brown's 

^ Auto 
Spray 



300,000 V 
use these won- 
derful sprayers to .^^ 
I rid fields, fruit trees, grar-'^H 
\ dons of blight, disease and ^^^ 
jinsects— to make all pro- "^J 
Pduce big. Auto Spray No. 1 — x 
Capacity 4 Gallons. Auto Pop Nozzle 
throws from fine mist to drenching 
stream. Does not clog. 40 styles and 
sizes of Hand and Power Outfits. Laxgre 
Epriiyei-s fitted with 

Non-Clog Atomic Nozzle 

only nozzle that will spray any solution for days 
without clogprinB- Fits any make of sprayer. 
Write for valuable Spraying Guide Free. 
The E. C. Brown Co., 5 T JftY ST.. ROCHESTER, H. T. 




SUPERIOR 

Plant Boxes 




PRICES RIGHT 



Delivery in March and 
April. Order NOW 
to ensure prompt ship- 
ments. 



Canada Wood Products 
Co. 

ST. THOMAS - ONT. 



SMALL FRUIT PLANTS 

Onoseberries, Josselvn! Jo6S«>lyn!! Red Jacket, Downing, Pearl, 
Hou^hton.-Currants. Perfection! Perfection!! Euby, Cherry, White 
Grape, Lee's Prolific, Champion. Blacit Naples. Black Victoria. Boe- 
coop- Raspberries. Herbert! Herbert!! Herbert!!! Cuthbert, Marlboro, 
Brinokle's Orange, Golden Qneen, Strawberry - Raspberry. — Garden 
Roots, Afiparagus. Rhubarb. Write for Catalogue. 

WM. FLEMING, Narseryman. 496 - 4tb Arenae W., OWEN SOUND, ONT. 



Deering Tillage Implements 




The I HC Line 

GRAIN AND HAY 
MACHINES 
Binders. Reapers 
Mowers 

Rakes, Stackers 
Hay Loaders 
Hay Presses 

CORN MACHINES 
Planters. 

Binders. CultiTatora 
Ensitase Cutters 
Shelters. Shredders 

TILLAGE 
Combination. 
Peg and Spring-TootJl, 
and Disk Harrows 
Cultivators 

GENERAL LINE 
Oil and Gas Engines 
Oil Tractors 
Manure Spreaders 
Cream Separators 
Farm Wagons 
Motor Trucks 
Threshers 
Grain Drills 
Feed Grinders 
Knife Grinders 
Binder Twine 



WHEN disked with a Deering disk harrow 
the ground is so prepared that it stores 
away and holds the moisture from 
snow and early rains, liberating it to the 
roots of your growing crops at the time 
when they need it most. 

Deering disk harrows are built to do this work as 
it should De done. The frame is strong enough to 
stand up under the strain of penetrating and pulver- 
izing hard ground. The bearings are as nearly dust 
and dirt proof as disk bearings can be built. 

The full line includes every style of disk and 
smoothing harrow and the best line of drills and cul- 
tivators built. See the Deering local agent for full 
information about the line, or send to us for cata- 
logues. 

"The Disk Harrow," a book which illustrates and 
explains the proper preparations of a seed bed, and 
gives examples of the value of disking — 32 pages of 
valuable information — is yours for four cents to 
cover postage and packing. Write for it. 



Interaational Harvester Company of Canada, Ltd. 

BRANCH HOUSES 
At Brandon. Calgary. Edmonton. Estevan. Hamilton, Lethbridge. London. Montreal. 
N. Battleford. OtUwa. Quebec. Regina. Saskatoon, St. John. Winnipeg. Yorkton 



^ 




£^V^I N G'S 



RELIABLE S 

Reproduce the Choicest Stock 

"Like produces like". 

Given proper soil and care, Ewing's Seeds will reproduce, 
in your own garden, before your delighted eyes, the choice, 
selected vegetables and flowers from which they themselves grew. 

Breeding counts in plants as well as in animals, as Ewing's 
"pure-bred" seeds have been demonstrating by splendid crops for 
over forty years. 

Start right— plant Ewing's Reliable Seeds — and get the most out of 
your garden. Write now for our Illustrated Catalogue, and if your 
Dealer hasn't Ewing's Seeds, order from us direct. 

THE WILLIAM EWING CO., LIMITED, 

Seed Merchant*. McGill Street, Montreal. 34 



E. E. D S 




I 12 



THE CANADIAN HORTICULTURIST 



April, n 



CENTRAL Nurseries for Satisfaction 



No experiment when ordering Irom HULL. 

Fruit, 8ha<J« and ornamental trees, Grapa Tiuee, Shruba, 
Roees, iledg«8. Himalaya Borriea, 8u Rigee, Herrbert. BYuit 
till Novemberr. Prioea riirht, so are the offers. Send for 
frt«e priced oatalogrue. Let u» book your order while in 
Verity- Special prices on Apple trees by the 100, choice 
early seed potatoes, etc. 

Everything from a berry plant to a ahade tree. 




A. G. HULL Si SONS 




ST. CATHARINES, ONT. 



THE 



SPRAMOTOR 



IS A 

Welcome Aid to 
Practical Gro^rers! 

Leading fruit growers and men who 
have large tracts of row crops under 
cultivation find the Spramotor a big 
dollar gatherer. It earns its cost the 
first year. Every year thereafter it 
keeps up the good work and repays its 
owner over and over again. 




A Spramotor Hand Spramotors 



is the most efficient spraying ma- 
chine made, because it has twenty 
distinct patented features to be 
found on no other make. We have 
Ijeen at the making of spraying 
machines for over twenty years, de- 
voting all our thought and energy 
to the perfecting of the Spramotor. 
We manufacture every part that 
goes into our machines, in order to 
be sure that each is perfect. Every 
outfit gets a thorough test under 
high pressure before being shipped. 



are efficient in orchards up to 500 
trees, and on the medium-sized 
farm for spraying potatoes, weed 
destruction, etc., also for painting. 
They are moderately priced ma- 
chines, from $12 to $30, yet will 
do all this work. 

We make a bigger range of spray- 
ing outfits than any other firm in 
the world. Prices run from $6 to 
$350, each and every machine 
guaranteed. 



FREE 



Send us a letter containing some idea of your spray- 
ing requirements and we will mail at once full par- 
ticulars of a Spramotor that will do your work to best 
advantage at the lowest possible cost. W'e will also 
forward a copy of our valuable illustrated treatise on Crop Diseases, WITH- 
OUT CHARGE and without placing you under any obligation whatever. 

SPRAMOTOR WORKS 

1753 King Street, LONDON, CAN. 



Transportation Problems* 

C. E. Mclnloth, Foreit, Oit. , Truiportation Ageit, 
Ontario Frait Growers' Atsocialion 

O.N'E; outstanding: fact in regard to ex- 
press rates is this — while the Domin- 
ion Express Co. has running rights 
over practically two-thirds of the rail- 
way mileage in Canada, some of our most 
extensive fruit districts are served only by 
the Canadian Express Co., and these ship- 
pers are compelled to pay rates greatly in 
excess of those from non-competitive 
points. 

To outline just how this affects the ship- 
per from a non-t?ompetitive point, take, for 
instance, shipping points in the Niagara 
Peninsula, west to Berlin, north to Streets- 
ville, the local commodity express rate on 
fruit to Winnipeg is $2.65 per 100 lbs. From 
the Leamington and Essex district and 
from Sarnia and other points where two 
•express com'panies operate, the rate is 
$2.90. Exclusive points, howjever, have 
been paying enormously high rates, such 
as from Forest, where only the Canadian 
F.xpress Co. operate, twenty-three miles 
less haul than from Sarnia, the rate was 
$4.20. This was brought to the attention 
of the Express Co. officials, and they is- 
sued a tariff June 7th, 1913, allowing these 
exclusive points the $2.65 or $2.90 rate 
plus 30 cents in the former and 35 cents 
per 100 lbs. in the latter instances. There 
are many complaints of high express rates 
to points within the province ; but this 
matter has not yet been presented to the 
Express Companies. 

RBFRIGER.\TOR CAR REQUIREMENTS 

\n effort was made to get an estimate 
of refrigerator cars that the fruit shippers 
would require last fall, at the different 
shipping points, with a view to supplying 
the different railway car distributors with 
the requirements for each division, between 
certain dates. I regret to say only thirty- 
three shippers responded to our request for 
the information. These were, however, 
compiled and sent to the proper officials, 
from whom a reply was received stating 
information was of great assistance in ar- 
ranging for the supply. I have reason to 
believe the greater portion of these thirty- 
three shippers requiring 692 cars, between 
October 24th and November 10th, received 
much better service than they would other- 
wise have received. With this information 
the railways could better estimate their 
requirements, and they had promised to 
cooperate with us in an effort to improve 
the conditions of last year. The shippers 
were not mindful of their own interests in 
this matter, but I hope when occasion 
again demands they will be prompt, and 
be more unanimous in their response. 

L. C. L. FREIGHT SHIPMENTS 

Another matter of a monetary benefit to 
some fruit shippers in some districts was j 
an arrangement made with railway repre- | 
sentativcs, whereby L. C. L. shipments 
were carried on freight rates instead of 1 
by express on the satue train. For in- j 
stance, in the Lambton district, the ship- I 
pers at Forest and Thedford were shipping j 
to Stratford at an express rate of 50 cents : 
a 100 lbs., and London, 60 cents a 100 lbs. ; 
on a mixed train. It was my privilege to 
take this up with the divisional agent at 
Stratford, and he consented to placing a 
car for 6,000 lbs. minimum at a rate of 



'Extract from a report iireeented oA the laat 
annual meeting' of the Ontaxio Fruit Growera" 
Association. 



April, 1914 



THE CANADIAN HORTICULTURIST 



H3 



EXPERIMENT on ONIONS conducted by 
Geo. S. Chapman, Lome Park,| Ont. 





Ffj>iimiiT»Omiis 


w 




CoMoveTcoir 


^^^^^^^^^^^^ 




&EO.S.CtlAPMAN 


^^^^^^^B 




lOM£f/!gK.BtlT. 


^^Hb 


£6£M"f'-''^ 




' 77S0mum jj^^^^^H 


UNFERTILIZED 


COMPLETE 


FERTILIZER ^^^^^1 




FERTILIZER 


WI1H0UI POTtSH ^^^H 



Fertilizers "I Muriate of Pota=h 
Applied \ Acid Phospliate 
Per Acre ) Nitrate of Soda 



PIotR I 



II III 

160 lbs. — 

500 Ibfl. 500 lbs. 

200 lbs. 200 lbs. 



Order Your POTASH *' 0"« 

The Potassic and Phosphatic Fertilizer.<; should be appHed as 
soon as the land is workable. 

Many disappointments with fertilizers are due to the fact that 
they have been applied too late for the crop to get full benefit 
from them in the first season. Remember that fertilizers are not 
used up ill the first sea.son, but are effective for .several .seasons. 
Nitrate of Soda should g:enerally be applied as a top-dressing at 
planting time. .Slower acting Nitrogenous fertilizers can be ap- 
plied earlier with the other materials. 

Muriate of Potash and Sulphate of Potash 

can be obtained from the leading fertilizer dealers and seedsmen. 

^rite for our Free Educative Bulletins, which include : 

"Artilicial Fertilizers; Their Nature and Use" 

" The Farmer's Companion " " Fertilizing Orchard and Garden " 

"The Potato Crop in Canada" 

"The Principal Potash-Crops of Canada" etc. 



GERMAN POTASH SYNDICATE, 1102-6 Tcmple^Bldg., TORONTO, ONT. 




bio 



This Spray Book Free! 



.A practical book of working- instructions. 
Tells how and when to spray. Explains 
how to select the right mixtures for cer- 
tain pests, how to treat insects and fun- 
gous growths, how to prepare, what 
strength to use, how to apply, which 
type of sprayer. Forty pages of the very 
information you want to increase your 
crop yield 25 to 75 per cent. We send it 
free. Write to-day. 

Goulds Reliable Sprayers 

are more durable, more prac- 
tical than cheap outfits which 
only last a season or two. 
That is why 400,000 orchard- 
ists and gardeners have chos- 
en Gould's Sprayers. They 
never clog, are easily cleaned 
and spray most uniformly 
Before you decide on any 
sprayer, find out about 
Gould's improved 
methods. It will save 
you money and trou- 
It tells you 



Send for the book to-day 



d 



about every type of sprayer, 
oi!tfit to big power pumps. 



from 



small hand 
(19) 



THE GOULDS MFG. CO. 

Largest Manufacturers o> 
Pumps for Every Purpose 
""17 W. Fall Street, Seneca Falls, N. Y. 




Greenhouse Glass 

We manufacture a special line for 
greenhouses. It is of good quality, flat, 
squarelv cut and even thickness, virtues 
which cannot be dispensed with for lap- 
ping or butting. 

Shall be pleased to quote prices on 
application to any of our Canadian depots: 



MONTREAL 

Buiby Lute 



TORONTO 

Mercer St. 



WINNIPEG 

Hirkct St. 



VANCOUVER 

PowcUSt 



Pilkington Bros., Limited 

Works at St. Helens, Eng. 



ri4 



THE CANAHTAN HORTTC U LTTT T? T S T 



April, i<ii I 



ifK 



Peerless Ornamental Fenciiiu accomplishes 

two great purposes. It beautifies your premises 

by (living them that symmetrical, pleasing, orderly 

appearance, and it protects them by furnishing rigid, 

' effective resistance against marauding animals, etc. 

Peerless Ornamental Fencing 

I is made of strong, stiff, galvanized wire that will not 
sag. In addition to galvanizing, every strand is given 
a coating of zinc enamel paint, thus forming the best 
possible insurance against rust. Peerless ornamental 

fence is made in several styles. It's easy to erect i^ 

and holds its shape for years. ^^W^S^Jhm., 

Send for free catalog. If interested, ask about our ^Rlii|llilf = 
farm and poultry feneinic. Agents nearly every-^PJJJJJJJJJjr 
^ where. Agents wanted in open territory. ^^■IllillilHI 

l!{]™l|^Banwell Hoxle Wire Fence Co., Ltd. >^«'**"'-'""*" 

llininilfl lllllmt^- Winnipeg, Man Hamilton, Ont, 



"m?. 



iiiiiiiii 
iiiiiiiit 

; Jiiiiuj 



Strawberry Plants 

FOR SALE 

For 19T4 we are offering strong, vigorous, well 
rooted stock of twelve standard varieties. Price 
List Free. 

ONTARIO NURSERY CO.. Wellington, Ont. 



PRIZE DAHLIA ROOTS 

15 for one dollar by mail prepaid. 15 larger 
root« one dollar by express, not prepaid. Low 
rate to Horticultural Soeietiea who give 
Dahlias as preninms. 

GEO. E. EGERTON 



112 CHALMERS ST. 



OALT, ONT. 




Sprayers 

Sulfur Dusters 

For Fighting Erery Disease of CnltiTated Plants 

Knapsack, Pack Saddle or Horse Drawn 
Power Sprayers 

Send lor Catalognei WI^OMr^Dl^f Muraiactnrer, 
and particnlan to : » JuKluUKCrL VILLEFRANCHE 
(Rhone), FRANCE 



THE BRANTFORD IDEAL POWER SPRAYER 



CANNOT BE EXCELLED 




We also manufacture complete line» of Gas and Gasoline Engines, Windmills, Tanks, Grain Grinders, 
Steel Saw Frames. Water Boxes, Pumps, etc. 

Catalogues describing our different lines, sent on request 

GOOLD, SHAPLEY 8i MUIH CO. Ltd., Brantford, Ont. 



'^Z and 24 cents respectively. The service 
was used to Kood advantage because the 
shipper or shippers did the handling, re- 
ceived the same despatch, and saved 28 
and 26 cents a 100 fbs. respectively on their 
shipments. 

Where similar conditions exist, if ship- 
pers would reix)rt to the committee or my- 
self, it would receive attention. 

These are some of the matters which re- 
ceived the attention of the Transportation 
Committee and myself during the past year. 
The concessions granted have been made 
possible by your assistance in furnishing 
records, and just here may I express the 
necessity of keeping the records asked tor 
from time to time by circular. The power 
under which your committee can work suc- 
cessfully is in your hands. We must have 
these facts well substantiated ; it only re- 
mains, then, for you to make this keeping 
of records one of the first things attended 
to on each shipment. 1 want to assure you 
that railway companies are beginning now 
to realize that the Ontario Fruit Growers 
.Association is a body alive to their rights, 
and can substantiate a request with some- 
thins: behind it. Evidence which you snip- 
pers can produce will demand a hearing at 
any time, and 1 sincerely hope if this work 
continues your committee will have the co- 
operation of every shipper in the province. 



The Brown Tail Moth 

In an open letter published in some of the 
Nova Scotia papers. Dr. C. Gordon Hewitt, 
Dominion entomologist, deals with the 
Brown Tail Moth infestation in that prov- 
ince in part as follows : 

The serious character of this insect as a 
pest of fruit and shade trees, and as cause 
of physical discomfort and possible illness 
owing to the poisonous nature of the hairs 
of the caterpillar, needs no emphasizing, 
as most of our readers will be acquainted 
with the experiences of the New England 
States in regard to this insect and the Gipsy 
Moth. 

The Dominion and Provincial Depart- 
ments of .Agriculture are making every pos- 
sible effort to keep the insect in check by 
collecting the winter webs or nests on the 
trees, each of which webs contains on the 
average about two hundred and fifty young 
caterpillars. On this work a body of ten in- 
spectors employed by the Dominion and 
Provincial Governments, is engaged, and 
they are covering the whole of the infested 
territory. Owing to an enormous tiight of 
moths which were blown across the Bay of 
Fundy from Maine in July, 1913, the infes- 
tation has been very greatly increased. 
With the annual increase of the infestation 
in Maine we may expect a recurrence of 
such a re-infestation by wind-carried female 
moths in the future, and it is therefore more 
than ever necessary to call the attention of 
the owners of orchards and trees to the 
requirements of the law in this regard. 

The conditions in Nova Scotia are such 
as to demand the strict observance of the 
law. While the respective governments are 
leaving no stone unturned, the duties of 
their officers are to inspect, and the fact 
that they are collecting the webs on infested 
premises does not relieve the owners of 
such premises of the necessity of conform- 
ing with the regulations, and taking steps 
to eradicate the Browntail Moth when the 
same occurs in their premises. 

Orders have been issued to the inspec- 
tors to instruct the owners of properties on 
which the Browntail Moth has been found in 
anv abundance to spray their trees thor- 



April, 1914 



THE CANADIAN HORTICULTURIST 




W^tchForThe"^ 
Trade Mark 

Know WftiAT^bu Get 

teEMAN^ 
fERTILlZERS 

A SPECIAL FORMULA FOR 

EVERY REQUIREMENT. 

Do not buy a " A Pig In a Poke." 

Send for booklet showing just what 

Fertilizer you should use and the 

exact composition of it. Your copy 

will be sent for a post card. 

The W. A. FREEMAN CO., Ltd. 

223 HUNTER ST. E. 
HAMILTON, ONTARIO. 



MAX STOLPE 

Landscape Architect 

Ex-Superintendent Royal Gardening Institute 

Saxony Germany 

Holder of Gold and Silver Medals 



Artistic Plans, Sketches furnished lor all 
kinds ol LANDSCAPE CONSTRUCTION 
WORK. 

Ornamental Trees, Shrubs, Conifers, 
Hardy Perennials, etc. 

ASK FOR PRICE LIST 



17 Main Str. East - HAMILTON. Ont. 

Phone 118 



Send your consignments of .4PI'LKS to the 
Home Country to 

Ridley Houlding & Co. 

COVENT GARDEN 

LONDON, ENGLAND 

who specialize in APPLES and PEARS dur- 
ing the Season. Personal attention, promp 
account sales and remittance 



Correspondence invited 



TO THE TRADE 



ELWAY' 

I Of LANQPORT, Eng.) 

RENOWN ED 

PLANTS & SEEDS 

as advertised, are ollered at 
8PBCIAL RATES TO 
CANADIAN NURSERYMEN. 

r NO AGENTS 

NO BRANCH STORES 

Our House Is open to every legitt- 
mate Nurseryman and Seedsman In 
the Dominion. ASK FOR PRICES 

KELWAY & SON, SrouTilr 

LANQPORT, ENGLAND. 



McCormick Tillage Implements 








ThelHCLine 

GRAIN AND HAY 

MACHINES 
Biodert, Reapers 
Mowers 

Rakes, Stackers 
Hay Loaders 
Hay Presses 

CORN MACHINES 
Planters. 

Binders, Cnltivators 
Ensilage Cutters 
SheUers. Shred Jcrs 

TILLAGE 
Combination, 
Peg and Spring-Tootb, 
and Disk Harrow* 
Cultivators 

GENERAL LINE 

Oil and Gas Enginta 
Oil Tractors 
Manure Spreaders 
Cream Separators 
Farm Wagons 
Motor Trucks 
Tbreshers 
Grain Drills 
Feed Grinders 
Knife Grinders 
Binder Twine 



'T~^HIS year ten disk harrows will be 
-■■ sold where one was sold five years 
ago. Why? Because so many farmers have 
learned that the proper use of a disk harrow 
is the best guarantee of a successful crop. 

Proper use of a disk harrow means the purchase 
of a McCormick disk harrow because they are the 
ones built to do the best work. The frames are 
strong, to stand the strain of following the binder 
or of disking hard ground. The set levers keep the 
gangs to their work at even depth. The bearings 
are the most durable that can be put on a disk 
harrow. 

_ The full line includes disk, peg tooth, and smooth- 
ing harrows, drills and cultivators. See this line be- 
fore you buy. We send catalogues on request. 

"The Disk Harrow," a book which illustrates and 
explains the proper preparation of a seed bed, and 
gives exarnples of the value of disking— 32 pages of 
valuable information — is yours for four cents to 
cover postage and packing. 




International Harvester Company of Canada, Ltd. 

BRANCH HOUSES 
At Brandon, Calgary, Edmonton, Eilevan, Hamilton. LetlliridKe, London, Montreal, 
n. Battleford, OtUwa, Quebec, Regina, Saikatoon, St. John, Winnipeg. Yorkton 




RENNIE'S SEEDS 




Our new Seed Catalogue is 
larger and better than ever 
before. Contains everything 
in seeds, bulbs, small fruits 
and plants worth growing. 420 
illustrations; 120 pages. Any 
gardener sending his name on 
a postal card can have it for 
the asking. 

SEND FOR IT TO-DAY. 

JUK— Send ICy rents (slumps) 
^^^ and we will enclose hi 
the catalogue a packet of our 
GIANT PANSY. 



No. I.'J.^7. Itennie'H Itoyal Kxhibilion Pensy. Per pkl. 2.V. 



Also at Montreal, 
WinnipcK and Vancouver. 



W^ RENNIE CVted 

Cor. Adelaide and Jar vis Sts., TORONTO ' 



ii6 



THE CANADIAN HORTICULTURIST 



April, 1914 



Planet Jr 



Cut down time, labor, and cost of culti- 
vating. Use Planet Jr guaranteed tools, 
and raise larger crops. 

FHFF Out new 72-paKe illustrated catalogue 
"*-"-'"^ dcscribinu 6U I'lanct Jr implements. 
Write for it today. 

S L ALLEN & CO 

Box 1I06G Philadelphia 

Write lor the name ol our nearest agency 



No. 11 



Planet Jr Double i 
Wheel Hoe, 
Cultivator, 
Plow and > 
iUke 



Planet Jr 
Combined 
iill and Drill 
Seeder, Wheel 
^Hoe, Cultiva* 
' and 
Plow 



The greatest cultivatins tool for 
the crowcr of earden crops from 
drilled seed. Tt has steel frame. 
Light enough for woman's 
use. A favorite with onioo 
growers. 



tor I 



Planet Jr 
Horse Hoe 



and Cultivator 



A practical time. labor, and money saver 
ir the family vegetable garden and mar- 
ket gardener. Sows all garden seeds in 
rills or hills. Plows, hoes, cultivates. 



The best-known cultivating implement 
made. Strong, yet light. Cultivates to 
any depth and adjusts to any width. Has 
new steel wheel 



Dofi't Feed the Soil — 
Feed the Plant 

In the top eig-ht inches of average soil there 
is enough plant food in the form of nitrogen to- 
last for 90 years, in phosphoric acid for 500 
years and in potash for 1000 years. 

And yet that very spot may prove barren. 
Plants have to take up their food in solution, in 
the "sap of the soil." All this food may be 
locked up so tightly by nature that the plants 
can't get at it fast enough for the commercial 
farmer, and he has to put in the same food in 
the soluble form of fertilizer. 

Just so, a fertilizer may, by analysis, have all 
the necestary elements and yet not give the 
plant full value because these elements are not 
ready soluble. 

Put into your ground a fertilizer that, will feej not 
your already overstocked soil but your hungry t>r<i/!s wit-h 
food which is available and easily absorbed. 

Bowker's Fertilizers 

have chemically correct elements— there is a brand to fi^ 
every need. More than that, these chemicals are blended 
and mixed so that they are rendfered wafer-soluble and 
go into vour ground in the moE4 available form. Most 
crops do most of their feeding in 60 days. 

Write for our illustrated catalogue, based on forty 
years of experience. In writing, state what yoir crops are. 

ROWIf FP FERTILIZER COMPANY 

UV/ W IVUrV 43 Chatham Street, Boston, Mais. 



Exterminating the Scale* 

Pr*f. W. H. BrittaiB 

The work of inspecting orchards for the 
San Jose Scale, that was continued during 
iyi3, l>egan June 2nd last, and continued 
throughout the season, with six to ten in- 
spectors employed in the work. Beginning 
at Windsor, all the orchards as far west as 
Dibgy were inspected. The inspectors were 
then placed in Hants County and worked 
eastward into Halifax and Colchester coun- 
ties. As a result of the inspection fifty- 
seven trees were found infested with livings 
scale as compared with seven hundred and ' 
twenty-three the previous season. Of these 
fifty-seven, six were the 1911 planting, forty- 
five of the 1912 planting, and six of the 1913 
planting. 

In addition to the scale work the inspec- 
tors gathered some valuable data as to the 
number of orchardists who spray and the 
acreage sprayed, in comparison with the 
total area. This information has been tabu- 
lated according to counties and makes very 
interesting reading. 

Though I would not wish to predict that 
the San Jose Scale has now been wiped out 
of Nova Scotia, for such predictions are 
always unsafe, X can at least safely say, 
that in no country of which I am aware has 
this pest after having become so widely dis- 
tributed been brought so nearly to the point 
of extermination. Though I do not wish to 
magnify the seriousness of this pest, and 
am very far from sayinB- that its establish- 
ment in Nova Scotia would sound the death 
knell of the fruit growing industry of the 
province, it would increase the cost of pro- 
duction, which is already sufficiently high. 
It would cost the country, at a conservative 
estimate, about fifty-five thousand dollars. 
When you consider that by spending about 
four thousand dollars a year by the govern- 
ment, we stand a very good chance of keep- 
ing it out entirely, you will see that a very 
large profit accrues to the people. 

At present we are concentrating- our en- 
ergy in keeping out all infested trees. We 
are increasing our facilities at the port of 
entry so that all incoming stock will be giv- 
en a searchina: inspection, in addition to 
fumigation, before it is allowed to enter the 
province. Of course we do not have con- 
trol of the stock coming in from the United 
States and other country, but I am assur- 
ed by the Dominion Government authorities 
that they are taking all necessary precau- 
tions. By these methods we hope to keep 
this pernicious pest forever outside our bor- 
ders. 

Nova Scotia 

A four days' packing school was held at 
Kentville, beginning February 24th, under 
the auspices of the College of Agriculture, 
Truro. The local arrangements with re- 
jfard to all necessary equipments for the 
work were looked after by Prof. W. S. Blair 
and staff of the Kentville Experiment Sta- 
tion. Dominion Fruit Inspector P. J. Carey 
of Toronto had charge of the work. The 
actual packing of apples in boxes and bar- 
rels along modern lines was taken up. 
Great interest was shown . The attend- 
ance was very large. 

As a result of the benefits derived from 
the demonstration, it is intended that pack- 
ing schools shall be conducted next sea- 
son at different points all through the 
valley. More and more box packing will 
be done hereafter throughout the Valley. 

"Extract from an address ffiven before the last 
annual couTention of the Nova Scotia Fruit 
Growers' AsBOciation. 



April, 1914 



THE CANADIAN HORTICULTURIST 



117 



/Wil Make Your 
^' Acres Yield 

Bigger Crors. 



t^t our Big Free Book, "Why, How and When to 
Spray." Contains 74 illustrations of insects and 
fungusdiseases and gives the remedy for each. Every 
farmer, truck- or fruit-grower should have it. Show;^ 
a coniplt'te line of sprayers— barrel— horse.- cngine- 
and man-power for field and orchard. 

10 Days Free Trial — 5 Year Guarantee 

V No Money in Advance— No Freight to Pay 

Our liberal selling plan enables you to buy a HuTBt 
Sprayer without anvri.sk. and pay for it at your conven- 
ience. Write today and tell us what size sprayer you 
need or what you have to spray and get our great 

M-. . C«.^-™ f\(t and Big Free Book. It will 
Oney OaVing Utter save you money in buying 
a sprayer and increase your profits. Write at once. 

H. L. HTTRST BIFG. CO., 983 North Street, Canton, Ohio 






m/iME 



^.. !fi!f!iE!!!(!.,E!!!,!,§ l^.f^f .,P.E!!!f. 

Helps his wiie to plan her table in busy times. Saves work 5 
and worry, saves biiying so much meat, gives better satis- S 
{action to the help. A good garden will be almost impossi- = 
ble in your busy life without proper tools. They cost little : 
and save much hard work. 

^WHEEL HOES I 
AND DRILLS! 

Vill sow, cultivate, ridge, furrow, etc., better than you can ■ 
■with old-fashioned tools and ten times quicker. A woman, L 
boy or girl can do it. Can plant closer and work these hand s 
tools while the horses rest. 38 combinations E 
» choose at $3,00 to Jl4. One z 
ol will do all of the work. = 
idealer to show them and = 
IS lor booklet, "Gardening E 
Modem Tools" and "Iron ; 
I Farm and Garden News' ' E 
both free. ; 

Tb« Bateman- i 
Wilkinson Co., : 
, Limited i 

462 Symington • 
' AT.,l"oronto,Oan. ' 




A revolution In spray- 
ing that you should 
know about. 

SHERWIN-WILLIAMS 

New Dry Powdered 
Arsenate of Lead 

represents the greatest development 
in the manufacture of insecticides. In 
addition to its superiority over pastes, 
it is a step in advance of present day 
Dry Arsenates of Lead in its more 
finely divided condition, proved' by its 
bulk. Greater bulk means better sus- 
pension, hence a more uniform and 
far reaching spray. One pound of dry 
will produce the same results as 2 or 
3 pounds of paste lead. Write for 
prices to-day, — we will also send de- 
scriptive booklet. 



The Sherwin-Williams Co. 

of Canada, Limited 

MANUFACTURERS OF INSECTICIDES 

Offices anij Wiirefiouses ; 

Montreul, Juroiilo, Wlnnipeu, Culuary, Viiiwouutr, 

Hiilifux, N. S., London, £nu. 



International Harvester 
Manure Spreaders 




THE IHC LINE 

GRAIN AND HAT 

MACHINES 

Binder*, Reaperg 

He&deri, Mowers 

Rakes, Stackers 

Hay Loaders 

Hay Presses 
CORN MACHINES 

Planters, Pickers 

Binders, Cultivstori 

Ensilage Cotters 

Shellers, Shredders 
TILLAGE 

Combination, 

peg and Spring-Tooth. 

and Disk Harrows 

Cultivators 

GENERAL LINE 

Oil and Gas Engine* 

Oil Tractors 

Mannre Spreaders 

Cream Separators 

Farm Wagons 

Motor Tracks 

Threshers 

Grain Drills 

Feed Grinders 

Knife Grindert 

Binder Twine 



TNTERNATIONAL Harvester ma- 
-'- nure spreaders have a score of good 
features in their construction. Each one is 
the result of careful field experiment. 

An IHC spreader is low enough for easy loading, 
yet it has plenty of clearance underneath. The rear 
axle is well under the load, rear wheels have wide 
rims and Z-shaped lugs, insuring good traction un- 
der all conditions. Frame, wheels, and all driving 
parts are of steel. Apron tension is adjusted by a 
simple device. Winding of the beater is prevented 
by large diameter, and beater teeth are strong, square 
and chisel-pointed. 

International manure spreaders are built in several 
styles and sizes, low or high, endless or return apron, 
for small farms or large. Examination will show 
sturdiness of construction in every detail. Repairs, 
if ever needed, may always be had of the local dealer. 

Examine International spreaders at the dealer's. 
We will tell you who sells them, aad we will send 
you interesting catalogues. 



International Harvester Company of Canada, Ltd 

At Huoilton, Onl.; Londan, Ont. ; Montreal, P. Q.; OtUwa, OnL: 
St. Joha. N. B.; Qaebec. P. Q. 



EVERY 
FARMER 
KNOWS 

That fertilizers are an absolute 
necessity to successful farming. 
The only question that confronts him 
is getting the right fertilizer. 

G U N N S 

SHUR-CROP FERTILIZERS 

are prepared under the supervision of chemical experts — are backed by 
forty years' reputation, and are gfuaranteed to be in perfect condition 
chemically and mechanically. 

Gunns' fertilizers are finely ground, insuring an even, easy distribution. 
For users of our fertilizers we are ready at all times to analyze samples 
of soils and recommend the fertilizer best suited, making it up especi- 
ally if necessary. 

For fertilizer book and other information, writ* I 

GUNNS LIMITED, WEST TORONTO 



ii8 



THE CANADIAN HORTICULTURIST 



April, 1 




WSews lye 




The Standard Lye of 
Canada. Has many 
imitations but no equal 

CLEANS AND 
DISINFECTS 

100%PURE 




ENGLISH Hhd-Made LACE 

MADE BY THE COTTAGERS OF BUCKINGHAMSHIRE. 

This IS the old-fashioned lace made on the cushion, and was first introduced into England 
by the Flemish Refugees. It is still made by the village women in their quaint old way. 

Our Lacet were awarded the Gold Medal at the Fettival of Empire and Imperial 
Exhibition, Crystal Palace, LONDON, ENGLAND, for general excellence of workmantkip. 

D UY some of this hand-made Pillow Lace, it lasts MANY times longer than machine made 
variety, and imparts an air of distinction to the possessor, at the same time supporting 
the village' lace-makers, bringing them little comforts otherwise unobtainable on an agricultural 
man's wage. Write for descriptive little treatise, entitled " The Pride of North Bucks," 
contcining 200 striking examples of the lace makers' art. and is sent post free to any part of the 
world, Laoe for every purpose can be obtained, and within reach of the most modest purse. 

Every sale, however small, is 




OOIiLAH— Pare Linen. 
ILOO. 




DAINTY HANDKIE-TOo, 
No. 9ia— Lkoe 1^ in. deep. 



Collars, Fronts, 
Plastrons, Jatwts, Yokes. 
Fichus, Berthes, Hand- 
kerchiefs, Stocks, Cami- 
soles. Chemise Sets, Tea 
Cloths, Table Centres, 
D'Oylies, Mats, Medal- 
lions, Quaker and 
Peter Pan Sets, etc., 
from ?5c.. 60c., J 100, 
$l.BO, *2.00. up to $5.00 
each. Over 300 desigus 
in yard lace and inser- 
tion from 10c.. 15c., 25a, 
45c., up to $3.00 per 
yard. 

IRISH CROCHET. 

Mrs. Armst^roitg having 
over 100 Irish peasant 
;^i r Is connected 
with her industry, 
Bome beautifulex- 
runples of Irish 
hai d made laoes 
may be obtained. 
All work bei ng sold 
direct from the 
laco-makers, both 
the workers and 
customers derive 
great advantage. 



a support to the industry. 

7^ 




(1} in. deep.) STOCK— Wheel Design. 
Price 25c. each. (Half shown.) 




No. 122.— SOo. per yard. 



MBS. HORACE ARMSTRONG, OLNEY, BUCKS, ENGLAND 



The Export Trade in Pears am 
Peaches* 

Mr. HarritoB WatsoD, CioadiiB Trade Ccmmittioncr, 
Loadoi, LC. 

A FEATURE of the autumn fruit i 
has been the record supplies of C 
dian pears which have come to h 
and there have also been several 
incuts of peaches. Althou.ifh the extr< ; 
lii-.;h prices realized have been due to ej 
(cptional circumstances, there seems to 
no reason why a profit.able trade should 
Ix' maintained in the future. 

The well known firm of Messrs. \V. Del 
& Sons, Ltd., of Covent Garden Mai 
who have handled considerable supplie 
both Canadian pears and peaches, accedi 
to my request, have been g'ood enoug^b 
draw up a report which reviews the cb 
features of the trade which have come 
their notice, and also contains several pi 
tiral sujfjfestions. This report is hart 
reproduced for the information of Ca 
dian j^rowers and shippers : 

"The prospects are promising for 
lucrative and extensive business in 
future, but the past season being in mi 
respects abnormal, is not a good basis 
generalizations as to the future. 

HIGH PRICES OBT.AINED 

"The season for Canadian pears c< 
inenced at a very favorable time for 
realization of high prices. The Eng 
and French crops were practically fails 
and the sprinkling of Californian and I 
son River pears which had come forw 
had left the demand unsatisfied. Un 
these circumstances, we were able to retur 
to the shipper highly satisfactory prices fo 
the first arrivals, and had the fruit 
tinued to come forward in good hard gr 
( ondition, prices would have been mair 
tained at a high figure for the whole c 
the season. Unfortunately towards 
middle of the season it became appa 
that the greater part of the fruit arrivin 
was over-ripe, which state of affairs cor 
tinued for the rest of the season. 

"The early varieties, principally Bar 
letts, were in by far the most satisfactor 
condition on arrival, and the strength t 
the demand for good pears at the con 
mcncement of the season is illustrated b 
the first parcel of Bartletts we han'^' 
which came forward in barrels and 
found to be in excellent condition. T 
we were able to sell at 50s per barrei 
the first grade, and 45s per barrel for .. 
second grade, prices which we believe coi 
stitute a record. 

"The largest part of the arrivals of Bar 
lett pears from Canada, however, woi 
packed in half-boxes, which realized s 
factory prices right through, ranging h 
6s to 9s 6d, for sound fruit of the 
grade, whilst for one parcel of fruit pa 
in a patent package which we shall 
after describe, realized lis per half-bo; 
The half-box averaged in weight about 5 
lbs. gross. Boxes of Bartletts, for whicj 
wo realized up to 12s 6d, were only a smaj 
proportion of the arrivals. i 

SHIPMENTS IN IIARRELS 

".As regards stocks (other than Bartlr 
we cannot report altogether favorably, i'- 
whilst very good prices were realized f( 
some parcels of fine hard green fruit, thai 
were few and far between, and most of tt 
;\rrivals, if not actually wet and runnin) 
were too ripe for profitable marketinj 
Consequently prices ruled lower than tl 

'Prom a report to the Dep.Hrtmont of Tr»< 
and Comnwrce. Ottawa.. Out. 

(Continued on page .ni 



r 1' ■ 
h* 



I, I9I4 



THE CANADIAN HORTICULTURIST 



119 



toses Roses 

h, Dutch and American. Hybrid Perpetual, 
^rid Teas and Climbing. Strong 2 year 
'•grown bushes tliat will bloom the first 
••—none better, none cheaper. 

' ALSO 

fees, Shrubs, Vines, Perennials 

I Gtt Catalogue 

'a. w. graham 

i. Thomas - Ontario. 



I A GREAT 

I Parcel -Post Offer! 

IVonder Working Washer! 

()elivered to you for Only $1.50 
; A Beautiful Present Free 

you order im mediately. See Coupon at 

the bottom. 

We are able to make this great offer on 
xx»unt of the great reductions which hnve 
ten made in the cost of postage. 

Are a Few of the Reasons Why You 
Should Buy the Rapid Vacuumi 

WASHING MACHINE. 

X— It is the only machine that has n valve 

hich is absolutely necessary to create a 

lauim, and supply the compressed air, 

hich forces the water through the clothes. 

2— It is the lightest machine made. 

3— It has been awarded prizes in washing 

impetitions over $50 washing machines. 

4— It will wash the heaviest Hudson Bay 

nnkets in 3 minutes. 

0— It will wash 

te finest lingerie 

jrfectly in3miu- 

es. 

9-Tt win wash 

tub of anything 

ashable in 3 min- 
es. 

7- It will last a 

"etime. 

8— It will save 

lu hours of 

•edless toil. 

9— It will save 

any dollars a 

ear by not 

earing out the 

othes. 

10— It can be operated by a child as easily 
an adult. 

II— It is as easy to wash with this machine 
it is to mash a pot of potatoes. 

12— It will thoroughly blue a whole family 

ishing in 30 seconds. 

13— It will do everything 
we claim for it, or we will 
return every cent of your 
money. 

14— It can be used in any 
boiler, tub or pail, equally 
well. 

15— After use it can be 
dried with a cloth in ten 
seconds. Nothing to take 
apart. Nothing to loose. 

After you own one of these 
washers the hardest part of 

e work will be hanging out the clothes. If 

r ANY reason yon are not satisfied with the 

U»ID VACUUM WASHER we will gladly 

turn your money. 

No more boiling. No more rubbing. 
You can throw your washboard away. 

REE— A SILVER TEA SPOON 





To every reader of this paper who 
sends us this coupon and $1.5(1 for a 
Rapid Vacuum Washer within 
two weeks of the receipt of this 
paper, we will send along with 
the washer absolutely FREE, a 
ffenuino Wm. A. Rostra Silver 
Tea Spoon. Also our agent's 
terms wliich will show you how you 
can make 150.00 a week. Don't wait. 
Send to-day and the washer and 
spoon will be delivered toany nd 
dress postage paid for |1.50. 

Fisher-Ford Mf». Co.. Dept W. ^^^ 
31 Queen St. W. - Toronto. Ont. 



■ 
■ 



A BETTER HOME LIGHT 

Costs less than Ic. a night 
for 300 Candle Power light. 



Here is 
a lamp that ia truly 
a wonder. "The Pault- 
leee Lamp" makes its 
own gas from coa^ 
oil — -will produce 300 
a n d 1 e Power of 
brig-ht, white light at 
less than- Ic a night. 
Simple, strong, most 
beautiful portable 
lamp. 

CANNOT EXPLODE. 
CAN BE ROLLED ON 
THE FLOOR WHILE 
BURNING. REQUIRES 
NO CLEANING. 

Why eaorifloe your 
eyee with a poor light 
when the aaving of 
oil alone will pay 
for a " Paultleea " in 
a short time. 

Write for free book- 
let "M," showing how 
it works, and giTing 
other valuable infor- 
mation- 




THE 



FAULTLESS 
LAMP 



MAC LAREN 81 CO. 

Drawer D. Merrickville, Ont. 



FRUITLAND NURSERIES 

are offering for sale a general assortment of 
flrBt-cIaaa Fruit Trees. Bushes. Vines and 
Ornamental Shrubs, etc.. at very low prices. 
Our catalogues are just out. It will pay you 
to send for one. 
G. M. HILL, Box 42, FRUITLAND, ONT. 




"THE BEST BY TEST" 

Garden Seeder 

Does tile work oi two men in half the 
time. Makes the drill, sows, covers and rolls 
the sted while you walk. 

No better seeder ca» be built for the 
fast and accurate sowing of Turnips, Cab- 
bage, Caj-rots, Beets, Com and all other 
garden seeds. 

Price $7.50 delivered at your station. 

THE SUSSEX MANUFACTURING CO. 



SUSSEX, N. B. 



Ltd. 




STRENGTH-GIVING BREAD 

If the men of the house have an extra call on their strength at 
this spring .season they should be fortified for it by having the best 
of food' three times a day 

As bread is the main item of every meal much depends upon its 
wholesomeness and strength-giving quality. Avoid guesswork by al- 
ways using 

REINDEER FLOUR 



The flour that will always produce 
muscle building loaf- 



an appetizing, satisfying and 



YOUR GROCER CAN SUPPLY IT 



PETERBOROUGH CEREAL CO., Simcoe St., PETERBOROUGH, ONT. 



CUTS EVEF^YTHING! 



Bread — meat — cooked fish — vegetables — fruit — any- 
thing and everything in the fooa line you put into a 






7/ 




HOME 65" FOOD CUTTER 

is minced to perfection. Here too, is a machine which is quite 
watertight. No food or juices can escape as is the case with most 
Food Cutters. 

No Food Cutter works so easily or 
is so reliable as the "HOME 65" 



Four cutting plates (or 3 
plates and 1 nutgrater.) 

Tight fitting screw cap. 

Machine quite watertight. 

Open end cylinder, easy 
to clean. 



MAXWELLS 
LIMITED 





Better than any foreign made 
machine — and cheaper, too ! 
With every "Home 65" we 
give a "Food Chopper 
Cook Book " free. 

ST. MARY'S 

ONT. 12 



1 20 



THE CANADIAN HORTICULTURIST 



April, 



GLADIOLUS 

America, !*1..63 per 100. Tacondc. $3.00 p;M' 
100 Express collect. 9pnd for list of othei 
varicUca. 

H. P. VAN WAGNER 
H. R XO. 3 • HAMILTON. ONT 



STRAWBERRY PLANTS 

Wllliam« Improved I'ariwn's Beauty, 
Splendid, Sample Fountain, Stevens. Cham- 
pion, Senator Dunlap and other leading 
varieties. Writ© for «italogue and price list. 

W. WALKER - PORT BURWELL, ONT. 



ROSES 



11,000 splendid Hybrid Tea Rose Buaihee, mostly two year old. will be ready for delivery 
about June 1st in the following varieties: White and Pink Killamey; Eiohmond (red); Hilling- 
don (yellow); Canadian Queen (pink); American Beauty (dark pink). PUtnte will have splen- 
did roots and will make flrst-olass summer bedding stock. We are offering- this stock at the 
following' very attractive prices to clear out quickly: $10 00 per 100 on orders of not less than 
2S. Write for special prices on large quantitiesi. Orders will be booked in the order in which 
they are received. Cultural Inetruotions will be sent with every order. 

THOS. A. IVEY & SON, LTD., PORT DOVER, Ont. 




D. 



■'1 ivL — 'I 

& F's HIGH GRADE 



VEGETABLE SEEDS 

BEAN— A new, stringless. wax bean of great merit. Early, hardy, stringier, rust 
P''°™ and exceedingly proUftc. Pck. lOo. 54 lbs. 20c, 1 lb. 30c. 

BEAN— Stringless green pod. First introduced nineteen years ago. Still unequalled. 
Pkt. 10c, % lb. 15c, 1 lb. 20c. 

^EET— Bobbles Selected Globe. The beat of the Turnip-rooted claas. Pkt. 10c, oz. 40c. 

tABBAOE— Copenhagen Market. Early as Jersey Wakefield and half again as large 
Pkt. lOe. y, oz. 30c. 1 oz. 50c. 

CORN— Golden Cream. Very early, very sweet and juicy. The best for home garden 
Pkt. 10c, M, lb. 20c, 1 lb. 35c. 

CUCUMBER— D. & P.'s extra long white spine. The most beautiful and best long 
green. Pkt. lOo, oz. 50c. 

LETTUCE— D. & F.'s Peerless. Most distinct and largest solid cabbage lettuces- Pkt. 
10c. oz. 30c. 

LETTUCE— Wayahead. Earliest and most solid of all early lettuces. Pkt. 10c, 

oz. 20c. 

ONION— Cranston's Excelsior. Unsurpaased' for exhibition purposes. Pkt. 25c. 

PEA— World Kecord. Two weeks earlier than Gradus. Pkt. 10c, 'A lb. 30c. 1 lb 50c. 

RADISH— White Icicle. Easily the best of all early white "Lady-Finger" Radishes. 
Pkt. 5c, y2 oz. ISc. 

TOMATO ■ D. & F.'s O.K The best early bright red tomato. Pkt. 15c. H oz 75c. 

D. & F's Exhibition Spencer 
Collection of S^veet Peas 

Sometimes it is difficult for the amateur to intelligently select the best varieties of 
iweet peas from the seedtnan'a list. The following names with their descriptions will 
be helpful: 

King White, pure white; Clara Curtis, waved primrose; Elfrida Pearson, rose; Mar- 
garet Atlee, cream pink; Countess Spencer, select stock, large bluaih pink, waved: 
Thomas Stevenson, orange pink; Stirling Stent, orange salmon; Vermillioni Brilliant, 
^rlet; Maud Holmes, crimson spencer; George Herbert, orange -nink, deep rose wings; 
Nubian, chocolate; Margaret Madison, pale lavender; Asta Chan, deep lavender; Ten- 
nant Spencer, purplish mauve; Elsie Herbert, blush white, picotte edge; Apple Blossom 
Spencer, waved rose and blush; Afterglow, bright violet blue; America Spencer, bright 
bloodred striped. 

Special collection offer: one packet each of the above 18 Tarieties, $2.76 

Send a postal for our new 1914 catalogue, the Hnest and most complete, listing only 
nigh'grade seeds. 

DUPUY 81 FERGUSON 

38 JACQUES- CARTIER SQUARE - MONTREAL, QUE. 



Pruit Markets of the Putui 

The European representative of 
United F"ruit Companies of Nova Sci 
Limited, Mr. John N. Clute, in a re^ 
letter to that company, reported in par 
follows : 

I am of the opinion that the developn 
of our fruit industry should be alonj- 
line of quality rather than quantity. 
in the next decade or two there v. 
strong compyetition in the fruit trade. I 
land, with her cheap supply, and Or? 
and other western states with their 
ior class of apple, will both be stron, 
petitors with us for the English marK 
We must not disguise the fact that 
planting of orchards within the last 
years has been out of proportion to 
previous period, and out of proportioi 
the development of the markets. 

In England not only has the pl-f- 
been extensive, but growers have ; 
more scientific methods of caring fc. 
marketing their fruit. I was forcibly 
pressed with this when attending the S 
fruit show at Maidstone this year. Altho 
only their third annual show, there w: 
display of fruit that would do credit to 
country. One thousand two hundred b< 
of apples packed in scientific western s 
were arranged in a most attractive n 
ner. There was also on show one hum 
and forty-four barrels of apples. There 
more competition in the Brambley S' 
than any other variety. The particu. . 
ject of the show was to encourage pa 
apples for export. England has aH 
and growing export trade in apple- 
South America. 

With these facts in regard to our c 
petitors fairly before us, we must et 
ourselves in the very best manner pos5 
to meet the conditions. We must pro< 
fruit of the best quality, handle it c 
fully, and pack it honjostly and systen 
cally. It must be put on the market in 
very best condition possible, and that ' 
the least possible expense. 

There is too much difference betv 
what we receive and what the English 
sumer has to pay. If we wish our a 
trade to increase sufficiently to take th< 
creased supply we must put in operatic 
system by which our apples can be pro 
ed by the consumer as cheaply as orai 
or bananas. I am pleased to say that 
United Fruit Companies have a sch 
whereby expenses can be so reduced 
the consumer can buy more cheaply 
at the same time we, as growers, will 
ceive more money for our fruit. 



Recent bulletins and circulars that 
reached The Canadian Horticulturist, 
elude the following : Bulletin No. 241. 
sued by the Agricultural Experiment 
tion, Berkley, Cal., entitled "Vine Pnii 
in California." This bulletin is well i 
trated, and deals among others with 
grape vine. Bulletin No. 171 is being 
tributed by the Agricultural Experir 
Station at Lafayette. Ind. It is ent 
"The Vegetable Garden." Vegetable g 
ers will do well to obtain a copy of 
"Peach Leaf Curl" and ''Apple Growin 
New Jersey" are the titles of two circu 
Nos. 29 and 30 respectively, being di 
buted by the New Jersey Agricultural 
periroent Station. 

Too many fruit growers forget that 
spraying done at the proper time ■ 
much more good than two or three sr 
in?s done at other times. — H. K. Rp 
Northumberland Co., Ont. 



April, 1914 



THE CANADIAN HORTICULTURIST 



Market Gardeners 



It will pay you to look carefully over 
our Price List of 



Ask for Special Prices on Garden 
Peas and Seed Corn. 

Our Seeds will POSITIVELY, AB- 
SOLUTELY, give you satisfaction. 

Write us about your wants 

Geo. Keith & Sons 

Seed Merchants since itihf) 

124 RING ST. E., TORONTO, ONT. 



r^IX.>\.I I^IVO and ■ B«nelll. 

^ .^ They save your crop, increase the yield 

" ' ^ and improve the quality. Our Spray Cal- 

endar shows when to spray and what 
materials to use. Our "Spray" booklet 
shows 70 combinations of 

Bucket. Barrel. Power and 
Traction Sprayers lor 
orchard and fieldcrops 
and other uses. Built 
complete or in units — 
buy just what you 
need. Ask your deal- 
er to show them and let 
us send you our spray 
booklet, spray calendar 
and "Iron Age Farm 
and Garden New^" free. 
The Bateman- 
Wllklnaon Co.. 
Limited 
ll)4 Symington Av. 
Toronto, Can. 




Peerless 
Climax Fruit Baskets 




Heaviest, Strongest 
and Best 

In the market. Especially 
suitable for long distance 
shipping. Last year the 
demand exceeded the 
supply 

Therefore Order Early 



Canadian Woodenware 
Products Co. 

ST. THOMAS, ONT. 



BEZZO'S FAMOUS PRIZE ASTERS 

Rrizea New York State i^ai^, Canadian National Exhibition, Toronto; Berlin Horticoiltural 
Society, 191011-12-13. 

Violet King, Eose King^ Royal White, Royal Lavender. Royal Pink, Royal Purple, Roches- 
ter Pink, PeerlesH Pink, Salmon Pink, Improved Orego Knk, Queen of the Market White or 
Pink, Branching White, Rose, Pink, Lavemdeir, Crimson, Mikado White- These are very truly 
the aristocrats of the Ajstea' family All plants sent by Express (unless otherwise arranged) 
to any part of Canada and guaranteed to arrive in good condition. Price, $L00 per hundred, 
packed and labelled separately in wet moss. Expreea prepaid on orders amounting to more 
than $2.00. Special prices to Horticultural Socletie«. All plants oold frame (not hot-bed) 
grown, and with favorable weather will be ready last week in Miay. Order early as the quan- 
tity is limited. 

C. MORTIMER BEZZO - BERLIN, CANADA 



"The Hardie Pow^er and 
Hand Sprayers" 

The Sprayer that is free from Experimental Risk 

OVER 6,500 IN USE 




"The Sprayer" (you are looking for) "With The Trouble Left Out" 

CONSIDER WELL THE HARDIE FEATURES 



SIMPLICITY OF CONSTRUCTION — 

Obtained by leaving out everything of a 
oompLicated or troublesome nature and 
using only such construction as experience 
has proven best. 

STRENGTH — The liberal use of high 
grade steel and the use of metals which 
will stand the wear and tear of high pres- 

BIG CAPACITY— Our pumps are properly 
designed and built by "sprayer specialieta." 
We know the importance of lots of liquid 
at the nozzle and build accordingly. 

HIGH PRESSURE — Wc use a powerful 
engine on our maohinea and our pumps' are 
so light-running that higih pressure can 
always be obtained. 

Whether your orchard is large or small 
requirements, nssurinjS you 



LIGHTNESS— By the use of a high carbon 
pressed steel frame we get strength and 
long service. 

FROSTPROOF ENGINE — We use the 
Ideal engine. It ia compact, strongly built 
and reliable. Plenty of power and always 
ready to run. 

PRESSURE REGULATOR — A simple, re 
liable device to control the presHure. There 
is no load on the engine when the stop- 
cocks are off- 

LITTLE THINGS— Stay-There hose ends 
which cannot be blown or pulled off. Angle 
cut-offs, a decided improvement over the 
old style stopcock. Hose, the kind that 
gives you the service .von desire. 

there is a Hardie Sprayer to fill your 
spraying success, with n 



Hardie Hillside Triplex 
Hardie Western Triplex 



Hardie Duplex 
Hardie Junior 



HARDIE HAND PUMPS— The world'.s best, so simple that the only tools i-e<iuired to 
keep them in perfect working order "are a bov and a monkey wrench" 

There are now in use nearly 30.000 Ha rdio Hand and Power Sprayen* Our prices are 
lower than other maohines of like spMiifl'-ations. Take .idvantage of our large output and 
the Sprayer Pump Value nii-v A U A T>r\ri? Write for our catalogue giving 
OUY A. rlAUUlC/. mechaniiv^I details of our full line. 



which .von will receive, nnd 



DISTRIBUTORS FOR CANADA 



The Biggs Fruit and Produce Co 

BURLINGTON, ONTARIO 



LTD, 



Mention The C«nac1ian HortlooHuriiit when writing. 






THE CANADIAN HORTICULTURIST 



April, 



Florists, Gardeners, Fruit and Vegetable Growers 

If you are comtemplating butMing 

GREENHOUSES or CONSERVATORIES 

We advise you to build right, provide against wind storms, save all your stock from 

destruction and yourself from worry, produce and work under a glass roo( that will 

insure your labours and crops, get PARKES MODERN GREENHOUSES. 

We also supply and manufacture 

SHELF BRACKETS, PIPE CARRIERS, SPLIT TEES 

GREENHOUSE WHITE PAINT. PUTTY and GLASS and all kinds of GREEN- 
HOUSE HARDWARE, HEATING and WATER SUPPLY SYSTEMS. 

If you want a good addition to your greenhouse get a line on our IDBAL SHELF BRACKETS 

WHITE TO.DAY TO 

PARRES CONSTRUCTION COMPANY 

Oflicc, Works and Showroom - KENILWORTH AVENUE, HAMILTON, ONT. 

Lonit Distance Phone 6102 




^Itnplemeiits 
for Orchard 
and Vineyard 

Spring-Tooth Harrows 

Spraying Outfits 

Vineyard Plows 

Orchard Disc Harrows 

Cultivators 

Grape and Berry Hoes 

etc. 



The fruit grower requires 
suitable implements if he 
is to be successiul. 

The manufacturer with a 
knowledge of the require- 
ments is in the best 
position to supply the de- 
mand. 

Our experience extends 
back for well over half a 
century and our imple- 
ments are in successful 
use in orchards and vine- 
yards in many lands. 

Catalogues and full par- 
ticulars from any of our 
agents or by writing our 
nearest Branch. 



Massey-^Harris Co., Ltd. 



Head Offices 



TORONTO 



BRANCHES AT 

Montreal Moncton Winnipeg 

Regina Saskatoon Yorkton 

Swilt Current Calgary 

Edmonton 

Jigmncies Everytoher* 




The Brown Tail Moth 

(Ciintiniiiul fiiini piif/r III/ 

ou^hly with a spray solution contain 
not less than two r>ounds of arsenate of 1 
(the arsenate of lead is to contain n 
than fifteen per cent, of arsenic o\ 
every forty gallons of water after the i- « 
appear and before the blossoming < ' 
trees. The spraying is to be carri- 
in a satisfactory manner, and all c.i 
which the instructions have not beti. 
ried out will be reported by our offi( ■ r; 
charge to the Department. 

Those fruit growers who are accu^toi 
to spray thoroughly and at the prop* 
need fear no defoliation or trouble, b 
to their interests to cooperate with the 
minion and Provincial Departments of 
riculture in seeing that the less progres 
persons carry out the necessary reqti 
ments. 



Pre-cooling Advocated 

At a recent meeting of the directors 
The United Fruit Companies of 
Scotia, Limited, Mr. Davidson repre^ 
the Fallmouth Fruit Company, prr 
an indirect argument in favor of tlr 
cooling plant it has been proposed to 
tablish for the benefit of Nova Scotia f 
growers. 

Mr. Davidson stated that this year 
management of the United Fruit Comi 
ies would have to place some ten thous 
barrels in cold storage at St. John. It 
been proved that the cost of having • 
stuff held in St. John is about fifty cen' 
barrel, or in round figures, five thous 
dollars. 

Commenting on this statement Mr. A. 
Adams, the manager of the United C 
panics, writes as follows : Five thous 
dollars to have ten thousand barrels stt 
under the very worst conditions possi 
but even then well expended, becaus< 
would keep that quantity of fruit off 
market when the market was at the lo\ 
point. Yet when that five thousand dol 
was expended there would be nothing 
show for it beyond the immediate bet 
derived. 

"How much better and how much n 
business like it would be to expend 
five thousand dollars towards the equipn 
of a plant right here in the Valley, w! 
would accomplish even better immed 
results. The fruit being handled ui 
much better conditions and immedia 
after coming off the trees, would arrive 
the market in much better shape, and 
that reason realize bigger money. In a 
tion, we would still have a plant for sin- 
operations in succeeding years. This 
sound argument which we commend to 
consideration of those who are not aire 
convinced that cold storag« or pre-coo 
is absolutely essential." 



Item of Interest 

Members of the Port Arthur Boarc 
Trade recently entertained Mr. An 
Sitch, of Hymers, an agricultural dis" 
tributary to Port .Arthur, in honor of 
having established a record production i 
potatoes of four hundred and twent>i 
and one-half bushels for an acre, 
competition was open to the province. 
Sitch received as a reward a course ati 
Guclph Agricultural College. The es 
lishment of an experimental farm in 
Port Aiihur district is being recouuneii. 



l-il, I9I4 



HE CANADIAN HORTICULTURIST 



Ic Export Trade in Pears and 
Peaches 

j {Continued from page 118) 

and for good pears would seem to war- 
.. The reason assigned for this over- 
condition by competent authorities 
Id appear to be the very wet weather 
irienced whilst the fruit was on the 
which is considered to have militated 
inst the keeping qualities and vitality 
he fruit. However that may be, it is 
ain that warm weather whilst the fruit 
in store or in transit must have been 
determining factor of its condition on 
val here, and the demand being what 
as, it was a mistake to have shipped a 
:le package across the water in ordinary 
rdgt. On the other hand, many parcels 
:h came forward in refrigerator on the 
mer were in over-ripe condition on ar- 
which we consider to be due to them 
,ng been stored for several weeks before 
iment in ordinary storage. At the be- 
ling of the season the weather is too 
m for the efficient transport of pears in 
nary stowage, and later in the season 
keeping qualities are likely to be 
aired. 

The great bulk of pears in barrels were 
[ers, but there was a fair sprinkling of 



TRADE MARK 



Ploughs — Wilkinson 

* ^ REGISTIiKiiD 

U.S.S.SoftCentreSteelMoldboards. highly I 
tempered andguaranteed tocleaninany soil. '^ 
Steelbeams.steellandsidesandhighcarbon 
steel coulter. Clevises can be used either 
stiff or swing. Each plough is fitted especi- 
ally with its own pair of handles— rock elm, 

long and heavy and ihorouelily braced. The long body 
niake<> it a very steady runiiin^ plough. Shares olall 
widtiis — specials for stony or clay land. The plough 
shown turns a beautiliul lurrow, with minimum draft 
and narrow furrow at finish. Aslc lor catalogue. 



I0.3 

todor 

General 

''urpose 

'ionjih. 

5 styles 

o choose 

rom. 



The Bateman- Wilkinson Co., 
Limited 
461 Symington Ave.. 
Toronto Canada. 




inion Grow^ers 

> you intend to have any weeds in your 
MI8 this year? If so, ask me for Ht«ra- 
» which desoribefi a machine that will 
irate the weeds from the onlone, prao- 
■lly doing away with most hand weeding. 
)n't delay. Act quickly if you want to 
ire a weeder this season. 

G. Bruner, Manufacturer 

OLINDA, ONT. 



First-Class Commercial Gardener s Wanted 

w^^^t^m^^mm^m^K^m^amm *i^^^"""^^^^^i"^""^"^ ^BHa^^^^^^^^^^^i^ mmmm^^^^^^^^^ 

A few good market garden properties for sale or rent. Locations 
good, prices and terms attractive. Cheap natural gas for green- 
house fuel. Write for details to 

O. PATTERSON FARMER - Jeannette's Creek, Ontario 



I 



International 
Harvester 
Cream 
Separators 




THE INCLINE 

GRAIN AND HAY 

MACHINES 

Bindert, Reaper* 

Headers, Mowert 

Rakci, Stackers 

Hay Leaden 

Hay Presses 
CORN MACHINES 

Planters, Pickers 

Binders, Calttvatora 

Ensilage Cotters 

Shellers. Shredders 
TILLAGE 

Combination, 

Pes and Sprinr-Tostll, 

and Disk Harrows 

Cultivators 

GENERAL LINE 

Oil and Gas Enginei 

Oil Tractors 

Manure Spreader* 

Cream Separator* 

Farm Wagons 

Motor Trucks 

Thresher* 

Grain Drill* 

Feed Grinder* 

Knife Grinders 

Binder Twlio 



A DAIRY farmer who does not use 
a cream separator is losing up to 
$15 per cow per year. Complete your 
dairy equipment by the purchase of an 
International Harvester creain separator — Lily, 
Bluebell or Dairymaid. These separators skim 
closely — leaving barely a drop of cream iu a gallon 
of milk — and they will do it for years. 

These machines are furnished with pulleys for the 
use of power. Belted to a small I H C engine, you 
have the best outfit it is possible for you to buy. 
Note the low supply cpn on I H C separators, the 
height of the milk sp' lit which allows a 10-gallon 
can to be used for the kim milk, the strong frame 
with open base which i;an be kept perfectly clean, 
and the dozen other features which make these 
I H C machines the best. 

Your local dealer should have one of these ma- 
chines on sale. If he has not, write us before you 
buy and we will tell you where you can see one; 
also seod you au iateresting book on separators. 




International Harvester Company of Canada, Ltd 




THE CANADIAN HORTICULTURIST 



April, irH4 



Potato Profits 



dcpesd largely on bow the crop Is planted. 
Every iklpped bill Is a loss lo time, fertilizer 
flod soil. Every double wastes valuable seed. 
It means $5 10 $50 per acre extra profit Hall hills 
are planted, one piece In each. That Is why 

oflcn pay for themselves In one season on small 

ftcre-age. They also plant stralglit. at ti^ht <lcpth. 12 
to 24 Inches apart. ^ With or without Icrtilizer dis- 
tributor. Ask your dealer to 
sliDw you this PLinter 
and write us for booklet, 
'100 Pfr Cent Potato 
Planting" and copy o! 
Iron Age Farm and Gar- 
den News. 
Tba B&tflm&n-WllklSBon 
'■.LliDttdd. 465 Symtng. 
ton Atb., Toronto, Can. 




BLACK CURRANTS 

Why not Plant a Large 
Patch this Spring 

We ttill have a few thousand (irst-clau plants 

of the BLACK NAPLES variety. Very 

hardy and prolific. 

Ask us for prices^on LAWTON BLACK- 
BERRYfPlants. Write to 



J. E. HENRY & SON 



WINONA 



Mentlmi The Canadian Horticulturist when writing. 



YOU-Afeec/Z/^/s BOOK! 



$^': 



m 



It's packed full of information that will 
prove helpful to you in the planning and 
planting of your garden. Information 
that's worth dollars— just a plain simple 
story of the best methods to pursue. 
Tells when to plant, how to plant and 
what to plant. Your copy is ready, 
drop us a post card now, you will get 
one by return mail. 



^; 



KENNETH MCDONALDS SONS mScna^, 



tD£Pr ? 



SEED MERCHANTS 
OTTAWA. Ont. 



JISTIDSIIDS 



-^^ 



zM 







Protect your 

trees and garden 

A Fairbanks-Morse Spray- 
ing Outfit offers you the 
most effective and econ- 
omical means of destroying insects and of curing and preventing 
plant and tree diseases. 

The spraying machine illustrated here can be used for practi- 
cally every spray use on any farm, and will quickly pay. for 
itself in improved crops. 

Vou can buy a Fairbanks-Morse or Gould Spraying Pump, 
from a brass hand pump costing a few dollars up to an engine- 
operated, truck-mounted outfit of the highest efficiency. 
Send for tree catalogue of spraying outfits and appliances. It 
contains much valuable information, tells you what to spray, 
what chemical compounds to use, how to prepare them, when 
to do the spraying, etc. We are the largest Canadian dealers 
in farm engine.s, scales, and mechanical goods of every kind. 
Address Dept 43 

The Canadian Fairbanks • Morse Co., Limited 



Montr««l Toronto 

Qucbsc Ottawa 

St. Jolw Hamilton 

Ft. Wililam 



Winnipei Cal«ary 

RcRina Edmontoci 

Saakatoon Vancouver 
Victoria 



Caninlirs Departmenttil Hnusf tor Mviii.iniciil Coods 



Duchess, Anjous, Seckle, Louis Bon, C 
ffiN'iU, etc., which are subj<.'ct to the s. 
remarks. Barrels of Keiffcr pears roali 
from 15s to 28s for the first jfrade of sc 
fruit accordintf to quality, condition, 
the fluctuations of the market. Due 
pears rang-ed from 25$ to 45s, Anjous 
to 26s, Seckle 26s to 42s. In addition ' 
barrels of Keiffers, we also handled a go 
number of boxes and half-boxes. Prices! 
boxes ranged from 5s to 6s 9d, and for 
boxes from 3s 6d to 4s for first grade fr 
It must be considered that the prices qJ 
cd are very satisfactory, but when taken" 
conjunction with the large proportion 
rotten fruit which did not realize the 
of marketing, etc., the net result can 
be considered in so favorable a light. 

I*R\tllK« SVTISF'.CTORY 

"We had a few half-boxes of Canadi 
I)eache)s, with 36 to 48 fruits each, whiJ 
sold at from 9s to lis per package, whi| 
must be considered to be a very higl| 
satisfactory result. We think there shofl 
be a good business in th«se rather lo« 
prices for the future. 

".•\s regards barrels, we consider th< 
Canadian packing to be superior on thi 
whole to that of other countries expor' 
to this market. The barrels are lar. 
containing some 180 lbs., of fruit avera 
whilst the us.e of eight hoops round 1 
barrels which the best Canadian <)acka 
use, two at each end and four in the midif 
,should be made general, when the prop 
tion of slack-packed fruit which so ext^ 
sively diminishes growers' profits would 
greatly reduced. The half-box package j 
the package for Bartlett pears, and 
think it could be used with advantage 
other varieties. 

"We have mentioned that we had a parce 
of half-boxes of Bartletts for which 
realized Us per package. The package i 
wais a patent one, of which the lid fr 
into a groove at each end, which gr< 
was made in the size of a wooden c\a 
fastened to the edge of each of the 
pieces. When the lid had been so fitt3 
it was secured by a strip of wood na: 
above it to the inside of each clamp. 1 
clamps thus stood higher than the lid, an( 
when the boxes were piled above one ano 
ther in tiers, the top box rested upon thi 
clampis of the box below and the wholi 
weight of the boxes was thus borne by th' 
end-pieces, edgewise, instead of bein} 
borne by the bulge of the lid, thus cuttinj 
and bruising the fruit. If this packag' 
could be generally used, the value of tin 
fruit when it reached the market would b' 
enhanced by several shillings per package 

"We also notice that various grower 
did not wrap all the pears in each box, bu 
contented themselves with v.rapping the toi 
layer only. There is no utility in this, tb 
pears should each be wrapped in the grow! 
ers' printed paper, or otherwise it is cheape 
to wrap none, as buyers will not pay tb 
price of wrapped fruit for boxes, the r-- 
tents of which are largely unwrapped. 

PRUIT TO .ARRIVE IN GREEN CONDITION 

"The lesson of the past season, as o| 
others, is that expense should not be sp-' 
ed in order to get the fruit here in h 
green condition, which if accomplished u. 
surely reap its reward in greatly increase^ 
prices; over-ripe fruit, i.e., fruit too rip 
to stand during the period of reaching th 
ultimate consumer, has only a small chanc 
of paving for its cost of marketing, and 
very great chance of being thrown away a 
valueless, if market and weather condition 
are against it ; there is no margin for saki 
manship in the handling of such fruit. 



1 



April, T914 



THE CANADIAN HORTICULTURIST 



Superior Golden Queens 

that produce workers for lioiu-y. The 

gentlest bees on the earth to handle ajid 
the yellowest. Untested, each $100, six $5.00. 
Tested. $2.C0 to $3..O0. Breeders, .S5.00 to $iaflO. 

J. R. BROCKWELL. BARNETTS. VA., U.S.A. 



FOR SALE 

Apiary, i" first -class eondition; G-rey County, 
Vi mile from Tara. 

110 hives of Bees, good strain of hybrids, 
no bla<>.ks. 250 supers of drawn comb, also 
winter packing casess; 8 ft. board fence sur- 
rounds yard. Price, $1,200. Good reason for 
wlliiu;. Write tor particulars- 
,1. H. DINCAN TARA. ONT 



Are you ready to 
spray, when the petals 
fall? 

The young- larvae of the cod- 
ling moth enters the blossom 
end of the apple soon after 
the petals fall. K drop of 




Neutral Arsenate 
of Lead 

in the calyx cup before the lobes 
close, prevents the worm from en- 
tering and saves the fruit. This 
.'\rsenate is not only perfectly saf? 
in use, but owing to its finely di- 
vided condition, it stays better in 
suspension, covers more foliage 
and sticks to it better than ordin- 
ary Acid Arsenate. We will he 
glad to ciuote prices and give fur- 
ther information. 

THE 

CANADA PAINT CO. 

LI/niTED 

PA1NT-VARNI5H AND DRY COLOR 

nAKtRS-LINSLLD OIL CDUiHLPS 

KONTREAL- TORONTO- WINNIPEG- CALGARY- HALIFAX 

OXIDE MINES RED HILL QUEBEC 




British Fruit Salerooms 

The saleroom in Liverpool belongs to 
tlie Brokers' Association itself, and in 
Manchester, although the Corporation 
owns the building, they leased it to the 
Manchester Association for a term of 
years. Both buildings are very similar in 
internal appearance, being constructed on 
the amphitheatre or tier system, the seats 
of the buyers rising one above the other 
in a three-quarter circle facing the ros- 
trum, the samples coming up from the cel- 
lar below the lift. 

These salerooms are not open to the 
public, nor indeed to any buyer. Persons 
wishing to buy from the brokers must be 
members of the Fruit Growers' Association 
which was formed in each place some 
years ago. No other, except duly and for- 
mally admitted representatives of mein- 
bers' firms may attend the auctions, and 
even if the actual owner of the goods 
wishes to see them sold, he must take a 
seat with the auctioneer and his clerks 
and is not admitted amongst the buyers. 

Adinission to the membership of these 
buyers' associations is a most difficult 
matter, as it is to existing members' inter- 
ests to keep new members out, the result 
being that while some members are little 
more than retailers other firms in the dis- 
trict whose business has so expanded as 
to well qualify them for membership, are 
unable to obtain admission to the charm- 
ed circle. If these wish to purchase goods 
in the saleroom they are compelled to get 
a member to do it for them, for which ser- 
vice a fee is charged. 



STRAWBERRY PLANTS 

For sale. Fine stocky, well-rooted plants. 
Eleven tested rarieties. Write for list ami 
prices. 

S. H. RITTENHOUSE, JORDAN HARBOR, ONT. 



NOTICE TO BEEKEEPERS 

Those intending to introduce new blood 
into their apiary will do well to s?nd for 
my d'tacTiptive price list of three banded 
Red Clover Italian Queens. It's FREE,. 

W. R. STIRLING 

HIDGETOWN - ONTARIO 



NEW AND RARE SEEDS 

Unique collection. Hundred* of varieties adap- 
ted for the Canadian climate. Perennial and 
perfectly hardy. Own saving. Catalog free. 

Perry's Hardy Plant Farm 

ENFIELD. MIDDLESEX, ENG. 



Over 60 years Horticultural Experience 

is offered for the Beaut lying of 

Your Garden by 

KELWAY & SON 

The Royal Hurticultitrists 

Langport, Somerset, England 




Don't 

Worry! 

Conkey 

Will Cure 

Me 

Do not let your chick- 
ens mope and die. 
Send for catalogue, with 
price list of Reliable 
Poultry Remedies, and 
prices of Eggs for hatch- 
ing from different breeds 
of Poultry, including 
Turkeys, Ducks and 
Geese. 

J. H. RUTHERFORD 

Box 62 

CALEDON EAST, ONTARIO 



Glorious New Spencer Sweet Peas 



KING WHITE— It attains perfection 
every detail, which goes to make up a 
Spencer Sweet Pea. It is the experts' 
ideal for perfect form. The improve- 

ment in form. .size, vigor, wavineee and 
purity stands eminently out when com- 
pared to other White Spencers, and calls 
for unstinted admiration. The number 
of four-bloaeomcd sprays and the great 
length of stem will appeal strcngly to 
those wishing a good White for decora- 
tive work Packet. 20c. 

"EMPRESS EUGENIE" — The color is a 
delicate tone of li^ht gray flaked with 
light lavender. A vase or bunch gives a 
most charming effect. The flowers are of 
large size, beautifully waved and crimp- 
ed. A vigorous grower and very free 
bloomer, throwing a largo proportion of 
four-flowered sprays. Packet. 20c. 



ILLU.MINATOR — A glorious orange- 
salmon Sweet Pea. In dull lig'ht the 
color app«ar8 to be a flat orange scar- 
let, but when in bright sunshine or arti- 
ficial light. the color is completely 
changed, and it appears a bright 8a,lmon 
cerise, sparkling with orange. It intro- 
duces a new shade of color to Sweet Pea 
enthusiasts of rare beauty, and with its 
additional attributes of great vigor, flori- 
ferousness and symmetry, it is sure to 
captivate all who give it a place In their 
garden. Packet, 20c. 

"WEDGEWOOD"— It l6 a true self a.nd 
lE appropriately named, aa ita color 
throughout is a unique shad* of wedge- 
wood blue, a color so popular in Ohina. 
It produces profusely flowers of good 
size, borne almost uniformly in four- 
flowored sprays, well placed, upon long 
stout stems Of flne«t Spencer form the 
standard and wings are well waved. 
Pa<--ket, 2O0. 



r-nowcrea sprays rucnci . <a>u. i a^.^^-, -.~. 

FREE— Our 112pa(5e illustrated catalogue of Veiietable, Farm and Flower beeus, 
Plants. Bulhs. Implements, Poultry Supplies, etc. Write for it. 

JOHN A. BRUCE & CO., Ltd., Hamilton, Out. 

SEED MEBCHANTS ESTABLISHED 1850 



XIV. 



THE CANADIAN HORTICULTURIST 



April, 1914 



500,000 PEET BELTING FOR SALE 

I^alhur, Hublier I'anvaH. etc. lOO.CXX) rods Wire 
renclnif. ll),0(«) Ib8. Barb Wire at 2c. per lb., 
3(ji),txM) ft. Iron Pipe, also 1,(101) other bariralnH at 
25% to 60/ I0S8 than regular value. NevrIiHt8JUBl 
issued, sent free on re<)uest. Write immediately. 

IMPERIAL MFG. & SUPPLY CO.. 
6 yUEKN 8T. MONTBEAL, QliE. 

f"^ All kinds of Machinery Bought and Sold. 



Vinegar Plants 
Cider Presses 

We are the exclusive Oanadiao Aeent^ for 
the Hydraulic Preea Mtg. Co., Mount Gilead. 
Ohia If you want a Cider Press of a.ny kind 
or a Vinegar Plant, write vm. 

The Brown Boggs o. 



Limited 



HAMILTON, CAN, 



FREE LAND 

FOR THE SETTLER IN 

NEW ONTARIO 

Millions of acres of virgin soil obtainable 
free and at a nominal cost are calling for 
cultivation. 

Thousands of farmers have responded 
to the call of this fertile country aad are 
being made comfortable and rich. Here, 
right at the door of Old Ontario, a home 
awaits you. 

For full information as to terms, regula- 
tions, and settlers rates, write to 

H. A. MACDONELL 

Director ol Colonization 
Parliament Buildings., TORONTO 

HON. JAS. S. DUPP 

Minister of Agriculture 
Parliament Bldgs., Toronto 



The buyers arc under an agreement 
with the brokers not to buy by auction 
within certain limits, and the brokers are 
in turn bound to conform to a certain 
standard in the s<'lection and cataloging 
of the goods, so it will be seen that the 
brokers' monopoly is well maintained; the 
same regulations practically applying to 
both centres. 

It is not our province to discuss the fair- 
ness of this, and of course there are strong 
opinions both ways. Growers who send 
goods to be sold for their own account 
inust decide for themselves as to the rela- 
tive value of the sale by auction as against 
the sale by private firms. These latter, of 
whom many are to be found in our adver- 
tising pages, just sell on the open market, 
or very often actually on the quay side in 
the ordinary private treaty manner. 

What will most interest our readers, 
however, will be the selecting of apples for 
the big sales. Each broker has of course 
a staflf of experienced men who examine 
the anples on the arrival and discharge of 
the boat. They are then classified, each 
according to its own mark and grade, as 
follows: (First) Tights, or barrels in per- 
fectly good condition. (Second) Slacks, or 
barrels in which the apples have sunk a 
little, but which are not very bad. (Third) 
Slack and wet, and (fourth) Wasty. The 
last two designations speak for them- 
selves. Occasionally we get some almost 
worthless, others worthless, and in the lat- 
ter case the goods are only sold for the 
value of the barrel. 

These selections have to be very care- 
fully made, as under certain circumstances 
buyers can refuse their purchases if the 
selection is not up to the standard bought. 
In this case the goods are often sold 
again at the next sale, with the proviso 
"No rejections" which of course means a 
lower price. 



Extended cooperation, the union of local 
associations in one central selling body, iis 
the most urgent need in connection with the 
fruit growing industry of Ontario at the 
present time. 



RENNIE'S 

I.X.L. 
TOMATO 

EXTREMELY EARLY, 

WONDERFULLY 

PROLIFIC 

A week earlier llun the Earliana. 
More productive tlian llie Chalk's 
Jewel. AslargeasthePlenlifuL As 
solid as the New Globe. In fact, the 
world's leading eitremely early 
Tomato. 

In our field tests, I.X.L. Tomato 
proved to be a week to ten days 

earlier than the Spark's Earliana. 

with anabundancooffruitlargerand "^^^l^^^l^^^"^ 

Tomatn C n^t' JJlfbh^' •T,?'?'.'"? '* Without a single exception theloading extremely early 
Jro?:^ine?yoTbir?eT™r ' "'" '*' ''"' "'"' ^°"' ""'"" '^'^^ '=^'"> "" '■^L' Tomato.^ Youl^ 
1. A beautiful, brillian ired color. 

!• Jii"™.""!""^'" '"•ssoflarje, smoothfruit, a single planlyieldins! bushel. 
8. fYui li sexu-emely early , enormously abundant, ripens al 1 a lonce. 

4. vises compac (and can be placed two eelapartinthree-foo trows. 
6. IhelargMilitrowers tell usthal wecannotsay loo much in favor of the I.X.L. Tomsts. 
Price: jib. $2.85, oz. 75c, i az. lOc.pkl I5c 

OUR SPECIAL OFFER 

T.™.!""^^ every person who uses seeds to see our 1914 Seed Book and try this Splendid Early 
n??^^;=Mi p"' ''™:? a packet for 10c. with Seed Book . Thi,, bo.Dk is full of new photographs 
of Vegetables, Fruits and Flowers. Send your address to-day 

W**- RENNIE C«- Limited «"• ^'^^'V^^r-oVto" ^'™''' 

Branches at Montreal, Wiinipef and Vaacouver 




QUEENS 



Northern bred It^iljana, Jfardy etock. tj.-m 

strain honey (raUi<j.,/8. Order NOW. Pri«* 

April and May— Unt«sted tlOO, Teetod $1.50 

t JSP*** »2«l- Extra selected. 3 banded 

^ B DWIS CO.. .WROHA, Ml... USA 



Northern Grown Trees 

Apple, Pear. Plum, Cherry. I'eacli 

Grapes. Small l'ruit«, Jjeciduoua aud 

hvcrgreen OrnamenlaUi, Hoses. Flowering 
Shrube, Climbers, etc. 

Cata.lOBue Free: it tellK thB whole Htorv 

J. H. WISSMER. Nurseryman, Port Elgin. Ont. 



FOR^ALE AND WANTED 

AdTertlsemenu In this departmenFln- 
serted at rate of 3 cents a word for each 
Insertion, each fl^re, slgrn or single letter 
to count as one word, minimum cost, 30 
eents, strictly cash In advance. 



ALL KINDS OF FARMS-Fruit farmsaspeciajty. 
— w. a. Oalaer, G-rimsby- 



NIAGARA DISTRICT FRUIT f AR.MS.-Before 

buying It wiU pay you to coosull me. i make 
a specialty of fruit and erain farms.-Melvln 
dayma.n & Co, St. Catharines. 

RELIABLE HELP, SKILLED AND unskilled, 
suppUed horticulturists aud others. Canadian 
bm^oyment Bureau. Proprietor member of 
B. G. A Loudon, KugUad. 65}/a James St. 
south, Hamilton, Out. 



ASK DAWSON. He knows. 
M v«i{ Z^ll ^ ^^^ ^ ^'*™ consult me. 
I uA.ri '*'*'*T to buy a farm consult me. 
^ rf .^"'« of tie beet fruit, Stock. Grain 

and X>aary Faxma ou my list at right prices. 

H. W. Dawson, Ninety Colbome St., Toronto. 



SALMON ARM, Shusway Lake. RC , has the 
finest fruit and dairy land in B.C. No irriga- 
tion necessary; mild wintere, moderate sum- 
mers, no blizzards or high wind*-; delightful 
ciimate; enormous yields of fruit, vegetables 
and hay; good fishing; fine boating amidst the 
most beautiful scenery, and the Salmon Arm 
fruit has realized 26 cents per box more than 
other fruit in B.C. Prices of land moderatew 
and terms to suit. Apply to F. C. Haydock. 
Salmon Arm, B.C. 



BEES wanted, up to 250 colonies. Particulars 
to Box 23, Pisherville, Ont 



BEES WANTED— Kither with or without other 
equipment. Give full particulars to W m. 
^veir, 34 Chester Ave., Kiverdale, Toronto. Ont. 



BEES WANTED-Particulars to A. D.. Box 86 
O.A.C.. Guetph. 



HONEY LABELS— Catalogue and prices free for 
the asking —Pearl Card Co., Clintonville, Conn. 



50 COLONIES OF BEES for sale. Address, W- 8 
Walton, Seajboro Junction, Ontario. 

I BUY BEES STANDING. Myself pack and load. 
Owner pockets cash — F. A. Allen, PhiUi>aburg 
East, Que. 

FOR QUICK SALE-25 Colonies of Bees, also 24 
Ibe. Bees Wax. Price reaeonable.— Mrs. W. H. 
W'ebster, Bellamy, Ontario. 

BEZZOS FAMOUS PRIZE ASTERS-Bead partiou- 
lars on page ix. 

I CAN NOW SUPPLY the demand for Old 
Country Gooseberry Bushes — 2 year 25c. one 
year 15c each. Tam O'Shanter Bed Currant 
Bushes, 25c— Wm. Dick, Hlcho Place. Brantford. 
Ontetrio. 

EXPERIENCED BEEKEEPER desires an engage 
ment for the season. Age 30— Box 20, Canadian 
HorticultTirist, Peterboro. Ontario. 

FOR SALE — Bees and Queens. 2 fraim Neuclei 
Queenleee S2.25. 3 fraim S325. 10 fraim Colonies 
with Queen $8.00, f.o.b. Berolair.. Queens, tcet- 
erd »1.26. untested $100— Join W. Pharr, Bor- 
clair, Texas. 



The Canadian Horticulturi^ 



Vol. XXXVII 



MAY, 1914 



No. 



The New Soluble Sulphur Spray 



LEADING orchardists in Canada are 
interested in the new spray mix- 
ture Soluble-Sulphur. In last issue 
of The Canadian Horticulturist appeared 
an article by Prof. L. Caesar, Provincial 
Entomolog^ist, Guelph, Ont., advising its 
use this year only in an experimental 
way. In the same issue Mr. J. G. Mit- 
chell, of Clarksburg, Ont., the well- 
known fruit grower and manager of the 
Georgian Bay Fruit Growers' Associa- 
tion, who used it in his orchard last year, 
advocated its use strongly. 

Writing in "Better Fruit," F. A. Fra- 
zier, of Portland, Oregon, an authority 
on apple culture, says regarding it : 

Soluble Sulphur is a compound made 
by melting under high degree of heat in 
specially designed furnaces, of sulphur 
and soda (not caustic soda), resulting in 
a soluble powder fifty-seven to sixty per 
cent sulphur. All sulphur in solution is 
caustic in a certain sense. The sulphur 
is simply more active in the solvent con- 
dition. The caustic property of soluble 
sulphur is due only to the sulphur in solu- 
tion and not to the solvent agent. Much 
loose talk has been indulged in pertaining 
to things caustic. No properly made 
sulphur spray ever injured a tree. Some- 
times the fruit or foliage has been burn- 
ed, but in most cases such burning is be- 
cause of previous fungus infection and 
injury admitting the spray to the wounds 
caused, or a devitalized condition of the 
tree where it does not have normal power 
of resistance. Soluble Sulphur is some 
times spoken of as being more caustic 
than lime-sulphur. What is really meant 
is that there is a greater spray value to 
a given quantity. 

All contact sprays in general use of 
any value have the caustic or burning 
quality. The virtue of crude oil, as a 
scale spray, over the lime-sulphur is be- 
cause of its greater burning properties. 
That is why crude oil can not be safely 
used on tender trees or foliage which to- 
gether with its gumming and pore-filling 
characteristics has rendered it unsafe as 
a tree spray for continued use. Lime- 
sulphur Solution re-acts very rapidly in 
presence of the atmosphere (returns to 
its solids), thus withdrawing from action 
a large portion of sulphur. 

A solution of soluble sulphur does not 
re-act in the same way. The tendency is 
to spread and penetrate until evaporation 



of water leaves the finely divided sulphur 
thoroughly spread over the surface and 
effectually carried into the scale crusts. 
Thus a given quantity of Soluble Sul- 
phur spray will go farther in effective 
work than the same quantity in the old 
time lime-sulphur way. 

In soluble sulphur the perfect spread 
ing quality prevents the concentration of 
spray in drops, so when used in proper 
proportions it does no harm to the most 
tender plants. Soluble Sulphur is, there- 
fore, not only a superior scale spray, but 
a very effective and economical scab 
spray. There is also a valuable feature 
in that the trees assimilate very readily 
the sulphur in this form, thereby produc- 
ing a greater vigor and extending to a 
better coloring of fruit. Soluble sulphur 
can be safely applied at winter strength 
when the fruit leaves of apple trees are 
the size of a squirrel's ear. This com- 
bines the winter strength spray with the 
first scab spray and at this time also the 
aphis are more susceptible to control. 

Sulphur, even the old time home-boiled 
and later the concentrated solutions, has 
been an element of no small value to the 
western orchards through the assimila- 



tion by the trees. The orchardists of the 
east know this truth better because of the 
comparisons which they have observed 
between sulphur orchards and those 
other-wise sprayed or unsprayed. If 
there is one factor above another to which 
the success of the western orchards can 
be attributed, it is the thirty-odd years' 
use of the sulphur sprays. In the last 
six or seven years the same thing has 
been the greatest single factor which is 
bringing eastern orchards up to the stan- 
dard of the much and justly famed west 
ern orchards. Should the western orr 
chardist ever forget what he owes to the 
sulphur spravs, just that .soon he stands 
aside while the east passes him on the 
way to market with the high-grade fruit. 
The economy of soluble sulphur is ajj- 
parent, one hundred pounds being equal 
in effective value to fifty-seven gallons of 
thirty-three degrees lime-sulphur solur 
tion. As to the efficiency, results count 
for more than far-fetched theories. Hav- 
ing been under the closest investigation 
for three years, we find it used exclusively 
on many orchards of two or three hun- 
dred acres, the equivalent of fifteen thou- 
sand barrels of solution being used out 










msmi^.-: 



■"SBMsailHtMiSS 




Goldan Ruttats in Bloom : Orchard of W. H. Gibion, Newcastle, Ont. 

Theee Rusfceta were fifteen years planted and averaged four barrels to a tree. This variety is in 
great demand on the English market and ehoiild be more eiteneJTely grown where the soil is 

suitable. 
121 



THE CANADIAN HORTICULTURIST 



May, 1914 




Pears and Pear Culture 

A. W. Cook, O.A.C., Guelph, Ont. 



Mr. D. Johnson, Forest, Ont. 

The announcement that Mr. Johnson haa been 
appointed to the newly created position of 
Dominion Fruit Commiseioner hae met with 
general approval. Note reference to Mr. John- 
son published on page 133. 

of the eastern factories in 1913. In point 
of convenience, the elimination of the 
heavy barrel with the high freight and 
haulage charges, the leakage, freezing, 
and crystallization are all elements which 
any fruit grower will appreciate. 

Scientific investigation is always slow. 
Progressive spray manufacturers employ- 
ing the best chemical engineers obtain 
able, and the progressive fruit growers 
bent upon results, cooperating with the 
experiment stations with their equipment 
for research work, are right along bring- 
ing efficeincy up to the minute. 

Soluble Sulphur is a true spray effi- 
ciency up to the minute. The combina- 
tion of the materials for spray purposes 
and the process of making are recognized 
as new and valuable, after most thorough 
investigation by the United States and 
Canadian patent offices and letters patent 
have been issued. Neither the discovery 
of the elements nor the fact that they 
would combine and form a soluble ma- 
terial is claimed, but the obstacles which 
have halted previous efforts to produce in 
a practical way a practical spray have 
been overcome by the invention of the 
soluble sulphur. 

By cultivating early in the season fruit 
is better matured to a marketable size, 
and better coloring is secured ; early cul- 
tivation also induces the fruit buds for 
next year's crop to form. The tree will 
grow with a steady, healthy growth, hold- 
ing the sap at the top of the tree for the 
sustenance of the fruit buds. Early cul- 
tivation conserves the moisture. — W. T. 
Macoun, Ottawa. 



PRUNING pears must be done with 
the idea of securing fruit buds near 
centre of tree. This alleviates the 
tendency of large limbs to break under 
the strain of their crop. Remember to dis- 
infect all large wounds, that are the re- 
sult of pruning or other causes, with 
lime-sulphur solution or some other dis- 
infect. Take the greatest care to thor- 
oughly treat the pruning tools while go- 
ing from one tree to another. If this is 
done it does not leave an opportunity for 
this disease -to gain a foot hold in the 
tree. 

TraN THE FRUIT 

When the tree reaches maturity and 
comes into the bearing state there can 
be a considerable amount of time saved 
in the thinning of the fruit by pruning off 
the fruit spurs. There is one disadvan- 
tage in this method when the orchard is 
located in a section that is known to have 
late frosts. As the pruning should be 
done before the leaves start there is apt 
to be enough fruit spurs left on the tree 
that has been late in maturing to give a 
yield of fruit while if no thinning had 
been done there probably would have been 
a light crop of fruit. However, taking 
into account this one disadvantage, prun- 
ing can be and should be practiced more 
throughout Ontario than it is. The pear, 
like many other varieties of fruit, can 
be made to yield more regularly by reg- 
ular, systematic pruning and the thin- 
ning of the fruit each year. 

The cultivation of the pear is very sim- 
ilar to that of the apple. Cultivation 
should commence as early in the spring 
as it is fjossible to do so. Cultivation 
should be very thorough and done sys- 
tematically. It is very essential to keep 
a dust mulch at the surface to maintain 
the necessary moisture for proper plant 
and fruit development. As all fruits are 
composed mostly of water, the necessity 
of maintaining the soil moisture will at 
once be seen. This is the case in prac- 
tically all orchards. The humus can to a 
large extent be enlarged by the use of 
cover crops. Among the best cover crops 
we have vetch, rye, rape, turjiips and 
winter oats. The rye and vetch are sown 
in the later part of August so as to at- 
tain a good heavy crop. After this is 
ploughed in during the spring it is gen- 
eraly followed by rape or summer tur- 
nips. 

In cultivating the orchard one should 
not continue it later than the latter part 
of June for the southern counties. If 
cultivation is kept up it induces large 
twig growth. If a high color is desired, 
this is a serious handicap. There has 
been a feeling amongst fruit grow- 
ers in Ontario that certain chemical fer- 



tilizers would produce highly colored 
fruit. From experiments conducted by 
the Ontario Agriculture College, it has 
been found that very little of the color 
is derived from the use of fertilizers. If 
one were to alternate the use of barnyard 
manures with commercial fertilizers it 
will be found more profitable than if 
either is used separately. 

In some sections of the western states 
pears are put up almost exclusively in 
boxes for the fancy markets. In Can- 
ada, up to date, they have been handled 
very carelessly. This may be accounted 
for to a large extent from a large percen- 
tage of them being disposed of to the 
canning factories. The size of the pack- 
age that has been used in the north- 
western states is somewhat smaller than 
that of our standard apple boxes. The 
Britsh Columbia growers use a box 
somewhat the same. The majority of 
pears that are marketed are usually put 
up in small baskets holding eleven quarts. 
This is used for the local trade. By us- 
ing this size of a carrier the pear can 
be made to appear pleasing to the eye. 
However, if thie fruit is to be shipped to 
a distant market it is best to pack it 
in a box that would be about half the size 
of our regular apple boxes. By doing 
this the pears present a better appear- 
ance upon reaching their destination, be- 
cause they have been provided better 
protection. If one takes the care to 
pack regularly the fruit should always 
be wrapped. If the points here touched 
upon are borne in mind and followed out, 
pear growing can be made a success. 



Fruit Tree Borers 

I. F. Mctcalf, B.S.A., Gore Bay, OiL 
An enemy of fruit trees that has done 
a great deal of damage is the borer. The 
presence of borers in a tree is indicated 
by the lack of growth and by the pres- 
ence of sawdust like gnawings and ex- 
crement that are pushed out from their 
holes. These may not be detected until 
after the damage is done, unless the sod 
is kept away from the base of the tree. 
Frequently a tree will be entirely girdled 
before you are aware that the borers are 
working in the tree. 

When the work of the borers is noticed 
the best remedy is to cut them out with 
a sharp knife, or a very flexible (copper) 
wire may be pushed in and they may be 
killed in that way. However, there are 
several ways of preventing this trouble, 
he idea is to prevent the female beetle 
from laying her eggs on the trunk of 
the tree. These eggs may be laid any 
time in the early spring, and would soon 
develop into the borers which would later 
on do the damage to the trees. Any pre- 



i 



Afav, Tgt4 



THE CANADIAN HORTTC ULTUBIST 



'2:; 



ventative treatment must be given in the 
spring, as these treatments would have 
no eflfect on the borers themselves. 

AN EFFECTIVE WASH 

A great variety of washes have been 
used for preventing the female beetles 
from laying their eggs upon the trees, 
the following is probably as effective as 
any that can be safely used without in- 
jury to the bark (after having removed 
all loose bark with a dull hoe or scraper). 

Dissolve one-half gallon of soft soap 
or five pounds of whale oil soap in one- 
half gallon of hot water, and add a half- 
pint of carbolic acid. When mixed, add 
five gallons of warm water and enough 
lime to make a whitewash of about the 
consistency of paint. Finally, stir in 
one-fourth pound of Paris green. Apply 
the wash with a stiff brush, covering the 
bark thoroughly and completely, and fill- 
ing all cracks and crevices. Another ap- 
plication should be made in about three 
weeks' time. 

The use of something that will not only 
protect the trees from the attack of the 



borers, but also from the heat of the sun, 
is more useful and economical than a 
simple wash. The parts of trees injured 
by heat are more liable to the depreda- 
tions of borers than the healthy, unin- 
jured portions, and so anything that will 
prevent sunscald and will at the same 
time keep off insects, will be a double 
benefit to the tree. 

Take some wood veneer, such as is 
used in basket-making, or birch bark, 
and wrap around the trunk of the tree 
beginning just below the surface of the 
ground and extending upwards for about 
two feet. Bank the base of this up with 
some soil to prevent the insects getting 
in that way, and fill the top with cotton 
wool. See that there are no openings 
along the length of this covering where 
insects could get in. If applied in the 
fall this covering would also protect from 
mice. A small amount of money and a 
little time spent in looking after the trees 
that you now have will be much better 
spent than it would be in buying and 
setting out new trees. 



Orchard Aphids and Their Control* 

Prof. W. H. Brittain, B.S.A., Provincial Entomologist, Truro, N.S. 



THE rot form of orchard aphids is the 
most troublesome, and I have been 
informed by several Nova Scotia 
fruit growers they have been troubledwilh 
it, especially in young trees. The best 
treatment known for this form is tobacco 
waste, which can be obtained from to- 
bacco factories at small cost. Nursery 
trees can be protected from the aphids 
by laying a line of dust in a furrow on 
either side of the tree loosely covering 

•Extract from an address delivered at the 
last annual convention of the Hova Scotia Fruit 
Growers' Aseociation. 



with earth. Larger trees can be pro- 
tected by removing the earth to a depth 
of about four inches for a radius of thi'ee 
feet around the tree and putting in about 
a peck of the tobacco waste. It is most 
convenient to do this in the spring when 
plowing. Throw a furrow away from 
the tree on each side, having a man fol- 
low the plow with a hoe and scraping 
away the earth for a short distance 
around each infested tree. 

COST OF DIFPEREJ^T SPKAYS (40 GALLONSi 

Black Leaf 40 and soap, 55 cts. 



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Netti of tli« Tent and Foreit Caterpillars which hara done «o much damage of lata year* 

The et^ga of these caterpillars ms/y be found in little lumps around the ends of the branches 
of the trees early in the sea«on. Out them ofT before tliey hatch out. If you neglect to do 
this an early spraying will quickly destroy them. 

— Photo by Rev. Father Lsoipold, La Trappa, Que. 



Black Leaf 40 and iime-sulphur (i-io), 

$i-35- 

Black Leaf 40 and lime-surphur (1-30), 
80 cts. 

Black Leaf 40 and lime sulphur (1.30), 
and lead arsenate, $1.04. 

KEBC«ENE EMULSION 

Kerosene at 17 cts. per gallon. 

Soap at 5 cts per lb. 

Cost of 40 gallons of spray, 78 cts. 

WHALE OIL SOAPS 

The cost of the different makes will 
range from about sixty to seventy-five 
cents for forty gallons of the diluted 
wash. 

I have purposely omitted mention of 
several mixtures of which a good deal 
is heard, because I consider the cost pro- 
hibitive. 

A number of years ago it was con- 
fidently stated that the dormant spray 
of lime-sulphur was a specific against all 
kinds of aphis eggs. This has since been 
disproved both by experiment station 
workers and practical men all over the 
country, even when the spray is deferred 
until, the buds are bursting and the 
aphids hatched, only a small percentage 
are destroyed. It is significant to note 
in this connection that in British Col- 
umbia last year, whereas the amount of 
lime-sulphur used fell off forty-one per 
cent., there was an increase of twenty- 
four per cent, in the sales of Black Leaf 
40, indicating that the growers consider- 
ed aphis the chief pest, and found con- 
trol during the growing seasons most 
satisfactory. 

APPLY IN TIME 

Though in bad years more than the 
one spray will be found necessary, one 
thing must be recognized, and that is, 
that the spray must be applied before the 
aphids have had time to curl the leaves, 
or subsequent sprayings will be of little 
value, even with the use of a fairly high 
pressure. In spite of its relative high 
cost, I am inclined at the present time to 
recommend the Black Leaf 40, as from 
the standpoint of efficiency, cost, con- 
venience of application, ability to mix 
with other sprays, it has, in my own 
experience, proved most satisfactory. I 
do not believe that when there is reason 
to fear an attack of aphids a grower 
would be justified in "taking a chance," 
and risking no spray. By doing this, 
he would stand to lose, not only a large 
proportion of his crop, but also the time 
and money he had spent in cultivating, 
pruning, thinning, and all other opera- 
tions incidental to the production of his 
crop. I am convinced that most of the 
cases of non-success that have been re- 
ported by those using this spray have 
been the result of two factors : First, not 
spraying until the leaves have curled, 
and second, insufficient pressure. 



124 



THE CANADIAN HORTICULTURIST 



May, 1914 



;iS^:.¥ iJt > ^ ^t: 'i \i i>' 




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A Row of King of Tompkins Apples in Bloom in the Orchard of W. Palmer, Victoria, B.C. 



The Pollination of Fruit 

Wm. Gibbs, Appin, Ont. 



POLLINATION is accomplished 
through two agencies : To a small 
extent by wind under favorable 
conditions, and to a large extent by pol- 
linating insects. Of these the honey bee 
is the most important, because of its 
great numbers, owing to the many 
apiaries that are kept throughout the 
country. 

The relatives of the honey bee, which 
also assist in poUinizing fruit trees and 
flowers, include the bumble bee, which is 
almost the only medium by which red 
clover is pollinized. The balance of her 
relatives include ants, lonely wasps, dig- 
ger wasps, and colony wasps. These lat- 
ter have little effect on the pollination of 
fruit blossoms on account of their not 
being present in sufficient numbers. 

Investigations have shown that bees 
are an absolute necessity for the produc- 
tion of fruit and clover seed. They are 
also the only agencies by which cross- 
pollination takes place excepting that 
affected by wind, which is not considered 
to take place to any great extent. In 
some flowers the pistils are sterile to their 
own pollen. Thus they are dependent 
entirely on cross pollination for their 
very existence. It is claimed that be- 
cause of cross-pollination the apple is 
more vigorous and more resistant to dis- 
ease, better able to withstand frost with- 
out killing, grows larger, and has more 
color. 

Prof. F. A. Waugh, of the Massachu- 
setts Agricultural College, has frequently 
warned fruit growers against the danger 
of spraying fruit trees when in bloom 
because of the destruction of honey bees 
that results. Speaking at a convention 
Inst June he gave some conclusive evi- 
dence, showing that the honey bee was 



the principal and almost the only agent in 
the pollination of fruit trees. He refer- 
red to the claim to the effect that there 
are other agencies than bees for doing 
this work, principal among which is the 
wind. To determine the relative import- 
ance of these fa,ctors he stated that he 
had taken pieces of glass, coated them 
with vaseline, and secured them on the 
windward side of fruit trees in full bloom, 
at a distance that was about equal to the 
distance between trees. He found that 
these glasses, smeared as they were with 
grease, received almost no pollen dust, 
even when the wind blew through the 
trees in full bloom in the direction of the 
plates. He further stated that there are 
practically no insects except bees that 
are flying when fruit trees are in bloom, 
and that nearly all the cross-pollination 
that is efl^ected is through the agency of 
the bees. There are some varieties of 
trees that are self-pollinating, but even 
these varieties have more and better fruit 
when bees are present. Prof. Waugh is 
not only not a beekeeper, but he is re- 
garded as one of the greatest authorities 
on fruit culture in the United States. 



Changing Varieties 

D. L. Msckiotoik, Calvary, Alberta 

There are by far too many varieties 
of apples grown in British Columbia, as 
well as in most other fruit districts. 
Growers are aware of this, but when you 
mention the advisability of changing to 
varieties that have proved themselves 
worthy of culture they shake their heads 
and seem to have the idea that this is 
going to involve a great loss. 

Most growers consider that the trees 
should be taken out and young trees 
planted in their places. This is wrong. 
The thing to do is to cut over the pre- 
sent trees, leaving about one-half dozen 
branches about six inches long above the 
crotch, and more if the tree is of any 
size, and crown graft at least four scions 
into each branch. This would ■ give at 
least twenty-four young growths right 
away, and owing to the vigor of the 
roots they would make great growth the 
first and second year. The chances are 
that if everything was favorable there 
would be a quantity of fruit the third 
year. Thus the whole character of the 
orchard could be changed in a few years 
with very little loss. 

If the right varieties were worked on 
the old trees, the grower would be more 
than compensated for any trouble or ap- 
parent loss he might have had. I should 
never think of taking the old trees out, 
because the change can be made so much 
sooner by cutting back and grafting the 
desired varieties. 



A Remedy for Plum Aphis 

A. H. Raff, Toronto, Ont. 

The following remedy has been used 
by me as a remedy for the plum aphis 
(aphis pruni). I feel that I can highly 
recommend it : 

Thirty pounds of soap (soft soap is 
the best), one gallon of coal oil, three 
pounds of napthalene, and nine parts of 
water for the stock solution. If boiled 
until the soap is dissolved it will readily 
mix. Use eighteen pounds of the stock 
solution to one hundred gallons of 
water. Spray before the buds swell. 



Better Fruits at Less Cost 

Prof. H. A. SnHacc, PeanijlTania 

Obtain uniformity of size by a uniform 
system of- pruning, and especially by 
systematic thinning, feeding, cultivating, 
mulching, manuring, etc. 

Both increased size and color can be 
obtained by making several pickings, 
taking each time only those that are well 
developed and colored, leaving the others 
for future development in size and color. 

Avoid blemishes from diseases by 
spraying with fungicides, according to 
the teachings of our plant pathologists, 
and by planting varieties on ground 
suited to each resjjectively. For exam- 
ple: Champion peach, on low ground or 
where there is no air drainage, is almost 
sure to have ripe rot ; and Salway in such 
a location is very liable to have scab and 
crack. Also spray with strong lime- 
sulphur solution once each dormant sea- 
son, better immediately before the leaves 
appear; and with bordeaux mixture or 
self-boiled lime-sulphur just before the 
blossoms open ; and spray again with the 
same, at proper intervals, two or three 
times after the blossoms fall. 



The road that leads to the orchard 
is the pathway to a simple, happy pros- 
perous life. 



Making a Lav^n 

J. H. Grisdale, Director of Experimental Farms, Ottawa, Ont. 



"The lawn 
[Which, after sweeping broadly round 

the house, 
fWent trickling through the shrubberies 

in a stream 
'Of tender turf, and wore and lost itself 
[Among the Acacias." 

Mrs. Browning here paints such a pic- 

[ture as all love to dwell upon. Who 

among us has not some pleasing memory 

of just such a grass set scene. Such 

surroundings bespeak the peace, the 

fCalm, the restfulness so welcome to the 

[weary soul, so kind to the tired eye. Not 

lone of us but admires a well kept lawn, 

[and better still, not a man or woman 

among us but may have one at small 

outlay of time and money. 

THE soil' 

The best grass growing land is a good 
loam. Any well drained, well prepared 
area of any other sort of soil may, how- 
ever, be so handled as to ensure a pleas- 
ing result. Where building operations 
have recently been going on such resi- 
dues as bricks, stone chippings, etc., 
should be buried at least six inches below 
the surface. The surface should be 
graded with a slight fall away from 
buildings and any depressions or hollows 
should be filled in, even something higher 
than the surrounding land to allow for 
settling. Manure should then be ap- 
plied, about one pound per square foot 
of lawn surface. After scattering the 
manure evenly over the surface, the 
whole area should be well ploughed or 
spaded. If time presses or labor is too 
expensive, ploughing or spading may be 
done only the once, and that to a mod- 
erate depth. If it is desired to ensure 
the very best results possible the land 
should be ploughed, burying the man- 
ure to a moderate depth (four or five 
inches) then later, after harrowing and 
rolling several times, or when in a good 
state of tilth ploughed again about half 
an inch deeper than before. Harrowing 
and rolling will be again in order and 
any new unevenness due to settling 
should now be corrected. After harrow- 
ing, levelling and rolling till in good 
shape it should be left untouched for a 
week or ten days. 

8BBDINQ 
After the surface has lain fallow for 
ten days or so, it should be again levelled 
and well harrowed. If not very firm 
underfoot it will be advisable to roll 
with a heavy roller once or twice before 
seeding. The seed should be divided in- 
to two equal portions and the first part 
scattered as evenly as possible over the 
whole lawn, walking from east to west 
while sowing, liach and every square 
foot of the whole lawn having received 
its fair share of the first half of the seed, 
the sower should then proceed to sow 



the second half of the seed as evenly as 
possible over the lawn walking from 
north to south during the process and 
again being careful to give every square 
foot of land its fair share of this, the 
second part or other half of the seed, 
as well as a fair proportion of the first 
part. Carelessness in seed scattering is 
responsible for many patchy looking 
lawns and is in fact the cause of not a 
few failures. The seed once sown, the 
whole surface should be lightly and even- 
ly raked or harrowed. On most soils a 
rake will give better results than a har- 
row. The main point is to cover the 
seed, although at the same time, one 
must guard against too deeply burying 
it. After raking or lightly harrowing 
the land should be rolled again, unless 
very damp, in which case the rolling 
operation should be postponed till a later 
date. 

Many lawn grass mixtures are to 
be had at seed stores. Not infrequently 
these ready prepared mixtures contain a 
rather to large proportion of weed seeds, 
It is important to buy grass seed free 
from weed seeds, since if preparation has 
been made as above outlined, the chances 
are very strongly in favor of a lawn free 
from weeds other than such as spring 
from seeds sown by wind or mixed with 
grass seed. 

Taken all in all probably the best 
grass to sow is Canadian Blue Grass, or 
failing this, Kentucky Blue Grass. 
Pains should be taken to secure a good 



sample of this grass and it should then 
l>e sown liberally at the rate of about 
fifty pounds an acre, or one pound to the 
hundred square yards. 

After the seed is sown the lawn should 
be well rolled, care being taken to pack 
as evenly as possible and retain a smooth 
surface. No rolling should be done, how- 
ever, if the surface is at all damp when 
the seeding is performed. It would be 
much better to postpone the rolling for 
a day or two, or if the soil continues 
moist it might be advisable to postpone 
the rolling for two or three weeks . 

After the grass is well up should a 
drought occur or a heavy rain come and 
the surface later become very dry, it 
would be found advantageous to roll 
again, using a light roller. This will 
break the surface crust, create a mulch, 
and so encourage growth and ensure a 
better stand- 
Care should be taken not to use a lawn 
mower upon the young grass, since this 
machine is almost certain to pull out by 
the roots rather than clip it at this stage 
of growth. If weeds spring up or the 
grass becomes unsightly, the whole area 
should be carefully gone over with a 
sharp scythe rather than with the lawn 
mower. 

The process of getting a lawn by sow- 
ing is of course rather slow. The seed- 
ing down method may be very often im- 
proved upon, at least so far as speed is 
concerned, by sod laying. For laying 
sod, practically the same preparation 




An Inezpantivc Beauty Spot Where the Bird* Delight to Stay. Lily Pond in the Garden 

of Mri. McNair, Hamilton, Ont. 



125 



ia6 



THE CANADIAN HORTICULTURIST 



M 



ay, 1914 



should be made as for seeding. The 
lawn maker should see that the sod sup- 
plied is thick enough to include a fair 



proportion of growing roots, and so en- 
sure the grass getting a good start in its 
new feeding ground. 



Planting and Pruning Shrubs 

H. J. Moore, Queen Victoria Park, Niagara Falls, Ont. 

N order to arrive at the proper time 



I and method of pruning shrubs a study 
of their characteristics is necessary. 
For this purpose we must recognize two 
distinct types, distinct in the sense that 
one flowers upon the current year's wood, 
and the other upon the old or previous 
season's growth. It is easy to disting- 
uish between the two. As a general 
rule shrubs should be pruned at once 
after flowering if pruning is necessary, 
but in the case of the more tender ones 
which flower upon the current season's 
growth, it is unwise to prune before 
danger of heavy frosts is past in the 
spring, say about the first week of April, 
roses and hydrangeas. There is always 
danger when these are pruned early in 
the season, of the remaining buds being 
killed, which is often the case when 
bright sunlight succeeds excessive frost. 
When this occurs the plants may be 
seriously injured, and the resultant 
growth and flowers worthless. 

Lilacs, Shrubby Honeysuckles (Loni- 
cera), Weigelia, Snowballs (Viburnum), 
Deutzias, Forsythias, and similar hardy 
shrubs should all, if necessary, be prun- 
ed at once after flowering, and the old 
flowers removed from such as the lilac 
before seed formation has occurred. 

In the case of shrubs, except ever- 
greens, which are dependent upon the 
formation of new growth for the follow- 
ing season's flowers, the immediate re- 
moval of old flowering wood or branches 
favors the development of new growth 
and the subsequent ripening of vegeta- 
tive or flowering buds ere winter sets in. 
Shrubs, however, bearing berries (fruits) 
which mature during the fall should not 
be pruned after flowering, as this will 
eliminate their winter beauty, as upon 
the flowering branches the berries are 
borne. In this category are such ex- 
amples as Berberis of many kinds, snow- 
terries white and red fruited (Symphori- 
carpus racemosus and Vulgaris), and 
deciduous species of Euonymus, many 
of which bear very ornamental fruits. 

BENEFITS OF PRUNING 

The objects of pruning are: To en- 
courage the development of vigorous 
growth and the subsequent production 
of flowers; to eliminate worthless bran- 
ches and superfluous growth, and thus 
favor the equal distribution of air and 
light: To remove defective parts, and 
to promote growth to replace these and 
thus assist nature to restore symmetry. 

It is an easy matter to remove all un- 
desirable growth, providing certain 
principles are observed. When remov- 



ing branches, do not leave stubs, each 
undesirable portion should be removed 
with a slanting cut at its junction with 
another stem or just above a bud. When- 
ever it is necessary to shorten or "head 
back" the longest branches all should 
not be cut at the same height. 

Growth should be encouraged close to 
the ground rather than at the apex of 
the shrub. To induce this the longest 
branches must be gradually removed. 
As the stronger branches grow more 
quickly to the source of light, the weaker 
lateral ones eventually succumb. It is 
a case of the survival of the fittest, con- 
sequently the main stems near the 
ground appear bare and unsightly, there- 
fore, the stronger must be removed to 
be replaced by the weak. Dilapidation 
quickly ensues where careful pruning is 
not exercised, but where the practice per- 
tains renovation is constantly taking 
place much to the enhanced appearance 
of the subjects. 

It is utter folly to clip shrubs into 
grotesque shapes unless they are planted 
as hedges or are included in a formal 
garden scheme. Clipped shrubs are not 
desirable for any other purpose, neither 
are they natural, as usually all their 
beauty and grace vanishes with the 
removal of growth which produces flow- 
ers. A well pruned shrub should ap- 
pear to an artistic eye a perfect object, 
no sign of mutilation should be visible, 
the head should be perfectly symmetri- 
cal with being grotesque. Clipped shrubs 
are always grotesque, as the pernicious 
practice of hacking these beautiful sub- 
jects results in their total failure to pro- 
duce annually their abundant blossoms. 
Shrubs differ from trees in that they pos- 
sess no well defined leader (trunk). 
When pruning trees it is proper to re- 
tain the leader, but in the former no 
such leader should be encouraged. 

BOSEfi 

Roses planted in the spring should be 
cut back somewhat severely. Other 
shrubs may simply require thinning to 
counterbalance the loss of roots caused 
by lifting. Roses, however, which are 
established are pruned according to the 
characteristics of the class to which they 
belong. Hybrid perjjetuals are stronger 
growers than hybrid teas, while climb- 
ing or rambling roses are distinct from 
either of the former. Strong growing 
plants should be pruned lightly, weak 
growing ones such as many hybrid teas 
. severely, but in the case of ramblers it 
is only necesary to remove old or dead 
branches to prevent crowding of young 




A Well Pruned Hyarangea 

growths, or to allow such growths to be 
trained into desirable positions. It may 
also occasionally be necessary to shorten 
back the longest growths to keep the 
plants within bounds. 

Briefly the shoots of hybrid p)erp>etuals 
should simply be severed at points six 
inches or so from the previous season's 
wood, and all superfluous or weak 
growth removed. The mistake of cut- 
ting all at the same height should be 
avoided. Hybrid teas should be severe- 
ly thinned, completely eliminating weak 
growths, leaving only the strong, say, 
three or four to each plant, or if these 
are exceptionally weak, only two. Cut 
these back to four inches from the old 
wood and the resulting growth will be 
much stronger than were a larger num- 
ber allowed to remain, and will produce 
flowers of finer quality and in greater 
profusion . 

HTDRANGEA 

Prune the shoots of hydrangea panicu- 
lata back to two buds and after growth 
has commenced ruboff^ one of the shoots, 
leaving the stronger in each case. Re- 
strict the number on the plant to four or 
five. In this way weak unsightly plants 
will become rejuvenated, and if care- 
fully cultivated and mulched enormous 
flowers will result. The illustration is 
that of a plant bearing individual flow- 
ers eighteen inches in depth and sixteen 
inches in diameter at the base, pruned 
in the manner indicated above. 



Some of the Clematis are almost her- 
baceous in character, dying down to the 
ground in winter. Others, by protec- 
tion, or during mild winters, come 
through the winter without the growth 
being killed back very much. If the 
wood is not killed back when start- 
ing them in the spring, it is well to ■ 
leave some of the strong live wood ra- 9 
Iher than cut them right down to the 
ground. The variety Jackmanni is one 
of the best varieties grown. They flower 
on the new growth produced from older 
wood. — Wm. Hunt, O.A.C., Guelph, 
Ont. 



May, 1914 



THE CANADIAN HORTICULTURIST 



iiy 



The Culture of Sweet Peas 

J. H. Bowman, Elmira, Ont. 



THE sweet pea is one of the most 
popular of annual flowers, and de- 
\ servedly so. I know of no other 

flower that will yield so much beautiful 
'bloom over so long a period. 

Disease has been very prevalent dur- 
ing the past few years, and appears to 
be increasing each season. The disease, 
commonly known as streak, is said by 
some authorities to be caused by root 
rot fungus. Light to dark brown streaks 
appear on the lower parts of the stem 
and on the leaves. The points of the 
shoots are often abnormally thick and of 
a yellowish color. The flowers often 
come malformed and are usually very 
poor in color, thin and flimsy. The 
stems are also weak. 

Whatever the cause may be, I am 
convinced, after three years' careful ob- 
servation and experiment, that heavy 
dressings of animal manure encourage 
the development of streak. If your soil 
is in fair condition, I wouldn't use any 
animal manure at all, but would advise 
the use of a phosphate and potash fer- 
tilizer . 

Those authorities who hold that 
"streak disease" is caused by root rot 
fungus, Thulavia basicola, advise dis- 
infecting the soil by one of the following 
methods : By heating to two hundred 
and twelve degrees F. This is hardly 
practicable where any quantity of soil is 
to be treated. By soaking with form- 
alin — one per cent, solution, one part, 
to twelve and one-half gallons of water. 
By making holes all over the ground, 
twelve inches apart and ten inches deep, 
dropping half an ounce of petrol in each, 
and closing immediately to keep vapor 
in. This disinfection should be done at 
least two weeks before sowing or plant- 
ing. Some writers also advise soaking 
the seed the night before sowing in per- 
manganate of potash, a half-ounce to a 
gallon of water. 

Dig your trenches about two feet wide 
and twelve to eighteen inches deep. 
Don't use any animal manure unless 
your soil is in very poor condition. After 
you have worked up the soil, dust on 
the following fertilizer, and rake in thor- 
oughly : Two ounces bone meal, two 
ounces superphosphate, two ounc-es sul- 
phate of potash f)er square yard. 

It is important to get your sweet pea 
seeds in as early in the season as pos- 
sible. Sweet peas do best if they have 
an opportunity to make good root de- 
velopment before hot weather sets in. 
Sow seeds in two rows, one foot apart, 
and three inches apart in the row. They 
may be thinned later to about six inches 
apart. 

A trellis or support of wire netting 
or string should be provided before the 
plants make any tendrils. Sweet peas 



never grow away so freely if the sup- 
port is not provided in time. 

After the plants are up a few inches, 
they should be cultivated thoroughly, 
and this cultivation should be kept up 
through the season at least once a week. 
The Buco cultivator is an excellent tool 
for this purpose. 

If you have room for but twelve var- 
ieties, the following (selected as the best 
of over fifty Spencer varieties I grew 
last season) are recommended : Elfrida 
Pearson, blush ; Etta Dyke, white ; Her- 
cules, pink ; Mrs. Routzahn or Gladys 
Burt, cream pinks ; Mrs. R. HaJlam, 
deep cream pink ; Clara Curtis, cream ; 
Nettie Jenkins, lavender; Maud Holmes 
or King Edward Spencer, crimson ; 
Queen of Norway, mauve ; Nubian, 
maroon ; Mrs. C. W. Breadmore, pico- 
tee pink on cream ground ; Thos. Stev- 
enson or Edna Unwin Improved, orange 
scarlet. 



Making Flower Beds 

^P. D. Powe, Caintville, Ont. 

Making the beds for garden annuals 
is one of the most important steps 
to be taken in the getting of 
good flowers. In the city, where 
manure is hard to obtain, the scrapings 
from the road are good if mixed with a 
little prepared fertilizer (obtainable from 
all seed dealers) and worked into any 
fairly good garden soil. Where manure 



is plentiful and soil abundant, a good 
bed may be made up of one-third man- 
ure, well rotted, and if the soil is dry, 
one-fifth sand- Remember, the richer 
the beds the better the plants if you can 
keep the weeds down. 

When we have our soil well worked 
in a pile we must decide what shape our 
bed will take and its size. This depends 
greatly on experience. If you are not 
an expert and a true judge of beauty, you 
had better stick to the plain square, 
round, diamond or oval bed. and not try 
any of the more complicated designs. 
Leave these to the florist or landscape 
gardener. 

The size of the bed should be deter- 
mined by how much land you have at 
your disposal. We can only say that one 
large bed is far more beautiful and ar- 
tistic than several small beds. 

These points decided, turn again to 
your compost heap and after spading the 
bed you have laid out wheel your pre- 
pared soil upon it and with a rake round 
it up and make it to the size and form 
decided on. Remove all grass, weeds, 
stones and other matter, and make the 
whole firm and smooth, gently sloping 
towards the edges of the bed. Long, 
narrow beds may be made in the same 
manner at the foot of a trellis or along 
the porch, where vines may be planted. 
These beds are best prepared as soon in 
the spring as the ground is ready to 
work. 

When trees are starting leaf take a stick 
and make shallow lines in the beds. Sow 




An Arch of Dorothy Feikint Roiet in Bloomlat entrance to Rc«e Gaiden of Wm. Hartrj 

Saaforth, Ont. 

Fully one thousand oboioe rosee are irown in Soaforth by some ha.lf doien enthuaiauu. They 

inolude all the standard varieties and nutny new sorts that promise to inoreaae in popularity 

Mr. Hartry keeps bees as well as roses. Ilis honey bouse may be sapn in the bochrmnnd. 



t28 



THE CANADIAN H O HI I (' T I/I U R I S T 



Mnv, 



I f m 




Something of the Beauty of a Well Arranged Pergola is Here Revealed 

I'ergolas in the garden are gaiiiiug rapidly in public favor. They make ideal le- 
treats at almost any time during the growing season. This i>ergola is in the 
garden of Mrs. D. Lumsden, Ottawa, Ont. 



these thinly and cover Hghtly or they 
may be sown broadcast if the whole bed 
is to be planted solidly in one variety 
of plants. One of the most beautiful 
beds we ever saw was planted in this 
manner. It comprised all the mixed 
poppies in all colors. The beauty can- 
not be described in words and can only 
be understood by making a similar bed. 
Balsam, petunias, phlox or other quick 



growing plants of a like character, are 
the best for this purpose. Where a 
border is desired a drill or light furrow 
one half inch deep, may be made around 
the edge of the bed with a sharp stick, 
and sown thinly with the seed of alys- 
sum, mignonette, portulaca, or many 
other low growing plants. As the seed 
is mostly small, give a very light cover- 
ing of earth. 



Experimental Work with Flowers' 



F. E. Buck, Experime 

SINCE 191 1, the seed of several hun- 
dred different varieties of annual 
flowers has been obtained each year 
from seedsmen in this and other coun- 
tries, and tested at the Central Experi- 
mental Farm, Ottawa. Details are 
not possible here, but some re- 
sults have been obtained which are sug- 
gestive and encouraging. Some results 
have suggested other lines of experi- 
ment, for instance, the seed of a number 
of annual plants left over from previous 
years and saved for a test as to germina- 
bility, was sowed just before the period 
of drought of last June and July. A cer- 
tain number of the young plants which 
came up did not succumb to the heat and 
drought but survived under the most ad- 
verse conditions and gave bloom late in 
the year after those of the regular test 
were over. As a point of interest it may 
be stated that they bloomed with us at 
Ottawa up till the end of October. From 
this we conclude that it may be well for 
us to try out most annuals under similar 
conditions in order to know what can be 
recommended to people who wish to raise 
flowers under conditions that would 
make a weed b lush to do well. 

•Extract from an address delivered before the 
Ontario Horticultural Aasooiation. 



lital Farm, Ottawa 

One very interesting point of general 
interest which has been called to our at- 
tention by visitors from the old world in 
connection with these annuals is that the 
intensity of their colors is greater with 
us at Ottawa, than it is, say, in England. 
The brilliancy of the whole patch of an- 
nuals tested at Ottawa was very great 
this past dry season. 

To tell you anything about the recent 
experiments, commenced in 191 1, with 
roses, more particularly the hybrid tea 
varieties, other than this, that already 
a first edition of a pamphlet on roses has 
been exhaused and another edition will 
be ready shortly, is unnecessary per- 
haps, because what we have to say about 
the test so far will be said in that pamph- 
let. I must mention, however, that wo 
started tests with sweet peas about the 
year 1910. So far these tests have been 
chiefly variety tests but in future we are 
planning to make them cover in addition 
methods of growing, and so forth. We 
need definite information on several 
points, such as whether sweet peas will 
do well when grown under certain condi- 
• tions in the same position year after year. 
We want more information as to the 
control of sweet pea diseases and trou- 
bles, reliable data regarding which can- 



not be given till definite ob.servalions 
lia\e been carried on for .several years. 
We do know certain things alxjut certain 
methods which seem to contradict certain 
l)rcvailing opinions. On*; is that sweet 
peas grown in a trench did not do so well 
in our soil as those grown by their side 
which were sown in level ground. An- 
other is that tho.se planted from six to 
twelve inches apart did not do so well 
as those planted about three inches apart, 
and that those planted closer than this 
did best during the early part of the year 
only. 

In all our experimental work at Ottawa 
we wish to keep in mind at least two 
things, one is improvement, that is, in 
the widest meaning of the word. Im- 
provement is sought by selection, by in- 
troducing new things and di.scarding old, 
by rearranging old and new, by modern 
technique, by methods of culture, of con- 
trol of insects and diseases, by the cul- 
tivation of that taste and knowledge of 
the best which leads to the improvement 
of those things that make better home 
surroundings possible. Improvement, 
that is, in things themselves and in the 
way of doing things. This must be the 
raison d'etre, the basis of our experimen- 
tal work. 

The other thing is this : we do not 
seek the new things so often as the 
slight improvement of the old, and there- 
fore our chances of success are greater. 
So long as we do not duplicate the work 
of others but remember to do work called 
for by local conditions, and do it without 
deviation, by discouragement of seasons 
or events, even so long will the experi- 
mental work be of a quality and quanti- 
ty justifying, we hope, its continuance 
and increase. 

Geraniums 

Wm. Hnit, O.A.C., Gnelpb, Oat. 

To secure good geranium plants for 
flowering in winter, slips should be taken 
m the fall or very early spring. A nice 
plant potted from a three and a half or 
four inch pot into a six or seven inch 
pot in June in bedding out time and 
put into good potting soil, will make 
a good plant for winter flowering. 
Plunge the pot to the rim out in the 
open ground early in June. Pinch the 
tips of each shoot out when about eight 
inches in length until about the second 
week in July. This induces a bushy, 
-Turdy growth. 

Keep all the blooms and buds pinched 
Dff' until the middle of August. Lift the 
pot from the ground early in September 
and bring it into the window when it 
should flower all winter. The plant 
should have plenty of water at the roots 
during the summer when plunged in the 
ground. After bringing it into the house 
some liquid fertilizer should be given 
the plant about every ten days. "Bon- 
ora," sold at seed stores, is the best 
plant food for pot plants. 



May, igi^ 



THE CANADIAN H O RT I C U L T UEIS T 



129 



The Art of Potting 

John Gall, Ingle\vood 



THOUGH it may seem a simple mat- 
ter enough on the surface, there is 
some art in potting plants properly. 
The pots should be well drained, using 
for this purpose pieces of broken pots 
or crockery, and placing one large piece 
over the hole in the bottom of your pot. 
A little Sphagnum or rough material of 
some kind should next be placed over 
the crocks to keep the soil from being 
washed down and blocking the drainage. 
Then put on an inch or so of soil before 
placing the plant in po.sition, and fill in 
with the compost, pressing this down 
firmly with the fingers until the pot is 
nearly but not quite full. 

If the pot is .overfilled, insufficient 
room is left for watering, while, if not 
filled full enough, not only does the pot 
not contain enough soil, but the plant 
is liable to become "drowned" when 
water is given. There ought always to 
be enough space left l>etween the top of 
the pot and the surface of the soil to 
allow the giving of sufficient water to 
saturate the whole of the soil and moisten 
all the roots. 

.Some people seem to throw the plants 
into the pots almost anyhow, and still 
they grow and do well. This plan may 
answer well enough in a country garden, 
where plants seem to thrive under any 
condition, but too much care cannot be 
taken in the suburban or town garden. 
Most plants, especially those of the 
"hard-wooded" or shrubby type, require 



to be potted very firmly — that is, to have 
the soil made almost hard in the pots, 
but in the case of soft-wooded plants 
generally, pot rather loosely for rapid 
growth and more firmly for early bloom. 
In all potting operations, see that the 
roots of the plants are spread out in the 
soil, that is to say, they should not have 
the soil thrown on them, but among 
them. The soil should always be slightly 
lower at the rim of the pot than at the 
neck of the plant. 



Hardy Perennials* 

H. W. Cooper, Ottawa, Oat. 

Of all the plants that are cultivated 
for ornamental as well as for cutting 
purposes there are none which have made 
such rapid strides in public favor as the 
hardy garden flowers. Their popularity 
is not at all surprising when we consider 
the many varied and pleasant changes 
which take place throughout the growing 
season in a garden, or portion of one, 
given over to this class of plants, which 
every week, yes, almost every day, 
brings forth something fresh and new to 
interest and delight. Beginning in April 
the early flowering kinds, such as the 
anemonies, hepaticas, Arabis and others, 
open their flowers soon after the snow 
has left the shadier parts of our gar- 
dens. From then on we have constant 

•A pamper read at a recent meeting of the 
Ottawa Horticultural Society. 






changing variety throughout the sum- 
mer until the fall, when only the severe 
frosts stop the more persistent and late 
blooming kinds. 

The most effective position for this 
class of plants in general is an open bor- 
der surrounding a lawn, or backed by a 
fence dividing a garden or lot. They 
will not thrive if given a northern ex- 
posure. 

The method of cultivation is of the 
simplest nature. Begin with any good 
soil as a foundation. When preparing 
the soil for planting the ground should 
be dug to at least two fe^t in depth and 
enriched with well-decomposed manure, 
or other fertilizer. The best time to 
plant perennials is in the spring as soon 
as the plants show signs of growth. 
Hardy plants, such as hemerocallis, dor- 
onicums, paeonies, and Oriental poppies, 
which produce their growth from a 
crown of close compact roots and flower 
in the early summer, are best planted in 
the autumn, as these take some time to 
get established. Fall planting of these 
varieties saves a season's bloom. The.se 
particular kinds should be left undisturb- 
ed for several years. Add a suitable fer- 
tilizer as a surface dressing each spring 
after growth is well started. 

The late summer and autumn bloom- 
ing kinds are usually of -a more vigorous 
growth than the former. They are of 
such sorts as the rudbeckias, heleniums, 
helianthus, the perennial phlox and as- 
ters. On these the original crowns die 
out each season and many new side 
growths are made. These are best re- 
planted every second spring, selecting 
from three to five growths, which, after 
the ground has been redug and enriched, 
may be replanted in their same positions 
or in another part of the garden. Treated 
in this manner they will not only produce 
more and larger flowers, but will pre- 
vent these stronger and more rampant 
growing kinds from crowding out their 
equally interesting, but less vigorous, 
neighbors. 



Spring Bloom in the Garden of Charle* Hunter, Niagara-on-the-L«ke, Ont., whera'many 
Beautiful Shrubs and Noveltiei *uch aa Fig* are grown 



May Garden Notes 

Ferns may still he IniMsphinled from 
the woods to a sheltered spot about the 
house or yard. 

Morning glories, wild cucumber, aiul 
hyacinth bean are good vines to cover 
up unsightly fences or rock piles. 

Sow annual flower seed such as nas- 
turtiums, portulaca, California poppy, 
and Shirley poppy in the open ground. 

It is not too late to spade up that 
weedy place on the lawn, add well-rotted 
manure and sow good bluegrass seed. 

Dahlias and gladiolus may still he 
planted. In fact, it is an excellent plan 
to plant gladioli at intervals in order lo 
get a succession of bkxMu iJn- whole 
season. 



MO 



THE CANADIAN HORTICULTURIST 



May, 1914 



Commercial 

Prof. E. M. 

WHEN are all the people to disre- 
gard the size of the fertilizer bag 
and the color and perfume of the 
contents? These matters need not con- 
demn them for they have nothing to do 
with values; but the analysis printed 
on the bag — printed there for the pro- 
tection of the grower — cannot afford to 
l)c neglected. One hundred pounds of 
fertilizer may be good value at one dol- 
lar, and it may be good value at two 
dollars. It (lepends upon the amount 
and form of the plant food present. 

It is of primary importance that the 
grower should know, that what are sup- 
plied in the fertilizer, is complete, is 
potassium, phosphorus and nitrogen — 
the three plant foods which become ex- 
hausted in soils. He must also know 
that these elemental substances exist in 
the fertilizer in the form of compounds, 
that the potassium will be stated in terms 
of potash, the phosphorus in terms of 
phosphoric acid, and the total nitrogen 
may be present partly as a nitrate and 
partly as ammonia, or other form stat- 
ed in terms of ammonia. All this is very 
confusing. 

The grower will not have proceeded 
far when he will conclude that the 
amounts of essential food exist in the 
bag in very small amounts, and he will 
wonder why he cannot purchase them in 
a pure state, and apply them directly to 
the soil. He will find that a few pounds 
of plant food and no more, are contain- 
ed in one hundred of the mixed and 
complete fertilizer. He will find that the 
attempt to apply plant food as elements 
would be far from practical, and would 
never pay. Nitrogen is abundant, but a 
gas. As such it would be found exceed- 
ing difficult to purchase and harder to 
apply. 

The form in wh-ch the food is found in 
the fertilizer is second in importance to 
the food itself. Plants take up their 
food from the soil in solution, so that 
if the chemicals applied are insoluble 
they are not used. For example, the 
phosphorus present may be stated as 
(first) phosphates soluble in water; (sec- 
ond) reverted phosphates; (third) insolu 
ble phosphates; and (fourth) total phos- 
phorus, which would be the sum of the 
other three. Reverted phosphates are 
soluble in a solution of ammonium cit- 
rate, and are sometimes referred to as 
''citrate-soluble phosphates." Ammon- 
ium citrate, to a certain extent, exerts 
a solvent power upon the reverted phos- 
phate comparable with that exhibited by 
the roots of plants. Such phosphates 
are less valuable than those soluble in 
water. To make the total phosphorus 



Fertilizers 

straight 

appear large the insoluble part is added 
10 the soluble and reverted, but it is only 
fair that the grower should know this. 

The materials used as sources of nitro- 
gen by the fertilizer manufacturer are 
quite varied. One of the commonest 
forms is nitrate of soda, commonly called 
Chili saltpetre. This important sub- 
stance is found in large deposits, occur- 
ing in the rainless regions of Chili and 
Peru. The commercial article is about 
ninety five per cent, pure, and contains 
about fifteen or sixteen per cent, of nit- 
rogen. ■Sulphate of ammonia is a by- 
product of the local gas works. It con- 
tains about twenty p>er cent, of nitrogen. 

Calcium jyanide is a new com- 
pound containing nitrogen, which prom- 
ises well. The inexhaustible supply of 
nitrogen in the air is drawn up)on in its 
making. Dried blood is a by-product 
from the slaughter houses, extensively 
used. It contains about thirteen per 
cent, of nitrogen. Tankage is a by- 
product from the slaughter houses, of 
various composition. Bone, hair, skin, 
blood and complete animals, condemned 
for other purp>oses, are boiled, and the 
fat removed. The dried product is then 
ground and offered for sale as tankage. 
The amounts of nitrogen contained in 
tankage depend upon the materials enter- 
ing into the composition. 

Ground bone is one of the chief sources 
of phosphoric acid. It is a very slow 
acting substance, however, so slow that 
for many purposes it is of little immedi- 
ate value. - When acted upon by sul- 
phuric acid it becomes immediately avail- 
able for plant life. This material is 
known as superphosphate. On account 
of the limited amount of bone, phosphatic 
rock has been used for the same pur- 
pose. In many cases this dissolved 
rock, or acid phosphate as it is com- 
monly called, has given good results. 
In other cases results have not been 
striking. 

Basic slag is a by-product of the 
Bessemer steel manufacture. The slag 
is ground to a fine powder. It contains 



When the various amounts of plant 
food are known, as stated on the bag, 
it is an casv matter to compute what 
should be paid per hundred, if the com- 
mercial values of the fertilizer constitu- 
ents are known. The.se values vary 
from year to year, so that the commer- 
cial prices are no indication that the 
price is on a par with what the grower 
can afford to pay. This must be deter- 
mined by comparing price with increase 
in crop, and what it sold for 

Commercial prices not long since were 
something as follows: 

Nitrogen in nitrates 16 cents 

Nitrogen in dried blood and tankage . . 

15 to 20 cents 
Phosphorus in water-soluble phosphates. 

10 cents 
Phosphorus in ammonium-citrate soluble 

phosphates 9 cents 

Phosphorus, insoluble in ammonia citrate 

4 1-2 cents 
Potassium 5 to 6 cents 

MIXING FKRTIUZER8 

The mixing of fertilizers is not a dif- 
ficult matter, and may be performed by 
any grower if a barn floor and shovel 
are available. A sand sieve is also an 
aid in getting rid of lumps and in bring- 
ing the mixture to a uniform mass. 
There is a saving in the home mixing 
of fertilizers. The amount of the saving 
will depend somewhat upon the quanti- 
ties of chemicals purchased, wholesale 
or retail. 

Sulphate of ammonia should not he 
mixed with wood ashes or lime. Bone 
meal should not be mixed with lime. 
Barnyard manure should not be mixed 
with lime or nitrate of soda. Thomas 
slag should not be mixed with nitrate of 
soda, kainite or muriate of potash. If 
some fertilizing constituents are mixed, 
valuable plant food may be lost in the 
air, or hard, lumpy masses obtained. 
The common fertilizers, other than those 
mentioned, may be mixed with safety. 

It is an easy matter to determine the 
required amount of each material with 
which to make a fertilizer of a given for- 
mula. Suppose we desire to mix a fer- 
tilizer containing four per cent, nitro- 
gen, eight per cent, phosphoric acid and 






about twelve per cent, of phosphoric ten per cent, potash, and that we have 
acid. 

One of the best potash fertilizers is 
the muriate of potash, a salt mined in 
Germany. ■ It contains about fifty per 
cent, of potash. Kainit is a low-grade 
pota.sh salt, varying somewhat in compo^ 



on hand nitrate of soda, acid phosphate, 
and muriate of potash. Nitrate of soda 
contains about sixteen per cent, of nit- 
rogen. Every one hundred pounds of 
fertilizer must contain four per cent., or 
four [x>unds of nitrogen. It is seen at 



sition but averaging about twelve per o"*^^ ^^at we must have four times twen- 
ty or eighty jjounds of nitrogen to meet 
this formula, and as each one hundred 
pounds of nitrate of soda contains six- 
teen pounds of nitrogen, we must have 
five times this quantity, or five hundred 
pounds of nitrate of soda. 



cent, potash. 

Wood ashes is a valuable source of 
potash, which also contains lime. Much 
more of it should be used in New Bruns- 
wick, as it is a cheap source of supply- 
ing potash. 



May, 1914 



THE CANADIAN HORTICULTURIST 



131 



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Iriih Cobbler Potatoes, Grown 

These pot-atoea show the results of three years 

Seed' Growers' 

The formula calls for eighfe per cent, 
of phosphoric arid, or cig^ht times twen- 
ty or one himdred and sixty pounds for a 
ton. Dividing: one hundred and sixty 
I by fourteen, the per cent, of available 
fphosphoric acid in the phosphate used, 
[we find that 1,143 pounds of phosphate 
[are needed. Two hundred pounds of 
potash are required. Muriate of potash 
contains fifty per cent, of actual potash, 
so it will take four hundred pounds of 
muriate of potash to supply this. These 
amounts make a total of a ton and forty- 
three pounds. 

If a low-grade fertilizer were wanted 
s'lialler amoinits of these ingredients 
should be used, and the amount made up 
to a ton by means of a filler such as 
sand, land plaster or the like. The col- 
or of the resulting mass, and the volume 
of a hundred pounds of the same, de- 



by W, E. Turner, Duval, Saik. 

of selection under the rules of the Canadian 
Association'. 

pends upon the character of the filler 
used. It is seldom profitable to buy or 
use low-grade fertilizers. 

Try the following formulae this year: 
POTATOES— 

Nitrate of Soda 100 lbs. 

Dried Blood 200 lbs. 

Superphosphates i ,200 lbs. 

Muriate of Potash 500 lbs. 

Apply at the rate of 2,000 per acre. 
SWEET CORN— 

Nitrate of Soda 100 lbs. 

Dried Blood 200 lbs. 

Superphosphate 1,300 lbs. 

Muriate of Potash 400 lbs. 

Apply at the rate of two thousand 
lbs. an acre. These amounts are to be 
used when nO' stable manure is used. If 
used in conjunction with stable manure 
a much less quantity should be used. 



Early Potatoes 

James Anthony, Agincourt, Ont. 



The best soil for early potatoes is a 
rich, sandy loam, with a porous subsoil. 
The best crop to precede the potatoes is 
clover. As soon as the clover is remov- 
ed the sod is covered with a thick car- 
pet of manure. This is left to leach into 
the soil, with the result that the early 
fall finds the field- covered with a long 
and thick after-crop of clover. The field is 
plowed in the early fall, about six inches 
deep. In the spring it is disked and re- 
plowed and the soil thoroughly worked 
up in order that it may be deep and 
mellow. It can be readily seen that it 
is crammed full of humus. 

The Early Eurekas give the best of 
satisfaction. About the middle of March 
the seed is put, one row deep, into crates. 
As far as possible the potatoes are stood 



seed end up in the crates. The crates 
are placed in a fairly warm room in order 
that they may be well sprouted by plant- 
ing time. 

As soon as the danger of frost is be- 
lieved to be over the potatoes are taken 
to the field and planted. A potato planter 
with a fertilizer attachment is used for 
making the marks for the seed and for 
depositing a fertilizer rich in potash in 
the mark for the potatoes. The potash 
is applied at the rate of about three hun- 
dred pounds an acre. The potatoes are 
then placed in the marks by hand, about 
twelve or fourteen inches apart, and cov- 
ered lightly by hand. The smaller sized 
and the medium sized seed is planted 
whole in order that a period of slow 
growth may be the more successfully 



resisted. The planting and covering are 
done by hand in order that the sprouts 
may not be broken off. It is best to 
plant the seed quite deep and to cover 
lightly. The shallow covering encour- 
ages quick growth, as the sun's heat is 
readily admitted to the seed, and, should 
a frost threaten, the sprouts above 
ground may be quickly covered either by 
the hoe or by a light furrow turned over 
them. 

This may look like a good deal of 
trouble, but it must be remembered that 
the early potatoes bring the largest pro- 
fits. A week at the beginning of the sea- 
son may mean more in profits than a 
month later on. 



Sowing Vegetable Seeds 

Mrs. Dell Grattao, Port Arthur, Ont. 

Beans grow well and yield abundantly. 
But beware of the June frost. Dwarf 
Black Wax is one of the best sort. I 
have never known this variety to rust or 
mildew. Beets should be sown as early 
as the ground can be worked, in light, 
well manured soil. Early Egyptian or 
Eclipse will not disappoint you. Plant 
in rows twelve inches apart and cover 
the seed to the depth of three-quarters of 
an inch. 

Parsley grows freely, and the house- 
wife will find many uses for it. Peas 
grow abundantly almost anywhere. 

Turnips are grown mostly in the field, 
but sow some in the garden also. Gold- 
en Ball is a fine table turnip but is in- 
clined to become "punky" towards fall. 
Purple Top Swede is a fine turnip for 
winter use. 



May Vegetable Notes 

Rhubarb and asparagus are two per- 
ennial vegetables that are early on the 
market and are easy to raise. Rhubarb 
should be set in autumn. Strong one- 
year-old plants of asparagus may be set 
as late as the middle of June. Prepare 
the land well and set at least six inches 
deep, covering but two inches deep at 
first, gradually filling the trench as the 
plants grow. — LeRoy Cady, Horticultur- 
ist, University Farm, St. Paul. 

Make a liberal planting of Golden Ban- 
tam sweet corn. Stowell's Evergreen 
may be planted at the same time for late 
corn. 

Do not set out tomatoes, cannas, 
coleus, or other tender plants until the 
end of May, as there is always danger 
of frost or cold weather until that time. 

Keep the cultivator going in the gar- 
den. It is easier to get rid of the weeds 
when they are small than when they are 
well established. 

The main crop of potatoes should go 
into the ground now. Treat all seed 
with formalin or corrosive sublimate, for 
scab, and plant on land that has not been 



THE CANADIAN HORTICULTURIST 



May, 1914 



The Canadian Horticulturist 

(^OMBINKD WITH 

THE CANADIAN HODTICULTURIST 
AND BEEKEEPEfi 

Wah which hns been incorporated 

The Ciinadliin Bee Journal. 

Published by The Horticultural 

Publlahlnii Company, Limited 

PKTKRBORO, ONTARIO 

H. Bronson Cowan Managing Director 

The Only Magazine* in Their Field in the 
Dominion 

Ofkicui. Oroanb of thr Ontario and Quebec 

Fruit Growkks' Associations 

AND OF The Ontario ani> New Brunswick 

Bebkekpers' Associations. 

REPRESENTATIVES 

UNITED STATES 
8'XXX>KWBLL'S SPECIAL AGENCY. 
Chicago Office— People's Gas Building. 
New York Office— 286 5th Avenue. 

GKEAT BRITAIN 
W. A. Mountstephen, 3 Regent St., London, S.W. 

1 The Oanadiaji Horticulturist is published in 
two editions on the 25th da.v of the month pre- 
ceding date of iaene. The first edition is known 
as The Canadian Horticulturist.. It is devoted 
exclusively to th« horticultural intexeets of 
Canada. The second edition is known as The 
Canadian Horticulturist and Beekeeper. In this 
odition eeveral pages of matter appearing in the 
first issue are replaced by an equal number of 
imgies of matter relating to the bee-keeping in- 
terest* of Canada. 

2. Subscription price of The Canadian Horti- 
culturist in Canada and Great Britain. 60 oenta 
a year; two years, .$100, and of The Canadian 
Horticulturist and Beekeeper, $1.00 a year For 
United States and local subscriptions in Peter- 
boro (not called for at the Poet Offioe), 25 cents 
ejTtra year, including' postage. 

3. Remittances should be made by Post Office 
or Express 'Money Order, or Registered Letter- 

4. The Law is that subscribers to newspapers 
are held responsible until all arrearagea are 
paid and their paper ordered to be discontinued. 

5. Change of Address— When a change of ad- 
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6. Advertising rates, $1.40 an Inch. Copy 
received up to the. 20th. Address all advertising 
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Manager, Peterboro. Ont. 

CIRCULATION STATEMENT 

The following is a sworn statement of the net 
paid circulation of The Canadian Horticulturist 
for the year ending with Becember, 1911. The 
figures given are exclusive of samples and spoiled 
copies. Uoet months, including the saimile con- 
ies, from 13,000 to 15.000 copies of The Canadian 
Horticulturist are mailed to people known to 
be Interested in the growing of fruits, flowers 
or vegetables. 

January, 1913 ...11.570 August, 191S 12.675 

February. 1913 ...11.560 September. 1913 ...13.729 

March, 1913 11.209 October, 1913 .....13.778 

April, 1913 11,970 November, 191J ...12,967 

May. 1913 12.368 Becember, 1913 ...15,233 

.Tune. 1913 12 618 

July, 1913 12626 Total 160,293 

Average each Issue In 1907, 6.627 
1913, 12,524 

Sworn detailed statements will 'be mailed 
upon application. 

OUR GUARANTEE 

We guarantee that every advertiser in this 
iseiue is reliable. We are able to do this because 
the advertising columns of The Canadian Hor- 
ticulturist ore as carefully edited as the read- 
ing columns, and because to protect our readers 
we turn away all unscrupulous advertisers. 
Should any advertiser herein deal dishonestly 
with any subscriber, we will make good the 
amount of his loesi, provided such transaction 
occurs ■within one month from date of this issue, 
that it is reported to us within a week of its 
occurrence, and that we find the facts to be as 
stated. It la a condition of this contract that in 
writing to adverlsers you state: "I earn your 
advertisement In The Canadian Horticulturist." 

Rogues shall not nly their trade at the expense 
of our subscribers, who are oTir friends, through 
the medium of these columns; but we shall not 
attempt to adjust trifling disputes between sub- 
scribers and honourable business men who ad- 
vertise, nor pay the debts of honest Ijankrupts 

Oommunicatlona should be addressed 
THE C.\NAOTAN HORTICULTURIST, 

PETEBBORO, ONT. 



I EDITORIAL I 
THE IMPROVEMENT TAX 

Our system of taxing improvements is a 
relic of the past. It should have been abol- 
ished long ago. It operates continuously 
to prevent people from improving their 
homes by the establishment of lawns, the 
planting of vines, shrubs and flowers, the 
more general use of paint or the construc- 
tion of sun rooms or conservatories. Ex- 
penditures of this class may involve only 
a few dollars but they improve the ap- 
pearance of a home so greatly as fo lead 
rhe inexperienced to believe that a large 
outlay has been made. The result is that 
when the assessor next calls one's assess- 
ment is likely to be marked up several 
hundreds and possibly a thousand dollars 
or more above its original figure. The an- 
nual increase in taxation thus brought 
about may equal and even exceed the 
money laid out on the improvements. 

Only those who have studied this ques- 
tion, or who have had special opportunities 
for observation, can realize what a check 
001 enterprise is this tax on improvements. 
At one time in France there was a tax on 
window panes. It finally waJs. abolished 
when it was found that thousands of houses 
in the poorer districts were being erected 
without windows. Even the larger houses 
had so few windows it was seen that the 
health of their inmates was likely to be 
seriously affected. At another period, in 
the city of Brooklyn, a frontage tax was 
imposed on houses according to the num- 
ber of stories they had on the street line. 
Within a few years houses were being 
erected that were only one or two stories 
high on the street line but several stories 
higher at the rear. History shows clearly 
that there is no law more certain "than that 
people will resort to all manner of expedi- 
ents to evade the tax collector. A ridicu- 
lous and aggravating feature of the law is 
the fact that where people neglect to paint 
and otherwise improve their homes, and 
thereby permit them to deteriorate in ap- 
pearance their taxes are likely to be re- 
duced in proportion to their lack of enter- 
prise or thrift. ■ 

The issue has a more serious side. These 
are days when the increased cost of living 
is recognized' as a heavy burden on the 
wage earner. When a man erects a house 
and thus helps to reduce the cost of liv- 
ing by , lowering rents, we fine him by im- 
creasing his taxes, whereas had he held 
the land out of use for an increase in land 
values, he would have escaped such a fine. 
The fruit grower, who lowers the cost of 
living by converting unused or only partly 
used land into an orchard or garden, is pen- 
alized by a heavy increase in taxes. It is 
true that the earning powers of the land 
are also increased but nevertheless the 
net returns to the grower from his enter- 
prise are in every instance reduced by the 
exact amount of the increase in his taxes. 
The imjustice and folly involved in this 
method of raising municipal revenue is re- 
alized by the people of western Canada, 
who in several provinces are rapidly re- 
moving all taxes from improvements and 
raisin.g them by a tax on land values in- 
stead. 

The officers of the Guelph Horticultural 
Society have found difficulty in inducing 
citizens to enter the lawn and .garden 



competitions, because any improvement 
these citizens might make in the appeai 
ance of their homes would tend to increasi 
their assessment. They are asking the of- 
ficers of other horticultural societies in Oi - 
tario to unite with them in an appeal t 
the provincial government to have the la\' 
so changed that municipalities need nf 
be required to tax such improvements. Tli 
appeal deserves to meet with a hearty r< 
sponse. 

COOPERATIVE PRINCIPLES 

Elsewhere in this issue appears an articli 
by Mr. A. E. Adams, of Berwick, N.S 
dealing with the principles that underli 
all truly successful cooperative enterprise 
Much of the remarkable success of the Uri 
ted Fruit Companies Limited of Nova Scotia 
has been due to the capable work of Mr 
.Adaips. Mr. .Adams is, therefore, well 
qualified to deal with this subject. 

Canada is on the eve of a wonderful dr 
yelopment of cooperative enterprise. Du; 
ing the past ten years our attention h.i- 
been devoted mainly to the organization of 
local associations. During the past fev 
years the movement has reached a ne 
stage, which has resulted in the formatio 
of provincial organizations that, by linkin 
up the local units, have greatly strengthei 
cd the whole movement. .Mready we hav 
in Canada several large organizations th;! 
compare favorably with the most successful 
enterprises of the kind in the world. 

The United Fruit Companies Limited of 
Nova Scotia, the Ontario Cooperative .Appli 
Growers' Association, the Grain Growers' 
Grain Company of Winnipeg, and several 
British Columbia organizations are all strik- 
ing examples of cooperative enterprise- 
conducted on a large scale. The Grain 
Growers' Grain Company, while not purely 
cooperative, is largely so, and is probably 
the greatest farmers' organization in the 
world. It has assets of over one million 
dollars. The business it transacted lasl 
year exceeded fifty million dollars in 
volume. 

To-day there is a widespread demand fo 
information relating to the true principle- 
of cooperative enterprises. The article bv 
Mr. .■Adams makes a number of these clear. 
In the June issue of The Canadian Horti- 
culturist we purpose publishing a continu- 
ation of this article, which will be equalh 
as instructive, and which will deal mor 
fully with the cooperative situation as '■- 
exists in the Maritime Provinces. Oui 
readers are advised to follow these articli '^ 
closely. 

TWO WELCOME ANNOUNCEMENTS 

Fruit growers heard with pleasure tli. 
double announcement made recently by the 
Hon. Martin Burrell, Dominion Minister of 
Agriculture, that he has separated the fruit 
from the dairy division, giving it the status 
of a separate division, and that he had ap- 
pointed Mr. D. Johnson, the well-known and 
successful fruit grower of Forest, Ontari<i 
as Dominion Fruit Commissioner. Thu- 
has been brought to a successful conclusion 
an agitation that has been waged by the 
fruit growers of Canada during the past 
nine years. 

The first protest against the amalgam, 
tion of the fruit with the dairy division <• 
the Dominion Department of .\gricultui 
was lodged by The Canadian Horticultuii- 
in its January issue. 1905. Shortly befot' 
this it had been announced that Dr. Jas 
W. Robertson was retiring as Dominion 



May, 1914 



THE CANADIAN HORTICULTURIST 



^33 



Commissioner of Agriculture, and that the 
fruit was to be united with the dairy divi- 
sion under the Dominion Dairy Commis- 
sioner. The protest registered by The Can- 
adian Horticulturist was taken up by the 
various p«3vincial fruit .orrowers' associa- 
tions, and later the subject was discussed at 
the first Dominion Fruit Conference. It 
was felt that the fruit interests of Canada 
would never receive the attention that their 
importance deserved until the fruit division 
was given the same standing- in the Depart- 
ment of .Agriculture as the seed, live stock 
,-ird dair\- divisions. The former Govern- 
ment having refused to act in the matter 
the question was again urged at the last 
Dominion conference. .\ partial promise of 
;i(tion was then secured. 

The announcement that Hon. Mr. Burrell 
has now given the fruit division the stand- 
insr that the fruit growers have so long 
desired, is the most importamt, relating to 
th? fruit interests, that has been made for 
some time. It should mean an increased 
expenditure on behalf of the fruit industry 
pnd an extension of the activities of the 
department. 

In selecting Mr. Daniel Johnson to have 
charge of the fruit division the Minister of 
Agriculture has made a wise choice. Mr. 
Johnson has both the practical knowledge 
of fruit growing and the executive ability 
that is required to ensure the wise man- 
agement of the department. Mr. Johnson 
has been successful as a fruit grower, as 
president of his local fruit growers' associa- 
tion, of the Ontario Cooperative Apple 
Growers' .Association, of the Ontario Fruit 
Growers' Association, and as a leading 
member of the Dominion Fruit Conference. 
There is every reason to expect, therefore, 
that he will be equally successful as Do- 
minion Fruit Commissioner. Mr. Johnson 
will have great opportunities to benefit the 

Ifcuit industry of Canada, and is assured of 
Be hearty sympathy and support of fruit 
p-owers in all our provinces. 
I The United States Post Office Department 
ft conducting an exp-eriment with the par- 
cels post system that will be followed with 
interest on this side of the line. Ten cities 
have been selected for the experiment. Far- 
mers living on rural routes leading out 
from thes« cities have been invited to notify 
the postmaster as to produce they have to 
sell and the price for the same. .A printed 
list is then prepared and left with every 
housewife in the city hy the mail carrier. 
The housewife may then call up the farmer 
by telephone or drop him a card and have 
the supplies transferred from the farm to 
her door by the parcels post. There are 
manifest disadvantages connected with such 
a system, but the experiment will be fol- 
lowed with interest. Serious difficulties 
will have to be overcome before the system 
can be made a success, but they should not 
prove insurmountable. If it proves a suc- 
cess across the border we may expect to 
see the same experiment tried out in this 
country. 



The discovery on an appl<^ shipped to 
England of a deposit of copper sulphate in 
a quantity sufficient to prove dangerous to 
anv person eating the apple has caused 
some consternation across the water. Were 
there anv likelihood that careless spraying 
might result in any considerable quantity 
of apples being affected in this way thero 
might be cause for apprehension, but there 
is not one chanoe in thousands of such an 
incident being reported again. It is sur- 
prising that this case has been heard of. 




PUBLISHER'S DESK 




The annual meeting of The Horticultural 
Publishing Company, Limited, publishers of 
The Canadian Horticulturist, The Cana- 
dian Florist and The Beekeeper, was held 
in Toronto, on March 26th. The reports 
presented showed that the Company had had 
the most satisfactory year in its experi- 
ence. A substantial sum was voted to the 
reserve account. Improvements in the pub- 
lications published by the Company were 
authorized. 

The old officers were all re-elected. They 
are: President, W. H. Bunting, St. Cath- 
arines, Past President Ontario Fruit Grow- 
ers' Association ; Vice-President, John H. 
Dunlop, Toronto, Past President of The 
Canadian Horticultural Association : Man- 
aging Director and Secretary-Treasurer, 
H. B. Cowan, Peterboro, President of The 
Canadian Horticultural .Association, and 
Ex-Superintendent of Horticultural Socie- 
ties for Ontario ; Directors : A. W. Peart, 
Burlington, Past President Ontario Fruit 
Growers' Association ; Harold Jon«s, Pres- 
cott, Director Ontario Fruit Growers' As- 
sociation ; Hermann Simmers, Toronto, Ex- 
Treasurer of The Canadian Horticultural 
Association, and P. W. Hodgetts, Toronto, 
Director of Horticulture for Ontario. 



SOCIETY NOTES 



ceives a premium on his laziness and ne- 
.glect in the shape of a lower assessment 
than that of his industrious neighbor. 

".As the Ho'rticultural Society has for 
years been endeavoring to aid in the beau- 
tifying of the city, and has been greatly 
handicapped by this particular point, it 
was suggested that a slightly lower as- 
sessment might be allowed to those who 
beautify their places and thus aid in the 
beautifying of the city, rather than to those 
who neglect their lawns and gardens and 
allow them to become a positive eyesore to 
the community at large. 

"Your petitioners respectfully request 
that this resolution be not laid aside, but 
dealt with at once, and a recommendation 
be made to the new council that a commit- 
tee be appointed from your honorable body 
to act with a committee from the Horticul- 
tural Society, to take steps to recommend a 
change, if necessary, in the Assessment 
Act, whereby this may be accomplished, 
and the assessor's hands be thereby 
strengthened in this matter. 




THE TAX ON IMPROVEMENTS 

At a recent meeting of the directors of 
the Guelph Horticultural Society, the sec- 
retary was instructed to forward the follow- 
ing resolution to The Canadian Horticul- 
turist for publication, with the suggestion 
that the matter of the increase of taxation 
on account of landscape improvements, be 
taken up with all other horticultural socie- 
ties, and be brought before the next an- 
nual convention. 

"To the Mayor and Aldermen of the City 
of Guelph, greeting: .At a meeting of the 
officers and directors of the Guelph Horti- 
cultural Society, held in the City Hall on 
Thursday. December 4th, 1913, after con- 
siderable discussion a resolution was pass- 
ed unanimously, and a committee was ap- 
pointed to draft a resolution to be placed 
before the City Council to the following ef- 
fect ; 'Heretofore the society has experienced 
difficulty in persuading citizens to enter 
the lawn and gard-en competitions, fre- 
quently for the reason, that any improve- 
ment they might make in the appearance 
■of their lawns and homes, from a landscape 
point of view, tended to increase their as- 
sessment. Instances were quoted, in the 
case of double tenement houses, where one 
owner or tenant spends, his pare time in 
adding to the beauty of his surroundings, 
and in that way to the beauty and improve- 
ment of the city. When the assessor sees 
the improvement he feels justified in add- 
ing considerably to the assessable value of 
that particular property, whereas the occu 
pant of the other tenement, who has al- 
lowed weeds to grow on his lawn, and hi> 
place to become generally disreputabl;-, 
and an eye-sore, and in many icases a 
nuisance to the neighborhood, actually re- 



Ncw Fruit Commissioner 

Mr. D. Johnson, of Forest, Ont., whose 
appointment a? Dominion Fruit Commis- 
sioner, a new position, has been announc- 
ed recently, was bom on a fruit farm at 
Forest, Ont., thirty-six years ago. He took 
charge of the orchards when only sixteen 
years of age, and for ten years served as 
foreman at the spraying, cultivation, pick- 
ing and packing of the fruit. Ten years ago 
he became interested in the cooperative 
movement and took a leading part in the 
organization of the Forest Fruit Growers' 
and Forwarding Association, one of the 
first and largest associations established in 
Ontario, and was for six years its presi- 
dent and manager. 

Four years ago Mr. Johnson withdrew 
from the Forest Association to devote all 
his time to Johnson Bros., fruit growers, 
shippers and exporters, of which he was 
a half owner. This firm desired to cut out 
the wholesaler and sent its own salesman 
to the West, who sold in car lots during 
the fall months. Th" firm'is output last 
season from its own farm was six thousand 
seven hundred boxes of apples, wrapped 
and tiered, thirteen thousand eleven-quart 
baisfcets of peaches, eleven thousand bas- 
kets of plums, and ninety-five thousand 
seven hundred pounds of dried fruit. In 
]!)]2 their output was over four thousand 
barrels of apples* 

In Mr. Johnson's orchards spraying is 
done with power sprayers. They make 
their own lime-sulphur, barrels and boxes. 
Their peaches and plums are sold largely 
by their own mail order system. All their 
apples are now packed in boxes. The lower 
grades of apples are worked into evaporat- 
ed apple rings by their own plant in the 
orchard, and shipped in car loads to Eur- 
ope and the West. The peelings and cores 
arc dried and shipped to Germany. Ar- 
rangements are being made to convert the 
lower grades of tender fruit into jam. 

Mr. I Johnson was for some years on the 
executive board of the Ontario Fruit Grow 
ers' Association, and was for two years 
president. He was also president of the 
Cooperative Fruit Growers of On.ario /or 
two years, and is now president of the 
Lambton Fruit and Vegetable Growers' As- 
sociation, an organization composed of fif- 
teen active cooperative fruit and vegetable 
associations in Lambton. Mr. Johnson 
was a delegate at the last Dominion Fruit 
Conference. 



ii 



1 



•.i4 



THE CANADIAN HORTICULTURIST 



May, 1914 



The Cooperative Marketing of Fruit 



A. E. Adams, ot the United P/uit Companies, Ltd., of Nova Scotia, Berwick, N.S. 



BEFORE takiiiK part in any coopera- 
tive movennent, . however larpe or 
however small, it is absolutely es- 
sential ope should thoroughly under- 
stand what c6operation really is, what the 
object of cooperation is, and what are us 
irreat and beawtiful principles. Unless 
the membership of all cooperative organi- 
zations thoroughly understand this it vs a 
difficult matter to make the movement a 
success. 

What is cooperation? Cooperation is the 
pow€r of individual effort associated for 
the common welfare. 

Therefore, when allying himself with 
any cooperative movement, the individual 
must be prepared if necessary to make sac- 
rifices; having absolute faith that if called 
upon to do so, the sacrifice, being for the 
eood of all, is therefore 
his own good. There is 
cooperative organization^ 
erasping, greedy man, 



who 



ultimately for 
no place in any 
for the selfish, 
for the very spirit 
of^cS^'per'atTorrs unselfishness and a /eadi- 
pess to help one another, a splendid bro- 
therhood of interests. 

There are some people we meet 
soeak of the cooperative movement that has 
obtained such a firm footing in the Annap- 
olis Vallev as though it were something 
new. as though it were a dreamer s ideal 
as though it were an experiment, but 1 
can assure vou that cooperation passed the 
experimental stage vears and years ago. 
and is now recognized to be the only means 
of remedying many of the evils and disad- 
vantages under which we labor. 

The cooperative movement started, as 
most successful movements do start, very 
humblv, and has onlv succeeded bv actual 
demonstration continuously maintained, 
that it iis not onlv right in principle but 
thpt it is justified bv its success financially 

The idea of roonemtive effort was first 
evidenced in Scotland over one hundred 
vears ago. but it was not until 1S44— iseventy 
vears a^o-that it took a reallv tangib e 
form In that vear a number of Rochdale 
weavers', who hnd long been discussing var- 
ious social p-oblems. came to the conclu- 
sion that profits derived through dealings 
in the r.ecessities of life, should be paid 
out on the same basis as they are paid m 
—that as thev are first reckoned and ob- 
tained on the purchase price, they should 
be paid out as dividends on purchases, 
while canital should onlv receive a fair in- 
terest; This seemed to have been the orig- 
inal discoverv bv these Rochdale weavers. 
They held verv stron<?lv that profit made 
out of the peoole in front of the counter 
should be paid bark to these people who 
created the profit after a fair interest had 
been oaid on the capital required' to mam- 
tain..,the business. 

Tn ordinarv business canitabsts invest 
their money onlv when they have an as- 
surance of a good return and there is no 
inducement to the canitalist to invest un- 
less there is some indiration that the busi- 
nes'S under consideration will give him a 
better return than, sav, as your funds are 
invested. There is therefore no induce- 
ment to the capitalist to invest his money 
in a cooperative concern because he will 
never under any circumstance irct a large 
return, and in addition it is contrary 
to true cooperative p rinciples for outside 

•Kxtract from an addireee delivered before the 
Inst nnnusl convention ot the Nova Sootla Fruit 
Growers' Association. 



capital to be used. No cooperative concern 
works for profit and the difference between 
cost and actual return is rebated. It is 
true certain so-called cooperative organiza- 
tions invite outside capital. I know of one 
in Canada that is advertising its stock for 
sale, but I wish to place it on record that 
such an arrangement cannot exist under 
a true cooperative system. In any true 
cooperative concern the only stock holders 
are the actual cooperators. 

These Rorhdile weavers tried the ex- 
periment of running a shop, or as we 
should call it, a store, that should belong 
to the customers and their efforts were at- 
tended with immediate success. It held 
the germ of a great ideal, that no individual 
should be allowed to amass a fortune out 
of the necessities of life to the community. 
Out of that humble beginning and out of 
that great ideal has grown that great, that 
mighty organization known ais the Whole- 
sale Cooperative Society of Great Britain, 
an organization with a yearly turnover ex- 
ceeding $608,000,000. 

It must not be supposed, however, that 
this movement was allowed to grow without 
strenuous opposition. Tn this direction I 
would like to direct the attention of those 
who are so foolishly opposing cooperation 
in the Annapolis Valley, to history, which 
clearly demonstrates how futile is opposi- 
tion, for cooperation has shown repeatedly 
that it has some great principle of life 
within it which make;s it grow steadily. It 
makes an appeal to the cool reason of man 
unlike the hot pride and passion of war, 
and even, if I may say so, the enthusiasm 
of religion. Note how opposition acted as a 
spur to the humble pioneers of cooperation 
in England, and tended very largely to 
hasten its development. 

The people who were most seriously af- 
fected by the Rochdale weavers were the 
retail merchants, for the cooperators ccn- 
sidered these merchants unnecessary and 
expensive encumbrances between the manu- 
facturer or producer and consumer. The 
merchants, therefore, through the press, 
which was largely supported by their ad- 
vpT-tisements, heaped ridicule on the 
movement. 

This had the reverse effect to what was 
intended and simplv directed attention to 
the several cooperative stores that had 
come into existence, and made people 
think that after all there must be some- 
thing in what these cooperators were doing, 
with the result that many other cooperative 
societies! were formed, and the membership 
of nil existing societies was much increased. 

Finding that their first move to destroy 
these societies had miscarried, the mer- 
chants tried other tactics, and through 
their association gave notice that any 
wholesale merchants or manufacturers hav- 
ing- nnv dealinys with the coooerators 
would be boycotted. At that time the coop- 
erative societies were not many in num- 
ber, and at first. the boycott was a serious 
matter to them, but a;s. is often the case, 
opposition caused' them to adopt a more 
vigorous programme and carry their cooper- 
ative movement a stage further, resulting 
in all the societies amalgamating under 
on.? head, the present Cooperative Wholesale 
Society. The boycott I have referred to 
proved the finest advertisement the move- 
ment could have had, and proved to the 
world at large that cooperation was accom- 
plishing what it set out to do. The natur- 



al result was that the membership of the 
societies still further increased, and again 
many new societies came into being. ^" 
the societies collectively formed a v 
powerful organization, which beiiuR uim 
the boycott immediately proceeded to m 
other arrangements for obtaining the go' . 
necessary to run their business, and re- 
sulted in a still further strengthening of 
the movement. 

The Cooperative Wholesale Society was 
formed in 186.3 A sentence taken from 
prospectus sums up in a few words ■ 
object of the whole movement. "The 
ject of the society is to bring the prod u 
and consumer of commodities nearer to 
each other, and thus secure for the work- 
ing classes those profits that have hitli' 
to enriched only the individual." 

The Cooperative Wholesale Society is the 
central association for the subsidiarv com- 
nanies in the same way as the United Fruit 
Companies is the central for all the Cooper- 
ative Fruit Companies in Nova Scotia. 

All the subsidiary societies operate large 
stores, in which are handled practically 
every article that one can imairine. These 
include groceries, drapery, millinery, fur- 
niture, hardware, fish, meat, poultry, dairy 
produce, and so forth, and in connection 
with each society theie is a large bakery. 
The members can obtain absolutely every- 
thing they require in the world, through 
their own store. These subsidiary societies 
obtain all their supplies from the central, 
which acts as buyer, manufacturer and dis- 
tributor. .All the trade of the central is done 
in goods bought by their own buyers at 
home and abroad, and distributed to the 
retail societies from its warehouse;. One 
jreneral principle runs through all the pur- 
chasing done by the Cooperative Wholesale 
Society buyers, namely to go direct to the 
source of production, whether at home or 
abroad, so as to save the commissions of 
middlemen and aR-ents. 

In New York, Montreal, Spain (I>enia), 
and Sweden the Cooperative Wholesale So- 
ciety has purchasing depots with resident 
buyers, whose office it is to purchase and 
ship home the productions of thes« coun- 
tries as required by English cooperators. 
On arrival in England the goods are divid- 
ed among the warehouses at Manchester, 
Newcastle. London, Birmingham, Bristol, 
Cardiff, Leeds, Huddersfield, Blackburn, 
Northampton, etc., so that the subsidiary 
societies can conveniently draw their sup- 
plies as needed. The total amount of the 
(roods imported direct by the Cooperative 
Wholesale Society from foreign countries in 
the twelve months ended December, 1910, 
was $35,363,350. 

(To be continued) 



Mr. A. R MacLenn.-.n. B.S.A., Demon- 
strator m Pomology, Ontario Agricultural 
College, Guelph, Ontario, has been appoint- 
ed lecturer in horticulture at Macdonald 
College, P.Q., succeeding Mr. F. M. Cle- 
ment, B.S.A., who has recentiv been ap- 
pointed director of the Vineland Experiment 
Station, Ontario. Mr. MacLennan gradu- 
ated from the Ontario Agricultural College 
in 1908, and for the past four vears has 
been connected with the horticultural de- 
partment at that institution, where he has 
had charge of the vesretable work, in which 
he has had a very wide experience. He has 
been closely identified with the Ontario 
Vegetable Growers' Association, and has 
done _ much valuable work for them in 
experimental investigations, and will prove 
a valuable acquisition to the staff of Mac- 
donald College. 



May, 1914 



THE CANADIAN HORTICULTURIST 



135 



Administration of the Fruit Marks* Act 

By F. H. Grindley, B.S.A., Assistant Chief, Fruit Division 



THE chief \york of the Fruit Division is 
the administration of the Inspection 
and Sales Act, Part IX., commonly 
known as"The Fruit Marks Act." This 
Act.passed in 1901, was the result of a desire 
on the part of progressive fruit growers for 
an improvement in the methods of market- 
ing fruit, in order to prevent complaints by 
th« consuming public against fraudulent 
packing. With the passing of the Act, fruit 
inspectors were appointed for its enforce- 
ment. In those early days, on account of 
the ignorance on the growers' part of the 
provisions of the Act, much educational work 
was found' necessary. Consequemtly, the 
inspectors spent a great deal of their time 
among the growers, in orchards, in pack- 
ing houses and at public meetings. It 
was not till several years later that the 
initial leniency ishown towards growers was 
lessened, and the inspectors began to rigid- 
ly einforce the Act. .^t that time all reports 
of inspection were sent to the Fruit Divi- 
sion at Ottawa, and when a prosecution 
was advised by an inspector, such prose- 
cution was not carried on until authorized 
by the Fruit Division. Between 1907 and 
1910 all cases of prosecution in Ontario 
were handled either by the Chief of the 
Fruit Division or his Asisistant, and even 
before those dates many of the Ontario 
cases were handled from headquarters. 

NUMBER OF INSPECTORS INCRE.SSE') 

With the extension of fruit growing 
areas, and the consequent increase in pro- 
-" --tion, there came the necessity for in- 
sing the number of inspectors, in order 
ill a fair percentage of the fruit packed 
niiH-ht be satisfactorily examined. Since 



Peerless 
Climax Fruit Baskets 




Heaviest, Strongest 
and Best 

in the market. Especially 
suitable for long distance 
shipping. Last year the 
demand exceeded the 
supply 

Therefore Order Early 



Canada Wood Products 
Co. 

ST. THOMAS, ONT. 



I 



1905 this increase has been gradual. In 
1905 there were seven permanent and five 
temporary inspectors. Last year ther<' 
were sixteen permanent and thirty-five tem- 
porary inspectors. 

In the summer of 1912, in order that 
supervision of the inspection work might 
be more complete, the country was divided 
into five di<itricts, with a chief inspector 
in charge of each. This change accounts 
for the large increase in the staff, and the 
result has been extremely satisfactory, in 
that it has brought about greater efficiency 
in the administratiom of the Act, 

THE SYSTEM OP INSPECTION 

Under the present system of inspection, 
there are five chief inspectors, covering the 
five districts : Maritime Provinces, Eastern 
Ontario and Quebec, Western Ontario, Prai- 
rie Provinces and British Columbia. These 
five supervise and control the work of a 
staff of forty-five inspectors and are in turn 
dircitod bv :ind report to Fruit Division at 
Ottawa. Weekly reports are received at 
Ottawa from the entire staff, so that a 
complete record is always on hand of their 
movements. Reports of inspections are not 
now, as formerly, all sent direct to Ot- 
tawa. The chief inspector in each par- 
ticular district receives the reix)rts from 
his own district, handling violations at his 
own discretion, and seinding other reports 
10 Ottawa after personal examination . 

The detailment of the various inspectors 
throughout the season is arranged, so far 
as their number will allow, to cover the 
main points of production and export. The 
Sieveral centres in the fruit growing dis- 
tricts, the larger towns and cities, and the 



Douglas Gardens 

OAKVILLE, ONT. 



We name below a few thin^a- tiat we 
desire to emphaeize, Tiz. : 

ANEMONE JAPONICA, 3 vare.. e«<jh 15c, 
10 for $1.25. 

AQUILEOIA (Columbine), 2 sorts, each 
15o, 10 for $1.25. 

ARABIS ALPINA (Columbine), each 15c, 
10 $1.25, 100 $10.00. 

ARTEMISIA LACTIFLORA (New), a fine 
plant, each 25c. 

ASTERS (Michaelmas Daisies), planted 
in spring they blopm the foUowinf fall, 
12 Tars., each 15o, 10 $1.25. 

BELLIS PERENNIS, ahonld be 10c each. 
10 for 75c, 100 $6.00. 

DELPHINIUMS, (Jold Medal Hybrids, 
each 20c, 10 for $1.50. 

HELENIUM. RIVERTON BEAUTY and 
GEM, each 20c. 

HE.MEROCALLIS, 3 sorts, each 15c and 
20c. 

HEUCHERA ROSAMANDE, each 20c. 

KNIPHOFIA (Tritoma) PFITZERII, 
each 15c, 10 $1.25. 

PANSIES, in colors for late blooming, 
each 5o. 10 A60. 100 $4.00. 

PHYSOSTEGIA, 2 sorts, each 15c, 10 
$1.26. 

SHASTA DAISIES. 3 sorts, each 25o, 10 
$2.00. 

DAHLIAS, planty only, 10 sorts. ea«h 
15c, 10 $1.26. 

GLADIOLUS, 3 unnadied sorts, 25 cor- 
vus, 60c, 7Sc and 80c. 

ANTIRRHINUM (Snapdragon), Incltidlnff 
Silver Pink, 10 60c. 

CHINA ASTERS, grown in pots, 6 sorts. 
10 25c, 100 $1.25. 

GERANIUMS. SALVIA, SCABIOSA, 
STOCKS, Etc. 



JOHN CAVERS 



TO DESTROY APHIS, THRIPS, ETC. 



Without Injury to Foliage 
SPRAY WITH 

"BLACK LEAF 40" 

Sulphate of Nicotine 

"Black Leaf 40" is highly recommended by experiment stations and spray- 
ing experts throughout the entire United States, also by Canadian experts. 

Owing to the large dilution, neither foliage nor fruit is stained. 

Black Leaf 40" is perfectly soluble in water; no clogging of nozzles. 

PACKING : 

In tins containing 10 lbs. each, 2 lbs. each, and K lb. each. 

A 10-lb. tin makes 1,500 to 2,000 gallons for Pear Thrips, with addition of 
3 per cent, distillate oil emulsion ; or about 1,000 gallons for Green Aphis, 
Pear Psylla, Hop Louse, etc., or about 800 gallons for Black Aphis and Wool.'y 
Aphi;- — with addition of 3 or 4 pounds of any good laundry soap to each 100 
gallons of water. The smaller tins are diluted in relatively the sa<ti« propor- 
tions as are the 10-lb. tins. 

PRICES: In the United States, our prices for the respective sizes are as 
follows : 

10-lb. tin, $12.50 ; 2-'lb. tin, $3.00 ; K-lb. tin, 85c. 

IN CANADA, Dealers usually charge about 26% to 30% over the above 
prices because of the Canadian duty, etc. Consult your dealer about this. 

THE KENTUCKY TOBACCO PRODUCT CO. 

(Incorporated) 

LOUISVILLE - KENTUCKY 



THE CANADIAN HORTICULTURIST 



May, ig 



fZA-Ji 



i',C' 



AVOURITE FLOWER 

-rom the BEAUTIFU 
OLD-FASHIONED 

GARDENS 

! orENGLAND 



,i Ktlway's Perennials 



ii Canadian Gardens 



KELWAY'S famous Hardy 
Herbaceous Plants are modern 
developments of the old English 
favourites. The cottage "Piny 
Rose" has become the Paeony, 
incomparable in form, colour and fra- 
grance. J he old-fashioned Larkspur 
has developed into the stately blooms of 
the Delphiniums ; Gaillar- 
dias, Pyrethrums and the 
rest, all serve to bring back 
the charm of the old-world 
English garden. Special 
care is taken in packing 
plants to arrive in Canada 
in good order, and they can 
,.. be relied upon to thrive with 
rJ^^wkX a minimum of attention. 

Full particulars and illustra- 
tions given in the Kelway 
Manual of Horticulture mail- 
ed free on receipt of 60c by 

KELWAY 81 SON 

LANGPORT ■ SOMERSET, 
England 




Send — now — for a copy 

of the Kelway Book— 

and make your Garden 

glorious 



ports of Montreal, Halifax, St. John, Q 
bee and Vancouver, are all under sup 
vision during: the busy season. The 
provinces anp fairly extensively 
and care is taken to inspect fruit i 
from the United States, the grade 
in which must comform to those on., 
(lian packages. During the winter 
when navigation is closed at Montri 
when Ontario fruit is being shippi 
American ports, the Montr-ql inspi 
with one exception, are transferred to 
in Ontario where fruit has been 
and inspections arc then made of shi] 
from such points. At the end of the 
the services of many of the I 
are dispens<>d with, only sixteen out 
one being at present retained perm; 
These men devote their time duri 
slack season, as far as possible, to 
meetin<''': p^d other den-on <:tration 

In ]!)12 th« position of "Apple P; 
Demonstrator" was created, and a 
competent in packiTig and in pi; 
sncakintr. now d"Vote'; rn'acti'-ally his 
time at orchard and other meeting: 
monstrating modern method's of fruit 
ing. The services of this man are 
in demand, and much good has P 
from the work he has done. 

No small task is the keeping of a tl 
oiinh index, at Ottawa, of all inspection 
ixirts. Thousands of these are recei 
duriTig the season, and a tabulation 
made of the grower's name and addr^ 
number and kind of packages ex 
and the date and result of inspectio 
index has been kept since the incey 
the .'Vet of 1901, and has been of gre. 
in many cases where a grower's rec 
been desired. 



Imported Nursery Stock 

The quantity of trees, shrubs and o' 
plants, including ornamental and 
trees, all of which are classed as '■ 
stock," imported into Canada is int 
annually. .According to the place o: 
these trees are fumigated or inspectfd 
der the Destructive Insect and Pe?t 
before their entry is permitted, to pre 
the introduction of insect pests.. 

To increase the facilities for im 
trees into western Canada, the Mir. 
.Agriculture established an additio.i 
of entry and a fumigation station :- 
Portal, Sask.. last summer. A new a.«. 
larged fumigation station was also 
at St. John, N.B., to provide more 
modation and better facilities. Ai 
ments are now being made to erect 
ditional fumigation and inspection 
at Niagara Falls, Ont.. to meet the ii^ 
ed importations entering Canada via 
port and destined chiefly to points 
Ontario. The importation of nurser 
through the mails wa.s prohibitc;. 
March 1st. 



WiUii 



At a meeting in Morrisburg, Ont., of 
St. Lawrence Valley Fruit Growers' A 
ciation, held on April 20th, it was i 
not to make another exhibit of aj 
the fruit department of the Ontario n 
cultural F.xhibition in Toronto unless a 
be made prohibiting Government men, 
act, assist, or advise as packers, from 
dating as judges. One such official 
said to have shown bias at the last si 
In certain instances Baldwin apples \ 
rated as a better apple than the Mcln 
Red. Members of the Fruit Growers' 
sociation of the St. Lawrence Valley 
tend there is no comparison between 
two. 



Mnv, 19T4 



THE CANADIAN HOETTCULTURIST 



137 



PURE -BRED ITALIAN QUEENS 

AFTER JUNE ISth 

I'iitested Queens $1.00 each, $10.00 a dcz. 
\\ arraiitcd purelv mated Queens $1.10 each, 
■i;l2.00 a, doz. Tested Queens $1.50 each, $15.03 
a doz. Breeding- Queens S2.50, .$5.00 and $10.00 
each. Lil>eral dlseount on l.;rje orders. 
JOHN A. McKINNON - ST. EUGENE, ONT. 



BEES 



I We make a specialty of supplying Bees. Italian 

I Queens, supplies, etc., tor Bee-keepers. C'irculars 

sent upon request. Address 

ALISO APIARY CO. 

GLENDALE, CAL., U.S.A. 



Italian Queens and Bees 

NORTHERN BRED 

Superior Win tress. Descriptive List free. Un- 
teMted, $1.00. 8el. tested, $1.50. 
Plane, " How to introduce Queens, loc. 

" How to Increase," 13c. ; both, 25c. 

E. E. MOTT, GLENWOOD, MICH.. U. S. A. 



THE BEEKEEPERS' REVIEW CLUBBING LIST 

The Review and Gleanings one year, $\.M- 

The Review and American Bee Journal one 
year, $1.50. 

All three for one year only 12.00. 

Canadian Subscribers add for postage as fol- 
lows: Gleanings, 30c. : A. B.J.. 10c. 

A fl <i rftfis 

THE BEEKEEPERS' REVIEW, North Star, Mich. 



QUEENS 

Bred from Doolittles best Italian 

stock. 
Order now to insure prompt de- 
livery. One dollar each, six for 
five dollars. 

P. TEMPLE 

4S8 'Gladstone Ave. - Toronto, Ont. 

Safe arrival guaranteed 



Send your consignments of .\PPLES to the 
Home Country to 

Ridley Moulding & Co. 

COVENT GARDEN 

LONDON, ENGLAND 

who specialize in APPLES and PEARS dur- 
ing the Season. Personal attention, promp 
account sales and remittance 



Correspondence invited 



MAX STOLPE 

Landscape Architect 

Ki-Superintendent Royal Gardening Institute 

Saxony - Germany 

Holder of Gold and Silver Medals 

Artistic Plans, SketcJies lurnishcd lor all 
kinds ol LANDSCAPE CONSTRUCTION 
WORK. 

Ornamental Trees, Shrubs, Conifers, 
Hardy Perennials, etc. 

ASK FOR PRICE LIST 

17 Main Sir. East - HAMILTON. Ont. 

Phone :«I7 



II 



Bees land Bee Supplies 

Roots, Dadants, Ham & Nott's goods. 
Honey, Wax, Poultry Supplies, Seeds, etc. 

Write for a Catalogue 

THE CHAS. E. HOPPER COMPANY 

185 Wright Avenue, Toronto, Ont. 



QUEENS 

Tested, $1.00 each; 3 to 6, 90c. each. 
Untested, 75c. each ; 3 to 6, 70c. each. 
Bees per lb., $1.50, no Queens. 
Nuclei per frame, no Queens, $1.50. 

L N. BANRSTON 

Box 141, Buffalo, Texas, U.S.A. 



Bee Supplies 
Bees and Queens 

Improved Model Hives 
Sections Comb Foundation 

Italian Queens 
Bees by the Pound Packages 
Etc., Etc. 
EVERYTHING for the BEEKEEPER 

Catalogue Free 
Highest Price paid for BEESW.VX 

F. W. JONES - BEDFORD, QUE. 




AND 

QUEENiS 

By quickest Express Service only 

1 2 hours to St. Louis, Mo. U. S. A. 

Untested Queens 75c. each, $7.50 

per dozen. Extra select tested, will 

make good breeders, $2.50 each, 

Nuclei, $1.25 per frame, no queen. 

lYoung bees, no queen but full 

^weight $1.50 per pound, with 

tqueen $2.25. Five or more with 

queens at $2.00 each. 

THE STOVER APIARIES 

MAYHEW, MISS., U.S.A. 




BUY CARNIOLANS 

IN CARNIOLA 
Pure Carniolan Alpine Bees 

Write in English for Booklet and 
Price List. Awarded 60 Honor*. 

Johann Strgar. - Wittnach 

P.O. Wocheiner Feiitritz 
Upper-Carniola (Krain), Austria 




PRICE LIST 

of 

Three Banded Red Clover 

Italian Queens 

Bred from Tested Stock 
Untested Queens, $1 each, $5 for six 
Selected untested, $1.25 each, $7 for 

six 

Tested Selected Guaranteed Queens, 

$2 each 

Cash With Order 

W. H. STIRLING 

Box 214 Ridgetown, Ont. 



Famous Queens ^r Italy 

Bees more beautiful, more g..'ntle, mofe 

industrious, the best honey gatherers. 

PRIZES— VI. Swiss Agricultural Exposition, 

Berne, 1895. 

Swiss National Exposition, 

Geneva, 1896 
Beekeeping Exhibition, Liege, 

Belgium, 1896 
Beekeeping Exhibition, Frank- 
fort, 0. M. (Germany), 1907. 
Universal Exposition, St. Louis, 
.Mo., U.S.A., 1904. 
The highest award- 
Extra Boreeding Queens, $3.00; Selected, 
.$2.C0; Fertiilzed. $150. Lower Drioes per 
dozen or moro Queens. Safe arrival eruaran- 

teed ANTHONY BIAGGI 

PEDEVILLA, NEAR BELLINZONA ITALIAN SWITZERLAND 

'lhi5 country, politically, Switzerland K-> 
publii, lies g cgraphically in Italy and pes 
e?8ste the best kind of Beea known. 
Mention in writing — The Canadian Horticulturist and 
Heekeeper 



Northern Bred Hardy Stock 

Italian Queens 

from selected stock of 
the best strain of 
honey gatherers for 
1914. Qiiick delivery 
Cash with order. 

Prices— April till 
June, Untested Queens, $1.00 each; 
6 for $5.00 ; in lots of 25 or more, 
75c. each. Selected Tested, $2.00. 
Breeders, $5.00. 

W. B. Davis Company 

AURORA, ILLINOIS, U.S.A. 





Sprayers 

Sulfur Dusters 

For Fighting Everj Disease of CoItiTated Plants 



Knapsack, Pack Saddle or Horse Dr&wn 
Power Sprayers 

S«Bd<orC*talo|iief l/l^OMADI^T Muniactorw, 
and ptrticolan to : " £rnlTlUn£rl4 VIUEFRANCHE 
(Rhonal. FRANCE 



'^B 



THK CANADIAN HORTICULTURIST 



May, 191^ 



A—CookioK 'Vaalt 
B— Hot Water Tank 
0— Fire Box 
D— Aeh Pan 
B— Smoke Ptp« 




Make Your Oivn Spray 



Home Boiled Lime Sulphur ia beins used In increasing quan 
titiee by leading fruit growers and fruit growers' siasociationa 
Tbey find tbat by making tJiuir own euray tbey can effect a oon 
siderable money saving, and at tbe same time produce a pre 
paration that will do the work thorougbly. 

It is an easy matter to make home boiled lime sulpbnr. Tb« 

ohief essential is a proper spray cooker. We manufacture two 

kinds of oookere, one witb a aingle tank, and one witb a double 

tank. (See lllustratlonj They are designed eapecially for this 

purpose, and will give the greatest effldcncy with the greatest 

saving of fuel. They can be used for either wood or soft coal. 

The tanks are made of heavily galvanized steel, thoroughly rivetted and 

eoldered. Will not leak. They are built to give satisfaction, and are 

guarnnteed. Made In five sizes, capacity 30 to 75 galfl. Prices and full par 

ticulars on application. Get your outfit now. Write us to-day 

Send for pamphlet illustrating the finest pruning saw on the market. 

STEEL TROUGH 81 MACHINE CO., Ltd.. TWEED, Ont. 







7?iKil) 



Cultivate Underneath the Branches 

With This Cultivator 

A Massey-Harris nine-tooth Cultivator equip- 
ped with extensions, enables you to cultivate 
under the overhanging branches, close to the 
tree. 

The attachment may be quickly removed when not re- 
quired. 

Frame and Sections are Angle Steel. Teeth are of Steel 
with Reversible Steel Points and attached so as to be readily 
adjustable. 

Wheels are 29 inches high with 2% inch face and are 
on extension axles, permitting of change in the tread from 
4 ft. to 4 ft. 10 in. 

One lever raises and lowers both Sections. 

MASSEY-HARRIS CO., Limited 

HEAD OFFICES: TORONTO, CANADA 

Branches at 

MONTREAL MONCTON WINNIPEG REGINA SASKATOON 

SWIFT CURRENT YORKTON CALGARY EDMONTON 

Agencies Everywhere 




Annapolis Valley Notes 

On April 16th, "The Valley" experienced 
a regular mid-winter blizzard. We hav« 
had no spring weather as yet, buds wer« 
not swelling, and summer seemed a long 
way oflF. The "oldest inhabitant" tallci 
about the coldest spring: on record. 

In spite of the twenty below tempera* 
in February, apple trees seem to 
come through the winter in good condition. 
They give promise of an abundant bloom, 
Nova Scotia is noted for her regular bear- 
ing orchards, and all are looking forward 
to a bumper crop following the poor on« 
of last season. Judging by the happy facej 
of the power sprayer agents, spraying will 
be almost universal this coming season; al 
all farmers' and fruit growers' meetima 
this past winter the spraying question IM 
thoroughly* discussed, and from what ofli 
hears the lessons of the past two seasons 
have been pretty generally taken to heart. 
As soon as our people reaily grasp the idea 
that spraying for spot is an insurance that 
cannot be neglected without disastrous re- 
sults, both to the quantity and quality oi 
their crop, the Valley will take the premiei 
place in Canada for profitable apple grow- 
ing. 

The members of the cooperative com- 
panies are enthusiastic over the showing 
made by thje United Fruit Companies foi 
the season just closing. Organization con- 
tinues. Six new companies were formed this 
spring. All are uniting themselves with 
the Central Association. 

A "Good Roads Association" was or- 
gaaiized at Kentville last month, having foi 
its object the improvement of the country 
roads throughout the Valley. This is not 
an automobile organization, as in some 
other places, but has its chief support from 
the farmens who are badly in need of bet- 
ter roads leading across the Valley to the 
various shipping stations on the railway. 
Proper drainage of the roadbed, and the 
increased use of the split log drag will be 
encouraged.— M . K . E . 

The New Zealand Trade 

Canadian Trade Commissioner Beddoe, 
stationed at Auckland, New Zealand, re- 
porting to the Department of Trade and 
CTjmmerce, at Ottawa, relating to the . 
of British Columbia fruit in New Zeal. 
writes as follows : 

The Canadian shipper at first took the 
risk of consignment, and finally receiving 
large orders for cash. The position now is: 
That, whereas in the first instance the 
shipper demurred to send on consignment 
it was pointed out that such an expressioD 
of confidence in his own goods would assist 
in their future sale. The sales by auction 
were very satisfactory. Then the shipper 
wanted to send again on consignment, it 
was suggested that the goods having been 
favorably received, it would be better to 
quote a price f.o.b. Auckland, as the mar- 
ket might vary. Shippers hesitated to lio 
this and the result was that last shipm^ 
from Vancouver included a large quani . 
of American apples, and the price of Uni- 
ted States and Canadian went down. This 
is mentioned to illustrate the importance 
of accepting local advice. 

Another point of importance is, that too 
much space is given to the American pro- 
duct on the Vancouver boats. It seems in- 
consistent that the Canadian Government 
should subsidize steamers to carry foreigu 
products which compete with the Canadian 
on this market, thus tending to lower 
prices. 



May, 1914 



THE CANADIAN HORTICULTURIST 



»39 



PERENNIALS 

Every plant grown from seed sown last year, and developed 
wholly in the open air. Most of the plants listed will not be 
ready for shipment till after May 1st. 



Large Clumps 

lOc each $1.00 dozen 

Sweet William — Choice Auricula Eyed 
Digitalis (Foxglove) — Large Flowered Mixed. 
Aquilegia (Columbine) — Select Long Spurred Hybrids 
tieuchera (Coral Bells) — Sanguinea. 
Polemonium — Richardsoni. 

From 3 inch Pots 

8c each 60c dozen 

(Except Hollyhocks) 
Arabis Alpina (Rock Cress) — Single. 
Orientale Pojppy — Fine large Crimson Black Blotch. 

Excelsior Strain, an Extra Fine Mixture. 
Iceland Poppy — Mixed Colors. 
Aquilegia — Long Spurred Hybrids. 

lOc each $1.00 dozen 

Hollyhocks, Double — Chater's Finest English Strain. 
Mixed colors. 



Medium Sized 
Roots 

7c each 60c dozen 

Chrysanthemum Maximum, Moonpenny Daisy (often 
called Shasta Daisy. 

King Edward VII. 
Calliopsis (Coreopsis) — Grandiflora. 
Delphinium — A Fine Mixture. 
Delphinium Chinensis — Blue and White. 
Lupinus. Polyphyllus Mixed. 

Lobelia Cardinalis. Sweet Rocket. 

Sweet William — 3 splendid varieties in mixture. 
Digitalis Ambigua. 



At 5c each 



50c dozen 

Forget-Me-Nots — Several Colors. 

English Daisy — The Bride, white, very free flowering, 

long stems. 
Pansies — A grand mixture from named varieties. 

ALSO 



Strong Potted Plants, 75c per dozen, $5.00 per 100. 

SALVIA — Drooping Spikes. The finest of the tall Salvias. Ready May lo. 
PENTSTEMON— Select Scotch strain. Ready May lo. 

SPECIAL 

Beat your neighbors, and have the first ripe Tomatoes in your neighborhood. Full of fun and interest you 
will find it. Kat fine, fresh fruit from your own vinos, instead of buying flavorless tomatoes at 15c per lb. 
Ready May loth. 

BONNY BEST — The best of the Extra Earlies. Very large potted plants. 12 for $1.00; 25 for $6.00. 

EARLIANA — The earliest of them all. Large potted plants. 20 for $1.00; 25 for $4.00. 

All our tomato plants are hardened off properly in open air. They have travelled in good condition 1,000 miles. 

TERMS: CASH 

Plants win be sent by express, unless otherwise arranged for. 

RYERSE BROS., SIMCOE, ONT. 



140 



THE CANADIAN H RTI (M I/P [' R TS T 



Ma 



y. 1914 



Double The Yield of 
The Garden ^ 



GEM GARDEN COLLECTION 

This CampleteCellecUoD will slock a moderalF-sizMl Kitchen Gardes lhrou(houl the Season. 

U-00, PoHlpaid. 

lpk(.OBloii,. Early. Slicing. 
1 pkt. Onion... lOarly, Boiling. 
1 pkt. Parsnip. . Long White. 

Jib. Peas KarlicHt Dwarf. 

Jib. Peas. .. Medium Karly Dwarf. 
Ipkt. Radish. Karly Round Kf<l. 
Iplct. Squash. ..Marrow. 
Ipkt. Tomato Early Smooth ScarUa. 
Ipkt. Turnip. Round, WhitpTabliv 

Cor.Adelalde & Jarris Sts., TORONTO 
1. Winnipeg and Vancouver. 



ilb. Beans... DwarfStringloBS Yellow 
jib. Bosm.... Dwarf Siringlcsa Ciroen 
Ipkt. Beans. ... Dwarf Bush Lima. 

I pkt. Beel Round Red. 

Ipkt. Cabbage. .Early. 

Ipkt. Carrol... Intermedisto Red. 

}ib. Corn Early Sugar. 

I pkt. Cucumber Slicing. 

] pkt. LeKuce Cabbage Heading. 

W^ RENNIE C«umi.«i 

Also at Montreal 



l^ith Rennies Seeds 



-H 







He's Big All Over 
And Good All Through 



Big Ben is built for endless service. 
He has no "off-days," no shut-downs. 
His four years of existence have been 
one long record of on-the-dot accu- 
racy. 7,000 Canadian dealers say that 
he does more efficient luork for less 
pay than any other clock alive. 

A Big Ben battalion, over 3,000 
strong, leaves La Salle, Illinois, every 
day. Their sparkling triple nickel- 
plated coats of implement steel; their 
dominating seven-inch height; their 
big, bold, blaak, easy-to-read figures 
and hands; their big, easy-to-wind 
keys — all make Big Ben the world's 
master clock. 

In return for one little drop of oil, 
he'll vfork for you a full year. From 
"Boots on" to "Lights out" — 365 
times — he'll guarantee to tell you the 



time o'day with on-the-dot accuracy. 

He'll guarantee to get you up either 
of TWO WAYS— with one long, 
steady , five-minute ring if you need a 
good big call, or on the installment 
plan, with short rings one half-minute 
apart for ten minutes, so you'll wake 
up gradually, and he'll stop short in 
the middle of a tap during either call 
if you want to shut him off. 

Big Ben is a mighty pleasant look- 
ing fellow. His big, open honest face 
and his gentle tick-tick have earned 
him a place in thousands of parlors. 

The next time you go to town call 
at your dealer's and ask to see Big 
Ben. If your dealer hasn't him, send 
a money order for $3.00 tohis makers 
— Westchx, La Salle, Illinois — and 
he'll come to you prepaid. 



Eastern Annapolis Valley 

Euice Bocbnnu 

Last month I n:ientioned that I said no 
sign of aphis on tTie first batch of apple 
twigs brought into the house, but on a 
second lot of Kings and Blenheims brought 
in later there were aphis. 

The demand for nursery trees is not 
Kreat owing to scarcity of cash. Last year 
aJthough the season finished with good 
prices for fruit, the apples were badly spot- 
ted and did not pack up to expectatioi 
the year before also produced spotted fri 
However, most of the growers intend 
spray more thoroughly tham ever, and n; 
than one air-tight sprayer is being imp<;:i- 
ed from the United States. 

The forests and shelter belts are rap 
falling before the axe, and already one f^ 
the effects of the strong cold winds as 
sweep along the Valley. 

The spring is unusually late (some y^ 
we have peas • planted by the last 
March). Snow fell on April 12th, and 
following day was very cold, with ic' 
hanging all day, although we hav« 
days this year with the thermometer as high 
as 60 degrees. 

At this time of the year ooe is tempted 
to compare the spring here with that of 
England, where the snowdrops come in 
February and the daffodils and narcissi are 
in full swing in April, and where the fruit 
trees blossom long before those in Canada; 
but when autumn comes the tables are turn- 
ed, for the Canadian fruits are ready to 
harvest just as soon as the English. 

Seed potatoes from Nova Scotia have now 
also been prohibited in Bermuda ; so those 
growers who have saved their crops for 
better prices are apt to be disappointed. 

Many Englishmen are filling the places 
of the native hired man (who does not find 
things as alluring in the States as for- 
merly), so wages are not likely to go 
higher yet awhile (the highest is about $40 
per month and house). There are many 
applicants for work, amd this year the far- 
mers need to economize ; many of them do 
not care to keep men all winter, or more 
than one. Prunin.y b.Ts brpin .ifoinir on dur- 
ing March and April, but there have been 
days when the average farmer was puzzled 
to find a job for his men. The old buck 
saw and horse are resting on many farms 
while the gasoline engine cuts the cord- 
wood into stove lengths. 

.Another cooperative fruit company has 
been formed in Cambridge , King's county, 
N.S., with Mr. J. G. Webster as president 

Australian fruit is arriving in England— 
this, and the poor condition of Nova Sco- 
tian fruit on arrival has resulted in a bad 
drop in prices. The highest being $4.39 
for No. 1 Nonpareils, and $2.30 for No. 
3'?. Ben Davis ranging from $3.76 "" 
$2.80; Gano, $4.10 to $2.80. 

Experimental Work at Ottawa 

Four new greenhouses erected for the 
Horticultural Division at the Central Ex- 
perimental Farm, Ottawa, are nearing com- 
pletion, and already two have been occu- 
pied. They are what is known as the Pier- 
son-U-Bar Flat Iron Curved Eave Comstruc- 
tion, and will give about seven thousand 
five hundred square feet under glass. They 
are heated with hot wat«r from sectional 
boilers and consist of a main house one 
hundred and seven feet, six inches lonir. 
and twenty-five feet wide, divided into two 
by a glass partition, and three detached 
houses twelve feet apart on one side of it. 
each fifty-eight feet six inches long and 



ay, 1914 



THE CANADIAN HORTICULTURIST 



141 



'3nty-five feet wide, and each connected 
i;h the main house by a glass portico. 
[e main purposes to which these houses 
il be put are as follows: 
•'ive different kinds of benches are being 
► tailed which will be tested for relative 
I fulness and desirability. On these and 
[ the solid beds on the ground different 
[thods of culture of flowers, vegetables, 
i of some fruits will be tried, 
rhe cross-breeding of flowers, fruits, and 
Ifetables will be carried on during the 
liter months and selections made from 
;sting varieties or strains. A specialty 
(1 be made of the testing of florists' 
lyelties and reporting on the same. Al- 
jiugh tomatoes, radish, amd lettuce are 
\ winter vegetable crops usually grown, 
(has been found that other kinds of vege- 
iiles succeed well when forced, and ex- 
■■'""nts will be tried with a variety of 

liments will he conducted in the 

of stiawberries, grapes, and other 

This winter several hundred pots 

wherries are being forced with the 

of learning which succeeds best. 

pots of fifteen varieties of European 

are beimg forced, it being believed 

:t there will be a growing demand for 

se grapes in Canada. Being in pots the 

as do not take up space permanently in 

HAND-MADE 

^RUiT Baskets 

The Best in the Market 

HEWSON & FARRELL 

GRIMSBY Box 536 ONTARIO 



=^LOWER POTS 



'Ht BEST MA"'- 



FO^TEPS 

Standard 

POT ' 



Large stock of all 
sizes for the Spring 
trade. 

Send us your order 
NOW and receive 
your supply before 
the Spring rush. 



HE FOSTER POTTERY CO., Ltd. 

HAMILTON, ONT. 



Wilkinson ' pneumatic , 

KliGISThKED ENSILAGE 

♦ and STRAW CUTTERS 

Our Climax "A" mounted is the only suc- 

"ssf ul combination machine of this capacity 

II tlie market. It will cut and deliver green 

>vn into the highest silo, ordrystraw or hay 

to the mow. V.i' mouth, rolls raiseSinches 

Liul set close toknives,makinKSoUd compact 

:;lting surface. Requires less power than any 

<'ther of same capacity. No lost power. 

Direct pneumatic delivery, no worm gears or 

sp*!cial blower attachment. Knife wheel also 

uriesthe fans. No lodjjin^ on wheel arms. 

v'rything cut, wheel always m balance. Steel 

:m-case. Supplied with pi[)e enough to 

; 'uchany silo, also pipe rock, tools, etc. Ask 

-. < air dealer alx)ut thom and write for catalog. 

vVe also make a "H" machine unmounted. 

THE BATEMAN-WILKINSON CO. 

LIMITED ^ 468Campb.II 

Aveoae, 

Toronto, 

Ontario. 



V 




the houses, but can be moved about when 
necessary. In England grapes are success- 
fully forced in this way. A large number 
of plants are needed for beCding on the 
ornamental grounds at the Central Farm, 
and the greenhouses will be utilized for 
propagating these. 



STRAWBERRY PLANTS 

For sale. Fine stocky, well-rootod plants. 
Eleven tested varieties. Write for list and 
pricea. 

S. H. RITTENHOUSE, JORDAN HARBOR. ONT. 



Experimental Cold Storage 
Warehouse 

The experimental cold storage warehouse 
for fruit which the Dominion Department 
of Agriculture is erecting at Grimsby, Ont., 
is now nearing completion. This ware- 
house, which has beem erected' according 
to the design of the Dairy and Cold Stor- 
age Commissioner, Mr. J. A. Ruddick, is 
intended to afford facilities for carrying on 
experiments in the cold storage of different 
varieties of fruit, and also in demonstrat- 
ing the value of pre-cooling for long dis- 
tance shipment. 

The totnl refrigerated space is about 
fifty thousand cubic feet. There are four 
rooms on the ground floor, each with a 
capacity of fully two carloads of fruit. The 
basement floor contains one large room 
and a separate chamber for experimental 
purposes. The warehouse is equipped with 
what is known as Cooper's gravity brine 
system, with special facilities for a quick 
cooling in two or three chambers at a time. 



Some of the finest gardens in the 

world have been arranged 

by 

KELWAY & SON 

The R(yyal HortictiUurists 

Langport, Somerset, England 



FRUIT MACHINERY GO. 

INGERSOLL, ONT. 

Manufacturers of Fruit Sprayers 

and a complete line of 

Apple Evaporating Machinery 

Our complete POWER SYSTEMS for 

evaporating,when installed by our experienced 
millwrights are the most practical, sanitary 
and labor saving to be found anywhere. Our 
prices and terms always reasonable. 

Write for Illustrated Catalogue 



International 
Harvester 
Haying 
Machines 




TlelHCLine 

GRAIN AND HAY 
MACHINES 
Binders, Reapers 
Moweri 

Rakes, Stackers 
Hay Loaders 
Hay Presses 

CORN MACHINES 
Planters, 

Binders, Cultivators 
Elnsilage Cutlers 
Shelters, Shredders 

TILUGE 
Combination, 
Pes and Spring-Tooth, 
and Disk Harrows 
Cultivators 

GENERAL LINE 
Oil and Gas Engines 
Oil Tractors 
Manure Spreaders 
Cream Separators 
Farm Wagons 
Motor Trucks 
Threshers 
Grain Drills 
Feed Grinders 
Knife Grinders 
Binder Twine 



VI T^HEN haying time comes you can- 
^^ not control weather conditions, 
but you can make the best of them if you 
use the rakes, tedders, stackers, loaders, 
and sweep rakes sold by I H C local agents. 
With a line of I H C haying tools in your 
sheds you can come out of the least favor- 
able weather conditions with the highest 
percentage of bright, well cured hay. 

I H C haying tools are carried in stock or sold by 
local agents who can take care of you quickly iu 
case of -accident. It is tlieir business to see that you 
are satisfied with the I H C haying machines and 
tools you buy from them. You cannot go wrong 
if you buy only haying tools with the I H C trade 
mark. 

Write the nearest branch house and get the name 
of the nearest agent handling I H C haying tools, 
and catalogues on the machines in which you may 
be interested. 




International Harvester Company of Canada, Ltd. 

BRANCH HOUSES 
At Brandon, Cslgary, Edmonlon, Estevan, Hamilton, Lethhridge, London, Montreal, 
M. Battlelord, Ottawa, Quebec, Regiu, Saskatoon, St. John, Winnipeg , Yorktoa 




'1» 



THK CANADIAN HO RTTC H LTUR TST 



May, U)i 



FREE LAND 

FOR THE SETTLER in 

NEW ONTARIO 

Million* of acre* of virgin soil obtainable 
free and at a nominal cost are calling for 
cultivation. 

Thousands of farmers have responded 
to the call of this fertile country and are 
being made comfortable and tich. Here, 
right at the door of Old Ontario, a home 
awaits you. 

For full information as to terms, regula- 
tions, and settlers rates, write to 

H. A. MACDONELL 

Director of Colonization 
Parliameitt Buildings., TORONTO 

HON. JAS. S. DUFF 

MiiiiBter of Agriculture 
Parliament Bldgs., Toronto 




"THE BEST BY TEST" 

Garden Seeder 

l»t>ee* Uie worti ot two men iii liu.il tlit- 
time- Makes the drill, sows, oorere autl roi..-, 
the Bted wiiile you wsulk. 

No better seeder can be built for the 
fast ajid accurate sowing of Turniijs, Oab 
bage, Caxrot*, Beeta, Cora and all oihci- 
garden seeds. 

Price $7.50 delivered at your station. 

THE SUSSEX MANUFACTURING GO. 



SUSSEX, N. B. 



Ltd. 



HORTICULTURAL SOCIETIES- 




PARH SEATS 



Are as necessary to the improvement of your parks as flower stoclc. When making 
your plans for this year's park improvement, include our PAilK SEATS- 

We make well finished, durable Park Seata that will give satisfaction, at reasonable 
prioee. 

Among the parks already supplied are: Medicine Hat. Moose Jaw, Sault St- Marie. 
Welland, Windsor, Stratford and Tororto. 

Catalogue " G " will give full information about this seat. 

The Stratford Mfg. Co. Ltd., Stratford, Canada 



THE BRANTFORD IDEAL POWER SPRAYER 



CANNOT BE EXCELLED 




I 



Wc also manufacture complete lines of Gas and Gasoline Engines. Windmills. Tanks. Giain Grinder*. 
Steel Saw Frames. Water Boxes. Pumps, etc 

Catalogues describing our different lines, sent on request 

GOOLD, SHAPLEY 81 MUIR CO. Ltd., Brantiord, Ont. 



The fruit growers of the district will 
afforded the facilities of the warehouse 
payment of the usual charges for si 
service. The warehouse is conveniently 
cated next the public school grounds 
the village of Grimsby, and a sidimg fr 
the electric railway has been laid do 
for convenience in shipping. 

The services of Mr. Edwin Smith, B.S. 
who has been engaged during the ■p 
two years on cold storage and trari 
tion work in British Columbia, havj 
secured to take charge of the estaUj 
ment under Mr. Ruddick's direction. I 
Smith has had special training in H 
work, and is well qualified to carry 
the details of such experiments and r" ~ 
strations as may be undertaken. } 
assume his duties about the first of .".iij 



Poison on Apple Peel 

Canadian Trade Commissioner J. 
Ray, stationed at Birmingham, Eng., ! 
sent the following report to the Departm 
of Trade and Commerce, at Ottawa: 

The following paragraphs appear in 
current issue of the London Daily T 
graph : 

Some consternation has been caused b 
letter which has appeared in the press 
the subject of poison on apple-peel. 1 
Maurice S. Salaman, anab-tical chem 
has drawn attention to the presence o 
deposit of copper sulphate (blue vitri 
with some admixture of lime on cert 
'imported' apples of excellent quality i 
flavor.' The analyst's letter says: 

'Samples of imported apples of excell 
quality and flavor were brought to me 
day, in my professional capacity, with 
inquiry comcerning what was described a 
peculiar green mildew near the stalk, 
proved on analysis not to be a mildew' 
a deposit of copper sulphate (blue vitri< 
with some admixture of lime, and was < 
dently left behind in spraying the ft 
against parasites. 

'The presence in appreciable quantity 
rank poison, and this of a partially cumt 
tive kind, in fruit largely eaten by ch; 
ren, is so grave a public danger that y< 
assistance is urgently asked in calling 
tention to it. 

'.\pples having any sign of green dept 
in the stalk cavity should not be eai 
unless peeled. 

'But surely some steps should be tal 
to stop the importation of fruit thus d 
gerously contaminated.' 

An exhaustive examination of the app 
now on the market revealed the fact tl 
the only variety affected was the Albema 
Newtown. Unfortunately this hapi>ens 
be the best flavored .inple ;iv;iilablc at * 
moment. But all Albemarles have not 
poisonous deposit in the cavity which ho 
the stalk. The bulk have been carefu 
washed before shipment from Ameri 
Nevertheless, nobody is amxious to take 1 
risk of eating poisonous matter, and 
that need be done is carefully to wash ' 
apple if one is desirous of eating the pf 
If in addition the peel is removed then 1 
danger disappears. 

In less than a week the first cargo 
apples from .Australia is due on the mark 
and it is to be hoped that the public v 
not allow the colonial growers to suffer 
cause of the trouble which has arisen fr< 
the .American Albemarle Pippin. In a 
case a peeled apple is quite safe. Acco 
ing to the analyst, . no deleterious st 
stance has been found beneath the skin 



i-Iay, 1914 



THE CANADIAN HORTICULTURIST 



143 



CARNIOLAN QUEENS 

Carniolans are excellent winterers, build up rapidly in 
the spring', enter supers rapidly, are g^entle and the best 
of honey gathereis. Atk for our free paper, ''Superiority 
of the Carniolan Hee." 

Untested, $1,00 each ; dozen, $9.00. 

Full Colony in 8 fr. dovetail or JJanz 10 fr. hive* 
$10.00 f.o.b. here. 

ALBERT G. HANN 
Carniolan Queen Breeder - Clinton, N.J., U.S.A. 



Superior Golden Queens 

that produce workers for honey. The 
gentlest beee on the earth to handle and 
the yelloweet. Untested, each $100, six $5.00. 
Tested, $2.00 to $S.OO. Breeders, $5.00 to $1000. 

BROCKWELL. BARNETTS, VA.. U.S.A. 




THIS WASHER 

MUST PAY FOR 

rrSELP. 

A HAN tried to sell me a borse once. He saki 
It was a fine horse and had nothing the mat- 
ter with it. I wanted a fine horse, but, I dldnt 
know anything about 
Horses much. Anal didn't 
know the man very well 
either 

So I told him I wanted to 
try the horse for? month. 
He said "AU rlKht," but I 
pay me first, and I'll give 
you back your money if 
the horse isn't all right.'' , 

Well, I didnt like that 1 
i was afraid the horse! 
was'nt "all right" and that I 
i might nave to whistle fori 
my money if I once partedl 
witbit. So I didn't buy thel 
horse, although I wantedf 
it badly. Now,thi3 8et mel 
thinking, L 

You see 1 maKe Wash.r"' 
ing Machines— the "1900^ 
Gravity" Washer, 

And I said to myself, lots of people may thini 
about my Washing Machine as i thought about 
the horse, and about the man who owned it. 

But I'd never know, because they wouldn't 
write and tell me. You see I sell my Washing 
Machines by mail. I have soldoverhalf a mil. 
lion that way. So. thought I, it is only fair 
enough to let people try my Washing Machines 
for a month, before they pay lor them just as I 
wanted to try the horse. 

Now, I know what our "IflOO Gravity" Washer 
will da..,! know it will wash the clothes, without 
wearing or tearing them, in less than half the 
time they can be washed by band or by any other 
machine. L> 

I know it win wash a tub full of very dirty 
clothes in Six Minutes. I know noother machine 
ever invented can do that, without wearing the 
clothes. Our ••ISIOO Gravity" Washer does the 
work so easy that a child can run It almost as 
well as a strong woman, ctnd it don't wear the 
clothes, fray the edges, nor break buttons, the 
way all other machines da 

It Just drives soapy water clear through the 
fibres of the clothes like a force pump might. 

So, said I to myself, I will do with my "1900 
Gravity" Washer what I wanted the man to do 
with the horse. Only I won't wait for people to 
ask me. I'll offer first, and I'll make good the 
offer every time. 

Let me send you a "1900 Gravity" Washer on a 
month's free trial. I'll pay the freight out of 
my own pocket, and if you don't want the ma 
chine after you've used it a month, I'll take it 
back and pay the freigbtLtoo. Surely that is fair 
enough, isn t it. 

Doesn't it prove that the "1900 Gravity" 
Washer must be all that I f<ay It la? 

And you can pay me out of what It ^aves for 
ou. . It will save its whole cost in a few months 
a wear and tear on the clothes alone. And then 
It will lave 50 to 75 cents a week over that in 
washwoman's wages. If you keep the machine 
after the month's trial, I'll let you pay for it out 
of what It saves you. If it saves you 60 cents a 
week, send me GO cents a week 'tjlf paid for. I'll 
take that cheerfully, and I'll wait for my money 
mitll the machine itself earns the balance. 

Drop me a lino to-day, and let me send you a 
book about the -NUQ Oravttr" Wasber t^iat 
wasbea ckothw to m* miwin i i 

.\ddr(;86 in(, p<!nsonally: 
K. 11. MORlilS. .VlanaKfr, 1900 Waaher 
Co.. J57 YonjfL' St., Toronto, Ont. 



L° 



t Mother's Day 

Mother's Day this year will be observed 
on May 10th. Probably no cujstom has met 
with such instantaneous and general appro- 
val in such a short space of time as has 
Mother's Day. Year by year the number 
of churches and other public institutions 
that refer to the practice of 'sending- flowers 
or writing- to our Mothers, or wearing flow- 
ers in their memory, that is encouraged 
by the observance of this day, has been in- 
creasing. This year the day is likely to 
be more widely observed than ever before. 
Horticultural societies should help on the 
good work. 



Recent Publications 

Copies of the following publications have 
reached The Canadian Horticulturist dur- 
ing the past few weeks : "The Apple in 
Pennsylvania : Varieties, Planting and Gen- 
eral Care," being bulletin No. 128, issued 
by the State College, Central College, 
Pennsylvania; "Home-Made Cider Vine- 
gar," by Walter G. Sackett; Bulletin 192 of 
the Agricultural Experiment Station, Fort 
Collins, Ccloraido ; "Potatoe Diseases in 
New Jersey," being circular 33, and "An 
Analysis of Materials sold as Insecticides 
and Fungicides," Bulletin No. 262, of the 
New Jersey Agricultural Experiment Sta- 
tion, New Brunswick, N. J. 

The Agricultural Experiment Station, 
Orono, Maine, has issued two bulletins, one 
dealing with "Wooly Aphid of the Elm," 
being Bulletin No. 220, and the other 
"Spraying Experimemts and Apple Diseases 
in 1913," being Bulletin No. 223. The lat- 
ter is particularly interesting. 

The Connecticut Experiment Station, 
New Haven, Conn., is distributing Bulletin 
No. 182, entitled, "The Brown-Tail Moth." 
This bulletin is well illustrated and gives 
valuable information relating to this pest. 
It should be of special interest to fruit 
growers in those portions of the Maritime 
Provinces where this moth has made its ap- 
pearance. Bulletin 181 by the same station 
is entitled, "Some Common Lady Beetles 
of Connecticut." 

The Ohio Experiment Station of Wooster, 
Ohio, is sending out Circular No. 143, en- 
titled "The San Jose Scale, The Oyster 
Shell Bark Louse and Scurfy Bark Louse," 
by J. F. Houser, and Circular No'. 140, be- 
ing an abridgement of Bulletin 264, entitled 
"Orchard Bark Beetle's and Pin Hole Bor- 
ers." 

The -Agricultural Experiment Station of 
the University of Wisconsin, Madison, 
has issued a valuable bulletin entitled "The 
Control of Damping-off Disease in Plant 
Beds." 

The ninth annual report of the Ontario 
Vegetable Growers' Asisociatiom is being 
distributed by the Ontario Department of 
Agriculture of Toronto, and the report of 
the proceedings of the 59th annual meet- 
ing of the Western New York Horticultural 
Society, is being sent out bv Secretary John 
Hall, 204 Granite Bldg., Rochester, N.Y. 
This report deals with an unusually large 
number of interesting subjects. 

"The Modern Gladiolus Grower," is the 
title of a new publication intended for both 
amateur and professional growers of glad- 
ioli, which is being published monthly by 
Madison Cooper, Calcium, N.Y. It con- 
tains articles of special interest to gladioli 
growers. 



MILLER'S STRAIN ITALIAN QUEENS 

By return mail after June 6th to lOth. or 
money refundedi; bred from beet red-olover 
straina in United States in full colonies; 
from my Superior Breeders, northern bred, 
for busineas, long tongiied, leather color or 
three banded, Bentle, winter well, Imatlecrs. 
Not inclined t6 swarm, roll honey in. 

1 Untested $1.00, 6 $5.00, 12 $9.00. 

1 Sel. Untested $1.25, 6 $6.00, 12 $11.00. 

A speoialiert of 17 years' experience. 

Safe arrival and satisfaction guaranteed. 
I. r. MILLKB, BBOOKVILtE, PA., U. S. A. 




A Garden 
of Beauty 
and Fragr ance 



VY^HETHER you love the 
*' dear old N.arigolds, 
Heliotrope, Nasturti"jms and 
Petunias — the gorgeous 
Poppys and Asters— hemany- 
hued Sweet Peas— tlie heavy- 
scented Nlcotiana — or the 
huge and picturesque Ricinus 
■you'll find in Ewlng's Cata- 
logue the particular varieties 
which will make your flower 
garden a real satisfaction. 

Ewlng's Reliable Flower 
Seeds have been delighting 
beauty lovers for more than 
forty years. Write (or Illus- 
trated Catalogue tf»-day, and 
If your Dealer hasn't Ewlng's 
S«eds, order from 
ua direct. 

THE 

WILLIAM, 

EWING 

CO., 

LIMITED, 

Seed Merchants, 

McGiU St., 
MONTREAL. 



•44 



THE CANADIAN HORTICULTURIST 



May, 191 



NEW AND RARE SEEDS 

Unique collection. Hundreds of varietie« adap- 
ted for the Canadian climate. Perennial and 
perfectly hardy. Own savinr' Catalogr free. 

Perry's Hardy Plant Farm 

ENFIELD, MIDDLESEX, ENG. 




Brown's Auto Spray ilSV 

Siylrrihown has 1 k;'1.''.<- I 1 t\ 

ill-it v-ri'.n-c)i>KW'''i^'^"'"W fff 
■> No/./.lt:. 4()<,th*'r KtylcH ^ W\ 



luui .sixuH— liitnd anil power ouititK. 
E. C. Brown Co., 5 7 J»j Si.. Rocheatar, N.Y. 



"Twist the Coin 




The best polishes in 
the handiest box. 

Black, Tan 
and White 



The F. F. Dalley Co. 

LTD. 
Buffalo, N.Y. 
Hamilton.OQt. 



Beautify and Protect Your Property 

Peerless Ornamental Fencing accomplishes 

two great purposes. It beautifies your premises 

by giving them that symmetrical, pleasing, orderly 

appearance, and it protects them by furnishing rigid, 

effective resistance against marauding animals, etc. 

Peerless Ornamental Fencing 

is made of strong, stiff, galvanized wire that will not I H' 
sag. In addition to galvanizing, every strand is given 
, a coating of zinc enamel paint, thus forming the best 
^ possible insurance against rust. Peerless ornamental Kf^^^r- 
fence is made in several styles. It's easy to erect ^L„^w= 
and holds its shape for years. ^^SB^^5>j_ 

^ ^^^ Send for free catalog. If interested, ask about our 
IMllW^^ farm and poultry fencing:. Agents nearly every' 
lllfll]^^ where. Agents wanted in open territory. 

lljUJ^JIJUl^Banwell Hoxie Wire Fence Co., Ltd, 

Ullllllllllllllllllinnl^k.''''''"''"'' ^^^ — Hamiltoti, Ont 

nnimiiDuiinnimlil^^^^ ^wiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii 

HHHHttliiliiiii 



.iimnnnnjc: 
iiiiiiiii 

Illlllllllllllllilllllllll 



fs^^ 



EARLY VEGETABLES AND FRUIT 

Sold At 

HIGHEST PRICES 

We have special facilities that will 
ensure prompt handling of your 
Fruit this season. Market informa- 
tion freely Supplied. 

Write to-day and make arrangements 
with us. 

H. J. ASH 



44 Church Street 



TORONTO, Out. 



New Cyclopedia of Horticultur 

Thi' Caiiiidiaii Jlorticulturist is in r<i.ii 
of th<* finrt voUnm- of Prof. h. H. b;i 
New- Standard Cyclopedia of Horticu: 
The first volume coiitain.s some six hui 
pages, and if the remaining five volun 
the .set equal the standard set bv thi- 
volume the set will establish a new sta; 
of excellence for works of this char; 
This new Cyclopedia of Horticulture 
second edition of the original Qyclope 
has been freshly written in the light of i 
most recent re.s<?aroh and exiK^rienoe. It"* 
not merely an ordinary revision or correc 
t'd edition of the old cycloiKMlia. ibut 
new work, with enlarged boundaries 
graphically and practically. It trupti 
and displaces all previous editions oi 
prints of every kind whatsoever. 

It is the fullest and the most autli. 
tive work of its kind and constitute 
most conscientious attempt that has 
made to compress the story of our hoi 
tural thought, learning and achievi 
into one set of books. The text is u. 
alphabetical airangement and is supa| 
mented by a synopsis of the plant kingd^ 
a key to identification of species; a list ( 
.specific plant names with their meanio 
translat*^! into English and their pronm 
ciation given ; a glossary with definitions ( 
technical terms and a general index. Evei 
name in the cyclopedia is also pronounce 
in its regular entry. 

In its appiroximately four thousand gei 
era, fifteen thousand species, forty thoii — 
plant names, in clear and concise an ; 
ment, this cyclopedia opens a knowledi.,^- . 
plants and growing things not to be fouB 
in any other horticultural work. It "■• 
sents the combined labor and experieu 
the foremost North American authoi - 
on horticultural subjects. The six volumi 
place at the disposal of the hortic-ulturis 
whether practical, amateur or scientific, a 
account of practically every subject whic 
at any time may be of interest or use in h 
calling. Its range is wide, covering plant 
flowers, vegetables, trees, tillage proc' 
tools and implements, cultural discus.- 
botanical history, geography, commerci; 
markets and myriad items that only coi 
stant use will reveal. The scope of tl 
volumes has not been confined to botanici 
subjects alone, but every subject in any wa 
incident to the activities of the horticultu 
ist has been covered, commercially as we 
a.s scientifically. The publishers are Ti 
Macmillan Company of Canada. Limite( 
70 Bond Street, Toronto, Ont. 



Mr. Wm. Armstrong, Niagara Biv< 
i>ruit Farm, Ontario, wiU this season ii 
troduoe a new fruit package. This pacl 
age will be a crate holding about one bushi 
of fruit. It will contain a number of sma 
crates, each holding one dozen or more ( 
say peaches. Each peach will be wrappe 
so as to expose to view a small portion < 
each peach in the crate, and thus facil 
tate immediate inspection bv all concerr''^ 
This crate will be useful as a cold st< 
package, as it provides for a free ciix... 
tion of air through every part. Twent; 
five years ago Mr. Armstrong introduced 
new thirty-six quart berry crate whic 
proved a success. 



The British Columbia Departmemt of Agr 
culture had one of its representatives give 
series of demonstrations of top working ai 
pie trees during April in several of tl 
leading fruit districts of the province. 



May. 1914 



THE CANADIAN HORTlC ULTUi? il?T 



IX. 




MOST PERFECT MADE 



THE INCREASED NUTRITI- 
OUS VALUE OF BREAD MADE 
IN THE HOME WITH ROYAL 
YEAST CAKES SHOULD BE 
SUFFICIENT INCENTIVE TO 
THE CAREFUL HOUSEW/IFE 
TO GIVE THIS IMPORTANT 
FOOD ITEM THE ATTENTION 
TO WHICH IT !S JUSTLY EN- 
TITLED. 

HOME BREAD BAKING R 
DUCES THE HIGH COST OF 
LIVING BY LESSENING THE 
AMOUNT OF EXPENSIVE 
MEATS REQUIRED TO SUP- 
PLYTHE NECESSARY NOUR- 
ISHMENT TO THE BODY. 



: 



E. W. GILLETT CO. LTD. 
TORONTO, ONT. 

WINNIPEG MONTREAL 




A practical hand machine for 
field and orchard spraying. 
tinve3 time, labor and money. 
JHijh pres.sure. perfect agltiition. 
High, wide-tired wheel makei 
puslilng easy. Has liorso hltc h for hilly ] 
cmintrj". Mndo to last. Has brass biill 
Talvea. pliinger, cylinder, etc., and 10- and 20-Bal- 1 
Ion rust -proof tank. Much larger capacity than [ 
liand Bprayer, and costs much less than the horse- 
power maclilae. A great crop increascr. 

READ TfflS OFFER 

I will send you this machine on 10 days' trini 
wltlunit your advancing mio cent. If satisfied with 
It keep It and pay on terms to suit. If not, sem 
It lia.k at our cvpenso. WE PAY Tin; FUilKiliT 
TI1I3 freo trial backed by our 5-year guaranlee an- 
over 27 years' experlenco in making sprayers insure, 
you complete satisfacUon. Send to- 
day for my big 
Fr«e Book and Money Sanng Offer 

This offer Is made to ttio first 
Ij'iyer in each locality. Wiite nie 
today — be tho first — and I will 
<end tho offer and tho bools in 
tho first pnsslblo mall. 

E. H. Lamiell. Gen'l Manager 
H. L. HURST MFG. COMPANY, 

I 9817 North St. 
Canton. 0. 




Back Yard Improvcmcivts 

E. L. Djti, Toroato, Ont. 

In Toronto, throug-h th<= efforts of Parks 
Commissioner Chambers, Tbe Health De- 
partment, Civic Guild and Ratepayers' As- 
sociation, a "clean-up a.nd open-up" cam- 
paign has been started, and in some sec- 
tions, neighbors are cooperating with each 
other to tear down the shabby, unsanitary, 
germ-breeding, old wooden fences, and 
erecting in their place, a neat, handsome, 
ornamental lawn fence. 




How the Back Yards Used to Look 

The views here reproduced show the old 
wooden fence, and two months later, the 
wonderful improvement and handsome ap- 
pearance the ornamental fences have made. 
Here you see unsightly yards transformed 
into miniature parks. Fresh air and sun- 
shine have full play and the shrubbery, 
vines and plants are in a healthy, thrifty 
condition. 

An artistic fence like this around a house 
is like an artistic frame arotwid a painting. 
It's not absolutely necessary, but nearly 
so. Home improvements of this nature 
cost ISO little, the wonder is that people gen- 
erally have not adopted them. Modern condi- 
tions demand such improvements. Orna- 
mental lawn fences in either iron or wire, 
are the only logical solution of the city 
backyard problem. 





Improvement Some Ornamental Fences Made 

Board fences keep out the sunlight and 
fresh air, afford a hiding place and dump- 
ing ground for garbage and filth, and are 
unsanitary. In some American cities by- 
laws against the erection of board fences 
are in force. Detroit is a notable example. 
The time is not far distant when Toronto 
and other cities will have similar by-laws. 

Ornamental iron and wire fences let in 
fr«sh air and sunshine, and generally have 
the effect of turning dumping' grounds into 
gardens with flowers, mudholes into green 
lawns, and transforming '-evesores" into 
beauty spots. They automatically cause 
people to obey sanitary laws by making 
them ashamed to have their back yards re- 
vealed as what they are to all who care to 
look. 

A good orchard, well attended, is the 
most profitable branch of the average 
farm.— E. E. Adams, Leamington, Ont. 




SPECIAL 30 DAY OFFER. 

BERLIN FIRELESS COOK- 
ERS at better tJbiaa factory 
pricea to ycti — A ■ Great Big 
Bargain. 1 compartment, 

price regular $8 00, now only 
$5.50; 2 compartmentB, regru- 
lar price $15.00, now only 
$8.03. Write at once to make 
sure of yours. 
Peerlesa Cooker Co., Berlin, Oot. 



EGG CIRCLE 
STAMPS 



For neat Egg Markers 

for Circles or 
Itvdividual Poultrymen 



WRITE 



W. E. 

115 BAY ST. 



IRONS 

TORONTO 



A FARMER'S Garden 






1IIIIII ii^iiiiiiiiiiiiiiitiiiiiiiiiiitiiiitiiii iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii 

Helps his wite to plan her table in busy times. Saves v.tzlc \_ 
and worry, saves buyiu); so much meat, gives better saiis- S 
faction to the help. A good garden will be almost impossi- S 
ble in your busy life without proper tools. They cost httlc S 
and save much hard work. 



m/^A€E 



WHEEL HOES i 
AND DRILLS! 



taill sow, cultivate, ridge, furrow, etc., better than you can 5 
with old-fashioned tools and ten times quicker. A woman, 5 
boy or girl can do it. Can plant closer and work these hand S 
tools while the horses rest. 38 combinations 5 
from wliii:h to choose at $3.00 to iU, One | 
comliiiicd tool will do all of the work. | 
Ask your idealer to show them and '| 
write us for booklet, "Gardening s 
With Modern Tools" and "Iron | 
Age Farm and Garden News" - 
both free. 5 

The B&teman- 3 
Wilkinson Co., : 
^ Limited : 

i&^ Symington ■ 
'At. .Toronto, Can. ' 




1191 ! illlllllllllli lililililllilllllll 





CYCLONE, 
LAWN FENCE 

is the highest grade 
fence on the maikcl. heavier, 
stronger and closer sp''ccd 
than anyothci—it is heavily 
galvanized and rust-proof, 
durable, and made by the 
exclusive Cyclone method 
of weaving which mattes it 

sag-proof. 

Can be put up on wooden 
or iron posts; does not re- 
quire an expert. Is self- 
adiustingtoanevenground; 
does not lose Us shape. 
Cyclone Fence 

COSTS LESS than inferior 
makes because it is made 
in enormous quantities in 
one of the biggest fence 
factories on earth. 

We carry a full line 
o^ Cyclone goods 
Ornamental Fences and G 
Flower bed border, Trellla. 

Write E. L. DYER, The Fence Mu 

47 B East Welliniiton St., TORONTO 

Please lend Catalogue and Prices 



a t e' s ; 



Name , 



Address. 



■i 



THE CANADIAN HORTICULTURIST 



May, 1914 



A handy pump for farmers 

It is a direct lift pump that can be attached 
to wind mills, a Fairbanks-Morse Eclipse 
Engine, or operated by hand. 

This is one of the least expensive and most 
efficient of our high grade farm pumps. 

Adapted for lifts from 30 to 125 feet. Alto- 
gether an ideal pump for any farm — easy to 
operate — will keep in good repair for years. 



Send for free catalogue of pumps and water 

systems. If you are interested in farm engines. 

spraying outfits, lighting systems, power and hand tools, scales 

or mechanical goods of any kind, full particulars will be sent 

to you on request. Address Dept. No. 43 

The Canadian Fairbanks ■ Morse Co., Limited 




Montreal Toront* 

Quebec OtUwa 

Ft. WiliUn 



Winn!p«( 
Rcsina 



Calcary 
EdmontMl 

M Vaoceiivat 

Vicloria 



CMiKuln's DepartiiKMitai Hniisf for Mixiiiijiicnl (iuod?- 



BEZZO'S FAMOUS PRIZE ASTERS 

Prizes New York State Pair, Oanadlan National Exliibition, Toronto; Berlin HorticultiiraJ 
Society, 1910-11-12-13. 

Violet King, Eose King, Boyal White, Boyial Lavender, Eoya,! Pink, Eoyal Purple, Roohefr 
ter Pink, Peerlese Pink, Salmon Hnk, ImproTed Orego Pink, Queem of the Market White or 
Pink, Branching' White, Eoae, Pink, Lavender, CSrimeon, Mikado White. These are very truly 
the aristocrats of the Aatar family All i»lante aemt by Express (unleaa otherwise arranged) 
to any part of Oanada and guaranteed to arrive in good condition. Price, $1-00 per hundred, 
packed and Labelled sepcirately in wet moes- Expirees prepaid on orders amottnting to more 
than $2.03. Special prices to Horticulttiral Societiee- All plants 00 Id frame (not hot-bed) 
grown, and with favorable weather will be readiy last week in Miay. Order early as tihe quan- 
tity is limited. 

C. MORTIMER BEZZO - BERLIN, CANADA 



WHILE THEY LAST 

In order to clear out the remaining copies on hand of The Canadian 
Apple Grower's Guide, we are making a clubbing offer with The Canadian 
Horticulturist of less than half price. This book is written by Linus 
Woolverton, M.A., and is one of the leading authorities on Fruit Growing, 
and should be in the library of every fruit grower. 

The Canadian Apple Grower's Guide $1.50 

The Canadian Horticulturist 60 

Regular Price $2.10 

OUR SPECIAL OFFER, $1.25 

For One New or One Renewal Subscription. 

If your subscription expires this month take advantage of this Extra 
Special Offer when renewing. Write to-day. 

•Addreit Book Department 

THE CANADIAN HORTICULTURIST 

PETERBORO, ONT. 



iationi 
mittd| 

rrylH 



01^ 



Control ol Steamboat Traffic 

The Ontario Fruit Growers' Association 
through their Transportation Commit 
and Traffic Officer. Mr. G. E. Mclnt 
have for the past two years been carr _ 
on an investigation of facilities afforded by 
the transportation companies for the hai''- 
ling of the fruit shipments of the provii: 

Included in a very complete report 
Mr. Mcintosh on this work presented 
the annual meeting of the growers held 
Toronto last November, were several r0 
ommendatioms for amendments to the Ra 
way Act, whereby the jurisdiction of 
Board of Railway Commissioners would 
greatly extended. These were endorsed ag 
submitted to Mr. J. E. Armstrong, the 
ergetic member for East Lambton, who oo^ 
sented to bring them before Parliament. 

This was done several weeks ago by 
Armstrong, in the introduction of Bill 
85, the first clause of which compels 
steamboats engaged in carrying frei 
from any port or place in Canada 
another port or place in Canada to file the 
traffic agreements, tolls, classification 
freights and traffic, with the Railway Con_ 
mission. All questions of the places along 
the line of route where steamboats shall 
call for traffic, and the time of call, and the 
duration of stay, shall be subject to the ap- 
proval and control of the Board. 

It is interesting to mote that there are 
over eight thousand boats in Canada which 
will be affected by this legislation, and of 
the total tonnage carried by these boats th« 
agriculturists contributed nearly twenty pel 
cent. Figuring the amount spent by the 
Government in keeping up the waterways, 
the average cost per ton for lake transpor- 
tation in Canada in 1913 was 99.37 cents, 
compared with 55.19 cents for .American 
traffic. It is only reasonable to exped 
that the people of Canada through th< 
Government and Board of Railway Com- 
missioners, should have a voice in the con- 
trol of the steamboat companies, wher 
consider that the capital cost of Canac 
canals up to the present irae is $105, i 
037, and the cost of maintenance last 
alone amounted to $1,003,080. 

For many reasons, therefore, this clause 
of the Bill is looked upon as one of the 
most important pieces of legislation ad- 
vanced during the present session. 

.Another clause gives the Board control 
over all privileges and concessions given by 
any company to any person, the Board hav- 
ing power to order such privilege or con- 
cession be discontinued or modified oi 
granted to any other person. 

The last clause deals with the shipping 
of fruit in particular. In years gone by, 
men have been compelled to see their pro- 
duct, which has been carefully gathered 
and packed under the regulations of the 
Fruit Act, thrown in and out of cars and 
handed in a careless, reckless manner. 01 
the total shipments last season ten per cent, 
was damaged or pilfered. The railway and 
express companies seem utterly incapable 
to compel their employees to handle tl 
products properly. This unfortunate t 
of affairs the Bill overcomes by imposing 
a fine on wilfully destructive employees. 

With the adoption of Mr. Armstrong's 
Bill, one of the most embarrassing ship- 
ping problems for the fruit industry will 
be effectually solved. 

That it is a popular piece of legislation 
is evidenced by th number of Boards oi 
Trade throughout the province which have 
endorsed it and petitioned the Government 



May, 1914 



THE CANADIAN HORTICULTURIST 



XI. 



Where 
does it 
go? 



is the most important ques- 
tion that should be asked, 
concerning the circulation of 
any magazine. 

It's far more telling from the 
advertising standpoint than 
the question " How Many ? " 

It's quality rather than quan- 
tity that counts every time. 

The 

Canadian 

Horticulturist 

offers a high quality service 
to advertisers. It enters the 
homes of Canadian fruit grow- 
ers and beekeepers, who are 
acknowledged to be the 
wealthy and progressive rural 
people of Canada. 

When 
Making 
Your Plans 

for next year, why not decide 
to include it ? 

"Ask and ye shall receive" 
detailed circulation statement 
and all other information at 
our disposal. 

The Canadian 
Horticulturist 

PETERBORO, ONT. 



to have it become law, among the number 
being- Toronto, Hamilton, St. Catharines, 
London, Sault Ste. Marie, Sarnia and God- 
orich, while several municipal councils have 
also sent in their approval. 

The first clause of the Bill relative to 
navigation companies has been included in 
the Consolidated Railway Act, but the re- 
maining clauses will come before the House 
again. ' 

How Apples arc Sold in Great 
Britain 

Special Correspoidcnt of the Canadian HorticDltnrist 

In the fruit sales rooms of Great Britain 
a catalogue is made, generally about 
twenty or thirty barrels going to the lot, 
each lot of course being numbered. In a 
straight line of fruit, one may often see 
twenty or thirty lots of the same class of 
goods, but in a mixed lot various kinds 
are sold together in lots of twenty or 
more different kinds of apples. These mix- 
ed lots are not over popular with the buy- 
ers and growers should avoid mixtures as 
far as possible. On no account put two 
kinds of apples in the same barrel. 

Out of each lot, or run of lots, of similar 
stuff, appearing on the catalogue, one or 
sometimes two sample barrels are sent up 
to the saleroom and each one is shot out 
for the inspection of the buyers as the 
previous lot is being bid for, so that all 
may see the quality of the goods all the 
way through. To save time the samples 
come up the hoist virith the heads of the 
barrels knocked off, and are immediately 
turned right out into big baskets. At the 
end of the sale all the samples are sold 
together as one lot, and often at a very 
much lower price than the bulk has made, 
owing to their having been turned out. As 
soon as a buyer has bought all he wants 
he obtains an order from the office for the 
delivery of his goods in the usual way and 
is generally allowed a bare week in which 
to settle, the brokers naturally being very 
strict on the point of credit, although a 
firm may be good for very much more than 
the amount involved. 

The selling by private treaty by those 
salesmen who, either from choice or other- 
wise, are outside the brokers' ring, does 
not call for much description. The goods 
are examined by the prospective buyer 
and are sold for what they are worth in 
either large or small parcels according to 
requirements. No particular selection or 
sampling takes place, but naturally the 
best and most perfect stuff makes the best 
prices. A barrel is perhaps opened here 
and there in the parcel, but with such dex- 
terity that the goods are not upset nor 
in any way deteriorated for sale. Mention 
might be made of the tool used for opening 
the barrels. It is a short handled hammer 
of the adze shape, with a claw at one end 
and a square head at the other. It is very 
light, but in experienced hands auite pow- 
erful enough to get the head off a barrel 
with two or three well directed blows. 

I would like to impress upon growers the 
vital importance of keeping their packing 
and grading well up to the standard. Com- 
petition is so keen amongst the retail 
trade, to say nothing of the dealers, that 
buyers will insist on having the best stuff 
if they are paying best price, and it is no 
longer possiljle to run a lot of inferior stuff 
in, even if it were politic. Growers should 
aim at making their own brand the best 
and most reliable they possibly can, and 
if they do that consistentlv there will be 
no trouble in disposing of the goods at 
this end, as no one has a better memory 
for the virtues, and more especially, for 
the failings of a particular mark than has 
the buyer. 



FHUITLAND NURSERIES 

axe offering for sale a general assortment of 
flrat-olaes Fruit Trees, Bnahee. Tinee and 
Ornamental Shrubs, etc., at very low prices. 
Ottr catalogues are jvBt out. It will pay you 
to send for ono. 
G. M. HILL, Box 42, FRUITLAND. ONT. 



Onion Groovers 




Do you intend to have any weeds in your 
onions this year? If so, ask me for lat«ra- 
ture which describes a macJiine that will 
separate the weeds from the onions, prac- 
tically doing away with moat hand weeding,. 

Don't delay. Act quickly if you want to 
secure a weeder this season- 

H. G. Bruncr, Manufacturer 

OLINDA, ONT. 



Repeat orders are 

the best recommendation 
READ THIS 



The Sherwin-Williams Co. 

Mgr. Insecticide Dept. 

Montreal 

Dear Sir : — 

I heartily recommend the use 
of Sherwin-Williams New Process 
Arsenate of Lead, and in proof of 
such, kindly accept my order for 
another 1,000 lbs., to be delivered 
to us with the i,oco lbs. that I 
gave you some time ago. 
Yours very truly. 

Father Leopold 

Horticulturist at the Oka Institute, Presi- 
dent of the Pomological and Fruit Growers 
Society of the province of Quebec. 

The Sherwin-Williams Co. 

of Canada, Limited 

MANUFACTURERS OF INSECTICIDES 

Offices and Warehouses : 

Montrtal, Toronto, Wlnnipea, Calaary, Vanoouutr, 

Halifax. N. S., London, Ena. 



XII. 



THE CANADIAN HORTICULTURIST 



May, IQ14 



Progressive Jones Says: 

" Intensive Market-Gardening 
Means Intensive Fertilizing" 

It is intensive market gardening tliat pays largest profits. 
If you want to make each plot of ground yield its utmost, 

I advise you to use Harab 
Fertilizers. 



Harab 



L 



By fertilizing the Harab 
way you build up tlie soil as 
well as greatly increase and im- 
prove your yield. There are 
many different combinations 
of Harab Fertilizers, each of 
which is particularly suited to 
the crop for which it is recommended. 

The Harris Abattoir Company will be pleased to send 
you their useful fertilizer booklet free. Send your name 
to-day direct to the Company or to 
nearest agency. 

The Harris Abattoir Co., Ltd. 

Fertiliier Dept. Strachan Ave. 

Toronto, Canada zi 

■IIWIIIWi»|i|IJIl H.!ll iiai^l^Mil^—i^— 




NEPDNBET 



There's a NEpqnsET Roofing 
for Every Building 

Paroid Roofing 

GET Neponset Roofings — the "slowly made" 
kind. Then you are sure to get roofings that 
are slow to wear out. Then you'll never get a 
poor roofing when you need a good one. 

Neponset Roofings are long on the roof — because long "in the making. " 
This means more than you think. It means thi-: Maximum protection to 
your home — your stock — and your pocket-book. Protection against leakj 
— repairs — and that greatest danger of all — fire. Remarkable "year-in-and- 
year-out' ' protection — in cold or hot climates — at a minimum cost— this is 
the "blanket protection" slowly made Neponset Roofings invariably give. 

There's a slowly made Neponset Roofing for every purpose. Neponset 
Paroid is the great roofing for fine farm buildings. 

Other Neponset Roofings are — Neponset Shingles for residences; Neponset _ 
Proslate, the coJored roofing. 

Sold by dealers everywhere. Write for name of nearest dealer. 

Surely Send for Roof Book— FREE 
BIRD & SON (Est. 1795), 962 Heintzman Bldg., Hamilton, Ont. 

Montreal St. John, N. B. Winnipeg Vancouver 

Also makers of Neponset Wall Board, used in place of laths and plaster, 
and Neponset Waterproof Building Paper 





SOCIETY NOTES 



St. Thomas 

Dr. Framk E. Bennett, of the St. Thoi: 
Horticultural Society, with his usual en 
prise, is organizinRf a party of enthusi;i 
horticulturists to visit Roche'^ter on the 
of May 23rd for a couple of days, when tne 
azaleas and rhododendrons are in fti 
bloom. Lilacs will also be out, as well i 
some late tulips. The Park Superintends 
of Rochester reports that this is the be 
time to see the wonderful sijfht these fl<M 
ers pre«pnt in that citv. Parties of ten 
more will be able to visit Rochester at tl 
rate of a fare and a third. Several entha 
iasts are sroing- from St. Thomas, amd it 
<^xpectpd that London will add to the nua 
bers. .Any horticulturist who would like 
join this party are invited to write direct 
Dr. Bennett. 

His Royal Hig-hness, The Duke of Coi 
nau'rht, has consented at the request of tl 
St. Thomas Horticultural Society to plai 
an Enerlish oak in one of the parks on tl 
occasicwi of his visit to St. Thomas on Ma 
6th. The society has purchased a number 
of rare trees which will shortly be planted in 
Pinafore Park. 



Tn the annual report of the Ontario T' 
ticultural .Association the name of ^.^ 
Potts, who L>'ave am address relating to tne 
teaching of horticulture to the children in 
schools is inrorrectlv g-iven. It should ' " 
Mrs. R. B. Potts. 16 Bnice St., Hamil 
The paper by Mrs. Potts was hit>inv 
praised when read at the convention. Socie- 
ties or others de«irine to get in touch with 
Mrs. Potts will be able to do so at the ad- 
dress given. 



Items of Interest 

.An international conference on city plan- 
nino- will be held in Toronto, on May 25th 
to 27th. During the last five years national 
conferences on city planning have been h"''' 
annually in various cities of the Vti 
States, and have aroused wide-spread . 
terest. This is the first conference of the 
kind to be held in Canada. The Dominion 
and Provincial Governrnents are contribut- 
ing to the expense of the proceedings. It 
is expected that matiy towns and cities ki 
Canada will be officially represented. 

"Gardens of Delight," is the title of a 
most attractive booklet being distributed 
by Kelway & Son. the Royal Horticulture 
Establishment, Langport. Somerset, Eng- 
land. It contains profuse illustrations, many 
of them beautifuly colored, of leading Eng- 
lish gardens. The illustrations are n revel- 



Chas. E. Woolvcrton 

Landscape Architect 

Gritnsby, Ontario 




THE CLIPPER 

re are three thing-s ihai destroy your 
lawns — Dandelionn. Back 
Plantsin aijd Crab Gra^:». 
In one season th«C!inp«r will 
dri\'e them all out. Your de- 
aler should havethem— If he 
ha.'^ not drop us a line and we 
will ("end circulars and pricei 
^CLIPPER LAWN MOWER CO 
Box 10. nixM. III. 



My, 1914 



THE CANADIAN HORTICULTURIST 



XIII. 



iDn of the perfection to which the garden- 
r art has attained in England, 
^r. J. J. Kelso, superintendent of Ne- 
rlrted and Dependent Children, Toronto, 
^ilanninjr to place from two to three hun- 
lid boys now in industrial homes to work 
II firuit farms in the Niagara District 
liing the summer months. The money 
;jned by the boys is to go towards the 
Uport of poor relatives or to the boys' 
in bank accounts. 

•rof. Lloyd, of McGill University, gave 
i( address recently before the Royal Cana- 
lin Institute in Toronto, on "Artificial 
l)ening of Fruit." In the course of his 
jress he changed a bunch of bananas 
m a green to a ripe condition in less 
n an hour, by means of the fumes of a 
mical substance. Prof. Lloyd claimed 
t the flavor, aroma and quality of the 
it were in no way injured, and that one 
the greatest benefits to be derived 
Bugh artificially ripening fruit is the 
t that it makes it possible to transport 
it over long distances. 
'he death occurred recently of Colonel 
1. Windle Pilkington, V.D., D.L. Col. 
kington was the head of the well known 
fflish firm of Pilkington Bros., Limited, 
have been regular advertisers in The 
nadian Horiculturist for years. This 
is one of the best known firms engag- 
in the manufacture of glass in the world. 
e home of the late Colonel Pilkington was 
Helens, England, where for many years 
was one of the leaders in all public en- 
prises, and where he held many inipor- 
t positions. 

Lt an open meeting of the Burlington, 
t., Fruit Growers' Association, held re- 
tly, addresses were given by Prof. R. 
rcourt, of Guelph, and Mr. W. T. Ma- 
tt, Dominion Horticulturist, of the Cen- 
l Experiment Farm, Ottawa. Mr. 
coun stated that Nova Scotia is produc- 
apples at a lower cost than any other 
t of Canada. British Columbia cannot 

11 does not grow better fruit than On- 
io, but they pack it better, and adver- 
? it much more. .A letter from Mr. A. W. 
hn, of Burlington, was read dealing with 
I history of the Association and the great 
•tor it had been in the promotion of hor- 
ialture in the district. 

■\n effort made by the United Fruit Com- 

lies of Nova Scotia, Limited, to estab- 

1, a Madison Cooper Plant, for cold stor- 

; and pre-cooling purposes this year, had 

be abandoned owing to the work having 

|en started too late to make it possible 

! the company to secure the necessary 

liply of ice. A cheap method, which it is 

iderstood has been successfully operated 

various parts of the United States for 

cooling, will be tried with the io© on 

nd. 

\t a meeting of the members of the 
nit ITnion of Summerland, B.C., held re- 
itly, a resolution was passed giving 
ireholders the privilege of shipping pri- 
;ely to consumers any variety of their 
lit or produce providing the quantity 
;s not exceed ten per cent. Growers who 
ip over ten per cent, will not have the 
ht to expect the Union to handle the 
lance of their crop of that variety. In ad- 
ion the directors will make whatever 
argc per box may be necessary towards 
<eting the cost of overhead expenses. 
■Reports from various sections of the Niag- 
li district indicate that the peach crop 
Is year, on account of the mild Decem- 
jr, followed by the unusually cold spell 
fring January and Febniary, will be de 
'ledly small. 



Deering New Ideal 

A Money Saving Binder 

e ) 





' I ''HESE Deering binder features appeal 
■■• to the farmer. The elevator, open at 
the rear, delivers the grain properly to the bind- 
ing attachment. Because the elevator projects 
ahead of the knife it delivers grain to the binder deck 
straight. A third packer reaches up close to the top of the 
elevator and delivers the grain to the other two packers. A 
third discharge arm keeps the bound sheaves free from un- 
bound grain. 

The T-shaped cutter bar is almost level with the bottom 
of the platform and allows the machine to be tilted close to 
the ground to pick up down and tangled grain without 
pushing trash in front of the knife. Either smooth section 
or serrated knives can be used. The Deering knotter 
surely needs no recommendation. 

The Deering local agent will show why Deering New 
Ideal binders are the standard of binder construction. See 
him, or, write to the nearest branch house for a catalogue. 



International Harvester Company of Canada, Ltd 

Hamilton, Oat, London, Ont. Montreil, Qnc. 

OtUwa, Ont. Qoebec, ?. Q. St. Jobn» N. B. 

These maclunes are built at HamOton, Oot. 




BEEKEEPERS 

The honey season will soon be here. Have you any Bees, Queens, or 
Bee Supplies for sale? Now is the time to sell them. A small advertise- 
uu-nt in the next issue of 

THE BEEKEEPER 

will bring you ready buyers. Here's what one of our advertisers says: 

Dear Sirs 

In reply to your letter of the 15th April, we have to 
request you to take out our advertisement. We have 
received a large number of replies. It is unnecessary to 
add that we are very satisfied with The Beekeeper as an 
advertising medium. 

Yours truly 

HARTWICK & WHITE 

RATES:— 1 inch, $1.40; 2 inch, $2.80; 3 inch, $4.20 per issue 
Classified, 3c. per word, each sign or single number 
counting as one ^vord. 

Coay should be received by the 15th May 

THE BEEKEEPER, PETERBORO, ONT. 




THE CANADIAN HORTICULTURIST 



May, I 




»yMrM%J\, I HilVO and ■ ••Mill. 

Thry Mve your crop. Increase Ihr yield 
and Improve ttir qualily. Our Spray (.'«) 
«ntlar bhowt when to tpray and whai 
materials to use. Otir "Spray" booklet 
•bows 70 combioatlous of 

Bucket, Barrel, Power and 
Trai-tfon Sprayers for 
orchard and fieldcrops 
and other uses. Built 
complete or In units — 
buy Just what you 
need. Ask your deal- 
er to show them and let 
us send you our spray 
booklet, spray calemlar 
and "Iron Age Farm 
andGanlen New-i" free. 
The Bateman- 

WilkltlBOD Oo., 
Limited 
*^ liil SymlnKton At. 
^Fl Toronto. Can. 






FOR SALE AND WANTED 

AdTertisements in this department in- 
serted at rate of 3 eents a word for each 
insertion, each figure, sign or single letter 
to eount as one word, minimum eost, 30 
eents, strictly cash in advance. 



ALL KINDS OF FARMS— Fruit farms a specialty. 
— W. B. Oalder. Qrimsby- . ^ 

NIAGARA DISTRICT FRUIT FARMS— Before 

buying it will i>ay you to consult me. I make 
a specialty of fruit and grain farms.— Melvin 
Gavman & Oo.. 6t. Oatharinee. 

ASK DAWSON' He knows. 

IF YOU WANT to sell a farm consult me. 

IF YOU WANT to buy a farm consult me. 

I HAVE some of the best Fruit, Stock, toain 

and Dairy Farms on my list at right prices. 

H. W Dawoon. Ninety finlhome at. Tnrnntn. 

SALMON ARM, ShuBway Lake. B.C., has the 
finest fruit and dairy land in B.C. No irriga- 
tion necessary; mild winters, moderate sum- 
mers, DO blizzards or high winds: delightful 
climate: enormous yields of fruit, vegetables 
and hay: good fishing: fine boating amidst the 
most beautiful scenery, and the Salmon Arm 
fruit has realised 25 cents per box more than 
other fruit in B.C. Prices of land moderate, 
and terms to suit. Apply to P. C Haydock, 
Salmon Arm. BO 



I BUY BEES STANDING. 

Owner pockets cash— F. 
F/ast, On«. 



Myself pack and load. 
A. Allen, Philipaburg 



BEZZO'S FAMOUS PRIZE ASTERS— Bead particu- 
la.r<» on page %. 

WANTED FOR THE SEASON— Young Man who 
has had experience to work as assistant in 
Queen rearing yard^ State experience and 
wages expected'. — John A. McKinnon, Queen 
Breeder. St. Eugene. On t. 

BUY THE CIRCLET, a new, up-to-d'ate, hand en- 
graved Aluminum leg band for fowl. Fits all 
sizes, simple, neat and durable. Send 25o for 
one dozen. — Wm. A. Curry. 28 Water St. E., 
Brookville. Ont. 

WANTED — Prime swarms; hives furnished. 
Address Box 18, The Canadian Horticulturist 
and Beekeeper, Pete rboro, Ont. 

GOLDEN AND THREE-BANDED ITALIAN AND 

Carnlolan Queens, ready to ship after April 
1st. Tested, $1.00; J to 6. 95o each: 6 to 12 or 
more, 90c each. Untested, 75o each; 3 to 6, 
70o each ; 6 or more, 65c. Bees, per lb $1 50 
Nuclei, per frame, $1.50. — 0. B. Baukston, 
Buffalo. Leon Co.. Texas. U.S.A. 

FAMOUS NORTH CAROLINA BRED ITALIAN 

Queens for sale (red clover 3-banders). Honey- 
gatherers, good as the best. Strictly reared 
from Geo. B. Howe's best breeders; mated with 
Boot's, Moore's, Davis' Select Drones; bees 
that get the honey. Free from disease. Un- 
tested, one, 75c; per doz., .$7.50. Select untest- 
ed, one, $1.00; per doz.. $9.00. Tested, one 
$1.25. Select tested, $L50. Extra select tested, 
$2.ro. Breeders, $3.00 and $5.00.— H B. Murray, 
Li'-erty. N.O.. .U.S.A. 

FOR SALE— A bargain, one. two and half horse 
power Sprayer. Two seasons in use. Good 
state of repair. Complete, sixty dollars. — 
Lawrence Harvey. Wardsville. Ont. 

WANT TO SELL YARD OF BEES or some one 
to run them near Toronto.— J. Alpaugh, 
Innerkip, Ont. 



Top Working Fruit Trees 

R. M. Window, Prorincial HoriicaltorUt, Victoria, B.C. 

The fruit growers of the Okanagan Valley 
have shown, a great increase of interest in 
making- remunerative unsuitable varieties 
of trees by working them over to the best 
commercial kinds. Inquiries and requests 
to the Horticultural Branch of the Depart- 
ment of .'Xgriculture have been far more 
numerous than in any previous year. 

While top-working fruit trees, especially 
apples, is often justifird by the increased 
roturns after the new top is well establish- 
ed, there are certain conditions under 
which it is not advisable. I refer particu- 
larly to the top-working of black-hearted 
trees, or those which have been badly af- 
fected by fire blight. The wood of a 
black-heart tree is brittle, and much of it 
is dead ; decay starts very readily in the 
cuts made for grafting, and the scions 
either fail to grow, or if they grow, make 
a poor union, ard eventually break off. 

The appearance of a tree severely cut 
back in the effort to control an attack of 
blight, naturally suggests top-working to 
a blight resistant kind. If blight were 
quiescent or absent from the district, top- 
working might be feasible, but when blight 
is active, the inevitable crop of water 
sprouts furnish the best possible condi- 
tions for blight, and effort to save the 
blighted stock on which to build a new 
tree is likely to meet entirely with failure. 
Aside from blight or black hearted trees 
there is a large number of sound, healthy 
land vigorous trejeis, of non-remunerative 
or non-productive varieties ; these may be 
grafted over to the better commercial kinds ; 
in fact, it is highly desirable that they 
should be so treated. 



Iten\s of Interest 

Sunscald is found almost entirely in 
trees having an open habit of growth or 
where they are headed very high and prun- 
ed out severely in the centre. — S. E. Todd, 
Lake Huron District. Ont. 

The use of iced cars for the carriage of 
fruit is increasing year by year and fruit 
growers are learning that the question of 
temperature in transit is of as much im- 
portance as the length of time occupied in 
carrying the fruit from one place to an- 
other. — J. A. Ruddick, Dairy Cold Storage 
Commissioner. 

The cooperative purchasing of supplies 
has built up in our vegetable growers' as- 
sociation a spirit of brotherly love and 
mutual confidence that has been of untold 
benefit to us. Our members have increas- 
ed, our finances have grown (until one 
year we paid out over one hundred and 
fifty dollars in prize monqy), and still had 
a nice surplus at the end of the year. — 
W. J. Kerr, Ottawa, Ont. 

Since the creation of The United Fruit 
Companies of Nova Scotia, Limited, the 
fruit industry of Nova Scotia appears to have 
taken a new lease of life. The company 
hais established a department in The Reg- 
ister, of Berwick, N.S., which is published 
weekly, and which keeps the fruit growers 
of the Annapolis Valley fully posted in re- 
gard to important matt-ers relating to the 
fruit industry. This is creating greater 
confidence among the growers and assisting 
in bringing about reforms and improve- 
ments more rapidly than would otherwise 
be possible. 



Muted pairs of 
Silver, blackand 
patched foxei 
tor tale. 

Alto option! on 
1914 puppies 
for suininer de- 
livery. >^'.: 




JOHN DOWNHMV1,-Bo«-N. Str.throy. Q 



THK] 

STRATFORI 

EXTENSION 
LADDER 

It U the safest and best on ths 
market. Fitted with automatic 
hooks that lock at cTery rung 
and unlock between the rungs 

LIGHT, 'sTHON( 

EASILY OPEKATED 
AND DURABLE 

IF Interested write for Catalotne 
TMB 

StraKord Mfg.Co 

Limite 

STRATFORD, CANADA 

Maken o* Ladders for every con- 
ceivable purfKJse 



If you buy a cheaper 
Arsenate of Lead "to 
save money" don't 

buy any at all and you will 
save all the money. 




Neutral ^Arsenate 
of Lead 

is not made to sell at a low price, 
but is produced by a process, that 
gives it qualities which makes it 
more economical and efficient than 
the Arsenates selling for less 
money. 

THE 

CANADA PAINT CO. 

LIMITED 

PAINT-VARNISH AND DRY COLOR 

/ViKtRS-LINSLED OIL CDU5HED5 

MONT REAL- TORONTO- W'N'NIPEC-CAUJARY-HALIEAX 

OXIDE MINES RLDWa QUEBEC 



The Canadian Horticultun^ 



Vol. XXXVII 



JUNE, 1914 



No. 6 



Reducing the Cost of Productioiv' 



GOOD fruit land is generally cheap- 
er than rich or more level farm 
land that may be less desirable 
for fruit production. Proper fruit soil 
produces trees of good size, and fruits 
of best quality and in large quantity ; 
thus reducing the relative cost of pro- 
duction. Proximity to market or ship- 
ping station, to reduce the cost of haul- 
ing, is an essential factor. 

Where there is 'good air drainage or 
local elevation, spring frosts do not '■o 
often injure blossoms or tender buds or 
fruits, and thus there are more frequent 
and larger crops, resulting in relative 
cost reduction. 

Well drained soil means healthy, vig- 
orous trees. Wet soil means poor trees, 
and worst of all, apple tree diseases, such 
as root rot, collar blight, and others. 
Instead of a good income from a fine 
crop on healthy trees money must go to 
replace dead ones, or there will be very 
serious loss that comes from leaving vac- 
ant pl.'ices in the orchard. Wet or- 
chards should be well drained ; but the 
economy of dynamiting is yet to be prov- 
en in 'general, for we know where it has 
been very unsatisfactory. 

Good varieties are quoted constantly 
in price above poor kinds. Compare to- 
day's quotations on Stayman Winesap, 
Rome Beauty or Baldwin, with those of 
Ben Davis, Smith Cider or Shockley. 

Adapted varieties give finer fruits and 
larger yields than those not adapted to 
the regif)n, and of course as these sell 
more easily and for higher prices, they 
help to reduce the relative cost. A very 
important economic consideration is that' 
it pays all commercial growers of a com- 
munity to put their efforts into growing 
perfectly only those varieties (often but 
one or two) that are decidedly Ix'st there. 

Healthy young trees from reliable nur- 
serymen mean ready vigorous growth 
without stunting by transplanting,' and 
large early crops, if properly handled. 
Trees not true to variety ordered may 
mean years of loss. 

Plant at sutlicient distance, and on the 
square system. The writer now plants 
all permanent apple trees forty feet apart 
and all others at twenty. This permits 
profits from inter-croppin'g, cultivating 

•Kx ra«t fix)m aii • ddre « (le.iverod before 
th<? ni<>nil)er» of the Niai^ara I'cninsula Fruit 
(Jrowers' AKfKK'.iation. 



Prof. H. A. Surface, Harrisburg, Pa. 

each direction, and the development of 
large trees with full crops. 

Low-headed tops cheapyen the cost of 
production by reducing the work of 
pruning, spraying, thinning and picking; 
and prevent heavy loss by wind falls, as 
well as mulch their own soil. 

Reduce the necessity for exjjensive 
commercial fertilizers by growing legume 
cover crops. The writer uses chiefly 
crimson clover with buckwheat and har- 
vest the latter. One orchard gave 
eighty-four bushels of buckwheat this 
year. In another the crimson clover was 
sown with cow horn turnips, and we 
now have a good stand of the former, 
with over one hundred dollars worth of 
excellent turnips, without detriment to 
the young trees. 

Nitrogen, the expensive element in 
commercial fertilizers, is not needed 
where the legumes are grown in an or- 
chard. We need buy only muriate of 
potash and acid phosphate, and need but 
little of these where orchards are com- 
paratively young and occasionally culti- 
vated. 



Pruning can be done at any time of 
the year, if not too severe ; and neces- 
sary severe pruning can be done at any 
time during the dormant season. Thus 
it is a "filler" job that can be done with 
economy when more important work is 
not pressing. 

For cover crops we grow our own 
seed between the cultivated tree rows in 
the young orchards, and in any orchard 
that will not produce fruit that year. 

A uniform head of symmetrical trees 
helps to maintain the income by insur- 
ing fruit where otherwise there would 
be vacant .spaces. 

Plant varieties to ripen in succession, 
and thus keep the pickers engaged. 

We make all our own spray materials, 
saving time and expense by preparing 
stock solutions during bad weather. 

We spray as many times as are neces- 
sary, but no more. This is four (or at 
most, five) times in the year for pomes, 
and three times for drupes. 

Owing to our low-headed trees the 
thinnin'g is done easily and quickly, 
mostly from the ground, and chiefly by 






:.v-;^'^^*^ 



?*c 






«; 






J. .u •<>♦« 



m fr^.il «" *»»••> •'•' *" *•■' 



A Revenue Producing Orchard in the Georgian Bay District 

This orchard, owmyi by Win. Beekie, Oamperdown. Out., has l>een sprnyed. praiicd and ft-rtll- 
iaid. It oongtats principally of QraTenHtein, Snow, .Spy, Baldwin and Spitz v.irietiea. At the 
time the i>liotograph was taken Ur. Reekie expected it to produce two hundred barreh) an acre. 



146 



THE CANADIAN HORTICULTURIST 



June, 1914 




A Productive Strawbeiry Plantation in Britiih Columbia 

This four-acre strawberry plantation, owned by O. J. Wigen, Wyndel, B.C., produced 53,000 
quarts of strawberries. Mr. Wigen grows Kellogg thoroughbred plant*. (Photo copyrighted by 

The B. M. Kellogg Co.) 



women and girls, thus greatly reducing 
the cost. 

There i.s much less financial loss from 
fallen fruits from trees with very low 
spreading tops, because less droppings 
and less bruising. 

Low trees permit economy in time and 
methods of picking. 

Cooperative or wholesale buying of 
supplies and selling produce helps much 
in reducing the cost. 

Our friends may expect us to recom- 
mend the elimination of spraying for the 
scale by the introduction of scale para- 
sites (of which much recently has been 
printed) but we can not yet be sure that 
in all orchards they will do their work as 
thoroughly as they have in our own and 
in hundreds of others we have carefully 
inspected in Pennsylvania. It is sure- 
ly worthy of careful consideration. We 
have discovered and published regardin'g 
certain entomological conditions, and 
have been criticised by a few who have 
been too narrow to understand or believe 
them, and of course by certain agents of 
scale-spraying materials. We have seen 
enough to give firm faith in the adequate 
reduction of the San Jose Scale by min- 
ute internal hymenopterous parasites. If 
any unprejudiced person will come to 
Harrisburg, Penn., and go with me to 
see a score or more of orchards that have 
been cleaned of San Jose Scale by the 
parasites, and then not agree that these 
natural agencies have been efficient in 
suppressing the .scale I am willing to pay 



the expenses of the trip. Hence, our 
recommendation to "Reduce the cost of 
production by the application of modern 
methods." * 



How. Often and When to Spray* 

Prof. L. Caeiar, Provincial Entomologist, Guelph, Onl. 

IT is difficult for one who has not lived 
in Nova Scotia to advise Nova Scotia 
growers how often and when to 
spray. We shall, I believe, all agree 
on at least two of the applications, name- 
ly one just before the blossoms burst, 
beginning with the earliest varieties, and 
then going right on with the later, and 
the other just after the blossoms have 
nearly all fallen, say eighty to ninety per 
cent, of them off. Without these two 
in a wet cold May or June no one need 
hope to control apple scab. One of these 
is almost as important as the other. 

There will be a difference of opinion 
as to the other sprayings necessary. I 
think you should carefully test the value 
of one earlier application. Try it on at 
least one-third of the orchard and con- 
tinue it for at least four or five years, as 
one year's results are often quite incon- 
clusive. When this application should 
be put on is a debatable questiom. If 
you have oyster shell scale, blister mite 
or much canker to combat it should be 
before the buds burst or just as they are 
ready to burst. If these things are not 
troublesome I should feel like suggest- 

♦ExtTa«t from an address delivered before the 
Nova Sootia Fruit Growers' Association. 



in^ that the spraying be done not be- 
fore but as the buds are bursting, or just 
after they burst, so that the unfolding 
leaves may be covered with the spray 
mixture and protected against scab un- 
til the application just before the blo.s- 
.soms open can be given. 

As for any later sprays one must be 
guided by the weather. I think it pro- 
bable that it will pay to spray again 
about ten days after the codling moth 
spray. It seems to me that better re- 
sults will be got by not waiting for two 
weeks as ordinarily recommended, be 
cause each week after the blos.soms fall 
the danger of apple scab begins to grow 
rapidly less and the all important thing 
is to get the apples safely throiygh June 
because there is seldom danger in July. 

All are aware that two years ago the 
injury by apple scab was done chiefly in 
the latter part of .\ugust and Septem- 
ber. This injury could have been largelv 
prevented by an application of spray 
mixture the last week in August, supple- 
mented perhaps by another about two 
weeks later. 



The Production of Gooseberries* 

L. B. Henry, B.S.A., Wino'a, Onf. 

ONE difficulty in growing gooseber- 
ries is to bring them to maturity 
without having them become 
slightly scalded. .\ few hours exposure 
to a very hot sun will scald them very 
badly causing the skin to become tough 
and destroying the flavor of the berry. I 
remember three years ago we lost quite 
a quantity of fruit which was exposed in 
this way. We have one patch of three 
thousand bushes planted out in the open 
and that particular year we had them 
just a little over half picked by a Satur- 
day night. Sunday was a roaring hot 
day and as a result we had stewed goose- 
berries by Monday. You could notice the j 
cooked odor quite a distance. f 

At the same time another patch of 
nearly one thousand bushes, just across a 
lane but planted underpeach trees remain- 
ed practically uninjured on acount of the 
shade afforded by the trees. Gooseber- 
ries seem to require shade for their best 
growth. Even in England the best and 
hirgest berries require shade for their 
best growth. . 

They can be grown in an orchard witn 
very little extra work as they can be cul- 
tivated lengthwise when the orchard is 
worked and a one-horse cultivator can 
be used crosswise. Two bushes can be 
planted between the trees in the row. 
Spraying can be done easily and the pick- 
ing of them is more of a pleasure than 
being picked and pricked to small bits in 
the sun. Our Whitesmith patch under 

•FTtract from an addrees delivered at the last j 

annuaKlon^ntion of the Ontario Fruit Grow- ! 

©rs' Astociation. 



June, 1914 



THE CANADIAN HORTICULTURIST 



147 



the trees averaged six quarts to the bush, 

while the other one which is in the sun 
[averaged three quarts. 

English varieties are not propagated 
[to any extent in this country, the main 
Ipart of them being imported, as nur- 
[serymen find that they can do this cheap- 
|er. American varieties are usually grown 
I by mound laying, which consists in 
Ithrowing up the earth in June when the 
lyoung shoots are a few inches long. 
sThey root in this and are left on the 

stools for a year when they are planted 
j out in the nursery rows for another year. 
i English varieties may be propagated in 
fthis way, but they are usually left on the 

stools for two years. 

Cuttings six or eight inches long, tak- 
[en in August or September, and stored 
I as currant cuttings will succeed with 
•American varieties and with English 
i sorts in England but stronger plants are 
Eproduced by the layering methods. 

Gooseberries require the same cultiva- 
tion as the currant. It is important that 
tit should be shallow and frequent. Some 

people use a mulch system claiming that 
■they can obtain good results and also 
I prevent mildew to a large extent. Plan- 
stations thus treated have borne large 
Icrops for twenty years. The mulch 
Iwhich is usually straw should be at least 
■six inches deep and may be thrown on 



the bushes in the winter and placed in 
the spaces in the early spring. It con- 
serves moisture, prevents weeds and 
keeps the fruit clean. Its chief advan- 
tage is the prevention of mildew but its 
use has largely disappeared on account 
of improved methods in spraying. 
PRUNING 

Gooseberries bear on two-year-old 
wood and canes should not be allowed to 
remain after they are five years old. The 
young bushes do not require much prun- 
ing for the first three years except to 
cut back about half the new growth each 
year. This encourages the development 
of fruit spurs all along the branch in- 
stead of having them situated mostly at 
the ends. Low branches and those which 
have been injured should be removed as 
well as superfluous new wood. 

When pruning we have to keep in 
mind that the bearing canes or branches 
will not last forever, so young shoots 
should be saved to take their places. For 
English varieties leave five or six bear- 
ing branches and as many more young 
shoots. More branches may be left in an 
American variety on account of their 
smaller size. 

The idea of thinning out the bush to 
admit sunlight is altogether wrong, as 
the crop may be severely injured by the 
hot rays of the sun. 



The Culture of Raspberries and Strawberries 



Jos. Frappe, 

TO make a success of growing small 
fruits one should not do things 
f simply because others do. There 

r should be a good clear reason back of 
everything. The more thought and in- 
telligent workmanship one puts into any 
work the more pleasant and agreeable it 



Stirling, Ont. 

becomes ; and this is abundantly proved 
in the culture of berries. There is a 
pleasure in the great windrows of lus- 
cious fruits, the work is light and agree- 
able, and the profits to the painstaking 
are often large. 

For the little care and work that are 




A Well Sprayed Apple Orchard 

In this orchard, owned by W. J. Owens, Duiitroon, Ont.. flft<K!n pounds of lime to the barrel 
was used. This gave th« trees their white appearance and assisted in the making of a 

thorough .I'oh. 



required, no farm house or even village 
home with a small garden should be 
without an abundance of the most whole- 
some, delightful and fragrant of foods — 
the delicious strawberry and raspberry. 
They are far better than medicine, for 
with ripe fruit in the home sickness often 
becomes a stranger. The little toil re- 
quired in setting out, caring for, and 
picking is repaid a hundred fold in health 
and happiness. 

It is better to have the soil for straw- 
teries rich with some good fertilizer, as 
barnyard manure. On poor soil the same 
amount of work is required, with only a 
quarter the crop. 

If the giT>und has been cleaned by a 
summer fallow or some hoed crop, such 
as potatoes, it will save a good deal of 
labor. Weeds grow fast in strawberries. 
The ground must be well drained. Berry 
plants "cannot stand wet feet." A place 
well sheltered so that snow is likely to 
remain long on the ground is favorable. 

For ordinary cultivation the plants are 
set out in rows four feet apare and eigh- 
teen inches apart in the row. Some place 
the rows as closely as three feet, and if 
they are kept narrow enough by trimming 
the ends of the runners the plan is good. 
But it is never wise to have the rows too 
wide or matted, as besides giving weak 
plants it interferes with the picking. 

For a small patch dig small holes with 
a hoe, make a small cone shaped mound 
in the centre of each, and over this place 
the plants, letting the roots hang around 
the cone, but deep. Then cover and 
pack tightly. This enables the moisture 
to rise by capillary action. Lastly cover 
with a loose layer of earth. This keeps 
the moisture from escaping. 

Avoid planting too deep, or too shal- 
low. Large patches may be set out by 
using a spade, trowel or better a dibble. 
.■\n opening is made, the plant inserted 
the proper depth, the roots shaken well 
out, and then the earth is pressed tightly 
against it with the hand or foot. 

In the spring after the leaves are nice- 
ly started I go through and trim off the 
ends of the branches, cutting off a third 
or a quarter of the length, and remov- 
ing dead wood. The remainder will do 
much better if this is done. 

Directions given for the strawberry are 
also applicable for the raspberry. Land 
sloping gently to the north is favorable 
to the raspberry as the changes of tem- 
perature are not so sudden. This location 
also more nearly approaches the state of 
the wild strawberry. What is termed 
"winter-killing" is more properly .spring 
killing. 

Plants are goneraly set in rows six 
feet, apart and three feet apart in the 
row. If the .soil is go<xl a row of carrots 
or other vegetable may be grown in the 
intervening spaces the first year. 



148 



THE CANADIAN HORTICUI-T URIST 



June, 1914 




Protpacti for a Bumper Apple Crop in an 
E«iax County, Ont. Orchard 

Many varieties "of raspberries will do 
well in one locality, and produce small 
stunted plants and crumy berries when 
grown not more than a mile away. As 
an instance of these I might name the 
London, though there are many others 
with this fault that are sold at high 
prices. — — - 

Factors in Fruit Growing 

Prof. H. A. Surface 

Avoid injury from insects by knowing 
those that are most liable to appear, and 
watching for them or their work. For 
their suppression, follow the teachings 
of the most modern entomologists. In 
all cases, for economy of production, 
practice the methods of prevention rather 
than of remedy. Spray for insects once 
when dormant, with strong lime-sulphur ; 
for the apple aphis make this application 
immediately after leaf buds burst ; also 
use An arsenate with the fungicide for 
each of the subsequent sprayings. 

THINOTNG PEACTICE 

Modern horticulture so emphatically 
demands that the operation of thinning 
be practiced that especial attention must 
be directed to this process as a means of 
(a) increasing the size of fruit, (b) obtain- 
ing uniformity of size, (c) eliminating de- 
fective fruits, (d) equalizing the distri- 
bution of the load, and in consequence 
opening the top uniformly without break- 
ing the branches, (e) giving uniformity 
of color, and (f) above all else, prevent- 
ing exhaustive production this year, thus 
making it possible to set fruit buds for 
next year's crop, resulting in annual ra- 
ther than biennial crops. 

Fallen or bruised fruits are prevented 
by growing them on very low headed 
trees, which properly brace themselves 
with their branches ; also by picking be- 
fore they are dead ripe. Injury from 



falling is avoided by a good mulch under 
the trees. 

The bruising of fruit by harvesting 
must be avoided by careful handling 
from start to finish. Any person who 
cannot handle fancy fruit more carefully 
than eggs should grow only Ben Davis 
apples and Kieffer pears. The grain bag 
over the shoulder is still too often used 
for picking. Pick in baskets or picking 
buckets. Do not press, bruise, or rub 
fruits. Handle just as little as possible. 



and keep the "bloom" on apples and 
plums particularly, as this is one of the 
elements in the quality we wish to pro- 
duce. 

Finally, to obtain the highest degree 
in quality let the fruit mature on the 
trees. Fruits picked green do not de- 
velop with their best flavor or color. 
This is why, in every region, fancy 
"home-grown fruits" are preferred by 
consumers to those grown elsewhere and 
picked unripe to stand shipping. 



Thinning the Apple Orchard* 



J, M. Robinson, 

THINNING should always go hand 
in hand with spraying. The fol- 
lowing table shows results obtain- 
ed from twenty of the most careful 
sprayers in ten companies of the United 
Fruit Companies of Nova Scotia, giving 
the per cent, of number threes obtained. 
The percentage of poor fruit could 
have been greatly reduced by thinning, 
as can be seen by the figures taken from 
thinned apples from very large trees at 
Kingsport. This is not necessarily a cor- 
rect comparison but is given to show that 
the per cent, of number threes can be 
cut down by thinning : 

1912 1913 

% % 

No. 3 No. 3 
Gravenstein, 20 best sprayers 36 35 
Blenheim, 20 best sprayers .15 28 
King, 20 best sprayers ... 22 36 
Ribston, 20 best sprayers . 25 32 
Gravenstein, thinned (1913) . 19 

Blenheim, thinned (1913) • • 12 

Ribston, thinned (1913) ... 16 

These figures show that even though 
thorough spraying is done we often have 
fifteen per cent, or more of scabby and 
defective fruit on the trees. Often too a 
great many varieties set so full that it is 
impossible to get a high percentage of 
number one fruit and consequently the 
percentage of number threes is high, 
which generally gives poor markets. In 
each of these cases it will pay the grower 
well to thin. 

In paying visits to a number of or- 
chards last season I was very much im- 
pressed by this fact. Blenheim and Rib- 
ston bore heavily generally and though 
free from scab would not give good sat- 
isfaction m packing on account of the 
great number of small and poorly color- 
ed specimens. If from twenty to thirty 
per cent, of these apples had been re- 
moved a surprising diflerence would have 
resulted in the grade obtained. 

Again, the percentage of number three 
and cull grade is often nearly propor- 
tional to the percentage of scabby and 
defective fr uit on the trees, and by thin- 

•Extract from an adarete delivered beiore 
the members of the Nova Sootia Fmit Grow- 
ers' Association. 



Kcntvillc, N.S. 

ning off sometimes fifteen to twenty per 
cent of this part of our crop the grade 
will be raised greatly and the yield not 
materially decreased. The expense of 
thinning moreover is not great and the 
work is easily done. In Kingsport last 
season large trees bearing eight to ten 
barrels, were thinned in three quarters 
to one hour each, or at a cost of approxi- 
mately two cents a barrel, calculating 
labor at twenty cents an hour. The ex- 
tra expense in grading unthinned fruit 
easily offsets this and the gain in grade 
is from thirty-five cents to fifty cents a 
barrel tree run. 

I consider thinning of great impor- 
tance as it aids greatly in appearance, 
which is our weakest feature in fruit 
growing in the Annapolis Valley. Great- 
er profits for money expended may also 
be had from thinnSng than from any 
other orchard operation. 

What they Cost. — It often happens 
that when we continually hear of the 
ravages of certain insect pests, that we 
suddenly realize the enormous amount of 
damage they are doing, and immediately 
adopt measures to render their attack 
less and less in the future. When we 
hear in cold figures what the annual loss 
in orchards amounts to every year, it 
makes us "sit up and think." In the 
year 1904, Mr. C. L. Marlatt, of the 
U. S. Bureau of Entomology, went very -A 
carefully into the question of what our "W 
insects cost us, and he estimated that the 
annual loss due to fruit insect pests 
amounted to the enormous sum of $27,- 
000,000. That is, twenty per cent, of all 
fruit crops grown in the Republic to the 
south of us is annually destroyed by in- 
jurious insects. Some years the per- 
centage in some districts will be as high 
as forty per cent.— Arthur Gibson, Chief 
Asst. Entomologist, C.E.F., Ottawa. 

Basic slag, which is a cheap form in 
which to apply phosphoric acid, can be 
used to advantage in large quantities by 
crops which are gross feeders. If the 
soil is rich in vegetable matter or acid, 
the acids will help to dissolve the in- 
soluble forms of phosphoric acid and 
make them available for the plant. 



June, 1914 



THE CANADIAN HOETICULTURIST 



149 




Cottesmore Hall, Cobourg, Ont., One o( an Increaaing Number of Suburban Mansion* in Canada —Fig. 1 

The Gardens of Cottesmore Hall, Cobourg, Ont. 



I 



NOT very far from the gardens of 
Bagnall Hall, Cobourg, a descrip- 
tion of which appeared in the 
January number of The Canadian Horti- 
culturist, lies the beautiful residence and 
gardens of Mr. Wallace H. Rowe, the 
president of the Pittsburg Steel Com- 
pany. All that the ingenuity of man 
ould acomplish has been done to make 
his residence a palace, the grounds 
fairy-haunted glens, and the gardens 
veritable wonderlands. Bounded on the 
south by the old Kingston Road ; on the 
west by Cottesmore Avenue and on the 
east by a meandering creek which flows 
from the Baltimore hills out into Lake 
Ontario, the whole vista is so pleasant 
that one has to be quite strong-willed to 
drag oneself away. 

The Hall itself is built most substan- 
tially of cut Kingston stone, the frontage 
l>eing one hundred and sixty two feet. 
In figure one a good view of it is ob- 
tained. The bush hydrangea in the right 
foreground, the weeping ash and maples 
also show well in this cut, which gives 
the .south west aspect. The front en- 
trance from Kingston Road has massive 
hammered iron gates with heavy lamps, 
flanked by maples. It opens invitingly 
into an avenue of more maples that are 
in excellent keeping with the rest of the 
estate. These gates were made by the 
Canada Foundry Company, weigh quite a 
few tons, and cost several thousand dol- 
lars. Part of the finer work on them 
required two or three years to accom- 
plish. 

Most of the trees shown in the illus- 
trations have been in the hands of the 



T. S. Hall-Abell, B. Sc, Cobourg 

dentist. All rottenness has been remov- 
ed, and all holes filled. They look good 
enough to stand for centuries. 

The driveway is made on the Telford 
Road system. The other paths are mac- 
adam on ten inches of crushed stone. 

Figure two is the clay tennis court — 
originally the upper half of the vegetable 
garden — enclosed by a cedar hedge, and 
surrounded again by lilacs, high bush 
cranberries and bush honeysuckles. In 



the background of this illustration and to 
the left are the stables, to the centre the 
poultry house and to the right the tool 
house, while two beautiful English white 
hawthorns also show up well to the right 
of the willows. This photograph was 
taken from the nursery window in the 
rear of the house, and the view is due 
north. 

In figure three we see part of the for- 
mal garden laid out in double Maltese 





•^•'•fV' -^tmBSt^/t-b::,'^ ' --^t^-. 


.--^.,. ■) - - ■■ ill 




SS^^^^^^^^^^^B 


B^ ^s 




m^^^^LltS.''' 


m 



The Clajr Tennis Court With Border of Shrubbery— Fig. 2 



»50 



THE CANADIAN HORTICULTURIST 



June, 1914 




The Formal Gardan Showing Part of the Perennial Border — Fig. 3 



Cross formation. Perennial borders cir- 
cumscribe all the beds, and the rose here 
reigns supreme. One is not exagger- 
ating when one says there are thousands 
uf>on thousands of rose bushes here. Mc- 
Gredy of Porterdown, Ireland, supplied 
the majority of these, and they consist 
of the choicest the earth produces. One 
bed alone contains the following : In the 
centre. King George V., and around are 
Mrs. Maynard Sinton, Mrs. Muir Mac- 
Kenna, General Jacqueminot, Madame 
Abel Chatenay and Etoile de France. 
Others are Mrs. Wallace H. Rowe, Kais- 
erin Augusta Victoria, John Laing, Lib- 
erty and Frau Karl Druschki, the last 
the best white rose in cultivation. 

The two large chestnuts on the left of 
this cut and the apple tree to the right, 
stand on the spot where one of the three 
brick houses originally stood. These 
houses, of course, were demolished 
at the time the plans were approved of. 
In figure four is pictured an artificial pord 
formed by damming the creek ; and the 
German irises in the foreground with the 
dogwtxid, Cornus Siberica, altogether 
make this spot a charming retreat on a 
summer day. The maples on the east 
side of the entrance drive can also be 
seen well in this cut. 

Mr. Rowe bought the land in 1904, 
and in 1908 was in residence. The land- 
scape architect, Mr. F. G. Todd, of Mon- 
treal, the man who laid out .Sir William 
McKenzie's palace, spared no pains, 
brains or money, and from motley cut- 
up farms covered partly with old brick 
houses, has been evolved a most splen- 
did residence and grounds, a pleasure to 



its owner, a valuable asset to the town of 
Cobourg, and a beauty sf)Ot for Canada. 
Mr. Buckler, the gardener, and his staff 
of assistant gardeners are to be congrat- 
ulated on the very smart and correct ap- 
perance of the whole at all seasons. 



Summer Care o{ Roses 

By u Amateer 

Frequent culii\ation will ke«!p rose 
plants thrifty and strong and will coun- 
teract the ravages of insects materially. 
After the leaves are well out an appli- 
cation of arsenate of lead, two ounces to 
a pail of water, applied with a sprayer 
so that every leaf is covered, will kill 
all chewing insects. The arsenate of 
lead leaves a white sediment on the 
leaves, but this will be all washed off 
by the rains and by the necessary spray- 
ings with pure water before the roses 
open. 

Weak solutions of ordinary soap dis- 
solved in warm water and applied with 
a sprayer to the under side of the leaves 
will hold the thrip in check, while spray- 
ing with the garden hose in the evenings 
will get rid of the aphis, which infects 
the young and tender growths. Mildew 
will not likely trouble plants in good lo- 
cations, but if it should appear, it is best 
held in check by dusting the plants with 
flowers of sulphur or soot while the 
plants are wet with dew, and allowin