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C A N A D I A N M A C H I N K R Y tpf 


Gnadian Machinery 


Volume vii 

January to December, 191i 


The MacLean Publishing Co., Limited 

Montreal, Toronto, Winnipeg, London. Eng. 

New York, Chicago 







Aonual ConveiiUou '"f Foundrynieu at Pittsburg 144 

.\ppreiitlc«> yuestlim. The 212 

Armor Plate In Britlsb Navy, Evolution of 280 

Babbitt Metals 141 

Uabhitt Metala. Testing 183 

Itertram Tonvertlble Planer, The Development of 97 

Holler iK-sIgn, Construction, Repairing, Etc 40, 72, :01, 131. 

159, 198 

Canada Steel Co.'s Rail-Carbon Steel Rolling Mill 293 

Cauailian Westinghouse Co.. Knlarged Works of 127 

Census Counting anil Tabulating Mafhinc. .\ liiique 318 

Centrifugal Compressor for Cupola Use 340 

Centrifugal Filtration Plant Pump, Evolution of 164 

Cbalu Drives, Applliabilit.v to Power Tniiisiii.ssioii 2t>li 

Collingwood Sbipbuilding and Engineering Co.. Ltd 327 

Confereui-e on Edueutdon and Training of Engineers 214 

Co-n|>eration Between Central Station and Manufacturer 193 

Crank Pin Turning .Machine, The Gardner 184 

Degnvs in Engineering 179 

lioherty Process of Iron Founding 118 

Drilling Records. Recent 211 

Drop Titrging. Recent Developments in Tools and Dies 298 

Dry Diick. Poison Iron Works. Toronto 288 

Educiilion and Training of Engineers, Conference on 214 

Effb-lency of Tools and Economy in Manufacture 315 

Eiricienl Shop Dperallon. IVatnres to be Noted in 332 

Elwtrl.- .Method of Spot Welding 207 

Electric Smeltlug of Iron and Steel, Developments In 203 

Electrically (iperated ftverbead Travelling Ci;incs ;j3,i 

Factory Location, Is II Immaterial If Prodmt niiexielled 99 

Faitory Sanitation and ECfioIency 143 

Fitting Pipe Templets 34S 

Foremen, Su<-ces8 in Training Industrial 20B 

<;eorgian Bay Canal and the Trans|)ortation I'roblem.. 355, 358 

(Srand Trunk Ry. Car Shops. London. Out.. Welfare Dept... 157 

tirlnding. The Field for Commercial 38 

Crindlng. Twist Drill 183 

Inlernatlonal Marine Signal Co., Plant and Produ<ts 235 

Jollette Steel and Iron Foundry Co.. Ltd 324 

M.aehine Tool .\rrangement. Department Plan of 181 

Machine Tool Manufacture — Quality and CSu.irantee 71 

Machine Tool Problem. X t'ser's View of 37 

Machine Tool Standardization. Problems involved in 314 

Machining Flexible .Toint for Toronto Intake Pipe 42 

Manufacturing .Machine Tools. Interesting D.ita on 149 

Mil-ban I'-iil Drawing and Sketching for Machinists.. 39. 74. 102. 

129. 1.50. 228. 256. 287. 320. 341 

McClarv .Mfg. Cii.'s "Welfare" Department 6,'; 

Mclicai Department. The Norton Co.'s 352 

M.I'.R. Shops at St. Thomas. A Day's Ramlde Through 12 

Milling Cutters. Making, to Stnure Greatest Efficiency 121 

.Modern .Machine Tool Practice for Maximum Production 1 

.Montreal Technical School. Its Mission and Equipment 261 

Norton Co.'s Medical Department ;{52 

Oxv-.Vcetvlene Blow Pipe. Some Everyday Oseg of 295 

Pl|>e Templets. Fitting 348 

i'neumatic Appliances at O.T.R. Car Shops, London, Ont 67 

Safeguarding Machinery In Industrial Plants 95 

Sberardizing. A .Modern Rust-prooflng Process 151 

Shop Floors 323 

Shot (!nn. Making a DoulilcP.airelled 63 

Shop Kinks and Methods 310 

Spur Ge.i rs 212, 264 

Standard Lists 179 

Standardizing Design and Details 242 

Standardizing E<inipments and Fits 209 

Success in Traiiiing Industrial Foremen 205 

Templets. Fitting Pipe .348 

Testing Babbitt Metals 183 

Twist Drill Grinding 183 

Twist Drill and Other Internal Cutting Tool Practice.. 69, 95 

Water Discharge from Short Nozzles. Experiments on 10 

Wrought Iron Pipe. Maniifiictiirc of Lap-Welded 178 


ArtlOclal Lighting of a Factory Location 259 

.VwardK S<'beme. .\n 3.57 

Business Opportunities 57 

Business Ta x. A Lower 24 

nean vs. Dirty Shops 143 

Cnnv.tnlent Toilet Rooms 128 

Cost Card System 24 

Cmoes (JIbl Save Time 142 

Dumiry Wnlter and S|>eakiiig Tube Saves Monev 116 

Ktriclency Movement. .V Phase of 322 

Electric f>anes. Safety Devices on 232 

Factory Telephone. The 116 

Handling Materials and Machinery 170 

n^n<1ll6r of Men. The 232 


Heating Heinfoiccd Concrete Buildings 232 

Uow to Save $1,000,000 171 

Important Lighting Considerations 281) 

Instruction in Shops 70 

Jib Cranes Save Time 142 

Lesson In Efficiency 26 

Lighting Consideration. Important 289 

Lighting of a Factory Lo<'atlon, The .\rtificlal 259 

Limitations on Sclentlllc Efficlemy 'ioi 

Lower Business Tax 24 

.Machine Shop, The Small 232 

.Modern Management Notes 322 

Object Lesson in Efficiency 171 

Phase of Efficiency .Movement, A 322 

;planlns .Mill Electrification ;«^ 

Produce 116 

Profitable Ethics 170 

Profit Sharing at a Paper Mill 368 

IPurchasing Macliine Tools. System of 88 

Responsibility of Manufacturers for Training Skilled 

Mechanics 142 

Safety Devices on Electric Cranes 232 

iScientiflc Efficiency, Limitations on 201 

Scientific Industrial Operation 201 

Scientific Management 367 

■Scientific Management, What is it? 57 

■Shipping and Receiving Platform 142 

Small .\Iaclilne Shop, The , 232 

System of Purchasing Machine "Tools 88 

Toilet Rooms, Convenient 128 

Tool Room Management 87 


Designing Propellers 18 

Facing Bolt Hole 48 

Holding Work on Planer 19, 107 

Long Lathe Work 79 

Salt, Fae of Common 107, 169 

Tapping Hole Straight 48, 79 

Tempering Small Shear Blades 18 

Tinning Cast Iron Crosshead Slippers 70 


Adjustable Die-heads, Scdid 82 

Adjustable High Speed Machine Reamer 300 

Air Drill, Cleveland Corner 261 

.Mr Drill, Cleveland 4-pi8ton 260 

Air Hoist, The Always Ready 335 

.\llcii Adjustable Stake Riveter 180 

Allen Ha mmer Riveter 309 

Automatic Car Gainer — .\n Kfficiency Combination 270 

.\utomatic Cylindrical Grinder 62 

■.4.utomfttic Locking Voot Treadle. Hardinge ,309 

Automatic Tapping Machine, Garvin No. 2A 252 

.Vutomatlc Spring and .\lr Chucks 134 

Automatic Variable Feed 110, 134 

Bali Bearing .Tounml .Tack 274 

Bench Lathe, Remington 134 

Bolt Header. A New 261 

Bolt Cutter and Nut Tapper 82 

Bolt Cutter, .Motor-driven Quadruple 261 

Boring, Milling and Drilling Machine 83 

Car Tool. .\ General Purpose 344 

Car Wheel Boring Machine 20 

Clialn Tongs and Pipe Vise 20 

CIscoe Lathe Tests 19 

Cleveland Corner Air Drill 261 

Cleveland 4-pl8ton Air Drill 250 

Coach Wheel Lathe, G.T.R. Shops. Montreal HW 

('omblnatlon Centre Drills in Sets 346 

Die. .\ New Opening 164 

Die Sharpener ; 252 

Dog. A New Style Lathe 300 

Double Spindle Shaper. Extra Heavy 309 

Donlile Vertical Milling Machine 84 

Drilling .Machine. Sibley 4-Spindle Hi-Siieed 165 

Drilling Machine. Sililev Motor-driven 249 

Drilling Machine. Sibley All-geared 305 

Drilling Machine. .\ Hydro-Pnenmatlc 278 

Drilling Machine. All-geared Multl-spindle 277 

Drilling Machine. Multiple for Meat Cntter Plates 277 

Drilling Machine. New 137 

Drill Press. Heavy Duty 222, 225 

Duplex Milling Machine 21 

flap Lathe. Motor-driven, with Extension Bed 249 

Gear Cutting Machine 22 

Gear Cutting. Spiral 60 

Gear Patterns, Machine for Cutting 276 






Geometric Tool Co.'s 'rbreadlng Miu-bliie 

Grinder. A Heavy Wet Tool 

Grinder. An Improved Beneli Tool 

Grinders, Motor-driven 

Urinder, Tlio Hardinge luiversul 

Haik-Siiw Blade, Klexilde 

lliind.v Uydranllc I'reas 

llardinye Aiitoinalir I.orlting l''oot 

Heavy i)uty Engine Liillie 

Heavy Wet To(d Grinder 

Hlgli Dnty Drill Press, I'"oi)te-liurte 

Hoisting Wineh , The Fortunu Aiitouuitle 
Horizontal Uoriug Machine, Universal .... 

Ilydrii-I'nennuitie Drill 

Internal Grinders 

Internal Tliread Milling 

Journal .laelv, A Ball-Bearlng 

Lamp Hrncket, Searohllght Universal 

Lathes of American Tool Works Co., New . 
Lathe, I'oach Wheel, (5.T.R. Shops, Montreal 

Lilt lie, ,V liMrge 

Lathe, .V New Kngine 

Lathe, New U-imh 

Lathe, A New Turret 

Lathe, The Morris New KMuch 

Lathe Dog. A New Style 

.Machine 'I'oiil, A New 

.Marking Macldne 

Milling Macliine. Donble Vertl<'al 

Milling .Macliine, Duplex 

.Milling .Macliine, I'hlin 

.Milling .Machine. \"ertlcal 

.Multiple Drill for Meat Cutter IMates 

.Mnlti-s|iiiiille Drill. Ail-geared 

New ttpening Die 

Nut Tapping Machine, Senit-uutoinntle 

I'aper File Handle 

ripe Bending .Machine 

I'ipe Macliine, .Motor-driven 

I'ipe Threading Machine 

rialu .Milling .Machine 21, 

i'laner for High Speed Sleel 

Positive Chain Tongs and Pipe Vise 

Power Hack Saw, New Tvpe of 

Radial Drill, Full Universal 

Keamer, ,\d.instai>le Higii Speed 

Klveter, .\llen Adjustable Stake 

Itiveter, Allen Hammer . 

Rotary Planing M,-ichine. .New Design of 

Searchlight Universal Lamp Br.-icket 

Senii-Antomatic Nut Tapping .Matdiine 

,shapcr, i:xtra Heavy Doulde Spindle 

Shipliuilding Crane, New Type of 

Sililey .\ll-geared Drilling Machine 

Sildev 4-spindle Hi-Speed Drilling Machine 

Solid Ad,iustable Die Heads : 

Spiral Gear Cutting 

Surfacer, 24-inch Single 

Tapping .Machine. Garvin No. 2A Antomatlc 

Tapping Machine. Two-bead Automatic 

Threading Machine, Geometric Tool Co.'s 

Tool Grinder, A Heavy Wet 

Toid Grinder. Improved Bench 

Turret Lathe, A New 

Universal Horizontal Boring Machine 

Univ&rsal Tladial Drill 

Universal Wood Gear Cutting Machine 

Vertical Hollow Chisel Mortiser A: Car Gainer (An Etrieiency 


Vertical .Milling Machine 

Vertical Milling Machine. Double 











Accidents, Prevention and First Aid 108 

.\cliievenient, the True Measure 347 

Attribute of Loyalty, The 167 

Awards Scheme, An 311 

Away with Them 81 

Be Aljle to Say Yes and No 130 

Business Man's Awakening, The 10!) 

Canada's Accident Record 311 

Canadian .Manufacturers and Exports 81 

Canadian National Exhibition, 1911 253 

Care of Emery Wheels, The 311 

Caring for Machinery 130 

Common Courtesy 28 

Compensation for In.1tired and Aged Workmen 100 

Conveying Your Idea to Another 227 

Co-oper.-itlon 279 

Digging 80 

Do the Hard Things First 138 

Elducatiou and Ability 279 

Efficiency and Contentment of Employe 167 

Efficiency Engineer, The 108 

Efficiency of Railroad Shops 28 

Efficiency Question, The 197 

Experience as a Teacher 81 

Have SufTicient Equipment 29 

Health and Care of Employes 28 

Incompetency and Inefficiency 58 

Investig.ition Svstem of Purchase 81 

Labor Day 253 

Machine Tool Complaints 80 

Machinery and Maintenance Savings 59 

McNamara Confession, The 347 

Mechanic's Education, The 227 

Quebec Bridge, The ^ 

linestlon of Endurance, A }™ 

(Question of Finance, A ^^ 

Reliable Equipment "^ 


Stores Department, The 

Technical Education for .lilechauics .... 

Tlniiiksgivlng Day, 1911 

Time Limit for Tenders 

Tuples of the .Month 

Trade Conventions an Aid to Progrreaa 

Wastes Time of .Man and .Machine 

Word to the Apprentice, A 

Writing to Trade Papers 

Vonr Personal Equipuient 

a. W, 


. im 

. 138 
. <U 


Aluminum Bronze \ 

Brass .Melting Furnace !....!!!!!!!!! 

Breaking Gate in Mold .' !!!."!!.' 

Bronze Casting, A Large !!!!!! 

Ilnlldozer Casting, Making a !.!!!!.!!!!!!! 

Cast Iron, Strength of ..'...'.'.!.'.' 

Cliemistry in tlie Foundry !!.!'.!!'. 

(Concrete I'atterns i!!!! 

Core Bench .lolt Uammers !!!!!!!!!!!!! 

Core Itanimlng .Machine, .Sew ., 

Defects In Gas Engine Castings !!!.!.'!!!! 

Defects ill Small Castings '.".!!!! 

Detroit Core .Machine, The '. ,''. 

Die Casting \^\\ 

l''ouudry Construction, Types of !!!,!!!!!!!!!!!! 

Fi>undry Exhibition Company, Meeting of ........ 

Foundrymen's Convention and Eshlbitlon at Pittsburg 

Green Sand, Dry Sand, Loam and Cores 

Hardening and .Mixtures for Cast Iron 

injuries and Diseases of Molders 

Killing Molding .Machine \\ 

La rge Steel Castings , • 117 

Leather Pattern Fillets .' ' 

Light Eiiiow Pipes with (Sreen Sand (/ores ................ 

.Machine Rollers Cast Vertically 

.Melting Iron in Crucibles '. 

.Miscellaneous Alloys !'.!!!! 

.Molding a Glass-Polishing Roller iu \Mavii .............. .'..'. 

Molding an Unusual Baffle Plate 

.Molding Heavy Fly Wheels ....'....'. 

.Molding Propeller in Core ...'.'..'.'. 

.Motor Car Bearing Metal 

Open Hearth Furnaces for Small Castings ........'..'.'. 

Patternmakers' Uandscrew Rack 

Patternmakers' Tool Cliest !'.!!!! 

Piecework Patternmaking 

Plttslmrg Convention Programme '........'. 

I'neumatic Tests of Pipe ] 

Skeleton and Sweep Patterns !!..!.!!!! 

Steel Castings, Large 

Strengtii of Cast Iron 

Tumbling Barrel 

Types of Foundry Construction 

\aiiadtiim Steel Castings 

Vanadium Steels in Locomotive Practice 

Ventilation of Brass Foundries, Need of 

Vcllow Brass .Ml>;ture for Plumbers Brass Goods 


































See Pages ((I, 147. 105, 160, 200, 233,252 


Recent Legal Decisions 

United Engineering and Foundry Co 



.\djustalile Boring Tool for .Milling Machine 272, 

Adjustaiile Hollow Mill 

.K\x Drills, Pneumatic Feed for 

Air-driven Grinder 

Air Hoist Device . .„ 

Air Pump for Testing Boilers 

Arlior for Thin Saws, A Simple 

Automatically Producing Conical Surfaces on a Boring Mill.. 

I'dne Print.^, .Making Perfect 

Boring a Cylinder on Engine Lathe 

Boring Bar for Elliptic Cylinder 

Boring Head. An Expanding , 

Boring Tool for .Milling .Machine, Adjustable 2r.', 

Boring Tool for the I,atlie 

Brazed ,Tolnt, To Make a 

Burnishing Tools, Novel Method of Fluting Small 

( eiitiliig Indicator Holder 

Chuck, A Simple 

Cleaning Shop Motors 

(!oll.ipsiiiie Boring Tool 

Comldnalioii Drill, Ren.ner and t'ntter ... 

Comldned Milling and Drilling .llg 

Compasses fer P.ittern Shop, Handy 

Conical Turning on a Drill Press 

Counterliore. A Novel 

Crank Sliaft Jig 

Orosshead Lock Nut 

Cutting a Lead Screw 

Cutting Curve on a Planer 

Cutting Key.seats on a Lathe 

Cylinder-Boring on an Bnglne Lathe 

Cylinder. Itelxirlng a Large 

Djpth Gauge 

Disc Grinding •. 

Distance (langes 

Dog Jooth CIntch. Machining a 

Drill Gauge for the Tool Crib 

Drilling .iig • 

Drilling .i|g for Irregular Holes 

Drillinif Kink 

Drilling Taper Holes 















iCiiiilliiiiwl) „ 


KCMiomlr PnnrhiDK 4S 

KxiuindlnK Boring Ilenil -'- 

ExipDKioii Prill nmile of I'Ipe ';'' 

F»ilo« To».l '° 

l>rnil» Roller *!; 

Klxlun- f..r Ciitlins Mitre Gears 1' 

riexllile tV'Uplluj; • • • *T 

FloalliiK S..<ki-t »"r Kiiiislitiig Iteaim-r -_^- 

Fluliu; Sm;ill BorulshliiK Tools. Novel Method of 2il 

»"or»liig v». High Si>eetl Steel J^ 

Forging Work. .\ii Interesting I'lei-e of 187 

Fresh .Mr Without I'rafI 132 

Gas Kuglue Valves. .Making S**"- 

GeKlng <J<""I Work from a Shaky Vise M 

Grinder, An Air-driven --0 

Grinding. Uls. ■• 1«0 

Grinding Kljilurr. .V Simple lOtl 

Grinding Wheel Kqulpiueut 104 

Uat-k-Sa« .\ttarhnK'nt for Lathes *7 

Band Wire Tutler 301 

Bandy fomimsses for Pattern Shop 221 

Blgh S|H^il Steel 187 

Bigb SfHt'd Steel Drills and Keamerg 133 

High SiH-eil t;ear fiuti-r Iti 

Holding lA-ather on lr..n Pulle.vs 47 

Uollow .Mill. An Adjustable 244 

Home .Maile Keauilng Stand 24'i 

Hume .Made Stillsoii Wrenoh 71 

Bow to <'Ul a Curve un a Planer 162 

Increased Vise l"aiillties ItHi 

Inaerted Blade Tools 30y 

(naerteil Cutter Taps and Dies 40 

Interesting Pine of Korgiug Work 187 

Jig for Pacing Twin Pumps 16 

Jig for Drilling Irregular Holes 271 

Jig for Uoldlug Castle Nuls for Slotting 17 

Jig for L.H-ouiotlve Side Hod Brasses 219 

Large Joh In Small Shop : IB 

Lathe Centreing Device 247 

Locomotive Jack 132 

Machining a Dog Tooth Clutch 219 

Machining Itudder Stem 4« 

Making tias Knglne Valves 30- 

Novel Coufiterbore 33!) 

Oil Burner. A Simple 247 

Pitch of I'ropeller Hi 

Pipe Centre. A Simple 18ti 

Pipe Die. How to Sharpen 17 

Planer Kxteuslon 13-1 

Planer. How to Cut a Curve on 1(12 

Planer. Increasing Capailty of 182 

Planer. Work that Is too Large for 133 

Plate Handling Devlrc 132 

Pnenniatlf Kec,l f..r Air Drills 270 

Portalde Kiedrii- or Air Drills. D. C. Current 107 

Port Drilling .Ilg for Pnenmatic Hammer 107 

Power Hack Saw 301 

I're«» for Air Brake C.vlinder Cup Leathers 24C 

I'reventlng Taps from Breaking 303 

Ball Clamp. An Improved 247 

Batcbet Stud Driver 247 

Beaming Stand. .\ Home-made 24G 

ReliorIng Cylinder 128 

Betarders for Boiler Tubes. Method of Twisting 340 

Roughing out Irregular Shapes on a Lathe 245 

Kope (Jr.Mjve (Jrindlng .\pparatus 105 

Budder Stem, Maclilnlng a 46 

BUHseli .\utomobilc Brake 44 

Saving Sheet Metal 16 

Sawing Sheet Iron or I'Ipe 44 

Bbop Kink» 48 

Simple Chuck 244 

Simple Grinding Fixture 106 

Simple Oil-Burner 247 

Simple Pipe Centre 186 

Spacing Circles 304 

Stacking Motor Rotors 186 

Stlllson Wrench. A IIome-Made 71 

Supporting Countershaft 77 

Taper Dowel Hole Rea nier 44 

Tempering Small Shear Blades 18 

Tire Heiiting Apparatus 341 

Tire Lifting Grips 270 

Toggle Joint Action 16 

Tube Cutter 132 

Tube Cutters. Two Useful 220 

Taming Die Sections of Large Uadll 44 

Twisting Retarders for Boiler Tubes 340 

Wire Cutter, Hand 801 

Working in the Dark 187 

Work that Is too I>arge for the Pinner 183 

Worm Gear Oiler 40 


Advance in Machine Tools 112 

Air Brake. How First Died 186 

American Factories in Canada 229 

Annual Onting of Central Railway Club 188 

Applying Sclenllflo Knowledge 128 

Apprenticeship and the T'nem ployed 286 

ATOld Being a Quitter 826 

Boiling Points of Metals 272 

Bolts. Slectlonal Area nnlformitjr 64 

^Pottled Sunshine 279 


Brake J aw Forging J^ 

Bronic Powders and Bronsing •*;" 

Canadian Ore Prices J^ 

Canadian Sirocco Co., Ltd 338 

Census of Canadian Manufacturers 24 

Coke Output 351 

Construrtloual Details, Notes on 259 

Dam of Iniiiuc Design 10*' 

Disc Grinding Secrets 


Dixon's Steel Car Paint ^ 

Dovetail Roller 13 

F.cononiy of Kfflclcnt Fire Protection 158 

lOlcctrlc Locomotives 27, 137 

lOloctric Motor, The Largest lo3 

Kvidutiou of n Large Ingot 248 

llxhaust Fan Record ^80 

A Large ^ 



Finances of Cauaila 

I'irst Impression 

Galvanizing. Inlluence on Strength of Wire .. 

Gravity Carrier 

(irowtli of Fngincering Societies 

Iliinillloii Gear and .Machinery Co 

lliglicst Transmission Voltage in the World 

Holiicn. Morgan Co., Toronto 

Hose Coupling, A .New 

Hoi Sli 

Inilustrlal Training in Ontario 

Inclnslrys Toll of Death 

Ingot. A Large 

liilcrcsling Report on Cauadlan Trade 

Internal Gear Drives 

Iron anil Steel Bounties 

.launey Iniversal Variable Transmission Device 

.lapanese Railroads 

Knots and Tackling 

La rge Fan 

Large Rope Sheave and Shaft Bearing 

Lead Pencil Equals Two-mile Freight Haul 

Locomotives, Electric 27, 

I,ni(iniotivcs, New and Old 

Locomotive. New Type of 

' Ma.liincrv Display at the Canadian National Exhibition... 

Mallet Locomotives on the C.P.R 

Mcilii.nical Plating Barrel 

.Metal Locker Installations 

.Montreal Technical School 

Motor Tiniks in Manufacturing Trades 

New .Maililncry Hall 

New Steel Plant 

Notes of Constructional Details 

OITcr of Prize 

Present linsincss Conditious 

Prevent Strikes in Great Britain, To 

Itaiiroails. .l.ipancse 

Uailless Sln-el Cars 

Rails. Tariff on Re-rolled 

Rapid Turning I'reparatory to Grinding 

Repi>rt on Canadla'n Trade, An Interesting 

Safer, Quicker and Cheaper Railroads 


Shop Changes due to the Steel Car 

Steel Prices and Wages 

Steel Tubing 

SI. Lawrence River Commission 

Strain on Hoisting Rope due to Slack 

Strilses in Great Britain. To Prevent 

'r.nlfl' on Ue-rolled Ralls 

TccliTilcal Education Committee 

Tcotliless S.-iws for Cutting Steel 

Trade* and Labor Council 

Tungsten in Tool Steel, Effect of 

United States Coal Production In 1910 

nulled States Steel Pension Plan. New 

Cnlversal TrnnsmlRslon 


Welfare Work • 

Western Bridge and E(|Uipment 

Wheel Cost a Small Item 

Wheels Must l>e Trued 

Wire Ganges Should lie Standardized 

Wire Guards 

Wire, Influence of Galvanizing on Strength of 

Woman a Captain of Industry 

Workers Too Old at Forty 

Workmen's Compensation 










Air Header 

Belts and Belt Drives o* 

Belt Pulleys 

Double Helical Gearing 

Electric Locomotive, G. P. & H •• 

Gears and Gearing H-'' 

Gears, Spur 

(Searing, Double Helical 

Handling Ore Wilh Electric Magnets 

New Steel Pulley 

Oxy-Acetylene Cutting 

Producing Iron by Electricity 

Spur Gears 














See pages... 


26. 43, 48, 61, 75, 76, 130, 169. 171, 188, 273 


Modern Machine Tool Practice for Maximum Production 

By Gordon C. Keith 

The Past few Years Have Seen Great Advances Made in Machine Tool Practice. The Whole 
Line of Machine Tools IVerc Re-designed so that High-speed Steels Could be Used to Their 
Full Capacity. It was then Necessary to Devise Equipment for Keeping the Machines in 
Operation the Greatest Percentage of Working Hours. In Other Words, it wqs Necessary 
to Cut Time Betzveen Cuts. This Paper, Read Before the Central Railway and Engineering 
Club, Toronto, Dec. 20, 19 10, Shozvs the Development of Machine Tools, and Also the Devices 
Designed in Order That Time Betzveen Cuts May be Reduced to a Minimum and that Maxi- 
mum Production Max be Obtained. 

Since the introduction o£ high speed 
steels and motor drive, there has been 
such a revolution in machine tool de- 
sign that it is only now that the pre- 
sent status o£ machine tool practice 
may be definitely defined. A complete 
redesign of machine tools has been 
necessitated and all the changes made 
and new methods adopted have had the 
one object in view, viz. that of obtain- 
ing maximum production. 

The starting point in obtainingi maxi- 
mum production has been the proper 
care of tools. In a number of Cana- 
dian shops it has been recognized, as it 
has also been in United States shops, 
that a central tool room with a man 
in charge is a large factor in securing 
maximum production. The shapes and 
sizes of lathe tools, boring cutters, 
chisels, the method of forging and 
treating the tools should be standard- 
ized as should also all shop equipment, 
clamping bolts, wrenches, etc. Even in 
the smaller shops, such as that of the 
Toronto Street Railway and other rail- 
road repair shops, it has been found 
to pay to have one man grinding all 
the tools and have charge of the tool 
room. All carelessness with tools and 
ignorance in the selection of tools for 
certain work is eliminated by having 
the tools prepared and selected in ad- 
vance, and icept in good shape, thus 
assisting in securing maximum produc- 

Probably the best illustration of a 
central tool room is that of the United 
States Navy Department, located at 
league Island, Philadelphia, Pa-, for 
supplying the Atlantiie Coast Navy 
yards. Standard chemical and physical 
specifications for high speed steel have 
been adopted. The plant has a capac- 
ity of 800 tools per day, and consists 
of a forge shop, treating department of 
chemical and physical test, together 
with the apparatus necessary for pro- 
ducing standard tools of the highest 
quality at minimum cost. Tools are 
made in such quantities as to ensure 
economical manufacture, and are car- 
ried in stock. 

The apparatus necessary and the me- 
thods of using it as followed in the 
forgiuf plant, are compiled on instruc- 

tion charts, one of which is shown in 
Fig. 1. This covers the forgtlng of 
straight round-nose roughing tools, 
right or left hand, giving the necessary 
dimensions and graphic instructions for 
using the applicances. 

The enormous railway mileage in 
Canada and the United States has re- 
sulted in great advances being made in 
railway shop equipment and a state- 
ment of what is being accomplished with 
modern machine tools and high speed 
steels in the shops should prove of in- 
terest. A few years ago six pairs of 
car wheels per day was the maximum 
production. iMachine tools have since 
been brought to a constantly high 
state of efiicicncy until the best lathes, 
of five years ago, averaged about twelve 
pairs per day. Within the past two 
or three years this output has been 
s.teadily increased by improvements in 
design and methods of handling until at 
the present time many railroads are 
equipped with lathes turning out from 
sixteen to twenty pairs of 36-inch stan- 
dard make wheels in ten hours. 

Record Production. 

On May 11, 1910, a detailed record 
was kept on tire turning on a Niles- 
Bement-Pond wheel lathe at the West 
Albany shops of the New York Central 
& Hudson River Railroad. It will be 
noted in Fig. 2, that thirty-three pairs 
of 36-inch wheels v/ere turned in 9 
hours and 53 minutes, being an average 
of 17 minutes and 58 seconds per pair. 

Wht^el lathes were gradually increased 
in weight and power until it was finally 
found that the wheels and axles them- 
selves were the weak point in the turn- 
ing operation. Recogni7:in? this fact 
Small & McNaughton brought out 
twenty years ago a design of a machine 
to overcome this difficulty. This lathe 
was at that time a radical departure 
from ordinary design. The turning of 
axles on centres was abandoned, the 
entire axle journal being received in 
the head by means of a split bush made 
to fit the axle and having its exterior 
turned taper. This eliminated the ob- 
vious weakness and hence springing of 
the centre and its projecting spindle. 
It held the axle rigidly close up to the 

wheel. The old form of wheel lathe 
was driven from one end and the power 
carried across the machine by a long 
shaft. This put an inevitable amount 
of torsion and lack of rigidity between 
the point at which the power 'was ap- 
plied and the wheel to be turned at the 
other end of the axle, and it was found 
to be oDie serious source of vibration 
and chatter. So to overcome this diffi- 
culty the Small & McNaughtoO' design 
was driven by a large spinal gear in 
the centre, having a gap through which 
the axle could be rolled. The power 
from the larg« central drive was fur- 
nished to each wheel through face 
plates. The outside spindles support- 
ing the axle were also provided with 
face plates and chucks, h^ice the wheels 
were clamped rigidly between two 
staunch face plates driven from one and 
chucked by the other ; thus the wheels 
were held with absolute rigidity and 
became, in fact, one with the machine 

On a modern wheel lathe no attention 
is paid to the hard skin of the tire 
caused by friction of the wheels and 
brake shoes, for the simple reason that 
the tool is put diirectly under this scale 
and a heavy roughing out can be fed 
across in eight or nine minutes. After 
that, a finishing tool is used the full 
width and shape of the tire and fed 
directly in without any use of cross- 
feed, a third tool the shape of the flange 
finishing the operation. The increased 
output of modem lathes,- comes from 
their great weight and power and im- 
proved facilities for handling and get- 
ting the wheels in and out of the lathe, 
and from the higher quality tool steel. 

After the capacity of the wheel lathe 
got up to twenty or more pairs of 
wheels a day, the manual labor of 
clamping and unclamping the cutting 
tools became quite a serious matter for 
the operator, and a number of devices 
have been brought out to lighten and 
quicken this operation. The limit of 
human endurance comes into the pro- 
blem and here clamping and unclamp- 
iog, if it had to be done with a wrench 
on say twenty pairs of wheels per day, 
it would mean 350 to 400 manipulations 
in ten hours. 



One device that has been brought out 
is in the form of a turret tool-holder 
which has the roughing and finishing 
tools set in it, the holder being rotated 
to bring the various forms into action. 

Another device is a pneumatic clamp 
by which the operator simply opens a 
compressed air valve and clamps his 
tool by power. In this arrangement the 
air cylinder is built in the body of tool 
rest ; the piston carries a wedge which, 
operating between two rollers, forces 
up the long end of the clamping lever. 
Thus the operator is relived from sev- 
eral hundred strenuous muscular exer- 
tions leaving him more efficirait to at- 
tend to the actual turning operations. 

Sellers' 42-in. Car- wheel Lathe. 

The WiUiams Sellers Co., Philadel- 
phia, Pa., have developed a 42-in. car- 
wheel lathe, which illustrates what ma- 
chine tool builders are accomplishing in 
the way of production in the railroad 
shop. It has been pointed out above, 
that a few years ago ten pairs per day 
was considered a good record. The 
rate has been constantly increased until 
an average of twenty minutes per pair 
has been obtained. This exemplifies the 
economies in railrod shop machine tool 
practice that have recently been brought 

For the test of the Sellers lathe three 
pairs of 36-inch steel-tired wheels, se- 
lected at random from a large number 
shipped to the machine builders' plant 
by the Reading Railroad Co., were 
turned in an average of about 20 min- 
utes per pair, including setting ma- 
chinery and taking out of lathe. The 
actual time that the machine was in 
operation averaged about 18 minutes 
per pair, and 90 per cent, of the total 
time required represents the period 
that the machine was doing effective 

The cut and feed during the test was 
1-inch each, taken at a speed of from 
15 to 19 feet per minute. The time 
taken from fioor to floor of a pair of 
wheels, as well as the other details of 
the test, are given in the following 
table : 

Anthony of the Reading shops of the 
Philadelphia and Reading Railroad. 

In these tests the final finish was re- 
markably fine. There was not a trace 
of chatter to be found, and the sur- 
faces of the treads were free from those 

flange. The tread and flange tool is 
then forced in, taking a broad smooth 
cut, and leaving the surface in excellent 
condition, already noted. Then comes a 
.similar tool for cutting the taper at 
the outer edge of the taper and round 

Instruction Chart 

For Foisinff SUndard Str&iffht Round Nose Rouffhins Tools PRWB PRWG 

Second Operation • FoT^ing the Nose 
1. PtaM T<iol« !■ Tvnte*. 

1 Hm< iio-ij to rwfiBt B«t 1 iam° 

& tUnallTaoUrMdj. 
Beadiag, Drawlag down Hei 
L l^ll BMMUnc DU oo AdtU. 
S. P«, Tool In Dlo uU dH,* 4ovl ( S«« Skotchoo ••Oi E"} 

' latum bMk rtam oai (Soo T«bU> 
ct &Dd StraiEbleniQ 

X Raoo.f TwI u4 Dm. 

4. rutton SIdn M bonL ( Soo BkoMh •■7") 

b I>ri* do'o Bool (&M Skeuboi ■f}kB"i 

Lt - H of Shook Width 

6. S'r»l|bUD BMiotD I &•■ Strtoh "J") 

~. 9tnl(ht«r ProBi asd ipraw] Ndvf to ^Tldth -'B" m fit 

Id tiM Tkbl*. < dm BkHcb -K ) Eap«t roi ^1 Tool*. 

W^CK Om Tool 1* NBOTod fMt^PunuM rtpUo* ritb 

XooU Kequirrd 

First Operation - Cut to Length and Stamp 

). PUra Harktof u>d Cwttlnf Utgt oa Bunmn'. 
3. 8*1 Stop tu Icnflb ef Tool ai uimrked m AofU Inm. 

3. FlkCa Ban In FuraaM (Sm Tiblt -L") 

4. H(A aloalj to FMilsf ll(*t ( ImO'^ F.) 

Cut-of! Bcd Stamp 
I. WltAdnT Baf frov FurnaM. 
io Cul-4ir pUct la Oh* i ^c» Skrtab "A" ) 
Stop ptaMd U point W| B*"'"^ / 

& Put Bv tMk t« bf«t fat Mit Cut 

4. SUvp ib( Ptecv cuwMT vlib Afisbol abd Lot Numbtr. 
(«««8kcUbM-'F ACr) 
Sh^lnC UmtiM of S.TOb-1 v^ E^ V I BawMT / 

a nd 1^ o^MiPbf^. / Ti ■■ ■ 11 f 



CUM fejmbol 


Bopoot Ihf ftjTottolof ustU ol] plocM ■» Cut ic Loortk ood Stanpod. 
£ooh tlac a Bm b V orkcd up. pUao o >«« Dor Is runact. 
TocU Bcqai.-cd 
Morklsi aod CuttlB( Oofa 

Third Operation - Finishing to Gaee 
1. Plo^ Tool lu Fiovmn. 
!. Oool al0<l7 to r.r«iD{ B«ailieX°P.) 
3. Saoo all Toot, fmiI;. 

Trim and Offaet Nose to Oage 

V) Holcbl Gofo 
Moht Mark 

a. t,1iB fooo to Sbipo f\nuh Cut. ( So, Skotek --Tl"} 
;.. OffNt to lull LiD,lt Oasc (boo Bkctoboo "P t B") Koop 
Gov of Tool (tialiht. 
"i Kor Tool, I'tot 1" 1 1 V z;^- 

I Shook bold th, T(«r, \Sy>^ 

ISboKk rl^ld uthlor T^i I'T*' T I 

*51e»u) Huamo' ^ VKldbl Hood Limit GHtl 

[~*| " Sy I L.ft lio.d UiiJl Oot.'^ 

*" ^ ' I ^ ^Tutloii Cloomi^-o Aojlo 

P I S t •tlh Cooo IHdO 

t Tf«t Cleaioooo Aodt,, Sack and Side Slop, «Ub Con* and Undt 
fhTca f Soo Skotcheo -R & fi") Rfpoat for aU TooU. Wboa Oho 
Tool lo i*aio.-od f^nll Furpaoo Rplac* oltb uuititt. 
Tools Rei)alred 

Chlaol I Stralebf ) CbUoMBont) 

I Rlobt Hand. PRUlt-PRBB-PRTB 
Urolt t>o«* J L,„ a...rf PRSfrPRBC-PRWC 
2tA;oD4 Oicc JO^Bolfkt Oofo 

t-lodfo. PUttor, ToOfp. 

Vig. 1 — Forging Instruction Chart used in Central Tool Department of t'.S. Navy Yards. 

fine cracks extending down into the 
metal that are so characteristic of sur- 
faces from which metal has been re- 
moved in heavy cuts at high speeds. 
The reproductions of photographs of surfaces taken first after roughing 
and then after the finishing cut, show 
the effect very clearly. 

No. 1. 

Diam. wheel finished 34s in. 

Diam. Wheel rough 35J in. 

Min. Sec. Min. 

Floor to chuck 1 5 2 

Turning 17 8 IB 

Machine to floor 1 2 1 

Total time 19 47 18 

Cutting speed ft. min 15 and 16 

No. 2. 
34 3-16 in. 
34 15-16 in. 

No. 3. truck whls. 
34 U-16 in. 30| in. 






34i in. 














Time to change from turning tender 
to engine truck wheels, 6 min. 1 sec. 

The operation of the machine during 
these tests was in the hands of William 

The method of procedure is the usual 
one. The wheels are set in position 
and the roughing tool made to take a 
cut across the tread and top of the 

the corner of the rim. This done, the 
wheels are finished. 

The car wheel is driven by a motor 
set down on the extension of the bed. 
The lathe is an example of the applica- 
tion of individual motor drive to ma- 
chine tools. Exhaustive tests have been 
made so that the machine tool builder 
has now no difficulty in selecting the 
proper power of motor for machirning 
various materials for various combina- 
tions of speeds, feeds and depth of cut. 
Individual motor drive has been adopted 
in a large number of railway shops, 
machines of smaller capacities' being ar- 
ranged in groups and driven from a 
line shaft by one motor. 

Sellers' Driving Wheel Lathe. 

The high power wheel turning lathe 
for locomotive driving wheels shown in 
Fig. 9 is a result of the makers of ma- 
chine tools trying to raise their capac- 
ities up to the cutting possibilities of 
high-speed steel. The lathe shown has 

a swiing of 90 inches. It is estimated 
that when the tool is cutting f in. deep 
with i-in. feed the pressure at the point 
is about 55,000 lbs. Such a cut is 
readily made at a speed of 16 feet per 
minute, which requires 880,000 ft. lbs. 
per minute or nearly 37 h.p. at the 
point of the tool. To do this and avoiid 
chattering the machine has been rigidly 
constructed. The device is obtained by 
means of dogs fastened at the rim or 
tire. The dog has a gripping shoo "A" 
shown in Fig. 11, and the pointed arm 
has a set screw "13". The arm swings 
up between the spokes of the wheel and 
the two grips coine in line with the 
two faces of the tire. The set screw 
"B" is then turned in with a heavy 
wrench until its point has penetrated 
the metal and the shoe "A" has a firm 
grip. This shoe "A" is. held in line and 
in place by tte ...sides of the holding 
bracket, but the set screw "B" has a 
slight swinging motion. When the lathe 
is started, the shoe "A" drives the 
wheel through the tire, but if there be 
any slip the set screw "B" hangs back 
with the tire and in so doing gets out 
of alignment with "A". The slotted 
hole in the dog makes this possible, 
and as this lessens the distance between 
''A"' and "B" the former is drawn into 
the metal of the tire, tightening the 
grip. When this grip exceeds the thrust 

Canadian machinery 

of the tool, the tire will turn and the 
cutting proceed. 

In testing the lathes, the cutting was 
limited to a speed of 13 ft. per minute, 
with a cut and feed of i-in., but it can 
be speeded to 25 ft. perminute and re- 
move the same amount of metal, but 


in which the lathe was set complete 
for turning wheels of 78 inches diame- 
ter with Hi in. tiros in 12 minutes, in- 
cluding the placing of the wheels in 
position for work. They were then fin- 
ished complete in 19 minutes and placed 
on the floor in four minutes more. The 

Fig. 3— William Sellers & Co. 421n. Car Wheel Lathe. 

the high speed steels will not stand the 
strain and heat. With a f in. cut and 
4-in. feed the tool and the metal it is 
cutting, are at a red heat at the point 
of contact. 
A demonstration was recently made 

total time from floor to floor, including 
the setting of the lathes, was 35 min- 
utes. This work was the same as the 
turning off of a new set of tires and the 
cut was but 4-in. deep. 
In another test, a pair of 67 inch 


Pond 42-inch motor-driven car-wheel lathe 
At West Albany Car Shops, N.Y.C. & H.R. R.R. 36-inch Krupp and Paige wheels, 

May 11, 1910. 
Continuous Run from 7 a.m. until 5.53 p.m., one hour for nooning. 

Pair No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Average. 

Putting in lathe 3 2 2 3 2 2 2 3 2 3 22 min., 28 sec 

Roughing 11 8 9 9 9 9 9 9 11 10 10 9 min., 23 sec. 

Finishing 5 6 4 3 5 4 6 4 7 5 5 5 min., 7 sec. 

Taking out 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 11 min., sec. 

Time from floor to floor.. 20 17 16 16 17 16 18 17 21 19 18 17 min 58 sec 

Depth of cut i i 3-16 i 3-16 i i 3-16 3-16 i .3-16 3-16 inch. 

Feed 13-32 13-3313-32 13-32 13-32 13-32 13-32 13-32 13-32 13-32 13-32 13-32 inch 

Speed 16 16 17 15 14 12 13 18 12 14 15 14.4 feet. 

Pair No 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 Average 

Putting in lathe 2 4 2 2 2 4 3 2 2 3 3 2 min., 28 sec. 

Roughing 9 11 12 8 9 8 10 8 9 « 11 9 min.. 23 sec. 

Finishing 5 5 8 4 5 4 6 7 5 r, 6 5 min., 7 sec 

Taking out ..A- 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 min., sec 

Time from floor to floor. . 17 21 23 15 17 17 20 18 17 18 21 17 min., 58 see 

Depth of cut 4 3-16 J J 3-16 3-16 4 i I 3-16 3-16 3-16 inch 

F«ed 13-32 13-32 5-16 13-32 13-32 13-32 3-32 13-32 13-32 3-32 3-32 13-32 inch 

Speed 15 13 10 14 12 15 11 12 10 14 12 14.4 feet. 

Pair No 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 Average. 

Putting in lathe 2 3 2 2 3 3 3 33 11 2 min., 28 "see 

Roughing 9 11 9 10 7 10 9 10 10 7 10 9 min., 23 sec. 

Finishing 5 6 5 6 5 6 .5 4 3 5 5 5 min., 7 sec. 

Taking out 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 11 min., sec. 

Time from floor to floor. . 17 21 17 19 16 20 18 18 17 14 17 17 min., 58 sec 

Depth of cut J 3-16 J 4 3-16 } 3-16 3-16 4 3-16 } 3-16 inch. 

Feed 13-32 13-32 13-32 13-32 13-32 13-32 13-32 13-32 13-32 13-32 13-.32 13-32 inch. 

Speed 14 13 11 14 20 15 17 17 16 21 18 14.4 feet. 

Average time for turning, 17 min., 58 sec. Total time for 33 pairs. 9 hours, 53 min. 

' " yijj, ?— Tabfs 3)iow1d|; Test of NUeg-Bement-lPopd Wheel Latbe. 



wheels with H 'n. tires, were chucked 
in 7 min., turning compleite in 38 min., 
and put on the tloor in 3 minutes more, 
or a total oi 38 min. from floor to 
floor. In this ease the cut was f-in. 

A third test was made with 67 in. 
wheels and 6J in. tiros. They were 

and econmically worn or turned piston 
rods, valve yoke stems, axles and other 
parts. A crane may be attached for 
handling axles, piston rods and other 
heavy work. 

Drills for Maximum Production. 
At the convention of the American 
Railway Master Mechanics' and Master 

vating screw as well, which it is claim- 
ed prevents the slightest spring. A 
very quick adjustment is obtained with 
this table. A large chip pan is provid- 
at each end, as well as an oiil groove 
running lengthwise at each side, ar- 
ranged so that all the lubricant run- 
ning into the chip pan at the farther 

Klg. 4— Worn Whefl taken from Ser- I'iS- .V First Oijoratlon Completed, Ki'S- 0~Next Toul Ijiis Kouglily Fig. 
vice. Mounted in I'liuck. Deptli of Cut Averaged %-in. Formed Flange and Taken oft 

Large Corners. 

—Condition of Wheel at end 
of cut of Third Tool. 

chucked in 9 min. and finished in 43 
min , the breaking of a tool having de- 
layed the work four minutes. The work 
was done at a cutting speed of from 
13 to 15 ft. per min. When a tool steel 
is produced that can stand the stress 
and heat of a higher speed no doubt 
there will be a greater output than 
modem machine tool practice will 

Landis Orinder. 
Pig. 15 illustrates work done on the 
Landis Universal Grinder, which is 
built for use in the railroad tool room 
or repair shops. This grinder grinds 
reamers, gauges, dies and boring bars, 
does straight or taper, external or in- 
ternal grinding and handles a large var- 

Car Builders' Associations at Atlantic 
City last June, The Colburn Machine 
Tool Co., Franklin, Pa., exhibited a 
heavy duty drill that was of unusual 
interest, not only because of its con- 
struotural features, but also by reason 
of the results in the way of rapid drill- 
ing which it makes possible. An im- 
provement which tends te dnorease the 
usefulness of the tool is the new com- 
pound table. 

As will be noticed from Fig. 15 this, 
table is very different from the oMinary 
type and is a valuable adjunct to the 
machine. The table has a working sur- 
face of 16x30 in. and is provided with 
a rapid movement of 20 in. longitudin- 
ally and 8 in. transversely through 

"^rv- I . _ 

end is drained back through a cored 
opening in the table to the pan nearer 
the supply tank. 

The machine is built on the unit sys- 
tem, that is, the speed changing me- 
chanism is in one separate box, the 
feed change gears are enclosed in an- 
other separate case, and the head is 
a third unit entirely independent of the 
other parts. 

In a series of tests made using Celfor 
high speed twist drills, cutting speeds 
us high as 200 ft. per min. in cast iron 
were obtained, although 125 to 150 ft. 
per min. were used in most cases, 
which was undoubtedly due to the fact 
that the nature of the work was the 
limiting factor rather than the drill or 
the machine itself. 

Wheel Lathe. 

Fig. 16 shows a modern 90 inch wheel 
lathe built by the Tjondon Machinp Tool 

KIg. 8— Wheel Ready for Servld-. 

Fig. 10 Wheel in I'osition. 

Fig. U-Urlvlng Dog. 

Fig. 12— Taking a Koughing Cut. 

iety of grinding on small parts such as 
knuckle pins and cross head pins, link 
blocks and plates, parts of air valves, 
etc., with speed and accuracy. The Gap 
grinder is al^-o a railroad tool, a gap 
along the bed adapting it to a variety 

worms and racks. The operator stand- 
ing directly in front of the table can 
manipulate it forward or back or long- 
itudinally without moving from his 
position. Springing is eliminated, and 
the table is supported by a heavy 

of work and permits grinding accurately bracket or knee underneath and an ele- 

Co., Hamilton, and installed in the G. 
T. R. shops at Stratford. 

The face plates are very heavy and 
mas.sive, 91 inch diameter, and have 
bolted to them an internal gear of wide 
face and coarse pitch. 

The construction of the drive is such 

that the long bottom shaft is relieved 
to a considerable extent of the heavy 
torsion which invariably causes chatter 
on this class of machinery. 

Clutches and change gears are provid- 
ed, g'iving a wide range of speeds for 
all wheels from 34 inch to 84 inch on 
the tread. 

CANADIAN Machinery 

The feed mechanism is of iho link 

type, designed so as to give 8 impulses 
of feed per revolution of the face plate. 
The bottom rests are mov«d i-.long 
the bed by means of rack .md pinion, 
and have extension to allow the cross 
rest to move in sufficiently close for 
small wheels. 


The traveling head is the striking 
feature of this ma hinc, and its great 
value is very apparent, especially on 
massive jobs where the work cannot be 
readily moved. This construction also 
makes it possible to do work requiring 
a great reach. This construction at 
first band is criticised on account of 
the spring of head under heavy work. In 
actual practice this is found to 
be very small, owing to the fact thai 

Pitr. 9— Front Vlewof Selli'is' Wheel Liillie, 

7l a<MtaK^» 


I) ill. WiitM'l I.iitlit'. LiHidoti Machine Tim)! i'd.. Hamilton. 



Fig. 14 — Work i'Miilslied on a Grinder. 

The rests are exceptionally aassive, 
having power feed across the tiead, 
varying from 4-25-in. per revolution to 
12-25 in. per revolution. 

Fig. 10— Colliuru HigU-duty Drill. 

The left hand head is driven in and 
out by means of reversing puUcvs act- 
ing through gears into a screw placed 
under the centre of gravity of liead. 

The drivers on this machine cons-ist 
of four sets of adjusting steel blocks, 
having serrated edge gouging into the 
outside of tire. Powerful bolts are pro- 
vided for slipping through the arm of 
the wheel, and drawing the whe'jl back 
against the face plate. This niatcjs the 
wheel practically one with a heavy face 
plate, giving great rigidity. On a ma- 
chne w'th this drive cuts 1 inch decji, 
and 7-16 inch feed have been taken. 

Traveling Head Slotters. 

In the design of the traveling head 
slotter, Fig. 17, the London Machine 
Tool Co. have taken of the experience 
of many of the largest users of slotters 
in the country, particularly in railroad 
shops where the heaviest service is re- 
quired. Weak spots have been elimin- 
ated, many conveniences have been 
added, simplifications made in construc- 
tion, and an excellent machine produc- 

the upward thrust is taken by two mas- 
sive long bolts running clear through 
and anchored in base, and also the col- 
umn is made very deep and heavy and 
the head being well scraped thereto 
makes spring practically negligible. 
The quick power adjustment to head 
and table can be throvn in and out, 

me I 

I''l(f- i;t"-Tools for TurnlUK Tires on a Sellers 
Wlieel Lutlie. 

while the head is running or standing, 
as desired. The quick power feature on 
certain classes of work means an in- 
crease of 200 p.e. in output. By this 
feature, as a general ■ proposition, this 
machine will do 50 p.o. more work than 
was formerly possible. The quick re- 


lis,', li — Tiiivolliig Hi'iMl Slotter. 

I-'ig. 18— 42-in. Coacli Wheel Latbe. 

ijf. 1:1 li.piilile Axle I.Mllif. I.uihIiiii .Miiiliine Tool Co., Ilainiltoii. 

Fig. 20 — Double Front Geared High-speed Engine l_.;uhi'. .loliii 
Bertram & Sons Co., Dnndas. 

Fig. -Jl I'.crtrani 2-s|ilnillc Drilling Machine. 

Fig. 1!-.' Hertnnn 4-bead Ijocomotivc Frame Drilling Machine. 

turn is of special construction K'^'ng Tool Co., Hamilton, for turning out rail- The centre, head supporting the two 

remarkably even tutting strokes with way coach wheels at a maximum rate. internal gears, has a wide bearing on 

very return. _ An indicator is at- The driving mechanism consists of the base, and is secured to base by 

tached showing amount of strokes. two face plates, 56-in. diameter, and heavy bolts and dowels, making an ex- 

The 42" coach wheel lathe shown in Fig. having open cut in samp on one side, ceptnonally rigid construction. The 

18 is desired b^ the LondOD Machine to admit of axle, method gf t^iog insert is very simple, 


there being merely two screws to 
loosen up, and the section driven out. 
On account of the shape of the gear 
ring it makes an exceptionally rig-id 
construction, by which there is no vi- 

To the face plates are secured drivers 
of the latest approved form, giving 
ample driving capac'ty to the machine. 

The tailstocks have spindles of largo 
diameter, to which are secured very 
powerful self-centering chucks for grip- 
ping the wheels. 

The heads are' adjustable in and out 
for a distance of 12 inches, and are 
opened by means of screws operated by 
motors on each end. These motors do 
not require to be over 2 h.p. capacity 

The cross slides and rest are extreme- 
ly massive, and are provided with 
means for quickly releasing tool and se- 

ig. 23 — Blotter Arranged for .Mil 

^ L.:A.> 

curing it in position, li" x 3" tool 
steel should be used. 

The feeds are 4 in number, and vary 
from 3-25ths to 12-25ths of an inch per 
revolution, which is ample for the work 

The advantage of this machine is that 
the power is transmitted entirely 
through the gear, and bearing has only 
a steadying action— it has no trans- 
mitting function. 

The heads are moved backwards and 
forwards by power which relieves the 
attendant of much incidental trouble. 

The tool post is of a very powerful 
type, and is operated by large screw of 
coarse pitch and having differential 
threads and requiring a minimum of 
energy and friction. 

Double Axle Lathe. 

The double axle lathe shown on Fig. 
19 is a very heavy and powerful ma- 

Fiij. 24---M:ichiniiii; Links on a I^hiner, 

Fig. 25-Horlzonta! Milling Machine 

Fig. 26— Driving Wheel Lathe. 

Fig. 28— Cylinder Boring Machine. 


•ip. !■!>- Hertriim CJtiartering Marhiiie. 

FiK- 30--NeNvton Horizontal Miller. 

chine, designed for the rapid turning of 
car and locomotive axles. 

The carriages are of the double type, 
haviiij^ steel gearing and automatic 

There are three changes of feed in- 
stantly obtained without stopping the 
machine. These feeds can be varied 
within wide range if desired. 

The centre driving head has an open- 
ing of 13 inch diameter, and is driven 
by powerful gears of wide face and 
coarse pitch, and is provided with 
eriualizing drivers. 

For motor drive, a variable speed 
motor having a speed variation of 3 to 
1, of from 15 to 30 h.p., depending on 
the class and quantity of work requir- 
ed, is used. If belt driven this machine 
is driven by a 6-inch belt, having 3 
step cone of large diameter, cone be- 
ing 24 inches. 

Bertram Tools. 

Fig. 20 shows a 30 inch double back 
geared high speed engine lathe, built by 

dent rod and screw feeds, power cross- 
feed, compound rest, plain tool block, 
quick change screw cutting gear from 
steel and two steady rests. It is driven 


I f*ir-t 

*- fc;-:-:-H - i '*ir-t--'--| , >4 g ' 



Fig. 27 

-Peterson Pneumatic Toolholder on 
Bertram Car Wheel Lathe. 

by a 10 h.p. motor and has a speed of 
400 to 600 r.p.m. 

The back gears are on the front of 
the lathe and are really front gears. It 

J*.^«s' ^■.-•-. -^^^^ 

smooth cut. This feature is typical of 
modern practice. 

The two spindle drilling machines 
shown in Fig. 21 has spindles 3 inch in 
diameter, with 18^ in. traverse and 
three changes of speed. The heads are 
adjustable along the rail by hand or bv 
power. The saddles are adjustable in 
and out 24 inches. The table is pro- 
vided with a trough for collecting drill 
fluid which drains to pump for circulat- 
ing. The range of spindle speeds is 
from 20 to 180 r.p.m. Heads and pump 
are motor driven. 

Fig. 22 shows a modern four-head 
Bertram drilling machine such as used 
in the modern locomotive shop for drill- 
ing locomotive frames. Three heads 
are used for vertical drilling and 
one swivels for angular drilling. 
Power is transmitted to the head 
by driving shaft the entire length, 
which in turn is operated by a belted 
20 h.p. constant speed motor driven 
countershaft at the end of the machine. 
Spindle ends are fitted for No. 5 Morse 
taper sockets. 

Modern Method of Machining Links. 

Two plans are adopted for machining 
reversing links. The Bertram, slotter is 

I it,'. 

N*-\\t»>ii Koil Iturinp .M.-wliinp. 


Spiral Inserteil Toolli Culit-i. 

John Bertram & Sons Co., Dundus, for 
use in locomotive work. It admits 15 
feet between centres. The swing is 32 
inches over shears, and 20^ in. over the 
earria^^ It is equipped with indepen- 

is therefore no longer necessary with 
such a lathe for a mechanic to turn 
the tool upside down on the back of the 
lathe to make a good cut. The front 
g:ears act directly on work giving 

shown in Fig. 23 and a planer attach- 
ment for giving the links the correct 
curve is shown in Fig. 24. The slotting 
attachment is used on a 12-inch heavy 
slotting machine. The table is 30 inch 

in diameter with 30 in. longitudinal 
and 24 inch transverse speeds. 

When used for slotting links the worm 
gear is unhitched and the tabla rotates. 
The device shown for planing links 
makes a perfect link. The construction 
of the jig will be readily seen from the 

Fig. 25 shows a modern horizontal 
milling machine for milling the channels 
and plates on side rods. In the machine 
shown the distance between housings is 
4(Ki in. The maximum distance from 
centre of spindle to table, 52 ins. Capac- 
ity to mill 14 ft. long. The. spindle is 
5i ins. in diameter and has four 
changes of speed, fitted with taper 
socket 3i ins. in diameter at its large 

Bertram Driving Wheel Lathe. 

Pig. 26 shows a 100 in. new model 
Bertram driving wheel lathe with a 
capacity for 86 inch wheels. The swing 
over the bed is 102 inches. Maximum 
distance between centres is 9 ft. Swing 
over the carriage is 96 inches. On the 
pedestals are mounted two compound 
rests with tool blocks fitted with a 
patent single screw tool holder. The 
feed mechanism gives four changes of 
feed to one revolution of drive. Driving 
pinions are steel cut from the solid. 
The face plates are provided with 
pockets, to receive crank pins and each 
is equipped with four Teas' Patent 
Sure-grip Drivers. 

Tailstock or movable head nrovided 
with quick power traverse by 7^ h.p. 
motor. Carriages are of box construc- 
tion and extend the full width of the 
bed so that pedestals carrying tool 
blocks will have sufficient travel for 
boring wheel centres. When turning full 
diameters the rear portion of th« saddle 
is detached which will permit wheels 
being taken out of the machine without 
changing the position of the carriage, 
it being only necessary to remove the 
tailstock to the rear sufficient to with- 
draw the crank pins from the faceplate. 
It is motor di'iven by a 50 h.p. D.C. 
variable speed motor 500-100 r.p.m. 
with a 7i h.p. A.C. constant speed 
motor for traversing the head. 

The C.P.R. have successfully applied 
a pneumatic tool, designed by W. Pet- 
erson, of the C.P.R. , Montreal, to Ber- 
tram lathes for turning car and truck 
wheels. In tuimng wheel tires it is 
necessary to change the tools three 
times for each tire and two men were 
required to operate the tools. With the 
tool shown, one man can operate them, 
the necessary champing and -^.^tting bcine- 
accomplished almost simultaneously. 

A two spindle Bertram cylinder bor- 
ing machine is shown in Fig. 28. It has 
a bed 19 ft. 7 inch long, 48 inches wide 
and 10 inches deep on which is an ad- 
justable table 57 inches long, 53 inches 
wide, having power traverse along the 


bed. When in working position it sup- 
ports the outer end of boring bars, and 
when removed to the end of the bed the 
cylinder is free of the bars and may be 
lifted without taking the bars off the 
machine. The large bar is 12 inches in 
diameter having horizontal adjustment 
from 15 inches to 32 inches, and 
is 24 inches from centre of bar to top 
of table. The small bar is 5 inches in 
diameter, with horizontal adjustment of 
Hi inches, also a vertical adjustment 
from 9 to 31 inches. Diameter of head 
on 12 inch bar is 21 inches ; diameter 
of head on 5 inch bar is 11 J inches. 
Each bar . has three changes of feed. 
Machine has four facing heads, two tor 
each bar, smallest to face 20 inches in 
diameter and the largest 44 inches in 
diameter. It is motor driven by 15 h.p. 
D.C. 2 to 1 variable speed motor. 

Fig. 29 is a 100 inch locomotive driv- 
ing wheel quartering machine. It has a 
capacity for wheels up to 90 inches in 
diameter on the tread, with from . 10 
to 20 inch stroke. The heads have 
long bearing on a substantial bed and 
are adjustable for axles of different 
lengths. These machines are built for 
either right or both right and left hand 
lead. Spindles are of large diameter 
and have 15 inch traverse. The saddles 
carrying same are graduated for easy 
adjustment to the desired stroke. 
Spindles have three changes of power 
feed and rapid hand movement. Axles 
are held on centres and on adjustable 
"V" bearings supporting by frames to 
which the wheels are securly clamped. 
The boring spindles are provided with 
outboard support and also with device 
for truing up crank pins. Each head is 
arranged with motor drive l^y a 5 
h.p. constant speed motor. 
Newton Machines. 

The horizontal milling machine shown 
in Fig. 30 was built by The Newton 
Machine Tool Co., Philadelphia, for the 
G.T.R. shops, Point St. Charles, and is 
adapted to the milling of locomotive 

Installations of these millers at the 
Pittsburg works of the American Loco- 
motive Co. show that they are slabbing 
rods on cuts from 14 to 18 inches wide, 
f to i-inch deep, at a table feed ad- 
vance of 8 inches per minute, and chan- 
neling two rods at one time, each chan- 
nel being 3 J inches wide and If inches 
deep in one operation, at the rate of 
2J inches to ^i inches per minute. These 
results have been accomplished by means 
of the Tabor helical s'piral inserted 
tooth high speed milling cutter, as 
shown by Fig. 31. The average removal 
of metal is equivalent to one cubic inch 
per minute of horse power. 

Fig. 32 illustrates a Hew design of 
rod boring machine, with the additional 
adjustable support for the end of the 
spindles ; when supported in this man- 


ner a cup cutter is used to trepan the 
rods. This \iew was taken in the Jun- 
iata shops of the Pennsylvania Rail- 
road, and results show that 10^ inch 
diameter bores are made in rods 5-inch 
thick, in twenty (20) minutes, for which 
only a reaming cutter is necessary to This method eliminates the 
necessity of drilling a pilot hole. Both 
holes arc finished at the same timd. 
Cat Time Between OatB. 

In a recent address on shop efficiency 
given by E. P. Bullard, president of the 
Bullard Machine Tool Co., Bridgeport, 
Conn., he summed up the problem of 
reducing shop costs in the following 
terse sentence. "To cut shop costs, cut 
the time between cuts." 

As an example of the ineSicienoy re- 
sulting from not cutting time between 
outs, he pointed out that in a prominent 
shop, after a difficult iiiece of work had 
been finished on a boring mill, it was 
necessary to wait from 10 a.m. to 3 
p.m. before a new forging was avail- 
able, the machine in the meantime lying 
idle. He also pointed out that a great 
deal of time is wasted in boring mill 
operations in adjusting the machine to 
the exact size required by the work and 
stated that a considerable time can be 
saved on machines equipped with mic- 
rometer dials which permit instant and 
accurate adjustment. 

W. R. Towne, president of the Yale & 
Towne Co., Stamford, Conn., states 
that by the use of soicntiSc methods and 
automatic machinery, his company, 
within the past six years, had achieved 
increased output, decreased labor cost 
and increased wages to employes. 

In speaking with a superintendent of 
a large Hamilton plant recently he 
stated "Deliver tools to the men. Keep 
men busy. More time is lost in men 
looking for work than in actual pro- 
duction." In the G.T.R. shops, Strat- 
ford, this has been recognized, and in 
order that men may be kept busy, 
chasers have been appointed to keep the 
men supplied wiith the work. At first 
the men looked on the innovation with 
disfavor, but now they keep the chaser 
busy with requests for more work. 

With the development in machine 
tools and improved methods between 
operations, greater shop production is 
made possible. The foregoing by no 
means exhausts modem practice, but it 
points out a number of main featuies 
and describes a number of interesting 
tools now found in the machine shop. 
Various attachments and special ma- 
chines have also been devised. Perfec- 
tion is a hard thing to obtain, but man- 
ufacturers of machine tools, master 
mechanics, shop foremen and managers 
are on the right track, and with the 
progress that is being made it may not 
be very long before still greater out- 
puts will be possible. 

Experiments on Water Discharge from Short Nozzles 

By James Bart, B.Sc, and George Fax * 

The Results of a Series of Tests Conducted at the Canada Foundry Co., Toronto, by George 
Fax, Have Been Taken up by James Barr, and Some Very Instructive Inferences Drawn 
Therefrom. While the Treatment of the Subject is Largely Mathematical, the Forceful 
Manner in Which it is Placed Before the Reader Si7nplifies any Difficulties That Might 
Otherwise Arise. The Mathematical Deductions Involved are Such as Arise in the Routine 
of Every Engineer who Attempts to Understand his Indicator Cards. In Addition, it Might 
be Said That the Advent of Water Wheels in Such Large Numbers Makes This Article Doubly 
Interesting as Adding to the Fund of Useful Hydraulic Information. 

T F we have two variable quantities 
*■ (x and y) connected by an equation of 
the form y=Axn, where A and n are 
numerical constants, we shall obtain a 
straight line if we plot a graph show- 
ing the logarithms of x and y; and from 
the position and slope of this line we 
can readily find the values of A and n. 

This device is often of great practical 
service, not only in obtaining the values 
of A and n, but also in showing graph- 
ically the true relation between the vary- 
ing quantities x and y, since the straight 
line can often he easily and accurately 

For example, it is generally supposed 
that if D be the discharge from an 
orifice, and H the head or pressure at 
the orifice D=A Hn where A and n have 
approximately constant values. 


The accompanying table and diagram 
indicate the method of plotting the re- 
sults and deducing the equations. 

Let D be the discharge in Imperial 
gallons per minute and H the head or 
pressure at the nozzle in pds. per sq. 
inch. We see from the table that the 
Talues of D range from 37 to 364, and 
therefore log D varies from log 37 
(=1.568) to log 364 (=2.561). The 
ralnes of H range from 30 to 200, and 
therefore log H varies from log 30 
(=1.477) to log 206 (=2.300). 

We accordingly lay oflf a horizontal 
scale ranging from 1.5 to 2.6 and a ver- 
tical scale ranging from 1.4 to 2.3. We 
can now readily construct logarithmic 
scales of D and H. The log of lOK) is 
2, 80 the value 100 (of D or H) will 
appear opposite the point 2 in our 
scales. Similarly log 140=2.146 and the 
value 140 will, therefore, appear at the 
point 2.146 on our scales. In this way 
we find as many points as we deem 
sufficient to complete the scales. The ex- 
perimental results are now plotted in the 
usual fashion. For instance, at a pres- 
sure of 100 lbs. per sq. inch, the f in. 
nozzle was found to discharge 121 gal- 
lons per minute. Through the point 100 
on the H scale we draw a horizontal line 
to meet a vertical line through the point 

•Desl^en with tbe Jobn Inglls Co. To- 

121 on the D scale, and the point of 
intersection P, is a point on the curve 
for the I in. nozzle. 

When all the points are plotted the 
nearest straight lines are drawn through 
them. The equation to each of the 
straight lines is deduced in the follow- 
ing way: 

If D=A Hn 
log D=log A-fn log H. 
Log A is a constant quantity and n is, 
in the diagram, the tangent of the 
angle which the line makes with the ver- 
tical axis. Considering point P 
PQ 7.8 1 

n= = ^— ; 

QR 15.6 2 
log D=2.083; and H=2; therefore we 
liafve from the equation, 

log D=log A-f-n log H ; 
3.0S3=log A-|-y2X2; or 
log A=1.083; therefore 
Therefore, D=12.1 Hy^ is, very ap- 
proximately, the equation to the line. 

In the equations given in the dia- 
gram, D is the discharge in Imperial 
gallons per minute, and H is the head 
at the orifice in pds. per sq. inch. The 
diagram also shows a scale of discharge 
in 17. S. gallons per minute, and a scale 
of heads in feet of water. These are 
easily constructed as follows: 

Taking N. Imp. gall.=(1.2N) U.S. 
gal.=M. U. S. gal, we have log M=Iog 
1.2-l-log N.=0.079+log N. 

Therefore, if, on our logarithmic scale 
of Imp. gallons we add to any value N 
a distance equal to 0.079 on our scale 
of logarithmic we shall arrive at the cor- 
responding value M of U. S. gallons. 
For example, if N be 100 in Imp. gal., 
we see this number is at 2.0 on our orig- 
inal scale of logarithms, and opposite 
the reading 2.079 on the scale we find 120. 
which is the corresponding value M in U. 
S. gals. In other words, the U. S. gal. 
scale is obtained by moving the Imp. 
gal. scale forward through a distance 
0.079 on our scale of logarithms. This 

ipparato* Uied In Test 

For any value of H, within the limits 
of the line, we can find D from this 

If H=166; 

D=12.1 V166=12.1X12.ft=156, 
which is the value given by the graph. 

has been done on the diagram by mov- 
ing the scale this distance to the left, 
and placing it at the top of the diagram, 
to avoid confusion. It will be seen that 
120 on the U. S. scale is vertically »bove 
100 on the Imperial scale. 




Similarly, if we take 1 lb. per sq. inch 
to be equivalent to a head of 2.31 feet 
of water, the 'feet' scale is obtained by 
lowering the lbs. per sq. inch scale 
through a dislance=log 2.31 (i.e. 0.367) 
on the scale of logarithms. 

Apparatus ajad Experiment. 

The arrangement of the apparatus 
and the type of nozzle are shown in 
drawing. The nozzles were arranged in 
order of size in a row upon a 10 in. 
diam. horizontal pipe; the largest nozzle 
was towards the supply end, and an air 
vessel was provided at the closed end. 
Each nozzle was isolated by a gate valve 
with a clear bore of area not less than 
five times that of the nozzle, and the 
length of the parrallel bore at the outlet 
of each nozzle was at least equal to the 
diameter of the nozzle. 

The water was delivered to the 10 
in. main by means of a plunger pump, 
and was measured by counting the re- 
volutions of the pump; a correction be- 
ing made for slip at each pressure. The 


slip was measured by shutting down the 
discharge valve and driving the pump 
to keep the required pressure constant. 
For example, if the pump was driven at 
50 r.p.m. to maintain a pressure of 100 
pds. per sq. incli during an experiment, 
and if, when the discharge valve was 
closed the pump had to make one r.p.m. 
to keep the pressure at 100 pds. per 
sq. inch, then the slip was taken as 1 in 
50 or 2 per cent. Precautions were taken 
to have fairly steady conditions before 
taking any readings. 

All tlu> nozzles were 'ringed,' i.e., 
they had an inside shoulder as shown in 
drawing, except the i inch nozzle which 
was made from the J inch pattern by 
boring away the ring, and which was 
therefore a smooth nozzle. This prob- 
ably accounts for the fact of the dis- 
charge being relatively greater in the 
case of this nozzle, as the regtriction of 
the flow would be less than in the others. 
The diagram shows this greater di.s- 

charge very clearly by the altered slope 
of the curve. 

That all the points should He so nearly 
upon straight lines, and that these lines 
should be parallel for similar nozzles, 
would indicate that the method of meas- 
uring the discharge, adopted in making 
the experiments, was a reliable one. 

It is at once evident from the diagram 
that each curve consists of two distinct 
portions, indicating two laws of resist- 
ance to the flow of the water. Up to the 
bend in the curve the resistance fol- 
lows a definite law, but at the bend 
a velocity is reached at which the 
resistance becomes less, and it continues 
to be, according to a new definite 
law, throughout the higher velocities. 

It is supposed that this change in the 
law of resistance was due to the prox- 
imity of the gate valve to the orifice. 
The gate valve was equivalent to a sud- 
den enlargement in the area of the pipe 
section and this would cause additional 
eddies and increase the resistance to the 

e in 

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flow at the lower velocities. It is how- 
ever conceivable that a certain velocity 
would be reached at which the water 
would shoot past the valve so quickly 
that it would not be sensibly affected by 
the enlargfement ; the latter would cease 
to produce a noticeable increase in the 
resistance, and this would obtain for all 
higher velocities. 

It is therefore concluded that the re- 
sults given in the table and diagram 
admit of practical application only 
under circumstances where the condi- 
tions of esj>eriment are approximately 
obtained with regard to the position of 
the nozzle with reference to the gate 

The object of the above experiments 
was the calibration of an apparatus for 
the testing of centrifugal pumps. 

nisihurge from short uozzles, In Imperial and U.S. gallons, per minute. 

Pressure at nozle — lbs. 

8l7.e of nozzle 
Mi-ln. ... 
do ... 
%-ln. ... 

do ... 
%-lu. ... 

do ... 
1-in ... . 

do ... 
IMi-ln ... 

do ... 

... 44 
. .. 37 
... 50 
... 42 
... lOO 
... 83 
. .. 175 
. . . 14t! 
.. 195 

Size of nozzle. 

do . . . . 
%-in .... . 


%-ln ... . 

do ... . 

do . . . . 
l>^-in ... . 

do . . . . 






























101 , 




































Pressure at nozzle — ^Ibs. 
120 130 140 150 160 170 180 190 








326 334 















1 Imp. equals 

1.2 U.S. 



A Day's Ramble Through the M.C.R. Shops at St. Thomas 

By Fred. H. Moody 

Every Shop has its IVays and Means of Meeting Exigieiicies That Arise in the Shape of Un- 
usual or New Jobs, but the Railway Repair Shop has an Exceptionally Large Number of Such 
Special Tools. The M. C. R. Shops, Under the Direction of an able Staff of Men, have De- 
veloped Numerous Special Methods and Devices, a Number of Which Were Picked up by 
the Writer in a Recent Trip Through the Shops, and are Here Given with Some Detail, as 
They Will Doubtless Prove Beneficial to Machinists, in General, in Developing Initiative for 
Undertaking New Jobs. 

Boiler Shop. 

Coming to the boiler shop, a number 
of special tools are to be found, a few 
of which will be described. Fig. 10 
shows a holding-on tool that has sev- 
eral unique features. It will be jioticed 
that it can be used close in against any 
side sheet by using the outer holding-on 
bar. The device consists of a piece of 
heavy wrought iron pipe A bored as 
shown. There are two covers BB screw- 
ed on, the top one having openings. In- 
side is the piston C built up as indicat- 
ed, with a leather packing ring. From 
this piston, extend two rods, D and E, 
of which D is centrally located, and E, 
otiset. Normally D is used, but where 
the rivets are up close to a side, as for 
example the rivets between the toiler 
shell and head, the die on E is made use 
of. Air is introduced by the air 
valve and hose, below the piston (.', forc- 
ing the desired die against the rivet 
bead. As will be noticed, the dies on 
the heads of D and E may be n^placcd 
with others to suit the rivet in baud. 

Another holding on tool is shovn m 
Fig. 11, and is one that is ■ .ily "i' noy- 
ed where the clearance space above the 
rivet Is small, as in the water leg, 
where the working space is never over 
4 or 5 inches. The usual method of doing 

this work is by a cup and wedge bar, a 
rather inconvenient method. The hold- 
ing on block under discussion, is loosely 
suspended in the water leg by a wire 
through hole A. The hot riVet is placed 
in its hole, and the bevelled edge B plac- 
ed against its head. A drift pin is then 

Fig. 10— Double Holdlng-on Tool. 

shoved through a stay bolt hole from the 
firebox, and engages with either one of 
holes CC. Pressure from the firebox on 
the drift pin, holds this bevelled face B 
tight over the rivet, which can be rivet- 
ed from the outside of the boiler. While 
apparently a rather unstable arrange- 
ment, the results from its use are excel- 
lent, and besides, it is much more con- 
venient than the before mentioned cus- 
tomary method of cup and wedge bar. 

The stay bolt socket. Fig. 12, is 
unique in that it is equally good for 
driving in, or removing stay bolts. As 
can be seen, it consists of a tool steel 
engaging piece A in a soft steel shell B 
to fit an air drill. The two are keyed at 
C. The engaging piece A has tapered 
flutes like an external reamer, only the 
halves are symmetrically the same, one 
half being effective in screwing in the 
stay-bolts, and the other half in the re- 
moving operation. The taper makes the 
grip very positive. When A is worn 
out, the part B is still useful for a new 

Continuing on the subject of stay-bolts 
there are several original ideas in use at 
these shops. For example, a new type 
of stay bolt tap is extensively used. It 
is believed, and justly too, that the 
usual stay bolt tap, reams the hole much 

larger than it should be before the tap 
takes a grip and a thread begun. The 
tap used here is short, and straight up 
to within an inch and a half, or so, from 
the end, when, instead of being ground 





steel of varying length, with a collar 
around the whole to band them together. 
Pig. 14 shows a press employed in this 
banding operation. It consists of an old 
air compressor cylinder A, and a forging 
15. On the end of the air piston rod is 
a head C. The pile of component parts 
of the spring are placed on this head, 
located centrally. Air pressure in A 
lifts the pile against the projecting arm 
of B, compressing them together snugly. 
A clamp is then placed over this com- 


J u 

1 1 

1 \ 


if'lgr. 11— Holding-on Block. 

down the thread is cut on the taper. 
Thus, there is always a full thread, the 
tips being, of course, smaller in diam- 

Flgr. 13— Taper Auvll. 

pressed bundle just of! centre. The pres- 
sure is then relieved, and the spring re- 
moved. The clamp being to one side 
leaves the centre free to have the retain- 
ing band shrunk on. The usual method 
of banding, is to put a large collar over 
the bundle, and compress by driving a 
wedge in between the large collar and 

Fig. 12— Staybolt Socket. 

eter. The full thread always grips with- 
out slipping, and reaming the hole. 
While more expensive, the extra cost is 
warranted by the superiority of the 

Carrying out this same principle, they 
have a good way of tapping for radial 
stay-bolts. A hollow tap of the form 
just mentioned, is slipped over the re- 
duced end of a round bar, the latter 
slightly smaller than the punched holes. 
This act as a guide for the tapping oper- 
ation through the outer sheet, when a 
similar operation is performed from the 
inside, through the inner sheet, the rod 
guiding in the inner and outer sheets in 
each operation, respectively. 
Blacksmith Shop. 

Fig 13 shows an anvil used in the 
smith shop for forging tapers on rods or 
bars. It is essentially the usual steam 
hammer anvil, with an inserted circular 
piece A. This piece can be moved around 
to make its upper face at any angle 
with the face of the stationary part. 
Bevels can thereby be forged very expe- 
ditiously. The arrangement is so simple, 
further explanation is unnecessary. 

The springs under the locomotive, are 
built up of a number of strips of spring 

the springs, after which the retaining 
band is shrunk on. The method describ- 
ed is much more expeditious, and allows 
of no error in adjustment. 

A large variety of work is handled in 
the car repair department, giving a wide 

range of appliances. The most interest- 
ing operations are those on the bull- 
dozer, where a number of special dies 
have been prepared. Such parts as the 
car sill, step and coupler pocket, are 
made in a very simple manner, the form- 
er in one operation, and the latter in 





Plg^. 14— Spring Press. 

Fig. 15 shows a neat bending device 
for making eye bolts. The piece to be 
bent is placed against the angle A and 
clamped there by eccentric B. The rol- 
ler C on arm D, which has previously 
been swung around behind the bar to be 
bent, is swung around in the opposite 
direction, bending the bar around the 
centre pin E. The distance between pin 
E and roller C is the thickness of the 
stock to be bent. This distance can be 

varied at will by loosening bolt F and 
sliding D in or out on the pivoted bar 
G, which turns on centre bar H. A 
guide piece I, makes the strip D more 
rigid. J acts as a stifiener for the an- 

Fig. 15 — Eye Bender. 


gle A which can be adjusted to suit the 
work, as it is slotted as shown. 
The punch press in the car shop has 

Fig. 18 — Wood Drill for use between Car Sills 

a spacer (or spacing rivet holes in 
plates or bars. The spacer consists of a 
long piece of metal with a groove, 
through which bolts are secured. The 
upper end of the bolt is so made as to 

fit the size of hole being punched. Being 
adjustable, it can be set to engage with 
a punched hole the proper distance from 
the hole to be punched, thereby properly 
spacing the holes. 

Fig. 16 shows a home-made drill for 
drilling in the confined space between the 
sills of cars. AA are car sills, in which 
holes are to be drilled. The device con- 
sists of a wooden base B to which an 
upright wooden arm C is hinged. On C 
is "in old bicycle sprocket D with handle 
E. D drives a smaller sprocket F 
through chain G. Sprocket F has a 
square recess to hold the wood bit H. 
The method of operating is self-ex- 

In the car shop, repairs were being 
made to the cement floor, which had 
holes in places. A composition of ce- 
ment and cast iron chips, a mixture fre- 
quently employed, was being used, the 
results proving very satisfactory, the 
mixture forming a hard, wear-resisting 

Bound House. 

For removing the locomotive drivers, 
sections of the rail over the pit must be 
removable to allow of the wheel drop- 
ping. The arched rail used by the M. 
C.R. is shown in Fig. 17. The custom- 
ary method of bracing this removable 
section, is to put a heavy casting under 
the rail, making the removable section 
very unwieldly. The method shown 
makes for a lighter construction. 

The jack for lowering the locomotive 
drivers, is also shown in Fig. 17. It is 
of the telescope construction, allowing 

of a more compact arrangement, much 
shallower than the straight lift type 
would permit. The sleeves slide past 
each other, the whole being actuated by 
compressed air. The jack is on a small 
truck, which moves lengthwise on a 
larger truck, the latter having a track 
long enough to run outside and clear the 
locomotive rails. This is to permit of 
lifting the drivers completely away from 
the locomotive for repairs. The whole 
construction is clearly shown by the cut. 

V'\K. 17 — Telescope .lack iinrt Anchored Rail. 


Stellite is the name of a Cobalt 
chromium alloy which has been discov- 
ered by Elwood Haynes. It can be made 
into cutting tools which meet all the re- 
quirements of ordinary use and will not 
tarnish or rust. The inventor has tested 
the new alloy in many forms, having; 
used it in razor blades and in lathe 
tools for cutting steel at a high rate of 
speed. The razor blades, although tak- 
ing a satisfactory edge, were acknow- 
ledged inferior to steel razors on account 
of requiring more frequent stropping, 
but for many tools the alloy was found 
superior to steel. 

Notwithstanding the great hardness of 
the alloy, it not only forges readily at 
a red heat, but can be bent at a right 
angle cold, either in the form of a cast 
or forged bar, provided the dimensions 
do noc exceed one-fourth inch square. 
Its elastic limit is not quite equal to 
that of tool steel of the same hardness, 
but it is much tougher. In color the 
metal stands between silver and steel, 
and if suitably polished shows a high 
lustre. Many experiments were made 
before an alloy could be produced that 
would forge out perfectly into thin 
sitripe, and shows no tendency to check. 
After cooling, these strips are as hard 
as mild-tempered steel, and can scarcely 
be scratched by a file. A kitchen knife 
blade was made from this material, and 
after two years of use showed not the 
faintest sign of tarnishing. If held in 
the sun it produced a reflection that 
would dazzle the eye. 

A lathe tool test was made against 
high speed steel, and it was found that 
the stellite tool would cut a continuous 
shaving from the bar at the speed* of 
two hundred feet per minute, while the 
high speed alloy steel tools failed al- 
most instantly. It does not follow from 
this that the alloy is better suited for 
high speed lathe tools than good alloy 
steel, but simply that it will stand a 
higher speed without softening. It 
would not be reasonable to expect a re- 
volution in tool-making on account of 
this discovery. There is in the new al- 
loy a possible outlet for the great Cobalt 
production of Ontario's silver mines. 
This gives the matter special interest 
in Ontario at the present time. 


Unique Ways of Doing Things in the Machine Shop. Readers* Opinions 
Concerning Shop Practice. Data for Machinists. Contributions paid for. 

By Frank E. Booth. 

The job in question was the boring' out 
of the five bearing boxes of a four cyl- 
inder vertical internal combustion en- 

The only machine available 
for the job was a Ber- 
tram lathe having 16 inches swing be- 
tween the centre and the ways, with a 
distance of 8 ft. between centres. The 
engine base was about 6 ft. 6 in. long, 

Engine Bed Ready for Boring Operation. 

while the longest bearing was 8 inches. 
The job was bolted firmly to the lathe 
carriage at one end, while the other end 
was supported by two hardwood blocks 
bolted to the engine base, and fitted to 
the lathe ways as shown in the sketch. 
A solid boring bar, with a head for 
carrying the tool, was used, and thb 
head was shifted from one box to the 
other as the job progressed. A first class 
job was the result. 

In the shops of the Canada Gas Power 
and Producer Co., Barrie, Ont., there 
is a very convenient form of jit? in use 
for turning the crank pin of the solid 
crank shafts used in the Weber engines 
built by that concern. This method 
of machining is due to E. J. Graves, 
superintendent of the plant. 

of the crank shaft is then inserted into 
hole B of tho jig, so that the face B of 
the shaft is flush with face C of the jig. 
The offset C of the crank sets into 
recess D of the jig, and set screws E 
can be adjusted to centralize the crank 
pin. The clamping screws F are then 

Fig. 2— Crunk Shaft Jig. 

tightened and the crank pin is ready to 

Of course, different sizes of jigs are 
required for the various kinds of shafts 
produced. Each jig has another fea- 
ture of interest. The radius of the con- 
tour G of the jig is made the proper 
radius of the edge D of the crank shaft, 
from the crank pin centre, so that the 
tool is quickly set to reduce the shaft 
to the proper size. 


Cutting a 41 ft. lead screw in a shop 
where the longest lathe is 22 ft. presents 
a problem. But this was recently over- 
come in the works of the John Bertram 
& Sons Co., Dundas. A still more diffi- 
cult act was the cutting of a 45 ft. lead 
screw, more than double the length of 
the lathe on this same lathe. 

The first lead screw referred to is, to 
be exact, 40 ft. lOJ ins. long, 2 in. pitch, 
double thread and 4 J in. diameter. The 
screw was mounted in the lathe with 
outward bearings set up for the over- 

was made in three equal parts. The 
centre piece had the screw cut on it, 
leaving a short piece not cut at each 
end. The two other parts were then 
welded on, one on each end. The screw 
was then mounted and a procedure 
similar to that already described fol- 

In connection with cutting lead screws, 
the John Bertram & Sons Co. keep mas- 
ter lead screws, absolutely accurate, and 
periodically lead screws on the lathes in 
the shop are renewed to conform with 
the master lead screw. In this way ac- 
curate lathe work in the production of 
machine tools is assured. It is of inter- 
est .that the lathe with a 22-ft. bed 
mentioned above, was built by the John 
Bertram & Sons Co. and was used by 
Henry Bertram, the present general 
manager, to cut lead screws in 1876. 


One of the principal products of the 
Canada Foundry Co., is feed pumps for 
varied uses. To facilitate rapid pro- 
duction, many useful devices in the form 
of jigs, special machines, etc., are em- 
ployed. One of the most interesting of 
these jigs, is the one shown in the ac- 
companying sketch, which is used for 
machining the valve face, motion 
bracket, and body of the steam cylinder 
and stretcher, all at one setting. 

The device consists essentially of two 
cast iron angle plates, to which are at- 
tached removable collars. The bore of 
the cylinder just fits over the collar at 
one end, and the collars on the other 
angle plate, fit into the ends of the cy- 
linder stretchers. 

As shown the jig will only apply to 
one spacing of cylinders, that is, for a 
given distance apart of centres, but, by 
the use of eccentric collars as shown at 
A, any distance apart may be handled 

Fig. 1— Cranlj Shaft. 

The chuck or face plate of the lathe 
is removed, and the jig which tis thread- 
ed at A to correspond to the lathe 
apindlij, is screwed on. Either end A 

.Ilg for Faring Twin Pumps. 

hang. The thread was cut half way 
along the leadscrew, reversed, and the 
other half cut. 

In cutting the 45 ft. lead screw, it 

by the use of the proper collars. As 
the company uses it, the jig is made for 
5 inch centres, with eccentrics for 1\ 
inch centres. 



John Bertram & Sons Co., Dundas, 
cut a largie number of steel gears from 
the solid. In machining them and cut- 
ting the gear teeth great difficulty was 
encountered in securing cutters to stand 
up to the work. After some experiment- 
ing, however, a cutter was designed with 
each tooth tapered from the nose to- 
wards the centre of the cutter. With 
such a cutter a speed of 120 ft. per min. 
is maintained and 50 per cent, of the 
time is saved. This is attributed to the 
relieving of the teeth on the sides. 


In the November issue of Canadian 
Machinery, R. Ewart Cleaton gave an 
article on "Practical Alethod of Obtain- 
ing Pitch of Propeller." We find, how- 
ever, that the printers have made a seri- 
ous error in Simpson's Rule which 
should read as follows : — 



Where a = Area in square inches. 

y = Distance between ordi- 

E = Sum of extreme ordinates. 
S = Sum of even ordinates. 
m = Sum of odd ordinates. 

By K Campbell. 

There were a great many bars to be 
machined in the plant where I served 
my apprenticeship. These were about 
21 in. by J in., and had from 15 to 20 
holes drilled in each. This cost 6 or 
8 cents each, and they were then count- 
ersunk at a cost of 2 or 3 cents each ad- 
ditional. High speed steels were then 
introduced, making the cost less than 
this, yet allowing the drill operator to 
make a slightly larger amount per day. 

It was then found that more of these 
were needed, and unless some means 
were devised, additional drills would liave 

ically on a big punch, it was decided to 
instal one. This was done, and all the 
holes were punched at once. In Fig. 1, 
A is the punch, C the work, and B the 
die, G representing the machine frame. 

The bars were finished much more 
quickly, but they still required to be 
taken to the drills to be countersunk 
until the method shown in Fig. was 
adopted. A is the punch, B is the work 
when completed, F shows the counter- 
sunk jar, E the hardened die, and G 
representing the punch frame. It will 
be noted that the die is the diameter of 
the countersink. In this way the second 
handling of the bars was done away 
with, and the work done very cheaply. 

Another job that was done on this 
large multiple punch was the work on 
binder bottoms. Formerly these were 
done on a single punch. The steel bot- 
toms were fastened to the template with 
steel bushings, the whole being on a 
large table with handles at each end. 
Two men operated the table and one the 
punch. The job was one of the most 
hated in the shop, and there was re- 
joicing when dies were made for the 
multiple punch to allow it being done on 
that machine. It made a big saving for 
the company, but incidentally it elimin- 
ated the days of hard, heavy lifting of 
the table, bottom and template, which 
had to be done for each hole punched, 
there being 50 or 60 in each binder 
bottom. These holes were of three dif- 
ferent size."? which necessitated handling 
them three times. 


The toggle joint is used on various 
machines, such as rock crushers, presses 
for stamping sheet metal, etc. The two 
accompanying line drawings show the 
application of the toggle joint to a 
press. Referring to these, A is a crank 
keyed to the main crank-shaft of the 
press. Connecting-rod E, attached to 
this, is pivoted in yoke H, which is sus- 

D with cranks B, which are keyed to 
rocker arm shafts. 

A comparison of the two illustrations 
will show the action of the mechanism. 
In Fig. 1, crank A is at its highest 
position. In Fig. 2, the blank holder is 
down. It will be seen that in this pos- 
ition bell cranks D and links C are 
straightened out, so that a powerful 

Kiff. 1.- Economic Punching.— Kiff. Z. 

to be installed. It was finally decided 
to punch them, and the bars were then 
punched one hole at a time. This put 
the idea into the management of punch- 
ing all the holes at once. As there was 
other work that could be done econom- 

pended on rocker arms F and 6, pivoted 
to the side frames of the machine, on 
opposite sides of H. Bell crank levers 
D are operated from the center pivot 
of H, through short links J. Links C 
connect the upper arms of bell cranks 

Fig. 1.— Toggle Joint Action— Fig. t.— 

toggle action with an appropriate dwell 
is obtained, lasting through a consider- 
able portion of the revolution of th* 

Cranks B, in turn, operate the rocker 
arms, which, with the links connecting 
them with the blank holder slide form 
a second toggle joint mechanism. It 
will be seen that these two sets or toggle 
joints, acting in series as they do, give 
a powerful pressure to the blank holder, 
estimated at 2,000 tons. 


In stamping sheet metal, it is possible 
to waste a lot of metal. Pig. 1 shows a 
method of stamping out washers where 
there is a large amount of waste. It 
will be evident from Fig. 2 that by stag- 


Fig. 1.— stamping Sheet Metal. 

gering the rows or cutting them zig-zag, 
more washers can be cut out of a sheet 
of metal. The E. W. Bliss Co., manu- 

Fig. 2.— Stamping Slieet Metal to Save 30 per 

facturers of presses, have estimated this 
saving at from 5 to 30 per cent. 

By making the cuts touch each other 
as much as possible, it is possible to se- 
cure the maximum economy in stamping 
out washerS/ Jn order that the centre ol 

the washer be not wasted, these can be 
used lor making smaller washers. 


This is a simple little device used in 
the tool-room of the London Machine 
Tool Co., Hamilton, for carrying the 
Starret Indicator No. 64. It was de- 
signed by the foreman toolmaker with 
the object of greater flexibility in get- 
ting at unhandy centres, as by this de- 
vice, the connecting arms make any 
position of the indicator practically 

A i.'i held in the tool post of the 



apprentice. The only difficulty, if it 
may be termed such, is that for every 
size of nut there must be a difTerent- 
sized stud. This jig enables the com- 
pany to turn out approximately, thirty 
5-inch, twenty-six 1-inch, twenty-four 
IJ-inch, twenty-two l}-inch, eighteen 
If-inch or eighteen 1 4-inch nuts every 
45 minutes.— American Machinist. 


By A. F. Bishop. 
I discovered a short time ago that a 
mill-cut file would sharpen a solid pipe 
die quite easily and quickly without re- 
moving the temper in the die. The first 
few rubs of the file will slide without 


Cent ring Indicator Holder. 

lathe, while the indicator is attached 
to arm C, the intervening arm B being 
used to increase the range. A is a 
piece of machinery steel, and rods B 
and C are of stub steel, requiring no 
extra finish. The joint between B and 
C is cast steel, slit at the ends to facil- 
itate clamping, making in all a very 
simple and useful device. Tool-makers 
and machinists will find this a useful 
addition to their outfits, and it re- 
quires very little time or exertion to 


By G. C. White. 
In the works of the C.P.R. at Mon- 
treal, a jig similar to the one shown in 
the cut is used for holding nuts so that 

o( Bolt 





across FU18 





































• Thusf .r« tl 

e OQly 


sioD fo 

the I! 

ifiolshcd Nut. 

Slotting Castle 

they may have slots cut in them. The 
machine used is an old universal mill- 
ing machine, which is operated by an 

Sbarpenlag a Pipe Die witb a File. 

cutting, this being due to the grease on 
the die. Just as soon as the greasy sur- 
face is thoroughly worked off, the file 
will commence to cut, and will cut very 
smoothly, making a keen edge on the 
cutting thread. Heretofore I have al- 
ways worked on emery grinders to try 
to do this work without removing the 
temper of the die, but found they work- 
ed very slowly on account of the small 
diameter of the wheels, also that it was 
quite a nuisance to set the die for the 
cutting wheel. Most mechanics would 
not try the file, not having the least 
idea that it would do the work. That 
was my ease. — Scientific American. 


The following method for cutting the 
teeth in mitre-gear blanks, on a No. 2 
plain milling machine with a universal 
head, is given in the American Machin- 
ist. The gears are mild steel, 37 teeth, 
6 pitch. They are finished in two cuts 


centre for the bead is secured to the 
machine table, a |-inch pin being in 
one end acting as a pivot about which 
the small table is free to swing. After 
the blank is set this table is strapped 
securely. The face and cut angles of a 
mitre gear together make 90 degrees, 
and it follows that when the blank is 
set up for cutting, the apex cf the cone 
angle is in a vertical line with the face 
of the blank. The blank is set so that 
this vertical lino falls in the centre of 
the ft-inch pin. The table with head is 

Line of Cut 

Fixture (or 

Cutting Mitre Gear* 
Hilling Machine. 

a Plalu 

now swung either way an amount that 
will give a correctly shaped tooth On 
that side. After going around, swing 
the table the same amount in the other 
direction- Of course, the cutter must 
be set in position before the table is 
swung either way. The amount to set 
the table over will have to be found by 
trial, but once found the same marks 
will answer for any size mitre gear. 
The sketch shows this arrangement. 


By Wilfrid J. Thompson. 

The inclosed sketch is of a jig used for 
both drilling and milling the lugs of a 
small eccentric strap, shown at F. A, 
Fig. 1, is gray iron with the plate B 
(the drill guide) screwed and doweled to 
it. C is the locating stop, which is of 
hardened steel and fits fairly well In the 
rough |-inch groove in the strap. 

The block D is of machinery steel 
about \\ inches wide and is forced up 
by the wedge E against the bottom of 

VV B i ! 1 

! t 




s«^ -■ 

Fig. 1.— Combined Drilling and Milling Jig.— Fig. t. 

and do not require filing. They wear the lugs of the strap locating the latter 

well and run quietly. 
A small table with a groove up 


with C and parallel with the top of the 



Fig. 2 shows the work in position 
ready to be drilled. When used as a 
milling fixture the plate B is first re- 
moved. Fig. 1 shows an end view of the 
jig without the work or block D in 
place. Ci IS a part section of C. 

This is a cheap, easy jig to make, 
quick to operate, and about as near tool- 
proof as any tool can be— American Ma- 


Wire woven into ropes and cables and 
used for the most part where the wea- 
ther exerts a deteriorating influence, re- 
quires suitable protection, if its useful- 
ness is to be a dependable factor. Coat- 
ing with zinc has been found to answer 
the purpose admirably. Experiment and 
investigation show the formation of a 
couplet, in which the zinc of the galvan- 
ized iron forms the electro posiitive ele- 
ment, and the iron the electro-negative, 
when the material is immersed in water 
or other fluid. The zinc takes up oxy- 
gen, gradually forming a zinc oxide, 
while on account of the evolution of 
hydrogen, the iron remains inert, even 
if the continuity of the zinc coating is 
slightly broken. 

In the process of hot galvanizing, 
there is no , question but that the 
strength and particularly the resistance 
to bending and torsion, are considerably 
affected. Many theories 'have been 
propounded to explain the loss of feu- 
sile strength. Poor material is cited, 
but the best has been shown to suffer. 
The "overdrawing" of the steel has 
been suggested, but microscopic tests 
under this head, fail to reveal it as a 
cause. Irregularity of zinc coating has 
also been suggested, but it likewise fails 
to reveal the situation. 

Absorbed Hydrogen Gas Does the 

The results of many recent investiga- 
tions show an absorption of hydrogen 
from the acid bath, in the pickling pro- 
cess previous to galvanizing, resulting 
in considerable damage to the finished 
products in the matter of brittleness. 
Further investigation showed, however, 
that heating the steel up to 2.50 degrees 
Fah. for four hours, removes this bad 
effect entirely, and shows that galvaniz- 
ed wire can be produced with a mini- 
mum loss of physical properties, it be- 
ing entirely a question of proper prac- 
tice in regard to removal of damage 
done by pickling, proper bath tempera- 
ture, and lime of wire remaining in it. 
The wire should be treated before gal- 
vanizing to remove the hydrogen, and 
the temperature of the zinc bath should 
be regulated between close limits. The 

latter is in nowise easy, these being dif- 
ficulties in pyrometry and proper firing, 
where many wires are passed through 
constantly, with consequent irregular 
lowering of the temperature. 


Comments on articles appearing in 
Canadian Machinery will be cheerfully 
welcomed and letters containing useful 
ideas will be paid for. 

Information regarding manufacturers 
of various linos, with their addresses 
will be supplied either through these 
columns or by letter, on- request. Ad- 
dress letters to Canadian Machinery, 
143-149 University Ave., Toronto.— 

Designing Propellers. 

I have been much interested in reading 
the recent articles on propellers, their 
design, measuring of pitch, etc. When 
Mr. Baldwin set out to select an avia- 
tion propeller, he tried to select one 
from a number of various pitches. He 
tried to do this with a stationary outfit 
but found this method unsatisfactory, as 
the one making 'the best fan and turning 
out the greatest volume of air was of 
course not the best propeller. The selec- 
tion for his airship was made by fitting 
up an ice-boat, the propeller selected 
making about sixty miles an hour.— 

Tempering Small Shear Blades. 

We are enclosing you sketch of a knife 
made of crucible or section steel. Di- 
mensions are, length 6", width 2", and 

sometimes called "Tanners' Oil," but 
warping is caused from using any of the 
above if heated sufficiently to get the 
required hardness. While they require 
to be very hard, yet they must have 
toughness as well, as they are subject to 
severe strain and are liable to breakage. 

We would therefore consider it a favor 
if through the columns of "Canadian 
Machinery" you would prescribe method 
of heating and tempering the above 
knife. — C. Smith & Sons. 

For heating, make up a large level top- 
ped fire on an ordinary blacksmith's 
hearth and on this lay a flat piece of %" 
boiler plate, raise and maintain this 
plate at a bright cherry red heat— about 
1480 degrees Fah.— lay the blades to be 
tempered on the plate until they attain 
the same heat, they should be then taken 
off carefully one at a time with a pair 
of narrow nosed flat tongs and dipped in 
a bath of rain water that has been rais- 
ed to a temperature of 210 degrees Fah. 
"just off the boil," they should be 
quenched right out, "given all the water," 
as it is called, and afterwards polished 
with fine emery ; — great care must be 
taken in dipping that the blades enter 
the bath exactly vertically and edge 
downwards. For letting down to the re- 
quisite degree of hardness, a pair of 
broad flat bitt tongs, as shown in the 
sketch, should be used, heat the tong 
bitts to a bright red and with them hold 
the blade to be treated about f ' from 
its back edge, the heat of the tongs will 
draw the temper and when the right 
color shows on the cutting edge quench 
out in cold water again, taking care that 
the blade enters the water vertically. I 
should think that a medium straw color 
would represent about the right temper. 
It will be found that the whole temper 

K incbes lone. " 

Belt Buk •bout I-lnch vnde. 

Very hard edge about 1-inch -wide. 

Sorrat«!d ed^ iO Ut 12 per inch, i-in. from 



Smnll Sbear Blade. 

14 G. thick, and to have soft back about 
1" wide and cutting edge to have ex- 
treme hardness about 1" from edge and 
serrated about i" from edge, 10 to 12 
serrations per inch. 

We have experienced much trouble 
from them warping while being dipped 
in the cooling bath. The substance we 
used for that purpose was spring and 
rain water; salt and water and fish oil, 
same as that used by the tanners and 

will have been drawn from the back, leav- 
ing it normal and the hardness will gra- 
duate through to the edge, but to obtain 
a strictly defined line between hardness 
and softness would be practically impos- 

Any warping or buckling can be remov- 
ed afterwards by hammering on a planed 
grey-iron block with a raw-hide mallet, 
first warming the blade slightly. This 
re-setting of thin hardened steel plates 


is a special trade, known as saw smith- 
ing and experts can command very higli 

In forging the blades great care should 
be taken against over heating— pure high 

These hunters can be made any shape 
to suit the work. For low work the 
hunter can be made with a low 
side and two or more can be used for a 
job. The hunters are made by milling 

Ttndiu« iTxMit 3 ft'. Imir. 

Tougs for Tempering Blades. 

carbon steel should be worked at as low 
a heat as possible, and for edge-tools 
should be always worked one way, 
"back to edge." If this is done and the 
steel be of good quality a uniform wai-p- 
ing will be observed at the first dip; this 
can be rectified by bending the blade in 
the opposite direction before dipping, 
and it is quite possible to remove the 
article from the bath quite straight, this 
practice has to be followed in hardening 
some kinds of (iles.— Frank Walker. 

Holding Work on Planer. 
In the December issue of Canadian 
Machinery a device was described tor 
holding work on a planer. In the accom- 
panying illustration is shown an angle 
plate B, sometimes called a hunter. 

the two surfaces next the planer bed and 
the work, a single cut being all that is 
necessary. They are made indestructible 
if made of good steel and hardened. — 
K. Campbell. 

Holding Work on Planer. 

holding the work A on the planer bed C. 
Its object is to prevent denting finished 
work which would ordinarily he held by 
toe dogs or fingers. 


An interesting test of a Ciscoe 14-in. 
lathe, made by the Cincinnati Iron & 
Steel Co., Cincinnati, Ohio, was made 
recently. Cuts were made in 0.25 per 
cent, carbon steel to a depth of 9-16 in. 
and 36 to the inch friction feed ; in the 
same material to a depth of ? in. at 
18 to the inch screw feed, and in cast 
iron to a depth of | in. at 18 to the 
inch screw feed. In these t<>sts it was 
endeavored to break the lathe, but the 
only part that broke was the belt. This 
is justly considered exceedingly heavy 
work for a 14-in. lathe and indicates 
very forcibly its powerful construction. 
For these lathes the company has re- 
cently has three orders from Canada, 
two from California, one from Texas 
and one from New York, and it has also 
received orders for considerable equip- 
ment, including larger lathes from 
Florida and miscellaneous small tools 
from Arkansas and Tennessee. 


Since the first i.ssue of Canadian Ma- 
chinery it has been the aim of the pub- 
lishers to keep in close touch with the 
developments in machinery, machine shop 
and engineering practice and thus 
give the readers accurate information 
on all subjects of interest to them. 
With the growth of the paper the work 
of keeping it up to the present hig^ 
standard has necessitated an addition 
to its editorial staff. The publishers 
are pleased to announce that Peter 
Bain, M.K., formerly of Bain & 
Mitchell, Montreal, has joined the stall. 

Mr. Bain has had 20 years experieno« 
in the mechanical engineering field. He 
is a Clyde technically and practically 
trained man, having served with Mat- 
thew, Paul & Co., manufacturers of 
stationary, marine and high speed en- 
gines. He was on the "Niobe," the 
cruiser recently bought by the Cana- 
dian Government, during her first trials 
after launching. He was assistant man- 
ager at Wm. Spence. Dublin, during 
the installation of the refrigeration, 
and mechanical apparatus in connection 
with the Guinness' brewery extension, 
and during the construction of a num- 
ber of locomotives used in this large 

Since coming to Canada Mr. Bain 
served as chief draftsman with the 
.John McDougall Caledonia Iron Works, 
Montreal, later forming a partnership 
with Mr. Mitchell, under the title of 
Bain & Mitchell. He designed the large 
modern power plant of the Montreal 


Steel Works, and taught the classes in 
engineering at the Montreal Y.M.C.A., 
under the International Y.M.C.A. Edu- 
cational Board. Many graduates of his 
(• now occupy important positions 
in the engineering field. Mr. Bain is 
therefore well qualified for editorial 
work on Canadian Machinery. 


New Machinery for Machine Shop, Foundry, Pattern Shop, Planing 
Mill ; New Elngines, Boilers, Electrical Machinery, Transmission Devices. 


The planer illustrated herewith is de. 
signed for the use of high speed steels. 
Convenience, accuracy and strength 
were the points considered in its design. 
For exceptional heavy work the planer 
may be equipped with double belt drive 
and pneumatic clutch. 

The bed is made in deep box form of 
close grained iron. The sides are 
straight, neatly flanged on outside and 
inside at base. The cross braces are 
heavy, close together and the V's being 
well ribbed to web make a stiff and 

The housings have a foot on floor, re- 
lieving the 'bed of any bending move- 
ment. The faces are scraped to cross 
bar, and are polished and frosted. 

The cross bar has a long bearing on 
the housings, and is reinforced at 
centre by box of girder form cast solid 
with bar. The bar is raised and lowered 
by power on all sizes from 30 inch up. 

The headb have down and angular 
feed. Slides are all scraped and are 
provided with gibs for taking up the 
wear, with means for locking. The 
gearinsT is all cut from the solid on ac- 

I'luiier, London Machine Tool Co., Hamilton. 

Strong construction. The centre to cen- 
tre of V's on planers is wide and the 
V's are also very wide. The bed is made 
sufficiently long to prevent table from 
lifting under the heaviest cuts when 
table is at extreme end of stroke. 

The table is made deep and stiff, be- 
ing well ribbed and lengthwise. 
The V's are so designed that to prevent 
grit or shaving from dropping through 
the table on to the sliding surface, 
where they will cut and score. The dirt 
will dTop through the table, but will 
drop on the out.side or inside of bed, 
where it can do no harm. The table is 
generally drilled with round holes. The 
T-slots on table are cut from the solid. 

The rack is cut from the solid and is 
secured to planer by means of screws 
and dowels. The housings are made in 
heavy box form best calculated to re- 
.MSt the strain due to the heaviest cuts. 

curate gear cutting machinery, and all 
pinions are of steel. 

The feed rack is of steel cut from 
the solid steel bar, and the feed pinion 
is of steel. Ratchet pinions are all of 

This planer is manufactured by the 
Ijondon Machine Tool Co., Hamilton. 


The illustration shows a ear wheel 
boring machine made by the John Bert- 
ram Sons Co., Dundas. It has a cafK 

acity to bore wheels up to 42 ins. in 
diameter on the tread. It swings 48 
ins. in diameter. 

The table is provided with five self- 
centering gripping jaws. The cone has 
three steps 28, 24 and 20 ins. diameter 
for 6 in. belt. The boring spindle is 
counterbalanced and has quick return. 
It is also jirovided with three chancres of 

Bertram 42-in. Car 

rint' .Macbine. 

feed, two for roughing and one for fin- 
ishing, changes from roughing to finish- 
ing can be made instantly. 

The machine is complete with counter- 
shaft, wrenches, pneumatic air-hois'ting 
attachment, and power hub facing at- 
tachment. By means of the lifting at- 
tachment the wheels are picked up from 
the floor without the aid of a jib, over- 
head or portable crane and deposited on 
the floor after maichining. This is prob- 
ably the first machine of this type regu- 
larly built. 


The positive chain tongs shown in Fig. 
1, present many features of interest and 
value to steamfitters and power plant 
engineei-s. They are made of drop 
forged steel, in sizes from | to 12 inch 

l-'i?. 1 — Positive Chain Tongs, McDonald & Sons, Toronto. 



pipe. They are simple in constructional 
details, strong;, light and reliable, are 
equally useful as pipe or fittings tonars, 
and grip at all angrles. The chain is 
strong, beino: made to stand strains in 
excess of any leverage that may be ap- 
plied at the end of the handle. 

Companion to the chain tongs is a 
pipe vise, illustrated in Figs. 2 and 3, 
the merits of which are as follows: It 
lies flat and open on the bench, permit- 

both spindle drive and feed ineclmnisni. 
Tlie d'etnils of the drive and the spindle 
change gear mechanism are seen in the 
se<'tional views. Figs. 2 and 3. The driv- 
ing pulley A. Fig. 2, is mounted on a 
spliiu'd shaft a. which is supprtrled in a 
bracket H, attached to the side of the 
machine column. 

There are twelve changes of spindle 

near the top of the column. The length 
of the ram is 35 inches and the width 
111/2 inches. The driving pulley is 12 
inches in diameter, with a 4i-ineh £ace, 
and should l)e run at a constant speed of 
.'JOO revolutions per minute. 

The feed change mechanism gives six- 
teen changes of feed, ranging from 7-16 
inch to 13 inches fe«d of the table per 

Fig. 2— Positive ripe Vise, Open. 

Fltr. »— Positive Pipe Vise. Closed. 

ting lengths of pipe to be placed in or 
withdrawn freely without risk of wear 
or dajnages to the jaws. There aire four 
jaws instead of three as in most pat- 
terns, ensuring consequently better grip- 
ping qualities. The quick adjustment 
device consisting of loose nut with 
shank, knob and spring catch, enables 
pipe of varying sizes to be inserted and 
withdrawn without the labor attendant 
on turning the screw backward or for- 
ward each time. 

The vise is neat and compact, is made 
in four sizes from i to 12 inch pipe, 
and is psitented in Canada and the Uni- 
ted States. 

MacDonald and Sons, Toronto are the 
patentees and manufacturers of both 


The Waltham Watch Tool Co., Spring- 
field, Mass., has placed on the market 
the No. 3 Van Norman duplex milling 
machine shown in Fig. 1. The special 
feature emibodied in the eonstrnction of 
this machine that distinguishes it from 
other types of milling machines, is the 
movable cutter head, which is mounted 
on a ram or frame that may be adjusted 
in or out over the table to adapt the 
cutter for use in either a ver'tical or 
horizontal position, the -cutter spindle 
being adju.stable to any angle from the 
horizontal to the vertical. Among the 
features incorporated in the design of 
the No. 3 size which are not found in 
the sizes formerly built, may be men- 
tioned the single pulley or constant 
speed drive with a change gear mechan- 
ism for varying the spindle speeds, lo- 
cated in the ram; a geared feeding 
mechanism; an improved box type of 
knee; and a solid steel overhanging arm, 
which braces to give rigidity for either 
vertical or horizontal cuts. 

This machine is solidly constructed 
throughout and it has ample power for 

speeds, varying from 15 'to 276 r.p.m., 
the spaced changes being cfTected by 
operating the sliding gears F and I and 
the clutch N. All the gears are of steel, 
and those within the ram run iiv an oil 
bath. A handwheel on the end of shaft 
f may be used to facilitate bringing the 
gears into mesh when making changes. 

The critter-head W, which has a 90 
degi-ee angular adjustment, pivots on the 
trunnion ring T. The head is securely 
damped on the face of the ram by three 
locking bolts which move in circular T 
slots. A bevel gear TT on the end of 

¥'i%. 1 — Van Norman No. 3 Duplex Milling 
Machine, Waltham W.-itch Co., Spring- 
field, Mass. 

shaft f, and a bevel gear V on the spin- 
dle, complete the drive connection. The 
cutter spindle has the conical form of 
bearings, and is made with a No. 13 
B. & S. taper, to adapt it for holding 
the large collet holder or reducing collets 
that are used in this machine. The ram 
may be securely clamped to the column 
by means of two binder levers, .after the 
cutter spindle is located in the mosit ad- 
vantageous position for operation. This 
ram has a 13-inch movement in and out 
over the column, and the adjustment is 
ef56ected by means of the crank shown 

minute. The drive to the fee<l-boi is 
by a chain which connects with the main 
driving shaft. The table, which has a 
work,ing surface of 45 by 10 inches, has 
a longitudinal feed of 30 inches, a trans- 
verse feed of 12 inches, and a vertical 

Figs. 2 and 3 — Spindle Speed Changing 

feed of 19 inches. The knee also has a 
vertical movement of 19 inches. The 
countershaft furnished with the machine 
has pulleys 13 inches in diameter and 
4J-inch face, for forward and reverse 
speeds. The swivel vise, also incladed 
in the equipment, has jaws 7 inches 
wide, IJ inch deep, with a maximnm 
opening of 4J inches. The weight of 
this machine is approximately 4,000 


The machine illustrated herewith fol- 
lows in general outline the accepted ns- 
•age of column millers, but has a number 
of. features which tend to greater rigridi- 
tv and strength as well as ease of opera, 
tion. Substantiating the claim of the 


manufacturers, that t^he machine is well 
adapted for high speed service. 

The column 'which is cast in one piece 
has a considerable wider base than com- 
mon, to resist the weight of table when 
at extremes of travel, a generous oil re- 
taining rim surrounds this. The knee is 
of the box ty{>e, with extended top, and 
extra long bearing on column, is fitted 
with telescoping screw for elevation. 
The saddle is fitted with compensating 
stationary nut is very deep and inches 
long. The table has a great depth and 

Fig. 1 — i'lalu .Milliiif; .Mju-liiiu*. (■rand llaplds 
Machine Co. 

a working surface of 32 x 8 inches with 
T-slots extending beyond oil pockets this 
gives additional space for fixtures, etc. 
in fact a 10 inch index outfit can be 
placed on same and allow full range of 
machine to be cut between centres. The 
spindle is of crucible steel and is bored 
for No. 10 B & S taper, and the cut 
ihows the substantial journals as well 
as driving facilities consisting of a cone 
of three steps with a 12, 9 and 6 inch 
diameter for a 3 inch belt also back- 
gearing of 6i to 1. When not back 

Fig. 2 — Pbantom View of Feed ChangiDg 

geared the cone has four steps 12, 10, 8 
and 6-inch. The feed gearing is of the 
selective sliding gear type. The phan- 
tom photos showing same to contain 13 
steel gears of heavy pitch which gives 
12 feeds. 

Driving is accomplished with a nickel 
steel chain single lever feed control (also 
shown on phantom photo) operates by 

throwing lever to the side table should 
also move to. Pulling it forward dis- 
engages the feed. 

The machine is fitted with a substan- 
tial afbor brace and is of the following 
range: table travel 24 inches, saddle 

Fig. 3 — Feed Controlling .Mechanism. 

travel 8 inches and knee travel 18 inches. 
Xet weight of machine is 2,020 lbs. 

These machines are manufactured by 
the Grand R-apids Machine Tool Co., 
Grand Rapids, Mich. 


The accompanying illustrations show 
an automatic spur gear cutting machine, 
manufactured by the Newark Gear Cut- 
ting Machine Co., Newark, N.J., for 
heavy spur gears. The machine has a 
capacity for gears up to 84 in. diameter. 

positively, without hammering. The 
spindle and arbor are amply heavy to 
secure the benefits of using a gang of 
finishing cutters, or a gang of finishing 
and roughing cutters side by side on the 
arbor. The spindle is di-iven by means 
of a powerful spur gear train. The 
various speed changes are obtained by 
means of change gears placed as near 
the last driver as possible. This allows 
the driving shafts to rotate at constant 
speed, and avoids undue strains in the 
shafts when the cutter is running at 
slow speed on heavy pitches. 

The changes of the feed of the cutter 
carriage are obtained in similar manner, 
by means of change gears; but the rat^ 
of the cutter speed and the rate of the 
carriage feed are independent of each 
other, so that one may be changed with, 
out affecting the other. The carriage 
quick return is constant, not being affect- 
ed by the feed or speed of the cutter. 
The carriage feed screw operates on the 
"draw-cut" principle, the thrust collars 
being placed so that the screw is not 
subjected to compression strains, either 
when feeding or returning the carriage. 
This draw-cut insures a smooth uniform 
feed to the carriage with freedom from 
vibration. The carriage also, as will be 
noticed in the photograph, is especially 
long, with the cutter spindle bearing in 
the centre of its length. This construc- 
tion prevents chattering or vibration, 
and as the bearings are very long, with 

Newark Gear-Cutting Machine. 

24 inch face, and to cut 6 inches circu- 
lar pitch. 

The cutter spindle, crucible tool steel 
forging, is provided with a taper hole 
to receive cutter arbors. The cutter 
arbor is drawn into and forced out of 
the spindle, by means of a draw-in bolt. 

narrow guides, the action of the carri- 
age is very smooth and quiet running, 
even when operating under severe duty. 
The indexing or dividing mechanism 
comprises a large master wheel, and pos- 
itive actuating mechanism. The master 
wheel is a worm wheel, generated in 



place on each machine. It is made in 
sections, that is, a wheel proper, and a 
ring; this construction being used to 
insure accuracy not otherwise obtain- 
able. The master wheel receives its 
movement through the positive indexing 
mechanism, which embodies a very sim- 
ple clutch mechanism, requiring no ad- 
justment. The various divisions for dif- 
ferent numbers of teeth are obtained by 
means of change gears, which provide 
for cutting all numbers of teeth up to 
100, and all from 100 to 450 except 
prime numbers above 100. A wide 
range of higher numbers can also be 
cut. Where any unusual number is re- 
quired to be cut, this can be done by 
means of an extra change gear. 

In connection with the positive index- 
ing mechanism, is a safety device, which 
prevents the carriage from feeding until 
the division has been correctly comple- 
ted. This is especially valuable when 
it is considered that the machine cuts 
very large and expensive gears. A safe- 
ty mechanism also acts to prevent the 
machine from dividing when an obstruc- 
tion on the gear blank, such as a lug or 
flange, would collide with the rim sup- 
port, and otherwise, if it were not for 
the safety device, injure the gear or 
the machine. This mechanism is entire- 
ly automatic, and does not require any 
setting or adjustment, as it operates re- 
gardless of the size of the gear or the 
number of teeth being cut. It also is 
val'uable, as though its interlocking fea- 
ture, it prevents the operator from en- 
gaging the feed mechanism, while the 
maehine is dividing. 

The work spindle is of large diameter, 
machinery steel, accurately ground. It 
is provided with a taper hole, to receive 
work arbors; a draw-in bolt acting to 
draw the arbor in and force it out posi- 
tively. The work head is of massive 
proportions, and is so gibbed to the head, 
that the alignment is maintained with- 
out regard to which of the clamping 
bolts is tightened firet. The head is 
prorided with screw and micrometer 
dial, graduated to read to thousandths 
of an inch. Power mechanism is pro- 
vided for quick adjustment of the head, 
either up or down. The machine is very 
convenient, all the operating features 
being under the direct control of the 


The Joseph Dixon Crucible Co., Jersey 
City, N.J., have just issued a very at- 
tractive little booklet of envelope size on 
their paint for steel cars. The booklet 
not only goes into the merits of the 
Dixon paint for this service, but illus- 
trates a number of different types of 
steel ears upon which Dixon's paint has 
given excellent service. It also contains 
color chips showing the four colors in 

which Dixon's silica-graphite steel car 
paint is made. Anyone interested in 
steel car painting should send for a copy 
of this booklet which will be forwarded, 
free of charge. 


The Globe Machine & Stamping Co., 
Cleveland, 0., have placed on the market 
a new type of horizontal tumbling bar- 
rel for burnishing articles prior to plat- 
ing, and for polishing either plated or 
unplated parts. The burnishing is ef- 
fected by the use of steel balls. The bar- 
rel is of cast iron lined with maple wood 
and has an octagonal cross section. These 
machines are made with three sizes of 
barrels, the smallest of which is 24 in. 
in diameter by 8 in. wide, and the larg- 
est 30 in. in diameter with a width of 
16 in. They aro also furnished in either 
tihe single, double or triple-banrel ty)pes. 


A molding machine of the jarring 
power rockover type 'has been brought 
out by E. Killing's Molding Machine 
Works, Davenport, Iowa. When the ma- 
chine is being operated, the pattern is 
mounted on a pattern board and the 
whole is fastened to the rockover table. 
After the flask is in place and filled with 
sand, the mold is jarred to the proper 
density by compressed air, which is al- 
ternately applied and released automa- 
tically in the cylinder under the jarring 
table. Air is employed for this purpose 
and the pattern may be withdrawn at the 
speed which will give the best results. 
The jarring cylinder and the valve are 
simple in construction and the latter 
is of the expanding ring piston valve 
type. No springs are sued on this ma- 
chine and all working parts are protect- 
ed against the abrasive action of the 


The Norcross jarring machines manu- 
factured by the Arcade Mfg. Co., Free- 
port, 111., have been used extensively for 
ramming large cores. In order to make 
it possible to use a machine of this kind 
to better advantage a special type has 
been bi-ought out and is primarily de- 
signed for ramming cores. It is shown 
in the aocompanjdng illustration. 

The total height of the machine is 15 
inehes. The piston is 8 inches in diam- 
eter and carries a table 24 by 30 inches. 
The piston travel in one-half inch and 
it will lift one thousand pounds. Under 
the table there is arranged' a circular 
guide to keep the parts in line. 

In 1909 the bounty paid came to $1,- 
808,333. This went in great paxt to the 
Dominion Steel Corporation, $1,029,503; 
to the Algoma Co., Sault Ste. Marie, 
$348,814, and to the Hamilton Steel & 
Iron Co., Hamilton, $238,408. 

The rate paid in 1910 was 90 cents a 
ton for pig iron, 60 cents for puddled 
bars, and 60 cents for eteels. Unless 
something is done at Ottawa these boun- 
ties will not be paid after this year. 


It is reported that the comparatively 
small block of Canadian iron ore re- 
cently contracted for by an eastern blast 
furnace for next year's delivery, was 
bought at close to 8 cents, delivered, 
per unit of iron at consumer's plant. 
From the standpoint of ore sellers, this 
is looked upon as a favorable price con- 
sidering the grade of the ore disposed 
of and it tends to add weight to the ex- 
pectation that foreign ores will probably 
sell at higher prices next season at east- 
ern seaboard than the present year. Al- 
ready it is understood German and Eng- 
lish iron makers have contracted for 
large quantities of Swedish ore for next 
year's delivery, which on the same mine 
basis would make a pretty high price 
delivered at eastern seaboard. 

Universally in the east there is a be- 
lief that the contracting in eastern do- 
mestic and foreign ores will not begin 
until late spring under present conditions 
of trade. It is certain that with curtail- 
ed operations the average eastern pig 
iron maker has more ore on his hands 
at this time than he had bargained for. 
Some contracts for domestic lump ore 
have been taken out freely and are puite 
well filled, but considerable furnace ore 
will be carried over until next year. Do. 
mestic shipments in November were not 
as heavy as in October, and this has 
been due largely to the activity of some 
consumers in the latter month taking in 
more ore than their actual needs in order 
to protect themselves against handling 
difficulties in winter. — Iron Trade Re- 


The bounties paid upon the manufac- 
ture of iron and steel expired on Decem- 
ber 31, 1910. 

According to the specifications of the 
United States Navy Department, high 
speed tool steel furnished to the depart- 
ment must have the following chemical 
analysis: tungsten, from 18.5 to 19.5 per 
cent.; chromium, from 5.25 to 6 per 
cent.; vanadium, from 0.1 to 0.35 per 
cent.; carbon, from 0.55 to 0.75 per 
cent.; the manganese content must not 
exceed 0.15 per cent.; silicon not more 
than 0.11 per cent. ; phosphorus not 
more than 0.02 per cent.; and sulphur 
not more than 0.02 per cent. There must 
be no other impurities, and particularly 
not molybdennm. 


The Canadian Billingrs & Spencer Co., 
Welland, Canadian manufacturers of 
drop-forgings, have an excellent 
cost card system in use, brought 
from the home plant at Hartford, Conn. 

The accompanying cut shows the form 
of card used. All the necessary data 
concerning size, cost, etc., of the article 
is embodied, and, in addition, similar in- 
formation respecting the dies is given. 
Prom the information under "Dies." 

"The business and income taxes of the pres- 
ent Assessment Act are especially objection- 

"Under the income tax, the salaries of the 
officers of Incorporated companies are taxed, 
while the incomes of the same persons under 
a partnership would be free. Thus the in- 
come tax is. in many cases, a penalty on a 
particular form of business organization. 

"The business tax, since it is based on the 
value of the premises occupied, is really a 
double tax on buildings and improvements 
and penalizes the building of large, attrac- 
tive and commodious premises, to the detri- 
ment of the employes, of the building trades, 
and of the general public. 

"On the other hand, a moderate Increase in 
the tax on the value of all land, whether 
used or unnsed. Inclines tlie owners to meet 

D-e A^-^a^. lo/l^lO 

No. H 

Stock *''■' '*-'^ " -"-^ . 


p«r fc. 'O J 

/?gV Siie ^t "-o^.^ Length /■S"Wl.' / 7 ^^ Co.t .sT 

Wtfai. 1^ PSeceprice ^^0 


Qty. ^0€> 

Sbcp op. — Coil 


By ^tfWi-o 

Amiealed. pickled, trimiDed, tumbled, c. d., h. d^ machined 


r<uA -z. 



/ Trimi 


Rm CO* of Die. Zh^^ "^^ -it^ S „^«3ftfS.-<^^ ^ S>U»w*v. 2 


Cost Card. 

the method of manufacture can be seen, 
as the different kinds of dies and the 
numbers required of each are given. 

In conjunction with this information 
a photo of the article, photographed be- 
side of scale, is attached to the back of 
the card. This system is in more or less 
common use in the United States, in 
varied forms, but in forms somewhat 
differing from this one. It gives a com- 
plete record of the article, from mate- 
rial to details of appearance, in very 
convenient form. 

A Tax Reform League has been form- 
ed, Toronto is endcavorinff to secure 
sufficient streng-th to influemce the 
changing of the Ontario Assessment 
Act so as to allow municipalities to 
tax buildings, improvements, business 
assessments and incomes, at a lower 
rate than land values. The organiza- 
tion has offices at 75 Yonge St., and is 
sending out the following circular draw- 
ing attention to the objectional fea- 
tures of the present Assessment Tax : 

the otters of those who desire to develop it, 
and when coupled with reduction of the build- 
ing and business tax, results in an increase 
of ail productive enterprise. 

"So far from being a new, radical or re- 
volutionary measure, the plan of allowing 
municipalities to reduce taxes on buildings, 
business assessments and incomes, has been 
tried for years In New Zealand, New South 
Wales, and our own Province of British Col- 
umbia with satisfactory results. 

"This measure is eminently conservative, 
since it recognizes that conditions differ in 
different municipalities, and provides that 
each municipality may alter its system only 
after due consideration and on favorable vote 
of the ratepayers. 

"We, therefore, commend this proposal to 
business men, in the hope that they will con- 
sider It in relation to their business interests, 
and support the demand for local control of 
local taxation." 

In Toronto the Association have al- 
ready secured the signatures of a large 
number of manufacturers in favor of 
this move, among these being : 

R. E. Walker & Co., R. E. Walker ; 
Phillips & Wrineh, Ohas. C. Phillips, 
president ; House of Hobberlin, A. J. 
Moreland, secy.-treas.; Jacques, Davy 
& Co.; Goldsmiths' Stock Co., Walter 
J. Barr, president ; Richard Southam, 
managing director Southam Press ; 
Hudson Co.; Farmers'' Dairy Co., P. P. 

Farmer, Manager ; Noble Scott, print- 
ing ; Marshall Sanitary Mattress Co., 
Alan C. Thompson, mgr.; R. J. Hunter 
& Co., A. E. Brownlee, prop.; Frankel 
Bros.; Carswell Co., R. Carswell, gen- 
eral manager ; General Leather Goods 
Co.t R. H. Cameron, manager ; Na- 
tional il^eather Co., R. R. Corson, seey.- 


Archibald Blue, chief officer of the Cen- 
sus Department, Ottawa, gives notice 
that on June 1 next year a census will 
be taken of the manufacturers of Can- 
ada It will ascertain the capital em- 
ployed in works in 1910 along with the 
value of land, buildings and plant, the 
kind or class of products of the works 
by quantity or number of finished article 
and their value in the year. These sta- 
tistics will relate generally to factories 
employing five hands or more during uhe 
year, but in such industries as ionr and 
grist mills, brick works, saw and shin- 
gle mills, electric light and power plants, 
and a few others where the value of pro- 
ducts is large in proportion to the num- 
ber of persons employed, returns will be 
required without regard to the number 
of employes. The employes of work will 
include managers, superintendents, etc., 
on salaries ; officers, clerks, etc., on 
salaries ; operatives or workers classed 
as over and under 16 years on wages ; 
and piece-workers employed outside of 
the works. Salaries, wages and pay- 
ments to all officers and employes will 
be entered on the schedule for the cen- 
sus year by sex, and will include the ag- 
gregate weeks employed in the y>ac, 
average hours of working time per week, 
and aggregate wages paid to them in 
the year. The aggregate weeks of time 
and the aggregate wages paid will refer 
to the whole body of employes for the 
year while the average hours of work- 
ing time will refer to an avertge com- 
puted for all employes in the year for 
one week only. The census of the dairy 
industry, relating to the pioduction of 
butter, cheese, cream .i,nd condensed 
milk, will show for each kind of product 
its quantity and selling value, and the 
quantity of milk and cheese used for 
conversion at the factories, the number 
of patrons, and the amount of money 
distributed to them in the year. 


W. R. Towne. president of the Yale & 
Towne Co., Stamford, Conn., states thdt 
by the use of scientific methods and auto- 
matic machinery, his company, within 
the past six years, has achieved increas- 
ed output, decreased labor cost and in- 
creased wages to employes. 

tAt>lAt)tAN MACHt^rfiftY 

is succeeded by W. Davis, formerly 
chargeman. Mr. Davis is in turn suc- 
ceeded by J. Hollingsworth. 



Beginning with the January, 1911. 
issue the reading matter will be indexed 
separately from the advertising. This is 
done in order to supply each reader 
with a reference index at the end of the 


Kent MeNaughton, Association Rooms, 
Stevens Building, Detroit, Mich., request 
catalogues from manufactureors of safety 
devices. He would like to receive as 
much literature on this subject as pos- 
sible and therefore requests manufac- 
turers whose catalogues show safety de- 
vices in cormection with their own ma- 
chines or apparatus to send him copies 
of such publications. 


C. W. Lang, construction superintend 
ent of the Dominion Coal Co., is leaving 
that position to engage in the service of 
the Brown Machine Co., New Glasgow, 
N.S., in which he has purchased an in?, 
terest. . ■ ' .. 

A. W. Wheatley, of the American Lo- 
comotive Works Co., Montreal, has as- 
sumed charge of the Brooks plant of the 
American Locomotive Co., succeeding 
John R. Magarvey, appointed manager 
at Schenectady, N.Y. 

Clarence H. Booth, of Toronto, son of 
George Booth, president of the Booth- 
Coulter Copper & Brass Co., has been 
appointed general manager of manufac- 
turing for the E.M.F. Co., of Detroit, to 
succeed David Hunt, Jr. 

,4. C. Hanna, formerly secretary of the 
Dominion Wire Co., Montreal, has gone 
to Winnipeg as sales manager there of 
the Steel Co., of Canada. 


Several important changes have re- 
cently taken place in the management of 
the G.T.R. shops at Battle Creek, Mich., 
Montreal and Toronto. J. 0. Garden, 
master mechanic of the G.T.R. shops at 
Point St. Charles, Montreal has been 
transferred to a similar position in the 
new shops at tiattle Creek. 

J J. Duguid, formerly general fore- 
man of the Toronto shops, has been ad- 
vanced to the position of master rae- 
cliiuiie of the G.T.R. Eastern Division. 
Mr. Duguid's former position is filled by 
William Sealey, formerly foreman of the 
erecting shop, Stratford. Mr. Sealey 


Al the last monthly meeting of the 
Western Canada Railway Club, held at 
the Royal Alexandra, Winnipeg, the 
feature of the evening's proceedings was 
a paper on "The Training of a Railway 
Employee," delivered by H. Martin 
Gower, superintendent of apprentices for 
the Canadian Pacific Railway at Mon- 
treal. The paper, which was of some 
length, dealt' with the necessity for 
technical education, gave many statistics 
on the matter, and adduced suggested 
lines of systematized training. It was 
well received by the members present, 
about 100 in numlier, and a discussion 


The regular meeting of the Central 
Railway and Engineering Club, Toronto, 
was held on Dec 20, when Gordon C. 
Keith, managing editor of Canadian Ma- 
chinery, read a paper on "Modern Ma- 
chine Tool Practice for Maximum Pro- 

The following officers were elected for 
1911: President, G. Baldwin, yardlnas- 
ter, Canada Foundry Co., Toronto; 1st 
vice-president, G. Bannon, chief engi- 
neer city hall; 2nd vice-president, A. 
Taylor, foreman boiler makei-, Poison 
Iron Works. 

Executive committee: A. E. Till, fore- 
man C. P. R. ; E. Logan, machinist, 
G.T.R.; C. G. Herring, chief draftsman. 
Consumers Gas Co.; A. E. Wilkinson, 
Lunkenheimer Co.; A. M. Wickens, chief 
engineer Canadian Casualty and Boiler 
Insurance Co.; W. E. Cane, supt., Chap- 
man Double Ba" Bearing Co. and A. J. 
Lewkowicz, consulting engineer. Univer- 
sal Gas Co. 

Auditors: J. Herriot, general store- 
keeper, Canada Foundry Co.; D. Camp- 
bell, storekeeper, Consumers Gas Co., 
and A. W. Duman, of Rice Lewis & 


At the annual meeting of the Clay 
Products Manufacturers Association 
held in Toronto recently, the election of 
officers for the ensuing year took place 
as follows : — Pres.. Robert Davies, Tor- 
onto; First Vice-Pres.. D. A. Ijochrie, 
Toronto: Second Vice-Pres,, W. H. Free- 
born. Brantford; Third Vice-Pres., 
David Martin, Thamesville; Sec.-Treas., 
D. 0. MoKinnon, Toronto. 


The offl<'ers elected at the recent meet- 
ing of the Tanners' section of the Tor- 
onto Board of Trade are: — 

J. J. Lamb, chairman. 

F. B. Clark, vice-chairman. 

P. 0. Morley, secretary-treasurer. 

Executive committeet— J. C. Breithaupt. 
S. R. Wickett, W. D. Beardmore, George 
McQuay, C. G. Marlatt, Geo. P. Beal. 
George C. H. Lang, A. 0. Beardmore, 
Charles King, A. R. Clarke, E. J. Davis. 

Legislation committee — Chas. King, 
S. R. Wickett, A. R. Clarke, George P.' 
Beal, A. 0. Beardmore, Hon. E. J. Davis 
R. M. Beal. 

Transportation committee — J. C. 
Breithaupt, C. G. Marlatt, S. R. Wic- 
kett, John Sinclair, Geo. C. H. Lang, W. 
D. Beardmore, A. 0. Beardmore, R. M. 
Beal, Charles King, A. R. Clarke, E. J. 
Davis. Representative to council, A. 0. 


The International Association of Ma- 
chinists, lodge 122, Winnipeg, held its 
annual election of officers on Dec. 7. 
Great interest was manifested and a 
large proportion of the membership, 
which is now upwards of 300, took part 
in the proceedings. The result was as 
follows : A. Sturrock, president ; S. 
HoUiday, past president ; G. Johnston, 
vice-president; H. F. McDonald, rcconl- 
ing secretary ; D. McCallum, financial 
secretary; A. Robertson, treasurer; 
S. Miller, constructor ; C. Cross, sen- 
tinel ; E. McGrath, R. F. Shore, and D 
McCallum, delegates to trades and labor 
council ; S. HoUiday, J. Muir and E. 
Emerson, delegates to federated trades 
council. A committee consisting of H. 
F. Macdonald, S. Miller, H. M. McGre- 
gor, A. Young, J. Addison, W. Patter. 
son, D. McCulloch, and J. C. Mountjoy, 
was appointed to make arrangements (or 
the annual entertainment which will be 
held early in 1911. 


Toronto Lodge 235 of tlie International 
Association of Machinists elected officers 
tor 1911 as follows : President, W. Ha- 
gan ; vice-president, J . Wapbott ; re- 
cording secretary, R. McDonald ; finan- 
cial secretary, T. A. White ; treasurer, 
W. Dill ; conductor, Wra. Gravell ; inside 
sentinel, E. Cole ; executive committee, 
J. McXaulty, Newton Henders, T. Bur- 
gess, J. Blugerman ; auditors, D. Mont- 
gomery and W. Singer ; trustee, Thomas 
Walsh ; business agent, L. H. Gibbons. 

The general solution of the problem 
of industrial education mus't be by 
means of public industrial schools, 
where such fundamentals will be taught 
as will prepare boys and girls for the 
industries of the surrounding territory 
—remembering that the aim and end of 
all education is to train men and wo- 
men to thiak. 


For Manufacturers. Cost and Elfficiency Articles Rather Than Technical. 
Steam Power Plants ; Hydro Electric Development ; Producer Gas, Etc. 


By Peter Bain, M.E. 
T N the selection of power transmission 
■* equipment, much consideration is 
pven to power saving ; but while tho 
prospective buyer is sacrificing time 
and money, investigating the more or 
less expensive devices that come under 
this head, he invariably overloolcs the 
^eat saving that can be effected by a 
careful selection of pulleys. 
Pulley Factors. 

In determining what pulleys are best 
to use in any equipment, the factors of 
windage, weight, balance, belt contact, 
powerful compression to avoid fceyseat- 
ing of shaft, and convenience of handl- 
ing, should have prime consideration, 
as affecting economy of power in subse- 
quent service. A choice of pulleys which 
fulfills these requirements may mean a 
somewhat higher initial outlay, when 
compared to a choice made without re- 
gard to anything, save suitability of 
diameter, pace, hose, etc., but will 
mean annually, however, a much re- 
duced operating cvpenso in comparison. 
To save much time and annoyance 
later, it is advisable to have all pulleys 
in halves, facilitating as it does, re- 
placements often hurriedly required. 
Comparison of Pnlleys. 

Pulleys as manufactured, are of cast 
iron, wrought iron, mild steel, wood and 
iron or steel in combination with wood, 
the shaft bushing perhaps being more 
or less common to all. Iron pulleys of 
all kinds show a distinct loss of power, 
when compared with those in wood, due 
to belt slippage, and amounting in ac- 
cordance with test and experiment to 
as much as 50 p.c. Wrought iron or 
steel pulleys with perforated rims do 
not .show so unfavorably as those in 
cast iron. For good belt contact, min- 
imum slippage, ■ and least power ab- 
sorbed without re<;ourse to belt drcs.s- 
ings to secure adhesion, the wood rim 
is to be commended. 

Belt dressinsf should only be used to 
keep belts pliable, and not to keep 
them from slipping. Its use for other 
than the former purpose, .shows faulty 
installation and want of attention on 
the user's part. 

Cast iron pulleys again arc objection- 
able on account of weight, and require 
in this respect, compared with wood 
pulleys, more power to operate, whilo 
as favorably placed regarding wind- 
age. Wrought iron pulleys while light, 
and attractive as regards windage, do 

not give satisfactory balance, especially 
when split, and are not on the same 
plane as a properly designed wood 

It must of course be borne in mind 
that there are good and bad features in 
wood pulleys. Belt contact, reduced 
weight, and facility of handling, are 
generally speaking strong points in their 
favor, but unless at least the equiva- 
lent windage of a well designed cast 
iron pulley be had, the other gains 
may be almost all offset. The properly 
de.signed wood pulley should be the 
equal of other types in their best fea- 
tures, and their superior otherwise. 

An absence of windage is not always 
a feature of wood pulleys, a circum- 
stance unfavorable to their more uni- 
versal adoption, and responsible tor 
their career being prematurely closed in 
many installations. The elimination of 
this difficulty is not insurmountable, 
and already much has been done, so 
much in fact, as to bring the wood 
pulley windage on a par at least with 
that of the best in cast iron pulley de- 
-sign, and putting it in a cla-ss by itself 
for cheap operating cost in power trans- 
mission, with an ultimate influencing of 
its larger adoption. The improvement 
necessary in the reduction or absence of 
windage in wood pulleys, lies in the 
arm attachment between rim and hub. 
To get equal results, the arms should 
be of a shape corresponding to those 
of cast iron or somewhat similar, the 
material light, rigid, reliable, and at- 
tached securely to rim and hubs. Arms 
of cold drawn seamless steel tubing, 
pressed into ribbed form, and forced 
'into a taper hole on bases of a mallea- 
ble iron hub, these upset and headed 
over on end, constitute a fastening 
which has come under the writer's 
notice as having much to recemmend 
it. The arm and rim attachment is 
housed v\'!thin the rim, n^i cohsists of 
a saddle piece ombracirfg the flattened 
end of arm, and fastened to it by steel 
pins driven into rim. 

Belt Pulley Speeds. 

The wood pulley has advantage over of iron or steel, in that it can be 
run at a much higher speed, ordinarily 
three times as fast, while experience 
shows that it is impracticable to run 
pulleys of iron or steel for mill and 
factory purposes at greater rim speed 
than five to six thousand feet per min- 
ute, roughly one mile per minute. As 

showing what can be done, a wood rim 
pulley with iron spider has recently 
been made and tested by the Dodge 
Mfg. Co., to run safely at five and one- 
half miles per minute. Such a result is 
intensely interesting, and serves to 
emphasize the benefits to be derived 
from a more extensive use of well de- 
signed wood pulley equipment. 

Shaft Attachment. 

The shaft attachment of pulleys is a 
matter of some importance, necessitat- 
ing as it does, the cutting of the key- 
ways, the use of set screws, or reliance 
on the compression of the bushing 

Solid cast iron pulleys invariably re- 
quire keyseating of the shaft, the only 
exception being for very light loads. 
No keyseating means a reduction of out- 
lay, a rapid convenient attachment, and 
an unimpaired shaft strength. It must 
never be forgotten that keyseating a 
shaft reduces its strength at that 
point, and in the case of cold rolled 
shafting, much of which is used in 
power transmission, and which depends 
on its unbroken surface for mainten- 
ance of comparative strength, keyseat- 
ing is highly detrimental, placing it 
inferior to turned shafting under the 
same treatment. 

Hurry jobs call for easy yet effective 
fixings, and cold rolled shafting and 
keyless pulleys do much to help out 
awkward situations. 

Hub Bushings. 

Cast iron bushings with large bear- 
ing surface are best adapted for all 
pulleys, because when properly com- 
pressed, they exert a positive contact 
with the shaft. The adaptability to 
compression depends much on the elas- 
ticity of the hub material, and a mal- 
leable iron hub, light yet strong, 
seems to give with the cast iron 
ing, results hard to surpass in the mat- 
ter of keyless shaft attachment. 


The belt pulley question is of wide 
interest, and does not have that impor- 
tance in the estimation of large and 
small users (the latter^ particularly") 
that it should. With the various man- 
ufacturers there lies the looked for im- 
provement in pulley development, which 
will give the user a highly efficient ser- 
vice and convenience, leaving first cost 
if high, to be justified by ultimate 
operating results. 


'T^HE accompanying illustrations sliow 
■^ two views of the n«w electric loco- 
motive recently purchased by tlie (Salt, 
Preston and Hespeler Street Kailway Co. 
This company operates some 30 cars on 
a standard gauge interurban line, 21 
miles in length, connecting the above 
points with the towns of Freeport, Cen- 
freville, Berlin and Waterloo. The 
power station and repair shops are lo- 
cated at Preston. The railway traverses 

tig. 1 — Kleitiii; Locomotive. 

a farming country and does a thriving 
business in both loeal and through pas- 
senger and freight service. 

Several years sinee the G. P. & H. 
Ry. Co. purchased from the Westing- 
house Electric & Mfg. Co. a quadruple 
equipment, consisting of four No. 9.3-A 
direct-current motors with a nominal 
rating of GO h.p. each at 600 volts, for 
a locomotive similar to the one shown, 
but of smaller capacity. Its operation 
has been eminently satisfactory in every 
respect and the recent order for a 
larger locomotive of the same general 
characteristics argues strongly for the 
excellence of d'esign and low mainten- 
ance charges of this type of slow si>eed 
freight locomotive. 

Much has been said about the imprac- 
ticability of electric freight haulage but 
the steadily increasing sales of slow 
speed electric locomotives especially de- 
signed for freight service and the invari- 
ably favorable reports of operation is 
affirmative evidence of the most force- 
ful nature. There are many interur'ban 
electric roads tapping sparsely settled 
farming districts and outlying towns 
not favorably located on main steam 
trunk lines, which could develop a high)' 
profitable express and freight frafp- 
with the aid of a suitable electric loco- 

The (i. P. & H. locomotive shown was 
built by the Baldwin Locomotive Co., 
and the complete electrical equipment 
furnished by the Westinghouse Electric 
& Mfg. Co., Pittsburg. It is designed 
for the standard 4 ft. 8J in. gauge and 
provided with double swivel trucks. The 
wheel "base is 29 feet and the overall 
dimension 36 feet and it weighs com- 
plete, 300,000 pounds. The gear ratio of 
16..")7 gives a normal speed of 8.25 m.p.h. 
at which speed a tractive effort of 18,- 
200 lbs. is developed. The maximum 


tractive effort is 25,000 lbs. The loco- 
motive carries a quadruple equipment 
consisting of four No. 308-B-2 interp»)le 
direct cuirent railway motors having a 
nominal rating of 100 h.p. each, or a 
total of 400 h.p. at 600 volts. These 
motors are fitted with special windings 
adapting them particularly for slow 
speed locomotive service. Stand'ard 
nose suspension is used. 

The Westinghouse unit switch control 
was provided. Two master controllers 
are supplied one in each end of the 
cab. These controllers carry only the 
very small current from a storage bat- 
tery, for exciting the electro-magneti- 
oally actuated needle valve which admits 
air at 70 lbs. pressure to the air cylin- 
ders of the unit switch. The action of 
each switch is therefore positive and in- 
dependertt of fluctuations of the line 
voltage. It not infrequently happens on 
interurban and stubend lines that the 
voltage at points far dis'tant from trol- 
ley feedei's is as low as 200 volts when 
the motors are in operation. Under 
such extreme or even less severe condi- 
tions solenoid operated contractors, de- 
pending upon the line voltage for their 
contact pressure, are very apt to give 

necossary therefore to cut the IC in. 
water main, which was suKpendcd un- 
derneath the bridge. 

Instead of adopting the old methods 
of cutting the pipe with a bard chisel, 
or boring a number of holes and then 
sawing it through, the task was ac- 
complished by means of an oxy-acetylene 
flame. The Davis-Boumonville system 
was used under the direction of Mr. 
Fennel. When the flame was turned on 
the g-inch metal it rapidly bit into it. 
This operation was complotod inside of 
fifteen minutes. A second cutting had 
to be made some eighteen inches fur- 
ther back to take off a .-lection of the 
pipe, to prevent it catching on thii 
abutments when the bridge was moved. 
The operation had to be conducted at 
both ends of the bridge, and the whole 
work was accomplished in'<ide an hour. 


The accompanying cut shows a con- 
venient form of header for use in dis- 
tributing compressed air from air mains, 
where the numlier of tools at any par- 
ticular spot are more than two or three. 

Air Header. 

trouble due to looseness and arcing at 
the contacts. With air operated swit- 
ches all such possibilities are eliminated 
and the greatest reliability under all 
conditions assured. 

Fig. 2 shows this locomotive hauling 
a loaded train weighing 1,040 tons on 
the experimental tracks of the Westing- 
house Co., near Tralford City, Pa. This 
was the heaviest load available at the 

This header permits of eight lines of 
hose being taken off from the one spot, 
and is a device found very convenient 
in the shop and yards of the Colling- 
wood Shipbuilding Co., CoUingwood. 
Ont., especially when constructing the 
boat on the ways, as a multitude of 
pneumatic hammers, and drills are in 

Pipe A is connected by a T to the 

Kig-. 2 — Electric Ijocomotlve, with Normal Uraw Load. 

time, thougii it was evident that under 
similar conditions the locomotive would 
have handled a 2.000 ton train with 
equal ease. 


Recently the bridge over the Don 
river, Toronto, was moved to make 
room for another structure. It was 

air main. The header itself, B, is a 
cast iron body with two sets of holes 
at right angles, staggered, thus facilitat- 
ing hose connections. From each of 
these eight bosses on the header, the 
hose pipes lead out, with an indepen- 
dent valve, C, on each. The pipe A 
may be given a valve as well, permitting 
of the shutting off of the whole head. 

CA>iADtAfJ MACtttNfeftV 



A maotfaly newipaper devoted to machinery and manufacturint interests 
aMChanical and electrical trades, the foundry, technical progress, ccostruction 
and improraBient. and to all usets of power developed from steam, gas, elec- 
rieity. compressed air and water in Canada. 

The MacLean Publishing Co., Limited 

JOHS BAYSE MACLEAN. Presidtnt W. L. EDMONDS. VicsPrtiidnt 

H V TYRRELL, Toronto Business Manager 

g'c' KEITH, ME., B.Sc, Toronto MsnsKlai Editor 

PETER BAIN, M.E., Toronto 

Associate Editor 



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Paris John F. Jones & Co., 

31bis, Faubourg Montmartre, 

Paris, France 

Vol. VII. 

January, 1911 

No. 1 


Discussing the paper on ' ' ilodern Macliiue Tool Prac- 
tice for Maximum Production," read before the Central 
Kailway and Engineering Club, C. A, Jeft'eris, General 
Superintendent o£ Consumers' tias Co., Toronto, said 
that the mechanic in the ordinary small shop was not as 
fully acquainted with the developments in machine tools 
and high speed steels as th* one employed in a railroad 
shop. This is a very important statement in view of the 
fact that the daily papers and others would have us be- 
lieve that the railroads are wasteful, uneconomical and 
unscientific. Supporting this latter view, Louis D. Bran- 
deis, representing the eastern shippers before the Inter- 
state Commerce Commission, declared the railroad meth- 
ods lacked technical skill and scieutiiic accuracy, that by 
the application of these the cost of operation would be 
enormously reduced. The rigid economy of scientific 
methods forced upon ordinary industries by the pressure 
of competition, has not, according to Mr. Brandeis, de- 
veloped among the railways to a proportionate extent. 

The argument can be answered by one of his own 
references. He cited the case of the Santa Fe railroad, 
giving figures showing that in six years a saving of $5,- 
800,000 was effected by improvements in methods. 

The Santa Fe railroad is a most progressive one, as 
are also such railroads as the New York Central, Canad- 
ian Pacific and Urand Trunk railroads. As for the car, 
locomotive and repair shops of these railroads, the 
methods are both scientific and economical. Men are 
technically trained under the supervision of the com- 
panies. Apprenticeship systems with educational classes 
are features of the four above mentioned railroads. The 
result is that railroad practice is modern in every par- 
tie niar. 

When high speed steel was introduced the railroads 
were among the first to take hold of it. The machine 
tool* used in railroad shop practice have developed to 

such an extent that the companies are waiting for fiom« 
srenius of the Taylor type to develop a still better steel 
llmn that with which we are now acquainted. The rail- 
road shops of the G. T. R. at Stratford, Ont., and Battle 
Creek. Mich., and tlie C. P. R. Angus shops at Montreal 
arc examples of the result of trained minds seeking the 
best shops and equipment procurable. 

While the railroads are not responsible for all the 
improvements in machine tools, still the manufacturer 
u.^ina: metal working machinery should keep watch on the 
methods of the railroads. They are always ready to give 
anyone desiring it the benefit of their experiences. In 
almost every issue of Canadian Machinery railroad shop 
methods are given, showing the trend of modern practice 
ill railroad shops. While the various industries have 
been making improvements, the railroad shops, too, have 
been keeping pace with the advances in the mechanical 


That common courtesy pays is beyond a doubt, whether 
in the shop or office. The apprentice and workman owes 
it to his foreman as also does the foreman to those under 
him. A foreman is responsible to the management for 
the workmanship and behavior of the employes. His in- 
structions should be carried out carefully. The foreman 
IS the medium through which a workman secures advance- 
ment, and be sure he will assist the man who is square 
and courteous to him. 

Then the management will secure' loyal foremen and 
workmen by being courteous to the employes. They must 
depend on the men to turn out good work, and when 
treated with consideration, the management need never 
be ashamed of the workmanship. 

There is still another point. Those entrusted with 
correspondence should be courteous. Brevity is being 
aimed at in all business correspondence, but do not let 
the shortness of the letter prevent it being courteous. 
A letter should be written so that a favorable impression 
is at once created. Be sure a study of common courtesy 
in letters will result in making friends and securing 


The health of employes in manufacturing establish- 
ments constitutes a factor in economical production which 
is highly worthy of consideration. The workman who 
iuis to be absent a part of the time because of bodily ail-. 
ment must necessarily upset shop routine; if his work 
is highly specialized, so that it is difficult to fill his 
place temporarily, the result may be serious in disturb- 
ing the balance of manufacturing. Even if a man con- 
tinues his employment despite impaired health his use- 
fulness depreciates perceptibly. 

Progress in shop sanitation has of late been rapid, 
(iood light, ample ventilation, better heating apparatus 
and approved toilet conveniences have been carefully 
provided. Manufacturers have kept pace with the gen- 
eral movement to better the condition of those whose 
rlays must be spent in factories. Environments have 
been made satisfactory in most trades, and reading, rest 
and lunch rooms have been provided. 

An excellent beginning in the direction of looking 
after the health is being made in the public schools by 
instruction in the hygiene of the body and by a system 
of medical and dental inspection. Many cities employ 
physicians to inspect the schools regularly for cases of 


sickTiess, defective hearing and sight, etc. In a few places 
high class dentists are provided to make compulsory ex- 
amination of the teeth of children and to furnish treat- 
ment free of charge or at small cost. If this system 
spreads through the country, as it is believed it will, the 
workman will be blessed. It is advocated that the edu- 
cation of employees, especially of young persons, in this 
direction would bear profitable fruit. 

In a small way this sort of work is aready going on. 
The foreman who takes an interest in those under him 
will advise skilled treatment for any trouble that comes 
to his attention, especially if it causes the employe to 
lose time. It is confidently prophesied that the sroneral 
modern movement will go much farther than the point it 
has now reached, as the employer assumes a more direct 
interest in his working people, impelled by the combined 
motives of human kindness and the practical business 
advantage that comes with the services of employes in 
the full possession of their health. If this condition is 
brought about it will be but following along the same 
line as that of the shop surgeon of the present day. a 
side of industrial management which is becoming common, 
and which is supplemented in large works by well equip- 
ped private hospitals. Already in the United States, 
says The Iron Age, there has grown out of this practice 
the employment of a regular shop physician who looks 
after employes when they are ill as well as when they 
have been injured. The best of the cotton mills of the 
South are said to have adopted this system as a most im- 
portant element in keeping together their communities of 

There is also the work to the injured. In a number 
of Canadian industries branches of the St. John's Am- 
bulance Association have been formed. On December 21 . 
1910, an Ontario branch of this association was instituted, 
a Dominion branch having been formed Feb., 1910. 
Branches have been organized in the east and western 
branches will now be formed. 

A branch of this association was orsranized some years 
ago in the works of the John Bertram & Sons Co., Dundas. 
and in the C. P. R. Angus Shops, Montreal. In the latter 
shop it has been found to work so satisfactorily in givins: 
first aid to the injured, that it is being extended along 
the whole system from coast to coast. S. A. Gidlow, the 
general secretary, has been establish! n? classes in the 
various shops with this in view. The objects of the 
association as pointed out in Canadian Machinery some 
months ago are: — Instruction in "first aid," and prompt 
assistance to those suffering from accident or sudden ill- 
ness, instruction in the use of stretchers, hygiene, sanita- 

loyal, contented, healthy employes, who will serve the 
employer faithfully and with the best of his ability. 


tion and relief of sick and injured. 

Special attention is paid to accidents in the shops. 
During the six months endinsr July 31st last there were 
2,033 industrial accidents officially reported in Canada, 
6.56 of which were fatal. There are in Canada annually 
3,000 deaths from accident, and it is estimated that there 
are 17,000 accidents which are not fatal. There is no 
doubt that many lives would be saved, much sufferin? 
lessened if the principles of first aid to the injured were 
generally known, and good use made of the precious 
minutes before the doctor arrives. 

The whole matter is a question of shop economies. 
It is certainly to the advantasre of industrial establish- 
ments to have contented, healthy men employed. And 
when accidents do occur, as they will sometimes in the 
best shops, the saving of the life of an employe or the 
giving of first aid assistance which will hasten his recovery 
aii'l retBFR to work, will nnodubtedly help in making 


The writer entered a good sized shop recently, and as 
he passed through the shop he heard one workman greet 
another: "Say, Bill, let me use your vise a minute." 
Investigation showed that all the vises were constantly 
in use, and that there was considerable changing aronnd 
to allow another to use a vise. 

It would be interesting to calculate the cost of keep- 
ing men standing around waiting for a vise while another 
used it. It would not take many days' savings to pav 
for that vise. By not providins sufficient the price of 
quite a number will be lost in a year. 

The question of wasted time should always be kept 
in mind. A careful study should be made of the require- 
ments, and in the selection of a number of vises, or in 
the choosing of drills or other machinery, the elimination 
of unnecessary waste in the handling of work should b? 
kept constantly in mind. It will be found, if this is done. 
Iliat the cost of production will be greatly lowered. 


From time to time we receive letters from friends of 
Canadian Machinery telling how Canadian Machinery 
had' helped them. Our circulation representatives ar» 
met courteously and assisted in intpiesting others in the 
paper. As an instance of the usefulness of Canadian 
Machinery to superintendents and foremen, we cite the 
following : 

A foreman in one of Brantford's up-to-date machine 
shoi>s told a represntative that he found Canadian Ma- 
chinery invaluable. In order to illustrate how he made 
use of the paper, he described a job somewhat out of the 
ordinary, that came into the shop recently. He remem- 
bered seeing a similar job described in Canadian Ma- 
chinery some time before, and as he kept a file of them, 
he readily hunted up the article which was in the 
"Methods and Devices" Department, and completed the 
work without difficulty. 

• ••'•• 

Beginning with the present issue of Canadian Ma- 
chinery, a series of articles will appear monthly, touchine 
the selection, installation, operation and efficiency of 
power transmission equipment. Every effort will be put 
forth to make the treatment of the various subjects po- 
pular and helpful to our wide circle of readers, users and 
operators. Power transmission is inseparably connected 
with manufactures of every description, and has in conse- 
quence a large claim to attention. The subject this' month 
is "Belt Pulleys." to be followed in our February num- 
ber bv Rah on "Belts and Belt Drives." 


IN the year that has passed we have made many 
new friends among superintendents, master 
mechanics, foremen, students and men interest- 
ed in mechanical pursuits. Old friendships, too. 
have been strongly cemented, and we take this 
.opportunity of expressing our cordial wish that 
the New Year on which we have entered may bring 
you great happiness and unlimited prosperity. 

The Editors and Managers. 
January 1, 1911. 


Practical Articles for Canadian Foundrymen and Pattern Makers, and 
News of Foundrymen's and Allied Associations. Contributions Invited. 

By F. S. Ciibbige. 

When only one casting or a very few 
eastings are required, a skeleton pattern 
is used or the mold is swept up by means 
of sweeps. 

In Fig. 1 a skeleton pattern for a pipe 
bend is represented. 'First two boards 
are sawn out the sh'ape of the pipe, and 
extending past the flanges to include the 
core prints, these pieces are doweled to- 
gether, then circular pieces are sawn out 
to make up the diameter of tlie pipe 
at from 2 jn. to 8 in. apart along the 
full length of the pipe and core prints. 
The flanges b b are cut out to fit over 
the boards a a. A strike or strickle is 
made the diameter of the pipe for the 
body, and one smaller in diameter to suit 
the core prints. The molder completes 
the pattern by filling in between the cir- 
cular pieces c c c, with green S'and and 
striking off any projecting portions of 
sand by means of the strickle D, and 
covering it with parting sand and tlien 
it is ready to be used as an ordinary 
wood pattern. 

The core for the skeleton pattern is 
generally just swept up with a strickle, 
using a flat board cut out parallel to the 

1 F G 

Fig. 1 — Skeleton mid Sweep Patterns. 

inside of pipe and strickle cut out to the 
diameter of the core. The board is fast- 
ened to the core plate and the core sand 
built on the plate so that it may be 
sirickied, as shown at c, Fig. 1. 

When making a skeleton patttern and 
Core frame for a straight piece of pipe, 
the pattern is made on the principle 

shown in Fig. 1. a, but the core frame 
is generally made as shown in Fig. 1, f, 
and a straight strickle used over the ilialf- 
cireles g g. making one-half core at a 
time on a core plate. 

When a boss or small inlet or outlet 
is required, a piece is turned the requir- 
ed shape 'and is secured to the circular 
pieces on pattern at the place where it is 
wanted and the green sand tilled in under 
it between the sections. Or if an inlet 
or outlet piece is required on the inside 
of the pipe a straight piece is screwed 
to the ends g g, and the boss or pipe in- 
let or outlet, as it may be, is secured to 
it and the core built up and striekleil 
tlie same as previously described. 

In making very large pulleys or fly- 
wheels, they are very often swept up by 
means of sweeps, the arms and hubs be- 
ing made in a core box. 

Take a pulley having six arms, as 
shown in Fig. 2, a core box is first made 
for the arms. Tliis box must be at least 
six inches wide, as it requires 6 in. for the 
one-sixth part of hub, which is included 
in the core box, as shown at c, Fi.2:.2 (b) 
D being half of pulley arm. 

It is next necessary to make a section 
of the rim of the pulley about 2 to 3 ft. 
long, the flauges E E, Fig. 2 A being 
screwed on. Two pieces of 1 in. stutT 
about 4 in. wide are then secured to rim 
segment, as .shown in elevation. Fig. 2 
(D). The distance f being the radius 
of the pulley required. In molding this 
pulley the molder first sweeps up a flat 
bed. a hub 12 in. diani, and 21/2 in. deep 
is then placed in the centre and the sand 
built up around it, out to within about 
6 in. of the outside diam. of wheel and 
swept level, then the liub is drawn out 
and the arm cores are set on the green 
sand, the two half-eores to make a com- 
plete arm having been pasted together. 
A spindle or shaft is next driven into 
the centre of the mold, to be used as a 
iruide to us© sweep (D) Fig. 2, the sweep 
being connected to spindle by means of 
the hole H in strips E E. Fig. 2 (D). 

The sweep is then set in position and 
the sand rammed in from the sweep 
segment to the hivb of pulley and up to 
the top of sweep at rim and to top of 
arm cores at centre of mold, then the 
sweep is moved its own length, less an 
inch or so around, and the operation re- 
peated until t'he inside is rammed up 
and then the pieces E E are removed and 
the sand rammed up all around the out- 
side. The sweep pattern and spindle are 

then drawn out and eake cores set all 
around the top of the rim and a core to 
form the top of hub is made and set on 
and the mold is finished. Of course, thi" 
molder has to make his own provision 
for gating and venting, etc., but as we 




-^ 0' 


-Skeleton and Sweep Patterns. 

are only considering pattern work we 
will leave that part alone. 


Several foundries are now speoializinfj 
on vanadium steel castings for locomo- 
ttive work, and in the past three years 
have turned out a large tonnage not 
only for frames, but for driving wheel 
centres, cross heads, cylinders, and 
other parts in which dynamic strength 
is particularly desired. 

Several of the large railroad systems 
specified several years ago vanadium 
oast steel frames in a small way tor 
trial, and arc now specifying it as a 
standard on all new equipment. Another 
large system had much trouble from 
front end failures, but is said to have 
overcome the difficulty by substituting 
vanadium cast steel front ends with 
change of section. 

One of the large railroad systems of 
this country was having an excessive 
number of failures of wrought iron 
frames and the shops were with diffi- 
culty keeping the engines in cgnunission. 


It was decided to replace sections of 
the wrought iron frames in the zone of 
breakag-e by piecss of vanadium cast 
steel wolded into place. It is said that 
these j>arts never broka, but that in the 
same frames breaks subsequently oc- 
curred in the oriiE^inal wrought iron 
portion. Other vanadium steel sections 
were then welded in, and gave no 
trouble. It was later decided to make 
the entire frame of vanadium cast 
steel, and the service from these frames 
was so satisfactory that for new loco- 
motives vanadium cast steel frames 
were specified. 


The Giesserei Zeitung di-scusses the 
possibility of injuries that lie in the 
tapping of furnaces, transporting and 
pouring of molten metal, spattering and 
sputtering of metal, and in the breaking 
of cranes, conveying apparatus and 
cleaning of castings. The article has 
been translated by Castings and is re- 
produced herewith. If molds are not 
dried sufficiently, possibility of explos- 
ion enters in touching molten iron with 
water. This is increased by the poor 
lighting found in so many foundries, 
and the fact that near closing time more 
haste and less care is used by workmen. 
Blowing powdered carbon and coal dust 
on molds, envelops workmen in coal 
dust, while cleaners are surrounded by 
clouds of burned sand and coal dust or 
carbon when cleaning castings. 

There is also the formation of gases 
near cupolas and influence of heat radi- 
ation. The cupola gases contain from 15 
to 17 per cent. CO, and 10 to 15 per 
cent, carbonic acid. Usually cupolas lie 
at an outer wall of foundrj, and the 
tapping hole is inside of shop, charging 
door is outside and a little higher. 
Charging should never be done directly, 
as insufficient ventilation and escape of 
gases may cause diseases through the 
poisonous gases. If in such an aitmos- 
phere the workman has to carry heavy 
charges, due to lack of mechanical con- 
veyors, his vitality to resist these gases 
is lowered to the danger limit. 

To avoid inhalation of dust in clean- 
ing castings, a sand-blast with suction 
device is best for use. With very large 
castings a pneumatic scraper might be 
used instead. In either case, suction de- 
vices should be near cleaning tables to 
suck in dust at once. ■ 

Statistics for pourers and molders in 
German foundries show that from 40 to 
50 per cent, suffer from diseases. 
Among these are diphtheria, tonsilitis, 
acute rheumatism, heart diseases, acute 
indigestion, acute and chronic bron- 
chitis, and tuberculosis. Besides, they 
show a larger number of sufferers from 
eye troubles, bums, poisonings and kid- 

nay diseases. The death rate is not 
quite as high; causes aside from tuber- 
culosis, being chronic kidney diseases 
and suicide. 

In preventing burns on the feet the 
foot-gear plays the main role. Out of 
247 eases of burns due to molten metal, 
J)8.7 per cent, went on laced shoes, and 
1C.6 per cent, on low shoes. 

Sommerfeld in his investigations 
found that out of 100 Ideaths and sick- 
nesses in foundry workers, 62.5 per cent, 
came on organs of respiration of the 
pourers, 60 per cent, of cleaners. The 
average age of the former is 45.9 years, 
of the latter 48 years, showing' both 
branches of foundry work to be equally 

Rooms for cleaning castings should be 
lofty, light, broad, artificially ventilated. 
In winter the room for molders should 
be heated, as they are especially e.xposed 
to colds, handling cold and wet material. 
A number of accidents can be lowered 
if molds are not placed too closely and 
enough space is left between them for 
passage. Cleanei-s should wear masks or 
at least protection goggles. Where no 
suction is provided in cleaning of cast- 
ings, workmen should have small res- 
pirators to prevent lungs from inhaling 
dust Frequent use of soap and water 
should also be impressed on workmen 


By William R. Conrad. 
J^AST spring two separate corpora- 
tions wishing to put in some pipe 
lines that would be absolutely tight when 
laid and in service, ordered from two 
separate manufacturers a quantity of 
cast iron pipe, each purchaser specifying 
in addition to the usual hydrostatic "tes't 
that each pipe be carefully tested with 
air. compressed to .50 pounds per square 
inch, and that while under this pressure 
soap and water suds be applied so as to 
reveal open or porous iron or defects 
which the hydraulic test had not de- 
veloped. Because of this additional test 
and it being known that air will, when 
compressed, work through metals more 
rapidly than water, it was determined 
by the manufacturers to use nothing but 
the best grades of iron that would give 
a close and uniform texture. 

The results were that in one ease there 
were 4,954 pipes tested either hydrosta- 
tically or pneumatically; of this number 
27 leaked under hydraulic pressuiv and 
272 leaked under pneumatic pressure. 
those leaking under pneumatic pressure 
Iiaving already passed the hydraulic 
test; this makes a percentage of leaks 
of the whole quantity tested 0.545 of 1 
per cent, for the hydraulic and' approxi- 
mately 5.5 per cent, for the pneumatic, 

* Paper read before Central States Water Works 
Association by William R. Conrad. Burlinsrton, N.J. 

or shgihtly over 6 per cent, for the Iwo 
test«. In the other case there were 2,- 
737 pipes tested, of which 14 leaked un- 
der hydraulic and 186 leaked under pneu- 
matic pressure, (he pen^entage fceing 
U..>]1 of 1 per cenl. for the hydraulin 
and approximately 6.8 per cent, for the 
pneumatic, or about 7.3 for both. Ana- 
l.yzing further, you will notice t-hat the 
percentage of hydraulic leaks to the to- 
tal number was but about 6.2 per cent 
of the total number of leaks, taking both 
.lobs together. This proportion, however, 
would undoubtedly have been more even- 
ly divided had the hydraulic pressure in 
testing been maintained for a longer 
period of time per pipe, for. as previous- 
l.v stated, air compressed will find its 
way through open or porous metal more 
■apidly than water compressed, but in 
view of the fact that all of the pipes 
were to be subjected to an air test subse- 
quent to the hydraulic, both manufactur- 
ers depended more on developing leaks 
with the air than with the water. While 
It IS true that both lots of pipe were laid 
for the purpose of carrying gas, the writ- 
er believes that in these days when the 
tendency is with all waterworks to 
operate as economically as possible and 
with as little loss of the commodity be- 
ing dealt in, for the purpose of conserv- 
ing the supplies already in use to their 
fullent extent before looking for new 
sources, or in considering the most eco- 
nomical way of conserving new sources 
of supply which are being considered, we 
should all consider seriously whether re- 
quiring a longer hydrostatic test, or in 
addition to the hydrostatic a pneumatic 
test of the pipe we purchase and lay, 
would not be goodi economy, even at the 
risk of having to pay slightly more for 
our material. In other words, whether 
the be.-!t is none too good, both in ma- 
terial and in laying, while the first cost 
may seem high will it not eflPeet economies 
of both operation and commwlity that 
will eventually prove considerable of a 

The Mechahical World states that alu- 
minum may be etched by the following 
etching fiuid ; alcohol, 4 ounces : acetic 
acid, 6 ounces ; antimony chloride, 4 
ounces, and water, 40 ounces. 

Don't fail to clean away all dirt and 
t^hips before screwing a chuck or face- 
plate on the lathe, and it the screw is 
dry, put on a tew drops of oil. 

A rust-proofing process for iron and 
steel, called Coslettisimr, c':;i.i.«is in 
boiling the articles to be treated in a 
solution of 1 gallon of water, I ounces 
of phosphoric acid and 1 ounce of iron 
filings. By this means a black coating 
is produced on the iron or steel surface 
which protects it from atmospheric or 
other corrosive influences. 


EUtablishnient or Enlargement of Factories, Mills, Power Plants, Etc.; Construc- 
tion of Railways, Bridges, Etc.; Municipal Undertakings ; Mining News. 

Foundry uid MBchinr Sbop. 

MONTREAIt— Two blocks have been cleared 
for the erection of the Canadian Tube & Iron 
Company's works. This company is capital- 
lied at $1,000,000. The intention Is to have 
the first storey completed by early summer 
next year, and at once some machinery will 
t>e installed and manufacturing will start, 
while the rest of the building is being com- 
pleted. When the whole works are in opera- 
tion 400 or more men will be employed. 

•TORONTi) — The Pominion Gasoline Engine 
Co. has been Incorporated, with head office 
here. The capital is ?75.000, and the pro- 
visional directors are: A. X. Morine, R. H. 
Whitewny. M. Yetmnn. G. X. Shaver and G. 
G. Paulln. 

WALKERVILLE — The Qramm Motor- 
truck Co., recently incoroporated for $100.- 
000. arc making complete motor trucks here. 
The plant of the Gramra Motor-truck Com- 
pany of Canada comprises some 30,000 square 
feet of space, and the company owns ad- 
ditional adjacent land in the best locality 
in Walkervllle, which will be called into 
requisition as conditions warrant. The 
President of the ccmpany is H. W. Acason. 
who Is also Vice-President of the Walker- 
vllle Carriage Goods Co., and a member of 
the firm of Acason, Galusha & Rudd, makers 
of automobile tops and trimmings. John 
V. Carr, Vice-President; I. K. Webster, Sec- 
reury and Treasurer. P. H. Galusha, the 
general nmnager, is also president of tbe 
Walkervllle Carriage Goods Co., and one of 
the firm of Acason, Galusha & Rudd. 

MONTREAL— The National Acme Co. are 
Installing Chapman double ball bearings in 
their new plant here, and also In the Crown 

TILLSONBURG, Ont.— Gaskell & Co., re- 
cently from England, have purchased the ma- 
chine shop and foundry of H. F. McCrea. It 
is the intention of the new comp.iny to do 
general repairing, and also manufacture some 
general lines, when they become better ac- 
quainted with the requirements of the coun- 
try. Mr. McCrea Is retiring from active 
work. He has been a reader of Canadian 
Machinery for many years and has renewed 
bis subscription, because he still wants to 
keep In touch with Canadian maoufactui-ing 

SUDBURY, Ont.— The Sudbury Construc- 
tion & Machine Co. are building an addition 
to their plant to be used as a foundry. This 
company manufactures mining machinery. 

8AULT STE. MARIE.— The Northern 
Foundry & Machine Co. have completed their 
new blacksmith shop and foundry which re- 
place those destroyed by Are some time :iso. 
The plant has been fully equipped for the 
manufacture of boilers, etc. 

FORT WILLIAM, Ont.— The various foun- 
dries and machine shops are busy with con- 
tracts for the C.P.R. and C.N.R. The Cana- 
dian Iron Corporation have 300 men employed 
and are running to their full capacity. 

cbaud is building a foundry and machine 
shop here. 

8ARNIA, Ont.— The J. B. Hicks Gas Engine 
Co. will establish a works here subject to the 
ratepayers authorizing a grant of $5,000 to 
the company. 

MONTREAL. Que.— The Lightning Furnace 
Co., which has taken over the assets and 
hnsiness of tlie Compagnie de la Fournalse 
L'Eclalr. will establish a foundry for the 
manufacture of furnaces and implements con- 
ne<-te<l therewith. 

HALIFAX, X.S.— At a meeting of the share- 
holders of the Sllllker Car Co., held In Hali- 
fax, on December 6, it was decided to accept 
the amended offer of F. It. McCurdy to pur- 
■■hase the assets and business. The offer in- 
clndes an nndertaklng to put $800,000 new 
capital in the business. The McCurdy Inter- 
mits will purchase $000,000 of the first pre- 
ferred 7 per cent, stock. 

HAMILTON. Ont. — The Dominion Power 
ftTransmission Co. announced on Dec. 15 that 
It would spend $100,000 on new sub-stations 
in this city. $220,000 on new works at De<-ew 
Falls Development plant and $.30,000 oti new 
cam for saborbaq trafOc, 

PORT ARTHUR, Ont.— The municipal 
authorities have now under consideration pro- 
posals for the establishing of new industries 
involving a capital outlay of $1,400,000. H. S. 
.lones, of Winnipeg proposes to build and 
operate car works. The plant Is to cost $400.- 
000. A free site of 15 acres is asked. A 
prominent American manufacturer is asking 
consideration for a project to put up auto- 
moMle works there to cost $500,000. A foun- 
dry project in connection with the local blast 
fiunncc is also the subject of negotiation. 
Mr. Jones' plant would include in its output 
and operations machinery, cars, railway 
equipment and repairs. 

LONDON, Ont. — It has been announced by 
the chairman of the Ontario Hydro-EIectrlc 
Commission that the machine shops of the 
commission will be located in London, that 
being the central point in the transmission 

ST. THOMAS, Ont.— -A. proposal to egtabllBh 
here an industry to employ 200 hands Is be- 
ing considered by the City Council. A fixed 
assessment for a number of years is asked 
for. Machinery is to be put in on a consider- 
able scale, but no further particulars are 
given out. 

WELLAND. Ont.— At a meeting held here 
this week it was decided by the directors of 
the Niagara Falls, Dunnville, and Welland 
Electric Railway Co., to expend $1,000,000 on 
railroad construction account. Car barns and 
machine shops are to be erected in Welland. 

ROCHE POINT, B.C.— The Vancouver Dry 
Doik & Shipbuilding Company will construct 
a large dry dock here at a cost of $1,214,154. 
Work to be started within six months and 
finished by Dec. 1, 1912. 

WOODSTOCK, N.B.— The machine shop In 
connection with Connell's Foundry was des- 
troyed by fire on November 28. Insurance 
amounted to $21,000 on the entire plant, but 
the loss on the part destroyed exceeds that 

ST. BONIFACE, Man. — The council have 
closed an agreement with the Taggart Iron 
Works, of Winnipeg, by which the company 
will erect a large building here, as a branch 
Industry Building operations are to com- 
inence within five months. 

CAMPBELLTON. N.B.— The TransContin- 
ontal Railway Co. plans to erect larger build- 
ings here, it is reported, at an estimated cost 
<if $200,000. G. Grant, of Ottawa, Is chief 

LONDON, Ont— It Is understood that the 
McLaughlin Automobile Co. will erect a large 
building here. 

TORONTO, Ont. — The Mexican Northwest 
Equipment Co.. capitalized at $200,000, has re- 
ceived a federal charter. The company pur- 
pose manufacturing locomotives, cars, machin- 
ery and railway equipment of all kinds. 
Headquarters are to he In Toronto. 

WELLAND, Ont.— The Hamilton Tube Co. 
ask for a fixed assessment of .$1,500 for 10 
.vears on a factory and plant they propose 
locating here. 

ST. THOMAS. Ont. — F. Doty & Sons, of 
Ooderlch. will establish n shipbuilding yard 
at Port Stanley and have leased property for 
that purpose. Building operations are to 
commence at once. The firm will construct 
large tngs and have already received con- 
tracts for three such vessels. 

TORONTO. Ont.— J. Wiss & Sons Co., New 
,Tersey, have received a permit to manufacture 
shears, scissors, razors, knives, etc.. In On- 
tario, the capital used not to ex<eed $40,000. 

OALT. Ont.— The R. McDougall Co., manu- 
facturers of machine tools and pumps, are 
enlarging their works. 

C.\RLETON. N.B. — The Union Foundry Co. 
propose extending their plant. 

RENFREW. Ont.— Mr. McLean, of Bryson. 
Que.. Is considering the establishment of a 
foundrv and machine repair shop here. The 
proposed industry would handle lighter and 
more difficult work than Is attempted by the 
ordinary foundrv, the repair work being 
made a special feature. 

MONTREAL. Que. — An annex to the boiler 
construction shop Is being erected at the 
C.P.R. Angus shops here. The new building 
will be leo by IIB ft. and Is to be used for 
the construction ppd repair of locopiotlvp 

ST. CATHARINES, Out.— The McKlnnon 
Chain Co. are erecting a new plant here. 

OTTAWA, Ont.— The Diamond Arrow 
Motor Car Co. and the Modern Machine Co. 
have decided to unite their concerns. The 
manufacturing will he done at the Modern 
Machine Co.'s work^ which will be much en- 

Electrical Notes. 

PRINCE RUPERT, B.C.— As the result of 
passing an electric light by-law, the sum of 
.WC.OOO will be raised to pay for a civic light- 
ing plant. 

BROCKVILLE, Out.— Nine municipalities 
were represented at a meeting held here on 
Dec. 14 to discuss the hydro-electric power 
question. It was decided to open negotiations 
with the commission for 5,300 h.p. to be 
divided among the different municipalities. 
Those represented were Iroquois, Morrisburg, 
Cardinal, Prescott, Lyn, Athens, Brockvllle. 
Kingston and Napanee. 

PORT ARTHUR, Ont.— On November 24 the 
first power to come over the hydro-electric 
lines from Kakabeka Falls was delivered to 
this city. Only a temporary supply of 600 
h. p. was given : the entire service commenced 
on December 15. 

BELLEVILLE, Ont.— The Electric Power 
Co. Is the name of a corporation that has con- 
trol of several operating power companies In 
tbe Trent River district, and Is proposing 
large extensions into the cities and towns of 
that region. 

WINNIPEG, Man.— The Canadian Carbon 
Co., of Toronto, is establishing a branch fac- 
tory In Winnipeg. The "Black Cap" battery 
will be the main article of production. 

.MONTREAL. Que.— A cable from London, 
Eng., on December 14 announced the forma- 
tion there of the Montreal Tramways & Pow- 
er Co., with a capital stock of $20,000,000. It 
is believed that the concern has been formed 
to take over the Montreal Street Railway. 

STRATFORD. Ont.— Among other by-laws 
the ratepayers will he called to vote on one 
[irovlding for the expendltnre of $41,610 for 
electric light purposes. 

ROLEAU, Sask.— The contract for the con- 
struction of an electric light plant to cost 
•500.000 will be let at an early date. 

SHERBROOKE. Que— The city has de- 
cided to develop power on the Magog river. 
The plans prepared call for the development 
of 2.600 h.p. at an estimated cost of $70,000. 
Tenders are to be asked for the purchase of 
the power which the city owns on the St. 
Francis at Westbnry. 

TORONTO, Ont.— The Western Central 
Railway Co., Incorporated by the Ontario 
Legislature, Is applying for n Federal charter. 
It is desired to extend the electric lines 
provlndally authorized between Toronto and 
London to Windsor; also to establish a ferry 
connection from Windsor to Detroit. ' 

ST. HTACINTHE. P.Q.— The Colonial En- 
gineering Co., Montreal, have been awarded 
the complete lighting and pumping equip- 
ment for this city. 

CHATHAM. Ont.— The ratepayers will vote 
on a by-law to provide a site of 7 acres at a 
price not exceeding $].,500 and a fixed low 
"ssessmenf for 10 years for the Western 
Bridge * Equipment Co. The company Is to 
erect a $10,000 plant and spend an equal sum 
for equipment. 

Calgary. Alta.— The construction of an In- 
cinerator Is being discussed by the citv. Es- 
timated cost, $.'50,000. 

SOTTRTR, Man.- Tenders for delivery during 
spring and summer of mil of water pipes, 
livdnints. gate valves, vnlve boxes, pig lend, 
"iikuni. standard vitrified sewer pipe. etc.. 
will be received until Februnrv 1st 1011 

PEMBROKE. Ont.— A by-law will be suh- 
o'ltted to provide by way of loan the sum of 
.W."«.000 for the extension of the waterworiss 
system here. 

GFELPH. Ont.— A bv-law to provide for 
the expenditure of $!>.S0O for waterworks Im- 
provements hps^ been passed by \t\f city 



VANCOUVER, B.C.— 1200,000 Ir the amount 
needed for new waterworks. A by-law 
authorizing: the expenditure of this amount 
win be submitted to the ratepayers. 

STAFFORD, Alfa.— ^15,000 Is the amount 
this town proposes to spend on waterworks. 

OAK BAY, B.C.— A by-law to authorize the 
expenditure of $60,000 will be voted on. 

KINCARDINE, Ont.— The ratepayers will 
vote on a by-law to issue debentures for $7,- 
000 for sewers and $2,000 for bridges. 

Baw Mill and rianlng Mill NewH. 

SCOTSTOWN, Que.— The Eml)erton Lumber 
Co. have recently sold out all of their prop- 
erty at Scotstown, to the East Angus Co. The 
Kmberton Co. have had possession of the 
property for nearly two years. 

WINNIPEG, Man.— The Security Lumber 
Co. has been Incorporated here with a capital 
of $500,000. John P. .Tansen and Lome J. 
Elliott are named as the incorporators. 

PORT GEORGE. B.C.— Timber rights on 
100 sections of land, principally In the Fort 
George district have been purchased l)y Bri- 
tish capitalists from C. E. Mahon, of Van- 
couver and associates, for $1..'>00,000. It is 
said that there is over 2,000,000,000 feet of fine 
spruce, cedar and flr on the sections. Most of 
this lumber land is on the Willow river, 20 
miles east of Fort George. 

NELSON, B.C.— The shingle mill and box 
factory which will be erected bv the Western 
Box & Shingle Mills, Limited, at Nelson, will 
be a frame building with iron roofing. It 
win be 36 feet by 48 feet and 2 storeys high. 
The estimated cost of the building is $1,000. 
and the machinery $4,000. 

QUATSINO, B.C.— Arrangements have been 
made for the building of a saw mill at 
Quatsino, this winter. Behind this enterprise 
are .Tames Guyer and Gustave Moerman, both 
residents of Quatsino. The mill men will 
start In a small way, catering principally to 
the home market. 

FORT FRANCES, Ont.— The Shevlln -Clarke 
Lumber Co. propose erecting a large mill here 
and ask for a fixed assessment. This com- 
pany is interested In the Rainy River Lum- 
ber Co. and the Sbevlin-Mathiou Co. 

BAY OF ISLANDS, Nfd.— The Humber 
Lumber and Pulp Co. Is preparing to add to 
Its works a very large pulp mill at Bay of 

RIDOBWAT, Ont.— B. W. Near I* erecting 
a two-storey addition, 28 by 66 ft., to bla 
planing mill. On the ground floor will be 
offices and engine room. The upper floor 
will be used as a Joiner shop. 

VANCOUVER, B.C.— The Paterson Lumber 
Co. proposes to build manufacturing wurka to 
cost $250,000 to $300,000 In Vancouver, In con- 
nection with Its existing business. 

BRIODEN, Ont.— The Dominion Cooperage 
plant and stave mill was completely des- 
troyed by fire on November 30. Loss la $14.- 
000, partly covered by Insurance. 

VICTORIA, B.C.— A new lumber mtll. own- 
ed by the Vancouver Island Mining and De- 
velopment Co.. Is In operation at Tyce Siding 
on the Esquimau & Nanalmo Railway. The 
mill has a capacity of from 25,000 to 30,000 
ft. per day. 

NANAIMO, B.C.— Walter Marriott has pur- 
chased from Dickie, Van Norman, Haycroft 
and J. W. Vipond, of this city, their Interests 
in the Quanilchan Saw Mill Co. A Joint 
stock company has been organized to take 
over the holdings. 

WELLAND, Ont.— John E. Cutler, whose 
planing mill was recently destroyed by Are. 
Is asking for a fixed assessment of $1,000 for 
10 years, under which conditions he will 
erect a new mill. 

ST. BONIFACE, Man.— The lumber mill of 
the Rat Portage Lumber Co. here, was burn- 
ed on December 7. The loss amounted to 
$90,000 of which 75 per cent, was covered by 
Insurance. The plant will be re-established 
at once, new machinery having been ordered. 

RAINY RIVER. Ont.— The mill of the Rat 
Portage Lumber Co.. which was burned some 
months ago during the forest Area, will he 
rebuilt early next spring. 

MONTREAL, Que.— The sash and door fac- 
tory owned by Phillipe Saumure was des- 
troyed by fire on November 16. 

HUMBERSTONE. Ont.— S. J. Dickinson's 
planing mill was totally destroyed by fire on 
November 25. The loss Is $7,000. of which 
only $500 Is covered by Insurance. 

ST. JOHN, N.B.— The cooperage plant of 
Taylor and White, here, was recently dam- 
aged by fire to the extent of $5,000. The 
plant was insured for $7,000. 

ST. JOHN, N.B.— J. J. Gordon is complet- 
ing a plant at Coldbrook, three miles from 
this city, for the mannfacture of excelsior. 

Oeaeral Maanraclariac. 

BLENHEIM, Ont— G. A. Fraaer. of Themea- 
vtlie. Is considering the location of a canolnc 
factory here. 

I'ETROLEA, Ont.— The 3-atorey flour mill 
owned by W. W. Palog, of tbia town, waa 
destroyed by Are on November 17. Total loaa. 

OALT, Ont— The C. Turnbull Co.. woollen 
manufacturers, purchased two valuable plecea 
of property on King street, and will. It ta 
atnted. next year build a large extension. 

HA.MILTON, Ont.— In the spring the 
Diamond Flint Glass Co. will erect a large 
glass factory on a 10-acre site obuilned for It 
In Hamilton by the Publicity Cummlaloner. 
When the new factory la completed the com- 
pany win vacate Its present premises In the 
city. It la also announced by the commis- 
sioner that the Egg-O Baking Powder Co. 
win establish works In Hamilton, and that 
the Robinson Box .Mfg. Co.. of Lowell. Maaa., 
will do likewise. It Is said that new factorlea 
of an aggregate value of $4,000,000 have been 
secured for Hamilton within llio last twelve- 

MEDICINE HAT. Alta.— The Alberta Clay 
Products plant was formally opened on Nov. 
26. Among the products of this plant are 
sewer pipe, fire roofling and nil hollow wares 
of that class, every variety and grade of 
brick. Raw material can be handled to the 
amount of 600 tons per day. 

FORT WILLIAM. Ont— The Board of 
Trade has been in correspondence with a 
representative of Ely Bros.. London. Eng.. 
manufacturers of high-grade ammunition, 
who are favorable to locating a Canadian 
plant In this city. 

MONTREAL, Qne— The Dominion Box and 
Package Co., which Is capitalized at $700.- 
000. will employ upward of 200 men. It la 
said to be a merger of several smaller com- 
panies, such as the Dominion Wire Bonnd 
Box Co. and the Montreal Box Co. It Is also 
closely allied with Wm. Rutherford and 

BOWMANVILLE. Ont.— The Good.vear Tire 
& Rubber Co.. of Akron, Ohio, has purchased 
the business and plant of the Durham Rub- 
ber Co.. of Bowmanvllle, Ont., and are now 
manufacturing a complete line of rubber 
products in Canada. From Van Bever, Vice- 

Salesmanship Course Free 

and a Liberal Salary 

If a person wishes to take a course in Salesmanship he usually has to pay for it. But the 
MacLean Publishing Company pays for your course as well as offers you a very substantial salary if 
you write giving references and show that you'are ambitious and capable of handling our circula- 
tion in your locality. 

What could be more desirable for the young man, starting his business career, than to become 
connected with the MacLean Publishing Company, whose circulation organization is the strongest in 
the Dominion ? 

What could be more beneficial than to commence his career with an excellent training in 
salesmanship? The man who has had experience as a salesman' is qualified for practically any 
business position. 

The staff of the MacLean Publishing Company is being increased every week. The best men 
get the best positions. The best men are invariably those who are ambitiouslandiwho^have been 
connected with the firm the longest. , . £?"•- I i 

Write at once for full particulars. 

MacLean Publishing Co., Limited 

143-149 University Ave., Toronto 





By Erwin Henison, S. S. 

Instructor in Mechanical Drawing. Mas- 
s.ichus«tts Institute of Technology 

176 pp.. 140 tllus. Cloth bindinK. Gives a 
course of practical instruction in the art of 
Mechanical Drawing, based on methods 
that have stood the test of years of experi* 
ence. Includes orthoeraphtc. isometric 
and oblique projections, shade lines, inter- 
sections and developments, lettering, etc.. 
wri*h abundant exercises and plates. 
Price, S1.00 

MacLean Publishing Co. 

Technical Book Department 
143-149 University Ave., Toronto 



- IRON • 


.(gP^ 8000 TONS 

5miibsfblls Ontario 



and ROOFS. 

The most reliable bond for all varieties 
of concrete slab. 


Comoetont Engineering staff in charge 
of construction. 

Expanded Metal & Fireproofing Co., Limited 

100 King Street West. TORONTO 







For both 
Hand and 

for cut- 
pered blades. 
Buy a gross of 
Simonds Hack 
Saw Blades to- 
day for trial, or 
write for quantity 
prices and discounts. 

Simonds Canada Saw 
Co., Limited 


St. John, N.B. Vancouver, B.C. 

In the Unittd States. Simonds Mfg. Co- 




The John Morrow Screw 



President of the Canadian company, It U 
learned that his flrui has branches In Tor- 
onto, Winnipeg, Montreal and Vancouver, and 
lue opening additional ones in St. John and 

Build Idk Notes. 

ST. THOMAS, Ont.— The management of 
AInui College have decided to have a new 
wing erected, or a separate building at an 
.ipproxiniatc cost of $30,000. 

SARNIA, Ont.— The Board of Education 
have made a renulsitlon to the council for the 
sum of JW.OOO for the erection of a new 
school on the site of the present Lochiel street 

I'OKT AUTHUK, Ont.— The city of Port 
.\ithur has decided to erect a new collegiate 
institute at a cost of $125,000. 

MONTKEAL, Que.— The Canada Kubher 
Co. on December 19 obtained a permit for the 
erection of a factory to cost $250,000. 

VANCOUVEK, B.C.— The Vancouver Gas 
Co. is preparing to build a new plant on 
deep water frontage. 

WELLANl), Ont.— New industrial buildings 
nearing completion are the Chipman-Holton 
Knitting Factory and the Peters Textile 
Factory. The new offices of the Ontario 
liiin * Steel Co. are also about finished. 

New Companies. 

Tlic South Shore (Jas Co.. .Montreal. Que., 
i.iliital stock .$100,000: to manufacture, buy 
iuid soli gas and electricity for lighting, heat- 
ing and motive purposes. Montreal parties 
are named as incorporators. 

National Hydro-Electric Co., Montreal, Que., 
capital stocli .fl. 000,000: to carry on business 
of an electric light, heat and power companv. parties are named as incorporators. 

Canadian Electric Automatic Machines. 
Limited. Ottawa. Ont.: capital stock $225,000: 
to secure patent rights for automatic vending 
machines and to manufacture or deal in 
machinery and devices connected therewith. 
Ottawa parties incorporators. 

The Granby Elastic Web Co., Grauby, Que.; 
capital stock ifSO.OOO: to manufacture all 
kinds of rubber goods and webbing. G. H. 
Bolvln, of Granby, is one of the incorporotors. 

The Central Canada Power Co., Toronto, 
Ont.: capital $10,000,000; to carry on hydraulic 
and electrical power business In Canada. 
Members of a Toronto legal office are named 
as incorporators. 

The Dominion Instantaneous Heater Co.. 
Vancouver. B.C.; capital stock $100,000; to 
manufacture and purchase the selling rights 
of Gray's Instantaneous Heater. W. Francis. 
E. V. Chevalier, A. C. Brydon-Jack and E. B. 
Ross, of Vancouver, and A. P. Francis, of 
Victoria, are the Incorporators. 

Certificates of Incorporation have been 
granted by the legislature of British Colum- 
bia to the Canadian Dry Battery Co.. Elec- 
trical Advertising Co. and the International 
Le;\d & Iron Co. 

The T>oonil8-Morden Cooperage Co., Trenton, 
Ont.; capital $.30,000; to manufacture cooper- 
age products, woodenware and lumber. In- 
corporators are Chester Loomls. H. B. Loomis 
and W. A. Morden. 

Canadian Explosives. Limited. Montreal: 
capital $1.'j.000.000: to ninnnfacture all kinds 
of explosives, ammunition, firearms, etc. In- 
corporators nominally given as clerks in a 
Montreal law office. The Company has power 
to anmlgamate other similar companies. 

The Dryden Timber & Power Co., Dryden. 
Out., have been Incorporated with a capital 
of .$:t.000.000. The incorporators are: F. Sing- 
er, G. Waters and H. Hill, all of Toronto, Ont. 

Trade Notes. 

MONTREAL. Que.— John Watson & Son. 
architectural Iron works, have been awarded 
the contract for the architectural iron work 
In connection with the large office building 
l)elng erected by the Dominion Express Co. 
in this city. Contract runs to about .$.35,000. 

HAMILTON. Ont.— The Smart - Turner 
Machine Co.. 191 Barton St.. East, report the 
following sales for their pumps; Flamand 
Frere. St. Agapit, P.Q.; Canada Preserving 
Co.. Hamilton; Merchants Rubber Co.. Berlin; 
Great Lakes Dredging Co,. Port Arthur; 
Monarch Knitting Co., St. Catharines; Tor- 
onto Wire Co.. Oakvllle: Brown School, Tor- 
onto; The Pure Milk Co., Hamilton; Toronto 
& York Rnllal Ry., G.T.R.. Lake Superior 
.Tet. ; Geo. F. Webb. Hamilton; Canadian Re- 
fining & Smelting Co., Orillia ; Wolverine Mil- 
ling Co., Drumho; and ,T. C. Wilson & Co., 
LiKhnte Mills, P.Q. 

SHERBROOKE. Que.- East Canada Power 
& Pulp Co.. of Murray Bay, have placed an 
order with the Sherbrooke Machinery Co.. of 
this city, for their complete wet machine 
"oulpment. They have also adopted the Sher- 
brooke Machinery Company's pneninntic 



We manufacture all kinds of Pumping 
Machinery, Condensers, Travelling 
Cranes, etc. 


The Smart-Turner Machine Co., Limited, Hamilton, Canada 

No Lost Motion 


Jeffrey Machinery ^ 

Every detail has been carefully £j 

worked out to give maximum ca- W^M 
pacity with least frictional resist- IX 

anr-P Bucket 

^^C^- Elevator 

Jeffrey Elevators and Con- 
veyers are adapted to meet 
necessary requirements. 

Write for our Catalog 81. 
State how you are handling your 
materials and simply say you want 
our suggestions. 

The Jeffrey Mfg. Co. 


Office and Works. Corner Cote and Latfauchetiere Sts. 

Toronto Office. 174 King Street East. 
B ranch Offices in the leading: commercial centres of the world. 

^M ^M ^^ How many mill 
^^^^ ^^ owners have warded off 
r the thought of buying 

Locomotive Crane for handling 
of their logs and dimension timbers, 
thinking the equipment a LUXURY? 
Later you would be surprised at the 
great number of these same mill owners 
who. after seeing their smaller com- 
petitor install a "BROWNING," 
have investigated and found the 
outfit a NECESSITY and a 
nrcney-saver instead. 

^The Browning Engineering Co. 

^^^^•^^ CLEVELAND, 0010 ^^ ^'^m^ 

Engineers and Mill Owners 

"LOOK UP" not the cost of your 


but the cost of your many shut-downs caused by the use of 
inferior Babbitt Metal. Use THE CANADA METAL CO.'S 
METAL and stop that needless expense. 

- Toronto 

Office, 31 WiUiam Street, 

Pon't foil tP mention "Canadian Machinery" in writing to advertisers. 



Russell Machine Co. 



Fint-das* Workmanship 
Prices Right 

Esthnate* Famishail to the Trade 

Russell Machine Co. 

St. Catharines, Ont. 


Horizontal Stationary Tubular 

Locomotive Portable 



Wm. Hamilton Co., Ltd. 


Special Taps 

Special Dies 

Special Reamers 

Unless you have 
special appliances, 
you can get these 
tools from us bet- 
ter and cheaper 
than you can make 

Wehave the equip- 
ment and the ex- 
perience. Ask. us 
for prices. 






Particularly adapted for small, quick 
work, to take place of foot presses. 

Write for Pricm. 

W. H. Banfield & Sons 


120 Addaida Strmt W«t 


can be connected or disconnected with 
amazing speed, whether pipes are in 
or out of alignment. They never leak 
Both sections are sealed with non- 
rusting, non-corroding, smooth-ground 
bronze and meet in a ball joint that 
is perfectly tight against steam, air, 
gas. oil and water. 


DART UNION CO., Limited 

93-07 Niagara 9t., Toronto, Can. 

"save-all" Bystem as well as tbelr pneumatic 
Altering system. 

TORONTO, Ont.— The Chapman Double 
Bull Bearing Co. have reecntly received orders 
fi)r their type of bearings for the addition to 
the Ideal Bedding Co. and for new plant of 
MendelessoliD Piano Co., Toronto; new forge 
shop, Verity Plow Co., Brantford; Amherst 
Boot & Shoe Co. and Canadian Car and Foun- 
dry Co., Amherst, N.S. 

WOODSTOCK, Ont.— The Maximilian Pneu- 
matic Tool Co. are installing machinery, an 
order having been placed with the A. R. Wil- 
liams Co., Toronto, for machine tools amount- 
ing to J30.000. The company will soon be 
manufacturing a full line of riveting and 
Chipping hammers, sand rammers, air motors, 
air compressors, etc. J. R. Porter, Buffalo, 
is president of both the Canadian and U.S. 
Companies. The company is incorporated In 
Ontario for $100,000. 

iMONTREAL, Que.— The Canada Ford Co., 
owing to pressure of space have removed 
from their offices In the Canadian Express 
Building, and will hereafter occupy the en- 
tire building at 485 St. James Street (a few 
doors west of Inspector Street) Montreal, 
where they will carry a complete line of the 
products of the Brush Electrical Engineering 
Co., Loughborough, England, as well as 
ventilating fans and blowers, transmission 
material, machine tools and engineers' small 
tools and special machinery, etc. 

TORONTO, Ont— The Lancashire Dynamo 
& Motor Co., of Toronto, have been author- 
ized by provincial legislation to engage in 
the manufacture of dynamos, motors and 
appurtenances. Heretofore the company has 
been but a distributing agency of the British 

MONTREAL— Orders for transformers for th» 
Hydro-Electric power sub-station at Port Credit, 
were secured by AUls-Chalmers-BuUock. 

HAMILTON.— The Canadian Westinghouse Co. 
provided the switching equipment for the Hydro- 
Electric Power and sub-station at Port Credit 

DETROIT.— The Northern Engineering Works 
are installing four Northern cranes ranging from 
5 to 15 tons capacity in the plant of the Kewa- 
nee Boiler Co., Kewanee, III. 

TORONTO.— Announcement Is made of an im- 
portant change In the management of the Gold. 
Schmidt Thermit Co., of 90 West Street. New 
York, and who have a branch here. Commenc- 
ing October 1st, E. Stutz, vice-president and 
general manager, retires from the direction of 
the company, which passes under the manage- 
ment of William C. Cuntz. Mr. Cuntz brings to 
his position a thorough knowledge of the steel 
business and a wide acquaintance with the rail- 
way and street railway ofttcials of the country, 
having been connected for eighteen years with 
the Pennsylvania Steel Co. 

HAMILTON.— The Smart-Turner Machine Co.. 
191 Barton St.. East, report the following or- 
ders for their pumps of which they make several 
types : Deloro Mining & Reduction Co.. Dolero. 
Ont. : Thos. A. Ivey & Sons. Port Dover : 
Gunns. Ltd., Toronto ; Beardmore ft Co.. Acton. 
Ont. ; Royal Crown Soap Co.. Vancouver ; 
Dresden Canning Co., Dresden. Ont. : S. L. 
Snively. Nelles Comers, Ont. ; Peoples' Ry., 
Berlin ; General Hospital, Toronto . and A. Dob- 
son, Beaverton. A traveling crane is being sup- 
plied to the C.P.R.. Winnipeg, and one to ths 
Ouiatchouan Falls Paper Co.. Ouiatchouan. 
P.Q. The Oliver Chilled Plow Works have placed 
orders for two tumbling barrels with the Smart- 
Turner Machine Co. 

Western Steel ft Iron Co. 

The Western Steel & Iron Co.. Winnipeg, 
has become the successor to the Western Iron 
Works, of that city, with considerably In- 
creased resources. It proposes to manufac- 
ture ornamental and architectural Iron work, 
forgings. castings, railroad and contractors' 
materials and specialties on an extended 
basis. The officers of the company are: 
President, C. M. Simpson : vice-president. 
Alex. Simmers; manager and secretary-treas- 
urer, H. R. Eade. 

New Machinery Agency, Montreal. 

Foss & Fuller is the name of a new machin- 
ery house who have opened at »29 St. James 
Street. Montreal, comprising Geo. F. Foss. 
who was for four years .-i traveling salesman 
for Williams & Wilson. Montreal, and M. A. 
Fuller, who was connected with the Canadian 
Rand Drill Co.. of Sberbrooke. They bave 
secured tbe tfcoc^ ot torn* promiosnt A<n*r' 




can be secured for any class of castings by arranging your mixture* by 
analysis. Years of practical experience In foundry work are at your 
service when you consult with 

The Toronto Testing Laboratory, Limited 






^ OAK ^^ 


VJm»^JAN NED ^,^ff§^ 





.M«»r ' -liiT'i-''^- • I ■'-'- " '■"-' -■— -i ■ ■■ '■-'•■■•■■. ■■ 

■\?:-^-; ;\t.- -"-^r ' 


We have a Good Proposition for Motor Mfrs. 

Having exported our Stills In large amounts lor many years, and already having 
several far Eastern agencies we are now open to establish additioneil agencies and Invite 
correspondence to that end, looking after our old customers and prospeotiva buyers by 
special successful iiemonstrative methods lor making Alcohol, Apple Jack, Aguardiente, 
Mescal, Teguiia, Peach Brandy, Whiskey, etc. Most modern and simple. All sizes, 5 to 
500 gallons daily capacity distilling apparatus. 

ALCOHOL DISTILLING APPARATUS and the amazing possibilities of the utilization 
of waste farm products and wood waste by superheated steam distillation, the distilling 
apparatus as used by us ; the principle involved, also the methods of chemical control 
and disposal of the product and by-products ? We will gladly say to you : 

Denatured Alcohol to-day is of the greatest untold benefit to the Amerlctin motor 
people. It opens an absolutely new field for investment for progressive paper pulp and 
chemical fibre mills, paint, varnish, soap and candle makers, gardeners, farms and 
garbage plants, saw-mills, lumbermen and canneries. The Automobiles and the Navies 
of the world clamor for this new tax-free cheaper industrial alcohol. May we ex-pect 
some encouragement from the more patrotic pioneers for this new American Industry T 
The field is new and profitable, and you can practically have the business your own 
way by starting now. We are makers of an apparatus for the production of this de- 
natured or industrial alcohol ; we build and install plants — large or small. The initial 
cost of a plant is small ; the financial risk— if any— is trifling. The equipment Is such 
that it can be added to at any tima without disturbing the original Installation. 



lean manulactarem, araoncat otber* :— Acbu- 
maeher & Boye, Lathea, Cincinnati; Oto. A. 
Qny, I'laners. Cincinnati; Mueller Machine 
Tool Co., Radial Drills, Cincinnati; The J T 
Slocomlie's line ot Micrometers and the O.K. 
Tool Holders. 

A. B. Willl»ms Co. In New MrnsawlelL. 

The A. R. Willlama Machinery Co. bare 
been incorporated In New Brunswick and will 
open up a branch In St. John. N.B. The In- 
corporators are A. R. Willlama, Thom«» A. 
Holllnrake, Toronto; M. W. Dohertr, 8t 
John; F. W. KIschel and Robert Kerr. Brant- 
ford. The capital la $99,000, ot which »50.000 
is paid up. The St. John manager la M. W 
Doherty. A large building In St. John baa 
been purchased. Stocks of machine tool*, 
wood-working machinery, boilers, enirlnes. 
saw mill machinery, belting, etc.. wiU be car- 

Toronto Agency Northern Cmnea. 

A Toronto oMice or the Northern Engineer- 
ing Co., Detroit, and their Canadian branch, 
the Advauc-e Machine Works, Wulkervilte 
uiauutatturera of Northern Cranes, has been 
opened up at room 6£i Traders Bunk Bldg. 

dh?, i.M '■'*, '• '" '■''''"'«'' "' ^'- ^'- H"l'l"»"". 
who will also represent the Canadian Crocker- 
Wheeler Co., muuufacturera of electrical 
machinery; American Electric Fuae Co., Mua- 
kegun Heighis, Mich., mauufacturera of con- 
tiullers, starters, etc.. and Hooven, Oweu. 
Ueuuchler Co., Hamilton, Ohio., mauufactup- 
ers of Hamilton Corllag engine*! ""ttvur 

Hanufacturea Uiea in Montreal. 

An item appeared in the November iaaua 
of Cauudiuu illachiuery with reference to the 
demand on the part of many amall manu- 
tucturera for dies for punching briiax. metal 
etc. iirnest Scott, 116 Bleury Jsireet, Montreal' 
writea us that he la a manufacturer ot all 
kiuus of dies ot this nature and in a uoaitluu 
to submit prices on all work of thU kind 
Montreal Branch, Xhos. ilpth « Sons.' 

Thos. Firth & Sous, ot Shellield, ISugiaud, 
have opened up a branch office and ware- 
house at GOT St. Paul Street, Montreal, where 
they intend carrying stock ot their tool 
steels, etc. The business u under the mou- 
ugement of J. A. Sherwood, formerly ot 
i-ittsburg, who has had a long and suct^sful 
experience with the company. 

Massey-Uarrls Co. Knlargtng. 

The Massey-Uarris Co. have bought out the 
works of the Johnston Harvester Co., Batavm. 
iN.x. The ilassey-Hurria Co. are enlarging 
their Toronto and Urautford phinta, havmg 
secured additional property adjacent to these 
plants. The buying ot a plant in the United 
States is to assist in taking care ot their 
toreign trade. 

Pumps tor N.T.B. Shops. 
The John Uci>ougall Caledonia Iron Works 
Co., Montreal, are furnishing a number of 
pumps for the N.T.K. ahopa at Tranacona, 
near Winnipeg. These cousUt of two «-ln. 
single stage horizontal turbine pumps with 
extended bases. Each of these pumps is 
direct connected on the same base with an 
IS in. six-stage 70 ii.p. horizontal lierr Steam 
lurblne, running at 1,600 r.p.m. The capacity 
of each of these machines is 1,200 U.S. gailona 
per minute when operating against toui head 
of 100 feet. The pumps were manufactured 
in Muutreul, and the turbines were nude by 
the hLerr Turbine Co., WellaviUe, N V 

Two 14x10)4x10 BUike horizoutui duplex 
piston pattern boiler feed pumps, mounted on 
cast iron bedplates. Each of these pumps 
will have capacity of 200 U.S. gallons per 
minute and used for supplying boilers oper- 
ating under luO lbs. steam pressure. 

Two 0x4)4x3x30 Bluke vertical Artesian 
Well Pumps. Each ot these machines are 
used to draw water from 6 in. diameter 
Artesian wells and deliver to a high level 
tank at an elevation ot IM ft. above ground 
level, and will have capacity ot 40 U.S. gal- 
lons per minute when operating under the 
above conditions. These latter pumps are 
manufactured by the George F. Blake Mfg. 
Co., East Cambridge, Mass. 

One »S-in. Vertical Centrifugal Pump, direct 
connected to one 3S0 h.p., 4150 r.p.m., 3 phase, 
(iO cycle, 500 volt, type "F" Motor, complete 
with cast iron base and thrust bearing to 
take care ot the weight of the rotor only. 
This pump is designed to have capacity of 
lU.OOO imperiul gulious per minute against 
total head of 48 feet, and will have an effi- 
ciency of 70 per cent, when operating under 
the above conditions and running at a speed 
of 436 r.p.m. The motor will be controlled by 
Cutler-Hammer 350 b.p. automatic motor 
starter, complete with ball, float, chain and 
switch. It will also be supplied with hand- 
operating controller and resistance. There 
will also be supplied ia cennectlon with this 


tANADiAN Machinery 

The British Aluminium Co., Limited 


Beg to announce THE OPENING on 
October fifteenth, 1910, of their new 

Canadian Headquarter*, at 24 Adelaide St. W., Toronto 

in charge of 
MESSRS. PARKE & LEITH, General Agents for Canada 

A Large Stock of Aluminium in all the Commercial Form* will 
ba kept — Wholeta'e and Retail. 


Best Tool Steel 

"ARK" High-Speed steel 


80 Bay St., Toronto, Ontaiio 

Ohas. L. Bailey, Agent. 

Beid-Newfoondland Company 

St John's, Newfoundland. 

Jas. Robertson Co., Ltd 

Montreal, Quebec 
Jas. Robertson Co., Ltd., 
St. John, New Brunswick 

WM. JESSOP & SONS, Limited, Manufactory, SHEFFIELD, ENGLAND. 

outfit a motor panel to inoUut the follotvlug 
lustrumeuts: — 

One 400 amp. 3 pole single throw iiutoniatlu 
oil switch. 

One 500 auip. Weston Ammeter. 

One tiOO volt WfStou Voltmeter. 

This panel will lie made of Blue Vermont 
Marble, complete with frame work and con- 

One 8-lneh Centrifugal Sewage I'ump, direct 
connected to 30 h.p. motor with Cutler-Uam- 
mer starting controller and resistance, com- 
plete with float switch and float ball and 
chain. This outfit will have capacity of :;,000 
Imperial gals, per miuute when operating 
against total head of 15 ft. The pump will 
have an efficiency of 50 per cent, when oper- 
ating at a speed of 430 r.p.m. This outfit will 
also have a motor panel with the following 
instruments mounted on same: — 

One 50 amp. tyi)e "E" automatic oil switch. 

One UO amp. Weston Ammeter. 

One 000 volt Weston Voltmeter. 

All complete with frame work, etc. 

The pumps will be manufactured lu the 
John McDougall Caledonia Irou Works at 
Montreal and the Allis-Chalmers-Builock, 
Montreal, are supplying the electrical appar- 

All the centrifugal pumps will be designed 
under the supervision of Consulting Engineer, 
William Clinton Brown, formerly chief en- 
gineer of Henry U. Worthington, New York. 

*7,000,000 of £qul|imrnt Ordered by C.P.K. 

Over $7,000,000 worth of new cars and train 
e<(Uipment has been ordered by tlie C.P.K., all 
to be delivered by next summer. Two thous- 
and refrigerator, coal, box, aud other class of 
freigiit cars, aud 200 coaches for passenger 
train eiiuipment, including baggage, express, 
sleeping, dining, parlor and observation cars 
are at i)resent under construction at the com- 
pany's Angus shops, and, besides these, orders 
have been placed with otlier firms for 2,000 
steel frame box cars of 80,000 lbs. capacity, 
to cost over two million dollars. Five hundred 
stock cars and &00 flat cars have also been 
ordered from outside. Orders for seventy- 
five heavy locomotives have also been placed 
in Canada, at the Angus shops, Kingston, and 
Montreal Locomotive Works. 

The policy of the Canadian Pacific Railway 
indicates that they are planning to cope with 
any business that may be offered, with ample 
equipment built by Canadian workmen. They 
have never lacked confidence in the rapidly 
growing trade of Canada and the great 
transportation possibilities of the country's 

Crucibles are part of the expense of your 
foundry. It will pay you to be sure you're 
using the best. 

Dixon's Crucibles 

have a record of 83 years behind them. You 
will find them adapted to your melting. 

Pr9» booklet, 223-A, sent on reqruest 


JERSEY CITY, .... N.J., U.S.A. 


steel and Wood Pulleys — The Oneida Steel 
Pulley Co., Oueida, New York, have issued a 
48-page, 6x9 ins., illustrated catalogue of 
steel and wood pulleys aud other specialties. 

Calendar.— J. H. Baxter, 102 St. Autoine St., 
Montreal, have published an attractive calen- 
dar for 1911, which they are sending to their 
customers and friends. 

Graphite Products for Railroads. — A new 
booklet has just been issued by the Joseph 
IJixou Crucible Company, of Jersey City, N.J., 
under the above title. This, as its name im- 
plies, covers the Dixon line of products that 
the widely used in railroad service. 

The object of the book is to bring under 
one cover all the various products lu the 
Dixon line that are of interest to the various 
mechanical departments of railroads. These 
include various graphite lubricants, protective 
paint, crucibles, facings, etc., all of which 
have been found by actual service to give 
satisfactory results. 

The booklet runs to 40 pages, and is quite 
attractively illustrated by means of photo- 
graphs showing different views of railroad 
stations aud yards, different types of locomo- 
tives, stretches of track, signals, bridges, 
etc. If you are interested in the use of any 
grapliite products about the railroad, you 
should write for copy of tliis booklet, which 
will be sent free to those desiring it. 

Electrical Machinery.— Paper, 10x8'/j ins. 
Crocker-Wheeler Co., Ampere, N.J. 

These bulletins are prepared for filing: 
Bulletin No. 120, 16 pp.— Form I motors, belt 
D. C. 3% to 50 h.p.; generators, 3 to 45 K.W. 
Bulletin No. 122, 8 pp.— Form D machines, 
belt type D. C. motors, 25 to 300 h.p., gener- 
ators, 45 to 250 K. W. Bulletin No. 123, 16 
pp.— Adjustable speed motors, % to 32 h.p.; 
speed ranges, 2:1-2.5:1-3:1; eleven frame sizes. 
Bulletin 125, 8 pp. — Reluck type transformers 
for light and power. 

Fine Tools.— The L. S. Stnrrett Co., Athol, 
Mass. Catalogue No. 19. Size 5Hx7% In.; 
pages, 274. Describes and Illustrates a very 
complete line of fine meclianlcal tools, which 
Includes a number that Lave been added since 
the previous edition was published. Brief 




16 Sheppard St., Toronto 


Patents Perfected 


Ruching and Plestins Machinery. 



Machinist and Tool-maker 

Diet for sheet metat work. Stampings and 

light manufacturing. Special machinery 

designed and made to order. 



Iron and Copper Rivets, Iron and Copper Burrs, 
Bifurcated and Tubular RIvels, Wire Nails 
Copper and Steel Boat and Canoe Nails, 
kscutcheon Pins, Leather Shoe and Overshoe 
Buckles, Felloe Plates. 



Cement Mill Machinery, Boiler and Steel 

Tank Work of all kinds, Grey 

Iron and Brass Castings 

^\ Oil Tempered 



— for every purpose 
and the best for each 


—Special styles of 
all kinds to order. 


£S^B wrRE sPRim CO. 

^^mit0 Cleveland, Ohio. 

KpoeiflciitldiiK arc given, uiiil n number of 
tnbluH of MHefuI in(<>riiiutlon ('iini|>li-tV8 the 
catalogue. The lustomary Hygteni of marginal 
iiiimhers lian been retaiiuMl and l>otb nniuer- 
leal and alphahetlr-al inUU-es render It a hIiii- 
(lie matter to louate any tool tjuickly. 

Serew .Muclilnes. — Tlie Natlohal-Aewe .Mfg. 
Co., Cleveland, Ulilo. Calendar. .Size lixlO 1». 
KacU of the 1:^ leaves In addition to giving 
the citlendar for one uunith eojitaiuM un I1IU8- 
tration either of u serew machine or some of 
its products. Among tliese are the multiple 
Mpiudle Mirew maiiiiiie and Bomc products of 
the Hcrew machine milling attachment. 

Handling Coal. — BuUetiu No. 42 from 
the press of the .Jcllrey Mig. Co., Col- 
umbus, U., is entitled "Coal Handling 
and Mine Kciuipment," and is a IS-page 
catalogue descriptive o£ this line ol 
machinery. This book, which is larger 
than the usual Jelirey publication, de- 
scribes the Jetlrey Coal Tipple, illus- 
trating a number of recent installa- 
tions. In addition, numerous illustra- 
tions from their minor pamphlets, de- 
scribing other coal handling machinery, 
giving the pamphlet number whore 
more detailed information is to be had. 
it serves as a review book of their coal 
handling machinery. 

Celfor Tools. — Catalogue No. 10, of 
the Ceifor Tool Co., Itailway Exchange, 
Chicago, 111., a handsome ciU-page 
booklet, describing their line of drills, 
chucks, shanks, reamers, 3-lipped drills, 
sockets for reamers and 3-lipped drills, 
and iiich hat drills and chucKs. Besides 
describing and listing their respective 
prices, in a comprehensive manner much 
useful information concerning drill and 
reamer speeds, etc., and additional 
tables are given. The Celfor drills and 
reamers are made from fiat high speed 
steel bars, twisted to shape, and in cat- 
alogue they are illustrated in opera- 

Standard Automobile Gauges.— This 
line as manufactured by the Industrial 
instrument Co., Foxboro, Mass., is 
described in their bulletin No. 36, a 
4-page folder. As well as briefly de- 
scribing the gauge and its features, its 
varied uses on an automobile are given, 
showing that it would be to the advan- 
tage of automobile owners to have 

Multiple Drilling Machines. — Section 
B of the 1910 series of catalogues, en- 
titled Modern Machine Tools, issued 
from Webster & Bennett, Ltd., Coven- 
try, England, is a 32-page booklet, de- 
scriptive of this line of tools, and gives 
a large variety of the different multiple 
drilling machines that they manufac- 
ture, enumerating the salient features 
of each as well as their size, weights, 
etc. Among the machines are various 
types of drilling machines, combined 
drilling and boring machines, combined 
drilling, boring and tapping machines 
and sensitive drilling machines. 

Motors. — Continuous current protect- 
ed and ventilated motors are dealt with 
in the 4-page leaflet No. 9, from S. \V. 
Broadbent, Ltd., Huddersfield, England. 
The principal parts of the machine are 
briefly described, and ^ the original fea- 
tures dwelt upon. In addition, is a 
general description of the machine, and 
a list, which includes prices, and data 
concerning a number of different sized 

Series Arc Lighting System. — With 
Cooper Hewitt liectifier. This is the 
subject of Circular No. 1155, of the 
Canadian Westinghouse Co., Ltd., 
Hamilton, which is a 32-page booklet 
descriptive of this system of lighting. 
The system in detail is fully explained. 


can cut threads on G-in. pipe with a 



No. i. threading 1-4,3-8. 1-2. 3-4 In. complete. 
No changing of Dies or Bushings. 

No. 2SB, 1 in. to 2 in.. R.H. complete. 

No. M. cuts ni, 3, 3M, 4, 4K 5. and 6 inch pipe. 

NOTE— That with the three tools 
shown above you can thread from 
1-4 in. to 6 in. pipe. No loose parts. 


(Non-recedinsr dies adjustable.) 
Each stock cuts t^vo sizes. Made in four sizes 

Prices $5.00, $5.50, $6.00 and $7.00. 

Write for our Illustrated List 

Borden-Canadian Co. 

Richmond St. East, Toronto, Ont. 





has been tried and not 
found wanting. 

When you buy our chuck 
you not only save the duty 
but help build up your own 
country by keeping your 
money in Canada. 

Write for catalogue and dis- 
count, and let us convince 
you that we are stating the 

Ker & Goodwin 

Brantford, Canada 


Fcr general machinists' use. 
Strong and durable and 
designed for hard service. 

Oar catalogue shows many 
styUs and sizfs and is sent 
fret. : 

The Gushman Chuck Go. 

Harifotd, Conn., U.S.I. 

Established 1862 

with all the auxiliary apparatus, mak- 
ing in all a very instructive booklet on 

Radial Drills.— The 24, 3 and 3^ foot 
arm, simple type radial drill, manufac- 
tured by the Mueller Machine Tool Co., 
Cincinnati, 0., are described on leaflets 
just issued by that company. They are 
machines which they are making in 
conjunction with their standard radial 
drills. Special reference is given to the 
general dimensions, and also the salient 
features pertaining to the column, arm, 
head, tapping mechanism, feed, spindle, 
depth gauge and automatic trip, base, 
plain square box table, and motor. 
Excellent cuts of the drills with ar- 
rowed description are given in the 

Hack Saw Blades.— Catalogue No. 
16 of the Diamond Saw and Stamping 
Works, Buflalo, N.Y., is a 16-page book- 
let, attractively gotten up. In it are 
described and listed the various lines of 
"Sterling" hack saw blades, frames, 
power machines, etc. The advantages 
of the different lines are set forth, and 
the kinds best suited to the various 
lines of work are given. An accompany- 
ing 4-page leaflet describes their 3 sizes 
of high speed power hack saw machines, 
and includes the results of a production 

Small Tools and Machinery.— The cat- 
alogue of the Hamilton Tool Co., Ltd., 
Hamilton, Ont., describes their line of 
small tools and machinery. Among 
the articles enumerated are Beaver drills 
and collets, ball bearings, milling cut- 
ters, reamers, slotting saws, sensitive 
drill, and bench drill. In addition are 
a list of letters of commendation from 
satisfied patrons. The articles shown 
are listed in a very convenient manner 
for ready reference. Much useful matter 
is contained, as the Beaver collet, es- 
pecially, is described in considerable 

Blowers. — The American Blower Co., 
Detroit, have issued bulletin No. 286, 
entitled "Blower Equipment for the 
Modem Foundry." An excellent article 
on heating and ventilating the foundry, 
is griven, dealing with that subject at 
some length, siiowine' how their blowers 
can be used to advantage. In addition 
are articles or blowing equipment, ex- 
haust systems, ABC forge blower, veu- 
tilatinar apparatus, mechanical draft 
apparatus for steam boilers, and ABC 
vertical enclosed self-oiling steam en- 
gines. An additional article at the 
back of the Nook gives some interest- 
ing figures on comparisons of isolated 
lighting plant cost with central sta- 
tion service. 

Money and Labor Savers.— Is the title 
of a large 12 double page catalogue of 
neat design, issued by Walter Macl^eod 
& Co., East Pearl St., Cincinnati, O. 
As the cover states, it is for the busy 
man who has not time to wade through 
a large catalogue, and for that reason 
is made very concise, containing no 
reading matter whatever, only titled 
illustrations, of which there are several 
dozen, of a good size. Fuller catalogues 
of the various machines are also to be 
had. Among the articles illustrated 
are the Buckeye lead and babbitt meltin ' 
furnaces, heater for foundry, heaters of 
general types, carbide lights, kerosene 
lights, locomotive and car tire heaters, 
weed burners, oil furnaces and forges, 
water softening plants, paint and white- 
wash sprayers, and sand blasts. For 
r«ady reference, it is extremely handy. 


83 Front 8t. W., Toronto 


llAAILO New tnd Second-hind 
Old Material Bought and Sold. 



Difflculf Core Work a Specially 
Hi^h Grade ■ Righf Prices • Prompl Delivery 








by the very highest class of skilled 

Only the highest grade of material 
used in our work. We can handle 
your pattern work to your complete 
Let us quote prices. 

87 Jarvi5 5t.Torot2to.,Canadak 

Pat*ter'ns. Models 

WdopoR Metal" 

Sftecim Macniti w 

.IB MA^y5T.llAMlLT<3N;0NT 

' -''i' 'r n r 1 — '-* ' - '' " 

The Field for Commercial Grinding 

f^ RINDING iu various forms has been 
^"^ kuown to man from the very be- 
ginning of history, yet it is doubtful if 
manj' engineers have a clear conception 
of the field for metal grinding. Experi- 
ence (as a specialist) covering twenty- 
five years has taught me that the usual 
thought of grinding is that it is a slow, 
tedious, expensive, but sure method of 
obtaining accuracy, and that where great 
accuracy is not required grinding should 
not be done. 

When, within the recollection of the 
writer, mechanics made their own solid 
glue and emexy wheels with which to 
grind small hardened tool work, it did 
not occur to them that they could do by 
grinding a certain part of the work that 
they were using steel tools for, because 
it was grinding, and was slow. More- 
over, all nice work must of necessity 
take lots of time, because our older 
mechanics had said so. It did not occur 
to them that we could ever have better 
grinding wheels and better machines in 
which to use them. 

It was at this point in our reasoning 
that the majority of engineers rested 
and it is here that we find a large num- 
ber now. All engineers admit the exact- 
ness of grinding, but most of them still 
believe it to be slow. 

Appleton's Cyclopedia of Applied 
Mechanics, published as late as 1893, 
says that emery wheels are employed 
mainly for producing cutting edges and 
for smoothing surfaces. Again it says 
that in all eases of the employment of 
emery wheels in place of steel cutting 
tools, the operation is considerably slow- 
er, and it may be laid down as a rule 

•Ahstnipt of paper read at New York meet- 
ing of Amerlpan Society of Mechanical Engl- 
neers. December, 1910. 

••Norton Grinding Co., Worcester, Mass. 

By C. H. Norton * * 

that save upon metal too hard to be 
operated upon with steel tools, the emery 
wheel cannot compete with the ordinary 
lathe, planer, milling tool, etc. My ob- 
servations convince me that a great 
many American, engineers hold the same 

What the Wheel Will Do. 

As a specialist for many yea'-s, I have 
seen a gradual but sure increase of 
knowledge of grinding and have noted 
the widening of the field as the result, 
but I am not aware that the intelligent 
study of grinding has been taken up by 
professional engineers or by any insti- 
tute of technology. The intelligent use 
of grinding yields such large returns 
that it wan-ants careful study by the 
very best engineering and scientific 
minds and a place in the courses of our 
technical schools. The field is constant- 
ly broadening with each year's improve- 
ments in grinding wheels and g^rinding 
machines, and it is time that men of 
brains and education took a hand with 
us to help the world to a better know- 
ledge of the science of grinding and 
grinding wheels. 

The results thus far attained warrant 
a change of the world's idea of grinding 
and instead of using it as a synonym for 
slowness, tediousness and drudgery, it 
should be a synonym for rapidity, ac- 
curacy and economy. 

The fact that grinding with the mod- 
em grinding machine and grinding wheel 
(not emery wheel) is that it enables us 
to size all around work cheaper than by 
turning and filing, that it takes the place 
of what we formerly called the finish 
cut of the lathe and all filing, giving us 
not a theoretical perfect cylinder or per- 
fect finish, but a much nearer perfect 

cylinder and finish than we obtained 
with the lathe. It gives us diameters to 
such small limits as to be called exact, 
but whoever insists that none but exact 
V/ork be ground loses the very pith of 
grinding, which is economy. Modem 
grinding means cheaper cost for all work, 
many grades of work to suit many re- 
quirements, and cheaper turning than is 
possible without the use of the grinding 

As a rule, the coarser the turning the 
greater tlie economy by grinding. The 
greatest economy is obtained by the com- 
bination of cheaper turning and grind- 
ing. It is no longer necessary to turn 
work smootli, straight or correctly to 
size, and the lathe is no longer necessary 
as a precision tool. K it has a carriage 
traverse of from four to ten threads per 
inch, has sufficient power to carry high- 
speed tool cuts at that feed and is well 
supplied with steady rests to prevent 
springing of the work, it is ready for co- 
operation with the grinding machine. It 
is easier with modern grinding machines 
and wheels to grind off a given amount 
of metal wlien in the form of crude 
screw threads than in any other form, 
and with long work having several sizes 
the grinding requires less time if 1-32 to 
5-64 inch is left on the diameter for 
grinding than if the work is turned care- 
fully to within 0.002 to 0.005 inch. In 
all cases, accurate turning increases the 
total cost of production and in some it 
makes the grinding very expensive. The 
greatest economy is usually obtained by 
the combination of grinding with rough 
turning. Yet there are cases where the 
least expensive way is to grind direct 
without turning, notably the greater 
part of crankshafts of automobiles and 
small gas engines and very long and 
slender work where turning is difficult. 



It is not an easy matter to secure such 
lough turning as true economy requires 
in connection with grinding. Lack of 
knowledge of what is needed, coupled 
with the natural pride the workman 
takes in doing what tradition says is 
nice lathe work, prevents the grinding 
machine from doing what it is ready to 
do. Our industries are losing much 
while waiting for the engineer to assume 
the intelligent guidance of foreman and 
workmen who, through fear, douht or 
prejudice now rob us of the great econo- 
mies due to modern grinding machines. 
There is much yet to be learned by fore- 
men and workmen about turning. High- 
speed steel makes possible much that has 
not as yet become common knowledge. 

The lathe is a very old tool and fore- 
men and workmen have known it for 
generations, yet I have been unable to 
tind more than two instances where a 
careful study has been made of the com- 
bination of lathe work and grinding to 
effect the maximum saving. I have ob- 
served that lathe men have not tried to 
remove metal by increasing the number 
of cuts and using fast traverse. When 
urged to take coarse feeds to help the 
grinding machine to effect a total sav- 
ing, they have invariably said that they 
were feeding all that the work would 
stand. It has been demonstrated that 
three cuts with a carriage traverse of 6 
per inch produced certain work in 9 min- 
utes that required 13 minutes to turn in 
one cut, because the work was so frail 
that with one cut no faster feed than 32 
per inch could be taken. The rough- 
ridged surface was readily ground by 
taking one minute more than when the 
turning was flner, the net saving for the 
job being three minutes. In many cases 
the ridged surface requires no additional 

In another case where the work was 
quite firm and was being revolved at a 
very high speed with a view to getting 
everything possible from the high-speed 
tool, the turning required five minutes 
and the grinding one minute. A change 
wa.s made in the feed of the lathe so 
that without revolving the work any 
slower it was turned in one minute, leav- 
ing a very crude, crooked and bad-look- 
ing piece of lathe work. The grinding 
then required two minutes, but the net 
time saved was three minutes. What did 
it matter how bad looking a lathe job it 
was if the finished work was perfect and 
three minutes was saved? 

Qrinding Makes Old Tools Useful. 

There is a rich field for engineers and 
managers in connection with the latlie 
and modem grinding. Recent lathe de- 
signs provide for higli speed of revolu- 
tion, with sufficient power, quick change 
lo and from back gears, and sufficient 

rigidity to utilize to the limit high-speed 
steel, but much work is not of sufficient 
rigidity to pennit the maximum use of 
the tool at fast traverse and deep cuts. 
In addition, there are thousands of 
lathes of old design that will not be 
thrown away at once. There is, there- 
fore, an opportunity to get much moi'e 
out of present plants by cheaper turn- 
ing because of grinding. 

Developments warrant the conclusion 
that we should no longer assume tliat 
simply because a tool is a giinding wlieel 
it cannot remove metal and size and 

Fig. 1 — Mieruphotogiaph of fhlps from modern 
grtnding wbeel. Note the resemblance of .. 
these fragments to lathe chips. 

sliape work as .quickly as a steel tool. 
Rather, we sliould use the steel tool wlien 
it can be made to remove metal, size and 
shape work cheapest, and the grinding 
wheel when it excels. It is no longer to 
be taken as a matter of course that we 
can turn, plane and mill faster than we 
can grind. After all, the real reason we 

Klg. 2— .MIoroiihotofriaph of chips from modern 
grinding wheel. 

remove metal is to accomplish certain 
finished results, not simply to secure a 
certain number of pounds of chips in a 
given time. Before long I think all pro- 
gressive engineers will understand that 
both the grinding wheel and the steel 
tool have their place for metal cutting. 
The old thought of abrasion must give 
way to the new tliouglit of cutting. 

While it is still true that poor wheels 
oi' good wheels poorly selected and 
wrongly used will still remove metal vei'v 
slowly by abrasion, it is also true that 

the old-fashioned milling cutter, with 
tine teeth cut by hand with a file, hard- 
ened but never ground, and used in the 
old-time slender milling machine would 
very slowly abrade the surface. The 
modern grinding wheel, used in a mod- 
ern machine by a modern man, is just 
as surely a milling cutter as if it were 
made of steel. 

The microscope reveals the fact that 
such a wheel cuts off chips. Fig. 1 is 
from a raicrophotograph and clearly 
shows the chips that are as surely cut 
ofl as those made with a steel milling 
cutter. The grinding wheel used was 
a modern one made of crystalline alum- 
inum oxide. 

Fig. 2 is also from a microphotograpli 
and shows the result of the old-fashioned 
iibrasioii described by Webster as grind- 
ing to powder. Here we see tlie effect 
of great heat, the greater part of the 
powder being in the form of globules. 
This is magnified to the same extent as 
Fig. 1 and shows the vast difference be- 
tween tlie old-time abrasion to powder 
and the present cutting chips. A large 
part of the energy put into work was 
wasted in heat, as shown by the very 
small globules in Fig. 2. The wheel 
used for Fig. 2 was an emery wheel like 
tliose referred- to in Appleton's Cyclo- 
pedia of 1893. 


For some years rails which have been 
le-rolled in the United States have been 
admitted into Canada on payment of a 
duty equivalent to 25 per cent, of the 
work done on them. The Canadian gov- 
ernment has issued an order-in-council 
which states that a mill has been estab- 
lished in Canada adapted for re-rolling 
rails used on railway tracks weigliing 
not less than 56 pounds a lineal yard 
when re-rolled, and orders that the spec- 
ial duty on such re-rolled rails shall be 
abolished and that they shall be subject 
to the general tariff. Hereafter rails re- 
rolled in the United States can only be 
re-imported on the payment of $7 per 
ton. It is charged that new rails have 
been brought in as re-rolled rails. 


Merril Z. Fox, for the past six years 
connected with the Hill & Orifflth Co.. 
Cincinnati, has joined the Detroit Foun- 
dry Supply Co., of Detroit, St. Paul and 
Windsor, Ont., as vice-presdent. The 
Detroit Foundry Supply Co. announce 
also that they have secured the services 
of J. H. Lyle who will cover the states 
of Illinois, Wisconsin and Iowa, and H. 
E. Moyer, who will cover the states of 
Indiana, Ohio and the Dominion of Can- 
ada. The Detroit Foundry Supply Co. 
are congratulating themselves on secur- 
ing the services of these men wlio under- 
stand the foundry lines thoroughly. 

Efficiency of Tools and Economy in Their Manufacture 

By W. M. Townsend » 

Sovie Points Front a Paper Rend Before the Canadian Railway Club, Relative to the Mak- 
ing of Cheap and Efficient Tools, Including Milling Cutters,' Tools for Lathes, Planers, 
Shapers and Slotters; Drills and Reamers. 

"ITARIOUS kinds of milling machines 
are becoming more prominent 
in removing surplus stock from ma- 
chine and locomotive paa-ts, hen«e the 
nt:'eisity of having dwrable milling cut- 

To obtain an efficient milling cutter 
there are two points which are essen- 
tial, namel.v high tipeed' steel and ;i 
spiral or itelical cutting edga The lat- 
ter quality may not appeal to some, due 
to the fact that an inserted tooth cut- 
ter made from a mild sleel body with 
a high speed steel blade inserted at an 
angle oi about 12 d^'grees, answers fair- 
ly well. This, however, is a great mis^ 
take. To obtain a clean cut it is neces- 
sary to have a ■certain anid/ constant 
angle of rake or lip to the milling cut- 
ter. This can be obtained only by hav- 
ing a helical or spiral cutting edge. 

To construct th« milling cutter that 
wtill give the best results and still ad- 
here to the pnineiple of strict economy 
(the point which I wisb to emphasize 
mostly in this paper), we must first of 
all consider its diameter. We will tirst 
speak of cutters having a diameter of 
over 6 inches. Keeping close to our 
principle of economy, we apply to the 
scrap heap for material; there we will 
find crop ends of billet steel sawn from 
the ends of driving axles, which make 
an ideal body for an inserted tooth higli 
speed steel milling cutter. The scrap 
value of these crop ends is very small, 
hence the low cost for the body of the 
cutter. Now, to procure high speed steel 
for the blades in an economical manner 
(which if cut from the steel bar would 
cost 50 cents per pound), we collect all 
the broken and short high speed tools 
that cannot be further used on planers, 
.shapers, lathes, etc. These are hammer- 
ed into blades %xli4x5 inches long. 
The cost of material for the blades is 
covered by the cost of labor in ham- 
mering out the steel plus its scrap 
value, which is very small. So much 
for the economy in procuring material. 

We will now turn our attention to 
the design, upon which depends the ef- 
ficiency. The bodies, after having been 
bored, turned, and faced, are milled 
with slots % in. wide, % in. deep, IVv 
in. apart, at an angle corresponding to 
a predetermined helix or spiral. The 
blades are then fitted and slightly calk- 
ed. The cutter is then set up on a uni- 

•Supervlsor of Tools, Montreal Locomotive 
Co.. Mdntreal. 

vinsal milling machine, and I he froiil of 
the blades milled spiral. This gives a 
constant angle of rake or lip from one 
end to the other. This insures an equal 
strain along the whole length of the 
blade. On the other hand, if the blades 
an' merely put in on an angle and not 
milled si>iral, the lip or rake of the cut- 
ler is iiTegular. It can readily be seen 
that from one end of the cutter to the 
centre there will be a decreasing lip, 
while from the centre to the other end 
of the cutter there will be an increasing 
drag. This causes an unevenness in the 
cut and also a tendency to break and 
pull out the blades on the drag side. 
So much for cutters having a diameter 
over six inches. 

Inserted tooth cutters with a diam- 
eter much less than six inches are not 
practical, due to the fact that a slot cut 
at an angle across the top of the cutter 
body would be very irregular in depth, 
hence the impossibility of holding the 
blade. Take for example a blank cut- 
ter body 5 inches diameter, 10 inches 
long, cut a slot through the top at an 
angle of about 15 deg., you would have 
a d^pth of about % inch in the centre, 
while at either end there would be no 
depth to speak of. This can be avoided, 
however, by dividing the cutter into 
short sections, thereby lessening the 
unequal depth caused by cutting a slot 
at an angle to the axis of the cutter, 
but the high cost of this method does 
not warrant its adoption. 

Cost Figures. 

The general practice, in making cut- 
ters of smaller dimensions, is to use 
carbon steel costing about 14e. per 
pound. This is altogether unnecessary 
and extravagant. Billet crop ends se- 
lected from high carbon billets such as 
are used for driving axles, piston, and 
side rods, carefully hammered, out- 
classes in every way the ordinary tool 
.steel. In the first place its cost, ham- 
mered to size, is about 1V2<'- P**i" pound, 
as compared with 14c. per pound for 
tool steel. Secondly, it is tougher, and 
the teeth will not break when a heavy 
cut is put on, such as is the case with 
tool steel, and the cutting edge stands 
up equally as well. The success of this 
method, of course, depends upon the 
treatment of hardening. This, however, 
is very simple, and consists of carefully 
packing the tools to be hardened in a 
mixture of salt and raw bone, placed in 

an air-tight box, which should Im» 
brought and kept to a heat of 1,500 
deg. P'ali. from 24 to 48 hours according 
to size, then drawn from the box and 
quickly immersed in running clear 
water. There is no need whatever of 
drawing the temper, as the cutting edge 
has the correct hardness, while the body 
of the cutter remains very tough. 

Hardening Cutters. 

The question that you would natur- 
ally raise at this point would be: How 
deep can cutters be hardened in this 
manner? I may say that a depth of 
.1-8 inches ciiri be reached, or in other 
words the cutter may be ground until 
the tooth is almost ground away, leav- 
ing no space for the chips to get away. 
When a cutter reaches this stage, it can 
be annealed, recut, and rehardened, as 
often as the thickness of material will 
allow, without affecting the quality of 
the cutter. 

Some three years ago a test was made 
at our works to determine the advantage 
of using high speed steel cutters for a 
certain class of work, namely — milling 
out jaws of side rods, transmission 
bars, radius bars, combination levers, 
etc. It was found that the high speed 
steel cutters broke from the vibration 
and pressure brought to bear upon 
them, whilst cutters of the same design 
made from billet steel case hardened, 
did the work very satisfactorily without 
breaking, running at the same speed and 
feed. I wish to remind you that what 
I have said .so far regarding milling cut- 
ters refers to cutters used for straight 
milling. Cutters used for milling gears, 
taps, reamers, and irregular shapes 
should, in my opinion, be made from 
high speed steel. 

In studying the efficiency and econ- 
omy of tools, we must not forget to 
consider the quality and qnantitj' of 
work required of them. 

Tools for Lathes, Etc. 
We now come to tools such as are 
used on lathes, planers, shapers, and 
slotters. There are many brands of 
high speed steel on the market at the 
present time, and T have tried almost 
all of them, but will not express my 
opinion regarding their merits, as it 
would make this paper appear as an 
advertisement. I believe, however, that 
if we wish to ascertain which is the 
most etflcient steel, we should give every 



brand an extensive trial, making an in- 
dividual record of each, and determin- 
ing which is the best, as compared to 
the price paid for it. Different shops 
have different materials tu contend with, 
and the formulae used in the composi- 
tion of steel differ, so tliat sonic brands 
are better for cut tin;? one class of ma- 
terial, while other brands are better for 
cutting other classes of material. This 
is why I contend that each shop should 
test out every brand and see which is 
best adapted for its requirements. 

Using High Speed Steel Tips. 

High speed steel is an immense item 
in large machine shops, and great care 
should be exercised in order to avoid 
waste. A great saving may be made, by 
observing the following practice. In 
making finishing tools, instead of usinjj 
a piece of high speed steel, sa^ 1^4 i"- 
by 214 in. by 15 in. long, costing about 
six dollars, we go back to the old re- 
liable, and use a piece of billet steel, 
leaving it as large as the tool post will 
admit, and weld a tip to it made of high 
speed steel. The finished cost of this 
tool is about one-eighth of the solid high 
speed steel tool and is just as efficient 
for these reasons: The billet steel is 
sufficiently strong to withstand the 
pressure brought upon it for a finisliing 
cut. It does not require dressing any 
oftener than the solid tool, but it does 
require a little more care. 

I will now explain a little more clear- 
ly how this tool is made. As stated be- 
fore, we take a piece of high carbon 
billet from the scrap heap, and draw it 
out to the required dimensions. One 
end is then scarffed ready to receive the 
high speed steel tip which is wedge 
shaped. The toolsmith fits the two 
parts fairly well together before weld- 
ing to ensure a neat weld. The parts 
after having been prepared are then 
heated, the tip being allowed to heat 
longer than the body, owing to the ne- 
cessity of the former being of a much 
higher temperature than the latter to 
allow for welding. When both are at 
a welding heat they are quickly with- 
drawn, a piece of Lafitte welding com- 
pound is jjlaced between them and ham- 
mered lightly together. The tool is then 
reheated, care being taken to place the 
nose of the tool in such manner that it 
will be most exposed to the fire, When 
the required heat is reached the tool is 
quickly withdrawn and placed between 
a former under a steam hammer and 
given a light sharp blow. In case of the 
tip being displaced, it will not do to try 
and knock them into place again. The 
tip must be cut away and refitted, and 
a fresh piece of the compound used. The 
tool is then treated in the same manner 
as a high speed steel tool. These tools 

have been used until the tip has been 
ground right down to the weld. 

I would not advise making heavy 
roughing tools in this manner, as the 
billet steel body would not stand the 
pressure required by a roughing tool 
such as is used on a heavy planer. A 
tool o£ this description, however, an- 
swers well when used on a lathe where 
the point does not project far from the 
tool post, also where the cut is conti- 
nuous and not intermittent, as is the 
case on a planer. You can readily see 
« liere, the sa\-iug comes in, if this meth- 
od is only applied to finishing and lathe 

Twist Drills. 

I will now draw your attention to 
twist drills. Twist drills made Irom 
carbon steel with the exception of job- 
bers' drills, that is, drills up to i" dia- 
meter, are almost a thing of the past, 
high speed steel drills having taken their 
place. The original design of the high 
speed drill was exactly the same as the 
ordinary carbon drill with the exception 
of the material used. This, however, 
has proven to be inefficient and expen- 
sive due to the following reasons : In 
the first place, to obtain proper results 
from a high speed drill, it is necessary 
to have adequate space to allow the 
chips to free themselves from the drill, 
as the flutes will soon choke up owing 
to the increased feed and speed of the 
drill. The fluted high speed drill has not 
this advantage. It is expensive for this 
reason. To make a drill of this design, 
it is necessary to use a round bar of 
solid steel, cutting away 50 per cent, of 
it to form the flutes. Yet there are 
men who will tell you that this design 
of drill is the best and cheapest on the 

Best High Speed Drill. 

1 will now give my opinion as to 
which is the best high speed drill and 
the reason why. A high speed steel drill 
with a twisted section about half way 
between the flat twisted section and the 
standard milled drill is the most effi- 
cient and economical, from the fact that 
it takes just one-third of the steel to 
make it^ and efficient because of the ade- 
quate space for the chips to clear, thus 
preventing clogging and choking. The 
feed can be doubled due to this advan- 
tage. T have found in my endeavor to 
reduce the cost of tools, that in the 
average shop where locomotives and 
heavy machines are built, they have suf- 
ficient equipment to make efficient high 
speed drills with a saving from 10 per 
cent, to 50 per cent. The same may be 
said of all kinds of taps, especially those 
used in boiler construction. These re- 
marks may seem severe to the tool sup- 
ply men here with us to-night, but this 
is one point which I feel that I cannot 
leave out, seeing that our subject is 
along the lines of economy. 


A few words may be said regarding 
reamers. There are many styles of 
straight reamers, all of which have their 
advantages, which leaves me with noth- 
ing to say regarding them. Taper ream- 
ers are different in their action, however ^ 
inasmucli as the whole part of the ream- 
er that comes in contact with the work 
is cutting equally, whereas, in the 
straight reamer, the extreme end is the 
only part that cuts, the rest of the 
reamer only acting as a guide. It is 
this difference of action that I now wish 
to discuss. In all railroad shops there 
is a great amount of taper reaming to 
be done ; this calls lor a different class 
of reamer. Having visited some of the 
large locomotive works and enquiring 
from others, I find that their practice is 
to use the straight fluted taper reamer 
—some of them have the teeth staggered, 
others equally spaced. 1 beg to state 
that this style of reamer is decidedly 
wrong. Reamers that are required to 
cut equally their full length of flute 
should be milled with a left hand spiral 
cutting edge, having an angle of about 
20 deg. ; the pitch or distance between 
the teeth should be about f", leaving 
ample space for the chips to clear, thus 
preventing clogging and tearing of the 
hole. The advantages of this style of 
reamer are : It takes about 30 per cent, 
less power to drive it ; it never chat- 
ters ; it never digs in ; the tang does not 
twist off ; the teeth do not break oB ; 
they are easy on crank shafts and can be 
driven with an air motor, where straight 
fluted reamers would stick. Now this 
may appear that I am claiming a little 
more than what is true, but these are 
actual facts that have been tried and 

There are two reasons for the success 
of this style of reamer, namely, the 
spiral cutting edge which gives the ream- 
er a shearing action instead of a straight 
drag (which must necessarily follow 
with a straight flute), also to the fact 
that the line of cut parallel to the 
length of reamer is divided, due to the 
angular cutting edge which is not paral- 
lel to the line of cut. The even and 
regular curl of chip made by this reamer 
will also convince you of the correctness 
of design. The cost of these reamers is 
a trifle less than the straight fluted 
reamers, on account of the fewer number 
of teeth to be cut. This applies gener- 
ally to reamers having a diameter of 
li" and under, with a flute of from 14" 
to 16", standard taper 1-16" to 12". 

Large Diameter Reamer. 

A word or two may be said regarding 
reamers of large diameter, such as cross- 
head reamers both for piston and wrist 
pin fit. For cheapness and durability 
these may be made in the same manner 
as solid milling cutters, as mentioned in 
the previous part of this paper. Select 



a piece of high carbon billet from the 
scrap heap, have the forging well ham- 
mered, machine and case harden, and you 
will have a tool that is equal to the fin- 
est tool steel made. You will find that 
the cost will be about one-tenth of that 
of good tool steel. 

There are many other items of inter- 
est whereby great savings can be made, 
but as our subject covers such a wide 
area, I must confine my remarks to one 
or two thoughts in general. Before con- 
cluding, I wish to state that AN IM- 
being done they should be arranged in 
open bins or racks, so that when the 
foreman of the tool room requires ma- 
terial, he looks over his stock of anneal- 
ed scrap (I mention annealed for the 
reason that very often a piece of scrap 

material is available, but it is necessary 
to wait while it is being annealed) and 
very often finds exactly what he wants 
without drawing from the regular stock. 

Another feature regarding economy, is 
the correct distribution. T mean by this 
AND NO MORE. I say this because it 
is well-known fact that workmen have a 
habit of collecting and storing up under 
lock and key, all the tools they can pos- 
sibly lay their nands on, for their own 
individual use. 

You can readily see that with this 
practice, if not watched and kept in 
hand, in large plants many thousands of 
dollars may be invested and nothing ac- 

In summing up these remarks, I think 
you will agree with me, when I say that 

might add that these duties cannot be 
expected of the tool room foreman, as 
his duties confine him to the tool room. 
Under these circumstances the man ap- 
pointed to perform the duties of econo- 
mizing in cost, and designing efficient 
tools, should have the liberty, to watch 
all machine shop operations, and to have 
full supervision of tool room practices. 
This syst^-m is in vogue in some of the 
large locomotive works in the United 
States and one that I know of in Can- 
ada. This system, if adopted by some 
of the other large plants, would, I feel 
sure, bring about results worth noting. 

A User's View of the Machine Tool Problem 

By John Riddell " 

Some Suggestions Looking Toward Improvement in Lathes, Automatic Screw Machines 
and Drills, With the Idea of Reducing the Number of Operations That These Machines 
are Usually Made Capable of, so as to Accord More With Actual Service. The Preblem 
of Safe-guarding Machinery is Dealt With, to Show That Much yet Remains to be Done 
to Ensure Immunity From, Accident Through Carelessness or Otherwise. The Paragraphs 
on Noise in Machine Shops, and Muslin Pinions, Will Appeal to Onr Renders as Items of 
More Than Passing Interest in the Record of Progress. 

TN factories having a very large out- 
*" put, there must necessarily be a 
great deal of repetition work, such as 
cylinders, valves, connecting rods, crank 
and cam shafts, transmissions, etc. It 
would seem that most of these parts 
should be made on very special tools. 


The writer has been considering seri- 
ously for a number of years the advis- 
ability of having instead of standard en- 
gine lathes, simple turning machines, to 
produce such pieces as small shafts, 
which are required in more or less large 
quantities. It has been the practice for 
a long time, when if several lathes were 
required tor any particular department, 
standard engine lathes would be pur- 
chased, which machines would be fully 
equipped with screw cutting, cross feed, 
rod feed, compound rest, large and 
small face plates, and very frequently, 
with an extra block for large out- 
side turning. Experience has taught us, 
however, that an engine lathe once plac- 
ed in one of our shafting departments 
would, in many cases, wear itself out 
before having to do any face-plate or 

•Abstract of a paper read before the Na- 
tional Machine Tool Builders' convention. 

•♦General mechanical superintendent, Gen- 
eral ?;iertric Co., Schenectady, N.T. 

chucking work, and very seldom, screw 
cutting. You can, therefore, see that 
the cross feed, as well as screw cutting, 
would be superfiuous. 

Lathes for this work should be equipp- 
ed with a powerful rod feed, and with a 
suitable friction device which would slip 
if the turning tool met with any ob- 
struction, and prevent serious accident 
to the machine. 

Such machines should be so designed 
that the screw-cutting attachment and 
cross feed could be readily applied, if in 
the future they should be required. 

Many attempts have been made to 
solve the problem of small shaft turn- 
ing, with more or less success, but many 
of the machines designed for this pur- 
pose have been more or less complicat- 
ed, which precludes the possibility of 
putting inexperienced men on to run 

A lathe to be used exclusively for 
shaft turning, say from about 2 to 4 
inches in diameter, would not require 
the range of speeds as for a standard 
engine lathe. The lathe I have in mind 
should have a range of speed of from 
about 20 to about 250 revolutions per 
minute for turning, and two or three 
higher speeds for filing and polishing. 
These speeds should possibly be between 

450 and 600 revolutions per minute. It 
is desirable in our case at least to have 
such machines fitted tor electric motors. 
The motors should have a speed varia- 
tion of about two to one, which, with 
two or three gear changes, should give 
all the speeds necessary for a simple 
turning machine. 

Automatic Screw Machines and Txirret 

The aiitomatic screw machine, in a 
general way, is made so that six, seven, 
or eight operations can be performed on 
most any of them. A very large quan- 
tity of work going through them re- 
quires but two or three operations at 
the most, such as milling, threading, 
and cutting off. Many of the screw ma- 
chines are so complicated that they will 
perform the operations whether the 
tools are actually working or not. 

It would seem that machines could be 
very much simplified by making some 
do three or four operations only. 

The same is true of some larger au- 
tomatic turret machinery. Some of 
these machines are designed for boring 
and facing, but nevertheless, the turret 
will have five or six positions, all of 
which operations must be gone through 
with whether there are but one or two 



simple operations to be peifortued, at 
the loss oi much valuable time. 

A great deal might be done toward 
adapting multiple-spindle heads to 
single-spindle presses. It is very doubt- 
ful if, as at present constructed, it is 
good judgment to put in too many ex- 
pensive multiple-spindle drills, for the 
reason that it takes so long to adjust 
them for a small number of pieces. 
Radial Drills. 

Radial drills generally should be su 
stiffened up as to permit of only the 
smallest amount of spring to the arm. 
I believe more drills are ruined by the 
springing of arms, both under the actual 
pressure and when a drill is breaking 
through, than would be if it were not 
for the springing referred to, as, under 
the pressure of drilling the arm goes 
up, and when the pressure is relieved 
from the point the drills are forced 
through, and, in many cases catch on 
the lips and break. 

Protected Devices and Wood-Working 

We have had considerable trouble at 
the Schenectady works of the General 
Electric Co. lately, in trying to con- 
form to the new State laws, which are 
very stringent as to the protective de- 
vices on machine tools in general and 
wood-working machines in particular. It 
is an exceedingly difficult matter to so 
protect buzz planers and circular saws 
as to guard against carelessness and the 
apparent indifference of the workmen, 
and if someone would devise proper 
ways and means for protecting such ma- 
chines he would have the thanks and 
blessing of the whole manufacturing fra- 

If an operator has a great many pieces 
of a similar kind to either saw, plane 
or shape, he may possibly take pains to 
apply such guards, which are usually 
provided, but if, as frequently happens, 
a man wants to plane one single piece 
or saw a strip from a board, he will 
not take time to adjust the safety ap- 
pliance, and he is very apt to be caught. 
This would point out the necessity of 
having some suitable guards which 
would always be available no matter 
what the conditions were, and it would 
seem that people producing this parti- 
cular line of machinery would conjure 
up something practicable and effective. 
Punch Presses. 

Punch presses in general are very well 
designed, but they, like wood-working 
machinery, are comparatively dangerous 
to the fingers of careless or dreamy op- 
erators. This would suggest automatic 
feed mechanisms and something to take 
the piece from the dies after the oper- 
ation is completed. There have been in- 
numerable devices of this kind exploited, 
but nothing as yet .seems to cover the 
ground fully. 

Another defect in this class of machin- 
ery is the fact that in many instances 
when clutches and other parts come 
loose, due to wear, they are very apt 
to repeat the stroke. This frequently 
happens when a man's hand is between 
the dies. Such accidents should be im- 
possible until the operator deliberately 
steps on the treadle. 

Noise in Machine Shops. 

It has been pointed out that there is a 
great deal of gear noise in the machine 
shops of the present day. I am sorry to 
admit that this is true, but it is not 
wholly due to the fact that there are 
more gears used in the construction of 
machine tools. It is more especially 
due to the higher speeds at which ma- 
chines are run to-day, as compared to 
ten or twenty years ago. Before the 
advent of high-speed steels 20 feet was 
considered to be a fair cutting speed for 
an ordinary steel shaft or a piece of 
cast iron to be either turned or planed; 
whereas to-day, we are actually turn- 
ing shafts at from 7ij feet to 125 feet 
per minute. So it will readily be seen 
that machines to-day are producing from 
three to six times more work than they 
did a few years ago ; hence it should 
follow that there would be more noise 
due to machine tools producing this 
extra amount of work. These gear 
noises are very unfortunate, but we 
hope by improved gear-cutting machinery 
and the use of various other materials 
which have recently been introduced, 
that this trouble will gradually disap- 

Muslin Pinions. 

We have introduced gears at our 
Schenectady works and pinions made of 
a high grade of muslin which have been 
applied to a great variety of uses. We 
have used one of them on a boiler- 
maker's punch and shear which prev- 
iously gave considerable trouble, not 
only on account of noise, but in the ac- 
tual breaking of the gears ; due to ex- 
cessive back lash and flywheel action on 
the machine. We had such wonderful 
success with that particular pinion, 
which has been running now some two 
years, that we gradually extended the 
use until now we are using them on two 
10-foot planing machines, which are op- 
erated by electric motors and compress- 
ed-air clutches, as intermediate pinions 
for the reverse motion. Heretofore we 
have tried various substitutes, includ- 
ing bronze, which would go to pieces in 
two or three weeks ; steel would last 
longer, but made an intolerable noise ; 
rawhide would seem to skrink and burn 
out quickly, and we very seldom could 
find anything that would stand the work 
longer than three or four weeks at the 

It is perhaps too early to say much 
about the particular pinions in question. 

but they have at present been running 
four months and they have not yet be- 
gun to show any signs of distress, and 
it looks as though their life would be 
as long as the gears with which they 

Test of Muslin Pinions. 

I might ask your indulgence while I 
describe what has recently been done 
with a pair of these pinions. As I said 
before, we have been using them some 
two years, and are gradually extending 
their use, and have now (itted up a large 
department at the Lynn Works of the 
General Electric Co., where we can pro- 
duce them in fairly large quantities, 
but before putting them out in very 
large quantities we desired to have a life 
test to destruction, and with this in 
view we rigged up two railway motors 
opposed to each other ; one of which has 
a cloth pinion on the armature shaft 
running into a steel gear on counter- 
shaft On the other end of this counter- 
shaft is another cloth pinion engaging 
with another large steel gear. The other 
side of this steel gear engaging a cast- 
gun-iron pinion of the same dimensions 
as the cloth. This then connects with 
its shaft and gear to a rawhide pinion 
on the opposite motor. This particular 
motor is resisted by rheostats to load 
the motor which has the muslin pinion. 
In starting this test it was found that 
there were no results from a certain 
load. This load was gradually increased 
and when after stopping the motors to 
examine the pinions, through some 
oversight, an excessive, overload was 
applied when they were again started. 
The shock was so severe that it broke 
about one-half of the teeth from the 
gun-iron pinion, leaving the two muslin 
pinions in as good condition as before. 
.\nother gun-iron pinion was put on, 
which also broke. A third was then 
put on and the load reduced, and the 
life test has now been running some two 
or three weeks, and will be continued 
until some of the gears actually wear 
out, and not break. 

I point this out to show the actual 
strength of pinions made of this mater- 
ial. So we have reason to believe that 
with time the noises in machine shops 
will gradually disappear as they came, 
without, however, a corresponding re- 
duction in output. 

When the belt has become oil-soaked 
and will not stay on the machine, a gt)od 
method of cleaning it is as follows : Coil 
the belt loosely in a tub of sufficient 
size, and cover with whiting. Be sure 
that the whiting gets in between tlie 
eoils of the belt, and it will be only a 
short time before the whiting will ab- 
sorb the oil from the leather. It will 
then only need to be wiped clean to be 
ready for further use. 


echanical Drawing and Sketching for Machinists 

By B. P. 

A Series of Progressive 
Apparatus Necessary to 
porta lit a Factor it ix of 

'TpIIE ability to put one's ideas on 
"paper" as it is called, is of more 
import than at first sight apjjears, and 
in i)assiiig let me say tliat without this 
means of developing- and conveying 
ideas from one to another, we would 
not yet be far removed from the bar- 
baric age in mechanical arts. 
Purpose of Course. 
You are not to run away with the 
idea that the purpose is to make a 
draftsman of you, and having that no- 
tion decide that as you are a machinist, 
this little instruction page need not be 
i-ead. There will be, it is hoped, no 
limit to any position of responsibility 
or trust to which the instruction may 
lead, but to you particularly is atten- 
tion directed. 

The course will start right at the be- 
ginning so as to embrace all grades, and 
care will be taken to make the work in- 
teresting and not too heavy. 

To those who have some experience 
along tlie lines of our subject, there will 
be found helpful hints and advice which 
will amply repay joining in the study. 
Difficulties of Study. 
Experience goes to show that the 
difficulty of those who would study in 
their leisure hours is not one of making 
a start, but rather a disinclination to 
keep it up after a short trial. Drawing 
and sketching is no exception in this 

To guard against this trouble I wish 
to point out a few of the causes why 
this state of things obtains, so that you 
may be on the alert when the symptoms 

Most people are enthusiastic over 
anything new, especially if it appeals 
to their personal interests. Drawing 
or the desire to be able to make one, 
appeals to 95 per cent, of mechanics, 
young and old, not only as a trade help, 
but also as an enjoyable pastime and a 
medium by which their imaginative 
ideas and dreams may assume concrete 

The enthusiasm born of this appeal to 
study, will, as in every other like cir- 
cumstance, bring a reaction, which com- 
ing as it does at a critical time in a 
drawing instruction course, will require 
the exercise of a good deal of patient 

The impression formed by nine out of 
every ten who take up study is that the 

•First of a series of an Icstructlon Course. 
A lesson will be given each month. 

Lessons Designed to Favniiarize Mechanics With the Use of the 
Make Simple Drawings to. Eacoarage them to Realize IfJlm- 
Then- Equipment, as Well as Beiitq a Profitahle Pastime 

acquirement of knowlege is easy. The 
prospectus descriptions of drawing 
<-(,uises are laigely to blame for this. 

The acquirement of knowledge is easy 
ill no sphere or profession, and what is 
more to the point, the acquirement of 
the habit of s'tudy is less easy still. Too 
little stress is laid on the necessity of 
this latter, in fact it is practically ig- 

You liave been in tlie habit of going 
out every night in the week after your 
day's work, to have a little legit imale 
recreation and amusement. You have 

Adjustable Drawing Table. 

often thought of studying mechanical 
drawing, but on account of the want of 
a iiroijer opjiortunity you have never 
done so. 

"Canadian Machinery," which you 
know, is a reliable journal and to which 
you have been subscribing for years, 
comes along in February and outlines 
just the course you have long looked 
for. It takes little time for you to de- 
cide what you will do, and to be sure 
you lay your leisure time at its feet,with 
a generous hand. "I'll give three 
nights a week to this course, and run in 
a fourth occasionally." 

You. make this resolution without 
counting the cost. You forget that 
habits have been acquired that are an- 
tagonistic to study, and that those 
necessary cannot be donned in a mom- 
ent as neither can the others be doffed. 

Taking u]) the course with a rush as 
it were ensures a reaction, and unfor- 
tunately an unhealthy one at that. You 
are endeavoring to bite off more than you 
can chew, and my advice is — act cauti- 
ously. Set apart one night per week or 
at most two, and allow yourself to 
gradually break off the old habits and 
acquire the new. 

l)oii"t believe that it in cany to leani 
to draw, and that it can be mastered 
in BO many days or weeks. Think of 
your stage of proficiency in your own 
I)articular line, and just figure to your- 
self how long it has taken you to attain 
It. Don't imagine that drawing is any 
easier and you will assuredly succeed. 

By looking the matter square in the 
face thus, you will not get despondent 
when the reaction sets in and you reg- 
ister your progress as slow. You will 
not be a "sticker," when you look dis- 
gustedly at your drawing board, won- 
dering where all the dirt came from 
that is on youi- paper, or amazed at the 
unintentional contortions you have giv- 
en to .straight lines, the variety of thick- 
ness of them, the seeming impossibility 
of making a circle without showing half 
a dozen joints and at the number and 
size of holes your compass needle point 
has been guilty of. 

These experiences are real, troubles 
which all who would aspire to the mak- 
ing of a simple intelligible drawing will 
meet, and to minimize and combat which 
the advice and effort of this instruction 
course will be directed on your behalf. 

Operating Hints. 
In order to keep the drawbg paper 
as clean as possible, see that your hands 
and finger-nails are carefully washed 
and attended to before commencing 

Have your coat off, the sleeves of it 
in contact with the drawing impart dirt 
more or less. 

Xever sharpen your pencils over your 
drawing or in fact, over the table. 

Use a hard pencil, say a .3H. it will 
last longer, need shai-pening less often 
and will assist in keeping the drawing 

Wipe the dust from all your appar- 
atus carefully with a clean duster be- 
fore starting work, and cover up all 
when you finish each time. 

Keep the particles of ground rubber 
brushed off the sheet, as they hein^' 
coated with lead from the erased lines, 
will, if allowed to remain, be crushed 
against the paper by the movements 
over them of the squares. 

The last instruction on cleanliness is 
keep your hands as far as is possible 
from touching the paper. Most people's 
hands perspire to a les.ser or greater 
extent, and their contact consequently 
is not conducive to a clean drawing. 

Boiler Design, Construction, Operation, Repairing and Inspection 

By H. S. Jeffrey 

The Various Points in Connection With Boiler Pnictice Will he Clearly Taken up in 
Thin Series. The First Article Deals With the Boiler Shell, Including Repairing, Factor 
of Safety, Hydrostatic Test and Number of Courses. The Series trill be a Complete Text 
Book on the Subject of Boilers, and They Should be Preserved for Reference. 

THE points considered by tiie de- 
signer in designing a boiler are 
most important. The boiler should 
be designed so as to permit pro- 
per circulation of the water; to permit 
the boiler to be easily inspected and 
cleaned; to prevent undue stresses upon 

Pig. 1.— 

some members and iusufflcient stresses 
upon other parts; to permit repairs to 
be quickly and cheaply made; and the 
proportion of parts to be such that the 
boiler will be a free steamer. 

(2) Any boiler, whether used or not, 
will deteriorate. The deterioration is in 
form of wasting and the wearing out of 
the boiler, both internally and extern- 
ally, such as pitting, corrosion, blisters 
and grooving, all of which means the 
repairing of the boiler, sooner or later. 
The essential part of repairing a boiler 
is to replace the defective part without 
reducing the strength of the boiler at 
that point any more than necessary, 
and, of course, applying the patch or 
new member in a manner to make the 
boiler as serviceable or as n«ar as ser- 
viceable as formerly. 

The foregoing can best be accomplish- 
ed by the mechanic understanding 
the underlying principles of boiler 
design and construction. This being the 
age of specialists, many of those engaged 
in boildrmaking are not well posted on 
the forces acting upon the boiler. The 


Fig. 2.- 

riveter will understand fully about rivet- 
ing; the flue man about the installation 
of flues, and others thoroughly acquaint- 

* Copyright by The KacLean Publishing Com- 
pany. Limited. 

* Flnt of a Krles of twelve artlclet on this 

od with their respective branches, 
but the foregoing named speeailists not 
being versed in boilermaking in all its 
branches are not in a position to advise 
as are all-around boiler makers with a 
technical education. 

The repairing of a boiler is really an 
independent branch of boiler construc- 
tion; it is re-eonstruetion. Boiler re- 
pairing could be more cheaply and bet- 
ter done if those making the repairs had 
knowledge of the forces acting upon the 
boiler, as well as the knowledge acquir- 
ed by the operating engineer from con- 
stant observation of the boiler while in 
service, and especially the practicability 
of a patch or new member as applied. 
The BoUer Shell. 

(3) The boiler designer in deciding 
upon the diameter of the boiler shell 
must bear in mi-nd the working pressure 

foregoing respective forces a concrete 
case of a seamless shell of 55,000 tensile 
strength, 66 inches in diameter by 14 
feet in length, and of plate %-ineh in 
thickness will ba given. 

The force acting on the girth plane 
will be equal to the cross-sectional area 
multiplied by the working pressure per 
square inch. With a working pressure 
of 100 pounds per square inch the total 
force will be: 

66X66X.7854X100=342,100 pounds. 

The force resisting the foregoing is 
the strength of the solid plate in the 
transverse plane. The area of the plate 
is found by multiplying the circumfer- 
ence by the neutral diameter, which is 
equal to the inside diameter, plus one 
thickness of plate, or 66 inches plus 
i inch, making 66§ inches. 

Pig. s.- 

per square inch, the factor of safety, 
the efficiency of the longitudinal seam, 
the tensile strength of the plates and 
their thickness, and the type of boiler. 
There are also practical considerations 
which he must take into account, and 
which will be mentioned later. 

A boiler shell or cylinder has two 
forces tending to rupture it. The arrow 
A, Fig. 1, indicates the force acting on 
the transverse plane, or cross-wise of 
the vessel. The arrow B indicates the 
force acting on the longitudinal plane, 
or lengthwise. 

Though the steam pressure per square 
inch is the same throughout the boiler, 
the force acting on the transverse plane, 
generally called the girth plane, is about 
one-half the force acting on the longi- 
tudinal plane. 

In rig. 1, the vessel is shown seam- 
less, and in order to explain fully the 

Then the area of the plate of the girth 
plane upon which the force will act is: 

661X3.1416X1=78.2 square inches. 

The strength or the resisting force of 
the plate of the girth plane will then be: 

78.2X55,OOOt=4,301,000 pounds. 

The force acting on the longitudinal 
plane is equal to the area indicated by 
points 1, 2, 3 and 4, Fig. 1, times the 
working pressure in jwunds. Since the 
vessel. Fig. 1, is 66 inches in diameter 
and 14 foot, or 168 inches in length and 
the working pressure is 100 pounds per 
square inch, the total force acting on 
the longitudinal plane will be: 

66X168X100=1,108,800 pounds. 

The resisting force of the plate of 
the longitudinal plane will be the 
length of the vessel from points 1 to 
4, and points 2 to 3, Fig. 1, times 
the thickness of the wall. The length 
of the vessel having already been 

stated to be 168 inches between points 
1 ta 4, the combined length from points 
1 to 4, and points 2 to 3, is twice 168 
inches, or 336 inches. The thickness of 
the wall of the vessel being |-inch and 
the tensile strength of the plate being 
55,000 pounds, then the resisting force 
is : 

336 X I X 55,000 equals 6,930,000 lbs. 
Since the longitudinal seamless plane 
has a resisting force of 6,930,000 pounds 
and the total force acting on said plane 
is 1,108,800 pounds, the ratio between 
the ultimate strength and the acting 
force is : 


equals 6.25 


The calculations in the foregoing par- 
agraphs brought out that the force act- 
ing on the transverse plane amounted 
to 342,100 pounds, being resisted by a 
force of 4,301,000 pounds, therefore, the 
ratio between the ultimate strength 
and the working pressure is : 


equals 12.5 


Examination shows that the trans- 
verse load is approximately one-half the 
longitudinal load, and, accordingly the 
ratio between the ultimate strength and 

pib. 4.- 

the applied load on the transverse plane 
is about twice the ratio between the 
ultimate strength and the applied load 
on the longitudinal plane. 
Longitudinal and Girth Seams Ic 

(4) Prominent among the many pro- 
blems which arise in designing a steam 
boiler is that of the arrangement of the 
courses and riveted joints. Very few 
vessels are mad© seamless, and, accord- 
ingly the rings or courses composing the 
vessel must be connected together in 
some manner. 

This is accomplished by the installa- 
tion of rivet holes in the plates and 
then securing the plates to one another 
by over-lapping and riveting, or by 
butting the plates and securing them by 
butt or welt straps riveted to the ends 
of the plates. 

In Fig. 2 is shown a course of a boiler 
as it would appear when rolled approx- 
imately into shape, and no' holes in- 
stalled for the seams. The calculations 
for a seamless course brought out that 
the vessel was twice as strong through 
the transverse plane as the longitudinal 
plane, and for this reason the designer 


can make the girth se^m a. Fig. 3, 
single-riveted, while the longitudinal 
seam must be made double-riveted, or 
triple-rivoted, and with a high-pressure 
boiler the longitudinal seam is made a 
triple-riveted butt double-strapped joint 
with the outer row of rivets in single 


shear, all as shown at the longitudinal 
seam b, Fig. 3. 

The installation of the rivet holes 
does not make it possible to make the 
boiler at the longitudinal seam as 
strong at that point as the solid plate 
elsewhere in the longitudinal plane. The 
strength of the longitudinal joint will 
depend upon the type of riveted joint 
and the size and pitch of the rivets. 
The solid plate is to be considered as 100 
per cent., and this is the case irrespec- 
tive of the thickness of the plate, or its 
tensile strength. 

Since the longitudinal seam is less 
than 100 per cent., and it is necessary 
when computing the working pressure 
to consider the strength or the efficiency 
of the longitudinal seam, the following 
formula, which is used by most author- 
ities for ascertaining the allowable 
working pressure of a vessel, is given : 

Where : 
TS equals tensile strength of plate in 

T equals thickness of plate in inches. 
D equals diameter of boiler in inches. 
F equals factor of safety. 
A equals allowable working pressure per 
square inch. 

TS X T X 2 X E 

equals A 

D X F 

Factor of Safety 

(5) It is not advisable to work a boiler 
or any other structure at or near its 
ultimate strength. There should be ron- 

Flg. 6.— 

siderable difference between the ultimate 
strength and the allowable working 
pressure. The ratio between the two 
is called the factor of safety, and iu 
boiler construction the minimum factor 

of safety allowed by .nost authorities 
is 4. 

The factor of safety cannot be *et. in 
an off-hand manner ; it must be derided 
by the circumstances of the case. Thus 
a boiler having all holes drilled in I'lace 
and constructed with a double-.strapped 
butt joint, will— and justly so~be al- 
lowed a lower factor of safety than a 
boiler of like size and design, bui with 
the holes punched. 

Many of the authorities nave enab- 
lished the minimum factor of s.ifely at 
4, and then add to it certain amounts 
in accordance with the type of riveted 
joint and the grade of workmanship. 
Such rules and regulations encourage' 
good design and workmanship. 

A high factor of safety does not indi- 
cate that the boiler is better construct- 
ed than a like boiler with a lower factor 
of safety. The minimum factor of 
safety should not be less than 4— and a 
boiler properly designed artd constructed 
with a factor of safety of 4 is a safer 
boiler than one poorly designed and con- 
structed with a factor of safety of 6. 
The Hydr-static Test. 
(6) Merely because a steam boiler 
withstands a given hydrostatic or cold 
water test, it is no sign that the boiler 
is safe. The test itself, if improperly 
applied — that is, an excessive pressure 
applied, will injure the boiler. The elas- 
tic Kmit of the steel, which is about 50 
per cent, of the ultimate strength of 
the plate, must be taken into consider- 

The elastic limit means the point 
v^here the applied load begins to pro- 
duce a permanent elongation. Up to 
that point the metal will yield slightly, 
but when the load is removed the metal 
will return to its original length. It is 
never safe to place a load on any struc- 
ture beyond this point. A boiler con- 
structed for a working pressure of 100 
pounds steam pressure per square inch, 
faetor of safety of 5, would burst at ap- 
proximately 500 Pounds pressure per 
square inch, but the danger point would 
be reached at approximately 250 pounds 
(or the elastic limit) if the square of 
the section of plate in the longitudinal 
seam is equal to the shearing strength 
of the rivets. 

This is assuming that the efiSciency of 
the riveted joint is determined by the 
plate, maximum net section of plate, 
and the efficiency of the rivets exceeds 
the latter to some extent. With a fac- 
tor of safety of 4, the boiler will show 
signs of distress at 200 pounds pressure, 
for as soon as the clastic limit of the 
plate is reached the plate begins to re- 
duce in area, consequently a loss of 
strength ensues which cannot be regain- 

It must not be assumed that a boiler 
constructed for 100 pounds pressure, 



factor of safety of 4, will be able to 
sustain a hydrostatic pressure of 200 
pounds per square inch without serious 
and permanent injury to the plates. The 
hypostatic test should at all times be 
less than the elastic limit, and a cold 
water test of one and one-half times the 
allowable steam working pressure is 

Nnmber of Courses in a Boiler Shell. 

(7) In the earlier days the designer was 
forced to give consideration to the size 
of plates obtainable. With the intro- 
duction of larger and heavier machinery 
in the rolling mills, plates are now 
made of greater thickness and length 
and width than formerly, and, accord- 
ingly the number of sections or courses 
now composing a steam boiler are fewer 
than brfore. 

The steam pressure per square inch of 
steam boiler has increased gradually in 
late years, and this with the changes in 
the plates has caused the whole field oi 
boiler designing and boiler constructing 
to undergo marked changes within the 
past fifteen years. 

The number of courses to bo used in a 
horizontal tubular boiler is a question 
upon which boiler designers are not all 
of the same opinion. Some have ad- 
vocated making large tubular boilers of 
one course. This is the practice for the 
shells of small size tanks and air drums 
and like structures, and has given sat- 
isfactory results, but the one course 
large size boiler has been anything but 
a success, and for reasons which will be 
hereinafter given. 

Others have advocated constructing 
horizontal tubular boilers with a long 

bottom course and several upper courses 
as shown in Fig. 4. There is no advan- 
tage in this form of construction in re- 
gards to the costs of manufacture. This 
plan of Construction is used principally 
with large tanks, such as used by rail- 
roads for transporting oil. Vessels o£ 
this design have given satisfaction in 
the foregoing field, but what few boilers 
of this design, where the shell is in con- 
tact with the flames and hot gases, have 
been a source of trouble almost from 
the day they were installed. 

The majority of boiler manufacturers 
are now constructing tubular boilers 
with either two or three courses. The 
tendency is to favor the two-course 
boiler. This is due to the fact that a 
t-wo-course tubular boiler can be con- 
structed somewhat cheaper than a three- 
course boiler. The boiler manufacturer 
in order to meet the demands for boil- 
ers at low figures, naturally, designs 
and constructs the type which has the 
lowest first costs. 

While the purchaser desires to pur- 
chase everything as cheaply as possible, 
which fact has been deeply impressed 
upon the mind of the manufacturers, the 
purchaser should take into considera- 
tion the whole field and not merely first 

The three-course tubular boiler as 
shown in Fig. 5, is favored as thepiith 
seams a and b stiffen the shell sheet, 
while the stiffening of a two-course 
boiler as shown in Fig. 6, is only one- 
half that of the three-course boiler. Of 
the above respective types of boilers, 
experience has shown that a two-course 

boiler with long longitudinal seams is 
not as satisfactory as a three-course 
boiler with short longitudinal seam, and 
as a groneral rule a three course boiler 
is more durable than a two-course 

There is also another point in favor 
of the three-course boiler. The girth 
seam of a three-course boiler is well 
away from the bridge wall, the same 
being indicated in Fig. 5, while the 
girth seam of a two-course boiler is di- 
rectly over the bridge wall, the same 
being indicated in Fig. 6. With a three- 
course boiler the impinging flame strikes 
the shell sheet at about the point a, 
Fig. 5, while with a two-course boiler 
the impinging flame strikes the shell 
sheet at or near the girth seam a, 
Fig. 6. 

While it is true that the girth seam 
b of a three-course boiler is directly 
over the furnace — and this is not the 
case with a two-course boiler — the girth 
seam b. Fig. 5, does not come in con- 
tact with the impinging flame as does 
the girth seam a, Fig. 6. 

The foregoing considerations are up- 
permost in the minds of boiler design- 
ers when designing tubular boilers. In 
addition thereto comes the question of 
repairs. It has been found that a two- 
course boiler is more liable to bag from 
scale, mud and grease than a three- 
course boiler, and further when trouble 
of this character arises, a three-course 
boiler tends to prevent the bag from 
spreading over a groat distance, and 
accordingly the repairing is usually less 
with a three-course boiler than a two- 
course boiler. 

Machining a Flexible Joint for the Toronto Intake Pipe 

The Variation in Levels, Where the Intake Pipe Extension is Being Laid at Toronto, Neces- 
sitates the Changing of Direction by Using Ball and Socket Joints. The Machining of 
These Large, Flexible Joints is an Interesting Problem ]]'hich was Solved by the Can- 
ada Foundry, Toronto. . 

'Ip HE intake for Toronto water sup- 
•*■ ply etxends out into Lake Ontario. 
For some time trouble has arisen from 
sand and brushwood colleetingr around 
the mouth of the intake. The Toronto 
Board of Control and Council were im- 
pressed with the idea that purer water 
could be obtained farther out in the 
lake and that the above troubles could 
he eliminated. 

City Entrineer Rust and Assistant 
Engineer Fellows were instructed to ex- 
tend the intake 500 feet. The extension 
had to be made in deep water and the 
pipe laid on a varying level of lake bed. 
The extension has therefore created a 
number of problems to be solved. 

One of these problems was to make 

provision for the change in direction of 
the pipe due to the difference in levels. 
For this purpose it was decided to use 
two ball and socket joints. The ball 
and joint must fit perfectly, otherwise 
a leak would result. The machining of 
these joints was therefore a very fine 
piece of woi'k, necessitating absolute 
accuracy. Two joints were made to fit 
in between tiiree sections of pipe, each 
168 feet lonfr, 72 inches diameter. The 
plate u.sed was 5-8 inches thick, chan- 
nel riveted to cast steel flan<<es and 
turned to suit the radius of the bearing. 
Fig. 1 shows the finished ball joint. 

The contract for the flexible joints 
was given to the Canada Foundry Co., 
Toronto, and Mr. Loach, the superin- 

tendent devised the plan of machining 
the work. This taxed the machinery to 
a certain extent. It was finally accom- 
plished on a large locomotive wheel 
lathe built by the John Bertram & Sons 
Co., Dundas. 


The machine operations on the ball 
joint were as follows: 

(1) The easting which is 7 ft. ,3 in. 
outside diameter finished, was put on a 
10 ft. boring mill, liored and faced on 
outside and given a roughing cut to re- 
move uneven metal. 

(2) It was sent to the boiler shop and 
riveted onto piping with flange. This 
piping was short length and steel flanqjo 


niacle it easy to hold the casting cp the 
face phite of the wheel lathe. 

(3) The rigging was composed of a 
ball-bearing turntable ordinarily used 
for heavy drill press work, fastened in 
the exact centre of the lathe underneatli 
the easting; a bar connected the turntable 
with the tool post which was remove.I 
from original fittings and placed on a 
surface i)late. A screw feed atlacli- 
ment for moving tool post on a perfect 
radius resulted in an excellent job and 
an exact circular surface. 

Mechanism Explained. 

The tool post rested on the surface 
plate A, Fig. 2, and was connected to a 
ball bearing centre by the rod J, thus 
making a solid connection between the 
two. The tool post was fastened to a 
plate with a lug E. The ratchet D was 
fastened to the screw B. By operating 
the ratchet, the tool post resting on the 
shoes F, was drawn towards the lug C 
which was permanently fixed to the s\ir- 
face plate. 

The casting has a steel pipe fastened 
to it. This pipe has a flange by whicii 
it was bolted in the lathe as shown at 
H. On account of the weight of the 
ball joint, it was braced from the face 
plate shown on the right of the illus- 
tration. Four braces were used, being 
fastened solidly by means of turn- 
buckles as shown at H. This arrange- 
ment prevented any moving of the work 
during the machining operations. The 
result was a perfect ball joint. 


Geo. D. Leacock has been appointed 
travelling representative for the Pack- 
ard Electric Co. for the territory be- 
tween Kingston and the Soo. His head- 
quarters will be in Toronto. 

• • • 

Laurence T. Walls, of the Dominion 
Wire Mfg. Co., Montreal, lias accepted a 
position in the Winnipeg office of the 
Steel Co. of Canada, as assistant to Mr. 
Hanna, manager of the Northwest sales 
branch of the Steel Co. 

• • » 

J. T. Brower. manager and engineer 
of the Structural Steel Co., Longue 
Point, will become general manager of 
the National Bridge Co., of Montreal. 
He will take charge of the National 
Bridge Co. on March 1. 

• * • 

Tho.s. Moore has been appointed man- 
ager of the Belleville Rolling Mills, 
which is a branch of the Steel Co. of 
Canada. Mr. Moore was connected witli 
this firm shortly after it started in busi- 
ness, but i-esigned to take position of 
salesman witli the Canada Screw Co., 



]— Flexible Joint, Designed "by' the' To rouro" Waterworks 'oepaTtTnTiTt'Tor the 

Intake Extension. 

Fig. 2 

-A Ball ,Iiiin( made at the Canada Poundrv. Toronto, for tlip Toron 

Supply Intake. 

to Water 


Unique Ways of Doing Things in the Machine Shop. Readers' Opinions 
Concerning Shop Practice. Data for Machinists. Contributions paid for. 


By J. H. Rodgers. 

The accompanying sketch shows an at- 
tachment placed on a gap lathe for the 
purpose of turning the portion of a 
circle of large radius, as found on a 
blanking die for pail or tub sections, 
and other similar work, within the 
range of the attachment. 

The large bracket A is secured to the 
bed of the lathe B in such a position 
that the back of the plate P rides on 
the surface of the face plate F. 

The plate P is kept in contact with 
the face plate F by the pin P and the 
block L. At the rear of the plate P 
is secured a bracket K, which carries 
one end of the shaft S, the other end 
passing through the swivel block R, 
which is free to turn in tBe piece H. 
H can be secured in the slot as shown 
to suit the radius being turned as a — ^b. 

The pin P is secured to the face plate 
in a position that gives the desired 

cleaner, quicker^ and gives better results 
than the ordinary fluted reamer; does 
not bind, and can be sharpened in a few 
minutes on an ordinary flat emery 
wheel, and saves toolroom time by do- 

Taper Dowel Hole Beamer. 

ing away with the necessity of having 
an experienced toolmaker grind it. 

The tool is made from li inch round 
stock; the shank being turned to fit 
machine spindle, the body turned to re- 
quired taper and milled out to J-in. 
thickness, leaving, a 1-in. diameter turned 
pilot end, to steady the tool in opera- 
tion, and ensure a true hole. The cut- 

Turning Die Sections of Large Radtl. 

travel to the work W, which is fastened 
to the plate P. 

As the lathe spindle revolves it gives 
an up and down motion to the work, 
similar to the action of a shaper, only 
the tool is stationary, while the work 
is in motion. 

By L. R. Brown. 

The sketch and description refers to a 
tool used in the C.P.R. Angus shops, 
Montreal, for reaming taper dowel plug 
holes in locomotive driving box crown 
brasses. It is cheaper to make, cuts 

ting edges are filed to give the neces- 
sary cutting clearance, and these only 
should be ground. 



By G. B. Marquette. 

Most of us have experienced trouble in 
getting a block or key which is to be 
held between the jaws of the vise to lay 
flat on the parallel bars A, just as the 
movable jaw tightens on the job, the 
slackness in the jaw lifts the piece of 
work. Time after time the vise is 
slackened and tlgbtQiied again. It would 

not be hammered down. Time is being 
wasted for the machine stands idle. 
Take a piece of f-in. rod, insert between 
the movable jaw of the vise and the 
work and tighten. Instead of the slack- 
ness in the jaw lifting our work, the 

CSetting Good Work from Shaky Vise. 

piece of i-in. round will accommodate 
itself to the movement of the jaw and 
roll slightly, leaving our piece of work 
perfectly flat, and upon the top face be- 
ing machined will be found to be per- 
fectly parallel. 

By G. B. Marquette. 

In the machine shop we frequently 
have to make a template of sheet iron, 
and in order that we may not distort 
the material we are obliged to use a 
hack saw. Immediately we attempt to 
use it, we are in trouble, for the thin 
sheet iron just drops between two of the 
teeth and stops there. To get over the 
difficulty simply reverse the saw blade 
in the frame and proceed in the usual 
way. It will neither catch or break, 
and cuts just as well. 


The construction of an automobile 
brake is not very generally understood. 
The ones shown in Fig. 1 and used on 
the Russell cars, manufactured by the 
Canada Cycle & Motor Co., Toronto, 
will therefore be of interest. 

In the end view, the moving element 
is shown hatched. In an automobile 
brake there are two main considerations, 
namely, lightness and positiveness of 
action, particularly the latter feature, 
as such a brake must never fail to work 
when required. For this reason, each 
brake has two clutches, the ordinary, 
niid the emergency. 

The outer brake shoe is part of the 
"ordinary" equipment. It is put in 
operation by moving to the right the 
lever 6649 (shown to the extreme right 
of the cut.) This tends to bring closer 
together pins 3012 and 1188, tightening 



the brake oil the outside of the moving 
shell. When the brake is released, 
spring 5918 separates the two elements 
of the brake shoe, which are hinged on 
the far side. As this brake is in con- 
stant use, the friction face wears, loos- 
ening the brake on the moving element, 
necessitating a further movement of 
the brake lever to tighten the brake. For 
that reason it is made adjustable for 
wear by threading the bolt connecting 
the two halves of the brake, as shown. 
Customarily in most brakes, a nut and 
jam nut are employed, requiring a jour- 
ney under the ear each time adjust- 
ment is needed. The Russell car uses 
a simple contrivance to overcome this, 
using the lock nut shown at 5921, and 
more clearly in Fig. 2. The connecting 
holt passes through a hole in pin 3012, 
and the lock nut, which has its face 
rounded out, conforms to this surface, 
and is positively held in the one position 
by the spring holding it there. This 
permits of only half turn adjustment, 
which meets requirements. 

For emergency purposes, there is an 
inner clutch, as shown, and which is of 
a much more positive nature. It consists 
of a toggle joint operated by lever 6321 
(shown dotted inside view.) The shov- 
ing to the right of link 797, creates a 
tremendous outward pressure of the 
brake on the moving element, stopping 
it almost instantly if applied with suf- 
ficient force. It is also adjustable as 

shown by a small turnbuckle threaded 
light and left hand. A spring 6585, 
holds the shoes out of position when 



Exterual Brake Adjuster. 

not required. It is not adjustable, as 
this is unnecessary, the brake being only 
put in commission in eases of emer- 

One of the most difficult pieces to keep 
properly lubricated, is the worm fjpar 
on a vertical shaft, for there is noining 
to retain the oil or grease like there is 
when it is placed horizontally. This has 
been the experience of Wm. Kennedy & 
Sons, Owen Sound, who have improvis- 
ed the simply device shown in the ac- 
companying sketch, to overcome lubri- 
cation difficulties of worm gears on ver- 
tical shafts. The fixture consists of a 
shell A in which are paddles B, on shaft 
C, which is supported in cast bearings, 
projecting from shell A. The box A is 

placed directly beneath the worm to be 
lubricated, in such a way that the teeth 
of B, mesh with the worm teeth. Ot 
course, B must be made specially for 
different worm pitches. The space E is 
filled with a semi-fluid grease, which is 
lifted up into contact with the worm 
as each tooth of B rises. The grease 
must be semi-fluid to insure the space 
around B being always filled. 

There are two wheels B, one placed 
slightly behind the other, as shown in 
the plan view, thus giving pitch to the 
oil wheels, to match the worm. The 
whole device, while very simple and 
crude, meets the requirements extremely 





Worm Gear Oiler. 

well. Gears examined after long use, 
showed practically no wear, whereas, 
before using this method, the wear was 
quite considerable. 

FItr. 1— An Effective Automatic Brake used on Eussell Cars, Canada Cycle & Motor Co., Toronto. 



By M. E. D. 

Soft-soldering is not considered a very 
mechanical way of fastening machine 
parts, but it sometimes helps one out 
of a difficulty in a surprising manner. 
Over a year ago the writer had the job 
of repairing a lathe on which the main 
driving gear was loose on the spindle. 
The spindle was hollow, and so thin 
that it did not furnish a good support 
for the key. The gear, spindle, key- 
seat, and key were cleaned and carefully 
tinned. They were then heated hot 
enough to melt the solder, and were as- 
sembled. The lathe has been in hard 
service ever since, and the gear is still 
perfectly tight. 

A very satisfactory extension drill 
may be had by taking a piece of iron or 
brass pipe, whose internal diameter 
equals that of the hole to be drilled, 
and with a crosspeen hammer make two 
dents directly opposite each other and 
about IJ inches from one end. Into this 
pipe drive the twist drill, after having 
ground the end flat. This is a very good 
way of driving taps also. 

In many small shops the screw mach- 
ine and other tools are finish-ground on 
copper laps. These laps are about 10 
inches in diameter by about ^ inch 
thick, and are mounted on the same 
spindle as the emery wheel. The lap is 
easily charged in the usual way by us- 
ing a hardened steel roller and rolling 
the abrasive into it. Tools finish- 
sharpened in this way will do much bet- 
ter work, and will last much longer. 

To drill a large hole clean from the 
start without jumping or chattering in 
tne least, take a small piece of old rag 
or waste about the size of the end of 
the drill; place it under the point of 
the drill, and then drill through the rag 
or waste. This idea may be used to fa 
great advantage in countersinking work 
which requires a clean finish. 


The accompanying sketch is the steel 
frame of a large rudder being made for 
a boat 580 feet long, at the works of 
the Collingwood Shipbuilding Co., Col- 
lingwood, Ont. It is about 21 feet long, 
and nearly 10 feet wide, and when com- 
pleted will be covered on both sides 'vith 
boiler plate. 

The machining of the bottom tip .V of 
the rudder presented a problem, for the 
largest lathe in the shop had only an 
18 ft. bed, and 18-in. swing, .vhile a 
swing of at least 8 feet was n " 
if the article was to be turned 'n the 
usual manner. The tip, itself, is only 
5J inches diameter by 5J inche, lung. 
The difficulty was overcome as i \<\\'s : 
The rudder was jacked up on its flat side 
on the carriage of the lathe, k cross 
tool was secured to the face jihiLe, aiid 

after adjusting, the carriage leed was 
put on, feeding the work up onto it. 

Rudder to be Machined. 

thereby doing the work. A very neat 
and accurate job was produced in this 
way. The other end B was completed 
on the planer. 


Cha.s. Barber & Sons, Meaford, Ont., 
have a neat little device, which they im- 
provised recently to make the ferrules 
shown at A in the accompanying sketch. 
Large numbers of these are required as 
spacers in the guard racks made for 
their turbine installations. 

The device consists of a body, B as 
shown. The shaft C, has a long handle 
D on the end for twisting, while the 
other end is formed as a crank with 

the desired throw. The crank pin has a 
hardened steel roller E on it. In the 
same line as the shaft is pin F, the 
inner end G being of the desired size of 
the inside of the ferrule. H is a clamp- 
ing screw. 

The stock, l"xj" band iron, is cut 
the desired length, and one end of the 
piece placed between clamp H and pin 
G, after the shaft C has been turned to 
its highest position, the roller being 
thus over the ferrule blank. After 
clamping H, shaft C is revolved, the 
roller E bending the stock to the shape 
of the pin G. Pin F can then be with- 
drawn, this action removing the ferrule, 
leaving ready for the next. A boy can 
produce over a thousand in a day. 


The uses to which high-speed steel has 
been put are numerous, in the metal 
working industries especially. Follow- 
ing the trend of development, Robt. 
Dryden, toolmaker for Sheldons' Ltd., 
Gait, has gotten out tor use in the 
works, the tap and die shown in Figs. 
1 and 2 respectively, wherein a minimum 
of high-speed steel has been made to do 
maximum dut^^•. 

The tap shown in Fig. 1 consists es- 
sentially of a machinery steel body A, 
on which the collar D is turned, and 
which has the four longtitudinal flutes 
as shown, the flute passing down through 
collar D as well as into the main part 
of the body. The split collar C is 
threaded corresponding to the thread of 
the tap, and can be tightened down by 
the side set screws. This collar, being 
faced off squarely, bears against the 
collar D on the body, and holds the 
chasers in alignment, and prevents 
cross-threads. Heavy working does not 
tend to put them out of position, but 
the reverse. The chasers are made in a 
solid arbor, into slots in which, they 
are tapped, eight at a time. It will be 
noticed that the slots in body A are so 
made that the cutting face is perpendicu- 
lar. In order to back off the chasers, 
the grooves in the cutting arbor, are 

Fuirule Boiler. 



ofl-set slightly, so that the back is cut 
deeper than the front, so no backing-ofi 
attachment to the lathe is necessary. 
Fig. 2 shows the inserted cutter prin- 

Fig. 1— Inserted Cutter Tap. 

ciple applied to a die used for thread- 
ing pipe plugs, etc. As before, the body 
A is soft steel, with high-speed steel 

chasers K, held in position by collar B. 
To keep the alignment, a centre pin C 
is threaded, and. has a tip D which cen- 
trally locates both chasers E, and pin 
C. Set screws in collar B adjust the 
chasers in, as desired. 

One of the noticeable features is the 
method of lubrication. An annular chan- 
nel F in collar B has several holes lead- 
ing down from it to the face of the 
chasers, feeding the cutting fluid down 
on the cutting edges at all times. 

The really valuable feature about both 
tap and die, is the longevity, for both 
will last an indefinite period. In all 
thread cutting tools, it is at the tip 
that the heaviest cutting occurs, caus- 
ing the greatest wear at that point. In 
these inserted chaser tools, the tips can 
be ground oR, and the chasers lowered 
a tooth, making them as good as new. 


The accompanying sketch is of a flex- 
ible coupling used by the Canada Gas 
Power and Producer Co., Barrie, Ont., 

ed oil and (our ounces of turpentine into 
the glue pot, and in this dissolve three 
ounces of resin. When the resin is dis- 
solved, add the glue. The resin and 
glue should be well stirred while dis- 

Before applying the leather cover to 
a pulley have it warm and dry, and 
scrape off all matter that may have ac- 
cumulated on its face. Then with a 
swab, apply muriatic acid (full 
strength) to all parts of the face of the 
pulley. When dry, wipe gently with 
waste. Cut leather lengthwise of hide, 
and a little wider than the face of the 
pulley. Have the cement melted in the 
glue pot, apply it across the face of the 
pulley, with a brush, for about six or 
eight inches, lay on the end of leather 
and rub it down hard with the corner of 
a piece of wood. Fold back the leather 
and continue to apply cement until the 
pulley is covered. Two thicknesses of 
leather are used. Make the first thick- 
ness a butt joint, and the last a scarf or 
lap joint of about three or four inches 

Flexible Coupllug. 

Inserted Cutter Die. 

for direct-connecting their gas engines 
to generators. 

The coupling A is attached directly 
to the crank shaft, while B is on the 
generator shaft. It will be noticed that 
the arrangement consists of these two 
couplings, with pins, such as that shown 
at C, projecting inward, alternately 
from each one. For example, pin C, pro- 
jects from A, and is free in a larger 
elongated hole in B, so that B may move 
up or down, etc., within limits, without 
fouling A. The next pin projects from 
B into A, and so on. Between these pins 
ai-e leather links D, through which A 
(1 lives B. This has proved to be an ex- 
cellent coupling. 



By R. F. Williams. 

First soak twelve ounces of good glue 
in cold water. Put four ounces of boil- 

long. Make the laps on the driven pul- 
leys the way they should run, and on 
the drivers the opposite way. Pulleys 
should be cleaned by holding a piece of 
coarse sand paper against them. 



By H. D. Chapman. 

The accompanying drawing shows the 
way in which a hack-saw can be attach- 
ed to a lathe. This will be found very 
handy about a small shop, and is inex- 
pensive and simple in its constructif'i. 
The device is so constructed that it can 
be easily put on and taken off the lathe. 

The .saw and its parts are mounted 
on a 1-inch thick by 8-ineh wide cast iron 
slab; this makes the device easy to use 
on any lathe. The device consists of 
slide bar A, and two supports on each 
end, B and C, which are to guide the bar 



A, the bar D is to brace the saw frame and 
to keep it from tuming. 

The slide is a flat piece of machine 
steel 5-16 inch thick and 2 inches wide; 
the length is about 4 feet, or to suit 
the stroke. A hole is drilled in the 
slide bar A for a 5-16 inch bolt. This 
is to hold the connecting i-od E. 

The supports B and C are made of 
1-inch squai-e stock. The support B has 
an end turned and threaded to suit a 
^I't-ineh tapped hole which is in the east 
iron base F. The support C is bolted 
to the other end of, as shown. Each 
support has a 5-16 in. slot cut through the 
center, so as to .lUow a neat sliding fit 
to slide bar A. 

The guide D is made of 5-16-inch by 
1-inch machine steel. One end of guide 

Hack Saw Attachment for Lathes. 

is bolted to saw frame, allowing the other 
end to slide through support B, thus 
preventing tlie saw from having any 

The connecting rod E is a strip of 
5-16 in. flat steel about 2 inches wide and 
of a length to suit the saw frame. The 
connecting rod is also bolted to the face 
plate of the lathe, as shown in the cut, 
and can be adjusted in the slot of the 
face plate; this adjustment will accom- 
modate the length of the saw. 

The .saw frame is made of machine 
steel, and the saw is made tight in the 
frame by means of a thumb-screw, as 
shown at the outer end of the frame. 

An ordinary machine vise is clamped 
to the base plate; this holds the stock 
while cutting off. This hack-saw fixture 
is clamped to the shears of the lathe, 
as shown, and is held in position with a 
%-inch bolt. — Scientific American. 


Comments on articles appearing in 
Canadian Machinery will be cheerfully 
welcomed and letters containing useful 
ideas will be paid for. 

Information regarding manufacturers 
of various lines, with their addresses 
will be supplied either through these 
columns or by letter, on request. Ad- 
dress letters to Canadian Macliinery, 
14.3-149 University Ave., Toronto. — 

Tapping Hole Straight. 

One of the questions asked a C.P.R. 
apprentice on a recent examination was : 
How can you tell whether a tap is going 
in straight or not, if the hole being tap- 
ped passed through the centre of a 
sphere? Perhaps readers of Canadian 
Machinery would have some ideas. — 


Bolt Hole Facing Tool. 

lu the . article *'A Day's Ramble 
Thro"gh the M.C.R. Shops at St. 
Thomas," December issue, 1910, a des- 
cription is given on page 39 of a Bolt 
Hole Facing Tool shown in the attached 
drawing, Fig. 1. The article states, "In 

Mr. Gidlow, in his lecture, pointed out 
in the commencement that a life might 
often be saved by the possession of a 
little intelligent, first-aid knowledge on 
the part of the by-stander. Illustrating 
his argument by little narratives of real 
accidents, Mr. Gidlow proceeded: 

"The case of possible death by 
drowning demands special attention. 
Ignorant and careless handling of the 
supposed victim by drowning has often 
unwittingly completed the work of suffo- 
cation by immersion, and one can real- 
ize what this means in this country, 
where an average of seven hundred 

Fig. 1— Bolt Hole Facing Tool 

place of being keyed in the usual man- 
ner, the centre hole is bored flat on one 
side, and the bar itself flattened to cor- 
respond. Will you kindly explain how 
the cutter is "bored flat?" — Novice. 

The hole in the cutter blank which is 
made of high speed steel, is first drilled 

drowning accidents occur every year. 
"First aid is a branch of work en- 
tirely different from that of the sur- 
geon. It is special, and differs from 
the special training which every stu- 
dent receives. The medical student is 
taught to use all the best and most 

with a 1 in. drill. The blank is then approved methods, while the first aid 

- «i" 

Fig. 2— Bolt Hole Facing Tool, "Blank Drift." 

heated and the drift shown in Fig. 2 is 
driven through, thus leaving a flat side 
in the hole. The blank is then put on 
a mandrel and machined. This will no 
doubt satisfactorily explain the meaning 
intended by the words "bored flat." 


At a recent meeting of the Western 
Canada Railway Club, Winnipeg, S. A. 
Gidlow, general secretary of St. John 
Ambulance Association, C.P.R., Montreal, 
read a paper on "First Aid to the In- 
jured." There were several practical 
demonstrations of ways of rendering 
"first and." These, which were super- 
intended by J. T. Warde, G. D. Lock- 
hart and Dr. Moorehead, showed meth- 
ods of immediate treatment of: a com- 
pound fracture of the thigh ; a broken 
collar-bone and fracture of the forearm, 
such as would likely follow a street car 
accident; and hemorrhage in different 
parts of the body. Also there was illus- 
trated the right way to lift and carry 
a wounded man, and the Schaffer, La- 
bord and Sylvester methods of inducing 

student is taught to use whatever is 
nearest to hand in the most scientific 
way possible. He must make a band- 
age out of a neck-tie or a handkerchief. 
He must improvise a tourniquet from a 
belt or a brace; for splints he must uti- 
lize a stick, a rifle, an umbrella or fold- 
ed newspapers, and construct a stretch- 
er out of a couple of broom handles and 
coats. ' ' 

Mr. Gidlow explained the course of 
instruction in detail. The first three 
lectures dealt respectively with the 
bones, circulation and nervous system; 
and the fourth and fifth with methods 
of rendering first aid and of carrying 
the injured. As soon as the lectures 
were finished, the men were taken in 
hand by one of the company's ambul- 
ance instructors, and taught the prac- 
tical work. Test questions were put to 
the classes before they were allowed to 
go up for examination. 

In conclusion Mr. Gidlow told of the 
classes organized along the different 
divisions of the C.P.R., totalling 51 
classes and consisting of 1,607 men. 


New Machinery for Machine Shop, Foundry, Pattern Shop, Planing 
Mill ; New Engines, Boilers, Electrical Machinery, Transmission Devices. 


The accompanying illustration shows 
a LseiRTiil view and details of a 21 inch 
heavy-duty engine lathe recently placed 
on the market. This is one size of a line 
of lathes of the same type, iucludint!: 
17, 19, 21, 25, 27, .30 and 3.'! inch, lathes. 
'I'he principle ou which these machines 
have been designed has been to furnish 
a tool capable of takinj; a given cut and 
removing a given number of cubic in- 
ches of metal per minute. The 21 inch 
lathe shown is capable of taking a cut 
l^ inch, deep with a feed of 1-6 inch at 
a cutting speed of 65 feet per minute, in 
50-point carbon steel. This is equal to 
removing 32 cubic inches of metal per 

The head stock is of the LeBlond im- 
proved drop brace pattern and is se- 
curely fastened to the bed with bolts 
of large size. The three-step cone pul- 
ley in conjunction with the double fric- 
tion back gears and a two-speed counter 
shaft, provide in all, eighteen changes 
of spindle speeds, covering a range 
carefully selected for the purpose of the 
machine. The spindle is hollow and 
made of high carbon hammered steel, 
and is hardened and ground at the 
front and rear journals. These latter 
are carried in cast iron boxes scraped 
to a good bearing fit. This type of 
licariii^' the builders consider preferable 

because il does not require intricalc oil- 
ing devices with continual attention on 
pari of the ojjcrator; yet the lubrication 
is well taken care of. The bearing stan- 
dards are cored out to form large oil 
chambers which are filled from the 
front of the lathe; from these the oil 
is fed to the bearings by means of felt 
pads. This construction eliminates all 
possibility of grit and dirt entering 
the bearings, and reduces the attention 
required to filling the oil receptacle 
once a week. 

The tail stock is of massive design 
with a bearing of ample length on the 
bed. The tail-spindle l)arrel is desigiied 
in such a manner as to give the maxi- 
mum length of bearing combined with 
long travel. Screws are provided for 
setting over the tail-stock for taper 
work, the base being graduated so that 
this setting can be easily accomplished. 

A new departure has been followed 
in the design af the bed. The tail-stock 
slides on a V of the usual ])roportions 
on the rear way. and on a flat surface 
in the front. The carriage travels 
on a flat surface in the back, 
as shown, and is held down in the 
back by a flat gib. The front of 
the carriage slides on a guide of dif- 
ferent shape from that usually found in 
engine lathes. This guide, as shown, is 
V shaped, but is machined at an angle 

of 15 degrees on the Iront side, and 70 
degrees on the back, inukiiig the total 
included angle 95 ' degrees. 

The carriage is helil in alignmenl on 
a scraped surface on the front of tlie 
bed by taper gibs at l)oth end bearings. 
This construction together with the 70- 
degree angle on the back of the V over- 
comes any tendency of the carriage to 
(limb the ways when the lathe is en- 
gaged on heavy work. The gibs are 
longued in position in the carriage, and 
in combination with the special con- 
struction of the V, they automatically 
compensate for the wear; this makes 
it unnecessary to give any attention to 
the adjustment of the gibs. Wipers are 
l>rovided, fitted with felt pads, which 
in addition to wiping off chips and grit 
from the sliding surfaces also provides 
for automatic oiling of the ways. 

The lathe spindle is set back a cer- 
tain distance (in this size of lathe, two 
inches) from the centre of the shears, 
which construction not only provides 
for an increased swing over the car- 
riage, but at the same time permits the 
machine to be used at full swing with- 
out the tool overhanging the bed, a 
construction which adds greatly to the 
rigidity of the machine when turning 
work of large diameters. 

The apron is constructed of a one- 
piece box section casting with all gears 

One of a New Llue of Lathes Manufactured by the London Machine Tool Co., Hamilton. 



and studs supported at both ends. The 
apron lias a wide bearing on the car- 
riage, is held in position by four bolts, 
and is tilted to the carriage by means of 
a tongue. The single box section form 
of the apron, it is stated by the manu- 
facturers, does away with the necessity 
of an auxiliary support at the lower end 
of the apron, and overcomes the diffi- 
culty of uneven wear between such lower 
slides and the V on the top of the bed. 

The longitudinal and cross feeds aro 
operated by a single friction, which, in 
addition to being of large diameter, is 
so place<l in regard to the gearing, that 
it has but a light duty to perform. 

Nine changes of speed for the lea.l- 
screw are obtained by means of the coii'e 
of gears and the tumbler. The tumbler 
gear is supported on a cylindrical bear- 
ing, and is securely locked in position 
by the plunger in the change handle. 
This construction is the same as has 
been used on the LeBlond lathes for 
some time. The nine changes men- 
tioned above are quadrupled by the ad- 
dition of a sliding gear transmission. 
The gears of this sliding transmission 
are operated by the lower lever. This 
construction permits of the use of a 
speed or index plate which reads direct- 
ly, and from which the operator can see 
at a glance the position of the levers 
required for any desired speed. The 
changes can be ma'i'! while l!ie lathe is 
running under the heaviest cut. The 
gears in the gear box as well as all 
other feed gear.s are made from drop- 
forged steel blanks. The feed rod is 
driven by the same mechanism by means 
of gears connecting it with the lead- 

screw, the range of feed being from 4 
to 120 per inch. The changes for the lead 
screw provided by the gear box are 
thirty-six in number, ranging from 1 to 
liO threads per inch. 

The feed box is connected to the 
spindle by means of gears, the intermed- 
iate one of which is mounted on a quad- 
rant, which permits the use of compound 
gearing at this point if required, for 
cutting special or metric threads with 
a standard English pitch lead-screw. A 
u'etric pitch lead-screw can also be sup- 
plied, in which case the gearing arrange- 
ment permits of cutting English pitch 
threads with this screw, by using com- 
pound gearing in the same manner. 

These lathes are manufactured by the 
London Machine Tool Co., Hamilton, 
who have arranged with the R. K. Le- 
Blonde Machine Tool Co., for the manu- 
facture of their lathes in Canada. These 
are made on exactly the same lines as 
those built in the United States. 


The illustration shows a Pratt & Whit- 
ney 6 x 14-ineh thread milling machine 
arranged for the cutting of spiral gears. 
The relation between the inner and outer 
spindle by means of which indexing is 
accomplished,, is controlled directly by 
the index plate and pawl. The quick 
return device which is very conveniently 
actuated by a crank located at the front 
of the machine is very rapid in opera- 

The machine is provided with pre- 
cision lead and cross feed screws. Mi- 
crometer dial and positive adjustable 
stop give very accurate control of cutter 

head. One of the strong points of the 
thread milling machine is the locating of 
the cutter in a manner to prevent chip 
interference, which makes possible ex- 
ceptionally fast feed without sacrificing 
quality of work. Three cutter speeds 
are provided. Eighteen carriage feeds 
for each speed of the cutter are instant- 
ly obtained by means of a geared feed 

The machine and attachments have 
been placed on the market by Pratt & 
Whitney, Hartford, Conn. 


The illustration shows a recently de- 
veloped attachment for tlie milling of 
internal threads on the Pratt & Whit- 
ney thread milling machine. The cutter 
head, which is of rigid construction 
throughout, is made a complete unit and 
may be readily accommodated to the 
regular carriage. Its proper relation 
with the carriage is maintained by 
means of long dovetail bearings and a 
taper gib which may be readily adjust- 
ed for wear. The cutter head proper 
is so mounted that the necessary swivel- 
ing action for proper cutter clearance 
is obtained without disturbing the cen- 
tral relation of cutter and work, accur- 
ate graduations being provided for this 
purpose. The cutter head when set to 
the required angle is securely clamped 
to its seat by means of powerful bolts 
which makes it equal to a solid member 
in points of rigidity. 

The cutter spindle which is made of 
tool steel is hardened, ground and 
lapped. Tt is provided with a taper 

I'ratt Ac Wliitiug Tbread .MUiiiis Machine for 8plral Gear Cuttlue 

Fig. 1. 

I'ratt & Whitijig TInvMil .Milling .Machine tuv Imeniul 
Ibrwd MiUioff. 



hole for the reception of the various 
cutter arbors, a drawback bolt being 
provided for holding the arbors in 
place. The bronze sleeve or box in 
which the spindle runs is mounted in 
the head in a manner to permit the 
/oiigitudinal adjustment of the spindle, 

chuck and closer, as showp in place on 
the machine, has proven exceptionally 
efficient for work within its range. This 
step chuck, as will be noted, is provided 
with adjustable jaws, which are inde- 
pendent of tlie closing mechanism and 
when once set to the desired diameter 

I''ig. :i— KxaiiipU'S of Intricate Milliuj;. 

wliicli is very convenient in re-setting 
the cutter to a previously cut thread. 
The cutter spindle is driven directly 
f I'om the main driving shaft by . means 
(it searing. Backlash in the driving 
mcars which would tend towards the 
vibrating or chattering of the cutter, 
has been eliminated by the introduc- 
lion of a fly-wheel. This fly-wheel is 
mounted in bearings independent of the 
spindle, yet in a manner to obtain the 
desired result very effectively. 

A feature of the thread milling 
luachine is the accurate and positive 
control of the cutter head obtained by 
means of the micrometer dial and posi- 
tive adjustable stop. The simple and 
uniquely constructed stop which per- 
mits the withdrawing of the cutter from 
the work and accurately returning 
same to the exact previous depth, has 
proven especially valuable on internal 

The cutter is provided with three 
speeds by means of a three-step cone. 
Eighteen carriage feeds are obtainable 
for each cutter speed through a gear 

The machine may be arranged for the 
cutting of either single or multiple 
threads. When arranged for multiple 
threading, as shown in the illustration, 
the work-holding appliance is carried 
(in the inner spindle, the outer spindle 
being provided with a very accurate 
index ring by means of which any mul- 
tiple of thread desired may be cut. The 
index ring is very large in diameter in 
proportion to the work operated upon, 
therefore the tendency to inaecuraey 
is reduced to the minimum. 

While the design of the spindle read 
ily lends itself to tlie accommodation 
of the holding appliances necessary for 
the various classe of work, the step 

or contour will hold the work rigidly 
and true. It is rapidly and conveniently 
operated by a drawback rod from the 
back of the spindle. 

The attachment, as regularly made, is 
suitable for the threading of holes from 
about V/2 inches to inches in diameter. 
It is equally well suited for single or 
multiple threads, either right or left 
hand. The machine may also he readil\ 
adapted for work out of the ordinary, 
a striking example of which is the de- 
vice shown in the illustration. 

The machine and attachments have 
been placed on the market by Pratt & 
Whitney, Hartford, Conn. 


A new gear cutting machine has hoeii 
designed and placed upon the market by 
the Newark Gear Cutting Machine ^'o., 
Newark, N..T., for the purpose of cut- 
ting the teeth of wood gears for pat- 
terns, especially spiral or helical tieai!-. 
There is a wide field of work 

heavy cast tooth "herring bono" or 
double helical gears, and such ^eacs cua 
be cast solid, from patterns cut on th.s 
machine. The pattern is in such case 
made in two pieces, one right and one 
left band; but the casting is of course 

The machine has a capacity {or spur 
gear patterns up to 8 feet diameter by 
21 inch, face; and helical or "spiral" 
gear patterns up to 7 feet diameter by 
21 inch. face. Any lead or angle of 
worm may be cut, as well as any num- 
bers of threads; and any lead or angle 
of helical gear may also be cut. The 
range of pilches which the machine is 
capable of cutting is of course very 
large. By u.sing (ly cutters, all pitches 
ranging from I inch, circular up to 7 
inch circulai can be easily taken care 
of, and of course heavier pitches can 
also be cut by using regular rotary gear 

In this machine, the feed is obtained 
by means of a hand wheel, operating a 
screw, with ball thrust collars. This 
hand feed is used, so that the operator 
may iced very fast during the full cut, 


1 I \Suud i.i-.ii ( ullnii; M.i. i.i.ic 
for Cutting Spur Uear I'atterui. 

K.g. 2 — L'liive;.-^.,! Wood Gear i ultiii^ .Mai-hiiie 
for Oiittliitf Helical Gears or Woriug. 

aud may feed more slowly as the grain 
in the wood changes, or the cutter 
strikes a knot in the wood, or when the 
cutters come through at the end of the 
cut. After each tooth is cut the cutter 
carriage is returned to start a new cut, 
and the blank is indexed by the hand 
crank. A counterbalance serves to 
equalize the weight of the carriage. 

The indexing is obtained by means of gears. The operator makes one 
or more even turns of the crank, accord- 
ing to the index furnished. 

.\ll numbers of teeth can be cut, up to 
100; and all from 100 up to 150, except- 
ing prime numbers above 100; and a 
wide range of numbers above 450 can 
also be cut. When any unusual number 
is required, this can be arranged for, by 
means of an extra change gear. 

In operation, the wooden pattern blank 
is mounted upon the work arbor, or up- 
on the fac« plate direct. Bloeka o( 



wood may also be cut on this machine, 
for use in gear tooth molding machines. 
A rim support is provided for taking 
the thrust of the cut, in large gears. 

The face plate is solid with the divid- 
ing worm wheel, which wheel is made 
in two sections and generated in place, 
to secure accuracy. The dividing worm 
may be adjusted out of mesh with the 
wheel, to permit the blank to be rotat- 
ed by hand. The dividing worm is also 
provided with adjustment for use in re- 
setting, or in taking side cuts. 

A complete guard protects the worm 
and wheel from dust and dirt. 

The work head is adjusted on the bed, 
to take care of the various diameters to 
be cut; the adjustment being obtained by 
means of screw, with dial graduated to 
read to thousandths of an inch. 

A noticeable feature of this machine, 
is the simple method of driving, as 
shown in Fig. 2, by means of an endless 
belt. The machine itself is driven by 
means of a tight and loose pulley ar- 
rangement on the machine; the pulleys 
running upon a rigid sleeve, and not up- 
on the shaft, thus relieving the shaft of 
all strain of the belt pull, and eliminat- 
ing the possibility of the machine start- 
ing up accidentally. 

The cutters used on the machine, for 
heavy pitches, are shown in the illustra- 
tions. When cutting spur gear patterns, 
a formed fly cutter is used, mounted up- 
on the spindle as shown in Fig. 1. This 
spindle makes 3200 revolutions per 
minute. When cutting helical gears or 
worms, an endmill form of fly cutter is 
used, mounted upon the endmill attach- 
ment shown in Fig. 2, making 4200 re- 
volutions per minute. The spindles are 
of high carbon machinery steel, accur- 
ately ground, and run in phosphor 
bronze bearings. 

Although the machine is designed tor 
cutting wood, yet the design generally 

and the construction show distribution 
of the metal, with deep bed and box 
form of construction. This eliminates 
the tendency to vibration which would 
otherwise result from this class 
of work. The machine is very rapid in 
operation, as tor example: — A wooden 
spur gear pattern, 40 teeth, 3 inch, cir- 
cular pitch, 8 inch face, was cut in 30 
minutes, cutting time. A motor drive 
can be readily provided for, as the 
machine pulley runs at constant speed. 


The illustrations herewith show a new 
(vlindrical automatic sizing grinder 
which has just been placed on the mar- 
ket by Pratt & "Whitney, Hartford, Conn. 
The machine is designed for medium 
size work and has a capacity of 30 inches 
between centres, with a swing over bed 
iif 4 inches, and can be adjusted to a 
maximum taper per foot of 2 inches. 

Fig. 3 — Automatic Sizing Attachment. 

The machine uses a 12-inch diameter 
wheel, with a face from V2 to 1% inches. 
Particular attention has been bestowed 
upon the table feeds and six changes 
liave been provided for, any of which 
are immediately obtainable through a 
trear box and lever, the latter being lo- 

cated at the front of the machine, under 
the operator's hand. These feeds are 
independent of either wheel or work 
speeds. The reversing mechanism has 
been designed to effect reversal within 
0.001 inch, a matter of considerable im- 
portance in grinding up to shoulders. 

Fife'. -1— Automatic Positive Fceiliiig Back 

The form of the table top has also 
received particular attention and is made 
with a flat top and angular sides, in 
order to insure accurate re re-location of 

The most important recent improve- 
ment is the automatic sizing device as 
applied to this machine. This device 
when once set to the required diameter 
will automatically grind any number of 
pieces irrespective of the wear of the 

In operation both roughing and finish- 
ing feeds are controlled and utilized, this 
not only greatly increases the produc- 
tion capacity of the machine but also 
insures far more accurate and uniform 
work than that resulting from ordinary 
micrometer measurement. A decided 
advantage made possible by this device 
is the ability of one workman to operate 
two machines to their maximum capacity 
without the slightest difficultv. 

KlK. 1— C'yllDdrlcal Automatic Siziug Orinder. 

FIjr. •S — Automatic Feeding Mechanism, Cylindrical Grimlci-. 


For Manufacturers. Cost and Efficiency Articles Rather Than Technical. 
Steam Power Plants ; Hydro Electric Development ; Producer Gas. Etc. 


By A. E. B. 

gELTS and belt drives, the title of 
■'-' this article, will treat paticularly 
of the part played by leather belts as a 
means of transmission of power. Need- 
less to say, their overwhelming, uni- 
versal and undiminished use, stamps 
them as at once a subject of interest. 
One can hardly conceive of a factory 
without associating with it a belt drive, 
and our whole circle of readers is there- 
fore expected to be benefited more or 
less. Such at least is hoped for. 
Choice of Belt. 
In the choice of a belt, the first con- 
sideration is that it be made from a 

Fig. ]— The Bristol Be 

good hide. All users are aware of the 
vast and varying range of quality offer- 
ed at equally varying prices, and that it 
is no easy matter for the average pur- 
chasing agent to discern and choose to 
the best advantage his requirements. 
Some indicative opinion may be had by 
cutting a thin sliaving from the samples 
offered, and tearing them between the 
fingers. Much belting is sold by weight, 
consequently unscrupulous dealers do 
not hesitate sometimes to impregnate 
the material with sugar and like sub- 
stances, useless and worse than useless 
for any purpose, except increasing the 
seller's profits. The test already men- 
tioned will enable even the unskilled to 
form an opinion as to how much of his 
purchase is leather, and how much sim- 
ply weight-making material. 

Lubrication and Stretch. 
From the user's point of view, two 
things should he borne in mind. Dry 
leather is to be avoided and the belt 
should be thoroughly stretched. 

Leather belts a good deal of their 
strength and nature unless impermeat- 
ed witli a certain amount of oil. Good 
quality cod oil is largely used for the 
purpose. This treatment gives plialnl- 
ity, ensures good driving qualities due 
to easy bedding of the belt on the pul- 
ley, and acts as a proof against the 
absorption of moisture. 

•Part I. of the second article of the series 
of Power Transmission Equipment, Operation 
nnil Efficiency Subjects. 

An ordinary belt thus lubricated, de- 
velops a stretching propensity, whicli 
is, of, both troublesome and 
wasteful. For example, a new belt is 
put on to drive a machine, and in a few 
days it will probably have stretched 
some inches and he altogether too slack, 
necessitating a piece being cut oul. 
wasted, and time taken to break and re- 
make the joint. 



Pig. 2— Types of Laced Joints. 

The problem, therefore, is to secure 
the admittedly advantageous features 
of "lubrication and stretch." 

The solution is obvious — Stretch the 
belt fully before application. Many 
makers do put their belts through a 
stretching machine, and the belts bene- 
fit thereby; but the simple, rapid run- 
ning through of a belt or parts of a 
belt is of little real use, seeing that the 
leather being in the same physical con- 
dition all the time, springs back to prac- 






tically its original length as soon as the 
tension is let off. 

A process of belt-stretching has, how- 
ever, been introduced, having many 
commendable features and apparently 
successful beyond dispute. Tt is de- 
scribed briefly, as follows: 

The hides from the tannery, prepared 
with a certain amount of moisture still 
in them, but with their oil dressing (in 
fact just in the condition in which most 
makers at once cut fhem up into belt 
strips) are taken to a special depart- 
ment fitted with special machinery. 
Rach hide is jilaced over a strong frame 
and gradually stretched longitudinally 
until a 10 per cent, increase is reached; 
the lateral dimensions being meanwhile 

Fig. 4— Hinge Belt Fastener. 

maintained by wedging. The required 
stretch having been obtained, the frame 
with its hide is taken away bodily and 
stored, sometimes for a period of sever- 
al weeks, until all the moisture has 
evaporated. When released, there is 
little if any tendency to spring back to 
the original dimensions, the lubrication 
and pliability are maintained, and we 
have practically a stretchless butt of 
equal or even greater strength than be- 
fore, and in ideal condition for catting, 
jointing and the formation of a perfect 

The process involves considerable ex- 
pense, and produces belts somewhat 
lighter, width for width, than un- 
stretched belts, so that obviously higher 
prices per pound must be charged, but 


iv^/wvw wwvw^ 

riK. 5 — The Jackson 
Belt Fastener. 

Fljr. 3— Types of Laced Joints. 



the evidence goes to show that for last- 
ing power, perfection of drive, and 
labor-saving, the belts are well worth 
their greater cost. 

Strength of Belt. 

The ultimate tensile strength of belt- 
ing is not generally a factor in power 
transmission calculations. It varies 
from 2,000 to 5,000 pounds per square 
inch of net section in best quality 
leather belts, and may be reckoned at 
an average of say 3,500 pounds per 
square inch. This variation in ultimate 
strength is due not only to possible 
variation in the quality of the material, 
but to want of its homogeneity as well. 
Exf)eriments go to show that strips of 
equal widtli and thickness taken from 
the same belting butt, gave breaking.' 
strains varying from 1,500 to 3.50') 
|K>unds per sq. inch. 

Strength of Belt Joints. 

The ultimate strength of a laced 
joint well put together should bo taken 
at from 1,000 to 1,500 pounds per s(|. 
inch, while that of a riveted joint may 
he taken as equal to one-half of the 

Vits. *i' -Tlie .l:if-kH(in Belt Fn.slcuer. 

strength of the .solid belt, 1,750 pounds 
l>er square inch. The working strength 
of the belt may, in practice, be taken 
as one-third the ultimate strength of the 

A series of tests of belts in actual 
use, showed the working strain to lie 
between 30 and 5.32 pounds per square 
inch. A commonly accepted working 
strain for best material of belt body, 
and substantial joint, is 320 pounds per 
sq. inch belt section, being 60 pounds 
per inch widtli for each 3-lG iiicli 
thickness, single belt. For double and 
treble belts the allowable strain would 
be 1.75 and 2.5 times that of sinjrlc 
belts respectively. See belt creep. 
Adhesion of Belts. 

The motion transmitted by a belt is 
maintained solely by the frictional ad 
hesion of the belt to the pulley rim sur- 
face. Belts do not communicate motion 
with precision on account of their liabil- 
ity to slip. With unequal diameter 
pulleys and an open belt, slippage will 
take place on the smallest pulley first, 
on account of the arc of contact bein<r 
smaller. Crossing the belt makes the 
arc of contact the same on both pulleys. 

A lontr horizontal belt increases the 
tension and arc of contact by its weight 
forming » curve between the pullayi. 

It should therefore drive from the un- 
der side. A belt running on a pulley on 
a vertical shaft requires stretchin?: 
tightly because its weight lessens its 
contact. As a compensation, the belt 


-(.'law and Slide Helt Fastener. 

should be broader than for a horiziintai 
drive of equal power. 

Tlie adhesive grip of a belt is the 
sMine 1)11 cast iron pulleys, whet her 
turned or not. It is greater howevei-, 
on a wooden rim than on a cast iron 

Slippage of Belts. 

A belt will slip just as readily on :) 
piiiley four feet in diameter as it will 
on a pulley two feet in diameter, pro- 
vided the conditions of the fates of the 
pulleys, the arc of contact, the tension, 
and the numlier of feet the belt travels 
per minute, are the same in both cases. 

A belt of a given width, and making' 
any given number of feet per minute, 
will transmit as much power i-unning 
on pulleys two feet in diameter, as it 
will on pulleys four feet in diameter, 
provided the arc of contact, tens'on, and 
conditions of pulley faces are tlie same 
in both cases. 

Fig. S— Hinge Belt Fastener. 

Causes of belt slippa/e <ire because 
they are overloaded, dirty, clo-.'.geil, 
dried up and neglected. Slippini;; gen- 
erates heat, and aggravates the trouble 
still further. The false, but common 
remedy of tightening up, or overtight- 
ening as it should properly be called, 
only results in straining the life out of 
tb« belt, Incrsaiing the coal ooniump' 

tion by increased bearing friction and 
disalignment of shafting. 

It stands to reason that while slip 
may be prevented by undue tightening, 
this is not the right method to njake 
the belt do its full duty justly. The 
added tension cannot help but increase 
journal friction, strain the shafting, in- 
crease the danger of hot boxes and worn 
liearings and increase the number of de- 
lays due to sudden belt failures, the 
prevention of which alone efTects saving. 
No matter how well the bearings are 
lubricated, some of the pull on the belt 
is wasted in overcoming the added fric- 
tion, and the capacity of the drive is 
reduced to the extent of overcoming 

(>:i the other hand, a belt that is kept 

Fig:. f»— Hinge Belt Fastener. 

clean, mellow and otherwise in good 
condition throughout, by means of a 
suitable preservative, bends around the 
pulleys with less resistance and by 
reason also of a close conformity with 
unevenness of the pulley surface, can be 
eased or even run slack without danger 
of slip under full load. In fact, a belt 
that is properly filled and is of correct 
dimensions for its work, should break 
before slipping. 

Preservation of Belting. 
Engineers usually pay little attention 
to their belting except that which is 
giving immediate trouble, when as a 
matter of fact, proper treatment with a 
suitable preservative at reg^ilar inter- 
vals would greatly benefit all the belt- 
ing. Not only would its life be pro- 
longed, but by increasing the pliability 
and lubrication of the internal fibres, 
it would he kept softer, cling to the 
l)ulleys better, and run .slack without 
slip, ensuring a saving of power that 
would much more than pay for the at- 
tention and cost of the preservative 
preparation. Anyone will understand 

tbii on coniidering that the natural )n< 



gredients of a leather, cotton, or camel's 
hair belt, manila or hemp driving rope, 
slowly dry out, and leave the contact 
surfaces liard. Unless something is ad- 
ded to replace these natural ingredients 
the belt or rope cannot be expected to 
grip the pulley close enough to trans- 
mit full load. 

Creep of Belt. 

By creep of belt is meant its stretch- 
ing and contracting propensity as it 
passes over the driven and driving pul- 
leys respectively, and is due to its in- 
herent elasticity and nature of load. 
The tight side of the belt is under the 
greater strain, hence it stretches as it 
comes on the driver and contracts com- 
ing off. In a word, more belt length 
goes on to the driver than comes off it, 
and more comes off the driven pulley 
than goes on. The net result is that 
there is a continuous creep or shifting 
of the belt around the pulleys in a 
direction opposite to that in which the 
belt runs. Fig 10. 

Belt creep in practice is usually kept 
within a one per cent, limit, and to 

ff/t/^SAf /'</i./L£t^ 

the effective pull. Such a method ad- 
mits of the use of smaller pulleys, and 
prolongs the life of the belt. 

Horse Power of Belting. 

Users of belting are frequently mis- 
led as to the amount of work which 
should be expected of a good belt, with 
the result that it is put to an excessive 
strain and sent to the scrap heap in a 
short time, condemned as to quality. 

This condition of affairs is due in 
large part to-incon-ect rules for calcu- 
lating the power of belting. 

These rules are in many cases wide 
apart in their, results as are the poles, 
and the practice of them is so varied 
that hardly any two users adopt the 
same. In the face of this seeming utter- 
ly irreconcilable state of affairs, T make 
no pretension of pointing out where 
each errs, or of submitting a rule to 
which all others should give place. 

The following explanation, however, 
of the considerations to be accounted 
and the rules accompanying, have been 
made the basis for numerous installa- 
tions by the writer, and to those who 

ax'/i/'jfx^ /'<e/^U£-y 

Fig. 10— Belt Drive. 

make certain of its attainment, the 
working strain for best material licit 
body and substantial joint is taken at 
40 pounds per inch width, single belt, 
with that for double and treble belts in 
the proportion already stated. 

Centrifugal Tension of Belts. 

When a belt runs at a high velocity, 
centrifugal force produces a tension in 
addition to that existing when the belt 
is at rest or moving at a low velocity. 
This centrifugal tension diminishes the 
effective driving force. 

Double belts are less pliable than 
single belts and the centrifugal force is 
greater, consequently the contact with 
the pulleys is less. Furthermore, the 
tension is seldom increased proportion- 
ately, and for these reasons, double 
belts should not be expected to transmit 
more than 8-5ths the power of single 

This power may be increased, how- 
ever, by running two single belts on top 
of each other. Being thus more pliable 

tbejr |^v$ better contact and inoreaie 

may have a difficulty betimes in know- 
ing just what to do, and have their 
back to the wall, they will be found 
efficient and satisfactory in operating 

The power of belting is determined 
by the number of foot pounds which 
can be transmitted by one pulley to an- 
other, and is arrived at bj' multiplying 
the effective pull in pounds per inch of 
width, by belt width in inches and by 
belt speed in feet per minute; there- 
after dividing by 33,000. 

The effective pull or the force tend- 
ing to turn the pulley is the difference 
in tension between the slack and driv- 
ing sides of the belt, and is largely de- 
pendent on the arc of contact between 
the belt and the smaller pulley. 

To find the effective pull it is neces- 
sary to determine the number of de- 
grees in the arc of contact. This can 
be arrived at by multiplying the differ- 
ence between the pulley diameters in 
inches by four and three quarters, di- 
viding the product by the dittasoe be* 

tween the pulley centres in feet, and 
subtracting the quotient from 180 de- 

The allowable working strain for a 
single belt with 180 degrees contact is, as 
has been shown, 40 pounds per inch 
width. This multiplied by the arc of 
contact found in the previous calcula- 
tion and divided by 180 will give tin; 
effective pull allowable in pounds. 

E.xample.— Find the effective pull and 
horse power of a 6-inch single leather 
belt on 24 and 36 inch pulleys, having 
a velocity of 2,000 feet per minute, and 
with pulley centres 18 feet apart. 

(36-24) X43/, 
Arc ot contact=180— 



=:176.84 degrees. 


Effective pull=: 

Horse jiower = 

=:i9.29 U.S. 



IJules wliich take no notice of effective 
inill and known as empirical, have been 
likewise used by the writer to advan- 
tage, and are as follows: 

Single belts — horse power= 

Double belts — horse power= 





W=width of belt in inches. 

V=velocity in feet per minute=cir- 
cumference of driving pulley in 
feet multiplied by revolutions per 

Example.— Taking belt width and 
\elocity as in previous example we get 

Single belt horse power= =].') 


The result is practically the same in 
each case, but arrived at by a much 
.•simpler method in the latter case. 

To get the horse-power that a double 
belt of the same width and velocity 
would transmit, the second formula 
would be u.sed. 


Double belt hor8e-power= =24. 


Figs. 1 to 9 illustrate some methods of 
belt jointing and a few pf the gpeciftUien 
in common ute. 

By G. C. K. 

The question of "Scientific Manage- 
ment—What it is and What it will do." 
has been prominently brought before the 
mechanical men of America by the Uni- 
ted States Intei-state Commerce Com- 
mission. Expert testimony has been 
given by such men as H. K. Hathaway, 
of the Tabor Alfg. Co., manufacturers of 
molding machines: James M. Dodge 
chairman of the Link-Belt Co., Phila- 
delphia; Henry R. Towne, president of 
the Yale & Towne Mfg. Co., Stamford. 
Conn., makers of Yale locks; Frank B. 
frilbreth. New York; Henry L. Gantt; 
Harrington Emerson and Wra. Kent. 

Wm. Kent sums up Business Manage- 
ment in a few lines. "Scientific manage- 
ment might be termed "applied common 
sense." It requires a man to do only 
that work for which be is best suited, 
but requires him to do that work at his 
greatest efficiency. It requires that he 
shall not do that work for which by 
training or environment he is unfitted 
and which someone else can do better 
than he. It requires that the conditions 
be made right for the greatest efficiency 
of the worker, this including not only 
the tools he works with, but his sur- 
roundings, his pay, and everything else 
which affects his work." 

Andrew Carnegie stated some years 
ago: "Take away all our factories, our 
trade, our avenues of transportation, 
our money, leave me our organization 
and system, and in four years I shall 
have re-established myself." This, in 
brief, is what scientific management will 

Passing of Rule o' Thumb Methods. 

What it will do was given in an edi- 
torial in a recent issue of the New York 
Times. It states in a very concrete way 
what scientific management or system 
will do for any industry. 

By rule o' thumb a man could unload 
two tons of pig iron an hour, for which 
bis employer paid him 16 cents an hour. 
An observer, who had never handled a 
pound of pig iron, saw that the tracks 
in the foundry might be laid so that each 
bar need be carried not more than ten 
feet. By trial he saw that the average 
man unloading could move at a greater 
average speed. He saw that several of 

the physical movements used to trans- 
fer a bar from car to pile were unneces- 
sary, consuming time and energy. In 
these three respects lie established 
"units of efficiency," taking care, also, 
to provide a system of rest intervals to 
prevent fatigue. He then declared a 
standard of unloading pig iron at the 
rate of seven tons an hour to be easily 
practicable, and recommended a wage 
scale of 2.7 cents a ton, or 19 cents an 
hour, for the men who conformed to 
this standard. Under a sliding upward 
scale of wages, men were found willing 
and able to handle continuously ten tons 
an hour, for whicli service each received 
27 cents. The increase in output was 
fivefold that under the rule o' thumb; 
the wages paid were seven-tenths great- 
er, and the laborers were physically and 
financially better off. 

"Gangs shoveled with the same shovel 
such different materials as coal, coke, 
iron ore, sand, and lime. A man who 
had not seen much shoveling done, but 
with trained powers of observation, de- 
termined that for each material a shovel 
which would hold 221/2 pounds — a fair 
weight for the average laborer — should 
be of special size and shape. Then a 
set of necessary movements was devised 
with reference to physical leverages and 
speed. It was found, too, that a pile of 
lime or sand should be attacked at the 
top, and of coal at the bottom. Having 
fashioned the standard shovels, and de- 
vised the units of speed, movement, and 
weight, he found that the new method 
and a system of bonuses increased the 
efficiency of the shoveling gangs 150 per 

"For forty centuries the bricklayer 
stooped to pick up his bricks. The 
"efficiency engineer" devised platforms 
on jacks raised by boys to the level of 
the growing wall. Under the rule o' 
thumb the bricklayer for ages turned 
his brick any or all of three ways to 
find the face, tested the good bricks, 
picked up and threw down the defective 
ones, which had to be lowered from the 
height to which they had been raised, 
and turned his trowel to tap each good 
brick into the mortar. Boys now sort 
the bricks on the ground, piling the good 
ones face forward upon the platforms, 
and the brick sinks of its own weight 
into a new consistency of mortar. Brick- 

layers got $5 a day. Gilbreth enabled 
them to earn $C.80 a day, at the same 
time trebling their efficiency. 

"Sucli methods kill rule o' thumb 
wherever introduced. They are not re- 
specters of persons or of professions or 
of trades. They are usually introduced by 
outsiders — men who ' know nothing about 
the business.' " 

Actual and Possible Savings. 
In the December issue of Canadian 
Machinery the principles of scientific 
management applied to the repair and 
building of locomotives on the C. P. R. 
by Henry L. Gantt. These resulted in a 
saving of .$65,000 per year. Harrington 
Emerson applying the priciples of scien- 
tific management to the Santa Fe rail- 
road effected a saving of approximately 
.$5,000,000 in three years. Such was 
shown by the testimony given before the 
Interstate Commerce Commission at 

James M. Dodge pointed out the 
methods of management in the shops of 
the Link-Belt Co., Philadelphia, that 
made money. All work done in the shop 
is laid out for the workmen by a plan- 
ning department in accordance with rec- 
ords based on accurate time studies of 
the fundamental operations of the job; 
the machine tools have all been stand- 
ardized and their exact capacities are 
known ; in the shop the work is supervis- 
ed by functional foreman, each of whom 
attends to some feature of the work. 
By establishing a "system" the costs 
were reduced in the face of a rising 
labor and raw material market. 

Some Pertinent Questions. 

Writing to the Railway Age Gazette, E. 
T. Spidy, instructor Card Inspector, 
C. P. R. Angus shops asks the following 
pertinent questions. The foremen in 
various industries and railroad shops 
should carefully study them and strive 
to benefit by them. A study of them in 
detail will result in unprecedented sav- 
ings and show "good management." 

Is my piecework system in good con- 
dition — can I improve it in any way? 

Have I machines that are overburden- 
ed or doing a of work for which 
they are not suited? 

In what conditions are the machines? 
Are they in a state of good repair? 

Do any machines require re-speeding? 

Am I using the best steel obtainable? 
Do I know what the best steel is? 

Are my tool standards correct? 

Do my men receive their tools in a 
satisfactory wayT 

How is the tool loom stocked? Arc 
tlicre sufficient tools ready for delivery? 

Do the men have trouble getting thcii' 
work ? 

What kind of hoist service have the 
men at their machines for indi^ddual 

Are the men provided with sufficient 

Have you a proper belt-repair system ? 

Tf manageis, superintendents, master 
mechanics and foremen take the subject 
of Scientific Management seriously they 
will thank Louis D. Brandeis and tlie 
United States Interstate Commerce Com- 
mission for the valuable data wliich has 
been brought to light. Mr. Brandeis 
stated that the railroads of the United 
States were wasting $1,000,000 per day 
through lack of system. Jio doubt the 
railroads have done much towards 
scientific management and some indus- 
tries have been wide awake, but there is 
still much to be done. 

Scientific management when applied 
to the simple operation nf loading a 
freight car with pig iron increased the 
performance of the individual from 1214 
to 47 tons; when applied to 
shovelling coal it doubled or trebled 
the performance of the shoveller; when 
applied to the machine shop it develop- 
ed, in certain operations, increases rang- 
ing from 400 to 1.800 pei' cent. This 
has been done in the face of the in- 
creased cost of labor and material. The 
principles are general in their applica- 
tion and where applied, valuable results 
will be obtained. 


The C.P.R. have issued a secoi'.l edi- 
tion of their book on •'Maiuricturng 
and Business Opportunities in Western 
Canada," along the lines of the C.P.R. 
It is edited by .lohn F. Sweeting, C.P. 
R. industrial agent, Winnipeg, and in ad- 
dition to an index of stations, it con- 
tains an index to industrial require- 
ments, facts in relation to the towns 
and cities of the West and tables of 
Western water powers. The following 
requirements for manufacturing concerns 
and power plants, are taken from this 
C.P.R. directory. 

Agricultural Machinery— Fort William, 
Ont., and Winnipeg, Man. 

Automobiles— Victoria, B.C. 

Cement Plant— Southey, Lanigan, Wey- 
burn, Macoun, Wilkie, Estevan, Francis, 
Outlook, Sask.; Edmonton, Bowden, 
Wetaskiwin, Crossfield, Penhold, Strath- 
cona, Didsbury, Hardisty, Strome, Al- 
berta; St. Boniface, Winnipeg, Man.; and 


Cranbrook, Kamloops, B.C.; Westfort. 

Cold Storage— Saskatoon, Sask. 
Can Factory— Victoria, B.C. 
Engine Works— Stationary, Marine and 
Traction, Fort William, Ont. 

Electrical Supplies — St. Boniface, 

Electric Lighting Plant — Holland, 
Souis, Pilot Mound, Rapid City, Man.; 
Swift Current, Lang, Lanigan, Elbow, 
Areola, Sask.; Didsbury, Olds, Hardis- 
ty, Innisfail, Leduc, Granum, .Alberta ; 
and Port Moody, B.C. 

Foundry— Saskatoon, Weyburn, Sask.; 
Camrose, Claresholm, Medicine Hat, Al- 
berta, and Kamloops, Rossland, B.C. 

Gasoline Engine Works— Portage la 
Prairie, Man. 

Machine Shop — Saltcoats, Francis, 
Saskatoon, Strassburg, Estevan, Ha- 
warden, St. Aldwyn, Perdue, Sask.; 
Shoal Lake, Glenboro, Rapid City, Mor- 
ris, Man.; Wetaskiwin, Camrose, Amisk, 
Metiskow, Stirling, Alberta ; and Arm- 
strong, Rossland, B.C. 

Motor Car Factory— Regina, Sask. 

Nail Works— Fort William, Ont.; and 
Winnipeg, Man. 

Planing Mill— Austin, Gimli, Man.; 
Weyburn, Sask. 

Sash and Door Factory— Virden , Rapid 
City, Man,; Wapella, Areola, Wilkie. 
Strassburg, Elbow, Sask.; Coleman, 
.Alberta; and Fernie, Port Moody, 
Nicola, Enderby, Kitchener, B.C. 

Saw Mills— Gimli, Man. 

Smelting Works— Medicine Hat, Al- 

Shingle Mills— Nakusp, B.C. 

Wire Fence Factory— Calgary, Alberta. 

The G.T.R. Industrial Bureau an- 
nounce the following openings for busi- 
ness along the line of the G.T.P. in 
.Western Canada:— 

Box Factory— Edmonton, Alta. 

Brick Manufacturer — Lazare, Man.; 
Biggar, Waldron, Sask. 

Carpenter Shop— Anoka, Otthon, Alta. 

Foundry— Edmonton. Alta. 

Societies and Personal 

p. H. Sexton, director of technical 
education for Nova Scotia, is to accom- 
pany the Technical Education Commis- 
sion on its visit to Europe. 
* * • 

A. J. Ganl, of Gaul & Girourard. Tor- 
onto, read a paper on "Diamond Minine 
in South Africa" before the Central 
Railwav and Engineering Club on Jan. 

• • • 

The closing of the works of the Can- 
adian Fairbanks-Morse Co.. Toronto, for 
a dav. was n fitting tribute to the mana- 
arer Percy C Brooks, who recently lost 
his wife and three children in the bum- 


ing of his home when he was in Chicago. 
The .sympathy of Canadian Machinery 
and its readei'H, is extended to Mr. 
Brooks in his sad bereavement. 

• • • 

Walter J. Sadler, who (or the past 
fifteen years has been connected with 
the firm of Sadler & Ha worth, Mon- 
treal, manufacturers of leather belting, 
has been taken into partnership. 
• • • 

F. M. Brown, general purchasing agent 
of the Dominion Steel Corporation, has 
resigned to accept the position of vice- 
president and general manager of the 
Nova Scotia Car Works, the company 
that succeeds the Silliker Car Co. 

• • • 

The St. Thomas machinists will hold 
a ball on Feb. 16, in the Engineers' Hall. 
The following are the committees: Invi- 
tation committee, Stalker Booth, John H. 
Grey, Peter Erickson; music committee 
W. E. Moore, Frank Clark; hall commit- 
tee. Thos. Stone, John Lane; refresh- 
ment committee. Thos. Stone, W E 
Moore. J. H. Grey; chairman, J. Lane; 
secretary-treasurer, W. E. Moore. 

• • • 

Lake Superior Corporation. 
Vice-President J. F. Taylor, of the 
Lake Superior Corporation, Sault Ste. 
Marie, has been appointed general man- 
ager and W. C. Franz has been ,, ade 
vice-president of the transportation in- 
terests of the corporation. Other 
changes include the promotion of C. H. 
L. Jones to the post of assistant secre- 
tary-treasurer, and that Consulting En- 
gineer Ernst to general manager of the 
Algoma Steel Co., with C. E. Duncan 
as general superintendent. 
• • * 

Winnipeg Boilermakers. 
Fort Garry Lodge 4,51. Brotherhood of 
Boilermakers, Winnipeg, held its annual 
smoking concert January 17, to which 
the C.P.R. were also invited. The chair 
was occupied by President ' J. Tumil- 
son, and the programme which was con- 
tributed to by the best entertainers 
from both unions, was of very interest- 
ing character. Character songs and 
step dances were given by ,L Crawford 
and J. Mugford, the other contributors 
including J. Hawthorne, W. I^wlor and 
J. Edwards. 

At the recent annual meeting, the fol- 
lowing ofHcers were elected: J. Tumil- 
son, president, re-elected; J. Handford, 
\'ice-president ; J. Hume, financial and 
corresponding secretary; J. Tnmilson, 
treasurer; J. Waddington, recording 
secretarj'; J. Hawthorne, inspector; R. 
Gardiner, guard; J. Handford, F. Mag- 
ford and J. Tomes, trustees. The instal- 
lation was conducted by J. Hume, past 





A menthly new«paper devoted to machinery and manufacturinj interests 
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Vol. VII. 

February, 1911 

No. 2 


At the close of the past year many requests came to 
us from subscribers of Canadian Machinery for an edito- 
rial index for use in binding their 1910 volume. In order 
that every subscriber may obtain the greatest use of his 
1911 volume, we are numbering the editorial pages con- 
secutively and at the end of the year, will issue a com- 
plete index of articles and authors, so that any article 
may easily be found by a reference to the index. 

This is one of many steps forward which we contem- 
plate taking and which will be announced from time to 
time. By means of these we hope to make Canadian 
Machinery of still greater use to our readers. 


It seems that in the last analysis, the employer or re- 
sponsible administrative head of a factory or corporation 
is he who determines the grade of efficiency of the under- 

We don't associate with an intelligent employer a 
stupid, ignorant official and administrative staff, but ra- 
ther do we expect such a staff as will reflect his attri- 

The selection of men to fill the various subordinate ap- 
pointments is not wholly a trial and error proposition, 
neither is it an evolution or "survival of the fittest." De- 
finite, reliable, personal knowledge or experience of abil- 
ity determines Ui large degree who shall fill the more re- 
sponsible posts, and a corresponding line of action is 
again developed with regard to those further down the 

While it is possible to evolve men for positions, or 
have the position evolve as it were the man, and while 

fu^h Instances are o( iiHj occurrenpe And n^wmTtty »o, 

it Is inexpedient to operate from such a basis as a busi- 
ness principle. 

We are accustomed these days to read and hear much 
about the cost of incompetence and inefficiency, and to see 
many more or less glaring spectacles of it, but what 
strikes one most forcibly about the two evils is their uni- 
versality and existence in every walk of life. In the best 
and highest realms of human development and culture as 
well as in the lowest and ignorant, there is to be found 
incompetency, there is to be found inefficiency. 

The question arises, can we minimise, escape from or 
cut out entirely this condition of things ? It seems as 
tnough it were absolutely necessary to do so. 

Escape from this dual curse, for such it is, does not 
of course imply that all men would be equally competent 
in any or every sphere of usefulness. The fault at the 
present time is that men don't fill their own individual 
niche to the best of their inborn and knowledge-nurtured 
ability, nor do they realize their intense, inherent pos- 
sibilities. A keen discernment of one's proper sphere 
would do much to minimise that feature of incompetence 
and inefficiency which arises as a direct result of men oper- 
ating in a wrong and unnatural department. 

Being human, however, escape will be possible of only 
partial attainment, and we should not lose sight of this 
stern fundamental fact. 

It is claimed that incompetency costs the city of 
C'hicago one million dollars per day. John Wanamaker 
claims that incompetency costs his company twenty-live 
thousand dollars per day. Others again claim less or 
greater losses attributable to the same cause. 

The basis of estimation is not stated, neither can 
we judge the standpoint of the estimator. To criticize 
and say there is certain loss, comes easy and is only 
wrong in degree, which at all events may be enough ; but 
to charge the loss individually and in proper proportion 
and suggest a remedy, is neither easy nor pleasant if 
honestly and faithfully carried out. It is, however, the 
way to tackle the question properly, and most certain of 
remedial results. 

Getting back to our starting point again, it will ap- 
pear evident that, the larger proportion of the loss is 
chargeable to the chief administrator, and he, if a fac- 
tory owner, suffers in his returns just to that extent. 

If it be the city of Chicago, the real administrators 
lose, to wit, the citizens. An inexorable law is therefore 
unfolded which metes out to all their share of punish- 
ment for neglect. 

One thing must not be overlooked in this crusade 
apainst incompetency and inefficiency ; the steady, certain 
real uplifting of mankind and its consequent change and 
raise of standard. 

If Chicago by some means or other redeemed itself by 
saving that million dollars per day, and nobody will ques- 
tion its ability to do so if everyone did his or her own 
little part, it the employes of the Wanamaker company 
each added their little extra effort to what exists, if the 
''kick" that everyone makes and the losses claimed were 
satisfied, as they could easily be on the amounts specified, 
what then ? 

Would Chicago, .lohn Wanamaker, you and T be satis- 
fied ? No, and why ? 

The realization of what was esteemed competency and 
efficiency, and which we prided ourselves in determining is 
not perfection as was thought. 

We have much to be thankful for that the ideal will 
always k^ep ahead, and that the craving to reacb to it 



will still express the efforts made, as (ailing short through 
incompetence and inefficiency. 

The standard of estimation will be rising all the time, 
as it has done and is, and will be found more exacting as 
it takes each time higher ground. 

A scheme of education, not necessarily technical, 
which would dispose men to cultivate and use their intel- 
ligence in the selection of their proper sphere and the ef- 
ficient filling of it, as a personal moral responsibility, 
while not ushering in the millennium, will obliterate to a 
great extent what are certainly at present monstrosities 
of incompetence and inefficiency. 


At a recent meeting of the National Machine Tool 
Builders' .Association, C. K. Lassiter, Mechanical Super- 
intendent of the American Locomotive Co., read a paper 
on "The Design and Construction of Machine Tools from 
the User's Standpoint," in which he gave some excellent 
suggestions for the maintenance of equipment. By consis- 
tently carrying out a factory management system, giving 
specialized attention to the duties of caring for and main- 
taining equipment, large and almost inconceivable savings 
are made. By such a system, properly administered, the 
American Locomotive Co. have reduced the Jost productive 
machine hours from 12 to 1| per cent. There are 9,000 
machines in the plant. Formerly 1,000 were out of use 
continuously but now 100 machines is the average number 
out of service. 

In the plant referred to, each department has an in- 
spector who investigates the machinery for probable fail- 
ures or for conditions which might cause accidents to em- 
ployes. His findings are made out in the form of a report 
and immediate steps are taken to correct any condition 
which might render a machine idle. Where the design of 
the machine is at fault, it is strengthened or redesigned 

The following shows the working of the system as giv- 
en by Mr. Lassiter : — 

"In one of our shops, by referring to our reports, we found 
that 40 per rent, of the failures were due to negligence. We 
were able to reduce this Item to 1% per cent. In another case 
we found that we were purchasing a certain machine from some 
of the machine tool builders, and there was an error In design 
which had existed for ten years on this machine, which was 
costing us something like $5,000 per year. We took the matter 
tip with the niacliino ttiol builder and h:id the design changed. 
This charge was eliminated, which was like picking up so much 

"We found tliat the maintenance on some machines which we 
had in service was so heavy that we could not afford to keep the 
maciiine in service, and we replaced them with modern tools. This 
also showed a decrease in maintenance." 

Mr. Lassiter referred to the savings made by designing 
special machines : — 

"Most of the tools which we purchase for our works at 
present are built to speciflcatiims prepared by ourselves, and It 
Is our aim to cut out every gear or moving part on all machines 
which Is not actually needed for our class of work. 

"In specifying for planers, we require only one speed, as our 
work is so extensive that we can afford to put a planer on 
one class of work and never change it. 

"On vertical milling machines we have specified the design 
so as to have but one pair of gears between the motor and the 
cutting tool. 

"On large vertical boring mills we have cut out gear boxes 
.ind equipped the drive with a big plain pulley and placed a 
variable speed motor on the celling, where the counter-shaft 
had formerly been put, 

"On radial drills we have lowered the speed of the driving 
shafts and Increased their diameter, to r94uce the maintenance 
iin hearings." 

Pjr a %y»xm <)» te«ti mseblRW we« dMlgned wUh ft 

view to the economical use of power in operating ma- 
chines. Mr. Lassiter says : — 

"In testing out some of our machines we found that there 
wag a considerable amount of power used for remoTlng a certain 
amount of stock. A good deal of this power, we found, wai 
absorbed through the friction of unnecessary gears. This Is 
one reason why we have tried to cut out every gear possible 
on all of the machines which we purchase. It not only saves 
maintenance, but also cost of power to operate machines." 

Keeping machines in service, cutting time between 
cuts, anticipating repairs and guarding against break- 
doxvns means a great aggregate saving. It means that 
more work can be done with a certain number of ma- 
chines when kept in good repair. Of course Canadian 
shops, or at least few of them, could keep a staff of in- 
spectors busy in an elaborate system but even in the smal- 
lest shop a careful investigation and study of each ma- 
chine will, in a great number of cases, result in an appre- 
ciable saving. 


It may seem a long step between manufacturing and 
sentiment but a kind word, an appreciative smile or a 
commendation for work well done will often increase the 
efficiency. These are often more effective in eliminating 
friction than so-called welfare departments planned on an 
elaborate scale. 

In the January issue of Canadian Machinery we ad- 
vocated providing sufficient vises in a machine shop. In 
addition to vises we might arid clamps for lathe, planer 
and shaper, straps, etc. More time is often lost trying 
to find suitable tools, etc., than in the performance of the 
niachine work. In the interests of economy we would 
suggest a complete equipment of these devices and a cen- 
tral place for keeping them. 

Well lighted jig, tool and pattern storage rooms, tool 
room and machine shop are more likely to be kept clean 
than dark ones. 

Recently a purchasing agent was quoted a price on 
car journal bearing metal. The metal was satisfactory 
but the price was high. By having an analysis made, he 
was able to call for tenders for a metal of the compo- 
sition shown by tne analysis. The result was that a re- 
liable firm furnished the metal at a considerable reduc- 
tion over the first price asked. The saving in a year was 
therefore, considerable. By following this plan -for all 
materials that can be bought by specification, large sav- 
ings may be made. 

The metal industry is thriving and growing apace in 
the mother country, in utter disregard of all pessimistic 
predictions. In this country only an occasional whisper is 
heard from those who see gloom ahead, and the whole 
trend of trade is in verification of the loudly expressed 
confidence of the best informed men in all lines of indus- 

Plans have been prepared for the new machinery hall 
at the Ottawa Exhibition. Manufacturers of machinery 
deserve to be well treated by exhibition directors. It is 
to be hoped that the $75,000 voted a year ago for a new 
machinery building for the Toronto exhibition, will soon 
result in the erection of a more modern §ttMPtuj? thai\ 

that now dMl8B»t»rt m "Mwhlwrr H»l|.'' " 


Practical Articles for Canadian Foundrymen and Pattern Makers, and 
News of Foundrymen's and Allied Associations. Contributions Invited. 

By J. H. Eastham. 

Firms engaged in casting gas, oil, or 
steam engine parts, when faced with 
orders to meet customers' specifications, 
slightly different from, or "between" 
standard sizes, are often compelled to 
alter existing patterns, or to make new 

Obviously when an order is placed for 
a single engine this becomes a costly 
process, and in the case of flywheels 
weighing several tons each, can be easily 
avoided. A conunon system of moulding 
these castings is to select a pattern 
nearest the size required, but a little 
smaller, and to "lag" up the rim and 
hub with loose strips, and the arms 
with sheet lead, an unsatisfactory 
method at best, adding consider- 
ably to cost of production, often result- 
ing in a lumpy casting, and causing 
much extra machining. 

Assuming the job in hand to be of or- 
dinary six-armed type, get a core box 
made full length from outside of hub to 
outside of rim, and tapering in width 
from one-sixth circumference of rim to 
one-sixth circumference of hub. Each 
core will thus contain one arm, which 
may be drawn out endways from hub or 
thick end. 

Cores to form outside of rim are best 
made in sections about two feet or two 
feet six inches long, to facilitate hand- 
Img when placing on stove carriage, and 
in mold afterwards. 

Level a hard bed in floor at full depth 
of casting, and one foot larger in dia- 
meter, and place in centre a round cake 
core exact size of diamater of hub. Next 
place arm section cores in position 
around this; being careful to keep tight 
up to centre to avoid overlapping, after- 
wards lowering outside rim cores to 

If not well equipped with cranes, 
place as many cores in position as pos- 
sible during meal hour, to avoid keep- 
ing other jobs waiting. Ram up tightly 
round the whole, (reasonable floor pres- 
sure will prevent any strain,) and strike 
ofi level with top of cores to form flat 
joint. Place centre core into position 
and cover hub with a cake core perfor- 
ated as desired for runners, insert gate 
pins, and vent pegs in holes provided in 
each arm core for purpose. 

Stufl joints of all cores with waste, 
place large square cope part over whole, 
and ram up lightly. If not in possession 
of cope sufficiently large, spread one 
inch or so of sand over cores, and cover 
with handiest loam plates obtainable. 
Place ruimer box in position, large en- 

MoldlDir Heavy Flywbeels. 

ough to hold at least 15 cwt. of metal 
in the case of castings weighing three 
tons or over. This may be dried or 
green, as considered advisable. Cover 
runners with ball or flat stoppers, and 
put weights in position, or bolt the 
whole down by cross bars to grid or 
plate in floor if possible. 

When pouring, wait till runner box is 
full before drawing first stopper, and 
take out remaining 1 or 2, according to 
size of casting, singly. 

Metal for these castings should be 
melted as hot as possible, and poured as 
soon as surface "breaks," to obtain 
best results, and should consist of about 
16 per cent, good quality hematite, the 
remainder, hard scrap. 

Good hematite iron, on account of its 
toughness, minimizes risk of breakage 
when running at high speeds. Should 
these castings show signs of sponginess 
in boring, decrease quantity of hematite 
a little, and add a small percentage 
white iron to close grain. Churning is 
optional, and depends largely on fore- 
man's opinion and quality of metal 

By the addition or removal of strips 
from core boxes to alter radii of cores, 
and thickness or depth of iim, and 
keeping in stock of pattern shop spveral 
sizes of arms, one set of boxes \;ill 
serve for several sizes of castings. 

By H. J. McCaslin. 

The accompanying photographs show 
the manner in which the up-to-date and 
progressive patternmaker carries his 
tools, and which has to a great degree 
replaced the strong box of bygone days. 

This handsome case and contents of 
selected tools forms one of the finest 
pattern-making equipment that ever 
came under the writer's notice. 

The case was designed and made by 
J. E. Rexroth, an employe of the Well- 
man, Seaver, Morgan Co., of Cleveland, 
O., through whose courtesy the photo- 
graph was obtained. 

The body construction is that of a 
substantial sample case which it closely 
resembles as shown in Pig. 1. While it 
might be said one would not inspire to 
carry it any further than necessary, very 
little trouble would be experienced in 
getting It to and from the car, thus 
saving the expense of the expressman, 
to say nothing of the delay and vexation 
In not always being able to get your 
tools at the expected time. 



Its proportions permit a 26-inch saw 
by removing the handle ol the saw to 
be carried, and also a 24x14 inch, steel 
square. The heavier tools, as the plains, 
are carried at the bottom of the case 

Kig. ]— riittuniiiiaker's Tool Cliest— Closed. 

below the lawer drawer, which is shown 
removed, Fig. 2. 

Attached to the back o£ the panel 
which is dropped down so as to expose 
the chisels and bits and their manner 
of arrangement and support is the steel 
square, shrink rules and triangles. To 
the young patternmaker who contem- 

Fig. 2 — rntterumaker's Tool Cbest— Open. 

plates leaving the home shop at the 
completion of his term of instruction 
and taking to the road in search of ex- 
perience and wealth, secure a case simi- 
lar to that here described, if you have 
not already done so. Should you not 
care to enlist as heavily into the under- 
taking as herewith shown, invest in a 
good substantial suit case and fit it up 
with drawers which will answer the pur- 
pose admirably. 

tor Hill & Orififtth, Cincinnati. The lines 
of this firm which will be carried in 
stock in Toronto, include stove plate 
facing, heavy machine bag facing, 
"Ideal" core wash, Haskin patent ven- 
tilated chaplets, "Faultless" core com- 
pound, Rhode Island heavy bag facing, 
H. & G. blacking, white pine charcoal 
facing, special taper snap flask of sheet 
steel with malleable trimmings, tumbl- 
ing barrels, cupolas, electric and hand 
cranes, brass melting furnaces, both oil 
and coke fired, cupolo blocks and bricks, 
(ire clay and inolding sands. 

Hill & Griffith have seacoal mills in 
Birmingham, Alabama, and plumbago 
mills in Cincinnati. 

Mr. Hill, who is known to the trade 
as "Honest John," has some strong ar- 
guments in favor of his products and 
calls attention to the H. & G. facings 
by means of an old and trite saying : 
"If you want to find out if a horseshoe 
is hot, pick it up. You are not obliged 
to take the blacksmith's word for it." 

"Likewise," says John, "you are not 
obliged to heed our argument which 
necessarily has to do with our foundry 
facings and blackings, their use and 

The Rupert G. Bruce Co., Toronto, 
have been appointed Canadian agents 


Final arrangements for the exhibition 
of foundry and pattern shop equipment, 
machine tools and supplies, to be held 
under the auspices of the Foundry and 
Machine Exhibition Co., successor to the 
Foundry and Manufacturers' Supply 
Association, at Pittsburg, during the 
week of May 22, 1911, were made at a 
meeting of the executive committee of 
this organization held at the Fort Pitt 
hotel, Pittsburg, Jan. 20 and 21. The 
buildings of the Western Pennsylvania 
Exposition Society, on Duquesne Way, 
in the centre of the Pittsburg business 
district, have been obtained for this ex- 
liibition of foundry and pattern shop 
equipment. A total of approximately 
.'{.3,000 square feet of floor space will be 
available in two large buildings and in a 
temporary structure which will be erect- 
ed between these buildings. All of the 
operating exhibits, such as heating and 
melting furnaces, core ovens, mold and 
ladle dryers, etc., will be located in the 
temporary building. The facilities pro- 
vided for exhibition puiposes are unex- 
celled, and shipments can be unloaded 
onto the grounds from Pennsylvania 
railroad sidings. It has been decided to 
conduct the exhibit during at least two 
or three evenings of the week, which 
will afford an opportunity to many of 
the foundry operatives of the Pittsburg 
district to attend the show. 

The cost of space has been fixed at a 
minimum of only .50 cents per square 

foot, with an additional cost of $10 for 
corners. An exhibition permit, for which 
a charge of $25 will be made, will also 
be required by all exhibitors, as well as 
those conducting business of any kind in 
the exiK)sition buildings. The large 
music linll on these grounds has been 
obtained for one evening during thte 
week for a high-class entertainment to 
l»c given by tlie Foundry and Machine 
Kxhibitioii Co. The headquarters for 
the exhibitors will be at the Fort Pitt 

During this week the annual conven- 
tions of the American Foundrymen's 
Association, American Brass Founders' 
Association and the Associated Foundry 
Foremen will be iield in Pittsburg, and 
the attendance of foundrymen from all 
over the United States and Canada 
l)romises to be unusually large. As this 
city is the centre of the steel manufac- 
turing industry of the United States, 
and as some of the foundries in this 
district are among the largest and most 
modern in the country, unusual oppor- 
tunities will be afforded foundrymen to 
familiarize themselves with the practice 
of these works and an extensive plant 
visitation program is now being out- 


Experienced molders always know 
what the breaking of the gate in a mold 
before dumping means. It always indi- 
cates, in brass or bronze, that the metal 
is not good and that it contains impur- 
ities which render it red-short. By the 
breaking of the gate in the mold is 
meant that it breaks or cracks itself 
while cooling. In good metal, it remains 
firm so that when the mold is dumped, 
the cascings, gate and runner are solid. 

There are several elements that will 
cause red-shortness in brass or bronze, 
but sulphur is the principal one. As it 
causes red-shortness in iron or steel, 
so it produces the same result in the 
copper alloys. 

Sulphur is very readily introduced 
into bronze or brass by the fuel, and es- 
pecially when coke or coal, instead of 
charcoal, is used as the covering for the 
metal in the crucible. These fiiels al- 
ways contain more or less sulphur which 
is introduced into the metal to a greater 
or less extent. Charcoal, however, con- 
tains no sulphur and this is why it is 
so good a covering for molten metals. 

If molders are experiencing difficulty 
from bad castings and the reason is not 
clear, let it be noticed whether the gate 
cracks in the mold, and if so look for 
the presence of sulphur in the metal. 
It has been found to be the cause of 
some of the difficulties encountered in 
the brass foundn\ — Brass World. 


Elstablishriient or Enlargement of Factories, Mills, Power Plants, Etc.; Construc- 
tion of Railways, Bridges, Etc.; Municipal Undertakings ; Mining News. 


MONTREAL— The Montreal Harbor Com- 
missloa has purchased a block of property 
near the river, ou Notre Dame Street, Re- 
pair shops will be erected. 

OXFORD, N.S.— The Oxford Foundry & 
Machine Co. have the contract for the heat- 
lug equipment for the Bank of Nova Scotia's 
new building here. 

\S'ELLAN1». ONT.— The Robertson Machin- 
ery Co. has made an assignment to J. F. 
Uross, for the general benefit of its creditors. 
The company has been Insolvent for some 

OALT— The Gait Foundry Co. have their 
new plant completed and expect to take off 
the first heat in a few days. Wm. E. Uemill, 
formerly of Clark & Demill, Hespeler, is man- 
ager of the new company. A. J. Colvin Is 
associated with him. 

WINDSOR, ONT.— Plans are being drawn 
for a new dry-dock at Amherstburg, with a 
eOO-foot capacity. It is also intended to have 
a shipbuilding plant, with the necessary ma- 
chine shops. Windsor, Amherstburg and To- 
ronto capitalists are Interested in the scheme, 
which will cost about !$230,000. 

CALGARY, ALTA.— Mayor Mitchell advo- 
cates the erection of a municipal repair shop. 
He Is of the opinion that much time and 
money Is lost through sending small jobs to 
outside machine shops for repairs, instead of 
having a couple of men and proper machin- 
ery to handle them. 

WEST TORONTO— The C. P. R. has secur- 
ed a permit for the erection of a $20,000 re- 
pair shop here, on the west side of Keele 
Street, north of the subway. 

LETHBRIDGE, ALTA.— Donovan & McCrea 
are erecting a building at Bow Island to be 
used for a machinery business. 

HESPELER, ONT.— W. Ewald, of Preston, 
has been appointed manager ot the Hespeler 
Machinery Co.'s shop. 

GOWGANDA, ONT.— Tile machine shop at 
the Bartlett mines here was destroyed by 
fire recently. 

MONTREAL— The Canadian Rotary .Ma- 
chine Co. will locate here. 

submitted building specifications for an addi- 
tion to their present factory, to cost $45,000. 
MAISONNEUVE, QUE.— Street construction 
work has Just been commenced on the new 
$100,000 building being erected for the Unit- 
ed States Shoe Machinery Co. The masonry 
and carpentering contracts are the only ones 
let, in addition to the foundation and steel 

VANCOUVER, B.C.— The Western Steel Cor- 
poration have purchased 300 acres on the 
south side of the Fraser river. About $2,- 
000.000 will be expended ou construction of 
bullillngs and wharves and Instalatlon of 
machinery. , „ 

MONTREAL— The National Steel Co. are 
erecting a large plant at Longue Pointe, to 
cost one million dollars. General contract 
awarded to Peter Lyall & Sons. 

MORRISBURG, ONT.— The Tack factory 
has now thirty machines In operation, and 
twenty more have Just arrived. There is also 
In operation one shoe nail machine with a 
capacity ot one-half ton a day. Mr. Russell 
has Just returned from Toronto, where he 
secured orders amounting to over nine tons. 
Two more expert tack makers have arrived, 
and are now at work. 

HALIFAX, N.S.— Fred M. Brown, formerly 
of the Steel Co., whose appointment as vice- 
president and general manager of the Nova 
Scotia car works was announced recently. Is 
here. Mr. Brown is a Montreal boy and has 
a thorough grasp of mochanlial affairs, as 
well as a mastery of the details necessary to 
the discharge of the duties as purchasing 
agent In a great company like the Dominion 
Steel Corporation. „ ,. „ 

.MONTREAL — New plans of the C. P. R., as 
announced by W. Whyte, here. Include 100 
miles of double-tracking and 300 miles of 
new track In the west. New yards will be 
laid out at Reglna, Moose .law and Medicine 
Hat. Four new steel bridges will be erected. 
Old eo-pound rails on the Manitoba and 
Northwestern branch will be replaced by 80- 
nonnd steel for a distance of about ICO miles. 
OWHN SOUND, ONT.— A Cleveland Ann is 

contemplating the erection of a cold-pressed 
steel works here. 

BROCKVILLE, ONT.— Wm. J. Nute & Sons 
have purchased the boiler works owned by 
Black Bros. The new firm will manufacture 
boilers, hot water heaters and do general re- 
pair work. 

VANCOUVER, B.C.— W. Price, of Seattle, 
general manager of the Western Steel Cor- 
poration, proposes to start the construction 
of a $500,000 merchant steel plant near Sud- 
bury by April 1. The directors have secured 
.•too aiTcs. 

WELLAND, ONT.— The Canadian Auto- 
matic Transportation Co., with head office in 
Toronto, will erect a plant here for the manu- 
facture of automatic carriers. The principal 
product is a storage battery truck scale for 
handling freight. 

COBOURG, ONT.— A new mill has been 
erected for the Provincial Steel Co. here, 
and machinery is being installed. 

MONTREAL — Foss & Fuller, machinery 
dealers, have dissolved. 

TORONTO, ONT. — Application has been 
made to the Provincial Secretary of Ontario 
on belialf of the Timmins-McMartin-Dunlop 
Syndicate for a charter for a milling, con- 
ccntrntins and refining company of $500,000 
capital stock. The name of the company Is 
to be the Porcupine Gold Mining Co. It Is 
proposed to erect at once a mill having 30 
stamps at the outset, and so built as to en- 
able its capacity to l)e easily increased upon 
demand. Besides working on the ore of the 
mining Interests .associated in the company, 
the plant will be used on custom business. 

HALIFAX, N.S.— The city council has voted 
to give exemption from taxation for 20 years 
to the Nova Scotia Car Works, which is to 
take over the works of the Silliker Car Co. 
Also the new company is to receive free from 
the cltv 5.000,000 gol. of water every year. 

CALGARY, ALTA. — The Board of Trade is 
in communication with American inquirers 
who are considering the establishment here 
of works for the manufacture of gas engines, 
stoves and heating apparatus. 

GALT. ONT.— The Gait Foundry Co., whose 
new were completed this month are 
alreadv making castings for the trade. 

TORONTO — The Fairbanks-Morse Co. have 
taken out permits for a new $13,000 foundry 
and foundry cleaning and pattern room, at 
1SC3-1.W0 Bloor Street West. 

WEYBURN, SASK.— The Birrell Motor 
Plow Co., of Winnipeg, are negotiating with 
the authorities regarding the establishment 
of a factory here. 

TORONTO. ONT. — .T. L. Richardson & Co., 
dealers in machinists' and foundry supplies, 
have assigned to Richard Tew. 

REGINA, SASK. — The Holt Caterpillar Co., 
of Stockton, California, will establish a dis- 
tributing centre here in the spring for their 
traction engines. 

LONDON. ONT.— An automobile factory Is 
to 1)0 located here. Hugh Kennedy, of Gait, 
and W. .T. and Frank Reid. of this city, are 
Interested. ^ 

GANANOQUE. ONT.— The D. F. .Tones Co. 
has added a night gang and is keeping its 
rolling mills in constant operation. 

AMHERST, N.S.- Extensive improvements 
are being made in the shops of the Canada 
Car Co. here. There are orders on hand to 
keep the works busy till next .Tune. 

ST. STEPHEN. N.B.- The Maritime Edge 
Tool Co.. here, has mnile large additions to 
Its factory. „ , 

ORTLLIA ONT.— The Canadian Refining * 
Smelting Co. has its building up. and Is put- 
ting In the plant for treating high-grade ( o- 

' SHERBROOIvE. QUE.— The Canadian Fair- 
banks Co.. manufacturers of weigh scales, will 
double the manufacturing capacity of then- 
plant here. „, . ■ ^ 

QITEBEC. I'.O.— The Dorchester Electric ( o. 
Is to tinlld machine shops here, at a cost of 
$200,000. , c , . 

CHATHAM. ONT. The Dowsley Spring & 
Axle Co. Is making extensions to Its plant. 

OTTAWA, ONT.- Henderson Bros., of Brn- 
ton England, have decided to estiibl'sh a 
factory In Ottawa for the manufacture and 
halr-cioth machines and patent horizontal 

LONDON, ONT.— The Superior Machinery 
Co. has obtained a charter. 

TORONTO, ONT.— Sellew Motors, Ltd., has 
ol)talned a charter. 

VICTORIA, B.C. — Among the companies 
either licensed or registered during the last 
week of December to do business In British 
Columbia, are the Burrlll Rock Drill Co., 
Record Foundry & Machine Co., Hallidie Ma- 
ihlncry Co. 

.TOLIETTE, QUE.- The JoUette Steel & 
Iron Foundry is the name of a new manu- 
facturing concern at Joliette, Que. The com- 
liany Intend dealing in machinery and sup- 
plies, steel aud iron castings of all kinds. 
They have opened an office and show room 
in .Montreal, under the management of J. D. 
Query. The new company has absorbed the 
business formerly carried on by the Joliette 
Foundry Co. They also contemplate manu- 
facturing some specialties In the near future. 
HAMILTON — Fire, supposed to have been 
caused by the ignition of crude oil used to 
facilitate the handling of rolled steel, com- 
pletely destroyed the Hamilton Steel & Iron 
Company's rolling mills, at the corner of 
Queen and Barton, recently. The frame shell, 
In which the valuable rolls, furnaces aud hot 
beds were located, was burned to the ground. 
The forge and axle department, which is situ- 
ated immediately west of the mills, was also 
badly damaged. The loss is estimated at 

LONDON — Alexander Gauld, brass finisher 
at the Labatt Box Co., Is organizing a foun- 
ilry company here, wliidi promise to employ 
in a short time 100 men. The output of the 
foundry will consist of all sorts of plumb- 
ers' castings, pipings, etc. 

ST. CATHARINES. ONT.— The Steel & 
Radiation Co., of "Toronto, has agreed to 
erect a new factory here, to begin active 
operations by the end of the year, employing 
100 men with an annual wage roll ot $50,000 
for tlie first three years, and afterwards 250 
men with an annual wage roll of $125,000. The 
city gives the company a site of 'i5 acres, with 
a fixed assessment of $0,000 for three years 
and $10,000 for the next seven years. 


TORONTO — Debentures to the amount ot 
one million dollars will shortly be Issued by 
the city in connection with the construction 
of the civic power plant. 

VICTORIA, B.C.— The electric lighting by- 
law ($25,000) was carried. 

CALGARY, ALTA.— The machinery at the 
l)lg dam of the Calgary Power Co., on the 
Bow river at Kananaskis, is nearly all In- 
stalled, and if nothing unforeseen occurs the 
company will be in a position to supply 
]>ower in Calgary by the date agreed upon, 
April 1. 3011. 

SASKATOON— E. L. White, city electrician, 
has prepared estimates calling for an expendi- 
ture of $140,656 for a light and power plant. 
The proi)osed changes would double the ca- 
pacity of the works. 

WINDSOR, ONT. — Windsor has secured the 
Canadian branch of the Moloney Electric Co., 
of St. Louis, Mo. The Moloney Company 
manufacture electrical machinery on an ex- 
tensive scale. They are erecting a temporary 
building, in which manufacturing will prob- 
ably start within two months. 

ELKO. B.C.— The British Columbia Elec- 
tric Co. win uild a plant here tor developing 

GRAND FALLS. N.B.— The Maine & N. B. 
Electri<'al Power Co., of St. ,Tohn. N.B.. will 
bnlld a new line here and erect a large power 

HESPELER, ONT. — A municipal electric 
lighting system will be installed here. 

()TT.\WA. ONT. -The Ottawa Electric Rail- 
way is building a new power house. 

WATERLOO. ONT. -.'f.'iO.OOO will be spent 
on an electric lighting plant here. 

()TT.\WA, ONT. — American and English 
capitalists will estnl)lish an electric smelting 
Iilant at Chat's Falls, ou the Ottawa river. In 
the spring. 

PORCUPINE CITY, ONT.— C. L. Slierrlll, 
of Buffalo, Is preparing to erect a power plant 
here to taellltate the development of this dis- 



CAMROSE, ALTA.— The munlplpnllty-ownod 
power plant here hus heeii opeued and Is 
now in operation. 

STRATHCONA, ALTA.— Steps are behiK 
taken to Increase the capacity of the muni- 
cipal electrical plant. About $70,000 worth 
of machinery will be pnrchaHed. including a 
600 kilowatt generator and engine and the 
necessary boilers. 

KINGSTON, ONT.— Mr. Beach, of Iroquois, 
has options on water powers adjacent to 
Calabogie, Renfrew Co., Que. He is planning 
two generating plants, a main one at High 
Palls, and a secondary one at Brockvllle. 

WKLLAND, ONT.~The Falls Power Co. sold Its lighting system to the Welland 
Electrical Co. This includes the street light- 
ing here. 

I'OllT HOPE, ONT.— A by-law granting a 
30-year franchise to the Seymour Electric 
Power Co. has been carried. 

WINNIPEG— The Winnipeg Electric Rail- 
way lias secured a permit for a new turbine 
power building, tlie ostiniated coat being $72,- 
000. It will have a turbine engine of 12,000 

INGERSOLL, ONT.— The by-law to ap- 
point a commission to control the electric 
light and power utility was carried. 

GRAND FALLS— The Grand Falls Power 
Co., of which Sir William C. Van Home is 
one of the leading spirits, is preparing to 
begin active operations towards the develop- 
ment of a big industry at the Falls. 

WINNIPEG, MAN.— The Board of Control 
accepted the tender of the Seamens Dynamo 
Works, Toronto, for the 500-kllowatt genera- 
tor sets for the power station. Their tender 
amounted to $16,410. 

BROCKVILLE, ONT.— .1. Wesley Allison, of 
the New York & Ontario Co., states that 
drills, boring machines, boilers and hoisting 
apparatus for the power plant at Wadding- 
ton, were uow being secured, so that work 
could be commenced early In the spring, and 
that electrical niachlneiy, water wheels and 
other machinery necessary had been con- 
tracted for. 

BRANTFORD, ONT.— Hal Donly, Slmcoe; 
W. S. Brewster, R. E. Ryerson. John Mulr 
and W. D. Schultz, of Branfford, are appli- 
cants for a charter for an electrical radial 
line from Brantford to Port Dover. 

BOWMANVILLE, ONT.— The plebiscite in 
favor of the electric light being managed by 
commissioners carried. 

BROCKVILLE. ONT.— The by-law to amal- 
gamate the light and water commissioners 

.MEDICINE HAT, ALTA.— The new electric 
power bouse here has been completed and 
machinery is being installed. A regulator 
station is beinjg erected near the power house. 
WEYBURN, SASK.— Owing to delay in the 
arrival of machinery, the new power house 
and electric service will not be ready for 
use until March. 

ST. TOHN. N.B. — The Maine & New Bruns- 
wick Electrical Power Co. will build a line 
from its plant at Aroostook Falls to Lime- 
atone. Van Buren and St. I,eonards. running 
near Grand Falls. Besides aelling power to 
the towns, it is the object of the company to 
furnish energy for the construction of the 
large paper mill to be built on the St. .Tohn 
river at Gr.tnd Falls. 

WINNIPEG. MAN.— It Is reported that pri- 
v.tte corporations, believed to be backed up 
by C. N. R. Interests, are securing every 
available hydro-electric site on the Winnipeg 
river below Lac (in Bonnett and Point du 
Bois. where the city is completing its .$2,000.- 
000 power plant. There is a rnmor to the 
effect that it is planned to underbid the city 
in the sale of surplus power. 

HAMILTON. ONT.--Tlie Hamilton & Port 
Dover Electric Railway Co.. which has ob- 
tained provincial charter to construct an elec- 
tric line between Hamilton and Port Dover, 
at an estimated cost of .Sl.Ono.OOO. will build 
Its power house at Caledonia. George Lynch 
Staunton. K.C.. namilton, Is to lie president 
of the company. 

OTTAWA. ONT.— Sparks Street, in this city. 
la to have a "White Way." Tlie municipal 
electric department has charge of installing 
the service and expe<-ts to have the lights go- 
ing before the end of .Tanuary. 

QUEBEC. P.O.- The Dorchester Electric Co. 
has obtained the consent of the municipal 
authorities to extend Its system into this 
cltv aid sell electricitv. 

II.\MILTnN. ONT.— The directors of the 
Dominion Power i>t Transmission Co. have 
placed an order with the Canadian Westing- 
house Co. for a new generator, to be installed 
at the former company's power works at De 
Cern Falls. The capacitv of the generator is 
to be 8,.'i00 h.p.. and Its cist to be $200,000. 
The power company is also arranging to 
build another sub-station in Hamilton. This 
will eoit «100,000. 

BOWMANVILLE, ONT.— A franchise was 

voted to the Seymour Power & Electric Co. 
in this towu, on Dec. 27. 

PETEKBORO, ONT.— The Can. Gen. Ele.-. 

Co. win construct a power house on the 

waterworks dam, near here. Bids are now 
being received. 


TORONTO. ONT.— The Augustine Auto- 
matic Rotary Engine Co., capitalized at $1,- 
000,000 has been Incorporated. 

LONDON, ONT.— The "Superior .Machinery 
Co." has been Incorporated. The promoters 
are .1. Fitzgerald, E. W. Scott, G. E. Scott, and 
T. Bryan, manufacturers, and J. B. P. Tan- 
ton, merchant, all of this place. They have 
taken over the business formerly known as 
The Superior Repairing and Mfg. Co. and will 
deal In all kinds of machinery. The head 
office will be here. 

TORONTO^ ONT.— Barr Registers Co., has 
been Incorporated with capital of $50,000. 
They will manufacture registers and store 
devlies. Among the directors are W. H. 
.Matthews, A. B. Bywater and J. A. Steven- 
son, M.D., of Trenton. 

ST. .JOHN, N.B.— C. J. Salmon, W. G. Salm- 
on, H. G. Adams, M. A. Hatheway and G. 
Dodge, of St. John, are applying for Incorpor- 
ation as "The Globe Steam Laundry, Ltd.," 
to be located here. 

OTTAWA, ONT.— The North Fork Power 
Co. have been Incorporated. 

The Byrnes Mfg. Co., of Colllngwood, has 
been Incorporated. They will carry on a 
wood-working business. 

VANCOUVER, , B.C.— The North American 
Lumber Co. has been incorporated in British 
Columbia. The manager, H. L. Jenkins, has 
his head office here in the B. C. Trust Block, 
on Pender Street. 

HAMILTON — Hamilton Machinery Co., 
Hamilton, Ont., have been Incorporated to 
carry on business of mechanical engineers 
and manufacturers of machinery, with a 
capital stock of forty thousand dollars. Those 


made under Canadian 
Patent No. 116400 to 
A. C. Higgins. 


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rr V.<fi 


We have a Good Proposition for Motor Mf rs. 

Having exported our Stills in larg* amounts for many years, and already tiaving 
several far Eastern agencies we are now open to establish additional agencies nod invite 
correspondence to that end, looliing after our old customers and prospective buyers by 
special successful riemonstrative methods for malting Alcohol, Apple Jacli, Aguardiente, 
Mescal, Teguila, Peach Brandy, Whiskey, etc. Most modern and simple. All sizes, 5 to 
500 gallons daily capacity distilling apparatus. 

ALCOHOL DISTILLING APPARATUS and the amazing possibilities of the utilization 
of waste farm products and wood waste by superheated steam distillation, the distilling 
apparatus as used by us ; the principle involved, also the methods of chemical control 
and disposal of the product and by-products 7 We will gladly say to you : 

Denatured Alcohol to-day is ol tlie greatest untold benefit to the American motor 
people. It opens an absolutely new field for investment for progressive paper pulp and 
chemical fibre mills, paint, varnish, soap and candle makers, gardeners, farms and 
garbage plants, saw-mills, lumbermen and canneries. The Automobiles and the Navies 
of the world clamor for this new tax-free cheaper industrial alcohol. May we ei-pect 
some encouragement from the more patrotic pioneers for this new American Industry T 
The field Is new and profitable, and you can practically have the business your own 
way by starting now. We are makers of an apparatus for the production of this de- 
natured or Industrial alcohol °. we build and install plants — large or small. The initial 
cost of a plant is small : the financial risk— If any— is trifling. The equipment Is such 
that It can be added to at any time without disturbing the original Installation. 



iiKorpornted are .M. VV. Beat, salesman, F. W. 
Woods, munufaoturer, G. F. Webb, contrac- 
tor, nil o( Hnniilton, Ont., and N. B. Manclll, 
salesman, Vancouver, B.C.. and R. F. Manclll, 
salesman, of Goderlch, Ont. 

MONTREAL— .StHudard Jfachlnes Co., ot 
Montreal, has been incorporated to mauu- 
faiture all kinds of eugines and machines. 
G. V. Cousins and O. B. MacCallum, barris- 
ters, P. F. Browu, stenographer, W. R. Ford, 
clerk, S. T. Mains, bookkeeper, nil of Mon- 

MONTREAL — Canadian Steel Foundries, 
head office at Montreal, have been incorporat- 
ed to manufacture and deal iu machinery. Q. 
O.Cousins and O. B. MacCallum. barristers, 
S. T. Mains, accountant, P. F. Brown, secre- 
tary, and W. R. Ford, clerk, all of Montreal, 
are the incorporators. 

VICTORIAVILLE. QUE.— The Vlctoriaville 
Chair Mfg. Co. has obtained a charter. 

ST. .JOHN, N.B.— Micliael Sullivuu, of King- 
ston, has been awarded the contract to build 
the armory here. It is estimated the build- 
ing when completed will cost about $250,000. 

SHEKBROOKE, QUE.— Simoneau and Dion 
linve been awarded the $200,000 contract for 
an office building for the Quebec Railway, 
Heat and I'ower Co., at Quebec. The building 
must be completed by November. 

VANCOUVER, B.C.— The Investors' Guar- 
antee Corporation will erect a lifteeu-storey 
block here nt an estimated cost of l-IOOiOOO. 

Vancouver, B.C.— The Hudson's Bay . Co. 
propose to erect a six or eight storey steel 
building here. 

SUDBURY, ONT.— The Casey-Shaw Lum- 
licr Co. has obtained a charter. 

MONTREAL. QUE.— Canadian Rotary Ma- 
cliine Company, capital stock $«00,000. To 
control Wilhelm von Plttler's system of ro- 
tary engines and machines In Canada. 

MONTREAL— National Bridge Co., Mou- 
treal. Que; capital stock, $1,000,000. To 
cirry on a general bridge building business 
and to erect the necessary plant, 

PENTICTON, B.C.— By-laws in favor of the 
installation of ■ a waterworks and electric 
liRhting system were carried recently. 

KSQUI.MALT. B.C.— The position of general 
manager of the Esquimau Waterworks Co. 
rondered vacant by the death of T. Lubbe 
will not be filled, the directors undertaking 
the management of the business. 

TORONTO, Out— R. Chadwick. the city's 
bridge engineer, has resigned to accept a 
position with a New York contracting firm. 
'I'he Board of Control has appointed Mr. 
Cousins his successor. 

WESTVILLE, N.S.— The new pump has 
arrived from Toronto. Mr. Mclntyre of the 
Canada Foundry Co. will superintend the 

SHERBROOKE, QUE.— The City Council 
has awarded the contract for power develop- 
ment to Morrow and Beathe. of Peterboro'. 
their tender of .$51,220 being the lowest. This 
amount covers the construction of the dam 
and power house. 

STRATHROY, ONT.— The by-law to raise 
$(i.000 for improvements to the electric light 
and waterworks systems carried. 

ORILLIA. ONT.— The by-law granting the 
Canada Refining & Smelting Co. certain privi- 
leges was carried. 

GODERICir, ONT.— The by-law to raise 
$20,000 by dcliontures for the building ot n 
storm sewer and referendum towards build- 
ing new municipal buildings were both car- 

EDMONTON, ALTA.— The City Council 
provisionally passed debenture by-laws to 
raise and oxi)eiid $4,'>0.00f» on public works. 
Those Include $107,000 for a Iiridge over the 
Saskatchewan River. 

STRATHCON.\. ALTA.— Tenders addressed 
to David Kwing, chief engineer power house, 
liere. for Engine. Boilers and Generators will 
he received up to March 1st, Iflll. Specifica- 
tions may be had from the city engineer, 
A. .T. McLean. 

OTTAWA.- It is announced here that a 
new steel bridge will be built over the Ottawa 
river nt Temlskamlng. The Federal Gov- 
ernment will contrlliute .$.10,000. Quebec $15.- 
000 and Ontario an amount to be fixed later. 

Narrows' bridge connecting up the north and 
south shores of linrrard Inlet with a pro- 
posed $1.2.10,000 traffic and railway bridge Is 
now assured since the electors have voted the 
necessary funds. 

PORTAGE LA PRAIRIE— The city council 
has appointed a special committee to ascer- 
tain the possibility of purcnasing a central 
electric light and gas plant with the view of a 
municipal owned plant to furnish the city 
with light and power. 

VICTORIA. B.C. — On the recommendation 
of the water commissioner, the city will pur- 



c'huse 473 Trident water meters of varioua 
sizes at a cost of $7,500; 15,000 feet of 12 In., 
10,000 feet of 8 In., 35,000 feet of « lu., 80,000 
feet of 4 In. Manncssman's steel tubes at a 
cost of $80,000; and 400 gate valves of various 
sizes at an estimated cost of $4,000; and 15 
tons of pi)? lead. These supplies will be used 
In extensions of the distribution system. 

HAURISTON, ONT.— A complete new 
waterworks system Is being Installed here. 

ST. CATHARINES, ONT.— ?180,000 will br 
spent on the waterworks plant here. 

XOltTII VANCOUVER. B.C.— The munici- 
pality Is In the market for $50,000 worth of 
cast-Iron pipe. 

PE.MBROKB, ONT.— The municipality Is In 
the market for 6,000 feet of 18-inch lapwelded 
or riveted steel piping. 

NELSON, B.C.— The city will install man- 
ual training equipment in the schools here. 
iVtacbiue-tool equipment will be required. 

RIDQETOWN, ONT.— The plebiscite for 
waterworks carried. 

OWEN SOUND, ONT.— The by-law to re- 
build two bridges was carried. 

MITCHELL, ONT.— A by-law to run the 
municipal electric light and waterworks by a 
commission carried. 

HARRISTON, ONT.— The by-law for muni- 
cipal waterworks carried. 

WESTON, ONT.— The by-law for a com- 
misslou to manage the electric lights and 
waterworks was carried. 

VICTORIA, B.C.— The $150,000 waterworks 
loan by-law and Sooke Lake by-law both 

TORONTO.— The city will apply for legls- 
latiou to Issue debentures to raise $026,544 
for a new waterworks intake pipe, a six-foot 
steel conduit, and the necessary additional 
pumping mains. 

waterworks system will likely be installed 
here in the near future. 

VANCOUVER, B.C.— The ratepayers have 
authorized the issue of $400,000 of debentures 
for waterworks extension. 

WINNIPEG, MAN.— Tenders will be re- 
ceived up to 11 a.m., on Monday, February 
6th, 1911, for the manufacture, delivery and 
erectiou complete of two pumping plants each 
of a capacity of one million imperial gallons 
per 24 hours. Specifications, forms of tenders 
may be obtained at the o%ce of the City En- 
gineer, 223 .Tames Avenue, Winnipeg. 

BROCKVILLB, ONT.— The municipally 
owned waterworks system here shows u net 
surplus for the past year of $2,406.02. 

BOWMANVILLE, ONT.— The indebtedness 
of $19,280 incurred by the late Durham Rub- 
ber Co. with this municipality and taken over 
by the Goodyear Tire Co.. of Canada, has 
been wiped out by the carrying of a by-law 
granting a bonus of an equal amount. A 
partial exemption from taxation and a fixed 
assessment have also been granted the Good- 
year Company. 

CALG.\RY, ALTA.— Commissioner Graves 
estimates that between 25 and 30 miles of 
water mains will be laid during the present 
year. The waterworks for 1910 shows a sur- 
plus of $3,.335..36. 

BOWMANVILLE, ONT.— This municipality 
is considering the installation of waterworks. 
The proposed source of water supply Is from 
springs seven miles distant. John Lyle, clerk. 

.Saw Mill aDd Planing Mill News. 

THOROLD, ONT.— The Colonial Wood 
Products Co. has Just erected an addition, 72 
by 45 feet, to its mill to provide for addition- 
al wet machine capacity, enabling it to in- 
crease the output of mechanically ground 
wood pulp. This company commenced oper- 
ating in February and the extension referred 
to has been necessitated by the demand for 
Its ground wood. The plant is operated 
electrically, having two grinders at present 
and four wet machines. 

working steam mifis of Barnard Creamer, of 
Sour's. have been totally destroyed by fire. 
Loss, $8,000. .\o Insurance. Another mill, 
that of M. F. Schurman and Co., Summer- 
side, was also burned. 

LETHBRIDGE, ALTA.— Becker and Yates, 
with headiiuarters here, will open a lumber 
yard, and do a general lumber business. 

FORT FRANCES, ONT.— Work has com- 
meuced on the new mills of the Shevlln- 
Clarke Co., here. The erection will be com- 
plete by .Tune Ist. 

RICHMOND, QUE.— Messier & Desmaruis 
have purchased the Haslett portable saw mill 
plant at Tronholmville ana wiu remove it 
to Richmond and make additions to the 

STEWART, B.C.— The Portland Canal Min- 
ing Co. are building a new saw mill here. 

KI.NSELLA.— W. H. Kennelv Is starting a 
lumber yard here. 


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CHILLIWACK, B.C.— The Ahhotsford Tim- 
ber and Tradlntr Co. are opening u lumber 
yard here. 

GOLUEN CITY, B.C.— TIic new mill of lUe 
Columbia River Lumber Co., l\pre, bus been 
enclosed and the placing of inaol'.lnery is lip- 
Ing proceeded with. A tui'iilue engine will 
furnish the power. 

FORT GEORGE, B.C.— Throe more saw 
mills will he established In this district and 
be in readiness for operations in the spring. 
Two of these will be locateL" on the Neehaco 
river and the third on tlie I'ntser river, six 
miles above Fort George. 

VANCOUVER. B.C.— The lu.nber mill and 
limits of the Salmon lilvcr Lumber Co. In 
Langley municipality hme been sold to the 
Western Lumber and Shingle Co., with heii 
office in Vancouver, for $B0 0<)0. The pur- 
chasers have placed Mr. MUchcll in charge. 
It is their Intention to operate the mill and 
posslhlv install a shingle mill and dry Ulln. 

lUDGETOWN, ONT.— The Mills of the 
Howard Cooperage and ijumlv.'r Co. will lie 
re-opened, having been closed for two years. 
Lumber, baskets, veneer -lud fish boxes will 
be handled. 

DAUPHIN, MAN— T. A Burrows nf this 
place will build a large sa-.v mill on the 
McLeod River, 26 miles west of Wolf Creek. 
Building operations will be commenced this 

CHATHAM, N.B.— J. B. Snowball Co. are 
altering and extending their large saw mill 
here. It has been lengthened 32 feet, and a 
filing room added. Two of the three gang 
saws will be replaced by an eight-Inch band 
mill, a seven-inch re-saw band, and a twin 
rotary slabber. 

New Westminster, B.C.— Galbralth & Sons 
intend erecting a saw mill and factory on 
Lulu Island. The saw mill is to be 40 by 225 
by 60 feet. The plant Is to be up-to-date, 
having a large dry lumber shed 45 by 65 feet, 
drv house 30 by 120 feet, and a loading plant 
.30 by 40 feet. The mill will be a three-storey 

CARIBOU, N.B.— S. W. Collins & Son's 
lumber mill here back of the Vaughn House, 
was whollv ' destroyed by Are recently. The 
loss was $7,000. insurance $1,000. This mill 
may not be rebuilt, as a mill in that spot is 
said to be not a very profitable proposition. 

OWEN SOUND, ONT.— The Galbralth- 
Bumstead syndicate are rushing the work on 
their new planing mill, sash and door fac- 
tory here. Approved mill construction Is be- 
ing used. 

LETHBBIDGB. ALTA.— The Farmers Lum- 
ber Co. are building a lumber yard here. 

General Mannfactnrlng 

MOOSE JAW, SASK.— The Western Manu- 
facturing Co., Regina, has purchased the 
Saskatchewan Sash and Door Co., here, and 
will make additions to the plant. 

ORILLIA, ONT.— The Canada Keg & Barrel 
Co. will commence the erection of factory 
buildings here In the early spring. A site of 
5 acres has been granted by the town. 

BERLIN, ONT.— The L. MeBrine Co., trunk 
manufacturers, and the Art Glass Co., are 
each planning to construct large additions to 
their present factories. In addition, the Felt 
Boot and Rubber Manufacturers will build 
u box factory for their own use. 

REGINA, SASK.— The Massey-Harris Co. 
are building a track warehouse here, 96x4.S 
feet and two storeys high. They will also 
build track warehouses at Swift Current 
and Areola. 

REGINA, SASK.— The Sawyer-Massey Co., 
of Hamilton, will erect a warehouse and dis- 
tributing agency here. The construction will 
be of brick and steel throughout with con- 
crete floors. The building is to be steam- 

SARNIA, ONT.— H. Diver has purchased a 
site from the Cleveland-Sarnla Saw Mills 
Co., and will commence the establishment of 
a new industry here. The new firm will 
manufacture doors, especially of the better 
class, veneered and fancy hardwood. The 
main building will be 80x200 feet, two storeys 
In height, and of reinforced concrete. There 
will be a storage building of 20x200 feet, dry 
kilns of 60xG0 feet, and a building, for the 
steam power plant of 40x80 feet. Work on 
the erection of the new structure will be com- 
menced forthwith. 

RIDGETOWN, ONT.— T. G. Johnston hag 
taken an interest in the Leltch basket works. 
A new veneer machine, rip saw, new boiler 
and engine will be placed in the factory. 

LONDON, ONT.— A large knitting concern 
from the United States has leased a building 
here and will commence operations In the 
near future. 

OTTAWA, ONT.— The Beaver Board Co., of 
BnlTalo, N.y., has purchased land in Ottawa 
upon which to erect a factory for the making 

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of fireproof boarding to take the place of latb 
and plaster. 

MONTUEAL, QUE.— The pulp and paper 
mills to be cstnbllslied by Price Bros. & Co., 
on the Riviere an .Sable, and for the building 
of which $5,000,000 has recently been ralse<l 
by the sale of the company's bonds In Lon- 
don, are to be ready for operation by June, 
1912. The new Industries are expected to 
bring Into existence at that point a town of 
4.000 or 5,000 Inhabitants. A water power de- 
velopment that can be depended on to main- 
tain 14.000 h.p. win be begun as soon as 

AMHERST, N.S.— The Amherst Boot & 
Shoe Co., whose plant turns out 1,000 pairs a 
day, is doubling its manufacturing capacity. 

BniidlDK Notes. 

VANCOUVER, B.C.— Extensive alterations 
win be commenced in the spring on the 
abattoir and packing plant of P. Burns & Co. 
About $200,000 win be expended. 

VANCOUVER, B.C.— Mr. I.ester will erect 
a $100,000 six-storey building here In the 
spring. Up-to-date eault)mcnt will be a fea- 
ture of the building throughout. 

PRINCE RUPERT. B.C.— The Pacific Con- 
struction Co.. of Victoria. B.C.. has been 
awarded the contract for the marine depart- 
ment depot here. The contract price is $150.- 

HAMILTON. ONT. — The International 
Harvester Co. have let a contract for a 
new office at their plant to G. B. Mills. 
Cost, $40,000. 

CALGARY, ALTA.— The C.P.R. will erect 
a big hotel here. 

ST. CATHARINES, ONT.— The city has de- 
cided to give 35 acres of free land to the Steel 
and Radiation, Limited. The company will 
spend $50,000 on buildings. 

REGINA, SASK.— Hand Bros. & Nellermoe 
Co., of Winnipeg, will erect a $50,000 Imple- 
ment warehouse here. The headquarters of 
the firm will be moved here. 

REGINA, SASK.— The Toronto Type -Foun- 
dry Co.. of Toronto, are preparing plans for 
a $20,000 warehouse. It will have steam heat- 
ing, plumbing and an electric hoist. 

TORONT, ONT.— The C.P.K. will erect at 
the corner of King and Yonge streets, a six- 
teen storey building, costing over $1,000,000. 
It will be of steel, faced with glazed terra 
cotta and will be one of the finest office 
buildings in the world. 

SASKATOON, ALTA.— The Canadian Fair- 
banks Co. will erect a block here on Twenty- 
Third Street. 

SASKATOON, ALTA.— The International 
Harvester Co. have a scheme in view which 
will extend their premises considerably. It 
is also stated that the .7. I. Case Co. wlU 
l)uild in this city. 

SASKATOON, ALTA.— The American -Abell 
Engine and Thresher Co. also Intend locating 
here. They have erected offices and a ware- 
house opposite the C.P.R. depot. 

SASKATOON, ALTA.— The Hnrt-Parr Co.. 
of Charles City, Iowa, wannfacturers of oil 
and gasoline traction plow engines have lo- 
cated offices here as liendquarters for North- 
ern' Saskatchewan and Northern Manitoba. 

MONTREAL. QUE.— The Engineers' Club 
will make extensive Improvements to their 
clubhouse here. The plans call for an ex- 
penditure of $100,000. 

MEDICINE HAT. ALTA.— The Alberta Lin- 
seed Oil and Paint Co. will erect a plant here. 
It will be fireproof, of brick and cement, ex- 
cepting elevators which shall be of the usual 

TORONTO, ONT.— The Central Y.M.C.A. 
will erect a new building here at a cost of 
from $300,000 to $400,000. It will be of fire- 
proof construction, with a steel frame, brick 
walls and fireproof fioors and partitions. 

EDMONTON. ALTA.— MacDougall & Secord 
contemplate the erection of a ten-storey busi- 
ness block on the corner of First and .Jasper 
i^treets. The date of construction has not 
been decided upon. 

EDMONTON, ALTA.— Architect H. A. Ma- 
goon is preparing plans for a five-storey 
hotel to be built by .T. B. Mercer, on present 
site of Grand Central Hotel. Cost abont $100,- 

OTTA'WA, ONT.— A new ngricultnral im- 
plement and machinery hall at the exhibition 
srrounds will be built this year at a cost of 

REGINA. SASK.— Plans are ready for the 
new Donahue Block to be erected this spring 
on Eleventh Ave., at a cost of $100,000. It will 
be modern in every respect. 

ORILLIA. ONT.— The Canada Refining and 
Smelting Co. will extend Its plant here. 

PRINCETON, B.C.— The British Columbia 
Portland Cement Co. is building a large plant 

ST. JOHN, N.B.^The Partington Pulp and 



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Taper Co. will mnke extensive Improvements 
to Its plant here. 

CHATHAM, ONT.— The Western Bridge 
and Equipment Co. will build a large factory 

PORT AllTHUK, ONT.— A new armory will 
be erected here in the spring at a cost of 

OTTAWA. ONT.— Tenders will soon be 
called on the new departmental block to be 
located here. The total cost will likely be 
about three and u half millions and big con- 
tractors all over the Dominion are making 
enquiries with a view of tendering. 

VICTORIA, B.C.— L. W. Hnrgreaves has 
completed the plans for a flve-storey hotel to 
be erected here. The bniiding will be of rein- 
forced concrete, and have elevators and a 
steam heating system. 

SYDNEY, C.B.— R. L. Johnston, of St. John, 
lias about completed arrangements for a large 
rolling mill plant here. New York capitalists 
are interested. He took options on two sites, 
and definite announcement of plans will be 
made later. The new company will construct 
a very large plant, having completed arrange- 
ments with the Dominion Steel Corporation 
for stock. They have secured from the Town 
Council a bonus of $50,000, with nominal 
water and tax. 

REVELSTOKB, B.C.— The Dominion Saw 
Mills and Lumber Co., of Three Valley, and 
Reveistoke, B.C. have let a contract for the 
erection of a three-storey office building on 
A'ictoria Ave., here. 

THREE RIVERS, QUE.— The Fres Falls 
Co. is pushing the construction of its pulp 
and paper mills at Cap de Madeline, near 

PORT HOI'E, ONT.— The Standard Ideal 
Co., manufacturers of enameled sanitary ware, 
are spending $100,000 on new construction. 

WALKERVILLE, ONT.— The Canadian 
Bridge Co. is making a $100,000 addition to 
its works. 

MERRITTON, ONT.— An .addition of 40 x 
fiO ft. Is being made to the works of the Wheel 
Company here. 

PETERBOROUGH. ONT.— The addition the 
Canadian General Electric Co. Is making to 
its works at Peterborough will be 12.5 x 274 
ft. It is to be of brick and steel, and is to 
cost $100,000. 

Xew Companies. 

MONTREAL, QUE.— The Central Canada 
Iron & Steel Corporation capitalized at 
.'S1,'',.000,000 has been incorporated. 

VICTORIA, B.C.— The Western Laundry 
Madiinery Co. has been registered. 

MOOSE JAW, SASK.— The Moose Jaw Im- 
plement Co. has been incorporated to deal in 
farm implements. The firm is composed of 
A. H. Gamble, T. ,7. McCammon and W. C. 
Yeo, all of this city. 

Trades Notes. 

THREE RIVERS, P.Q.— The contract for 
the pulp machine for the Wayakamlte Paper 
Co. has been let to the Jeffrey Mfg. Co., Mon- 

The Chapman Double Ball Bearing Co., 
Toronto, are now manufacturing ball bearings 
for the Tudhope, Reo and Ford Motor Com- 
panies. They have received the orders for 
bearings for the Canadian National Acme 
Mfg. Co. and Crown Laundry, Montreal, and 
new plants of Watson and Smith and Nas- 
mith In Toronto. 

WELLAND, ONT.— The Annual meeting of 
the Robertson Machinery Co. was held .Tan. 
13, when the following officers were elected: 
President, D. D. Hooker; vice-president, Blake 
L. Booth; secretary, J. H. Crow; directors, 
the above officers and Alex. Robertson and 
(}. W. Sutherland. 

TORONTO, ONT. — At the annual meeting of 
the shareholders of the Johnston Harvester 
Companv, held at the head offices of the com- 
IKiny in" Batavla, N.Y., three directors of the 
Miissey-IIarrls Company, viz.: Senator L. 
Meivlii-Jones, Joseph N. Shenstone and 
Thomas FIndley, were elected as directors. 
At a subsequent meeting of the directors. 
Senator L. Melvln-Jones was made president 
of the company, G. A. Farrall, vice president 
and general manager, L. D. Collins, treasurer 
and assistant general manager, and E. At- 
water, secretary. Mr. Farrall, Mr. Collins and 
Mr Atwater are residents of Batavla and are 
continuing in the active management of the 

GALT, ONT.— The Stevens Co., manufac- 
turers of machine tools have recently taken 
the agency for the Gronkvlst Drill Chucks 
made In Katrlncholm, Sweden. 

Wrlland Board of Trade. 

At the annual meeting of the Welland 
Hoard of Trade the following officers were 
elected : -David Ross, pres.; T. D. Cowper, 
vice-pres.; J. D. Payne, secretary; A. H. M. 
Hay manager Bank of Nova Scotia, treasurer; 



T. J. Dillon and F. A. Loiint, auditors; B. .T. 
McCormick, Industrliil lonimlssloncr ; council, 
F. N. McConnell, H. l'\ Stoddard, H. I-. Halt, 
L. U. Duff, G. ('. Brown and (i. W. Illckcy. 
<'uiinilu Car * Koundr.v C'u. Acciiilrcs Ontario 
Iri»n and Steei I'lant. 
Arrangenicnts liave l)Cpn coniiilcted f<n' tlic 
transfer of the Ontario Iron & St«el plant in 
Welland to the Canadian Car & Foundry Co.. 
Montreal, wliicli is a Canadian branch of the 
American Iron & Steel Co. The Ontario Iron 
and Steel Co. are coniiileting a new .$'.'0.(XH) 
office building in Welland and additional im- 
provements will be made. The Pagc-IIcrsey 
Works, manage<l by Mr. Mosley, is not in- 
cluded in the deal. 

Dominion Iron & Ste«l Co. Coke Ovenn. 
Completing touches are being put upon the 
instalhition of Otto by-product coke ovens .it 
the plant of the Dominion Iron & Steel Co., 
Sydney, N.S.. ami operations will be In- 
augurated within several months. The new 
plant consists of 120 ovens of the stan<lard 
Otto type with a holding capacity of 1.! tons 
of coal each. The product will be devoted to 
the requirements of the group of blast fur- 
naces of tlie company. This is the second 
insallation of Otto ovens by the Dominion 
Iron and Steel Company, a plant of tills type 
having been put in service there some years 
ago. Construction ^vork on tlie present In- 
stallation has been under way for the past 13 
months and the completion of the plant with- 
in this period Is regarded as a very satisfai- 
torv achievement considering the weather 
conditions that are confronted there by rea- 
son of the geograpliicnl location. Tlie United 
Gas & Coke Co., Whitehall building, New 
York City, which controls the Otto rights, is 
building the plant. 

Taylor ti Arnold Open Winnipeg Office. 
Taylor & Arnold, railway material and sup- 
plies, Montreal, have opened an office in the 
Scott Block, Main Street, Winnipeg, with G. 
C. Walker in charge, to look after all the 
company's western interest. 

Incorporation of Robert W. Hunt * Co. 
Robert W. Hunt and Co. have been incor- 
porated under the Dominion Companies Act, 
with a capital of ?.">0.000 and office at Mon- 
treal, to carry on the business, in all Its 
branches, of civil, mechanical, mining and 
electrical engineers, analysts, nietallnrglsts, 
surveyors, assayers, examiners and inspectors, 
to take over the Canadian business of Robert 
W. Hunt and Co., and also to actjuire the 
business and carry out the contracts of the 
Standard Inspection Bureau. 

Canada Motors, Limited. 
Arrangements have been completed for the 
establishment of a new industry in Gait, 
known as Canada Motors. It will have a 
capital of S'J.W.OOO. The following officers 
have been elected : president. George Dobbie ; 
vice-president, A. M. Edwards; secretary, C. 
.Tansen : managing director, D. R. Perry ; 
treasurer, E. J. Getty. These, with Dr. Mac- 
Kendrick, F. Stewart Scott, Dr. T. F. Camp- 
bell, all of Gait, and A. N. W. Clare, of Pres- 
ton, win form the board of directors. The 
company have engaged temporary quarters 
until permanent buildings are erected. 

Hamilton Facing: Mill Co. Calendar. 
Following their usual custom, the Hamilton 
Facing Mill Co., Hamilton, foundry outfitters 
and manufacturers of foundry facings and 
supplies are mailing to their friends a caien- 
ilar for office or home decoration. It con- 
tains a reproduction of the famous painting 
"The Girl in Bine," by Wm. Tbonie. The 
whole painting is a harmony of eloiiuent 
color for which the paintings of Wm. Thorne 
are notalile.* 

Massey-Harris Co. Busy. 
The Massey-Harris Co., Toronto, who liave 
been working overtime for about two montiis 
have started a night gang and will be in full 
operation night and day. 

New Bridge Co. 
The National Bridge Co., has been incorpor- 
ated with a capital of ,$1,000,000 and $,3,000,000 
liond issue. A large plant is being construct- 
ed at Longue Pointe, near Montreal. The 
steel work is up and the company will soon 
be operating. The new organization will have 
as its president, .1. N. Greensbields : as vice- 
president. William Lyall. and the directorate 
will consist of Hon. Robt. Mai'kay, H. W. 
Beauderk and B. M. Shepherd. 

Large Steel Plant Near Vancouver. 
Three liundred acres of land on the south 
side of the Fraser River, directly opposite 
Annacis Island, have lust been se<'Hred by the 
Canadian-incorporated subsidiary company to 
the Western Steel Corporation as a site for a 
steel plant. The erection of huge blast fur- 
naces and the expenditure of close on $2,000.- 
000 111 the construction of buildings and 
wharves and the installation of modern ma- 

cbluery Is contemplated. In order to provide 
room for a large industrial city tributary to 
the steel works, private capitalists connected 
with the company have taken options on over 
1,500 acres of adjoining property, and niui'h 
of this is now being purchased outright. The 
location of the site which possesses over 1,700 
feet of waterfroiitage along the Fraser River 
witli approaches both by i;ind and water, has 
already been approved of by ,Tames A. Moore, 
l>resideiit of the Western .Steel Corporation, 
now operating a steel plant at Irondale, Wash. 
Among tlie Vancouver men interested in the 
pro)iositloii are R. P. Mcl-ennan. (!. M. GIbbs, 
anil S. ({. Faulkner, all directors of the Cana- 
dian sulisldlary company. Mr. McLennan con- 
finned the report that tlie purchase of ,100 
acres for a siet-i [ilaiit site iiad been approved 
by Mr. Moore. 

Williams tl Wilson, Montreal. 
Williams & Wilson, Montreal, arc turned 
Into a .joliii stock coiniiany to take over the 
present iiiachliiery business of the firm. The 
capital is .'i!2(K),(K)0, and the incorporators are 
A. U. Wiliiains. Toronto: F. C. Wils'iii. W. A. 
Wilson, M. B. Bronsbetter and E. Kingsland. 
salesman, of M<mtrenl. 


Calendar.- Mussens. Montreal, are sending 
out a calendar, the figures occupying a space 
of IB X 16 Inches. They can. tlierefore. In 
seen from a long distance. Aliove the figures 
on the sheet for each month, are illustrations 
of machinery for which Mussens are selling] 
agents, including machine tools, engines, air 
compressors, railroad ami contractors* out 
fits, etc. 

Friction Clutches. — The Carlyle .Johnson 
Machine Co.. Manchester. Conn.. Catalogue 
"E," 1911, 35 pages, 4V4 inclics by 7 inches. 
An issue of 25,000. The catalogue is enclosed 
in a handsome cover of two-toned blue, with 
a clutch cut and company monogram em- 
bossed tliereon. and is filled with attractive 
illnstrations showing tlie .Tohnson Clutcli. 
factor.v views, etc. The inside pages liave an 
attractive blue border to correspond with the 
lilue cover, this liorder being made up of re- 
duced cuts of .Tohnson Friction Clutches, with 
the headings at the top, of the company name 
and address, as always used in their trade 
paper advertising. This catalogue is larger and 
more complete than previous ones, and deals 
almost exclusively with the driving of machin- 
ery through friction clutches, special atten- 
tion being paid to the driving of machinery 
from line sh.iftlng. thus eliminating cross 
belting, countershaftlng. etc. Tliere Is spe- 
cial mention made of clutches for cutoff 
coupling work for use in connection w-ltii 
marine motors, as a one-way clutch for which 
work this type of clutch is particularly 
adapted. The lists are very complete, ex- 
tending to clutch parts, which are numliered 
to correspond to the numbers indicating the 
parts on sectional views. Copies will be sent 
free to interested parties. 

Calendar. -The B. Greening Wire Co. have 
Issued a calendar for Iftll containing a bird's- 
eye view of the large plant in Hamilton. Ont. 
Half-tones are also given of Nathaniel Green- 
ing, who estalilisheil the plant in Warrington. 
17n!l; Benlamlu Greening, who estalilisbed 
the plant in Hamilton. ISiiS): S. O. Greening, 
president. 1S77. and H. B. Greening, managing 
director. It is of interest to note that there 
are here represented four generations. 

Machine Tools- Eleventh addition of iiook- 
let. 2S pages, of lathes, nlaners. shaners .nnd 
drills issued by the American Tool Works Co., 

Smooth-on Iron Paint.— 12 nage booklet 
from the Smooth-on Mfg. Co.. .172 Communi- 
paw Ave.. .Tersey City. N.,T. 

Browning Dit<hers. — Descriptive catalogue. 
X 12 inches. .12 pages from tlie Browning 
Engineering Co.. Cleveland, descrilics their 
ditchers, giving dimensions of the devices 
and equipment such as imckets. booms, etc. 
The various operations ^M-e illustrated as well 
as their many uses sucb as wrecking cranes. 
locMiniotive cranes, electro-magnets, etc. 

Gear Testing Machine.— Circular S2] from 
.Adams Co.. Dnbnniie. Iowa, describing the 
Farwcil Gear Testing Machine. 

Boiler Makers' Tools.— ,T. F.icssler Mfg. Co.. 
Moberly. Mo., have issued a neat catalogue 
No. 27. of 12 pages on coated stock, contain- 
ing illnstrations and descriptions of roller 
flue expanders, sectional beading expanders, 
flue cutters, patch bolt connterslnking tools, 

Tapes and Rules.— The Lufkln Rule Co., 
Windsor, have Issued catalogue No. 8, con- 
taining 90 pages, 6x9 Inches. It is printed 
on coated paper, neatly bound and contains 
descriptions with illustranons of all styles of 
steel tapes, rules, squares, board sticks, etc. 
All classes of mechanics rules are described. 


16 Sheppard St., Toronto 

Patents Perfected 

Ruchlng and Plesting Machinery. 

Machinists and Tool Makers 


Opposite the Post Office. LACHINE.'QUE. 



Machinist and Tool-maker 

Dies for sheet metal work. Stampings and 

light manufacturing. Special machinery 

designed and made to order. 



Iron and Copper Rivets, Iron and Copper Burrs, 
Bifurcated and Tubular Rivets, WTre Nails 
Copper and Steel Boat and Canoe Nails, 
Esc'tlchein Pins, Leather Shoe and Overshoe 
Buckles, Felloe Plates. 



Cement Mill Machinery, Boiler and Steel 

Tank Work of all kinds, Crey 

Iron and Brass Castings 


Horizontal Stationary Tubular 
Locomotive Portable 
Marine ._. 

Wm. Hamilton Co., Ltd. 






By Ervin Kenimont S. S. 

Instructor in Mechanical Drawins. Mas- 
sachusetts Institute of Technoloffy 

176 pp.. 140 illus. Cloth bindinsT. Gives a 
course of practical instruction in the art of 
Mechanical Dra>ving'. based on methods 
that have stood the test of years of experi- 
ence. Includes orthographic, isometric 
and oblique projections, shade lines, inter- 
sections and developments. lettering', etc., 
wi*h abundant exercises and plates. 
Price. Sf OO 

MacLean Publishing Co. 

Technical Book Department 
143-149 University Ave.. Toronto 



and ROOFS. 

The most reliable bond for all varieties 
of concrete slab. 


Competent Engineering staff in charge 
of construction. 

Expanded Metal & Fireproofing Co., Limited 

100 King Striet West, TORONTO 


The John Morrow Screw 



I : ih 

The Jane. Improved Stampins 


This Guard Is very simple, yet 
absolutely positive in its action, 
as the operator cannot trip the 
press while his fingers are In 
the danger zone. Also the press 
cannot repeat unless the Guard 
Is down in front of dies, and 
then the operator cannot have 
his fingers In at the same time. 
The gate should be set so that 
it Is down on base of die or 
bed of press when the latch of 
press releases. Then when the 
operator releases the treadle the 
gate will rise from 3 to 7 Inches, 
according to requirements, leav- 
ing the front open to take out 
and put In work. 

This Guard can be set bo fine 
that anything 1-16 Inch thick 
under the Guard gate will pre- 
vent the press from operating. 
Thus you can see It is utterly 
Impossible for an operator to 
have his fingers between the 
dies and trip the machine at the 
same time. 

Is not In the operator's way 
and does not Interfere with the 
output of press; works on all 
kinds of presses, back-geared, 
large or small. 

Note the rigid connection be- 
tween Treadle, Guard and 

These Guards are already In- 
stalled In a number of large 
manufacturing plants and are 
giving every satisfaction. 

We also manufacture guards 
for woodworking machines. _^ 
Write ufl for circular matter. 

Tlie Jones Safety Device Company 

22 King William St , HAMILTON, ONT. 
Chicago, 111. Buffalo, NY. Brooklyn, NY 

Stop at 

A natural wish of every 
power plant proprietor 
and engineer is for an 
absolutely reliable belt. 

And this wish can be 
quickly realized by the 
purchase of 




This is the belt that 
doesn't stretch or slip or 
cling too tight ; the belt 
that will stand hard ser- 
vice with credit to the 
maker and enduring sat- 
isfaction to its user. 

There is very little real 
competition to CLIMAX 
BELTING— it is so good 
as to be in a class by it- 
self — Canada's standard 
line of high grade leather 

When you buy CLI- 
MAX you buy the utmost 
value and reliability in 
leather belting. 

Sadler CBb 


Montreal, Sn William St. 

Toronto. 27 Melinda St. 

St. John, NB,. 89 Prince William St. 

Winnipeg, 244 Princess St. 
Vancouver. B.C. 217 Columbia Ave. 

The advertiser would like to know where you sow his advertisement — tell him. 



Including folding pocket rules, machine di- 
vided rules, etc. 

Chains. — Circular No. 7, from Jones & 
Glassco, Montreal agents for Reuold block 
and roller chains. 

Calendar. — For 1911, from American Tool 
Works Co., Cincinnati. At the top of the 
sheet, for each month is a half-tone of one of 
the various types of machine tools manufac- 
tured by this company. 

Time Recorders. — Sample cards and sheets 
from W. A. Wood, 40 St. George St., Mon- 
treal, manufacturers of "Globe" time record- 

Calendar. — The I.C.E. have Issued a 1911 
calendar. The emblematic moose head which 
is usually a feature of the l.C.B. literature 
and calendars, appears prominently on the 

Cranes.— Catalogue 82 from Whiting Foun- 
dry Equipment Co.. Harvey, 111., 40 pages. 
The features of Whitney Standard Cranes are 
sliown with a large number of typical In- 
stallations. These include railroad shops, 
machine shops generally, power plants, etc. 
The names of some of the principal customers 
are also given. 

Cranes.— Catalogue No. 25 of .56 pages from 
the Northern Engineering Worlis, Detroit, 
Mich. Several types of cranes are described 
and illustrated. Installations In machine 

shops, foundries, yards, car shops, power 
plants, etc., are given, showing many appli- 
cations of the various types of cranes. 

Book Review. 

A Pocketbook of .Mechanical Engineering. — 
By Charles M. Sames, B.Sc. Fourth edition. 
Bound In flexible leather. Size, 4x6% In.; 
pages. :;20; 42 illustrations. Pric-e, |2. Pub- 
lished by the author. rA2 Brarahall Avenue, 
Jersey City, N.J. This book contains a col- 
lection of tables, data, formulas and ex- 
amples, comprising the greater part of the 
reference Information usually required by 
mechanical engineers and students, condensed 
into a volume, tin? dhnensions of which are 
small enough to e conveniently carried In the 
pocket. In preparing this last edition, new 
matter has been incorporated to bring the 
work thoroughly up-to-date. Among these 
added subjects are new alloys and alloy steels, 
critlriil speeil of shafts, new steam tables, 
formulas dealing wllli saturated and super- 
heated steam, steam turbines, electric drive 
and the power required for machine tools and 
cooling towers. Besides these subjects new 
dat.i have been added iit a number of points 
in tile text. The book Is a useful one to 
draftsmen and medianicni men generally. 

Shop Kinks. — By Uohert lirimshaw. Bound 
in cloth. Size 6 x T'/i in. Pages 303; illus- 

trations 224. Pabltsbed by the Norman W. 
Henley Publishing Co., 132 Nassau Street, 
New York. Price $2.50. This Is the fifth edi- 
tion of a book that shows special ways of 
doing work, as It Is done In a number of lead- 
ing shops In America and Europe. The work 
Is the outcome of a notebook started by the 
author about 30 years ago and contains Items 
written by the author and others for tech- 
nical Journals and also material gathered from 
visits to shops or based on data contributed 
by leading machine tool builders and users. 
As far as possible the effort has been made 
to group items of the same nature together, 
and the finding of them Is rendered easy by 
an extensive alphabetical Index. 

Freight Train Resistance: Its Relation to 
Car Weight.— By Edward C. Schmidt, has 
Just been Issued as Bulletin No. 43 of the 
Engineering Experiment Station of the Uni- 
versity of Illinois. This bulletin presents the 
results of tests made upon freight trains to 
determine their resistance. The results show 
that the average weight of the cars com- 
posing the trains exerts upon train resist- 
ance an even greater Influence than Is ex- 
erted by variations In train speed. Copies of 
Bulletin No. 43 may be obtained gratis upon 
application to W. F. M. Ooss, Director of 
the Engineering Experiment Station, Univer- 
sity of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois. 

We manufacture all kinds of Pumping 
Machinery, Condensers, Travelling 
Cranes, etc. 



The Smart-Turner Machine Co., Limited, Hamilton, Canada 


All sizes and types — electric or hand 


or, Canadian Dept .ADVANCE MACHINE WORKS, Ltd., Walkerville. Ont. 

These cranes have 
every recent im- 
provement in crane 
piactice and many 
exclusive features. 

Bulletin Free. 

Electric Hoists 
Air Hoists 

Overhead Trolley Tracks and 
Trolley Systems 
Bulletin Free 
or, Canadian Dept., ADVANCE MACHINE WORKS, Ltd.. Walkervill*. Ont. 

Short Cuts in Machine Shop Practice 

Hundreds of parts such as axles, bushings, collars, ball and roller bearings, cutting punches, hollow drills, 
piston rods and shafts, lathe spindles and sockets, which formerly had to be bored from solid steel, are 
now made in up-to-date shops and factories by simply cutting Shelby Seamless Steel Tubes to length. 

Shelby Seamless Steel Tubing is made in hundreds of sizes and gauges, in round, square, rectangular, 
hexagonal, octagonal, oval or almost any other section. It can be bent, coiled, flanged, expanded, swaged or 
plated, and it solves most of the hard mechanical problems at once. 

We can make immediate shipments of .350 sizes from our stocks at Montreal and Toronto. Write for 
stock list, prices and information to 


Sole Canadian Distributors of 

Shelby Seamless Steel Tubing 




24-46 In. Extension Gap Lathe 


Because while It lias ample power and strength to turn the full swing of the gap and the full length of the extension, It 
will handle ordinary work as economically ns a smaller tool. Hence, while giving to the shop the capacity to do jobs that 
would be Impossible on ordinary lathes, the tool can be kept profitably employed all the time. In the compactness of its gen- 
eral design, its range and capacity, as well as in Its strictly modern, up-to-date construction, It shows a marked improvement 
over extension gap lathes as commonly built. 

It has carbon steel head spindle, ground to size, bronze spindle bearings carefully scraped ano fitted, cut-away tailstock, 
with provision for setting oft centerfor taper work, carriage extended for turning full swing of lathe, apron of double plate 
tvpe tongued and grooved into the carriage, with gears and studs of ample proportions. Everv detail has been studied out 
with the utmost care, the tool representing as a whole the latest and best in design, material and workmanship. 


mmv o An ATT manufa'cturbrs 


.standard Enj[lne, Chucking, Turret, Double Head Facing and 
rattern Makers' Irathes. Lathe Turrets for Engine Liathes of 
any make. 

How many mill 
owners have warded off 
the thought of buying a 
Locomotive Crane for handling 
of their logs and dimension timbers, 
thinking the equipment a LUXURY? 
Later you would be surprised at the 
great number of these same mill owners 
who. after seeing their smaller com- 
petitor install a "BROWiNING," 
have investigated and found the 
outfit a NECESSITY and a 
ir.cney-saver instead. 

_^The Browning Engineering Co. 

^^^^^^ CLEVELAND, OHIO ^^ ^Jj^^ 



No. 3K Hand and Power Feed Miller. 

We build Hand and also Hand and Power Feed Machines 



23 Front St., Grand Rapids, Mich. 

The advertiser would like to know where you saw his advertisement— tell htm 


Making a Double Barreled 
Shot Gun 

By B. A. C. 

.''ig. 1 — KiiilslUMt tiiin, Showing Met'liaiiisni. 

The Shotgun ii Such a Common Article Tliat Few Stop to Consider How it is Mduufac- 
tured. Gun-making has Become Such an Important Branch of Machine Shop Practice 
That There are in Use Marty Special Machines to Facilitate Production, Not to Mention 
the Hundreds of Jigs for the More Expeditious and Rapid Handling of the Parts. The 
Only Shot-gun Factory in Canada, the Tobin Arms Mfg. Co., Woodstock, Ont., is a 
Thoroughly Up-to-date Example of What is Being Done in This Special Line of Activity, 
the Principals and Operators in the Factory Having Spent Years Developing Their 
Knowledge of This Special Line. ' ■ ■ 

'pHE writer, vvlien passing through 
the phint of the Tobin Arms Mfg. 
Co., Woodstock, was impressed with the 
multiplicity of operations necessary to 
produce even the seemingly most insig- 
nificant parts of a shot gun. To the 
casual observer, there is not much to a 
gun, but, if examined closely, it will be 
observed that quite a large number of 
parts enter into their make-up, neces- 
sitated largely by the more or less auto- 
matic action of the firearm, and also 
from the compact construction essential 
to a good gun. 

This latter feature makes machining 
of the parts a considerable job, for from 
this compactness, every available space 
must be utilized, making many of the 
parts of unusual mechanical construc- 
tion. Numerous distinct operations are 
required in most cases. 

The frame of the gun shown at A, Fig. 
3, affords a good example, for this part 
in itself requires 57 separate and dis- 
tinct operations. Of course, this is the 
main part of the gun, and on it both 
figuratively and literally, the rest of the 
gun hinges. As with most of the other 
irregular parts, the frame is drop forged 
steel, and in the finishing, like nearly 
all the parts, the miller plays a very 
prominent part, being the principal ma- 
chine employed. 

A review of a few of the principal op- 
erations on the frame would be of in- 
terest in showing how a job like this 
would be produced. The first three op- 
erations are on the power miller, finish- 
ing up the two sides and back thereby 
squaring the piece for further opera- 
tions. The next two operations are on 
what is called the "water table" at B 
and C. The two operations are neces- 
sary—too much for one cut. The first 
removes the flat face B, and the second, 
the perpendicular face C. Following 
this is a drilling and reaming operation 
on the joint pin hole D. The tang E 

receives the next attention being finish- 
ed in the power miller under, above, 
and on the two sides in four successive 
operations. Next comes another power 
miller operation on the round joint end, 
which must of necessity be very accur- 
ate, of a true circular form. This is 
done by a formed miller, producing the 
work very rapidly. In order comes the 
lug cut F on the miller, which is the 
cut in the frame to hold the lug of the 
barrel. In succession follow the dril- 
ling, reaming, and slotting of the trip 
hole, finishing the recess G on each side 
in several operations by the hand mil- 

was the expeditious manner m ?fbich 
they could be produced naturally. To 
make this possible, jigs, formed lools 
and milling cutters without number, are 
employed, many of them very intricate 
in form, but designed with the idea ol 
simplicity of operation in view. 

The fore end iron shown at H, Fig. 3, 
is another piece with a number of oper- 
ations, 23 in all, of which the principal 
are the top face cut, two side cuts, 
wood cut, joint cut, all done on the 
the miller, and the drilling and broach- 
ing operations. The trigger plate, 
shown at A, Fig. 2, also has a number 


-Ci.|iapuiieiit i*arts ot .1 Miorpiiii ni \ .inoiis .>ia>;cs ..i .\iainii;i'-ture. 

ler, and the profiling of the lock cut, in 
the interior of the frame by the profiler. 
Between these various operations men- 
tioned are many minor ones, principally 
drilling, slotting and broaching. 

In all these varied operations, the 
point that stood out most prominently. 

of different operations, the principal 
ones being on the hand miller. There 
are 19 in all. The upper cut shows the 
plate in its drop forged state, and the 
lower one, finished. B shows the frame 
and mechanism assembled, and C, the 
fore end iron in different .stages of com- 



pletion. The side view is given in Fig. 
3. D shows the right and left trigger, 
in the diflerent states of finish ; E is the 
same for the lock plate, and F, the 
the trigger guard. For the latter it 
will be noticed that it is drop-forged in 
the flat state and then bent to shape. 
G shows the various stages of comple- 
tion of the cartridge ejector ; H, the 
right and left rear ; I, the finished and 
unfinished top lever, (note the way it 
is drop-forged) ; J, the bolt ; K, the 
cam lock and cocking cam in their var- 
ious stages, and also assembled ; L, 
the hammer ; and M, the main spring, 
(note how it is produced). 

Fig. 4 shows how the two barrels are 
united. Instead of being a solid, one 
piece forging, each barrel is finished to 
a certain point separately, and the two 
dovetailed together as shown, and braz- 


-Fr:iine :iim1 iitlior Tiiils of tlie (Juu. 

ed. This makes a very solid union, as 
the separting strain is not very great. 
After thus uniting, the final finish is 
given to the mterior of the barrel in a 
special machine, where the finishing 
reamer shown in Fig. 5 is employed. It 
removes from .010 to .012 ins. in all, 
and must of necessity operate very 
slowl.v to prevent chatter, as the cutt- 
ing edge presented is the whole interior 
length of the barrel. As shown the 
reamer consists of a square steel bar, 
three comers of which are dulled, and 

yig- 4 — Crosn-seotion of Barrel. 

the fourth with a sharp edge, like a 
scraper. A shim of wood along one side 
(the proper side is indicated) makes the 
reamer fit the barrel snugly. Each op- 
eration removes but a very slight sur- 
face, and to change the size to remove 
more each time, very thin strips of 
tissue paper are introduced between the 
wood shim and cutting bar, increasing 
the size slightly. The cuts must be 

very small to obviate the befoce i eu- 
tioned danger of chattering, as, once a 
chatter-groove is made, it is practically 
impossible to remove. 

Various other special machines and 
tools are employed reflecting credit on 
F. M. Tobin, vice-president of the jom- 

c«>T-TiN<, eq({ 

Fig. 5 — Finishing Reamer. 

pany, and A. A. Lottery, superinxn- 
dant, who installed the plant. It is due 
to these two men and part'cuUii ly to 
the former, that there is at present a 
modern and eflScient shot gun factory in 


A correspondent in "Scientific Am- 
ei-icaii" has called attention to the fact 
that there are some six or eight differ- 
on t gauges in use by the wire and sheet 
mills of tlie United States. There is 
often a difference of two sizes in the 
gauges, and a mistake in using the 
wrong gauge often results in a great 
deal of expense to one party or the 
other. If merely the size and not the 
gauge is given with an order, the mill 
must write back to ascertain the gauge, 
and much valuable time is lost. The 
writer suggests that either the manufac- 
turers themselves should get together 
and decide on some one gauge, or the 
Government should take action in the 


An architect's drawing of the new 
machinery building for the Ottawa Ex- 
hibition Grounds, has been prepared. 
The building was designed by Mr. W. E. 
Noflfko, architect. It will stand near 
where the old machinery hall is located, 
occupying the present roadway in front 
of that building. The lagoon in tlie ex- 
hibition grounds is to be filled up and 
only two .small ponds with fountains in 
them will be left in front of the new 
building. The building will be 280 feet 
long and 140 feet wide. It is Japanese 
in architecture. The structure will have 
a steel frame and the outside will be of 
bi-ick, built with Flemish bond. Th". 
trimmings and columns will be of con- 
crete and the roof of red tile. 

At the main entrance to the building 
will be Japanese towers, which will be 
illuminated with electric lights, forming 
two towers of light on either side of the 
doorway. There are also two Japanese 
towers on the roof also to be illuminat- 

The columns in front and the gables 
will be treated in the best examples of 
early Japanese architecture. The floor 
will be of concrete and the inside walls 
treated in brick. 

The canal runs at the rear of the 
building, which will be placed forward 
of the old bulding in order that the pro- 
posed route of the driveway may not be 
interrupted along the canal at this point. 



By A. E. B. 

Bolts that are subject to repeated 
shock and stress, those belonging to an 
engine connecting rod for example, give 
much more satisfactory service if the 
body is reduced in diameter to give an 
area corresponding to that of the bot- 
tom of the thread, or it a hole is drill- 
ed out to attain the same end. 

With each shock there occurs a slight 
temporary elongation concentrated for 
the most part at the smallest diameter 
or area, i.e., the bottom of the thread 
between the nut and bolt body. Fig. 1. 

The continuance of this condition 
leads to a crystallizing process being 
set up in the material, and ultimate 
fracture of the bolt, after it may be a 

Fig. 1. 



Fig. 3. 

brief service, irrespective of safe work- 
ing calculation of sectional area. 

By reducing the area of the bolt body 
until it is equal to the area under the 
thread, the temporary elongation or 
stretching is distributed over a greater 
length and naturally the strain is less 
per particle of metal than otherwise. 

Fig. 2 illustrates the bolt with the 
body diameter reduced, and Fig. 3 the 
bolt with the hole drilled into it. Both 
of these methods are in common use and 
each gives highly satisfactory results. 

Preference is sometimes given to the 
method indicated by Fig. 3, for the 
reason that as it does not decrease the 
outer diameter, the twisting or tor- 
sional strength of the bolt is not im- 

It is the practice in many cases to 
have this reduction of bolt area par- 
ticularly referred to in specifications, 
and its more frequent adoption in gen- 
eral practice would be conducive to im- 
munity from breakdown. 

The McClary Manufacturing Co.'s ''Welfare" Department 

By Blackrock 

.1 Grotuing Tendencij is Being Manifested Among Large Employers of Labor in the Direc- 
tion of Improved. Social Conditions for The'r Employees. The Movement is One Which 
Naturally Meets With the Approval and Hearty Co-operation of the Latter, and While 
Only Just in its Infancy and Experimental Stage, Gives Promise of Far-reaching Results 
in Producing Amicable Relations Between Capital and Labor. 

*p HE McClary "welfare" department 
■*■ was organized about a year ago on 
the initiative of the company, which 
step ranks them among the pioneers in 
the opening up of this field of factory 
social extension and development. "Wel- 
fare" as applied to employes is inter- 
preted to mean "anything done by an 
employer for the benefit of his employes, 
which he is not compelled by law or ex- 
pected by custom to do." 

Features of the Work. 

At the foundry plant in the east end 
of the city (London, Ont.) is to be 
found a perfectly equipped emergency 
hospital, and at their wares plant in the 
centre of the city is to be found a simi- 
larly equipped institution. 

A graduate nurse is employed by the 
department and devotes her whole time 
to the cause. She gives advice as to 
the sanitary conditions existing through- 
out the plants, gives first aid assis- 
tance in case of accidents, dresses the 
wounds of such persons until completely 
recovered, and visits employes at their 
homes in sickness. 

During the year just closed the nurse 
(Mrs. Reynolds), attended 26 accidents, 
made 619 dressings, and paid 240 sick- 
ness visits. In addition to the nurse, 
attendance and service, a doctor visits 
the factories daily at the noon hour. 

Lunch Room, Library, etc. 
At each plant there is a cafe under the 
care of an experienced chef. Here whole- 
some food is supplied at cost to all 
who care to avail themselves of it. A 
daily average of 360 lunches are served, 

and separate lunch and rest rooms are 
provided for girls. 

In winter, games, entertainments and 
lectures are provided at the noon hour, 
while in summer outdoor recreation in 



fl This L'st must be placed in the box 
in each department by ten o'clock 
each morninR, in order that the per- 
son in charge will have ample time 
for preparation. 

fl Mark what you want, total the 
amount, sifrn your name and date. 

Bit, I. OF FARE 






Ddle 1911 

N .mi 

the form of tennis and baseball are the 

Each plant is equipped with a library, 
supplemented by loans of books from the 
public library of the city. A fee of one 
cent per week is charged for the loan of 
a book, which fee is put into a new 
book purchase fund, 

Fig. 1 is a view of the emergency hos- 

pital; Fig. 2 that of the library, each 
being intensely realistic of its particular 
purpose. The library boasts 633 volum- 
es on its bookshelf. 

Report of the Work. 

The annual general meeting of the wel- 
fare department was held on Monday 
evening, 6th February, at which gratify- 
ing reports of the previous year's work 
were presented, and office bearers for 
the ensuing year appointed. , 

Col. W. M. Gartshore, vice-president 
of the company, and J. K. H. Pope, 
secretary, are chairman and vice-chair- 
man of the welfare execuf>ive respective- 
ly, the other members being drawn from 
the various departments. 

A striking phase of the work is the 
enthusiasm displayed by Col. Gartshore 
and pride taken by him in what has 
been already achieved, as evidenced in 
his availing himself of the daily lunch 
when opportunity oflers. 

A Progressive Ideal. 

Effort of this nature is progressive if 
successful, in that one feature leads to 
another; this being so, additional ground 
is sure to be broken during this second 
year of institution. Too much has not 
been attempted to begin with, just suffi- 
cient as it were to prove it to have 
been worth while. 

Work such as we have described is not 
in any sense charitable, its essence is 
not the giving of something for noth- 
ing ; it is rather an educative, elevating 
and humanitarian purpose, having in 
view the cultivation of a" spirit of help- 

Fig. 1— Kniergeiit-y lluspital, McClary Mfg. Co.. Lonclou. 

Fig. 2— Lihraiy, .McClary .Mfg. Co.. Lonrtoii. 



lul, thrifty and honest man and woman- 

We look for the example of the Mc- 
Clary "welfare" department being imi- 
tat«d in other manufacturing centres of 
the Dominion, and it is not too much to 
expect that as the scheme develops, there 
may at least be provincial executive 
boards who will meet to discuss and 
further this co-operative movement of 
capital and labor. 

The McClary Booster Club. 

The McClary booster club is really an 
offspring of the welfare scheme, and 
exists to provide healthful amusement 
and entertainment on stated occasions 
to the employes and public. The meet- 
ings are held in the company's large 
dining hall, and consist of smoking con- 
certs, illustrated lectures, dance and 
euchre parties. 

George Moll, chief engineer of the 
wares plant, is president, and as in the 
case of Col. Gartshore and the "wel- 
fare" scheme, not a little of the boost- 
er club's success is due to him. The ad- 
mission to the meetings is restricted to 
10 cents, an amount entirely dispropor- 
tionate to the quality of entertainment 
usually given. 

"The Free Press," London daily, has 
donated a trophy to be awarded the so- 
ciety which has done or is doing most 
for the city's welfare. The booster club 
is entered, and high hopes are entertain- 
ed that "McClary's" will be the judges' 

This article has featured at some 
length an excellent work that is being 
done by the co-operation of employer 
and employe, and we hope to continue 
the series by describing from time to 
time other concerns engaged in a like 
worthy compact. 

/^NE of the most successful of the 
^"^ modern methods of mant'.ta'j'^ure and 
one which has created considerali'e in- 
terest of late, :s that coram juiv ki'uv.n 
as diecasting. The Frankli.i process was 
originated about eighteen years ago by 
the H. H. Franklin Mfg. Co., Syracuse, 
N.Y. In the Franklin process steel d'es 
are used in the place of sand moulds and 
into these dies the molten metal is 
forced under pressure, by means of es- 
pecially designed machines. This re- 
sults in smoothly finished castings ac- 
curate to the thousandths of an inch and 
with holes, slots, lugs, large threads 
and engraving accurately located. In 
fact the accuracy obtained by this me- 
thod of manufacture is in many cases 
greater than can be secured by machin- 
ing. Tin, zinc and lead based alloys 
are most commonly used, the normal 
strength being about that of cast iron, 
but the castings may be further streng- 
thened by the inserting of brass or steel 
stampings, pins, etc., in the process of 

casting, wherever special toughness is re- 
quired. In general, die castings range 
from 1-16 of an ounce to 4 lbs. in 

The extent to which the process has 
gained favor can be seen by the fact 
that 64,000 Franklin die castings were 
used in the construction of the 1910 
census tabulating machines, used by the 
U.S. Government. The automobile in- 
dustry has also found die castings of 
great advantage; engine bearings, oil 
and water pump, timer and magneto 
parts are produced chiefly by this pro- 
cess. Small gears, type wheels, tele- 
phone, electric and vending machine 
parts lend themselves readily to die 
casting. Many parts which if produced 
by the usual machine methods would 

the United States where the quantity of 
duplicate parts used is much greater, 
but many of the Canadian manufacturers 
are beginning, to realize the benefit re- 
sulting from their use in even moderate 


Sheelite, one of the minerals con- 
taining tungsten, has been discovered in 
Halifax County, Nova Scotia. It is of 
no known nse in itself, excepting as an 
ore from which tungsten may be extract- 
ed. The mineral is chemically a tung- 
state of calcium. As an ingredient in 
the chemical side of steel making, it is 
quite important. At present the world's 
annual output, coming mostly from 
Sweden, is placed at 4,000 tons. If pres- 
ent indications are correct, the recent 

I'attH C.nst by the Franklin Trocess and used by the U. S. Government in the Construc- 
tion of the 1910 Census Tabulating Machines. 

have to be made up in sections and as- 
sembled may be die cast as a unit. In 
such cases the saving is especially no- 

The steel dies used in the construction 
of die casting must of necessity be very 
accurate in order to secure the desired 
results, and none but the most skillful 
workmen can be employed in their manu- 
facture. As a result of the die cost, die 
castings are at present better known in 

discovery in Nova Scotia- will not only 
yield sufficient for the steel plant in the 
province, but will have an effect on the 
markets of the world. The ore is report- 
ed to yield 60 per cent, of tungsten acid 
to the ton of sheelite. At present 25 
men are at work on the preliminary ex- 
periments. Hiram Donkin. deputy com- 
missioner of mines, Halifax. Nova 
Scotia, will, give interested parties all 
reasonable information. 

Pneumatic Appliances at theG.T.R. Car Shops, London, Ont. 

By Halyard 

The Opportunity for the Introduction and Development of Methods and Devices Toward 
Quicker, Less Laborious and More Economical Output, Exists to a Lesser or Greater Ex- 
tent in Every Manufacturing and Repair Plant. We are Not Assuming Too Much in 
Stating that Possibly Those Plants Devoted Entirely to Repairs and Renewals Give Wider 
and More Effective Scope to Inventive Genius Than do Others of New Production Only, 
That "Stern Necessity, the }Iother of Invention," Demands the Exercise of the High- 


est Ingenuity and is Unsatisfied With Less. 

'TpHE sketches and description of the 
appliances which form the subject of 
this brief article were gathered in the 
course of a few hours' sojourn in the 
G. T. R. car siiops, London, Ont., and 
while perhaps in no sense displaying 
hitherto unknown features, and being 
peculiarly adaptable to the special char- 
acter and necessities of the work there, 
the great bulk of our readers will we 
are sure be interested, and modified ar- 
rangements of some or all of the appli- 
ances described, will possibly find adap- 
tation by them in new fields. 

It is to be borne in mind that these 
various appliances are in no sense stand- 
ard, nor is it intended they be adhered 
to strictly in arrangement of detail by 
those interested to the extent of adopt- 
ing them. The aim is rather to show 
in a general way a few of the uses made, 
as ideas developed in a particular shop 
piped with compressed air for other and 
what might be termed more important 
and primary purposes. That being so, 
modifications, improvements and entire 
change of design will in all probability 
suggest themselves to many, and new 
appliances arise from the cue given. 

As hinted in the preamble, repair and 
renewal shops are prolific of inventive 
senius. Break-downs and smash-ups 
necessitate most always rush putting-to- 

Many- methods and devices employed 
on such occasions are carelessly and 
thoughtlessly lost track of daily, and 
the profession is the poorer for it. An 
in>iuificient realization of their intrinsic 
worth by those giving them conception 

Fig. 1— Draught Timber Placer Jack. 

and an all-absorbing desire on the part 
of the administration to get things going 
again, combine to bring about the want 
of record referred to. 

We would like to digress a moment 
liere and say that methods used by a 
mechanic to produce a piece of work of 
super quality, most economically, 
when made a regular practice of, are 
devices worthy of a place in the columns 
of this journal, and while lightly thought 

plied in practice. This is a point worthy 
the serious consideration of all engaged 
in the mechanical arts. Further, pub- 
licity given your methods and devices 
while admittedly helping the other fel- 
low along, ultimately helps you, as he 
too has something to give. 

The result of this distribution of ideas 
spells progress, progress leads to per- 
fection, comfort and comparative afflu- 
ence of the vast majority, and your duty 
lie's that way. 

Portable Draught Timber Placer Jack. 

Fig. 1 represents the portable draught 
timber placer jack, and as its qualifica- 
tion implies, is used for running in un- 
derneath the cars, pushing the draft 
timber into place and holding it there 
until it is bolted up. The air cylinder 
is 5 inches diameter, the trolley wheels 
8 inch diameter, 15 inch centres and the 
extreme width of truck 20 inches. The 
cylinder may be either a casting with 
upper head bolted or screwed on, or 
a piece of heavy wrought iron pipe bored 
out, with both heads screwed on. The 
lower head is bolted to a steel plate 
base which in turn is attached to the 
trolley wheel axles. On top of the pis- 
ton rod a steel plate, 8 inches by 18 
inches, is attached for the purpose of 
carrying the draught timber. 

Fig, 2— Car-lifUng Jack. 

Fig. 3 — Door Section Lifting Apparatus. 

rights again, to attain which requires 
keen discernment of tlie right and best 
thing to do and the most helpful and 
often improvised equipment to do it. 

of and considered unimportant by the 
user, from a publicity standpoint, show 
themselves otherwise in the persistency 
with which they are adhered to and ap- 

Car Lifting Jack. 
Fig. 2 is representative of the car- 
lifting jack, and is necessarily hea\'ier 
and more powerful than the other. The 



cylinder diameter is 10 inches, and its 
pui-pose the bearing of a part in lift- 
ing empty freight cai-s off the trucks. 
Its base rests on the ground when in ac- 
tion, and for convenience in moving it 
around one pair of wheels and a heavy 
shaft complete the transportation facil- 

Door Section Lifting Apparatus. 
Fig. 3 is an iiiraiisri>nient peculiarly 

Air Brake Hose Clasping Device. 

adaptable to railroad and street car 
shops. The door section lifting appar- 
atus permits of tlic complete wheels and 
axles, trucks for that matter of it, be- 
ing let out or taken into the shop with- 

The cylinder diameter in this case is 
made large enough together with the 
pressure to carry up the door section 
required, and the piston stroke long 
enough to suit the height of lift. 

The operating lever to the right of the 
sketch enables the attendant to mani- 
pulate the aparatus with the greatest of 
case. The lever actuates a 3-way cock 
allowing air admission to lift the piston, 
air shut-off to hold it and the door in 
position, as long as necessary, and air 
lelease to allow the door to close again. 
The cylinder details in this, as in the 
others described, may be all castings 
or part wrought iron pipe and part east- 

Air Brake Hose-Nipple and Coupler 

Fig. 4, the air brake hose nipple and 
coupler inserter, consists of a vertical 
acting air cylinder which clamps the 
standard length of hose, and the horizon- 
tal air cylinder with the nipple on its 
piston rod, which pushes the nipple into 
place, thereafter sliding the vertical cyl- 
inder and clamp endways toward the 
die block in which is laid the coupler. 
The horizontal movement pushes the 
hose onto the coupler. 

The cylinders are in each case about 
G inches diameter, the vertical cylinder 
and standard being attached to the low- 
er half clamp which in turn slides on 
four slot hole guide studs inserted in 
plate attached to an ordinary vice bench. 
Air admission and release is applicable 
to both ends of each cylinder. 
Air Brake Hose Clasp. 

Fig. 5 represents the air brake hose 
clasp attached to the end of the bench 

each half of the lower end of the 
squeezers is attached to permit of oscil- 
lation. From these centres light spiral 
springs are carried to and on opposite 
sides of their respective squeezer arms. 
These springs admit of the jaw grip be- 
ing released when the air is released, 
and prevent a clasped downward pull 
when the piston descends. 

The sketch otherwise is self explanat- 
ory and need not be dwelt upon. The 
advantage of the apparatus is that the 
clasp or band flanges are closed up, ad- 
mitting of the bolt being inserted and 
the nut tightened up by hand. A span- 
ner to tighten the nut is unnecessary, 
because although only applied by hand, 
the slight reactionary spring due to the 
withdrawal of the jaw grip locks the 
nut tight. 

The saving of labor in the equipment 
of air brake hose by the sketch arrange- 
ments. Fig. 4 and 5, is 100 per cent, 
gain in economical production, and we 
should say were it possible to compute, 
an equivalent gain and comfort of oper- 

Employes' Welfare. 

In a near future issue of Canadian 
Machinery we hope to describe the ar- 
rangements made for the welfare of the 
employes in the G. T. R. car shops, Lon- 
don, Ont., believing also that these 
will be found of much interest to all 
onr readers. 

Much of the development and adapta- 
tion of suitable labor saving equipment 
as also the initiation and 

successful outcome of the em- 
ployes' industrial and social wel- 
fare scheme is due to efforts of Mr. 

V(|o° °l)^ 




fig- i — Air Brake Hose-nlpple and Coupler Inserting Apparatus. 

out the necessity of o(>ening the whole 
large door in cold and stormy weather, 
a proceeding which is more or less 
clumsy and slow. 

and adjacent to the nipple and coupl- 
ing inserter. It consists of the air cyl- 
inder, piston and piston rod, the latter 
with a cap to opposite sides of which 

Thos. A. Treleaven, master car build- 
ei', to whom we are indebted for the 
opportunity of acquiring the foregoing 

Twist Drill and Other Internal Cutting Tool Practice 

Modern Shop Practice has Developed Various Types of Twist Drills, Reamers, Counter- 
bores, etc.. Greatly Increasing the Capacity of the Machines Using These Small Tools. 
The Breakage of Tangs Formerly Caused a (heat Losx, But This has Now Been Elimin- 
ated by Modern Methods. 

/^NE of tlie most common small tools 
^^ in the machine shop is the twist 
drill, and it is probably the most abus- 
ed. When a young fellow begins work 
in a machine shop, eitlier as an appren- 
tice or as a machine hand, the first work 
is usually drilling. He is led over to 
the drill, given a jig and a drill and 
told to "drill these." 

Fig. 1— Hollow Drill. 

What the young chap does not know 
about drilling and shop methods would 
fill volumes. In the ordinary Canadian 
shop there is no central tool room, and 
the young chap is strictly "up against 
it." It is at this stage that the young 
fellow learns many things about drill- 
ing that he must "unlearn" later. 

When the writer entered the machine 
shop he was given the job of milling tie 
pins for three months. For this he 
received fifty cents per day. Al)out 
that time there was a call for volun- 
teers for the Halifax garrison and it 
made a number of vacancies in our own 
shop. The writer was given the task of 
drilling malleable guards at seven cents 

per hundred, and malleable rings at 
twenty and twenty-five cents, and it 
was understpod that he could make $1 
to $1.25 per day. At the same time an- 
other apprentice was given the job of 
drilling pins. He had an old drill situ- 
ated near mine with a big lever and a 
sliding table instead of the spindle and 
sleeve type, but made a dollar a day 
drilling pins at from five to ten cents 
per hundred. 

We were located away from the rest 
of the shop and with the exception of 
rough emerys for gi-inding the burrs 
off the gray iron and malleable castings, 
there were no tool grinders witliiu three 
or four hundred feet. It meant a big 

Flff. 2— An OU Drill in Use. 

loss to us to go down there every time 
we wanted to sharpen a 9-64, a 3-16 
or a 7-32 inch drill as the case might be. 
We solved the difficulty by filing off 
the side of an emerv wheel close to the 

centre and succeeded in making a good 
job out of one that had formerly been 
looked upon as one of the worst in the 

Fig. .I— Shell Drill. 

Since that time the writer has been in- 
terested in the progress of drilling. 
Some data which would have been valu- 
able in the old shop days, has been col- 
lected and some extracts from the pages 
of the diary are here given. 

Some Types of Drills. 

The twist drill of standard form i* 
made with two lips and two grooves, 
which either make a constant angle with 
the axis or one which increases gradu- 
ally from the point upwards. The in- 
creased twist is given in order to coun- 
teract the thickening of the web from 
point to shank, imparted to resist the 

Table of Dkill Feeds 

FIG, s 

FIG. 6 


Indies of FeeJ per Minute at Cutting Speed of 


30 Feel-Steel 

35 Feet-Iron 

60 Feet-Brass 



Rev. per 

Feed .004- «>7 

Rev. per 



Rev. per 

per Revolution 









































Feed .007 













.SI 4 


















4. .58 










































































1. 17 

2-5 1 













I -05 






2.1 1 













































1 .37 









1. 31 











Vig. Ill Tiilile of Prill Feeds. 



tortiona] stress to which the drill is sub- 

A centre drill is a short twist drill 
used for centring shafts before facing 
and turning. Sometimes a combined 
drill with a 60 degree taper is used to 
drill the shaft and countersink it at 
the same time, thus avoiding two opera- 

Hollow Drills. 

Fig. 1 shows a hollow drill used for 
drilling long holes such as lathe and 

yig. 11— Driving Broken Tang Drill. 

drill spindles. The shank can be thread- 
ed and fitted to a metal tube of a length 
to suit the work. 

Fig. 2 is another type used when the 
work re%'olves and tlie drill remains sta- 
tionary. The oil cup is connected to the 
oil pump, forcing out the chips and 
keeping the point cool by a steady 

A shell driU is shown in Fig. 3. It 
is used for reaming out holes after a 
standard drill or cored holes. The ar- 
bor is the same for several sizes, so that 
the co^t of shell drills is comparatively 

A similar method is used so as to ob- 
tain the benefits of high speed steel 
at low cost. Drill tips are made with 
a small shank of about % inch which is 



Fig. 12 — PreveDtlng Taug Breakage. 

threaded. This size is adopted as stan<l- 
ard for the shop and any size drill fits 
one shank which i.s tapped to suit. The 
same practice is followed for reamers. 

Sharpening Drills. 

With a drill the hole may be cut 
"drive" fit or mucli larger than the 
drill. A user of drills should therefore 
be familiar with tlie manner of grind- 
ing a drill to cut the right size with as 
little power as possible. To cut right 
the right size the lips must be e.^cactly 
the same length and the same angle. 
Fig. 4 is a gauge which gives the lip 
edge angle of 59 degrees and at the 
same time assists in getting tlie true 

Fig. .5 is a gauge which shows how to 
get both lips alike, but does not give 
the angle. 

In Fig. 6 tiie drill has been relieved 
back of the cutting edge, making it 
similar to a flat drill. As the drill 
wears down, it is often necessary to thin 
the point as shown in Fig. 8. This re- 
sults in doing quicker and better work. 

The angle of the point forms an angle 
of 135 degrees with the cutting edge as 
shown in Fig. 9. The best clearance for 
drills is from 12 to 15 degrees depending 
on the hardness of the metals, the great- 
er clearance being used on the softer 

DriU Speeds. 

In addition to a knowledge of grind- 
ing, the user should learn to run drills 
at proper speed. He will then require 
io grind seldom and will have few break- 
ages. For steel use a speed of 30 ft. 
per min. ; for cast iron, 35 ft. and for 
brass, 60 ft. per min. For drilling steel 
witli a 1-16 inch drill, this means 1834 
r.p.m., while for brass it would mean 
3668 r.p.m. 

The table. Fig. 10, taken from the 
American Machinists' Handbook, gives 
the speeds for all drills up to 3 ins. 
These speeds require plenty of lubri- 
cant and are for carbon steel drills. 
High speed steel drills will stand about 
double these speeds. 

Drill Shanks. 

One of the great wastes in drilling 
practice is in the breaking of the drill 
tangs. This breakage is caused usually 
by a lack of grinding and drill speed 
knowledge. Manufacturers of drills 
have placed on the market drills with 
straiglit shanks, double grooved shanks, 
sockets using pins, double tang sockets, 
etc. All these have been of value. By 
means of sucli schemes as the double 
tang sockets, drills have been reclaimed 
iVom the scrap lieap. 

Fig. 11 shows a method of driving a 
(hill with a broken tang. The writer 
lias drilled holes through socket and 
iliill shank and inserted a pin. Fig. 
12 shows a scheme for overcoming the 
breakage of tangs altogether. 

All High Speed Steel Drills. 
Fig. 13 shows a vanadium high power 
tmsted drill. The steel used contains a 
very high percentage of tungsten with 

or pin, which fits into the spiral grooves 
of the twisted shank and engages in 
direct contact with the drill. This pin 
relieve the tang from pressure of driv- 

Fig. 13— High-speed Twisted Drill and Socket 

Fig. 14 shows a high speed steel drill 
made from flat bar stock. Pieces are 
riveted to the flat shank to give it the 
conical taper of the usual cut twist 


Dr. Galbraith, dean of the School of 
Practical Science, Toronto, writing in 
his report refers to instruction in shops. 
He says that in addition to advancing 
means of transportation the University 
may soon be called upon to increase its 
facilities for coming into closer touch 
with trades and manufacturers. Indus- 
trial education is now a live topic. 
There seems to be no great reason why 
scientific and trade schools should not 
be established in their own works by 
the proprietors. A sufficient number of 
qualified teachers may be found among 
the officers and foremen to make a be- 
ginning. By proper co-operation between 
employers and their operatives such 
schools should be a success and justify 
their cost. 

The University should provide for the 
education of the heads of the scientific 
departments in such works, and incident- 
ally it may be of service in advising and 
encouraging the teachers in the works 
school. This method of initiating in- 
dustrial schools would reduce to a 
minimum the danger of establishing them 
where they may not be needed. It will 
soon be necessary, he states, to help the 
shipbuilding industries by instituting a 
course in naval architecture. 

In cold weather, steam generated in 
electric boilers will be used to maintain 
the temperature in the cars, and keep 
the various connections from freezing, 
when the trains of the Pennsylvania 
railway, entering New York station 
through the electrified tunnel zone, are 


"Flat" Twisted Drill Is Made Rea dy for Taper Socket. 

tlie adition of vanadium and chromium. 
The special feature is the "increased" 
twist. The illustration also shows the 
socket. At the mouth of the interior of 
the socket there is a circular steel boss 

disconnected from their steam locomo- 
tives. These electric boilers will utilize 
the 600 volt direct current from the third 
rail, and generate steam at 80 pounds 



Machine Tool Manufacture — Quality and Guarantee 

By Penstock 

Being a Brief Review of Difficulties and Grievances That Arise 
Between Builders and Users of Machine Tools, Showing in Most 
Gases That the Lack of a Proper and Courtly Exchange of 
Opinion and Action Upon Opportune Advice May Lead to Un- 
warrantable Conclusions Being Drawn by Both Parties Concerning 
the Transaction of Sale and Purchase Between Them. 

THE design, equipment, test and guar- 
antee put up to-day by makers of 
machine tools may be generally reckon- 
ed as of a very high-grade, so much so 
we think as to be beyond question to the 
limit of human specialization, foresight 
and insight presently existing. 

The purchaser, however, does not al- 
ways see it in that light, and trouble 
between the manufacturer and user re- 
sults. Inaccuracy of work produced by 
the machine is the fruitful cause, and 
an often unreasonable deduction on the 
user's part hastily arrived at, gives the 
maker credit for careless construction. 
A condition like this is naturally unsat- 
isfactory and annoying to both parties, 
reflecting as it does on the manufac- 
turer and his business, and injuring it 
may be, the quality and quantity of the 
user's output. 

In the writer's experience probably the 
chief element affecting the reliability of 
a machine is that due to the user tak- 
ing it to pieces for examination pur- 
poses, when it arrives from the builder. 
That he is perfectly within his right in 
doing so no one w^ill gainsay, but that 
he shows wisdom in his action is open 
to serious doubt. 

I have often wondered if curiosity to 
see the very vitals of his purchase is not 
in some real sense suggestive again of 
the eagerness of childhood to break the 
outer shell of its toy to investigate the 
source of the "squeak," and if the re- 
sult in either case has not a parallel in 
that neither are qualified to replace pro- 
perly the whole again. 

The practice, mark you, is followed by 
expert users and may not always be 
chargeable to quest for opportunity of 
criticism ; but to a desire and the very 
laudable one of admiring the construc- 
tive design and workmanship. 

From whatever motive the dismantl- 
ing takes place, a grave error is com- 
mitted. The user seldom has the equip- 
ment to re-assemble the machine as it 
should be and was, when it left the man- 
ufacturers' hands. The latter is the real 
architect of its structure, the former 
simply buys the use of it. 

A man when he buys a home does not 
take it to pieces, and being satisfied try 
and put it together again with a view 
to living comfortably. He rather relies 
upon and accepts his own judgment in 
the purchase believing that he has got 
what he bargained for from a reputable 

Machine tool builders cannot aSord 
to-day to be other than reputable, it is 
their particular and chosen business, 
they are equipped for it and are willing 
to guarantee their individual output. As 
a user then give them that trust you 
like reposed in yourself, by refraining 
from dismantling their product and pil- 
ing cost and worry on yourself and 

Most machine tool makers record the 
tests of their product, and furnish the 
purchaser with a copy showing the 
limit of error established. 

As distinct from the source of trouble 
just discussed, other features of heart- 
burning are quite common. One of those 
is inaccuracy of levelling when the ma- 
chine is installed and the want of ver- 
ification after operation has been going 
on for a few months. This inaccurracy 
of level is due in large part to the want 
of proper appliances or to improper ap- 
plication of them. 

Levelling should be done lengthways 
and across, before the machine is bolted 
to its foundation. Wood packing or 
wedges to which oil or water may have 
access and settlement of foundations are 
each conditions liable to affect origin- 
ally correct setting and require careful 
keeping track of. 

Some makers make a point of inform- 
ing their user purchasers of what to do 
and what not to do, a course made ne- 
cessary for their protection and emanat- 
ing from past experience. 

A lathe manufacturing concern we 
have in mind impresses on its custom- 

Another feature that users do not 
sufficiently realize, although laid great 
stress upon by the manufacturer, is the 
question of sufficient lubrication. Ma- 
chinery in motion of any description, de- 
pends for its continuous and efficient 
running with minimum tear and wear, 
on regular and systematic lubrication. 

For machine tools best quality min- 
eral oil is recommended, having in 
view the high speed and heavy cutting 
demanded in present day practice. Like 
quick revolution, forced and self lubri- 
cating engines, the wear on bearing sur- 
faces of machine tools should be nil. The 
lubricant should be of quality and quan- 
tity to form a film between the sur- 
faces, which film in its turn prevents 
contact of them, and by cutting out 
wear enables the machine to maintain a 
continuous accuracy of production. 

Prom what has been said it will be 
realized that much is to be gained by 
maker and user alike from a proper un- 
derstanding of the question as it relates 
to each. The tendency we are glad to 
say is in all business relationships, to 
deliver to the hilt and to consummate 
a square deal. 

Every known existing obstacle should 
therefore be thrown aside, not only as 
between machine tool builder and user, 
but with respect to every other business 
relationship of man and man. 


The usual Stillson wrench, costly as 
it is, is often dispensed with in places 
where it would prove quite useful, other 
tools taking its place. Wm. Kennedy 
& Sons, Owen Sound, have a home-made 
article, which while costing but a frac- 
tion of the real article, meets all their 
shop requirements. 

The body of the wrench. A, consists 
of a forging bent, as shown at the left 
with the right-hand end turned down 
to form a handle, the upper part of the 
handle being threaded, and the sictes 
milled flat to the thickness of the han- 

Home-made Stillson. 

ers the necessity of carefully trying out 
the tool and asks to be thereafter in- 
formed as to faults or otherwise. They 
especially lay stress on the unwise 
course of attempted rectification by the 
user, and urge their willingness to re- 
place defective parts or provide expert 
adjustment where necessary. The manu- 
facturer, as we take it, is prepared to 
furnish the machine complete and perfect 
for the work, leaving the operator to 
see to his own particular sphere. 

die. The gripping jaw, B, is a steel 
forging, with teeth, as shown, the whole 
being pivoted on the sliding part, C. 
The sliding part, C, is shaped to fit 
loosely over top of the threads, and the 
flattened sides, the latter preventing its 
turning. The lower face of C has a lip, 
which engages in an annular groove in 
the nut, D, which may be revolved to 
give the proper adjustment. All the 
parts being forged are very strong. Sev- 
eral different sizes are in use. 

Boiler Design, Construction, Operation, Repairing and Inspection 

By H. S. Jeffery 

The Various Points in Connection With Boiler Practice Will be Clearly Taken up 
in This Series. The First Article Deals With the Boiler Shell, Including Repair- 
ing, Factor of Safety, Hydrostatic Test and Number of Courses. The Series Will 
he a Complete Book on the Subject of Boilers, and They Should be Preserved 
for Reference. 


Size and Number of Boilers. 

(8) In deciding upon the length and 
diameter of a tabular boiler, the boiler 
designer is called upon to consider 
many matters. The steam pressure per 
square inch is one consideration, and 
the boiler horse-power desired another 
consideration. Decide these; then size 
and number of boilers. 

The solution of whether one large 
boiler, or two or more smaller boilers 
should be installed, must be governed 
by the circumstance of each case. 

The purchaser will be inclined as a 
rule towards the large boiler rather 
than two smaller boilers on account of 
the former in regards to first costs be- 
ing cheaper than the latter. 

The boiler room having only one 
boiler usually means Sunday work for 
the operating engineer; the passing over 
until a "more favorable time" repairs 
which should be made promptly and 
which if made at the right time won'd 

ing a battery of boilers to install one or 
I wo more boilers than necessary, the 
same being out of service, except when 
used in lieu of one of the regular boilers. 
It is advisable and true economy as a 







Fig. 9. 

general rule not to depend upon one 
boiler. There are instances where plants 
at their busiest season, employdng con- 
siderable force, have had to shut down 
for several days in order to make re- 
pairs to the boiler. - 

The length and the diameter of a 


Shell TMckness Increases with Diameter 

(9) Increasing the diameter of a boiler 
means an increase in the force acting 
upon the longitudinal plane. For in- 
stance: The force aeting on the longi- 
tudinal plane of a 66 inch by 16 ft. 
boiler will be with 100 pounds pressure 
per square inch as follows: 

66 X 192 X 100^1,267,200 pounds. 

With a 72 in. by 16 ft. boiler, same 
pressure per square inch as in the fore- 
going example, the total load on the 
longitudinal plane will be: 

72 X 192 X 100=1,382,400 pounds. 
Thus, 1,382,400—1,267,200=115,200 
pounds difference. 

In considering the diameter of the 
boiler and the thickness of the shell 
plate, it is necessary to consider the 
eflScieney of the longitudinal seam. Tor 
instance : The allowable "working pres- 
sure on a 66 inch by 16 ft. boiler, plate 
60,000 tensile strength andi 7-16 in. in 
thickness, factor of safety of 5, efficien- 
cy of longitudinal seam 70 per cent., 
will be: 

60,000 X .70 X .875 

= 114 pounds. 

66 X 5 

0<\N6ErtOUS OtACK. 

Fig. 7. 

in many instances have saved the owner 
considerable, and in other cases would 
have prevented a boiler disaster. 

With a battery of boilers it is not 
difficult to cut out of service one boiler 
for repairs without causing a s'hut-diown 
of the plant or part thereof — in fact it 
is the practice with some when insrtall- 

*SecoDd of ■ aerlea of article! on this sab- 

••Copyrlgbt b7 the MacLcao Publishing 

boiler is sometimes a mere matter of 
choice. Other times the designer must 
consider the space allotted for the boil- 
er. Perhaps it is the desire to install a 
66 inch by 16 feet boiler, but the limited 
space will require tbe length to be 
limited to 14 feet. In this case it would 
necessitate increasing the diameter, or 
in lieu of the 66 inch by 16 feet boiler 
tiiore would ordinarily be installed a 
72 inch by 14 f«et boiler. 

Fig. 8. 

Now, a 72 in. by 16 ft. boiler, same as 
the above in regards to tensile strength, 
thickness of plate, factor of safety, but 
with a longitudinal seam having an 
eflBciency of 80 per cent., will be allowed : 
60,000 X .80 X .875 

= 113 pounds 

72 X 5 
Assuming the horse-power of a 66 in. 
by 16 ft. boiler to be the same as the 
horse-power of a 72 in. by 14 ft. boiler — 



and raauy boiler maniifaetiirers have 
them so ratedi — the 66 in. by 16 ft. boiler 
would be cheaper as to first costs and 
ordinarily would be a better steamer 
than the 72 in. by 14 ft. boiler; and be- 

Thiis is due to the plate only being in- 
directly cooled by the water within the 
boiler; hence, it becomes semi-over- 
heated, setting up stresses which crack 
the plate. The cracks are not seriouB — 


Fig. 10. 

ing a better steamer would not consume 
as much fuel. 

The chief reason why the 72 in. by 
14 ft. boiler would cost as much and 
perhaps more than a 66 in. by 16 ft. 
boiler, is due to the fact that the former 
will ordinarily be constructed with a 
shell plate at least 1-16 inch heavier 
than the latter; also, the former boiler 
will require more tubes than the latter, 

Fig. 11. 

and a little more work in the way of 
drilling flue holes, rolling flues, etc. The 
total costs of the respective boilers will 
not, however, be a great diiflferential. 

The question has been asked more 
than once as to why Marine Boilers are 
constructed teji feet and more in diam- 
eter, while tubular boilers are rarely 
made greater in diameter than seven 
feet. The reason why Marine Boilers 
can be made large, having shell plates 
from one in. to one and one-half in. in 
thickness, is due to tbe fact that the 
shell plates are not in contact with the 
flames and hot gases. 

The better part, one-half or more, of 
the shell of a tubular boiler is in con- 
tact with the flames and hot gases, and 
is a part of the heating surface of the 


(10) The heavier the plate the more 
liable it is to become overheated. This is 
especially true if foreign substances are 
allowed to to the plate. Fre- 
quently the plate of the girth seams of a 
tubular boiler crack from the rivet hole 
to the edge of the plate, as shown in Fig. 
7, which is spoken of as fire-cracks. 


that is, dangerous, unless there are many 
such cracks. If, however, the crack ex- 
tends into the solid plate, then take steps 
at once to prevenit the crack from ex- 
tending itself. 

The girth seam of a tubular boiler 
directly over the bridge wall, as shown 
in Fig. 6, usually receives the impinging 
flame and due to the double thickness of 
metal, as well as the rivet heads, the 
metal at this point is many degrees hot- 
ter than at other points, resulting in fire- 

Fire-cracks are frequemtly calked over 
and remain steam-tight. Sometimes they 
become troublesome and are taken care 
of by chipping out and calking, as shown 
in Fig. 8. Of late some manufacturers, 
who have adopted the two-course tubular 
boiler type of construction, are now driv- 
ing the rivets in the lower part of the 
girth seam as shown in Fig. 9. This, 
however, they are limiting to just the 
girth seam over the bridge wall and 
about two feet up on each side of the 

It is possible for the boiler designer 
with some types of boilers to design the 
boiler lines to prevent undue crackin;.' 
of the plate from the rivet holes to the 
calking edge. 

flames and hot gases. The beveling of 
the plate and the installation of tbe 
rivets with oval head is for the purpose 
of having as little metal as possible in- 
directly cooled by the water within the 

Such a practice is applicable with t)i<» 
furnace of the locomotive type boiler, 
for the force acting on the furnace acts 
as indicated by arrow. Fig. 10, and thus 
the plate from the centre of -the rivet 
hole to the edge of the plate has no force 
acting upon it, while the plate from the 
centre of the rivet hole to the edge of 
the plajte of the girth seam of a tubular, 
the same being indicated in Fig. 11, has 
to resist the force acting upon the trans- 
verse plane of the vessel. 

The distance from the centre of the 
rivet hole to the edge of the plate with 
the girth s?am of a tubular boiler should 
be one and one-half times the diameter 
of the rivet hole, wihile the distance a. 
Fig. 10, can be considerably less — usu- 
ally about 1 1-8 times the diameter ol 
the rivet hole — and, because of the ac- 
tion of the force as described. 


In the old style gate valve made by 
the Canada Foundry Co., Toronto, the 
wedge or gate is made of cast iron with 
brass facing. This brass facing piece is 
dovetailed into the cast iron wedge, by 
a circular dovetailing groove. Because 
of its form, it is impossible to fit them 
together because of the bottom of the 
dovetail groove being greater in diam- 
eter than the top. For that reason, 
other means arc used. The two contact 
faces of both wedge and facing are ma- 
chined, so that the facing will drop in- 
to the recess in the wedge. By means 
of the rollers shown in the accompany- 
ing sketch, the brass of the facing, is 
forced outward into the dovetail groove, 
making a solid union between the two. 
The face is afterwards machined to give 
the bearing surface. 

The manner of operating the rollers is 
as follows : The plate A of which the 

Dovetntl Roller. 

This can be done with the furnace of 
locomotive type boilers. The practice is 
to bevel the door sheet and the flue 
sheet, especially the latter, for it is the 
heavier of those composing the furnace, 
in the manner shown in Fig. 10. 

The rivet holes are countersunk ami 
the rivets driven with an oval counter- 
sunk head on the "side in contact with the 

rollers consist, is placed on a >quare 
piece in the tool post, and over which 
hole B fits. The tool post is centralized 
and pressure brought to bear on it shov- 
ing the two hardened steel rollers C 
against the brass. The rollers are cor- 
rugated, which, added to the pressure, 
forces the brass outward into the liove- 
tail groove. 

Mechanical Drawing and Sketching for Machinists 

By B. P. 

A Series of Progressive Lessons Designed to Familiarize Mechanics With the Use of the 
Apparatus Necessary to Make Simple Drawings, to Encourage them to Realize How Im- 
portant a Factor it is of Their Equipment, as Well as Being a Profitable Pastime. 

A ^' *'''*ssory to progress and good 
•** drawing work is a reliable equip- 
ment of tools. This need not be too 
expensive unless the aim is ultimate 
daily use in a drawing office. The var- 
ious items described are such as will be 
found at least sufficient for the course 
as already outlined. 

Apparatus and Applications. 

The first necessary requirement is a 

drawing board, and this should be as 

large as can be conveniently handled in 

Figr. 2— Drawing Board. 

an ordinary furnished room. Sizes 17 
by 24 iuches minimum to 23 by 32 inches 
maximum will in most cases be found 
suitable. Fig. 1 in our first article of 
the series showed an adjustable board 
and table combined, while Fig 2 shows 
a simple board for use on a table or 

The drawing board should be located 
where you have the benefit of a good 
light and your relation to it such that 
the light strikes the work from the left 
hand top corner. To realize the full ef- 
fect on your paper, the light should be 
shaded, and to obviate excessive stoop- 
ing the board should be placed conven- 
iently high and slightly sloped toward 
you, care being taken that the slope is 
not so great as to cause your tools to 
roll or slide off. 

The drawing paper should be bought 
in sheets of sizes 15 by 20 inches and 22 

drawing board may run just over the 
edge on which the head of the tee square 
slides and does not therefore give a 
truly square line to that edge. When 
overhanging the other edges it invari- 
ably gets ragged and inclines to tear in 
on the work. 

Drawing sheets are not usually perfect- 
ly square edge to edge, therefore when 
fixing to your drawing board see that 

middle of the paper length, also i-inch 
in from the edge of the paper. Tacks 
should never be placed on the left or 
right hand edges intermediate to those 
at the corners as they interfere with the 
movement of the tee square and tend to 
chew its edge. The drawing paper should 
be drawn flat and tight when being 
tacked to the board. 

Fig. 5— Bale Head 
Drawing Tacks. 

the edge next the tee square head or 
left hand is parallel with that edge of 
the board. 

For practice purposes good paper is 
indispensable and Whatman's hot press- 
ed demy and imperial are recommended. 

Regular drawing office work admits of 
very inferior quality of paper being used, 
the reasons being that the draftsman is 
usually expert enough to treat it ten- 
derly while making use of it and that 
immediately the tracing copy is made 
the drawing sheet finds a resting place 
in the waste paper basket. You, if a 
beginner, would experience much disgust 
with your efforts and their effect on 
poor quality paper and as it is an in- 
tention to minimize your self-abasement 
as far as possible, good quality paper 
in your hands becomes a necessity. 

Figs. 3-4-5 illustrate various styles 
and sizes of drawing tacks, those with 

Fig. 6 — T-square. 

The tee square, Fig. 6, should be at 
least the length of the drawing board 
between the inside of head and point 
and should not exceed that distance, if 
possible for convenience. A tapered 
blade as shown gives usually a better 
balanced tool and excess length upper 
part head over the lower should be a 
feature. This admits of the tee square 
being operated close down to the lower 
edge of the sheet without danger of the 
liorizontal lines being out of square with 
the left hand edge of the board through 
insufficient bearing surface of head. The 
drawing edge must never be used for 
cutting paper. 

The tee square should be hung up by 
the hole in blade when not in use and in 
the case of it falling to the floor acci- 
dentally at any time, a line previously 
drawn by it on the board and used as a 
setting standard should be taken to re- 



I'Ig. 3 — Bevel Head Drawing Tacks. 

l''lg. 4 — Stamped Drawing Tacks. 

by 30 inches respectively to suit the 
drawing boards already referred to and 
ensure no overlap beyond the board 
edges. Paper used of the full size of 

•Second of a serlei of an Instractlon Coarse. 
A lesson will he given each rnontb. 

the bevelled edges. Fig. 3, being per- 
haps the most suitable at a diameter 
of i-inch. One tack should be placed at 
each corner about ^-inch in from the 
edges of the paper and a further tack 
placed at the lower edge about the 

set the blade if it has shifted. 

The ])urpose of the tee square is tlie 
drawing of right angled horizontal lines, 
and the forming of a base on whicli the 
triangles or set squares rest when ver- 
tical or angular lines are required. 



Plans have been consummated to pay 
pensions from the United States Steel 
and Carnegie Pension Fund, which was 
established last spring by the joint ac- 
tion of the United States Steel Corpor- 
ation and Andrew Carnegie. This fund 
was established for the purpose of pay- 
ing old age pensions from the income of 
the fund to employes of the United States 
Steel Corporation and its subsidiary com- 
panies. For this purpose the United 
States Steel Corporation provided eight 
million dollars, which, with the Car- 
negie Relief Fund of four million dollars, 
created by Andrew Carnegie on March 
12, 1901, makes up a joint fund of twelve 
million dollars. This pension fund is ad- 
ministered by a board of twelve trustees, 
through a manager appointed by the 
board, with such powers and duties as 
may be given him by the board. 

The Board of Trustees has adopted 
pension rules for the administration of 
this fund, to take effect on January 1, 
1911, and apply to persons who are in 
the service of the United States Steel 
Corporation and its subsidiary com- 
panies on and after that date. 

Under the pension rules three classes 
of pensions are provided : 

First— Pensions hy compulsory retire- 
ment, granted to employes who have 
been twenty years or longer in the ser- 
vice and have reached the age of seventy 
years for men and sixty years for wo- 

Second— Pensions by retirement at re- 
quest, granted to employes who have 
been twenty years or longer in the ser- 
vice and have reached the age of sixty 
years for men and fifty years for women. 
Third— Pensions for permanent incapa- 
city, granted to employes who have been 
twenty years or longer in the service and 
have become permanently totally incapa- 
citated through no fault of their own. 

The monthly pensions to be paid from 
the income of the fund will be made up 
on the following hasis. For each year of 
service 1 per cent, of the average reg- 
ular monthly pay received during the 
last ten years of service ; provided, how- 
ever, that no pension shall be more than 
$100 a month or less than $12 a month. 
For example, an employe who has been 
25 years in the service and has received 
an average regular monthly pay of $60 
a month will receive a pension allow- 
ance of $15 a month. 

This pension fund provides for the sup- 
port of faithful employes in their old age 
It is entirely separate and distinct from 
the voluntary accident relief plan put in- 
to operation by the United States Steel 
Corporation on May 1, 1910, which pro- 
vides for employes who may he injured 
and the families of employes who may 
he killed while at work in the service of 
the subsidiary companies of the United 
States Steel Corporation. 

Neither the voluntaiy accident relief 
|ilan nor the United States Steel and 
Carnegie pension fund involves any con- 
tribution from the men themselves to- 
ward the accident relief or old age pen- 

Societies and Personal 

J. G. Sullivan has been appointed as- 
sistant engineer on the C. P. R. with 
headquarters at Winnipeg. 

J. G. Taylor, heretofore superinten- 
dent district 1, Alberta division, C.P.R., 
Medicine Hat, has been appointed gen- 
eral superintendent Lake Superior divi- 
sion. His headquarters are North Bay. 

* * • 

H. McDonald, fitter in the C.P.R. 
Lethbridge shops, Alta., has been ap- 
pointed shop foreman there. 

* * • 

M. A. Cardell, heretofore C.P.R. shop 
foreman at Lethhridge, Alta., has been 
appointed shop foreman at Medicine 
Hat, Alta., vice J. McQuarrie, appoint- 
ed locomotive foreman at Sutherland, 

* * .* 

Peterboro Lodge, 286 of Machinists, 
held an anniversary night on .Jan. 26, 
when a social time was spent. 

* • • 

The Canadian Railway Club, Montreal, 
meets at the Windsor Hotel, on March 
7, when a paper will be presented by L. 
R. Clausen, Divisional Supt. of the C. 
M. & St. P. Ry., Chicago, 111., on the 
subject of "Railway Signalling." 

* « • 

Thos. Arnold, vice-pres. Taylor & 
Arnold, Montreal ; D. A. Evans, drafts- 
man, G. T. P. shops, Winnipeg ; and 
Clifford Walker, Taylor & Arnold, Win- 
nipeg, have been elected members of the 
Western Canada Railway Club, Winni- 

* * * 

The McLaughlin Carriage and Motor 
Car Companies, Oshawa, held an Em- 
ployes' Ball on Jan. 24, in one of the 
wings of the new automobile works. The 
ball was a success from every point of 
view, due to the efficient management 
of this committee : H. Cook, B. Mc- 
Cahe, W. Haynes, N. Hall, A. Moffatt, 
A. Brownley, M. Parker, G. Johnston, 
J. H. Beaton, A. McClure, J. B. Mc- 
Cullough, Mr. Waters, W. A. Coad, G. 
C. McKeen, E. Hamilton, Ed. Michael, 
H. Hagerman and .Tack Crawford. The 
500 guests were addressed by Robt. 
McLaughlin early in the evening. 
• • • 

St. Thomas machinists held the first 
annual ball in the Engineers' Building, 
St. Thomas, on Feb. 16. The master 
of ceremonies was John Fitzpatrick. 
The committee was composed of John 

Lane, chairman; W. E. Moore, secrfr- 
tary-treasurer; J. W. S. Booth, J. H. 
Gray, T. Stone, Frank Clark, John I. 
Stewart, W. FoUick, Wm. Bortman and 
P. G. Erickson. 

• • • 

The Alberta Wholesale Implement and 
Carriage Dealers' Association held its 
annual meeting Feb. 4, in Calgary. The 
officers for 1911 are:— President, J. A. 
Latimer, Cockshutt Plow Co., first vice- 
pres., S. H. Roe, Tudhope, Anderson & 
Co. ; second vice-pres., L. P. Winslow ; 
Ontario Wind Engine and Pump Co.; 
treas., A. W. Trickey, Massey-Harris 
Co.; sec'y, W. E. Hall, Cockshutt Plow 
Co. ; Executive Committee, J. A. 
Brookbank, International Harvester Co.; 
A. W. Trickey; F. T. Wright, Canadian 
Moline Plow Co.; J. Ruttle, McLaugh- 
lin Carriage Co.; 0. S. Chapin, Chapin 
Co.; P. D. McLaren, Canadian Fair- 

• • • 

Librarian Carson of the London Pub- 
lic Library, has been giving lectures at 
the G. T. R. shops, McClary's, and 
other shops and foundries in London, 
drawing the attention of mechanics to 
books in the library of interest to 

• • • 

The first of a series of social affairs 
to bring the C.N.R. and C.P.R. mach- 
inists together was held Feb. 17 in the 
Odd Fellows' temple. The evening 
started with a reception at 8 o'clock 
and a concert at 8.30, which included 
many interesting numbers together 
with a short talk by A. W. Puttee who 
acted as chairman of the concert pro- 
gramme. Following the entertainment 
programme there was a luncheon which 
in turn was followed by dancing. A 
joint committee was in charge consist- 
ing of the following:— E. Pearson, chair- 
man; W. J. Paterson, secretary, and A. 
Gamble, M.C.; G. Douglas, D. McCul- 
lough, G. Johnston, H. McDonald, S. 
Miller, M. H. MacGregor, A. Pentland, 
J. Mountjoy, F. Pratt, A. Kain, R. F. 
Ward, J. G, MacPadden, G. Smith, and 
A. R. McEwen. 

• • • 

Lumen P. Sherwood, Peterboro, in a 
competitive examination, won the posi- 
tion of chief assistant of the Depart- 
ment of Railways and Canals, Ottawa. 

• • • 

J. F. I. Thomas, M.I. Mech. E., 
A.M. Inst. C.E., representing the elec- 
trical department of Vickers Sons and 
Maxim, Sheffield, England, spent a few 
days in Toronto recently on his way 
from England to Winnipeg. He goes to 
the prairie city to supervise the instal- 
lation of the electrical equipment being 
supplied by his firm for the municipal 
hydro-electric works. Point du Bois 
Falls, Winnipeg River, Winnipeg, Mani- 



J. M, Burke district master mechanic 
C.P.R. district No. 1 Atlantic division 
with headquarters at Brownville Jet., 
Me., has been appointed master me- 
chanic eastern division with headquar- 
ters at Smith's Falls, Ont. 
» • * 

Paul J. Myler, vice-president Canadian 
Westinghouse Co., Hamilton, has been 
elected president o( the Ontario Motor 


• • • 

W. E. Barnes, roundhouse and locomo- 
tive inspector, Moncton, N.B., has been 
appointed master mechanic eastern divi- 
sion, I.C.R., with headquarters at 


• * • 

T. Ross has been appointed master 
mechanic of the T. & N. O. Ry., with 
headquarters at North Bay. 

George H. Wadsworth, for the past 15 
years superintendent of the Falls Rivet 
& Machine Co., Cuyahoga Falls, Ohio, 
,has resigned that position, and will on 
and after March 1 devote his entire 
time to the Wadsworth Core Machine & 
Equipment Co., Akron, Ohio. He has 
purchased all machinery, patterns, tools 
and interest from the Falls Clutch & 
Machinery Co., successor to the Falls 
Rivet & Machine Co. for the manufac- 
ture of the Wadsworth core machine and 
equipment as manufactured by that 
company during the last seven years for 


• * * 

Wm. C. Mitchell, formerly superinten- 
dent of the Dominion Steel Co., has 
opened an office in the Canadian Express 
Building. Montreal, as a consulting en- 
gineer. Mr. Mitchell is prepared to un- 
dertake the design of modern iron and 
steel plants, and the securing of econo- 
mies in existing plants. 

• • • 

J. T. Brewer, of the Structural Steel 
Co., Longue Point, Que., has been ap- 
pointed general manager of the National 
Bridge Co., Montreal. 

• • • 

Frank Walker, formerly of the C. P.R. 
at Smith's Falls, has been appointed 
foreman of general repairs for the New 
Glasgow plant of the Nova Scotia Steel 

& Coal Co. 

• • • 

S. S. Underwood, chief draughtsman 
G.T.R. Car Department, Montreal, was 
presented recently, with a fitted travel- 
ing bag, and a brooch for his wife, by 
the staff, on his leaving the service, to 
enter that of Taylor & Arnold, dealers 
in railwav equipment and supplies, Mon- 
treal and Winnipeg. 

• • • 

The Master Car Builders' Association 
meets In Atlantic City, June 19-21 ; the 

Railway Supply Mfrs. Association, June 
14-21, and the American Railway Mas- 
ter Mechanics' Association June 14-16. 

• » • 

A. W. Horsey, formerly master me- 
chanic eastern division C.P.R. , with 
headquarters at Smith's Falls, Ont., 
has been appointed district master me- 
chanic district No. 1 vice D. L. Jones 
transferred to the Atlantic division. His 
lie?dquarters will be at Farnham, P.Q. 

• * • 

H. Smith, formerly superintendent of 
the Canadian Crocker Wheeler Co., St. 
Catharines, has accepted a position with 
the Canada Foundry, Toronto. 

• • • 

Edward Blake, jr., manager of sales 
for the Wells Brothers Co., Greenfield, 
Mass., for the past four years, and a 
director of the corporation, severed his 
connection with the company Feb 1. He 
has obtained the controlling interest in 
the Canadian Tap & Die Co., Gait, Ont., 
of which he has been trasurer since its 
organization in 1905. He has taken the 
active management of the company's 
affairs and will devote his entire time 
to promoting its business. Mr. Blake 
came from the west nine years ago to 
enter the employ of the Wells Brothers 
Co. as a stock clerk and acquired a 
thorough knowledge of the entire line of 
Little Giant screw thread cutting tools 
and machinery, which was of great value 
in his later work. He was promoted to 
the order department, and from there 
went through the various departments 
of the offices to the desk of sales man- 
ager and manager of the offices. His 
work in this capacity was eminently 
successful and in 1909 he was elected a 

• « * 

The Late Robert McDougall, Gait. 
Robert McDougall, the founder of the 
R. McDougall Co., Gait, died on Feb. 
17, at the age of 86. He was born in 
Roxboroughshire, Scotland, and was a 
resident of Gait for 60 years. In the 
early seventies he and his brother 
Thomas, commenced to manufacture 
iron pumps and windmills. Now the 
lines manufactured include metal and 
wood working machinery, pumps, etc., 
a specialty being metal working lathes. 

• • • 

P. J. Smith Banqueted. 

Hotel Quinte, Belleville's famous hos- 
telry, was the scene of a splendid ban- 
quet recently, when the business men of 
the town, assembled to bid farewell to 
P. .J. Smith, who is removing to Win- 

For the past four years and a half, 
Mr. Smith has been superintendent of 
the Canada Bolt and Nut Co.'s Rolling 
Mills at Belleville, which he has brought 
to a high state of efficiency. He was re- 
cently appointed manager of the Mani- 

toba Rolling Mills, at Winnipeg, and his 
leaving to assume that position, was 
made the occasion of this unique ban- 

W. B. Deacon, president of the Board 
of Trade, acted as chairman, and splen- 


did speeches were made by many of 
Belleville's most prominent citizens. 

In response to the toast "Our Guest," 
Mr. Smith, foretold prosperity and busi- 
ness expansion for Belleville. He urged 
the business men of the city to work 
for better transportation facilities both 
by rail and water. This, he thought, 
would result in making Belleville an in- 
dustrial centre. 

That the banquet was such a huge suc- 
cess, was due largely to the efforts of 
.\Id. R. C. Chown, who responded to 
the toast of the "City of Belleville." 


The associated firms of W. T. Glover 
& Co., Royce, The Howard Asphalt and 
Troughing Co., The .\shover Fluor Spar 
Mining Co., all of Manchester, England, 
have secured offices in the Lumsden 
Building, Toronto, for the purpose of 
direct representation on and supply to 
the Canadian market of the various spe- 
cialities produced and manufactured by 
them. These latter consist of under- 
ground cables and wires, electric cranes, 
and direct current motors and dynamos, 
iisphalt troughing for underground con- 
duits and fluor spar for steel smelting. 

C. S. Mallett who will be in charge 
and manage the Canadian business is 
renewing his connection with the Domin- 
ion after an absence of 12 years, all of 
which time he spent at the various 
firms' headquarters he now represents. 

The scope of the business to be under- 
taken will include reporting and advis- 
ing as to the best and most suitable 
equipment required, the supply, delivery 
and erection supervision of same and the 
furnishing of prompt and complete tend- 
ers, plans and specifications. 


Unique Ways of Doing Things in the Machine Shop. Readers' Opinion. 
Concerning Shop Practice. Data for Machinists. Contributions paid for. 


By G. B. Marquette. 
_Iii drilling a large number of holes 
close together, the chips and cuttings 
from the holes being drilled completely 
cover up the marks (lines and centre 
punch marks) of the next holes to be 
drilled, necessitating the operator to 
stop and blow or clear the cuttings 
away, before he can locate the next 
hole. If we take a piece of tin and cut 

Removing Drill Chips. 

two Slits as per sketch and then pry 
the slit up as seen in end view, we can 
pass the drill through the two slits and 
It will be found tight enough to revolve 
with the drill. When the drill has com- 
pleted the hole, we lower the drill until 
tin touches the work when the heavy 
cuttings will be brushed off while the 
finer dust will be fanned off by the 
rapidly revolving piece of tin, leaving 
the work clear, and the next hole centre 
«as«y located. 


By H. Smith. 
This sketch shows a convenient meth- 
od of supporting countershaft gear from 
roof and has the advantage that it can 
be used in conjunction with a trolley and 
chain block for lifting work in and out 
of the machines. Steel I beams are car- 
ried over the line of machines by means 
of cast-iron brackets which are bolted 
to the roof beams. See Pigs. 1 and 2. 
These beams for ordinary machine shops 
should be 26 in. to 30 in. apart and their 
depth will- depend on the span between 
the roof beams, 6 in. for a 14 ft and S 
in. for a 16 ft. span being adequate. 
They must run the full length of the line 
of machines to be driven. Their centre 
line is offset from that of the machines 
so thart the trolley has its range in front 
of the latter, enabling, say a lathe oper- 
ator to pick up a heavy job from the 
floor and slide it into the centres with- 
out having to obtain the help of a couple 
of men to guide it in for him. 

'I'he countershaft hangers are bolted 
to wood battens which are readily placed 
in position on the steel beams by hook 
bolts. See Fig. 3. 

The main driving pulleys on the coun- 
tershafts are placed in the case of a 

lathe to the left of the headstock so that 
the trolley has a range of action the full 
length of bed in one direction and the 
distance between beam centres in the 
other. See Figs. 4 and 5. The whole 
arrangement has a neat appearance and 
.-aves time both in setting up machines 
and later in handling work too heavv to 
lift by hand. ' 

Shop Floor, 

The sketch also shows a first-class 
floor for a shop where moderately heavy 
work is handled, say up to 2 tons. The 
earth is levelled oflf and well tramped 
down before laying the 5 in. of concrete; 
3 in. by 3 in. battens are laid in thi.s, the 
length of shop and about 8 feet apart. 
These battens are bevelled as shown so 
that they have no tendency to pull out of 
the concrete and stand up 1 in. from the 
face of the latter. Crushed breeze is 
then rolled onto the surface of concrete 
when set and levelled off by means of 
straight edge from batten to batten; 
1 1-4 in. spruce boards unplaned, but 
sawn equal in thickness, are then nailed 
to battens in a cross direction. Finally 
hard maple flooring, tongue and grooved 
IS laid, leaving a good level surface pro- 
vided the underneath work has been 
properly carried out. This floorin" will 

/•/« t 

' Jm^y^ 


^\\\Kn.^\^\ \\xvv^vv^VV ^ 





Arrangement for Canying: Countershaft. 



not splinter and has a certain amount of 
spring in it, due to the spruce under- 
boards and coke breeze. The latter also 
allows for a certain amount of ventila- 
tion which is further amplified by the 
maple flooring boards being grooved un- 
derneath. There is no danger of dry rot 
setting in and castings dropped onto it 
are not so liable to break as on a bare 
concrete floor. It is easy on the oper- 
ator's feet. 

By G. B. Marquette. 
An addition to the tool store are the 
"distance gauges" as per sketches. A 
great variety can be made, a combina- 
tion of which will give any required di- 

Fig. 1 — A Distance Gauge. 

mension. They can be made very cheap- 
ly (an apprentice could handle the job 
in the tool room) and the first cost is 
quickly returned by the rapidity with 
which a tool can be set to the required 
depth. The operator KNOWS without 
stopping to check the cut, that he has 
the given dimensions, and that it is 

The apprentice could get them within 
grinding limits and stamp them, then 
harden and grind. 

Fig. 1 shows a distance gauge and 
Fig. 2 the application of one. Referring 
to Fig. 2, the gauge is hardened and 


« — 


3* - 



-T 1 -^ T-"-^ 

Fig. 2 — Application of Distance Gauge. 

ground. B is the tool and a chip must 
be taken from A to bring it down to 
the thickness shown by the gauge. 


The accompanying sketch shows a bor- 
ing bar used in the works of the John 
Tnglis Co., Toronto, for boring elliptic 
cylinders, and which can be used for 
boring cylinders of any shape. 

The firm, in producing some cylinders 
for a special job — cylinders which were 
neither oval nor of the form of separ- 
ated circular segments, in shape, were 
confronted with the proposition of ma- 

chining. A tool something along the 
lines shown was made, but discarded in 
favor of this latter bar, devised by G. 
E. Fax, draftsman for the company. 

The construction is as follows: A 
main bar A, swinging between lathe cen- 
tres, the right on the tail-stock centre 
and the left on the head-stock, has a 
cutter bar B, attached to it by a dou- 
ble arm C, projecting from bar A, and 
this bar B is pivoted on C, by fulcrum 
pin D. 

At the right-hand end, a square bar 
E, bent at its lower end, and turned on 
its upper portion, passes through a 
reamed hole F in bar A. This hole F 
has a key-way with corresponding key 
in E to prevent twisting of the part. 
Straps G straddling A, connect rod E 
through pin K to bar B through pin H. 
The lower end of rod E, which, as be- 
fore mentioned, is bent, shaped approxi- 
mately knife-edged, to follow a con- 
tour. On the tail spindle a form exact- 
ly the same in shape as the bore of the 
cylinder, is secured, and the edge at the 
lower end of E follows this, and causes 

I in a circle, the motion would be dis- 
torted. This was practically overcome 
by having an off-set tool at I, turned to 
the left, so that the more the motion 
was distorted due to angularity, it would 
be compensated for by the tool digging 
in further. 


The accompanying sketch is of a 
handy facing tool made use of by Wm. 
Kennedy & Sons, Owen Soxmd, for fac- 
ing of bolt holes in propeller hubs, 
flanges, and similar positions. The usual 
methods of using a fiat cutter is fami- 
liar to all. Its principal objection lies 
in the fact that its whole cutting face 
strikes the hard scale first, removing 
the cutting edge before any material 
progress is made. 

The facing tool here shown, operates 
on the principle of a cross cut bar, with 
a plain gooseneck tool, shown at A. 
The end B is bent up to form the goose- 
neck B, which forms the cutting edge. 
This tool is contained in a slot in the 
end of the usual type of bolt hole fao- 




Boring Bar for S8xl6 Engine. 

the tool I to follow the same motion, 
boring the cylinder the same shape as 
the guide. The spring on E causes the 
edge to follow the guide closely. The 
bore is the same as the guide, not only 
in shape, but in size, as the distance 
from D to H is the same as from D to 
I. Projecting piece J takes the strain 
of the cut, causing H.D. and the tip of I 
to be in a line parallel to the bar A and 
makes the motion very nearly perfectly 
true, the only error being that due to the 
slight angularity of the pin H at its ex- 
treme positions. The former bar made 
did not reproduce the desired shape so 
accurately, as the construction was 
somewhat different. Suppose the tool T 
to remain where it is, and the bar B to 
be across the main bar A, so that the 
tips of B at H would be at K. This 
cutter bar B would thus be diagonally 
across main bar A, and as the follower 
edge would move vertically, and the tool 

ing bar, and slides crosswise on strip 
C the whole being held in position by 
tour cap screws in cap D. The tool A 
is tapped as shown, and a ratchet screw 

Pacing Tool. 

feeds the tool across, giving the neces- 
sary cut. The beauty of the tool lies in 
its ability to keep below the hard skin, 
and thus save the tool. 

This principle has been used by the 
company for the last 20 years giving 
great satisfaction. 


Comments on articles appearing in 
Canadian Mactiinery will be cheerfully 
welcomed and letters containing useful 
ideas will be paid for. 

Information regarding manufacturers 
of various Unes, with their addresses 
will be supplied either through these 
columns or by letter, on request. Ad- 
dress letters to Canadian Machinery, 
143-149 University Ave., Toronto.— 


» « * 

Tapping Hole Straight. 
The correct answer to the question on 
tapping a hole through a sphere is as 
follows : Secure a faced nut over the 
tap and down against the work. If it 
touches all around, it indicates that the 
tap is going in straight.— Apprentice. 
* « « 

Tinning Cast Iron Cross-Head Slippers. 
Will some of the readers of Canadian 
Machinery give me a method for tinning 
cross-head slippers in quantities so 
they can be planed. — W. A. T. 


That word "long" iu the title is used 
lelatively — long iu proportion to the 
lathe. A clever method of doing such 
work is by "splicing" two lathes to 
take ill long bars as described iu Decem- 
ber issue o£ Canadian Machinery, p. 47. 
iMost of us have seen or have worked 
on lathes having the range extended by 
means of a planed casting lined up with 
the original bed and ' ' tie-rodded ' ' to 
it, and know how seldom such a job is 
well done or remains accurate for any 
length of time. For my part, if possible, 

1 prefer to take my chances in one lathe, 
if the work isn't longer than double the 
capacity of the lathe, and as an example 
will relate one job we used to do this 
way, which had to be finished accurately. 

In Fig. 1 is shown a roller having 
journals at the ends and driven from 
one end, B, which occasionally twisted 
off at A under an extra heavy strain. 
These rollers, new, were 2 1-16 in. dia- 
meter, and, as they wore, were turned 
down to 1 15-16 in., the limit of adjust- 
ment in the machine in which they were 
used. They were brought to us to be 
dressed up, and we usually had to re- 
duce them 1-32 in. in diameter to clean 
up the low spots. Our longest lathe 
was shorter than the rollers by about 

2 feet, which meant tliat we had to re- 
\cise them to turn the body proper, and 
had to resort to some expedient when 
tlie journals had to be renewed; some- 
times we had a combination of both jobs 
(o do at one time. 

Considering first the broken journal, 
we commenced by setting the jaws of 
the steady rest to an arbor between 


the centres of the diameter of the body 
of the roller. After that the tail stock 
was taken off the lathe and the rest 
moved to the extreme end of the ways. 
The other, or broken, end of the roller 
was clamped in a V-block on the cross 
s^lide of tfic carriage and lined up with 
calipers appro.vimately true with the 
ways, and the same as the end in the 
steady rest which was already centred. 
Then with a drill iu the universal chuck 
the end was drilled out and into the 
hole was driven one end of a bar of 
steel and pinned. To turn a new journal, 
on this inserted bar, its free end was 
gripped iu the chuck, and the roller 
turned up to within 1-1000 in. at the 
part nearest to the journal to be. It 
will be noticed that the bar was left long 
enough to be turned, threaded, and cut 
oil outside of the chuck. 

This is, i think, about the most sat- 
isfactory way of turning and threading 
on the end of work longer than the ma- 
chine; at one time I had a lot of 12 in. 
pipe to cut off and thread, and did it 
by cutting the pieces about 4 in. longer 
than the made-up length, threading to 
a caliper Ht, and cutting off with the 
cut-off tool. 

To return to the roll turning job, it 
can be imagined that when cleaning up 
the body — with a cut never exceeding 
1-64 in. deep — trouble would be experi- 
enced from ciuittering. We proceeded as 
follows : one end was chucked ou the 
journal and the best portion of the roll 
proper turned up with an indicator. The 
steady rest (set first to an arbor) was 
used to support the other end of the rol- 
ler, and was set on the best spot, near 
llie end of the lathe, which usually left 
from 2 to 3 feet projecting. 

As to the cut, we started in close up 
to the steady rest with a fine round- 
nosed tool having plenty of rake 
and running with a fine feed. 
After the cut had moved up toward the 
headstock 12 in. to 15 in., it would show 
.signs of chattering when we would ap- 
l>ly a second steady rest as near the end 
of the new cut as tlie carriage would 
permit, and proceed as before, moving 
this "following steady rest" every foot 




tion of the roll was considerable, and 
the cut was not heavy enough to keep 
it up against the jaws. 

It was nece.ssary to turn the rollers 
to within 1-1000 in., for which a micro- 
meter was invaluable. We finished with 
a fine file and polished with No. 00 emery 
cloth. This gave us a surface equal to 
the ground finish on the rolls when they 
were new, and fully as accurate. Some- 
times the rolls would .show an almost 
liendish tendency to chatter, and we fell 




y i.'. ;;— .Metliod of Turiiiug New Journal. 
hack Oil a (lat-nosed tool with top rake 
only, sotting it so it cut on the side 
next the- headstock only, and dear a 
1-32 in. on the other side of the front 

Those who have accurate turning of 
tliis natuie will find the above method 
a little slow, periiaps, but sure. I pre- 
fer it to a built-on lathe, if the work is 
short enough, but must admit its infeii- 
ority to t\w. "double" lathe mentioneil 
at the beginning of this article, or one 
good long lathe.— D. A. Hamp.son. 

A ccMirifugai oil separator paid for 
itself in sixty days iu a watch factory. 
It is used to clean superfluous oil from 
the work and to separate oil from waste. 
The oil is used over again. 

The superintendent of an insulated 
wire factory, which employes a great 
number of women operatives, has estab- 
lished a noon lunch room where a meal, 
including soup, meat and a dessert, may 
be purchased for thirteen cents. The 
restaurant is in charge of a local caterer 
and the figure given covers the cost of 
tlio meals. 

The Iron Trade Review recently called 
attention to' the fact that motors in- 
stalled in machine shops are frequently 
too large, ownng to the fact that the 
exact amount of power required is not 
definitely known. As a motor is most 





I'ijr. 1 — KoUer and .Tnuriial 

or SO. After turning the major part of 
the roll, which was on the lathe, it was 
reversed, set in the steady rest, and cent- 
ered by tlie chuck till the newly turned 
portion was true. 

We found the second steady rest su- 
perior to a follow rest for the reason 
that the work was held in all directions, 
while witli the follow rest the sag to- 
ward the center af the unsupported por- 

eflicient at full load, the result is that 
there is an undue loss of efficiency. A 
number of cases are cited wherein the 
exact amount of power required was de- 
termined by means of volt meter and 
ammeter readings, showing that the 
motor in use was of too high a power, 
and after this motor was replaced with 
one of the required power, a consider- 
able economy of power was eSect49d. 





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March. 1911 

No. 3 


Efficiency campaigns have been carried on and much 
written on the subject. It is known as "good manage- 
ment" or "scientific management" but it really amounts 
to the same thing— "digging," that is, worlcing for the 
best worlt in the quickest time, at the lowest cost, with 
good wages to the producers of these results. 

The United States Interstate Commerce Commission 
has brought to light systems of management by which the 
output of the plant has been increased, not by increasing 
the equipment or the number of workmen but by invest- 
igating existent conditions and making changes which re- 
sult in greater economies and enable the company to in- 
crease the dividends and pay better wages to their em- 

There can be no objection to the statement : "To get 
the best results from. men, offer inducements commensurate 
with the cost to them of maximum effort." The healthy 
human has no objections to work if it is made pleasant 
tor him and he is paid at least market value for his ef- 

It is gratifying to note that the reduction in costs of 
manufacturing has been done without reducing wages. In 
fact, experienced organizers provide for largely increased 
wages to efficient workmen who put forth their best ef- 
forts. This is done by means of a piece-work or premium 
system which stimulates effort and rewards the efficient 

There are other means by which costs have been re- 
duced and are reduced. It calls for investigation— or dig- 
ging—to bring them to light, but it pays. In the Feb. issue 
appeared an article on Scientific Management^what it is 
and what it will do. It pays to get away from the "rule 
o' thumb" method of doing things whether in the drafting 

room, manager's office, foremen's office or in the work- 

The buying department also calls for some "digging." 
It is well to use a magnifying glass or a microscope occa- 
sionally and search for the little leaks. Ilecently we 
learned of one company that is losing thousands of dol- 
lars in buying alone. A "rank outsider" discovered it. 

One firm was building its own special machinery. A 
little "digging" revealed that a company specially equip- 
ped for such work would have built the same machines 
for 25 per cent. less. 

Another firm was throwing away the small ends of 
high speed steel cutters and drills, but it was discovered 
by a foreman that these could be used to advantage by 
using the pieces as tips for tools. The method was prac- 
tically that given in "Efficiency of Tools and Economy in 
their manufacture" in the February issue. 

A number of pertinent questions are asked in the ar- 
ticle on "What is Scientific Management," that are worth 
studying. They should lead to "digging" for leaks in 
your plant. A vigorous search will reveal unthought of 
leaks. One small Toronto factory saved $11,400 in a year 
by scientific management. Reports are continuously being 
brought to light of leaks stopped and the shop being 
brought to a higher state of efficiency, all accomplished 
by "digging." 


The article in our present isSue entitled "Machine 
Tool Manufacture— Quality and Guarantee" is worthy 
the attention of and careful reading by all users of these 
commodities. The purchase of a machine tool or in fact 
anytliing from a reputable maker should be recognized as 
something beyond a mere monetary transaction. It 
.should be, and really is, the assistance which one man 
gives another in the highest and best sense, enabling each 
to do more perfectly in combination, that which neither 
could perform as well individually. 

The guarantees and advices given users by manufac- 
turers have a real cash value to both, and the sentiments 
expressed in "Penstock's" paper merit the practical 
emulation of all producers and appreciative regard of all 
operators. Machine tool manufacture and operation have 
reached a high pitch of excellence, to maintain and sur- 
pass which must needs demand the helpful co-operation 
of botli parties interested. 


For the second time since the Quebec Bridge Commis- 
sion has had the plans of a new bridge under consider- 
ation, experts have been called in to settle a differ- 
ence which has arisen between the members of the board 
on engineering points. The immediate trouble, says a 
Montreal paper, is that engineers Modjeska and Macdonald 
favor the St. Lawrence Bridge Co. tender on its own 
plans, while engineer Vautelet favors the Empire Bridge 
Co. tender on the board's plans. 

In the face of this statement we cannot help sympa- 
thising with the minority and complimenting it on its 
pluck and confidence. 

Much good public money has been spent by this com- 
mission in the preparation of plans and specifications, 
which seems might have been saved if builders' plans are 
better, more trustworthy and necessarv of acceptance 

From whatever standpoint looked from, the necessitous 
acceptance of the majority recommendation seems to us 
a reflection on the commission's work, and a certain rob- 
bing of a signal world-honor from it. 

On the other hand it stamps the designer staff of our 
St. Lawrence Bridge Co. as a combination whose work 



commends itsclt and whose confidence is not likely to be 

To engineer Vautelet in his meantime lone stand and 
in perhaps greater degree, is due also the commendation 
and public appreciation for a work laid out, his con- 
fidence in its stability and usefulness, and his bid for 
a niche in the temple of fame. 

The decision" is a momentous one, the more so on ac- 
count of there being a bridge in the river which like the 
projected one was intended to span that river. 

Bridge designers' and constructors' reputations are at 
stake, the public safety is involved, the development of 
our country depends somewhat on it, and money is we 
presume not being stinted. 

Let the best be none too good, let there be a Quebec 
Bridge, and may its designers receive their due honor. 


In the Business Management section of this issue will 
be found an interesting account of the system of machine 
tool purchase adopted by a prominent railroad. Pleasing 
to all engaged in the manufacture and sale of machine 
tools because ensuring fair competition and recognition 
of merit, it lias also shown profit to those re.sponsible for 
introducing the system. 

Points to be noted are the adaptability of the system 
not only to other railroads but to manufacturing con- 
cerns generally, the quality personnel of the committee, 
a unit being the superintendent of piecework, and 
therefore a most appropriate selection to enable that de- 
partment to be fully efficient. 

Such a body gives confidence to the executive that the 
best available in machine tools is being got for a given 
outlay and that nothing which can be superseded and 
.scrapped is doing duty on past record. The facilities 
given to get around and see what is being done by manu- 
facturers admit not only of new and untried specialties 
being considered, but effectively stops the prejudice and 
clinging to the well-worn riit so cherished by shop fore- 

Progress and proficiency can only be attained by 
knowing and seeing what others are doing to help us 
and recognizing it that way, and any concern that would 
keep its head in front must nose its way first. 


Some Canadian manufacturers are evidently unfamiliar 
with methods of extending their export trade. London 
appears to be the hub of trade and inquiries from all 
parts of the world are received by the Consulting Engi- 
neers and buying merchants in London. United States 
and German companies, realizing this, take particular 
care to have their goods known to the merchants in Lon- 
don so that London facilities are offered for the prompt 
securing of specifications, quotations, etc. 

For instance, a firm in India wrote London for infor- 
mation of quotations, etc., on some machinery manu- 
factured in Canada. There was no information available 
without long delays and a great inconvenience resulted 
and probably a loss of the order. 

Another point in the export trade is the elimination 
of loose methods in dealing with a foreign purchaser. 
The Trade and Commerce tells how iiii order from .Tapan 
was lost by one Canadian company be( they would 
not fill the order fo snit .Tapnncse conditions, Such 

11 short-sighted policy is harmful not only to that 
company but to the Canadian manufacturers generally 
who are looking for an export trade. 


On a number of occasions "Canadian Machinery" 
has drawn the attention of shop foremen, superintendents 
and managers to the necessity of having sufficient equip- 
ment. J. S. Sheafe, Engineer of Tests, Illinois Central 
R. R., Chicago, III, in an article entitled "Care and Sel- 
ection of Shop Equipment" recently published in "Rail- 
way Age Gazette," has the following to say about the 
use of grinding wheels in railroad shops: 

"Have plenty of arlnding Wheels.— Grinding wlieels, In most 
railway shops, are consplouous by their ahsenre from conTenlent 
looatlons. A machinist would rather continue for a while the use 
of a slightly dull tool than to bother goini;, perhaps, the length 
of the shop and waiting his turn at the wheel. This la hard on 
the maphlne, already hard pressed since the advent of high speed 
steel ; also on the work and the man. When It Is remembered 
that the rate of deterioration of a tool when dull does not varv 
as the work done, but as the 8(iuare of the work done, there 
is an abuse all around. Grinding wheels should be placed In 
all parts of the shop, both machine side and pit side. This 
makes It inexcusable for a man to work with anything but per- 
fect tools." 

A great number of articles included under the head- 
ing of "Shop Equipment," may also be included. The 
above will serve as an example to interest all in keep- 
ing the shop at maximum efficiency. 


There is too much talk of Ideals. The word is used in 
sermons and poems and after-dinner speeches. Little 
souls roll it on the ends of their tongues and lift their 
mild eyes to Heaven. Surely the truly great have none 
of them — these ideals. 

What is wanted is common decencies — not ideals. The 
word has too much exquisitely nebulous meaninglcssness. 
Fat men dream of ideals, and in the morning cheat the 
car conductor. Thin men dream of the same thing and 
abuse their wives. Lovers think their affinities "ideals," 
and wake to quairel about a certain usage in grammar. 

There are too many "ideals" and too much self-de- 
ceiving. Let us save the word from profanity and hide 
it until hallowdng time has restored its sacred .shape, and 
in the meantime let us collect samples of common de- 
cencies, honesty of tongue, and hand, and heartland 
put them in a case, lest in a few generations there be 
none left. 


No amount of personal expeinence can ever malce a 
man perfect. On a few occasions (fortunately they are 
few) mechanical men have given our subscription men 
as a reason for not subscribing to a mechanical paper 
that "they have worked at their business for twenty 
years and didn't need ad-ice along mechanical lines." 

This view is a very narrow one to take. The techni- 
cal paper does not essay to show a man how to run his 
plant, but by telling what others are doing, giving news 
of the mechanical world, descriptions of new machinery, 
the opinions of other mechanical men, it undoubtedly 
provides a ready means of improving the knowledge in 
connection with the conduct of and work in the shop. 

No matter how extensive a man's experience may be, 
he can still learn something from others and the techni- 
cal paper serves as a means for this interchange of ideas. 
The fact that a man values his opinions so highly, should 
naturally lead him to place some value on the experience 
of others. 


New Machinery for Machine Shop, Foundry, Pattern Shop, Planing 
Mill ; New Engines, Boilers, Electrical Machinery, Transmission Devices. 


The new double head rapid nipple 
and pipe threading machine shown in 
the illustration has a capacity of i/g to 
■34 inch, inclusive. It reams and tlireads 
at one operation, pipes of any length 
from a nipple up, being quickly threaded 
on this machine. 

It is fitted with the Hall improved 
die head. Tlie dies are easily made 
and permit beinu: recnt often. Rotary 
oil pump and drip pans form part of 
the eriuipnient. 

This machine is manufactured by 
John II. TTall and Sons, Brantford. 


The illustration shows a new motor 
driven machine made by the Wiley & 
Russell Mfpr. Co., Greenfield, Mass. The 
machine proper is their standard com- 
bination opening die machine, equipped 
with their well-known patented "Quick 
Change" opening dies. Electric motor 

to the bed on which the motor shelf is 
secured. This shelf is hinged at back 
i'iid lias finished projecting lugs which 
rest on cam shaft operated by lever A. 
By this suflicient tension can be kept on 
belt at all times and belt can be slack- 
ened off when desired to shift it from 
one step to another on cone pulley. 
After belt is tightened the cam shaft is 
locked with a binder. 

The lever B, in front of motor con- 
trols the clutch in the large spur gear, 
so that the bolt-cutter can be stopped 
independently of the motor. The motor 
is con-«tant speed and back geared and 
is fitted with a rawhide driving pinion. 
Motors can be furnished for direct or 

meter. A 2 h.p. motor is used. The 
weiglit complete is 2,300 lbs. 


Landis Machine Co., Waynesboro, 
Pa., has recently brought out a new type 
of die head known as a "Solid Adjust- 
able Die Head." The purpose of this 
die head, is to take the place of the 
solid dies now used on any of the screw 
machines and other types of machines 
wherein the work Is backed out of the 
die after the thread is out. 

The die head is illustrated lierewith 
showing the 1 inch standai-d size which 
has a range from { inch to 1 inch. It 
embodies the use of the high speed free 

Plpe-tbreadlug Machine, Jobu H. Uall & Sous, Brantfuril. 

Bolt Cutter and Nut Tapper, Wiley & Russell Mfg. Co., 
Greenfield, Mass. 

drive is attached to this standard ma- 
chine. It can be used for nut-tapping, 
pipe-threading, cutting off, etc. 

The arrangement is as follows: — It 
consists of a bracket fitted and bolted 

alternating current, reversing or non- 

The an-angement is strongly and 
carefully fitted and machine is guaran- 
teed to cut bolts and pipe to 2 inch dia- 

cutting Landis die, with a very wide 
adjustment. The dies are adjusted to 
and from the centre on radial lines for 
different sizes and are held rigidly in 
their seats. 



The die head is held in the turret of 
any ordinary screw machine and trips 
off by retardintf the forward movement 
of the carriajje. Tliis die liend will also 
bo made without tlie trippins; device for 
special requirements. The tripping ar- 
rangement is so set that when the 
desired length of thread is cut, the die 
head will trip and revolve with the 
work until the machine has time to re- 

By using this die very high cutting 
speeds are readily acquired, equal to 
(he turning and drilling speeds on the 
other operations of the screw machine, 
so that the speeds need not be reduced 
in the threading operation for the ac- 
commodation of the die as is the case 
witli the solid dies. 

Chasers can at all times be ground to 
suit the material to be cut; any amount 
of rnlvP can be given that is necessary, 
thereby insuring the best possible cut- 
ting condition and securing ideal results. 

The dies are made from high speed 
steel and can be ground and regronnd 
many times, thus giving a life many 
times greater than any other solid die, 
besides never requiring to be annealed, 
bobbed or retempered, and are readily 
adjustable to take up wear in addition 
to the adjustment for different dia- 

One set of chasers can readily be set 
above or below their" rated diameter. 
For instance, i-o inch (^3 thread) can 
be set to cut 1 incli diameter when dc- 

Soliil Aiijnstal.le liic lli'.-nl, Landis Macliiiie 
Co., W.nyuesboro, Pa. 

sired, or they can also be set to cut ^4 
inch diameter. The angle in the thread, 
however, will not be quite ideal, but all 
that is required for ordinary screw 
machine work. With other types of die 
heads a special set of cliasers is requir- 
ed each time you wish to cut other than 
standard pitches. "Witli this head any 
diameter within the range of the head 
can be cut with one set of dies so long 
a.s the pitch is the same. Tn very 
sjiecial cases wliere absolutely correct 
pitch is required, it would be advisable 
to use special holders so as to set the 

chasers on the exact angle to corres- 
pond with the angle of the thread. Or- 
dinarily this is not required. 

These heads can be supplied in stand- 
ard sizes with shanks suitable for liold- 
ers in ordinary screw machines. The 
Vi inch head is 23^ inches in diameter, 
capahK' of cutting a thread of I'/j inches 

milling purposes and is operated from 
the pilot wheel for both hand feed and 
quick traverse by means of a clutch. 

The outer support for boring bar can 
be clamped securely to the bed, and is 
readily removed for overhanging work. 
The spindle head and outer support for 
boi-ing bar are aligned by means of scale 


■T" I 

■^ \ Milling and Drilling Machine, Cleveland Macliine Tool Works, Cleveland. 

long. The 1 inch head is 4% inches in 
diameter, capable of cutting a thread 
234 inches long. Other sizes with spec- 
ial slianks will be made to order. 

The dies will regularly be made from 
higli speed steel. In no other type of 
dif can high speed steel be used to the 
.same advantage as can be used in this 
die, as will be readily apparent on the 
face of same. 

This head is manufactured by the 
Landis Machine Company, Waynesboro, 


The machine shown in the accompany- 
ing cut is a horizontal boring, milling 
and drilling machine with tapping at- 
tachment and vertical feed. 

Tlie spindle runs in solid taper bronze 
hearings with adjustment for wear, and 
has a face-plate to receive large milling 
cutters, etc., for heavy work; it revolves 
in right or left hand directions and can 
be started, stopped or reversed instant- 
ly, tliis being convenient for facing, tap- 
ping, rail'ing and other operations. The 
spindle and back gear drive is located 
between the spindle bearings, bringing 
tlie power direct to the work. The lever 
for operating back gear and the lever 
for revei'sing spindle are conveniently 
located on the spindle head, and they 
can be engaged or disengaged Avhile the 
machine is i-unning. 

The spindle bar which passes through 
the spindle, is of unannealed crucible 
steel, 2V2 inches in diameter, has 22-ineli 
traverse, and is fitted with a No. .5 Morse 
taper. It has power feed in either direc- 
tion: can be securely clamped for face 

and vernier reading .001. The scales 
read 1-64-ineii and 1-100-inch direct. 

There are 16 head, platen and bar 
feeds, 8 in number for each position of 
spindle back gear, are positive geared, 
and an'anged in geometrical progression 
from .00.5 to .3-inch per revolution of 
spindle. All feeds are reversible. All 
clianges of speed can be made while the 
machine is running. 

The machine is made by the Cleveland 
Machine Tool Works, Ohio. 


The half-tone shows a new vertical 
milling machine recently brought out 
by the Rockford Machine Tool Co., 
Kockford, 111. It is adapted to modern 
manufacturing methods and the produc- 
tion of duplicate parts. The machine is 
a radical departure from the old prece- 
dent, the adjustable knee, which is in 
common use. The builders claim all the 
advantages of the adjustable knee with 
the elimination of their undesirable fea- 

The column and the horizontal slide 
for the saddle are made in one casting 
By this construction, the table is not 
adjustable vertically, the top of table 
being 30 inches from the floor, the same 
height as a planer platen which is most 
convenient for the operator in handling 
castings or other parts being machined. 
The head bearing on column is fully as 
large as the bearing to the knee on a 
machine of corresponding size while the 
weight of the head is much less and 
counter-balanced, relieving the bearing 
of over-hang and uneven strains which 
rapidly destroy their accuracy. 

The general dimensions of the mach- 



ine are as follows: — Distance from cen- 
tre of spindle to column 15 Inches, total 
length of table 56 inches, working sur- 
face of table 14Jxl8 inches, teed to 
tables 32 inches, maximum distance of 
table to spindle 21 inches, minimum 
distance of table to spindle 3 inches, 
the head has a vertical movement of 
21 inches, and a bearing on the column 
19 inches v?ide by 25* inches long, the 
spindle is 4 inches in diameter at taper 
by 3 inches at upper end. It has an ad- 
justment of 6 inches by means of sleeve 
and worm gear. There are twelve 
speeds to the spindle, nine back geared 
and three high open belt speeds for 
small cutters with twelve changes of 

The drive is through a three-step cone 
pulley, diameters of -which are 12, 13 J 
and 15i inches for I inch belt. The speed 
of countershaft is 390 r.p.m. Three 
speeds for each step of the cone are in- 
stantly obtained through the back gear- 
ing by the manipulation of a vertical 
lever on the side of the machine. The 
two levers are interlocking, preventing 
any two conflicting combinations of 
gears being engaged at the same time. 
By placing the vertical lever in its neu- 
tral position, the sliding gears are all 
locked out of mesh, then by moving the 
lower of the two levers to the right, 
the clutch is engaged with its mate 
which is out on the end of the shaft 
carrying the cone pulley and the three- 
high speeds obtained direct from the 
cone pulley to the bevel gears on the 
vertical shaft. Twelve speeds to the 
.spindle are thus obtained which are 13,, 21.4, 27.4, 35.2, 45, 57.8, 74, 98.3,, 156 and 200 r.p.m. 

The feed is driven by spur gear from 
the back gear shaft. The clutch for en- 
gaging and reversing the feeds is placed 
on the upper shaft which is the highest 
speeded shaft in the box. The lever for 
operating the clutch is conveniently 
placed in front of the machine. The 
power from the clutch shaft is transmit- 
ted through the slip gears at the end 
of the machine. Two pairs of these 
gears are used which are reversible, giv- 
ing four changes. Three changes for 
each position of the slip gears are ob- 
tained by the sliding gears on the lower 
shaft which are operated by the lever on 
the front of the feed box. The feeds 
twelve in number range from f to 17 
inches per minute, can be instantly ap- 
plied to the table; the cross movement 
of the saddle, also to the head. 

The power quick adjustment is a new 
and valuable time .saving device. Tt is 
claimed by the builders that vct'.ial test 
of a machine so equipped showed a sub- 
stantial gain in the production .'i fa\or 
of the machine returning the table rnpid- 
ly by power. The power is supplied to 
tJw reversible clutch by spur gearing 

direct from the cone shaft. Traiisniis- 
sion from clutch shaft is through the 
angle shaft equipped with anivcrsal 
joints to the teed train in front of the 

The operating lever is convcni>intly 
placed in front of the machine on the 


Vertical .Milling Macliiiie. Kiickfoid Miicliiiie 
Tool Co., Rocktord. 111. 

right hand side. This is also iiueiljck- 
ing, making it impossible for 'he feed 
works and the quick return to ..c en- 
gaged at the same time. The device is 
very simple and its operation is as fol- 
lows: — The lever is pivoted with lower 
projection, engaging a rod passinu; 
through the shaft which is connected to 
a sliding collar by key through a slot 
in the shaft. A shaft passing through 
the column is connected by yokes at 
each side to the sliding collar and the 
jaw clutch on the feed shaft. An out- 
ward movement of the operating lever 
disengages the clutch on the feed shaft 
and the lever is free to be moved to 
the right and left, pass the projection on 
bearing casting, engaging the reversible 
clutch and applying power for the quick 
adjustment mechanism. On duplicate 
parts with an operator constantly on 
the machine, all movements can be con- 
trolled by this one lever, as it will be 
seen that by pressing the lever toward 
the machine, the feed is again engaged. 
However, this in no way interferes with 
the operation and use of the automatic 
stops to the longitudinal and cross 
movements. All slides are fitted with 
adjustable taper gibs, adjustable end- 
wise to compensate for wear. The sad- 
dle slide is double gibbed, having a tap- 
er gib on the inside of right hand bear- 
ing, insuring perfect alignment when 
feeding under heavy cuts. All move- 
ments of the table, saddle, head and 
sleeve are provided with graduated col- 
lars, reading in .001. All shaft hearings 
are provided with wool felt oil retain- 
ers. A very efficient means is provided 
for oiling the driving shafts and feed 
box. Each bearing is connected by a 
soft brass tubes 5-16 inches in diameter 

which are brought up to a convenient 
location and grouped together in an oil 
cup V with hinged cover. 


The double vertical milling machine 
^lJ()wn in the illustration was built by 
the Newton Machine Tool Co., Phila- 
lU'lpliiii. The spindle is 6% ins. in dia- 
nu'tor lilted with a No. 7 Morse taper. 
The construction permits of having only 
one i'eed at a time, but sufficient change 
i;ears are furnished to give feeds of 
!:)214 in., .2071 in., .285 in., .0892 in., 
.0").")4 in., and .0357 in. per revolution of 
^|lill(lle. Tlie feed motion is clutch and 
I lie drive is taken from the spur gear 
mounted beside the driving worm 
u lieel. 

The machine has a minimum cap- 
iieity for cutters 251/4 inches in length 
iiiid for cutters to a maximum length of 
litl'/i inches and up to 13 inches in dia- 
iiR'ter. Tlie minimum distance from the 
work support to the centre of the 
spindle is 10^2 inches and the maximum 
distance is 8 ft. 4i/2 inches. Reverse 
motion to the fast vertical elevation of 
tile saddle is obtained tlirough a double 
train of bevel gears engaged by a Car- 
lyle-.Tobnson friction clutch. 

The machine is driven by a 20 h.p. 
General Electric type DLC No. 2 motor, 

l>ouble Vertical Milling Machine, Newton Ma- 
chine Tool Works, Philadelphia. 

liaving a speed of 450 to 1,350 r.p.m. 
'I'he motion is transmitted from the 
motor through a "quride" gear to the 
large driving spur gear mounted on the 
iiorizontal shaft on the side of the up- 
right on which is also mounted a bevel 
gear driving the vertical spline sliaft. 
Tiie bevel gear on the vertical spline 
.sliaft is mounted above tiie bevel pinion. 
The stresses are thus counteracted and 
the thrust on the vertical spline shaft 
bearing is minimized, 


For Manufacturers. Cost and Efficiency Articles Rather Than Technical. 
Steam Power Plants ; Hydro Electric Development ; Producer Gas, Etc. 


By A. E. B. 

'pHIS concluding article on "Belts 

and Belt Drives," will treat of the 
influence of pulleys on belts, the install- 
ation of belting, the flapping of belts, 
the care and use of belting and belt 

Influence of Pulleys on Belts. 
The outer face of a belt travels faster 
than the inner, causing compression oE 
the latter and e.vten.sion or stretching of 
the former. This process has a natural- 
ly injurious eitect on the substance and 
life of the belt and should be miminized 
to the fullest e.xtent possible, by using 
large diameter pulleys, those especially 
with little crown. Centrifugal force as 
is well known tends to raise the belt 
from the pulley face with the result that 
only the centre of belt width makes con- 
tact, thereby aggravating the ill effects 

Fig. 11— 18-iii Belt-laeing Maphinc. 

of tension and compression by a de- 
creased surface. 

Pulleys less than 12 inch and 18 inch 
diameter should be avoided, with single 
and double belts respectively. Crown 
pulleys of less diameter than the width 
of the belt for single belts and of less 
diameter than one and one-half times 
the width of double belts should also be 
avoided. The foregoing remarks apply 
more particularly to horizontal and fiat 
angle shaft drives. 

Horizintal shaft pulleys should have 
about ;-inch per foot crown, while those 
on a vertical shaft should have about 
twice that amount. Flange pulleys chew 

•Part II. of tlie second article of the iieHes 
ou Power Transmission Eiiulpnient, Operation 
nnd Efficiency Subjects. 

the belt edges and should be side-track- 
ed in favor of wider and extra crown- 
faced types. Fast and loose pulleys 
have also a tendency to distroy the 
edges of the belt due to the shifting 

To obtain a greater amount of power 
from belts, the pulleys may be leather 
sheathed, an arrangement admitting o£ 
a slack belt and a corresponding increase 
of durability. 

Installation of Belting . 
In applying new belts, care should be 
taken Unit the proper side goes next to 
the pulley. Belts have what is known 
as a flesh face and a hair face, the 
former of which to the uninitiated might 
suggest itself as the driving face. This 
IS not so however, for the reason that 
the flesh face being tougher, is better 
able to stand the stretching already re- 
ferred to, and tlie liair side, which is 
predisposed to cracking, wears better 
under compression. 

The top end of splices connecting the 
lajis should point in the running direc- 
tion of the belt. Pulleys should be 
somewhat wider than the width of belt 

Horizontal belts and angle drives up 
to 15 deg^rees from the horizontal plane, 
should have a sag of about 4-inch per 
loot, and the underside be the driver. 

Vertical belts should be pulled tight 
to ensure grip on the lower pulley. 
, To connect two horizontal shafts run- 
ning at right angles to each other by 
a i twist belt, set the pulleys so that 
a plumb line from centre of face of 
upper pulley on side where belt leaves 
it, will strike centre of face of lower 
pulley also on side where belt leaves it. 
Shafting and machinery should be so 
arranged t-liat belts will run from the 
former to the latter in opposite direc- 
tions in order to equalize the strain and 
pull on the bearings. 

Tightening or guide pulleys are applied 
to the slack side of belts and located 
nearest the smaller diameter pulley. 

Increase of belt width should mean a 
corresponding increase in thickness, and 
it is probably true that a thick and 
narrow belt is more durable and works 
rather more satisfactorily than does a 
wide and thin belt. This, of course, has 
regard to the fact that a certain well 
defined ratie of thickness to width 
must exist to ensure stability. 
Flapping of Belts. 
Flapping of belts is due to a variety 
of causes, to which the following are 

among the chief contributors ; the ends 
of tlie belt at the joint not being per- 
fectly square, pulleys out of line and set 
at an excessive distance between centres, 
high velocity running, which tends to 
trapping of the air between belt and 
pulley, thereby diminishing the adhesive 
contact and the more so if the sag al- 
lowed exceeds that already stated under 

Sudden and often occurring change of 
engine speed due to heavy intermittent 
machine load, invariably causes flapping 
of belt, and is most generally only 
capable of cure by increase of flywheel 
weight, or by the substitution of a fly- 
wheel driving pulley for that in use. 

The following pidley centres for given 
belt widths are suggested as a maxi- 
mum to provide against flapping from 
this cause. Belts 4 inches and under, 
15 feet centres ; belts 4 inches to 12 
inches, 20 feet centres ; belts 12 inches 
to 18 inches, 25 feet centres; belts over 
18 inches, 30 feet centres. 

l"ig. ]:^-Detalls of Belt-lacing Maclilne, 

Trapping of the air may be counter- 
acted by perforating the pulley rim or 
the belt. 

Care and Use of Belting. 

Leather belts should be well protected 
against water and other moisture, by 
using a waterproof leather dressing. 
Belts made of coarse loose flbred leather 
will give best service in dry and warm 
places. For damp or moist conditions 
the very finest and firmest leather 
should be used. 

Oil should not be allowed to drip on 
to belts as it destroys the leather. 
Leather belting may not safely be con- 
stantly used above 110 degrees Fahren- 

Belt dressing should only be used as a 
preservative when the belt inclines to 



get dry, and should not be applied tu 
secure unnatural adhesion. 

Belt Joints. 

It is preferable to joint the ends ol a 
belt by splicing and cementing as it en- 
sures against irregularity of running and 
consequent jar. Splicings of full width, 
V'-shape aud stepped are used on double, 
triple and quadruple belts respectively. 
For double belts up to lU inches wide 
the splice may be 10 inches long and for 
widths in excess of these the splice may 
be the same length as the belt width. 

Laced belts should have the lace holes 
punched with an oval punch, whose 
longer axis is parallel to the belt 
lengthways. Lacing should not be 
crossed on the driving face of the belt. 

With all forms of belt fasteners care 
should be taken that their surfaces on 
driving face of belt are sunk below that 
face. In our February article various 
forms of belt fasteners were illustrated 
and in this, details of a belt lacing ma- 
chine are described and illustrated. Fig. 
11 represents the complete machine 
equipped for hand or power operation 
and for use on an 18-inch belt. Fig. 12 
shows the leading details which consist 
of 3 corrugated rolls, operated by a 
crank, between which is inserted a spiral 
needle. By revolving the crank the 
needle is carried through the ends of 
the belt and makes small perforations 
into which the coiled wire lacing is af- 
terwards threaded by a similar process 
to that of perforating by the needle. 
The coils are afterwards flattened and 
forced well into the belt and are coupl- 
ed together at the ends by means of 
raw hide pins, twine or other material 
suitable. The rolls and gears are made 
of the best hardened steel, and all parts 
are interchangeable. 

Fig. 13 represents a leather belt 2^ 
inches wide laced by the Peerless belt 
lacing machine, which joint stood a 
tensile strain of 4,000 pounds without 
breaking or pulling apart. 

Fig. 14 is a descriptive sketch com- 
parison of hand and machine belt lacing, 
< oniment being needless. 

As a result of modern experimental 
work on power transmission by leather 

greatest allowable belt tension is not 
constant, neither is the belt velocity 
even with pulleys revolving at constant 

The efficiency of a belt has been shown 
to be just as high as a good gear trans- 
mission, the loss in over-all belt effi- 
ciency being largely due to bearing fric- 
tion, showing that the looked-for im- 
provement should come from that quar- 
ter in the shape of ball or roller bear- 
ings equipment. 

gathered up and sent to the crushers. 
The electro-magnet now effects a saving 
by leaving these behind. 

Magnetic iron ore is picked from the 
ground and loaded on cars for the crush- 
ers with electro-magnets at the Moose 
Mountain Mine, Ont. The ore is blasted 


In announcing their usual Christmas 
"dividend" to employes, based on 10 
per cent, of each employe's yearly earn- 
ings, thtf Crane Co. recently denounced, 
m no uncertain terms, the practice pur- 
sued by some corporations of trying to 
induce their workmen to become stock- 
holders. We quote their remarks verba- 
tim : "We do not know of a more con- 
temptible, low-down, cold-blooded fraud 
than the practice of some corporations 
who endeavor to tempt their workmen, 
in the disguise of a Christmas gift, to 
buy below the market price their stock, 
which has fluctuated all the way from 

i;ii'iIni-.\(M!,'iH'l ll.MHlliuj; 

from the side of the hill. .\t the bot- 
tom of the hill an electro-magnet con- 
nected to a crane loads it on the cars 
and at the same time leaves behind the 
rock and non-magnetic material. 
The electro-magnet handles 1200 pounds 
of pig iron at a load and about 800 
pounds of iron ore. The economy of the 
electro-magnet is self-evident. .For some 

live dollars to eighty dollars a share. If 
these people had a spark of decency they 
would never do anything of this sort 
but would advise their men to put their 
money into a savings bank where they 
would be sure that it was safe and 
would bring them in a small return. An- 
other part of this contemptible scheme 
is to get their workmen to become 

KlK. i:', -V':- 

Hi'it, .MiiciiiTip-i.Hcii. 

\''\a. 14 roiiipnrlsnn nf IT^iiiil nnrt MnoMno h\fP(I bPlts. 

belting, much light has been thrown on 
the subject, with the result that pos- 
sibly its future treatment will require 
revision. It appears proved that the 

time buckets were used but had to be re- 
placed very often at considerable cost. 
Then too, by the latter method the rock 
and other non-magnetic materials were 

stockholders and in that way have their 
friendship enlisted in their company's be- 
half and aid them in their unprincipled 
business methods."— Selected. 


By G. C. K. 

The efficiency of a machine shop can 
usually be quickly arrived at from an 
investigation of the tool room. In shops 
where efficiency and good workmanship 
is essential, there will be carefully ar- 
ranged shelves of jigs, drills, reamers, 
bolts, dogs, chucks, clamps, wrenches, 
milling cutters, lathe tools, etc. The 
rooms are large, systematically arrang- 
ed and in charge of a man who under- 
stands thoroughly tool work, tool grind- 
ing,, etc. There is also a system for 
taking care of the tools and other ap- 
pliances. It is the intention of this 
article to suggest a system for shops 
where one is not at present in use. 

There are some tools, bolts, blocks, 
etc., that are in constant use and 
tables have been devised so that these 
may be kept beside a machine and in a 
handy place for the operator. Certain 
milling cutters are kept at the milling 
machine, certain lathe or planer tools 
at a particular lathe or planer but there 
should be a central for all tools for 
general use and all expensive tools. In 
fact it is better when ALL small tools 
are kept in the tool room and accounted 
for by the one in charge. THE EFFI- 


The tool room should be placed as 
near the departments using the tools as 
possible, favoring those that, from the 
nature of their activities, demand most 
frequent intercourse with it. 

Also, the tool room should be in a 
well-lighted situation. It is more like- 
ly to be kept clean and in order if well 
lighted. The light available should be 
sufficient for the man in charge to read 
readily the numbers of the jigs, etc. In 
addition numbers should be of sufficient 
size so that they may be easily deciph- 
ered. The tool room, for the same rea- 
son, should be provided with a good 
system of artificial lighting. THE 


Delivery of Tools. 

In a small machine shop it is custom- 
ary to let every man secure any tools 
he requires, but in larger ones telephone 
systems and messengers, pneumatic sys- 
tems, dummy waiters, elevators, speak- 
ing tubes, etc., have been installed. 
Where there are a number of floors, the 
telephone, speaking tube, dummy wait- 
ers, elevators, etc., are of great service 
in reducing lost time and delays in the 
delivery of tools, jigs, etc., to a mini- 
mum. The National Cash Register Co., 
Toronto, use a dummy waiter for sup- 
plying stock, tools, etc., to other floors 
and it is found to be entirely satisfac- 

The factory telephone and the pneuma- 
tic system of delivery orders, tools, 
drawings, etc., will be the subject of 
two articles in succeeding issues of 
Canadian Machinery. The pneumatic 
system has been successfully applied to 
departmental stores and could be ap- 
plied to factories with equal success and 
economy of time. 

To assist in quick delivery the tool 
room attendant should not be hampered 
by closed cupboards. The open shelves 
are more convenient and are also cheap- 
er to construct. 

"Checking" Tools. 

they are in use in the shop or are in the 
tool room. In order that this condi- 
tion may always exist a check system 
is found to be most satisfactory. The 
check should be of brass with a hole 
drilled in it for hanging on a hook pro- 
vided on the side of the space from 
which the tool or jig is taken. A cer- 
tain number of them on which is stamp- 
ed the workman's number is given to 
the workman. In plants where this sys- 
tem is in operation it is customary to 
give the workman ten checks. 

The following is the method of opera- 
tion: A workman desiring a certain 
jig comes to the delivery window, states 
what he wants and hands over a check. 
The attendant hangs the check on the 
hook provided beside the space contain- 
ing the jig, delivering the jig to the 
workman. When the jig is returned the 
check is handed bar'-. 

AT ONCE PROCURE IT. The general 
scheme of classification devised by 
Frederick W. Taylor, the author of the 
well-known volume on the ".\rt ot 
Cutting Metals," was given in a recent 
issue of "Industrial Engineering," and 
is shown in the accompanying table. 
Subdivisions of it may be made where 

('lUMHlHcatiun of TuoIh. 

nliere rlassifled. 

I! IIENDING TOOLS.— All toolB for pro- 
(Ini-liitr clinnKeR In gbiipe by binding. 
fuldlii^, RpiniilDjf, etc. 

nil kinds, Incliidlii? bolta and screws. 

Tools that remove metal from the In- 
terior, such iia drills, boring bars, cut- 
ters and all appliances relating to 
tlicni. and lathe boring tools. 

E— EDGE TOOLS.— Edge tools for working 
wood, and tools for working plastic 
materials, such as clay, molding sand, 
putty, etc. 

F— HEATING TOOLS.— .\11 kinds of tools 
used for beating, lighting, melting, 
molding, oil tempering, annenling, 
drying, cooking, etc. 

work by striking or being struck, 
such as sledges, tups, etc., chisels, 
sets, flatters, etc. 

used In moving materials from one 
place to another, such as buckets, 
boxes, etc., trucks, shovels, wheel- 
barrows, bogies, brooms. riggers* 
tools, slings, chains, etc. 

M— ME.ASURING TOOLS.— All instruments 
of precision, weights, mea.suree, gages, 
etc.. electrical instruments, etc. 

P— PARING TOOLS.— All tools that remove 
metal from the surface by cutting, ex- 
cept Blotter and milling tools. (See 
das? D for lathe boring- tools.) 

R— MILLING TOOLS.— All tools for mllllnjr 
or sawing metal. 

S-SLICIXG TOOLS.— All parting tools and 
blotter toola. 

MENTS for duplicating work. Includ- 
ing jigs and fixtures. 

U— ABRADING TOOLS.— All tools for rub- 
bing, scraping, flllng. grinding, shear- 
ing, pniuhing. breaiting, etc. 

for causing rotation. 

X— PAINTING TOOLS.— All tools used 
for covering a surface with an adhes- 
ive foreign material, and any for re- 
moving same. 

According to the Taylor system a 
tool is designated by the first letters of 
the words describing the tools. Thus a 
lathe tool of class P, is 2PRBC, if it is 
a 2-inch cutting tool, round-nose, blunt 
and central with the tool or straight. 
These symbols are stamped on the tool 
and on the rack or drawer. 

Where the Taylor system is used the 
racks arc arranged according to the 



classification, A, B, C, etc., and the 
letters designating the tools are prom- 
inently printed on the rack. The size of 
the tool room, the number of racks. 


A casual perusal of this classification 
may seem a little too elaborate for the 
average Canadian shop, but it will be 
found on a study of it that it may be 
easily applied. In a number of shops 
the forging and grinding of tools is en- 
trusted to one man who thoroughly 
imderstands his business. Many shops 
too have shelves for tools and jigs and 
they are thrown together in a "hit and 
miss" fashion. It will be found to 
more than pay for itself if a convenient 
system is installed with a man in 
charge. The time saved in securing the 
jigs and tools will pay his wages and 
besides there will be a gain by avoiding 
duplication of tools or loss of them al- 

Recently a new company purchased a 
large machine shop in Toronto where 
there was no system of looking after 
the tools and jigs. The first work was 
to gather up all the tools and rearrange 
the machinery. Racks were built and 
when the tools were classified it was 
found that there were two, three and 
even four tools of each kind, costing 
from »i5 up. THE INVESTMENT IN 


The sytem of purchasing machine 
tools, which has been adopted by the 
Chicago, Burlington & Quincy Railroad 
has invited a great deal of favorable 
comment among dealers and manufac- 
turers. While it has been the custom of 
railroads and other large buyers to have 
conunittees which consider and recom- 
mend specifications or the purchase of 
machinery, the Burlington committere 
seems to have more power of initiative 
and has adopted a more progressive 

This eommittee made its appearance 
in the trade last fall in connection with 
purchases for new shops at Havelock, 
Neb. The committee visited all the Chi- 
cago dealers and made an extensive trip 
among the manufacturers soliciting de- 
monstrations of machines and all the 
practical information that could be ob- 
tained from the experts of the manu- 
facturers. The results were evidently 

satisfactory to the executive manage- 
ment of the Burlington system, as the 
committee is continuing its work by 
carrying through on the same plan oc- 
casional pureliases for other shops of 
the system. 

It seems that for about 20 years the 
Burlington has had an "Association 
of Operating OflScers," which holds reg- 
ular meetings, the chief object of the 
association being to promote eflBciency 
and to secure general discussion by all 
the operating officers of proposed im- 
provements. The Tool Committee is a 
regular committee of this association. 
It has no power to make purchases for 
the companj', but it recommends all 
purchases of machine tools, and it us- 
ually specifies two or more competing 
machines before actual purhcase is au- 
tliorized or bids invited. 

This committee is composed of the 
most capable men for its work in the 
employ of the company. One member 
is the company's "superintendent of 
piecework," who travels over the sys- 
tem promoting piecework in all the com- 
pany 's shops, and at the same time keep- 
ing in touch with the progress of shop 
efficiency on other railroads and in com- 
mercial plants. 

The committee has grown into an in- 
teresting piece of corporate machinery. 
It affords the executive mangement of 
the company a safe guide in appropri- 
ating money or authorizing improve- 
ments, and its successful record has 
given the progressive men who consti- 
tute the committee a degree of initiative 
that is unusual in railroad shop man- 
agement. The individual shop foreman 
or superintendent often hesitates to re- 
commend innovations or improvements, 
because a mistake in judgment would be 
a set back in his position with his com- 
pany which would count more than cre- 
dit for successful work. As a result of 
this peculiar phase of corporate psy- 
chology the foreman or superintendent 
is usually content to travel along in a 
rut, and when new machines are requir- 
ed he recommends those which have 
been used in the shop for 10 to 40 years, 
without profiting by the progress of the 
machine tool industry. 

The shop payrolls of railroads in the 
United States amount to about $250,- 
000,000 annually, while reports show 
the expendtiure of only $8,000,000 to 
$10,000,000 for shop equipment. There 
has been remarkable progress in the 
past 10 or 20 years in the efficiency of 
locomotives and train equipment, as 
well as in track and bridge construc- 
tion, but the railroad shop has become 
a form of backwater in the stream of 
progress in railroad management. 

The system adopted by the Chicago, 
Burlington & Quincy is apparently 

throwing light on this problem in rail- 
road management. Recently the com- 
mittee has disposed of a number of old 
machines, which have been replaced by 
new tools. Some that were found to 
have no commercial value in the market 
for used tools have been scrapped. These 
are unusual occurrences in the manage- 
ment of railroad shops. The committee 
has also shown a willingness to recom- 
mend the purchase of new tools that 
have never been used in railroad shops. 
When its members are out on an investi- 
gating trip and are entertained by a 
machine tool manufacturer or dealer 
they show a preference for water, while 
their strict attention to business has 
occasioned much comment. — Iron Age. 


Self-Taught Mechanical Drawing and 
Elementary Machine Design. — By P. L. 
Sylvester, M.E., with additions by 
Erik Oberg, associate editor of "Mach- 
inery." Published by the Norman W. 
Henley Publishing Co., 132 Nassau; St., 
New York ; size, 5x7i ins.; pages, 333 ; 
illustrations, 218 ; bound in cloth ; 
price, $2. 

This l«ook has been written to meet 
the demand for an elementary treatise 
on mechanical drawing, including the 
first principles of machine design, pre- 
sented in such a way as to meet the 
needs of the student whose previous 
theoretical knowledge is limited. The 
author's aim has been to adapt the 
treatise to the requirements of the 
practical mechanic and young drafts- 
man, and present the matter in as clear 
and concise a manner as possible. Prac- 
tically all the important elements of 
machine desigrn have been dealt with, 
and, besides, algebraic formulae have 
been explained, and the elements of 
trigonometry have been treated in a 
manner suited to the needs of practical 
men. In the" arrangement of the ma- 
terial, the author has first devoted him- 
self to mechanical drawing, because a 
thorough understanding of this greatly 
facilitates further study of mechanical 
subjects, then attention is given to the 
mathematics necessary for the solution 
of the problems in machine design, pre- 
sented later, and to a practical intro- 
duction to theoretical mechanics and 
strength of materials ; and, finally, the 
various elements entering in machine 
design, such as cams, gears, sprocket 
wheels, cone pulleys, bolts, screws, 
couplings, clutches, shafting, fly-wheels, 
etc., have been treated. The general 
arrangement makes possible a contin- 
uous course of study which is easily 
comprehended and assimilated even by 
students of limited previous training. 

Graphite. — The July, 1910, issue of 
this house organ from the Joseph Dixon 
Crucible Co., Jersey City, N.J., con- 
tains several articles of interest to 
anyone interested in preservative 
paints, as this issue is devoted almost 
exclusively, to examples of what their 
paints will stand under very adverse 
conditions, photos being produced to 
verify their contentions. The paper is 
a well gotten up house organ. 


Practical Articles for Canadian Foundrjonen and Pattern Makers, and 
News of Foundrjrmen's and Allied Associations. Contributions Invited. 


By H. J. McCaslin. 

A FTER reading Mr. Eastham's article 
"^^ appearing on page 60, Feb. issue 
Canadian Machinery, — molding heavy fly- 
wheels, which gives one a good oppor- 
tunity of exercising his imagination as 
to how the cores are formed, etc., it 
occurred to me that it might be of in- 
terest to some of your readers to know 
that a similar method is employed in 
the production of propeller wheels when 
not exceeding 6 or 7 feet in diameter. 

This practice when carefully carried 
out can be recommended in the making 
of test wheels where experimental data 
is desired ; also in the production of 
metal patterns for standard size wheels, 
for it insures that the casting of all 
blades shall be as nearly alike as is 
practical to make them. Further by a 
slight change in the hub of blade pat- 
tern and core box the outfit may be 
used tor a two or three as well as a 
four-blade wheel. 

Nor is the method of molding ronfined 
to dry sand just because a core box is 
used, for by the introduction of a cere 
arbor in the bottom or drag half of 
core for the handling (f th's part, a 
green sand mold may be formed if desir- 
ed. However as the method of molding 
herewith illustrated is that of a d- y 
sand steel mold, or what could be pro- 
perly called a cored mold, our discussion 
will be along that line. 

Fig. 1 shows a cast s!,eftl I(>ri--Mbde 
propeller of the throw back design, 6 ft. 
6 in. diameter and 9 ft. pitch, with a 
chambered and tapered bore through 

In studying the arrangement of. the 
core box as shown in Fig. 2, in which 
the cores are formed it will be noticed 
that the blade pattern is so placed in 
the box that the face or working side of 
blade is down. 

This is done that this surface is more 
apt to be free from dirt or other impuri- 
ties than if cast in the reverse position. 

Attention is called to the hub when 
making this part of the pattern, for it 
the hub has an extreme swell or bulge 
at the centre difficulty may be experi- 
enced in its withdrawal from the sand. 

For this reason a good practice is to 
slab or leave loose the interfering por- 
tions above and below that they may be 
drawn separately. Making the sides of 
the core box in sections as shown will 
greatly facilitate the core making— as 
this arrangement permits the tucking, 
ramming and rodding of the sand to be 

done from the side, in place of working 
from the top of core box it it be made 

The construction of the box is of little 
consequence if rigidity and stability is 
embodied therein, that the pattern may 
not become misplaced or rammed out of 

To further guard against any misplace- 
ment which is very apt to occur in 
ramming, the patternmaker should get 
out and place in the hand of the core- 
maker such gauge or trial sticks as he 
deems necessary, and also indicate upon 
the pattern the point at which they are 
to be tried for correctness. Attaching 
a support at the tip of the blade as 
shown at A is good practice, it will pre- 
vent the pattern being rammed down, 
the depression left vacant thereby is 
easily filled up when finishing this sur- 

Making the Drag Core. 

The core-maker takes the job in hand 
and starts off by placing the lower sec- 
tion of core box upon a good level core 
plate, placing and securing the pattern 
in position and trying it for its correct 

As this portion of the core supports 
the top or cope part during the drying 
and assembling of the mold, care should 
be taken that it is well rodded to hold 
the sand intact and that the lifting 
hooks are so placed as to ensure an even 
lift. With a good liberal silica facing 
against the pattern this part of the 

core is rammed up and a parting along 
the edge of pattern arranged. 

But before applying the parting ma- 
terial (paper preferred) it is well to try 
in place the core arbor used in the cope 


Seer. X X 
Fig. 2 — ^Arrangement of Core B*x. 

half to see that it and the parting ar- 
rangement conform somewhat, as it is ad- 
visable to keep the arbor as clow to the 
pattern and parting as possible. 

Pig. 1 — Cast steel Four-blade Propellor of Throw-back Design. 



The Core Arbor. 

The core arbor is cast, its formation 
consisting of a series of parallel ribs 
conforming somewhat to the twist of 
the blade at about the point they are to 
occupy when in place and connecting two 
parallel side ribs. 

The outline of the core arbor is shown 
in dotted lines in one of the cores, Fig. 

The Core Arbor Pattern. 

A pattern for the arbor can be easily 
and quickly made by setting up the core 
box and assuming about the position 
where the parting would be made. 

Cut out the two side ribs to conform 
somewhat to this line and attach them 
to the side or ends of the box, in about 
the position they would occupy in the 

Now cut out the cross ribs to con- 
form to the twist of blade at the point 
they are to be placed and nail them to 
the side ribs. By giving the ribs plenty 
of draft no trouble should be experienc- 
ed in drawing the pattern from the 
sand, but owing to its twisted form it 
cannot be made in an open sand mold. 
Making the Cope Core. 

With the parting arranged and prepar- 
ed the silica facing is spread over the 
blade portion of pattern and tucked 
around hub, and the arbor placed in po- 
sition, and blocked up the desired dis- 
tance. This part of the core is then 

proceeded with by ramming and tucking 
down and around the arbor and inserting 
rods where necessary to support the 

Provision must be made in two of the 
cores for the user heads as shown in 
Fig. 3 the runner which comes at the 
joint of two cores, and the vent or 
flow-ofi at the tip of each blade. This 
feature of mold is not exactly necessary 
but is often advisable to place them at 
such points. 

At the completion of this part of the 
core the box is removed, the cope half 
of core lifted oft and held suspended 
while the pattern is withdrawn and 
both parts of the core finished and pre- 
pared for drying. 

The suspended or cope part is care- 
fully and accurately placed back upon 
the drag halt of core and the whole in- 
troduced into the oven and thoroughly 

Before assembling the cores they 
should be carefully inspected to see that 
no great degree of distortion has taken 
place in drying, and that the metal cav- 
ity is tree from any dirt or sand. 

In setting the cores together as shown 
in Fig. 3 upon k good level bed their 
spacing should be watched very close, 
for however good your cores may be 
you cannot depend upon their abutting 
surfaces bringing them to their correct 

Make gauge sticks and try the cores 
at the centre as well as at the outlying 
points to assure a uniform spacing. 

Cores will invariably swell in the dry- 
ing process and a good practice to fol- 
low is to always allow a certain amount 
of clearance where the cores come to- 

This amount of course would be deter- 
mined or governed by the size of the 
abutting surfaces, in this case -3-32 of an 
inch on each surface would not be found 
in excess. 

Fig. 3 illustrates the completed mold 
ready to receive the weights and the 
carrying up of the flow-offs. The aggre- 
gation of cores are of course firmly 
backed in with sand. 


By K. Campbell. 

Concrete patterns made of simple 
conorete and reinforced with steel have 
been advocated. One of the men who 
believes in them is Joseph Leon Go- 
beille, general manager of the Gobeille 
Pattern Co., Niagara Falls. N.Y. He 
made them in a small way and found 
they worked satisfactorily. 

With pine wood patterns it was al- 
ways an easy matter to figure the weight 
of the easting. This could not be done 
by putting the concrete pattern on the 
scales because no two cubic inches were 





vs^r i>K r^oH' o^^ 

V\%- 3- Chores Set Together, Complete. 



identical in weiglit. But anotlier me- 
thod of measurement was proposed and 
has been adopted by the Gobeille Pat- 
tern Co., whicli has given the accurate 
weight of the casting being obtained. 

A square concrete tank was made of 
known sui)erticial area. This was filled 
with water and a float with a vertical 
bar and an easy toggle was rigged u)) 
to a dial which was marked in pounds 
of iron. The decimal for the specific 
gravity of cast iron per cubic inch was 
known; the concrete pattern was sub- 
merged in the tank, the rising float 
actuating the pointer on the dial. The 
•displacement of water in cubic inches 
was translated into pounds of iron on 
the dial without figuring and with no 
po.ssibility of error. 


By Shellac. 

Patternraaking by piecework so far 
as the writer's observation and exper- 
ience goes, is not a common practice in 
this particular trade ; as a matter of 
fact I have only come across one firm 
who successfully operated the scheme. 

The firm in question carried on a 
large marine engineering and boiler- 
making business, and made it a rule 
that the work of each shop department 
be done on a piecework basis. 

It may be as well for me to say here 
that they had many years experience of 
the application of the system in other 
departments before applying it to pat- 
ternmaking, it as a matter of fact be- 
ing the last to come under the ban, if 
I might so speak. 

. Marine engine building has always ap- 
peared to me as rather a hard proposi- 
tion to be tackled on piecework, and in 
the case of the firm in question, it was 
perhaps more so than ordinary. Their 
business practice was not in the tramp 
steamer line, where low piston speed, 
everything chunky and strong could be 
relied upon to gradually find its bear- 
ing without much risk and with the 
minimum of fitting to begin with. Con- 
ditions were rather just the reverse, be- 
ing altogether high piston speed, quick 
revolution, high pressure, subject to sev- 
ere test and inspection and likely to 
show up defects such as might be ex- 
pected from a piecework system. 

Suffice it to say, piecework was and 
is still a success in their experience, in- 
clusive of pattemmaking. 

Marine work of the larger class es- 
pecially lends itself I think fairly well 
to piecework pattemmaking. Firms who 
make a speciality of a particular class 
of machinery usually find it to fluctuate 
between certain well defined limits of 
minimum and maximum size. This be- 
ing so and the designs being in all 
cases similar, affords an attractive op- 
portunity for the exercise o! piecework. 

The pattern staff consisted as a rule 
of from 30 to 36 men who worked in 
squads on the various jobs. 

A similar system to that practiced in 
a large drawing office where checkers 
are employed, was adopted; there being 
two pattern checkers who were held re- 
sponsible for measuring up the work 
when complete, and whose O.K. was the 
pass to foundry. Errors of construction, 
of course, were pointed out and put 
right by the constructors on their own 
time. The checkers were paid time for 
their work by the firm, being in no wise 
sharers of the squad contract money. 

No question of the cheapest method 
of making the pattern, or of the proper 
construction for easy moulding and the 
securing of a reliable casting, required 
discussion. This as already pointed out 
was due to the work being standard 
type throughout. 

The operation of this pattemmaking 
piecework gave satisfaction all round, 
the individual members of each squad 
earning time and half as against ordin- 
ary time rates, and the employers gain- 
ing in better delivery and increased out- 

Successful piecework pattemmaking 
calls for first-class tradesmen, and while 
in some cases there would be no ques- 
tion of successful outcome, methinks its 
general adoption would bear hard on 
mqny second-raters. 


By Beeswax. 

Fillets are now used on all pattems 
except some very simple ones and are 
placed in all corners so that there may 
be no sudden changes in the direction of 
the metal. The leather fillet has almost 
altogether superseded beeswax and other 
material for the purpose. 

Leather fillets can be bought from 1-16 
inch up, the illustration showing a few 

(1) Kemove surplus glue with a sponge 
or rag dipped in hot water. The hot 
water in the outer glue pot may be used 
where an electric glue pot is not used. 
Care must be taken not to wet the pat- 
tern more than absolutely necessary. 
When glue is removed dry the parts that 
have been wet. 

(5) When dry sandpaper in the usual 

Do not use nails or tacks as they 
draw the fillet and make an uneven sur- 
face. Sometimes castings have their 
neat appearance spoiled by carelessness 
in inserting the fillet. In a number of 
cases that have come under obser- 
vation this has been due to nailing the 
fillet in place. 


According to the '^Foundry," a for- 
mula for a first-elass tin babbitt, suit- 
able for severe service, such as street 
ear motor bearings, can be made as fol- 
lows: Melt 435 pounds of Banca tin in 
a babbitt kettle and throw on the sur- 
face, finely powdered, soft coal. While 
the tin is melting place a clean crucible 
in the brass furnace and charge therein 
25 pounds of copper; when red hot, add 
14-pound soda ash, a little salt and sev- 
eral handfuls of charcoal. Permit the 
copper to melt and to become hot, then 
add 114 pounds of bright tin plate, in 
small strips. Do not drop in all the 
tin plate at once, as when it becomes 
hot it will ball and weld together and 
will, therefore, be in such a condition 
that it can only be melted with diffi- 
culty. Add the tin-plate strips as gradu- 
ally as possible, and stir between addi- 
tions, so that all the iron is melted, and 
to insure this, it may be necessary to 
superheat the copper for a short time. 
Then add G ounces of sulphur, stir thor- 
oughly, after wiiich add .^5 pounds of 

.V few Sizes of Leather Pattern 

of the sizes. They are pliable and are 
very quickly and easily applied. 

The following system should be fol- 
lowed to obtain best results from leath- 
er fillets: 

(1) Cut to length and lay face down- 
ward on a board. 

(2) Brush the glue over it easily. Use 
a good quality glue. For iron patterns 
use shellac varnish. 

(3) Rub into place using a stick cut 
the shape of the fillet. 

antimony, and when disssolved, with- 
draw the crucible and pour the contents 
into the melted tin, stirring as much aa 
possible, meanwhile. 


"Out of the chaos of mediocrity he 
came, up through the murk of the foun- 
dry, the clangor of the machine shop; 
up by brawn and brain to the Superin- 
tendent's chair." — Fiitrelle. 


Elstablishnient or Enlargement of Factories, Mills, Power Plants, Etc.; Construc- 
tion of Railways, Bridges, Etc.; Municipal Undertakings; Mining News. 


EDMONTON, ALTA.— The Can. Nor. Ry. are 
preparing to g|>enil $30,000 in extending their 
■hops here. The plans call for an addition 
of six or eight locoinutire stalls, and also 
additions to the shops. 

VANCOUVER, B. C— A well-known Mon- 
treal structural steel concern contemplate the 
erection of a branch steel and iron plant to 
supply the western trade. They have secured 
several options, chiefly on the Fraser river, 
near Port Mann. 

GUELPH, ONT.— The Canada Gate Co. will 
locate here, and erect a plant to manufacture 
iron gates. They have secured temporary 
premises until their factory Is completed. 

HAMILTON— The Oliver Chilled Plow 
Works Co. will spend ft'OO.OOO here this spring 
enlarging their plant. They have taken out n 
$200,000 permit for buildings to be erected 

MONTREAIy— The Wilson Brothers Motor 
Co. has secured supplementary letters -patent, 
changing its name to the Motor Import Co. 
of Canada. The company Is the Canadian 
representative of the celebrated Franklin air- 
cooled cars, and of the well-known Hudson, 
Thomas and Knox cars. 

GODERICH, ONT.— The American Road 
Machine Co. of Canada, have made arrange- 
ments with the Hamilton Machinery Co. to 
sell their entire output, and will now give 
their undivided attention to their manufac- 
turing bnsiness. 

KINGSTON, ONT.— The North American 
Smelting Co. have purchased a site and will 
erect a lead smelter to treat the ore from 
their mines in Loughboro Township. 

RIDGETOWN, ONT.— F, Eberle, of Mor- 
peth, has taken over the machine agency 
lately conducted by W. Wilson. 

PORT MANN, B. C— The B. C. Steel Co. 
will establish a $10,000,000 plant here, and 
construction will begin this spring. French 
capital Is behind the undertaking. 

Forge Xlannfacturlng Co. will erect a tool 
factory here this spring and will employ 100 
men. They will turn ont all kinds of tools, 
including chisels, hammers, wrenches, etc. 
$125,000 Is being Invested as a starter. 

OTTAWA, ONT.— The Board of Control has 
accepted the tender of Thomas Lawson & Co. 
for castings. $3,215 per 100 pounds. 

CANORA, 8ASK.— A. Anderson and D. Gib- 
ney will commence the erection of a machine 
shop here early In the spring. A consign- 
ment of machinery Is already on hand. 

EDMONTON. ALTA.— Commencement has 
been made by the Edmonton Iron Works, on 
a contract covering Ave years, to manufac- 
ture 1,000 plows per year, from the Rountree 
patent. Special machinery for the manufac- 
ture of the plows is being installed. 

NORTH BAY. ONT.— Fire damaged the C. 
P. R. car repair shops here recently, to the 
extent of $1,000. 

EXETER, ONT.— Connor Bros, have ac- 
quired a site and will erect a factory here 
to carry on their machine business. It is 
their intention to go more extensively Into 
the manufacture of air-cooled gasoline en- 

WINDSOR, ONT.— Windsor has secured two 
more Important industries, the Canadian 
branch of the Maloney Electric Co., and the 
plant of the Canadian WInkley Co., a branch 
of a Detroit concern. The Maloney Co., which 
manufactures electrical machines, will build 
a $10,000 plant at once, while the WInkley Co.. 
manufacturers of brass goods, will erect a 
$10,000 plant some time this year. 

MONTREAL, QUE— The Canada Ford Co., 
of Montreal, has secured the contract for the 
supply of the electric cars re<iuired for the 
street railway system to be established by 
Reglna as a municipal enterprise. The com- 
pany Is having the cars manufactured at the 
works of the Brush Co., In Loughborough, 
England. This Is the first time an Engllsli 
street car has entered the western Canadian 
field, and It Is probable that as an outcome 
the company will establish branch works in 
Montreal for supplying the Canadian market. 

MONTRE.^L. QUE.— The "Belgo-Canndlan 
Steel, Ltd.." has been granted a charter, with 
an authorised capital of $.'i..'>00.000. The chief 
business will he general foundry work. 

OTTAWA. ONT. — It Is announced that o 
■teel plant will be erected here by American 
and Cnandlsn rspltal'sts. They have pur- 

chased a site in the Bayswater district and 
will build In the spring. 

FORT WILLIAM, ONT.— The Lumby-Sten- 
houae, Ltd., of this city, have opened a new 
plant, a foundry and machine shop, where 
anything in iron or brass castings can be 

SACKVILLE, N, B.— The Charles Fawcett 
Manufacturing Co. contemplate making ex- 
tensive Improvements In their foundry plant 
this year. 

BRANTFORD, ONT.— The gales here dur- 
ing the recent storms proved disastrous to 
several Industries. The Ham & Nott Manu- 
facturing Co. place their loss at $1,500. The 
company is putting up large additions to its 
works, consisting of a molding shop, ma- 
chine shop, etc. The roof of the machine 
shop was partially demolished, while the 
molding shop la a wreck. 

HESPELER, ONT.— Frank Roelofson has 
purchased the castings, tools, patterns, un- 
finished stock, etc., of the defunct Parkin 
Elevator Co. 

KEGINA, SASK.— The Regina Tractor Co. 
win erect a plant here, at a cost of $100,000. 

TORONTO, ONT.— Mr. Robinson, of the 
Imperial Machine Co., of London, Eng., and 
New York, is here supervising the equipment 
of the Canadian factory and office for the 
manufacture of their patented machinery. The 
Toronto factory is getting equipped with a 
view of completely manufacturing every part 
of their machinery for the Canadian market 
with Canadian material and labor. 

KINGSTON, ONT.— The Wilbur Iron Ore 
Co. have made arrangements for the construc- 
tion of a large concentrating plant here. The 
cost of the plant will amount to between 
$75,000 and $100,000. The company will open 
up offices In the city on March 1st. 

LONDON, ONT.— The directors of the Lon- 
don Street Railway have decided to put in a 
new steam plant. 

soon be commenced on the plant of the West- 
ern Steel Corporation, on the Fraser river 
site. The corporation has purchased 300 cars 
of Iron ore. 

TILLSONBURG, ONT.— The Maple Leaf 
Harvest Tool Works are running to their full 
capacity at present, and cannot supply the 
market. The company Intend doubling their 
capacity and largely extending their present 

TILLSONBURG, ONT.— The McCrea Foun- 
dry, purchased recently by the English Arm 
of Taskell & Ormerod, is devoted almost ex- 
clusively now to the manufacture of gaso- 
line engines. The firm hopes to soon rebuild 
the foundry, replacing the frame building 
with a brick structure, and otherwise improv- 
ing and enlarging it. 

WESTMINSTER, B. C— Several Pacific 
coast steel and coal capitalists, representing 
the British Columbia Steel Co., are making 
application at Ottawa for a charter for the 
establishment of a $10,000,000 steel plant near 

HALIFAX, N. S.— The I. C. R. has been 
asked to re-open the mechanical workshops 
here, closed some time ago. 

MONTREAL, QUE.— The Jollette Steel and 
Iron Foundry Co. have opened offices nt 371 
St. James St. here. They will manufacture 
various classes of iron and steel castings. 
The president of the company Is S. Vessot, of 
.Toilette, and the vice-president, A. Baillot, of 
this city. 

VICTORIA, B. C— "Warden King, Ltd." 
has been granted an extra-provincial com- 
pany license. 

MONTREAL. QUE.— The corporation shops 
here were recently damaged to the extent 
of $5,000. 

LONDON, ONT.— The London Foundry Co. 
Intend erecting a large addition to their foun- 
dry here. 

MONTREAL. QUE.— In view of the amount 
of large orders received, the Dominion Bridge 
Works are contemplating large additions to 
their plant here. 

berg, of the Vancouver Junk Works, has 
purchased a site at Steel City, from the West- 
ern Steel Corporation, with two hundred feet 
of waterfrontage, immediately below the site 
of the proposed steel works. His plant is 
to be one of the many subsidiary companies 
tfi the steel works. 

PORT MANN, B. C— It is announced that 
the C. N. R. have decided to erect their B. C, 
car shops here. Several shipments of steel, 
supplies, etc., are already here. 

MONTREAL— The Y. M. C. A. will erect a 
$300,000 building here on Drummond St 

ST. BONIFACE, MAN.— Q. M. Ellis Is con- 
templating the erection of a $1,250,000 auto- 
mobile factory here. If erected, 1,400 horse- 
power win be required in connection with 
the machinery. Mr. Ellis has secured an 
option on 30 acres of land east of the Seine 
river, to be used as a site for the proposed 

OTTAWA, ONT.— The Government has ex- 
tended invitations to all the leading British 
and Canadian shipbuilders to Inspect the 
plans and put in tenders for the ten new ves- 
sels of the Canadian navy, namely, four Bris- 
tols and six destroyers of the latest Improved 
type. Following the rule of the Admiralty, 
the tenders are not being advertised, as de- 
tails have to be kept secret, and only firms 
in whom the Department has confidence will 
have access thereto. It Is stipulated that all 
the vessels must be built in Canada. The 
tenders, which must be in by April next, will 
be gone over by the experts in the Naval 
Department. In sending out these Invitations, 
the Department has been strictly impartial, 
no distinction nor discrimination whatever be- 
ing made between party firms. 

CHATHAM — A new foundry is being open- 
ed up here for making grey Iron, brass and 
aluminum castings, by the Ideal Foundry Co. 
Thos. Woods, of the Buhl Iron Co., Detroit, 
and Chas. Woods, of Chatham, are in charge 
of the foundry. 

OTTAWA— A report states that the G. T. E. 
have extensive plans for the rebuilding of 
their shops here. 

WESTMINSTER JCT., B. C— It Is report- 
ed that the C. P. R. Intend establishing round- 
houses, freight sheds and car shops in Co- 
qultiam, near here. It Is also understood 
that the C. P. R. plan to electrify their line 
between Westminster Junction and Vancouver 
and between the Junction and New West- 

PORT MANN, B. C— As announced In a 
previous issue of Canadian Machinery, the 
C. N. R. shops will be erected here. About 
500 men are clearing land for the C. N. K. 

LINDSAY— Tne Sylvester Mfg. Co. has been 
re-organlzed. J. B. Tudhope, Orlllla, will be 
associated with the new company. 


CALGARY. ALTA.— Tenders will be re- 
ceived until March 22 for one 1,500 K.W. turbo 
generator set, with condenser, etc, one 10ft 
K.W. exciter and switchboard, complete, three 
1,000 K.V.A. single-phase transformers, 12,00ft 
to 2,300 volts, with switching gear, etc. W. D. 
Spence, city clerk. 

FREDERTCTON. N.B.— Notice Is given that 
at the next session of the legislature applica- 
tion win be made for the Incorporation of a 
company to be called the St. Leonards Elec- 
tric Co. The object of the company is to 
carry on n general lighting business In the 
parish of St. Leonards, Madawaska Co. 

VICTORIA, B.C.— Certificates of incorpor- 
ation have been Issued to the "Alhernle Dis- 
trict Electric Light and Power Co.," "Con- 
solidated Electric Heaters, Limited," "Cran- 
brook Garage Co." and the "Llllooet Power 
and Light Co." 

TORONTO, ONT.— The "Electrical Mainten- 
ance & Repairs Co." have obtained a charter. 

TORONTO, ONT.— The "Ross Motor Car 
Co." have obtained a charter. 

MONTREAL, QUE.— The "Canada Electric 
Co." has been dissolved. 

MRRRITT, B.C.— The electric lighting plant 
here has been completed and has a capacity of 
1.150 lights. Provision has been made for ex- 

PORT ARTHUR, ONT.— The Knralnlstiquia 
Power Co. have decided to double the capacity 
of their plant owing to an excessive Increase 
in business. 

Timmons Co. has a contract to develop 3,000 
horsepower here. They are erecting dams 
and putting up power stations on the Matta- 
gaml river. Fifteen teams are now employed 
In drawing in machinery, wire and cement 
with other material for the works. It Is ex- 
pected that <he contract will be finished by 
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MONTKKAI.. QI'E. -Acconlliig to recent 
<?stiinHte8 the St. Linvrence. as :i whole has a 
oaparlty of ten million horsepower, and the 
Ottawa Uiver. 2,37r.,0OO, most of which Is at 
present undeveloped. 

KINGSTON, ONT.— The municipal light 
plant made a net profit of $18,000 in ];)10, the 
largest surplus In years. lOlt'ctrlcity was pro- 
iluced at 1.01 cents per kilowatt hour, a re- 
duction of a quarter of a cent over I'MI. Gas 
was produced at i'.l cents per 1 000 cubic feet. 
In 19011 it cost 47 cents. 

HA.MILTON. ONT.— The report of the Dom- 
inion Power and Transmission Co. showed a 
pu>sperou8 year. The assets of the company 
are $li>„'i5!),247. and It has to the credit of 
proHt and loss $1,019,089. 

MONTREAL, QUK.— Flans will be ready by 
the end of March for the new power house for 
the Saraguay Co. They Include specifications 
for two steam turbines of 4,. "500 maximum 
h.i>. capacity each, boilers and general equip- 

LONDON. ONT.— The C.P.K. are making 
improvements in their yards here. An up-to- 
date round house Is I)elng constructed in the 
east end yardi. A large amount of the finest 
machinery will be installed and power will be 
obtained from the city. 

ST. JOHN, N.B.— Ontario capitalists are 
behind a scheme to erect a power plant at the 
reversing falls of the St. John. 

CALGARY,, ALTA.— The city will submit 
a by-law calling for an expenditure of .$380,- 
000 on electric light extensions, Including the 
erection of substations for receiving hydro- 
electric power from the Calgary Tower Co. 

EDMONTON, ALTA.— Formal application 
has been made to the Dominion Government 
by the city of Edmonton for power rights on 
the Grand Rapids on the Athabasca River. 
I'lans filed with the application show a max- 
imum power if all the dams are built of 60,- 
OOO horsepower. Edmonton hopes to interest 
the Government in a hydro-electric scheme. 
If this is Impossible the city hopes to be able 
to reserve rights until able to build the plant 
and distributing power Itself. 

RENFREW, ONT.— Engineers of the Hydro- 
Electrlc Commission have visited the upper 
lakes of the Bonnechere River looking for 
sites for dams for storage purposes. The 
town is expending $150,000 for power develop- 

OTTAWA, ONT.— It is estimated that the 
expense of developing and utilizing tlie Trent 
River powers by the Electric Power Co. will 
be a sum in the neighborhood of $15,000,000. 

EDMONTON, ALTA.— The Diamond Motor 
Co.. Calgary, capitalized at $10,000, has been 

WINNIPEG. MAN.— The Winnipeg Electric! 
Railway Co. has let the contract for their 
new power plant to the Canadian General 
Electric Co. The plans call for a rated 
capacity of 12,000 horse power and a maxi- 
mum capacity of 17,000 horse power, ready 
for delivery by August 1. next. The generator 
will be driven by Curtis turbines, and the 
equipment will be installed in four units of 
3.000 kilowats each. 

ST. BONIFACE. MAN.— The E, B. Reese 
Engineering Co. has secured the power con- 
tract here for a period of ten years, beginning 
Dec. 31, 1912. The price for power is to be 
$18 per h.p. np to 3,000 h.p. and over 3,000 h.p. 
and under 4,000 Is to be reduced 25 cents per 
h.p. for all power used; and for every addi- 
tional 1.000 h.p. used the price Is to be re- 
duced an additional 25 lents. After 15.000 
h.p. is used the price is to be $15 per h.p. 

New Companies. 

MONTREAL. QUE.— Willi.inis and Wilson, 
Limited, have been incori>orated to do a gen- 
eral business in manufacturing, buying and 
selling machinery and machinists' supplies. 
A. R. Williams, merchant, Toronto; P. C. 
\* llaou, merchant, W. A. Wilson, barrister, 
M. B. Bronstetter and E. Kingsland, sales- 
men, all of Montreal. Head office here. 

ST. JOHN, N.B.— The St. George Pulp and 
Paper Co.. of Hudson Falls, N.Y., capital 
.$4I'0,000, are applying for Incorporation in 
New Brunswick. 

TORONTO, ONT.— Standard Chemical Iron 
and Lumber Co., of Canada, Toronto, Incor- 
porated, capital. $0,000,000. Incorporators, .T. 
Wood and T. W. Lawson, barristers, both of 

MONTREAL. QUE.— Belgo-Canadian Steel, 
Limited, Montreal, Que., incorporated, capital 
$.5.50,000. Incorporators, E. Van Acker, im- 
porter; A. Menager, engineer; F. A. Beique, 
advocate, and L. .7. Beique, all of Montreal. 

HAMILTON— The Climax Good Roads 
Machinery Co.. Hamilton, Incorporated, capi- 
tal $40,000. Incorporators, .1. Robinson, manu- 
facturer, W. J. Robinson, drug clerk, both of 
Hamilton. Ont. 

WINNIPEG. MAN.— The Winnipeg Steel 
Granary and Culvert Co.. capitalized at $100.- 
OOii. has been incorporated to manufacture 
corrtigatetl steel products, chicfiy for rail- 

roads and municipalities. They will have a 
plant here and a branch at Reglna. Incor- 
porators, L. Crossen anil 1'. Clarke, both of 
Cobourg, Ont. 

MONTREAL, QUE.— The "Central Canada 
Iron and Steel Corporation," capitalized at 
$.500,000, head office here, has been incorpor- 
ated. They will carry on the business of iron 
masters, steel nmkers, steel converters, smelt- 
ers, engineers, iron founders, etc., and deal 
in plant, machinery, implements, etc.. and 
construct bridges, furnaces, saw mills, hy- 
draulic works, electrical works, shops, etc. 
G. V. Cousins and O. B. MacCallum, barris- 
ters, S. T. Mains, accountant, P. P. Brown, 
secretary, W. R. Ford, clerk, all of Montreal. 

BROCKVILLE, ONT.— The "Brockvllle Con- 
struction Co.,'.' capital $100,000. has been In- 
corporated here. This company will require 
machinery, tools, engines, boilers, plants, 
implements, patterns, rolling stock, etc. 

OTTAWA. ONT.— The "Canadian Quarrle* 
and Ciinstruetion Co." capitalized at t2,000,- 
000. has been incorporated with head office 
here. They will carry on the bUHluess of 
engineers, foundrymen, machinists, tool-mak- 
ers, boiler-makers, etc.. etc. J. Black, broker. 
R. T. Mullln. barrister, both of Montreal; 
S. Bllsky. Jeweller, O. C. Hurdman. lumber- 
man and J. O. Carss. barrister, all of Ottawa. 

08HAWA. ONT.— The .Matthew Ouy Car- 
riage & Automobile Co.. of Oshawa. the out- 
growth of the Iong-pstabllsbe<l carriage busi- 
ness of that name has been Incorporated with 
$2.50,000 capital stock. It will produce a 'M 
horse-power touring car and a one-ton truck. 


CARLETON PLACE, ONT.— The council U 
getting Information concerolni; the proposed 
waterworks system to be establlsbed here. 


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Establlthsd 1862 

WELLAND, ONT. — The water commission 
has secured a water power privilege on the 
east side of the canal and will build a large 
modern waterworks plant. A 3.000,000 gallon 
pump and an electric auxiliary power plant 
will be installed. 

CALGARY, ALTA.— The city Is submitting 
by-laws to the ratepayers calling (or the fol- 
lowing expenditures: Incinerators, $120,000; 
asphalt plant, $20,000; conrtnlt system, $00,000; 
waterworks extensions, $245,000; service con- 
nections, $40,000; electric light, $380,000; anrt 
Are station, $75,000. Total $940,000. 

VANCOUVBH, B,C. — The civic authorities 
have presented nn application for water rights 
on Seymour Creek covering the establishment 
of a storage system on the stream which will 
enable the installation of supply mains cap- 
able of fully meeting the demands of the 
population of Great Vancouver in the years 
to come. 

NORTH BAY, ONT. — A new electric pump 
win be Installed at the waterworks In the 
near future. 

VICTORIA, B.C. — Plans for the extension 
of the sewer system are being prepared by 
the engineer. The ratepayers will probably 
be called upon to authorize an expenditure of 

LONDON, ONT,— The Springbank pumping 
station will be equipped with electric ma- 
chinery by the first week In March, There 
will be two pumps with a capacity of 3,000,- 
000 gallons each. The synchronous motors 
will be of 250 h,p. capacity. The Installation 
of the electrical machinery means that the 
steam plant at Springbank will be done away 
with. . , 

CAMROSE, ALTA. — The municipality Is in- 
stalling a new waterworks and sewage sys- 

decided to solve the water problem here; and 
during the coming summer will Install a 
pumping plant to cost $50,000. 

QUEBEC, QUE.— The city is making a 
strong bid for a big shipbuilding plant, one 
which is prepared to undertake the con- 
struction of the largest warships. Hugh 
Russel Is acting for the company enquiring. 
He desires to establish yards here, so as to be 
able to tender for the new ships of the Cana- 
dian navy. It was decided to offer an ex- 
emption from taxes for 20 years, as well as 
a liberal bonus should the company locate 

PRINCE RUPERT, B.C.— Surveys have 
been completed here with a view to forming 
plans for the proposed new waterworks. 

SCOTSTOWN, QUE.— A by-law providing 
for a new sewerage and waterworks system 
will be submitted to the ratepayers on the 
(ith of March. 

OTTAWA, ONT. — The waterworks commit- 
tee has awarded the tenders for supplies for 
the year. It Is estimated that about $5,000 
worth of piping, castings, brass, oils, etc., 
will be required. The tenders accepted were: 
Cast Iron pipes, A. W. Fleck, representing the 
Canada Iron Co., $11,583.40; special pipe cast- 
ings, the Canada Iron Co., $2.70 per cwt. ; 
hydrants, Chaudlere Machine Co., $38.50 each; 
oils and grease, Capital Warehouse Co., $390.- 
50; valves, Chaudlere Machine Co., $1,148.15; 
lead pipe, McKlnley & Northwood, $1,801.10; 
brass, Robt. Mitchell & Co., Montreal, $1,915.- 

WINNIPEG, MAN.— Prominent business 
men here are urging the city to Instal a 
municipal gas plant. This Is the result of 
the high present rate, namely $1.20 per 
thousand. The city will probably decide to 
do so, seeing that the electorate voted $700,- 
000 for a gas plant in 1904. 

TORONTO, ONT.— The city will, shortly, 
float a loan for one million dollars to meet 
the cost of installing the hydro-electric sys- 
tem. So far $700,000 has been spent upon the 
system within the city limits; this was se- 
cured by local loans. Two years ago the city 
secured authority to Issue debentures for $2,- 
750,000 for the Installation of the system. 

VANCOUVER, B.C. — The announcement Is 
made that the $400,000, voted for the water- 
works extension. Is Inadequate and another 
by-law will be submitted In the near future 
asking for $223,000. 

VANCOUVER, B.C.-— City Clerk McQueen Is 
calling for tenders for the supply of brass 
goods for the waterworks department. 



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OTTAWA, ONT.— A by-law may be sub- 
mitted to the people shortly to authorize the 
expenditure of JlltS.OOO for waterworks pur- 
poses. For the completion of the work on the 
aqueduct $150,000 is needed and over $40,(X)0 
is required for water main extension on the 

Saw Mill and Planingr Mill Xews. 
NEW WESTMINSTER, B.C.— A local syn- 
dicate, said to be representing a company of 
English capitalists, have acquired n large site 
near here and intend erecting a saw mill to 
cost over $1500,000 and employ several hundred 
men. Names of the purchasers are not ob- 

DALIIOUSIE, N.B.— Chappell Bros., of Syd- 
ney, N.S., will likely erect large saw and 
planing mills here. They are asking certain 
concessions and public opinion Is in their 

LADNOR, B.C.— The saw mill of the Jervis 
Inlet Lumber Co. was destroyed by Are re- 
cently. Lass, $20,000. It was fully covered 
by Insurance and will be rebuilt. 

FREDERICTON, N.B.— H. Holland has ad- 
ded a third boiler to the equipment of the 
Robinson saw mill at Lower St. Mary's. He 
also added 84 feet to the mill chimney which 
was previously 80 feet high. 

SODRIS, P.E.I.— B. Creamer's planing mill 
Is burned out. 

SUMMERSIDE, P.E.I.— The planing mill of 

M. F. Sehurmnn & Co., here, was burned out. 

WOODSTOCK, N.B.— ,T. A. Hayden's saw 

mill has been burned. No Insurance. It will 

be rebuilt. 

ST. .JOHN, N.B. — P. Mackay has been ap- 
pointed liquidator for the "Neplslquit Lum- 
ber Co.," manufacturers of lumber and 

ald, who has for the past few years managed 
the Bnrrard Sash and Door factory, has sold 
out his Interest in the business to Medcalfe & 

BOISSEVATN, MAN.— The Rat Portage 
Lumber Co. have bought the T. Taylor Lum- 
ber Co., here, for $20,000 and are now In con- 

TORONTO, ONT. — An order winding up the 
Belding Lumber Co., East Toronto, has been 
granted by .Justice Sutherland. G. T. Clark- 
son Is named interim liquidator, and a refer- 
ence Is directed to the Master In Ordinary. 
The company's nominal stock Is $40,000. The 
assets are placed at $18,000, and the liabilities 
at $20,000. 

SHERBROOKE, QUE.— C. F. Haseltlne Is 
putting in a fine new steam saw mill. He 
expects to have It in running order in March. 
GALT, ONT.— P. W. Gardiner & Son have 
decided to erect two more anrtitlons to their 
planing mill plant here, one Immediately to 
enlarge the glue room. 

PITCOX. ALTA.— Walsh Bros, and Addy 
have purchased through Stewart Bros., at 
Penhold. a complete saw mill, planer, etc., and 
a 32 h.p. traction engine which they have in- 
stalled nine miles west of here. 

LETHBRinGE. ALTA.— The Western Can- 
ada Lumber Co. have opened a yard at Medl- 
cln Hat and also at this place. They will 
erect here a large shed 100 x CO feet. 

VANCOUVER. B.C.— The Koksilah Lumber 
Co., of Vancouver I.sland, has been incorpor- 

of the Royal City Planing Mills, this city, has 
Invented a saw protector, to prevent work- 
men from InUiry. It is a metallic hood with 
a traveling shutter on each side, which drops 
to the surface of the board irrespective of its 
size or formation. 

REVELSTOKE. B.r.— The Dominion Saw 
Mills Co. have begun operations on the build- 
ing of their new office structure here. The 
building will be two and a half storeys and 
modern in every respect. It will be steam 
heated. The company expect to take poses- 
sion bv the end of May. 

BEULAH, N.B.— M. .Tones and E. Vanwart 
have purchased the Palmer saw mill at Ten- 
nants Cove, and have begun operations. 

RAINT RIVER, ONT.— Seventy-flve car- 
loads of machinery for the mills of the Shev- 
lln -Clark Co. have been ordered and a crew of 
men have started to build a spnr into the 
company's property here from the main line 
of the C.N.R. 

Genrral Manafartnring. 

VICTORIA. B.C.— The "Ideal Manufactur- 
ing Co." Is among several extra-provincial 
companies registered. 

WINNIPEG, MAN.— A factory for the 
manufacture of automobile tire covers and 
treads will be opened in Winnipeg on April 1 
by the Triple Tread Manufacturing Co. 

PRESTON, ONT.— The Canada Buffalo 
Sled Co. will secure a factory here and manu- 
facture boys' wagons and steerable sleighs. 
The firm is a combination of the Buffalo Sled 
Co. and Werllch Bros., of this place. 

WINNIPEG, MAN.— The "Western Manu- 
facturing Co." have been Incorporated here, 
with a capital stoik of $250,000. They will 
deal chiefly in lumber, timber, building, con- 
struction, etc. C. M. Boyton, K. T. Ferguson, 
H. Llllie, G. Murray and K. Siderfln, law 
clerks, all of this place. 

ST. .JOHN, N.B.— K. M. McCarty, of thlH 
city, is promoting a concern which proposes 
to establish a $500,000 cement Industry here. 
They propose to erect a modern cement manu- 
facturing plant with a capacity of 1,200 bar- 
rels per day. 

TRENTON, ONT.— The Canadian Button 
Co., organized recently, will erect a factory 
here in the early spring. A carload of ma- 
chinery has already arrived. A. A. Ullyot is 
general manager. At present the company Is 
working ill temporary premises here. 

GANANOQUE, ONT.— Work at the Ontario 
Wheel Co. has been resumed, the new build- 
ings having been completed and the machin- 
ery Installed. 

NEW WESTMINSTER, B.C.— The machin- 
ery for a large brickyard at Cloverdale has 
been assembled and the promoters of the new 
Industry hope to be turning out brick early 
in April. 

PETBOLBA, ONT.— The Shuttleworth Co., 
Tile manufacturers, contemplate a large addi- 
tion to their plant here. 

FREDERICTON, N.B.— The Chestnut Canoe 
factory here will be greatly enlarged. 

LINDSAY, ONT.— It Is generally conceded 
that operations will be re-commenced In the 
Rider & Kitchener factory here. They will 
manufacture excelsior exclusively. 

MONTREAL, QUE.— The "Cotton Prints 
Co." have acquired a site and will erect. In 
the early spring, a cotton converting works 
for bleaching and printing cotton fabrics. It 
is understood that the machinery is already 
ordered or at least its manufacture Is being 
considered. The plant will be furnished with 
electric power and will be up-to-date in every 

MONTREAL, QUE. — The Western Manu- 
facturing Co. are erecting a large factory at 
the corner of Duluth and MItcheson St. 

WELLAND, ONT.— As reported In last 
month's issue, the Canadian Automatic Trans- 
portation Co. will build a factory here, 150 x 
50 feet. Sufficient stock has been sold to 
make the undertaking a certainty and ground 
will be broken In early spring. 

TILLSONBURG, ONT.— The Canadian Cer- 
eal and Milling Co., which bought the Tlllson 
Mills about a year ago, are improving and 
enlarging their plant. The output at present 
is about 1,200 barrels a day and about BO 
men are employed. 

TILLSONBURG, ONT.— The Borden Con- 
denser Intends extending Its handsome build- 
ings this spring to about twice the present 
capacity. It is understood that the extension 
will be about forty feet on the west side of 
the present factory and sixty feet on the east 

EDMONTON, ALTA.— The Cardiff Collieries 
of Morinville are installing a new plant at the 
mines and Increasing the output. They will 
spend $100,000 on the plant. 

MOOSE JAW, SASK.— The Moose Jaw 
Blacksmith and Carriage Repair Co. is the 
name of a new local co-operative company 
recently formed here. 

MITCHELL, ONT.— The Hill & Co. bridge 
works firm have closed a number of contracts 
for bridges and the outlook for the coming 
season is bright. 

Bnildinff Notes. 

MONTREAL. QUE.— Holt-Renfrew Co. have 
purchased a site and will erect a large cold 
storage plant here. It will be a six or eight 
storey building equipped with the latest 
plant and machinery for the cold storage of 
furs. etc. 

MONTREAL, QUE.— Henry Birks & Sons 
will, shortly, erect an office building 90x130 
and several storeys high, on the corner of 
Union Ave. and Cathcart Street. 

MONTREAL, QUE.— The Colonial Heal Es- 
tate Co. will erect a ten storey sky scraper 
on St. Catherine St. The building will be of 
reinforced concrete faced with terra cotta. 

MONTREAL, QUE.— The Homoeopathic 
Hospital on McGIll College Avenue will be re- 
built this year at a cost of $100,000. 

SASK.\TOON, SASK.— A, Bowerman is con- 
templating the erection of a $140,000 business 
block here. It will be of reinforced concrete, 
modern In every respect and fireproof. 

ST. JOHN, N.B.— The C.P.R. Is planning 
to spend more than a million dollars on 
terminals here. 

EDMONTON, ALTA.— The Pembina Coal 
Co. have set aside $1,000,000 for development 
purposes on their property near Entwistle. 

PRINCE RUPERT. B.C.— The Pacific Coast 
Construction Co., of Victoria, has secured the 
contract for the depot of the Marine Depart- 
ment for a sum approximating $200,000. 


Face Plate Jaws 

New features Include extra large icrews, 
double thrust bearings and special 
methods of attaching, permitting their 
use on vari'<ns-slzed face plates. 


Ends polnieu at an angle of 46 degrees 
so that four Jaws will fit close together 
at centre. Sizes 4-ln. to 14-ln. 

Boring Mill Jaws 

As in the face plate jaws, screws are 
larger than nsunl, thrust bearings are 
double and Jaws are wider, heavier 
and better supported'. Made in all 
steel or with grey Iron base as de- 




(Not the E. Morton & Son Co.) ^ 

B 11 

Special Taps 

Special Dies 

Special Reamers 

Unless you have 
special appliances, 
you can get these 
tools from us bet- 
ter and cheaper 
than you can make 

Wehave the equip- 
ment and the ex- 
perience. Ask us 
for prices. 





■* •"■* .f*"V ■''•' ■•'>> I'ri-'-"-*-'*-! • (-' *>\ 

The British Aluminium Co., Limited 



Beg to announce THE OPENING on 
October fifteenth, 1910, of their new 

Canadian Headquarters, at 24 Adelaide St. W., Toronto 

in charge of 
MESSRS. PARKE & LEITH, General Agents for Canada 

A Large Stock of Aluminium in all the Commercial Forms will 
be kept — Wholeaale and Retail. 

Jessop's Best Tool Steel 

Jessop's "Ark" Higli-speed 

is yet unexcelled for cutting tools 
of all kinds, and for general 

Olppl gives marvellous results 
— heavy cuts — at rapid 

machine-shop use. 

speed; cannot be burned. 

The favorite brands with users of good steel. 

A large assortment of sizes in stock. 

Jessop's high-grade files and rasps. 

Manufactured by WM. JESSOP & SONS, Ltd. Sheffield, Eng. 

Reid Newfoundland Co. Alex. Woods Chas. L. Bailey 
St, John's, Newfoundland 138 Murray Street 80 Bay St. 

Montreal, Que. Toronto, Ont. 

Good, Clean Castings 

depend largely upon the facing used. At least, you can't get good castings with poor facings 


help to make the Uind of castings that require least cleaning and that are free from hard spots, 
blow holes, etc. WRITE FOR FREE BOOKLET 223-S. 


JERSEY CITY, .... N.J., U.S.A. 

AnniHjr other operations the work consists of 
t'l-ectluj; work shops, power house, ete. 

.MOXi'UKAL, QUE.— The nominion Express 
Co. will erect a ten-storey office l)loek on St. 
.lames St. It will have a suli-liaseuient given 
up to tlie machinery used iu running the 
lieating. ventilating ami ice-niakiug plants. 
W. S. Maxwell, of this city, is tlie architect. 

GKOKGETdWN.— The Georgetown Coating 
Paper Mills have erected a large plant which 
is now In operation. L. B. Fleck is manager. 

STRATHCONA, ALTA.— Recent develop- 
ments indicate that 1". Burns & Co. will, no 
doubt, erect their .fl.OOO.OOO packing plant 

WINNIPEG, MAN.— Gowans-Keut Western. 
Limited, are liullding a flue new eight-storey 
structure here on Market St. Carter-Halls- 
Aldlnger Co., builders, have the contract. 

WINNIPEG, MAN.— J. J. Hill announces 
that he will build a $1,000,000 depot here for 
his Great Northern. Northern Pacific and 
.Midland Railway. 

CALGARY. ALTA.— .7. Walker will erect an 
eight storey business block here this spring. 
It will have two passenger elevators and 
pliunbing. heating and ventilation of the 
most modern type. Cost, $175,000. 

TORONTO, ONT. — It has been announced 
here that a big paper mill will be erected 
at Espanola at a cost of $1,000,000 by the 
Spanish River Pulp and Paper Co. Work, 
will soon l)e started and It is planned to get 
it in operation by Oct. 1. The mill will have 
a capacity of 100 tons of paper daily, and the 
pnlj) will be supplied from the present pulp- 
rnaklng plant, which has a capacity of 125 
tons dally. Tenders are now being called for 
the buildings, and the machinery has been 
ordered frorii firms in Canada and the United 
States. The whole paper plant will be under 
one roof and the building will be about 525 
feet long. 

LONDON, ONT.— The C.P.R. will expend 
;ihont $250,000 here this summer. A station, 
ninndliouse and yards will be built immedi- 
ately. All, the wooden bridges between Tor- 
onto and Windsor will be replaced by steel 

VANCOUVER. B.C.— Plans are being pre- 
pared for an eight-storey business block at 
the corner of Hastings and Main St. It will 
be of mill construction. 

CALGARY, ALTA.— The C.P.R. will build 
a $1,000,000 hotel here. Other Improvements 
■ ind extensions here bring the total cost up 
lo $.5,000,000. 

.MONTREAL. QUE.— The Gillette Razor Co. 
will erect a $100,000 factory on Alexander 
Street here. 

VICTORIA. B.C.— Tlie Dominion Trust Col 
will, shoitly. erect a six-storey building here 
at a cost of $135,000. 

ESQUIMALT, B.C.— WorK will be started at 
once on the construction of the B.C. Marine 
Railway Co. dr.vdock here. As it Is being 
built in consideration of tlie future require- 
ments of the Pacific naval station, it is more 
than probable that (he Pacific Fleet of Can- 
ada's Navy will lie built here. The local firm 
is making every effort to secure the contract. 
It will be nOO ft. by 100 ft. and cost $S,0OO,00O. 

SASKATOf)N. SASK.-.T. P. O'Leary, of the 
Montreal firm of Brown and Vallance. archi- 
tects, has announced the letting of the con- 
tract for tlie huge (1-storey hotel here to the 
firm of CarterHalls-Aldinger Co. The mater- 
ial used In the construction will be terra-cot- 
ta and Menominee brick. The structure will 
have a highly ornamental front and will have 
both freight and passenger elevators. Coat, 


WINNIPEG, MAN.— Provincial Architect 
Ilotiper is preparing plans for new govern- 
ment buildings to cost approximately .$.S,000,- 
000. Tills incUnles the new Asylum at Bran- 
don, a new agricultural college and new legis- 
lative buildings. 

TORONTO. ONT.— The C.P.R. are extend- 
ing their freight and passenger facilities 
within the clt.y at a cost approximately $7,- 
000.000. The plans Inclnde a new passenger 
depot and freight yard at North Toronto,, 
freight sheds rind yards at Christie Street. 
George Street. Queen's Wharf, Parkdale and 
West Toronto, with a freight delivery yard at 
the corner of Bloor and Dundas Streets. There 
will also be a new office building of several 
storeys at the corner of King and Yonge 
Streets, plans of which are not yet c^implete. 

COLLINGWOOD. ONT.— The Northern 
Navigation Co. will [ilace an order for an- 
other passenger and freight steamer to cost 
about .$(100,000. The plans will be prepared, 
tenders asked for from Canadian yards, and 
the contrn<i awarded In sufficient time to per- 
mit of the laying of the keel in .Tuly or 
August next. 

VANCOUVER. B.C.— F. D. Boucher will 
erect an eleven-store.v apartment house here 
at a cost of ip.'iOO.OOO. 

ST. .lOHN. N.B.— Scovill Bros., Limited, in- 
tend erecting a modern five-storey building 
here. A passenger elevator will be installed. 



EDMONTON. ALTA.— R. TeBli'i- l« callliig 
tenders for a six-storey $100,000 building here. 

SASKATOON — A representative of the J. I. 
Case Co., of Ravine. Wis.. Is here to pur- 
ihase a site for a wurehouse. The bulldlnj 
will be one storey high, and 400 feet by :;50 

VANCOfVKH. B.C.— "Lester Conrt" is the 
name of a palatial building to be erected here 
at 11 eost of iflOO.lMX). It will be of first-class 
construction, and tlre))roof steel frame rein- 
forced concrete. It will be lighted with elec- 
tricity. This is the first of a series of build- 
ings to be erected by A. ,T. Paterson Co.. 

BRANDON, MAN. — The provincial govern- 
ment will erect a $50,000 normal school here 
on Tenth Street. A manual training depart- 
ment Is included. 

GDELPH. ONT. — The new cold storage and 
packing plant erected by Chas. W. Barber 
win he in operation In a short time. It Is of 
stone, concrete and wood. The building Is 
28 X 08. 

STR.\THCONA. ALTA.— I'. Burns & Co. 
will erect a new million and a half dollar 
packing plant here. The big firm has ac- 
quired au additional 27 acres adjoining its 
present site. 

EDMONTON. ALTA.— The G.T.P. will con- 
struct two tunnels and 24 bridges on the 
branch line south of Edson, to serve the Im- 
mense coal areas in the Brazean country. 

MONTUE.\L. QUE.— The C.P.R. has been 
granted a pernilt to erect freight sheds on 
Lacroix Street to cost from ?««.000 to $100,- 

Automobile Co. will erect here. In the spring, 
a fireproof brick garage. 50 x 130 feet. It 
will be one of the most up-to-date garages 
In Western Canada. Repairs of all kinds 
will be undertaken. 

FORT WILLI.4M, ONT.— The Swift Cana- 
dian Co. will erect a 4-storey cold storage 
plant here this summer at a cost of $75,000. 


HAMILTON— The Hamilton Machinery Co. 
will handle the entire output of the American 
Road .Machinery Co., Goderich ; the Canadian 
sales end of the Keystone Smooth Bottom 
Corrugated Steel Sewer Pipe Co.; Interstate 
Automobile Co., Muucil, Indiana. They will 
handle concrete machinery, wire fence, rein- 
forced concrete wire, mining machinery, etc. 
They will open branch offices in all the large 
Canadi.iu centres. 

MONTREAL— The Simonds Saw Co., who 
have a branch factory here for the manu- 
facture of hack saws, etc., have constructed 
a new steel mill at Lockport, N.Y., the first 
steel being roiled on January 2. 

MONTREAL — The Harbor Commission have 
installed a new Schumacher & Boye 20-in. in- 
stantaneous gear machine lathe in their 
works here. This machine was purchased 
from Foss & Fuller. 

MONTREAI, — Jos. Lacroix, patternmaker, 
72 Wellington Street, Montreal, has started, 
work on the construction of his new shop at 
143 Wellington Street and will move into his 
new quarters about May Ist. 

The Smart-Turner .Machine Co., 101 Barton 
St., Hamilton, report the following recent 
orders for their pumps : Canadian Axminster 
Carpet Co., Hamilton; Rainy River Lumber 
Co. ; Canada Screw Co.. Hamilton ; Lever 
Bros., Toronto; G. T. R., Allandale; Gunns 
Ltd., Toronto; Great Lakes Dredging Co., 
Port Arthur; Steel Co. of Canada, Hamilton; 
and Otis Fensom Elevator Co.. Hamilton. 
These pumps Include several types designed 
by the Smart-Turner Machine Co. 

MONTREAL.- Ernest Muller, of Schuchardt 
& Schutte, New York, paid a visit to their 
Canadian headquarters here, recently. 

WELLAND.— The Quality Beds, Limited, 
have Installed a No. 28 Collian Cupola manu- 
factured by Frederic B. Stevens, Detroit. 
Gillette Company to Bnild. 

The Gillette Razor Co. have purchased a lot 
of land on the corner of Dowd & Alexander 
Streets. Montreal, 100 feet frontage on St. 
Alexander and 7S on Dowd. They will build 
here a five-storey fireproof building of mush- 
room construction. Work will be commencwl 
on the Ist of May next, and will be rushed 
through as soon as possible. 

Foss A Fnller, Montreal. 

In a recent issue of Canadian Machinery 
reference was made to Foss & Fuller. Mon- 
treal, a new machinery agency. This firm Is 
now dissolved. Geo. F. Foss continuing the 
business under the name of Foss & Fuller. 
Their offices and warehouse at 32!) St. James 
St. are being enlarged to take care of their 
business wlii<-h is increasing. 

Winnipeg Industrial Campaign. 

Se<Tetary Roland of the Winnipeg Indus- 
trial Bureau and Controller Waugh of the 
city gcivernment. started on an Industrial 

Inquiry trip early in the month. AdvloM re- 
ceived from them Indicate great Interest In 
Western Canada among manufacturers In the 
United Slates and give assurance that Winni- 
peg will soon receive great accessions to her 
Industrial growth. Among the Industries 
which will soon be established in Winnipeg 
Is a process for making textiles from flax 
straw, which Is produced so largely In the 
West and which now is wasted by burning. 

International Harvester Company. 

Many Improvements have been nuide at the 
Hamilton works of this comi)nny. These Im- 
provements add to the capacity of practically 
every department at this works, and consist 
of a paint shop building. 72 x 95 ft., four- 
storey and basement, of mill construction, 
and an addition to the gray Iron foundry 
building, 82 x 200 ft., of brick and steel con- 
struction ; a new mill room building, 142 x 
150 ft., two storeys and basement, of brick 
and mill construction; an extension to the 
wood shop building. 81 x 100 ft., and a new 
mauufacturing building, 72 x 305 ft., four 
storeys and basement, of mill construction. 
A new warehouse In two sections, respective- 
ly, «4 X 119 ft. and 100 x 119 ft., four-storey 
and basement, of brick and mill construction, 
and a new office l)ull(ling. two storeys and 
basement, 60 x 103 ft., have also been con- 

Oliver Chilled Plow Works. 

The Oliver Chilled Plow Works have called 
for tenders on an assembling imilding. three 
storeys and basement. 90 x 400 feet, of steel 
and reinforced concrete, the cost of which Is 
estimated at about $200,000. as provided for 
In the original plans. This will shortly be 
followed by the erection of the malleable and 
gray iron foundry. 135 x 576 feet, one storey, 
and plans will be prepared for the other 
buildings as rapidly as possible. The forge 
and machine shop is already In operation, and 
the power house will be finished by the middle 
of the month. 

Windsor's New Industries. 

Windsor has secured two important indus- 
tries, the Canadian branch of the Malonev 
Electric Co.. St. Louis, and the plant of the 
Canadian Winkley Co., a branch of a Detroit 
foncern. The Maloney Co. which manufac- 
tures electrical machines, will build a $10,000 
plant in the city's factory district at once, 
while the Winkley Co., manufacturing brass 
goods, has bought a site In the west end of 
the city, and will erect a $10,000 plant this 
year. The by-laws granted exemptions to the 
two companies. 

Coke Ovens of Soo Corporation. 

The by-product coke oven plant which H. 
Koppers, Jollette. 111., has been building for 
the Lake Suiierior Corporation, at Sault Ste. 
Marie. Ont., Is completed. No. 1 battery of 
55 ovens is now ready aud will soon be pro- 
ducing coke. The brick work on No. 2 battery 
of ,55 ovens is all completed and will be ready 
to produce coke in a month. 

Goldsehmldt Thermit Co. Calendar. 

The 1911 calendar recently issued by the 
Goldshmidt Thermit Co., 90 West Street, New 
York, contains a useful map of North and 
Central America. Several repairs are illus- 
trated and the application of thermit to mar- 
ine, foundry and railroad uses. Is given. The 
folder is 20 X 38 Inches. The Canadian agen- 
ly is 109 Richmond St. West, Toronto. 

New Tube Works at Montreal. 

The construction of the Canadian Tube & 
Iron Co.'s works is progressing very favor- 
ably. The buildings consist entirely of steel 
and reinforced concrete, making them entirely 
fireproof and no expense is being spared In 
the purchase of modern machinery an<l e(iulp- 
ment to enable the company to manufacture 
at the lowest possible cost. The capitalization 
of the company is $1,000,000, all common 
stock, which has been subscribed for private- 
ly. The officers of the company are as fol- 
lows: J. W. McConnell, president; .Tames L. 
Waldle. vice-president and managing director: 
-Mbert H. Hough, sales manager and director: 
William .Moslcy.. works manager and director; 
Herbert Worrail. secretary-treasurer. Direc- 
tors: — Wm. Molson Macpherson, Dr. Milton L. 
Hersey. H, A. Lovett, K.C. 

The buildings are now nearing comple- 
tion, and It is expected that the company will 
start manufacturing early In the spring. The 
works are situated on a large tract of land 
which has been obtained by the company at 
Cote St. Paul, Montreal. 

Canaillan General Electric Enlarglnir. 

The Canadian General Electric are plan- 
ning to erect a large lamp factory and new 
offices In I'etertioro'. The lamp factory will 
be 60 X 125 ft. and will cost $-250,000. 


83 Front St. W., Toronto 


Old Material Bought and Sold" 



Difficult Core Work a Specially 
Mi^h Grade • Righf Price* • PrompI' Delivery 






Tall kinds or machine ' 




' by the very highest class of skilled 

Only the highest grade of material 
used in our work. We can handle 
your pattern work to your complete 
Let us quote prices. 

87 Jdrvi55t.ToroRto .Canada 






No More Leaky Joints 

when everv pipe joint in the plant is a Dart Union. 


simply cannot leak. They are made in two bronze- 
seated sections which meet in a ball joint that can be 
made with almost incredible speed whether pipes are in 
or out of alignment. They are impervious to corrosion 
or any other form of decay. Made in the Screwed Type 
for pipes up to 2^ inches and in the Flange Type for 
pipe 2V^ inches and larger. 

See Them at Your Dealers 

Dart Union Co., Limited, Toronto, Can. 


For Rapid Production of 
Sheet Metal Stampings 




Caleiidnr — The city of Winnipeg has sent 
out ii large onlendnr fenturlng that place as 
tlie hub of industry, to which ail roads lead. 
It was very cleverly arranged, and contains 
a handy Index of information, relative to 
Winnipeg, aptly termed, "an open book of 

Friction Clutches. — The Dodge Mfg. Co. 
have issued a 16-page catalogue describing 
Dodge split and solid clutches. The econ- 
omic features are dealt with and the con- 
struction of the clutch Is given In detail. A 
two-page taliie shows the sizes manufactured 
togetlier witli full information in regard to 
h.p. transmitted, speed, face of pulley, cost, 

Chain Drive. — Jones & Glassco, Montreal, 
have published an interesting folder giving 
approximate comparative costs of electric 
power using belt and chain drive. In a list 
of Canadian towns given, the saving per use- 
ful horse-power per year by using chain in- 
stead of belt varies all the way from %2A'2 
in Toronto up to $12.38 In Calgary. In this 
comparison It Is pointed out that the calcu- 
lations are based on the maximum efficiency 
(80 per cent.) of belt drive but the minimum 
efficiency (95 per cent.) of chain drive. 

Milling Machines. — The Garvin Machine Co., 
Spring and Variek streets, New York City. 
Circular No. 142 contains a description of the 
Nos. 14 and 15 vertical spindle milling 
machines for machining castings which re- 
(juire tlie finishing of surface joints. No. 143 
refers to the use of the No. 3 duplex milling 
niailiine. one of the special advantages of 
which is the finishing of two sides of the 
work perfectly parallel at the same time. 

Electric Welders. — A handsome calendar of 
35 pages on coated paper, size 6x9 inches, 
from the Toledo Electric Welder Co., Cin- 
cinnati, describes their various types of elec- 
tric welding machines. One of these welders 
is shown embossed on the front cover, mak- 
ing a very attractive cover design. Several 
pages are devoted to "Electric Welding 
.Machines — What they can do and how they 
do it." The last few pages are devoted to 
valuable data for use in connection with 
welding machines and shop practice. 

Book Review. 

"The Effect of Keyways on the Strength of 
Shafts," by Herbert F. Moore, has Just been 
issued as Bulletin No. 42 of the Engineering 
Experiment Station of the University of Illin- 
ois. This bulletin records the results of tests 
made to determine the relative strength of 
solid shafts and shafts with keyways. Various 
sizes of shafts were tested and for each size 
of shaft the weakening effect of keyways of 
several proportions was determined. Tests 
were made on shafts subjected to twisting only 
and on shafts subjected to twisting and bend- 
ing at the same time. The results show that 
the weakening effect of keyways of the usual 
proportions upon the strength of shafts Is 
considerable, a square keyway of the usual 
size causing a reduction of about one-sixth 
In the strength of the shaft. Formulas and a 
diagram are given for determining the effect 
of keyways of various proportions. The effect 
of keyways for the Woodruff system of key- 
ing Is discussed. The results of the tests are 
summarized In a table showing the power 
which can be transmitted by various sizes of 
shafts with keyways of usual proportions. 
Copies of Bulletin No. 42 may be obtained 
gratis upon application to W. P. M. Goss, 
Director of the Engineering Experiment Sta- 
tion, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois. 

The Mechanical World Pocket Diary and Tear 
Book for 1911.— Twenty-fourth year of pub- 
lication. Size, 4x6 In.; pages, 423. Bound in 
cloth. Price, twelve cents, net. Published by 
Bmmott & Co., 65 King Street, Manchester, 

In presenting this yearly revised engineers' 
pocket-book, some 32 pages have been added, 
and by carefully revising and condensing, 
space has been provided for the Introduction 
of a large amount of new matter. Among the 
special features of this edition are a lengthy 
section on the shapes, speeds and feeds of 
cutting tools with supplementary sections 
dealing with milling cutters and twist drills. 
The section on standard screw threads Is en- 
tirely new, and that dealing with screw cut- 
ting has been extended considerably. Other 
new sections deal with high speed steel and 
the constructive details of gas engines. 
Several additions have been made to the 
tables of weights, measures, etc., and a new 
table of steam fittings and tables and data 
on marine boilers, rlvetted joints, etc., are 

The Safeguarding of Machinery in Industrial Plants 

The Importance of Safeguarding Machinery was Pointed out at a Recent Meeting of the 
American Societji of Mechanical Engineers When. John Calder gave a Paper Discussing 
the Nature and Incidence of Industrial Injury, its Prevalence and High Rate, and the 
Present General Desire for better Conditions of Safety. It Analyzes the Chief Causes of 
Injury as Revealed from a Study by the Author of a Large Number of Verified Casualties 
and Recommends Practicable Measures Calculated to Reduce the Present Num,erous Fa- 
talities and Injuries. It Discusses in Particular the Important Services Which the 
Mechanical Engineer, both as an Executive and Constructor, can Render in Exercising 
his Ingenuity to Avoid Industrial Accident. The Paper Contains a Number of Practical 
Safeguarding Illustrations from the Field of Machine Building, Equipment, Installation, 
Transm,ission Plant and Especially Dangerous Machines and Processes, and Concludes 
with Suggestions for Administrative and Remedial Precautions. 

'pHE subject of accident prevention 
■* is now coming to the front on that 
wave of Immanitarian consideration 
which is noticeable everywhere. On its 
educational and sentimental aspects me- 
chanics, foremen, superintendents, man- 
agers and proprietors have had their in- 
terest awakened to some extent by the 
work being done by manufacturers of 
safeguards and by manufacturers gener- 
ally realizing that every workman laid 
aside from work means a break in the 
organization, and hence a decreased ef- 
ficiency in the shop. 

The principles of safeguarding and 
safeworking in industry should be as 
much a part of the economic education 
of the young engineer and the future 
(and present) .shop officials, as those of 
efficiency. The scientific study as a mat- 
ter of course and the solution by the 
mechanical engineer of individual prob- 
lems of safeguarding, supervision and 
instruction of employes as they arise 
in their daily routine will do more than 
all other existing agencies to bring about 
satisfactory results. 

It is believed that, by proper super- 
vision and precautions in all plants and 

Fig. 2.— An inefficient Guard. 

industrial processes and the cultivation 
of greater care by operatives, at least 
one-third of the present annual sacrifice 
of life and limb can be prevented. 
The Cause of Accidents. 
The word "accident" in relation to 
industry is not specifically defined by 

any statute, but it has the popular sig- 
nificance of any unforeseen and usually 
sudden occurrence which results in bod- 
ily injury to any person while present at 
the work place or even within the boun- 
daries of the employer's premises. The 
injury, to be reportable as an accident, 










































Fig. 1. — Influence of Daylight on Accidents. 

need not arise out of or in connection 
with the employe's assigned duties. It 
is the fact of injury, not the cause, 
which generally makes an accident re- 
portable under the labor laws to the 
civil authorities. 

In analyzing many thousands of indus- 
trial accidents, the following have been 
found to be the chief causes: Ignorance, 
carelessness, unsuitable clothing, insuf- 
ficient lighting, dirty and obstructed 
workplaces, defects of machinery and 
structures, and absence of safeguards. 
In current popular comment on the 
wastefulness of life and limb in our in- 
dustrial regime little regard is paid to 
the facts underlying accident, but well 
considered action must be based solely 
on these of which some account follows: 

In spite of ample facilities now aflord- 
ed to all for the acquisition of some 
knowledge of mechanical principles, some 
superintendents, a number of foremen, 
many operatives and not a few manag- 
ing owners of smaller plants, have been 
found to be grossly ignorant of the 
nature of the forces and mechanical ar- 
rangement which it is in their power 
either to control or to set free with re- 
sulting danger to themselves and others. 

Sometimes combined with ignorance, 
sometimes sheer thoughtlessness, folly 
or horse play, carelessness by operatives 
stands highest as a cause of industrial 
accident from the results of which no- 
thing external can do much to shield the 
worker and those whom he sometimes 
involves. It is the experience of the 
author that the American workman is 
easily first in taking foolish and wholly 
unnecessary chances with his life and 
limbs; chances which in no way add to 
his efficiency or his earnings. The main- 
tenance of strict discipline in the shops, 
the adoption of salutary punitive meas- 
ures and the firm elimination of the 
dangerous employe is all that can be 
done, in addition to a campaign of edu- 
cation throughout the plant. 

Accident is caused at many machine 
parts which are necessarily exposed 
near the operator, and with which he 
would never come into dangerous con- 
tact but for unsuitable or neglected 
clothing. The ragged sleeve ends, loose 
ties and open jackets of untidy machin- 
ists have again and again been wound 
upon seemingly trivial parts in motion 
and through the powerful effect of coll 

Fig. 3. — Properly Protected Oean. 

friction have inflicted frightful and often 
fatal injuries. 

Insufficient lighting is a cause of num- 
erous accidents, particularly serious and 
fatal falls. A maximum of accidents oc- 
curs towards the close and beginning ol 
each year, that is during November, 



December and January, the months of 
minimum daylight. Fig. 1 shows the 
seasonal distribution for three succes- 
sive years of about 700 deaths annually 
from industrial accidents, which were 
reported with other injuries from an 
area embracing 80,000 plants of varying 

The intensity of artificial lighting at 
the cutting point of tools, and on very 
limited machine tool or bench areas is 


n.r-»HE£L HCatMUMD 

Fl«. 4.— Good Wire Screen Protection for 
Driving Wheel. 

frequently far above actual require- 
ments and a source of much physical 
discomfort, while all around the operat- 
or a semi-darkness prevails which has a 
blinding effect and is a source of dang- 

The Possibilities of Safeguarding. 

The absence of safeguards closely con- 
cerns the mechanical engineer, who holds 
the possibilities largely in his own 
hands. In many cases of injuries to op- 
eratives caused by the absence of a pas- 
sible safeguard, it will be found that it 
has been removed, or rendered ineffective 
by the employe for lack of si:pu vision 
in such matters or that protection has 
never been provided. Safeguarding ab- 
sent at one machine is sometimes actual- 
ly afforded elsewhere under the same 
roof and the accident is due to the op- 
eration of the principle that what is 
permitted to be everybody's or any- 
body's business is in daily life nobody's 
business. The safety engineering of no 
plant should be left to the haphazard 
initviti'e of a number of individuals. 

Consideration of what the mechanical 
engineer can contribute to this end na- 
turally falls into two divisions: (a) the 
efficient safeguarding which he may de- 
sign as an integral part of the machine 
tools and other apparatus and (b) the 
safeguarding which he may later devise 
and supply as the mechanical engineer 
or executive of plants using power ap- 
paratus and other equipment capable of 
inflicting injury. 

Machine Btiilder and Safeguards. 

Numerous instances might be cited of 
the vague notion expressed in some cur- 

rent machine designs that anything 
which looks like a cover for a part of 
a machine necessarily constitutes in 
daily service an efficient safeguard; 
sometimes no regard is paid to the ac- 
tual direction of rotation or to reversal 
of motion or to the necessity ii using 
the tool for frequently removing a 
clumsy cover which is as likely as not 
to bu left off permanently. The real 
points of danger in daily operation I'.eed 
to be studied before a satisfactory pro- 
tection can be provided. 

Punches and Presses. 
Punch and press machinery probably 
ranks next to wood-working tools in 
frequency of accident, though usually the 
operative escapes with less serious in- 
jury. The mechanical engineer cannot 
be too careful in seeing that these tools 
are in good repair, particularly the ac- 
tuating gears. Automatic roll-feeds, 
sub-presses, magazine, hopper, gravity 

Fig. 5. — An Automatic Screen Guard for 

slides, and push slides feeds, have done 
a good deal to eliminate the dangers of 
feeding such presses by hand but much 
work already blanked must still be 
handled in this way in subsequent punch- 
ing and pressing operations. 

The increasing use of compressed air 
in mechanical industries permits of light 
pieces being blown off the die at the end 
of the operation by a cam-operated blast 
properly directed and timed. Fig. 41. 
The ordinary spring ejector serves the 
same purpose for heavier work. Yet 
there are many punches and presses run- 
ning to-day without the efficient safe- 
guards here illustrated and even where 
they are to be found the principles are 
not carried out consistently at .ill neces- 
sary places. 

Fig. 4 is an example of a convenient 
flywheel guard, ordinarily locked in po- 

sition, which the author arranged for a 
large series of small bench power press- 
es worked by females. Provision is 
made in it for the tool setter having 
ready access for moving the flywheel by 
hand without detachment of the safe- 
guard and resulting failure to repliace 
it. The work in this machine is fed in 
by a push-slide and removed by a cam- 
actuated air blast. Fig. 5 shows a form 
of press guard, which is timed to des- 
cend upon the operator's finger, if in a 
position of danger, and secure their 
withdrawal before an accident occurs. 

Emery wheels, grindstones and other 
abrasive tools when over-speeded or 
when strained or shocked while in mo- 
tion within the limits prescribed by the 
maker, sometimes burst with great 
violence and spread death and serious 
injury in the path of their flight. Var- 
ious methods for confining the wheel 
fragments to the machine casing or at 
least rendering their velocity harmless 
have been worked out and some of these 
are illustrated in Fig. 6. In all of them 
ample side clearance between the wheel 
and its casing is a primary requisite. 

Durability and Identification of Safe- 

Safeguards, where at all possible, 
should be constructed of metal to secure 
durability. Reinforced steel mesh work 
is preferred for all but the heaviest 
machinery. It is superior to guards of 
opaque material since it permits easy 
inspection without detaching the safe- 
guard and interferes as little as pos- 
sible with lighting conditions. In steel 
mills, foundries and heavy work plants 
of various descriptions, where the wear 
and tear of equipment is very great, no- 

Flg. 6.— Safety Adjustable Hoods for Disc 
and Face Grinders. 

thing but strong castings or steel plate 
work should be used for the majority of 
the guards. It is a good practice to 
have all safeguards readily distinguish- 
ed by painting the body of them Ver- 
million and the reinforced edges black. 
This allows executives to detect at a 
glance in going through the shops, a 
displaced or defective guard, such parts 
being often small in area, in inconspicu- 
ous places, and liable to be overlooked. 

Twist Drill and Other Internal Cutting Tool Practice— II 

By K. Campbell ■ i i 

Modern Shop Practice has Developed Various Types of Tvjist Drills, Reamers, Counter- 
Bores, Etc., Greatly Increasing the Capacity of the Machine Using These Small Tools. 
The Breakage of Tangs Form,erly Caused a Great Loss, But This has Now Been Elimi- 
nated by Modern Practice. Part I Appeared in the March Issue and Dealt with Drilling in 
General, Some Types of Drills, Sharpening, Speeds, Shanks, Tangs, Etc. This Article 
Gives Some Additional Information on Drills, Drill Grinders, Etc., and also Deals with 
Reamers, Counterbores, Etc., the Information Being Secured from Manufacturers, from 
Various Technical Publications, etc.. May Therefore be Relied upon as Accurate. 

FOR accurate drilling the grinding is 
very important as was pointed out 
in the March issue. With a view to ob- 
taining a true cutting edge, machines 
have been placed on the market to se- 
cure this desired end. Figs. 15 and 16 
show the form given to the lip of a drill 
by the Sellers grinding machine. The 
axis y-y of the cone is inclined to the 
axis b-b of the drill, and also lies in a dif- 
ferent plane as shown in Fig. 16, thus 
giving the cutting edge of the drill the 
necessary clearance, which increases to- 
wards the drill point as will be readily 
seen. The shape of the end of the drill- 
lip is part of the surface of a 
right cone, the axis of which will be 
coincident with the cone to be ground. 
If we assume the cone shown in Figs. 
15 and 16 to be a grinding wheel re- 
volving about the axis y-y with the 
drill point held against it as shown, the 
surface of one lip will evidently be 
ground to the desired conical form. To 
produce this shape of drill-lip in prac- 
tice, it is not necessary to grind in the 
manner just described ; that is, by hold- 
ing the drill against a conical abrad- 
ing wheel, which revolves. An emery 
wheel having a flat surface, tangent to 
the theoretical cone required, will grind 
the same shape if the drill be made to 
swing about the axis of the cone. 

Twist Drill Grinding Gauge. 
In the March issue of Canadian Ma- 
chinery a drill gauge was shown and its 
usefulness pointed out. In a recent 
issue of the American Machinist a sim- 
ple gauge which may be easily made, 
was shown. The gauge is made of three 
pieces, two of which are riveted to- 
gether and form the stock. See Fig. 17. 
The stock is machined at its upper end, 
prior to the riveting, to form a slide 
for the actual angle gage ; it also has 
a V machined along its straight side. 
The drill to be tested is laid in this V 
and the angle gage is then adjusted un- 
til its two angular edges make contact 
with the cutting edges of the drill, as 
it lies in the stock, then the drill is 
rotated a halt turn ; it now, the two 
cutting edges make contact with the 
angular edges of the gage it will at 
once be obvious that its two cutting 
edges are of the same length as each 
other, and that the angle at which they 

are inclined to the axis of the drill is 
the same for one edge as for the other. 
It follows from this, that the point of 
the drill will be central with its axis. 

High Speed Drill Speeds and Feeds. 

Fig. 10 in the March issue for carbon 
drills. Fig. 18 and 19 are for high 
speed drills and are taken from a paper 
read before the Institution of Mechani- 
cal Engineers of Great Britain. Fig. 18 
gives the r.p.m., teed per revolution, 
cu. ins. removed per min., and h.p. when 

drilling cast iron with high speed steel 
drills. Fig. 19 shows the same items 
when drilling medium hard steel with 
high speed steel drills. 

These two tables are recommended by 
drill makers tor ordinary shop use. 

There is no general agreement among 
the makers of high speed twist drills 
as to what the cutting speed should be 
for ordinary shop practice. Some de- 
crease the speed with the increase ol 
diameter of drill, some recommend the 
reverse, but most makers advise a con- 
stant periphery speed throughout. 

Special Drills. 

Fig. 20 shows an end mill with centre 
cut. They are made to run right and 
left with a Morse taper shank. These 
end mills are useful where it is desired 
to cut into the work with the end of 
the mill and then move along as in 
cams, grooves, etc., as the teeth are 
sharp on the inside, and thus cut a path 
out from the first entering point. They 
are also useful in taking heavy cuts, es- 
pecially in cast iron. They are made 
from i in. to 1| ins. in diameter and 
to cut from 1 in. to 2\ ins. in depth. 

Fig. 21 shows some cored holes in flat 
cast iron plates to be reamed. For 
this it is best to use a short twist drill 
ground on the sides gradually tapering 
to the point. When reaming holes in 
structural shapes which are similar to 
Fig. 21 after punching, a three-fluted 
reaming drill is used. 

Steel Reamers. 

Reamers are now being made with 
high speed blades so that for this class 
of cutting, tool the advantage of the in- 
creased work is obtained without the 
disadvantage of high cost. To get a solid 
reamer, high speed steel blades have 
been brazed to a soft body in the man- 
ner illustrated by stages in Fig. 22. A 
body of soft steel is grooved and fluted 
and bars of the required steel are then 
inserted in the grooves and secured by 
indenting the metal forming the adja- 
cent front wall in a series of light in- 
dentations, a, by means of a punch, and 
forcing the blades into the bottom of 
the grooves, after such identations have 
been formed, by placing in a vise, or by 
other means. These indentations have 
the effect of forcing the metal into very 
close contact with the blade, retaining 
the blade in position by the trictional 
contact of the metal of the shank with 
the blade. Binding wires are then plac- 
ed around the tool to retain the bfades 
during the brazing and hardening oper- 



atioa. After the tool has been heated 
to the proper point for hardening the 
steel, and the whole has been treated 
with a proper flux and solder, it is 
cooled so as to secure the proper hard- 
ening of the steel and the setting of the 
spelter to form a bond between the 
blades and the head. When the tool is 
heated with the retaining wires around 
it the wires will become expanded, so 
that they do not serve to retain the 
blades very securely during the heating 

the amounts given in the following list 
taken from "Machinery," will give good 
results ranging in diameter from i to i 
inch. For reamers over | inch diamet- 
er, a drill 1-64 inch less in diameter is 

The following is a table of feeds 
taken from "Machinery" and is for 


-Holes to lie Uei\med for Straight 


generally used, and this would leave 
from 0.012 to 0.015 inch to remove on 
the diameter, as it is obvious that a 
drill will cut slightly larger than its 
nominal size. 

Diameter of hole pre- 
Diameter of reamer vious to reaming 
in inches. in inches. 

Fig. 17.— Twist DrUl Grinding Gauge. 

and brazing process ; but when the tool 
is cooled the binding wires will be 
cooled first and will consequently sharp- 
ly contract and force the blades to the 





Fig. 20.— Left Hand End Mill. 

bottom of their seats before the spelter 
sets. The tool is then cleaned and 
ground to finish. 

Reamer Feeds and Speeds. 

It is always advisable not to have 
any more material than possible to be 
removed by a reamer. For general work 

There are various reasons for the inef- 
ficient working of a reamer, some of 
which are the following: 

1 . Chattering, which results when the 
teeth are evenly spaced or of an equal 

2. Chips clinging to the teeth, which 
action results when high periphery velo- 
cities are used and insufficient clearance 

Fig. 22. — Stages In making a reamer with 
hrnzed high-speed steel blades. 

reamers made- from high-speed and car- 
bon steel. 
Diameter of Brass Rod 

3. Expanding and contracting of 
hole which is caused by too great 
feed and insufTicient clearance on 
cutting edges. 

4. Enlarged and tapered hole due 
holding the reamer rigid instead 





in inches 











per revolution 

Machine Steel 

per revolution 

































Revolutions pe 


go -0 1* 
•2.2 « 


Cubic Inches rem 
per Minute 

1.715 rf> 






l£ Q lo 


X 3 F 
















































































































































11 2 

X B 


-o II 





























































































4.. ■54 





































































Fig. 18. — R.P.M., feed per revolution, cu. Ins. iern.<veii per wiuute, and Fig. 19. — R.P.M., feed per revolution, <u. Ins., removed per niiiiiitpand 
b.p. when drllUng cast Iron with high-speed steel drills. b.p. when drilling medium hard steel with high-speed steel drills. 



; Dealing with counterbores, Douglas T. 
Hamilton writes that the surface speed 
at which a couaterbore can be worked 
is slightly less than the surface speed 
used for drilling. The surface speeds 
given below are recommended for coun- 
terbores made from carbon and high 
speed steel. 

Speeds From Counterbores Made From 
Carbon Steel. 

Surface speed in 
Material feet per minute 

Brass (ordinary quality) ... 150-160 

jGun screw iron 50-60 

[Norway iron and machine steel 40-50 
iDrill rod and tool steel 30-35 

■Speeds for Counterbores Made From 
High-speed Steel. 

Surface speed in 
Material feet per minute 

Brass (ordinary quality) 180-200 

Gun screw iron 80-90 

Norway iron and machine steel 70-80 

Drill rod and tool steel 45-50 

The rate of feed at which the counter- 
bore should be operated, depends on the 
nature of the work, to what depth it 
must penetrate, material being cut, 
number of cutting edges, etc., and there 
is no definite rule as to the exact feed 
to use. 


At the recent session of the Ontario 
Legislature Dr. Pyne, introduced a bill 
which allows any urban school board to 
establish industrial schools, special in- 
dustrial schools, technical high schools, 
co-operative and industrial schools, 
schools for instruction in fine and applied 
arts, industrial and technical and eve- 
ning art schools. The regulations for 
the schools' are to be provided by the 
Department of Education in the same 
way as in the case of a High school, and, 
subject to those regulations, the minis- 
ter is to apportion all sums of money 
appropriated by the Legislature for the 
establishment and maintenance of such 
schools. The high school grant at pre- 
sent is apportioned according to the 
number of pupils, the equipment, and the 
qualifications of the teachers. 

General industrial schools are those in 
which to the regular course there are 
added special classes calculated to pre- 
pare pupils for industrial life. Special 
industrial schools are those providing in- 
struction in theoretical and practical 
work of particular trades carried on in 
the district where the school is situated. 
Co-operative schools are those in which 
an apprenticeship system is combined 
with the school course. 

It is provided in the bill that every 
technical school, whether at present in 
operation or established hereafter, is to 
be under the management of a commit- 
tee of twelve, six from the Board of 
Education, three persons not members of 
that board who are engaged as employes 
in manufacturing or other industries cai- 
ried on in the district, and three em- 
ployers of labor. This is to be known 
as the Advisory Industrial Committee. 
Where there is more than one school in 
the district there may be one or more 
committees, as the board desires. The 
committee is to be appointed by the 
Board of Education, on nomination ol 
the chairman. This committee, subject 
to the Minister of Education and the 
Board of Education, will have power to 
provide buildings for industrial classes, 
to establish classes in other school build- 
ings and to prescribe the course of study. 
The committee will also have power to 
engage teachers, fix their salaries, to as- 
range the finances of the school, and to 
do anything else necessary for its main- 

The Department of Education, by re- 
gulation will provide for the qualifica- 
tion of teachers, the course of study, the 
character of school sites and equipment, 
and the maximum and minimum fees 
which may be charged. 

The Development of the Bertram Convertible Planer 

Thf Designing of a Planer Body to Which Ang Attachment Such as Right Angle or 
Parallel belt Drive or Motor Drive May be Applied, Means a Great Economy to the User 
Who Has Specified a Certain Drive. A Delivery May be Made Practically at Once 
Where Formerly Several Weeks Elapsed Between the Ordering and the Delivery of the 
Planer. »' 

/^F the long list of machine tools prob- 
^"^ ably the planer has given more 
trouble to designer and user than any 
other machines. It was designed for one 
drive and a user had to accommodate 
himself to that drive whether it suited 
his shop or not. Later when devices and 
driving mechanisms were designed a user 
could get what he wanted if he waited 
long enough on delivery. This was often 
annoying for he wished to make imme- 
diate use of the planer. 

The latest development in the design 
of a metal working planing machine, 
however, is a radical departure from the 
early system. The John Bertram & 
Sons Co., Dundas, Ont., have designed a 
planing machine body to which right an- 
gle belt, parallel belt or motor drive 
may be attached according to the speci- 
fications. The planer bodies and the va- 
rious drives are manufactured for stock 
so that when an order for a planer is re- 
ceived, the necessary equipment is fasten- 
ed to the standard body, and it is ship- 
ped complete in a few hours or a day or 

two at most, where previously several 
weeks elapsed to the great annoyance of 
the buyer. 

Four Belt Right-Angle Drive. 

Fig. 1 shows a 36 in. x 36 in. heavy 
type iron planing machine with four belt 
right angle drive. It admits 37 ins. be- 
tween the housing and 37 ins. under the 
crossrail. The standard length of the 
table is 10 ft. independent of pockets. 

There are four cutting heads, two on 
the crossrail and a side head on each 
standard. The heads on the crossrail 
have swivelling saddles and independent 
cross,. down and angular feeds. 

Power is transmitted to the table 
through a train of accurately cut gears. 
The crossrail is raised and lowered by 

The table is 33 ins. wide and has three 
T slots the entire length and six rows 
of holes for securing the work. The V's 
have a bearing surface of 5J ins. each 
and are 20 ins. from centre to centre, 
fitted with oil pockets for lubricating the 

table. The bed of the planer is 20 ins. 
deep and 26 ins. through the body, and 
the uprights have a width of face of 8} 

The plan6r is equipped with Bertram 
patent four belt drive. The driving pul- 
leys are 26 ins. in diameter for 2^ in. 
belts giving the same pull as one 5 in. 
driving belt and one 5 in. return belt but 
quicker reverse. The reverse pulleys are 
20 in. diameter using the same belt 

Fig. 2 shows a rear view of 36 in. x 
36 in. iron planer with four heads, driven 
through countershaft with right angle 
new type four belt drive. 

The V-angle of the planer is flattened 
and the inside lip takes up the side shock 
thus preventing the planer surface plate 
being pushed out of the V's. 

Feed Arrangement. 

The feed arrangement is shown in Fig. 

3. By a reference to this illustration it 

will be seen that studs fit in slide that 

fits in T slots. Tools .can therefore come 




1.— Front View, Four Wheel Eight 
Angle Drire. 

Fljr. 2.— Back View, Four Wheel Right Angle 


together and are right and lett. This is 
a new and good feature on Bertram 

Parallel Drive. 

By changing the attachment the planer 
may be converted into a parallel drive. 
Fig. 4 is a front view of a 36 in. x 3R 
in. iron planer with four cutting heads, 
belt driven through countershaft, with 
paiallel new type four belt drive. The 
gears which run in oil, are covering thus 
eBectively preventing any accident from 
this part of the mechanism. 

Fig. 5 shows a rear view of a 36 in. x 
36 in. iron planer with four cutting 

i'ig. 4.— Front View Four Belt Parallel 

heads, belt driven through a counter- 
shaft, with parallel new type tour belt 

Motor Drive. 

By the addition of a casting to the top 
of the standards, the planer may be 
equipped for motor drive. Fig. 6 shows 
a 36 in. x 36 in. iron planer with right 
angle drive by motor. To operate the 
planer a 15 h.p. constant speed motor 
running at 1200 r.p.m. is required. 

A rear view of this planer equipped 
for motor drive is shown in Fig. 7. 

FiK. 3. 

-Feed Arrangement, Bertram Convert- 
ible Planer. 

At the annual meeting of the B. 
Greening Wire Co., Hamilton, N. S. 
Braden of the Canadian Westinghouse 
was elected a director. 

George J. Duffey, formerly master me- 
chanic at the Michigan Central Railway 
shops in St. Thomas, has been appoint- 
ed master mechanic of the Lake Erie & 
Western Railway, with headquarters at 
I.,ima, Ohio, succeeding F. H. Regan, re- 

J. Hay, of London, has been appoint- 
ed locomotive foreman at the Sarnia 
tunnel, G. T. R., in place of W. H. 
Towne, resigned. Mr. Hay's place is 
taken by J. R. Leckie, of Palmerston. 
J. A. Waldron, machinist at Lindsay, 
has been appointed G. T. R. locomotive 
foreman at Palmerston. 

Fig. 5.— Back View, Four Belt Parallel Drive. 

Fig. 6.— Front View, Right Angle Drive by 









"^iKi ' -w^ - 




Fig. 7.— Back View, Right Angle Drive by 

Is Factory Location Immaterial, If Product Unexcelled? 

By Penstock 

Someone Has Given Expression to the Statement that "if a Man Can Write a Better Book, 
Preach a better Sermon or Make a Better Mouse Trap Than His Neighbor, Although he 
Build his House in the Woods, The World will Make a Beaten Path to His Door.' We 
are Rather Doubtful of the World Becoming so Demonstrative. 

TF the preamble be true, reformation 
involving revolution in our civilization 
should be immediately consummated, for 
our upbringing, education, business 
training, social and recreative methods 
and pursuits are one and all more or 
less at variance with the expressed 

Contrary to Reason and Intelligence. 

Is it, however, true to fact? Our 
answer that it is not, admits of no pos- 
sibility of serious questioning, consti- 
tuted as we find ourselves. The writing 
of a better book, whatever that may 
mean, by a man who elects to bury 
himself in the bush, is together with his 
book considered of infinitely less mom- 
ent than a remedy for overcrowded 
street cars. For one thing he appeals 
to a much smaller community, and for 
another he and his book are less of the 
nature of a public utility and necessity. 

The preaching of a better sermon by 
a man in the city crowd, and its res- 
ponse, is surely indictment enough of 
the ridiculousness of its efficacy in 
starting a trek to the woods. 

Forgetting for the moment that a 
large: proportion of our fellows even in 
Christian countries have ceased to be 
enamoured with sermons of any quality, 
it seems highly improbable that the 
"call of the wild" would appeal to the- 
wearers of silk hats. Prince Albert 
coats, dressmaking and millinery crea- 
tions as effectively as religious appear- 
ance in what is known as a fashionable 
city church with a hum-drum preacher. 

The discovery of gold, silver or other 
precious metal precipitates a rush to 
the field. Did it ever occur to you how 
microscopic is the percentage entrapped 
in its lure? 

The majority of us theorize that the 
doctor should come to his patient, and 
in actual practice in every condition or 
circumstance he eventually does. With 
his coming a cure is made more certain; 
of the ultimate output of, the mine, peo- 
ple several thousand miles away partici- 
pate to the largest extent; of sermons 
and, books, comfort and leisure in which 
to listen and digest are elementary con- 
siderations of sound philosophy. 

The Manufacturing View. 

The mouse trap feature brings us into 
manufacturing, and there as in these 
other spheres, the world does not see 
warranty for making a beaten, path to a 
factory door. 

We live in a progressive age; the 
mouse trap .in the limelight to-day, may 
be junk to-morrow even where mice are 
a nuisance. What hope then is there for 
the backwoods manufacturer of such a 

An army dare not move too far from 
its supplies base else its effectiveness as 
a fighting and conquering machine will 
be seriously impaired. The manufactur- 
er for the same reason may not locate 
his factory just where personal vanity in 
his fleeting achievement of producing an 
unsurpassed utility, may dictate. A 
stern law of economics over-rules and 
penalizes his imprudence of its non-ob- 
servance should he take any such step. 

Sufficient has been said to show the 
utter worthlessness of a too literal ap- 
plication of the preamble, and confirms 
our pre-determined conclusion that "fac- 
tory location is material, irrespective of 
superlative product." 

Produce a Missionary. 

Having so satisfied ourselves, does 
superior and effective location then, 
backed by the best product, warrant 
the assumption that the world will 
now beat paths from its circumference 
to our centre af effort ? We trow not. 
The world as generally known, treats 
with a generous degree of studied indif- 
ference, most of the happenings and in- 
novations that it meets accidentally or 
otherwise, as it gets around. To make 
it take notice, arrest and hold its at- 
tention requires personally persuasive, 
sympathetic and systematic effort ad- 

The manufacturer must make beaten 
paths radiate from his centre to all 
points of the world's surface and circum- 
ference, that his product is designed to 
reach. By display, mail, representa- 
tion (local or itinerant), and advertis- 
ing, must he "ancient mariner like" ar- 
rest and deliver his message to those 
he reckons as being needful of his ser- 

Sitting at his desk will not avail un- 
less he is unceasingly regulating and 
disseminating realistic information of 
what he manufactures and sells. 
Variety of Appeal Necessary. 

All manner of ingenuity must be dis- 
displayed as all manner of being has to 
be approached. What appeals to one 
by sight may be unseen by another, and 
it is a matter of common knowledge 
that this blindness is widespread. 

One man sees in the completed ma- 
chine, only the skilled designer and me- 

chanic ; another man sees a tool by 
which he can produce a cheaper and 
better grade of flour it may be. 

The field to be tapped is so complex 
that the methods already referred to 
are all necessary to a lesser or greater 

Sincere Effective Advertising. 

Manufacturers are fully realizing this 
demand to-day, and are backing it up 
by sincerity of statement. In this they 
are ably supported by trade journals. 

Advertising in these to-day is not a 
catch penny question. The page of such 
a paper is an equally well dressed win- 
dow to that of a departmental store, 
gives point to every special feature and 
appeals to the purse like bargain day. 

We are convinced that clean advertis- 
ing concentrated as regards mediums 
used and extended in quantity, carries the 
palm as the pioneer in beating the path 
out from your factory door, and the 
eliminator of that hardship and incon- 
venience which the world sees in its 
suggested initiative, and from which it 

Effective and systematic advertising 
is more than half the battle in secur- 
ing your market, and followed up by 
direct personal assurance from and by 
you in your prospective customer's 
sanctum instead of in yours, cannot tail 
to win out entirely. 

Every doctrine of political economy 
and philosophy warrants us in stating 
that present methods do conspire to re- 
sults, and that a much distorted con- 
ception of how the beings of this old 
world are constituted, is responsible for 
this book, sermon and mouse-trap 

Need of Waking Up. 

Consumers generally busy themselves 
with a host of questions more or less 
unheneficial to their best interests and 
as a consequence, lose sight of this 
latter unless more extraordinary means 
than this "call of the wild" are adopt- 

The increasing strenuousness of living 
will always tend to and gradually 
smother out this call, while that of the 
others will of necessity become louder. 
Mens' self-forgetfulness will continue to 
build a barrier to be assailed in addi- 
tion to a path to be beaten and kept 
open. The exercise of yet undemon- 
strated genius will be required, and the 
veriest hint of a pilgrimage to the bush 
to get what we want, will spell failure 
at the outset. 




In cylindrical grindiug we can never 
grind perfect work with an imperfect 
wheel. It is important that the operator 
shall realize thSt the more f>erfect and 
smooth his wheel, the more perfect and 
smooth his work will be, when making 
the light finish cuts. We make little 
or no attempt to grind smooth when 
making the roughing cuts. During these 
cuts, when the wheel is cutting heavy, 
the surface will be coarse and sometimes 
"chattered," owing to rapid work and 
deep cut, but thi.s can do no harm if 
not too deep to "finish out." Between 
the roughing and finishing cuts the 
grinding wheel must be "trued" in or- 
der to obtain round, smooth work, and 
the lustre of the surface depends upon 
the lustre we produce on the wlieel face 
when truing, also on the lightness of 
the cut we take, as well as on the speed 
at which we revolve the work when fin- 
ishing. We evolve the work slower when 
finishing than when roughing. 

When using a Norton Machine truing 
does not mean "sharpening" the wlieel; 
but it does mean "dulling" the face in 
order to obtain a finish. It also means 
that when "truing," we perfect the 
wheel, viz., we make a perfect cylinder 
of the wheel in order to grind a perfect 
cylinder with it. — From a talk by C. H. 
Norton of Norton Grinding Co. 


The accompanying illustrations show 
two wire protectors which are very ef- 
ficient. One shows a floor guard pro- 
tecting gears and the other a wall 
guard protecting the switchboard. The 
one around the switchboard may be 
locked and thus prevent any tampering 
with it. 

These guards are manufactured by the 
Canada Wire Goods Mfg. Co., Hamilton, 
and the two photographs shown were 

taken in their factory. Besides manufac- 
turing guards for protecting machinery 
they make a line of incandescent light 
and window guards, etc. 

By K. L. K. 

One of the interesting processes in the 
modern automobile plant is that of 
forging. In the works of the Canada 
Cycle & Motor Co., Toronto, various 

the recesses in both halves and produc- 
ing the forging shown at A. 

Considerable clearance is allowed so 
that the metal can easily fill the recess- 
es. A piece of stock is used large en- 
ough to more than fill them as will be 
seen by the metal wings on the brake 
jaw at A, which is the condition of the 
forging at the end of the first operation. 
In fact this is the end of the forging, 
the second being the trimming opera- 

/-^ V 

\ , 

—I — r- 




Li :^_^:-^-E 


Evolution of iin Aiitoniobilc Briike Jaw. 

parts are evolved by a few simple opera- 
tions. The equipment consists of a 
large power hammer and the necessary 

The die block parts in the centre line, 
the lower half being fastened to the 
centre line and the upper half to the 
ram of the hammer. The piece of stock 
from which the brake jaw shown here- 
with is made and which is used to illus- 
trate the method of procedure, is heated 
to a good forging temperature. The 
upper half of the die block is used as a 
hammer to strike the hot metal a series 
of blows and thus force the hot metal 
to take the shape of the die block, filling 

To trim the brake jaw the anvil half 
of the trimming die block is hollow the 
shape of the brake jaw, while the ram 
is the shape of the jaw and exactly fits 
the anvil. The result is that the brake 
jaw is pushed through leaving the wing 
on the anvil. This operation is accom- 
plished on a press. 

The third is also done in this manner. 
The anvil die block consists of a hollow 
die block the shape of the brake jaw 
with ram or punch the shape of the 
centre at C. In the fourth operation the 
part D is removed leaving the brake 
jaw as at E. It is then drilled at F 
and G, thus completing the operation. 

Flf. J. — A Wire Protector made by the (,'nnada Wire Goods Mfg. 
Co., Hamilton. 

Pig. 2.- 

-Wlre Switch Protector mnde by theCnnnda 
Mfg. Co., Hamilton. 

Wire Goods 

Boiler Design, Construction, Operation, Repairing and Inspection 

By H. S. Jcffery 

The Various Points in Connection With Boiler Practice Will be Clearly Taken up 
in This Series. The First Article Deals With the Boiler Shell, Including Repair- 
ing, Factor of Safety, Hydrostatic Test and Number of Courses. The Series Will 
he a Complete Text Book on the Subject of Boilers, and They Should be Preserved 
for Reference. 

The Bivet Fitch. 

(12) The rivet pitch is a matter which 
must be diecidted first, and then the other 
parts arranged. The pitch must not be 
so excessive as to permit the plates to 
spring between the rivets, and whicn 
•will cause the rivets and sieams to leak. 
No stated pitch can be given for a cer- 
tain thickness of plate, or for a certadn 
size rivet — 'tlhie best that can be done 
is to set a maximum pitch for different 
types of riveted joints with diffea?ent 
thickness of plate, and thien use what- 
ever size rivet as will permit the riveted 
jodnt to be properly designed. 

The following formula gives the max- 
imum pitch: 

(C X T) -f 1 5-8 = P 


C^Constant applicable from Table 1. 

T=Thicfcness of plate in inches. 

'P^iPitch in inches. (See note*.) 
Rows of Rivets.. 12 3 4 
C. for Lap Joints 1.31 2.62 3.47 4.14 
Constant for 

Double Bubt 

Strap joints .... 1.75 3.50 4.63 5.52 

Example. With a single riveted lap 
joint, plate 3-8 inch, what is the maxi- 
mum pitch T 

(1.31 X .375) .f 1 5-8b=2.116 inches, or 
2 1-8 inches. 

Double-Strapped Butt Joints. 

(13) The majority of boilers are now 
constructed with double-strapped butt 
joints for the longitudinal seam. The 
lap joint does not permit making the 
boiler as round as does the butt joint, 
nor does the lap joint make it possible 
to make the efficiency of thie longitud- 
inal seam as great as when the double- 
strapped butt joint is employed. 

In Fig. 17 is shown a single riveted 
double strapi)ed butt joint. It is single 
riveted as the shearing of either of the 
rows of rivets will permit the sheets to 

• Note. — with n double-riveted double- 
strnpped Joint, the constant from Table 1 is 
3..'j0, while with the double-riveted double- 
strapped joint the constant is 1.75. This has 
only reference to the pitch of rivets In dou- 
l)le shear. Thus the pitch of rivets for the 
inner row of the triple-riveted double-strap- 
ped Joint will have the same constant, 350, as 
used for the donhle-rlveted double-strapped 
butt Joint. 

•Third of a series of articles on this sub- 

••CopyrlRht by the MacLean Publishing 

separate, though the rivets are in 
double shear. 

Referring back to the calculations of 
the single riveted lap joint, it will be 
seen that the efficiency of the net sec- 
tion of plate is 62.5 per ■cent., while the 
rivet efficiency is 44 per cent. For the 
sake of illustrating it will be assumed 

Fig. li. 

that the letters a, b and c, Fig. 17, 
represent the same values as in Fig. 12, 
whttch, of course, will mean that the 
efficiency of the net section of plate of 
Fig. 17 is 62.5 per cent. 

But, the rivets being in double shear, 
increases their shearing strength, and 
thus their strength must be found and 
compared to the strength of the solid 
plate in order to determine the efficiency 
of the rivets. The shearing strength of 
the steel rivet in single shear was stated 
to be 45, OW) pounds per square inch 
and that a rivet in double shear wai 
1.85 times 45,000 pounds, making 83,250 

Then substituting values, the effi- 
ciency of the rivet is: 

.44179 X 1 X 83,250 

=81.7 per cent. 

60,000 X .375 X 2 

Attention is now directed to the fact 
that with the single riveted lap joint 
the rivet efficiency is 44 per cent., while 
with the single riveted double strapped 
butt joint (same size and pitch of rivets 
in both instances) it is 81.7 per 
cent. The efficiency of the nei 
section of plate remains of course. 
©2.5 per cent, in both instances. 

With the single riveted lap joint the 
efficiency of the plate exceeded the riv«t 
efficiency, it being pointed out that to 
use a larger rivet would increase the 
rivet efficiency and likewise reduce the 
efficiency of the net section of plate, 
which would! tend to equalize matters. 

With the sdngle riveted double strap- 
ped butt joint, the rivet efficiency ex- 
ceeds the plate efficiency, thus indica- 
ting that the pitch might be increased 
so as to increase the efficiency of the 
plate and reduce the rivet efficiency. 

Whether or not this course would be 
advisable relates only to the qnestaoD 
as to pitching the rivets so as to make 
the joint steam-tight. The calculations 
indicate that the pitch can be increased 
to some extent, and now by referring 
to Table 1 and the formula in connec- 
tion therewith this question can be de- 

Example. With a single riveted 
double strapped butt jodnt, plate 3-S 
inch, what is the maximum pitch! 


(1.75 X .375) X 1 5-8-2.28 inches. 

As the pitch used in the calculations 
was 2 inches, it will ba seen that this is 
below the maximum pitch allowed, and, 
accordingly the pitch can be increased, 
thus causing the efficiency of the net 
seetdon of plate to increase while the 
rivet efficiency will decrease. It is 
advisable, however, to keep the rivet 
efficiency above the plate efficiency to 
some extent, and to do this may make 
it impossible to increase- the rivet pitch 
to the maximum pitch. 

Wm. Kdestrand, of the Dain Mfg. Co., 
Dain City, has been appointed manager 
of the Welland Machine & Foundry Co., 

Some concerns in certain lines of man- 
ufacture requiring many comparatively 
simple and cheap special machines, make 
a practice of purchasing second-hand 
machine tools. The headstocks and slides 
are worked over at small cost so as to 
adapt them to the desired purpose. 
Many special machines are in use in a 
certain factory, built up from regular 
machine tools at very low cost, the func- 
tions of which are quite different from 
those for which the machines were ori- 
ginally designed. — Ex. 


Drawing and Sketching 

By B. P. 

for Machinists 

A Series of Progressive Lessons Designed to Familiarize Mechanics With the Use of the 
Apparatus Necessary to Make Simple Drawings, to Encourage them to Realize How Im- 
portant a Factor it is of Their Equipment, as Well as Being a Profitable Pastime. 

OET squares or triangles 30-60 de- 
*^ grees and 45 degrees, Fig. 7, with 
sides 8 and six inches long respectively, 
are suitable for most services and may 
be had in maple, cherry or mahogany 
with ebony edge, or in vulcanite, cellu- 
loid or other transparent composition. 
The latter are much used with open cen- 
tres as illustrated. 

The pencil has been already referred 
to, the only additional remark called for 

taining to circles, parts of circles and 
curves, attention may be directed to 
pencil rubbers, or erasers for lines 
drawn in error or of excess length. Fig. 
10 illustrates such an eraser, which 
should consist of soft fine grained rub- 
ber and be tree from sand, glass or dirt, 
all of which tend to break or glaze the 
surface of the drawing sheet. 

pass work in the preparation of mechan- 
ical drawings, are best taken care of by 
the bow pen and pencil instruments. 
They are more conveniently manipulated, 
being lighter than the others and only 
3J to 4 inches long. Each tool as will 


Fig. 7 — Triangles or Set Squares. 

Vlg. 8— Drawing Pencil Points. 

in its choice being its hexagon shape re- 
quirement. As such, it serves the double 
purpose of giving a better grip between 
the fingers when in use and has little in- 
clination to roll off the sloped drawing 
board when not in use. 

The pencil should be sharpened 
to a chisel point. Fig. 8, by 
means of which in the operation of draw- 
ing a straight line, the edge of the lead 
is kept close against the edge of the tee 
square or triangle. 

Horizontal lines should be drawn from 
left to right and vertical lines from bot- 
tom to top of sheet. The tee square head 
should be held firmly against the board 
by the left hand and with the thumb 
pressure exerted on the blade as shown 
Fig. 9. The pencil also should be held 
firmly and vertically in the right hand, 
with the forearm and elbow kept well up 
from the drawing. 

A very great help in keeping the 
otherwise unsupported pencil arm stea- 
dy and ensuring against wavy lines, la 
to allow the little finger nail surface to 
touch the tee square lightly and allow 
it to slide along concurrently with the 
pencilling of the line. The arm move- 
ment in the drawing of straight lines 
should be as much as possible from the 

Up to the present, only the apparatus 
for producing straight lines has been 
considered. Before passing to that per- 

*Tblrd of a nerles nf an Instruction Course. 
A lesson will be given each month. 

Compasses for drawing circles and 
parts of circles, vary in style, size, qual- 
ity, purpose and price. 

Those used for drawing large circles of 
varying diameter are generally 6 inches 
long. Such a set. Fig. 11, in addition to 
the needle and pencil points, includes a 
pen point and lengthening bar for circles 
in excess of those attainable by the self- 
contained instrument. 

Small circles of varying diameter, and 
forming by far the major portion of com- 

Fig. U. 

be noted from the illustration Fig. 12, 
is complete in itself. 

Spring bow compasses Fig. 13 are 
usually about 3 inches long and as their 
construction shows, are capable of ac- 
curate adjustment. They are most suit- 
able in circumstances where a large num- 

Flg 9— Application of T-sqaare to Drawing Board. 



ber of circles of equal diameter are re- 

The head joint of the two sets first de- 
scribed are an important feature to be 
attended to in making a selection for 
purchase. Double joints ensuring good 
lasting wearing surfaces should be their 

Fig. 10. 

constructional detail. The needle, pen 
and pencil arms at the junction to the 
body should be similarly equipped. 

The material of compasses generally, 
consists of German silver and good qual- 
ity steel. 

In purchasing instruments, those of 
the highest grade should be selected. 

Fig. 12. 

consistent of course with one's purse, if 
satisfactory work is to be comfortably 
achieved and usefulness of tools is to be 
guaranteed for 10 or 15 years under con- 
stant daily service. 

The pencil for your compasses should 
be one grade softer than that of your 
drawing pencil. 

By G. C. K 

The value of the metal locker in the 
modern machine shop is being recogniz- 
ed. Formerly it was customary to drive 
a nail in the post and hang the coat or 
overalls, smock and towel any available 
place. The advantages over this method 
as well as over old wooden lockers, are 
many. For instance, wooden lockers are 
inflammable, badly ventilated, often un- 
cleanly and full of vermin. They are 
thus very unsanitary whereas the metal 
lockers are safe and sanitary. 

When a workman locks his coat, din- 
ner pail, etc., in the locker of which he 
holds the key, he feels a sense of secur- 
ity, for each locker requires a different 
key. No employe can, therefore, unlock 
another's locker. 

The use of the metal locker materially 
reduces insurance. There are no oil 
soaked smock and overalls lying around 
through the shop as these can be kept 
in the lockers. 

Apart from the protective feature— af- 
fecting alike employers and employes — 
the educational value of the locker sys- 
tem in the cultivation of habits of ord- 
er and self-respect is incalculable. If a 
workman is accustomed to putting 
away his own effects in the proper 
place, he will be more inclined to show 
similar care in putting away in their 
proper places tools and materials he has 
been using. Manufacturers, superinten- 
dents and foremen know what the care 
of machines, tools and materials, mean 
to the employer in dollars and cents. 

Lockers are now being installed in a 
large number of the new plants but 
there are still a large number both of 
the new and older plants which should 
include them in their equipment. To the 
managers of these shops we would draw 
attention to the rule which was given 
due prominence in one of the workshops 
where the writer was employed, "A 
place for everything and everything in 
its place." 

The adoption of the locker has been 
the natural outgrowth of modern busi- 
ness methods which has brought about 

conditions which make it absolutely es- 
sential that those things which assist in 
cleanliness, safety and dispatch shall be 
employed in organizations. 

In order to show that the lockers are 
growing in use the following list is ap- 

Recent installations by the Geo. B. 
Meadows, Toronto, Wire, Iron and Brass 
Works Co., 479 Wellington street, west, 
Toronto, have been made; Somerville 
Brass Co., Berna Motor & Taxicabs, 
Ltd., Toronto; Northern Electric Co., 
Canadian Fairbanks, Montreal and Win- 
nipeg; Brantford Carriage Works, Brant- 
ford; Robb Engineering Co., Amherst, 
N.S.; etc. 

The Dennis Wire & Iron Works Co., 
London, Ont., have made installations in 
the plants of the International Acheson 
Graphite Co., Niagara Falls; Massey- 
Harris Co., Brantford; Tobin Arms Co., 
Woodstock; Lufkin Rule Co., Windsor; 
Kaministiquia Power Co., Fort William; 
N. T. R. shops, Winnipeg, etc. 

The lockers shown in the half-tone 
were supplied by the Canada Wire Goods 
Mfg. Co., 182-186 King William street, 
Hamilton, who have made many import- 
ant installations. 


George A. Barnes, secretary of the 
Whitman & Barnes Mfg. Co., Akron, 
Ohio, was born at Cincinnati, Ohio, 
August 6th, 1857, died at Akron, Ohio, 
March 22, 1911. Mr. Barnes began his 
long service with the Whitman & Barnes 
Mfg. Co. at their Syracuse factory In 
1876. In 1879 he was transferred to 
the Canton, Ohio, works of the com- 
pany, remaining there as manager until 
1895, when he removed to Akron, Ohio, 
at which place he resided until his 
death, with the exception of the years 
1902 and 1904, when he was located at 
the Chicago offices of the company. At 
the time of his death, Mr. Barnes was 
Secretary of the company, a director, 
and member of the executive board. He 
is survived by a widow and one son, 
H. L. Barnes, who is superintendent of 
the Whitman & Barnes Mfg. Company's 
Chicago works. 

Fig. 13. 

A modern InstallatioD of Icckers. made by the C.-inndn Wire Goocis Mfg. Co., Humilton. 


Unique Ways of Doing Things in the Machine Shop. Readers' Opinions 
Concerning Shop Practice. Data for .Machinists. Contributions paid for. 


By Jno. A. Bradley. 

A collapsible boring tool used for 
roughing and described in the following 
was designed for use in the manufacture 
of gasoline engines, but its adaptability 
to other lines may make this descrip- 
tion of interest. 

Fig. 1 is side view, Fig. 2 an end 
view, while there is a sectional view 
taken through X.X. It consists of an 
inner arbor and cam shaft X, ami outer 
arbor and tool holder B, cutters C of 
which there are twenty-four, and re- 
taining screws D, a hand wheel E 
fastened to adjusting screw F, both (:I 
which are supported at one end by the 
bracket G and the cam shaft shifting 
lever H. 

As previously mentioned this tcol is 
used for roughing only. One end of 'he 
inner arbor and cam shaft A is insert- 
ed in the driving head, while the oppo- 
site end enters a pilot. When in opera- 
tion the inner and outer arbors A and 
B rotate together, because of the ad- 
justing screw F, one end of which is 
supported in the bracket G, fastened on 
the outer arbor B, while the other end 

By Pedestal. 

With a view to lessening the liability 
to accidents from breaking or bursting 
of grinding wheels, the Norton Co., 

Flsr. 1.— Wroug, 


Worcester, Mass., have applied them- 
selves with much diligence and study to 
the question of equipment. 

Results of experiments by them go to 
show that the wheels should be mounted 
on ample size spindles and that washers 
whose diameter is at least half that of 
the wheel be used as supports. 

hearings and be securely fixed to proper 
foundations. Care should be taken to 
have the wheels true and in balance, and 
that the spindle hole admits of the wheel 
being slid on to the spindle without any 
appearance of play. The washers should 
be tightened just sufRciently to grip the 
wheel firmly without undue pressure. 

To prevent work getting caught be- 
tween the wheel and the rest, the latter 
should be adjusted as close up to the 
wheel as possible. 

The speed of the wheels may be from 
4,000 to 6,000 ft. per minute as required. 
All machines should be fitted with a sign 
or indicator denoting their wheel diam- 
eter and spindle revolutions. Worn 
down wheels may in this way be utilized 
on machines speeded to suit their reduc- 
ed diameter. 

Single pulleys are to be preferred on 
the machines, obviating as they do the 
starting of new wheels at excessive 

Protective hoods with trunks to fan 
suction should be fitted to conserve oper- 
ators' health, and the care of the equip- 

engages the cam shaft shifting lever 
nut L. The shifting lever H is fastened 
on arbor A. 

The cutters C which are made a slid- 
ing fit in the outer arbor B are re- 
cessed as shown at C, to permit the end 
of the retaining screws D to enter, 
thus allowing the cutters to move in 
and out, a distance regulated by the 
length of the recess. 

A very fine adjustment of the cutters 
is obtained by rotating the hand wheel 
E, the adjusting screw F having a fine 
pitch thread. The trunnion I supported 
in bracket G permits the adjusting me- 
chanism angular movement. 

Collapsible Boring Tool. 

The inner washer should be pressed or 
keyed on to prevent its revolving, and 
both should be relieved as shown in Fig. 
2, so as to ensure a true bearing along 
the outer edge only. Compression rings 
of pulp or rubber should be used between 
the washers and the wheel. 

The grinding machine of itself should 
be substantial and rigid, have well fitted 

ment should be delegated to a respon- 
sible person. Fig. 1 represents an im- 
proper method of wheel attachment, 
while Fig. 2 shows that recommended. 


By M. E. D. 

The common custom in cleaning shop 
mators is to attach the 'air hose and 
blow the dust oft the motor into the 
air where the men are working. In a 
wood-working department this is par- 
ticularly offensive and is attended with 
a great waste of air. 

A method adopted by the Toronto 
Steeet Railway Co., in cleaning th« 



cars is to use a vacuum system. The 
use of the vacuum system for industrial 
uses has been greatly extended in the 
past £ew years and there appears no 
reasonable reason why this system 
should not be applied to the cleaning of 
motors. The dust will be sucked out 
instead of blown out and the crevices in 
the motor will therefore be thoroughly 
cleaned out and the dust, instead of be- 
ing blown into the atmosphere to be 
breathed by the workmen, can be col- 
lected into a receiver. 


By Kelpie. 

Inaccuracy of turning all the grooves 
on a rope pulley to the same gauge in 
the machine shop, and the subsequent 
installation of the pulley in the mill or 
factory, inevitably leads to operating 
trouble in the matter of unequal rope 

The apparatus here described and illus- 
trated, Pigs. 1 and 2, was specially de- 
signed to rectify such a defect at a les- 
ser cost than that of dismantling the 
pulley and shipping it back to the ma- 
chine shop. The sketches show it to be 
simple in constructional detail, of appli- 

cation to pulley widths between wide 
limits and adaptable to almost any local 
conditions. It is a useful portable tool 
for a jobbing machine shop to carry, oc- 
cupying small space and of moderate 
weight for transportation. 

The rope pulley requiring grinding had 
23-1 inch rope grooves on a diameter of 
40 inches. Its speed was 475 revolutions 
per minute. 

The detail of the grinding equipment 
consisted of a shaft 3i inches diameter 

The emery wheel as will be noted has 
its grinding surface on one side only, by 
reason of which one side of each rope 
groove is completed in one lengthways 
operation. For the return, the emety 
wheel is reversed and the like process 
gone through until all the grooves liavc 
been treated. From time to time it «as 
necessary, of course, to roughen and, keep 
the emery grinding face true. 

One difficulty experienced in tackling a 
job ot this description, that is when the 

Fig. 2. — Elevation of Rope Groove Grinding Apparatus. 

for a body length of about 6 feet and 
threaded 3J threads per inch. The ends 
of the shaft were turned down to i-^ 
inches diameter to fit standard flat 
boxes. The lengths of these reduced ends 
were 13 and 27 inches respectively. 

In addition to the large diameter be- 
ing threaded, a keyway for fixing the 
grinding wheel was cut along its entire 
length. The emery grinder was 20 
inches diameter and with its shaft had 
an operating speed of one half that of 
the rope pulley or 237.3 revolutions per 
minute. Adjustment was made by means 
of the keyway and locknuts as sho'.vn. 

Further and closer adjustment <"! the 
grinding wheel to the side of the groove 
was got by the bridge screws on each 
end of the grinder shaft. 

rope pulley has been in service, is the 
almost constant glazing ot the grinder 
face by oil and grease secreted in small 
crevices of the various grooves, no 
ter how great pains are taken to have 
as far as possible complete extraction 
made before starting operations. 

The drive, as will be noted from Fig. 
2, is self-cootained. A single sheaf pulley 
10 inches diameter is mounted on the 
driving shaft and roped to a similar 
pulley 20 inches diameter on the grinder 
shaft by an endless 1 inch rope and idler 
pulleys with weight tightener. 

The whole equipment is reliable, com- 
pact and easy of application to a va- 
riety of installation. 

Needless to say excellent, accurate and 
effective work was performed by the ap- 
paratus, with the result that an equable 
rope tension was attained at a compar- 
atively low cost and with the minimum 
of delay and inconvenience to the regular 
operation of the mill. 

mg. 1. — Plan of Rope Groove Grindinir Apparatus 



By M. E. D. 

The John Inglis Co., Toronto, re- 
cently constructed a dam gate of unique 
design, for the Canadian Light & Power 
Co. It is known as the "Tainter 
Gate," and shows how the stresses in- 
creasing with the depth of water are 
taken care of in the dam. A side view 
is the shape of a segment of a circle 
as shown in the illustration. 

The distances between the I-beams 
from the bottom up are approximately 
1' 8", 2' 4", 2' 3i", 2' 5", 2* 9i", 
2' 11", 3' 1" and 4' 6" which shows 
the relative pressure of the water at 
various points. 

The upper half of the sketch shows a 
top view. The gates swing on the bear- 
ings shown. The plate into which the 
shaft fits is embedded securely into the 
concrete damp so that the Tainter gate 
is easily raised or lowered. Four of 
these devices were built, all the parts 
being carefully fitted before shipping. 


By Donald A. Hampton. 

I had been in charge of the shop but 

a short time when I was confronted 

with the job of reducing ten thousand 

pieces, like Fig. 3, to a uniform thick- 


T~^ n^ 

Fig. 1. 

ness of 3-16 in. These had been cut 
from bars 1 inch in width and, while I 
would have preferred to "strip" them 
in longer lengths, the job was there and 
waiting and up to me. The steel varied 
a 1-64 inch, my given allowance was 
.001 in. above and .002 in. below actual 

In the grinding room was a Norton 
grinder of the radial arm type which 
was unusually well supplied with 
gauges, angle plates, etc., and it was by 
use of one of these angle plates that 
I put the job through. Fig. 2. shows 
the device in perspective, the details of 
which are seen to a larger scale in Fig. 
1. The angle plate was drilled for a 
shaft S which, at the back of the plate, 
was furnished with a lever L. The 
front end of the shaft was turned 
eccentrically as at E, for a distance 
equal to the thickness of the work 
pieces— 3-16 in.— and hardened. A hard- 
ened piece P was made and inlaid 

Fig. 2. 

close up to the shaft S with the por- 
tion P extending beyond the face of the 
plate 1-16 in., as did also the eccentric 
end E. The fixture was then ready for 

Now, with the lever adjusted in the 
right position, the work pieces were 
held most securely, at the same time 
quickly and easily, for | of a turn was 
sufficient to give the operator all the 
room needed for inserting. When the 
lever was released, the pieces fell ofl in 
a box. To offset the convexity of the 
stock, the part P was relieved through 

ODtllDc Sketch of Tainter Oate for Canadian Llgbt & Power Co., bnllt b7 the John IncUs 

Co., Toronto. 

FItr. 3. 

the centre and a clearance was provided 
next the shoulder P' for burrs and dirt. 
To faciliate the work, a boy sorted 
the stock into three piles .005, 010 and 
.015 inches large, using an adjustable 
gauge for the purpose. The grinder first 
reduced the .015 inch stock to .010 inch, 
which was combined with the pile al- 
ready waiting and this in turn further 
reduced. By so doing the operator's 
work was made uniform throughout, all 
pieces were passed across the face of the 
wheel the same number of times (3 or 
4), and there were no excuses for slov- 
enly work because of high and low stock 
creeping in. 



By Penstock. 

The device here described is that used 
by the Maximilian Pneumatic Tool Co., 
Woodstock, Ont., for drilling the port 
holes in the cylinders of air hammers 
manufactured by them. 

Fig. 1 is a sectional elevation of the 
hammer cylinder, the air ports in which, 
are indicated by the letters AA. These 
ports are each 3-16 of an inch in diam- 
eter asd vary in number according to 
the power requirement of the hammer. 

It should be noted that they are about 
5 inches long and that the wall of metal 
on the inner edge after drilling is only 

Fig. 1.— Sectional Elevation of Pneumatic 

1-16 of an inch thick. To secure accur- 
acy of drilling, a suitable jig becomes 
therefore a necessity, and fig. 2 gives a 
representation of same. 

The jig as will be seen has a large 
diameter machined base to which the 
body is bored and threaded square and 
true. The extreme diameter of the body 
is 3 inches, while that of the base is 8 
inches. The thread, 8 per inch tapers 
from 2f inches to 3 inches diameter, en- 
suring with the 4 slots K, a compres- 
sion grip when the nut F is screwed 
down. These slots are 3-32 of an inch 
wide by 5 inches deep. 

Application consists in placing end B 
of the hammer cylinder into the jig bar- 
rel so as to bring its shoulder C to rest 
on the jig face D. 

Tightening the nut F on the taper 
thread, locks the cylinder securely at its 
plain part G. 

The nut F has a milled edge, and hand 
tightening of it is sufficient in all cases. 

air drill. Recently we experienced 
some trouble in erecting some agricul- 
tural machinery. Either the machine 
hands were careless or the jigs were in- 
accurate. In any case the bolts would 
not go where they were supposed to fit 
and it used up a lot of time and pa- 
tience reaming out the holes by hand. 
The air was not piped to the warehouse 
so we . purchased a portable electrical 
drill which has paid for itself many 
times over. 

Later one hole was omitted altogether 
from several hundred frames. To send 
them back from the warehouse to shop 
would have caused a long delay and con- 
siderable expense. The portable drill 

F^^^:^^^^:^— — -^^^^^^^ 

Fie. 2.— Sectional Elevation of Port Drilling 

solved the difficulty and the machines 
were shipped on time. The portable 
drill whether air or electric is one of 
the best cost saving devices around the 



By D. C. Current. 

One of the handiest tools around a 

machine shop is the portable electric or 


Comments on articles appearing in 
Canadian Machinery will be cheerfully 
welcomed, and letters containing useful 
ideas will be paid for. 

Information regarding manufacturers 
of various lines, with their addresses 
will be supplied either through these 
columns or by letter, on request. Ad- 
dress letters to Canadian Machinery, 
143-149 University Ave., Toronto.— 

Use of Common Salt. 
1. Please suggest the proper method 
of melting common salt in a crucible for 
heating too' or cast steel to the proper 
heat before being dipped into the cooling 
bath, for hardening. 

2. Do you know of any substance to 
add to the salt to help it to melt at a 
lower temperature than when alone? 

3. About what is the temperature at 
which salt will become a fluid? 

4. Would you advise rock or common 
salt for melting in a crucible ? — A sub- 

Replying to your favor, I must say 
that I have never heard of common salt 
(chloride of sodium) being used as a 
heating solution in tempering operations; 
a solution in combination with other 
chemicals such as alum, oil of vitrei or 
corrosive sublimate, may be used suc- 
cessfully as a cooling medium in tem- 
pering low carbon or inferior steels. — 

Common salt which has a specific gra- 
vity of 2.16 has a melting point of 776 
degrees. Plain sea water is used where 
any unusual degree of hardness is requir- 
ed and no temper is to be drawn, or on 
special steels such as soft centre plow 
steel. When sea water is not obtainable 
the following is a good substitute: Car- 
bonate of soda, 2 lbs.; saltpeter, 2 lbs.; 
and salt 20 lbs. Dissolve in a barrel of 

For hardening tools dissolve rock 
salt in rain water and use solution over 
and over again. The longer it is in use 
the better the solution for tempering. 

Alloys of lead and tin, lead only and 
boiled linseed oil are also used for tem- 
pering.— M.E.D. 

We would be glad to have any of our 
readers write us answers to the ques- 
tions asked by this subscriber?— Editor. 
• • • 


By Machinist. 

In the December 1910 and January 
1911 issues of Canadian Machinery me- 
thods were given for holding work on a 
planer. I have a large number of flat 
castings to plane and experienced great 
difficulty in getting them true until the 
patternmaker came along one day and 
said he would soon remedy my troubles. 

He put lugs on the side of the pattern 
with holes cored in them, making the 
distance between the centres of the 
holes equal to the distance between the 
centre of the T-slots in the planer. It 
is now an easy matter to bolt on the 
work for surface planing. 

What are some of the uses to which 
aluminum is put? Is it an expensive 
metal?— A. B. Barron. 

Aluminum is used to produce solid 
ingots and castings, for household uten- 
sils and electric transmission lines. It 
you write the British Aluminum Co., 24 
Adelaide street. West, Toronto, they 
will send circular matter and lists. — 





A raenthiT nawsiMtper deroted to machinery and manutacturinj intereati 
■lachanical and alectrical trade., the foundry, techniMj progree.. cco«trucUon 
and improvement, and to aU ueeje of power developed from ateam. (aa, elec- 
riaity, compreaaed air and water in Canada. 

The MacLean Publishing Co., Limited 


H.V.TYRRELL, Toronto ■ 

G. C KEITH. MB.. B.Sc. ToroBto 
PBTBR BAIN, M.E.. Toronto 


Bualneas Mtnigar 
Mtoailni Editor 
Aiaoelatc Editor 


^^ „ ,«. ,~, o . LOKDOH - 88 Fleet Street. E.C. 

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Cable Addreaa: 
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Subacribera who are not receiving their paper regularly will eonfer a 
(avor oo ua by lettloc ua know. We ahould be notified at once of any 
ebanie In addreas, giving both old and new. 

Vol. VII. 

April. 1911 

No. 4 

In our February issue, "Incompetency and Ineffi- 
ciency" formed the subject of a brief editorial. We there 
stated that no data was available of basis or viewpoint 
of the estimator in the conclusions drawn. 

Pushing our investigation a step further, we are at a 
loss even to locate the personality of the estimator. 
There is no trace of his origin, training, education, 
superlative intelligence and infallible reasoning ; in fact 
nobody has ever met him, yet he seems existent. 

Disciplinarians we know, inventors we know, experts 
in carrying out or doing special work we also know, 
and the big bluff we are certain of having seen and 
heard, but these men, these estimators, these efficiency 
engineers, who direct and operate through graded sub- 
ordinates, everything under their care by increased com- 
petency to a higher plane of efficiency, we are strangers 
to unfortunately so far. 

"Out of the fulness of the heart doth the mouth 
speak," and out of the emptiness of the head doth it at 
least likewise. Being so, the "big noise" may not 
necessarily count. 

It strikes us that there is a too vague generalizing 
liberty taken by incompetents, and splarging of crazy 
ideals by idle dreamers. 

"To make a silk purse out of a sow's ear" although 
yet impossible of attainment, has about as much proba- 
bility of accomplishment as these hot-air effusions have 
of doing or being of any service to one branch or another 
of business or manufacture. 

The incompetency and inefficiency cry is a fascinating 
one, and many are attracted to join in it, on account of 

the opportunity it affords of appearing famous in the 
public eye, at a cheap rate on a light-weight brain 

The efficiency engineer as represented, is a myth so 
far as effective work performed is concerned. The name 
is being made a travesty of, by those who would cover 
up their own uselessness in displaying the weaknesses of 

There is too much of the .5 cent moving picture 
show, prominent in the engineering profession and tech- 
nical journalism to-day ; too much dictation of what a 
man should be, and too little attention paid to means of 
realizing it. 

Reckless and fiercely colored word pictures of what Is 
expected and how far he falls short, unsettle him in his 
work and without doubt make him feel, "if I had the 
wings of a little dove, far, far away I would fly." 

Cut out these ideas that a set of superior beings, 
know-it-alls, efficiency engineers or whatever you elect 
to call them, exist, and keep us from getting excited any 
more because we have never met them and are unaware 
of their name and address. 

Let us get alongside the man at the machine, shovel 
or desk, give and get from him all the information and 
assistance he or we need or have at disposal. 

Encourage a reciprocity agreement on similar lines be- 
tween each man and the fellow at his shoulder; make them 
feel that the edging of one another further along the road 
of progress, accomplishes more than either could do for 
himself alone; and impress them that if they never meet 
the ideal efficiency engineer, they will have the personal sat- 
isfaction of laying claim to being at least, brands of the 
real thing. 


In this issue of Canadian Machinery is an article on 
"Safeguarding Machinery in Industrial Plants." Pro- 
bably there is not a shop official including foreman, su- 
perintendent, master mechanic or manager who cannot 
recall an accident which happened in the shop under his 
charge and decreased the efficiency of his shop, and which 
the exercise of a little precaution in selecting machinery, 
transmission appliances, the. wise expenditure on proper 
guards for gears, punches, etc., might have prevented. 

Warning notices may be used to good advantage, but 
should be short and pointed. They give a protection 
from damage suits, but are not very efficient in pre- 
venting accidents. 

In the best of organizations, accidents will happen 
and shop officials will find it to advantage to organize 
"first aid" corps who can give immediate and competent 
first-aid services within the plant to every injured per- 
son. The prompt cleaning and dressing of slight accidental 
wounds gives great relief to the sufferer and renders any 
later medical attention more effective. In the majority 
of cases nothing more is needed, but neglected or delayed 
treatment of simple injuries may have most serious con- 

Every works executive and engineer will find it a 
valuable adjunct to the safety engineering of the plant to 
maintain in every department, apart from labor law and 
casualty insurance reports, a full and accurate record of 
every accident and also of every near accident. Periodi- 
cal examination of these and the determination of every 
mechanical engineer to practice safety engineering to the 
best of his ability, without regard to the legal minimum 
or compulsion, will help more than anything else to re- 
move speedily a great reproach from our industrial life. 




It has been demonstrated that the plant that does 
not take proper care of its stock, is losing money and 
reducing profits. The system of piling stock in any out 
of the way corner of the plant yard exposed to the ele- 
ments is rapidly becoming obsolete due to the foresight 
of those in charge studying the question intelligently. 
There are still some managers who have not yet heard 
of "Scientific Management" as far as the stock room is 
concerned. The writer visited one plant recently where 
two men were busy with shovels and axes .trying to 
extricate some grey iron castings from the snow and ice 
which is so common in this country. In the not too 
careful endeavor to release them, several were broken 
and this loss was added to the wages of the men. It 
should not therefore, require much headwork to figure 
out the saving in providing a shelter for the output of 
the foundry before it is required for use in the machine 

In that plant there was no central stock room and 
when a workman erecting machinery desired some bolts 
he was allowed to help himself. If he had 100 pieces to 
put together and required 100 bolts, he generally helped 
himself to 110 or 115 in case there were some defective 
ones. When they were bolted in place, he found he had 
12 or 15 bolts over. These were put under the bench for 
use some time hence and forgotten. When the next hun- 
dred was ready for erection there were another 115 bolts 
taken from the box and those left over were put away 
as usual finally finding their way into the sweepings that 
were thrown out. 

Another incident that occurred was in connection with 
the blacksmith shop. When the foreman wanted stock he 
hunted it up and helped himself. One day he wanted 
stock for a certain job and in hunting for it, he came 
across some two inches too long. He had it wheeled into 
the shop, cut off the shears and forged into shape. Later 
he had another part for the same machine which required 
stock two inches longer than the first job, but on a hunt, 
all he could find was stock two inches too short. He had 
used the wrong stock. A consultation with the com- 
pany's buyer would have put him right. A central stock 
room in charge of a competent man, would have elimin- 
ated all these wastes. It will pay you to have a proper 
stock department. 

Increased profits and more pay for the men by the 
application of Scientific management. Nearly every mag- 
azine, city daily and country weekly in Canada and the 
United States has had something to say about it, 
whether they knew anything about it or not. The fact 
is that the time to wake up has come for the shop 
manager, superintendent and foreman. "Rule of Thumb" 
methods have served in the drafting office and in the shop 
for years, but the days of such methods are passing for 
the wide awake shops. The change is not going to come 
about on account of some of the sweeping charges some 
papers make, but on account of the clear understandable 
concise way in which the technical press is placing be- 
fore these men the results of experiments and studies 
along this line. 

Charges have been made chiefly against the railroads. 
In a recent issue of the Atlantic Monthly, E. P. Ripley, 
president of the Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe Ry. 
discusses the question and says : 

Railway managers do not deny that many mis- 
takes have been made and many abuses have 
grown up in the development and administration 
of American railways. But they do deny the truth 
and fairness of many of the counts in the sweeping 

indictments of the roads that have been made and 
printed throughout the country, and feel strongly 
that most of the public hostility to the carriers 
is unjust. They do not doubt that the public 
means to be fair. But they feel that it has allow- 
ed itself to be misled, to its own injury, by those 
wholesale charges of wrong-doing. They believe 
that some of the legislation that has been passed 
recently is wholesome. But they think that many 
laws that have been enacted, and many projects 
for further regulation which are receiving popular 
support, are unwise, because they aim to do things 
that are undesirable, or to secure ends the attain- 
ment of which would be impracticable even if it 
were desirable. 

The fact is that such railroads as the Santa Fe, 
New York Central, C.P.R. and G.T.R., have been very 
progressive, as the systems of education, taking care of 
stock, tools, dispatching work, etc., have been kept up- 
to-date and men have been employed who are conversant 
with modern systems of business management. 

A great deal may be gained by shop managers by 
watching someone else. "Many of our ideas," says 
Frederick W. Taylor, "we appropriated from some one 
else." But Taylor experimented too and one experiment 
alone saved $75,000 a year for the Bethlehem steel 
works. Taylor's experiments in the cutting of steel are 
now well known by every user of high speed steel. 

The new movement is a world wide one and France 
and Germany are now trying it out. Each job must be 
studied separately, the handling of coal, sand, etc., 
drilling castings or performing any other work. There 
is one way which is quicker than any other way and the 
planning of the works will be rewarded by increased 
profits for the investors and increased wages to their 


In this issue of Canadian Machinery is an article on 
protecting machinery and thus minimize the possibility 
of accident. Accidents do happen, however, and employ- 
ers should guard against them as much as possible. When 
they do occur it is only reasonable that some steps 
should be taken to look after the men's welfare. 

The same applies when a man grows old in the ser- 
vice of an employer. The Canadian Railroads recognize 
this and pension a workman after a certain number of 
years in their employ. If a firm or company buys a 
machine and pays for it he can do with it what he will 
but if he rents that machine anil it is damaged, he feels 
in duty bound to replace it. When an employer rents a 
man's brain and hands, therefore, and that man is in- 
jured or grows old in his service, he should feel morally 
bound to recompense. The Canadian Manufacturers' As- 
sociation have taken ud the question and it is hoped 
something definite will result. The question is one that 
could be dealt with by the Provincial Governments and 
the Labor Department of the Federal Governments. 

There is no better course of study for any apprentice 
or other young mechanic than to become as familiar as 
possible with the many names and terms used in the 
shops. While these vary in different sections, there are 
always enough floating from city to city from whom 
to learn many of the local terms with little trouble. 
While it would be difficult to put a pay-day price on this 
knowledge, no one can fail to be of more value who can 
call a tool or part of a machine by its right name, rather 
than to designate it as a "thing," preceded by one or 
more lurid adjectives.— Ex. 


A Record of New and Improved Machinery Tending Towards Higher Quality and 
Economical Production in the Machine Shop, and Blacksmith Shop or Planing Mill. 

MOTOR-DRIVEN PIPE MACHINE, ily geared with a very powerful motor, 
The Curtis & Curtis Co., of Bridge- which provides ample power for dull dies 
port, Comi., have just placed on the or hard pipe. An economical feature is 
market, a new design of electrically driv-i that the dies are clamped by one move- 
en pipe cutting and threading machines, ment of a lever. The Curtis & Curtis 

New Curtis & Curtis Motor-Driveu Pipe ThreadiQir jUACbiue. 

as shown in accompanying illustration. 
The die cutting head is of the usual 
Forbes pattern, and is mounted on a 
cabinet base with a motor for any cur- 
rent desired concealed within. 

The machine is entirely self-contained, 
both as to the machine itself, and the 
way the power is applied. The entire 
machine can be moved from place to 
place, and started by simply attaching 
the wires. A trolley may be used over 
the machine to handle the pipe. The 
machine can be taken out on large jobs, 
and easily moved from place to place. 
Various speeds can be obtained, or the 
machine can be started or stopped by 
simply throwing a lever, while the moton 
is allowed to run constantly. 

The motor being situated inside of the 
base, it is protected from drippings of 
oil, or breakage resulting from the hand- 
ling of long and heavy lengths of pipe 
and fittings. The machine is very heav- 

Co. would be pleased to send special in- 
formation in regard to these machines on 


The accompanying half-tone shows the 
automatic variable feed to the head as 
applied to the Rockford shapers. It will 
be noted from the illustration that the 
arrangement has been designed with the 
view of simplicity and absence of com- 
plicated parts, making it serviceable and 
not liable to get out of order. It feeds 
the tool either up or down and operates 
at any angle. The triangular shaped in- 
cline on which the roller rides can be 
readily adjusted to suit the position of 
ram or moved out of the way when not 
in use. 

The lever shown on the side of ram 
with spring pin, regulates the amount of 
feed. Six changes are provided, as fol- 

lows : .008, .016, .021, .032, .040, 
.048. The lever on top of the ram re- 
verses the teed and throws the gears out 

Remington Benrh Ltitlie. 

of mesh, by placing lever in central po- 
sition when not in use. 

The Rockford shaper is manufactured 
by the Rockford Machine Tool Co., Rock- 
ford, 111., U.S.A. 


The accompanying illustrations show a 
new No. 3 size of the universal horizon- 
tal boring machine, recently placed on 
the market by the Universal Boring Ma- 
chine Co., Hudson, Mass. This No. 3 
machine, they term their 3" x 30" x 
30", which refers to the size and travel 
of the boring bar ; the machine has a 3 
inch bar, a vertical feed of 30 inches and 
a horizontal travel of 30 inches. 

Fig. 1 shows the spindle drive. The 
machine is of the single pulley type and 
may be driven from the line shaft. A 
shifter handle is located at B. The drive 
to the spindle is transmitted from the 
speed gear box through the vertical 
shaft E to the head proper. The ex- 
terior and interior details of the head 
are shown in Figs. 2 and 3. The head 
casting is one single casting, with oil 
pockets cored out in the casting itself 
for holding lubricant for the bearings 
and gears. 

In Fig. 2 are shown the various oper- 
ating handles, the handle A reverses the 
direction of rotation of the spindle by 
operating the jaw clutch J, as shown in 
Fig. 3. The handle B, operates the 
clutch O, Fig. 3, changing the machine 
from direct geared drive to back geared 

As will be seen in Fig. 3, the power is 
transmitted from the speed gear box 
through the shaft E to the spur gear F, 
then through G to the bevel gear H. 
The bevel gear H, I and I2 together 
with the clutch J make up the reversing 



mechanism. Prom the reversing me- 
chanism the power is transmitted direct 
to the driving gear, when the clutch 
is engaged with K ; or around through 
the gears L and M, when the clutch is 
engaged with N. 
The driving gear has been placed at a 

able to be placed on the head well in to- 
wards the face of the spindle allowing 
the operator to see his boring cutters 
and make adjustments at the same time. 
A. travel of 30 inches at one setting of 
the adjustable collar T is obtained. The 
automatic bar feed is received from the 
feed gear box through shaft n, which 
carries a worm meshing with the worm 
gear U. On the same shaft with this 

down into the reservoir below. The 
large reservoir for the lubrication of the 
main spindle bearings is filled at N, and 
drained at O. 

The method of transmitting the auto- 
matic feed to the table is shown in Fig. 
5. The table has been removed from the 
saddle, so as to show the details of the 
feed. The power is transmitted from tha 
feed gear box through the shaft X which 

Fig. 1. — Spindle Drive Universal Horizontal 
Boring Machine Co., Chicago. 

Fig. 3.— I'owcr Transmission, Universal Horizontal Boring Machine. 

point nearest the work, as shown in 
Pig. 4, Q being the driving gear and P 
the driving pinion. This arrangement se- 
cures stiffness in large milling cutters, 
and at the same time eliminating chat- 
ter. The driving gear has a long hub, 
which forms the spindle and to the spin- 
dle are fastened two keys V and V2, 
which drive the boring bar. The hub of 
the driving gear forms a face plate to 
which a face milling cutter may be fas- 
tened, four holes having been drilled and 
tapped out for the purpose. 

The design of the head casting permits 
the rack S to travel the full length of 
the head, thus the hand wheel for the 
quick movement of the boring bar is 

worm gear is the spur pinion which 
drives the rack. Referring to Fig. 2, E, 
is a positive clutch, which secures hand 
wheel D, to the worm gear. 

The spindle proper is surrounded by an 
oil reservoir, the gears run in a bath of 
oil lubricated by the splash system and 
the oil reservoirs will be seen as indicat- 

carries mounted on it a 45 degree spiral 
gear meshing with the 45 degree spiral 
gear W and a jaw clutch. The spiral 
gear runs free on shaft X, while the jaw 
clutch is keyed with a sliding spline. 
The spiral gear W carries the nut for 
operating the table feed and when the 
lever at the right of the saddle is pulled 
out as shown the jaw clutch engages 
corresponding teeth in the hub of the 
spiral gear, beneath the saddle, thus en- 
gaging the feed. The stop Z is for 
ihrowing out the cross feed automa- 
ticallv. At Y is shown a nut secured to 

1- ig. J. — operaluig Handles 

Fig. 4.— Driving Gear 

pri by the letters I, J, L, K, M, and N. 
This system of oiling consists of a wick- 
ing laid in a slot miUed out of the bear- 
ing, the ends of the wicking dipping 

Fig. 5.— Automatic Few), 



the saddle so that the saddle and table 
have travel by power or hand longitu- 
dinally along the bed of the machine. 
Hand crank feed with micrometer adjust- 
ment is furnished for the operation of 
the table for longitudinal and cross 
movement as well as automatic feed. 

The gear box contains the feed and 
speed change gears, which are made of 
steel ; these gears run in a bath of oil 
providing sufficient lubrication, quiet 
running, and consequent long wear. 
Eight speed changes are secured from 
the gear box, by means of levers C and 
D, Fig. 1, and these are doubled at the 
head by the back gear lever, giving a 
range from 15 to 200 revolutions per 
minute. There are nine feed changes in 
either direction for the head, one lever 
reversing or stopping all feeds and re- 
taining their relation to each other. The 
feeds range from |" to 5J" per minute 
without reference to the speed of the 
T^* spindle. 


The Bath Grinder Co., Fitchburg, 
Mass., have placed on the market at- 
tachments for their grinders for internal 
grinding. Fig. 1 shows the No. 5 ma- 



F\g. L^Bath Grinder with Improved Swivel 

chine with improved swivel head stock 
arranged to grind straight or taper 
work by the grinding spindle entering the 
hole from the back end, the headstock 
shown on the right with the water 
shield cover open, to true the wheel or 
mount or remove the work from the 

Fig. 2 shows the same machine with 
special headstock furnished tor grinding 
pneumatic hammers and long bushings. 

Fig. 2. — Special Headstock for Grinding 
Pnenniatic Hammers. 

Fig. 3 shows both No. 2J duplex in- 
ternal grinder. This machine has only 
one spindle head with two grinding 
spindles projecting from each side and 
driven by one belt. Fig. 4 shows this 
machine with the face plate and univer- 
sal chuck mounted in the headstocks, 
with the grinding spindles entering from 
the back end. Fig. 5 shows the head- 
stock reversed and the arrangement of 

grinding from the front end of the hole 
in place of the back end. 

Fig. 6 shows improved swivel head- 
stocks and assortment of work holding 

Fig. 3.— liatli 

Duplex lutenial Grinder. 

fixtures furnished with No. 2i and No. 5 
machine. A gives an end view of the 
headstock furnished for grinding pneuma- 
tic hammers and long bushings. B 
shows 4|" steel spring collet. C shows 
a set of reducing bushings furnished with 
B spring collet for reducing the hole to 
size. These bushings are furnished in 8 
sizes. D shows a step spring chuck, 
with jaws for holding work that cannot 
be held inside of the spring chuck. The 


4. — Face Plate and Universal 
Mounted In Headstock. 


reducing bushings C can also be furnish- 
ed with spring chuck D. E shows the 4- 
jaw independent chuck mounted on quill, 
and is held in the spindle head, the same 
as B or D. F shows face plate. H and 
I show spindle heads as shown with ma- 
chine in Fig. 1 and 3. 

Fig. 7 shows 8 sets of internal manu- 
facturing spindles for No. 21 and No. .'> 
grinders. A shows a set of large spin 
dies made from one solid piece of steel. 
B shows a set of spindles that are used 
with No. 2* and No. 5 machine, mounted 

in base plate, as shown in Fig. E. Six- 
teen diameters of spindles are made from 
stock of 3" diameter, and the ends re- 
duced to the diameter of the hole to be 
u;round. The grinding spindles have a 

Fig. 6.— Swivel Head Stocks, Bath Grinder. 

large body of metal at the back end, 
which absorbs the vibration of the high 
speed grinding spindle, and absorbs the 
heat generated at the small end of the 
spindle, and permits the grinding spin- 
dle to run at a higher speed. The bear- 
ings are made from Tobin Bronze, and 
the grinding spindles hardened, ground 
and lapped. There are no oil holes in 
the body of the spindles. They are oiled 
from the back end, which makes them 
dust proof, and the machine does not 
have to be moved out of position to oil 

Fig. 8 shows application of 8 grinding 
'.vheels, and method of holding and grind- 
ing a divided gear on a gear-hobbing ma- 
chine, internally from the back end and 
the front end at the same time, extern- 
ally on the periphery and side. 


The developing of machine tool con- 
struction and its advances in recent 
years, was the subject of a lecture given 
last night before the mechanical section 
of the Canadian Society of Civil En- 
gineers bv Colonel Alex. Bertram, of 

Fig. B.— Headstock Upverscrt fmm Fig. 4. 

V\g. 7. — Internal Spindles. 
John Bertram & Sons Co., Dundas. The 
chair was occupied by Mr. H. H. Vaug- 
han, and there was a large attendance 
of members. The lecture, which was il- 
lustrated by lantern slides, demonstrat- 
ed the advance made within the last half 
century and more particularly in the last 
decade in machine tool invention. 


Expert Descriptive Articles Dealing with Selection and Purchase of Most Suitable Power 
Equipment for All Purposes, its Proper Application, Installation, Operation and Treatment. 

By A. E. B. 
'T^OOTHED wheel gearing is used to a 
lesser or greater extent in a variety 
of circumstances for the transmission of 
motion and power from one shaft to an- 
other. It has the advantage of precis- 
ion over belts and ropes in this res- 

In its design and arrangement, the 
idea aimed at, is to have the minimum 
of friction, an absence of noise, a con- 
stantly equal power transmitted and 
the principle of two plain cylinders rol- 
ling on each other by the friction of 
their surfaces, approached to as closely 
as possible. 

The diameter of the pitch circle, or in 
other words what would be the diamet- 
er of a plain cylinder, is reckoned as the 
wheel diameter, and as a result when 
two wheels gear properly, their pitch 
circles meet and roll upon each other. 
Pitch of Gears. 

The most important measurement of a 
gear is known as the pitch and there are 
two distinct systems of determining it, 
namely, the circular pitch system and 
the diametral pitch system. The circu- 
lar pitch is the distance between any 
point in a tooth and the corresponding 
point in the next tooth measured along 
the pitch line. The diametral pitch is 
the ratio of the number of teeth in a 
gear to the pitch diameter. For ex- 
ample, a gear of 12-inch pitch diamete-r 
having thirty-six teeth would be known 
as a three-pitch gear. The advantage of 
this system is to avoid uneven diamet- 
ers, as would follow by making a 
thirty-six tooth gear of one inch circu- 
lar pitch. The pitch diameter in such a 
case would be 11.46 inches. 

equal 11.46. 


Cast iron and mortise gears are 
measured on the circular pitch system 

and cut gears on the diametral pitch 

Fine -pitch wheels have a smoother 
and more uniform action than coarse 
ones, therefore the pitch of teeth should 
be designed to secure this operating 
condition as far as consistent with the 
power to be transmitted. 

Methods of Manufacture. 

Touching methods of manufacture, the 
following may be taken as those com- 
monly adopted: 

Cast gears, the teeth of which are 
formed by the pattern and cast to 

Cut gears, the teeth of which are cut 
from a solid casting by standard gear 

Internal spur gears, have the teeth on 
the interior of the rim and pointing in 
the direction of the shaft. This class o( 
gear is the strongest for a given pitch, 
and is used largely to economize space. 
Internal spur gears rotate their shafts 
in the same direction. 

Elliptical spur gears, have their 
shafts off the centre. 

House tooth spur gears, have a por- 
tion of their teeth encased between 

Bevel gears have the axis of their 
shafts on the same plane and at right 

Mitre gear is the term used when both 
are of the same size. 

Angle gears have the axis of their 

Fig. 1.— Elevation of Back. 

•Part I. of the third article of the Berlcn 
of Power Transniisslon Equipment, Operation 
and Etfli'lency Siil).1erts. 

Mortise gears, the teeth of the larger 
of the pair having mortises in the rim 
into which are driven maple or beech 
teeth well seasoned, the teeth being 
keyed tight on the inside of the rim and 
accurately dressed to shape. 

Types of Gears. 

The principal types and forms of 
gearing in general use may be classified 
as follows: 

Spur gears, the axis of whose shafts 
are parallel. Oblique tooth spur gears, 
whose teeth are at an angle with their 
shafts; known as double helical when 
the teeth are also angular in shape, and 
have their two ends on a line parallel 
with the shaft. They are known as 
single helical when the teeth are 
straight. This class of spur gear runs 
much more smoothlv than the ordinary. 

shafts on the same plane and at an 
angle other than a right angle. 

Worms and worm wheels have the axis 
of their shafts at an angle but not on 
the same plane. A movement of the 
wheel equal to the circular pitch results 
in a complete revolution of the worm. 

Rack and pinion gears are used tor 
the purpose of changing their relative 
position to each other by a parallel 

.^n intermittent gear derives its name 
from the intended purpose to stop the 
driven gear for any given period of 
time. It is accomplished by forming the 
driver without teeth at definite inter- 
vals desired. 

Wheel and pinion are the names ap- 
plied to the larger and smaller units 
constituting one pair of gears. 

Fig. 2.— .Mortise Teeth showing Wedge and Steel Pin AttarhuientJ 


I'Mg. ^. — .Misrellaneuus I'ouble Helical Tooth Ueiirs. 



Two gears are said to mesh when 
their teeth are engaged properly. 

Miscellaneons Definitions. 

The pitch line or circle is the path 
described by that point of intersection 
between the teeth where the speed of 
both gears is equal. The pitch line of 

tween the root circle and the addendum 

The breadth of tooth is measured 
across the face of the gear. 

The thickness of tooth is measured 
along the pitch line. 

The space is the distance between the 
teeth measured on the pitch line. 

Fig. 4. — Bevel Wheel and i'inloD. 

bevel and angle gears is measured at 
the largest diameter. 

The addenum circle is the path des- 
cribed by the extreme outer end of the 

The addendum is that portion of the 
teeth between the pitch line and the ad- 
dendum circle. 

The root circle is the path described 
by the extreme inner end of the teeth. 

Fig. 8.— Mitre 6«arg. 

The root is that portion of the teeth 
between the pitch line and the root 

The outside diameter is measured in- 
side the addendum circle. 

The root diameter is measured inside 
the root circle. 

The pitch diameter is measured inside 
the pitch line. 

The pitch radius Is the distance be- 
tween the centre of the gear and the 
pitch line. 

The line of centres is the distance be- 
tween the centres of a pair of gears in 

The length of tooth is measured be- 

The backlash is the difference between 
the thickness of tooth and the space. 

The end clearance is the distance be- 
tween the addendum circle of one gear 
and the root circle of the other when in 

The backing of bevel gears is the dis- 
tance between the pitch circle and the 
extreme end of the hub. 

Speed of Gears. 

The speed at which gears may be 
safely run consistent with moderate 
wear and tear varies considerably in the 
opinion and practice of operators and 
designers. The following are however 
examples of what may be considered 
common and reliable performance in feet 
per minute: 

Ordinary cast iron wheels, 1,800. 

Helical cast iron wheels, 2,400. 

Mortise wheels, 2,400. 

Ordinary cast steel wheels, 2,600. 

Helical cast steel wheels, 3,000. 

Cast iron machine-cut wheels, 3,000. 

Gears made of rawhide or fibre can be 
operated safely at a higher speed and 
are generally superior for wearing quali- 
ties, although not as strong as metal 

The construction of the arms combines 
great strength with light weight. In 
all pulleys eighteen inch and upwards 
the arms have openings to reduce weight. 
Pulleys thirty-six inch and upward have 


A new steel pulley is being placed on 
the Canadian market by Schuchardt & 
Schutte of Montreal, Que., which has 
several interesting features. The pul- 
leys are all steel and are light and strong. 

The rim is composed of two layers 
locked together. The ends overlay the 
arms and bolts which hold the two halves 
of the pulley together, pass through the 
hole, which prevents the danger of strip- 
ping rim and ensuring great strength to 
the arch forming eacli half pulley. 

Fig. l.-rSteel l'uiif.\. 

four arms. All sizes of jjulleys have one 
uniform bore for taking bushings of one 
uniform outside diameter for different 
sizes of shaftings. Stamped steel bush- 
ings are supplied to adapt the pulleys 
to smaller diameters. These bushings 
have a very fast grip on the shaft and 
eliminate to a great extent the danger of 
turning loose. No rivets or bolts are 
used in the construction of the pulleys. 

Fig. 2.— Steel I'ulley. 

The pulleys are manufactured in very 
large quantities with very heavy presses, 
a special die being used for each size. 
Their accuracy in running true is ob- 
tained by rolling all the steel plate, en- 
tering into the manufacture of these pul- 
leys before it is used, with the aid of 
very heavy rolling mills, securing an ac- 
curacy of .000.S9 in. 


Practical Articles for Managers, Superintendents, and Foremen, to 
Assist in Carrying on the Business Economically and Efficiently. 


By Service. 

The ofiftce is made to sell and the fac- 
tory to produce. These are the two gen- 
eral divisions. If this be so, why not 
make the factory produce and produce 
efficiently without any peak loads. 
"How shall I do it ?" is the natural 
question. Some managers and superin- 
tendents have tried some schemes and 
some others. Some have been successful, 
and some haven't. Some have tried 
schemes of rewarding men, some have in- 
stalled systems, yet the factory failed 
to produce more than previously. 

The trouble is that the business man- 
agers fail to use the knowledge they ac- 
quire in the management of their own 
plant. They know of obstacles and pit- 
falls into which others have fallen but do 
not try to avoid them. Men do not like 
being told so but it is true, nevertheless. 

The writer had to learn by experience 
and only a fool will not listen to ex- 
perience. It is easy to point to failures. 
It is easy to point out where men may 
fail but that is not the purpose of this 
How to Produce. 

It is the easiest thing in the world to 
pigeon-hole seemingly unimportant thing$ 
and say, "I'll attend to that to-mor- 
row." Better do away with the roll-top 
desk if you use it for that purpose. It 
was never intended for that. Finish 
everything as it comes and you will be 
surprised what it will mean in the way 
of production. 

2. STUDY MEN. You are in constant 
touch with the men. Your position as 
manager, superintendent or foreman calls 
for it. Sometimes a man comes into the 
office asking for a raise. You are busy 
at something else and dismiss him with 
a curt remark. You have offended him 
and his rate of production is lowered. 
If you are busy, say so. Tell him you'll 
talk about it to-morrow and if he isn't 
worth a raise give him something to 
hope for. One reason why Clarence S. 
Funk rose from a $\0 a week clerk to 
the general managership of a $140,000,- 
000 corporation was because he studied 
men. Mr. Funk says : "They must be 
treated as friends and co-workers." Give 
them some responsibility, make the men 
self-reliant yet obedient. Teach them to 
say yes or no. Encourage them. Be ab- 
solutelv fair. 

You can get the men to take a part- 
ner's interest. Large companies are be- 
ginning to realize it. Libraries, hos- 
pitals, educational classes, etc., are not 
furnished and financed for pleasure or 
philanthropy. It is a business propo- 
sition. Men appreciate it and it has a 
marked effect on the production. "First 
Aid" means that men are promptly at- 
tended to in the case of injury and very 
often no time is lost by them where 
otherwise they would be greatly weak- 



One Dollar that In Earning Inter- 
est is More Valuable Than Two 
Dollars That are Earning 

A Humble Talent that Is put to I'se 

Is Worth More than Genius 

'Lying Idle— 


A Menial Job that Brings in Real 

Cash P8.VB More Bills Than the 

High-salaried Position In 


The Pennyworth that is Sold Spells 
Bigger Profits than the Dollar- 
worth that Stays on the 

A Bird In the Hand is Worth Two 
in the Bush^ 






— Sjrs tern 



ened and be on the sick list for some 
days seriously aftecting the organization 
and output. 

TION. Did you ever enter a shop and 
see five of six men moving a large cast- 
ing from the foundry to the machine 
shop, or from the machine shop to the 
shipping room. A great deal of waste 
time and effort can be entirely eliminat- 
ed by a good crane service or an indus- 
trial track connecting the departments. 
One man could then handle large cast- 
ings and the time of the other four or 
five men could be used to good advan- 

tage to increase the output o( the plant. 
In shipping it is advantageous to have 
the top of the car level with the floor 
unless cranes may be used. The direct 
loading of small castings or boxes will 
be found to be more quickly than by a 
crane. Some plants have to transport 
the product of the factory to the station 
by waggons or motor trucks. The low- 
ered portion will be found to be of equal 
service here when the trucks are the 
same level as the shipping floor. 

Scientific Management. 

The fact is that all the points that 
could be brought up, would fill volumes. 
The manager must Ao some "digging" in 
his own plants. There are ellicient ana 
inefficient ways ot aoing things. Ibe me- 
thods should be investigaled and cor- 
rected. Perhaps there is insufficient 
light, the tool room is not convenieni, 
there is insufficient equipment, or 
cuttings that could used to man- 
ufacture something and produce a 
profit are thrown under a boiler. 
I'here are a thousand and one wastes 
that should be investigated and eliminat- 
ed. The scientific manager will find them 
out, and plan the work. 

A locomotive under one master me- 
chanic may cost $100 to repair but be 
back in the repair shop in a month. A 
.successor may repair it at $125 and it 
will stand hard service for three months. 
Evidently the second one has discovered 
the secret of wise expenditure. MAKE 

In plaster of Paris molding, the usual 
difficulty is in not completely drying the 
mold. Unless it is "bone dry" the me- 
tal will not fill the mold as the steam 
produced from the dampness will blow 
the metal away from the surface of it. 
In order completely to expel all the 
moisture from the mold, it must be heat- 
ed nearly red hot. It should also be 
used while warm, in order to prevent abr 
sorption of moisture from the air. 

Metals should not be melted too ra- 
pidly or certain portions of them will 
become overheated before the rest arrive 
at the melting temperature. The best 
condition is when all of the metal ar- 
rives at the melting point at practically 
the same time. This is difficult to re- 
alize in practice, but .should be attempt- 



By Efficiency. 

THE factory telephone which formerly 
was considered a luxury is now re- 
garded as a necessity in every business 
as a time saver. The present shop or- 
ganization includes automatic telephones 
for communication between all depart- 

The very nature of the modern ma- 
chine shop organization with its var- 
ious departments covering a large 
ground area demand that some quick 
method of communication be installed 
that will put every department in close 
touch with any and every department 
BE THUS WASTED. Again, the ship- 
ping department, located perhaps in a 
remote part of the works, should be in 
as close touch with the superintendent 
as the drafting-room just outside his 

The value of the automatic telephone 
is shown in its low initial cost and cost 
of upkeep and in the saving of time, 
thus increasing the efficiency of high 
paid officials. Formerly when the su- 
perintendent wished to communicate 
with a departmental foreman, he had to 
hunt him up in his department and de- 
liver a minor instruction that could as 
easily, have been delivered by telephone. 

The reverse is also the case. Former- 
ly when a foreman wished to find the 
superintendent, he traveled to the su- 
perintendent's office and nine times out 
of ten found him out, as the superin- 
tendent's duties took him all over the 
plant. Then he hunted for him in the 
stock room, foundry or some of the 
other departments, at last discovering 
him after the lapse of half an hour or 
more. During this time the department 
was without a foreman. Now with the 
telephone, the foreman need not leave 
his department. He presses a button 
on the telephone and at once gets into 
touch with the superintendent, whether 
he is in his own department or another. 

By the factory telephone not only 
may the superintendent be located in a 
hurry, but also any others who may 
be making a tour through the works. 
In a few moments all the stations can 
be called up If necessary, the desired 
persons located, and any communica- 
tion transmitted or information ob- 
tained with promptness. 

A superintendent's call instrument may 
be used at any station in connection 
with the automatic factory telephone 
to enable a general call being given 

throughout the system for the superin- 
tendent who may be in one or another 
of the departments. For this purpose 
there is required a button in each set, 
or a separate push button, for each 
station from which it is desired to send 
in a general call for the superintendent; 
a call bell for each department outside 
of his own in which the superintendent 
is likely to be engaged ; a battery and 
a pair of wires in the cable connecting 
the different stations, or a twisted pair 
of No. 19 B. & S. gage rubber covered 
copper wires. 

In the automatic factory telephone, 
connection between stations is estab- 
lished by simply pressing a button. One 
button is mounted on the set for each 
of the stations connected to the sys- 
tem. A name plate is provided with 
space opposite each button for designat- 
ing the name or location of the station 

The Automatic Office Telephone. 

associated with the button. The same 
button is used both for signaling the 
station desired and for establishing the 
telephone connections. The operation is 
therefore very simple. 

To make a call, press way down the 
button opposite the name of the sta- 
tion desired ; this places the key in its 
ringing position. Then release the pres- 
sure on the button and the key will re- 
turn to its talking position. Remove 
the receiver from the hook and place it 
to the ear. 

To answer a call press the button de- 
signated "Ans."; remove the receiver 
from the hook and place it to the ear. 
After a conversation is finished it is not 
necessary to release the button as it is 
automatically restored when the next 
connection is established. 

between the store room and cost clerk's 
office. In another there is a speaking 
tube between the order and stock de- 
partments. Some time ago the Na- 
tional Cash Register installed a dummy 
waiter between the machine shop and 
the stores department on the floor be- 
low. The stock is sent up by the man 
in charge of that department without 
the necessity of another man or delays 
in delivery. 

In the machine shop of the Smart- 
Turner Machine Co., Hamilton, a com- 
bination of this system has been in- 
stalled by R. McKechnie, the superin- 
tendent. In order to provide larger 
space for shop equipment, the tool 
room and stock departments were re- 
moved to the galleries. When a work- 
man required stock or a tool, he had 
to climb a stair to the gallery, requir- 
ing considerable time during which his 
machine was idle. 

The difficulty was solved by install- 
ing in a convenient position, a dummy 
waiter and speaking tube. Now when 
a workman requires stock he sends up 
a properly signed requisition, or if he 
requires a certain tool he sends up his 
check and calls up the man in charge of 
the tool room. If any explanations are 
desired they may be made by means of 
the speaking tube. The tool-room and 
stock departments are adjacent and the 
one installation serves for both. 



By M. E. D. 

The dummy waiter and the speaking 

tube are finding an increasing use in the 

factory. One plant with which the 

writer is familiar has a speaking tube 

An article in the "Brass World" by 
E. S. Sperry states that aluminum 
alloys with copper in all proportions 
and homogeneous mixtures are produced. 
When the Al. reaches beyond 10 p.c. the 
bronze begins to become brittle, and a 
12 p.c. mixture is so hard that it may 
be used for hard dies. The mixture gen- 
erally used for sand casting is the 10 
p.c. alloy It is hard and tough and 
answers all the requirements of a strong 
metal. The greatest difficulty in the 
way of casting Al.-bronze is its oxida- 
tion when melted. The only method by 
which it can be cast in a commercial 
manner is to prevent its being agitated 
while the pouring is taking place. The 
more quietly it can be poured the small- 
er the quantity of dross. Dross which 
forms in melting may be skimmed off, 
but that which forms while the pouring 
is taking place enters the casting. An- 
other difficulty in casting the alloy is 
the shrinkage of the same ; but by the 
use of sufficiently large risers and free- 
dom from sharp corners in the casting 
with an ample gate, any shrinkage may 
be readily overcome. The toughness of 
Al. bronze is probably greater than 
that of any metal except steel. All 
bronze works hot better than Cu. as it 
is softer at a red heat. At the same 
time, it is not black-short like the Cu. 
and Zn. alloys. 


Practical Articles for Canadian Foundrymen and Pattern Makers, and 
News of Foundrymen's and Allied Associations. Contributions Invited. 


Owing to the big demand for exhibi- 
tion space, the Foundry & Machine Ex- 
hibition Co., successor to the Foundry 
& Manufacturers' Supply Association, 
has been obliged to arrange for addi- 
tional space in the Western Pennsylvania 
Exposition Society buildings, Duquesne 
Way, Pittsburg, tor the exhibition of 
foundry and pattern shop equipment, 
machine tools and supplies, to be held 
in May. 

It has also been decided to open the 
exhibit Tuesday, May 23, instead of 
May 22, as originally arranged, and to 
continue the exhibition over the first 
four days of the following week. These 
changes were decided upon at a meeting 
of the executive committee of the Foun- 
dry & Machine Exhibition Co., at the 
Fort Pitt hotel, Pittsburg, Saturday, 
March 4. Originally the committee ar- 
ranged for a total of 28,000 square feet 
ol exhibit space in the Western Pennsyl- 
vania Exposition Society buildings and 
23,000 square feet of this space was 
sold within two weeks from the time 
bids were opened. At the meeting, 
March 4, the committee made arrange- 
ments for the whole of the main floor 
of the larger building, which will give 
a total of 40,000 square feet of exhibit 
space, which is about 8,000 square feet 
more than used in past years. 

The decision to continue the exhibition 
into the second week has been made on 
account of the annual meeting of the 
American Society of Mechanical En- 
gineers, which will be held in Pittsburg 
that week. 

The annual conventions of the A.F.A., 
the A.B.F.A. and the American Foun- 
dry Foremen's Association, will be held 
during the first five days. The meetings 
and exhibits should attract large num- 
bers of men interested in the manufac- 
turing industries and it is hoped a large 
number of Canadians will avail them- 
selves of this opportunity of seeing side 
by side the various types and makes of 
molding and pattern-making machinery 
and machine tools. The exhibit will be 
open from 8.30 to 5.30 daily and two 
or more evenings subject to the deci- 
sion of the management. 

Some men are so full of faith in them- 
selves that there is no room left for 

The man who is always looking for 
precedents must keep his face turned to 
the rear. 


Ameriran Foundrymen's Asitoclatton. 
American Brass Founders' Association. 
Associated' Foundry Foremen. 
Foundry and Machine Kxhibitlon Co. 

TION will properly entertain those attend- 
ing the Conventions, and have made special 
arrangements for the visiting ladles. 



otherwise stated.) 
MONDAY, May 22—2 p.m.— Registration only. 
TUESDAY, May 23—9 a.m.— Registration. 
10 a.m. — Joint Session — Addresses of Wel- 
come — Papers on : — 

Production Cost. 
Economic Foundry Insurance. 
Uniform Contracts, etc. 
2 p.m. — Separate Session*. 
A. F. A. — Papers on : 
Unloading Methods. 
Use of Borings in Cupolas. 
Effect of alloys In Cast Iron. 
Permanent Moulds, etc. 
A. B. F. A. — Papers on : 

Vanadium In Non-ferrous Alloys. 
Determination of Nickel in Bronzes. 
Pouring High-grade Bronzes, etc. 
7 p.m. — F. & M. E. Co. — Exhibit — Open 
throughout the week during the day, and 
Saturday evening, May 27th. 
W'EDNESDAY, May 24—9.30 a.m.— Joint Ses- 
sion — Papers on : 
Rotary Blowers. 
Foundrv Construction. 
Heating and Lighting Systems. 
Pattern Making. 
Molding Machines, etc. 
2 p.m. — A. B. A. Steel Session — Papers on: 
Acid and Basic Open Hearth Processes. 
Electric and Converter Furnaces for 

Steel Castings. 
Effect of Vanadium and Titanium on 
2 p.m.— A. B. F. A. Session — Papers on : 
Corrosion of Brass Foundry Products. 
Pyrometer and the Aluminum Foundry. 
Non-ferrous Foundry Economics. 
Equilibrium Diagrams, etc. 
2 p.m.— Individual Plant Visitation. 
6.30 p.m.— Dinner— Pittsburg and Associated 
Foundry Foremen. (Will announce place 

THURSDAY. May 25— Joint Session. 
9.30 a.m. — Papers on: 
Molding Sand. 
Use of Alloys. 
Shot in Castings, etc. 
1 p.m. — Train Excursion to Foundries and 
Steel Works (Pennsylvania — Union Sta- 
8 p.m. — Entertainment by Foundry & Ma- 
chine Exhibition Co. to Members of all 
Associations and their guests attending 
the Conventions. 
FRID.\Y, May 26— Separate Session. 
9.30 a.m.— Election of Officers and reading 

of papers. 
3.30 p.m. — Pittsburg and Cincinnati ball 

game at the MilUon-dollar Forbes Field. 
6.30 p.m.— Subscription Dinner, open to all 
who attend the Convention or Exhibition. 
(Will announce place later.) 
SATURDAY, May 27— The Exhibition of the 
Foundry & Machine Exiilbltlon Company 
win he open throughout the day and 
evening. Exhibition open daily, May 29 
to June 1. 

Convention Executive Committee. 

Joseph T. Speer, Chairman. 

F. H. Zimmers, Secretary. 
J. S. Seaman, Finance. 
H. E. Field, Convention. 
W. A. Bole, Plant Visitation. 
Eliot A. Kebler, Reception. 

G. P. Bassett, .Jr., Ladies' Entertain- 

E. D. Frohman, Ball Game. 
W. B. Robinson, Press. 


By Kelpie. 

A few weight particulars of steel cast- 
ings used in the construction of the 
White Star steamships "Olympic" and 
"Titanic" will doubtless be of interest 
to readers of Canadian Foundryraan. 
The stern frame, of special quality mild 
steel and weighing 70 tons, is of hollow 
or dished section in two pieces 63 and 
37 feet 4 inches long respectively. In 
casting the main piece of it, nearly 95 
tons of molten metal were brought into 
service. The after cross arms weigh 74 
tons, the forward cross arms 45 tons, 
and the rudder 100 tons. 

For high steam pressure yellow brass 
does not give good results, and cannot 
be used. It leaks and becomes brittle 
at such a point, and is not sufficiently 
non-corrosive for some kinds of work. 
A red metal, therefore, is necessary for 
such work. For plumbers' brass goods, 
such as faucets and cocks, or similar 
work, yellow brass can be used to a 
good advantage in spite of opinions to 
the contrary, and is much cheaper than 
red metals. Some manufacturers main- 
tain that although a yellow brass mix- 
ture is cheaper than a red one, the 
castings made from it are practically 
no cheaper than those made from red 
metal on account of the greater percen- 
tage of loss ; but this has not been 
found true in practice, and evidently 
has been brought about by the use of 
a poof ftiixture. 

A yellow brass mixture for making 
plumbers' brass goods should not con- 
tain too much spelter, or the castings 
will contain dross, and leak. The fol- 
lowing one has been found very satis- 
factory for such work, and is extensive- 
ly used : 

Copper 70 lb. 

Zinc 25 lb. 

Lead 3 lb. 

Tin 2 1b. 

The tin is necessary for producing the 
desired stiffness and hardness, and the 
lead will impart the free cutting quali- 
tie.«! required in brass to be worked on 
automatic tools. Care should be taken 
not to exceed the quantity of lead given. 

The preceding mixture, according to 
the "Brass World," will give hard, 
strong castings, and will cast soundlv 
and run freely. 

Description of the Doherty Process of Ironfounding 

By Cupola 

Being a Few Notes Taken of a Paper Read By W. A. Grocock, Toronto, at a Meeting of 
the Central Railway and Engineering Club Held in Their Rooms, Prince George Hotel, 
Toronto, on Tuesday Evening, 21st March, 1911. 

MR. DOHERTY, the inventor of the 
process bearing his name, is a 
Canadiain by birth, having been bom in 
Sarnia, Ont. He has devoted the major 
portion of his lifetime to ironfounding 
investigation, with a view to determin- 
ing if possible, some reliable data by 
means of which accurate results may be 

It is well known to all engaged in 
foundry work, that variation of quality 
is found in two or more sample cast- 
ings under test, in spite of equal provi- 
sion made by every determinable and 
known condition or circumstance, to 
have thea\ alike. 

Uncertainty of result seeks a remedy 
in the right amount of air at the blast, 
amount and suitability of fuel, melting 

ill I 
I ( 

Fig. 1. — Lower part of Cupola with Doherty 
Process Attacbment. 

temperature and introduction of some 
other factor to co-operate with these, 
in dealing with the variety and physical 
composition of the mixture to be 

Explanation of Process. 

In the Dobcrty process, the factor in- 
troduced is that of dry or slightly su- 
perheated steam. Referring to Fig. 1, 
the steam pipe A. A. is carried around 
the cupola as shown, and from it, ^-in. 
branch pipes with regulating valves 
enter the blast chamber and are directed 
through each tuyere. 

To prevent condensation, the steam 
piping is covered with non-conducting 
composition, and the pressure of steam 
used has been from 80 to 90 pounds per 
square inch. 

Results Attained. 

The effect of the steam jets is to gen- 
erate hydrogen gas which absorbs and 
carries off the sulphur present, and 
thereby ensures a more homogenous, 
softer and stronger casting. 

The presence of sulphur as is well 
known, contributes largely to the com- 
parative weakness of castings. This 
feature of easy riddance admits of the 
use of materials for cupola purposes, 
more or less high in that element, and 
is simply a question of operation and 
jet regulation to deal with it in abnor- 
mal quantity. 

It was also shown by Mr. Grocock 
that material for the melt, high in 
oxide gave a higher return in iron cast 
by the Doherty process than was ordin- 
arily attainable. In other words less 
oxide went to slag, and more of it was 

Further beneficial results claimed for 
the process, are a cleaner and longer 
life to the furnace, with the practiabil- 
ity of the use of scrap of immaterial 
quality and quantity. 

Personal Experiences. 

On assuming charge of the foundry of 
a bridge works at Garston, Liverpool, 
England, Mr. Grocock was informed 
that this department showed a loss of 
$5,000 for the year previous. With a 
commendable confidence in himself and 
the Doherty process, which by the way, 
he had successfully operated in Rangoon, 
British Burmah, Mr. Grocock set him- 
self steadfastly to make good. 

That he and his process succeeded is 
borne out by the following results. The 
$5,000 loss was turned into a $7,500 
gain, realized by an output increase, 
which gradually developed until the cor- 
responding twelfth month showed an in- 
crease of 160 per cent. Factors con- 
ducing to the achievement were the re- 
duction of wasters from 18 to .9 per 
cent, and back scrap from 40 to 8 per 

The metal produced, approached close- 
ly to that of malleable cast iron, being 
uniform, close grained and silver grey 
in color. Test bars from it showed 
with a load of 3,360 pounds on centre, a 
permanent set of 1 inch without frac- 

Costs and Opinions of Users. 

The Doherty process involves an extra 
percentage of limestone for flux pur- 
poses being added, hut the additional 

expenditure in this respect is limited to 
about 1 cent, per ton. 

Cupola and machine shop savings have 
been shown to amount to $4 per ton. 
A superior casting free from that hard- 
ness which worries and increases cost 
of machine work, is by the Doherty 
process attainable. 

Among different concerns using the 
system may be instanced the Goldie 
& McCulloch Co., Gait, Ont. Their com- 
mendation or appreciation is to be 
found in the tact that their experience 
has been satisfactory. They have found 
that more scrap and less pig iron can 
be used, and that the casting is softer, 
tougher and stronger. Permanent adop- 
tion of the process has been made by 

The discussion of the subject by var- 
ious members at the close of the paper 
elicited the information that the process 
has been in use off and on for about 10 
years, and that its adoption has not 
been as general as might have been ex- 
pected due to the fact perhaps that 

Fig. 2. — Lower part of Doherty Iron and 
Steel Cupola. 

• >»• 



scrap, to which it has special applica- 
tion, is something like $1 per ton dearer 
than pig iron. 

Combined Iron and St«el Cupola. 

Fig. 2 shows the latest Doherty in- 
vention ; a combined iron and steel 
cupola which has for its aim the con- 
version of molten iron into steel, suit- 
able for machinery purposes to which 
cast iron is at present generally appli- 

The upper portion of the figure is 
equipped with the Doherty process as in 
Fig. 1, and is used for melting the iron. 
The bottom of the chamber is coned to 
form the neck K, through which the 
molten metal passes to the lower 
chamber. Here, compressed air is blown 
into and under the iron by means of the 
connection P, the effect of which is with 
proper regulation to convert the metal 
into steel of any desired constituency. 

The slag is drawn off at outlet V, and 
the resultant metal at J. 

Mr. Grocock treated the whole sub- 
ject with the confidence of one who 
knows the ironfounding business thor- 
oughly, and his commendation of the 
"Doherty Process" was marked by sin- 
cerity of belief in its superiority over 
the ordinary method. 

bish is skimmed oR the surface of the 
molten metal. 

As soon as the metal is poured into 
the mould, the moulding boxes are open- 
ed and the castings sprinkled with water 
to ensure quick cooling. Quick cooling 
leaves the metal softer and more uni- 
form than if slowly cooled. Further, the 
metals forming the alloy have a tend- 
ency to separate, and as a consequence 

By Pettier. 
The sketch fig. 1 shows in detail the 
arrangement and equipment of a useful 
furnace for melting brass and alloys of 
a like nature. Its principal dimensions 
internally are 15 inches square by 28 
inches deep. The flue hole is 10 by 7, 
the chimney 10 inches square inside and 
at least 15 feet high. 

It is built of ordinary brick, lined 
with firebrick, and has front fire-bar 
bearer moveable, to permit of its sliding 
forward and allow the bars to drop down 
as required. 

Such a furnace will melt 80 pounds of 
metal quickly and easily. 

The tongs for pouring the metal are 
shown at A, and those for lifting the 
crucible off the fire at B. 

The Melting Process. 
The following is a description of 
the melting process. The crucible 
is placed over the fire, upside 
down until properly heated. When 
this has been effected, it is turned right 
end up, made to rest with its bottom 
on a firebrick clear of the bars, and pack- 
ed round with coke to steady. 

Copper cut into small pieces is then 
placed in the crucible and melted, after 
which tin is added, melted and mixed. 

To test the proper casting heat, a 
piece of zinc is dropped into the cru- 
cible. If it flares up at once the metal 
should be poured, if not, the proper cast- 
ing heat has not been reached. 
Previous to pouring, the dirt and rub- 

Fig. 1.— H...SS .\icuiiig Kuruuce. 

the heavier would be found at the bot- 
tom of the mould. 

In melting old brass, the addition of 
tin may be unnecessary, although a 
small addition of zinc is found beneficial. 

When a mixture of part old brass and 
part copper is melted, tin should be ad- 
ded in proportion to the new copper, and 
zinc in proportion to the old brass. 

The strength of the metal varies con- 
siderably, and depends to a large extent 
on its manipulation both in the crucible 
and in the casting. 

By K. Campbell. 
TJA.NDLING an output of a factory, 
'-^ receiving raw material and moving 
machinery around the plant and yard is 
often done at a great inconvenience in 
some plants. If they are not adjacent 
to a railway nor fully outfitted with 
yard cranes, it is rather inconvenient 
and sometimes costly to handle the ma- 
terials used in the plant or shipped 
from it. 

It would be possible to pick examples 
of work of self-propelled trucks in al- 
most every line of manufacture. Many 
forms of bodies have been designed to 
facilitate the rapid loading and unload- 
ing, with the object of keeping the ma- 
chine actually running as many hours in 
the days as possible, on the same prin- 
ciple that every factory manager keeps 
his machinery constantly in operation to 
increase the earning capacity of the in- 

The market affords power trucks ol 
every capacity, from one ton to ten toM, 
with speed limits of from five miles to 
fifteen miles an hour, loaded. There is 
every possible choice for the purchaser 
in the matter of power, type of engine 
or battery, form of transmission and 
final drive, in tire and other equipment 
and in price. 

Almost any motor truck can do the 
work of three or more waggons and the 
necessary teams to haul them, and there 
are many services in which they are 
proved by records to be doing several 
times this proportionate amount of 
work, with all the saving that this re- 

Figures carefully compiled by The Gas 
Engine show that ten three-ton gasoline 
trucks, all covering forty miles a day 
and operating 300 days a year, can be 
maintained and operated at an average 
daily cost per machine of $9.75. The 
items contributing to this average are 
as follows : 

Fixed Charges Per Year on One Truck. 
Interest, at 6 per cent on 

$3,000, cost price $ 180.00 

Depreciation, at 20 per cent. ... 600.00 

Insurance, at i per cent 15.00 

Storage, 200 sq. ft. at 50c 100.00 

Total $ 895.00 

Add 20 per cent, for two spare 
machines 179.00 

Total $1,074.00 

Dividing by 300, the number of work- 
ing days in the year, this gives $3.85 per 

Running Expenses Per Day for Ten 
Wages of ten drivers at $2.50 for 

ten hours $25.00 

Wages of repairman, helper and 

washer 7.00 

Gasoline, 80 gallons, at 12c 9.60 

Lubricants, at Ic per mile 4.00 

Maintenance, at 10 per cent a year 10.00 

Superintendence .'..... 3.20 

Incidentals— light, heat, tools, 

waste, etc 2.87 

Total $61.87 

Average running expense per truck 6.17 
Fixed charges per truck per day... 3.58 

Total maintenance and operating 

ing cost $ 9.75 

Calculated in the same way, it is 
shown that a service of ten five-ton 
trucks can be operated at an arerage 
daily cost per vehicle of $11.48. 

Such figures can only be taken as a 
fair guide to the probable cost of an in- 
stallation. They are, if anything, rather 
high in the light of results obtained by 
some users, but conditions of work, 
usage and care vary so much with dif- 
ferent installations that no figures can 
be applied to all. 




By W. J. May. 

The cupola is generally used on ac- 
count of its cheapness in melting iron ; 
irom 10 to 12 pounds of good coke melt- 
ing 100 pounds of iron against 50 to 100 
pounds of coke heing required for the 
same melt in a crucible furnace with or- 
dinary draught. 

With an ordinarily well-built furnace 
from forty to sixty pounds of coke 
would be used, according to whether 
early or late fires are being dealt with, 
the latest melts naturally using less fuel 
than the earlier ones ; but even with a 
ten-hour day during which perhaps seven 
melts are obtained, the average con- 
sumption of coke will be close on fifty 
pounds of foundry coke per hundred 
weight of metal melted. 

With coke at $10 per ton this means 
that cupola melting costs 6 cents per 
hundredweight of metal, while crucible 
melting costs 25 cents per hundred, 
weight for fuel alone. 

Against this there is generally a bet- 
ter class of metal obtained and the iron 
thus melted is cleaner, and produces bet- 
ter castings owing to its picking up 
practically no impurities during melting. 
Still, unless the work done is especially 
particular, it scarcely pays to expend so 
much on melting. If we have badly built 
furnaces, we get larger fuel consumption 
and much slower melting, with of 
course, increased costs. 

Carr's patent crucible furnaces when 
properly fixed will be found to give bet- 
ter results than the built furnaces ; but 
these often prove expensive in fuel if the 
flue and chimney part of the business is 
badly designed ; for while as furnaces 
they are better than the others they 
still need the chimney arrangement to 
be good, or they will eat up fuel. 

All natural-draught furnaces depend on 
the chimney and connecting flues for 
their efficiency, and it is useless to alter 
the furnace when the chimney is at fault. 

Where economy is considered, a 400 ft. 
Morgan tilting furnace of the A or D 
type would give the best results both in 
first cost and in melting. Soft grey iron 
takes only about twenty-eight pounds of 
hard coke per hundredweight of iron on 
an average with a full day's work, pro- 
vided there is electricity or some other 
available motive power at command. 
There is no chimney or expensive pit to 
build, but only an iron flue-pipe to con- 
vey the products of combustion outside 
the workshop. 

Probably only small castings compar- 
atively would have to be cast in a works 
foundry of small size, the large castings 
being brought in from outside, and this 
would mean that a portable furnace 
which needs no deep pit, and in addition 
no expensive chimney, would be more 
economical in all ways than the usual 
form of built furnace. 

In most cases there would be a saving 
in crucibles as well, because in the Mor- 
gan furnaces the crucibles are fixed in 
position, and need renewal only when 
worn out in the actual melting work, 
and are not, as is the case with or- 
dinary furnaces, knocked to pieces with 
the tongs and other tools, which are 
"ery often badly fitting and altogether 
too roughly made. 

The great point in fitting up a foundry 
for crucible melting is to ensure a mo- 
derate cost for melting and repairs, and 
to do away with large primary outlay. 

The ordinary-built furnaces are cheap 
enough in themselves, but if to the cost 
of the furnaces and pit is added the cost 
of chimneys, then the sum total be- 
comes a large one, and compared with 
the cost of one or more Morgan tilting 
furnaces to provide the same output of 
molten metal, probably there will be but 
a slight difference. 

If the value of the tilting furnace as a 
salable asset be taken at any time the 
balance will he in its favor. A brick 
chimney has little value if pulled down, 
but a mechanical furnace always has a 
value according to its state of preserv- 

Whatever furnace is used, care should 
be taken that it is efficient and as eco- 
nomical in working as the type selected 
v/ill allow, while the very greatest care 
must be taken that the accessories re- 
quired for the proper working of the fur- 
nace shall be as efficient as the furnace 

Proper lifting apparatus should be pro- 
vided where the crucibles have to be lift- 
ed from the furnace, and this may be 
simply a block tackle running on an I 
beam, or some more complicated arran- 
gement as the case may warrant ; but in 
any case a straight vertical lift from 
the furnace should he made to avoid 
damage to the crucibles. The economical 
use of labor is as important as is the 
economical use of fuel ; the question of 
expenditure in any foundry being of im- 


Besides the furnace and its accessories 
the fuel used is of considerable import- 
ance ; a clean, hard coke being more ef- 
fective than a dirty soft one. Besides 
the texture of the fuel, its ash content 
and the question of sulphur has to be 
considered, for a coke high in sulphur 
is injurious to the crucibles, and causes 
their rapid reduction to a useless state. 

Gas coke is an expensive fuel for cru- 
cible work owing to its unequal compo- 
sition, structure, and usually high sul- 
phur content, and if the work actually 
done with this fuel were compared with 
what is done with an equal weight of 
hard furnace coke, it would drop out of 
use quickly, although the price per ton 
be comparatively low. — Mech. World. 

By Crucible. 

The product of a brass foundry excels 
in variety of composition that of its 
iron or steel substitute, due perhaps to 
an ornamental as well as a practical use 
being made of it. 

Gun metal ' * 

Where toughness and durability "are 
wanted as for bearings and general cast- 
ings, no better alloy than gun-metal is 
available. The proportion and consti- 
tuent parts when required to be hard 
and tough, are copper 88, tin 10, zinc 
2, giving a tensile strength of from 
28,000 to 30,000 pounds per sq. inch. 

For a softer and less strong metal, 
2 parts less of copper and 2 additional 
of lead are used. 

Sound castings with sinall shrinkage 
and not subject to corrosion are other 
prominent features. 

Size and rate of cooling of casting, 
skill in properly mixing the various 
metals, ventilating the molds and re- 
lieving the cores, all conspire to affect 
the ultimate strength. Large castings 
have usually less strength than small 
ones, due to the fact that they almost 
of necessity must cool slower. 

Phosphor Bronze 

Phosphor bronze is composed of cop- 
per and tin with about l per cent, of 

It is harder than ordinary gun-metal, 
very close grained and of about 35,000 
pounds per sq. inch tensile strength. 
When heated, it is liable to crack. Much 
care should be exercised in melting and 
pouring it, and repeated melting depre- 
ciates its virtue. 

Manganese Bronze 

Manganese bronze is in composition 
similar to the two grades of gun-metal 
already referred to except that a small 
proportion of ferro-manganese is added. 

It is largely used for propeller blades 
and is rolled into rods for various me- 
chanical and commercial services. 

Propeller blades as ordinary cast, have 
with it an ultimate tensile strength ol 
about 49,000 pounds per sq. inch. If 
cast on end, however, and with a head 
of 2 feet or more, slightly better re- 
sults will be obtained. 

The strength of the rolled rods varies 
from 63,000 eo 72,000 pounds per square 
inch ultimate tensile strength. 

Moffitt & Irving have applied for 3 1-5 
acres of Ashbridge's Bay, Toronto, to 
erect a steel foundry and smelter. 

R. J. Cluff, general manager of Steel 
and Radiation, Ltd., is preparing to 
erect the first building of their new 
plant in St. Catharines. This building 
will be 120x240 ft. and will cost $100,- 


Establishriient or Enlargement of Factories, Mills, Power Plants, Etc.; Construc- 
tion of Railways, Bridges, Etc.; Municipal Undertakings ; Mining News. 

Foandry and Machine Shop. 

OALT, ONT.— The Canadian Tup & Die Co. 
intend adding considerable new equipment 
to tbeir plant in the near future. 

MONTRKAL, QUE.— F. Driacoll has suc- 
ceeded in Interesting a nuralier of Montreal 
capitalists in the Ilerbst Full Light Moving 
Picture machines and a company has been 
formed with a capital of $100,000 to manufac- 
ture and sell the machines which permit of 
motion pictures being shown without the ex- 
tinsuishlng of the lights in a theatre. 

LONDON, ONT.— The C.P.R. will spend 
$500,000 on a new 22-stall round house, new 
station yards and car shops in this city. 

CARGILL. ONT.— Mr. MeGilUvray, of 
Brockville, is promoting a company which is 
egtablishing a windrailT and iron pump fac- 
tory here. 

LONDON, ONT.— A large American steel 
Industry with a capital of from .$20,000,000 to 
$30,000,000, may establish a branch in London. 

I'ORT BtJRWELL. ONT.— The C.P.R. pro- 
pose spending $30,000 here on a round house, 
elevator, etc. 

GUELPH, ONT.— Cowan & Walker have 
been awarded the contract for the new fac- 
tory of the Canada Gate Co., a branch of the 
Iowa Gate Co., of Cedar Falls, Iowa. 

CAMPBELLTON, N.B.— The machinery for 
the equipment of the new I.C.R. repair shop 
Is now fully installed and many machinists 
and repair men have been recalled from 
otncr shops along the line. 

PORT ARTHUR, ONT.— It has been an- 
nounced here that the Greig Co. will com- 
mence work on their new plant as soon as 

TORONTO, ONT.— The C.P.R. has placed 
orders for about $3,500,000 worth of steel 
rails. The greater part of this order went to 
the Lake Superior Corporation, and the bal- 
"'JS? '" '"* Dominion Iron and Steel Co. In 
.addition to this, the railroad company is still 
In the market for about 20,000 tons of rails, 
which wiil bring Its orders for the present 
year considerably over those for 1910. The 
t-.N.R. has already placed orders for 90,000 
tons, and before Its construction programme 
is filled for the .vear, this amount will be 
more than doubled. 

MEDICINE HAT, ALTA.-Following the 
announcement that the Lucky Jim smelting 
works would locate here, comes the news 
that this city will also get a wire nail fac- 
tory a glass works, an artiflclal stone and 
marble industry and a foundry and machine 
?.P'.,,.*''"'^, '"'''*' "•'■en'l.v been selected for 
the Alberta linseed oil mill and the Alberta 
iron roller mills. 

HAMILTON, ONT.— As a sequel to the 
numerous reports publislied that the plans 
of the Oliver Chilled Plow Co. depended to a 
certain extent upon the present reciprocity 
negotiations, the president, J. D. Oliver his 
I.ssued a flat denial of the same and expresses 
his regret that the company's name should 
be dragged Into politics. 

SYDNEY. C.B.— The new ammonia plant at 
the steel works Is partly completed and the 
whilip will be in operation In about a month 

The best which the old plant has been able 
to do Is thirteen tons. Twenty-seven tons 
will be possible with only half of the new 
plant in operation. Only one generator will 
be at work each day. 

VANCOUVER,. B.C.— The big plant of the 
Quesnelle Hydraulic Gold Mining Co., on 
Twenty Mile Creek, Cariboo District, which 
will sift the bed of the Cariboo River will be 
completed and go Into commission next 
August. It cost upwards of $1,000,000. 

ment of Public Works, Canada, has awarded 
McDougall-,Tenklns, Engineers, of North Van- 
couver, a contract to build a steel tug for use 
in Victoria Harbor. The type of engine will 
be inverted fore and aft compound surface 
condensing, with a high pressure cylinder 15 
Inches and low pressure cylinder 34 inches 
diameter, stroke 24 inches, back columns of 
cast Iron, front columns of solid round steel, ' 
to be equipped with steam reversing gear. 
Engines to be built by Boss and Duncan, 
Glasgow. The boiler is to be of the Scotch 
Marine type, single ended, 12 feet Internal 
diameter at largest course by 11 feet long In- 
side. Working pressure 1,50 pounds per 
square inch. There are to be three Morrison 
corrugated furnaces .30 Inches mean diameter. 
Total cost will be $45,000. 

PORT ARTHUR, ONT.— When the Imper- 
ial Construction Co. finish work on the new 
C.N.R. hotel they will commence the erection 
of the plant for the enamel works at Bare 
Point. It is also stated that they have the 
contract for the Port Arthur Wagon Works. 

SARNIA, ONT.— The Imperial Oil Co. are 
building a new boiler shop, engine room and 
blacksmith shop here. Additional improve- 
ments will also be made during thi year. 

WELLAND, ONT.— Jhe Electro Metals Co. 
are pteparing to double the capacity of their 
plant here. 

HAMILTON, ONT.— The Oliver Chilled 
Plow Works, have awarded the contract for 
the erection of its assembling building, 
amounting to $200,000 for the bulk contract, 
to H. C. Christman & Co.. South Bend, Ind. 
The Hamilton Bridge Works Co. has the 
contract for the structural steel required. 
They will soon ask bids for the erection of 
a large malleable and gray iron foundry 

HALIFAX, N.S.— The Scotia Foundry Co., 
a new concern, have purchased from Aid. 
Hoben, his store, factory and foundry, and 
are remodelling the premises. V. H. Stuart, 
for many years asociated with Aid. Hoben, 
is the promoter and secretary of the new 

PRINCE ALBERT, SASK.— A large number 
of prominent citizens were present at the 
Prince .Albert Foundry recently, when the 
first castings were turned out from that Iron 
manufactory. Some months ago the city 
council entered Into an agreement with W. 
McDonald to purchase castings made by him 
if he would establish a foundry here. This 
.Mr. McDonald has done, and in partnership 
with hira Is Mr. Eraser. The foundry Is now 
a going concern and is already receiving a 
liberal patronage. 

NEW YORK.— The Pennsylvania Steel Co. 
has booked orders for 200 tons of rails tor 
the Canadian Pacific Railway, which is also 
in the market tor three small bridge spans. 

been Instrumental In securing the removal of 
the plant of the Lucky Jim Smelting Co. 
from Nelson to this city. Conditions here 
are much more favorable than In Nelson. 

H.VNLEY, SASK.— The Ilanley Iron Works 
are now under the control of Lee Bros, and 
were opened early last month. A full line of 
gasoline engines will be carried, Including 
stationary, portable and tractors, and also a 
line of automobiles. 

TORONTO, ONT.- The Canadian Northern 
Railway has so far this year, placed orders 
for 90.000 tons of steel rails for delivery this 
year. These will cost about $3,000,000. A 
great proportion of the rails came from Syd- 
ney, C.B. These will be laid In Ontario and 
the Prairie Provinces. 

I'ORT MANN, B.C.— The C.N.R. and the 
British Columbia Steel Corporation are 
arranging the details for the Intter's big 
steel plant to be erected here. Water power 
will be generated on a large scale and a 
great deal of the smelting will be carried on 
by electricity. The corporation has secured 
coal and Iron deposits within a radius of 30 
to fiO miles of the plant. The plans and esti- 
mates of the United Engineering and Foun- 
dry Co., Pittsburg. Pa., have been adopted 
for the proposed plant. 

IIESPELEH, ONT.— The Hall-Zryd Foun- 
dry Co., of Grimsby, will locate here and car- 
ry on the manufacture of stoves. 

MONTREAL. QUE.— The C.P.R. has order- 
ed two huge steam shovels from the Montreal 
Locomotive Works, and are In the market for 
steel for three small bridges which are being 
built this year In connection with the im- 
provements going on all over the company s 

HALIFAX, N.S.— The city has approved of 
legislation In regard to concessions to the 
Nova Scotia Car Works and to Molrs, Ltd. 
The Nova Scotia Car Co.. successors to the 
Silllker Car Co. get 20 years exempt on from 
taxation, the loan made to the Silllker Lo.. 
five million gallons of water free annually, 
and the rest at the rate of TA rents per 
thousand gallons, and less If the extra 
amount used Is great enough to qualify i<" 
the lower rates. Molrs. Limited, get 20 years 
exemntlo.i of their entire equipment over and 
above $8,500. It Is said to be the Intention 
of this company greatly to Increase Its plant. 
dian Corrugated Pipe Co. will this year make 
Improvements to their factory and Instal 
machinery which will increase the output 
more than four-fold. 

VANCOUVER. B.C.— The C.P.R. has award- 
ed a contract to DIgby & Orenler. contractors, 
of Ferule for the construction of a large 
bridge over the Old Man River at the south 
fork, near Fernie. The bridge will be 860 
feet In length and l."!" feet high, and will re- 
quire l.iiOO.OOO feet of timber. 1.000 yards of 
concrete. .">00 plies and 2.000 yards of excava- 
tion. It is stated that Its construction wlU 
occupy the greater part of six months. 

The Shaft Bearings in 


never wear out. They are provided with bushings that can easily be replaced 
if necessary, and Ring Oilers keep the bearings constantly flooded in oil, 
thereby preventing the shafts from getting hot and cutting. The Bull Gear 
bearing has a chain oiler, and a number of other features (which we cannot 
explain here) make STEPTOE SHARPERS " just a little better." 

The John Steptoe Shaper Co. 

1953 Jessamine Street 






made in Canada by Canadians, 
answers every call made on it, 
and gives long and satisfactory 
service. Thoroughly tested and 
examined prior to shipment. 
Sent on 30 days' free trial will- 
ingly. Why pay duty on im- 
ported goods when the Imperial 
Chuck has no superior any- 
where ? 

Write for catalogue ana ttlmcounts. 

Ker & Goodwin 

Brantford, Canada 


Fcr seneral machinists' use. 
Strons aad durable and 
deslffaed for hard service. 

Onr eatatogae shows many 
styUs and sixts and is sent 

fTM. : : : : 

The Gushman Chuck Go. 

Narilord, Conn., U.Si. 

Established 1862 

KINGSTON. ONT.— The K. & P. Ry. are 
planning extensive Improvements this year. 
I'hey will repair and renew about thlrty-flve 
small bridges and culverts and put in six or 
seven thirty-Inch and thlrty-sli-lneh con- 
crete pipe culverts, erect three small steel 
girders, and two six-foot concrete arch cul- 
verts and four rail top concrete culverts. The 
company will also Install a pillar crane for 
handling coal at Renfrew. 

VANCOUVER. B.C.— The C.P.R. are calling 
for tenders for the construction of a new 
ten-stall addition to the engine bouse in the 
False Creek Yards. 

BURNABY, B.C.— The Sumner Iron Works 
Co. are about to start the construction of 
their new works here. They will manufac- 
ture machinery, especially saw mill and 
shingle mill plants. 

CALGARY, ALTA.— The new freight yards 
and round house of the C.P.R. have been put 
in operation. The round house is a modern 
structure, and will accommodate a very large 
number of engines. 

QUE. — The business of B. Adelard. manufac- 
turer of threshing machines, was badly dam- 
aged by Are recently. 

OTTAWA. ONT.— Latham and "Groves, 
machinists, have been succeeded by Latham & 

EXETER. ONT.— The Connor Machine Co. 
have obtained a charter. 

WINNIPEG. MAN.— The Dominion Bridge 
Co.. of Montreal, have made several large ad- 
ditions to their works here. The capacity is 
now placed at 18.000 tons per annum. An 
up-to-date engineering and draughting office 
has also been established. 

spend $4.TO.4O0 for improvements In Medicine 
Hat this year. The Itemized table Is as fol- 
lows: — Extending st.itlon. $W,000; double 
tracked steel bridee. $.314,000; extending 
switching yards. SfiO.OOO: new boilers In 
machine shops. $11,400; new station at Red- 
cillT, $.^.000: trackage west of city, $5,000; and 
gas r-oniiection and light for Dunmore yard 
and fencing of terminal, $6,000. 

PORT HOPE. ONT.— The International 
Tool Steel Co. have let the contract for their 
new factory to McGrepgor & Mclntyre, of 
Toronto, to be completed by May 1st. There 
will be three buildings, one IflO x 60. another 
62 X 30 and a third 30 x 30. all of structural 

WELLAND, ONT.— Work on the addition 
to the plant of the Page-Hersey Tube Mills 
has been commenced. The increased factory 
will employ between two and three hundred 
additional men. 

TORONTO. ONT.— The Ontario Brass Rol- 
ling Mills has changed its name to Brown's 
Copper and Brass Rolling Mills. 

WOODSTOCK. ONT.— The LInderman Ma- 
chine Co. have orders enough on hand to 
keep the factory going full speed for weeks, 
and these orders have been sent In voluntar- 
ily, without any soliciting. 

WOODSTOCK. ONT.— The Maximilian Tool 
Co. have their hammers on the market. 

WINNIPEG. MAN.— G. Gale & Sons, manu- 
facturers of Iron and brass bedsteads, have 
purchased a site and will erect a $50,000 fac- 
tory here, 

MONTREAL, QUE.- Fire did $150,000 dam- 
age to the iron bed and stove foundry of the 
H. R. Ives Co., here, recently. 

TORONTO, ONT. — Moffatt * Irving, a 
steel and iron firm, are trying to secure a 
flve-acre site for a big steel and iron foundry 
In the Ashbrldge's Bay district. 

FALSE CREEK, B,C.— The C.P.R. are cal- 
ling for tenders for the construction of a 
new ten-stall addition to the engine house. 
Construction will commence soon and it Is 
the Intention to have the building completed 
early In .Tuly. Ten old stalls are to be de- 
molished to make way for the new addition. 

CALGARY, ALTA,— Ten carloads of steel 
rails have arrived for the new street railway 
extensions. The rails are the first consign- 
ment from the Lorraine Steel Co., of Lor- 
raine, Ohio, 

C.P.R. are considering the building of a 
water softening plant here this year. The 
company has built a number of similar plants 
at points along the line. 

PERTH, ONT. — An American syndicate has 
secured control of the car wheel works here. 
It Is stated that the new owners can secure 
a contract of 200 wheels per day for five 
vears. It Is possible that the plant will be 
kept here, although Sydney or the Soo are 
also under consideration. 

TORONTO. ONT.— It is reported that Mac- 
Kenzie and Mann have purchased the patent 
rights for an Invention that fastens steel 


18 Sheppard St., Toronto ■ 


Patents Perfected 


Ruchlni and Plesting Machinery. 


Machinists and Tool Makers 


Opposite the Post Office, LACHINE, QUE. 

Ernest Scott 

145 Bleury St. ■.' MONTREAL 

Machinimi and Tool 

Dies for Sheet Metal Work. 

Stampings and Light 


Special Machinery Designed 
and Made to Order. 


No matter how hard a stamping problem you 
put up to us, the chances are ^ve can satisfy 
you. Many people use stampintrs in place of 
castings and find them more satisfactory and 
often cheaper. Send blue prints and samples 
and let us quote you. 

The Silent Partner Is an inter- 
esting little magazine. We send 
it free— when there's a reason 


899 Hamilton Street, Cleveland, 0. 

Oil Tempered 



— for every purpose 
snd the best for each 

—Special styles of 
all kinds to order. 


Cleveland, Ohio. 



rails to steel ties. If tbis is true, these gen- 
tlemen evidently contemplate a complete 
change in their railway tie material. 

THOIINBUUY. ONT.— The Reduction plant 
here will be enlarged and additional ovens 
put In. 

Electrical News, 

PORT ARTHUR, ONT.— The Ontario Hy- 
dro-Electric Commission will duplicate Its 
plant at the hydro-electric station here to 
avoid any possibility of a general tle-op 
through want of extra apparatus. $11,200 
will be spent for new equipment. 

MAGOG, QUE.— Tenders will shortly he 
called for the construction of a large power 
dam on the river here. $125,000 will be ex- 
pended on the dam and power plant. 

Superior Paper Co. will construct another 
power canal and a plant with a capacity of 
40,000 h.p. 

VANCOUVER, B. C. — The Vancouver Gas 
Co., subsidiary to the B. C. Electric Rail- 
way Co., win expend this year on plant, etc., 
about $600,000. 

WINNIPEG, MAN.— VIckers, Sons & Maxim 
of Sheffield, Eng., to whom the contract for 
the electrical machinery of the new power 
plant at Point du Bols was awarded, are en- 
gaged In installing It. J. F. T. Thomas, of 
Sheffield. Is In charge. 

PORT WILLIAM. ONT.— The power plant 
of the Kamlnistiqula Power Co. will be In- 
creased to nearly double Its present capacity. 

PORT HOPE, ONT.— T. Garnett has ac- 
cepted the contract to build the sub-station 
for the Seymour Electric Light & Power Co. 
The building will be 41x33, constructed of 
concrete, brick and steel, and will be finished 
May 15th. 

CALGART. ALTA.— The electric light by- 
law calling for an expenditure of $38,000 was 
carried by a large majority. 

CALGARY. ALTA.— The power situation 
here has been cleared by the installation of 
a 900 horse-power machine at the Victoria 
Park power, and additional machin- 
ery capable of producing 6.000 horse-power. 
Including the Kananaskis hydro power. If 
the by-law for building the power extensions 
goes through this spring, an Immediate start 
will be made with the building of the re- 
ceiving and distributing stations for the hy- 
dro-electric power from Kananaskis. 

ALBERNI. B.C.— The Albernl District Elec- 
tric Light and Power Co. have been Incorpor- 
ated and In about a month's time will In- 
stall fixtures and supply electric light In 
every home here. Arrangements have been 
made for the purchase of a steam engine and 
holler, and the electricity will thus be gener- 
ated until such time as the demand for light 
and power becomes large enough to justify 
the harnessing of water power. 

SASKATOON, SASK.— The city commis- 
sioners have prepared the plana and speci- 
fications for the new electrical plant to be 
installed at the power house here this year. 
The cost is estimated at $60,000. 

Municipal Notes, 

TORONTO. ONT.— Tenders for the neces- 
sary plant for the construction of the new 
civic car lines are being called by the Board 
of Control. It will be modern and cost about 
$95,000. After the construction of the car 
lines, which will be about three years, the 
plant will be worth about $38,575, making 
the net cost $56,798. Tenders have already 
been called for the rails. 

KEKRISDALE, B.C.— The contracts for the 
laying of the pipes for the waterworks sys- 
tem in Point Grey have been awarded. The 
total amount of the tenders was In the 
neighborhood of $145,000. 

CALGARY, ALTA.— The following expendi- 
tures have been authorized by the electorate: 
waterworks. $245,000- conduit. $60,000; pav- 
ing plant, $20,000; Incinerators, $120,000; fire 
hall, $75,000; sewers, $40,000, and electric 
light, $.380,000. 

BATTLEFORD. SASK.— A waterworks sys- 
tem is being Installed here at an estimated 
cost of $100,000. 

CRANBROOK, B.C.— The by-law ealllng 
for an expenditure of $100,000 for sewage pur- 
poses was defeated. 

MEDICINE HAT, ALTA.— The city will 
spend $i>2.000 on sewers this year. 

OTTAWA. ONT.— The city has been grant- 
ed power to spend $400,000, of which $300,000 
Is for new sewage works, without submitting 
by-laws to the people. 

ROSTIIERN, SASK.— The municipality Is 
securing estimates with a view to installing 
a waterworks and sewage svstem here. 

SCOTSTOWN, QUE.— The " municipality Is 
considerlii); the installation of a water and 
sewage aysteni to cost $40,000. 

VANCOUVER. It. C- About $300,000 will be 
expended for sewer purposes and drainage. 

ratepayers are being asked to vote $300,000 
on n waterworks system. 

EDMONTON, ALTA.— A proposition to 
turn over to the city at the end of three 
years an equipment complete, capable of de- 
livering at the corporation line, 20,000 horse- 
f lower of electrical energy from Rocky Rap- 
ds, on the Saskatchewan River, 60 miles from 
Edmonton, for the sum of three million dol- 
lars was made by the Edmonton Heat and 
Power Co. 

LETHBRIDGE, ALTA.— The city will 
spend over half a million on local Improve- 
ments this year. This Includes appropria- 
tions as follows: sewer main extensions, $72,- 
000: water mains, $100,000; storm sewer sys- 
tem, $41,000; and sewage disposal, $70,000. 

TORONTO, ONT.— The city has awarded 
the contract for 27 rubber sleeves for the 
city's dredges to the Canadian Consolidated 
Rubber Co.. their prices being $,32.50, $25, 
$12.25 and $33 respectively, for 20-Inch cast- 
iron pipe to the Canada Foundry Co., whose 
price was $39.95 per length. 

CALGARY, ALTA.— The work of extending 
the new high pressure pipe line Is now In 
progress. The cost Is placed at $75,900. 

PORT WILLIAM. ONT.— The city council 
has recommended the extension of the water- 
works to certain localities at a cost of $750. 
They are also considering a proposition to In- 
stall drinking fountains In this city. 

HAMILTON, ONT.— This city has secured 
the necessary legislation enabling It to lay 
pipes for the purpose of distributing natural 
gas and selling It to the citizens. Wells, how- 
ever, must only be bored within the city 
limits. As power to expropriate the Ontario 
Pipe Line plant was refused, the citizens will 
he asked to vote on the proposal to establish 
the civic natural gas plant. 

HAMILTON, ONT.— The city has awarded 
the contract for the five new boilers at the 
Beach pumping plant to the Qoldle-McCul- 
loch Co., of Gait. This Is only one of the 
large contracts to be filled by the big works. 

NORTH TORONTO. ONT.— The ratepayers 
have authorized an expenditure of $265,000 to 
construct a sewerage system and to Install 
disposal plants. 

MOOSE.TAW. SASK.— The city will spend, 
this year, $175,000 for sewer and water ex- 
tensions and $,"10,000 for an Incinerator. 

MONCTON. N.B.— City Engineer Edington 
has estimated the cost of the proposed water- 
works system at $250,000. 

WELLAND. ONT,— Tenders are being call- 
ed for the construction, etc.. of one unit 
water-driven waterworks pumps, etc. 

New Companies. 

MONTEFELLO, QUE.— The Owens Lumber 
Co. have been Incorporated to acquire and 
operate saw mills, planing mills, etc., etc. 

MONTREAL. QUE.— The Montreal General 
Contracting Co.. capitalized at $200,000. have 
been incorporated. They will manufacture 
and deal In tools. Implements, machinery, 
and erect iron foundries, machine shops, etc. 
R. G. Evans, civil engineer; R. Moffat, con- 
tractor; G. G. Hyde and W. G. Pugsley. ad- 
vocate: and R. C. Grant, accountant; all of 
this place. 

MONTREAL. QUE.— The E. Cantelo White 
& Co., have been Incorporated to manufac- 
ture and deal In electrical fittings, apnllances. 
etc. F. C. Reynolds, manager. Westmount, 
M. Alexander, advocate, D. Burley-Smlth, 
clerk. R. Lloyd-Jones, manager, and T. H. 
Warren, bookkeeper, all of Montreal. Capi- 
tal, $50,000. 

MONTREAL. QUE.- The Eureka Damper 
Co. have been Incorporated to manufacture 
and deal In stoves, furnaces, engines, boilers, 
etc. A. W. G. Mncnllster and C. M. Cotton, 
advocates. R. E. Allan, secretary. ,T. M. Mor- 
tle. student, and ,T. W. H. G. Hopman van 
den Berg, dinmond merchant, all of Montreal. 
Capital. $60,000. 

TORONTO. ONT.— The Fisher Electric Mfg. 
Co. has been Incorporated and will manufac- 
ture and deal in electrical apparatus, supplies, 
etc., and carry on business of iron-founders, 
brass-founders, tool-makers, etc. F. C. L. 
.Tones, barrister. L. W. Nurse, accountant. 
P. H. White, stndent-at-law. A. J. Pelrce, 
law clerk, and E. M. Brown, stenographer, 
all of Toronto. Capital $250,000. 

OTTAWA. ONT.— Morlaset & Morisset have 
been Incorporated and will manufacture and 
deal in machinery. Implements, etc. L. C. 
Morisset, L. H. Morisset .nnd M. A. Morisset, 
financial agents. A. R. Morisset and G. O. 
Morisset. civil servants, all of Ottawa. Capi- 
tal. $100,000. 

TORONTO. ONT.— The British Columbia 
Steel Corporation have been incorporated to 
manufacture and deal In Iron and steel. W. 
Gilchrist, solicitor's clerk, A. M. Garden, W. 


Face Plate Jaws 


New features include extra large icrewt, 
double thrust bearings and ipeclal 
methods of attaching, permtttlos their 
use on varlnns-slzed face pUtea. 

Ends pointed at an angle of 46 degrees 
so that four jaws will fit close together 
at centre. Sizes 4-ln, to 14-iD. 

Boring Mill Jaws 

As In the face plate jaws, screws are 
larger than usual, thrust bearings are 
doable and jaws are wider, heavier 
and better supported. Made In all 
steel or with grey iron base aa de- 

Wins FOR 191 1 CATALOGUE Of lanOTID 


WIN0S0K:L0CKS, conn., D.S.A. 

(Not the E. Horton & Son Co.) 


special Taps 

Special Dies 

Special Reamers 

Unless you have 
special appliances, 
you can get these 
tools from us bet- 
ter and cheaper 
than you can make 

Wehave the equip- 
ment and thelex- 
perience. Ask us 
for prices. 






The British Aluminium Co., Limited 


Canadian Headquarters, at 24 Adelaide St. W., Toronto 

in charge of 
MESSRS. PARKE & LEITH, General Agents tor Canada 

A Large Stock of Aluminium in all the Commercial Forms will 
be kept — Wholesale and Retail. 

Jessop's Best Tool Steel 

is yet unexcelled for cutting tools 
of all kinds, and for general 
machine-shop use. 

Jessop's "Ark" High-speed 

QtflOl g'ves marvellous results 
— heavy cuts — at rapid 
speed; cannot be burned. 

The favorite brands with users of good steel. 

A large assortment of sizes in stock. 

Jessop's high-grade files and rasps. 

Manufactured by WM. JESSOP & SONS, Ltd. ShefKeld, Eng. 

Reid Newfoundland Co. Alex. Woods Chas. L. Bailey 

St, John's, Newfoundland 138 Murray Street 80 Bay St. 

Montreal, Que. Toronto, Ont. 

Crucibles are part of the expense of your 
foundry. It will pay you to be sure you're 
using the best. 

''xQi Dixon's Crucibles 

have a record of 83 years behind them. You 
will find them adapted to your melting. 

free booklat, 223'A, aant on rot/ueat 



N.J., U.S.A. 

C. Dnvidson, aud W. Luwr. students-at-law, 
und C. Y. Spearing, secretary, all of Toronto. 
Capital,, $10,000,000. 

MONTREAL, QUE.— The Laurentlde Co.. 
capital iflO.OOO.OOO, have been Incorporated to 
erect, operate, etc., etc., pulp mills, factories, 
etc. R. C. McMlchael, W. V. Chipman. and 
R. O. McMurty, advocates; F. G. Bush, book- 
keeper, G. R. Brennan, stenographer, M. J. 
O'Brien and H. W. Jackson, clerks, all ot this 

TORONTO, ONT.— The Skeena-Naas Pulp 
and Lumber Co., capital $1,500,000, have been 
incorponitcd to own and operate saw mills, 
pulp mills, etc. W. Gamble, of Ottawa, bar- 
rister, H. B. Housser, financial agent, A. B. 
iTaylor and S. R. Broadfoot, students, and 
L. Hull, clerk, all of this city. 

MONTREAL. QUE.— The Standard Steel 
Works, capitalized at $1,000,000, have been in- 
corporated to carry on the business of iron 
musters, steel makers, steel converters, iron 
founders, etc. G. V. Cousins and O. B. Mc- 
Calluni, barristers; P. E. Brown, secretary, 
W. R. Ford, clerk, and S. T. Mains, book- 
keeper, all of this city. 

OTTAWA, ONT.— The Power Specialties. 
Limited, capital $50,000, have been incorpor- 
ated to carry on a general foundry and 
machinery business and to manufacture and 
deal in furnaces, boilers, stoves, ranges, etc. 
.r. K. Paislev, hotel proprietor, F. W. Bendon, 
agent. G. H. Bendon, manufacturer's agent, 
G. W. Sequin, city collector, and L. Black- 
more, agent, all of this city. 

Planingr and 8aw Mills. 

VANCOUVER, B.C.— The B. C. Lumber Co.. 
a $20,000,000 concern, will erect a saw and 
pulp mill on their Massett Island property, 
and contemplate the erection of two large 
mill plants on the southern mainland. 

CORDOVA, ONT.— Ryan & Lynoh's sawmill 
was totally destroyed by fire. The loss will 
amount to about $1,300. 

RODNEY, ONT. — The sawmill and lumber 
yard of Wm. Plater & Co. were completely de- 
stroyed by fire recently. 

MASSETT, B.C.— It has been announced 
here that L. C. Christie, of Ladysmlth, is In- 
terested in a proposition to construct pulp 
mills on the Ain river, Graham Island, and 
open up sawmills in tlie vicinity. 

PRINCETON, B.C.— McDougall & Waddell 
have completed arrangements to operate a 
sawmill on Oneralle. It is understood the 
B. C. Cement Co. will require half a mil- 
lion to use in construction work. 

VERNON, B.C.— W. H. Magee. of Vernon, 
who has been operating a sawmill at Lumby 
for a number of years, has made arrange- 
ments to operate the Ruth & Turner mill at 
Canoe Creek, during the summer. 

GALT, ONT.— Plested & Parker have about 
completed their new planing mill here and 
will make sashes, doors, etc. 

FORT GEORGE, B.C.— The Peace River 
Lumber Co., an American syndicate, will 
erect a sawmill here. 

ABBOTSFORD. B.C.— The Abbotsford Tim- 
ber & Trading Co. are opening up a lumber 
yard and mill here. They will also erect a 
large warehouse and office building. 

REVELSTOKE, B.C. — The Deamond Mills 
Co., of this place, will erect a sawmill near 

WINNIPEG, MAN.— A Winnipeg syndicate, 
headed by J. D. McArthnr, railway contrac- 
tor, has acquired the assets of the Fort 
George Lumber & Navigation Co., which re- 
cently went into liquidation. The holdings 
include two sawmills at South Fort George. 

HESPELER, ONT.— W. A. Kribs is enlarg- 
ing his planing mill, sash and door factory 
here, and inst.Tlling additional machinery. 

NELSON, B.C.— Waters & Pascoe have 
opened up their new $10,000 sash and door 
factory here. 

MOOSE .TAW, SASK.— The Western Manu- 
facturing Co., Reglna. has purchased the Sas- 
katchewan Sash & Door Co. here and has 
spent $10,000 improving It. Included in the 
improvements was the addition of modern 
machinery for the manufacture of s.ish, doors, 
mouldings, frames and turned work, store 
and office fixtures. 

Baildinir Notes. 

VANCOUVER, B.C. — The Vancouver Hotel 
will build an annex, at a cost of $190,000. 

Asquith, Sask., will build a large hotel here, 
at a cost of $100,000. 

SASKATOON, SASK.— Storey & Van Eg- 
mond, of this city, have prepared plans for 
a six-storey department.Tl store building here. 
minster Trust Co. will erect a ten-storey 
building here. Only six storeys will be erect- 
ed at present. 



CALGARY, ALTA.—Plans have been pre- 
pared for a slx-atorey block for F. Falrey. 
The cost will be about $300,000, and it will 
contain stores, offices and apartments. 

SASKATOON, SASK.— J. I. Case Co., tbe 
big threshing machine manufacturers, of 
Racine, Wis., have secured a site upon which 
to erect one of the largest warehouses In the 

MONTKKAIi, QDE.— E. H. Ford, Canadian 
manager of the Ford Iron Co., and represent- 
ing an English syndUate. has announced that 
they will spend ?1,2CO,000 in liuildlug summer 
hotels at Montreal, Toronto, Winnipeg, Ot- 
tawa and Vancouver. 

VANCOUVER, B.C.— Architect Hooper pre 
pared the plans for a four-storey labor tern 
pie, to cost $143,000. The building, planned 
to be 75x120 feet, will have reinforced con- 
crete and brick curtain walls. The Norton- 
Griffiths Steel Construction Co. have the con- 

TORONTO, ONT.— It has been estimated 
that an additional $300,000 will be spent on 
St. Alban's Cathedral here this year. 

SASKATOON, SASK.— The city is procuring 
plans for a new city hall, to cost $150,000. 

CALGARY, ALTA.— The Hudson's Bay Co. 
are building a big six-storey departmental 
store here, at a cost of $100,000 

VANCOUVER, B.C.— F. Patrick, son of the 
millionaire lumberman, is promoting the erec- 
tion of artificial ice rinks In the two coast 
cities. $200,000 will be expended in the build- 
ings and plant here. 

Royal Columbian hospital will be built here 
this spring, at a cost of $175,000. Radical 
changes In the plans will probably necessitate 
the calling of new tenders. 

SAULT STE. MARIE. ONT.— It Is gener- 
ally understood that the newly-incorporated 
Lake Superior Paper Co., capitalized at $8,- 
000,000. will build a large paper plant here. 
They have purchased twenty acres from the 
Lake Superior Power Co. The land includes 
the buildings on it, which consist of the 
frame rear extension of the pulp mill, the 
sulphite mill, and the smelting and reduc- 
tion works. The buildings are incorporated 
in the new works and will be used. 

VANCOUVER. B.C.— The B.C.E.R. will 
erect a $350,000 building here. It will be 
strictly modern. 

WEYBURN, SASK.— The M. D. McKlnnon 
Co., Intend erecting a large departmental 
block of brick structure with elevator and all 
modern conveniences. 

HARRIS, SASK.— The Imperial Oil Co. will 
erect a warehouse and two large tank! at 
this point as soon as spring opens up. Wil- 
son & Conway will be in charge. 

ST. JOHN, N.B.— The contract for the con- 
struction of the foundation of the Atlantic 
Sugar Refinery Co.'s two million dollar plant 
at the ballast wharf has been awarded to The 
Foundation Co., Montreal. 

VICTORIA, B.C.— H. S. Griffith, architect, 
has prepared plans calling for a mammoth 
structure ten storeys high to cost $1,000,000. 
It Is planned to serve the purposes of a 
theatre, hotel, and office building. 

FORT FRANCES. Ont.— The C.N.R. pro- 
pose spending $200,000 on a summer hotel and 
grounds at Pither's Point, here. 

General Manafactnring. 

PERTH, ONT.— W. ,T. Winn has been en- 
gaged lately in Installing the gas producer 
plant and a number of machines at Ills fac- 
tory here. 

ST. .JOHN, N.B.— The Wilson Box Co. have 
successfully started operations at FairvlUe. 
The plant and luml)er yards cover eight 
acres, while the box mill Itself has 42,000 sq. 
ft. of floor space. The power plant Is built 
of concrete and covered by re-lnforced con- 
crete roof, and contains two new tubular 
boilers of 125 h.p. each and a Corliss engine 
capable of developing 2,'JO h.p., making a most 
complete steaming outfit; the fuel used being 
the sawdust and shavings from the different 
machines, which are all connected to a blower 
system, which conveys it direct to the boiler 

MONTREAL, QUE.— Brunelle Co., manufac- 
turers of washing machines, has been regis- 
tered. H. Brunelle and A. Brunelle. 

SYDNEY, C.B.— Alex. Cross & Sons, Glas- 
gow. Scotland, will shortly erect here a big 
fertilizer plant. They have contracted with 
the Steel Company for the company's total 
output of basic open hearth slap, from which 
the fertilizer is to be nianufa<'tured. 

EDMO.NTON. ALTA.— P. Burns, the meat 
packer, will • build his big packing plant in 
Edmonton, instead of Strnthcona. Tlie plant 
will be large, with modern equipnient. 

WOODSTOCK, ONT.— A deal has practical- 
ly been consummated looking towards the 
establishment in this city of u branch of the 
big packing firm of Ltbby, McNeill & LIbby, 
of Chicago. 

WEST TORONTO, ONT.— Gunns Ltd. are 
erecting a refinery here for cotton seed oil, 
the first of its kind In Canada. 

NEW WESTMINSTER, B.C.— Fox Bros., of 
Nelson, will establish a big ]am factory here. 

WOODSTOCK, ONT.— The Woodstock Tex- 
tile Co. have started manufacturing their 

KINGSTON, ONT.— It has been decided to 
remove the Richardson MIca-wnsher Works 
to Trenton, N.J. 

CALGARY, AliTA.- The Western Agencies 
& Development Co. are promoting the estab- 
lishment of a linseed oil factory here. 

LINDSAY, ONT.— The Canadian Handle & 
Wood Turnings Co. have taken over the busi- 
ness of the Rider & Kitchener Co. and will 
commence operations about the middle of 
this month. 

SASKATOON, SASK.— Cushing Bros., Ltd.. 
have secured a site and will shortly estalUish 
a wood-working plant here. They have plants 
in Calgary and Edmonton. 

ST. JOHN, N.B.— Work has been started 
on the new $2,000,000 plant of the Atlantic 
Sugar Refinery. 

PETERBORO, ONT.— The Independent Tire 
Co. will likely locate here. They contemplate 
the erection of a three-storey factory, with 
$75,000 woi-th of machinery. 

Trade Notes. 

TORONTO, ONT.— The General Supply Co.. 
with headquarters in Ottawa, have opened 
offices and warehouse at 119 Adelaide St., 
west, in this city. They will handle a full 
line of belts, mill supplies, etc. 

The Sterling Lubricator Co., of Rochester. 
N.Y., announce the removal of their factory 
to Norwich, Conn., where their shops will l>e 
combined with those of the Uncas Specialty 
Co., the new combination to be known as 
tlfe Sterling Machine Co. 

National-Acme In Montreal. 

The National-Acme Manufacturing Co., 
Cleveland, manufacturers of automatic ma- 
chines and their products, have Just complet- 
ed the equipping of a new plant at St. Eliza- 
beth and G.T.R., St. Henri, Montreal, and 
operations will be started In April. In the 
Montreal plant they will manufacture screws, 
nuts, bolts and special parts for automobiles, 
electrical apparatus and all parts that can 
be made from bar stock. 'The equipment 
consists of Acme Automatic Multiple Spindle 
Screw Machines. Stocks will be carried of 
cap and set screws, plain and castellated 
. milled steel nuts, semi-finished nuts and 
milled brass nuts. Contracts will also be 
made for the manufacture of special screws, 
nuts, etc. 

Dominion Steel Corporation Extensions. 

During 1011, the Dominion Steel Corpora- 
tion, Amherst. N.S., will carry forward a 
vast amount of new work in connection with 
extensions to the plant. Recently the com- 
pany placed plans In the hands of the local 
contractors and asked for tenders for the 
construction of some eight buildings. These 
new structures are to be as follows: Machine 
shop, 120 X 130 feet; foundry and machine 
shop, 120 X 440 feet: boiler house, 120 x 160 
feet; pattern shop, 60 x 200 feet; car repair 
and carpenter shop, 120 x 140 feet; ware- 
honse, 60 x 200 feet, 2 storeys; oil house. 
60 bv 60 feet: round house, 2.30 feet diameter, 
about 16 locomotive stalls. All of these build- 
ings will be constructed of steel and com- 
pressed lirlck. The outlay will be In the 
vicinity of three-quarters of a million dol- 
lars. The new general office will be another 
structure for erection Immediately, and plans 
for this .$100,000 edifice are now in course of 
preparation. This will be a separate and dis- 
tinct contract from the list already noted. 
Besides the construction of these buildings, 
there Is also to be undertaken in 1011 the 


NOTICE Is hereby given th«i ihe owner of 
C»nadi«n Patent No. 117,439, dited 
March 23rd, 1909, for Combustion ► n- 
Cines, is p-enared to grant licenses under 
section 44 of the Patent Act, upon • reasonable 
royalty, to anyonr wishing to manufacture the 
Invention coverri by the above patent. For 
licenses and information apply to 


Patent Solicitors and Experts, 

Canada Life Building, Montreal. 


83 Front St. W., Toronto 


ri/AI^O Ntvand Seeoad-b«*d 
Old Matorlal Bought and Sold. 



Difficult Core Work a Specially 
Mi^h Grade • Righf Prices • Prompf Delivery 






Tall kinds of i-iachine ' 
work. made in 



by the very highest class of skilled 

Only the highest grade of material 
used in our work. We can handle 
your pattern work to your complete 
I Let us quote prices. 

87 JarvisSt.TorontcCanacIa 

■f..- . ' ■ 






has obtained for Canada Patent No. 117195 in 
connection with comb bacon hanger, and the 
American Can Company* of Montreal, is manu- 
facturing this article and is prepared to 
supply the same, to any person who may wish 
to purchase the article, at a reasonable 

Any person, firm or corporation desiring to 
purchase this article will kindly communicate 
with "che American Can Company, Montreal, P.Q. 


can b« securad for sny clau of castlnei by arransins your mixtures by 
analysis. Years of practical experience in foundry work are at your 
service wtien you consult wltii 

The Toronto Testing Laboratory, Limited 





^loro L-iicoiy -to k>« Aocura-te. 

"MORROW" Set and Cap Screws are threaded twice. (Two 
dies over each screw). 

Makes Morrow make uniform. 



establishment of a merchant bar and rod 
mill, two blast furnaces, probably about 75 
more '»y-product coke ovens, before next new 
year • the completion of the new turbo-electric 
system, and several other new Items of ex- 
pansion may develop during the present 

Canadian Tap and Die Co., Gait, to Enlarse 

Edward Blake, Jr., of Wells Bro»., manu- 
facturers of taps, dies, etc., has now taken 
over the mnnngement of the Canadian Tap & 
Die Co., Gait. It Is his Intention to install 
new machinery and otherwise increase the 
manufacturing facilities. The Canadian Com- 
pany will manufacture a full line of screw 
cutting tools and in addition will handle a 
line of Weils Bros, machinery and tools, in- 
cluding the Universal Tool and Cutter Grin- 
der. Mr. Blake will also represent the Mil- 
ler's Falls Co.. of Miller's Falls, Mass., manu- 
facturers of braces, chain drills, hand drills, 
bench drills, breast drills, automatic and 
ratchet screw drivers, chucks, hack saws, etc. 
A stock will be carried at the Gait factory. 

Bolt Factory for Fort William. 

Barnett-McQueen Co. are installing a plant 
on Christina St.. Fort William, for the manu- 
facture of holts of all kinds. Oil will be 
used as fuel in the heating furnaces. It is 
intended to add later machinery for the 
manufacture of heavy bolts and rivets for 
construction work. About 20 men will be 
employed on the start. 

Wetland Machine and Foundries, Limited. 

A meeting of the members of the syndicate 
who took over the Robertson Machinery Co.'s 
plant, appointed the following as officers of 
the concern, which will now be known as 
"The Welland Machine & Foundries, Limited." 
Directors: J. II. Crow, R. J. McCormlck, D. 
D. Hooker. D. Ross, Wm. Edestrand. Presi- 
dent. David Ross ; vlce-pres. Wm. Edestrand ; 
sec.-trcas. J. H. Crow. 

Welland's Industries Expanding. 

As previously announced in Canadian 
Machinery, the Page-Hersey Tube Works 
will materially enlarge and improve their 
Welland plant. The enlargement will prob- 
ably cost about $150,000. The contract for the 
first work in this connection — the erection of 
a new business office — has been let to David 
Dick & Sons, contractors, work to be begun 
as soon as the weather will permit. This 
office will be a two-storey, fireproof brick 
structure, of handsome design, and will cost 
about $8,000. A galvanizing plant will be in- 
cluded In the additions to the worki. 

Dick & Sons have secured the centract for 
the plant of the Canadian Automatic Trans- 
portation Co., at $25,000. 

It is reported that Canadian Steel Foundries 
which secured control of the Montreal Steel 
Co.. Montreal and Ontario Iron and Steel Co, 
Welland, will build a blast furnace in con- 
nection with the Welland plant this year at 
a cost of $1,250,000. Iron ore will be brought 
to Welland bv water and smelted into pig 
Iron and steel. A large tract of limestone 
property, west of Port Colborne, is under 
option, and it is believed this Is to supply 
limestone for the smelter. A warehouse and 
machine shop will be erected at once at a 
cost of $100,000. The plant of the Electro 
Metals will be doubled In size. The company 
have been exceedingly prosperous, and have 
found It necessary to have increaaed accom- 

United Motors, manufacturers of automo- 
biles, will erect a factory building the com- 
ing summer. 

Quality Beds have let the contract for the 
construction of a brick addition 60 x 80 ft. 

Book Review. 

Engineering Index Annual— Published by 
the Engloeering Magazine, 140 Nassau St.. 
New York; size 6x9 Ins., 500 pages. Price ?2. 

This is the fifth annual index devoted to 
engineering and technical publlcatiouB in 
Europe and America. While by no means 
complete as far as Canadian technical publi- 
cations are concerned. It Is rectgui'ed as a 
very valuable reference book for anyone seek- 
ing Information on any technical subject. 

The articles indexed are first grou))ed under 
the general division of englneerin,-; practice 
to which they belong— Civil, Mechanical, 
Electrical, Mining, etc., and under these again 
they are sub-grouped according to the recog- 
nized special divisions of each field. 

A new feature has ben introduced into the 
fifth index annual to make It easier and more 
<-onvenlent for the consultant to find the re- 
ference he seeks. This is the assembly of all 
catchwords under their classified arrange- 
ment In front of the book, so that all topics 
under any heading, which in the book may 
be scattered through several pages, are here 
condensed Into a list of a column or less. 




Horizontal and Vertical. 
Any size, any pressure. 
Fori all Purposes. 

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Contracts Solicited for 

Special Machinery, 

Automobile Parts, 
Tools, Jigs, Fixtures, 





and ROOFS. 

The most reliable bond for all varieties 
of concrete slab. 


Competent Engineering staff in charge 
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For both 
Hand and 

for cut- 
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Buy a gross of 
Simonds Hack 
Saw Blades to- 
day for trial, or 
write for quantity 
prices and discounts. 

Simonds Canada Saw 
Co., Limited 


St. John, N.B. VancouTer. B.C 

In the UnitedSlatis.SimondsMfg.Co. 





All^whkh cosfs monc^Tfoat^r saved b moneK^arned 


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Bolt, Nut and Forging Machinery 
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Complete Catalogue " E" upon roQuest. 

The Hational Machinery Co., Tiffin, 0., U.S.A. 

Canadian AgontBi H. IV. PETRIE. Toronto Ont. 

WILUMMS A lA/lLSOf, Montreal. Quo. 

Don't fail to mention "Canadian Machinery" in writing to advertisers. 



For Employees 

Against loss of 

For Employers 

Against loss by 
damage suits. 

this, and without interfer- 
ing with output of work. 

Guards for Presses, Saws, 
Jointers, Shapers, etc. 

Parl-iciilare and prices on atiplication 

The Jones Safely Device 
Company. Limited 

22 King William Street 

Branches in United States: 
Buffalo. N.Y. New York. N.Y. 
^Z IChlcaeo. 111. 

The Strength of Oxyacetylene Welds In 
Steel. By Herbert L. Whlttemore, has just 
been Issued as Bulletin No. 45 of the Engl- 
ueering Experiment Station of the University 
of Illinois. This bulletin gives the results of 
uu extensive series of tests to determine the 
strength which may be developed In welded 
Joints made by fusing thin steel plates to- 
gether by means of the flame of an oxyacety- 
lene blowpipe. It was found that with care- 
ful manipulation such a welded Joint may be 
expected to have about 85 per cent, of the 
strength of the plate material. Considerable 
Information as to methods of manipulation 
of the oxyacetylene blowpipe and the proper 
regulation of the gases Is also given in the 
bulletin. Copies of Bulletin No. 45 may be 
obtained gratis upon application to W. h\ M. 
Goss, director of the Engineering Experiment 
Station, University of Illinois, Urbana, 111. 

Oxhydric Welding— 32-page catalogue on 
coated paper, from the American Oxhydrlc 
Co., Milwaukee, Wis., describes and illustrates 
in a very interesting manner their system of 
cutting and welding. Numerous applications 
of the system are given, these being Illus- 
trated in a number of cases. 

An Investigation of Built-up Columns Under 
L.oad, by Arthur N. Talbot and Herbert F. 
Moore, is issued as Bulletin No. 44 of the 
Engineering Experiment Station of the Uni- 
versity of Illinois. 

In the course of this investigation, labora- 
tory tests were made on steel and wrought 
iron built-up columns, such as are used in 
bridges and other structures, to determine 
not only their strength, but also the way in 
which the compressive stresses vary over the 
cross-section of the channels or other com- 
ponent parts of the column and throughout 
its length. The amount of stress in lattice 
bars and its variation from bar to bar was 
also measured. The distribution of stress 
over the cross-section of a lattice bar was 
studied. Field tests were conducted on the 
columns of a railroad bridge under the load 
of a locomotive and train, and the distribu- 
tion of stresses over various parts of the 
columns was measured. The investigation 
shows that the variations from the ideal col- 
umn which result from shop and erection 
processes may be more Important than the 
Influence of length, and that on account of 
such causes the stress at one or more points 
in a column may be as much .is 50 per cent, 
inexcess of the average stress. This Investi- 
gation may be expected to have an important 
bearing on structural engineering practice. 
Copies of Bulletin No. 44 may be obtained 
gratis upon application to W. F. M. Goss, 
director of the Engineering Experiment Sta- 
tion, University of Illinois, Urbana, HI. 

Farwell Automatic Gear Hobber. — Circular 
805 from the Adams Co., Dubuque, Iowa, 16 
pages, 81^x11 Ins., describes and illustrates 
the Farwell Gear Hobber. 

AJax Electric Riveting Machines — Catalogues 
are being issued by the Hanna Engineering 
Works, 2095 Elstou Ave., Chicago, who have 
entered into a contract with the Electric Ma- 
chinery Sales Co., Milwaukee. The light yoke 
riveters shown in one of the bulletins Is said 
to' be the first offered to the trade. Circular 
matter will be furnished by the Hanna Engi- 
neering Works on application. 

Smooth-on— The Smooth-on Mfg. Co.. Jer- 
sey City, N.J., have issued 16-page booklet 
describing their products, including cements, 
"Smooth-on" for castings, Joints, packing, 
gaskets, paint, etc. 

Flexible Shaft — Catalogue from the Bam- 
ridge Patent Flexible Shaft Co., British Engi- 
neering Works, Kettering, Eng., describes the 
Bamridge patent and illustrates many appli- 

Decimal Equivalents — The Garvin Machine 
Co., Spring and Varick Sts., New York, are 
mailing on request a large hanger, 24x24 Ins., 
containing decimal equivalents in sixty- 
fourths. The type is large enough to he seen 
from considerable distance. 

Casehardening— W. H. Paltreyman *; Co., IT 
Goree-Pinzzas, Liverpool, have Issued a book- 
let on "Hints About Casehardening: What to 
Use. and how to do it." The booklet gives 
a fund of general information on the sub- 

Discount list — S. A. Daniel, Birmingham, 
Eng., has issued an export discount list of 

Quick Threading Attachment — lO-page cata- 
logue, 9x12 Ins., from the Hendey Machine 
Co., Torrlngton, Conri., U.S.A., describes the 
(|nlck threading attachment for Hendey-Nor- 
ton lathe. 





All weidhts up to 6.000 lbs. 
We make a special^ of difficult cored work 

LET VIS figure; on your requirements 

Galt Foundry Co. Gaut.Ont. 

FOSS & Hill Montreal?""Qae! 

Agents for 
Sdiamichtr & Bom. Cigcimili, • ■ Ltlhfs 

Tkt 6. A. Gray Co Plaoers 

The Giociiiali Lilte & Tool Co., • 16-ia. Lalbtl 

Tba Maeller Machine Tool Co., ladial Drilli 

The ]■ T. Sloeoah Co., Nicromalers 

Moehinsry and Mill Supplies of all kinds 



Cement Mill Machinery, Boiler and Steel 

Tank Work of all kinde, Crey 

Iron and Braee CastlnKB 

No Maintenance Costs 



PERMANENT joints reqnire uon- 
corroding surfaces at the joint, 
and must be accurately made. 

The construction and the bronze to 
bronze ball joint of the Dart Union 
allows for a perfect and practically 
everlasting joint between pipes, 
whether they are in or out ol 

All that is necessary is to draw the 
two faces t'jgether and you have a 
joint that defies time and pressure 
and will not rust, yet may be im- 
jolnted and jointed as often as you 

Made in screwed, flanged, tee and 
elbow unions. 

Dart Unions have this trade mark: 


I ere 

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DART UNION CO., Limited 







' IRON * 


.(gP^ 8000 TONS 

5miih'sfblls Ontario 


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The Real 
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Away back with the select- 
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finishing lies the real ex- 
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Write for our Cataloiiue. 



Montreal, 511 William St. 

Toronto, 27 Melinda St. 

St. John, N.B , 89 Prince William St. 

Winnipeg, 244 Princess St. 
Vancouver, B.C., 217 Columbia Ave. 

Don't fail to mention "Canadian Machinery" in writing to advertisers. 




Shaft straightening 


For use on the Lathe. 


For round or 
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Cranks, Tubes, 

Write for Lists to 


Machine Tool Makars 


Milling Cutters 

Cutters for all purposes: 


Ourlcatalogue describes 
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The Merhanlcal World Electrical Pocket 
Book. Sire 4 by 6 In.; pages 208. Bouurt In 
cloth. Published by Emmott & Co., Ltd., 65 
King Street, Manchester. England. Price 12 
cents net. The 1011 electrical pocket book 
has been thoroughly revised and many new 
Illustrations Introduced. Among the particu- 
lar changes noted are that the descriptive 
matter has been condensed, thus affording 
space for a larger number of new tables on 
subjects such as current densities, permis- 
sible temperature rise, percentage losses in 
electrici.l machinery, units of illumination, 
incandescent lamp current consumption, life 
of glow lamps and allowances for depreci- 
ation. The notes on accumulators have been 
rewritten and extended as well as the sec- 
tions dealing with circuit breakers, boosters 
and the use of electricity in coal mines. 
Another change worthy of special mention 
is the Introduction of a new section on liquid 
starters. In all sections, both the new ones 
and those which have been Included in pre- 
vious Issues, considerable useful data and 
tabular informntlon liave been given. 

Drop Forging:, Die Sinking and Machine 
Forming of Steel — By J. V. Woodworth, pub- 
lished by the Norman W. Henley Publishing 
Co., 132 Nassau- St., New York; 340 pages, 
6x9 Ins., 300 illustrations. Price, $2.50. 

This is a practical treatise on modern shop 
practice, processes, methods, machines, tools 
and details, treating on the hot and cold ma- 
chine-forming of steel and iron into finished 
shapes; together with tools, dies and machin- 
ery involved in the manufacture of duplicate 
forgings and interchangeable hot and cold 
pressed parts from bar and sheet metal. 

This is the fifth dealing with forging, 
tempering, power presses, etc. This one Is 
full of facts gleaned from various sources, 
such as the technical papers. The growth 
of die-sinking and machine forging has neces- 
sitated a standard work, which has now been 
prepared. The methods are described in 
plain language, which will be easily read and 
understood by those engaged or interested 
in this line of work. 


AIR COMPRESSORS— Catalogue 391 from 
National Brake and Electric Co., Milwaukee, 
TT.S., describes National air compressors and 

REFRIGERATION— "A profitable day load," 
is the name of a refrigeration bulletin No. 508. 
issued by the Triumph Ice Machine Co.. Cin- 
cinnati, Ohio. A number of refrigeration out- 
fits are showa. 

BELT DRESSING— Cling-Surlaoe Co., 1032 
Niagara Street, Buffalo, N.Y. Circulars. Deal 
with the use of Cling-Surface for keeping leather 
and cotton belts and rope pliable and water- 
proof, preventing all drying or cracking and 
stopping the slipping of the belts. 

FEED WATER HEATER— National Pipe E™d- 
ing Co.. 156 River Street, New Haven Ccrn. 
Booklet. Treats of the National feed water 
heater for boilers from 5 to 4.000 h.p.. which 
consists of one or more coils of seamless drawn 
tubing inclosed in a cast iron or steel shell to 
which exhaust steam is admitted, heating the 
water as the latter passes through rhe ti>bing. 
Direetions for erecting the heater and its use 
In condensing steam plants are inoluded. 

Machinery & Transmisson Co., Elmira, Ont. 
have issued Catalogue B, in which a complete 
list of transmission supplies for engineers, 
founders and machinists, is listed. Among 
those manufactured by this company are pow- 
er transmission appliances, wood split pulleys, 
friction clutches, couplings, hangers, etc. In 
addition, there are listed Cumberland turned 
and ground steel shafting. Chapman double 
ball bearings, leather, rubber, cotton and 
balata belting, etc. 

WATER VALVES— A 4-pnge folder de- 
scribing the hydrostatic water valve and its 
application, has been issued by the Cleveland 
Steel Tool Co., 600 East 82nd St., Cleveland, 
Ohio. The valve maintains automatically con- 
stant level In tanks, vats, heaters, low-pres- 
sure boilers, etc. 

Co. have Issued a 16-page catalogue describ- 
ing Dodge split and solid clutches. The eco- 
nomic features are dealt with and the con- 
struction of the clutch Is given In detail. A 
two- page table shows the sizes manufactured, 

together with full information in regard to 
h.p. transmitted, speed, face of pulley, cost, 

tin 126 from the Crocker, Wheeler Co., Am- 
pere, N.J., discusses the induction motor and 
its application in textile mills, woodworking 
plants, etc. Many Illustrations show these 

STRAINERS is the title of an attractive cata- 
logue recently issued by the Lagouda Mfg. 
Co., of Springfield, Ohio. It contains a de- 
scription of a new type of Multiple Strainer 
suitable for the removal of suspended matter, 
such as Ice, sticks, seaweed, grit, etc., from 
boiler feed water, and also from condenser 
circulating water. These strainers are built 
in sizes up to 48 in., with a number of differ- 
ent compartments, depending upon the size. 
The Lagouda-Enterprise Strainer is unique 
in that its effective straining area is from 
2% to G times larger than the area of the 
pipe. It Is also possible to dean separate 
compartments of the strainers without in- 
terrupting the flow through the others, thus 
eliminating the necessity of shutting down 
circulating or boiler feed pipes in order to 
clean out the filters used. 

RUBBER VALVES.— Folder from H. W. 
Johns MauvlUe Co., 100 William street. New 
York, describes J-M rubber valves. 

STEAM SPECIALTIES.— A 40-page cata- 
logue for 1911 from Darling Bros., Montreal, 
describes and Illustrates a number of lines 
manufactured and handled by them, includ- 
ing beaters, pumps, traps, valves, etc. 

VOLUTE PUMP— Bulletin 106 from the 
John McDougall Caledonian Iron Works, 
Montreal, describes the Volute Pump and 
Its applications. 

PULLEYS.— Folder from Positive Clutch & 
Pulley Works, 11-13 Jarvls street, Toronto, 
describes the pulleys and clutches being 
placed on the market by them. 

53, 16 pages, 6x9 Ins., from the Richard- 
son-Pheuix Co., Milwaukee, shows a number 
of Installations and gives useful information 
regarding the operation of the system. 

By J. A. Beriy, published by H. Alabaster, 
Gatehouse & Co., 4 Ludgate Hill, E.C., Lon- 
don, Eng. ; 1,552 pages; price, post free, 148 
6d.; British, Colonial and General Sections 
only, 10s. 

This eleventh edition has been as carefully 
revised as previous issues, and no pains spared 
to make it as accurate and reliable as ever. 

The contents are divided into tour sections: 
The British, with 13,590 names; Colonial and 
General, with 5,840 names; Continental, with 
7,970 names; U. S. A., with 6,500 names; to- 
talling 33,900 names, although unimportant 
entries are omitted. Each section is sub- 
divided into alphabetical and classified sec- 
tions, while in the case of the British a Geo- 
graphical Section has been added, which Is a 
necessity for all travelers. Any section can at 
once be referred to by means of a thumb 

Telegraphic addresses, telephone numbers 
and codes are given in the alphabetical sec- 
tions, financial particulars of British limited 
liability companies, also of foreign companies 
with a British address. 

A new feature, which has been asked for. Is 
the separation of the London from the pro- 
vincial names in the British alphabetical sec- 

The lists of electricity undertakings in the 
United Kingdom, British colonies and some 
other countries include the following details: 
The nature of the supply, system of distri- 
bution, capacity of plant, voltage and chief 
engineer's name, and in the case of alternat- 
ing current, the phase and periodicity are 

A list of specialties appears In the British 
Section, arranged alphabetically, according to 
the name of the article, followed by the mak- 
er's or agent's name and address. This, judg- 
ing by enquiries, should supply a present-day 

BOOK— Issued by the Technical PubUshing 
Co., 55 and 56 Chancery Lane, London, W.C, 
England; 800 pages. Price, 40 cents postpaid. 

In this new 1911 Issue obsolete data has 
been dropped and several new topics treated. 
The new matter Includes notes on stoker sys- 
tems, thermal storage, superheaters, roller 
bearings, etc. Revision has been made of 
articles dealing with shop gauges, patterns, 
etc. Over 700 pages are devoted to subjects 
of Interest to the engineer and mechanic, the 
remaining pages being blank and arranged 
for diary and notes. 

Making Milling Cutters to Secure Greatest Efficiency* 

By A. L. DeLeeuw 

Present-day Practice Shows that Better Results Can be had From Milling Cutters by In- 
creasing tli.e Tooth Space and Depth. They Have a Number of Points in Their Favor 
Among Which are Less Consumption of Power, a Greater Amount of Work Done for One 
Sharpening and a Greater Number of Possible Sharpenings per Cutter. A Change in the 
Form of Chip Breaker Made it Possible to Use Cutters MHth Chip Breakers for Finishing, 
as Well as for Houghing. It was Found Advisable to Use a Special Kind of Key, Here 
Described, for Heavy Work. Finallj/, This Paper Describes a New Style of Face Mill and 
WJiat is Called a Helical Mill. 

THE amount of metal which a ma- 
chine tool can remove in a given 
time is limited by the strains caused b)' 
the cut. Great hardness oi the material 
to be cut, or a dull tool, will severely 
strain the machine and so reduce the 
section of the chip, even if the machine 

Fig. 1. — Metal Cblp Assumed to be Produced 
by Milling Cutter Without distortion. 

is rigidly constructed and well supplied 
with driving power. It is therefore of 
the greatest importance to analyze care- 
fully all the conditions which cause 
heavy strains so that they may be ob- 
viated or reduced to the lowest possible 

This limitation of the cutting capacity 
occurs in all metal cutting machines, 
although to a varying extent. While it 
is possible to increase the driving power 
of most machines ad libitum, and al- 
most any amount of metal can be put 
into machine elements to give them 
rigidity, there are certain classes of ma- 
chines where practical considerations 
limit such increase of power and 
strength. This is especially true in ma- 
chines where the main elements have to 
be adjusted and handled with great fre- 
quency. The knee-and-column type of 
milling machine owes its success, to a 
large extent, to the ease and rapidity 
with which it can be manipulated and it 
is doubtful if it will ever be possible to 
increase the dimensions of the parts 
much beyond the present sizes, without 
losing the benefits of the peculiar con- 
struction of this type of machine. In 
order to increase the capacity of this 
type of milling machine, it becomes 
necessary to reduce the strains set up by 
the cut and there are only two elements 
which can be modified to accomplish 
this result. These are the hardness of 
the metal to be cut and the cutting 
qualities of the milling cutter. As it 

• Read before tbe A. S. M. E., New York. 

is impossible to control the first of these 
the only avenue left for improvement 
leads in the direction of the milling cut- 

The action of the ordinary milling cut- 
ter is not a true cutting action, as it 
is commonly understood. By a true cut- 
ting action is meant the driving of a 
wedge-shaped tool between the work and 
the chip and although this definition is 
not based on a generally accepted mean- 
ing of the term it is believed that it ex- 
presses fairly well wliat most mechanics 
imderstand by cutting. Practically all 
milling cutters have their teeth radial 
and this, of course, excludes the possi- 
bility of driving a wedge between chip 
.and work. The tooth compresses the 
metal until it produces a strain great 

fig. 2. — Diagram Illustrating Action 
Milling Cutter. 


enough to cause a plane of cleavage at 
some angle with the direction of the 
cutter. It then begins to compress a 
new piece, push it oft, and so on. This 
at least seems to be the action of the 
cutter, judging by the form of the chips. 
These chips are in the form of needles or 
small bars. 

The chip taken by a milling cutter 
varies very materially from those taken 
by a lathe or planer tool. These latter 
tools make chips of uniform section, 
whereas the section of a milling chip in- 
creases from zero to a maximum. 

Fig. 1 shows a milling chip as it 
would appear, if no compression or dis- 
tortion took place. The proportions are 
very much exaggerated, so as to bring 
its typical shape clearer into view. The 
width AB at the top is equal to the feed 
per tooth. The height BC is the depth 
of cut. The length BD is the width of 

cut. The section MNOP, shown half 
way on the chip, is a normal section 
and a measure of the amount of work 
which was done at the time the cutter 
passed the point M. 

Fig. 2 shows the action of a millini; 
cutter, with centre O, when the cutter 
is rotating and the work is feeding at 
the same time. The tooth AB sweeps 
through the path BC. When the point 
B has reached the position B, a new tooth 
starts cutting. By this time O has ad- 
vanced to position 0„ and the new tooth 
A^ B, is not yet in a vertical position, 
when the point B, touches the work, 
When the cutter revolves, this point B_. 
must penetrate into the work and com- 
press the metal of the work. The result 
will be spring in the arbor. When this 
spring has assumed certain proportions, 
the blade or tooth begins to remove a 
chip. This may be assumed to take 
place in the position B^, the tooth simply 
gliding over the work from B, to B,. 
This action must necessarily be very 
harmful to the cutter, and, it was be- 
lieved that this perhaps more than any 
other action of the cutter, caused its 
dulling. It would be especially severe 
witli light cuts, as a relatively small 
amount of spring would allow the point 
B, to travel through a large arc. It 
would be quite possible that a tooth 
should -fail entirely to take a chip, and 
that the succeeding tooth would take a 
cliip of double the amount. 

This peculiar action of the milling cut- 
ter is inherent in its construction and 

Fig. 3.— Form of Spiral Milling Cutters Now 

Used by tbe Cincinnati Milling 

Machine Co. 

cannot be avoided. The question then is 
how to minimize these harmful results. 

Another feature, which limits tbe abil- 
ity of a milling cutter to remove metal. 



is the proportion between the chip to be 
removed and the amount of space be- 
tween two adjoining teeth. Such a 
limitation docs not exist with lathe or 
planer tools, where the chips have un- 
limited space in which to flow off. 

That this proportion banvCiJii chin and 
chip space actually lojs forii'. a mitiii^ 

ters and special gangs. The standard 
diameters are 3 J in. and 4 J in. The 
3\ diameter cutters are made with nine 
and the U diameter cutters with ten 
teeth which corresponds to a spacing of 
about li in. The point of the tooth has 
a land of 1-33 in., and the back of the 
tooth foj'ras an angle of 4.") (leg. with the 




































1 4543 


















_ _ 







Fig. 4.— Slmp^ 

Dimc-iiKiuns of Keys I'sed for Jlillliig Cutter Ailiors. 

ciindition is well 'uiown aud was brought 
most forcibly to tlie writer's attention 
wlien a laig<' and powerful niacliinc stall- 
ed, taking a cut in cast iron about ' \ 
in. wide, 3 in. deep and 12i- in. feed per 
minute. Several times this amount of 
metal can be easily removed by the same 
machine, without sign of stress; yet the 
machine was incapable of removing nnirc 
than 3 cu. in. of cast iron per minute 
with this cut. Investigation showed 
that the amount of cast iron removed 
per tooth was sufficient to fill the chip 
space completely, and from that moment 
the action was like trying to push a 
.solid bar of steel through a piece of cast 
iron, .\nother cutter, with more chip 
space, removed the same amount of 
metal with only a fraction of the power 
of the maoliiiie. 

Similar instances occurred with gangs 
which had been in use a long time, and 
which had been ground down to such an 
extent that the chip space was niateiial- 
ly reduced. This, combined with the fact 
that higher developed milling ,),a.;hnes 
led the shop to coarser feeds, showed 
that the ability of the machine to re- 
move metal was not only governcl by 
its power, but to an equii i ^lont l>y the 
peculiarities of the milling cutter. 

The foregoing considerations la.) ;:> a 
gradual evolution of spiral milling cut- 
ters. .\t first, the number of teeth of 
spiral mills was only slightly diminish- 
ed, as it was thought that some element 
which was not considered might affect 
the result. (Jradually the spacing was 
Increased and the cutters, as now used, 
have taken the forms as shown in Fig. 

Two standard sizes are used, although 
other sizes are required for special cut- 

radial line. The chip space is approxi- 
mately four times as great as in the 
usual standard cutter of the present 
time and is formed with a 3-l() in. 
radius at the bottom. 

Proper Sized Arbors. 

Though not directly connected with the 
foregoing, attention should be called to 
the fact that the present practice calls 
for arbors which are too small. In the 
cutters sliown liei'e, the WV-t in. cutter is 
made with li in. and \\ in. arbor, and 
the li in. cutter with 1| in. and 2 in. 

It is often very difficult to remove cut- 
ters from an arbor after they have done 
heavy work. 1 1 is frequently necessary 
in such cases to press the arbor out of 
the cutters. This sticking of the cut- 
ler is caused by (lie bulling up of the 
key and often the keyway in the arbor. 
For this reason, keys are used for gangs 
of cutters as shown in Fig. 1. A tl;il 
is milled on the arbor, and the keyway 
milled central with this flat. The flat 
portion of the key presses against the 
flat part ot the arbor, and this effective- 
ly prevents burring. Cutters which are 
held on the arbor with such a key can 
always be very readily removed, even 
after prolonged and hard work. The 
keys are made out of a piece of round 
stock, grooved at both sides and then 
sawed apart. 

It was found that for roughing on the 
ordinary work in the shop a cutter with 
the wider-spaced teeth would remain 
sharp for a longer period, notwithstand- 
ing that feeds had been increased. The 
system of the Cincinnati Milling Mach- 
ine Co. requires all gangs and cutters to 
be re-sharpened after a lot of pieces have 
been milled. It used to be necessary, at 

least on the larger lots, to re-sharpen 
the gang once and sometimes twice for 
the one lot, or, if this was not deemed 
advisable, the feed had to be reduced 
for at least part of the pieces, in order 
to make the cutter last during the en- 
tire lot. In all cases where the wide- 
spaced cutters were used, the entire lot 
was run through without re-sharpening 
the cutter or reducing the feed; and it 
siiould be kept in mind that this feed 
was from 25 to 100 per cent, greater 
than previously used. There is no case 
on record where the cutler or gang was 
dull at the end of the lot, so that our 
observations as to the endurance of the 
cutters are incomplete. However, it is 
perfectly safe to say, that in all cases 
under observation the cutter maintained 
its sharpness longer; that in a great 
many cases double the amount of work 
could be done without re-sharpening, 
and that there is good reason to believe 
an even gi'eater gain tlian this was ob- 

A further advantage is, that as these 
cutters have approximately only half 
the number of teeth of what is now con- 
sidered a standard cutter, the time for 
re-sharpening is only half as much. 

It was pointed out that the ratio of 
pitch to depth is practically the same as 
in the present standard cutter, so that 
the depth of tooth is practically doubled 
and this cutter can be sharpened much 
more frequently than the present stand- 
ard cutter. Consequently the life of the 
cutter has been much increased, prob- 
ably more than doubled. 

A glance at the drawing of these cut- 
ters gives the impression that the teeth 
are weak and the writer has watched 
this feature with great care. The cut- 
ters themselves, however, do not give 
this impression; on the contrary, they 
look stout and well proportioned. They 
have been subjected to the heaviest class 
of work and many times were purposely 
abused in order to find their weal- 
points; yet there is no case on record 
that any of them have broken although 
they have been used for more than two 
years and all breakages of cutters are 
carefully noted. On the other hand, 
breakages of the old cutters are not at 
all infrequent. 


I'onn Uelief 


Though these cutters are capable of 
removing metal more rapidly than the 
older type of cutter there are many 
cases where this feature cannot be taken 
advantage of, as, for instance, where 



light work is to be done or a small 
amount of stock to be removed. In such 
cases, however, the metal is removed 
with less power and consequently with 
less strain on the machine and the life 
of the machine is lengthened without 
limiting its output. 

Smooth Cutting. 

With the wide spacing of the teeih it 
may seem that there would be cause for 
apprehension as to the action of the 
feed. It seems as if the feed would be 
liable to act with jerks. This, however, 
is not the case. On the contrary, the 
teed is smoother and there is less of a 
jerk when the cutter first strikes the 
work, probably because there is less 
spring in the arbor and less tendency for 
the cutter to ride over the work, as 
will be explained later in connection 
with the description of cutters. 

In connection with this it is interest- 
ing to note that when cast iron is mill- 
ed by these wide-spaced cutters, it ap- 
pears to be very soft and when the same 
piece is milled by an old style cutter, it 
appears to be much harder. When using 
wide-spaced cutter, there is a notable 
absence of jerking, chattering and of the 
peculiar singing noise which is so often 
noticed on milling machines. 

There is, of course, a difference in the 
hardness of different pieces of cast iron, 
and many recommendations as to the 
proper feeds and speeds for milling cast- 
iron work, made by the writer tor his 
company, were looked at askance. The 
impression seemed to prevail that feeds 
and speeds which were possible on 
American iron, were out of the question 


on European iron, (especially English 
and German); and again, that feeds and 
speeds proper for western American iron 
were not suitable for eastern iron. To 
test the truth of the matter, a number 
of bars of cast iron were obtained from 
different foundries in America, England, 
France and Germany. These bars cov- 
ered a great many mixtures and makes, 
and the difference between English and 
American, or German and American 
iron, or between eastern American and 
western iron, was found to be no great- 
er than that between different speci- 
mens of western American iron. Even 
German Spiegeleisen, famous for its 
hardness, cut just as freely as soft west- 
ern iron, and required but little more 
power. However, it did require more 
clearance, wide spaces, and a low speed. 
These wide-spaced cutters were origin- 
ally intended for roughing operations 
only, but the very satisfactory finish 
obtained when roughing led to the use 
of the cutters tor finishing also. If 
there is any difference at all in the fin- 
ish produced, the advantage is on the 
side of the wide-spaced cutter. The tact 
that this wide-spaced cutter will cut a 
greater number of pieces without dulling 
means, of course, that the average finish 
of an entire lot is better. 

Chip Breakers. 

It is generally believed that for finish- 
ing alone a milling cutter should be 
used without chip breakers, the effect of 

the chip breaker being to scratch the 
surface. To overcome this trouble, chip 
breakers are made as shown in Fig. 5 
with clearance at both corners. This 
prevents the tearing up of metal with 
result that a cutter with these chip 
breakers produces as good a fmish as 
one without chip breakers. 

It should be pointed out that this 
form of chip breaker has an advantage 
also tor roughing cuts. The point of the 

8 Teeth 
iHln.Ditm. '< W? I 
V\g. S. Details of New T.vpp of Slile .Mills. 

cutter, where the unrelieved side of the 
chip breaker drags over the work, is the 
first point to give out. Making the chip 
breaker with clearance on both edges 
prolongs, therefore, the life of the cut- 

One of the great advantages of this 
form of chip breaker is, that one gang 
can be used for both roughing and 
finishing. A great many, it not most 
milling operations, call for two chuck- 
ings, one for roughing, and one for fin- 
ishing. This will be found to be neces- 
sary wherever much metal is to be re- 



\ L^*^ i 

f • 

10°R.H.spiraUteeth^ >; H |< — 





*sa=sasa;j^^ M 




lo'R.H.«l>;r«Ute«lh »1 lo f • 

l'"l(f. G — New Type of Taper Shank End Mills. 

Fig. 7— New Type of Spiral Shell Cutters. 



moved, on account of distortion, caused 
by the cut, the heavy clamping required, 
heating, spring of arbor or fixture and 
the unbalanced condition of the work 
after the scale has been removed on the 
side. In order to do the roughing as 

conditions which return once for every 
revolution of the cutter, it is plain that 
the spacing of the teeth can have no ef- 
fect on the distance between them, and, 
therefore, on the grade of finish. 
To test this still further, two cutters 

I /t-MXS 

KIg. 10— Teii-iuch Blude Face Mill for High I'dwer Machines. 

rapidly as possible chip breakers are re- 
quired; and in order to get proper fin- 
ish, it has heretofore been necessary 
that the finishing gang be without chip 
breakers. It paid, therefore, to have 
two gangs whenever the number of 
pieces to be milled was sufficiently large, 
but this involved considerable extra ex- 
pense for cutters. The new form of chip 
breaker, however, permits using one 
gang for both finishing and roughing. 

It is a common belief that better fin- 
ish can be obtained with teeth closely 
spaced, but experience with the wide- 
spaced cutter shows that there is no 
ground for this belief. The grade of fin- 
ish may be expressed by the distance be- 
twelve successive marks on the work. 
These marks are revolution marks and 
not tooth marks. It is practically im- 
possible to avoid these revolution marks. 
They are caused by the cutter not be- 
ing exactly round or quite concentric 
with the hole, by the hole not being of 
exactly the same size as the arbor, by 
the arbor not being round, by the 
straight part of the arbor not being 
concentric with the taper shank, by the 
taper shank not being round, or of the 
same taper exactly as the taper hole in 
the spindle, by this taper hole being out 
of line with the spindle, by looseness be- 
tween the spindle and its bearings, etc. 
Each of these items is very small in any 
good milling machine; yet the accumula- 
tion of these little errors is sufficient to 
cause a mark and this mark needs to 
have a depth of only a fraction of a 
thousandth of an inch to be very plainly 
visible. As these marks are caused by 

of the same size exactly were placed side 
by side on an arbor. The cutters were 
ground together so as to be sure they 
were of equal diameter and they were 
ground on the arbor so as to be sure 
that the error would appear simultan- 
eously for both cutters. A block of cast 
iron was finish-milled with these cutters 
in such a way that each cutter would 
sweep half the width of the block. The 
same number of marks appeared on both 
sides of the block, and these marks were 
exactly in line with each other, as might 
have been expected. The grade of finish- 
ing was the same for both sides. It 
was neglected to mark the two sides ot 
the casting to show which cutter was 
operating. After this test, all of the 
teeth but one ot one of the two cutters 
were giound lower, so as to be out of 
action entirely, leaving only one tooth 
of the one cutter operative. Another 
cut like the first one was taken over the 
same block, and again the finish appear- 
ed the same on both sides. There was 
a dift'erence of opinion between different 
observers as to which side was cut by 
the single tooth. By close observation, 
however, a difference could be detected 
when light fell on the work in a certain 
direction, under which conditions one 
side showed more gloss than the other. 
Straightness, flatness and smoothness to 
the touch was exactly the same for 
both sides, notwithstanding that one 
cutter had one tooth only and the other 
fourteen teeth. Though it is not recom- 
mended here to use cutters with one 
tooth only for finishing, the foregoing 
test showed plainly that there is no 

merit in fine spacing. Attention is 
again called to the fact, that even 
though the finish on a single piece might 
be better with more teeth in action, the 
average finish for an entire lot of pieces 
is better with less teeth. 
End MiUs. 

Fig a shows the end mills which are 
now considered standard by the Cincin- 
nati Milling Machine Co., and which fill 
practically all requirements. They are 
made in sizes of 1 in., IJ in., li in. 
and 2 in. in diameter, the smallest with 
four, and the largest with eight teeth 
It will be noticed that in order to pre- 
serve the strength of the teeth it is 
necessary to mill the back of the teeth 
of the three smaller sizes with two 
faces. A number of tests have been 
made with these cutters, but no com- 
parative tests as to power consumption. 
Their action is remarkably free. This 
was clearly demonstrated by the follow- 
ing experiment : A 2 in. taper shank end- 
mill milled a slot 1 1-16 in. deep in a 
solid block of cast iron at a rate of 6 
in. per min. The block was clamped to 
the table of the milling machine and the 
knee was fed upward. Under these con- 
ditions the chips did not free themselves 
from the cutter but were carried around 
and ground up. The cutter was cutting 
over half its circumference. These two 
conditions combined make the task for 
the milling cutter about as difficult as 
imaginable. There was, however, no 
sign of choking and the power consump- 
tion was not higher than it would have 
been with a spiral mill under ordinary 
canditions. The same cutter would re- 
move from the end of the casting a sec- 
tion IJ in. wide and IJ in. deep. Under 
those conditions, the chips were rolled 
up in pieces much like the chips obtain- 
ed from a broad planer tool, when tak- 
ing a finishing cut. This cut was taken 
with a feed of 11 in. per minute. Anoth- 
er similar cut, but 1 in. and IJ in. in 
section was taken with a feed of 33 in. 
per minute. Similar though much light- 
er cuts were taken with ordinary end 
mills, and in the same piece of cast 
iron. Again the cast iron seemed to be 
very hard, and became glossy when cut 
with an ordinary cutter, but appeared 
to be soft when cut with the wide- 
spaced cutter. 

Fig. 7 shows the shell end mills of the 
wide-spaced type, which are now con- 
sidered standard for their use by the 
Cincinnati Milling Machine Co. Figs. 8 
and 9 show the side mills. 

Face mills have also undergone a 
gradual evolution and they are now used 
the company in catalogues, though 
not made by them for The use of cus- 
tomers, as shown in Fig. 10. Fig. 11 
shows a cutter of a design now general- 
ly considered to be standard. In this 
latter design, the blades are spaced 1 in. 
apart, or approximately so; they are 



set radial, and have no means to keep 
them from pushing back except the regu- 
lar holding means. The wide-spaced 
laced mill, on the other hand, has the 
blades spaced 2 in. apart. They are set 
at an angle of 15 deg. with the radial 
line, and are backed by a backing ring 
with a set screw for each blade. These 
set screws allow the blade to be adjust- 
ed, besides forming a stop against up- 
ward movement under pressure. A face 
mill may be considered as a planing tool 
moving in a circular path. The cutting 
edge, therefore, is axial and not radial. 
To set the blades at an angle with the 
axis does not produce rake. The wide- 
spaced face mill shown here has rake, 
because the blades are set at an angle 
with the radial line. 

It will be noticed that the blades are 
set at an angle with the axis. It will 
further be noticed, in the enlarged view 
of the blades, showing the rounded corn- 
ers, that the corners are not provided 
with a round, but rather with three 
faces, which together approximate a 
curve. It is to offset the effect of this 
round that the angle with the axis is 

However accurately a milling machine 
may be built, the spindle is not exactly 
at right angles with the table. The 
amount of variation exists. Besides, 
this variation is liable to become great- 
er when the machine wears. The result 
is, that when feeding in one direction 
the leading teeth of the cutter dig deep- 
er into the work, leaving the other side 
of the cutter entirely clear, but when 
feeding in the opposite directian the op- 
posite takes place, which makes the 
teeth drag over the work. In order to 
provide the teeth with clearance, the 
back end of the tooth is ground away at 
an angle of three to five degrees. 

It will further be noticed, that there 
is a land of 3-16 in. only where the 
blade is straight. It is the excess of 

width of the cutting blades which is 
liable to cause chatter. Strange as it 
may seem, this chatter is more pronounc- 
ed with a light than with a heavy cut. 
It is not meant that there is actually 
chatter, but merely that when there is a 
tendency to chatter, the tendency is 
greater on a lighter cut. The cause is 
that the tooth does not enter the work 
but tries to ride over it. When the cut- 
ter has been lifted sufficiently, the pres- 
sure becomes great enough to make the 
blades enter. The next blade meets the 
same difficulty about entering, is lifted 
again, and so on. This action causes 
a series of radial chatter marks and is 
very much worse with wide blades than 
with narrow ones; and again very much 
worse with a large number of blades 
than with a few. A 3-16 in. land prov- 
ed to be an acceptable compromise, as a 
wider land would quickly dull the cut- 
ter, even if it did not make a chatter 
mark, while a narrower land would have 
the tendency to produce a scratchy fin- 

Helical Cutter. 
In Fig. 12 is shown details of a heli- 
cal cutter. These cutters consist of a 
cylindrical body, with two or three 
screw threads wound around them, the 
threads being of a section clearly mdi- 
cated in the engraving. The helix is 
wound around the body with an angle of 
69 deg. with the axis. The diameter is 
34 in., and the lead of the helix 4| in. 
They are made in two styles, either 
single, or as interlocking right and left 
hand cutters. They are made with a 
rake of 15 deg. and clearance of 5 deg. 
when used for steel, and with a rake of 
8 deg. and clearance of 7 deg. when used 
for cast iron. Their most distinguishing 
feature is, that they push the chip oft in 
the direction of the axis of the cutter, 
or at right angles to the feed. The 
power consumption is extremely low for 
steel, but does not show up so favorably 

for cast iron. A roughing cut in steel 
requires only about one-third the power 
of an old-style spiral mill. Another dis- 
tinguishing feature is, that this cutter 
does not make revolution marks but 
tooth marks. As a result, a much 
coarser feed can be used for finishing. A 
cutter with three teeth will allow of a 
finish three times as fast "« ^in ordinary 
spiral mill. Still another feature of this 
cutter is the entire absence of spring in 
the arbor when cutting steel. It is pos- 
sible to take a finishing cut over a 
piece of steel, then return the work und- 
er the cutter and let the cutter revolve 
any length of time without producing a 

It was originally thought that a single 
cutter of this description would do well 
for finishing, but not for roughing, on 
account of the excessive end pressure on 
the spindle, and the interlocking cutter 
was made to obviate this end pressure. 
However, it was found that this end 
pressure, though perceptible, was no dis- 
turbing element. Cuts which required 80 
amperes with the interlocking cutter, re- 
quired 85 amperes with the single cut- 
ter. In order to see if continued use o( 
the single cutter would cause increasing 
friction at the spindle end, a great num- 
ber of cuts were taken in as rapid suc- 
cession as it was possible to adjust the 
machine for the next cut. 

The fact that there is no spring in 
the arbor makes it possible to use the 
milling machine without braces in a 
great many cases where they would 
otherwise be needed. 

It was first believed that these cut- 
ters would work best at a high speed; 
but it was found that this was not the 
case. They produce the best results 
when run at the same number of revolu- 
tions as the ordinary spiral mill. 

The writer believes that the remark- 
ably low-power consumption is due to 
what might be called "virtual rake," 


1* 'y/W ^'V*/j 



C e 1 Om<arhr90^ 




, '% 

2^'»7hr. -UXS. 





J .. - , 


New Type of Side Mills. 

Fig. 11.— Face Mill ol Older Type. 




which is an angle depending on the angle 
of rake, and on the angle the thread or 
tooth makes with the axis. This virtual 
rake becomes a small angle when the 
actual rake is small. This is the case 
with the cutter as used tor steel where 
the actual rake is 75 deg. Where, how- 
ever, the angle of rake approaches 90 
deg., the induence of the helix becomes 
very much less pronounced; and, if the 
actual rake were !)0 deg. the influence of 
the spirality would be zero; in other 
words, the virtual would equal the 
actual rake. This may explain why the 


By G. D. Keith. 

The Hall Kngineering Works, Montreal, 
recently rebored a low pressure cylinder 
of 15 in. diameter and 18 in. stroke at 
the Dominion Textile Company's (Merch- 
ants' Branch) Cotton mills, Montreal. A 
portable boring gear, the property of 
the Hall Kngineering Works was used, it 
being shown in operation in the accom- 
panying illustration. 

Steam was shut oR the engine at 7 
p.m. Thursday. The cylinder cover was 
removed and the piston and piston rod 

new piston fitted, all coupled up, and a 
steam trial taken at 3.30 p.m. the fol- 
lowing Sunday when everything worked 
satisfactorily. This work was therefore 
completed between Thursday at 7 p.m. 
to Sunday at 3.30 p.m. 


A serviceable extension drill may be 
made from a section of brass or iron 
pipe in the following manner : Take a 
piece of pipe, the internal diameter of 
which is the same as the diameter of 
the hole to be drilled. With a cross- 
peen hamiiu-r make two dents opposite 
each other about one and one-half inches 
from the end of the pipe. Into this end 
drive the twist drill first, grinding the 
end flat. A tap may also be driven in 
this fashion successfullv. 


If occasion should arise when it is de- 
.sirable to make a good clean brazed 
joint, the metal should be carefully 
cleaned, heated to a bright red, and 
then covered with ihe (lux of the follow- 
ing formula : One pound of boric acid, 
lour. ounces of pulverized chlorate of po- 
tash, and three ounces of carbonate of 

saving in power consumption is not so 
pronounced when cutting cast iron. It 
is believed that this saving of power 
would be equally great with cast 
iron as with steel, it the same virtual 
rake could be obtained, and this sup- 
position was borne out by a few tests 
made on cast iron with a helical cutter 
ground for steel. 

.Another reason which suggests itself to 
the writer, as to why the helical cutter 
shows less saving in power on cast iron 
than on steel, is the result of a series 
of tests made on cast iron and steel 
with spiral mills with and without rake, 
the rake being in all 9 deg. These 
cutters showed improved efTiciency for 
steel and cast iron, but much more for 
the first than for the latter. A cutting 
tool must detach the chip from the 
work, bend the chip and at least parti- 
ally break it up. When cutting steel, 
the radius of curvature of the chip be- 
comes greater with increased rake and 
the extent to which the chip is broken 
up becomes less. Cast iron will stand 
much less bending before breaking, so 
that, even with increased rake, the chip 
is still broken up as before, and no sav- 
ing in power can be effected in this part 
of the process. 

Helical Cutter. 

taken out. The boring gear was then 
placed in position, as shown, and rebor- 
ing was commenced on the following 
morning. Three cuts were taken out of 
the cylinder, increasing its diameter r,' 
in. The cvlinder was finished and a 

.'\ modern grinding wheel used on a 
modern niacliinc by an operator with a 
good knowledge of grinding is just as 
surely a milling cutter as if it were 
made of steel. Its cutting surface con- 
sists of millions of small, sharp cutting 
teeth and each tool that comes in con- 
tact with the work cuts oft a chip in 
the same manner as the tooth of a 
milling cutter. 

Ueborliig Cylinder, Hull Kngineering Works, .Mmitieal. 

F'Sr- 3— The interior of one of the sliopi of the Canadian Westinhouae Co., Hamilton, taken April. 191 1. The large amount ot work under rcnstruction gives 

. an idea of Canada's industrial expansion. 

Enlarged Works of Canadian Westinghouse Co., Hamilton 

An Interior View of One of tJie Canadian Wrxti'iu/liotiKe Sliopn Give>< an Idea of the 
Enormous Amount of Work Under Construction hij the Ciinndinn Electrical, Companies, 
and Also of Canada's Industrial Development. The Reason for Enlnrfflnrj the Works is 
Therefore Obvious. 

TN Fig. 1 is shown Ihe plant ot 1,hc ' 

Canadian Wi'stinghouse, Hamilton, as 
it. will appear when the additions are 
completed. The works are conveniently- 
located beside the main line of the. G.T. 
R., sidings running therefrom to the 
various buildings for the receipt of ma- 
terial and shipment of product, while 
on another side of the plant, connection 
is made with the C.P.R. 

The buildings are of the most modern 
approved type of fire proof construction, 
being of brick, reinforced concrete and 
steel. Fig. 1 shows the brake plant at 
the extreme right; the main buildings 
in the centre of the plan are devoted to 
the manufacture of electrical apparatus; 
and those on the extreme right consist- 
ing of pattern shops and foundry sup- 
ply the needs of the brake and electrical 
departments in both brass and iron cast- 

Building Plans. 

In laying out the manufacturing build- 
ings, two cardinal points were kept in 
view:— Each department might be cap- 
able of extension, and that the progress 

f'g. 2— A;10,000 k.w. generator built by tlie^Canadian Westinyhousc Co., Hamilton, tor the Canadian 

Niagara Power Co. 



of material from the raw to the com- 
pleted state, should, as tar as possible, 
be in a continuous direction. This pur- 
pose, and the carrying on of operations 
with dispatch is facilitated by traveling 
cranes and an industrial railway. 

Recent Additions. 

The Canadian Westinghouse Co , to 
keep pace with the demand for electrical 
machinery in Canada, have found it 
necessary from time to time, to make 
extensions to their plant, the most re- 
cent of these, included an added space of 
11,580 sq. ft. of storage, and 14,000 sq. 
ft. manufacturing capacity, besides in- 
creasing the area of the testing and 
shipping departments. 

The foundry building will be more 
than doubled in size, which also means 
additional cupolas, core ovens and im- 
proved facilities for the handling of 
of foundry material, adding a floor space 
of 22,800 sq. ft. 

The same plan of design and fire proof 
construction as first used, has been fol- 
lowed in all the additions, the only 
variation being that heavier steel work 
has been found necessary to serve 
increased crane carrying capacity, on 
account of the greater size of the units 
now being turned out. 

The large interior scene, Fig. 3, is an 
interesting view of one of the machine 
shop aisles, with apparatus in various 
stages of construction. Fig. 2 shows the 
stator and bedplate of one of the West- 
inghouse type of 10,000 k.w. generators. 



One of the common faults of some ed- 
ucated men is that they make little or 
no application of the scientific tacts 
learned in school to the everyday pro- 
blems of life. Perhaps it is because they 
are literal-minded, the principles having 
lor them only the applications mention- 
ed in the book. For instance, two 
young men, both graduates of the same 
high school, some years after gradua- 
tion got into an argument on whether 
the weight of a block of wood floating 

A man who signs himself as W. 
Keppel White is taking collections, 
renewal and new subscriptions, for 
the MacLean publications in the 
Maritime Provinces, without any 
authority. The assistance of any 
subscriber in locating this man 
will be appreciated. 

High-powered men like high powered 
engines do their work without making 
any noise. 

in a pail of water is added to the 
weightot the pail and water or not. Ex- 
periment, of course, showed that it is, 
whereupon the one who was worsted 
quoted the Archimedean law to the 
effect that a floating body displaces its 
weight of the liquid, and was inclined 
to doubt the soundness of the old 
Greek's dictum after making the test. 
The fact that the mere displacement of 
a liquid does not alter its weight had 
never before been made plain to him, 
and not until a pail brimming over was 
tested did he grasp the full significance 
of the law.— Machinery. 


There are dozens of machine shops, and 
some of them very large ones, in which 
a goodly sum could be saved each year 
were the toilet rooms more convenient- 
ly arranged in a place where they would 
be more available. In some shops it is 
necessary for a man to go down stairs ; 
in other shops they must go up stairs 
and in a certain shop the men must 
travel nearly 200 feet to the toilet 
rooms and back to their work again. It 
takes considerable time to do all this 
traveling. Just hold a watch on several 
of the men and note how long it takes 
them to travel down stairs and get back 
to work again. Assume a certain num- 
ber of trips made by each man during a 
day, multiply the number of trips by the 
time required, multiply this by the num- 
ber of days in the year and figure out 
the cash value of the time thus con- 
sumed.— Ex. 

While hot nickel solutions deposit 
nickel more rapidly than cold ones with 
a given voltage (i.e. the conductivity of 
the solution is increased), it is generally 
considered that the results are not 
enough better to warrant their use for 
the ordinarv run of work. — Ex. 

H. Etches, mechanical engineer and 
draftsman, has removed his oflRce to 17 
Bank ot Hamilton Bldg., .34 Yonge St., 
Toronto. He was formerly chief drafts- 
man with Carnegie Steel Co., Pitts- 
burg ; Waterous Engine Works, Brant- 
ford ; Dodge Mtg. Co., Toronto, and 
Hanley & Miller, Toronto. His special 
line is designing .special machinery, 
making working drawings, and general 
designing work. 



Plant ot Canadian Waitinjhjuis Cj., Hamiltui. (howing addition! made]reccntly and new building! planned. 

Mechanical Drawing and Sketching for Machinists 

By B. P. 

A Series of Progressive Lessons Designed to Familiarize Mechanics With the Use of the 
Apparatus Necessary to Make Simple Drawings, to Encourage them to Realize How Im- 
portant a Factor it is of Their Equipment, as Well as Being a Profitable Pastime. 

IN drawing a circle say of 3 inches 
diameter, you will observe that on 
spreading out the arms to IJ inches ra- 
dius, the tool assumes a triangular 
shape. One result of this is your ream- 
ing out a large hole in the paper, and 
another is your poorly joined up line. 
These troubles are aggravated as the 
circle to be described becomes larger. 

Fig. 14. 

and to avoid them, care should be taken 
to adjust the movable arms so that, ir- 
respective of the circle diameter, these 
will always be perpendicular to the pa- 
per surface, Fig. 14. 

Drawing to Scale. 

Drawings for the most part are made 
to a scale convenient to work from, 
other than full size; that is, the ma- 
chine or its detail as drawn, bears some 
definite proportion to the finished man- 
ufactured product. This necessity of 
drawing to scale will doubtless be ap- 
preciated without further explanation. 
The number of views required to pro- 
perly illustrate the object, determine 
together with the various size drawing 
sheets available, the proper scale to be 
used, consistent with easy, quick and 
intelligible reading of the drawing by 
the mechanic who has to work from it. 

Figs. 15 and 16 show examples of 12 
inch boxwood scales in general use, aud 

♦ Fourth of a series of an Instriietion Course. 
A lesson will he given each month. 

should be divided to permit of drawings 
being made to i, J, |, i, J, 1, 1^ and 
3 inches per foot. The views shown 
should only be those absolutely neces- 
sary ; multiplicity means duplication as 
a rule and lends itself to increased 
liability to error on the part of the 
draftsman, in addition to confusion in 
the shops. It a footnote therefore will 
obviate drawing another view, by all 
means adopt it. In preference to draw- 
ing dotted lines to represent internal or 
rear features, make sectional views to 
avoid possible misunderstandings. 

Fig. 17 gives a suitable variety of 
lines to be used for the various pur- 
poses required in mechanical drawing, 
and Fig. 18 shows a system of sectional 
shading for the metals and materials in 
common use. It mav be observed here 

crowded drawing sheet. The following 
abbreviations are universally adopted, 
and in any case quickly become familiar 
and understood by mechanics in any 

Cast iron — C.I. 

Malleable iron— M.I. 

Wrought iron— W.I. 

Machinery steel— M.S. 

Cast steel— C.S. 

Brass— Br. 
Finished surfaces are usually indicated 
by the letter f written across the line 
representing the particular surface to be 
treated. In case a piece is finished all 
over, mark "finish all over" in black 
ink below the title. Notes used in con- 
nection with a drawing should be con- 
nected by a wavy line and arrow to the 
part to which the note refers. Example 


Linescovered up 


_ ^ yi^ Dimension lines 

Fig. 17 — System of Lines. 

that for pencil drawings which are to 
infced-in or traced, no attention need be 
paid to line variety or sectional shad- 
ing, as the foregoing refers alto- 
gether to inked drawings or tracings. 

Drawings of casting and forging de- 
tails for a machine should be drawn on 
separate sheets, the former it may be, 
to a smaller scale than the latter. Each 
detail .should have its name, the number 
required per machine, and kind of ma- 
terial marked underneath, so that all 
the information pertaining to it may be 
in compact form and ready to the eye. 
It is usual to abbreviate the names of 
the various metals, saving as it does 
time and also space on an oftentimes 

v. \i\i\AAA i \i\AyAAAAAi\i\i\AAi\,\A,\,\,\\,\.\,\\,\A,\.\,\ ,\.\\,UA,\,\A,\ \ .^.\A,\.\,\,\\,\,\,\,\A,\,\\ 

Fig. 15 — 12-inrti Triangular Scale. 


1 1 - 1 

» « e 



' i ' 


1 J, 10 •» » 7 

'' t * » > 01 11 ♦! «l •! 

J» ♦♦ »* 'l 



1 T 




1 1 




















'ig. IG— 12-incli Flat Srale. 

of this will be found in the remark "i 
inch keyway," Fig. 20. The sectional 
shading is spaced to please the eye and 
with regard to the area available. 

Screw Threads. 

Use the conventional method for re- 
presenting screw threads except in the 
case of square threads. With the ex- 
ception of V threads, always give char- 
acter -of thread. When other than stan- 
dard threads are used, the threads per 
inch should be given thus : 16 P. I", and 
when a thread is left-hand, always call 
attention to the fact. 

Arrangement of Dimensions. 

Make your figures read from bottom 
and left-hand side of the drawing as you 
face it, and place them if possible so 
that they can be erased without inter- 
fering with the lines of the drawing. 
When dimensioning a sectional area 
break the section lines as shown on Fig. 
21. Give over-all as well as intermedi- 
ate sizes, and stagger as per Fig. 19. 
Radial dimensions may be as shown on 
Fig. 21. In writing or printing feet and 
inches, a suitable method is per ex- 
ample 7' 3J" is shown. Restrict dim- 
ensions as far as possible to one view; 



work from centre lines and finished sur- 
taces and avoid repetition ; keep before 
rou the capacity for handling work that 
the necessary machines in the shop 
have, and regulate the several parts to 
conform. Renieml)er that other men have 
to work from your drawing, and that 

FiK. L'l 

therefore it is your duty to have it tell 

them clearly what they are required to 

The writer is indebted to the Manual 

Training Magazine for cuts 19, 20 and 

21, and some pointed and useful ex- 









In many grinding operations the wheel 
wear (the first cost) is a mighty small 
item of expense when compared with the 
actual cost of operation, in which we 
must figure the horse power consumed, 
labor, machine investment and the pro- 

In order to obtain a fair idea of the 
"cost of wheel," an accurate record was 
kept of a grinding operation on a 10 x 
72" Norton Plain Machine. The work 
was grinding 35-point carbon open-hearth 
machinery steel shafts from the black 
stock, taking of! a sixteenth of an inch, 
reducing from IJ" diameter to 1 Ij-1B". 
A. 15 X 2", 24-L .\lundum Wheel, was 
used and in ten hours' work it showed 
but .270" wear. The wheel was trued 
once at the start and once at the end of 
six hours. Work speed, 25 ft. a minute ; 
wheel speed, fi.lOO ft. a minute ; table 
traverse, 12 ft. a minute. That means a 
wheel cost of but a very few cents a 

It is not good policy, therefore, when 
endeavoring to reach maximum grinding 
economy to let the purchase price of a 
grinding wheel stand in the way of a 
larger production. Instead of thinking 
too much about "wheel cost," due con- 


Fig. 18- System of Sec-tiouiil Sliiulhi};. 

sideration should be given to the other 
factors of cost— labor, which must be 
figured at from (iO cents to $1.00 an hour; 
the consumed in grinding ; 
the production necessary to make the 
grinding machine investnieiit a profitable 
one and the many advantages of rapid 
production. These are the factors that 
must be weighed carefully when pur- 
chasing grinding wheels. Compare them 
with the "wheel cost." 

Economy consists in getting the right 
wheel for the work and operating it 
under the most favorable conditions, 
and the original cost of the wheel in 
iriost cases is too small an item to take 
into consideration.— Grits and Grinds. 


Tlic lirm name of Foss & Fuller has 
l)een elianged to tliat of the Foss and 
Hill Mnchiiiery Co. Mr. Henry W. Hill, 
late of tlie Wire and Cable Co., Mon- 
(, is now an active i)artner tojrether 
with Mr. (leorji-e F. Foss. 


The Slnnilarcl i^iiiritieeriiia; Co., litd., 
late of 17 Wellington St. K., Toronto 
liave moved to more commoudious offices 
in Uoonis 201, 210 and 211, the Dominion 
K.xclianjje Building', 14 King street east. 

— Vr/v/rK} nr/Ze y. — Of*« — C/ - 

Kig ill 

Boiler Design, Construction, Operation, Repairing and Inspection* 

By H. S. Jeffery 

The Various Points in Connection With Boiler Practice Will be Clearly Taken up 
in This Series. The First Article Deals With the Boiler Shell, Including Repair- 
ing, Factor of Safety, Hydrostatic Test and Number of Courses. The Series Will 
be a Complete Text Book on the Subject of Boilers, and They Should be Preserved 
for Reference. 

In Figs. 18 and 19 are shown two 
typos of double riveted, double strapped 
butt joints. In Fig. 18 all the rivets 
are in double shear; both the inside and 
the outside welt strap being the same 
width, while in Fig. 19 one row of 
rivets is in double shear and the other 
row in singk shear; the inner welt 
strap being of greater width than the 

I-"iff. 18. 

outer strap; also, the rivets in single 
shear are pitched twice as great as the 
rivets in double shear. 

To compute the strength of the 
riveted joint. Fig. 18, first find the effi- 
ciency of the net section of plate and 
then the efficiency of the rivets, and the 

Fig. ly. 

lower value of the above will be the 
efficiency of the riveted joint. Inspec- 
tion of Fig. 18 shows that the pitch of 
rivets in both the inner and outer rows 
of rivets is the same, and accordingly, 
the efficiency of the net section of plare 

can b« computed from either source. 

Now, with the riveted joint, Fig. 19, 
the outer row of rivets, which is in 
single shear, are pitched' twice as great 
as the rivets in the inner row, and which 
rivets are in donble shear. Inspection 
of Fig. 19, and considering the fore- 
going remarks, shows that there is a 
minimum and maximum net section of 
plate, and that part of the rivets are 
in single shear and part in double shear. 

In designing a riveted joint as shown 
in Fig. 19, or the triple riveted double 
strapped butt joint as shown in Fig. 20. 
which is only an extension of the double 
riveted double strapped butt joint, the 
riveted joint should be so designed as 
to make the weakest point the net sec- 
tion of plate of the maximum pitch of 

.A cause of failure of a riveted 
joint is the shearing of all the rivets. 
With a triple-riveted double-strapped 
butt joint, as shown in Fig. 20, ibis 
mode of failure needi not be consider- 
ed, but ■with a double-riveted double- 
strapped butt joint, as shown in Fig. 19, 
it must be considered. 

Continuing the calculations of the 
riveted jwint. Fig. 20, it having been al- 
ready found that the rivet in sin- 
gle shear has an efficiency of 15.7 per 
cent., the efficiency of the rivets in dou- 
ble shear, must be found and added to 
the efficiency of the rivet in single shear. 
The shearing strength of the rivets in 
double shear is: 

.7854 X 4 X 45,000 x 1.85 

= 116.24 p.c. 

60,000 X .5 X 7.5 

Distance Between Rows of Rivets. 

15. The distance between the rows of 
rivets should at all tames be sufficient 
to permit the rivets to be readlily driven 
without cutting or disfiguring the head 
of the rivet when driving another rivet. 
The distance a. Figs. 18 and 19, which 
is the distance from the centre of the 
rivet hole to the edge of the plate, 
should be 1^4 times the diameter of the 
rivet hole. With rivets staggered, as 
shown in Fig. 18, the distance, b, be- 
tween rows should not be less than IV2 
times the diameter of the rivet hole, 
while the distance, b, of the riveted 

joint, Fig. 19, should be suflScient to 
permit the outer welt strap to be calked. 
The distance, c, of butt joint, especially 
the type of joint, as shown in ¥ig. 19, 
should be at least 1% times the daa- 
metei' of the rivet hole. 

Girth Seam Rivets Assistance. 
16. With double-strapped butt joints, 
inner strap extended, as shown in Fig. 

Fig. 20. 

30, the net section of plate adjoining 
the girth seam will be leas than the 
maximum net section of plate, this be- 
ing shown by th« letters a and b, Fig. 21. 
The net section a is not, however, weak- 
er than the net section b, for to rup- 
ture the net section a, will require a 
number of the rivets in the adjoining 
girth seam to shear, the same being in- 


Fig. 21. 

dicated by the rivets in black. Usually 
the strength of the net section a, and 
two rivets in the girth seam is sufficient 
to make the calculations show the effi- 
ciency of these parts greater than the 
net section b. 


Unique Ways of Doing Things in the Machine Shop. Readers' Opinions 
Concerning Shop Practice. Data for Machinists. Contributions paid for. 

By K. Campbell. 
One of worst classes of stock to be 
handled, is plates. All sorts of de- 
vices, clamps, etc., have been invented. 
The electro-magnet is used with great 
success but in many plants, especially 
the smaller ones a jib crane or a yard 

Toggle Plate Lifting Device. 

crane is used to advantage. In connec- 
tion with these two methods, the de- 
vice shown in the accompanying sketch 
can be used to advantage. 

The two jaws are pivoted in a V 
clamp and form a toggle, gripping the 
plate very securely when unloading it. 
There is an appreciable saving of time 
in handling and there is no chance of 
the plate slipping as the tendency to 
slip causes the jaws to grip it more 


By Efficiency. 
The combining of operations is one 
means of securing greater efficiency in 
the shops. In the accompanying illus- 
tration is shown a combination drill, 
reamer and cutter for machining cylinder 
cocks. Instead of tooling, they are by 
means of it, bored, seated and faced, 

top and outside. The operations are per- 
formed with the combination tool in one- 
eighth the time of that required by 
tooling out. 

By L. L. K. 

It is sometimes debatable how much 
stock should be left on a forging to se- 
cure quick machining. Since the intro- 
duction of high speed steel it is found 
to give the greatest economy in produc- 
tion when little time is spent on the 

In the accompanying illustration is 
shown the dimensions of a forging which 





-i — I 



Hougb Forging and Finisbed Shaft. 

the writer took recently from one lying 
in an Ontario machine shop. The dimen- 
sions shown by the dotted lines were 
taken from a blueprint, which was fur- 
nished the workman. The forging was 
finished to size by using high speed 


By Service. 

In erecting a locomotive over a pit a 
special jack with a frame extending 
across the pits is a necessity. In the 

one here shown the part A is of steel 
and extends from rail to rail. B is 
brass. The jack can be used in any posi- 
tion along the base. Convenience in* its 


Locomotive Jack. 

use, is the special feature which com- 
mends it. 

By M. E. D. 

The accompanying sketch the writer 
saw in use recently to obtain fresh air 
without a draft. Pipe elbows were used 
and were fitted into a board as shown. 
This board was the width of the win- 
dow and about fi ins. high. Air entered 

ComblDatloo Drill, Ueamer and Cutter for M ucbining Cylinder Cocks. 

Fresh Air Without Draft. 

at B, the part A projecting inside. Four 
were used on each window, so that the 
amount of fresh air could be regulated. 
This was done by having caps fit over 
the pipe at C and removing as many as 
necessary. This device is especially use- 
ful for winter months or in a time- 
keeper's or cost office were a direct 
draft would soon mix up the papers. 

By Onlooker. 
A simple arrangement for cutting 
tubes to length is shown in the illustra- 
tion. An angle is used with A adjus- 
table so that any length may be cut. B 



is a saw. The angle is pressed forward 
by a simple foot arrangement, and is re- 
turned to place by three weights secured 
to it. In order to keep the angle per- 
pendicular to the saw, the angle has 



Tube Cutter. 

three blocks which run in slots in the 
table. The weights are fastened to the 
angle just above the blocks. By this 
method quantities of tubes were quickly 
cut to length without the necessity of 
measuring each tube. 

By Frederick Seabury. 
The accompanying line engraving shows 
how a steam-hammer anvil-block that 
was too large to go on the planer, was 
machined. The block was first leveled 
up on the floor beside the planer, so that 
the top of the casting was a little be- 
low the top of the planer platen. For 

nailer .^uaplali 

safety the casting was clamped to the 
floor, although its weight was such that 
there was no great danger of its moving 
under the thrust of the cut. The cross- 
rail with the attached head was then re- 
moved and clamped securely to a heavy 
angle-plate, which was bolted to the 
platen. A substantial diagonal brace A 

was then fastened to the cross-rail and 
platen as shown. The tool was fed, of 
course, by hand, and the dove-tail for 
the dies was planed by the use of the 
adjustable head in the usual manner. 


By K. Campbell. 
To make a whole drill or reamer from 
high speed steel is expensive, but the 

lli(.'li Spc'iMl Drills and Re.Tmers. 

The job was satisfactory in every way 
and caused considerable comment in the 
shop .—Machinery . 


In tlie sliop-s of the Collingwood Ship- 
building' Co., Collingwood, Ont., there 
is only one planer — a side planer, witli 
a 36-inch table. Wide articles which 
nuist be faced on the side could not be 
done on the planer, on account of the 
over-hanging part having too great tend- 
ing to tip planer table. J. Smith, man- 
ager, got out the idea shown in the ac- 
companying sketch, for increasing the 
capacity of the machine, so that it would 
take almost any size article. A is the 
planer, B and C two 10-inch I-beams, 
the former being the length of the plan- 
er bed and the latter the length of the 
table. Between the two beams are cast 
iron rollers D, held in position by side 
straps E. The beam B may be moved 
any desired distance up to ten feet away 
from the planer on the I-beam F imbed- 
ded in the floor, and to which the beam 
B is bolted. 

The article to be planed is placed on 
the planer as desired, over-hanging onto 
beam C, which is slightly lower than 
the planer table, so that blocking is 
necessary. The article is bolted to this 
beam. The rollers are machined, but 
the beams are in their rough state. 

efficiency of the high speed steel may be 
obtained by making the cutting part of 
this steel and the shank of a less expen- 
sive steel. In the accompanying hall- 
tone are shown a number of shop tools 
where the cutting ends are of high speed 
steel. The five at the right are reamers 
which may be screwed on to shanks such 
as has been done on the next three. Thus 
one shank will accommodate quite a 
variety of sizes of high speed drills, 
reamers, etc. 

Bain & Mitchell, Y.M.C.A. Building, 
have transferred their business lo Fran- 
cis Hankin & Co., 231 Coristine Build- 
ing, who have opened a machinery de- 
partment, with A. G. Webster, of Bain 
& Mitchell, in charge. F. Hankin & Ca. 
will handle the agencies formerly held 
by Bain & Mitchell. 

A really great man is known by three 
signs — generosity in the design, human- 
ity in the execution, moderation in suc- 
cess.— Bismarck. 

A grinding wheel cannot be judged by 
its color. Several wheels of the same 
grit and bond may be of difTerent colors, 
owing to the material used. The con- 
ditions in the kiln will also sometimes 
affect the color. 

Plaoer Extension. 


A Record of New and Improved Machinery Tending Towards Higher QuaHty and 
Economical Production in the Machine Shop, and Blacksmith Shop or Planing Mill. 


The accompanying halt-tone shows the 
automatic variable feed to the head as 
applied to the Rockford shapers. It will 
be noted from the illustration that the 

.\iitoui:ilu- \ari:ible i-'tfil to Shapcr Ih':ui. 
Koiktord .MacUiue Tool Co., Kockford, 111. 

arrangement has been designed with the 
view of simplicity and absence of com- 
plicated parts, making it serviceable and 
not liable to get out of order. It feeds 
the tool either up or down and operates 
at any angle. The triangular shaped in- 
cline on which the roller rides can be 
readily adjusted to suit the position of 
ram or moved out of the way when not 
in use. 

The lever shown on the side of ram 
with spring pin, regulates the amount ot 
feed. Six changes are provided, as fol- 
lows : .008, .016, .024, .032, .040, .048. 
The le%'er on top of the ram reverses the 
feed and throws the gears out of mesh, 
by placing lever in central position when 
not in use. 

The Rockford shaper is manufactured 
by the Rockford Machine Tool Co., 
Rockford, 111., U.S.A. 


The accompanying illustrations show 
the bench lathe of the Remington Tool 
and Machine Co., Boston, Mass., which 
has several new attachments. The lathe 

Iteni'h I..atbe with Forming anil Cuttlng-olT 
Slides, Remington Tool & liacblne Co. 

has an adjustment of two inches to in- 
crease the tension on the belts. 

The spindle is ot the two angle type. 
It takes 5-6 in. stock through the selt- 
centering spring collet chucks ; |" 

through the live spindle when a universal 
chuck is to be used. The end-thrust ad- 
justment of spindle is accomplished by 
advancing a fibre collar to come in con- 
tact with the shoulder on the front of 
the spindle. This feature allows holes 
up to i" being drilled continuously with- 
out sticking or stopping of the spindle. 
The tail stock is provided with com- 
bination screw teed and lever feed of the 

Rem'ngton Bench Lalhe 

spindle. The horizontal movement of 
lailstock spindles is 3 ins. The eccen- 
tric end of binder bolt has adjustment 
for wear. 

The attachments comprise the turret 
with forming and cutting-ofT slide ; mill- 
ing attachment which can be used with 
lever as a hand milling attachment, or 
with ball crank handle for screw feed ; 
and grinding attachments, inside and 
outside. The turret attachment has six 

Prei'ision Bench Latlje. 

holes and is provided with independent 
slops for each tool. The forming slide 
lias a swivel tool post graduated in de- 
crees so that straight forming cutters 
may be used in turning any degree of 


The Garvin Machine Company, New 
York, is putting on the market a very 
complete line of automatic chucks with 
two and three jaws in various sizes. 

Fig. 1 shows a two-jaw chuck disas- 
sembled. The body A is of the ordinary 
type but carries an actuating jaw B, 
which has a series of inclined slots mill- 

ed in it, tongues in the central draw 
plug C fitting into these inclined slots. 
By moving the plug to the rear both jaws 
are forced toward the center by the 
wedging action of the inclined slots and 
tongues. The dovetailed jaws are adjus- 
table by means of a screw on the ac- 
tuating laws to and from the centre, 
and when adjusted are locked in place by 
a locking screw. The dovetailed jaw is 
dovetailed on both sides, so that it can 
be reversed and grip either external or 
internal work. In the latter case an 
extra piece C, with the diagonal slots 
running in the opposite direction, is ne- 
cessary. The adjustment of the jaws is, 
therefore, entirely independent, but in 
operation they work simultaneously. 

In detail the three-jawed are similar 
to the two-jawed chucks. The three- 
jawed chucks are furnished with the re- 
g;ular step type of jaws and can be fitted 
with various other types of jaws to ac- 
commodate all classes of work. 

KiK- 1 - Two .law Chuck Disassembled. 

The chuck is screwed on the nose of 
Ihe spindle in the usual manner ; a pull 
rod or tube is then screwed into the 
central plug in the chuck, and the other 
end attached to the operating mechan- 
ism. A number of styles of operating 
mechanisms can be applied, governed by 
the conditions found in practice. 

Inside the cone pulley is mounted a 
heavy spring, around the spindle. At 
the rear it bears against the spring- 
thrust collar through which passes a 
taper pin. The pin is a drive fit in the 
collar and also in the draw rod, but it 
slides, in an elongated slot, in the 
spindle. The spring exerts a pull at 800 
pounds on the draw rod, and the wedg- 
ing action of the inclined planes in the 
chuck multiplies this by four, giving a 
resultant grip, exclusive of friction, 
equal to 3,200 pounds on the work. A 
foot treadle is attached to the operat- 
ing plunger at the rear end of the spin- 
dle. A slight downward pressure of the 
treadle carries the tube forward and au- 
tomatically carries the friction out of 



the Cone. The momentum of the spindle 
is stopped by the brake pins and washer 
at the rear of the front box. The cone 
pulley is now running idle. The full 
movement of the treadle opens the chuck 
jaws, releases the finished piece of work 
and the chuck is ready for the reception 
of the next piece. 

On releasing the treadle the pressure 
of the spring first closes the jaws on the 
work and then carries the friction into 
the cone, which starts the spindle at 
full speed. 

Where compressed air is obtainable 
the system of a piston inside the cone 
piillcv is used. Pipini;; is attached Id 


Al'i":niK'*'ni<'nt 1 ir iJiiiipiii 
(ieai- on tlie J'itrh Liitt 


an air inlet at the end oi the spindle, 
the operating valve being placed in a 
position convenient for the operator. 

When air is turned on it passes 
through the chamber to the front of the 
piston, forcing it back and closing the 
chuck jaws on the work. The pressure 
of the air in the opposite direction car- 
ries the cone pulley on to the friction 
which starts the spindle forward at full 
speed. On releasing the air, tlie spring 
inside the spindle forces the pulley oft 
the friction, and the momentum of the 
spindle is checked by a multiple-disk 
brake on the rear spindle bearing, which 
leaves the cone pulley running free. The 
pressure of the spring in the other direc- 
tion carries the tube forward, opening 
the chuck jaws, and the machine is now- 
ready to receive the next piece. 

The air pressure necessary for operat- 
ing is from 70 pounds up. For work 
which does not require a heavy grip, a 
reducing valve may be placed in the 
pipe and adjusted to give the necessary 

With the air-operated chucks the jaws 

are at all times forced against the work 
by the elastic pressure of the air, and 
any variation in size is automatically 
accommodated. operating mechanisms are ail 
self-contained and there is at no time 
while the machinery is running, any 
pressure on the spindle boxes. 

The air system is, of, the most 
powerful and convenient, because it 
saves physical effort, and where the 

both these can be accommodated with- 
out reversing the jaws of the chuck. 

Kig. 2 shows a three-jaw air-operated 
chuck, arranged on a Garvin hole-grind- 
ing machine for gripping a bevel pinion 
by the pitch line. 

Fig. 3 shows the arrangement for grip- 
ping a spur gear on the pitch line. The 
jaws are adjustable to and from the 
centre, for different-sized gears, they 
also carry a hardened plate on which is 
mounted a hardened roller which grips 

number of pieces handled per day ex- 
ceeds 1,OOU, it is the most desirable, but 
where there is no compressed-air system 
or where the number of pieces does not 
exceed the limit stated above, the spring 
actuated chuck will be found efhcient. 

The methods just described show ap- 
plications to machines built by the Gar- 
vin Machine Co., but machines already 
in use can be equipped with a spring 
system or an air system. These mechan- 
isms are mounted on the rear end of the 
spindle. They operate the chuck only, 
the starting and stopping being done by 
the countershaft. They are for this rea- 
son somewhat slower than those already 
shown, as the spindle is not stopped in- 

A double air cylinder is also made, 
which takes the air in on either side of 
the piston, gripping and releasing by air 
pressure without the aid of a spring. 
This system is convenient for gripping 
either internal or external work., as 

Fig. 2.— Tlircc .Tinv .\ir Operated Clutch. 

the gear at the pitch line. This plate is 

adjustable sideways for gripping gears 
where the number of teeth is not divisi- 
ble by three. 

These chucks may also be operated by 
the hand-lever mechanism. With this 
mechanism the chuck jaws are opened 
1-16 inch on the diameter, which is suffi- 
cient for a grip on finished work. The 
spring or air-operated mechanisms give 
an increased opening and the three-jaw 
chucks are arranged to open f inch, 
while the two-jaw style is made in two 
types, one of which opens I inch and 
the other J inch on the diameter. 

The chuck shown in Fig. 4, known as 
the automatic index chuck, has a wide 
field of adaptability for that class of 
work having two or more points of work 
to be operated on lying in the same 
plane. These chucks are identical in 
construction with the former ones ex- 
cept that they have index jaws. 


1 ^ 



*— , 

















L <£> 

















■ j"«-'«» 







iP ■ 






Automatic luUex Chuck. 

Kig. 5. — The Outside Type of Air Control. 



Fig. 5 shows a Garvin geared triction- 
head power-feed monitor lathe, equipped 
with a 12-inch two-jaw adjustable rever- 
sible, automatic chuck which is operated 
by the outside air system. The stop- 
ping of the spindle is, in this case, done 
by throwing the friction lever on the 
headstock to a neutral position. 

The John Bertram & Sons Co., Dun- 
das, Ont., have placed on the market a 
B ft. full universal radial drill shown in 

1. — Uvrii'Miu liiivrisal liudial Drill 
driven by motor. 

the accompanying illustrations. It will 
drill to the centre of a 12 ft. circle. 
The column carrying the arm revolves 
on ball bearings and can be clamped in 
any position. The arm is raised and 
lowered by power. The spindle is coun- 
terbalanced and has quick return, 16 
changes of speed and three changes of 
feed by hand or power. 

The vertical travel of spindle is 17 
ins. ; spindle is bored to Morse taper 
No. 5 ; maximum distance spindle to 




1 . - i sal Uudinl UiUl 

(Irivfcu by Hiiiglo belt through speed box. 

baseplate is .73 ins. ; minimum distance 
spindle to baseplate, 4 J ins. ; and max- 
imum distance face of column to spindle 

is 72J ins. The drill is supplied with 
standard work table of box section hav- 
ing slotted top and side. The baseplate 
is slotted for bolting work. 

Fig. 1 shows a 6 ft. radial drill with 
the drive by means of a 5 h.p. constant 
speed motor through speed box. Fig. 2 
shows a 6 ft. radial drill driven by a 
single pulley through speed box instead 
of by motor. 


The diameter of cutter heads in the 
machine shown, over tools 26 in., length 
of in and out adjustment to each head 
by hand 2i in., in length of cross feed to 
i-ach saddle 5 ft., size of each work 
table 3 ft. by 6 ft., maximum distance 
between the faces of cutting tools 30 ft.; 

be adjusted from the minimum to the 
maximum distance by means of a 5 h. 
p. motor mounted on the back of the 
base, motion being transmitted from 
the motor through spiral gears to the 
worm wheel shaft, in turn meshing with 
the worm wheel, which controls the 
rack pinion. This machine is especially 
adapted for rapid production in finishing 
cast iron and structural columns on 
both ends. 

This machine is manufactured by the 
.Newton Machine Tool Works, Philadel- 


This is not an illustration of a dog 
collar and chain, but rather it shows the 
work of a CuUey Flexible Hack Saw 
Blade, manufactured by the Simonds 
Mfg. Co., Fitchburg, Mass. and Mon- 
treal, P.Q. There were 47 separate 

Sample of Work of the CuUey Flexible Hack .Saw Blades. 

minimum distance between the faces of 
cutting tools 6 ft. 3 J in., machine occu- 
pies a floor space of 37 ft. by 5 ft. 6 in. 
in the base, and the length of the cross 
slide for each head is 10 feet. 

The cutter heads are steel castings 
with angular slots for the reception of 
tools cut from the solid with a steel 
band shrunk on the periphery, into 
which the tool retaining set screws are 
fitted. The internal driving face plate 
gear has teeth cut from the solid and 
the teeth of the driving pinion as well 
as for transmitting the feed are cut 
from the solid. 

The drive to each head is by means of 
a 7i h.p. Westinghouse Electric & Mfg. 
Co. type "S" motor, having a speed of 
(175 r.p.m. Motion is further transmit- 
ted through spiral gears to the driving 
worm wheel. The driving worm is of 
hardened steel and the driving worm 
wheel has a bronze ring with teeth of 
sleep lead and both are encased for 

rings made from a 1 inch pipe, each ring 
slit and the chain formed. After mak- 
ing this number of cuts the condition of 
the blade was so good that the teeth are 
clearly defined, even in this greatly re- 
duced illustration. The remarkable flex- 
ible property of this blade is shown by 
its being bent in a complete circle. 


The American Tool Works Co., Cincin- 
nati, Ohio, are placing on the market a 
new line of 36 and 42 in. lathes, the spe- 
cial feature of them being the quick 
change mechanism, all the gears in which 
are steel. 

The material used in the gears is 
made from either bar steel or drop forg- 
ings. This mechanism is embodied in a 
self-contained unit carried on the front 
of the bed and provides 32 fundamental 
changes of threads ranging from 1 to 14 
per inch. In addition to this a coni- 

Speclal Rotary Planing Machine, Newtou Machine Tool Works, Philadelphia. 

lubrication, and where necessary roller 
bearings are provided. The left hand 
machine is stationary on the base and 
the right hand machine is arranged to 

pound quadrant gear is provided on the 
end of bed which will furnish 16 addi- 
tional changes, thus affording 48 thread 
and feed changes ranging from \ to 28 



threads including lU pipe thread and 
from 4 to 244 cuts per inch. The 32 
changes in the box are all obtained 
through the medium of a cone and tum- 
bler gear and two sliding clutches of the 
selective type, .\nyone of these changes 
may be instantly obtained while the ma- 
chine is running. 

total length over all inside knuckles, 64 
ft. 11 ins.; tractive effort 79,200 lbs., and 
normal speed 60 miles an hour. 

The weight of the motor is 43,000 lbs., 
and the maximum horse power is 4,000 
li.p. The locomotive is of double de- 
siirn, the two parts being connected at 
tlie drivinir wheels ends. In the event ol' 

pletely enclosed and running in an oil 
bath. Four changes of feed and a neu- 
tral position are efTected by moving a 

Electric Loconiotlvo, Showing Motors iuiil Uiiniiing Gear. 

The quadrant mentioned alsi> provides 
means for obtaining through the medium 
of loose gears any odd rates or feeds 
which may from time to time be desir- 
ed. The cone gears are all of the Brown 
& Sharpe 20 degree involute pointed 
type which provides an especially strong 
tooth and greatly facilitates the engag- 
ing of the gears while running. The 
coarse threads and feeds are all obtained 
through the cone, and no member in tne 
hox does at any time run faster than the 
initial driving gear. 

line motor being tut out, the other 
motor will operate the whole locomotive 
and can be controlled from either cab. 


In the accompanying illustration is 
shown the motors and running of a 
Westiiighouse electric locomotive for D. 
C. 600 volts. The weight complete is 
156 tons; weight on drivers, 200,000 lbs. ; 


The solid stocky design and extreme 
simplicity are the distinguisning tea- 
tilres of this new stationary head drill- 
ing machine with geared feed, the first 
lot of which the Sibley Machine Tool 
Co., South Bend, Ind., have just com- 
pleted. Its rigidity and the geared feeds 
adapt it to the heavy cuts of modern 
manufacturing. While having the same 
range as similar models formerly made 
by this company it is considerably lower 
in height. 

It will be noted that the feed mechan- 
ism derives its power from the top 
drive shaft, and all the gearing is com- 

New DriUing Machine, Sibley Machluc Tool Co., 
South Bend, Ind. 

small knob in the centre of the hand 
wheel. The convenience of this arrange- 
ment is obvious. 

The automatic stop collar on the spin- 
dle sleeve, trips a latch at the desired 
depth of iiole and the worm swings away 
from the worm gear. Unusually severe 
tests have been tried with this feed, and 
results were so successful that the 
Sibley Machine Tool Co. have adopted 
it for their entire line, excepting the 
20" and 22i" sizes. 

111(1 ^.i In. style, -Mneriian High Duty I.nthe. 




.♦^ Manufacturing New5-> 

A monthly newspaper devoted to machinery and manutacturing interests 
mechanical and electrical trades, the foundry, technical progress, ccnstruction 
and improvement, and to all usets of power developed from steam, gas, elec- 
rioity, compressed air and water in Canada. 

The MacLean Publishing Co., Limited 


H. V. TYRRELL, Toronto 

G. C KEITH, M.E., B.Sc, Toronto 

PETER BAIN, M.E., Toronto 

;• # IPreiident 

Business Manager 
Managine Editor 
Associate Editor 


Mo»T,«L Rootn. 701-702 Eastern Lo"-" " ^Sp^,'"^ l^rl;. F^iSi 

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Vol. VII. 

May, 1911 

No. 5 


A certain manager ha.s over his desk the motto in 
large letters, "Do the Hard Things First." It is a 
motto that can be passed down to the superintendent, 
foreman and men. Many hard or disagreeable duties 
must be done and it i.s best to use the freshest efforts 
to accomplish them. The "putting off until to-morrow" 
in the hopes someone else will do the job is a bad 
policy. Attempting the hardest things first will make 
the day's work pleasanter and will give you a greater 
interest in your work. 


In your survey and consequent improvement in the 
machinery equipment there is another form of equipment 
which requires very careful examination with a similar 
object in view. We refer to the personal equipment — to 
the measure of our knowledge of the elements which con-