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,i,.,.d.:, Google 



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THE 

CANADIAN NATURALIST 

AND GEOLOGIST: 



CONDUCTED BY A COMMITTEE OP THE NATUBAL 
HISTORY SOCIETY OF MONTBBAL. 



SET SERIES.— TeL 1, 
(WITH TWO XAva.) 



EDITIHQ COMMITTEE. 
Gmeral EdUor: David A. P. Watt. 
J. V. Dawboh, LL.D., F.R.S., I E. Billirob, F.O.8., 

{•rincipalqf Meant CoUigt. Gtologieal Survey/ 1^ Canada. 

T. aruKir Hditt, A.U., F.R.S., Pbov. S. P. RoBBiira. 

aeOogical Sarrtg </ Canada. \ Uev. Ai^mx^aoai F. Kbmp. 
Cauu.n Shallwood, U.D., IXJ>-, D.C.L. 



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Entered, according to Act of the ProTinciat Parliament, in the year 
one thousand eigbt hundced and aiit^-four, bj Dawson Bhothkbs, 
in the Office of tbe Regiatrar of the Prorince of Oaaada. 



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BotsnlcKl Science— Record of ProgreBs; Bj Giobqi Lutbdr, Ph. D., 

LL.D 1 

Ca*e ID Limestone near Hontteal ; B7 Hr. H. O. Tihnob 14 

OontribntiODB to Lithologjr ; By Di. T. Stirby Hdnt, P.R.S IS 

On Ocean DrlllB and Gnnenla, and their eS^cU on Islands fkr 

remoTed fkim Continents ; Sj J. Mitthiit Jonbb, P.L.S 3T 

Notes on the 8i]icifieat[on of Fossils ; Bj Db. T, Stbbht Hdnt, F.R.S. 4S 
Notee on tbe Geolog; and Botany of New Brunswick ; B; Professor 

L. W, BULIT 81 

On PiscicDltnre 134 

ContribntioDB to Lithology; By Db. T- Stbbbt HtWT, F.B.S 181 

On the Chemistry of Uannres Si, 1S9 

Elementary Views of the Classification of Animals ; By J. W. Daw- 
son, LL.D., F.R.S 241 

On tbe Occurrence otPierii Rapte in Canada; By G. J. Bowlbs... 258 
Synopsis of Canadian Ferns and Filicoid Plants ; By OiORai Liw- 

BOM, Ph. D., LL.D 263 

Obserratlone on supposed Glacial Drift in Ibe Labrador Peninsula ; 

By HiMBT ToDLi Hind, U.A., F.R.Q.S 300 

Description of two American Sponges ; By Dr. J. S. Bowirbihk, 

F.R.S 304 

Uicbaaz and hil Journey in Canada ; By the Abb4 Otidi Bbdnit.. . 32S 
Reminiscences of Amherst College ; By Enwisn Hitdhoocb, D.D., 

LL.D. (Reviewed) 33T 

Notes on tbe Habitats and Varieties of some Canadian Ferns ; By 

D17ID R. UoCoRD, B.A 3G4 

On the Qeology of Eastern New York ; By Professor Jaios Hij,l 

and SiB William B. Loeiif 368 

On the Fossils of theOenus Rusophycus) By J. W. Dawson, LL.D,, 

F.B.8. 363, 4B8 

Obserrations on Canadian Geographical Botany; By A. T. Dhdii- 

■oiD, B.A., LL.B 408 

On tbe Geology of tbe Ottawa Valley ; By J. A. Graxt, Il.D., P.0.8. 419 
On Peat and its Uses ; By Dr. T. Stbrrt Eitmt, F.R.S 43S 



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IT CONTIMB. 

NiTiTBAL Hutobt Sooiitt. 

Annual CoDversaziooe BO 

Tbe Uaple-LeoT Cutter 64 

Ananal Meeting 2IS 

UoQlblj UeetingB 234, 370, 21?, 441 

Annual UeetlDg, confiniitif. 303 

BHTOHOLOaiOAl, SoOUTT. 

Proceedings of. 3T4 

Conper on JItacut pol}/plunta 3T6 

" on a gall from Triiicutn repem 444 

BairiiH Assooii?ioa. 

PtoIs. Balfour and Roltetton'i AddrauM 75 

Jones and Parker on FaraDrinifen 79 

Oeofn'aphf and Etbnologf (Praaident'a Addreu) IBS 

Lecture by Dr. LiTingitoa* 37B 

Bxtracti from the Address of Sir Charles Lyell, D.O.L 380 

ObserTatloiu on the Salmonida ; bj Dr. J. DaTj 44S 

Transport of Salmon Otb to Anstralia; by T. Johnson 4fi2 

New Method of Extracting O old from Ores; b; F. 0. Calvert. 4S3 

RnnaiTB amd Booi-N'oticm. 

Geological SorTej of Canada ; Report of Frogretg 6B 

Review of a Criticism of Renan on Languages 146 

Geological Hagacine 373 

Teraill on the Polyps of tbe United Sutes 4T0 

MuciLLASaotrl. 

Oo Organic Remains in the Laurentian Rocks 1B2 

The Bartbqnake of April 1S64 ISB 

On Bivalred Bntomoslraca 336 

Hail-Storm in Fontiac 307 

Oallnna Tnlgaris 378, 469 

llluBtratton to Dr. Dawson's article on the Oenns Ruiophycna. 458 

The gold of Nova Scotia of Pre-Oarboniferous Ag« 459 

SITU ART. 

Principal Le itch of Queen's College, Kiagaton 237 

Professor Silliman of New Haven 431 

HBTIOROLOSIOAL TlBLU. 

January and February 239 

March to Augast 311 

September *>4 

October to December... 472 



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CANADIAN NATURALIST. 



BOTANICAL SCIENCE— RECORD OP PR0GBE9SI 

Bf OiOBM LiwBOH, LL.D., ProfeBwr of Chemistry, Dalhaasie Colle^, 

Ealifoi, Nova Scotia. 

1. Ploha of Canada. — Canndiftn botanists will be pleased to 
lean that the Reries of " Colonial Floras," now being pnblished 
under authority of the Home Government, is rapidly progreBsing ;. 
and that Sir William Hooter is now desirous of receiviog con. 
tribations (o ihe projected Flora of Canada and other Britiab 
American Provinces, of nbich Dr. Joseph Hooter is to be the 
author. As to the nature of materials desired, it may be statad 
generally that information respecting the occurrenoe in Canada 
of plants not hitherto recorded as Canadian, when accompanied 
by authenticated specimens, will be roost nseful. In a tetter Iroia 
Sir William, he observes : " Our own materials [at Kew] are very 
araple for the object in question ; nevertheless I am far from dis- 
couraging any from sending to us well-prepared specimens, among^ 
which it in probable we should find some new things, and more 
still which wonld be useful as showing the geographical distribution 
of species. Most of all we desire, as far as Canada is concerned, 
that specimens be collected largely in the mo«t loathem districts, 
as there would probably be found Waited Stales sptdes not yet 
recorded as Canadian. The oaks, the pines, and in general the 
forest'4rees and sbnibs, particularly of the South, require a careful 
study. Ton define clearly the plants we most desire to have, vis.. 

Vol. I. A Ko. L 



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2 THE CANADIAN NATURALIST. [9eb. 

tuck at are uol already pMishtd ta Canadian, or a* are oj critical 
interest." 

2. Canadian Ginbemq. — My friend and former pnpil, Ur. 
John G. Schultz, the active Seuretary of tbeSuienlific Inslitute 
of Rupert's Land, called attentioa eome time ago to the trade 
which waB tbea belog carried on ia exporting giDsang Aralia 
quinquefolia from MiuneBota to China. In western MinneBOtathe 
root is collected hy Indiana, and sold to traders in St. Paul's for 
a dollar a ponnd, to be carried to New' York for export. Dr. 
Schiiltz, eeeing several barrels of it at St. Paul's, wisely sn^ested 
to Canadians the propriety of taking up this lucrative branch of 
industry. Iq a letter wbit^ I have received from Sir William 
Hooker, that veteran botanist obeerves : " I am glad to sea the 
sul'jectof the American ginseng alluded to. Is it the fact that it 
is still largely exported to China t and what are the statistics? 
Nov would appear to be the time to send it. I can assure you, 
that, old botanist as I am, and wiih oorrespondeDts all over the 
world, with two collectors I have had in Manchuria, intimate 
with all the Russian botanists, I have never been able to procure 
even a dried specimen of the Chinese ginseng. With great 
difficulty Dr. Bunge obtained for ma a single dried root, for 
which three guineas was paid in the country. I have no doubt your 
ginseng is every bit as good as that of Manchuria, and certainly 
the Chinese once thought so." 

3. Canadian Nuts and GoosBBRaRiaa. — I find that the 
common hszel-nutot central Canada is Corji/iMrotfrafa/thatoftho 
Northern States and of the plains west from Canada, C. Ameri- 
cana, which in Canada is local, occurring abundantly in some 
places however, as at Belleville, where it was pointed out to me 
by Mr. 1, UcCoun. The common smooth gooseberry of Upper 
Canada is Siba rotundifolium. The mora prevalent one in the 
New Sngland States is, according to Prof. Gray, R. hirteltum. 

4. Canadian Habitats of Diphttaehyum apodum. — Mr, Jo- 
fiiah Jones Etell, of Carleton Place, oneof my former pupils, has given 
me specimens of this very interesting lycopod, collected by him at 
Dickson's Point, Mississippi Lake, C. W., August, 1803. The 
only Canadian localities preriously known were Detroit Biver, 
C. W., where it was found by Dr, P. W. Uaclagan ; and Belle- 
ville, C. W., where Mr. McCoun pointed it out to me last sum- 
mer. I have since found it in a fertile state in the grass by the 



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1864.] IiAwbom's botanical motbs. 3 

margin of Mill-Creek, a fevr hundred yards below the village of 
'Odessa, which is some thirteen or fourteen miles from Kingston, 
C W, This is the Lycopodium apodum, Lino., Pursh, etc., 
^staginella apus. Gray, Eaton, etc. I hare it from Schooley's 
Uountain, (Mr. A. O. Brodie,) but it is rare in the United States. 
Being a minute mose-like species, it may be sometimes over- 
looked. It is admirably adspted for caltiratton ia a Ward's 
•case, as it covers the soil with a very dense carpet of a most 
beautiful light green hue. 

6. Golf-Wbbo at Caps Sable. — The Nova Scotia news- 
papers contain accounts of great quantities of the gulf-weed 
» ^Sarffouum bacciferum) having been thrown upon the shore 
at Cape Sable, by the galee of December, 1863 ; the Gulf-stream, 
it ia alleged, being maoh nearer the land than usual. 

6. PoA LAZA, Htenke. — ^Tliis rare alpine grass was foand 
on the White Mountains by Principal DawEoo, to whom lam in- 
debted for specimens. 

7. Floba of Anticosti and ths Minqak Islands. — Mr. A. 
H. Verrill has pablished in the Boston Natural History Society's 
Prooeedings a list of the plants collected at Anticosti and the 
Hingau Islands, by himself, Mr. A. Hyatt, and Mr. N. S. Shaler, 
who formed a party from the Museum of Comparative Zoology 
for the investigation of the geology, etc., of Anticosti, in 1861. 
The list cont&ina 209 named species of flowering plants. I 
note some of the more interesting: Anem-me parvijlora, S. W . 
Point; Thalielrum alpinum, Ranunculus Cr/mbalaria ; Bryax 
integrifolia, Vahl., Mingsn, and Anticosti, abundsnt; (5. Drum- 
mondii, attributed to Anticosti by Piirsh was not met with ;) Rubut 
ChamtemonUf abundant; B.aretieus; Saxifraga Onenlandka, 
L., very abundant at Miogan Islands. A very lai^e number of 
«pecimeDS of this species collected at Mingan, proves, according lo 
Prof. Gray, that S, Orcealandieaf S. caspilosa, L., and S. exarala, 
Vill., are only forms of one species; S. ai'zoidet, hrge variety, 
abundant at Anticosti, abont limestone cliffs ; S. aizoon, Niapisca 
Island ; Liguitieam Seoiicum ; Erigeron acre, [E. alpinum, 
Hook.,) narrow-leaved form, abundant on grassy banks near the 
mouth of Jupiter River; Rhodora Canadengii, L./ Iioi'gelearia 
jproatmheni, Pnfnala farinotaf and P. Mialaannica ; Merltnna 
n(aritt»Mi, a fern with glabrous leaves, was occasionally met 
■mtii; Tamit Canadensii; Calypto borealia ; Bitrockloa hortalit. 



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4 THE CANADIAN NATD&ALIST. [Feb^ 

itc. Nineteen Orchids are aoumerated, yet only tno Carices, two- 
gmbse^ and no Crjptt^amia, so that there is still room for useral 
work at ADticosti and Mingan. The Kahnia latxfoUa of Mr.. 
BiDiogs's AnticoBii liat is do doubt K. Anffwti/olia, as Mr. Verrilt 
suggeslB. 

8. WooDBiA ALPiN A (W. hipbrbdrka), a Canadian Plakt. 
— I am happy to be able to state definitely that this very rarc- 
fem ia a native of Canada. Last winter several specimens oC 
Woodtia were brought to me by my former pupil, Mr. Bobt. Bellr 
B. A., who had gathered them io Oaapi in the previous year. 
One ofthese could not be satisfactorily identified; and throughProf.. 
Torrey, I forwarded it to Mr. Daniel G. Eaton, who bas made the . 
American ferns a special study. He kindly took the trouble to com* 
pare it with authentic specimene in his rich herbarium of feraa^ 
and with published figures and descriptions that were inacceseibie 
at Kingston. He writes to me that he has now no doubt of the iden- 
tity of the Gasp^ fern with Woodsia hyperlorta {W. a]pUta,%, F. 
Gr.). He adds: "itisthefirstAmericaDBpecimenlhaveseen." Thus 
Pnnh's record of the fern as occurring "in clefts of rocks, Canada,*^ 
is confirmed. Mr. Eaton further points out that Major Bainas's 
Or^;on specimens referred to W. hyperborta by Sir William 
Hooker, in bis recent work on British ferns, do not really belong 
to that species; "they have not jointed stripes, nor a cilliate-oleft 
involucre, and belong to the Phynemaiiam section. I may elate that 
my own specimens of W. alpina, from Norway, (Thos. Ander- 
son, M.D.,) and Ban Lawerp, Partbahire, (J. T. Syme, F.L.8.,) are 
very small fertile fronds, remarkably difi'erant in aspect from the 
comparatively large lai fronds from Gasp^ (meafiuring nine inche» 
in length). I therefore propoea that the Gasp6 plant should be 
distinguished as var. BeUi, as I had described it in the " Synopsis 
of Canadian Ferns and Filicoid Plants" ; but it must now be re- 
ferred to W. alpina, not to W. glabella, as formerly. Although 
the latter species (W. glabella) is admitted by all anthers as a 
Canadian fern, I know of no strictly Canadian habitat for it.. 
Mr. Charles H. S chcock tells me that he collected W. glabella 
sometime ago at Willooghby Mountain, Vermonl, where it haa 
become extremely scarce. 

9. Thb Compass Plant ok Polar Plant. — It is a miafbr- 
tune of botany that more time is required to clear up doubta- 
and point out errors than for the pleaaanter task of making 



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9864.] LAwBON'e botaitioal notes. 5 

new discoveries. Yet it is work that must be done, and it is 
nsnallj in fact by this very procees that discoveries itre elimi- 
nated. Lately some attention baa been given by a phenomenon 
-said to be exhibited by Silphmm laeiniatum on the prairies, and 
the most contradictory observations have been recorded. In 18S2 
Ur. W. Gorrie called the attention of the Botanical Society of 
-EdlDbnrgh to various notices of this plant, such for example as 
the following: — 

" Bnt we bad a guide to our direction unerring as the magnetic 
needle. We were traversing the region of the Polar Plant, 
■the planes of whose leaves, at almost every step, pointed out our 
meridian. It ^ew npou our track, and wa» crushed under the 
hoofof our horses, as we rode onwards." — The Scalp ffunttra, 
■iy CapL Maynt Seid, p. 206. 

"Whilst in the damper ground appeared the Polar Plant; that 
-prairie compass, the plane of whose leaf ever turns towards the 
magnetic meridian." — TAe City of the Saints, hi/ R. F. Burton, 
p. 60. 

" Fortnnately none go to the prairie for the fir^t time without 
"being shown, in case of such mishaps, the groups of compass-weed 
"which abound all over the plains, the broad flat leaves of which 
point due north and south with an accuracy as unvarying as that 
of the magnetic needle itself." — The Prince of Walei in Oanadai 
(fcc, bjf the Timee't Special Correipondent, p. 300, 

"On the aplands the grass is luxuriant, :md occasionally is 
found the wild tea {^Amorpha canetceoi) and the Pilot Weed, Sil- 
pluam laciniatam." — Kmort/'s Note» with the Advance Ouard, 
p. 11. 

" It is said that the planes of the leaves of this plant are coin- 
cident witJi the plane of the meridian ; but those I have noticed 
must have been influenced by some local attraction that deranged 
their polarity." — Lieut, AlherCt Notee in the same work. 
* Patience," the Priest woald say, "hsTB faith, aad thy prayer will be 

answered. 
Xook at this delkate plant that lifts its bead from the meadow ; 
See bow its leaves all point to the aortb, as trne as tbe magnet. 
It is the compaaa-flower, that tbe Eager of Ood has suspended 
.Here on its fragile stock, to direct the traveller's jonrney 
Over tbe lea-like, patbUss, limitless waste of desert." 

LongfttUndt Evangtlint. 

What every body says must be tme. The combined testimony 



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6 THE OANApUK NATDBALIBT. [Feb. 

ofMajne Beid, Bnrlon, the Times's Special, and Lorgfellow, 
added to the common belief of prairie men, oaonot be gainsayed. 
Yet ft cautious botanist will suspect that after all, the concurrcDt 
testimony ma; resolve itself into a snow-ball &do;, that has gath- 
ered as it rolled from hook to book, and that the popular authors 
quoted did not trouble themselves much about the aocuracy of the 
fad. Prof. Asa Gray, our chief American botanist, does not con- 
firm the ezbiblljon of polarity by hia observation of the plant in 
the Cambridge garden. In the same way, I could not make it 
out by observation of the plant for two years, although certainly 
iQ the single plant to nbicb my obseivations ^were limited the 
»tem-Uavei did show a tendency towards a north and south direc- 
tion. However in an " extra " from the American Journal of Sci- 
ence, given to me when on a recent visit to Prof. Gray at Cam- 
bridge, I find a communication from Mr. T. Hill, with observations 
made on the wild plants near Chicago, — Ang. 6, 18S3. Only one 
plant, bearing four old leaves, gave an average angle with the 
meridian of more than 34" ; their mean waslB" wbbL Of twenty- 
nine plant", bearing ninety-one leaves, the angles with the meridian 
were as follows : seven made angles greater than 35° ; fifteen, an- 
gles between 36° and 20°; sixteen, angles between 20° and 8°; 
twenty-eight, angles between 6° and 1°; and twenty-five, angles less 
* than 1°, Of the sixty-nine angles less than 20°, the moan is N. 0° 33' 
E., i. e, about half a degree east of the meridian. The error of ob- 
servation may have been as much as three times ibis quantity. 
One half of the leaves bear within about half a point of north, 
two-thirds within a point. In the Eingslon specimen the first 
flower looked to the north, the others chiefly south. 

10. BcxBADMiA ApftvLLA iH NovA ScoTiA. — This rare and 
most remarkable of all the mosses grows on the hills three miles 
in the rear of the city of HiJifai, Nova Scotia. It was found 
with perfectly formed but green capsules on December 26, 1803. 

11. Parochetds couMOMtB. — A herbaceous leguminous plant, 
new to gardens, and bearing the above name, was exhibited at 
the November (1863) meeting of the Edinburgh Botanical Socie- 
ty. It resembles the common white clover, bat hiw blue flowers, 
and is said to be very proi'y. This plant was introduced to Ca- 
nada last year, a fine crop Imving been raised from seeds received 
from Dr. Thomas Anderson, who obtained them at a high elevor 
lion on the Himaiayae. 



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18ft4.] lawson'b botanical moteb. 7 

12. AoBR Nkoi;ndo, rouiB varibqatis. — In the Verveieknim 
of oar friend Mr. J. N". Haage, of Erfurt in Praesia, we observe a 
drawing and description of a beautiful ranegated or silver leaved 
variety of the Jeer N^tmdo, — or as it ought rather to be called, 
Negwtdo aceroidee. This elegant variety will form a welcome 
addition to the list of American ornamental trees. _ It is for sale 
in the Enropean nnrseries. 

15. Cahasiait 8PE0IKB OP Eqdisbtuh. — The following are 
describediDTranB.Bol.Soc. Ed. : E. it/haticum ; E. 'umbrotum ; 
E. arvaue; E. arveiue, var. granlalvm ; (n new and remarkable 
fornn from the Trent, near Trenton) ; E. Telmat^a ; E. limonan ; 
E.hyemale; E. variegatum ; E. ta.rpoidt»; and E. te'rpoida, 
var. minor, the last from Gaspfi (Mr. Eobt. Bell). E. paluttrt 
ia nnderstood to grow in the northern parts of Canada. 

14. Sbquoia Lavtboniaita. — Messrs P. Lawson &; Son of 
Edinbui^h have raised a new Conifer from California seedi), 
which baa been named Sequoia Lawsoniana. 

16. YocoA FiLAUBHTOSA. — This fine southern plant is quite 
hardy in Cansds. Its specific name refers to the numerous threads 
or filaments which hang from the marffins of the leavet. 

16. CLBRODEHnitoN Thousoks, Balfour, (Mrs. Thompecn's 
Oerodendron). This handsome plant was transmitted by the 
Rev. W. C. TbompBOn from Old Calabar, on the west coast of 
Africa, and flowered at the Botanic Garden of Edinburgh, in 
December, 1861. It is a shrubby twining plant, producing 
showy flowerf, and will soon be seen in all our hot-honse!>. 
Prof. Balfour gave a full description of it some time ago, 
accompanied by a beautiful drawing from the pencil of Dr. 
Greville. (Trans. Bot Soc. Edin., vol. vii, p. 2.) It had not 
then shown fruit, which however has been subsequently produced, 
and is now described, with elegant drawings. Prof. Balfour states 
that the fruit consisLs of four achens, which when ripe assume a 
shining black color externally. Between the achens, and attached 
to their surface, but not appearing on (he peripheral aide, there 
is a bright red cellular coat, which enlarges as the fruit ripens, 
aeparating the achens, which ultimately appear as fonr distinct' 
seed-vessels, covered on their upper surface (commissure), with a 
succulent rugose mass of cells of a bright scarlet color. The 
snrface oil-globule-bearing cells are described as of a glandular 
nature. We have hero apparently a beautiful example of glan- 



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8 THS CANADIAN MATURALmT. [Feb. 

dalar structure, preBsutiag io mi eiogeaons pl&nt » perfect ho- 
mology with the gl&ndular structures of the fruits of tnoDOCotyle- 
dona, so well described by BrongDiart,Knd serringto illiutrate the 
iheoi7 (see TraoB. Bet. Sou. Ed., t, p. 213), that all v^etable 
iglands are epidoriuat atracturee. Id Beveral pointB of view then 
.this is an interesting plant, and Dr. Balfonrhas dune it ample jus- 
tice in his admirable description. 

17. PHTSosnaifA vaNiNoeoH, Balfour. — Thb Poison Bean 
-or Ordeal Bean of Calabar, PhytotHgma venenotatti, Balfour, 

which is used in Africa as a state poison, a supposed means 
-of discovering crime, and a certain method of pauisbing it, is 
■likely to yield, in the hands of medical men, some return for 
all the evil it has done iu the hands of the ignorant and super- 
stitions Africans. Dr. Thomas R. Fraaer finds that the beao acts 
as follows : 

1. The keruel acts od the spinal cord by destroying ita power 
of conducting impressions. 2. This destruction may result in two 
■well.marked and distinct eSiiCts, either in muscular paralysis, ex- 
tending gradually to the respiratory apparatus, and producing 
death by atphyxia; or in rapid paralysis of the heart, probably 
■due to an eitensiou of this action to the sympathetic ByBtem,thus 
causing death by syncope. 3. A difference in dose accompanies 
the difference in effect. 4. The functions of the brain may be 
affected secondarily. 5. It proJucea paralysis of muscular fibre, 
striped and non-striped. f>. It exiiies secretions, and especially 
the action of the nlimentary mncous membrane. 7. Topicsl 
-effects follow the local application of the watery emulsion and 
alcoholic extract; these are destruction of the contraciibiJity of 
muscular fibre, and contractioQ of the pupil when applied to the 
«ye-ball or eye-lids. 

18. Nsw Irish Lichens ahd IIefatic^. — Dr. Benjamin 
C»rrington, F.L.S., has dewrihed (Trans. B. Soc, vii, p. 3) the 
following new lichens : Ephebe Moorii, Carringtoo, adelicale little 
species found at Glana, Killaroey, growing in shallow depressed 
patches, an inch or more in citect, on Fmllania lamaritd, 
var. miero2>hylla ; Lecidea icapanaria, Carrington, Killarney, 
parasitic on the stem and leaves of iScapania undttlata, var. 
major, and S.aequUoba, The same indefatigable botanist has 
l^ren an elaboration of the Eillarney Hepaticffi well worthy of 
atndy. Crypto^araic botany used to be a pleasant pastime; but 



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1864.] ijlwson'b botanical notes. 9 

it Dov requires an exercise of the obserriog powers that none but 
^nnine botaniiits can endure. 

19. Thi Toot PoiaoH of Nbw Zealibd. — Dr. W. Laader 
Lindsay, F.R.S.E., has published a paper (read to the British 
Associatiou) on the Toot Poison of Ntw Zealand, a poieoo 
which has of late ;ears committed great rsvegee among the 
flocks and herds of the settlerx. It belongs to the class of 
■narootico-irrilantt. The poisonous parts of the plant to man 
areusn&lly the seed contained in a beautiful dark parple lus- 
«ions Ijerry, resembling the blackberry, which clusters closely in 
rich pendant raceroes, and is most tempting to children. The 
young shoots, which are tender and succulent, Teaembling aspara- 
gus in appearance and taste, are eaten by catile and sheep. Robust 
cattle habituated to its use do not seem to be affected ; but animals 
suddenly making a large raeal of it alter long fasting, or afler long 
feeding on drier or less palatable materials, or after exhaustion by 
iiard labour, hot dry weather, or a foiiguing sea-voyage, are sure 
to suffer from its use. It oauaes vertigo, stupor, delirium, and con- 
vulsions, curious staggerings and gyrations, frantic kicking and 
racing or coursing, and tremors. Id man the symptouis are oomai 
with or without delirium, sometimes great muscular excitement or 
•convulsions. Daring convalescence there is loss of memory , with 
or without vertigo. Dr. Lindsay states that in many cases of 
loss of cattle by individoal settlers, the amount of loss from 
toot-poisoning alone had been from twenty-five to seventy-five per 

The destructive plant in question is named Coriaria Tutv, 
.Lindsay. It is C nuei/oHa of Linnnus, C. tarmenlota, Forst., 
-elc, names (o which the author objects aa inapplicable. The 
whole genua needs revision ; most of the species are more or less 
■poisonous. The New Zealand settlers owe a debt of gratitude to 
Dr. Lindsay for the Ironble he has taken lo investigate the Toot 
.poison. 

20. The Cbinesb Grbih Dye. — From a report of the Agri- 
Uorticultnral Society of the Punjab, just received from L. A. 

-Stapley, Esq., it appears that that inatitulion is in a thriving 
And active condition. At the Society's meeting on 22nd July, 
J889, plants of A&omniMtifiJi's, which yields the celebrated Chinese 
■green dye, were shown. It was resolved, with reference to the 
iatnlity with which this plant appears to be propagated in the 



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to THE OANADIAN NATURALIST. [Feb. 

Paojab, and to the great adTiaability of obtaining fatisractory 
infonnatioD as to the second species of Rhamnut, necessary 
to Ihecomplete adaptation of the formerplant to ihe parposes of 
dyeing as practiswl in China, that an application be made 
tiirongh the Punjab government, toobtain from the British Con- 
sniar authorities in China, farther and authentic particnlars (also- 
seeds) of the several species of Rhamniu, without which the dye 
cannot be prepared, as shown in the papers translated for tbft 
Agri-Horticultural Society of Indis by Mr. Cope, and published 
in theirjoamal. It is remarked with aattafaction that the aeed- 
linga before the meeting are the produce of seeds from plants 
grown in the Society's Badamee Garden. 

21. Lakh Dte. — In the snme report, D. F. McLecd, Esq, 
calls attention to the valaable insect produciog this lakh and lakh 
dye of commerce. He states that it is indigenous to varions 
parlaofthePunjab, esptoially to the N. W. extretnitf oftheBaree 
Doab, zillah Goordaspoor, and the S. W. parts of the Kangra 
zillah. There is some reason to believe that, at one time, the insect 
covered a larger space tlian it now occupies. There is a popnlar 
rumor that the Sikh government derived a revenue of one lakh 
of mpees from the farm of the exclusive privilege to gather the lakh ; 
but this is probably an exaggeration. The subject is however one 
full of interest, and shonld draw the special attention of the Society. 
In tbc central provinces, where the insect exisla in i^eat abandance, 
it is propagated by artificial means, and grafted as it were on the 
tre3. It feeds ohieHy, down there, on the Dhak (Batea frondota) ; 
but in the Punjab it is exclusively found on the Ber (WtamiiMa 
jiijuba). Two years ago Mr. McLeod had observed the insect to 
be spreading on Ber trees and bushes in his neighborhood. This 
year (1868) the insect has shown itself in large quantities, con- 
siderable enough to make it worth the notice of parties to pur- 
chase the right to cut the branches on which the insects are (bnnd- 
Reference to the exports of Bengal show that thousands of raaands 
are sent to Europe, either as lakh or dye, and its preparation is car- 
ried on >n large establish men te. The lower province insectfeeda 
chiefly on the Dhak. Why ehoold experiments not be made for 
grafting it on this tree, of which whole forests exist t His High- 
ness the Rnjab of Knpoorthutia haa devoted some attention to the 
subject, and introduced the insect from Oudh into his Dhak for- 
est lands near Phugwara. Experiments are likewise in progress 



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1864.] LAWSOS'S BOTANICAL NOTES. II 

in Ibe Punjab in rniging silk and hopf. Wild mnshrooma ar& 
aboadant in the rains atSbabpoor; of whicb, according to Dr. Q^ 
Henderson, tliere are two edible sorla, — one globular, and (he 
Other eiBctly like an English mushroom. 

22. Ihfbovxhbht or Cotton in iNniA. — Dr. Henderson 
reports that his experiments with the finer kinds of cotton, of 
<vhicb seeds have been imported, have been very auccesBfii). His 
remarks throw a welcome light npon the present aspect of cotton 
culture in India. He says that the cotton seed sent to bim was 
sown in April, and sncoeeded wonderfully : many of the plants are 
over three feet high, and six feet in circumference round the bn^h. 
Some sea-island cotton sown a few days before has been giving 
an early crop for some time. The New Orleans seemed to thrive 
best : it has been in flower for a few days. The reason of the sea- 
island giving an early crop is believed to bo that after fre- 
quent and regular watering, it was passed over once or twice,. 
and the check tbus caused during the hot winds made it flower. 
An early crop might in this way be got from all second year's 
planis before the rains come on, if it would not weaken th& 
plants too much. Dr. E. visited some wells where Egyptian seed 
bad been distributed, and found that very little had germinated, 
and also that the plants were mixed with natire cotton. The 
Zeroinders say what is very true, that they cannot afibrd to try 
experiments: they know exaotly the valne of country cotton, 
but bad no experience of the American sorts. It seems that 
the best mode of securing a fair trial of Amerionn cotton by the 
Zemindera would be for government or local coramiltees lo 
adopt the same method as Mr. Wightman does, — to supply seed 
known to be good, to stipulate for its being sown in a particular 
way, and to guarantee a certain amount per bcegah, so that if the 
crop failed, the Zeminder would not lose by it If in each district 
eight or ten beegahs were thus grown, the natives would be able 
to judge for themselves as to the advantage of growing foreign 
cotton. Dr. H. sowed some New Orleans seed near a road 
leading to the Cntohery, and, as expected, the Zeminders often 
came to look at the plants, and asked qneslions about the new 
cotton. 

28. Ihdiak BAuBooe. — ^ESbrls are being made to extend 
tbe growth of the bamboo as widely as possible throughout the 
Punjab. The kinds of whicb seeds are being collected for dis- 
tributJon are these : 



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12 THB CAHADIAN NATDEALI8T. [Feb. 

1. The hollow bamboo of th« plaine. 

2. Solid bamboo of the lower bills, of which spear handles and 
iclnbg are nsiiallT made. 

S. The Nirgali, or small bamboo of the hilU, growiog at ele* 
vationa from S,000 to 8,000 feet. 

4. The Garroo, or still smaller hilt bamboo, growing at higher 
elevations, probably np to 12,000 feet. 

Enquiries have been set on foot to ascertain, if possible, from 
ihe people, the intervals which elapse between the seawos of flower- 
ing of the several varieties, a point on which the more observant 
ought to be able readily to furnish information; as afler flowering 
and yielding seed, the entire tract of bamboo which has seeded 
simultaneously dries op and perishes, fresh plantations springing 
up irom the seeds which have been scattered by the old stock. 

24, Box WOOD ASD OlIVK wood fob THB EKQtlAVBR. — The 

following remarlca by Dr. Cl^horn, the chief botanist in India, 
aco^mpanied samples of wood-engraving received from Dr. 
Hunter of the Madras School of Arts : — 

" Some months ago I sent small logs of box and olive from 
Kooloo, and, as you perceive, both of these woods answer well for 
engraving. Tbey show that the wood cats smoothly, and has 
working qualities adapted for the graver to print from. 

" The enclosed twig of box {Biixits lemptrvirent) is taken fi^m 
R tree in Mr. McLeod's arborelwn at Dbarrasalln, a spot well wor- , 
thy of a vinit, containing many introduced Himalayan trees of 
.great interest, as well as many Earopean firuit-treee adapted to 
this hill station. It is perhaps the only collection of indigenous 
Alpine trees in the Punjab ; the nearest approach to it being that 
«f Mr. Berkeley at Kotghur. I hope the day is not far distant 
when the Punjab Agri-Horti cultural Society may have a Hill 
garden affiliated with it, at one of the Sanitaria of the province- 

" The Himalayan box appears to be identical with the tree com- 
jnon all over sonthern Europe, from Gibraltar to Constantinople, 
^nd extending into Persia. It is found chiefly in valleys at an eleva- 
tion of from 3,000 to 6,000 feet I have met with it from Mount 
Tira near Jhelum, to Wangtu Bridge on the SuUeJ- It is variable 
in size, being generally seven to eight feet high, and the stem only 
•A few inches thick, but attaining sometimes a hei;;bt of fifteen to 
eeventeen feet, as at Mannikarn in Kullu, and a girth of Iwenty-two 
inches as a maximum. Tlie wood of the smaller trees is often ihe 



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1864.] i^wson's botanical notes. 13 

best for the tanier and the wood-engraver. It is made by the vil- 
lagers into liitle boxes for holding ghee, honey, anuff, and tinder. 
At the medical storea in Sealkote it is turned into pill-boxes ; uui 
it appears to be adapted for plugs, trenails, and wedges. The 
wood is very heavy, and does not float; it is liable to split in th» 
hot weather, and should be seasoned, and then stored under cover. 

" The Olive Zaito&n, which has also been tolled for wood- 
engraving at the Madras School of Arta, is aaother plant of the' 
Mediterranean Flora which range from the coast of the Lerant to 
the Himalaya. It varies a good deal in the shape of its leaves and 
in the amount of ferrugineacence ; hence the synonyms cutpxdata 
aod /emtgXTiBa : hat it does not appear to differ specifically from 
the Olea Europea of the Mount of Olives, — ihe emblem of peace- 
and plenty. The finest specimens I have seen are in the Kaghan 
and Peshawar valleys, where the fruit resembles that of rooky 
utea in Palestine or Gibraltar. The wood is much used for combs 
and bead&, and b found to answer for the teeth of wheels at th& 
Madhopore workshops." 

25. Nettle Fibre. — It is perhaps not generally known in 
Canada that the exquiutely beautiful fibre known as China grasB- 
cloth, and so much in favor for the beet kinds of ladies' hand- 
kerchiefs, is obtained from an Indian nettle. No doubt the Amer- 
ican Urtica. gi-aeilit, which g^ows abundantly about the Falls of- 
Nii^ra and elsewbere in Canada, might be turned to good 
account, were our Agricultural Associations to direct atten* 
tion that way. Dr. Cleghom tells us that the Urtica ketero- 
phfflla (the species cultivated by Mr. Mclver at Ootakamund) is 
plentiful in Simla, having followed man to the summit of Jako, 
attracted by moistare to an elevation nnusual for any member of 
the family. It is foand within the stations of Dalhousie and 
Dharmsalla, and at many intermediate points. The quantity is 
surprising, wherever the soil hai become enriohed by the 
encamping of cattle. The growth at this season also is luxnrtant 
in shady ravines near houses, where there is abundance of black 
monld ; but the sting being virulent, the plants are habitually cut 
down as a nuisance, both by private persons and municipal com- 
mittees. 

There are other plants of the nettle tribe, particularly Bohmeria 
talici/olia, " sibaru," used for making ropes (to which attention 
has been directed by Dr. Jameson). This plantdoes not sting, and 
ie abundant at low elevationa. 



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14 THB OAHADIAN NATURALIST. [Feb. 

Large prizes were to be given for qnantitiea of the nettie fibres 
to be delivered U Lahore ia October 1863. The fibre brings 
from £16 to £18 sterling per ton in London. 

26. DiATous OF THE SouTH PACIFIC. — Dr. Grevillo has do- 
scribed, wilh exquisite figures, (Trans. Bot. 8oc. Ed.,) numerous 
new epeoiee of diatoms obtained from dredgings in the South 
Pacific. There are two now genera, viz. : StietodetmU, Qnv., and 
Gmphalojait, Grev, and thirty-one new species. 

Halifax, N. S. Jan. 1, 1864. 

(To bi ConHautd.) 



■CAVE IN LIMESTONE NEAR MONTREAL. 
Bi H. G. TiNMoa. 

Under a similar heading to the above, this caveisnoticed in the 
Canadian Naturalist and Geologist, Vol. Ill, page 192. To that 
article we would refer those interested, for the exact position of 
this cave. The party or parties, who then visited this nurioeity — 
if I may so call it— found it filled with several feet of water, and 
were unable to give it any satiifactory eiftminalion. On the 11th 
'of November last I visited the cave, and had no difficulty 
whatever in finding it. Of late years, the entrance has been 
«onBidcrably enlarged. Formerly, the opening was situated be- 
tween the roots of a tree, which is yet standing in the vicinity; but 
some time since, the earth was slightly cut away, exposing the 
■Burfaceoftherock, and greatly enlarging the means of access to this 
cavern. From the outside, the limestone has a very roaty and 
weather-worn appearance, and is of a shaly texture. The whole 
snrface is filled with the fossil shells and corals peculiar to the 
Trenton limestone. The month of the caves is aboui four feet high, 
by six feet in width. On entering, I was agreeably surprised to find 
that the water had entirely subsided into a narrow well, or fissnre 
in the floor, some twenty feet distant from the mouth of the cave. 
Standing by this well, the room was about thirteen feet high by 
eight feet in width. Tlie walls jutted out irregularly on either 
«ide, but gave the average width of eight feet. The ceiling was 
also of limeatone rock, and coated over with stalsctitio car- 
bonate of lime, from which hung a few small Stalactites. In the 



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1864.] GAVE NKAB HONTBSAL. 1& 

sides of the cbamber were numeroua deep fissures, hardly laige 
«nough to admit an arm, and lined viiii tbe same mineral. 

In these fissures could be seen very perfectly the formation of 
satitlactites and Blalagmites, — (he former meeting tbe latter half 
vay. Some of the stalactites were of a beautiful needle-like 
shape, and abont four or fire inches long. These we could not 
procure, as they were beyond our reacb ; but they may be plainly 
seen by holding a candle in tbe crevice. Before passing farther 
into the cave, let us for a moment examine the well. It is affirm- 
«d by the people in tbe neighborhood that no bottom has yet 
been found to it. But on questioning them, wo found that their 
bottomless measure was twQ pairs of reins tied together. It is 
however a difficult depth to measure, as it runs down very irregu- 
larly, and at angles. The water is clear, and very cold, and has a 
strange greasy loach. It is surprising to see its transparency, 
when it has this thick and oily touoh ; it yet remains to deter- 
mine whether this well is fed by springe, or by the drippings from 
the roof of the cavern- Leaving the well, we push on, and after 
ascending a few feet, come to two passages, one leading to the 
right, the other to the lefl. The entrance to (he one on the 
right is about two feet square, anj leads into a small room or 
passage running into the rock. This passage is about thirty feet 
long, and two or three broad, ending in a narrow fissure which 
seems to run deep into the limestone. Thia fissure is too small for 
one to enter with any comfort, though I believe it widens some 
few feet farther in. Turning with difficulty, we retraced our 
stepe, and came before the passage running to the left. 

This at the entrance was two feet high and sik feet wide ; but 
on entering, we found ourselves in a small room, abont eight feet 
high, and six wide. At its extremity another fissure ran down 
into the rock, which looked as if it bad at one time tteen a pretty 
large passage. Indeed, so shaly and loose are these rocks, that 
by the action of water and the frosts, this cave may be, ere long, 
entirely blocked up. The kabilans state that it was at one lime 
much larger than it is now. In the first, or entrance-chamber, we^ 
found slicking to the roof, and sparkling with moisture, six 
beautiful species of moths : two of these, are now in the Society's 
collection. Tbese moths were snugly ensconced in the cracks 
of the rock; sleeping quietly, until the genial breath of spring 
-snd the songs of returning birds should ronse them again to 



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16 THB OANADIAK NATnBALIST. [Feb. 

their ouMoor employmeDts. Besides moths, bats also had takea 
up their quarters in this chvc, and flew around, sndly di (concerted 
by our intrusion. In the paper alluded to in thebeginning of this 
article, it WAS stated that if tiie water could be pumped out of 
this cave, booes laigbt be found at the bottom. I may just men- 
tion, before concluding this brief description, that the cave is now 
entirely free from water, and that no bones have been found as yet ; 
but a search into and amongst the loo»e soil at the bottom, may" 
be, and I think would be, well worth attempting. 



CONTRIBUTIONS TO LITHOLOGY.* 
Bt T. Sterrt Hdhi-, If .a. F.R.S. ; of the Qeological Surve; Of Cftoada. 

Ihtboddction. 
In a recent paper on The Chemical and Mhivralogieal Rdationt 
of Mctamorphic Rockt (Sill inlan's Journal [2], xxxvi, 2[4),f an 
attempt was made to define the principles which have presided' 
over the formation of sedimentary rock!>, and to explain the nature 
and conditions of their alteration or metamorphism. That paper 
may be considered as to a certaiu extent introductory lo the 
present one, which will oontaio, in the first part, some theore- 
tical considerations which it is conceived should serve as a basis to 
lithologica! studies. In the second part will be giren a few 
definitions which may serve to render raore intelligible the clas- 
sification and nomenuiature of crystalline rocks; while a third 
part will contain the results of the chemical and mineralogical 
examination of some of the eruptive rocks of Canada; and a 
fourth, some examples of local metamorphism. The most of the- 
results appear in the recent published Qeology of Canada. 

I. TaiOBBTIClL HOTTONB. 

I have already, in other places, expressed the opinion that the 
various eruptive rocks have had no other origin than the softening 
and displacement of sedimentary deposits; and have thus their 
source within the lower psrtions of tlie earth's stratified covering, 
and not beneath it. The theory which conceives them to have been. 
derived firom a portion of the interior of the earth still retaining^ 
its supposed primitive condition of igneous fluidity, is in my 
* From SUliman't Journal Tol. ixxvil, pftgs 348. 
n NatuToiiil, Tol. viii, page 19S. 



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18A4.] T. BTERBY HUNT ON LITHOLOGY. 17 

Opinion untenable. It is not here the pl&ce to discnas the more 
or less ingenioos speculations of Phillips, Durocher, and Bansen 
as to the constitution of this supposed fluid ceotre, nor the more 
elaborate hypothesis of Sartoriua von Waltershausen as to the 
Gompoaition and arrangement of the matters in this imaginary 
reservoir of plutooic rooks. The immense variety presented in 
the composition of eruptive masses presents a strong argument 
against the notion that they are derived, as these writers 
have supposed, from two or more zones of molten matter, 
differing in composition and density, and lying everywhere 
beneath the solid omst of the earth ; which, in opposition to the 
views of many modern mathematicians and physicists, the school 
of geologists just referred to regard as a shell of very limited 
thickness. 

The view which I adopt is one the merit of which belongs, 
I believe, to Christian Keferstein, who, in his Natur^etchiehte de» 
£Vd£orperj, published in 1834, maintained that alltheunatratifled 
rocka, from granite to lava, are products of the transformation 
of sedimentary strata, in part very recent ; and that there is no 
well-defined line to be drawn between neptuuian and volcanic rocka, 
since they pass into each other (vol. i, p. 109.) This viewwaa 
aubeequently, and it would seem, independently brought forward 
in 1836 by Sir John Hereohel, who sought to explain the origin of 
metamorphism and of volcanic phenomeaa by the action of the 
internal heat of the earth upon deeply buried sediments impreg^ 
nated with water. (Proc. Geol. Soo. of London, vol. ii,pp. 648, 698.) 
See also my papers in the Canadian Journal, 1858, p. 206; Quar. 
Jour. Oeol. Soc. 1859, p. 488 ; Can. Naturalist, Dec. I8S9 ; and 
Silliman's Journal [2], vol. xxz, p. 135. 

The presenceofwaterin igneous rocks,and the part which it may 
play in giving liquidity to all volcanic and plntonic rocks, was 
insisted upon byPonletl Scrope, so long ago as 1824, in his Con- 
lideratUMi on Volcanoet. (See also Quar. Joac. Qeol. Soc London, 
xii, 341r) This view has since been ably supported by Scheerer in 
his discuseion with Durocher. (Bui. Soc. Geol. France [2], iv, 468, 
'1018 ; vi, 644 ; vii, 276 ; viii, 500.) Soe also Elie de Beaumont, 
ibid., iv, 1312. Tbeadmirable investigations of Sorby on the micro- 
Bcopic structure of crystals (Quar. Jour, Geol. Soc., liv, 463) 
have since demonstrated that water has intervened in the orystalli- 
lation of almost all plntonic rocks. He has^own that llie quartz 

TOL, L B »«. 1. 



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18 TBI OANASIAN NATDKALIBT. [Feb. 

both ofgronitet and crjrstalliDe schists oonlaiiiB great nnmben 
of amall oavities partially filled with water, or with conoentrated 
aqnoons solutions of chlorids and snlpbates of potaasium, sodium, 
oaloium, and magnesium, sometimes with free hydrochloric acid- 
Similar flaid-carities were found by him in most crystals 
artificially formed in aqueous eolations ; and were also obaerred in 
the minerals from the - limestones of VesaTius, where they occur 
in nepheline, idocrase, hornblende, and feldspar ; the liquid in the 
latter oiyslals containing, besides cblorids and sulphates, alkaline 
carbanatea. Mr. Sorby has also described the cavities filled with 
vitreous and with stony matters which he has observed in quartzi 
in the feldspar of pitohstones, in anf^ite, leodte, and nepheline ; 
and which are sometimes found associated with fluid-cavities In the 
same mineral. As these fluid-cavities enclosed the liquid at an ele- 
vated temperatnre, iU subsequent cooling has produced a partial 
vacuum, which ts again filled on heating the crystal ; so that the 
temperature of the crystals at the time of their formation may be 
approximatively determined. Mr. Sorby concludes that every 
pecnliarity in the structure of the quartz of the veins in Corn- 
wall, " may be most completely explained by supposing that this 
mineral was deposited from water holding varions salts and acids 
in solution, at temperatures varying from 200° C. to a dull 
red heat vidble in the dark " (about 940° C). At this highest 
temperature he conceives that other minerals, such as mica, feldspar, 
and tinstone were deposited ; the latter mineral containingnnmerous 
small fiuid-cavities. In like manner, he deduces from the fiuid- 
oavitieain the Vesuvian mineralajast noticed, a temperature of from 
360°tc36O°C. The presenoeat thesametimeof bubblesorvapor- 
cavities, and of glass and stone cavities in these crystals shows 
them to have been formed "at a dull red heat under a pressure 
equal to several thousand feet of rook, when water containing a 
large quantity of alkaline salts in solution was present, along with 
melted rook, and various gases and vapors, * * * • I therefore 
think that we must conclude provisionally, that ai a great depth 
from the surface, at the foci of volcanic activity, liquid water is 
present along with the melted rocks, and that it produces results 
which would not otherwise occur." (Loc. cit., p. 488.) 

Mr. Sorby has, as we have just seen, determined the temperature 
reqnisite to expand the liquid so as to fill the flnid-oavitie^ pro- 
vided tiiey were formed under a pressure not greater than the elas- 



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1864.] T. BTBRBT HOHT OW LrPHOLOGT. 23 

adjacent broken ulioious strata ; thus asaamiDgfor Bmall diBtances, 
the characters of an introsire rook. For some figures and deeerip- 
tions illnatrating these broken and distorted strata, sse Qeolt^ of 
Canada, pp. 27, 28. We ma^ also allude in this connection to the 
observaliona of Dr. Hitchcock among the altered strata of the Green 
Uonntains, which seem to show that the pebbles of gneiss and of 
quBTtz in certain conglomerate beds have been so softened as to have 
been flattened, laminated, and bent around each other. (Silliman's 
Jonrnal [2], xxxi, 372.) Hence, while the t«ndencjr of the various 
obserrationa above cited is in bvor of the indigenous character 
of many rooks hitherto regarded asemptive, we have at the same 
time evidence that these rocks are occasionally displaced. We 
should not therefore on (^priori grounds reject the assertion that 
any metamorphto sediment may sometimes occur in an exotic 
or intrusive form. A given rock, like limestone or diorite, may 
occur both as an indigenous and exotic rock ; and different por- 
tions of the same mass may be seen bydiSerent observers under such 
unlike conditions that one may r^^rd it as indigenous, and the 
other, with equal reason, may set it down as intrusive. It is evi. 
dent then that to the Uthologist, who examines locks without 
reference to their geological relations, the question of the exotic or 
indigenous character of a given rock is, in most cases, one alto- 
gether foreign; and onewhioh can frequently be decided only by 
the geologist in the field. Hence, although generallymade afiin- 
damental distjnotion in classification, it will be disr^arded in the 
following sketch of the numenclatore of crystalline rocks. 

I may here allude to a fact which I have already noticed, and tried 
to explain, (Silliman's Journal [2], xizi, 414, and xxxvi, 220, note,) 
that thronghont the great metamorphic belt which constitutes the 
Appalachian chain, exotic rocka are comparatively rare (at least 
in New England and Canada) i hut abound, on thecontrary, among 
die unaltered strata on either side. IllnstrationB of this are seen 
in the valley of Lake Champlain, and in its northward continua- 
tion toward Montreal, in those of the Hudson and Connecticut, 
and in the northeastward condnnation of the latter valley by Lake 
Memphram^g to the Bay of Chalenrs, which is marked through- 
out by intrusive granites. In accordance with the reasons already 
assigned for ihis distribution of exotic rocka, it is probable that a 
similar condition of things will be found to exist in other r^ouB ; 
and that eruptive rocks will, aa a general rule, befound among 



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24 THE OANASUN NATUBALIST. [Feb. 

unaltered, rather tlian among metamorphic strata. It ie of course 
poB^ble that a crjetallization of the Bediments ma^ in some caws 
take place aubseciuent to the eruption of foreign rocks into their 
midst. The rarity of iatrasive rocks among orystalline strata, 
sot less than the unaltered condition of sedimeuts which are tra- 
■versed by abundant intruBive masses, is a strong proof of the fal- 
lacy of the still generally received notion which connects meta- 
jDorphism with the contigaity of eruptive rocks. 

II. Olabbitioatioh 1.110 HouHotiATtru. 

itis proposed in this second part, to describe briefly the com- 
position, structure, and uomenciatnre of the various crvstailine 
Bilicated rocks, considered without reference to the distinction be- 
tween indigenous and intrusive masses. Comparatively few of 
these rocks are homogeneouB, orconsiat of a single mineral species, 
and the names which have been applied to varying mixtures of 
different species are of course arbitrary ; and as they have 
ofien been given without any previous mineralogical study, it some- 
times happens, thai, as in the case of the rocks composed of 
anortbic feldspars and pyroxene, different names have been pro- 
posed for varieties very closely related, or differing from one 
another only in texture or in structure. 

The minerals essential to the compo^itioD of the rocks under 
consideration are few in number, and are as follows: quartz, or- 
thoclase; a triclinic feldspar which may be albite, oligodase, 
andesine, labradorite, or anorthite ; scapolite, leucite, nepheline, 
sodalite ; natrolite, or some allied zeolite ; iolite, garnet, epidote, 
wollastonite, hornblende, pyroxene, olivine, chloiitoid, serpentine, 
diallage ; muscovite, pblogopite, and some other micas ; chlorite, 
and talc. To these mn; be added as accidental ingredients, the car- 
bonates of lime, magQeaia, and protoxyd of iron, together witli 
magnetite, ilmenite, and sphene. The silicates which, like tourma- 
line, beryl, zircon, sp3dnmene, ami lepidolite, contain considerable 
portions of the rarer elements, and olten occur with quartz and 
feldspar in granitic veins, whoie origin has already been alluded 
to, enter at most in very small quantity into great rock-masses. 

The varieties of structure in crystalline rocks are the more 
deserving of notice as they have led to a great multiplication of 
names. We may note first the granitoid structure, in which the 
mineral elements are distinctly crystalline, a« in granite. From 



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1864.] T. BTEBBT HUNT OB IJTHOLoaT. 21 

indigenous rocks, or sediments altered in Htu, and exotic rooke, or 
'Sediments displaced and translated, forming eruptive andintrusive 
msBses. Under the head of exotic rocks is however to be included 
another class of crystalline aggregates, which are for the most 
part distinguished by their structure from injected or intrueive 
masses. I refer to the accumulations which fill mineral veins, and 
which doubtless have beeu deposited from aqneous eolations- 
While their peculiar arrangement, with the predominance of 
quartz and non-silicated species, generally serves to distinguish 
the contents of these veins from those of injected plutonio rocks, 
there are not wanting cases in which the predominance of feld- 
spar and mica gives rise to aggregates which have a certain 
resemblance to dykes of intrusive granite. From these however, 
true veins are generally distinguished by the presence of miner- 
als containing boron, fluorine, phosphorus, ctesium, rubidium, lith- 
ium, glucinum, zirconium, tin, colnmbium,.eto. ; elements which 
are rare, or found only in minute quantities in the great mass of 
sediments, but are here accnmulated by deposition &om waters, 
which have removed these elements from the sedimentary rocks, 
and deposited them subsequently in fissures. 

No one at the present day will probably be found to deny the 
plutonic origin of most non-stratified rocks, so that the once vexed 
qnesUons of the neptunists and plutonists may be regarded as set- 
tled. If however we go back but a few years in the history of 
geol(^,it will be found that an eruptive origin was then claimed 
for many rocks which are now admitted to be indigenous. It is 
scarcely necessary to refer to the views of those who have main- 
tained the exotic character of many qoartzites and crystalline 
limestones, when a majority of writers, even to the present day, 
class serpentines, eupbotides, and hyperites among eruptive rocks; 
although the experience of every field-geologist is accumulating, 
fromyear toyear, agreatmasa of evidence in &vor of the indige- 
nous nature of all these rocks. The sedimentary and indige. 
nona character of very many granites, syenites, and diorites will 
now no longer be questioned. Thus we find, for example, that 
the melap'jyres of the Tyrol, which, in Yon Buch's too-famous 
theory ot dolomitization, were supposed to have been erupted to- 
gether with magnesian vapors which effected the alteration of 
the adjacent limestones, have been shoirn by Fournet to be sedi- 
ments of Carboniferous age, metamorphosed in sita, — indigenous 



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22 THE OAHADIAN NATDBALIST. [Fe1>. 

rooks, which were altered before the Juraasic dolomiteB were <!e- 
powted. {BuL Soc Geol. France [2], vi, 506-616). In like manner 
we find Scipion Oraa conclnding from his researches tfn the 
anthraoitic rocks of the A.lps, that the serpentines, cnphotidee, poi^ 
phyries, and spilites, which are there fonnd associated with crys- 
taltine schists, are all of sedimentary origin, hot have been to pro- 
foundly altered in situ as to bare lost nearly all traces of sedimen- 
tary origin. (Ann. des Mines [S], v, ilB.) We might add that 
the tendency of recent investigationB has been to show that the 
protogines, or granites of the summit of the Alps, are Tertiary strata 
altered in place ; thus confirming the bold assertion made by Kef- 
erstein in 1834, that these granites are altered strata of yiyicA. 
(This Journal [2], xxix, 123, 124.) Lesley's recent investigations 
of the granites of the White Mountains of New Hampshire, show 
them to be clearly stratified sedimentary deposits in nearly hori- 
zontal layers. (American Mining Joarnsl, 1861,page99; Silliman's 
Joqmal [2], iwi, 403.) The ophites (amphibolites) of the Pyre- 
nees, which by Dafrenoy and other French geologists have been 
regarded as eruptive, and were by the former imagined to be in 
some mysterious manner related to the rock-salt and gypsum of 
the r^on, which he snpposed to be, like the ophites, of posterior 
origin to the enclosing strata (Eiplic. de la Carte Geol. de France, 
i, 96), are according to a recent note by Virlet, not emptive, but 
altered indigenous rocks; belonging, together with the associated 
gypsum and aaliferous strata, to the Triassic series. (Comptee 
Eendus de I' Acad., Aug. 1863, p. 232). 

It wonld be easy to multiply examples of this kind, which show 
that a careful study of very many of the crystalline rocks hitherto 
regarded as ernptive, leads to the conclusion that they are really 
iadigenons rocks. At the same lime, many of these indigenous 
rocks appear to have been at one time in a soil semi-fluid con- 
dition, which permitted movements obliterating the marks of 
sedimentary origin, and producing other results which show the 
passage into eruptive rocks. Thus the crystalline liniestones of 
the Laurentian series in Canada are freijuently interstratified with 
thin beds of gneiss and quartzite, both of which are often found 
broken, contorted, xnd even twisted spirally, in a manner wUch 
indicates great flexibility of the silicious layers, as well as violent 
movements in the calcareous rock. The latter is in some cases 
found in the form of thin seams or considerable dykes among the 



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1864.] T. STXOBT HUNT OM LITHOLOQT. 19 

tic force of the vapor. This ofcourBeiepre&ants the lowest temper- 
atnre at which the consolidation could have taken place, and 
varies from 340" to 380" in the VesOvian minerals, and 368** 
in the quartz of the trachyte of Ponza, to a mean of 216° in the 
Oornish granites, to 99° in those of the Scottish Highlands, and 
«ven descends to 89° in some parts of the granite of Aberdeen. 
But this low temperature is improbable, and inasmncb as water 
and aqueous solutions are compressible, their volume would be 
considerably reduced under a great pressarc of superincumbent 
rock. Mr. Sorby has therefore calcnlated the pressure in feet of 
rock which would be required to compress the liquid so much that 
It wonld just fill the cavities at 300° 0. The uumbara thus ob- 
tained will therefore represent the actual pressure, provided the 
rock was in each case consolidated at that temperature. It would 
thns appear that the trachyte of Fonza was solidified near the sur- 
face, or beneath a pressure of only 4000 feet of rock ; while for the 
Aberdeen granite the pressure was equal to not less than ?8,000 
feet, and for the mean of the Highland granites 16,000. The 
Cornish granites vary from 82,400 to 63,600, aud give as a mean 
50,000 feet of pressure. In this connection Mr. Sorby remarks 
that from Mr. Robert Hunt's observations on the mean increase of 
temperature in the mines of Cornwall, a heat of 360° C. would 
be attained at a depth of 63,G0O feet. 

The observations upon the metamorphio crystalline schists in 
the vicinity of these various granites show that their constituent 
minerals must have crystallized at abont the same tempera- 
ture as the granite itself; affording, as Mr. Sorby observes,'" a 
strong argument in favor of the BQpposition thai the temperature 
concerned in the normal metamorphism of gneissoid rocks was due 
to their haviug been at a sufficiently great depth beneath superin- 
cumbent strata"; and be concludes that with regard to roclra and 
minerals formed at high temperatures, we have " at one end of the 
chiun erupted lavas, indicating as perfect and complete fuNon as 
the slags of furnaces, and at the other end simple qnartz-veins, hav- 
ing a structure precisely analogous to that of crystals deposited 
irom water. Between these there is every connecting link, and 
the central link is granite." When the water, which at great 
-depths was associated with the melted rock, was given ofi* as vapor 
while the mass remained fused, slag-like lavas resulted. If 
however the water conld not escape in vapor, it remained, as we 



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20 THB CANADIAN NATDKALI8T. [Feb. 

bave Men, to take its part in tlie crystal) izatioD, in some cases 
forming bydrated minerals ; and tha excess of it, as Mr. Sorby sug- 
gests, passed np as a highly heated liqnid, holding dissolved 
materiatB, vhich would afterwards be deposited in the form of 
mineral veins in the fissures of snperiDcumbent rocks. 

I have thought it well to give at some length the remarkable 
results and conclusions by Hr, Sorby, because I conceive that they 
have not as yet received the full degree of consideration to which 
they are entitled, and are perhaps little known to some of my 
readers.* The temperature deduced by him from the examination 
of the crystals of horublende and feldspar from Vesutrius is 
curiously supported by the experiments of Daubr^e ; who obtained 
crystallized pyroxene, feldspar, and qnartz, in presence of alkaline 
solutioDE, at a temperatnre of low redness^ while De Senarmont 
crystallized quartz, fluor-spar, and sulphate of barytes in presence 
of water, at temperatures between 200° and 300° C. At the same 
time the depodts from the thermal watera at Flombidres show 
that crystalliue hydrous silicates, such as apopbyllite, harmotomer 
and chabaziLe, have formed at temperatures hnt little above 80° C. 

We concave that the deeply buried sedimentary strata, under 
the combined action of beat and water, have, according to their 
composition, been rendered more or less plastic, and in many cases 
have lost to a greater or less degree tha marks of their sedimen- 
tary origin, although still retmning their original strati graphical 
position. Id other cases they have been displaced, and by pres- 
sure forced among disrupted strata, thus assuming the form of 
eruptive rocks ; which, becoming consolidated under a sufficient 
pressure, retain tha same mineral characters as in the parent beds. 
It is only those rocks which, like lavas, have solidified at or near 
the surface of the earth, and consequently under feeble pressure^ 
which present mineralogical characters dissimilar to those of the 
undisturbed crystalline sediments. With this exception, the 
only distinction which can be drawn between stratified and 
unstratified masses must in most oases be based upon their attitude,. 
and their relation to the adjacent rocks. 

In view of these considerationslhave, in previous papers,adopt- 
ed for geological pui^Knes a divirioD of crystalline rocks into 

* Sw farther tha late observations of Zirkal conGrmlng those of Sorby. 
Proc. Imp. Acad. Tianua, March 13, 1G63 ; in abstract in Qoar. Jonr,. 
0«ol. Soc., vol. xii. 



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1864.] T. 8TXEUIT HUNT OH LITHOLOOT. 29 

] 

ite), natrolite, ioHte, aod magnetite are sometimes fonod as ele- 
ments in granitic, gneissic, and B^enitic rock?. Tfae name of 
miascite is given to a gianitia minatare of orthoclase and black 
mica with elieoiite, eome times with hornblende, al bite, nndi^uartz. 

The etTDCture of these orthosite rocke girea rise also to a great 
variety of names ; thus to coarsely lamellar granites the name of 
pegmatite is sometimes given, while fine-gnu ned mixtures of ortho- 
dase and quartz have received the names of granuli;c, leptinit« 
and earite, or when apparently homogeneous and cryiito-crystat- 
line are called petrosilex. These latter forms often become porphyr- 
itic from the presence of crystals of orthoclase, giving rise to or- 
thoclase-porphyry, or orthophyre. In some of these porphyries, aa 
in those of Grenville, to be described in the third part of this paper, 
quartz is also present in distinct grains or crystals ; while in some 
of the red antique porphyries the feldspathic base contains no 
excess of silica, and occasionally encloses crystals of oligoclaae or 
of hornblende. In many cases the granites, syenites, orthophyresr 
and other ortbosite rocks just mentioned are intmsive; vrhile iu 
other instances, rocks litbo logically indistingaiehable from these are 
indigenous, and becoming schistose pass into gneisa and mioa- 
schist 

The rocks to which the name of trachyte has been given are 
generally composed in great part of orthoclase (sanidine). The 
typical varieties of these rocks are white or of pale colors, granu- 
lar or finely crystalline, and frequently porous or cellular. They 
appear to consist of gr^ns, crystak, or lamellte of orthoclase, aggre- 
gated withont any cementing medinm, and to this seems to be due 
that roughness ta which the rock owesils name. Oligoclaae, qnartzi 
hornblende, and mica are also met with in this rock, which becom- 
ing coarsely granular, passes into granite. Such is tfae case with 
the trachytes of the Sierra of Garthageoa in Spain, described by 
Fournet as passing from a dull rough grayish feldspathic mass, 
into a highly crystalline aggregate of feldspar and mica, with or 
without hyaline quartz, enclosing horoblende, red garnet, and fine 
blue iolite. (Comptes Rendns, iliv, p. 1834.) 

The trachytic texture is not confined to orthosite rocks. Abich 
has described under the name of tracby-dolerites a group of tra- 
chytoid anorthosites (daleritee). The cone of the Soufrifire of 
Gnadaloupe is described by Derille as a rongh granular rock 
having the external characters of trkcbyte, from which it is dis- 



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30 THI OANADUN KAT0EA.LIBT. [Feb. 

tinguished by its somewhat greater density (2'76). It conaists 
essentially of labradorite, with a little qnartz, pyroxene, olirine, 
and magnetite. (Bui. Boc. Geol. de France [2], viii, 426.) Hnm- 
boldt designates the trachy-dolerites of Etna and of the Peak of 
Teneriffe as trachytes (Comptes Bendus, xliv, 1067) ; to that this 
ward, like porphyry, comes to indicate nothing more than a pecn- 
laiity of stmctnre, which may be assumed by varions feldspathio 
rooks. The trachytic ortbosites, as we hare seen, pass into gran- 
ites, ftoia which they do not diSer in chemical composition ; and 
their differences in texture probably depend upon the &ct that the 
one was solidified under great pressure, and the other near the sur- 
ftce, trachytes passing infoot intolavaa. TheobserrationBof Sorby 
on the flnid-caritiea in the crystals of granites and of trachytes 
are in point. 

Among the intrnsiveroeksofOanada tobe described are granitoid, 
compact, and earthy varieUes of trachytic orthosites, besides tra- 
chytic porphyiiea. These rocks often contsin disseminated earthy 
carbonates, sometimes in considerable amount; as Deville had 
alreadyshownforaome of the trachytes of Hungary, and as I have 
also observed for those of the Siebengebirge on the Rhine. Tra- 
(^ytes also hold la some cases disseminated portions of a zeolite, 
apparently natrolite ; and through tlus mixture pass into phono- 
lites, of which a characteristic variety will be noticed in this paper. 
Obsidian and pumice-etone, which are often associated with oitho- 
clase trachytes, are related to them in composition ; and pitchstone 
and perlite are similar rocks, differing however in contuning some 
combined water. Rocks resembling pitchstone, and somedmea 
porphyritic Irom the presence of distinct crystals of feldspar, occar 
in Uie south side of Michipiooten Island, Lake Superior, but have 
not yet been examined. (Aualyaes by Jackson and by Whitney of 
thepitchstoneaof Isle Royale will be found in SilHman's Journal 
[2], xi, 401 ; xvii, 128.) 

The presence of an anorthic feldspar, generally oligodase, in 
many granites and trachytes, not less than the admixture of or- 
thoclase crystals in some of the trachytic do'erites of Etna, serves 
to connect the orthosite with the anortbosite family. Great mssses 
ofindigenonsrock in the Labrador series in Canada, are made up of 
almost pure granular labradorite, or related triclinic feldspars, and 
might be termed|normal anortJiosites. (Silliman's Journal [2], xxxyi, 
224; Oeol. of Canada, 588.) In most cases however, these feld- 



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1B64.] T. STSBET BUNT ON UTHOLOOT. 27 

however be foand that the lioe between the two clasBes cannot 
always be distinctly drawn; inBBintich as rocks containing 
ortfaoclase and qaartz often include triclinic feldspars such as^ 
albite and oligoclase, and by an admixture of hornbleode offer a 
transition to rocks of tbe Becond class. On the other hand, quartz 
is sometimes found with triclinic feldspars and hornblende in 
the rocks of the second class. BoBides these two feldspathio 
classes, there is a third small but interesting group, in whicb an 
aluminous silicate of high specific gravity, snch as garnet^ 
epidote, or zoieite replaces the feldspar wholly or in part Tbeee 
minerals being basic silicates rich in alumina, the relations of 
this group are naturally with those of the second class, although 
varieties of these species are fonnd in rocks whicb belong to tbe 
first class. 

The ulioo-aluminons crystalline rocks may thus be convenient- 
ly divided into three families. The firsk of these includes those 
rocks in which the aluminoaa mineral is orthoclase (ortbose), 
firom which tb'ey may he conveniently designated by the name of 
the OTlhoiite family. The second includes those in which the alu- 
minous element is an anorthio or triclinic feldspar, and may be 
designated as the anorthonte family : chemically related to ibis 
are those rocks holding as one of their elements nepbeline, leuoite, 
oTRcapolite. The third familyincludesthose rocks which cout^n 
an aluminous silicate of high density, as epidote, zoisite, garnet, 
andalnsite, or byanite, in place of a feldspathide. lolite or dich- 
roitc, which enters into tbe composition of some orthosite rocks, 
appears from its atomic volume to be related to the feldspars, and 
ahonld take ita place along-side of anorthite and scapolite as a 
magnesian feldspathide, while beryl in like manner appears to 
be a glucinic feldspathide. 

It is worthy of notice, that some feldspars having the crystalliza- 
tioQ and density of orthoclase, nevertheless contain large proper- 
tionsof soda. The loioclase of Breithaupt appears from the 
analyses'of Smith and Bmsb to be a true aoda-orthoclase (Silliman's 
Joama) [2], ivi, 43) ; while the aanidine or glassy feldspar of 
many trachytes contains potash and soda in nearly equal propor- 
tions. Tbe name of potash-albite hns been given to some 
feldspars of this composition; hat tbe t^achytic rocks here- 
after to be described contain feldspars, which, withont being 
glassy, have the composition of sanidtne, together with a cleavage- 



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28 THE OAHADUH KATTTBALUT. [Feb. 

and specific gravity which ehov them to belong to orthoclaw, rather 
than toalbite. The anorthic feldspars ofier in their compoution enoh 
gradatioDH ftom albite to anorthite, that the varionB intermediate 
apeoiea which have been distinguished seem to paas into each 
Other. (Silliman's Journal [2], xviii, 270, Phil. Mag. [4], ix, 262.) 

Next to the feldspars in lithological importance are the two 
species, pyroxeoe and hornblende. These are sometimes found 
associated in the aame rock, and the varieUee of pyroxene known 
as diallage and smaragdite are frequently earronnded or penetra- 
ted by hornblende. This association of the two species should be 
kept in miad, inasmuch aa the subetitution of pyroxene for horn- 
blende in anortbosltea, has been made the basis of a eabdivision iti 
olasdfication. (Silliman's Joamai [2], Txvii, 339.) Among the micas 
found in eilicated rocks, besides muscoTite and a magaesian mica 
(phlc^opite or hiotite), are to be incliided the hydrated micas 
observed by Haughton in many of the Irish granites. Of these the 
one is margarodite, and the other a uniaxial black mica, also hydra- 
ted, which he has referred to lepidomelane. (Trans. Royal Irish 
Acad., xiiii, 593.) The presence of from four to six hundredths of 
water in the micas ofthose granites is important in conneution with 
the evidence already given of the intervention of water in the for- 
mation of granitic rocks. These t^o hydrous micas were often 
found by Haughton to be united in the same crystal ; and Rose has 
remarked a similar association of potash-mica and magaosian mica 
in certain granites. (Senl^ die Felaartcn, p. 206.) 

A scienliSc nomenclature for compound rocks presents such 
great difficulties that we must be content for the most part with 
trivial names whiiji have from time to time imposed. In the case 
of simple rocks, the terms quartzite, pyroxeDite,aDorthosite, and o^ 
thoolasite are sufficiently de&nite, or they may be farther charac- 
terized aa normal orthoclasite, etc ; while quartzoae, micaceous, 
and quartzo-micaceo-hornblendic ortboclasite would designate 
various compound rocks of which ortboclase is the base. Such 
namea, however doBcriptivc, will never replace the older terms 
granite, syenite, etc., which are employed to designate certain 
forms of orthosite rocks. The frequent aBiOciation of a triclinic 
feldspar (oligoclase) with ortboclase in groaite rocks, and the par- 
tial or total replacement of the micas generally preseet in these, by 
hornblende, by chlorite, or by talc, giving rise in the latter case 
to what is called protogine, are well kaowu. Nepheliae (elieo- 



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1861.] T. STEKRT STMT ON LITHOLoaT. 25 

this, tbere U a gradual paaaage throngli granalar into compact 
Tarietiee of rock. Most of these are simply finely granular, and 
are rightly entitled to the distinotion of crypto -crystalline ; but 
otiiera, like the pitchstones, obsidians, and lavas, are apparently 
amoTphoas, and are natural glaeses. Id some cases the constitnent 
mioeraU may be so arranged as to give a schistose or a goeissoid 
form to a rock. This arrangement is generally to be looked apon as 
an eridencc of stratification ; but eomething similar is occasionally 
•observed in eruptive masses. In the latter ca^ it generally 
Beems to arise from the arrangement of crystals during the 
movement of the half-liquid crystalline mass ; but it may in some 
instances arise from the subsequent formation of crystals arranged 
in parallel planes. 

See on this point Naomann On the Probable Smptive Origin 0/ 
Several Kindt of Oneitt, etc. ; Leonhard and Bronn, Neues Jahr. 
bach for 1847, and Poulett Serope, Geol. Journal, xii, 345. I 
consider however that their views are to be adopted with great re- 
serve, and admitted only in a very few cases. The ribbanded struc- 
ture of some porphyries and clinkstones, as noticed by Serope, is 
undoubtedly the result of movements in the liquid mass, and the 
same is true of some of the granitoid dolerites to be described in 
the third part of this paper ; but the eruptive origin assumed by 
Darwin, Naumann, and some others for great areas of gneiss and 
gneiasoid granite, seems to a student of the crystalline rocks of this 
continent utterly untenable. As has been already remarked, the 
progress of each year's investigation restores to the category of 
indigenous rocks many of those previously regarded as eruptive, 
and will, I am convinced, cenfirra the principle which I have Itud 
down of the comparative rarity of exotic rocks in crystalline 
«nd in metamorphic regions. 

Occasionally the crystallization of a rock takes places around cer- 
tain centres, giving rise to rounded masses which have a radiated or 
a concentric structure, and constitute the so-calledglobularor orbi- 
cular rocks. Distinct crystals of some mioeral, generally feld- 
spar, augite, or olivine, are often found imbedded in rocks having a 
compact bate. To such rocks the name of porphyry is given, and 
by analogy a rock with a granular base enclosing distinct crystals 
aedeaignated as porphyritic or porphyroid. Amorphous or vitreous 
rocks, as pitchstones, are in like manner sometimes porphyritic- 
The name of porphyry, at first given to a peculiar type of feld- 



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26 THE CANADIAN MATUBALIST. [Feb- 

spathic rocb>, has now become bo extended [hat it is to be ragarded 
as only indicating an accident of strncture. Tlie title of amyg- 
daloid is given to various rocks having roanded cavities whioh are 
wholly or partially filled with varions crystalline minerals. The 
base of these rocks is generally granular or crypto-CTystalline ; 
but IB sometimes amorphous, resembling a scoria or vesionlar 
lava, the cavities of which have been filled by infiltration. Such is 
doubtlees the origin of Bome amygdaloids. In more cases how- 
ever these cavities have probably been formed like those often 
found in dolomites, and in some other rocks, by a contraction daring 
solidification. Forphyroid rocks, in which quartz, orUiocIase, and 
other minerals are arranged in orbicular masses, are also sometimes- 
designated as amygdaloids, and may be confounded with the 
two previoos classes in which the imbedded minerals are the resnlt 
of subsequent infiltration. Allied in stmcure and origin to the- 
last are what are named variolites or variolitic rocks. (See 
Geology of Canada, pp. 606, 607.) 

The masses into which some aluminous minerals enter as a 
prominent element constitute by far the greater part of the rock^ 
now under consideration. These are naturally divided into two 
classes, whose origin we hav e pointed out in a recent paper already 
referred to. (Sillimarfs Journal [2], xxxvi, 218.) The first of these is- 
characterized by containing an excess of silica, with aportion of alu- 
mina, much potash, and small portionsonlyof lime, magnesia, and 
oxyd of iron. The second class contains a smaller amount of silica, 
and laiger proportions of alumina, lime, magnesia, and ozyd of iroDr 
with eoda, and but litUe potash. These chemical difierencea are 
made apparent In the more coarsely crystalline rocks, by the nature 
of the constituent minerals ; and in the compact varieties, by differ- 
ences in color, specific gravity, and hardaess. Thns in the rocks of 
the first class the predominant mineral is orthoclase, generally asso- 
ciated with quartz, and the composite rocks of this class seldom 
have adensitymnch above that of these species; or from 2.6 to 2.1.. 
In the second class, the characteristic mineral is a triclinic feldspar, 
with pyroxene or hornblende, the feldspar sometimes predominant ; 
while in other cases the pyroiena or hornblende makes np the- 
principal part of the rock. The presence of these latter minerals 
generally gives to the fine-grained rocks of this class a dark color,, 
a hardness somewhat inferior to the more silicious class, and a 
denuty which may vary from 2.7 to more than 3.0. It will 



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1864.] T. 8TKKBT HXmT ON LITHOLOaT. 31 

Bp&n are intenningled with some other mineral, commoaly horn- 
blende or pyrozene. 

The name of dlorite is by good authoritieB restricted to rocks 
-whose predominant elemenU are tricliDio feldspars with horobloDde ; 
while the aamea of diabase and dolerite distinguish those rocks in 
which pyroxene takes the place of hornblende. In some anortho- 
ule rocks however, pyroxene and hornblende are intimately 
associated, so that a passage is established from diorite to dia- 
base. The feldspar of diorites varies in composition from albite to 
■anorthite, and ia occasiooalty accompanied by quaru. This, 
though most frequent with the more silidous feldspars, is some- 
times met with in diorites which contain feldspars approaching to 
anortbite in composition. Sometimes the two oonstJtaent minerals 
are distanct and wall crystallized, constituting a granitoid rock : 
fine examplee of this, hereafter to be described, occur in the intru- 
sive hills of Yamaskft and Mount Johnson. At other times the 
diorite is finely granular or compact, when its color is generally 
of a green more or leas dark &om the disseminated hornblende, 
aod it takes tbe name of greenstone. The greenstones of the 
Hnronian series are in part at least dioritea, and probably iadige- 
nons; bnt a great number of the so-called greenstone-traps are 
pyroienic, and belong to the class of diabase or dolerite. Diorite 
not nnfreqnently contains a mica, which ia generally brown or black 
in color. Chlorite, magnctjte, ilmenite, and sphene often occur as 
disseminated minerals, as also carbonates of lime, magnesia, and 
oxyd of iron. The fine^gr^ned diorites are frequently porphy- 
ritic from the presence of crystals of feldspar or of hornblende. 
Occasionally this rock is concretionary in its structure, as in the 
orbicular diorite or napoleonite of Corsica; which contains a 
feldspar allied to anorthite, with hornblende, and some quartz. 
The Dorite from Sweden is a granular mixture of a similar kind, 
.containing also mica ; and the ophite of some writers is a diorite 
in which hornblende greatly predominates. 

The rocks which are essentially composed of anorthio feldspar 
and pyroxene, present still greater diversities than the diorites, and 
have received various names based npon differences in texture and 
in the form of the pyroxenic element It is here proposed to re- 
strict the name of dolerite to such of these rocks as contain the 
^lack angitic variety of pyroxene, and to inclnde the mixtures of 
triclinio feldspars with all the other varieties of this species under 



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32 THZ OANADUn MATDRALIST. [Feb> 

the head of diabase. The finer-gruned aad impalpable varieties 
of diabase have received the name of aphanite ; which is often india- 
tjnguiahable fh)ra thecorreapoiiding forms of diorite, and like these 
may become porphyritic, giving rise to the augite-porpbj'ry of some 
anthers. Different varieties of this porphyry have received the 
name of labradophyre, oligophyre, and albitophyre, according to 
the composition of the imbedded feldspar crystals. These are 
sometimes accompanied by crystals of augite, or are altogether 
replaced by them. 

The name of hyperite or hyperathenite has been given to those 
varieties of diabase which contain hypersthenc or diall^e. These 
rocks occur abundantly in the Labrador series, where the hypers- 
thene in them sometimes takes the form of a green diallage, or 
passes into a finely granular pyroxene, and is associated with red 
garnet, ilmenite, and a little brown mica; in addi^on to which 
epidote is add to occur in the byperites of the same series in 
New York, and olivine is mentioned as being found in the hyper- 
ites of Sweden, and of the Island of Skye. Hornblende is also in 
some localities associated with the hypersthene. The byperites, 
although indigenous rocks in the Labrador series in Canada, are 
described as formiog in other regions inlrusire masses. 

Those varieties of diabase or hyperite which contain diallage, 
have, by the Italian lithologists been called granitone, but. by 
Rose and others have been described under the name of gabbro. 
This rock sometimes contains hornblende, mica, and an admixture 
of epidote. A compact white or greenish- white epidote, or zoiutij, 
which has the hardness of quartz and a density of 3.3 to 3.4, is 
the mineral named sanssurite. This with smaragdite, which is bd 
emerald-green pyroxene, often minged with hornblende, and 
passing into diallage, forms the enphotide of Hauy. Com- 
pact varieties of labradorit« and of other triclinic feldspars have by 
most of the modem litbolofpsla been confounded wiUi eanssurite, 
and hence the name of enpholjde is frequently given to the so- 
called granitone or gabbro, which is only a diallagic variety of 
diabase. The true enphotide oft«n contains a portion of talo, and 
sometimes encloses crystals of a triclinic feldspar, apparently lab- 
radorite, thus offering a transition to diabase. See farther my 
researches on enphotide and saussarite ; Silliman's Journal [2], 
xxvii, 339, and xzxvii, 426. 

Under the name of dolerite, as already remarked, it is proposed 



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1864.] T. STBRBT HUNT OH LrPHOLOGT. 33 

to class Bucb anorthosite rooks as coDtain s black femiginoui 
PfTozene or aDgita. These rocks, which are sometimes coarsely 
^Dolar or gramtoid in thoir stmctare, pass into fiDe-^ained or 
'Compact Tarieties, which aredistiogaished by the names of aname- 
dte aod basalt. To these latter varieties belong a great part of the 
greenstone-traps, although in rocks of this teztnre it is often 
impossible to determine whether it is hornblende or pyroxene 
which is mingled with tbe feldspar. Olivine in grains or crystals 
freqnently occurs both id the fine^ained basaltic doleiites and 
the granitoid varieties, giving rise by its predominance to what is 
called peridotite. Some fiDC-grained dolerites are porphyritic 
from the presence of black cleavable augite crystals, forming an 
-sngita-porphyrj'. Finely disaeminated carbonates of lime and ozyd 
of iron are ocouioDally present in these rocks to the extent of 
twenty per cenL, and even more. In like manner, magnetite and 
ilmenite, which are often associated, may constitute several hun- 
dredths of the mass. Many fine-grained greenstones contain, like 
phonolite, large portions of some zeolitic miaeral, and they often 
abound in chlorite. The pyroxene In these rocks is sometimes 
-reptaoed by a highly bauo silicate. Some varieties of what baa 
been called diallage may be represented as an aluminiferaus pyrox- 
ene pbu a hydrate of magnesia. At other times a mineral 
approaching in compoMtion to a ferruginous chlorite (frequently 
amorphous) enters into the composition of these aDorthosit«s,aDd 
even in some cases appears to replace altogether the pyroxene or 
the hornblende, constituting an aberrant form of diorite or of 
diabase, which is not nncommon among greenstones, and for which 
adistinctive name is needed. See on this point Q%o\ogj of Canada, 
pp. 469, 605, and the remarks on melapbyre below. 

The finei-grained dolerites are often cellular, giving rise to 
amygdalwds, whose cavities are generally filled with calcile, 
qaartc, or some zeolitic minerals. To these amygdaloids the name 
of spilile is sometimes given. Earthy varieties of basalt, which are 
frequently the result of partial deoom position, constitnte the wacke 
of some writers. It is doubtful how far many of these epilites and 
wackea have a claim to be considered as crystalline rooks, inas- 
muob as they appear in very many cases to be nothing more than 
aqueous sediments accnmolated uader ordinary conditions, or per- 
in^ in some oases derived from volcanic ash or volcanic mud. Aa 
^e other extreme of this seriee of rooka we may notice that dole- 

Vol. 1. . Mo. I. 



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34 THB CANADIAN NATDBALI8T. [FeK 

rites often asBome atrschytlcfonn, — the trachy-dolerites already 
mentioned^ — or constitote the lavas from modera volcanoea. 

Among the-compoaad rocks which are related to the preceding 
group by the presence o( augite, may be noticed nepheline-dolerite, 
■n which nepheline replaces the feldspar; and analcimite, a variety 
into which analcime enters in large amount. Scapotite also in 
some cases replaces feldsparr and forms wiQi green pyroxene, a 
peonliar aggregate associated with the Laurentaan limestones. 
Leuoite enters as an important element in some dolerites, and even 
replaces wholly the feldspaChic element, giving rise to what has 
been called leucitophyre or lenoilite. 

[Leucite is generally regarded as an exclusively volcanic mineral ; 
but according to Foumet, it occurs like other feldspars in mineral 
veins, forming the gangue of certain auriferous veins in Uexico 
(Gtelc^e Lyoanaise, page 261). According to Scheerer, lencile 
also oocnrs in dmsy cavities with zeolites and quartz at Arendalin 
Norway ; although it would seem to be rare in this locality since 
Durocher was not able to detect it. (Annales des Mines [4], i, 218). 
The conditioDs required for Che formation of this feldspathide 
must be peonliar, since the volcanic rooks which afford it are con* 
fined to a few localities ; and sincewbile it contains a Isrgeamount 
of potash it is a basic silicate, and found among highly basic rocks, 
in which potash compounds are generally present only in very 
small quantities. The agalmatolita rocks, including dyssyntribite 
and parophite (Geology of Canada, page 484), are however 
basic aluminous silicates in which potash predominates, and might 
be supposed under certain conditions of metamorphism to yield 
lencitic rooks.] 

Thenameofmelaphyre, which is employed by many writers Od 
litholo^ requires a notice in this connection. It was proposed by 
Brongniart as a synouym for black porphyry (mela-porphyre)^ 
and defined by him in 1827 as a porphyry holding crystals of 
feldspar in a base " of black petrosiliciona hornblende." (Clasaif. deS' 
Roches, page 106.) Subsequent researches showed thatsomeof 
these porphyries were really aogitio; and Von Buch employed the 
name of melaphyreas synonymous with angite-porphyry,in whicl^ 
he was followed by D'Halloy. (Xtes Roches, p. 75.) Inconsequence 
of this confasion, and of the vague manner in which the term is 
used to inolDde rooks which are sometimes diorites and sometimes 
Tarieties of dolerite or basalt, Cptta seems disposed to reject the 



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1864.] T. stbrb; BtraT on litholchit. 35 

Dame of melaphyre » a useless syaonym, in which I agree vith 
him. (Gesteiualehre, page 48.) Morerecentlyhowever, Senft (Die 
FelBarten, p^« 263) has eodeaTored to give a new ugnifioation 
lo the term, and deSnea melapbyrB as a reddish-gray or greeDiah- 
hrown ooloTod rock, passing into black, and contsiaiog neither 
hornblende nor pyroxene. The melaphyres of Tbnringia and of 
the Hartz, according to him, coneiet of tabradorite with iron- 
chlorite (del essite), carbonates of iron and lime, and a considerakle 
portion of titaniferons magnetic iron. Hornblende and mica are 
present only as rare and accidental minerals. We hare already 
alladed to this 'class of anorthosite rocks, as requiring a distinct- 
ive name; but firom the historical relations of the word melaphyr^ 
it seems to be an unfortunate appellation for rocks which are not 
black in color, and from which both hornblende and pyroxene 

We now come to consider that third group of ulicated rocks, in 
which the fuldspathides are replaced by Che denser double silicates 
of the grenatide family, garnet, epidota, zoisite, and perhaps ido- 
crase. Rod garnet enters into many gneissic rocks, and even 
forms with a little admixture of quartz, rock-masses. In some of 
these, as in the Laurentian series, there appears an admiztare of 
pyroxene, forming a passage into omphaate or eclogite ; which 
consiets of smaragdit« (pyroxene) and red garnet, sometimw mixed 
with mica, quartz, and kyanite, and passes through an increase of 
the latter into distJienite or kyanite rock. An aggregate of horn- 
blende and red garnet forms beds la the Green Moantains, and an 
admixture of red garnet with lievrite and a little mica makes np a 
rock in the Laurentian series. This is evidently related to euly- 
ate, a rock forming strata in gneiss in Sweden, and consisting of 
garnet, pyroxene, and a mineral having the composition of an 
oUvine in which the greater part of the magnesia is replaced by 
ferrous and manganous oxyds. Related to this is an apparently 
nndeecribed rock from the Tyrol, of whidi a specimen is before me, 
CODNsdng of red garnet, green pyroxene, and yellowish-green 
olivine, the latter greatly predominating ; and also a coarsely 
crystalline rock from Central France, recently described by the 
name of cameleonite, and composed of olivine, with pyroxene, and 
enstadte, a magnesian augite; these minerals being accompanied 
by spinal, ^ene, and ilmenite. I have already alluded to the tme 
enphotideB, in which a compact sointe (jade or saosnirite) takaa 



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36 THS OANABIAH SATUaALlST. [Feb. 

the place of feldspar id a rock the other element of which is pyr- 
oxene, and have shown how the occauonal presence of a triclinic 
feldspar connects euphotide with diabase. (Silliman's Jounial [2], 
xzvii, 386.) In the eame paper are described rocks made np of 
a white compact gnrnet with and without hornblende and feld- 
spar, and also an epidosite, composed of epidote and quartz. 

By the disappearance of the aluminous silicate from the rooks 
of the second and third groups, a passage ie established to the am- 
phibolitee and pyroxenites ; and these, through diallage rock, offer 
a transition to the ophiolites or serpentines. These relations are 
well ezbibited in Eastern Canada, where thedioiites or greenstones, 
which are sometimes highly feldspathic, pass into actioolite rock 
and hornblende slate on the one hand, and into diallagtc diabase 
and diallagio ophiolite on the other. 

These greenstones, which contain a chloritic mineral, and are 
often epidotic, pass gradually into compact or schistose chloritic 
rocks, frequently enclosing modules or layers of epidote, either pure 
or mingled with quartz. The relations between these various rocks 
are such that after a prolonged study of them I find it difficult to 
leust the conclusion that the whole series, from diorites, diallagea, 
and serpentinesjto chlorites,epidosite9, and steatites, has been formed 
under similar conditions, and that they are all indigenous rocks. 
(Geology ofCanada, pp. 606,612, 652.) I have elsewhere express- 
ed the opinion that these silicates are probably of chemical origin, 
and have been deposited Irom solations at the earth's surface. The 
sepiolite or hydrous silicate of magnesia, which occurs in beds in 
tertiary rocks, the neolite of Scheerer, the silicates of lime, magneda, 
and iron-oxyd deposited during the evaporatioa of many nstnral 
waters ; and the silicates of alumina like hatloysite, allopbane, and 
oollyrite, and that deposited by the thermal waters of Plombidrea, 
all show the formation and deposition at the earth's surfoce of 
silicates, whose subsequent alteration has probably given rise to 
many minerals and rocks. (Silliman's Journal [2], xxxii, 286 ; and 
Oeology of Canada, pp. Sfi9, 6??, 681). At the same time the 
phenomena of local metamorphism furnish evidences that similar 
compounds have resulted from the action of heat upon mechani- 
cal mixtures in sedimentary depoMt*. (Ibid., p. fiSl.) A further 
consideralioD of this sabject, and of tlte two-fold origin of many 
■iUcKHis minerals, is reserved for another pUoe. 
(3b b( CmMmwI.) 



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1864.] J. M. JOKKB ON OOIAN DRIFTS. 37 

ON OCEAN DRIFTS AND CURRENTS. 
Br J. Mattbkw Jonib, F.L.9. 

The cnrreDte of the ocean may well be classed among the won- 
ders of the world ; and the most inattentive ohserrer of the great 
truths of nature, can hardly fail to be struck with admiration on 
oontempladog their magnitude, and conaidering the benefits de- 
rived irom such movements. 

Throi^hoat the Atlantic, Pacific, Aictlc, Antarctic, and Indian 
Oceans, these currents pass in particular directions, and with great- 
er 01 less force, purifying the mass of fluid, and rendering it habi- 
table to thousands of marine forms, which would otherwise lan- 
guish and die for want of suitable nourishment. Great are the- 
struggles which take place between currents and counter currents, 
especially those of lo^ extent, and many are the instances on rec- 
ord of vessels being carried by their influence far out of their 
destined coursee, to be cast away upon shores supposed to be many 
leagues distant. Of late years, more attention has been paid to 
these phenomena, and the works of Bennel, Smyth, Maury, and 
others have gained them a notoriety they well deserve, for assured- 
ly to their power may be attributed the positive existence of many 
islands now colonized by animal and v^tahle life. 

If we take up a hydrographical chart of the world, we shall at 
once perceive the course of the various currents which are known 
to navigators at the present day. Fmi— we have the Gulf 
Stream, issuing from the narrow strait between the southern es' 
treme of Florida and the Bahamas, passing, at some distance from 
land, the coast of the American States, and gradually espandii^ 
its limits as it pr<^resses, until about the latitude of Cape Cod, it 
divei^B to the noiiheasF, and proceeding onwards to the northern 
limits of the Banks of Newfoundland, meets the cold waters of the 
great Arctic current, which comes down from Davis Straits. Its 
rate is here lessened ; but although the course Is slow from this 
point, it steadily advances until it reaches the shores of Great 
Britain and Northern Europe. Secondlt/ — we have the North 
African current, which sets from the latitude of the Azores, and 
taking the coast-line of Western Africa, proceeds along the shores 
of that country to the Gulf of Guinea, and even farther north. 
This stream, however, appears to divide its waters about ihe 



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38 THE OANADIAK NATUKALIST. t^^^' 

Tc^on of the Canariea, and sends a westerly branoli towards Qie 
West Indies. Thirdly — ^we have the South Atlantio ouirent set- 
tmg from the Aiotio Ooean, pouring ita volumes between St, Hel- 
ena and the main, until arriTing at the northern edge of the Nortb 
Airioan current at the equator, it diverges to the westward, and 
flows into the Equatorial current which advances in a similar 
direotion to the northern coast of Brazil, uid sweeping past the 
•coasts of Cayenne and Guiana, bends round the Qnlf of Mezioo, 
and heatod in that vast cauldron to a high degree of temperature, 
mshes with great velocity through the Florida passage, aai be- 
«omeB the celebrated Gulf Stream. FoartMi/ — The main eurrent 
of the Pacific is that known as the Peruvian current, which origi- 
nates in the Antarctic drift current, and runs parallel with the 
South American coast from about the fortieth degree of south lat- 
itude to the northern shores of Mexico, whence it deviates, and 
mahes on to the westward across the Pacific, laving the ehorea of 
the whole intertropical islands until it arrives at New Guinea, and 
Australia, where it meeta the counter currents from the Indian 
Ocean. Lattly — We have the Arctic current of the Atlantio, 
which sets from Baffin's Bay on the west, and Spitzbetgen on the 
east side of Greenhmd, joining its parte at the northern extremes 
of the latter countty, and as one vast stream, running ita course to 
the Banks of Newfoundland, where it meeta a barrier to its farther 
progress in the heat«d waters of the Gulf Stream, 

Although the currents just enumerated include all the greater 
passages, yet there are dlvere others of less magnitude and extent 
which render service in disseminating around reproductive matter 
for the colonization of distant positions. In thli Indian Ocean, 
for example, we have two currents running paraUel with the con- 
tinent of India, and another between the island of Madagasoar 
and the adjoiaing coast of Mozambique, each exerting an influence 
on the conntry they pass. These, with the connecting and contra 
currents occurring in several positions, may be supposed to repre- 
sent in some degree that progressive motion which agitates the 
wide expanse of ocean in difierent quarters of the globe. 

Haying thus far given a brief account of the positions and 
courses of these currents, let us consider their effect upon islands 
lying in or near their course, but far removed from any continent : 
but as it would extend this paper to an unusual length if we 
were to enumerate the many islands in each ocean which may be 



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1864.] J. U. JONES ON OOIAH DRIFTS. 39 

«lsesed in the list, it will perhaps be advisable to select the more 
intere&liiig localitjes where suoh effect is rendered more apparent, 
and where ooonrrenoee periodically take plaoe, proving hj clearest 
erldenoe the real existence of snch poutions, and the animal and 
Tegetable liib found apon (hem. 

Probably we could not seleot a more perfect example of oorrent- 
ibrmed islands than the Bermudas, and as we have made their 
natural history our particular study, perhaps we may be allowed 
to express our opinion, founded upon tact and the clearest evidence, 
as to the origin of that remarkable group, which, with the ezoep- 
tioo of St. Helena, is supposed to be the most remote from land or 
island of any other in the world. 

It will be weU in the first place to expldn the sitnation luid na- 
tnie of this group, in order that subsequent allusions to the same 
may be clearly understood. 

The Bermudas, or Somer's Islands, conHistlng of fonr principal, 
and several smallor islands, lie off the coast of Carolina (the near- 
est land) at a distance of about six hundred miles ; iVom Cape 
Sable, the northern extreme of Nova Scotia, about seven hundred 
and twenty miles ; and in a northeast direction from Atwood's 
Keys, Bahamas, six hundred and fifty miles. They are of low 
elevatJon ; the highest land, on which the light-honse is built, being 
only two hondred and fifty feet above the sea level The forma- 
tion is entirely of calcareous sandstone, derived tiom broken shells, 
and corals, which varies in oonsistenoy in different parts of the 
islands. On surveying the group, we find the whole more or less 
clothed with cedar, save here and there, where cnlbivation oocnpies 
the ground, or the drift sand blown from the shore, has overwhelm- 
ed both cedar grove and arable land, and continues ita way, as is 
the case in Fayet's ParlBh, nearly across the liiland from side to 
side. The group is contained in an area of about twenty miles 
by three, and a bird's-eye view of the whole, gives it the appear- 
ance, as says an old author, " of a shepherd's crook." A belt of 
coral Tee& extends all around the islands; on the north, to a 
distance of ten miles or more from shore ; to the westward, 
about five miles, taking in Long Bar and the Chub Heads ; while 
to the southward and eastward the open sea meets with no bar- 
rier until within a few hundred yards of land. 

Having thus shortly described the situation and appearance of 
e will now consider their origin. 



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40 THE CANADIAN MATDRAU8T. [Fcb.- 

A Bobmei^ rook, series of rocks, or uaj ineqoality whiok. 
tends to raise the usual line of bod near Um water levd, wbetlier- 
iu ooeanj lake, or river, situate within the inflneDoe of a curroit, 
eaunot fail to present an obstruction to Uke free paas^ of mate- 
rial ; as jQU may glean in a minor form, ircan observation in any 
brook or water-«aur8e, however small it be. The moving waters 
impeded on Uieir way, whirl and eddy aroond the obstacle, stjoks 
and leaves are collected together, sand and earthy matter whrae- 
with the water is impregnated, add th^ mite to the gmeral maas, 
until a small island is formed, aside, or in mid-stream, wfaiob, if' 
nndisturbed, will gradually mcrease until strong enough to reost 
tlie force of the element in which it is situated ; seeds are conveyod 
thither either by currents or foreign aid, and apon the aooumula- 
tioa of sand, stick, and earth, generate vegetable production^ 
which in their turn decay and become v^table mould, serving 
to enrich the deposit, and afford nouriahm^it to other plants ia 
rotation. 

If we perceive ourreote in lake, river, or brook forming depos- 
its of matter, on their sides or in their midst, why may we 
not grant the same power to currents in the ocean ? And if this 
power be granted, which is clear it should, we have only to reoog- 
nice, in the first place, the preaenoe of some inequality of the ocean 
bed under the spot now oocupied by the Bermudas, whether owing 
to Tolcauic action or otherwise it matt«rs not ; secondly, a "vast 
sconmulation of sand and drif% matter thereupon ; and thirdly, 
the presence of the coral Eoophyte to complete a solid fabric to 
within a few inches of low-water mark. Drift timber uid gulf 
weed (/Wm natoTu) then arrested on their course, tbe latter 
material by thousands of loads monthly in certain seasons, would 
help to ruse the whole above high-water mark, until sand and 
shell oast ashore by the waves and blown along the surliice, form- 
ing rounded hills ; sea birds making guano deposits; jdants and 
shrubs spriog^g up from seeds either brought by migratory birds* 
or earned on the onrrent, would give a stable foundation and » 

* The ttanB port alia n i>f needs by migralorj birds baa long engaged 
Ihe fttt«ntioi] of natural ists. The case maj dccdt in two waji, either 
bf undigested seeds pasding tbrongh the body of llie bird, or by earth 
containing seeds adhering to the feet. A wader bee been ihot iiiK0T& 
Seotia,. baring in its crop nndigeited seeda of the rice of tbe Southent. 
States of Amerioa. 



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1S64.] J. H. J0NE8 ON OOIAK DRIFTS. 41 

reBtbg-plaee ibr animal life. The surfaoe of the land would 
gradnaU; ohange u increased masaes of sand became drifted Id 
TaricFDs podtioDS, the tinderlying body of loose partioleB would 
hardai by natural pioeesa, and in time fonu solid rock, while the 
aooomnlalions of T^etable matter boried beneath Ba<sh hardened 
rook woold decompose, and form red eartli ; and where these de- 
poaU become Uable to the nation of the tides from below, the 
earthy ooinpoBitwEi woold be cleared away, and oavems fbnn in 
the plaoe, all of whii^ oonditiona oceor in the Bermadas at the 
pesest day. 

The Bermudas, althongb not placed within the fnll foroe of the 
Gnlf Stream, are neverthelees close enongh to be affected by its 
onnent, which, after a continuance of southwest winds, affords, by 
the ooooneooe of drift seeds and otLer matter fkim the Oarribean 
Sea, ample evidence of its o>wtact with, or veiy near approach to 
the group ; and if faets of this import should not be oonndered 
sufficient to establish a clear case, the whol^ marine fatfna, which 
is true West Indian, may be brought forward in support of the 



But to give the process of formation of a group of isluids of 
eurrent origin more in detail, let us oonaider the remarkable pro- 
oesB carried on in the building of reefs by the coral zoophyte. It 
is to diis organism, bw in the seale of nature, that the Bermudas 
are tedebted for the position they hold in the midst of an ocean 
at aU times and seasons liable to great commotion. A mass of 
nm|^ Band-banks would assuredly be swept away, or at all 
ereots wonld never afford sufficient protection to tropical and bo- 
real plants as they do at present. No cedar groves conld exist so 
new the idiore as they do, unless a barrier was made to the for 
ward pn^ress of those huge rollii^ seas, which, in severe weather, 
may be seen dashing on the enter ree& of the south shore, and 
spmdiii^ their fury in casting high iu mid air theb columns of 
whiteoed foam. 

The ooral soophyte, which has done so mnofa for ihe islands of 
the Pacific, has conferred an equal, if not greater, benefit upon the 
Bennudas, building up around the whole coast huge walls of cal- 
eareoos matter formed by the decease of countless graierations of 
inadr«^»ores with their ever-accompauyii^ mollusca and serpnlse, 
welded blether, &om which baas springs another generation of 
the same ibrms, to die in their order, and present a fVirther 
ground work for (he labors of future fomilies. 



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42 THE OANASIAN NATUOAIiIST. [Feb. 

To show more clearly the benefieial efieots of these barrier-nefB 
iQ preventing the total atmUulatioD of all ve^ietable prodnotbns, 
we have only to draw your attoation to the presaat state of the 
diatriot known as " The Sand Hills" in Fajet's parish, about the 
centre of the main Island, where the barrier reef is oloae in shore, 
and does not present a sufficient breakwat«r to prevent tlie flill 
force of the waves throwing up vast quantities of sand upon the 
^ore, which, aoted npou, by the heavy galee fktm the southward, 
b blown in clouds to the top of the hill, some hundred and fif^ 
feet above high-wal«r mark, and burying whde groves of oedar 
and cottages, is rapidly extending its limits, and will ere long 
commit still greater damage by covering land now under cultiva- 
tion. This present fact is sufficient to prove the use of barrier- 
reefe to oceanic islands, and also more clearly the use of oceanic 
currents in brinfpng to such portions animal life capable of effect- 
ing so much good by preservii^ a luxuriant vegetation from utter 
deetmolion. , 

As we have in considering oar question touched upon the for- 
mation of coral reefs, perhaps it would not be nnintereating to state 
a few particulars in regard to the growth and habits of the coral 
zoophytes, and the different forms which are found inhabiting the 
same reef in the Bermuda waters. 

There are five species of coral growing on the reefs, while in 
(he sheltered sounds and harbors two or three more are found. 
The finger-ooral {Madr^tora p almata) appears to be the most 
abundant, crowding its palmate processes in every direction under 
water, and before it has been cleaned, it, has a buff oolor, and 
when touched by the hand has the peculiar slimy feel common to 
all corals, and formed by tht presence of the animal which secretce 
the hard calcareous mass. Some specimens of this species are ex- 
tremely beautiful, presenting eveiy shape and form which palmate 
processes caa exhibit. At tlie extremities, digits of all lengths 
crown the ridge, while from the flattened sides arise In many 
cases extra palms digitated in like manner. The whole structure 
is remarkably porous. A species of Madrepora known as the star- 
coral (M. oaiiina) is also found on the outer reefs, though by no 
means so abundant as the former. It is by far the prettiest-form- 
ed coral in the Bermudas, and when cleaned, presents a series of 
the most exqui^te white branches oovered with elevated cells. In 
the water it has a green appearance, and is coated with the usual 



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1864.] J. H. JOHBB ON 00£AN DRIFTS. 43 

slime. In some dtuatioDS it grows short and biuhj, while in 
odiers its etems are eltmg&ted to some extent. There are three 
varietice of this species : (1 ,) with the cells greatly protrading ; (2,) 
with the cells nearly even ; and (3,) having them strongly depress- 
ed. There are two species oi Meandrina found on these ree&, — 
M. cerebra, commonly known as brunstone from ite sii^olar 
appearance, and another species clearly different from the preced- 
ing, and allied to M. Dadalea of the Indian Ocean. The Madre- 
pora cerebra grows to a large size, sometimes three feet in diame- 
ter, and is usually rounded in form ; while the latter is rarely found 
more than six inches across, and growing in some cases within a 
foot of the sortace on reefe, and in rook-pools even less. Two 
species o^Attnea occur, sometimes covering the rock like a mass 
<f sponge. These astroid corals are frequently found in a seml- 
fbesil state, imbedded in the reef, and forming the base of masses 
of Uving madrepores. 

On breaking into one of the reefs left dry at lowest tide, you 
find it composed of the followit^ : the hard compact interior of 
calcareous rook, exhibiting under the lens a mass of minut« por- 
tions of shell, sand, and broken coral, mixed with particles of 
pmk-oolored nullipores j the exterior presenting an Irr^iular honey- 
combed appearance, some of the recesses containing sea-waterand 
dotted with small specimens of the frilled Meandrina and small- 
eyed AttTwa, and adhermg to the sides of these miniatore pools 
several species of corallines and algiB shooting out from beds of 
scarlet, and sober-ooloied sponges and ascidians, over whioh 
crawl the slug-like forms of the many-spotted Don» and sea-hare 
{Aplytia), and the massive shell-bearing jR/rpura deZ/otdea ; while 
mthecrannies and sinuous passages are snugly ensoonoed numbers 
of purple Echini and hur-clad annelides ; the whole more or less 
covered with a mantle of iridescent sea-weeds. 

Such is the state of affairs on the reef; now let us proceed t« 
take a survey of the productions, animal aad vegetable, brought 
thither by the current of the Gulf Stream. 

As before remarked, the marine fauna of the Bermudas is al- 
most wholly West Indian. The first, if we except a ftw transient 
vidtors, are all found in the Carribean Sea. The moHusks, with 
one exception only, according to Tristram, are all inhabitants of 
the same district, while the remuning invertebrata of all orders 
present a similar state. Many fishes are brought to the group, 
dielterii^ and feeding amid the vast fields of gulf-weed (JWtM 



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41 THE CANADIAN NATTJKALIBT. [Feb. 

natant), and several species of ornaUoeans reuh the ielands hy the 
same sonroe. Myriads of the Porti^eae man-of-war {Phgiaiia 
pelagica), the obliqne-ereeted VeleSa ( V. vulgaru), and two speciea 
of lanthina (^I.Jragilitaadl.globotat), with their bnbble-like 
rafts, are oast ashore, while hundreds of the pearly Spirula (^S. 
Penmii) float about untenanted by their rightfiil owners. These 
are all from the southward. Then ashore we find the land-orab 
{Cfecarcinut Turieola) borrowing in the sand-hills ; and numing 
along the shore-rocka, the nimble and prettily marked Graptut 
pietue, both West Indian forms. To these may be added many 
others all eridently descendants of an original stook bronght thither 
by the oarrent of the Oulf Stream. 

As regards the botanical featoree of the islands, several trees, 
shmbs, and plants oocor of West Indian character, some of which, 
springii^ as they do from positions close to hi^-water mark, de- 
note their oarrent origin. We may notice the odabash {Oretcentta 
atjete), the aea-side grape (^Cocaohba nvi/era), the Prickly 
Lantana (£. aadeatu), the Locnst (ffymeaaa ooubaril), the- 
Ooohineal plant (CikUm eocfiinillifer) ; and muiy other species 
may he enumerated in support of the probable inflnence of the 
Onlf Stream. Two or three kinds of large beans are fluently 
found cast upon tlie beach : one called pin-box by the inhabit- 
ants, is the seed of a laige speciea of trailing-vine {Entada gigati- 
tea), bearing huge scymitar-abaped pods ; and is common in some of 
the West Indian islands, especially Jamaica, where Colonel S. 
' Heath of the Royal Engineers informs us he has observed it grow- 
ing in the mountains near the military station at Maroon Town, 
some two thousand feet above the sea level. Drift trees, some- 
timefl of large me, with the roots attached, are also floated ashore ; 
and some few years ago, according to the observant naturalist 
Hurdis, who resided several years in the Bermudas, two or three 
cedar trees of dimaisions far exceedii^ those of any speoimens to 
be seen on the islands, were found at some depth below the 
sur&oe of a marsh which had been reclaimed from the sea, 
and which from their appearance were of foreign origin, and 
had doubtless been carried by the current from some part of 
tlie a4jacent continent. These drift trees are in many instances 
the means of introducing pebbles and small portions of rock 
adhering to their roots ; and it was with no little surprise that du- 
ring onr wanderings aloi^ the shores of the isUnd we found these 
stones, of entirely di^rent consistence to that of the sandstone in 



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1864.] J. H. JOHBS ON OCEAN DRIFTS. 45 

which they lay imbedded, in the shore-rook about high-water 
mark ; nor could we at all account for such a eii^alai circum- 
Btance, until we were informed by a geoli^eal friend that stones 
had been found among the rooto of trees cast away on other 
oceanic islands, when a c)ua to the mystery was at once afforded ub. 

ThoB we see in some measure the effect of ocean currents npou 
iriands like those of the Bermudas, far removed from continents ; 
and the case is the same in other parts of the world. Take for 
example the Keeling or Coooa Islands, which are situate in the 
Indian Ocean at a distance of about siz hundred milea from the 
ooast of Sumatra, which owe their vegetation to seeds transported 
by currents from that island, Java, and Australia, and on whose 
shores are found stones and pebbles as in the Bermudas. Canoes 
d* undoubted Javanese oonstraotion have also been found cast 
ashore ; and many other instances are adduced by Chamisso, Dar- 
win, and others, of the effect of currents upon these islands. 

If snch cases can be adduced of the introduction to distant 
islapds of the ocean of whole faunas and floras, why may we not 
infer tliat in many oases islands like those of the Paoific have 
been peopled by the human race in a. similar manner ? We too 
frequently hear of sad oases of the survivors of abimdoned vessels 
remaining on the ocean in open boats for a fortnight, or three 
weeks, or even longer, driiW along by the winds and eurrents 
in various directions. GjtnoeB laden with people have been drifted 
from island to island in the Paoifio, although hundreds of miles 
from each other, as is well known ; while, according to Robertson, 
tbe fresh bodies of two men, of a race unknown to Europeans, 
were cast ashore, after a series of westerly gales, upon the 
Azores, doubtless f^m North or South America, proving that 
they had nearly completed HtxAi long drift voyage in their canoe 
before some untoward accident befel them and prevented their 
arrivii^ alive. 

We oanuot therefore see, if human life can be prolonged under 
such circumstances, why we may not grant the drift and onrrenta 
of the ocean a still greater usefulness in that of carrying to other 
lands a precious burden of human souls, to populate in process of 
dme whole continents as well as islands ; and, instead of looking for 
di^rent centres of creation, to grant that one alone was made in 
conformity with the statements of holy writ. 

(JUod btjbrt « mttting tftk* Nat. Hitt. Society 0/ K. Bnauviek, 29lk 
January 1S64.) 



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46 THE OAITADIAN NATURALIST. [Feb. 

NOTES ON THE SILICIPICATION OP FOSSILS. 
Br T. Stibbt Hoht, M.A., F.B.S. 

Fossils replaced by silica are very aboadant amoog the paleo- 
zoic limestones of Canada. Someportionsof tbeCorniferouslinie- 
stoue are little more than layers of silidfied sbellsand corals, witli 
A small amount of intermingled carbonate of lime ; and beantifDl 
examples of ailicificatioQ are also found in variona localities 
throughout the limestones of theTrenton and Quebec groups. The 
ulioified fossils are confined to certain planes; n □ altered caloareouB 
Hhells and corals being often found in the same limestone tied, 
half an inch above or below a layer holding siUolfied fossils; and 
even in these the replacement is sometimes confined to a portion of 
the shall or coral. A carefiil study of a series of these aiiicified 
specimens shows the operation of three distinct processes. First, 
the replacement of the fossil, giving rise to an exact copy of it in 
chalcodonic quarta; second, the incruating by chalcedony of a 
fossil thus replaced; and third, in some cases the filling np of tbe- 
cavity of the replaced fosail, with chalcedony or with crystalline 
quartz. The corals from the Corniferons limestone present ex- 
amples of the first process, and are besides often filled or lined 
with crystals of quartz. The same thing is to be seen in various 
gasteropoda from the Birdseye formation. Of these, the silicified 
shells, from which the limestone has been removed by an acid, 
preserve all their superficial markings; bnt are oflen lined with 
cr]rstalline quartz, although at other times filled with the sedimen- 
tary limestone. In two instances, where these shells had been 
fractured, the fissure has been filled np with a tissue of chalcedony 
identical with that replacing the shell. This chalcedony is gen- 
erally fonnd to have a botryoidal surface, and a ooncentri& 
structure, which however in some cases can only be discovered 
by the aid of a glass. Specimens of orthoceratites teom the same 
formation shovr the exterior, as well as the septa and the siphuncle 
beautifully replaced by silica. In some silicified gasteropods it is 
seen, a^er removing the calcareous matter by an acid, that thfr 
silicification is chiefly confined to the two walls of the shell, which 
are completely replaced, while the middle portion remains calca- 
reous, or is but partially penetrated by silica. The exterior of 
these silicified shells is sometimes inoniBted with mammillar^ 



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1864.] siuomoATion op possils. 47 

manes of chalcedony a teotti of an ioch oi more ia diameter. 
TbU is an example of the eecoDd process, which is well illOB- 
trated by a fine Bpecimen of a larj^e and as yet undescribed 
spedea of Uetoptoma from the Birdseye formation, to which 
my attention has been called by Mr. Billings. It was fbnnd 
reposing on its base, and filled with the sedimeatary limestone, 
which was removed by an acid, showing the interior of the 
shell with some small adhering Serpulm, which are aleo silici- 
fied. The exterior of the ehell. was completely covered with 
a roogh waity coating of chalcedony, which baa evidently spread 
in ooncentric circles from certain points, and is from five to ten 
hundredths of an inch in thickness. This crust, which readily 
separates, has been detached from a portion of the snrCace of the 
■hell; which ia found to have been completely replaced by chal- 
cedony, and retains all its delicate markings. From the more 
freqaent absence of this exterior coating of chalcedony from 
ulicified fossils, we are inclined to look upon its deposition as a 
prooees snbeeqaent to the replacement. In some cases however it 
takes place upon non-silioified specimens. Thus a Stromatopors 
baring been cnt in two, and submitted to the action of an a^id, it 
was found that the silica was confined to an exterior crost, and to 
occasional grains and portions disseminated through the calca- 
reous mass of the fossil. It is further to be remarked, that the 
limestone sUata which contwn the silicified fossils are associated 
with beds or masses of bomstOQe, in which these fossils are some- 
times partially imbedded. 

The facts detailed above (a part of which will be found in the 
Oeol<^ of Canada, p. S29) point to the conclusion that the re- 
placement of the foiuls, aa well as their incrostation and filling-up 
with ulioo, took place before they wore imbedded in the oalcareons 
sediments, and that it was dependent on the presence of silica 
ditsolred in the waters of the time. The mode in w hich the first 
process, or that of replacement, has been effected is however stilt 
obscure. In v^etable structures, which are very often silicified, 
such a replacement ia comparatively rare. The pores of the wood 
become filled with silicions matter, while the woody fibre, in a more 
or lees alt«red state, remains, and may be extracted, as Goeppert 
has shown, by dissolving the silica with hydrofinorio acid. This 
organic matter is often changed into coal, or even, according to 
Dr. DawBon, in some Devonian woods into a graphitio substance; 



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48 THS OANASIAN NATUKILIST. [Feb. 

while Goeppert meDtions its change into bitnineu, and also observed 
a resinous matter in the pores of silicifted coniferB. He found 
that in some oaaes, as in cerbin agatized woods from Hangary, 
the organic matter had almost, or altogether, disappeared, leaving 
spaces which were empty, or filled only with wator. Bead-like 
dropsof silica were ocoAsionally found by him upon the bundles 
of ligneous fibres. He also observed in some oases an incrastalion 
of hyalite on the Exterior oi some specimens of silioifled wood. 
(Goeppert, Flaotes Fossiles, livr. 1, port 8.) 

The silicified woods from Antjgua, unlike any of these described 
by Goeppert, exhibit a replacement of the woody tissue by silica ; 
■ some of them however still retaining portions of organic matter. 
In a specimen of eK^nons wood from that locality, which I have 
lately examined with Dr. Dawson, the medullary rays are filled 
with silica showing traces of cells, and the ducts are also filled with 
silica. The whole of the woody fibre has more over disappeared, 
and itG place is occupied by silio», which is distinguished by a 
slight difference in color from that filling the place of the vessels. 
In this case, it would appear that the process of siliciGt:ation con- 
asted of two stages ; the first being the filling up of the pores by 
silica, followed by a removal, by decay, of the organic matter, 
leaving a silicious skeleton like that of the Hungarian woods 
noticed above, aft«r which the empty spaces in this were filled by 
a further deposition of silica. It is probable that processes similar 
to those connected with siliisification take place in the so-called 
petrifaction of organic remains by carbonate and sulphate of lime, 
sulphate of baryies, oxyd of iron, and metallic sulphureta. 

In this connection, may be mentioned the observations and ex- 
periments of Pengdily, Ohnrch, and others on the so-called Beek- 
kite. This itame has been given to mammiilary chalcedonic 
concretions around a nucleos of coral, sponge, Hhells, or even 
of limestone, which occur i^i the Triassic conglomerates of Torbay 
in England. This nncleus in some cases has disappeared, but in 
others remains in greater or less part nnohangcd, or faae been 
partially silicified. These concretions apparently result from a 
similar incrusting process to that which I have described in 
Stroraatopora and Uetoptoma. Ur. Church has examined these 
bodies with care both chemically and microscopically, and 
in the L. E. A D. Phil. lilagaEine for February 1862 ([4], 
zxiii, 95) baa given his own and others' observations, with a 



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1864.] BiLicirioATioN OP FOeatLB. 49 

number of figures. He has &lso described in this paper the 
reBolts of some experiments od tbe process of nlicificatiou ; for 
fnrtber details of which Me The Chemical News, vol. v, 95. Mr. 
Chareh prepared a aolation of silica in water by dialysis, accord- 
11% to Graham's method (L. E. & D. Phil. Mag. [4], xxiii, 205), 
and fonnd that when this solution, containiDg about one tiro-hun- 
dredths of aitics, and impregoated with a little carbonic acid, was 
filtered through fragments of coral, a large portion of carbonate 
of lime WB3dissolved,Briil the whole of tbe silica removed. Similar 
results, though to a less estent, were obtained witb shells. In 
another experiment, a fragment of a recent coral was fitted into 
the neck of a funnel, and a solution prepared as above, with a 
little carbonic acid, and containing one hundredth of silica, was 
allowed to drop on the coral, and after slowly filtering through, 
was fonnd, as in the previous experiment, to have abandoned the 
whole of its silica, while the coral had lost nearly all its lime, 
although retaining its structure in a great measure. It was however 
covered with a thick film of gelatinoi^ silica." Mr. Gburch farther 
observed that the addiUon of small portions of the solid carbonate 
of lime, barytes,oF strontia to astrong solution of pure silica, caused 
it to gelatinize immediately; and according toGraham, solutions of 
these carbonates have the same effect. The concentric structure 
which is characteristic of uhalceJony, was observed by Mr. Church 
in the silicious deposits from the Geysers of Iceland, and from the 
hot springs of Luzon in the Philippine Islands, as well as in meni- 
lite; and Mr. J. H. Gladstone, in a note to Mr. Church, in the 
paper already cited from the Fhilos. Magazine, refers to a similar 
structure as having been observed by Mr. Rainey in carbonate of 
lime formed in animal tissues: it is also artificially obtained 
when carbonatfl of lime is slowly deposited in the presence of 
gum or albumen. Mr. Cburch has since described (Cbem. 
News, vi, 306) a curious example of the deposition of silica. A 
basket of eggs was recently fonnd in a chalk-pit near Winches- 
ter, where it had been buried beneath tbe broken rock for, it is 
supposed, four or five centniiHs. The organic matter and the cal- 
careous shell of the eggs lia' I both disappeare 1, their places being 
occupied by chalcedony ; " whicli seemed farther to have been de- 
posited upon tbe wiilow twigs compiaing the basket, incrusting it 
■0 well that the Veal nature of the latter is evident to this day." 
I hitve thought it well to bring together these obaervatiou 
tot.. I. A No. 1. 



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60 THB OANADUN HATUBALIST. [9b1k 

since, for although they do not expkin all the phenomena of siticifi- 
catioD, they go far towards sboning the conditions under which 
silioa can be precipitated from ita solutions in natural waters, and 
deposHod either apon or within organic bodies, or in the forms 
of opal, chalcedony, and horostone. See farther Silliman's Jonraal 
[2], xiviii, pp. 377, 381 ; and Bischof, Lehrbuch, ii, 1241. 
Montreal March 25, 1864. 



NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY. 
AKNTTAL CONTERSAZIONB. 

" The Seoond Annual Conversazione of the Montreal Natural 
Histoiy Society was held in the rooms of the Society on the 2iid 
instant, and was, we are happy to say, highly suooeBsfU. We learn 
with pleasure that since the last annual social meeting the Society 
has made very steady progress, the year not having been excelled, 
or even equalled, by any other in it£ history for the amount of «ci- 
entafic work done, and the snooesBtril introduction of new and vidn- 
able "features, which it ia believed will be sonroes of permanent 
benefit to the Society. But while the Society ijongratnlatea it- 
self on this satJsfaotoiy state of affairs, there is of coarse room 
for still ftirther prosperity, were the members and the Mends of 
the cause to come forward more readily and evince greater inter- 
est in its advancement. At the r^ular meetings a number of 
interesting papers have been read, of which mention has been 
made at various times in these ootnmns; and many elaborate arti- 
cles, representing great scientific research, and having an impor- 
tant hearing on the arte of life, and on the material improvementa 
of the country, have been contributed to the Canadian Naturalist. 
The Geol<^ of our own country, in which eveiy one mnst fee! 
more or less interested, has received a large share of attention ; 
and ou points of the geology of the United States connected with 
Canadian geology, important oontributions have also been received. 
In fact, in all the branches of study embraced by the Society, manj 
new facts have been made known, which looked at merely in a 
scientific aspect, should be highly esteemed; but the pursuits of 
the naturalist are also of great utility to the country in their 
ecouomioal applications, thus giving the Society a strong claim to 



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1S64.] tfATDSAL aiSTOKT SOOIETT. 51 

the support Mid ooiudder&tioii of tbe publio, iadependeatl; of Ae 
porelf soienlifio diflooveriee, or of the pleuures to be derived from 
the ooUeolaonB and kotaree. A oommittee of the Sooiet; has, fbr 
inetsuoe, been engaged in promoting measoree for the mora efieo- 
tnal proteetion of the smaller inaeotiTorons birds whieh protect vx 
gainst insect ravages ; whilst another committee has been inreed- 
gating the oaases of the decay of the apple-orohards, for which the 
island of Montreal was once celebrated. Disoaauons have also 
.arisen at the meeting respeotiog the use of Canadian fibres in (he 
mannfaotore of fabrics and of paper. Nor should we omit to men- 
ti<Hi another important part of the work of this Society, namely 
that of popularising natural soienoe, thus rendering itmore attrao- 
tive, and causing its resnlte to be moce extensively known. This 
end is songht to be attuned by the popolar oourse of Somerrille 
leotuies, free to the pnblic, and by throwing the Museum open on 
easy t^ms. One of Ae new features worthy of special attention 
is the engagement of a soientifio curator, Mr. WhiteaveB, under 
whose care la^e portions of the collections have been arranged in 
such a manner as to assist very materially in the study of natural 
history. There have been added to the Huseum within a short 
time, many valuable contributions of marine shells, and some 
interesting specimens to the collections of birds and fishes. 

" Many of the gratii^ing features iriiich we have here briefly no- 
tmed, in order to Aow the work that the Society is engaged in, and 
irtist has been done, are attributed to the favorable impresrion 
made by the first Gonversasione, held last year ; one direot result 
of winch was that a member liberally offered to oommenoe a list 
with 1200 to pay off the remaining indebtedness of the Society." 

The chair was taken at eight o'clock by Dr. Dawson, Prerident 
oftbe Society; there being seated on the platform the Lord Bldiop 
of Hontieal, Metropolitan, Rev. Mr. EU^ood, Rev. Mr. Kemp, 
Eev. Dr. DeSola, Hon. Mr. Sheppard, Prof. Miles, SUnley Bagg, 
Esq., W. H. A. Daviee, Esq., John Leemii^, Esq., and others. 
The Hall was crowded thronghont, many being unable to obtain 
sutts- The fine band of the Royal Artillery was present, by the 
kind permission of Ool. Dnnlop, R.A. 

The istroduotory address was delivered by the President of the 
Society, Principal Dawson, LL.D., who said : " Ladies and Qcn- 
tlemen, the members of the Natural History Society again wel- 
-«ame yon to their annual oonTersauone, and trust that on Has as 



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52 TBI OANADIAN NATCKALIST. [Fel>^ 

on former occaaions, yoa will sympatluEe with our pureaita and 
enjoy the entertainment which we have piovided. I have no doubt 
that many of you r^ard ub as very simple though harmless entha- 
dasts, pleased with a butterfly or a flower, delighted with a new 
shell or coral, going into ecetacies over the discovery <^ some nn- 
heard-of worm or microscopic animalcnle smaller tha,a a grain of 
dust. But admitting all this, and that onr pursuits may not be 
worthy of comparison with the grave and weighty matters which 
engage jonr attention, we have sUll something to say for onrBelvee^ 
If enthusiasts, we are not selSsh ; indeed I may say that we are 
somewhat amiable.. A great authority in such matters has aud 
that a tme naturalist is never an ill-natnred man ; and we show 
our good nature by gathering here all our precious treasures, and 
exposing them to your inspection, and by providing in onr Uuseom 
a refuge for every destitute specimen, that might otherwise go to 
waste or be neglected in some obscure comer. Indeed, I fear that 
we sometimes carry this to an extreme, and even render ourselves 
troublesome by insisting that you should look through our micro- 
Boopes or examine onr choice specimens, when you would rather be 
engaged about something else. We further, in these artjfidal 
days, keep up a testimony in behalf of nature. We maintain its 
pre-eminent bveliness, standing up for the lily of the field, even 
against all the glory of modern art. We invito attention to the 
plan and order, to the design and contrivance, which exist in na- 
ture, and thus do what little we can to magnify the works of Gad. 
Further, we are always ready to inform yon as to any little practi- 
cal matter that lies in our way. If you are puzzled by any strange- 
bird or beast, or by any unaccountable phenomenon in air or earth, 
we are always ready to do our best to explain it. If any imperti- 
nent insect or fungus ravages your farm, garden, or orchard, we 
oan tell you all abont its habits, and how to get rid of it. We can, 
wiUi the aid of our friends of the Geological Survey, inform yoa 
as to the mineral resources of the country, and can guard you 
against that perveraion of mining enterprise, whereby some dmple 
persons contrive to bury their money under ground without any 
rational hope of ever extraoting it again. Besides all this, in our 
lectures, our monthly meetinga, out published proceedings, and onr 
museum, we provide you with many sources of pleasing and 
profitable recreation. Doing all this and more, in a quiet unobtru- 
sive way, we think ourselves entitled to ask your kind ocuinte- 



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1864.] ITATUBAL HISTOKT SOOIETT. 53 

iuDC€ and aid in tliis our annual celebration. I have only to add, 
that a oommittoe of members of the Society has labored to make 
oor rooms and programme as attraotive as posdble, and that we 
haye to thank many kind friends for oontribations to your enter- 
tainment this erening." 

Dr. SawBon introdnoed to the andience one of the pioneers of 
Natnr&l History in tMs oonntry — 

Hon. Mb. Sheppakd, who said : " On this otwasion, the anoi- 
versary of Uie Natoral History Society of Montreal, it has fallen 
to my lot to address to this goodly assemblage of the patrons of 
science, a few remarks and remembrances of the state of natural 
history and of its progress in Canada dnring the preceding half 
century, which it has been supposed my long standing as a student 
of natore enables me to submit to yoni patient hearing. These 
ohservations must necessarily be short, seeing the varied pro- 
gramme provided for the evening. In order to do this subject 
JQStlca it will be necessary to go back to the early settlement of the 
oonntry, when the Jesuit missioniiriea visited the wilds of Amer- 
ica with the intention of Christianizing the natives. These mission- 
aries were a learned and observant class of men ; and their oppor- 
tunities of becoming acquainted with the natural ptodnctions of 
the oonntry, were greatly facilitated by tbeii close intercourse with 
the Indians, following them in their periodical migrations, and 
Bojonming with them in their encampments. They collected a 
vast amount of information from their native friends about the ani- 
mals, and especially about the plants, many of which were known 
to possess h»iling properties, and to be useful in the few arts that 
the Indians were acquainted with. The results of these researobes 
were, at a later period, coUected and embodied by Charle- 
v(dz in his History of Canada. They are well worthy of being 
consulted. Towards the end of the last oeotuiy Canada was 
Tinted by Andr£ Michaux the elder, comii^ from the north 
Uirongh Hudson's Bay, across the country by lakes Mistisions 
and St. John, down the Saguenay and up the north shores of the 
St. Lawrence, disappearing southward at some point unknown to 
OB. It must have been very interesting to him to note the grad- 
ual change of the v<^table productions in his progress south from 
the barren grounds of the s^nted birch, the vast collections of 
lichens and mosses which cover the surface of those dreary r^ons, 
to the noble oaks and maples on the shores of the St. Lawrenoe. 



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54 THX OANADIAN KATURALI8T. [P«b> 

Miohauz published tbe result of his obaervfttioDB in b Fton of 
Aowrioa; but it is rery me^re, compared withUterworkson tb&t 
sntgeot. Miohaax the younger never visited Caaada that I am awiie 
of, but derived his information respecting onr teees from his father. 
Francis Masson, that celebrated ooUeotor for the Rojtl Oardeos 
at Kew, who introdnoed so many of the floral beauliefl (£ the Cape 
of Good Hope, visited Canada about tiie beginniag of the present 
oautuij. He passed a good portion of his time in Montreal ; and 
oh how I did yearn Ibr the benefit <^ his acquaintance, with a 
viewtoinfonnationon plantsof the country, bat all my sighing and 
yearning were doomed to end in disa[^intment. He died here 
about the year 1804, at the honse of Mr. John Gray, at G6te St 
Catherine, a benevolent and much respected merchant. The 
meatioD of John Gray reminds me that he kindly fostered the Rev. 
JamsB Somerville while in a state of mental abeiralion. With 
Mr. Somerville I was much acquainted ; he was devoted to tlie 
study of natural history. It will be recollected that this gentle- 
man was a patron and benefactor <^this Society. We bow c(»m 
to (he name of Fi:edenok Porsh, the celebrated botanist, who 
made hia q)pearanoe in Canada in 1815. I beoame aoquunted 
with him, and derived much valuable information from him about 
I^ants. He visited Anticosti in 1817, and broi^ht back a lai^ 
collection of living plants, rare in other parts of the country, some 
of which I cultivated in my garden ; but Ihe greater portion of 
them perished In the packages in which they were brou^t up. 
Among those which survived were Ligatticum Scoticum, a beau- 
tiAil T'AaJfctnnn, which he named T.purpuratcetu,naiaiiAUi«M, ' 
ii&a.ii&^yiHii A. tehanoproMm. Foish'sFlcvaof North America 
is a carefoUy got-np book, and was the staudacd text-book till Sray's 
apfieared. Pursh died here about 1821, at the bouse d Bobwt 
O^hcm, Blink Bonny, annrseryman, and a good botanist, — aooo- 
teMporaiy o£ London. Poor Pursh was thritUees ; in his declining 
years living mainly on the hospitality of hia friends, Colonel Hamil- 
ton Smith, the learned historian of the natural history of man, 
viuted Ganadain 1817, seeking information in scienoe generally. 
Ibecame aoquuntod with him, but his Bcgoarn here was very diort. 
Now, ladies, allow me to say a word of encouragement for you. 
What will you not succeed on attaining when you set yonr 
hearts on its aowHuptishment, as the example of the Goonteea Dal- 
housic wiU show. This lady beoame an accomplished botanist, 



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1864.] NATUBAL HI8T0KT BOOBTT. 06' 

aad was kd inde&tigable oolleetor of plants. Sbe presented to this 
Sodet; ft lai^ berbarinm of Canadian plants, faeantifnllj {nre- 
serred ; she ooUeeled many living planto, and sent them honm to 
<ntament tiie gardens and grounda of DalLouie Castle ; and she 
sooeeeded in iobiung her lady friends vitb a love of botany ; some 
of wliom made mariced advances in this hranoh of natoral hiBtoiy, 
ptttionlarly one, who subsequently sent many spedmens of Oftna- 
dian jdante to Sir Jaokaon Hooker, to assist him in the oomi«lation 
(tfbis groatwork the Plants ofBrilish North America, in which her 
name ia duly recorded as » oontribntor. The example of Lady Dal- 
kooBeis well worthy of imitation by those having IdsurefbrBtady. 
And now permit me by desire to endeavor to throw some Ught on 
the migin and progress of the Literary and Historioal Sodetyof 
Quebec, tlie elder sister of the Society. Strange to say, its formation 
was bronght about indirectly, by apoUtioal movement, in thiswise. 
It is no doubt known to many of yon that the late John Ndlson 
was the owner of the Quebec Gaaett^, eetabliahed in 1764, now in 
itshondredth year. In virtue of an Act of Parliament, it possessed 
the privil^a of publishing all official doonments as they occurred.- 
Nedlsan was a great poUtician, and was opposed to Lord Dal- 
booaie in some points of government. , This opposition Lord- 
D^houaie could not tolerate, and he came to the determination of 
eatablishing a paper which he oonld control, calling it dte Qaebeo 
Quette by authority, and he caused Dr. Fisher, a oo-editoi of the 
New York Albion, to come and take charge of it. Dr. Fisher had 
been a member of the Literary and Historical Society of NewYork ; 
he persuaded Iiord Dalhousie to get up a sodely with similar title 
aad objeots in Qaebeo. Thia was done, Chief Justice Sewell be- 
coming the first Preeideut, and W. Green, a native of this city, the 
secretary. The Society was in the firat inatanoe composed of high 
oGoials and oourUers, and the fee was fixed at a high rate, for 
some end which can only be guessed at, Papers were read befiire 
the Society. The President gave his " Dark Days of Canada" ; 
Captains Bayfield and Baddely read valuable papers on the G«d- 
Ogy of Canada, and Mr. Greeo presented his papers on Textile 
Plants, and on the plants used in dyeing by the Indians. Shortly 
after die formation of that Society, some of the younger inhabit- 
ants of Quebec, perhaps thinking that they had been slighted, 
formed th^nselves into a society under the name of the " Sodely 
for the Promolioa of Arts and Science in Canada." Lord Dal- 



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' 66 THS OAHADUN NATOOALUT. [Feb. 

hoosie nfnsed his ooantenanoe to this new inetitadon. Bevenl 
p^rswere read, andaBnoceaafiUpTogTeas became manifest. After 
K viiile, a disposition on the part of the Literaiy and HiBtorioal 
Society to conciliate the new one, and even to adTooat« a Ibsloa 
of the two, became apparent. This was nltimately effected, retaio- 
ing the ori^nal title. The nnion of the two societies was prodno- 
tive of good, the workiog members becoming more nnmennis. 
Some of their labors appear in the transBetions of the Society. 
On the acoeasion of Sir James Kemp to the goTemment of the 
Province, he very liberally bestowed to the Sodety a copy of that 
splendid work of art, Glande'eXiier Veritatit; also a transit in- 
etrament, and an excellent telesoope. Here it may be mentioned 
that M. Chasseur, a naturalist of Quebec, had formed a museum as 
amatterof epeculation, prinoipallycomposedof birds; but finding 
that it did not answer bis expectation in point of revenue, he per- 
suaded the Legislature to purchase the collection ; and it was placed 
under the care of the Literary and Historical Society, in addition to 
their own museum, which hod assumed a respectable condition. 
When in 1838 Lord Durham was sent out to conciliate the people, 
and restore Canada to a state of peace, he did at least one good thing. 
Led by the title of the Society to suppose that literature and history 
were its sole aim, he brought out a large and select collection of 
the ancient Greek and Latin historians, and presented it to the 
Society, for which he ia entitled to praise. This valuable addition 
to the library was received thankfully, and it fomiehed the means 
for several reviews and critioismB by that very learned and eateemed 
member of the Society, Dr. Wilkie. At later periods that So- 
ciety has been very unfortunate, having been no less than three 
times burnt out ; losing much of its accumulation of objects of nat- 
ural history, books, and apparatus, thus receiving a severe check in 
Boientifio pureuita ; but it ia now gradnally recovering from its lessee, 
and again rising into a state of activity. Before concluding, a word of 
OOmmendatioQ must be said on the Geological Survey of the Prov- 
ince, now for BO many years so well and eo efficiently conducted 
by its learned and amiable bead, asusted by an active and sotenti- 
fic staff. Their joint labors have been eminently successful, as b 
abundantly shown by the very complete Oeologioal Museum in 
this city; by their periodical reports of work done, now coDSoltda- 
ted into one large volume, which, of course, will be studied by all 
soientjfic devotees, a monument of the industry of the Commission 



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1864.] NATDBAL BISTORT SOOIBTT. B7 

of SnTT^, and an evidence to the dvilized vorld of the Taried 
UboTS and scientifia oapabUitiefl of the snrveyorB, well meritiDg Uie 
appknae and gratitude of the Province, to which they are folly 
entitled. Shall I say a word on the Bnbject of thia Society? If 
permitted, it must be but a word, fbr you are all better acquainted 
wiUi its formation and operations than I can pretend to be. The 
Society was formed shorUy after that of the L. and H. Society ; at 
tfaeiostance, I believe, of the late Dr.,Holmes and some congenial 
Bpirits. In the first few years of its existence its pn^resa was not 
very rapid, all np-hill work, as the Doctor informed me, the work 
mting on a few of the members ; but if so, that langaor hag been 
snoessfiilly shaken off; ite pn^ress and prosperity have been of the 
most satisfactory nature. As a contrast to the difficulties fbr the 
acquirement of scientific information met with at a remote former 
period, already alluded to, allow me to state some of the great faoili- 
' ties which are now offered to the student of Natural History. In 
many parts of the Province there have been established Colleges for 
the education of youth, in which the Natural Sciences are tangfat 
by learned professors, with the advantage of extensive museums. 
I will only mention some of them, without entering into particulars. 
Banning in the lower part of the province and proceeding up- 
wards, we have Laval, McGill, Lennoxville, Queen's, Toronto, and 
others. As r^rds this city, let me mention with commendation 
HcGill Collfge. Here for the professed stndent every facility 
exists : r^utar lectures are delivered on all branches of Natural 
Science, fudcd by a very complete museum, with a library of books 
of reference. To the occasional stndent, this Society posaeasea all 
the advantages required; an extensive and well-arranged museum, 
r^ular steted meetings, attended by all the scientific men of the 
city, a well-conducted magazine, open to contributors generally, a 
conrteoQS and scientific curator, a large and commodious building 
fit for all the purposes of the Society; and if I may judge by tiie 
extent of the present goodly assembly of patrons, there seems 
great reason to look forward to further satisfactory progress neces- 
sitating the extension of accommodation, bespeaking the approba- 
tion of future dwellers in thia growing and beautiful city, followed 
by the respect of the scientific world at large." 

The President then announced that instead of the chemical 
experiments by Professor Robins following here, as set down on 
the programme, an address would be given by Prof Miles of 



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58 THI OANABUM NATUBALIST. [Feb. 

BifihopB' College, LennoxviUe ; dooe the gues emitted in tfae per- 
fonuuioe of tlie ezperimente migbt not tend (o improve the vmti- 
lation of the room. FaoF. MlLKS then ^ke as follows : 

" Mr. President, it has afibrded me great pleaBQie to reoeive 
an inTitalaon to join in this gatheriog of the members, fHende, and 
visitors of the Natural History Society. 

"As one of its numerous guests this eveiuDg, I beg toexprewmy 
sinoere thanks for the {Hiviiege of parddpatang in a treat bo Tiohly 
and Ekt variously furBished, — one which, while it appeak to tbe un- 
derstuiding, delights the imagination and the senses. But in en- 
deavoring to respond, at a brief notice, to a request that I should 
address you, I should begin, if the plea were good for anything, 
or if it were judged to be in good taste, by asking yon to remem- 
ber how formidable a thing to some is the prospect of bmng re- 
quired to make a speech. In place of that, however, I find it more 
niUural, as it is doubtless more becoming, to obey the stimulus aris- 
ing from a hearty sense of sympathy as regards the objeota of the 
Natural History Sodety — to look to the feelings which must ani- 
mate all who are assembled here to-night — cultivators, lovers, and 
patrons of soieDOe — gathered together here socially for the par- 
pose of testifying an appreciation of those objects — for tba purpose, 
in fact, of testifying raped for tcience, and an admiration of t^ 
useful and heautiiiil tirte and improvements in art which Boienoe 
is oontinnally furnishing. 

" To these cODsidorationa I think, sir, I cannot be in error, whoa 
I add the mention of another motive in influencing us all who 
have come to participate in this evening's recreation ; namely, a 
desire to express our recognition of those services which have ren- 
dered the Natural History Society what it is — whether of those wii» 
havegiven wiUtoat stint, time, labor, and skill to its advancement, 
or of those otiier promoters who have, in various ways, contributed 
to the same end, by donations of money, of books, of works of art, 
and of specimens for the enrichment of the Society's collections. 

" Encouraged by reflections of this kind calculated to loosen the 
tongue, and to place even an unpractised speaker at his ease, I am 
lluuikf^il for the opportunity of ezpresung my own gratification at 
what I see and hear to-night, and should rqoice indeed if, it may 
be at a fitting moment, I oould be so fortunate as to say only a 
few nsefnl words in furtherance of a cause we all desire to promote. 

" There are estaUished here societies— quite a goodly number of 



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IS<4.] NATDBAJ. BISTOBY SOOIETT. 69 

Ibem— embuked in Qye exeoation of projects of benevolenoe, «da- 
cation, religioiu, mental and bodily welfitre, and I have understood 
tint Montreal U in this behalf not one whit behind other notable <a~ 
ties in her Majesty's dominiona. Bat I do think, eir, nithout any die- 
psngement of llieaim and work of those other combinations of effort 
which have been alluded to, that one of the very chief ornaments 
of this ci^, and one of the most efficient promoters of progress, ia 
the Natural HiMory Society. Embracing in its list of membov, 
livii^ and deceased, a good number of persons of high reputation 
that extends iar beyond the immediate aoene of their labors, it 
cu and doee command that sort and degree of resp^t which gives 
wai^t to its proceedii^s, and which conld not attend the efforts 
of any number of merely local magnntes. The domain of the 
Sodety'a reeeanihes being the botindlesa field of nature, and in a 
eompanitiTely new country where ahnost every day new develop- 
ments strengthen the oonfidenoe that is entertained in the magni- 
tnde of its natural resoureee, the Socie^ may be expected in the 
anoeeea of its work to render servioee of the greatest value to the 
lAoile eoittmnnity by being instrumental in bringing those resouices 
iwure and more into notice. I ought, perhaps, to apologise for pre- 
aamii^ on yonr indntgenoe when I venture to make remarks of 
this kind — when I suggest that the expectations of the public may 
possibly extend much further than some would at first sight ad- 
Biit to be legitimate as regards the labors of one society. But I 
iball be pardoned, I think, when it is borne in mind how few and 
dender as yet, and as compared with older countries, are our 
erganised means for the promotion of various special branches of 
seienoe. The day to us has not yet dawned for venturing to take 
in hand the organization of distinct societies, to promote astrono- 
my, chemistry, botany, met«or«l<^y, entomology, and a number of 
ottier leading branobee upon which the progreps of natural history 
is more or less eesentially dependent. It must be obvions that the 
fiiends of Boience in this country are naturally led, thion|^ the 
feroe of circumstances, to depend upon such a body as the Nata- 
lal History Sooie^ of Montreal for fostering and keeping alive 
aiDongst us a general scientific spirit, and a tone of natural seienoe 
in all its branches and operations to take up work which elsewhere 
would foe allotted to other associations. For these and like reasons it 
must be gratifying to the members of this society to feel that 
whatever they can do in behalf of science generally, even in cases 



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60 THR CANADIAN NATCFBALI8T. [Feb. 

where there ia apparently only aa indunot obnneotioD witb Uie 
particolar branches they oomblne to proBeoat«, ia neoesaarilj of 
advantage to the oommuuity; and that their labors, of whatoTcc 
kind, are sensibly appreciated, is amply demonstrated in the lurge 
and interested circle of friends whom the attractjons of this an- 
nnal oonversaiioDe have brought t^^tber this evening. 

"Sir, I hope I shall not be fonnd unmindfol of the natnre of 
-this social occasion upon which I feel it would be nnfltting to claim 
the attention of the andienoe for a long time. It would he no less 
inappropriate or unprofitable I believe for me to attempt to engage 
that attentjoo, even for a short time, by the diacnBsion of any purely 
technical matters appertuning to the several branches of natural 
history. Hy further remarks shall, therefore, be brief, and shall 
be devoted to one of the most important and interesting of the 
Society's undertakings, — ilt colUction of rpeciment, iUmtrative of 
/act* and phetwmena of natural kittory. In this department 
almost every person is able to pat his hand to the work, and to 
iurther its progrese ; and I might add, that in auch ooUeotioaB 
there ia dmoet always a place waiting to be filled np by contribn- 
riona such aa would entail upon the individoal friends of soienoe, 
Id most oasee, at least, but a email sacrifice. It is perhaps need- 
less to observe that specimens of objects of natural history sub- 
serve the purposes of attracting atteation, exciting interest, and 
impressing the memory in a manner that corresponds with the ef- 
fects produced by suitable experiments devised and executed in 
illnatraticn of any law of nature or natural phenomena. As it 
would be unreasonable to expeot a student of cbembtry to com- 
prehend, realize, and retain in his memory through mere words of 
description the phenomena attendant apon the mutual action of 
alkalies and acids, so would it be too much to firesame npqji at- 
taining a rational knowledge of the peouliaritjes of an owl or of the 
Bubetanoe india-rubber in the absence of visible examples of these 
okgeots. Drawings and models, if well executed, may to some ex- 
tent supply the deficiency. But as we all know the work of (Jie ar- 
tist cannot attain to the perfection realized in natnre ; andit may be 
safely asserted that the impreauons producible by verbal descrip- 
tion, even when accompanied by good drawings, is neither so vivid 
nor so permanent as that which ia created by the ugbt and hand- 
ling of the objects. In fact, one common result of an aocorate de- 
scription or drawing of a natural object is to make ns wish to tee, 



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1864.} NATURAL HISTOBT 80C1BTT. 61 

if poBBible, the object itself. Again, if the sight of a speoimen in 
a odfection — ^be it a stu^d hiid, or a mineral, or a valuable nat- 
ural pTOdnot in any one of its Btagee of oonTeiaioD to the uae of 
man — be fonndto augment the beholder'aprerioasknovledge of it, 
oc to set him right in regard to any erroneona impreasion he may 
have entertained ; if it serve to support or oonfato any theory, or to 
suggest any idea that is aflerwards worked out into naefol reaulta ; 
or in fine, if it exoite a spark in the mind which kindles into 
the dedre to go forth and study the works of nature in any por- 
tion of hear reahn, there is one of the ohief ends of such a coUectioD 
attained. 

"It is well worthy of note, that the variety of trains of thought 
and of aasoolationH roused by the sight of an object presented ae 
a speoimen is as great as that which exists in the mental qualitiee, 
bias, and oocapation in life of those who examine it. In this oon- 
neotion I am tempted to quote the language of Sir John HerBohel. 
Commentiog upon the different ideas attached by different per- 
sons even lo the name of a common sabstanoe, be says : ' Take 
Ibr instanoe Iron. . One who has never heard of magnetism has a 
widely different notion of iron from one in the contrary predioa- ■ 
meat. The vulgar, who r^ard this metal as inoombasti'>!e, and 
the chemist, who sees it hum with the utmost fury, and who has 
other reasons for regarding it as one of the most combustible bo- 
dies in nature ; — the poet, ,who usee it as an emblem of rigidity ; 
and the smith and engineer, in whose hands it is plastic and 
moulded like wax into every form j — the jailor, who prises it as an 
obstraction, and tike electrician who sees in it only a channel of 
open commnnioalion by which that most impsesibte of obstacles, 
the air, may he traversed by his imprisoned flnid, have all differ- 
ent notions of the same word. The meaning of such a term is 
Kke a rainbow, — every body sees a different one, and all maintain 
it to be the same.' 

" The only or principal effect upon some minds derived &om in- 
specting a oolketion of specimens appropriately arranged, is believ- 
ed by many to be a sort of passive gratifiontion traceable rather to the 
influence of a tasteful artistic display, than to tiie rect^ition of any 
poative r^olt of useful knowledge. It may be so : with pro^ooon- 
|ded minds, or through habitual indifference to what passes, some 
persons may agreeably though cursorily inspect a moseam witb- 
•nt oarrying away any new information. Still the effect, bo far 



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62 THE GANADIA.it NATnaALIBT. [f^- 

aa it goes is good — they enfier no harm ; and aeeing th&t wh&t u tins 
to tlieir notioe preedoted is not displeauug, there is the hope that 
on some Aitare oooasion they may b« iadaoed eren to oontribate 
to that which EM maoh pteasee aod instniets others. But the 
number of Baeh peraons — ^who can go throngh, perhaps, an exten- 
nva mnaenm without deriving any b^iefit whatever, is probaUy 
very small ; and if there be any, he or she is at leaat in no wone 
poeitioQ than a certain eminent navigator who minded ezdustvely 
bis own nautical businem, and returned home from hia voy^w is 
ohild-like ignorance of the artful ways of mankind — so that his 
fiiends jokingly said of him, 'be has been all round the wt^d, bat 
never in it.' 

" I am sore, sir, that it would be tedious to listen to details oi 
the advantages proposed and expected to be realiied by a society 
or institution that embraces among its purposes the making of a oot 
leetion of specimens. In most of the older museums very small atten- 
tion was commonly paid to the points I have alluded to, what have 
beencallen industrid and eoonomic purposes. The beauty,the rich- 
ness, the rarity, and curious nature of the objeate illustrated, were 
commonly the main agencies by which the attention and admiration 
of visiters were moved. Nooneoould say justly thattbese attributes 
are not perfectly legitimate, and worthy of especial provision in a 
public museum, viewed aa a repository of what is considered vain- 
able on account of its rarity, or because st^estive of intereetlng 
or important historical incidents. The majority of people for a 
very long time to come will probably regard wilii deep interest 
each objects as the spurs of King Hfenry the Fiflb, the watch 
used by Oliver Cromwell, the snuff-box of Napoleon Bonaparte, 
the sword of General Wolf, and the relics of personal effects be- 
longing to Sir John Franklin and his followers, recovered some 
years after their lamented owners had auccambed to their fate amid 
the arctic snows. The bare sight of these things rouses in most 
(tf us very strongemot4ons. Aa long as the world endures, hnman 
nature wiU ever cherish the preservation of articles of Hub kind. 
But it is much less common now than formerly to allot a large 
share of space in a museum to tlieir preservation and edibitton : 
a more utilitarian disposition is everywhere prevalent^and col- 
leotioos of specimens are expected to be composed of sometbi^ 
more than what may be denominated ourioaitiee. 

" But a brief visit to the Moseum of this Society, which I mtiy 



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1864.} MATUSAL HIBTOKT SOaETT. 63 

h» permitted to uy I htm now the opportanity of seeing for Ibe 
fint time in the more ezteDOTe and appropriate building provided 
for it, has afforded me so much pleasure that I cannot help saying 
a few words on what appears to me on tliis occasion worthy of 
mention, a veiy important principle for governing the making of 
such ooUeotions — and it mnst be very gratifying to all lovera of 
nstural history to see the prindple adhered to in the straotare of 
this Hosemn bo &r as it has pn^iressed. The principle I allnde 
to is Ui&t of utilizing the objects of a eolleotion strictly with 
s Tiew to the purposes aimed at^-exhibiting only specimens as per- 
fect as possible of their Bever^ kinds, not n^leoting artistic dis- 
play, but at the same time saorificing even that (when necessary) 
to the oonditjons of order in a series, position, and other re- 
-qnirementd for rendering illnstrative objects of natnral history 
really nsefiiL Host modem collections made ander &vorable ans- 
|Hce6 are known to follow this out in a decree that was deemed 
useless, or which, perhaps, was not even thon^t of in former 
times. I could name, sir, I think more than one old-established 
moaenm where no expense has been spared, and yet where atten- 
-tion to thia feature has been sadly n^lected, oocauoning injury to 
science, and exciting wonder in the minds of intelligent and 
adentific viidtors, who go into them, perhaps, anticipating instmo- 
tive information. Doubtless tJiia is sometimes the result of Bheer 
Delect ; bat more frequently it must arise from the too great lib- 
-erality and abundauoe with whioh particular okasee of specimens 
have been contributed. It is not so much the extent of a museum 
that renders it useful in the canse of science, as attention to unity 
of purpose, and to natural conditions. A bird, for ekample, poorly 
stuffed, mounted in an unnatural position, placed in a bad l^t, 
or thrown amongst others without heed of its species, however re- 
markable ita prototype in natnre may be, is hut ill-suited to ea- 
oourage the study of ornithology, or to illustrate the collateral 
facts of science which students of natural soienoe are usually anz- 
iona to verify. The grand rule so valuable, and carried out by 
oaiefol people in their ordinary arrangements, ' a place for every- 
Hang, and everything in ita place,' is eminently of oonseqaenoe in 
tbe disposition of the objects of a museum. 

" For reasons snoh as are feebly indicated in the above remarks, 
it is remarkable that people who are partial to ornithology are 
ft heard to declare that they derive more real benefit and 



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64 TBE CANADIAN NATrBALIST. [Feb. 

more pleasure from iospecUng a compnTatiTslj Email collection 
jndioioiuly arranged, and i^ell monnted — aa for example the birds 
in the University of Edinbnrgh Goll^ Collection — than IVom 
the examples io the great Briljah Museum itself. 

" In the nnolena of a future extensive museum embiaoed by the 
geological collection, the examples of animals, of birds, reptiles, and 
fishes, and in the herbarium belonging to this Society, I feel sure, 
Sir, there ate offered opportunities vhioh most furnish on all points 
most valnable helps to students of natural history in this country ; 
and thus positive utility as well as the cause of tiieoretical science 
cannot fail to be subserved." 

General chemical experiments, of an int«restiDg description, 
were tlien performed by Professor Robins, accompanied with ap- 
propriate explanations. 

During the remainder of the evening the eatertainmeat was 
contributed to by Mr. Heam, optiraan, who exhibited a series of 
dissolving views j and by the band, who gave several other choice 
selections. The visitors also examined with much pleasure the 
various interesting objects in the Society's collection, and a 
number of microsoopes and other scientific instruments displayed 
in the library. 



THE MAPLB-LBAF CUTTER. 

At a late meeting of the Natural History Society, a comTauoi- 
oation was read from Rev. Mr.Constabell of Clarence vi lie, describing 
the ravHges of an insect whose larva barrows in the maple leaves, 
cutting out circular pieces, which are used as coverings to protect 
the larva while eating the parencbymn of the leaf. 

From the specimens exhibited, it appe^ired that the insect is a 
little moth, Ornix aceri/olieUa of Fitoh, well known In the State 
cf New York, though apparently not hitherto recorded in Canada. 
Fitch states that it is not ordinarily very destrnctive, but that in 
some seasons it appears in great nnmbers, and iuQicts considerable 
rav^es, especially on detached miple groves. He recommends 
that cattle should be turned into the affected groves in autumn, id 
the hope that their treading would destroy the pups, which at 
that season are lying on the ground, wrapped in their coverlets of 
cnt leaves. 



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1864.] 



REVIEW. 



GlOLOatoAL ScBTKT OT Cahada. Repoit of Prc^reffi from 
its Commenoement to 1863. Lovell, Montreal. 

This luge notETO, of 983 pagea, Ulustratod with 498 wood-cati, 
and to be aoconpuiied b; an atlas of mapa and sections, presents 
a condensed view of the work of the Canadian Surrey from its 
oomiDencemeiit in 1843. It gives the resnlts of the eombined 
labors of Sir W. E. Lognn, Mr. Murray, Dr. Hnnt, and Mr. 
Billings, a staff not to be surpassed either in ability or enei^, 
and aided also by several able asristants, of whom Mr. Biohardson 
and Mr. Bell stand first. It is also to be obserred that the 
generous and liberal dispositiOD of the Director of the Sorrey has 
kept him in friendly relations with every one of any note aa an 
nnoffioial observer oo Canadian Qeology; and that in his Preface 
he ennmerates and frankly acknowledges all the services, large or 
small, rendered by Boob persona befbre the inatitntion of the Sor- 
vqr or during its ^Togteea. 

The work commences with an account of the Physical Geog- 
raphy of Canada, presenting in few bnt well^chosen words the 
general features of the country. A few pages are then devoted to 
the nomenolatnro of the geological formations ; after which bc^na 
the main portion of the work, devoted to a detailed description of 
the formations occurring in Canada, Ix^nning with the Lauren- 
tian, the oldest of them all, and ending with the Devonian ; the 
superficial geolt^ being ^ven in a separate chapter at the end. 
The fowils are carefully noticed under each formation, with illna- 
tratioiiB of characteristic epeaies. 

The aecond leading division of the work is a description of 
Canadian minerals, embraoing many new facts of interest, aacer- 
tained by the Chemist of the survey. Then follows by the same 
hand what may be r^^ed as a treatiae on rooks, which is prob- 
ably the most valuable and reliable memoir on this important 
subject in onr lango^e. 

Thifi part of the Report ends at page 670; and beyond this, as 
becomes a public aurvay, the remainder is occupied prindpally 
^th economical geolc^. Every useiiil rook or mineral occurring 
in the ooantry is noticed ; with details as te the places and condi- 
tions in which it is found, and the extent to which it is worked; 



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66 THE CANADIAN NATITRALIST. [Feb. 

and much useful infbrmation is given as to the modes of rendering 
■uoh depodts useful elaewbere. 

The value of this work to Cxnada oan Bcamel; be onr-estdmated. 
It must be regarded as of vast importuioe, whether we oonddei 
readers abroad or at home, wbetiier we oondder Bcientifio objects 
purely or those which are praotjoal. Its meobanioal exeontion is 
an endenoe of the progresa of the arte among as. Its publication 
to the world is a proof of the interest taken in ecienoe in this 
country, and of the enlightened patronage afforded by the Oorem- 
ment to sooh investigadons, and at the same time, of the 
immense valne of our mineral reeonroee, as well as of the 
exteut to which they have already been made available. It gives 
for the first time to geologists abroad the means of making them- 
sdves thoroogUy acquainted with the geology of this country ; and 
it thus places Canada on a level with those older oonntries whose 
structure has been explored, and the knowledge of it made the 
common property of the world. In some departments of geology, 
it even makes Canadian rook-formatioDs rank as types to which 
those of other countries will be referred. This is espeoially 
the case with regard to those oldest of known rooks, the Lau- 
rendan aeries, whose intrioaoies have for the first time been 
unravelled by the Canadian survey, their mineral character 
explained, and the earliest known traces of animal life ob- 
tained from themj so that the term Laurentian is applied 
as the general deeignation for the most ancient formataons 
of Europe as well as of America. To the people of Canada, 
the pubUoation of this Report must mark an era both in soieuoe 
and practical mining. Any one desirous of studying gecJogy, 
has here to aid him a detailed account of tlie Btruoture of his own 
country ; an advantage not hitherto enjoyed by our self-taught 
geoli^ists, and one which in a readii^; oonntrylika this, must bear 
good fruit. The practical man has all that is known of what our 
conutry produces in eveiy description of mineral wealth; and has 
thus a reliable guide to mining enterprise, and a protection against 
imposture. Even in the case of new discoveries of useful min- 
erals which may be made, or may be claimed to be made, after the 
publication of this Report, it g^vee the means of testing their prob- 
able nature and valne, as compared with those prerionsly known. 

No one, in short, need henceforth have any excuse for profosnng 
ignoranoe of the labors of the Geological Survey, or for representing 



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1864.] EEvaw. 67 

it aa ft useless expenditore of tbe pablio money. Persons not 
intereeted in ecienoe or in prao^cal mining might heretofore have 
b<»n exonsed ftr not having read the annua! reporU of progresB, 
with their irj details and want of suitable illnetrations ; but after 
tbe publioation of this attraoUve volume, snch want of knowledge 
oan no longer be tolerated; and it ia to be hoped that do pablio 
speaker or writer will venture bo to proclaim bis own ignoranoe as 
to pretend that Canadian Geology is one of those little matters 
which have, in the midst of more important affairs, escaped his 
attention, or to underrato tlie labors of those who have devoted 
themselves to this great work. 

We do not propose togive any summary of the Report, or to give 
eztraots &om it. It should be in the bands of every reading man 
in Canada ; and as a further inducement to this, we oloM with 
the fidlowing eztraots from the Prefiue, in relation to tbe arrange- 
ment of the Museum of the Survey, which is one of its most cred- 
itable and useful achievements t 

" One of tbe daties imposed by tbe Government upon the Sur- 
vey, at the time of its institution, was the ibrmatlon of a Provin- 
dal Museum, which should illustrate the geology and the mineral 
reaouroes of the country. This ol:jeot has been constantly kept In 
view; and aiDoe a suitable building has been plaoed at the disposal 
(^ the Survey, the Museum has gradually assumed a value and 
importance wbioh at the present time reu'^er it second to few on 
the oontinent for the special purpose to which it is devoted. The 
Hnseum is separated into two parts. One of these is devoted to 
Economia Geology, and in it are displayed specimens of such 
rockg and minerid substances as can be applied to tbe useful 
purposes of life. These are subdivided into two clasBes ; one 
of them contuning tbe more important metals and their ores, and 
the other what may be termed the non-metalliferous mineral sub- 
stanoea. These various materials are agiun olasufied technically, 
pretty much in the way in which they are described in tbe f.wenty- 
fint chapter of this volume; each specimen being placed under a 
label givii^ its looaHty, and the geological formation to which it 
belongs. The various substances are as much as possible reduced 
to forms showing their uses, dine at onoe making tbe design (^ the 
arrangement iutelli^ble'. In this division of the Museum there 
is a classified collection of all onr mineral spcoies; and another of 
OUT fockB,more particularly those ofamctamorpbioorof an intru- 



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68. THE CANADIAN NATUaALIST. [Feb. 

ai?e oli&raoter. This part of the Museum it is proposed to illus- 
trate further by geol<^cal maps, sections, and models. 

" The geographical distribution of any series of foimalions can 
scarcely be followed oat correctly over a large area without a pre- 
liminary knowledge of the true geolo^cal superpositinn, or the 
natural order in whioh these fonnatbas have been deposited. It 
is now well establiiihed that throughout a veiy large proportion of 
the whole series of rooks composii^ the earth's crust, the best . 
means of determiniDg their succession is by their fossils; it being 
a fiindamental principle of geology that different formations are 
charaoterized by different groups of organic remains. The study 
and determiuaUoa of fossils thus becomes an Indispensable part of 
a geological surrey. But these organic forms are so many and bo 
various, and pass into one another by such insensible gradations, 
that to make them truly aviulable requires the special attention of 
a person versed in natural history, and indeed of one who purauea 
an uninterrupted study of that department of natural history which 
is devoted to these ancient forma. Hence the necessity of attach- 
ing a paleontologist to every important geological surrey; and 
hence do geological mnseum can be complete without a full and 
properly classified collection of described oiganic remuns from the 
fossiliferoos rocks of the area which it is designed to illustrate. 

" The second division of the Museum is thus devoted to the 
palieontology of onr formations. In this division the fossils are 
displayed in gronpe, which succeed one another in the order of the 
formations, beginning with the most ancient. In each group the 
specimens ajre arranged in a natural-history order, oommeooing 
with the simplest or lowest forms, and rising to the highest; and 
to eaoh specimen there is attached a label giving the generic and 
specific names of the fos^, with its geological formation and its 
locality. In order that there may be no mistake as to the fossil 
indicated by the label, the spedmens are fi«ed as much as possible 
from all other fossils. In order at the same time to save space, 
the specimens have been as much as possible reduced iu size. In 
this operation the services of Mr. T. C. Weston, a lapidary, have 
been made avulable ; and his skill has also been applied t« slitting 
many of the oe^halopods and other fossils, and rooks, &>r the pur- 
pose of showing their internal structure. By this reduotiOD in 
the size of the specimens we have been able to arrange a much 
greater number in our limited space than would otherwise have 



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1864.] REVIEW. 69 

" The nmnber of species of fossils displayed in the Museum is 
about 1500. Figures engraved on wood of 643 of the more 
characteristic of these, are given in the present volume. These 
ue chiefly by Mr. J. H. Walker of Montreal, with a few by Mr. 
A. W. Oraham and Mr. Ct. Q. Tasey ; the wliole from excellent 
drawings by Hr. H. S. Smith. With a few exceptions, the species 
here ^nred are distinct &om those which have already been given 
in the Decades of Canadian Organic Bemains, published by the 
Survey. Of these, I, III, and IV have appeared, and it b espected 
that Decade II, already referred to, will shortly be published. For 
the desoriptioDS of Decade I we are indebted to Mr. J. W. Salter, 
palsBontologist to the Geological Survey of the United Kingdom. 
It coDtains twenty-one species from the Birdseye and Black River 
formation, the figures of which are drawn by Mr. C. R. Bone, and 
engraved by Mr. W. Sowerby, Decade II will contun fifty-one 
species of graptolitidse, by Prof James Hall of Albany. Decade 
ni contains twenty-nine species of Lower Silurian cystideae and 
asteridse, described by Mr. Billings, and one species of oyclocys- 
toidea, by Messrs. Salter and BilUngs; with fourteen species of 
Lower SUorian blvalved entomostraoa, by Mr. T. Rupert Jones, 
of the Oeolo^cal Society of London. The figures are drawn on 
stone by Messrs. C. R. Bone, J. Dinkle, Tuffen West, G. West, 
and H. 8. Smith. Decade IV containa forty-three species of 
Lower Silurian crinoidea, described by Mr. Billings ; the figures 
drawn on stone by Mr. H. S. Smith, and printed by Mr. G. Mat- 
thews of Montreal. As already stated, Mr. Billingshas described 
altogether 526 species of fossils. Those not included in the 
Decades have been published in the Canadian Journal of Toronto ; 
the Canadian Naturalist and Geolc^ist of Montreal ; in the Annual 
Reports, and in the volume entitled Paheozoic Fossils of Canada^ 
published by the Survey. 

" la the oollootion of the Survey there are probably at the 
present time about 500 species of fossils still remaining unde- 
scribed. The publication of these will be an additional oontribn- 
tion to the general fund of paleeontological knowledge; to which, 
IS it has been of great utility in our own inveatigationa, we are 
bound to add what we can for the benefit of others. But inde- 
pendent of the instruction derived fVom fitsBils ss guides to our- 
selves, and proofs toothers in r^rd to the succession of our rocks, 
than is a higher consideration attached to them than thdr men 



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70 THE CANADIAN NATDRALIBT. [Feb. 

udlitari&n appUoation. For, as remarked by Conybeare, they 
bring ua Bapplemcntary infonuation of nameiona species vhieb 
have long vaDished from the actual order of thingB; and by their 
reenrreotion the; nnexpecledly extend oar views of the varions 
eombinatioDs of organic forms. In many iDStaooes they supply 
linka otherwise wanting, inanilingthe different terms of the series 
in an unbroken chain, and thus aid in the elucidation of those 
general laws of nataral history, the investigation of which is always 
of BO much interest to enlightened minds." 

The maps and sections required to complete the work will be 
published in the course of this year. Through the kindness of 
Sir W. E. Logan, we have been permitted to examine the portions 
of them already prepared. One of them is anexqnisite miniature 
geological map of Canada and the neighboring re^ons, giving a 
wonderfhl amount of detail in small spaoe. Others are maps of 
special districts and fbrmations; as, fbr instance, of the remarkable 
convolutions of the Laurentian rodcs in the region of the Ottawa, 
and of the distribution and subdivisions of the Huronian system. 
There are also sections on several of the most important lines, 
which are of especial value and interest in oonseqncnoe of thdr 
being drawn to a trua scale, so as to present an acoorate view of 
the actual relations of the rocks. These will of course, when 
completed, greatly enhance the value of the work. 



MEETING OF BRITISH ASSOCUTION. 

ZOOLOBT AKD BoTAMV. 

Profsbsor BiLvoDB, in his opening address, after stating that 
the subjects to bo discussed ia this Section were biological 
ones, proceeded to remark :' " Alihongh our Section is separated 
for convenienca from that of geology, nevertheless they have 
important hearings on each other. The study of Falnontology 
cannot be presented without a thorough koowledge of the 
anatomy,, mode of growth, and geographical distribution of 
the plants and animals of the present epoch. In fact, the 
study of fossil plants and animals ought to constitute a part of 
every course of Botany and Zoology. Geology, in place of 
being reckoned a distinct science, may be considered as the 



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ISM.] BBITISU ASSOCIATION. 71 

laeKit by whioli the departmenU of MiDeralogy, Botany, and 
Zoolt^ an combiaed in one barmoniooa system, embraciog tbe 
natural histoij of the globe. Rash geolog^eal statements and 
condueions often arise from imperfoct knowledge of the sciences 
included in our Boction. Fronda of ferns of different external 
forms have been described as distinct fossil speoiea or even goiera, 
the geologist not knowing that rery different forma of frond are 
exhibited hy the same species of fern in the present day. Again, 
another error has arisen from the same form of frond being con. 
sidered as indicating the same species, whereas the same form does 
ocQur in different genera in the present flora— and these can only 
be distingnisbed by the fraotification, which in fossil ferns is 
rarely seen. So also tbe same forms of shell may belong to dif- 
ferent y<Mro, the only distinction beingfonnded on the teeth, or on 
some other cbarscter of tbe <ntwna/ inhabiting tbe shell ; and such 
cbaraoteiv are, of oourae, totally lost in the fossil. Again, the 
presence of a palm-leaf might be considered by the geoic^st as 
indicative of a very bot climate, fVom his not knowing that some 
palms oocar at high latitudes, and others are met with in mountains 
associated with cool forms of ooniferae. These and numerous 
instances might be adduced to show the necessity of a perfect 
acqofuntance with the present fauna and flora in all their details 
before the geologist can determine fossils, or the character of the 
climate of Palteontolog^oal epochs. There is a mutual bearing of 
all the natural sciences on each other, and the student of nature 
must take a comprehensive grasp of all- The natural sciences have 
always occupied a prominent place in the proceedings of the British 
Association. Tbe subject is in itself popular, and is interesting 
to all ola»es. Mach has been said in this Section to advance the 
saeuees of Zoology and Botany, and to stimulate naturalists in 
their investigations. A great feature of the asso(»ation which 
require special notice, is the procuring of reports in different de- 
partments of science, and tbe aiding and encouraging of natural- 
ists in carrying on researches which require much tabnr and 
experience for their prosecution. Many a deserving young natu- 
ralist has thus been enabled to advance science, and lay the foun- 
dation for future fame and promotion. Another important 
feature of the Association is the bringing together men of science 
and promoting free personal intercourse. Perhaps more good has 
been done hy this than even by tbe reading of papers. Inter- 



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72 THK CANADIAN NATURALIST. [Fflb. 

change of thought by oral communication, and the opportunity 
of frankly stating difficulties and of asking questions, are moit 
valuable to men of science, o^ecially when they are congregated 
from yarions parts of the world. Friendships, too, are cemented, 
and asperities arc softened by coming into contact with fellow- 
laborers in the same great -field. No donbt there have been 
occasioned uupleasaot altercations at onr meetings ; but even 
these have been ultimately turned to good account. Explana- 
tions are made, opinions are oanrassed, and truth is finally 
elicited. For, as iron sharpeneth iron, so the countenance of 
a man his friend. But iron does not sharpen iron unless it is 
brought into contact with its fellow, and one be made to act 
sharply and keenly on the other. In former days keen disputes 
took place among geologists in reference to the formation of 
rocks. The igneous view, propounded by my distinguished 
relative, Dr. James Hutton, was supported warmly by some, 
while tho aqueous viow was espoused by others. At length, tnitb 
was elicited, and the minds of geologists now, to a certain extent, 
correspond. The relations and poniiions of rocks, the coniinuity 
of formation!!, Carabrisn and Silurian rock*, coal and shHies, gla- 
cial motions, the aefinilion of species, their permanence or versal- 
tility, and their origin, embryog^nesii in plants and animal)', flint 
hatchets, the age of man, and many other points, structural and 
physiological, have been, and now are, still discussed with great 
keenness and even with accnracy. But, out of all this, as in 
former cases, truth will at length come forth. The storms which 
now and then agitate the natural -history atmosphere will purify it. 
Like the misla on the mountain, which bring out in bold relief the 
noble rocks and ravines of the cra^y sammit, so these dispotes, 
even while they are carried on, bring out some phenomena of 
interest which had been prerionsly invisible. The lightning's 
flash in the dark cloud may discern to ns some prominent object 
which bad been inviuble in the oalro sunshine. But ere long tlie 
atorm will cease, the mists will bedisaipated, and then the uncloud- 
ed aammit will appear in all its majestic clearness. So when the 
obscurity cast around science by the disputes of combatants shall 
have passed away, tbe truth will shine forth to the calm eye of 
the philosophic observer in all its beauty. In such polemics we 
are not to fight merely for victory, or for tbe adrancemeui of our 
own fame, but for the great cause of tnitb,^whioh alone will 



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1864.] BRITISH ASSOOIATION. 73 

prevul at l&st. No studies are better calculated to promote 
friendiy interooune. ' Tbe iaveitigation of 6od's works is veil 
fitted to calm unruly passioiu, and to promote humility and har- 
mony. In ipeaking of the effects of the practical prosecution of 
Botany, tbe late Dr. Johoston of Bernick remarks : ' There is a 
pre-arranged and henefictal influence of external nature over the 
constitntioD and mind of man. He who made nature all beauty 
to the eye, implanted at tbe same time in His rational creatuTes 
an instinctive perception of that beauty, and has joined with it a 
pleasure and enjoymeut that operate through life. We are all 
the better for oar botanical walks, when ondertalcen in a right 
spirit: they soothe, soften, or eibilarate. The landscape around 
OS becomes our teaoher, and from ita lesson there is no escape; 
we are wooed to peace by the impress of nature's beauty, and the 
very air we breathe becomes a source of gratifluadon and pleasure. 
The eompanioQsbip of those who are prosecuting with eeal and 
enthusiasm the same path of stueuce is a delightful fealureuf such 
exvarw'ons. The fe«lings excited on these occasions are by no 
lueane evaDescent : they last during life, and are recalled by the 
sight of the specimens wliich were collected. These apparent 
iiisigiiifioeiit remnanta of vegetation reoallmany tales of adventure, 
and are aeaociated with the delightful recollection of many a friend. 
Many a time, while carrying on our botanioal researches in the 
wide field of nature, and visiting the Alpiue districts of this and 
other lands, have I felt the force of these remarks. On the 
last occasion that I presided over Section D at Liverpool, in 1864, 
I was associated with my late dee ply -lamented colleague, Edward 
Forbes, who was President of Seotion C. ; and, on looking back to 
his career, I feel, that I cannot give a better example of a true 
naturalist — one who took a wide and expanded view of nature in 
all her deparimenta, and at the same time exhibited such a genial 
spirit as endeared him to all. I have elsewhere remarked 
that with all his knowledge, he combined an affability, a 
modesty, a kindness, which endeared him to every one. 
Ko itndent of nature was beneath hie notice ; no feat recorded by 
apupil, however humble, was passed with neglect. He was ready at 
all times to be qaestioued, and was prompt to point ontany spark 
of merit in others. Hv had no jealousy, and never indulged in 
a'.tflcks upi>n others. He gave full credit to all ; and he was more 
ready to see the bright than the dark spots in their charactw. 



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74 THE CANADIAN NATUaALUT. [F^. 

Evan to those who criticised him severely he bore no ill-wiU, and h« 
certainly did not retain ruling Tor nuiing. Orer and again wu 
I AHBOciated irith him in sdentjfic rambles and in meeUngs of natu- 
raliBts ; and I have seen the tact with which ha subdued the jiei^r- 
vidum wgmium when misdireoted, and calmed the tarbnlant spirit 
when self-esteem prevailed over the due aoknowledgment of an- 
other's merits. He was truly unselfish, and never fiuled to neog- 
nize and encourage merit wherever he could detect it. He had a 
truly generous spirit, and was totally devoid of narrow bigotry. 
He waa desirous of promoting science, independently of all sel- 
fish views. He loved it for its own sake. Would that his example 
waa more followed by all of us ! When we look at the changes 
which are eonstandy taking place in the views of naturalists as 
sdence advances, we cannot but feel the need of modeety in 
the statement of our opinions. While we give our views and the 
reasons for adopting them, let this be done withont dogmaljsm or 
asperity. Let ns remember that our conclouons may be modi- 
fied or altered by fnlure discoveries. Such anticipations, however, 
should not paralyse oar efforts. Science is advancing, facts are 
being accumnlaled, and, year after year, anoUestniotureisbeing 
reared on a sound fonndation. It requires now and then a mas- 
ter-mind to bring oat great geaeralizatioaa, and to give a decided 
impetus to the work. Facts must be carefully weighed, andkno]vl- 
edge must be accurate and extensive ; otherwise a genius in sci- 
ence is apt to bring forward rash generaliiations, ai^ to indulge 
in unfounded speculations. The imagination is disposed to run 
riot when a grand vista seems to open before it, and it flies on 
heedlessly to the terminus without surveying the intermediate 
ground. We do not ignore speculation ; but we recommend, at 
the same time, cautious induction — a sifting of facts and of their 
relations to each other, Katural History soiences are now assuming 
an important place in education. They are not confined, as for- 
merly, chiefly to medical men, but they entei mora or leas into 
the preliminary studies of every one. While Classics and Mathe- 
matics ought to have an important place in our schoole and col- 
lies, Natoral History cannot now be neglected. UniversiUes 
which formerly ignored It, are now remedying their error in this 
respect ; and we may ere long hope to flnd it occupying a atill 
more important position io educational institutions. The possess- 
ion of university bonora is now connected, to a certain degree, 



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1864.] BRITISH AB800IATION. 75 

with a, knowledge of natore ; and a muter of arts, sa well as a, 
doolor of mediciDe, is supposed to know somelbing of the objects 
in the material world witb wbiuh he is surrounded. The estab- 
liahment, dso, of special degrees in science is a step io advance, 
for which we are iudebted to the Uoiversiiy of London. Natu- 
ral sciences are partlualarly valuable in mental trainlTig. They 
promote accuracy of obserration and of description. Tbay teaoh 
the student to look at the objects around him, not with an idle 
gaze, but with an iatelligeat dis<;rimination. They ensure correct- 
ness of diagnosis, aad encourage orderly and systematic habits. 
The British association, in its perambulation, does mnch good by 
bringing such subjects prominently under the nodce of directors 
of educational institutions In various parts of the country. It stirs 
up many to see the value ofthiskindofknowledge, and gives prac- 
dcal illustrations of its bearing on the ordinary business of life. 
Thus the Assodation has an important influence on the town in 
which it meets, not merely by what it does daring its sittings, but 
also by its afler-e£Fons on the population. The very preparations 
made in the locality for the meeting have ollen been prodnctive of 
much permanent good. They have been instrumental in bringing 
together collections which have formed tbe nncleos of a local 
mnseom. And they have been the means occasionally of intro- 
ducing sanitary measures of the highest benefit to the inhabitaats." 
In conclusion, the President remarked upon the reciprocal rel^ 
tions of science and theology. 

Pbtsioloot. 
Faor. RouiSTOs, in opening the proceedings of this section, 
remarked that last year Dr. Sharpey delivered an address on tha 
progress which phydology bad made during the previous twenty 
years ; and before the British Association last year, moreover, 
Professor Huxley delivered an address on the divisions and de- 
partments of the science, with its methods and prospects. His 
own aim would therefore be to avoid the territories which had 
thus been occupied ; and he proposed to pass in review such 
writers as had written works to which reference was likely to be 
made in the section, and such publications as might probably 
become the subject of discussion. First, ha would mention works in- 
tended for the general public ; and secondly, spedfy worksofamon 
strictly scientific character in the three departments of experimental 
phyaoI<igy,stnictnral and comparative anatomy ,and the microaeope, 



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76 THE CANADIAN NATtTKALlST. [Feb. 

and tbeo be intended to make a few obeervations upon the general 
and npon the educational value of physiological study. Of phy- 
siological and anatomical works intended for the general public, 
there were happily now a considerable number. Among those of 
11 popular character he might specify The IntelUelual Obterver, 
lilt Popular Seimee Review, The Natural Sistory Revitw, and 
7!%c AnnaU and Magaxine of Natural Htttory ; the three brat 
of recent date, but the last a long estnblished and still eiuellent 
pnblicatJon. The ecientific societies publish so many proceedingn 
in octavo, with illuairationB, that there did not exist the same ne- 
cessity in England as on the Coutinent — a fact which their foreign 
friends wodd do well to remember, while the physiologists of 
England were free to acknowledge the many and valnable ser- 
vices rendered by German and other Continental works. He 
thoughthe ought, also, to mention American literary contributions, 
and to specify Tkt Smithttmian and The PkUadelphian Jour- 
nal of Science, the French Annates det Seieneet Naturellet, and 
the WUrtibuTg and Berlin Archivet. Physiology and scientific 
zoology had bcon expounded with singular clearness and accuracy 
to the general publio by Xr. Lewes ; and anatomy was Inrgely 
introduced into the pleasing fishermen's book. The Angler' Natu- 
raiiel, by Mr. Cbolmondeley Fennell. A abort sketch, such as Mr. 
Pennell's, of the economy of the Bird, would be a most valnable 
addition to onr ordinary ornithologies and oolites. He said 
oologiee, for even in the egg of the bird the special needs of the 
forthcoming bird seerned to be more especially provided for than 
in the e^s of other families much higher in the scale. Passing 
from works of general to works of more strictly and severely scien- ' 
tific interest, he muet observe that a high place was due to the 
leotureaof Professor Hoiley on the Classification of Animals ; and 
it apoke well for the enlightenment of the readers of the Medical 
Timet and of the Lancet that the editors of those journals bad 
felt it denrable to cater for their tastes by publishing those lec- 
tures OB pure science. Turning to works on Experimental I%y- 
siolt^, ha was reminded of vivisection ; a word which had been 
rendered fbmiliar to the ears of the public during the last few 
weekaby the letters and discussions thathad appeared in the Times 
and other papers. Addressing himself to one of the questions it 
auggesta, he would ask — Is it possible that a want of humanity is 
a common &ult of physiologists! He was not by any means so 



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1864.] BftlTHIH AfiSOOUTION. 77 

wre that " want of decencj is want of seoae " — as Pope Iiad a«id 
— aa that a want of humanity is a waot of culture. RudeuMh 
ignorance, want of education, were much more snrelf connected 
wiih cruelty thsn was cowardice. AH children pretty nearly 
were crnel — that is to say, they were capable of perforraiog acta 
nbich adults, at least of the upperclasses, shrink from. Moat, if 
not all, persons in the lower order of aocicly concerned in the 
capture of animals were pretty nearly invariably cruel ; and, if 
reproved for cruelty, they would often be unable to understand 
what was meant. Gamekeepers, again, killed anything which 
possesses life, unless they knew they could be prosecuted for so 
doing, or were paid for preserving it Cruelty, then, usually flowed 
from want of thought, want of culture, and want of refinement. 
Was it probable, then, that men of a science demanding much 
thought, mach culture, and not a little education, should resem- 
ble persons lacking all these things ia the very points most directly 
characteristic of such deficiencies! Let him state, too, greatfacts 
against which no amount of writing or of demonstration coald be 
of any avail, except by ignoring them. The facta were— first, ex- 
periments on living animals very frequently causa their death 
instantaneously; secondly, when this is not the case, there was 
chlorofornt, which was almost invariably employed. In vivisec- 
tion, as it was called, frequently the first step was the deettnction 
of life, and that in a way as speedy, to say the least, as by the 
ordinary methods of deetrnction at the command of either the 
sportsman or the butcher. Now, surely a life might as well be 
sacrificed for increasing knowledge as for the production of fiesh- 
food, or for what was called sport Experiment, too, was tedious 
and toilsome, and was, therefore, rarely undertaken out of wan- 
tonness, or for the gratification of malignity. Undertaken for the 
ends of science, it had as good a claim to our sympathy as the 
practices of the *' gentle craft " of anglers, to say nothing of those 
of the destroyera of warm-blooded animals. Vegetarians, it was 
true, but they alone, could meet this argument on principle. They 
conld say, " Your ' To quoqne ' has no g^;ging force when nsed 
tons; we deny that two blacks make one white. Yon cannot 
experiment as yon choose — find out how to create life; and no- 
thing can jostify yon in taking it away." He did not see how 
this ccnld be met, at least on vegetarian principles. But from 
what he had already seen in Newcastle, he judged that the vege- 



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78 TBE CANADIAN NATCEALlSr. [Feb. 

Urian membera of this AssiKiiation were not many. In the otbar 
case, chloroform obliterated the sense of pain. And tbe use ofcblo- 
roform was now rarely omitted. The utility of vivieection hod 
been strikingly proved in tTo clnsses of diseases— diabetes and 
epilepsy. The latter, frightful to witness, was yet mora frightful 
to sti£fer — violence and danger for the moment, and dreariness of 
prospect for the futnre, aud of the nay to meet it Tivisectioii had 
^ven us at last a hopeful, because a rational, foreshadomng. To 
diabetes — an equally terrible if lesashocking malady — ^tbe applica- 
bility of Tivisectional results was even more direct than in refer- 
ence to epelipsy, thanks to the Btndies of Dr. Pary. He would 
just say furliier, that, when vivisection was being denounced as 
causing pain and suffering in a world already so full of both, it 
would be well to consider that, in this question, as well as in all 
other hnman questions, we had to deal with complei considera- 
tions, and to weigh thera one against the other. Absolute cer- 
tainty was not looked for in morals, absolute demonstration was 
not given us in reli^ous questions, and absolute freedom from 
eril was not given to us in any course of practjcal action we 
adopt. Vivisection produces a certain amount of pain ; but ia 
this pain voluntarily and of deliberate purpose produced in a few 
laboratories, greater in amount, in intensity, in duration, than the 
mental pain, moral distress, and bodily agony endured in many a 
cottage, many a palace, by the vic^ms of the very two diseases 
which, in these last years, vivisection has most assisted medicine 
to combat t He felt it to be bis duty to make this apology for 
vivisection. Having done so, he passed on to the subject of stmc- 
tnral anatomy, and specified the names of numerous writers upon 
it — ^bolh English and ConUnental. He next dwelt upon the pro- 
fessional and popular advantages of physiological study, «nJ of a 
biological train ing~~observing that a thorough scientific training 
tends, necessarily, to engender modesty and distrust of one's self. 
He believed he had the authority of their own elder Stephenson 
for saying that to worldly success there is no gift so necessary as 
the gift of something quite different. The bar, the senate, and 
the hustings delight in verbal antitheus, sharp distinctions, and 
sweeping assertions, which nature abhors. She knows little of 
antithesis— ebe works by gradadons ; and tie who has studied her 
truthfully knows that the universality of assertion is generally in 
the inverse ratio of knowledge. For success, then, in the brilliant 



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1864.] BBITIBH AB800UTION. 79 

IiDM of life, the study of nature did not constita(« the beet poeei- 
b)e training; bat for suocees in the scientific careen he had epe- 
cifled, it Tould bo waating worda to eaj how neceaaary a biologi- 
cal tnuning is. After Teferring to Baroa Liebig's nev book, 
" The M&taral History of Husbandry," and ezpresung the assured 
conviclionthatthepopulardogmas of Phrenology would he shown 
to be radicidly false by the adTanoement of physiological knowl* 
edge, ho then went on to show that profosion not parsimony was 
the law of natnre,andconcIuded by saying that many causes could 
be working together to one result. Raferringto the possibility of 
persona considering "the straggle for existence " to be a principle 
antagoniatio to that of " special proridence," he said that the in- 
compatibility of tbe two agencies had no truer foundation than could 
be laid in the arbitrary teacbing and unsupported hypothesis of 
ages skilled in the piecing together of word mosucs, but wholly 
devoid of scientific method. We have wider knowledge, we ought 
to have traer philoeophy, than our forefathers; it would be an 
anachromsm indeed to suffer the figments of the schoolmen to 
prejadice ns against the work of the modern physiologist. 

Oh houk Fobbil and bxoekt Fobahimitsoa oollxotsd ih 
Jamaica, bt the late Mr. Lucas BAaEiTT, F.G.S. 

Br Prof««or T. Rdpibi Jons, F.a.a., and W. K. Fabob, Esq. 

In 18B2 Mr. L. Barrett, F.Q.S., late Director of tbe Geological 
Sarvey of the West Indies, gave Messrs. Jones and Parker some 
fossil and recent foraminifera from Jamaica, comprising a few 
new fonns; some that werepreviously but little known,and some 
in-finer condition of growth than usual. The recent specimens, 
from their ascertained habitats, illDstrato, to some extent, the con- 
ditions under which the fossil forms were deposited. 

One sample of these fossil Jamaican foraminifera consisted of 
several specimens of Amphittegina vulgarit ; and another of a 
few of the same species, with one TeiUularia Barrettii (a new 
variety of Texlularia). No locality nor geological horizoo waa 
indicated for these. A third sample, from " South Hall Cliff',' 
consisted of two Urge specimens of VagmuUna Ugumen, 
Fourthly, a mnoh larger series of Foraminifera, ham the " Fte- 
ropod-marl" of Jamaica, affords Jfodosaria Hapbanittrutn, Den- 
talma aeieula, Vaginwlina ttriata, Frondicutaria complanata, 
OriiUllma Cakar, C. eal^nta, C rotulata, C, Itaiita, Orbilo- 



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80 THE CANADIAN ItATUKALIST. 

Una vetieularit, Bvlitnina ovaia, Cvneolina pavonia, VerUbraii- 
na ilriata, and Lttuola Soldanii. Tbew, hovever, can be regard- 
ed only SB wa incomplete Rhitopodal buna. 

From the recent furaminifera obtained hj tbe late Mr. Bar- 
rett from different sea-zoDGe, between IS and 260 fathoms, on tbe 
Jamaica cost, ve learn that Ampkifltsina vulgari*, Texlulnria \ 

Bamttii, Dentatina acicida, FrondiaUaria complanata, CrUtd- \ 

lurice and Lituola Soldanii indicate at least 100 fathoms, and 1 

probably more, astbe depth at which the Pteropod-marl and the ' 

AmphUtegina-beds were deposited in that region. Pteropods are | 

found in aome sea-muds at similar depths. I 

Of the recent Jamaican specimens {evidently only the larger ' 

and more oonspicuoas members of a rich Rhizopoilal fauna), some i 

were taken at&oml6 to 20 &thom a, namely, Quingueloealina I 

aggtutiiuxM. Q.pulehtlla, Orbiettlina compretsa,ATid 0. adunca; 
■orae at from CO to 100 fathoms, namely, Orbieulina eomprtiaa, I 

De/tlalina aaeula,tiad Orbitotijta veneuiaria ; and several oth- ) 

era at from 100 to 2fiO fathoms, namely, 7>BRta/tna aeieula, J). j 

eommunit, Critlellaria rotulala, G. euUraUt, C. Calcar, Frondi- 
evlaria complanata, Amphittegina vulgaris, Palytrema mintacea, \ 

Bigmerina nodoaaria, Vernenilina tnearinata, Texlularia Tro- ' 

chut, T. Barrtttii, Citneolina pavonia, Lituola Scorpiurut, and <i 

G. Soldanii. ; 

Cuntotina, a rare form, hithnrto known only by 6gures and 
description given by d'Orbigny, proves (as euspccted) to be a 
modification of Textularia ; and T, Barrettii is intermediate be- i 

tween it and Textularia proper. The Frottdieularia are remark- 
ably large and beauiifal; and tbe Cristellarice nai Dentalina &n 
also large and relatively abundant. 

This faaaa is almost identical with the fossil foraminifera of 
the Tertiary ^ Pteropod-marl " of Jamaica, above mentioned, spe- , 

oimens from which also were given by tbe late Mr. Barrett in i 

1862 to the authors of thia notice. \ 



PabUahed, Montreal, April 15, 1864. 

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CANADIAN NATURALIST. 



NOTES ON THE GBOLOaT AND BOTANY OF NEW 

BRUNSWICK. 

Bi FBoriaBDR L, W. Bailit. 



In a Report vhich I have had the honor to lay hefore Hia Ez- 
oellenoj the Lieatenant-Governor of the Provinoe relating to the 
minee and minerala of Nev Brunswick, some reference has been 
made to the reenlta obtained dnring a tour from Fredericton to 
Bathnrst, and by an examination of the rivers of Tobique and 
Nepisiqait. Much of the inform ation thus obtained being unr 
mitable for the more especial pnrpoBes of that Report, I have, at 
His Ezoelleaoy'a desire, determined to compile the more interest- 
ing foots for presentation to the Society of Natural History. This 
paper, therefore, is iDt«nded as a Supplement to the Report aboT« 
allnded to. It is my object to write down in as connected a form 
as possible, the Tarioos rambUDgobservatioos of a scientific chara&. 
ftcter made during a canoe exploration of the streams above-men- 
tioned. Mnoh of the country travelled over has not been hereto- 
fore soientifioally examined ; and although my trip was of too hur- 
ried a character to admit of very careful ezaminatioDS, it is hoped 
that some of the results obtained may not be without interest and 
value. 

Leaving the village at the mouth of the Tobique, on the 29th 
of June, in company with three volunteer IViends, and four In- 

Tot. I. r No. 3. 



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82 THE CANADIAN NATDaALIBT. [-^ptll, 

diaoH, with their caooes, we reaohed the eources of that river on 
the 5th of Jaly. This stream, or ii portion of it, having already been 
the subject of a former exploration, I aball endeavor to make mj 
observations on its character as brief as possible. 

The proper outlet of the Tobiqne River is not apparent at its 
month, the land being low, and the stream much hidden b; over- 
grown allovial islands. To the geologist the tme embouchure 
is the romirkable spot o.illed the " Narrows," situated bat a short 
distance ab9re the [ndian village. These narrows constitute one 
of the most curious and beautiful scenes to be found in the Prov- 
ince. The rocks which here cross the bed of the river, and 
which are well exposed in the perpendicular cliffs 150 feet high 
on both sides of the stream, are composed of skt«a and Bohists, 
filled with scams of quartz and limesione, and parsne a course 
about N. 34° E. The channel is very tortnoos, and in most parts 
deep, having an average width of about 150 feet. The navi- 
gation of the stream is at all times diSonlt, repairing the utmost 
skill of the Indians, but during periods of freshet, becomes per- 
fectly impassable. It is probable that a full ence existed at this 
place, and that the preseut gorge, which isaboat a mile in length, 
has biien left by the gradual wearing away of the strata, until the 
course of the river becomes cnmparatively unimpeded. 

Between the Narrows and the Red Rapidtt, which are aboat 11 
miles distant from the mouth of the river, the land is of moderate 
elevation, occasionally becoming bold and picturesque. Some five 
mik'S above the Narrows, the stream passes near the base of high 
Bud precipitous cliHs of ferruginous rook, overhang with oedar, 
while the opposite shore is low and covered with a mixture of hard 
and soft woods. Occasionally terraced banks are evident, but 
tbey are much less numerous, ami less remarkuble than those on 
the river St. John. In no case did I observe more ihan one at 
the same spot, and they, as a rule, were of but little elevation. 
Four miles above the Narrows, a small stream, called the Pokiok, 
joins the main river, entering on the west bank by a fall through 
rook apparently dipping about sixty degrees to the northwest. 
Through all this district the land appears fertile, and the vegetA- 
tion luxuriant. Among the trees noticed were elms and moun- 
tain ash of enormous size, cedar, spruce, fir, birch, thorn, and pop- 
lar. Of herb iceous plants I noticed the following : Tinella, eor- 
d^oltu, 7'rif'tutn ertctum, small, yellow lady's slippery Cj/priptdi' 



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1664.] QsoLCHir and botany of new brunswice. 83 

vm parvifhrum, Iri$ verncolor. Anemone P&iJigylii:nica, Cor- 
iMM Ckmadennt (in flower very abundant), (J. ttoioni/ra, 
Strg>topiu ampleeC/oiitu, Clintotiia horeulit, Vihuntum apulut, 
Smiieala tnarilandica, Veronica Anagallit, AanuncufiM acrU, 
Thalictrum dioi<Mm, and Primula Aitiericana. 

The wild onioD (^AliiTiin Sckoenoprasum f) was also commoii 
upon the shore, with butter-cups, daudelioos, violets, wild roses, and 
BtrawberrieB. Grasses and fi;nis were also Rbnudant on strips of 
intervale, hut I did not have leisure to determine them. The lat- 
ter were especiallj luxuriant, freq uentlj attaining a height of four 
and five feet. Among them I reoognized Plerit aqitilina, Ono- 
eka tauibilit, Struthiopterti, ami Osmundi regalis. The slates 
and iimestoues, which oooupy the lower portion of the stream, arft 
succeeded, ahont a mile and a half below the Red Rapids, by the 
outer beds of the Tobiqne Red Sandstone Distriot, which, gradu- 
ally widening, attains a very oonsid erable development, and final- . 
ly disappears in the neighborhood of the Blue Mountains. The aoil 
rapidly assumes a deep, red tint, and strata of reddish saudstoneB 
are exposed in e\i& upon the shore. The red tint first becomes 
apparent upon the r^ht bank of the stream ; but at the Red Rtt- 
pid?, the aandstones, assodated with coarse, red conglomerates, 
cross the bed of the river, with a strike about N. 70° E ., and are 
exposed upon either bank. It is at this spot that the formation 
should properly begin in the coloring of our geological maps. 

The Bed Sandstnoe District of the Tobiqne is one of great 
interest and value. The rocks composing it are red and variegated 
sandstones, limestones, and oonglomerates, witb salt springs and 
beds of gypsum. The strata are nowhere much disturbed, and in 
general are of very moderate elevation. In many places the red 
sandstonea are well exposed in the bed of the river, and being 
nearly horiEontal, form a smooth and polished bottom. The soil 
of the district is excellent, and probably few portions of the Prov- 
ince offer so many inducements for settlement. 

Near the Wap«ke or Wapskobegan, one of the largest tributa- 
ries of the TobiquQ. the red sandstone strata are well exposed in 
nearly horizontal beds, dipping to the southeast at an angle of only 
five d^reea. At the month of the Wapskab^aa they are again 
-exposed, and are interatradfied with fine beds of white and pink and 
reddish gypsum. These are probably but a continuation of those 
Te&rred to, and tbeline of strike between the two is N. 62^ ill., 



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84 THE OANADIAN NATCKALIBT. [April, 

die dip boing ae above, about five d^^eea to the soatheaat. The 
gypBum ia both oompaot aod fibrous, aod coold be very icadil; 
removed for local use or Iraasportatioo. 

About two miles above this river, the red sandstone strata are 
again exposed, associated with gypsum, in what are known aa the 
"PUaterOliffV attaining an elevation of 135 feet. The beds 
are nearly horizoatal, and are apparently divided by freqnwit joints. 
The olifis are very preoipitous, in some parts overhanging the 
stream, and are iu a very orumbliag and dangerous condition. 
They are succeeded by other sandstones higher np the stream, 
with mnoh less gypsara, and having a strike nearly north and 
south. They here form the bed of the fiver; andit seemed an we- 
paased over them as if our canoes were gliding along a pavemrat 
of massive freestone slabs, poliehed by the action of the water, and. 
here and there worn into holes by the eddies and pi bblea. It is a 
tittle singular tliat, at the Plaster Cli& and elsewhere, although 
the gypeiferous sandstones attain on thelefl bank of the stream aa 
elevation of more than a hundred feet, and rise preoipitoasly from 
the water, they do not appear at all upon the right, or only in beds 
a few feet above the level of the river. 

In the geol<^ioal reports of Dr. Oesner allnaion is made to the 
existence of limestone beds about one mile above Plaster Island, 
and to the cavcrnons nature of the shore. I was unable to detect 
the locality referred to. We passed a spot where land travelUog 
certainly appeared difficult and dangerous, bat I sair nothing indi- 
cating the existence of former caves. Neither did I obaerve the 
stalactites, referred to by Dr. Gesner, as abundant upon the shore ; 
but, at a spot about ten or twelve miles above the Wapske, and in 
the neighborhood of tiie Little Agulqaac, I had the pleasure of 
finding great nnmbera of limestone geodes, in loose beds, overlying 
liorizont^tl strata of reddish sandstones. These sandstones are 
divided by parallel joints, having a strike N. 62" £!. (the same as 
that at the Wapskabegan), and form the bed of the river. The 
geodei are of about four inches diameter, and are lined upon their 
interior with fine kr^e crystals of dog-tooth spar. This locality will 
afford excellent cabinet ^Mciniens. 

FromtheAgulqaaoto the immediate vicinity of the Bine Moun- 
tain range, the soil continues reldish, sandstone bouldara lie in the 
bed of the river, and immense beds are oooasionally exposed. The 
sandstones tn tUu are distinctly seen at the Horse Island, a little 



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1864.] QBOLOGT AND BOTANT OP NEW BRUNSWICK. 85 

more Ihxn fifty miles above the montb of the river, sod ^ain at 
the Two Brooke, from which a fine view is afforded of Bine 
HouDtun in tiie distance. Abont here I observed lying in the 
bed of die Btream a nnmber of bonlders of milk-white qoarti, 
highly orystallised within, bnt on the exterior mnch water-worn 
and ronnded. The soil is apparently fertile, and the river abounds 
in rich intervale islands, sastaioing a Inxariant v^tation. Be- 
udes many of the plants already named, I gBtbered by the 
ride of the stream a single specimen of the Nodding Trillinm, 
TrUlimn j^muum, a plant which has not, so far as I know, been 
found in any other portion of the Provinoe — also Pohfgfmatvm 
mudtiflontm. 

Higher np the stream a more distinct view of the Bine Moua- 
tun range beoomee apparent. Iteceotral peak is sharply conioal, 
its sidea making ao angle of about 120". It rises immediately 
from the rivor bank, and at its base is exposed high precipices of 
thinly wooded trap. A portion of the monntain is nndoubtedly 
red sandstone, bnt the precipitous olifis and taluset along Its flanks 
distinoUy iodioate the trappean oharaoter of the summit. Near 
its base are seen cliffs of bright red sandstone, which I fiinud to 
be ealeiferona like those farther down the river ; but they did not, 
like the latter, contain distinct geodes. 

Between the Bine Mountuin and Niotan or Forks tbe land in 
the vieinilj of the river is low, and fertile, presenting to the geol- 
ogist bnt little of interest, At one spot only, a ridge, composed of 
duk, heavy, and eompaot rock, very mnch broken and distorted, 
crosses the bed of tbe river. It is apparently granwacke, bnt 
ladu the mioa of the latter. 

Itear tbe Niotan or Forks several streams combine to form the 
main river. The two main hranehe«, flowing the one e:ist and the 
«d>er west, after nnitiog turn abruptly, and pass off to the south- 
ward. The River Marmooekel also here joins the main river. 

After leaving the Niotan, and parsningthe left branch (sooalf- 
«d, althoDgh geognphioally the right), the character of the cono- 
trj npidly ohangee, beooming comparatively sterile, and support- 
ing a mneh more Alpine vegetation th:iii the dbtrict below. The 
tieee are prinoipslly pines, firs, and ccii^irs, covered with a long, 
pendant lidwn (^Umea barbata^ attaining a length of four or five 
feet), and tbe ferns are generally low, presenting little variety. One 
-of the most common was Onodta sentibili*. A few miles above 



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86 THB CANADIAN NATURALIST. [Aprils 

the Forks, heavy beds of slates or flags oroea the stream with a 
strike N. £. and S. W.. dipping to tiie northwest at an angle of 
45'^ and more, breaking the coarse of the river, and producing a foil 
of aboat one foot. The water at this point is rapid, but aAer pass- 
ing the exposed rocks again becomes deep and tranquil. In this 
porljon of the stream the land is low, with few trees, but is thickly 
covered with blade alder bnahes ; the soil as far as visible, being 
principally sand and gravel. The course of the river is very tor- 
tuous, running suocessively to all points of the compass. To the 
right of its general oonrse, at a distance of about a mile, a high 
ridge is apparent for many miles, pursuing a course about N. 30° 
S. Gravel beds are very numerous, and occasionally la^e bonld- 
ers are fonad in the stream. The pebbles composing the former 
are firincipalty slaty; but rounded lumps of milky quartz are also 
common, with a variety <^ silicioos rocks, among which we found 
a fine-tinted, transparent cornelian, jasper, and a little chalcedony. 

In the vicinity of a small stream called the Cedar Brook, which 
enters the river from the northeast, we passed over strata of fine, 
dark slat« nearly perpendicular, and having a strike about N. E. and 
S. W. These slates are visible for some distance, and have seams 
of white quartz, and sometimes of limestones, ranning tbroogh 
them. Near here I examined the plants upon tbe bank, and ob- 
served TrietUali* Americana, CUntonia horealU, Oxalit acetotetla, 
Smiladaa bi/olia, Linnaea borealit, Comiu Cajtadetuis, C. tto- 
toni/era, Viburnum optdus, Saffitta gagitti/olia, Slreptoput dU- 
torlut. wild carranta and raspberries, Thalictrum (four or five feet 
high), AKtella niida, and Smilarina stellafa. 

The Little Tobique receives its waters from a chain of roman- 
tic lakes, completely shut in by high granitic mountains. The first of 
these is about two miles long and one broad, and lies at the very 
base of Bald or Sagamook Mountain, one of the highest peaks in 
New Brnnswick. It is but one of a continuous chain, but rising 
abruptly from the lake seems to stand aloof from its less elevated 
companions. It is of a gently swelling oatline, and, elthongh dia- 
tJDO'ly covered with v^etation at its summit, exposes on its sidea 
broad and precipitous cliSs, laid bare by the action of slides, which 
have probably suggested its rather inappropriate name. With 
three others of the party I ascended the mountain, and was well 
repaid by the extensive view afforded in every direction. Tbe 
height, as given by Gesner, is 2,240 feet; but as he did not, I be- 



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1664.] QKOLOGT AND BOTANT OF NKW BBUN8WICE. 87 

lieve, vuit the moopUiQ himseir, I am uDawsr« of his authority 
for the assertioD. I should anppose the eummit to be about ooe- 
fourth of a mile above the surface of the lake, but had no means 
of measurement. 

The ascent of the moantaia is a remarkably eteep one, being as 
much as 45^ by actaal olinometer measurement. It risea imme- 
didtely from tho aide of the lake (not at a distance of Beveral miles, 
as represented in all the maps of the proviuee), and ahows upon 
its flanks three disiioct zones of vegetation. The first of these 
sones oonaiata of a dense grovth of pines, firs, and cedara, and ex- 
tends about a third of the distance up the moantain side. The second 
ispriuoipallj composedof white and yellow birch, vith a few oeduft 
uid alders, and reaches to a very considerable elevation. The 
third zoae is confined to the summit, and a small portion of the 
sides, being covered wi h a low dwarf growth of shrubs, with a few 
stunted hirohes and eprnoes. At many points near the summit 
there ia no v^tation at all, the rocks being laid bare in extensive 
slides, and the fragments being piled upon each other in the wild- 
est confusion. At several points, generally immediately above theaa 
slides, perpeadioular masses or needles project from the general 
slope of the mountain, end can only be reached with difficulty. 
The mountain, so far as I hud an opportunity of examining it, is 
compostid of a compact red feldspar roek or felsite, and is very 
homogeneous in character. The entire slope of the mountain is 
strewed with large broken blocks of the same material, which, be- 
ing overgrown with moss, and often covering deep boles, make 
the ascent a somewbat dangerous as well as difficult one. 
Bualders of similar material were also noticed far down the valley 
of the Tobi^ne. I have already alluded to the three sones of ve- 
getation on the mountain, which are equally notioeable during an 
ascent, or when viewed at a distance from the lake below. The 
herbs and shrnbs noticed were about the same as those observed on 
the Little Tobique. The Labrador Tea (^Ledam lati/olium) was 
very common, increasing in ijaantity as we approached the sum- 
mit, while Catfandra calioitala was also found growing abundantly. 
I noticed also Trillium ereclum, Oxalis aeeloteUa, TVienlaiii Am- 
ericana, Arali<i7mdicaulCg,Cortiut CanadenM, Clintonia bortalit, 
SlTfptoput am,pUxifoUu», Sitgiltaria sagittifolia, Smilaciaa bi- 
folia, quantities of Vaecinium idig notam, and OaaltAeria kitpx- 
dala. Lichens were also abundant, especially ComiadarUi and 
Cenomt/ce rangi/erina. 



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S8 THK OANADUN NATITKALIST. [-^pnl) 

There are several isluida in Nictan Lake, which, pre enting aa 
they do, great oontraat to the mosn tain-peaks aronnd them, should 
not be passed over without notice. One of these only, where 
we encamped for the night, I had an opportaaity of examining, 
but the others are probably of a like Jeaoriptioa. The island re- 
ferred to is about fifty feet in length and thirty in breadth, rimng 
to ahdght of about ten feet above the lake, and presenting at ite top 
« nearly smooth and level surface. The material compoeii^ it is 
a oompaet slate, and the lineconneoting this with the other islands 
above mentioned would be about N. E. and S. W. There is no 
continuation of such material observable on the Bald Mountain 
dde of the lake, nor is it probable on the other, there being nothing 
Tinble bnt high and ni^ed peaks, andonbtedly igneous. I did 
not, however, examine the shore. The sides of the island nnk 
nearly perpendioularly into the lake, and the depth of water sur- 
rounding them must be very considerable, as we were unable to 
reach bottom with our longest fishing lines. 

The vegetation of the island is scanty, bnt quite different from 
anything else seen in this section of the province. There are no 
foU^irown trees upon it, bnt only one or two dwarf sprnoes and 
pines, with an occasional cedar. Of herbs and shrubs I noticed 
the following : Ledian Jati/olwm, Siigrmchiumaneepg, Vaeeiitr 
twnt Pennt^liMmicum, V. Vitie Idaea, V. uliginotam f SoUdago 
tamxolataf PotentUla iforvegiea, Con/dcdi* glauca, and Samhu- 
oupuhmt. 

The occurrenoe of these islands, rising like needles from the bot- 
tom of the lake, and so far as visible of an entirely different char- 
acter from the mountain-peaks around, is not a little singular and 
difficult of explanation. 

The character of this portion of the province can well be Stu- 
died from l^e snmmit of S^amore Mountain. It is essentially a 
high table-land, sloping gradually towards the St. John, yet in its 
Ugher parts everywhere broken up into lofty hills and monntains. 
I was unable to ascertain any prevailing direction for the chains, 
peak after peak appearing wherever the eye was turned. Thegen- 
eral direction of the lakes is about east 20° south, their form be- 
ing quit« irr^ular. The Bald Mountain range seems to pursne 
a course nearly parallel. This is nndon btedly the highest land in 
the province, and, I have heard it stated on good authority, that, 
witii the aid of a glass, one can see to the north the mountain 



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1864.] OEOLOor amd botaht of nkw bbunswioe. 89 

range of Qaspj, and again in the extreme eonthweet, the lofty Bum- 
mit of Katahdin. 

The Nepisiquit, like the Tobiqne, has its muroe in a cbaia of 
romantic lakes, surrounded b; loftj granite monntaina. The 
lakes in neither case are perfectly distinct, being rather simple tx- 
paruion* of nn^le lakes. Tfa^re arc three of these espaoded 
sheets at the head of the Tobique, and foui at the souroea of the 
Nepiaiquit. The portage connecting the two lines of water-ehed 
does not exceed three miles, and now here attalaa an elevation of 
more than fifty or sixty feet. 

The general direction of this tj^nsit isa little sonth of east, xnd 
it is merely an obscure and little-frequented footpath through the 
woods. The soil seemed fertile, and the vt^tation varied— the 
plants noticed being about the same as alreadygiven The ascent 
from the Nictan Lake is veiy gradual, and near the middle of the 
portage the land is low and swampy. From here it again aaoenda 
until very near the Nepiaiquit Lake, when it fulls rapidly away 
to that level. I should suppose that the latter lake occupies a 
somewhat higher level than those on the Tobique. There are no 
rocks apparent anywhere on the line of crossing. 

During this portion of our tour, thcmenibers of our party were 
greatly tormented by the incessant biting of black flies and mus- 
quitoes. The development of insect life in this portion of New 
Brunswick is very remarkable, and the number of insects and the 
ease with which tbey can be obtained would fully satisfy the most 
ardeut ootomologiat. All the orders of insects seem to be repre- 
sented, and by a great variety of genera and species. Butterflies 
of all shades and varieties of gaudy coloring, eight or ten different 
kinds of flies, gnats, mosquitnea, spiders, caterpillars, gadflies, 
dragon-flies, and beotlea are found in the greatest profusbn. I 
sometimes saw fifty or more butterflies awarming at rest upon a 
single rock, and allowing one to pick them up by the handful. 
Every day, and indeed almost every hour of the day, produced 
some new individual ; and one of our party, who waa a great ento- 
mologist, met with nambers which be bad never seen or even read 
of before. Avery valuable and intcreating collection might be 
here made. The beat season for such a purpose would be about the 
beginning of July, aa they afterwards become much leaa numerous, 
and in August almost disappear, 

The Nepisiquit Lakes are four in number, connected with each 



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90 THl OANADIAN MATDaALIST. [^P"!^ 

Other by narrow straits. A line connecting them all would mn 
nearly east and west. Tbey are not so deep as those of the To- 
biqne; the bottom in the Third Nepiuquit Lake being in many 
places, even near the centre, not more than two feet below the 
sor&oe, while from the little island in Nictan Lake we were nnable 
to reaoh bottom with twenty feet of line. The former are, li^ 
the latter, shnt in by mountain ranges, but their elevation is not 
so great BB those already described. Along the shorea of the Ne- 
pisiquit Lakes I observed Ins uerncohr and Ti/pha lati/olia 
growing abundanily, also Nvphar advena, N. Kabniana, Equite- 
titm limoiamf E. tyloa icum, and E. uli^inoium. 

The Mepisiquit passes out from the lakes mnch more qnietly 
than the Tohiqne, and descending by a rapid bnt nnbroken 
cnrrent pisses around the base of handsome hills, clothed with a 
rich green covering of birch and spruce. The land close to the 
river is low and covered with alder bushes, but some lofty monn- 
tuna appear to the southward. The streim pnrsnes at first a near- 
ly uniform course a little west of south, without winding much, 
like the Tobique. Its bed is strewed with large and truvelled 
granitic boulders, which though not wanting on the Tobique were 
mnch less numerous than here. 

The mountains just alluded to, pursue a course, as nearly as I 
could make out, a little north of east, crossing the river, which 
works its way around their base. They are undoubtedly granitic, 
and in many places expose upon their flanks high and rugged 
dif&ofa brick'red color, giving at first the appearance of a red 
sandstnae district. The boulders, however, which occur in the 
bed of the stream, distinctly indicate their character, being com- 
posed of a corsc^ained feldapathic granite or ffmnulite. 

Near the base of one of these cliffs we were borne by the cur- 
rent, and so remarkable were its characters, that I at once deter- 
mined to give it a more cireful es.imination. Landing for this 
purpose, and approaching with one companion and an Indian 
guide, what we supposed to be the natur il slope of the mountain, 
wewere suddenly stopped by a tremcudous chasm, which uoex- 
peotedlylay open before our feet. 

The defile is about fifty or seventy feet deep, with almost pre- 
cipitous sides, and furnishes a picture of singular wildnesa. The 
two sides of the chasm were in the most marked contrast. That 
by which we approached was steep and broken though covered 



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1864.] GEOLOOT AKD BOTANT OF NEW BBDNSWICE. 91 

with T^tatioQ, while the opposite slope, whioh was almost per- 
pendtoakr at its base, &nd which reaohed high up the mountaiQ 
mdes, was one dense mass of Urge det>ahed blocks of reddish 
granite, orelse the origioa) rock from which thej had been torn. 
Od this side of the chasm scuroelj a trace of ve^etatioa could be- 
seen, as far as the eye oonld reach- 

The two sides of this singalar defile are as strongly contrasted in 
their mineralogical characters as in the features just described. 
Tlie first or lowest side is composed of a fine compact greyish 
syenite, mnch weathered on the surf loa, and covered with vegeta- 
tion ; the other is of the same material as the boalders I had al- 
ready fonad farther up the river, vii. : a coarse-griuned feldspathio 
.i^anite or graaulite. There is no mici present in it, and but lit- 
tle hornblende. It b bat little weathered, looking fresh and red, 
and, as before stated, is almost destitute of v^tation. The direc- 
tion of the defile, at the point where we examined it, was nearly east 
and west, bntsoon turned off to the northward, when it could be 
no loi^r traced from where we stood. I would gladly have occu- 
pied a longer time in its exploration, bat could not well afford the 
delay. Aa a point of reference for thb vicinity, of which so little has 
heretofore been known, I havcTentured to c:kll thU singular range 
the 'Feldspar Moant^os" in allasion to the mineralogical charac- 
ter of its principal rocks. Theloodity is about fifteen miles, as near 
as I can judge, above the Forks of the Nepisiquit River. Od my 
joomey to and from the moantun I found rhe following plants ; 
Kabnia angiali/olia, Ribet rabrwa, Epilobiam (jncafum, Lin- 
naea borealia, OxalU aeetoMella, and others. 

Below the Feldspar Moantaiasfor adietanceof many miles, the 
conntryis h^h and rugged, and presents an indescribably desolate 
^pearance. As far as the eye c in see, the monatain slopes b»ve 
been stripped of their vegetation by extensive fires, and nothing 
bat the charred tranks of decaying trees is now visible. Moun- 
tains are seen in every direction, the principal chain pnrsning a 
course parallel to thatof the river, about east and west. The latter 
descends rapidly, gliding almost in a straight line, and without a 
fall, down an inclined plane of three or four degrees. Boulders of 
feldspathio and syeuitie rocks are at times very numerous ; and from 
the fact that we passed them only at intervals, according to the 
windii^ of IJie current, I am iiiclined to think that they cross the 
stream in rc^lar trains, purauiag a uniform general direction, tk 



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92 THK OANADIAM MATUOALIBT. [April, 

little Roatii of 6aBt. TteM bonlden are of the aane material ai 
tliat of dte monatunB I have deaoribed above, and iDoreaae io 
DamberBand magoitade as ooe desoendsthefitreani. Afawmiles 
beloirthe ForLa (where the soil ia allarial, and supports ezl«DBiTe 
groves of elma) these boalders attaia an eaormoaa Bue, and oaose 
oamberleas falla and rapids in the cnrreat. Manj of them are in- 
jeot«d with veias of milky quarts, and at times appear to be joint- 
«d. Thej continue to inorease io quantity until one reaches a 
spot called the ladian Falls, where rooks to n'lu, together with 
huge granitic boulders, block up the stream and produce a &U <tf 
four or five feet. This b suooaeded about half a mile bdow by 
another of similar elevation, tiie apaoe between the two bring filled 
with dangerous rapids. The rocks appear laminated and eontorted, 
and are filled with veins of injeoted quarts, and paw the stream 
in a line running about 10° west of North. A portage was here 
necessary, during which I observed the following plants: Wild- 
rotei, eurraitlt, and huckld>erTiea, nupberrUa, whiu and red dover, 
Epilobium tpicatum, Potenlilla a/rguta, Sagitlaria tagittifoliA, 
Kalmia anyustt/olia, ChrjftoMthemum IeucantA«mtim, Ailwtm 
Sehoenopranan, Spiraea talicifolia, Pyrola eUipliea, Platanikefa, 
orhicviata 1 and Smiladna ttellata. A short distanos below the 
Forks I noticed also, Archangelica, Diervilla trifida (not seen on 
the Tobique), and Caltha palaitrU. 

About twenty miles above the Grand Falls of the Nepisiqnit we 
passed the first formatioas of distinctly stratified rooks, oonsistuig 
of slates and ferru^aons slaty sandstones, much broken and oon- 
torted. They seemed to ran nearly east and west, and dip north- 
ward (?) at a sharp angle. Some of the beds of slate appear to be 
«f excellent quality. 

These rooks are viuble for a considerable distanoe, and have a 
strong'y fernigioous color. At one point a high oliff, composed 
<X them, projects into the stream, and was so iatensely red, as to 
induce me to stop for tbe parpoee of examination. I at first sup- 
posed it to be a bed of haematite, but it proved to be merely a mag- 
ueaian slate, with only an external resemblaDoe to the above named 
one. Much of it is soft and ommbliog, and might, perhaps, be 
employed as a mineral paint. Some of it ia probably manganenan 
also, and resembles the slates at the Tatagouohe mines, in the 
vicinity of Bathurst. The latter are probably but oontinuations 
of the same series. 



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1864.} OEOLOaT AND BOTAHT 0¥ NXW BRUNSWICK. 93 

Below this point, the bed of the rirei ii strewed with Bmall and 
loonded boalderB, of the riie of paTiog-etoaes, aod presenUa very 
KDgahr appearanoe. They ue of three kinds, a bright red (felds- 
pMhio), & dark (syenitie), and green stoDe, and b^ng polished 
bnghlljby UiewBt«r,eDggest the ideaofamoBaic pavement. More 
fenvfliiioiis strata bqoq appear, dipping westward, and granitio 
booldera again become oommon. Granite ridges soon appear in 
rita, and seem to have displaced and to have been thmstthroaghthe 
oAerstrata. The stream becomes ra^id and violent, tlte v^etation 
of its banks poor and stunted. 

The above-named rooks oontinne for a short distanoe only. 
Abont five or six miles above the Qrand Falls, they are sneeeedt d 
hj- beds of slates and slaty sandstones, with some limestone, dip- 
]£ng into tiie - bed of the river at an ai^le of 60° to the norUi, 
the river here mnniog abont northeast. The eonrse of the stream 
b nearly at right uiglee to the strike of the slates, whieh form pre- 
eipatons oli^ perhaps seventy-five or one hundred feet in height. 
Like the sunilar goi^ at the month of the Tobiqne, this spot is 
Balled the Harrows, and can only be navigated by the moat skilinl 
Indians. 

Between the Narrows and the Grand Falls, sandstone bods ap- 
pear with a strike abont north and sonth, and dip to the west- 
ward at a h^ angle. 

The Grand Falls of the Nepisiqait are too well known to re- 
(piire desoription here, tb«r beanty and the excellent salmon-flsh- 
Bg at their base having long since attracted travellers to the spot. 
Oeol(^ioally, the fidl has been the reenlt of the gradual wearing 
away of consoKdated strata ; the direction of the current havii^ 
been probably determined by some preexisting fissnre in the beds. 
The ro^ oontpoeing the gorge below the ialls (which is abont half 
a mile in length) are composed of oontorted Termginons slates, hav- 
ing a strike nearly north and sonth, and a dip of 50° to the west- 
ward. Through tliese slates the water has worked its way, 
giadnally vridening the channel, and running for a portion of its 
eonne directly opposite to the dip of the strata, bat tow&rds the 
lower part making asudden tnm southward, and then nearly follow- 
ing their strike. On the rocks below the falls I noticed in flower. 
Campanula rotKndiJbHa, Potenlilla argata, and wild roses. Many 
of these rocks are filled with nuraerons crystals of oabio pyrites. 

Leaving the goi^ we soon passed over more sandstones and 



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34 THS CANADIAN NATDBALI8T. [^P"l) 

slates, still dlppiog westwurd. At a plaoe called " The Great 
Chain " they have a dip of about 60° to the west, and aross the 
stream with a strike aboat DOrth and south, farming a Berieo of 
falls and rapids. With these saDdstones are associated ohloritio 
and taloose sUtes, coaforinable with them. At this point, besides 
the twn plants above natnid, I noticed, Allium Hchanopragvmt 
SiiyriiLchiitm aacept, DieraiUa trjida, Aralia nudicattlit, Strep- 
toput dUlorlue, Linnaea borealU Gllntonia boreaiU, Iri* veriteo- 
■ lor, Corau* Canadensis, Platanthera dilalata, Archavgeltfa, 
Ackillaea, Laclaca elongata^ Thalictrum dioieam, Apocjfnum 
androtcemifotium,Oenoihiraehrj/santka,SleUaria, and Atpidiitin 
tpiniilottim. 

A fev miles below the Great Chain, more laminated sandBtooea 
'Cross the stream, with a strike N. 40^ W,, with a nearly perpendi- 
cular dip, highly silicious, and filled with crystals of eulphnret of 
iron. They soon change their coarse, taking a strike N. 20° E., 
&nd are muoh folded and contorted. With these are associated 
ferrugiooua slates, and the whule have a reddish appearance froni 
the oxidation of their contained iron. The stream is narrow, and 
passes rapidly between the rocky bauka. 

Still descending, beds of impure iron-stone and ochre, with micft- 
oeouB iron, appear on either shore, being of a soft and crumbling 
charactor. Several of the cliffs exposed upon the shore are of a 
bright red color. They may be seen on the lefl bank to 
overlie nearly horizontal beds of ferruginons saodstone, with small 
conglomerate and pebble beds, these latter in tarn resting upon 
granite. The rocks appear to be muoh rounded and water-worn, 
even at an elevation of tea or fifteen feet above the present level of 
the river. The reddish beds seem to lie in a great basin formed 
by the underlying granite, or rather thi^ latter forms a series of 
anticlinal axes, the si .:^ and sandstone beds reposing on their 
flanks. 

The granite beds are divided into huge blocks by parallel ver- 
tical joints, and thus present upon their river face the appearance 
of a wall. Their surfaces are perfectly flat ; uid thoae which form 
the river bed, being polished by the wear of the current, look like 
a massive pavement. It is in passing over these pinkish granites, 
that the river Is wearing out the curious channels of the Pabinean 
Falls. 

The granites at the falls are distinotly jointed, the line of tlifl 



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1864.} aeoLOOT and botany of new bbunbwiok. 95 

joinla running due north and south. The course of the etream is 
{HiraUel to these, and has probahlj been determined hj one ormore 
existing in its bod. The spot is one of the most singular I have 
seen in the Provinoe. 

Between the Pabineau and Butburat our journey was made by 
land; the navigation of the river, which is one series ofrapida, 
called the" Rough Waters," beingtoodangerousforcauoea. From 
good authority, however, I have learned that the granite beds at 
the Falls are sucoeeded by states and schists (to some extent oop- 
per-beariDg) ; and these agtun underlie, near the mouth of the river, 
the red sandstones and conglomerates which form the north-east^ 
em boundary of the New Kmnswich ooal-measures. The latter 
are Been near the Nepisiquit bridge, on both sides of the river ; bat 
it is not probable that they extend far below the city of Bathoret. 
On the lett bank, near the bridge, is a carious spot, where coal 
(lignite 7) aud copper ore are intimat«]y associated, and interstrati- 
Ged with sandstones, clay, and aonglomerates. It was in conse- 
quenoe of the discovery of copper at this point, under these singu- 
lar circumstanoeB, that examinations were made for that metal 
farther inland, which examinations led to the discovery of the 
present mining-districts on the Tatagouche River. These latt«r 
are situated in bluish and dark brown slat«e, having a strike E. 
10° S. and a southerly dip of 50°. They are probably continuous 
with the beds south of Pabineau, and extend for a distance of ten 
or twelve miles along the coast, above Bathurst, being csposed on 
the Mgadoo and other minor streams of that n^ion. They seem 
to be highly metalliferous. 

I have now given with ooosiderablc detail the results of a fort- 
night's ramble un these hitherto little-known rivers. Their exami- 
nation was necessarily a harried and imperfect one, the distance 
travelled over beit^ not less than two hundred miles ; and the re- 
sults are only presented now, that a more just and accurate view 
may be entertained of this interesting r^ion. 

I'd those who are familiar with the geology of New Brnnswiok, 
it will have already become apparent that mueh of what has now 
been stated differs widely from the formerly entertained notions as 
to the structure of this portion of the Province. That these dif- 
ferences may be the more readily appreciated, I have appended to 
this article a carefully colored map of the district, showing as fer 
-as possible the order of succession of the rocks here exposed, The 



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96 THE CANADIAN HATDBALIBT. [^P"^ 

following are the most important differences between this and pre- 
eeding maps : 

Ist. Upon I>r. Robb's map the whole course of the Tobiqne, 
with the exception of the Red Sandstone Dietrici, is colored as if 
passing through Upper Silurian rocks. In reality moat of the 
country between the Blue Mountain Brook and the Forks is of 
a trappean character. 

2ad. The ealoiferons slates of the Narrows are separated from 
the Red Sandstone district by terrufi^oai slates and dark sandstone. 
The caloiferoua slates and the sandstonea have a northeaalerly 
strike, and similar rocks are again seen above the Forks, witii Qie 
sune strike. They are probably conUnuous. 

3rd. The exact limits of the Red Sandstone District, on the line 
of the river, are the Red Rapids and the Bine Hount^ns, 

4th. The Blue Mouotain and Bald Mountain rise direcUy 
from the waters of the lake or river, not at the distance of several 
milee, as represented on other maps. 

5th. On the m^ of Dr. Robb no distinction is made between 
trappean, syenitio, and feldspatbic rocks. In the aocompanying 
ma^ the Blue Mountains, which are trappean, are distinguished 
ftt>m theBuld Mountain uid Nepisiquil ranges, which are chiefly 
feld^thic. There is an island of slate in Niotau Lake. 

6th. The upper half of the Nepisiquit, on Dr. Robb's msp, is 
marked as ruoQing through upper Silurian strata. On theoontraiy 
the whole district, colored yellow on my map, is feldspathio, oon- 
sisting partlf oi granulite and partly of tyen'Ue, more particularly 
the former. Rocks of this character, forming lofty mouutaiu ranges, 
cross the stream in a northeasterly direction, and are seen nearly 
as farss the lodiaa Falls. At the latter plaoe highly altered rocks . 
onWB the stream, with a strike 10' west of north. 

7th. The granlt. band which has been supposed to cross the 
Frovinoe from the Ohepataecticook Lakes, and which on Dr. 
Robh's map has t!.e same width at the Nepisiquit which it exhibits 
elsewhere, really nariows in the vicinity of that stream to a very 
small strip, and probably soon disappe^ui. Owing to the tortuosi- 
ties of the river, these rocks app3^ at several suooesdve pointa, 
and at first would lead one to believe in the existence of sever^ 
granitio anticlinal axes. From the fact however that all the slates 
seen above the Pahineau have a westward dip, it is probable that 
only one bmid is socoessively exposed. Where this bond finally 



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1864.] CHKUiaTBT or uanureb. 97 

ilinppears is ft matter of much doubt, but it wiU not probably 
be foDod far bsyoad tha position which I have assigned to it. The 
iBetaUiferouB slates which rest od its northern flinks ro-appear on 
the Tatagouche River, and, as already remarked, the latter ore 
probably oontJanooa with those on the Nepisiqait. Possibly the 
granite, after passing the Pabinean, is well exposed again ; but tliis 
remuns to be determined. 

I have only to add tliat my observations were, as a rule, mode 
from a rapidly moving canoe, and most only be regarded as ap- 
proximately aoonrate. Where the oharacter of the ooantry ooald 
not be ascertained, from the ocourrenoe of belte of intervale, or the 
fwaenee of alluvial matter, or boulders, the map has been left 
devoid of color. The granitic r^jion assigned to the serpentine 
oa the map is copied from that of the late Dr. James Robb. 

(Read bf/ort Iht Natural Bittary SceUty of Nob Brmuaick, litk 
fUmiarjf 1864.) 



ON THE CHEMISTRY OP MANURES. 

We extract from tbe Report of tbe Sec<md Class of the Inter- 
national Jury of the Qreat Exhibition of 1862, the following 
p^Mr. The Reporter, Prof. A. W. Hofmann, F.R.S., tells ns that 
having invited Mr. F. 0. Ward to furnish bim with a succinct 
view of the question of manures in thtar relations to agricultural 
ohemistry, the following essay was the result ; which Prof Hofmium 
oharaoterises withjustios a3"ooe of the shiest and moat philoB. 
phicotly-oonceived oompendiuma of a complex and dtfioult subjeot 
which has ever come under his notice." He therefore adopted 
and endorsed hia coadjutor's work; adding for incorporation with 
it, much valuable information of a apsciol kind fnraished bim by 
Heaars. Lswes, Gilbert, Graaing, and others. With these explana- 
tory remarks, we invite the attention of our readers to this remark- 
aUe esaay, premising only tbat we have omitted for the sake of 
brevity csrtun portiona, inserting in their places an abatraot of 
them in bracketa, and have alao appended a few notes. — Ei>ilOK8. 

Eaklt HiSToaT of Masdebs. — Manures, in the form of 
«attle-dung and ordinary farm-yard composts, have been knowa 
and employed from time immemorial for the fertilization of the 

ToL. I. 8 Ho. a. 



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98 THK CAMADUM MATIT&ALIST. [AftUr 

nil; bat the manures termed "artifieial/'wliiohlmfathdrarigiii 
^ewbere than in the farm itself, and are for the most put of 
ooneeotrated and portable oharacter, have bat of late yesrs oome 
largely into use. Nevertlielsss the maHufuotare of these manura, 
and the trade to whioli they have given rise, already rank amongat 
die meet exlenEive of modern indostries. 

[The author here gives a brief history of the variooa pcooMMS 
proposed and patented in Snglaod for the pr«|)aratioo of aitiEmat 
maanree during Ae first tiiird of this osntnrj. They were b«t 
Hine in nnmber, of which two were for the atiliiatioD of nightwul, 
while a third proposed the use of a mistore of oystei^^helk sad 
gypBum. In the coarse of the eighteenth century three pate&tifiv 
manorewere obtuned, one of whioh desoribed a mixture of Be»«Jt, 
saltpetre, lime, and Rhenish tartar, declared to " possess n mag- 
netio quality whereby it attraots fertility, eto."] 

GooasE or EAaLT Scibntifio Reseakoh. — In the moan 
time, however, a vast store of soiantiGo information, tending more 
or Ie33 directly to the eluoidation of this importaot subject, had 
been in slow and silent course of aecumulation, by the successive 
labors of many eminent experimentalists. 

Not to g3 bick further thin ths last cantnry, nor even than its 
latter half, we shall find concentrated in this brief period,aeeriM 
of brilliaat discoveries, bearing more of less directly upon the 
manurial and agriooltural questions, but far too nnmeroos even 
for the most onrsory narration here. 9paca woold fail ua even to 
enumerato the names of European celebrity that adorned this 
memorable epoch ; bat if wa had to select half a dosen of the most 
illnstrioas to represent the philosophical activity, British and eon- 
tiaental, of the period, wa would ventare to single out on the one 
hand. Black, . Priestley, and C^ivendish — and on the other, 
Lavoisier, Se Sauasnre, and Berthollet. 

During the fifty years in question the nature and oompoaiCion 
of air and m.iler, ofcarbtnic acid and amnvmia, (the four main 
forms of volatile plant-food, ) were disoovered, their gsaeooa elements 
isolated, and their properties determined. 

The sciences of geology and meteorology at tltia period also 
began to take shape and form; enibling an insight to be giined 
into the origin and nature of caltivable »oils, and into the dimcUic 
conditions of plant-growth. 

At the same time the laws of the physioal foiees, partioalarly 



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ISM.] oHKuraTRT or hanuilks. 99 

those of light and heat, began to be better underBtood, as veil in 
their general relations, aa in their special inflnenco on plants. 

The iatrodaotioQ of more acoarate chemical methods permitted, 
meanwhile, a closer investigation than had before been possible, of 
the tissues and products of plants, and of the various transforma- 
tioos whieh those products undergo daring the several stages' of 
vegetal development. 

The sound physico^hemical priooiples thus established had the 
happiest influence on physiological investigations. The oigans 
of plants and of animals were studied in a clearer light than 
before; aad their respiratory, assimilative, and excretory processes, 
together with the relations established b; those processes between 
the three great kingdoms of nature, were gradoally made ont. 

Among the many illastrions men who assisted in working ont 
thess great reenlts, Lavoisier probably deserves the highest place; 
not, perhaps as the largest contributor of new truths to the accu- 
mulating store, — though hb contributions of this kind were many 
and brilliant — but because his vivid imagination, and the eminent 
generalising powers with which he was endowed, enabled him to 
co-ordinate all the scattered researches of his time, and to display 
innumerable istdnted facts in their true subserviency to general 
laws ; BO as (among other things) largely to extendour knowledge 
of the cosmic equilibrium on which sound husbandry can alone be 
based. Everything, indeed, that Lavoisier did bore the impress 
of bis master-mind. He it was who first applied the Balance to 
the study of the phenomena of Ltfb. Ha it was who first showed . 
that while plants evolve oxygen, animals, on the contrary, consume 
it ; carbon being oxidised or burned in their bodies as oil is burned 
ia a lamp. His \ottj tone of thought, and eloquent language, 
powerfully impressed his contemporaries; and chiefly to his influ- 
enee and-ezample the admirable researches of his age owe their 
high scope and scrupulous precision. Scienoe never endured a 
severer loss than whea Lavoisier met his untimely fate. But bis 
great spirit lived alW him ; and researches bearing upon the 
noble themes he had loved to treat were carried on with, if pos- 
sible, Increased activity after his death. The scientiflo records of 
Europe were soon crowded with fresh masses of undigested dis- 
wrery ; and in a few years such another mind as his was wanted, 
to grapple with the growing mass of detail, and once more to create 
order ont of the soientifio chaos. 



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100 THE CANADIAN MATrRALIBT. [^PI^ 

Early in the present century England, ia her tarn, produced « 
master-mind, — that of the illustrious Sir Humphrey Davy, — vast in 
scope &nd luminDna in coaoeptioD, as any, the greatest, of for^ne 
tjmee. Davy was well fitted to wear the fallen mantle of Lavoisier, 
and to continue hie great work. It is accordingly to Davy's 
genius we owe that memorable treatise — truly desoribed by 
Liebig as " immortal " — the " Elements of Agricultural Chem- 
istry." 

In that imperishable work all the scattered results of forej^ne 
research in this branch of science were collected and reduced to a 
system, which was extended and enriched by the aothor's own 
capital researches ; whereof, perhaps, the most s^al (in this 
depaitmcot of science) were his analytical investigations of aoik 
(types of all that has since been dooe in that way) ; his capital 
determinations of the composition and transfonnations of v^tal 
products ; and his admirable experiments on the nutrition of plants, 
as well by leaf as by root. 

To the powerful impulse and just direction impressed by Lavoi- 
Rer in France, and Dj>y in E.igl md, in subsequent investigadons 
of like kind, may be ascribed in a great measure Uieir vigorous 
and Eucccsef.il prosecution by pbilosophi'is contemporary with our- 
selves. Of these an encyclopedic list cannot,ofoouTfie, be given here; 
and among so many equally illustrious names, it would be difficult 
to single out a few, as lypes to represent the rest. Suffice it lo 
say, that to the exertions of these able men we owe a large propor- 
tion of the experimental data, on which, as on a firm foand;ition, 
the edifiee of modem a^cnltnral science, physical, chemical, and 
physiologic il, has, so to speak, been, stone by stone, built up. 
Honor and gratitude to those who have patiently hewn out thorn 
stones from iho quarry of undiscovered truth I 

B.t as the true >alue of the quarried stones is only made 
appjrcnt by their judicious collocation in the edifice according to 
the plan of the architect, so also dQ experimental data, separate]/ 
aocumulated by the toil of many, only appear in their true value 
and significance when comprehensively embraced, co-ordinated, 
and, as it were, fused into s harmonious whole, by the fiery genioe 
of one mustcr-niind. Such a mind was Lavoisier's in the last 
century ; such a service was rendered by Davy to our fathers ; 
and such, to ourselves, are the mind and the service of Justol 
Liebig. 



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1864.] OHXUISTBT OF UANDBES. 101 

Thus havo Fnoce, England, and Germanj, in the oovrae of 
•boat & centnrj, succesdvely produced the three great Lawgivers 
«f Modem HaBbandrj. 

It was in the year 1837 that the Britiah AaBociatioa for the 
Advanoement of Science, perceiviDg the immGoae accumdatioo of 
ficts, for the moat part unByBtematized, which had already taken 
place in oi^nio obemistry, and was annually iooreaaiDg therein, 
invited Justus Liebig, who had already attained to eminence by 
his extensive researches in this branch of science, to write a report 
npon iiB then condition ; which honorable daty the iilnstrioos 
philosopher undertook. In the year 1840, Liebig, in fulGInient 
nf ttuB eng^ment, produced bis memorable work on " Oi^anio 
Chemistry in ita Applioations to Agriculture and PhyBioIogy." 
In ordinary hands snch a report would, in all probability, have 
been but a eompilatioD, more or less compendious, of facts already 
known, and conceptions already proposed for their co-ordination. 
Bnt tiie original genius of Liebig, essentially philosophical and 
constructive, impressed npon his work a very different character. 

He bc^n by sweeping away the fallaciouB theoretical views which 
were at that time in vogue, — particularly the so-called " Humus 
theory," — and replacing them by a theory of his own, wider in 
Boope, and more conformable with truth. With this, the so-called 
" Mineral theory," as a general clue for his guidance, Liebig was 
enabled to thread the labyrinth of intermingled facts and fuUaciee, 
which had necessarily resulted from so many investigations, indue, 
tive and deductive, carried on for so many years, by so many 
independent thinkers and eiperimentalists, and recorded in so 
many soattend memoirs. All of these he was eaabled to we'gh and 
appreciate, by the criterion of a new law, or rather system of laws, 
themselves evolved during his large induolion, and established (in 
a great measure) by help of the very ikcts they served to elucidate 
ud oonnect. 

Profiting by the controversial criticism which his book, on its 
^tpearance, did not fail to provoke, Liebig made it more perfect 
in successive editions; and extended It by additional volumtf, 
BOme modtstly entitled " FamOiar Letters," some promulgated as 
codes of Natural Law, but all forming parts of a connected series, 
in which, as in a mirror, is displayed the prcgressive development 
of Liebig's views, in the light of his own and of contemporary 
researches. By these labors, pursued with unwearied industry 



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102 THE CANADIAN NATUOAUST. [Api^ 

dnring upwards of twenty ^sbts, Justwi Liebig hu nnqncstioBAIj 
shed npoQ bis all- important theme a flood of light, u oopioos and 
brilliaDt to the full as that which it Hocoessivelf rec^ved, in former 
days, from the luminouB minds of Lavoisier and Davy. Indeed, 
of the nffiliation of his labors to those of his immediate predeces- 
sor, Liebig himself, in the dedication of his work to the Britlaii 
Asaoolaii on, speaks with becoming humility and justifiable pride : — 

"I have endeavored," he says, "to follow thepathaurkedout 
by Sir Humphrey Davy, who based his ooncluaionB only on Hiat 
which was capable of examination and proof. This is the path of 
true philoBophioal inquiry which prooiiaes to lead us to tniUi, 
the proper object of our research." 

Of liiobig's views, and of the rapid and profound revolution of 
opinion they brought about, occasion will arise to speak in a sub- 
sequent page. Meanwhile, it may suffice to remark that, amongst 
other things, they completely overthrew the conceptions provioualy 
entertained as to the nature and operatino of manures. 

[Here referring again to the history of patent manures in England, 
the author remarks, that, as a result of the newly-awakened interest 
iu the subject of scientific agrioulturCj no lees than ninety-six pat«ntB 
for manures were r^tered between 1850 and 1855; and he eBt4- 
mates that the whole number of such patente rt^tered from 1S42 
to 1862 was at least 200.] 

This long series of inventions compriaee plans and proceSBesfoi 
turning to account, aa manure, almost all the known forms of 
animal waste and ejficta : such aa, for example, the night-soil and 
sewage of towns; theragsof woollen, silken, and leathern clothing; 
the debris of manufactures in which horn, bone, hides, bristles, 
gut, and other organic and nitrogenous materials are used; the 
spent animal or bone charcoal of the sngor refineries, and other 
phosphatio residua; the ammoniaoal liquDrs of gas-works; the 
alkaline wash-waters of soap, dye, bleach, and many other faotories ; 
— in a word, several hundred forms of residua, — nitrogenous, phos- 
phatio, and alkaline, — formerly oast away as worthless rubbish. 

These, the respective patentees propose to subject to various 
processes, mechanical, phydical, and chemical: such as, for example, 
in the case of liquors, to conoentration by boiling down, or pre- 
cipitation by chemical agency; in the case of solid residua, of 
crushing, grinding, or other process of comminution ; or to chemi- 
cal disintegration by powerful solvents, acid or alkaline according 



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18U.] 0BUU8TBT OF MANUBIS. 103 

it &» circnmsbuMoe in each oaoa ; or to nuoftntion ia wnter ; or 
to torrefsation fay fire ; or to d^stioD, at low or faigfa presHura, 
somBtiHes in moiBt, sometiniei in dry or snper-heated steam. 

SeTBTtJ of the patents ioolnde recipes for misiog the prodneta 
this obtuaed with each other, or yfith prodnota of a different 
or^n, to adapt them (ai the inventors allege) for special crops or 
ibr peoalUr soils. Many of these proposals possess merit; thongfa 
a still larger number exhibit ignorance on the projectors' part; 
while a oerbuB percentage almost seem to have been concocted with 
a yiaw to profit by the ignorance of others. 

Sdfibphosph&ti of Lwk MufUFACTDKB. — First in irapor- 
taaco, and nearfy first also in ohronologioal order, among the 
ntannie-pstcnts enrolled since the pablication of Liebig's book in 
1840, Btands the celebrated patent granted in 1842 to Mr. 3. S. 
Lawea,* for oonverting Uiealcie into monooaloio phosphate by 
means of snlphorio acid. The inventJon of this process, so far as 
it i^i^iee to the treatmeat of recent bones, is not claimed by Mr. 
Lawes, bnt bolongs to Justus Liebig, who saggected it in his 
great work already quoted. As this saggestion has become the 
fi>andadon of the modem indostry of manures, and its aathurship 
has been the snbject of oontroTersy, the Beporter feels bound to 
record, in the foot-note bebw, Liebig's own words on the gulgeot.f 

The great merit of Mr. Lawes consists, first, in his haTiog ex> 
tended the ^tplioation of sulphuric acid to phosphates of mMtrtU 

■ I^wet (J. B.), PatCQt No. 9363, Uaj 23, 1842. 

t "Thefonn 1b whicb the; [bonsa] are reatored to aioil does not ap- 
pear to baa matlei of EndilTerence. For the more Gaaly the bones are 
rtdaced to powder, and the more inlimately thej ara mixed with the ioit, 
tbe more eaaily are thej assimilated. The most easj and practical mode 
oreffectios their division is to pour over the bones, in a state of fiae 
powder, balf of their weigbt ot anlphnric acid dilated witb three or font 
parts of water, and after the/ bare been digested for sometime te add 
100 part* of water, and sprinkle this miitare orer tbe field before the 
plODgb. In a few leoonds, the free acids nnite with the bases contained 
in tbe earth, and a neutral salt is formed in a Ter; Cue stale of dlrision. 
Biperimeuts instituted on a soil farmed from grauioaekt, for tbe purpose 
of asceriaininK the action of manure thus prepared, haTC distinctly 
»iowa that neither oora notkitchea-KardeDplaniesnffbriDJiirionsefnMita 
ia conaeqaenre, bnt that, on tbe contrary, thej thrive witb much mwa 
^gor."— " OrKSBlc Cbemistrr la Its Application to AKricnltate and 
PbjMlogj," pf. 184, 185. 



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104 THE OANADIAN HATUBALIST. [April, 

or^G, snoh u apatite, and to the /omi booe-phosplute Icdovd 
as ooprolite; and, seoondly, in Ms having devised means and 
appliances for carrying out the mannfaotitre on an indostiial scale. 
Those upon whom it has devolved to organiae a new industry, and 
to overcome the diffioullies that apring up, unforeseen, at every 
stage of saoh a work, wLl know how to appreciate at their just 
value Mr. Lawes'a services in this respect. Indeed, in his doable 
capacity, as a manufactarer of manures, and as an indefatigable 
experimentalist on their effects, Mr. Lawes merits recognition as 
one of the most actave promoters of agriculture now living. Noc 
would it be just, in suob a mention, to overlook tbe large share of 
service rendered by Dr. Oilhert, the able coadjutor of Mr. Lawee, 
in the experimental and analytic department of his labors. 

Hr. Lawes appears to have made his first essays in the mana- 
focture of superphosphate in 1841-2 ^ and, on the success of tbeae 
experiments, to have b^un his gi*eat mannfictoiy at Deptford, in 
1843. Many similar works have since sprung up, and the manu- 
facture has growa to enormous magnitude. Mr. Lawes himself 
produces 13,000 to 20,000 tons of superphosphate annually; and 
the total yearly production of superphosphate in Great Britain is 
estimated by him as ranging from 150,000 to 200,000 tons. 

Mr. Lawes has favored the Reporter with the following inter- 
eeUng particulars as to tiia most recent and improved mode of 
manufacturing saperphosphate, its average oomposilJOD, and its 
present market price : — 

" The phosphatic materials are firstgronnd to a very fine powdw 
by millstones ; the powder is then carried up by means of eleva- 
tors, and discharged eoatinuously into a long iron cylinder, hsTing 
agitators revolving within it with great velocity. A constant 
stream of sulphuric acid, of sp. gr. 1-66, enters thecylinder at the 
same end as the dry powder, and the mixture flows oat at the other 
end in the form of a thick mud, having taken from three to five 
minutes in passing through the machine. The quantity turned 
out by saoh a mixing-machine is about 10ft tons daily. The semL- 
fiiiid mass runs into covered pita tea to twelve feet deep, each of 
sufficient aisa to hold the prodace of the day's work. It becomes 
tolerably solid in a few hours, but retains a high temperature for 
weeks, and even mouths, if left undisturbed. 

" The compoeilJOQ of a superphosphate, of good quality, mads 
partly from mineral phosphate and partly from ordinary Ixmes, ma^ 
be stated as follows : 



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1864} caSHIBTBT or HANUBES. lOS 

Solabit phoaphata 23 to 35 per cent. 

iDSoIoble pboapb&te 8 " 10 " " 

Water 10 " 13 " " 

Salphat« of lime 3G " 4S " " 

Orpinic matter 11 " Ifi " ■< 

Nitrogen 0-TS to I'D per cent. 
" If sufficient snlphurio acid vere used fa) decompoae Uie whole- 
of the i^osphate of time, the product would be too wet to be pack- 
ed in b^;s, and wotdd reqoire eitlier to be mixed witb extraneouB 
nibstanoes of a dry and porouB natare, or to be srtificiallj dried. 

" The price of the beet descriptions of superphosphate ranges 
&om 51. 15«. to 61. 10(. per ton, and of tbat made firom pnrelj 
nuneral phosphate from 4f. to &l b». per ton." 

Of the raw materials annually worked np into enperphosphate- 
in Great Britain, Mr. Lawes estimates tbat about half is derived 
from the deposits of fbssil bonfr«arth, or coprolite, discovered ot 
late years in aeveral parts of England. Bone-ash, chiefly imported 
ftom South America, animal charcoal from Germany, and bones 
from all parts of the world, together supply about forty per cent 
more of the raw material ; while the remiuning ten per cent of the 
total sapi^y is made np by guano (chiefly of the less nitrogenous 
and more pbosphatic kinds), with a little apatite (aay 200 to 500 
tone per annum), obtained from Spun, Norway, and America. 

Impobtation op Mandres into OaEAT Britain. — These 
data alone might serve to indicate that the industry of manures, 
since the impnlse it received in 1840, has afforded occupation not 
only to the inventive and manufacturing, but also to the commer- 
wkl activity of the English nation. But of this the origin and de- 
vdopment of the guano-trade affords direct evidence. 

^Here follows an historical sketch of the growth of the trade in 
guano, from which we learn tbat the flrst experiments with this 
manure in England appear to have been mitde from 1838 to 1840. 
HeasTB Qibbs & Sons, its principal importers, commenced in 1842 
by importing 182 tons of guano,. In 1843 they imported 4667 
Ions, and in 1862 their total sappliea (as well for foroign as for 
British oonsnmptjon) equalled no less than 435,000 tons. Of this 
between one-third and one-fonrth was retuned for use in the United 
Kii^om. Its price, which has varied from 91. to 151., is now 
about 121. the Urn.} 

The extraordinary success *of the Peravian guano-trade led Uy 
Toyages of discovery in searoh of fresh deposits; several of which 



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106 THI OAMASIAN HATDRALIBT. [^pHl, 

have been found and extensively vorlced on the ielanda of Uw 
West AfiioMi coast aad elsewhere. NorhaacommeroialenterpnBe 
oonfined itself to guano. Nitrate of sodiam, fonnerly valued 
«hieflj as a sabatilute for saltpetre in the salpharic-aotd maniifao- 
tura, has of late jears oome more and more lai^ely into nae as a 
powerful fertUiier ; and the vast deposits of this Bubstanoe anoees- 
sively opeae 1 up in several parts of the South American oontineot 
are now eztenuvely worked for the supply of the English manaie- 
market. As for bones and bone-ash, they have been imported by 
thousands of ehiploada, not merely from the bonndleaa South 
Amerioan pampas, — &edinf|;-grounds and cemeteries of uDDUiabered 
lierds, from immemorial time, — but also from populous Enropean 
Hjonntiies, whose soil could by no means spare them so well, and 
whose fertility must have been seriously impaired by &ur with- 
drawal. 

Good and Evil of thi Trade in Mandkk8. — The man- 
ure-trade presents itself, therefore, in two aspects ; the one advaa- 
tageooa, the other detrimental to mankind. Nothing can be more 
advantageous than the collection and utilisation of fertilising 
residua formerly oast away aa worthless. The fossil phoephatea 
'ijnarried oat of the bosom of the earth, and the goano eztrasted 
{by the snccessive intervention of seaweeds, fishes, and peognlu) 
from the depths of the ocean, are evidently somuohtreasuio&irly 
won from nature for the It^itimate enrichment of mankind.* Even 
the withdrawal of recent bonea and booa-ash, from plains untenant l- 
«d as yet save by wild cattle, to fertilize the oom-fielda of the 
populous old world, must be aeoounted a legitimate commerce- 
But the boundary line is ovei^passed, and the manure-trade becomes 
abnormal, when bones are withdrawn from one populons conntiy 
to enrich the ixhanstcd fields of another. 

Nor is the detriment thus oooamoned confined to the connti; 
whose BoU is impoverished. In the closely knit relaljons of modem 
ctHnmoroe, the impoveridment of any one oommeicial oonntiy 
reacts on the prosperity of all theothera, by diminishing the stock 
of exchangeable wealth in the world. If Germany, for instanoe, 
grows lass corn, her purehasing power for foreign goods, uy 

* See, ia this eoDnect<DD,apaperb7 Mr.Sterry HaDton Fitb-Hannraa 
<OaDBdiAn Haturaliat, vol. W, pp. 13-33), where will b« found much In- 
fonnatioD on the theory ormanarea and ou th«it commercial valae.^ 
Somas. 



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1864.] ouutrnTBY or uanubbb. 107 

Bnaeii at Brituh, is proportionally dimiDisbed, and oommerte 
mSenpro Imto. The gain to France and England is, theteSon, 
iiot illnaoiy, if either rohi a neighbor's soil to fertiliie her own. 

Id a vork jut puhliahed,* Baron Liehig sternly rebukes Eng- 
land f<w her om^^ageniesa to bny np, in the form of bones, tbe 
pbosphatic wealth of ooantries leas advanced than herself in finan- 
«ial and iodiiatrial power ; and for the apparent recklewnesa with 
whieb Bbe squanders fbrth these treasares (ill-gotten and ill-apent), 
down her inDamerahle sewers to the sea. The great agricnltaral 
ta&ober manifests alarm at the superabundant seal with which tbe 
most diligent of his pnpils obeys his lessons ; and to other nations 
be earnestly points ont tbe ruinous oonsequenoes that must ensue 
to them from the exportation of phoBphates, drawn fVom tiieirsoU, 
to stay the ezhanstloa of the English fields. His cry of warning 
is oroujhed in terms of almost passionate invective : — 

England (he oxolaima) is robbing all other oouotries of the oon- 
lUtioos of their fertility. Already, in her eagerness for bones, she 
has torned ap the battle-fields of Leipsic, of Waterloo, and of the 
Oiimea ; already from the oataoombs of Sicily she has earned 
«way the skeletons of many eucoessive generations. Annually she 
r«Bovee from the shores of other countries to her own, the mann- 
rial equivalent of three millions and a half of men ; whom she 
takes from as the meaDS of supporting, and squanders down her 
sewers to the sea. Like a vampire she hangs upon the neck of 
Enrope, nay of the entire world, and euoks tbe heart-blood from 
nations, without a thought of justice towards them, without a 
shadow of lasting advantage for herself. 

It is impossible (he proceeds to say) that snch iniquitous inter- 
ference with the Divine order of the world ebonld escape its right- 
ful pnniBbment; and this may perhaps overtake England even 
sooner than ttie eonntries she robs. Most assuredly a time awaits 
her, when all her riohes of gold, iron, and ooal will be inndequale 
to bny back a thonsandth part of the conditions of life, wbioh for 
oentnri<;s she has wantonly squandered away. 

It must be admitted that these striotures, though somewhat 
harsh in tone, are not without a certain degree of trnih. It may, 
however, be urged, on the other hand, that they apply only to ooe 
branch, among many, of British manurial indastry, — and even to 

. ' "EinletuDg in die Natargeselza des FeldlMiiea." Von Jaatoi voa 
Liebig. BrannBcbweig, Vieweg und Sohn, ISes, 



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108 TQK OA.NADUN NATITEALIST. [^P"^ 

tlut branch only partially. For, sinw the British ooprolitfrbeds 
have been extensivelj worked, they have 8ap{died fosnl phoephates 
at a price so low as to supersede, in a great mBaanre, the anpplj 
of receot booes, for agricultural purposes, from ContioeDt^ ooan- 
tries. Nor do the laws of political economy permit na to doubt 
that undue Bcaroity, artificially created, gradually raises maiket 
price to an extent wliich becomes at last prohibitory; so that the 
evil provides its own corrective. Of this, indeed, a very appeaite 
illostraiion reaches the Reporter while he writes. H. Glemm- 
Leouiga, mauufaoturer of Manbeim, informs him tliat EngUflb 
fossil phosphates are being extensively exported to Germany; be 
himself (M. Clemm-Lenntg) receiving coaeiderable supplies of thw 
mnterial from British porte. The balance of trade seems, there- 
fore, to be arriving at a just equilibrum in this matter, as, indeed, 
it always doett, if ouly it be lefl to swing freely. 

Modern Uistobioal Btentb connectkd with tbs Db- 
VXLOPHKNT OF THE Mandbial INDUSTRY. — But wcM Eng- 
land a more signal offender than she is, or ever has been, agunst 
what may be termed the manurial equilibrium of the world, she 
might plead her justifioation in the train of modem historical 
events which have brought her manurial industry into iU preeept 
remarkable phasts ; a phaeis purely transitiona], and which mario 
the crisis of a momentous revolution, even now in eoorse of ta- 
complishment. 

The events here alluded to, like the revolution in which they 
are culminating, have their common origin in the memorable io- 
vention of the eteam-eogine by Watt. 

The new motive power placed by Watt's genius at the disposal of 
mankind, after having iraDsfonned in succession every other main 
braooh of human industry — the i^pinning and weaving of raiment, 
for example; the arts of locomoiion, by land and sea; all the 
various forms of bnite drudgery, such as lifting, hewing, pumpiog, 
grinding, &c.; all the technical plastic arts, firom the shaping <£ 
the most stubborn metals to the moulding of the most delicate 
day — in a word, after having lightened for mankind all the other 
forms of toil, is now making its way into the farm, and impreai- 
ing upon the operations of husbandry an equally signal revolu- 
tion. 

It is important to observe that the transformations which have 
preceded this final, and most momentous change of all, have not 



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1864.] CEEUIBTRT OF HANURBS. 109 

«nly prepared tlie way for it, but have, at the same time, rendered 
its advent anindispenaablenecensity; as a very brief consideration 
will ehow. 

It is, in trhefirat place, by theoperation of steam-power that the 
handiera/U, formerly pursued by famillos dispersed in villugea over 
the whole surface of the land, have been replaced by manufactures, 
eondnoted in colossal faotoriea, determining the a^lomeration of 
enormoos populations, in rapidly developed towns and cities, 
located nsnally (for the convenieaoe of trade) upon streams and 
rivers leading to the sea. 

Food has naturally followed popnlatioo ; and corn and cattle, 
-vegetables and fruit, are daily poured from the country into the 
towns, in (streams of constantly increasing magnitude. The quan- 
tity of fertilising reudua resulting from the consumptjon of these 
. provisions, and requiring, in iiur husbandry, restoration to the 
distant fields from whioh they come, undei^oes, of coarse, prepor- 
tionate alimentation ; and the problem of their re-conveyance to 
the land has been, and still is, cue of annually increasing diffi- 
culty. 

During tfae earlier development of the factory-system, the old 
mode of urban defecation, by means of cesspools emptied periodi- 
cally, was in v<^e ; and much of the night-soil produced in the 
great mannfitcturing towns found its way back from these stagnant 
reoeptades to the land. 

But as the populations assembled in these industrial encampments 
^rew vaster and more dense, diseases of the so-called zymotir ctass 
became more and more rife among them ; and though the respeo- 
tiveojuseeof the several forms which zymotic or febrile disease 
assumes remuned unknown, it was gradually established by pro- 
fessional investigations that they had all one common favoring 
Aindition in the putrescent effluvia of stagnant filth. 

To the few scientific inquir-^rs who traced out this relation, it 
beoame apparent that the stagnant cesspool system was radically 
Tiaioas,.and must be rooted oat at any cost. They perceived 
that urban populations could only be preserved from febrile disease 
ty the daily removal of their ejeota before its entry into the state 
of putrefaction ; and for this end a system of house and street 
drains, kept constantly washed with abundant supplies of water, 
Memed to afford the readiest means. 

Here t^ain the power of steam was on the side of pic^ieia. 



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JIO THK OAMADIAN MATUIALIBT. t''^P"V 

The public vnter-sapply of towns, no longer led, u of old, in 
wooden pipes, to publio foanlaias, Uienea to be febihod in pail and 
piteber to tbo dwellings, was arged by eteam-pamps at high pies- 
sore, through iron pipes h&ving lateral branohee, into the bonses 
themselTes, and even up to theic bigbeat floors. Thia permitted 
the adoption of Braroab's water-oloaet (a ca|ntal inTentton) with ita 
Bffift water-rash and trapped exit-drain, instead of the noisome 
privy, nntrapped and waterless, with its stagnant pitofpotresoenoe 
beneath. And tiiongh Bramah's closet itself was a ooetly pieee of 
meohanism, cheaper contrivances of like kind soon fiiUowed, 
bringing within reach of the poor as well as ibe rioh the ineetl- 
mable blesdng of cleanly defeoatioo. 

These ameliora^ous had, however, gained but little attention, 
and were but slowly making their way, whoa, in 1839, the views 
of their advocates recdved at once a terrible oonfirmation and a 
powerful impulse, by the snddea outborst of the Asiatio diolera. 
***«•**•**«*«•*• The 

ooneternatioa it prodaoed was uaiversal ; and it gave rise to that 
remarkable scries of researches, oonclnaions, and practical reforms, 
known ooUoctively as the modern Sanitary Movement. 

Under this new influence the substitution of flowing drains for 
stagnant cess-poola was carried on with much inoreased accirity ; 
though obstructed by a vehement controversy as to the printer 
size and form of the druns. Small circular stone-ware tabes were 
recommended by one piny; large brick flat-bottomed sewers by 
the other. The tubular system happily proved to be the cheapest 
as well as the bast ; and ita advocates, af ler a tea years' stru^e, 
finally carried the day. Whole towns are now drained through 
12-iaoh pipes, which would formerly have been deemed of aeant 
dimension for the drainage of a single mansion. 

The application of the manurial streams from nrban drains to 
irrigate farm-lands was also warmly advocated by the sanitary 
reformers, but as warmly doolared impraoticable by several lead- 
ing engineers ; whose views upon that part of the question pre- 
vailed. 

The second invasion of Asiatic cholera, in 1849, gave a new 
impulae to the abolition of cesspools ; and the value of tnbntar 
drains, of small sise and rapid sooac, for their leplaoement, 
had by that time obtained very general rect^nidon. But tlie 
leading engineers of England, while admitlJDg, theoretioally, thfr 



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1864.] OHUUSTBT or MANnoEa. 113 

Tahio of sewage to fertilize iKad, still denied the Bonndoaia anil 
eootwmj of the meohaaio&l amuigeQietits propoBod b; ihe Sanitu; 
Beformen for ita dbtribatloa. On an engineeriag qaesdon, 
pnUio opinioa (not nnoaturally) sided at the oatset with th» 
ei^neera. The new system has had, therefore, to enconoter a 
profeniooal opposition, all the more formidable for being Uiaronghly 
eonsctentjoua. Prohablj that opposition, with the controversy it 
hu engendered, and, above all, the experimenia to whieh it has 
^ven rise, oonstitntea a wholesome ordeal to test the soundoees 
of t&e new plan, and to bring abont the oorrection of sneh weak 
poiata as it maj present. Bat in the mean time, the application 
of town sewage to fiurm-lands, on an extensive, national leale, has 
stood, and still stands, adjourned. 

HoDoe Uie present oondicion, obviously tranutional, of the great 
mannfiiotnriiig and commercial towns of Kngland; hence the in- 
snfierable pollntionof her streams and rivers; henoe that prodlg- 
ions aqnandering of the elements of irnmui Uood, for which she is 
BO bitterly reproached by Lieblg. 

Bat the some mighty power of steam which brought abont t^ oon- 
traliBatiOn of the maaufaotiiriag population in great towns, with 
the evils thanae cnaaing, and the sinitiry am.-liorationa by whieh 
IboBe evils were (in part) sabdned, came fraught wilb other prin- 
otplee also, and other events, not less influential in the development 
of the manorial industry. Among these tiie most eooapicuonsly 
important, in thetr bearing upon Uiis great industry, were the 
doetrine and praotiea of Free Trade. The historical affiliation of 
Free Trads to steam-power ia direct and obviona. The miUions- 
oongregated by steam-power bad to be fed. To the working of 
tbe new factory-system cbeap oora was as neoessary as cheap 
eoal. The restriction of bread-supplies, and, tbe consequent en- 
faanoement of their price, by artificial means, to benefit a olaae, 
beeame utterly inadmisaable. Protection, always a falkoy, was 
now also an anachroolsm; and after a severe struggle, and a 
k)ng series of transitional expedients, the ports of England wore 
tiirawn open freely to foreign sappliea of food. Tbe oultivators 
«r this cold northern aotl were thus exposed lo the competition of 
rival food.growera, tilling, beneath warmer suns, the more prolific 
eom-fields or the south. Upon this anec|nal com petition the Eng- 
Ush territorial proprietors entered, as upon a struggle for life or 
death. Abundant manuring aee.ned at tbe outset tbeir main, if 



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112 THB CANADIAN NATDKALIBT. [^Pn^i 

not their sola resanroe ; hence the rapid and prodigioiu develop- 
ment of the gaano-trude; heace the mnltiptioattoa of manarial 
produots fVom every form of waste, afl manifested in the pateat 
records ; hence the celebrated " nibi^a theory " and the " high- 
farming" Byetem, to whioh allusion nill presently be made; 
hence, lastly, that ransacking of the whole world tor bones, bo 
eriminBl In Liebig's view. 

Applioatjon op Steah-Poweb to AaRiouLTttRB. — Bat 
steam-power, whioh has imposed npon the British ouliirator diis 
stTDggle for esistence, brings him also the means of issning ricto- 
nous from the encounter. Why may not the steam-ui^ed plough- 
share pass to and fro through the field, as the steam-driven shnt- 
de pwses (hroagh the fabric in the loom ? If pare water can be 
pnmped by etcam-pawer at an iaftnitesimal cost into a town for 
its supply, why may not the very same water, enriched with the 
yeetn of the population, and so converted into a powerful manure, 
be also pumped out of the town by steam-power, and applied to 
maintain the fertility of the land ? In a word, why may not hua- 
bandry rise, in its turn, from the rank of a handicraft to that of 
a mina/'ietart ; the farm be organized and worked like a faoiory; 
and food, like every other commodity, be at length producod by 
tteam-poioer T These questions are now in every mouth ; and 
the agricultural revolution thoy imply appears to be, at this mo- 
ment, in coarse of accomplishment by the Eugliah people. Already, 
' on many an English f^rm, the characteristic tall fac'ory-chimney 
' is sees ri^ng among the trees ; the steam-engine is heard panting 
below ; and the rapid thres ing-whcel, with its noisy revolutions, 
supersedes the laborer's tardy flail. 

Already, at somiivhit fewer points, the farm-locomotive stands 
smikin^ ia the field, winding to and fro, rouud the anchored windr 
lass, the slender rope of steel whioh draws the rapid plough-share 
through the soil ; thus furrowed twice as deep, and thrice as fast, 
-as formerly by man and horse ; and thus economically enriched 
with proportionately-increased supplies of atmospheric plant-food. 
And lastly, already, at still rarer intervals, the subterranean pipes 
fiir sewage-irrigation ramify beneath the fields, precisely as the 
pipes for water-distribntion ramify beneath the streets of the adja- 
cent town ; the propelling power being in both cases that «^ 
flteam. 

These innovations are doubtless still experimental; and \Sa 



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1864.] CHEUISTET Oy HANCKES. 113 

all innorations, they are rannted b; BOme with premature teal aa 
perfect i while others, with pardonable BoepticiBtn, deer; them u 
utt«rlf impraotioable. Truth for the present seems to lie between 
theae eztremes. The Bleam-plongh, though answeriDg well in 
lai^ and level fields with favo^ableaoiU, e^ll re<}uireBadiiptatioii to 
len easy conditions of tilla^. The Tubular Irrigatiag sj8t«m is 
still liable to the sudden influx of storm-waters, over-bardening, 
and often OTer-mastering, the steam-pumps, so as seriously to inter- 
fere with the economy of thedistributiveoperation. BntinventiTC 
research and praoUcal experiment are rapidly proceeding side by 
side, and every year, not to say every month, sees some fresh tmth 
elicited, some previous " impossibility " achieved. 

Utilisation or Urban S/ecta ab Manihib. — The sepua- 
tion of BarfM3e-wat«r from sewage is, foy a certain number, confi- 
dently relied on to solve the problem of sewage utilization, in con- 
formity with Mr. F. 0. Ward's formula, — " the rain/all to the 
river, ihetewage totheioil." Others are of opinion that sewi^, 
even when diluted by admixture with lain-swoIlen brooks, may 
be economically pumped on the land. A tbird party beliBTC 
gravitation to be the only eoonomioal distributive power for 
sewage ; Kud open gutters, eontoured along the undulating ground, 
the only channels suited for iu oonveyanoe. 

On these mechanical questions the Heporter, as a chemist, has 
of course no opinion to ofiiBr. But that the reckless squandering 
of town-sewage to the sea, if oontinued on its present prodigious 
scale, most, in a few generations, justify the worst forebodings of 
Liebig, and that the same steam-power which has indnoed tlic 
evil can alone supply the remedy, the Reporter confidently believes. 

[Here follows a notice of the systems of urban defecation pur- 
sued in Baden and in Japan, witb the remarks of Liebig Uierecn.] 

The oi^nisation of the soiled " Continuous tubular oironla- 
ting system," by which, with the aid of steam-power, the healthy 
and ceaaelesa interchange of pure water and manurial liquor 
between town and country is now sought to be achieved, seems 
destined to constitute the mechanical oomplimont of the great 
. chemioo-physiolcgicd truths promulgated by Justus Liebig; from 
whose powerful genius the promoters of this plan aDsiously antid- 
pate not merely its adoption, but its incorporation in his great 
agricultural edifice, as its orown and pinnacle. 

It b not however pretended by the warmest advocates of this 

Tot. I. H «o. J. 



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114 THE OANADIAM MATUEALIBT. [Apri^T 

system, tliat it can be acoompliahed hj a dngle generation. It is 
admitted, on the eontrary, that the complete tabnlamatioa of the 
farms of Europe mast be a task aa gradual aa the oomplet« draia 
and vater pipeage of her towna, or as the universal extension of 
her nulway and electric oommonicatitinB. Bat as the magnitade 
of such a project may be, for many minds, the very pivot on which 
tilieir judgment of it, favorable or adverse, may turn, the Reporter 
quotes here, from a speech of Mr. F. 0. Ward (in 1855), some 
remarks beariog od this point. 

" It is ar^ed," said the speaker, after adverting to t£e cost of 
the requisite pipeage, — " it is argued from this vast expenditure, 
and widely-estended range of distribution, that the plan is imprac- 
ticable. But I think this resembles the ailments used against 
gas-l^hting at the outset. ' Wliat I' It was said in the old days of 
oil-lamps, to the daring innovators who proposed gas-lighting, ' do 
you seriously ask us to tear up all the streets of our towns, and 
lay down thousaods of miles of snhterranean arteries, to ciionlate 
a Bubble vapor through every street and into every house, to do, at the 
costs of millions upon miJiions, what our lampsand candles already 
do sufficiently well?' Such was the language used ; and the pro- 
posal of gas-lighting was regarded at the outset, by the m^ority 
of mankind, as the wildest and moat visionary halluncination. 
But when Murdoch's factory had been illuminated with gas, the 
whole problem was virtually solved ; and when the first line of gas- 
lights burned along Fall Mall, the illumination of all the towna of 
Europe became a mere question of time. Just so, when the first 
farm was successively laid down with irrigating tabes for the 
distribution of liquid manure, there ceased to be any force in the 
ailment about the quality and cost of pipeage for this purpose. 
* * * Nor should we be deterred from grappling with the sewage 
problem by contemplating the vast magnitade of the results to 
which it will lead in the coarse of time — of generations, perhaps, 
when the whole subsoil of Europe will probably be piped for the 
distribution of liquid manure, just as all Flanders is already honey- 
combed with tanks for its storage." 

SuuHABY or IQB Manitre-Quebtion in its Histo&ical 
Relations. — If the foregoing views be correct, the present pecu- 
liar and provisional condition of the manorial industry in England 
is due to a series of ooncatenated influences, sprin^ng from the 
invenlion of the steam-engine as their common source, and com- 



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1864.] CHSHISTBT Of HANURKS. 115 

prising the development, nnder its inflaenoe, of tbe modem manu- 
faatoring system, with its oeutraliied awarma of populatioD, — 
leading, on the one hand, to increased demand for food,' and to the 
oODsequent proclamation of Free trade, — leading also, on the other 
hand, to reiterated invasion of ABialic pestilenoe, and to theoonse- 
qaent abandonment of the cesspool-system, in fovor of certain 
tabular arraogements, designed for the continuous removal and 
atilizatlon of the manorial waters, and now in midway course of 
organiEation. Wholesome controversy, the mother of experiment, 
enlightens, while it retards this revolution ; and if, meanwhile, as 
Liebig alleges, England " sacks, vampire-like, the blood of Europe," 
it is because she herself (in this sense) bleeds from a thousand 
wonnds. As the closure of these, now her most ardent desire, 
shaU be prc^ressively accomplished, so, in like proportion, will she 
be absolved from further need of the sanguinary Biipplios, for which 
she now pays so dear. To drop metaphor, -~as the new oircuiating 
mechanism for the atilization of sewage-manure shall be progres- 
sively worked out and realized in England, so, in like degree will 
her importations of manure fall off; till at last, when her manu- 
rial circulation shall be complete, the course of the manure-trade 
may be reversed, and England may be in aeondition to send back 
to the continents which supply her with food, the fertilizing ele- 
ments therein contained, or their equivalent. 

In some degree, no doubt, the development of the human race, 
accelerated as it assuredly will be by more abundant food-supplies, 
may tend to prevent these mannrial economies, by the absorption, 
in increasing quantities, of what may be termed man's floating 
capital of phosphates — to wit, those held in human skeletons and 
Mood. But large reserves of these, andof allotherferUlizingmate- 
rials, are fortunately open to our exploitation, in the as yet unap- 
propriated domains of nature,— the ocean, the atmosphere, and the 
underlying strata of the earth. To these mineral sources the 
manufacturer of manures, guided in this respeot by the general 
coarse of modem industrial history, vrill doubtless have recourse in 
an increasing degree. By aid of the steam-eagino, as already ex- 
plained, we are enabled to draw from the air, and to fix in the 
raindly and economically oomminat«d soil, increased snppUes of 
volatile plant-food. The same systun wilt assist to open up, for 
use (not waste), the phosphatio and alkaline reserves of the soiL 
To the inerea^ing substitation of fossil for recent bones, as raw 



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116 THE OANADIAN NATDBALIBT. [-^PtQ) 

Biateriil, in the BnperpliiMphste manufaotare, referenoe hu alreadj 
been madei and in the Bcctioo oa potash, the new means at our 
disposal for eztraotiag this fertilizer from the ooean aad tlie 
primitive rooks, have been set forth at length.* 

It is not neoessary however to pnrsae these reaaoninga fdrtber ; 
nor ta trace, to a more dlBtant future, the probable inflnence of 
for^ne and eon temper ir; events on theconrse of the mannrial in- 
dustry. The Beporter will have aooomplished his wish should the 
attention of governments and individuals throughout the world be 
directed by these cursor; remarks (o the double revolution, Sani- 
tary and Agricultural, now taking place in England ; and to the 
signal beneSts likely to accrue therefVom tothe British nation, and 
ultimately to the whole human race. 

Modern Tbeost of PiiANT-NttrBmoN. Naiubb and 
QpEaATiON OF Mandbes. — Quitting the hiBtorieal aspeot of the 
question, the Reporter propotei now to offer a few remarks on 
the nature tnd modtu upcratuJt of manures, and on tbegrandand 
aimple laws whieh govern their relations to the soil and the crop. 
For the clear apprehension of these it will be necessary, in the 
first inatance, briefly to direct attention to the nature and fnno- 
tions of plants, and to the modern theory of their alimentation. 
Growing as they do, wiUi their leaves spread forth in the air, and 
their roots radiating in the soil, plants neceeaarily draw from theas 
media the materials of whioh they oonsiBt. As .fertile soils are 
rich in tlie debris of previous vegetation, such as dead roots, leaves, 
and the like, crumbl d to Tnoitld or h-imui ; and as this hnmus ii 
slightly soluble in water, whioh is constantly supplied to thesoil in 
the form of rain and dew ; it was formerly and not unnaturally 
believed, that the aqneoos solntion of organio matter thus formed 

* Reference U bere made bj tbe Reporter to a previous leetloo oftbii 
report, pp. 4S-M. From tbii it appears that the procera for tbe eeoooitii« 
eilractioD of potatb-ialia from seii-wateT, as degcribed bj Mr. Sierrj 
Hnnt (Canadian Naturalist, vol. iii, pp. 106-109), ba» bseo aUll furtber 
P«rfec(ed b; Ut. Uerle, who enplo;* artificial cold to aid the proccM ; 
and has bow eitabligbed, in the south of France, rer; eiten^ivi^ worlci 
for tbe purpoee of carrfing out Ur. Balard'i proeeues with this improve- 
ment. Ab regards tbe eilraclion of potash from feldipatbic rocks, (be 
late eiperiments of Ward sod WjdsdU, ai uoliced in ihe report, ibow 
that bf carefall/ cslciniug feldipar witb proper proportions of lime or 
cballc and fluor-spar, a frit is obtained from wbieh nearly all tbe potash 
maj be removed in a canitic stale by the action of water.— Boiioas. 



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1864.] 0HKMIBTB7 OV UAMDBES. 117 

vu imbibed bj tbe roots plaaged tberein, and so oonveyed u food 
to the living tissues. Acuordiog to this new, {dants were nippoeed 
to live, like animus, on organic food, more or less resembling ip 
ehemioal composition the tJasaes which it noarisbed. This was 
the (Hi organic or humus theory of plant-nutrition, referred to 
above as having been attacked and demoliBbed by the great author 
of the mi«eral theory, now noiversally accepted. Lielng indeed 
proved, in the clearest manner, partly by data ready to bis hand, 
partly by bis own incomparable researches, that it is not posdble 
fer plants to o>>tain their nutriment in the form of organic matter. 
He showed that the Vegetal kingdom of nature b interposed be- 
tween the Mineral and the Animal Kingdoms, with the special 
ftanctioD of elaborating from the former the food of the latter. 

Thus, for example, with reference to carbon, the weighlest 
■olid constitaent of plants, Liebig proved it to be absolutely im- 
poenble that a sufficient supply of this element should reach them 
in the form of dissolved organic matter, or humus. la this de- 
monstration Liebig took as his data, first, the ascertained solubility 
of hnmuB in rain water ; secondly, the known average quantity of 
rain-water falling annually on an acre of land ; and lastly, the- 
qnantity of carbon annually yielded by the average crop of that 
area, whether in the form of hay, timber, or com and straw. 
With these elements of calculation, LiAig demonstrated irrefrag- 
ably that humus, as sncb, is not soluble enough to servo as plant- 
food ; seeing that the whole annnal rainfall, even If completely 
saturated with bumns, and entirely absorbed by the growing 
wbeat-ptants, grass, or trees, would not supply a fourth part of the 
earbon removed from the farm in those crops. Liebig showed 
further, that the growth of perennial plants (forest trees, for ex- 
ample), so far from exhausting the soil of humus, tends on the 
Mntrary, to oocasion its aooumulation therein; vegetation, in point 
of fact, being a condition precedent of humus, not humus of vegc- 
tadon. 

SlTPPLY nv Cabbom to Plantb. — Pursuing a chain of argu- 
ment in which the researches of De Saassure, Boussingault, and 
many others, were, by a masterly and luminous induction, brou^t 
to bear in support of bis own conceptions, Liebig established the 
faot, now universally received, that carbon is conveyed to plants, 
not in any org ntc combination whatever, but as a mineral gas, 
fbrmed by the aid of atmospheric oxygen, and termed carbonic 



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118 TBI OAHADUN NATDEALIST. [^Pnl| 

The steps of reseaioh bj which our {NreseDt knowledge of this 
matter was built up by Liebig, from d&ts p&rtly ooUeoted, partly 
origina], oaimot be here eoumerated, but t^ reoaiTed view may be 
thus briefly Bummed up: Every 32 lbs. of atmoepheria oxygen 
can take up, without change of volume, 12 Ibe. of oarbon in the 
form of oarbonlc-aeid gu. This gas, on the other hand, plants 
have power to absorb by leaf and root ; and by their vital force, 
coiqiled with the action of the solar light Tipon their leaves, to de- 
compose. The oarbon they reduce to the sdid form, and fix in 
their growing tisenee ; the oxygen they restore to the air. The 
oxygen Utns liberated by living organisms takes up fresh carbon 
from effete o^nic matter ; whether from the debris of vc^tables 
themselves, e. i;. mouldering bnmns, slowly oxydieed within the 
soil ; OF from vegetal fuel (recent or fossil) rapidly osydiied by 
combustion ; or from the residuary materials of animal life, cirou- 
lating in the blood, and eliminated by oxydation durii^ l^ereB|»- 
ratery process ; or lastly, from the final rcwduum of animal Uie, 
— the coTpte, which also, during its decay and dissolution, yields 
carbon in abundance to the oxygen of the air. Thus, by Uie in- 
tervention of atmoepherio oxygen as its carrier, carbon, in tlteform 
of oarbonio-acid gas, is transferred from dead te Uving organisms, 
the air constantly receiring fkom the fmrmer as much oarbon as it 
supplies to the latter. 

Cosmic EoniLiBRnrH of the Atmobphe&x, how ?ar 
DO(TBTFtfL. — Whether or not the ever-active processes which 
eolleotively supply oarbon to the air exactly balance those which 
perpetually co-operate to withdraw it, so as te form a perfect and 
unalterable cosmic equilibrium, wc do not know. The asserHon 
is often made, and popuhir writers are in the habit of extolling the 
assumed arrangement as an admirable provision of nature. But 
we are in truth quite ignorant on this subject; no reliable data 
having come down to us as points of comparison by which te de- 
termine any variation that may have taken place, and be still in 
progress, in the composition of the atmosphero. And here the 
Reporter cannot but romark in passing, that it is time systematic 
observations were begun in Europe, te serve as a starting-point, 
or first term of comparison, by which our snooessors, if not onr- 
■elves, may be enabled te elucidate this question ; than which none 
can be conceived of deeper importenoe te mankind. 

True FtTNOTiONS of Hdhus.— Reverting to the bumns in 



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1864] CHEUIBTBT OF UANURKB. 119 

the mil, it>8 trae offioe, as ooDtradistingaiahed from the imagiiur; 
iunotbns asdgned it of old, ma; nov be clearly perceived. As 
liviDg oi^nisms feed od the carbon restored to the air by their 
defunct predeoessors, and as bumos is but the debris of previous 
vegetation in a soil, the carbonic aoid developed by ite decay mnst 
play a proportionate part in nourishing the crop then in course of 
grovth. Hence the necessity of an atmosphere within the soil to 
ozydiEC the bamus, and thereby to reduce its carbon from the or- 
ganic to the mineral condition, so as to make it assimilable by 
plants. The necessity of such an underground atmosp}\ere is an 
established fact ; air being as essential as warmth and moisture to 
the germination of seeds, and to the development of plants. One 
«f the main services rendered by plongbing coobIbIs in the loosen- 
ing of the soil, and the multiplication within it of interstitial ur- 
spaces. Of like kind is (in one of its aspects) the benefit render- 
ed by sabsoil-drainage to water-lo^ed soils ; whose interstices of 
oonrse receive air irom above, as fast as the redundant water is 
drained off ^m below. Lastly, one principal advantage of the 
_porosity of soils, and of their consequent tur/ace allraetum, con- 
aiste in their property, Uieace derived, of condensing and retain- 
ing within their pores so much of the underground air. The oxy- 
gen thus brought into close contact with humus, attacks it and 
becomes chained with its carbon; remaining thas chai^d, within 
its pores, as carboaio-acid gas, — the appropriate mineral carbonif- 
«rons plant-food, as already explained. This gas, meeting with 
the moisture also retained in humus by the surface-action of its 
pores (termed, with reference to flaids, capiHary attraction), is 
therein dissolved, and so presented to the ramifying rootlets in the 
most favorable manner for imbibition by the so-called atmvtie ac- 
tion of their membranous spongioles, and the snotion-power devel- 
oped by the evaporation of their sap from the leaves. 

In this way do decaying organic bodies replenbh the atmosphere, 
whether above ground or below, with gaseous carbon ; which the 
atmosphere, in its turn, conveys to the plante ; whcee leaves appear 
to inhale it as gas, but to whose roots it is supplied in watery 
solution. The carbon of the plant and the carbon of the soil have 
but one primal origin, the atmosphere. From this source the car- 
bon constantly flows; to this reservoir it as constantly returns. 
The humus of the soil, and the tissues of plants, are bat successive 
xesting-points for carbon ia its circulating oourse. 



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120 THE OANADIAM KATUBALIST. [A^, 

It is now eu7 to anderataod that fi)Teat'ti«eB ud oth«i pei«n- 
aial plaoM, growing alovly but ooatinnously, year after jrear, and 
poflsessiag a oomparatively vast expanse of foliage and of roots, can 
thrive in soils less rich in mouldering hamuB, and tbereibra in 
oarbonic-ftoid gas, than is needful for certain annuals, — such u, 
for inatanoe, the wheat-plant, — whose term of eiistenoe is brief, 
whose fbliage scanty, whose roots small (especially during the ear- 
lier stages of its .development), and whose growing power is of a 
proportionately delicate quality. In this latter case, art may ose- 
folly intervene to concentrate, within narrower limits of time and 
spaoe, tiie supply of carbon difiiised by natnre over a more extend- 
ed area and a longer term. This explanation justifies, in thecase 
of wheat and umilar crop3, additional supplies, not only of carbon, 
but also of other forms of plant-food; and it leads to the con- 
sideration of " high farming," its objects, its dangers, and its 
normal limits, — which may, however, be conveniently reserved 
for brief elucidation further on. 

Supply of Watcr to Plants.— Meanwhile a few remaps 
are dae to the plant-tbod next in order of weight to oarbon ; vii., 
to hydrc^en and oxygen ; which are anpplied to plants in combi- 
nation with each other, as water. 

The source of this aliment is too familiar to need even indication 
here. Yet the natural mechanism by which water is distributed 
to plants, in the form of rain and dew, is too wonderful and beau- 
tiful to be passed in rilenoe. Shakespeare, who always arrived at 
truth through beauty, was struck with the alt-pervaSiTe diffusion 
of rain, and with the admirable tempering of its descent by the 
atmospheric resistance. Its soft fall upon the unruffled foliage 
symbolized for him Mercy's sweet grace and " unBtraiued quality," 
whereof he sayp, 

" It droppBtb as (be gentia raia from beavcD 
Upon the plants twDeatb."* 
Shelley iao, persoaifying the Cloud, ungs beaotiiully : 



A volume of prose could scarcely ezpTess with more precirion and 
oompleteneea than these four lines the philosophy of the aqueous 

■ This la eommonlj printed " apoa the plae* beaeatb." Bat aa platt 
canDOt be effected bj the gentleaeai of ralsfall, and ptanti can, th« lat- 
ter eeemg the more likelj to have been Shakeapeare'a word. 



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1864.] OBEUIBTBT 09 UANrRES. 121 

fimd-aappl; of plaota, — bo finely divideii, bo delicately dropped. 
tad ea graadlj replenished by the colossal water-service of tbo 
WOTld. Aa indeed of carbon, bo of water, tbe atmoephere is, for 
^ants, the mighty reservoirand ever-flowing fount. In point of 
bet, every cubic foot of air upholds between two and three gnuD» 
of water invisibly disaolved ; and sa fast as this oondenBea above 
to floating olouda und falling rain, so, in annual quantity precisely 
equal, is it fed below by the evaporation of " tbe seas and the 
streams." This process however, like all the other great opera- 
tions of Nature, is subject to perturbation, in the redress of which 
human Art finds its appropriate sphere. In temperate olimaies, 
tiie formation, dietribntion, and eondensation of rain-clouds take 
place, on the whole, with sufficient rt^nlarity to insure, in ordinary 
seasons, enough of this aliment to the orope. It is otherwise in 
tropical r^iooa. There, superfluous deluges of rain, and long- 
protracted droughts, eucoeed each other ; so that artificial irrigation 
beomnes the prime oonditioo of tropical husbandry. Irrigation 
niigfat, indeed, be fairly described as tbe high /arming of the 
topics ; and water aa their most precious manure. 

Water, indeed, is not merely the vehicle of all other aliments 
for plants, it is also an aliment itself— in the sense that it assumes 
the solid ibrm in their tissues, entering into their chemical con- 
sitatioa, awl contributing lar^^y to their weight. Wood, for ex- 
ample, after having been thoroughly dried, still consists, for nearly 
half its weight, of the elements of water. Water, moreover, is the 
chief constituent of tbe sap of plants ; and its rapid evaporation 
from their surfaces creates the tiitemal vacuum to whi'ib they owe 
the astonishing suction-power of their roots; as Hales first proved 
\y his capital experiments on this subject published in 1 717. 

StrppLT or NiTBOOEN TO Plants. — Last in order, because 
least in quantity, yet by no means on that account lowest In 
importance stands the nitrdgen among tbe volatile constituents to 
plants. It is of peculiar interest, as one of tbe costliest aod most 
eagarty-songht manarial elements, and as that concerning which 
the principal agricultural controversy of tbe day is now raging. 
Nitrogen lik^ carbon, and the elements of water, has in the atmos- 
phere its source and reservoir; flowing thence to living organisms, 
and thither restored by their deo.iy and dissolut on after death. 
It is thus diffaaed, chiefly In combination with hydrt^n, as am- 
Hkoma; a gas in the highest degr.:c diffusible in air, soluble in. 



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122 THE CUIASUN NATUBALIST. [-'^pnl, 

-water, and absorbable by porotia bodies snob aa vegetal mould. It 
is, therefore, readily washed down fVom the air by the rain and 
<lew, and aa readily imbibed by tfae soil, and retuned within its 
bosom by the pecnliar pbysioo-ohemioal force, already referred to 
aa " snrfaoe-notion." All fertile soils contain abundance of am- 
monia thns avulably presented for absorption by the roots of plants. 
The leares of plants also absorb ammonia ftom the ur in qnantj- 
ties varying with the different genera and species. 

It is not only however in the fbrm of ammonia that atmos- 
pheric nitTOgen is supplied to planla. Nitrogen oombiaea witti at- 
mospheric oxygen to an extent always appreciable, and mnch aug- 
mented under certain ciroumstanoea (as, forinstanoe, durii^ light- 
aii^^torras), to form nitric aoid ; whioh is washed down to the 
«>ii by the rain, and asdsts, oertunly by its solvent powers, prob- 
ably also aa aliment itself, in the notrition of plauts. Nitric acid 
also ori^ nates to some extent, aa a secondary product of tlie deeay 
of nitrogenous oi^anic matters; these yielding ammonia, which 
-ozydation converts into nitric acid and water. Fnrtltermore, a 
nitn^n-componnd, containing both hydn^n and ox^^u, viz. 
nitrite of amidonium, hail been lately asoertained (by SdtSnbein) 
to originate during die slow oxydation of phosphoroua ; two equiv* 
alenta of atmoapherie nitrogen taking up two equivalents of water 
to produce it. Nitrite of ammonium is similarly generat«d (ae- 
'«ordiog to Eolbe and Boitger) during the oxydation of hydrogen, 
and of bydrooarbona generally. Indeed Uiere is fur reason tosnr- 
miae that the generatbn of this salt aooompaniea all [vooessea of 
^w oxydation ; such as, for example, that of humns in the soil. 
Thesefiicle ore of the deepest interest; and should the supposed 
universality of this natural raaotion, as a ooocomitant of slaw ozi- 
.dalion, be oonGrmed, a powerful light will be thrown on tbe nature 
and souroe of the nitn^nona alimentation of plants. It will in- 
deed be a remarkable discovery, as Liebig (who cites tbeee &cts 
in his admirable work above mentioned*) justly obeerves, should 
it be found that the very prooees by whioh carbon is rendered 
available aa plant-food, operates also to bring atmospheric nitto- 
gen into a form in which it is aaaimdable by plants.^ 

* ThU TiBw of tbe origin of nilroui acid and ammonia from auuoa- 
phcric nitrogen does not iMilong to SchOcbien, but wai previoDsl; enun- 
-ciated bj Hr. Starrf Hnat (Oanadian Journal, April, 1861). 8m alM 
TFicklM, Sillimau'i Journal j;3J, xzit, 263-371. 

f " The Natural Laws," Ac, pp. 33S-328, Sag. ti. 



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18S4.] flHXHISTBY or UANURXB. 123 

Whether /!■«£ ktmospheria nitrogen is assimilable by plants is a 
moot-point M. G. Ville and others maintain that it -is: N. 
Bouasingaalt, from the results of experiments extending over 
twenty years, draws the Ojipoeite oondosion. Messrs. Lawes, Gil- 
bert, and Vv^, in an elaborate paper lately pablished,* record the 
reealt of a series of valuable experimentfl on this point ; and their 
coDolnsioos arc ooofirmatory of M. Boussiogault's view. This 
therefore appears to be the opinion supported by the prepondera- 
ting weight of experimental evidence ; a eircumstance whioh ren- 
ders Sohonbein'a observation, and the oonolusion to whioh it points, 
-douUy interesting and important. 

Athospbehio Debivation or Plants and Hducts. — Tbas 
far the atmosphere, and the moisture and gasea it contains, supply 
the food on whioh plania live ; the soil serving merely as a sponge 
to briog into contact with the roots their share of this air-derived 
food. £ven Uie carbon-yielding hnmus, though it immediately 
surrounds the roote, supplies them not directly, but only 
through the intorveation of what has been above termed the vader- 
^rouTtd atmosphere, by which it is slowly burned. Each successive 
generation of jAahU leaves its roots and other debris behind it ; 
thus replenishing the aoil with a fresh stock of air-derived humus, 
^remocoMt*, or decay, in its turn. Every shower washes down 
Ditioiren, in its acid or alkaline form, from the air; and the same 
cload-Bupplied water furnishes the crops with their oxygen and hy- 
drogen. It is evident that from centuries of such plant-growth 
as diis no exhatution of the soil would ensue. 

There is certainly no result of modem investigation morecalca- 
lated to strike the mind with wonder and admiration than this 
fact,— that the mighty forests which clothe the earth, and all the vast 
expanse of herbage and waving crops, and all the living animals 
which feed on these and each other, including man himself, the 
lord of all, are built up, so far as concerns nineteen-twentieths of 
their weight, entirely of invisible gases and vapor supplied by the 
atmoaphere. 

Thus upheld, and moving with the wind, the carbon and nitro- 
.gen oomponnda chiefly diffused below, the watery doudssuspeaded 
above to wash them down, these, the materials of the whole oiv 
Hanic kingdom, hover invisible around ns ; and by a distributive 
meohanism the meet grand and simple that can be conceived, all 

• Lawes, OillMtt, and Pugb, " Phil. Trans," vol. cli, p. 431, IB61. 



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124 THE CANADIAN NATUEALIRT. [Aprils 

uimtted nature ia wafted, as on wings, to every oorneT of the 
habitable earth. No moantun-faBtneee so remote, no wild m deso- 
late, DO ooean rock so lonely and so bare, but thiUier also float, 
and there descend, the viewless elements of life dissolved in air. 
The tiny lichen, that soaroe stains the wave-worn oliff, in its wild 
soli tade ia not alone. Its food is floated to it day by day; and 
the same elements, sailing on the same winds, build vp the deli- 
otto tissnes byroeansof which it lives, aod furnish the oxtlioacid 
wherewith it exoavates the grave that holds its dust when dead. 
That dust, be it remembered, b the primitive hamut, and the ear- 
liest form at toil. It is derived, like the liohea ilself, from tJieair, 
and it oonfirms die saying of Lieb^, that it is not humus whicb 
generates plants, but plants whioh engender hnmns. 
<,Tobe contiaued.) 



ON PISCICULTURE. 



The importance of the arlifioial breeding of fish, which the 
French have dignified with the name of pisciculture, is such that 
we have thought well to bring before our readers some of the 
results obtained in England and in Norway. For this we are in- 
debted in the first place to a lecture recently delivered in London 
by Frank Buckland, Esq., and published in The Joumat of l&e 
Sodtti/ of Art; for March 11, 1864. This lecture we have some- 
what abridged. In the second place, wc extract a very interesting 
chapter from Rev. M. R, Barnard's Sport m Norway, giving 
a description of the method of fish-breeding pursued in that oonn- 
try. Lastly, we copy from The Anjkr-NaturalUl, an excellent 
book by H. C. Pennell, lately published by Van Voorst, what the 
author designates as Proved Facts in the History of the Satmcm- 
— Editobs. 

On Fish-Hatchino : Br Frank Buckland. 

This is one of the most practical applications of the study of 
natural history that has been brought to aotice of late years. The 
mode of hatching valuable fish, such aa the trout and salmon, by 
artificial means, is no longer an experiment. It has, I have been 
pleased to see, been lately gazetted by public ooosent to the rank. 



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1B64.} OH P18CICULTUBE. 125 

-of a Boienoe, which ia every year attracting more attention- I shall 
not weary yon by entering into the history of the art : suffice it to 
say, that the first discoverers were two poor French fishermen, 
-Oehin and Bemi. All honor to their namsafor the great good they 
have done to their fellow-creatures. 

Ton will find in books a statement repeated over and over again, 
— 1 faolt very oommon in treatises on natural history, — that the 
Chinese were tbe first to practice pisoioulture. But let me tdl 
jon what their pisciculture oonsists of. They have no idea (I 
have it from the beat authority, vii. of oE&cerB in the army who 
have travelled there) of halohiag fish in troughs, such aa we see in 
Enropeaa eetabltshmoDta, nor have they yet arrived at the practioe 
«f impregoatiog die ef^ artificially. What they do is this : They 
observe the spawn of fish hanging abont the bushes, having been 
|daoed there by the fiah tfaemselvee. They colleot this spawn, hang 
it op in tubs and ponds, and let It hatch out of itself. Bat though 
they have not the science that we have, yet they are pisoicnltorista 
in a most praotical manner ; for I have it on the antbority of an 
-eye-witneea, that when the Chinese flood their paddy or rioe fields 
with water, they turn out into those flooded fields lai^ numbers 
offish, which feed upon the worms, insects, &c., which they find 
in the mud, and thb without injury but rather benefit to the plants 
tbemselvee. When the fields have had enough water, the Chinese 
wateF-farmsF opens the hatohways, catches what fish are fat enough 
and sends them to market ; the others he lets oat into another 
fresh-flooded paddy-fidd for a pasture. In faet, the Chinese herd 
tbmi fish, and drive them from one pasture to another, just aa a 
shepherd drives his sheep from one field to another. These fish 
are, it is said, great coarse things, and appear to be something 
between a ohab and a tench. There are, I believe, no representa- 
tives of the HalmonidsB in China. 

Leaving the history of the subject at this point, I wotdd now 
proceed to the practioe of the art. There may be some who say, 
Why not let the fiah breed for themselves ? Doubtless, if left alone 
in a perfect natural stat«, they would multiply themselves to an 
enormous extent, as is the oiae, I am told, at Petropaulowski, 
where the salmon are occasionally left high and dry by the subsid- 
ing of the floods, and snoh nnmbeni of them perish io this way as 
to oauM a plague by the putrefaction of their bodies. 

When we oonuder the Ta»t number of eggs which nature 



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126 THX GANADIAK NATTKALieT. [-^prilp 

haa given to Gsb, it is a vonder, indeed, t\uX all the world is not fi^. 
The egg$ of fish are simply the hard roe of fish ; and if yon ex- 
amine the next red-herring for breakfiut you irill fiad that the 
hard roe is oomposed of a luge number of little balls, eaeb ofwhiob 
might possibly oome to a fiab. Tou will find in books on natural 
history the number of e^s in fish. Not trusting kltogetber to 
these statements, I have been at some considerable pains to connt 
the c^gB* of the following fish. To bc^n with the salmon, these 
fisb carry about 1,000 egg^ to a pound of their weight; so if we 
can get a fish weighing twenty-five pounds, we have no less than 
26,000 ^gs. 

If therefore a female salmon weighing 20lfae. deposited her 
^gs in some safe plaoe, and they all eventually became marketable 
fish, which would be in three or four years' time, we should find 
that the ^s of this one salmon would yield do less Uian 178 tons 
11 ewt of salDKin fit for food ; and supposing we put thisdown at 
2s. per lb., it would be worth £40,000. Even supposing only a 
quarter of the young fish ever became marketable, still this one 
fish would yield a value of £10,000, and all without coating any 
human being a balf-penny for food. A trout of one ponnd weight 
contains over 1000 c^s, a perch of half a pound 20,692, & smelt 
of two ounces 36,652, a sole of one ponnd 134,466, a herring of 
half a pound 19,840, a maokerel of one pound 86,120, and a cod 
of twenty pounds not lees than 4,872,000 e^s, while an oyster 
yields about 1,500,000. 

It may be asked, therefore, what becomes of all the ^gs of tiie 

■ Tb« way to count tbe egga is this : Hake a tew cats irilb a kaift la 
the membtaQG which coDtalaa Ui« roe, aod then plunge it into water 
vbicb 19, at the raomeoc of immersion, poaltivelj at the boiliDg-point. 
Being composed of albumen, the eggg obey tbe natural law and coaga- 
late in an ioBtant. Then add a little common salt, and continne to boil 
the eggs till tbej all become quite detached from the membraae, and 
Bwim aboat in the water, loose tike marbles. If thej adhere to the mem* 
braoe, they should be gentlj removed bj a short brash, or bj sfaakiag In 
tbe boiliog water. 1 then, when all tha eges are quite loose, draw off the 
water and pour tbe eggs into a diab, dryiog them slowly in the 
suD, or in an oven, the door of which ia left open to preveat their 
becoming baked into lumps. I then weigh the whole mass of eggs, and 
pnt down tbe total weight on paper. After which I weigh out five grains 
of the mass, and gel them counted over carefully under a magnifying 
band-glaBi, on white paper. This is ladies' work. 



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1864.] ON FISCICULTUET. 12T 

Balmon, tront, &o.? The same thing that happens to the oom- 
mOD fowl happens to the fish. In the ease of the fowl, we onraelTes 
eat many thonsands of ^gs, and w« know bow good they are for 
various coliDary purposes. And as in the ease of the fowl, so also 
with the Gsh-egga : there are enemies innumerable that seek to 
destroy them ; even the water itself is oocasionally antagonistic to 
their well-being. 

First of all, then, many of the fish's e^s do not get at all im- 
pregoated, or, not booomiag properly boried in the gravel, are 
washed away by the stream. Id proof of this I would menljoa 
the following: There are no good spawning-plaoesin the Thames; 
the fish — and the Thames trout are really fine fish — are therefore 
obliged to deposit their ^gs in the rapids in the centre of the 
stream. Some of the nests where trout had been actually seen to 
deposit tlieir ^gs have lately been carefnlly examined, and not a 
single egg oould be found: th^ had all been carried away by the 
stream, or devoured by inseots, of which thousands wore found in 
the nest. A friend, wriUng from Hampshire, says that he has 
examined the nests where the salmon have been seen to spawn, but . 
no egg^ oould be found. Even supposing the eggs have be«i 
properly deposited in the nests, down come the floods and over- 
whelm Uie place. Thus, my friend Mr. T. Ashworth informs me, 
that at t^e bc^nning of the season over 275,000 ^gs were taken 
trom salmon and placed in his hatching-bozes. Immediately after 
this was done, the waters arose, and of the eggs which hod 
been exposed to their violence hardly one oould have survived. 
Then again, we have the reverse of fioods, i. e. the droughts, 
whioh leave the ^gs exposed; or, as it happens in Hampshire, ibe 
fish lay their (^gs in what is called " the drawings " ; the water is 
let o£F them, and the ^gs of coarse perish. Fish again are great 
enemies to their own eggs. I have myself frequently seen two or 
three small trout hiding behind tiie nest, and as the female deposited 
her E^gs, swim after and eat them. Trout have also been often 
observed, with their tails in the air, robbing the nests. Even 
females will eat their own ^gs. What wonder then that trout 
should be so scaroe when both father and mother devour their 
offspring. I myself have frequently, from the maws of tiont, 
taken eggs which they had stolen from the spawning-beds ; and my 
friend Mr. Ashworth tolls me that he has actually hatched out 
500 ^gs takeu fiom the month of cue fiah-robber. 



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126 THE CANADIAN NATURALIST. C^P"'> 

Supposing the egga to have been property laid in their nestfl, 
thej become the prey of pests innumerable. TheUrrEtof themaj- 
fiy and the dragon-fly ijustly called the river-tiger) act the ume 
part to the fish-^ga in the water as do the hedgehogs and other 
vermin to the phea8ant.^rgs on land. 

Among birdi the fish-eggs have many enemies as well as friends. 
The ohief of the former are common daoks, which, with their spade- 
like bills, soon get all the ^gs oat of the nests and devour them. 
The swans, though very graceful ornaments in a pond, do a deal 
of mischief to the fish, especially in the Thames. Two birds, the 
water-oniel and dab-chiok, have been accused as poachers after fish- 
^gs. I have examiaed the crops of several of these birds, and have 
invariably found them to contain the remuns of insects, but no fish- 
eggs. This matter was fully discussed at the Zoological Sooietj, 
and the verdict first arrived at was " not proven," and on eeoond 
conuderation the water^ousel waa fnlly acquitted from the cha^e 
of eating spawn. True it is he is ever feeding upon the spawning- 
beds; he goes there to eat the insects tiiat are devouring thee^s, 
but he himself does not touch them at ai). 

The moor-hens, however, I am pretty sure, will eat the ^;ga 
of the fish. A good observer tells me that out; morning the moor- 
hens got to his hatohing-bozes and cleared all the eggs out of tbem. 
There is another bird whioh does a good deal of harm to the fish- 
hatcher. A friend writes to me to say that he has killed several 
king-fishers under the wires where his fish were confined. Herons 
also are terribly deetructive to the fish in the spawnii^beds. 

We have seen what beoomes of the fish's tfp if they are left, 
to themselves. It is neoesaary, therefore, for man to interfere, and 
take the ^gs tntm the fish aud keep them under his charge. In 
all matters of interferenoe with nature, we uaoaot do better than 
take nature herself as a guide. We observe that the fish makes her 
nest of her own accord in a rapid, shallow, and gravelly stream. 
We therefore must put the tggs iu an artificial nest where the fol- 
lowing requidtes are present : a stream more or less rapid ; gravel ; 
darkness; and perfect quiet. This stream must be allowed to 
mn over the ^gs perpetually, day and night, until the yojug fi^ 
are hatched ont, just as it would do In tlie brook. 

At the pisoioultural establishment at Haningue, in France, the 
eggs are placed upon glass rods, such as I now show yon, during 
the time of iaoubation. I would however most humbly beg to 



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1864.} ON PISOIODLTUSX. 129 

differ from the great antboritiea who tue the plasi ban : for m the 
firat plaoe, the fish do not find glus bare at the bottom of the water 
00 which to deposit their eggs, but they always find gravel; in 
the aeooad, it is abeolntel; neoeesary that the figg ehonld be per- 
fectly motionlees for some thirty-five or forty days. If yon place 
a ronnd ^g against two glass bars which are aim round, the whole 
being under water, you at once get the best possible conditions for 
motion of the egg on the glass bar at the ^htcet touch, and yoa 
certainly do not get what yon chiefly want, — perfect immobility; 
for if the water be turned on from a tap a little too faat, or you 
happen to touch one e^ with a camel-hair brush, all the e^s in 
the box immediately run against each other, and b^n to dance 
and roll aboat. Again, when the yoang fish begin to hatoh ont, 
their nmbiltoal bags very often get caught between the bare, and 
then they perish ; or if they fall through, they get into water that 
u much too deep for them, and whence it is very difficult to 
extract them without disturbing every e^ in the box. This is 
done in the French plan, by taking out a cork and letting the 
water run off from aader the bars. 

By placing the e^ on graeel, on the contrary, all this diffi- 
culty is obviated. The ^gs can be placed so that they do not 
touch one another ; so that the dead ones do not oontaminate their 
live neighbors, aad may be easily picked out by a pair of forceps ; 
80 that the inequalities of the gravel will keep them perfectly 
Bteady^ so that the young fiih when ooming out of the egg 
— like the young snake casting his skin in a fnrse-hush— may have 
facilities afforded him to get rid of bis shell, and be not like his 
neighbor on glass bars, who slips about tiicreoD like a clumsy 
skater upon well-swept ice. 

Yon will observe, of course, when yon examine the fiA-hatching 
boxes now in the room, that we do not in one respect adhere to 
nature; that is, we do not cover the egg^ with gravel, as does the 
(lareut fish. The only reaaon why the parent fish buriee her ^^gs 
is because of the l^ht, which is unfavorable. All roots and seeds 
of plants, we may observe, are buried in the ground ; it would i^ 
pear, therefore, that at firet darkness is absolutely neoeesary for the 
development of the first germs of life. Again, if the eggs are 
exposed to the light, a white fungus immediately appears 
upon them. AU this is obviated in a moment by placing wooden 
oovere on the boxes, for these keep ont all the light, and obviate 
Tok I. 1 Ho. a. 



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130 THE OANADIAM HATURALIBT. [A^pn'i 

all the iooonvenieDOes of bring:iDg fhe ^s where you oaunot see 
them, and cannot watoh their prc^rets. 

There are two kinds of hat^hing-apparattu, which may b« osed ; 
— oneoutoFdooTB,for carrying outoperationB on a lai^Rcale; and 
the other for use on a smaller scsle in-doora. 

I far prefer the in-door apparatos, which is very simple in oon- 
Btroction, more certain of success, cleaner, neater, and at the same 
time affords the great pleasure to the owner of being able to ob- 
serve the progress of the ^gs. The slate-boxes on t]ie tables are 
those used by my friend, Mr. Ponder, at Hampton, in wUah 
he has hatuhed bo many tboasands of fish, paying for the 
boxes out of his owu pocket, and giving his time gratnllonaly 
for the Thames Angling PreaerTation Society. They are threefeet 
long, and three and a hnlf inches deep. They should be plated one 
above the other, after the manner of the steps of a staircase, and so 
arranged that tiie water runs through them all in ligsag manner. 
Some gravel, about the aize of peas, mnst be obtained from a gravel 
pit, not fWm the river-side. It mnst be well boiled to destroy allAe 
seeds of Testation, be washed perfectly alean, and then placed in the 
troughs, so that there ahoold be an inchof gravel, an inch of water, 
and an inch above the water. Place in the e^gs, pnt on tJie wooden 
covers, see tJiat the slwam runs properly, uid leave them entirely 
alone in the boxes. Such as these have this year, at Hampton, 
hatched cut, and are still hatching out no kaa than 124,700 
fish and eggs. 

All that is requisite is a gentle and incessant flow of water, and 
what is water enough for one trou^ is, as a matter of oeoessity, 
enough for half-a-doien or so. In London houses the supply of 
water is often limited ; it is a comfort therefore to know that the 
same water oan be used again twice or three times. 

If you wish to batch yonr fish in boxes out of doors, ytm must 
adopt the same principle as that applied to in-door boxes, reooUeet- 
ing the requimtee, — a clear running stream, elean gravd, and dark- 
ness. Full details of both in-door and ont-door apparatus, and 
1^ the proper mode <tf working them, oan be found in my tittle 
book.* 

The e^ having been placed in the boxes and lefl totally undis- 
turbed, in course of time the eyes of the young fieh will be seen 
like two black spots in the egg. The time required for this ap- 
pearanoe to exUbit itself depends entirely on the temperature. 

* Fiah>lial«hiDg. Tiadey Brothers, Catherine Street, Strand. Price Si. 



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1864.3 ^^ PIBOIOULTUKK. 131 

The proper lemporatnie of tbe water, botb io and out of doors, 
flight to range irom 40° to 50°. Mr. Ponder's obserratioDS tell 
him tiiaX at this temperature it requiraa thirty-five days for the 
eyes to ^pear, and that thoy hatch oat fourteen days a^Twards. 
3?he same result has been obtained by him ibr two aaoceamTe 
seaBona with very little variation. Again, he baa obdeired that 
-when the temperature was 60° (in the spring of the year) the 
eyes of the fish were visible in twenty-aix days, and Uiat be 
hatdwd them oat in ten days afterwards. Lay it down 
bowerer fbr an axiom, that the higher the temperature for the 
«^ the weaker the fish produced tVom the egg. Anything above 
.50° is weakening. 

The first fish hatched out tram a batoh are the weakest, the last 
are the hetdthiest ; when however they once begin to hatob, tbey 
vrill oome out all in a mass, two, tliree, or fonr Uiousand of a 
morning. The proper temperature for trout and salmon eggs is 
■40° to 50°. 

Grayling however ^pear to be an ezoeptaou to this rule. Mr. 
Fonder haa obtained a Mr snpply of the ova of these fish, which 
tha Tbunes Angling Preservation Society are introdooing in the 
Thunes. The quantity obtained amounted to between fifteen and 
twen^ thousand ; and though several of these died, for they are 
most delicate things to carry, the remainder did very well. They 
are mooh more delicate than trout-ova, both in appearanoe and 
iiatehing, and seem to dio at the least provocation. Thc^ are bean- 
tifolly transparent, and, when viewed in the sun, of a lovely op^ea- 
«ent hue. He has disoovered abont these a most interesting, and 
I believe, a novel fact. The body of the fish is perfectly visible 
in nino days, and the fish will actually hatoh out of the egg in 
fourteen days. 

All difficulties and trouble with the eggs having been overoome, 
we are at lei^th rewarded by seeing the young fish h^n to come 
out of the e^. At this dme the tail of the firii may be observed 
moving from side to side with a npid vibratory movement inside 
the egg. T^e young fish, when hatched, increase in size daily ; 
and t^ darkening of the transparent snbstanoe which would 
eventoaily be the body, and the development of the fins, have al- 
ready proved one fact, and this (as the question has f^aentiy been 
put to me) I shall venture now to mention. The eggs do not 
grow— i. e., they do not increase in eiraumferenoe or in ^ame- 



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132 THE CANADIAN NAT0HALI8T. [April, 

ter, — bat the fiafa inside the egg most certunly increases in bulk, 
till at last it becomes so lai^ that the egg-Bhell sadden]; hoitHe^ 
and out comee the young fish. 

In the gradual development of the yoang saimon and troat ve 
begin with aglobaleof albameD. We seewilhinita faint line, and 
two black spots. Day by day these become larger, tJll the yonng 
fish is bom. After this, the umbilioal vesicle is absorbed, the 
color appears on the scales, the long single crests, which one ob- 
serves at birth running down the upper and lower parts of &e 
body, resolve themselves, as it were by magic, into the various fins 
diattnctive of the adult creature, and we have a perfeot fish 
before us. 

It ia most interesting to watch an e^ at the moment of, hatch- 
ing. Yon may happen to be gazing on a parlicBlar egg, when of 
a sndden you will see it s[dit in twain, at the part oorreeponding 
with the back of the fish ; yoa will then see a tiny head with 
black eyes and a long tail appear, and you will see the new-bor& 
oreatare give several oonvalsive shudders in his attempts to &ee . 
himself from the now useless shell. Poor littJe fellow I be' can't 
manage to get out : the shell is too light for him. Take, there- 
fore, a soft hair-pencil, press lightly on the ^g-shell, — he seemB to 
know you are his friend, — he gives another vigorous kick or two 
and presto ! he is free, and has commenced life. If we judge 
from his motions, he must enjoy it, for away he swims as fast as 
his tiny and wriggling tail will carry him, round and round in 
a circle, and then plump down he goes to die bottom of the tank, 
and reclines on his ffide, breathing freely with his gills for the 
first time in his life. 

It would appear that it is not posmble for the fish to remain 
long enough in the ^g to come out ready to eat fimd at once, a» 
is the ease with the ovo- viviparous creatures. They have therefore- 
attached to their belly a bag, which contains the nourishment that 
the young fish must absorb before they are able to shift for them- 
selves. The moment the contents of the bag are gone, (hey begin 
to feed with the mouth. 

In various creatures the progress of development is different. 
Thus, for instanoe, in thehumanbaby, the first portion of the body 
developed is the lower jaw, and this for an obvions reason, beoaoB& 
the most material want of the baby is to obtain the mother's milt 
by snotjon. 



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1864.], OH PIBCIOULTITRB. 133 

Now, in the case of the fiah, nature haa kindly packed up all the 
noorishmeat that iji willvant foraome six or eight weeka inanoat 
little bag or parcel, vhich ehe has affixed to the body of the Mi in 
such a manner that it can be absorbed into the system ; while as 
the fiah does not suck milk like a warm-blooded animal, its lower 
jaw is not developed. 

What is, then, the most important oi^n to tile young fish ? 
He haa niuneroas enemies, and it is his first object to get out of 
thnr way. The eyes, therefore, are the organs whiefa first arrive at 
perfection. The eye ia in perfect working order at the moment of 
birth, though the reat of the body ia far from eomplete. 

One of my many visitors to the t&nka at the Field newspaper 
office, where I exhibited the prooees last year, was narrating to 
me how he once caught an enormona salmon in the Tay, weighii^ 
some thirty odd pounds; this put the idea into my head to weigh 
one of my saloKin. He has, poor little fellow, a deal to make up 
before he arrives at tlfirty pounds, for at present (four days old) 
he hardly turns the scale at two grains. 

By the kindaeas of Mr. Aahworth, of Cheadle, near Manches- 
ter, I am enabled to show you a drawing of the young fish which 
weighs about two grains. He has also given me the following 
obserrations as rc^rda the increase of weight in the young 
salmon : The fry at three days old is about two grains in weight. 
At uxleen months old it has moreased to two ouaces, or 410 times 
its first weight. At twenty months old, after the smelt has bee^ 
in the sea, it has become a grilse of eight and a half pounds : it 
has increased sixteen times in three or four months. At two 
years and eight months old it becomes a salmon of twelve to 
fifteen pounds in w^ght; afUr which its increased weight of 
growth has not been ascertained, but by the time it becomes 
thirfy ponnda in weight it has increased to 115,200 times the 
weight it was at first. 

Among the numerous pn^ny of fishes, it could hardly be 
expected that all of them would be straight-limbed and healthy ; 
we find, therefore, occadonally, but not very commonly, crippled 
and deformed fish. Thus I show yon, thisevening, diagrams and 
living specimens of a fish of a cork-screw shape, also of a fish with 
four eyes and one head, also of a salmon and of a charr with two 
heads and one body. I take the greatest care of these fiah, and 
trust they will live, and should they be caught hereafter by any 
angler th^ would astonish him. 



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134 THE CANADIAN MATOTIALIST. [Aprir,- 

Ab r^udfl the practiral ttettment of the yonng fish, and tiie 
qneetioa as to when ihej ahojilA be turned out into tlie stmm, 
u veil as many other pointSj I moat beg to refer again to my 
little book on fish-hatohiog. 

Having had now two years' practical ezperienoe in hatching 
fish, I bethought me whether this year I ooald not somewhat add 
to the science of the matter, and have tlierefore institttted several 
experiments as r^arded the duration of the vitality of the mSt 
and ova, whether kept separate in bottles, or taken from dead fah. 
This, I am oonvinoed, is a most important poiDt, and it may pos* 
slbty lead to many practical results. The first experiment which 
I tried was with a fish found dead in the river, having been 
killed by a heron, and which had probably been dead twenty-four 
hours. The eggs, which I impr^nated with fresh milt, txe now 
in my boxes, and very few of th&ni have died. 

I have also tried a series of experiments as regards keeping 
the milt and ova separate io bottles for times varyii^ fVom tea 
minutes up to sixty-eight hours. The results hitherto have been 
&vorable, but I cannot be oertuD that fish will hatch out of these 
eggs. Should however the experiment snoceed, the importuit 
fo-aelical bearing of this will at onoe be perceptible. Thus for in- 
Btance I impr^nated at Woroeetcr some salmon-ova fresh from the 
fish, with trout-milt which bad been sixty-eight hours in a bottle, 
but ^ery few of these eggs are as yet dead. Again, I brovf^t 
some salmMi-eggs from Worcester and impregnated them with 
fresh troutrmilt at Hr. Samuel Gumey's, Csrshalton. The eggs in 
this ease were twenty-nine hours old. 

It is generally a difficult matter to get the (figs, whether of 
trout or salmon, properly operated upon, and then sent from a dis- 
tanoB to the hatching-boxes ; it therefore ooonrred to me diat if 
I eould possibly get the eggs &om dead fish to hatch equalfy as 
well as those from live fish, it would save a great deal of time and 
expense, as well as trouble. Fish therefore have been sent up to me 
dead, packed in moss, and I have taken the «g^ from them after 
twelve hours, twenty-four hours, and eighty hours. It is almost 
imposuble to tell from any test that I know of, whether these eggs 
have been properly impr^ated. Time alone will prove this. If the 
experimeal succeed, we shall be able to write to our friends in the 
extoeme north of Scotland, or in the furthermost part of Ireland^ 
and ask them to oatch the fish and send them to London, where^ 



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1864.] ON PIBCIOULTURI. 135 

they e*n be opwated vpoo jiut as well as thonf^ m express mes- 
awgv bad been suit man; hnadred miles to do it. 

Thorn «bo have eoperienoed die sad diaaf^iDtmeDta that I 
hftve had with eqg^ sent even fW>iu abort distaaoes, and snppcMd 
to have been properly iq)erated on, whioh arrive quite hard, white, 
aad opaque, and, of oourse dead (the oause of this being generally 
the ahahii^ of the railway, or bad packing), oau appreoiate the 
immenae advantage of operating on dead fish. Now if we never 
unpack the eggs at all, and leave them as natore has heraelf 
arranged, then we diall have more chances of suooeaa than by the 
clunBy attwnpts of human hands to send them in a tin or ghus 
TCfiBel. The only objection to the [dan is that the pareot fish are 
of a neoeedty destroyed, which is not the case when they are 
treated in the usual manner. 

I have often been asked if operating on fish and taking their 
eggB from them killed them ? Uy answer is that we have this year 
taken over one hundred thousuid troat-^gs, and have not killed, 
to my knuwledge, oat ungle fish, male or female. Those gentle- 
men, thenfore, who have been good enongh to aUow ns to operate 
on their fish,* whether salmon or trout, need not be in the leust 
fear that any injury has been done to the fish, who, for aught I 
know to the oontrary, may really feel mooh obliged to us for the 
trouble we have saved them of making their nests and depeaitiug 
their e^s. 

It has been objected by some that these experiments with dead 
fish, and with milt and ova taken from fisb, and kept separate many 
hoars, have been tried before. In the Field of Feb. 27, 1864, 
" the Ohronicler " quotes from M. Coste, the eminent and learned 
professor of embryology in the CoU6^e de Fram^, a statement that 
milt will remain alive for twenty-four hours. I have however 
carried my ezperiinents fnrther on thib point, and have aeoertained, 
through the kindness of my friend Mr. H. B. Hanoock, that 
the spennatozoa in the fiah would live for so long a period as 
141 hours, that is to say, nearly six days. It must however be 
remarked that both M. Cost<- and myself have separately oome to 
the same conolnsion, t)i., that water must not be added to the 
dead fish till the moment that it is required for use, for it appears 

* Tbere ia a apectal claase in the Act oF Parliament wbicb doea 
awBj with the illagalit; of taking Bpanniait-fisb with the net for the 
bona fide faifOBe of obtaining tbeiregga for the parposM of piBeienltuiB. 



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136 THB OANADIAM NATURALIST. [-^P>^i 

tlut Uie ipennatoEoa usame their peooliar vibratoiy quick aotion 
vhen water ia added to tiiem, otherwiBc they are quite quiesoeat. 
This is a moat important point aa regards the actoal bringing the 
theory into praolioe. 

I here dedre to state, onee fer all, as I wish every <me to 
remember, tliat I do not .say that my experiment in keeping the 
milt and ova separate for so long a time will snooeed, and that 
healthy yonng fish oome from the egg, nor again am I at all sore 
that fish will hateh from eggs taken from the dead fish ; bnt there 
is however no reiuon why the experiment should not be tried, for 
nature has many choioe secrets in her labontory which she bat 
yet withheld from ns, and which she will only disoloee to ns bj 
asking her in the formof experimeuts varied and repealed in every 
poewble manner. 

Thus far I have attempted to ahow what becomes of die ^ff 
of the fish in their natural state ; how they may be taken oare ofi 
and what great reeults may be, with good Inok and oareful man- 
agement, obtained. I would ventare now to report progress and 
tbereanlt. The first originators and supporters of the important 
Ecienoe of Ssh-hatehii^ for thu public good were the French Ocv- 
emment, who have, as most of yon are aware, erected a magnifi- 
cent series of buildings, which may be fairly denominated a fish- 
manufactory, at Huningue, near Basle. 

I mnst now mention what has been done in her Majesty's do- 
minions. The first place established (that I know of) was at 
Perth, where thousands of salmon are hatohed by artificial m^aos 
annually. In Mr. W. Brown's admirable Itttle book* will he 
found detidls as to the number of eggs laid down, &c. One of tho 
oonsequeooee of this artificial batching, Mr. Brown informs us, is 
as fbltows : We find that in the year 1828, the year of the pasr 
ing of Home Dmmmond's Act, the rental of the salmon-fiaheriea 
of the Tay was £14,574. It gradnaUy fell off every year after- 
wards till 1852, when it reached the minimum, amounting to 
£7,973. Id 1853 the artificial rearing oommenoed; and in 
1868, when the statement was printed, the rental was £11,487 ; 
it hu now reaohed what it was in 1828." Hr. Brown has 
been kind enongh to send me the latest news as folbws : — 

" The number of ova deposited in tlie boxes at Stormontfield 



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1864.] ON PIBCICULTPBE. 137 

in November «nd Deoember [1862 was about 260,000 ; in 1863 
{last spawning) about 80,000. The reasoo that so few ^gs were 
got daring the last spawning-sea son was the unfavorable state of 
4he river for netting operations." 

One of the greatest results in practioal fisb-batehing has been 
obtained by my friend Mr. Thomas Ashworth, and his brother, 
for thej have aotnally peopled with salmon Loohs Mask and 
Oorrib, an area of lakes containing thirty-five acres of water. In 
1861, Mr. Ashworth laid down 650,000 salmon-^gsj he being, in 
hia own words, " oonfident that he could breed salmon mnoh 
«ader than lambs." In December 1862 he deposited no less than 
770,000 salmon-e^B,- makii^ in the two years 1,429,000. Mr. 
Ashworth tells me that the total cost of doing this has been 
exceedingly small. 



Fish-Culture in Norway: By Rev. M. E. Barnard. 

During the last ten jeare, the attention of the Norw^ian 
Oovemment has been directed towards the propagation of salmon 
by artificial means. In a country like the Scandinavian peninsula, 
whii^ has such an extent of seaboard, and which abounds in rivers 
large and small, rpnning into fiords which intersect the coast, 
there are so many natural facilities afibrded for the protection of 
the yonng fish, that it only reqairee some additional attention on 
the part of the inhabitants themselves to make Norway stand at 
the head of the salmon-producing countries of Europe. 

FuUy alive to the disadvantages which many parts of the coun- 
try labor under in an agricultural respect, owing to the rigor of 
winter and the unfertile nature*^ of the soil, the government, with 
A laudable generosity, has endeavored to promote the propaga- 
tion of fish by rendering pecuniary assistance, and by the appoint- 
ment of officers to superintend in the management of the operation. 

It is somewhat remarkable that the artificial prop^ation of fish 
was first discovered in Norway by a simple laboring man in 
1848. One harvest-time he had been obliged to keep at home on ac- 
«ountof a bad leg. To amuse himself he used to get down to the 
river-ude and watch the trout on their Bpawn-grouod. Being of 

square miles, of which 



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138 THK CANADIAN MATUEALIST. [April^ 

on observaat natare, he waa Btraok witii tia manner in wfaioh the 
operation was carried on. He remarked that the male fish fdaeed 
itself alongside of the female in snoh a podticm that its head reached 
to about Uie middle of the body of the latter. He further noticed, 
that whilst die procees of diachai^ug die ova was going (Hi, the 
female turned somewhat on her side with a quivering sort of mo- 
tion, and that the male emitted his milt simnltaneonsly. It there- 
fore occurred to him that b; preaung the spawn out of the female, 
and the milt from the male at the same' time, in water, he would 
obtain a quantity of fVacttfied €ggs, which, by being placed in ocm- 
Tenient places in brooks, would in due time bnng forth fish. No 
sooner oonceived than executed. He threwouthisnels and caught 
a male and a female fish ready to spawn. His wife took 1^ one, 
and he the other, and they squeezed their contents out into a bowl 
of oteao water. He then took tbe e^ and placed them in a 
sheltered place in a stream where there were previously no trout. 
The following summer he was rejoiced to see that it swarmed with 
fish. Convinced, therefore, of the snoceas of his plan, he con- 
structed for himself a breeding-box close to his house ; and not- 
withstanding the jeers and scofis of his neighbors, who thought it 
impiooB, to say the least, in interfering and meddling with things 
which belonged to Nature alone, continued to breed fish every 
autumn. Such was the first attempt at hatching ova io Norway ! 

I will now proceed to give a brief account of the hatching-ap- 
paratus generally in vogue in that conntry, as communicated to 
me by Professor Easch. 

The case in which the hatching-boxes are placed (and which is 
under shelter, so that the water does not freeze) is twelve feet 
long, thirty-four inches wide in»de, and five inches deep. The 
bottom must be perfectly water-light, and very evenly planed. 
The sides are formed of single smooth-planed boards, which fit 
tightly against the bottom, to prevent any leakage ensuing. The 
uppermost end of the case, into which the water runs fWm 
the pipe, is of the same height as the udes. The whole is divided 
into five compartments, the first of which receives the water from 
the pipe. This compartment is eighteen inches wide, while tie 
other four are each thirty inches wide. The partition-boards are 
one inch lower than the sides of the case, and have boles bored in 
them at a distance of two inches tnm the bottom, by means of a 
hot wire. They are bored in two rows (vide fig. 1.), four below, 



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I8M.] OH FISOIOULTURI. 139 

ud time above. The water eao tbni ran evenly throughout the- 
length of the oaee. 

The habihu^-boxea (fig. 2), four of which are jJaoed in eaoh 
oonputmeat, are aouetmoted as foUows: The sidee oonart of 
smooth-planed board, two feet loi^ three inohes high, and an inch 
and a half thick. The bottom is a glass plate, two feet long, and 
senn inchea wide. The euds are of perforated line, or brasswire- 
work, ^e suae height as the ndes, whioh are Btrengtfieaed bj two 
tnuETerae jneeee of wood. All the wood-work should be of well- 
seaaoned material ; and those parts whioh come in oontaot with (he 
water should be glased, as an; resinous or pitohy snbetauee in the 
wood would [HVTe injurious to the ova. I should mentioo that 
the first ecHupartm^it into whioh the water falls should be fdmish- 
ed with a network lid of line wire, which tbnnfi the bottom of a 
framework three or four inches high, so as to pierent the water 
numiog into the next compartment except through the holes in 
Uie lino lid. Thus the larvae of destruotive insects, wonna, Ac., 
will be kept out. The upper end of the case should stand twa 



inches higher than the lower end. The water which runs out 
fkim the last compartment is prevented running out the whole 
width of the case by means of two pieces of wood, which are fast- 
ened to the sides, and reach nearly to the middle, and is carried 
off by a pipe. 

The slimy deposit which cornea even ftom the purest water, and 
settles on the e^e (it is not detrimental unless there be too much 
of it), can easily be got rid of by gently moving the boxes, and 
allowing it to pass through the ends. 



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140 THB CANADIAN NATITEIALIST. [April, 

After die Upee of about fbnr weeke, it will be well to t^e the 
hatohing-boxee oat of the oase to aecertaia which e^e are good. 
The Mtton of the ur will render them all transparent ; hot on le- 
plftoii^ them in the water, the anfmi^il ones will assomB i 
milky opaque oolor. These can readily be removed with a pur of 
fine pmoers or long tweeiers. The expoenre to the air does not 
hart the egge, but care most be taken that they do not beoome 
dry on the surface. After repeating this process three or f<niT 
times, all the bad ^;s can be removed. " I am convinced, " is 
the remaik of Professor Rasch, " that in a case of the above sise 
I could hatch 10,000 salmon-ova in each box, which woold thu 
give a total of 160,000," there being four hatching-boxea in each 
of the four compartments. If die ifry are to be kept any time in 
the boxes, care must be taken that th^ be not overstocked ; but 
. 3,000 may well be kept in them from two to tliree montiks." 

Where water from a spring cannot be directly obttuned, the fill- 
lowing plan is often adopted. The scale of operations is however 
necessarily more limited. A laige tub, or other wooden vessel. Is 
fitted with a tap. Care moat be taken that it shall have previously 
lain a sufficiently long time in water, so that all the deleterious 
substances fVom the wood shaU have been extracted. It is then 
placed on a stand at a sufficient height from the ground to allow 
the cage oontuning the hatching-boxes to be placed beneath the 
tap; and they should have a gentle inclination, so that the upper 
end be about half an inch higher tiian the lower. 

The water, having passed through the boxes, empties itself mto 
another vessel, at least as large as the tub, and shoold be r^olated 
that it shall run out in twenty-four hours. The tub, therefore, 
only requiree replenishing once in that time. If the water be at 
all muddy, it is well to place a layer of fine sand mixed with char- 
coal at the bottom of the tub. 

Even in a common tea-saucer a great many ova may beliatched 
out. The saucer is placed in a deep soap-plate, and a couple of moss- 
stalks laid over the edge in snch a manner that they shall act as 
syphons. A constant flow of water thus takes place from the sau- 
«er into the pkte. In about twelve hours half the water ftom tlie 
saucer will have run out, so that it will require filling again moin- 
ing and evening. When necessary, fresh moss-stalks can be sob- 
atituted. 

It is of oouTse best to procure the male and female fish to be 



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1864.] ON PISOICULTUHE. 141 

operated npon direct from their breeding-^ronnd, and as ehort a 
time aa poaaible before the Bpawoiog oommeooee. Where this b 
impoBaible, they ahoold be kept ia fiBh-bozea or reeerroirs ; oare 
however he takea that they be not kept too long in confinement 
before being used, as this would have an injurious effect both on 
the ova and the milL One male fiah ia saSoi»it to frnctiiy 
the ova of a great many females, and can be need from six to eight 
days ia snooessioD. 

It ia not diffieolt to ascertain when the female is ready to spawn. 
Her distended abdomen yields easily to a gentle preaanre, and an 
undulating movemmt iriiieb is perceptible on tonobiog it, ehowa 
that the spawo is already diaoonneoted from the ovary. She 
should (hen be held by the bead in a vertical position, ao that the 
ova will of their own weight fall down towards the vent. When 
the fiah are large, it is best to have three persona to assist. One 
takes the fish by the head, and the other by the tul, holding it 
horiaontally over a dish, the vent downwards, whilst Uie third very 
gentJy preesee along her atomaoh and aides. When the bottom of 
the dish has been covered with ova, in layers of two or three deep, 
the fiah can be released into the tub of water from which she was 
taken. The dish, by the way, must previously have been nearly 
filled with water. Before operating on the male fish, the water 
tiota the fish had better be drained off, and freah poured in. The 
male fish is then taken and handled in the same way, A small 
quantity of milt, just soffioioit to discolor the water after being 
geoUy stirred with the fingers, ia sufficient. It is thm put back 
again into the tub, and while the female is again bmng broo^t 
out, the eoutents of the dish are to he emptied into another tub 
half filled with pure water. When all the roe has been pressed 
out and fraotified as before with the milt, and again emptied into 
tbia tab, the water ia allowed to run out tiirongh a hole pre- 
viously bored in the nde abont an inch above the bottom. By 
the motion of the water running out, alt tbe ^gs will be brought 
into oontact with die milt. In aboat five or ten minutes the ova 
ean then be removed into the' hatching-boxes. 

If the ^ga are in a fit state, the very amaUest pressure is su£- 
dent to squeeae Ihem out ; and it has been found that with due 
oaie Ui« female au&era no injury from the manipulation, and will 
be as fruitful the following year as ever. 

The uniruitfnl ^ga, after they have been some time in the 



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142 THB CANATIAN NATURALIST. l^V"^, 

hatohing-bozes, will be oorered with a peoullu' parasitical plant, 
Leptomihu ctavattu, whioh gives tliem the appearanoe of being 
wnpped in cotton. Theae ehould be remored, as though the 
other eggs will not be immediately infected, yet the fibres of this 
vegetable growth will in time get around them, and prevent the 
water having free aoceea to them, when they too will die. The 
unftnitfo] salmon-eggs ahonld be at oooe removed ; but when the 
ova are veij small, as is the case in trout, &c., it is better to wait 
til) the parasitioal plant has a{^>eared befi^e removing " the tares 
from the wheat," as the operation oan then be performed more 
easily. It is therefore muoh better not to have a layer of small 
stones at the bottom of the ease, as many of the ova will mak be- 
tween them, and fVom r«nainiDg nnperoeived may in time oaose 
great damage. It is trae that the salmon instinctively makes a 
hole, and covers her ova with small stones. Bat she, in all jwoba- 
bilily, only adopts this preoantion in order to protect them agaiiut 
their mimerout /ott, and not that the devdo[»nent of the embryo 
may be tiiereby in any way aoo^erated. 

It might not nnoatnrally be sapposed that it is best to trans- 
port the ova in the sune elonent as that in which ttsy arc depos- 
ited in the ordinary ooaiae of fliinga, vis., imoater. Batit roost 
at the same time be remembered, that every fertile egg contains a 
living being, whidi raqnires a oonstant supply of air for its jttcaer- 
vation, and tiiat t^ qoand^ of air oontuned in a confined vcohI 
is more rafddly oonsamed by the ova than fresh air.can be absorbed 
from the sorfMC. The conaequenoe will bo that unless f^esh 
water be oonstantly sapplied, or the water in the veaael be by some 
means aiirated, the embryo cootained in the egg must die. But 
not only will the constAnt r^eni^iing the vessel with fresh water 
be troobleaome, and often impossible, bat it will also be attended 
with great risk to the safc^ of the ova. 

If it is borne in mind that it is not the water, but the air which 
is therein oontained, that is essential to the presOTvatioo of the 
ova, U will be apparent that if they be kept moist, and havea oco- 
stant supply of fresh air, die necessary oraditions will be obtained. 
The readiest and eauest way is to pack them in damp moss (tlie 
marsh moss, Sphagnvm, which absorbs moistnre like a qnnge, is 
the beat), throu^ whioh the air will readily eireulate.* 

* ProleMOi Raach told ne that ha bu hatched ova in damp mou, 
without even immeraing them in water at all. 



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2864.] ON PISCICULTURE. 143 

In a comtnoD wocKleD box the moss will retein He dampaeas so 
a« not to require wetting for several days. And indeed caation is 
reqaimle wbm it is bo sprinkled, that the temperatnre of Uie fresh 
irater h% not lower than that of the moss. Moreover, it is only 
neoeBsary to spinkle the topmost layer of the moss, as the mois- 
ture wilt gradaally percolate through the contents of the box. 
Neither shonld too mnoh water be eprinkled on at one time, lest 
th« ova at the bottom of the box should be immersed. To obviate 
this contingency, it is best to turn the box over once at least in the 
«oane of Uie day. 

In paokii^ the box, tiie bottom should first be evenly covered 
with a UiiOk layer of the moes, which should be previoudy washed 
quite clean. On this a layer of ^gs should be evenly spread, then 
should oome adiinner Ityer of moss than before, and so on, dter- 
nsto layers of eggs and moss till the box is nearly lull. On the 
top of all, a layer of moes of the same thickness as the first should 
be lud ; 00 that when the lid is fastened down, the whde will form 
A compact mass, and all shiftily of the contents be rendered im- 
poanble. The elasticity of the moss will prevent the slightest 
dnger from pressure accruing to the ova. If the weather is ex- 
trandy aevere, the box {dtonld be protected. It may be remarked, 
that ova sbonld Dot be transported (ill the eyes of the embiyo are 
visible. 

A few precautions are neoessary on unpacking such a box oon- 
tjjning ova. The temperature of the box, and of the water in the 
hatching-case, must be compared with a thermometer. Snppotdng 
that of the former to be the greater, the moss should be gradually 
sprinkled with water ftom the latter till they are both equal. 
Oreat oaic must be taken not to hurry this operation. 

The contents of the box should then be emptied into a good- 
died tub half filled wiUi water of the same temperature at that in 
the hatehi»g-ecae. By gratly moving the hand about among the 
m(MB, (he ova will nnk to the bottom, and the moss remain float- 
ing oa the sur&oe. The water ahottld now be drained off, and the 
ova at once deposited in the hatohiug-bozes. 

Should the water in the hatdung-boxes, however, be of a higher 
temperature than the moas in which the ova were conveyed, these 
«an be at once removed into the hatobii^-oases after they have 
been detached from tiia moss as above described. 



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144 THE CANADIAN NATOKALIBT. [^pnlr 

The greatest oare must be takeo to prevent the entraaoe of in- 
sects and larvie into the hatching-sppar&tus. The most dangerous 
enemy to the ova and the young fish, is, perbape, the waternewt 
(^Sorex/odieni). If the apparatus cannot be raised to a sufficient 
height above the ground, it should be protected with a perforated 
tin or zinc lid. 

A curious instance occurred at the btktobing-«stablishment at 
Qre^en, a. water-cure establishment near Christiania, a few years 
affi. The apparatus was rtused two feet above the ground, and 
was not, therefore, protected with such a Ud. A la^ quantity of 
e^ had been hatched out, when, one fine morning, the 
young fry bad nearly all disappeared! A number of traps 
were aooordingly set on the floor of the bouse, and tb& foUowii^ 
momii^ the intruder was captured. It turned out to be a water- 
rail, which had found ingress through the month of the drain. 

The Di/tUd, UydropKili, and their larvse, and the larve of the 
Libdluia and Agrion, are also very dangerous raemies. The 
lAbtUvla deprata is especially a deadly foe, and will even devour 
the fish of two to three months old. It is extremely tenacious of 
life ; and has been known, after having been kept a whole day in 
spirits, to recover when placed in water where there were young 
fish, and in a very short time to oommenoe attacking them as if 
nothing had happened. 



Peovh* Facts in the Histort or the Salhon : Br 
H. C. Pbnnell. 

1. Salmon and Grilse invariably spawn in fresh water if poe- 
uble ; both the eggs, and the young try whilst in the Parr state,^ 
being destroyed by contact with salt water. 

2. The eggs are usually deposited on gravelly shallows, where 
they hatob in from 80 to 140 days, soaording to the temperature 
of the water. Eggs remaining nnhatehed beyond the latter period 
wilt seldom hatch at all, possibly &cm having been destroyed by 
the low temperature. 

3 The eggs depodted by the female will not hateh under any 
mroumstanoes ualess vivified, after exclusion, by the milt of the 
male ; and — at least up to the period of migration — there is no 
difference whatever in fry bred between Salmon only, between 
Qrilse only, between Salmon and Grilse, between Salmon and 
Parr, or between Grilse and Parr. 



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1864.} ON PIBCICULTITSB. 145 

[The female Pur cannot spawn ; bat tbe mkia Parr poswwes, 
and eonstantlj eierdiea, ths power of Tirifying Salmon and 
Grilse <rea.] 

4. The try remaiD one, two, and, in some oases, three yeara in 
the riven «a Parr Wore going down to tlie aea ; abont ludf tak- 
ii^ their departnie at one year, nearly all the others at two years, 
and the renuinder (whieh are exoeptionnl) at three years old. 

5. AU yoni^ Salmon-fry are marked with bluish bars on their 
sides until shortly before their migration, up to which period they 
are Parrs ; they Aen invariably aasame a more or less complete 
ooodng of dhery scales and beoome Smolts, — the bars, or Parr- 
marks, however, being Btill dearly discernible on rubbing off the 
new scales. 

6. The yonng of all the speeiea here included in the genus 
Sahrto have at some period of their existence these bluish bars ; 
and oonsaqnently such marks are not by themselves proofs that 
fry bearing them are the yonng of the true Sahnon (&i&no lalar). 

7. Unless the young fish put on their Smolt-dress in May or 
eariy in June, and thereupon go down to the sea, tiiey remain aa 
Parrs another year; and without Smolt-scalea they will not 
migrate, and cannot exist in salt water, 

8. The length of the Parr at rix weeks old is about an inch 
and a half or two inches ; and the weight of the Smolt before 
reaching the salt wat«r from one to two ounces. 

9. In at least many cases, Smolts thus migrating to the sea in 
May and June return as Grilse, sometimes within five, generally 
within ten weeks, the increase in weight during that period vary- 
ii^&om two to ten lbs., the average being from four to six Ibe. ; and 
these Grilse spawn about November or December, go hack to the 
see, uid in many oases re-ascend the rivers the next spring as 
Salmon, with a further increase of from four to twelve lbs. Thus, a 
fidi batched in April 18&4, and marked as migrating in Hay 
1866, was eanght as a Salmon of twenty-two lbs. weight in ftTaroh 
1866. 

10. It ai^wan certain however that Smolts do not always 
return daring Uie same year as Grilse, but frequently remain nine 
or ten months In the sea, retaroing in the following spring as 
small-slied Salmon. 

[It will thni be imu that the &t of the Salmon an oailad Parr* 
nntil thej put on their migMtaj ixtu, when thej be- 
Tob. I. z So. 2, 



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146 TBI CANADIAN NATUfiALIST. [^pnl| 

come Smolti aod go down to the ult water; GriU* if tbej re- 
turn from the see dnring the first jmi of theii migration ; sad 
at all other periods Saimtm.J 

1 1 . It hu also been clearly proved tliat, in general, Salmon and 
Grilae fiod their way back to spawn to tbe riveTS in which they 
were bred, sometimes to the identical spots, — spawn aboat Nov- 
ember or Daoember, — and go down again to the sea as " spent fish," 
or"Kelto," in Febmaiy or Maroh, — retaining, in at least many 
cases, during the following fonr or five months, as " olean fish," 
and with an increase in weight of from seven to ten lbs. 

[Shortly before spawning, snd whilst retaming to the sea as 
Kelts, or spent Bah, Salmon are unfit for food, and tbeir cap- 
ture is then illegal. " Foul Gah," bt/ort spawning, are, if males, 
termed Red fish, from the orange-eolored stripes with which 
theircheeksaremarked, and the golden-orange tint of the bodj ■ 
the fbmalea are darker in color, and are called Black fish. 
J/ler spawning, the males are called Kippera, and the females 
Shedders or Baggita] 
This, in a condensed form, is the present state of onr positive 
knowledge as r^ards the leading facts in the hlstoiy of the Sal- 
mon as it oeenrs in British waters. 



CoJtPAEUBOKS OF AMERICAN LaNODAOCS WITH TH08B OF TBK 

Old Wobld.* 
Under the title not«d below, ' ' N.O.," a writer in the Lower Canada 
Journal of Education, attacks some ratlier bold statements re^Mot- 
ing the Amerioan languages, made by U. Benaa in his work on 
the Primitive Languages. In an ethnolo^cal point of view Uie 
subject is of interest, and we are glad that any one acquaioted 
with onr native langoages is disposed to take it np. The Ameri- 
can languages have nsoally been r^arded as altogether distinct 
from those of other parta of the world, and aa very disumilar 
among themselves. Yet the most superficial examination shows 
that similarities of grammatioal fbrms and of root-words exist 
over wide areas of the American continent, and among tribes per- 

* " Jngement erronj de U. Brnest Renan ear leg Langaes Banvages," 
(par N. 0. Pamphlet reprinted from the Journal dlnstrncUoD Pablique.) 



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1864.] BEvnw. 147 

fectly separated from each other. There have also not beea 
waatiDg students of the subject, who supposed they could discover 
links of oonnection with the languages of the old world. Still the 
sabjeot has been pursued only in a desultory manner, and it pre- 
sents a rich and comparatively anezplored field. It is more 
specially important in connection with the bold theory of Retzius, 
based on cranial conformation, that the "long-headed" Indian 
races of Eastern America may have been of Nortii African or 
SouA European origin. This woald make America the meeting - 
ground of the opposite estremes of human migratbn to the 
East and the West, as it seems oertaiu tiiat the Indians of Western 
Amenca are related to the races of Northern Asia. To us this 
theory receives strong oonfirmatlon, not only from the similar 
physical conformation of the Ouanehes of the Canaries, and some 
of the North African races, but also from the facts which have 
been ascertained as lo the form, habits, and rit«s of the earliest 
aborigines of Europe. In the further solution of such questions, 
the study of the languages is most important, and we need a 
careful and thorough comparison of all the Eastern American 
tongues, more especially with a view to the qaestiou of (heir 
possibly having originated from colonists landing on the West- 
India Islands irom some part of the shores of the Mediterranean, 
and this at a remote period, when the languages of Europe were 
a thdr most primitive state. The task is a difficult one, requir- 
ng the combination of the learning of many men and laborious 
nvestigation ; but if any reliable positive results could be obtained, 
the labor would not be in vtdn. In the meantime we give a few 
extracts &om the pamphlet of " N. 0.," in illustration of his protest 
against the dictum of M. Renan, that the idea of the primitive 
unity of language is a chimera : — 

" Mr. Benau will be perhaps surprised to learn that that Iro- 
quois tongue which he had considered bo barbarous has, neverthe- 
less certain very carious analogies with the learned languages. 
Thus those Hebrew and Indo-Oermanic quadrilil«ral and quinqni- 
liter^ roots, of which M. Benan makes such a show in his book of 
comparative philology, are also found in the Iroquois tongue ; and 
certunly the words raonraon, kitkit, 8iion8iion, taraktarak, sara- 
sara, terit«ri, kSiskSis, herhar, t«skoko, kSitokStto, iekonienk, 
SirokSiro, and others may very well be oompared with gargar, 
uifuif, uum, OAnaAKiaEB, aARGARIZEIN, ^invit, FIFI- 



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148 THE CANADIAN NATITBALI8T. [^piilr 

ZEIN, tintiDDaTit;, Uingeln, and other like vords given in the list 
of Mr. Renan. Let ub then conclade diat for (Hiomatop(Bi& the 
Amerioan languages are second to none, and that among them the 
Iroqnoia Is distit^puehed by ite tendenoy to take the quadriliteral 
form. But tiiere are other analc^efl. 

" Such will be the analogy which exists between the Algonquin 
profiles and the Hebrev affixes. 

Sabaktam, thou hast forgotten me, M, me, 1 

JadeKA, thy hand, ea, of thee, > Heb. aff. 

BagheLO, his foot, o, of bim, ) 

Ninaganik, he forgets me, Ni, me, \ 

KiDindj, thy hand, KA, of thee, > Alg. pref. 

0, his fool, O, of him or of her, ) 

" TtuBiB an cxam^ewbichmightbe considered as an argument in 
favor of the homogeneity of languages, and which demonstrates, 
moreover, that the savage tonguee have not a obaracter exclnuvely 
sensuous, in the sense that Mr. Benan gives to that word, bnt that 
they are, at least as peyohol<^oal as the Indo-OermaniolaognBgeg. 
" The Algonquin root bnim serves to express all the iutelleotual 
operadons, alt the dispositions of the soul, all the emotions of the 
heart, all the aots either of the mind or the vilL Thus it will 
be said : ni mintenintdam, I am contented ; ni gackenindam, I 
am sad ; ni mintenima, I am satisfied with somebody ; ni dttge 
%ima, I am not satisfied with it; ni aakoiitna, I am heartily 
attached to him ; nindapitenima, I esteem bim : ni nickmima, 1 
tiouUe his mind, I make him angiy ; ni pago»enima, 1 make my 
supplioations to bim in my heart, I pray to him inwardly ; ni 
kiUitSaSenima, I venerate him, I think him worthy of honor ; 
ni kikenima, I know him ; ni kSaiakSentTna, I know him per- 
fectly ; ni pixiikenima, I can remember him ; ni mikaSaiwia, I 
remember him ; ni mfftmcnima, I think of him ; ni nibSakaSeni' 
ma, I brieve bim wise ; ni tatSenima, I understand it, I oonoeive 
it, I seize it with the mind ; ninol obtiteienima, I reach him with 
my thought, my mind reaches up to him ; ni tanmima, I believe 
bim present; ni jxmeMtmo, he esoapee my thot^bt, my mind can- 
not reaoh him ; ni Sanenima, I forget it, I lose the remembrance 
of it; ni tangenima, I loueh it (him) witji my mind, it seems to 
me that I toudi it (him). 

" Is not the impwtanee of tliis root bhiu a thing truly worthy 



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1864.] BETEBW. 149 

to be Tomarked, u it is wiihoot oODtradiotion a hundred times 
more jwodoodTe than itB congeners anime and animuis t 

" The Latin animut has been compared to the Greek anemoi. 
We can with as mnob, nay with more reason, compare oar root 
«nvin to this last one. In litct it is found ia the form anim, with 
the Greek meaaing, in the impersonal verbs animat, the wind 
blows; pUanimat, the wind blows this way; ondanimat, the 
wind oomes from that direction, etc., etc 

"Bat here is another pecoliarity which comee to oar mind 
whidi cannot fkil to draw the attendon of an Oriental scholar : 

" In Hebrew, the third person masonline siognlar of the first 
tense of the iadicative serves to form all the other persons and all 
the other tenses of the verb. 

" In Algonquin, the third person singoUr common gender of 
the pnsent of the indicative seirea to form all the oihet tenses and 
penons of the verb. 

" Thus it is said in Hebrew : qSthal, he has kOled ; q&haltA; 
thou hast killed ; qSthald, I have killed. In the. same way it will 
be said in Algonquin : nicise, he kills, ki nieiSe, thou kiUeet, ni 
nioiSe, I kill. 

" In both languages, the third person does not take any charac- 
tcristie for itself whilst die two others are accompanied or preceded 
by thefflgns which distingnisb them, ta, ti, ki, ni. 

" The third person is then the root of the verb. Therefore that 
ia the reason why the Algonquin dictionary gives first that pereon, 
in imitati(»i of the Hebrew. 

" We have said that the syntax of our two savage languages is 
pretty complicated. It is too much so to allow us to ent«r, in a 
review like the present one, into the detuls which would be neces- 
sary to give a correct idea of it. For the same reason we will not 
give the list of the conjngationaeitherlroqnois or Algonquin; we 
shall only say that they are divided into oopnlative, diHJnnotive, 
Buppositive, concessive, cansal, temporal, adversadve, optative, 
and expletive. 

" We have affirmed that these two languages are very clear, very 
predae, expressing with facility not only the exterior of ideas, but 
sdll more their metaphyucal rebdons. In &et, the Algonquin has 
not leas than eight moods, whose names are : indioative, oondi- 
tjonal, imperative, subjnnodvo, Bimultaneous, participle, eondngent, 
4ud gerund. With the exeepdon of this last one, alt these moOds 



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160 THE CANADIAN MATCSALIST. [April 

have several tenses. The total namber of them is twenty-nine 
The verbs in Iroquois have twenty-one tenses, divided into three 
moods, indioative, imperative, and Babjnnotive. 

" Nonns are soaroelj less nuuTellons ; thej are conjugated rather 
tban dedined. It will be said in Iroqaois : kadtake, at my feet ; sasi- 
take, at thy feet ; raaitake, at his feet : and in Algonquin : nirit, my 
foot; kidt, thy fi)ot ; ont,hisfoot: asitlssud: ktahahtos, ni 8a(, 
Isee; Batkahtos,A:t8ai, thoa seest; rathkatos, 8a&), he sees. The 
prefixes of nouns are almost the same as thoee of the verbs. There 
are in Iroquois, as well in the oonjij^tion of nouns as in theconjuga- 
tion of verbs, fifteen persons, of which four are in the sing, five in 
the dual, five in the pinral, and an indeterminate one. The AJgon- 
quins have only seven persons ; but their nouns possess, neverthe- 
less, a prod^ous number of inflexions on aiscount of the accidents to 
which they are liable, the list of which is: tiie diminutive, the 
detoriorative, the ultra-deteriorative, the investigative, the duluta- 
tive, the near preterite, the remote preterite, the locative, the obvia- 
tive, the superobviative, the poBeesaive, the sociative, and the 
modifioative." 

A multitude of questions and objections might be raised even 
on the few pcnnts stated above. The following, for example, have 
beoi suggested to us by an eminent hebraist: 

The first of the three words cited as examples of the He- 
brew (sabaktani) is not Hebrew, bnt belongs to another, thongh 
cognate language. In this first example, therefore, we think H. 
Btttan will be disposed to deny the analogy. The reviewer 
through inadvertence has here given bis opponent su advantage. 
Thim again without objecting that in the one language the nt is 
prefixed, and in the other post-fixed, we most recollect that in He- 
brew, m, which is only the objective case of the pronoun when 
immediately joined to a verb, is nsed bat very seldom, especially 
when compared vrith the falter prevalence of the form t, and 
that in verbs the n for the first person is never used in the past 
tenses, and in the future tenses the n and the i are both omitted, 
and the letter a, the other fragment of the absolute form of the 
[oononns, is employed. It is only right to keep these points in 
view, in establishing the analogy sought to be set up. In tho 
seoond example oiled, ladeka (more properly yadeoha), the a is 
changed into i in the Iroquois, and the o of the third person is 
not used in the verb, o. g., (p. 20,) niciSe, he kills. The reviewer 



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1864.] bkthw. 151 

bawerer imfbrau us of very intereBting lactB respecting the compo- 
ation of the tenses of the verbs, as compared with the Hebrew 
fomOf uid it is more of these interesting iacts that we would 

Again, while N. 0. is quite ri^t on Boientifio groonds to con- 
demn M. Kenan's nnphilosophical referenoe of certain anaic^ra to 
chanoe, it may not be quite right to otgeet as he do«s, to what 
M. Kenan has to say on the sabject of onomatopceia, and in which 
he but ooinoides with suah eminent modern eritica as Qesenins, 
Fttnt, eta. N. 0. is doubtless acquainted with the ori^nal He- 
brew text of the Scriptures. Con he, tJien, ignore the remark- 
aUe prevaleDce of Onomatopceia, morecf^KCially in the early books 
of tbe Sacred Volume ? And need we remind him that tiiia preva- 
lence of onomatopceia in the early history of the language is of 
DO small value in discnsang the question of the primitive language 
— " anit4 primordiale du laogi^" which, says N. 0., is treated by 
M.Benanas "iidionlecliim6re,etmytliele plus bizarre." We are 
not quite clear as to whether the reviewer holds the Hebrew to be the 
I^imitive language of man j but for his Algonquin " kokoc, kokoko, 
kackacipineai, kakaki, makaki, etc.," how many examples could we 
cite, not only in the Hebrew, but in the later Latin fiimily of lan- 
guages. Here are a &w: Hebrew ppV,lackBck,EDgliBh, he licked; 
Italian leccaie ; French Uoher : so in Greek a>x«*', German lecken . 
Next Hebrew Hip, kara ; English, he cried ; Italian, gridare ; Fr. 
dw ; Qer. schreien. Our limited space, however, compels us to 
leave this topic here. Scarcely more satisfied are we wit^ the meagre 
list of quadriliteral and quinquilitenl Iroquois roots whicb N. 0. 
oppoeee to a yet shorter list of Hebrew and other similar roots, 
as an ofiaet to tiioee " dont M. Kenan &it un ai pompenz ^tolagc." 
We Bhall wait for the more elaborate effort which we desire to see 
from tJie reviewer before we fully give in our adhesion to the fol- 
lowing important claims : " Conclnons done qu'en mati^ d'ono- 
matop^, lea langues am^oaines ne le cMent tl auenne, et quo 
parmi elles, I'iroqnois se distingue par des tendances k revStir la 
forme qoadrilitdre." 

Similar ol>ieotiona may be raised to comparisons of Algonquin 
with Qreek and Latin, as ' enim,' above referred to, or t^e root 
"tang" in the verb to touch, oranotherwbich has been su^ested 
as a parallel, — ^the prevalence of the root " ouk," or " oik," in the 
sense of house or dwelling. Uore especially would such obgecdons 



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1B2 THE CANADUN NATOOALIST. l^V"^, 

be strengtbeoed by the fact stated by N. 0., that perhspe the not 
" sit," foot, is the only one oommon to the ndghboring IroqnMs 
and Algonquin languages; unless, indeed, it ^onld appear that 
theae two laogo^es have been derived the one from the east, the 
other from the vest, and have met in Canada. To give force to 
these oompariBons of roots, it would be neaesBaiy to ahov that they 
occnr also in the Carib, or other langoages of that region, and in 
the extinct Guanche of the Canaries, or in some of the awnent Ian- 
gnagee of Northern Africa or Southwestern Europe. At one time 
there was a atrong tendeni^ to get up fknoiful reeemblanoes betwe«i 
langaages. The tide haa turned, and the prejudices of schdan 
are all the other way. For this very reason we thank N. 0. for bis 
effort, and would encourage, in the interests of ethnology, all the 
honest cultivators of the comparative philology of even those prim- 
itive tongues, nnjustly n^lected as barbarous and uncultivated; 
though for that very reason, Uke the habits and riles of the pei^le 
who speak them, they may, as Dr. Wilson has well shown, be of 
inestimable valne in interpreting the primitive relationa of men, 
and their condition in *' pre-historic times." 



MEETING OF BRITISH ASSOCUTION. 

Geoorapht and ErBHOLoar. - 
In this section, after some opening otwervatiooi on the progreee 
made between 1888 and 1863 in the vaat centre of industry on 
the Tyne, the Freudent remarked: "I will Gratcall your attention 
to tome of the leading gei^praphical results in Bridsh Geography 
which have been broi^^t about unce we last met here. At 
that time four years had elapsed since (at onr firet meeting in 
Scotiaud) I directed the attention of this Aasociation to the un- 
toward condition of the Top<^;n^hical Saivey of the British Isles, 
by showing that no map of any country north of the Trent was in 
existcDce ; in short, that all the North of England and the whole 
of Scotland were in that lamentable state ; whilst the survey of 
France, and of nearly all the little states of Germany, had been 
completed. Having roused public sentiment to this neglected 
state of the national map, — «o neglected, indeed, that one of the 
great headlands (Cape Wrath) was known to have been lud down 
some miles out of its proper place in all maps and charts,— den- 
tations to the government followed, in the first of which I pleaded 



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1864.] BBITIBH AS8OCIATI0H. 153 

the unae of geography ; but with little or no effect as regarded 
the North of England, and my natjve country, Scotland. In the 
tirenty-nine years which have elapsed between the period when 
the qne»tion was firet agitated at Edinburgh, considerable progress 
has, doubtleSB, been made ; but it is surely a reproach to a power- 
fal country like Britain that in thirty years we have only just 
seen the r^on between the Trent and the Tyne delineated and 
laid down on a real map, — v. e^ on the one-inch scale, — whilst 
«ven yet the maps of the northernmost English counties are un- 
finished. With the extension of the surtrey to the North of Eng- 
land and Scotland, not only has the ux-incb scale been adopted, 
but much larger cadastral plans, on the ZSJ-inch scale, hare been 
and are in execution. While these plans are, I grant, most valu- 
able to individual proprietors, they are beside the purposes of the 
geo^pber — inasmuch as they exhibit no attempt whatever at the 
delineation of physical features. Hence I regret that their execu- 
tion should have been preferred to the completion, in the first in- 
stance, of an intelligible and useful map of the British Isles, which, 
if made to depend on the previova completion of the large-scale 
plans, will still involve, I fear, the lapse of another very long 
period before the whole country will possess what geographers 
consider a map. The most powerful cause which has retarded 
the progress of good cartography has been the frequently-recurring 
cold fits of indiSerenoe and consequent cutting off of the supplies 
by which our legislature hai been periodically affected, and which 
have necessarily occasioned a collapse aod stagnatioo in the works 
of this important survey. A^rtspect^ my own special department, 
or the "Geological Survey," 1 deprecate still more strongly the 
delay of the construction of the one-inch map, seeing that no 
geologist can labor in the Highlands of Scotland, and accurately 
delineate their interesting rock-form ationa, by coloring any of 
the defective country-maps of that region. Let na now cast a 
rapid glance over the progress of discovery in distant lands, and 
particularly where onr countrymen have signalized themselves. 
Atformer meetings of this Association, we have dwelt on the early 
discoveries of new lands in the interior of Australia, in which the 
names of Mitchell, Eyre, Stnrt, Leichbardt, and others have been 
always mentioned with honor and respect. The latter journeys 
of the brothers Augustus and Frank Gregory have earned for these 
good surveyors the highest honors of the Koyal Geographiccl 



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154 THB CANADIAN NATURALIST. [April, 

Society, for their extenure researches and datermiDstioiu of longi- 
tude and latitude in ITorthera, Eastern, and Western Aaatralia. 
Whilst more receotly, the bold expedition of Burk and Wills cost 
these noble fellows their lives, the latest researches of their snc- 
ceBsore stand out as indeed most singularly saccessful. U'Douall 
Stuart, after variouB previous trinmphs, in one of which he reached 
the watershed of North Australia, has actually passed from Ade- 
laide, in South Australia, to Yan Dieman Bay on the north coast, 
in latitude 15 deg. S. Contemporaneoaely with this last expedi- 
tion, M'Einlay, proceeding also from Adelude, reached the Gulf 
of Carpentaria, and thence travelled to the eastern shore ; and 
Landsborough, realizing all the value of the discoveries of Burk 
and Wills, and penetrating from the Gulf of Carpentaria, traversed 
the continent southward until he regained the noble colony of 
Victoria, in which the expedition was organized. The rapid rise 
of the different colonies in Australia is truly marvellous; and 
whilst we have successfully occupied all the available ports and 
lands along the eastern, southern, and western sides of this great 
continent, we are, I rejoice to say, now beginning to extend our 
settlements to the north const, the occupation of wh'ch I have 
advocated for many a year, on political as well as on commercial 
and colonial grounds A few years only of practical researches 
have dispelled onr ignorance respecting the interior of this vast 
mass of land ; in which, though tiiere are wild desert tracks, there 
are also many rich and well-watered oases of fine pasture -grounds, 
through which the colonists may open out communications across 
the continent from the south and east to the nor^ern shores. A 
short time only,I venture to predict, will elapse before towns arise 
at the head of the Gulf of Carpentaria, as well as at the mouth of 
the Victoria River of the north ; from whence, as well as from the 
new settlement of Cape York, Australia will have a direct com- 
mnnication with our great Indian Empire." 

Referring to the discovery of the sources of the Nile, the Presi- 
dent remarked upon the fact that "traveller after traveller, from 
the days of the E^ptian priests and of the Roman emperors down 
to modem periods, bad endeavored to ascend the Nile to its 
source, and all had failed " ; and that it was by reversing the pro- 
cess, and by proceeding from the east coast of Africa, near Zanzi- 
bar, to the cenlral plateau land between North and Sonth Africa, 
that Captains Speke and Grant had solved the problem. 



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1864.] BBITIBB A8800UTI0M. 155 

Hie President, after HUling the sabjeots of greatest interest to 
be diwuMed in this Boction, remarked ; " In the commencement 
of this addr«M,I spoke of the comparatively few means we possessed 
in 18S8 of reaching rapidly this Aoarisbi*)g town ; and now I 
need^not remind yon that we are snrroaBded by a network of 
railroads, which wind along valleys, or are driven under yonr bills. 
Still less at onr former meeting here had the genios and saga- 
cionsoesB of Wheatatone overspread the coun^ with the eteclric 
telegraph, enabling men rapidly to transact important aflairs in 
oar largest oitiea, whether separated by a few miles or by bnn- 
dreds of miles from thdr correspondents. At the last Manchester 
meeting, indeed, we interchanged qnestiona and answers with the 
philoBophers of St Pelersbnrgh daring an evening assembly ; and 
unce then great advances bave been made in transmitting tele, 
grams ronnd the world. In this way a vast stride will be made 
in the ensuing winter by the extensioa of the telegraph from Con- 
stantinople through Asia Minor; and thence, via the Persian 
Gol^ to the country of Mekran, at the bead of the Indian Ocean, 
and so to the British possessions in India. At the same lime, 
other efforts are in progress to carry a system of telegraphs from 
Rnssia through Siberia, and thence across the Desert of Gobi to 
Pekin. The greai de^deratum, however, of connecting Europe 
with America by a submarine telegraph remtuns to be accom- 
plished. 'With a view to that desirable end, the Council of the 
Royal Geographical Society warmly pupported a proposal by Dr. 
Wallich to effect a complete survey of the sea bottom, as a pre- 
cnrsorto the actual laying down of a cable upon the vast unknown 
irregularities of the submarine surface. We naturally supported 
an ^ort like this, which was certain to throw much light on 
Natural History and Physical Geography ; and we rejoiced in the 
preliminary researches which had been made towards the estab- 
lishment of an electric line overland to British India ; because 
they, for the first time, laid open to European knowledge countries 
which, though unknown to the moderns, were seats of power when 
Alexander the Great and bis lieutenants invaded India. Tho 
sonndingB whioh ascertain the nature of the bottom of the ocean, 
not only give ns the outlines and characters of various sunken 
rocks, sands, and mnd-banks, and of vast and deep cavitiua, bnt 
inform ns where the nnder-cnrrents prevail, and where at vast 
depths the surface is tranquil and anraffled in some places, whilst 



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IK THE CANADIAN NATUBALI3T. [April, 

in others aubmarioe Toluanoes disturb the sos-bottom. Nay, more, 
these BubmaTine operations have taught us that aDlutals oaouot 
onlj live, but flourish, preaaTving even their colors, at the enor- 
mous depth of one mile and a halt We thus see how the effi>rts 
of the nautical surveyors and the engineers to spread the electric 
telegraph are not merely destined to be useful to maDkind, but 
also to elicit great and important truths in Natural History, the 
development of which is specially connected with the pnratula of 
the geogrt^her and the ethnologist." 

The address concluded by a rderence to the appointment of to 
skilful and philosophical a naturalist as Mr, John Lubbock to the 
chairof President of the Ethnological Sodety, and to the appoiot- 
roent of Mr. F. Gallon as Seoretary, under whose auspioea an 
increased activity was being already shewn. 



MISCELLANEOUS. 

Thi Eabtbqitake of Apbil, 1864. 

In the Canadian Naturalist, Yol. v., p. 379, vill be found a list 
of all the earthquakes observed in Canada up to that of October, 
1860. Since that time, nitli the esoeption of a few sUght and 
local shocks, chiefly in the vicinity of Murray Bay and the 
Saguenay, which appear to be points of apeoial intensity for die 
seianiio agency of this country, there have been eo earthquakes 
felt until Wednesday, April 20th, 1864, when a shock of no 
great intensity was felt throughout a great part of Lower Canada. 
Like other Canadian earthquakes it was felt almost simultaneously 
over a wide extent of country, indioatlng perhaps that its souice 
was deep-seated, and the vibrations propagated almost vertloaUy 
to the surface. At Quebec the shock was felt between 1.10 and 
1.15 p.m.;* and atL'Islet, Danville, Montreal, and otikwplaoes, in 
so far as can be ascertdned, the hour was nearly the same, except 
iu the case of Father Point, where a shock is said to have been 
felt at 1 1 o'clock. Unless there is some mistake in the statement 
this must have been a shock not felt elsewhere. In so &r as 
reported, the shock seems to have been most violent at Quebec, 
where, as well as at several other places, two distinct vibrations 

• Or accordiDg to other statcmeDts at 1.10 p. u. 



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1864.] UISCItLANBOUS. 1K7 

were noted by some obseiren. The reports do not give nncb 
infonnation as to the directioD of the vibration, bat it wbb pro- 
bably, as in the earthquake of I860, from eaet to weet, or from 
southeast to northweet. 

The only remarkable poiat in rdaUon to this earthquake is its 
ooourrenoe at a season when edsmic ene^ iu thia r^on seems, 
from past experienoe, to manifest itself less frequently than at 
moat other times. Only four ont of eighty-three recorded earth-" 
quakee in Canada and its vicinity have ocourred in April; the 
antnmn and winter being the seasons of greatest eelsmio aotivity. 

The fbllowing extracts ftem Quebec newspapers give some 
details of interest : — 

The Mercury says : — " The earth trembled violently ; eveiy 
house was shaken as if an explosion of gas or gunpowder, (x an 
fixmianent of the rook had taken place — only no noise was 
heard. Some fancied that a heavy weight had iallen upon the 
floors above them, and, indeed, that was our own seusadon. The 
walls of the honse rocked ; the windows rattled ; and we rocked 
ouiselveB. To make sure that the powe^presB had not fallen to 
pteoes, ve examined the press-room, bnt fonnd all right there. 
The inmates of the rooms above us, horror-stricken, came down 
stairs to enquire what the matter was ; people &om the street 
came tumbling in to ask us if we bad felt any unusual seosation : 
the people over the way felt it ; the cruet stands were overset, 
]JateB broken, and the whole dinner-table aervii% at 'Russell's set 
in motion ; the soldiers rushed ont of their bomb-proofs on the 
oitatdel, where the shook was, we are informed, the most severe ; 
in St. John street without, peoj^ ran fh)m their houses, and 
hosts of people bede^d the gates of the gas-works. In the streets, 
however, the shook was not sensibly felt, and by some persons not 
felt at all. It is fully believed dtat the ooncussory effect upon 
the bouses was greater thui when the laboratory blew up. A 
gentlemaa informs us that at Mount Pleasant the shock appeared 
to come from the southwest with a gradually increasing rumbling 
noise, and ended with a report as of a distant explouon. At the 
house of Mr. Maingny, in Scott street, near tlie Lewis Road, the 
eartb has opened in two plaoes in a passage leading to the yard, 
and a quantity of earth was thrown down &om the siding of the 
cellar. 
The Chronide statea :— '■ About ten minutee or a quarter past 



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158 THE OANADIAM NATDBALIST. [-^pnl, 

one, yesterday &(lemoon, the city was " frightened from its pro- 
pricly" by a shook of an earthquake— of hrief duration and nnat- 
tended by any serioos resnlla, but Buffidently violent to give an 
idea of the destraction which vould have been caused had the 
DonTnlsion of the earth lasted as many minates as it did seconds. 
The shock was of a peonliar nature. It was not of the svaying 
or vibratory species — it was a shaking of the ground precisely 
similar id effect wilji that caued on a bridge by the pasdng of a 
heavy train at a considerable speed. In the houses it was felt to a 
mach greater extent than byperaons in the streets — this fact being 
of oonise easily explained by the motion Gommnnioat«d to floors, 
the rattling of windows, doors, fiirat tare, glass-ware, and loose fix- 
tares. Several persons appear not to have felt the qoivering motion 
of the ground oat of doors, and ware therefore surprised to 
see persons rushing into the streets, anxiously enquiring what had 
occurred. In the houses the rumbling or jarring soand was how- 
ever, positively alarming. In some instances omameat« and ill- 
secured panes of glass fell fW>m windows. The shook lasted, as 
nearly as can be determined, five or six seconds. Of course, on 
such an oocadon, few parsons could be Ibund with suffiiuent pre- 
sence of mind to count at the moment the duration of the convnl- 
sion, and it can therefore only be estimated by the reoolleotion of 
the event. 

" In the upper portions of the city — on the Cape, In the Citadel, 
and in St. Lewis suburbs — the shook seems to have been most 
severe. In the Lower Town and St. Booh's, however, it was felt 
with sufficient force to send thousands of persons into the streets 
to enquire if another ezidonon had taken place, if the gas works 
at Orleans wharf, Palus, had blown up, or if a portion of Cape 
Diamond had given way and crashed the houses in Champlain 
street. All these surmises were indulged in at the moment. That 
with r^ard to the gas works, however, grew iuto a rumor that 
spread like wildfire, and hundreds ran or drove towards the Palais 
to find that it was unfounded. This rumorwas doubtleBs strength- 
ened by the fact that many persons fancied that they perceived a 
gaseous smell immediately after the fdiock. But the absence of 
anything like the loud report which characterizes an explosion seems 
to have led most people to attribute it at once to its trae oaose. 

" There were none of the signs of the elements which usually 
herald the ooming of earthquakes in sonthera latitudes. The sky 



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1864.] UtS0BLLA.NE0D8. 159 

waa cloadless at the time, the weather clear and agreeable, with 
what mariners would call a " stiff breeze." The wind prevented 
the effect of the earthquake &om being noticeable on the river, 
although some observant persons say that the surface of the water 
appeared darker than its ordinary color while the concasdon 
lasted." 

The A'ewe adds the following : — " The shock was so sadden that 
to iJioee who were within doois it appeared as if the chimney-wall 
or roof of tlieir own or their neighbor's house had given way and was 
tumbling down. At the Artillery Barracks, the men ran from their 
rosma into the square and up towards the magazine, fully convinced 
that another explosion had taken place. On the citadel, too, 
where we are told the shock was most violent, the men ran in ter- 
ror from their bomb-proof rooms into the square, and crowded the 
rampaits to see where the ezplodon had ooonrred. 

" We learn that in the ship-yards at St. Roch's, the ships ou the 
stocks waved to and fro. Some persons say they distinctly saw 
the river rise in some parts to ftheightof nearly ten feet, and that 
it receded almost immediately." 

Mr. Herbert Williams writes tfi the Quebec Chronieh as follows, 
irom Harvey Hill Mines, under the date of Thursday April 21 : 
" At 1.15 p.m., yesterday, a smart shock of an earthquake was 
felt in this district, lasting from ten to fifteen seconds. It was also 
perodved by some of our miners, who were at Ae time working 
at a depth of ISO feet below the surf^. The undulation at 
this place, ag nearly as I could judge, seemed to travel from south- 
west to northeast, the wind blowing at the time from the north- 
east. At 6.40 p.m., we had a brilliant flasli of %htning without 
its usual acoompanimeDl of thunder ; the sky at the time was 
pofectly clear, the wind blowing strong from the northeast. As 
yuo will, I doubt not, receive many oommunioations from different 
parts of the Province, it may be Interesting to learn the time of 
its t^pearanoe at different places. Hence I send you the above 
facts of its occnrrence here." 



0.1 Oboanio Beuains in thb Laukxntian Rooks of Canada. 

(Letter from Sir W. E. Lc^an t« the Editors of " Silliman's 

Journal.") 

" In August, 185d, I exhibited to the American Assooiadou at 

Springfield, Mass., specimens of what was r^;arded by me as an 



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160 THE CANADIAN NATDKALI8T, 



otganic form externally reBembting Stromatoeerium, and found in 
the Laurentiu) limestone of the Ottawa. These were described by 
me in the Canadian Naturalist for that year (vol. iv, p. 300), 
and afterwards figured in the QeoU^ of Canada, p. 49. In 
1863, similar forms were detected by the Qeological Surrey, in 
the serpentine-limestone of Grenville, sections of which we liave 
prepared and submitted for mioroeoopio examination to Dr. J.W. 
Dawson. He finds that tlie serpentine, which was sui^K»ed to 
replace tLe organic form, really fills the interspaoea of tbeoaloareona 
fosEil. ' This exhibits in some parte n waH-preaerred organic 
straotore, which Dr. Dawson desoribes as that of a Foraminifer 
' growing in large seedle patehes after the manner of Carpmteria, 
but of much greater dimenuons. and presenting minute poiuts 
whioh reveal a structure reaembling thit of other fbraminifbrons 
forms, as for example Calearina and NummuHta.' Fignrw and 
deeoriptions will nxm be published by the Geolt^oal Surrey. 

"Large portions of the Lanrenti&n limestones appear to be made 
up of fragments of theee organisms, mixed with other fragments 
whioh suggest oomparisons with orinoide and other calcareous fos- 
sils, but cannot be distinctly determined. Some of the limeatones 
are more or less colored by carbonaceous matter, which Dr. Dawson 
b» ibund to exhibit under the miorosoope evidenoes of organic 
Btructnre, probably v^etable. 

" In tikis connection, it may be notiocd that Mr. Sterry Huut, in 
apaperpraaent«d toUtcGeoli^cal Society ofliOndou in 18C>8, (see 
also SiUiman's Journal, [2], xzzvi, 296,) insisted upon the preeenra 
of beds of inn-ore, metallic snlphnrets, and graphite in the Iisn- 
rantian series as " affording evidence of the existence of oi^nic 
life at tlie time of the deposition of these old crystalline rooks." 

Dr. Dawson has proposed fi>r this fossil tiie name of Eoxodn 
Gamadeiue, nnder which it will shortly be folly described. 



FubliBbed, Montreal, May 7, 1861. 

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CANADIAN NATURALIST. 



CONTRIBUTIONS TO LITHOLOGT.* 
Bi T. Stcbbt Eobt, U-A., F.B.S. ; of th« Qeol. Sarfc/ of Oaudk. 

III. On Sous Ektiptitb RoaEB.t 
In SiUiman'B Jooraal for March 1860 (2iid, xxiz, 282) there is * 
■krart note, pointii^ ovt the existence, in the Ticiuity of Montreal, 
of Bereial intereating claases of ernptire rooks, inalndisg qnartii- 
feroDB porphjriea, trachyteB, phonolite, doleritee, and diorites. It 
is jxopoeed in the third part of the present paper to describe the 
neoltB of some chemioal and mineralogioal ozaminations of these 
rocks, and to give b; way of pre&ce a desoription of their get^rv 
{Ideal distribntjon and geological relations. They may be oon- 
aidered gec^aidtically as belong^ to tiro gronpe ; of vhioh the first 
and more important for the nnmber and variety of its rooks may be 
c<»iveniently described as the Mootreal gnmp. It ooosists of a 
floooession of introsive masses along a belt mnniiig nearly trans- 
Terse to the nndolations of the Notre Dams Mountains, which are 
the prolongation of the Aiqialachiaiis into eastern Canada. Com- 
mencing at Sheffbrd Hoontun, an isolated traohytio mass not tn 
removed from the western base of the Notre Dame range, we find, 
going westward, the detaohed hills known as Yamaaka, Ronge- 
mont, Roaville or Bekeil, Montarville or Boucherville, Mount 
Royal or Montreal, and Rigand Motrntuns ; the last being dis- 
tant aboat ninety miles from Shefford. Brome Mountain, which 



Ko. 3. 



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162 THE OANADIAN MATD&ALIBT. [Jtlae^ 

oooapies s large uek to the south of She&brd, approaches within 
two milee of it. InUke maimer, afewmtleB tothe aoathof Beliail. 
IB another intmuve nusB known u Monnt Johneoa or Monnoir ; 
making in all nine hills of eruptive rook beloi^!;iDg to the M<mfr~ 
real group. Bendes these, umnerous smaller intrusive masses In the 
form of dykes are met with around and between the hills. From 
Hount Boyal to Rigand Mountain, a distanoe of about thirty milea, 
a gende undulation of the strata is observed, whioh increases to the 
westward of Bigand, and finally gives place to a considerable fault. 
This disturbance has been tiaeei to the Lanrentide hills on the Lao 
des Ghats, 140 miles west of Montreal; buttotheeaBtwardtheBtrat* 
exhilut no evidence of tlus transverse undulation, unless the ap- 
pearance of the intmsive rocks already mentioned be supposed to 
indicate the prokngalion of a fraotnre without sensible dislooadtHi.. 

The whole of these eruptive rooks rise throi^;Ii unaltered pako- 
loio strata, which however, in the immediate vicinity of the intru- 
sive rooks, exhibit a local metamorphism. The hills of Sheffordf 
&ome, and Y'amaska break Uirough the strata of the Quebec 
group, and lie a little to the east of the great line of dislooatioa. 
which, in thisregitxi, brings up tlie lower members of the paleotoi& 
aeries agunst the superior portion of the Lower Silurian, and di- 
vides into two (Uatricts thegreat paleozoic basin. (Geol«^ of Can- 
ada, pp. 334, &97.) The other hills all belong to the western di~ 
^racn of this basia, and break Hirougfa various members of the 
Lower Silnriao series from the Potsdam to the Hudson lUver 
ibnBation. Afflfog the numerous dykes which traverse not only the 
sedlmentaiy strata but the intrunve masses, thero are some which 
intersect the oongVnnerates of St. Helen's Island. These are of nn- 
eerti^ age, but repose unoonformably on the Lower Silurian series, 
and enclose pebbles and masses of Upper ^urian limestone oharao- 
teriied by fosnls of the Lower Helderbeig period. (Ibid., p. 366.) 

This group of intrusive rocks offers very great varieties in oom- 
poeiticm ; thus Shefford and Broma consist of what we dial! de- 
scribe as a granitoid trachyte, while the succeeding mountain, 
Tamaska, and the most western, Rigand, both oonrist in part of a 
kuld of trachyte, and in part of diorite. Monnoir and Bekeil also 
consist of diorites, wbioh however differ from the last two, and from 
eaeh other ; while Rougemont, Montarrille, and Mount Royal con- 
sist in great part of dolerites, presenting however many varieties 
in composition, and sometimes passing into pyrozenito. The dale- 



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1864.] T. STiaSY HUNT OH LITHOLOGT. 163 

ritc8 of Bongeinimt and Mount Royal are oat by dykes of trtf 
chyte. Similar dykea aim traverae the diorit« of Yamaaka, and may 
perhaps be oonneoted with tbe tracbytio portion of this mountain. 
It ia probaUe, jndgii^ ftom some speoimona Arom Roogemont, that 
the dolerite ia tbere interaeoted hy yeina of diorite, some t^ wbioh 
reesmbk that of BeloaU, and others that of Monnoir. Dykes both 
of Izaobyte, phonolite, and dolerite are also found traversing tbe 
Lower Silariui strata in the vioinity of the great eruptive masses ; 
andtbeconglomerateofSt. Helen's mentioned above is traversed by 
dykes of dolerite, which in their turn are cut by others of trachyte. 
A Beoond and smaller group of intrusive rocks occurs to the north- 
west of Montreal, chiefly in tbe ooonty of Qrenville, where they 
traverse the gaeiss aud limestones of tbe Laurentiau system. Tbe 
principal undulations of these rocks bave, like tbwe of tbe Appa- 
lachians, a nortb and soutli direction; but tbero is apparent also 
a second series of undulations, affecting in a less d^;ree the geo- 
gr^ibical distribution of tbe strata, and having, like the Montreal 
and Rigaud undulation, an east and west direction. Coinoident with 
tbe latt«r system of folds is a series of doleritio dykes, wMob nowhere 
attain a great breath, but have in some oases been traoed mtxe tbao 
fifty milea in a nearly east and west direction. Xbeae dykes are- 
interrupted by a great mass of reddish fffenite, paeaiog in some 
parts into granite, and oeeni^ing an wea of about tturty-mx square 
miles in the townships of Orenville, Chatham, sod Wentworth. 
Dylcee of this syenite extend from the central mass, and traverse the 
Burronnding gneiss and limestone. Numerous dykee c^ quartaifer- 
ouB pwpbyry interseot both this syeidte and tiie surronnding gneiss, 
and are seen ita one case to proceed &om a ooomderable nucleus of 
porpl^ry, which rises into a small mountmn ; rendering it probable 
tbBt nnmerous other porphyry dykes of the region radiate in 
likamsDnerfrom otbernueleiofthe same rook. Simie parte of this 
porplqrry enclose fragments of syenite, dolerite, and gneiss, which 
vary in uie &om smaU grains to several feet in diameter, aadtrfteo 
^ve to the rook the obaracter of a breccia. In one instance a bed 
of gneiss, iqtwarda of a hundred yards in lenglb, is complete sor- 
ronnded by tbe porphyry. 

Okthothtsx ahd Steniti. 

Obtboolasi-Forpqtkt oa Obthofhtbk. — Und^ Hob bead 

may be noticed a lock which has for its base a compact petrosiie^ 



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164 THC CANADIAN NATUSALI8T. [June, 

or mtimato mixture of orthoclaae aod qn&rtz, rendered porplijritio 
bj the preeenoe of gruns or cryBtals of orthoolaae, of qnarti, or 
of botb of these minerola iK^tlier. The ocoarreace of this rook 
at Qienville, where it forms dykei ia the Hjenite of that re^<»i, 
haa just been noticed. The fine-grained petronlioions base of this 
rock varies in oolor ftom dark green to various shades of red, 
purple, and black ; these differences probably depending upon tita 
d^ree of ozydation of the oontained iron. Thronghont this paste 
are disseminated vell-de&ied orystals of a roae-red or fleeh-red 
feldspar apparently orthoclaae, aometimee veiy abundant; and less 
frequently small grains of nearly colorless translucent quarts. As 
analysis was made of a charaotenstic variety of the rook, the base 
of vhioh wae greenish-black, jasper-like, oonchoidal in fracture, 
and feebly translucent on the edges, with a somewhat waxy lustre. 
The hardness was nearly equal to that of quartz, and the specific 
gravity 2.62. A few distinct crystals of red orthoclase, and soma 
grains of quartz, were present. The base, freed as much as possi- 
ble from these, gave as follows : 

Silica 11.20 

Alumloa la.SO 

Peroxjd of iron 3. TO 

LioM .90 

FotHh 3B8 

Sod» 6.30 

Tolatlle 60 

»9.0B 
The oxygen ratio of the alkalies and alumina is 2.02 : C».84, or 
nearly 1 : 3. The alumina requires 43.80 parts of silica to form 
wi& the alkalies 65.48 parts of a feldspar having the ratios 1:3: 
12, which are those of orthoclase and albite. There will then 
lemun 28.4 parts of silica. This, with the exception of a small 
amount which is probably united witli tike oiyd of iron and lime, 
may be r^arded as nnootnbined. The porphyries of this r^ion 
reoeire a h^h polish, and are sometimes very beautiful. 

Stbnits. — The syenite of this region oonusts of orthoclase, 
usually flesh-red in oolor, and grayish yitreoas quarts, with a small 
portion of blackish-green hornblende, which is sometimee almost 
or altt^ther wanting, and is oooasionally aooompanied with a 
UtUemioa. The ortboolaaeisoften nearly «)mpact,bnt more gen- 



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1864.] T. STXaBT HDKT OH LITHOLOOT. 16b 

nUy disUnotly oiTstalline and deavable, and bo far an obserred, u 
not UBOoiated with any triolinic feldspar. The hornblende is ap- 
pareotlj sabjeot to deoompodtion, becoming soft, earthy, and femt- 
pnoojB in its aspect, while tiie feldspar retdns its brilliancy. The 
partial aoalysiB of sooh a specimen of the syenite gave only 0.56 
of lime, and traoei of magnesia, with 3.75 per cent, of peroxyd of 
iron, and of alkalies, potasb 4.43, soda 4.35. This lai^ proportion 
of soda ia also to be remarked in the orthophjre jnst deaoribed, and 
in the red orthoolteo^aeiss of this r^on, a portion of. which gave' 
3.86 per cent of potash and 3.70 of soda ; while the red orthoclase- 
ftom the rocks of tiiis Zianrentian seriea, named perthite by Dr^ 
Thompson, gives in like manner 6.37 of potash to 5.56 of soda. 
A nearly pnre potash^orthoolaae, generally while in color, is bow- 
erer fbnnd in aome of the atratiGed Laorentian rooks. (Geology 
of Can&da, page 474.) 

This syenite of Greaville has in some portions nndergono a 
peealiar deoompoutioa, which has reduced it to a soft greenish 
matterharingtbeaspeot of serpentine, or rather of pyrallolite. This, 
duti^ has been remarked only in the vicinity of some remarkable 
TODB (Robert which are here fonnd ontting the syenite, and as de- 
BOiibed by Sir W. E. Logan, is more or leas complete for a distance. 
of two hnndred yards on each ride of them. In specimens of this 
altered rook, the ijnarti remains nnobanged ; while tJie feldspar. 
Stall preserving its cleavages, has a hardness no greater than car- 
bonate of lime. It is somewhat unetaous to the toaofa, with « 
fbeble waxy lustre, sad its oolor is occasionally reddish, bat more 
often of a pale green. Suoh a specimen was selected for analysis 
and gave of sitioa 80.65, alnmina 12.60, lime 0.60, soda and a 
little potash 2.65, volatile 2.10, magoesiaand oxydof iron, traces ; 
= 98.60. From this resnlt it appears that the feldspar of the 
syenite has lost nearly two thirds of its alkali ; the iron and other 
bases having also for the most part disappeared. This removal of 
the protozyd bases wool^ appear from the character of the result- 
ing mineral to be different from that which takes place during 
the kaoUnization of feldspar. The nature of the process requires 
further investigatioo, but it was not improbably connected with 
the deporition of the adjacent chert orhornstone. This substance, 
according to SirW. £. Logan, forms twolaige veins which out the 
syenite vertically, and have a breadth of from four to seven feet. 
It is genendly arranged iu bands or layers parallel to the walls of 



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166 THB OilHAinAN NATtTiULIST. [Jone, 

~the veins, and ruying in color &om white to jellovinh and flesh- 
^red. Themineralhas the cbemical oharaoteraof flintorhnbrBtoiie, 
•»tiA like the latter presente numerous irr^ialar cells, the valla <^ 
which are Mmetimea laornated with crystala oFqaails,&nd in other 
oases bear the impreaaion of amall cubes, perhaps of crystals of fluor- 
spar, which have themselves disappeared. The relations of these 
singular veins of silez show that it cannot beef sedtmentuyorigtot 
and it can soaroely be doubted that it is an aqueous deposit, and 
results from a similar process to that which on a lesser scale gives 
rise to agate and chalcedony tn various rocks. (Qeoli^ of Canada, 
page 41.) 

TSAOHTTES. 

Under this head we riiaU describe a dass of rocks whkli are 
very abundant in Eastern Canada, and present a great variety of 
aspects. There are many dykes iu the vicinity of Montreal which 
resemble some of the typical traohytic rocks of Anvergne and of 
the Rhine ; while the rocks of the mountains of Brome and Sheffivd 
consist almost entirely of distinctly crystalline feldspar. These will 
be described as granitoid trachytes, nnder which head may also be 
included a somewhat similar rock ^m Yamaska Mountun. 

Brome and SsiFroBD Mountains. — The trachytesof Brome 
and Shefford occupy two oondderable areas near to each other, 
and, as already stated, are the eastemmost of the eruptive masses 
now under description. The larger area covers about twenty 
square mileein Bromeaad the western part of the township of Shef- 
ford. It oonaieta of several rounded hills, of whioh the prindpal 
are named Brome and Shefford Mountuns, and rise boldly about 
1,000 feet above die surrounding plain. The rock shows divisional 
planes, f^ving it an aspect of stratification, and separates by other 
joints into rectangular blocks. The second area includes about nine 
square mOee in the township of Shefibrd, to the northwest of the 
last, and at the nearest point is only about two miles removed from 
it. This is known as Shefford Mountain. 

The rocks of these two mountainous areas present but very 
alight differences; being, so far as examined, everywhere made up 
in great part of a crystalline feldspar, with small portions of brown- 
ish-black mica, or of black hornblende, whioh are sometimefl asso- 
ciated. The proportion of these two minerals is never above a few 
hundredths, and is often less than one hundredth. The other min- 



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1664.] T. 8MEET HUHT OH llTHOl-OaT. 16T 

■erd species are small brilliant otyatals of yellowish sphene, and 
■olbere of magaetio Iron, amounting together probably to one tlion- 
B&ndth of the mass. In Bome finer^aiued variedee a few rare 
-«rrstalB of sodality and of nepbeline are met wiA. Botfor the 
vniform absence of qoarts, these rocks might be taken for varieties 
■of granite and syenite. They are very friable, and subject to 
^iBint^raUoii, so tiiat the soil for some distance around these 
mountains is almost entirely made up of the separated crystals of 
dfaldspar ; vhich however show but little tendeuoy to decomposition, 
and retain their lustre. The rock is sometimes rather finely granu- 
lar is its texture ; but is often oomposed of cleavable masses of ortho- 
■fihse, which are from one fifth to one half of an inch in breadth, 
and sometimes nearly an inch in length. The Instre is vitreous, and 
in the more opaque varietiea, pearly ; bnttbe crystals nerer exhibit 
the eminently glassy lustre nor the fissured appearance that 
«luncterizee the feldspars of many European trachytes whiob are 
nmilar to them in oompositioa. The color of the feldspar of these 
rocks is white, pasdnginto reddish ont^ one hand, and into peari- 
gray or lavender-gray on the other. 

Specimens of the rock of Brome Monnttun were taken ftvm the 
ode near to the village of West Shefford. It was coarsely crys- 
talline, lavender-gray in color, and contained a little brown mioa, 
spbene, and magnetic iron, but no hornblende. Thedensity of frag- 
ments of the rock was found to be 2.632-2.638. Selected grains 
«f the feldspar had a specific gravity of 2.575, and gave by analy- 
aii the result it. The dialysis of a second specimen from another 
jwrtion of the hill, is given under nt. 

The rock ftx>m the south side of Shefibrd Mountain was next 
examined. In one part it oonaisted of a coarse-grained grayish- 
white feldspar with a little black mica, and closely resembled the 
ititk just described from the adjaoent monntain. A little lower 
down the hill however was a variety which, thoimh oompletelj 
crystalline, was more coherent and finer-gruned t^an that of Brome, 
the feldspar rarely exhibiting cleavage-planes mora than a fourth 
■of BO indt in length. Brilliant crystalline grains of black hom- 
blmde about the sise of grains of rice were sparii^y disseminated 
4hTongh the mass, together with veiyBmallportionsof magnetite and 
jellowish spbene. Fragments of t^e rock had a densi^ of 2.607- 
2.657. The feldspar was yellowish-white '^d sub-translacent, with 
a somewhat pearly lustre. By crushing and washing the mass, the 



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168 TBI OAHADUH NATDKALIBT. [^OM^ 

gtuni of feldspu were separated from the heavier minerals, aad 
fbond to have a Bpecifio gravity of 2.561. The result of ite anal- 
yais, Hhioh scarcely differs &om that of Brome, is given ander it. 

SUiea 65.70 69.30 60. 1& 

AlDUina 30.80 10. TO 20.56 

Lima 84 .84 .73 

PoUth e.43 .... 6.39 

Soda e-S3 6.6T 

TolBtUa 50 .... .SO 

100.79 99.99 

Takasea Mountain. — About twelve miks to the Dortb af 
west from Sb^ord Monntuii rises the hill of intmuve rook known 
as Yamaska Mountain, which has an area of about four square 
sules, and breaks through the strata of the Qo^mo group, near the 
line of the great dislocation which brings these up ^tunst Uie 
limeetones of the Trenton group. The southeastern part of this 
hiU oonsiBta of a granitoid dicrite hereafter to be noticed ; bat the 
greater portion of the mass may be described as a granitoid tn- 
ehyto, differing in aspect from that of Brome and Shefford, in 
beingsomewhatmoTemioaceouB and more fissile. The mica, which 
is d>rk brown, is in elongated flakes, and there is neither horU' 
blende nor quartE in the speoimenB collected, which however hold 
small portions of mignetite, and minute crystals of amber-yellow 
qihene. Tbeseseem to be contained in veins of segrc^tion, which 
are of a lighter color than tbe mass. The oleavable feldqttr 
gnuns, which make up by far the greater part of the rook, are 
brilliant, with a vitreous lustre, and are often yellowiflh or reddish- 
gray in color. Apcrtion of this feldspar separated by waahing&tnn 
tite crushed massof the rook, had a ^leclfic gr&vi^ of 2-563, and 
gave by analyus the result t. Another portion of selected gruns 
of the feldspar gave vi. Both specimens were however Bomewhat 
impure. 

SUica 61.10 08.60 

Alomloa 10.10 SL.60 

Perox^d of iron 3.90 3.88 

Urn* 3.6S 0.40 

Magneria 79 1.84 

Pouah 8.04 3.DS 

Soda 0.03 S.B1 

TolatilB 40 .80 " 

98.41 9S.11 



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1864.] T. 8TIBRT HTINT OH HTHOLOflT. 16» 

Beddes theee great traohytic hilla, nameronB smaller masBeB of 
diAieiit Tuietiei of tnoliyte, in the form of djkea and beds, are 
fimnd aloi^; the line of oonntiy between Bigand and Yamasks 
HooDtaiiiB. The diorite of the latter is oat into djices of a white 
or brownish-gn; traohjte, which is often porphyritio, and may be 
ixmnected the great mass just deeoribed. 

CtUMBhT. — At Chamblf a mass of porphyritic trachyte is in- 
traded in the form of a bed among the strata of the Hadson 
BiTsr&naatioa ; and about midway in the Chambly canal a simi- 
lar tradtyte is met with, which contains in drosy oaTides, crystals 
of qoaiti, oaloite, analoime, and ohabaiite. The base of this 
look is of a pale fawn oolor, and appeers at first sight to be 
mioaeeoiis; bat od closer examination it is seen to be almost 
entirely feldspathio. Minute portions of pyrites, and grains 
of magnetio iron, are rarely met with, and small soales of a 
dark green micaoeoos mineral are very sparsely disseminated. The 
crystals of orthoolase, which are very abundant, are sometimee an 
inch in length, and one fbarth of an inch in thiokneas : they are 
mtne or lees modified, and terminatedatboth ends. They are easily 
detaohed irom the rook, and are yellowish end opaqne on the exte- 
rior, bat the inner portions of the ki^e crystals are transparent 
and vitieoas. The composition of the oiystals is given nnder Tn. 
The paste of this porphyry, when oarefolly freed &om orystAls, lost 
by ignition 2.1 per oent. When polveriied and digested with dilate 
nitric add, it eServesoed slightly, giving off carbonic aaid, tc^ther 
with red fames, arisiog in part from the ozydaUoa of the pyrites. 
The portion thos dissolved eqaalled carbonate of lime 1.76, oar- 
bonate of magnesia 0.98, perozyd of iron with a traoe of alamina 
2.12 per oent. The residue, dried at 300'=' F., gave the resalt viii. 

auiea 6S.1S 8T.60 

Alamina 19.15 18.30 

Psioxjd of iron 1.40 

Line 95 .« 

PotMh 1,83 6.10 

Soda 5.19 B.8B 

ToUUIe 65 .35 

100.12 99.BS 

The paste of this trachyte thus di&rs bat little ttom the eiys- 
tab in composition. It contains only a slight excess of silica, and 



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170 THI CANADIAN HATUSALIBT. [June, 

seems to be mkde np of lamellae of orthocltse, mingled witli emsU 
portions of (wrboaatea of lime and magnesia. A part of the iron 
also is probably present as oarbonste, vfaioh, by its deeomposition, 
I^TM rise to the rasty red color of tbe weathered sarfaoe of Ae 
trachyte. 

MoNTSEAL. — The island of Montreal offers a great variety of 
traohytia rooks, which traverse both the Lower Silnrian strata, and 
the dolerite of Monnt Royal. Some of these dykee aro finely 
grannUr, oooasionallyonunblingto sand, and frequently are earthy 
in toztore. In some oases tbey assume s eonorotionary stmotare, 
and they an often porphyritio from the presence of feldspar or 
hornblende. One variety exhibits lai^ feldspar ciystals in a com- 
pact purplish or lavender^ray base, with a waxy lostro. This 
■e^rvesoes with aoids, iVom an admixture of earthy carbonates, and 
closely resembles in its aspect oertain trachytes from the Siebenge- 
biige on the Rhine. Other varieties can scaraely be distinguished 
from Ae so-called domite, the tniohyte of the Pny de DSme, and 
exhibit small dmsy cavities. The presence of carbonates in Ira- 
chytio rocks has generally been overlooked ; Deville however fonnd 
seven per cent of carbonate of lime in a traohytio rook from Hun- 
gary, and it occurs disseminatod in some of ibe trachytes of the 
Siebengebirge. Some of the trachytes about to be described cm- 
tain moreover carbonates of m^neda and protozyd of iron, and 
weather to some depth of a reddish-brown eolor frmn the perozy- 
'dation of the latter, like the trachyte fh>m Ghambly just noticed. 
Acids romove from many of these rocks, in addition to the oarbo- 
nates, portions of alamina and alkalies. These aro derived from 
a soluble nlicate, which in Uie trachytes of Brome appean only 
as raro cryeti^ of nepheline, and in Ohambly as analcime ud 
«habazite. In some of the compact and earthy varieties about 
Montroal, however, this soluble silicate exists to a laige extent, 
and has the oompoationof natn^te. By this admizturo of a 
zeolite the trachytes pass into pboiiotit«. 

The first of these trachytes which will be noticed fbrms a dyke 
near McGill College. The rook is divided by joints into irregular 
fragments, whose aurfaoes are often coated with thin-bladed crys- 
tals of an aluminous mineral, apparently seolilio. Small brilliant 
oiystals of onbic iron-pyrit«B, often highly modified, are dissemi- 
nated through the mass. The rook has the hardness of feldspar, 
and a specific gravity of from 2.617 to 2.632. Its color is white. 



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1864.] T. ariBST hunt on litholoot. 171 

}iMBiDg into bloiali and grayuli-vbite ; it hu a feeblj Bbining Ihb- 
In, and U alighUf tranalneent on the edges, with a oompaot or 
finely graaalat texture, and an nneven snb-coachoidal fraotore. 
Befon the blow-pipe it taaee with inttuuesoenoe into a white 
«namd. The dmA in powder, is attaoked even b; aoetio acid, which 
lemoreB 0.8 per cent of carbonate of lime, beaides 1.5 per cent 
of alumina and ozjd <^iron; the Utten^ipBrently derived from a 
carbonate. Nitrie a^d diBsolvee a little more lime, oxjdises the 
pyritefl, and takes up, beaidea alamina and alkalies, a oonsideraUe 
portion of manganeee. This apparently exists in the form of aul- 
l^nret, sinoe, while it ia soluble in dilute nitric aoid, the white por- 
tions of the rook afford no trace of manganeee before the blow-pipe ; 
although minnte daik-oolored grains, associated with the pyrites, 
were found to give an intense manganese reaction. From the 
residue aflei the action of the nitric acid, a solndou of carbonate 
of soda removed s portion of silica; and the remainder, dried at 
300° F., was free from iron and from manganeee. Its analysis is 
given under IX ; while that of the matters dissolved by nitric aoid 
and carbonate of soda firom 100 parts of the rook, will be fonnd 
vnder IX A. 

A dyke of trachyte near to the last, and very similar to it in 
Appearance, was submitted to the action of nitric acid, but the in- 
soluble residue was not treated by carbonate of soda. Its analysis 
is given under x, while that of the soluble matters is to be found 
under x A. A white trachyte from a dyke at Lachine, resembled 
the preoeding, but was somewhat earthy in its aspect, and effer- 
vesced with nitric acid, which removed a portion of lime eqnal to 
7.40 per cent of carbonate. On boiling the pnlveriied rock with 
nitrate of ammonia, aa amount of lime equal to 6.33 per cent of 
«Btbonate was dissolved. An accident prevented the oomplete 
det«rmination of the alkalies in the feldspatbio readue of this tra- 
ojiyte ; and the solnble nlica was not removed previous to the anal- 
ysis, whose result is given under xi. The proportion of the 
potash to the soda was however fonnd to be, by weight, nearly as 
two to three. The matters dissolved by nitric aoid will be found 
under xi A. 

Another dyke of trachyte from Lachine was concretionary, and 
stained by infiltration ; the interior of the concretions was white 
and earthy. The substances removed Irom 100 parts of the lock 
by nitric aoid and carbonate of soda, are given under B. A par- 



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172 THX CANADIAN NATURALISt. [JdH^ 

U<tl sDalyaU of the inaolnble residule showed it to be a feldspar 
allied to those of the preceding trachjtes: the qnantitiee of potaeh 
and soda were however nearly in the ratio of fbor to three. 

A lu^ dyke of trachyte in the limestone *quBrrie8 at the Hil» 
End, near Montreal, is remarkable for the amonut of oaibonfttes 
which it oontains. It is grayish-white, with dark f^ej spots, graa- 
vlar, snb-Titreons in lustre, and holds a few eiystalB of hornblende. 
By ignition it loses 11.0 per cent, of its weight In powder it 
effeireeoefl freely with nitrio scid, disengaging earbooio acid, and 
when heat is applied, red fnraes from the peroxydation of the iron. 
100 parts of tbe rock yielded in this way the aolable matters 
given nnder xii A. The oompoution of the reeidae, from. 
which tiie soluble silica was not removed, is given nnder xit. 



SiUca, 63.26 B3.90 BS.SO 61.67 

Alumina, 21.13 23.10 24.90 31.00- 

Lime B6 .45 .45 3.6»- 

Potub, 5.93 3.43 .... 4.6S 

Soda B.19 8.69 6.35 

ToUtile S3 1.40 3.10 3.31 

99.0T SB.91 97.69 

A second determination of the alkalies in a portion of the tra- 
chyte iZj whiob had not previously been treated by acid, gave 
potash 6.40 and soda 6.49. A second analysis of X gave potash 
2.28, and soda 795. 



Sillea, 1.43 6.00 

Alamlna 2.43 1.27 1.32 4.84 

Peroi;d of Iroo 2.40 3.84 1.41 2.61 2.6* 

Ltae 60 1.86 4.14 3.60 6.4» 

""ffowU , 1.34 1,36 1,70 

Po'"'', 40 . j6 nadet. nndet. undet 

Soda 9B , ji « I" "f 

Red oxfdof maDganeBe,.... 1.31 .87 

Of the matters soluble in nitric acid in the last-described trachyte, 
XII, the lime in the form of carbonate would equal not less than 
11.60 per cent, the magnesia 3.58, and the iron 3.82 per cent of 
carbonates, in which condition by far the greater part of these bases- 
are probably present. 



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1664.] t. btxkbt hunt oh litholoot. 173 

Phoholiti. 

AsaooUted with the namerotis traohjtio dyVea at Laohine 
is one of the phooolite already referred to. It is brittle and aome- 
wbat aohiatoae, breaking into angtdar fragments, and appeaia to 
ooDsist of a reddish fawn-oolored base, in which are disseminated 
greeiiisb-white roanded maasea, often gronped, and apparently 
coDoretionary in thdrstraotore. These greenish portions are some- 
times half an inch or more in diameter, and oo7er from one third 
to one half of the sorfkoes. They are not rery diatinotly seen nn- 
leea the rock is moistened. The hardneas of Ae different portions 
does not greatly vary, and is nearly that of apatite. The speclflo 
gravity la very low, being only 2*414. The mass contains small 
cavities filled with carbonate of lime, whioh is rarely stained pur- 
ple: it is also found in small films in the joints. The rock is gran- 
ular in its fracture, without lustre, and is feebly tranalooent at 
the edges. When pulverized, and treated with nitric acid of spe- 
cific gravity 1.25, a slight efferveecenoe ensues, with abundant red 
fumes. The mast grows warm, and gelatiniies ; and on washing 
out the acid solution, and treating the insoluble portion with a 
solution of caustic soda, a white granular residue remains. These 
reactions are obtained both with the fawn-colored end the greenish 
portions, but the amount of insoluble matter is greater from the 
last. The rock is hutslightly hygroscopic : a portion of it in pow- 
der lost only 0.2 per cent by a prolonged ezposuro to 212° F., 
but 7.10 per cent at a red heat. 

For the quantitative analysis, the method already indicated was 
followed. It was found that while a dilute solution of caustic soda 
removed all of the gelatinous nlioa separated by the acid, it took 
up only a trace of alumina ; leaving a feldspatiuc reaidue which 
was no longer attacked by nitric acid. The silica was separated 
from the alkaline liquid, and the acid solution was found to con- 
tain, besides ahunina and soda, a little potash^ some lime, magne- 
sia, and iron, and traoes of muiganese. The greater part of the 
lime is evidently present as carbonate ; for when a portion of the 
pulverised phonolito, which gave to nitric amd lime eqnal to 4.36 
per oent of carbonate, was boiled with a aolntion of nitrato of am- 
monia, tliere were dissolved 3.87 per cent of carbonate of lime; 
bewdes which there was a separation of a ooosiderable amount of 
oxyd from the deoompoaed carbonate of iron. From this reaction, 
and firom the entire absence of sulphur, which was carefully sought 



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174 THK OAMADIAH NATDKAtieT. [Jane, 

for, it is probable tlut the whole of the iron, except the amall por- 
tion of peloid whtoh colors the rook, ezista in the state of carbo- 
nate, la the fUIoiring analyses, theref<»«, the lime and the iron, 
as well as a little magnesia, are calculated as carbonates, xm 
is the result obtained vith Ibnr grams of the reddish portion of the 
jAoQolita, as free as poesihle from the green ; and sir ms ob- 
tained with two and a half grams of a miztore of the two ocdors. 

SolobleiUteate, Eeolil«<&),b7illSbTence. 46.S1 ae.lS 

iDMlable lilioate, feldspftr (1) 4S.TS es.40 

OarboDftU of UnH 3.63 4.38 

" iron 3.58 8.73 

" mdgaeBia 53 .3S 

100.00 100.00 
In order to fix the composition of the eolnble siUoate, the 
amounts of the insoluble reradne and of the separated ulioa, 
alumina, and alkalies, having been carefully detemuned, and the 
lime, magnesia, and ozjd of iron oalonlatcd as carbonates, the 
water was estimated by the loss. In this way were obtuned the 
results given ander xui A, and Xir A ; while thb analyses of 
the insolnble silicate, which is a potash feldspar, ant given nnder 
xin B, and xiT b. 

XIII 1. XIT A. Katrolit«. Analcime. 

Silica 51.96 01.66 41.40 64.06 

Alumina 34.43 34.88 36.0B 39.30 

Soda 13.93 13.05 16.01 14.10 

Potaih I.IS 1.38 

Wat«r 9.64 9.13 9.0B 8.10 

100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 
The oompodtion of this seolitic mmeral is intermediate betwem 
analcime and natrolite ; bat the readiness with which it gelatiniieB 
with acids, leads to Ae ooDolnsiOD that it belongs, in great part at 
least, to natrolite. The theoretjeal compomtion <^ these two 
leolifee is for the sake of comparison, placed alongside of the two 
analyses of the soluble portion of the phoni^te. 

xtna. xiva. 

SUioa 59.'70 60.90 

Alnmloa 33.25 34.46 

Lime .99 .46 

Potaib 9.16 nndet. 

Soda 3.9T " 

TolatUe 3.38 3.10 



«.S0 



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1864.] T. BTIHKT BUNT ON UTHOUmT. 17& 

The fddflfiuB <^ the ftbore tnebyieB mu] phont^te ofo some oon- 
udocable wiatioiu in thoir oompositioD, eflpeeially in the propop- 
tioss of the alkklisB. In ix the proportions of potash and aoda uo 
nearly the tame u in th« traohytee of Brome, Shoffi>rd, and 
ChamUy; and the ume ii true of zu. Theae an doabUasa to 
be regarded as varieUea of orthoelase witb a la^ amonnt of aoda, 
while in the feldspar fWnn the phonolite the proportion of soda ie 
Tei7 imall. In x, on the aonbw7, the large predominanee tS 
aoda iodioatee a oompoaition approaobing that of albite. It is 
iiirther apparent, irom a oompariaon of the feld^iais of the other 
traohjtee whose oomplete analyses are not given, that the [ffopor- 
tionsof the alkalies are liable to considerable variation, even in 
a^aoent and apparently similar dykes. All of the above feldspars 
are probably to be referred to ortboclase, or to albite ; bat these, in 
the earthy traohytea, bare undeigone a oomnMnoement of deoom- 
pomtion ; whioh oonmsts in the loss of a portion of silioa and alkali, 
and the oombination of water, reenlting in a formation of kaolin. 
An admixtnie of tiua anbatanoe will ezplun tiie inoreased amonnt 
of alnmina, the deficiency of nlica, and the preaenee of water in 
the feld^Mis of HiA more earthy of these traehytes. 

Tbeie tniohytio dykes an not confined to the vicinity of Hont- 
reaL To the southward, on the shwes (tf Lake Ghamplain, there 
is feond in and aboat Bnrlington, Vermont, a vast number of 
dykaa (^ intmuve rode; smne of whioh sppear to intersect the 
■trata of the Qa^MO group, and others those of the Trenton group. 
Some of these are deseribcd as being of greenstone ; and others, 
aa a white or yellowish-while feldspathic rook, often porphyritio 
from the prMenoe of feldspar crystals. The base of a yellowish- 
gray por^yritJc dyke titMa Shelbome, having a rough firaotnre, and 
a spaoifla gravity of 2.60,gave to Frof. Q. ¥. Barker, nlioa 67.30, 
alnmina and peiozyd of iron 19.10, lime 0.79, magnesia, traees, 
potash 4.74, soda G- 04, volatile 1.70,= 09.67. It oontained a 
little intramingled quarts ; and the mass resulting ftom the funon 
of the rook with an alkaline carbonate, afibrded traoes of a sni* 
phurei. (Geology of Vermont, pages 679-707.) 

Somewhat to the aootii o£ Boriiogton, on the west ride of Lake 
Ofaamplain, and near to Essex, tken is a great mass of intrnsive 
nek, fonnd in the slates of the Hudson River fermation. As 
described by Euunons, it is intorstratified in an insular manner 
among the layers of the unaltered sedimentaiy rooks, and has a 



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176 THI CANADIAN MATDRALI8T. [June, 

flarile and schistoae Btniotnre, whioh gives, at first ugfat, the wpeot 
of atratificfttion to what is andonbtedl; an intnuiTe rock. I^ien 
exposed to the action of the wnTea on tlw lake-shore, ite strootnre 
ai^iears to be oolnmn&r, and sometimes ooncretjonar^. This rock 
is described as composed of a reddish or pale leek-green oompast 
feldspar, holding orjrstals of the same mineral. (Geology of New 
York, vol ii, page 84.) These intmsive feldapathio rocks on Lake 
' Ohamplain Tesanble oloeel; the traehytes of Montreal and Gham- 
bl;, — with Hie latter of which, the trachyte at Shelbnme, the 
ody one of them which has been chemically examined, closely 
^reee in oompoddon. 

DOLEfilTKS. 

The anorthosites, which yet remain to be described, may be 
divided into two groups, — those composed of anortluc Mdspan with 
ai^te, conatitnting the doleritee, and those in which similar feld- 
spars are associated with hornblende. The general gec^oetioal 
relations of these two gronps of rocks in the districts undw dis- 
onssion have already been indicated. 

Qbxnvillx. — It has already been stated on page 163 that the 
ddest known intmnve masses wbioh traverse the Lanrentian 
stties are of dolerite, and that the dykes of this rocks are inter- 
sected by the syenite, which was snooeeded by the orthophyre or 
qvartiiferons poiphyry. Nothing oorresponding to the syenite or 
the orthophyre is met with among the adjacent Lower Silurian 
strata, which are seen to repose upon the worn snrfkoes of these 
intronve rocks. A fourth series of dykes of a porphyritio dolerite 
is however found to cut all of the preceding rooks, and is perhaps 
identical with some of the doleritw which intersect tlie Silurian 
rocks of the island of HontreaL In the other parte of the Ltn- 
rentian series, so &r as yet examined, intmsive rocks have been but 
seldom met with. Much of what has been called syenite and 
granite in various parts of the Lanrentian region, seems, like the 
hypetsthenite and other anorthositce of the Labrador aeries, to be 
indigenous. 

The dykes of this most ancient dolerite or greenstone in 
Orenville, have a well-marked oolnmnar stmctnte at right angles 
to the plane of the dyke. They are fine grained, dark greenish- 
gray in color, and weather grcTish-white. Under a lens, the rock 
is seen to oonsist of a greenish-white feldspar with a soaly fracture, 



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33.10 



1BQ4.'] T. dTKKBT HUNT OH LIT&OLOQT. 177 

miDxled witli (crtaas of pyroxene, oooasioaal plates of mica, and 
grains of pyrites. It onntains do ourb'>natefl. Two aniilyaea of 
portions of the dolerite, from d^kfts differing; a little in texturo, 
gave as follows under XV and XTi : 

SEliw S0.35 SO.IS Si.'jO 

Aluminft n.3S ) 

Frroijd of Iron 13, 60 J 

Line 10.19 9.S3 T 34 

UngoeaU 4.9) B.04 4 17 

PotMh e» .68 3.14 

Soda 3.3S 3.13 3.41 

Tolatil« 76 1.00 3..->a 

9B.04 100.71 99.1U 

The iron in tbeae analyns, althongfa given above as purozyj 
•xiab in the form of protoxjd, and in the second specimen, in p.irt na 
a enlphurat. These rocica, wbieb appear to havs the couipunitioa 
of ni Zturee of a bisic fetd«p.ir irilh pyroxene, do not diffur trvui 
ordinary dolerite. 

The newer dolerite, whiohoals the three other olasncs of eruprive 
rocks in the Lanrentian region, huB a gray ish-bluck, very fine^r.itied 
base, earthy and soh-oonoKoidul in fnctare, and reaemLiliiig 
■ouiewhat tlia preceding. It oonLiind small brUliunt bluck grains uf 
iluenite, with otbws of spbene, and atuall sc.ileB of uncj. {Jixar 
Mooal mftaees of blaok oleavable angite, eonietiuies half an incii in 
diameter, give to the rook a porphyritic charaeier. It ountaini 
bwidee, snaaU <de«vahle masses of whit« carbomile of liwe, wiih 
which the whole rook mxms penetnted. When in puwdur, it 
e&rvemas freely in the eold with dilate nitric acid, and the solu- 
tion evolves red fames on heuting. In tiiia way there were dis- 
solved, liBte, equal to 8.70 per OdOt of ourbonate, 0.50 of uia;r"«- 
na, and ti.bO of alamina and ozyd of iron =: I5.7U per ouni. Tiia 
ftaidue dried at 211" P , equalled 83.80 per cent. A portion of 
•huiinMS silicaW bad evidently been attacked by the aeiJ. The 
dried reaidoe gave^n analysis the rosolu which will be Ibund nbove 
under XVll. 

The d^erilai of A* Montreal diatriet, besides forming ntitaa- 
oaa dykes, oonsdtate the chief poniona of the nioantainit ol Alun- 

* With sane titanic acid. 



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178 THX OAHADUN NATURALIST. [JoOf^ 

Urville, BoogemoDt, and Monnt Royal. In all of tli«ee however 
great dirersitiea of composition are mei with, whioh will be sno- 
oessiTely noUced. 

HoNTABViLLE. — The greater part of M ontarviTle is eompooed of 
» ooarBe-grained granitoid doleritej in which blaa'i cleavable aagite 
predomiDltea, — eomotimea tdmoat to the eiclusion of anj otfaa 
mi .ertil. Sm^l porticHis of white feldspar, and soales of browo 
mioa, are sparsely scattered tbrou^ the roek, with gnina of 
carbonate of lime. The removal of these by Eolnlion from tbt 
weathered surfaee oneo gives to it a pitted aspect. In other portion^ 
Che feldspathio element predominates, and the rodk becomes por- 
fhyritio from the presence of large crystals of sugite. The worn 
nrfaoee of the dolerite sometimes show altemations of this varied 
with another whioh is finer-grained and whiter. Tbe two mn 
arranged in bands, whose vaijing thickness and curving line* 
suggest the notion that they have been produced by the flow and 
As partial commingling of two semi-fluid masses. 

Another and remarkable variety of dolerite, ionnd at Montar- 
ville, appears to be confined to a hill on the shore of the litUe lak» 
sbont half a mile northward from the manor-bouse. The whole 
of this hill, with the ezoepdon of some adherent portions of iadar- 
ated shale, seems to beoomposedof agraoitoid di^erite, oontaining 
a large proportion of olivine. This mineral occurs in ronnded erys- 
lalline masses or imperfect crystals from one tenth to one half an 
inch in diameter, associated with a white or greenish-white erys- 
talline feldspar, blaok augite, a little brown mioa, and magnetite. 
The proportion of olivine is very variable, but in some parts it 
is the predominant mineral. Its oolor is olive-green, parang into 
amber-yellow. The grainB,.whioh are translucent, are much fissured 
and very brittle. The pulverised olivine gelatinises with chlorhj- 
dric acid in the cold, and is almoet instantly deoomposed when 
warmed with sniphurio acid diluted with its volume of water, the 
■Qica separating chiefly in a fiocculent form, and endoaing smatt 
grains of the undecomposed mineral, whioh are left when the 
ignited ulioa is dissolved by a solution of soda. A little silica if 
however retained in solution, and is precipitated by ammonin 
with the oxyd of iron. Two analyaes of different portions of the 
divine made in this w^ gave, after dedwting the undeoompoead 
■linenl, the following results : 



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1864.] T. STiaar humt ok utholoot. 179 

Silica 37.13 37.1T = OjjgBD 19.B2 

UitguMi* 39.3S 39.68= " IS.eT 

Praioiya of iron 22.51 23.fi4 = « 'S.IO 

99.0S SS.39 
The aagite of this olivinilio doierite appears in tbe form of email 
arjatalliad grains, and also in short tiiiok and terminated prisms, 
vhiob are reudily detached from their matrix. Thej are often aa 
iooh in length by half an incb in diameter, and are sometime* 
piitially coated by a film of broirn mtoa. These oryetals deav* 
nadiljr, preseotit^ brilliant surfaces, and are blaok in eolor, witL 
an ash-gray streak. Their hardnesa is 6.0, and l^dr speoifio gravity 
S.%1. Analysis gave as follows: 

Silica 49.40 

Alamina 6. TO 

Lime 21.38 

UagDenia 13.04 

Protoiydof iroD T.8S 

Soda nod traeea ot potaib T4 

Volatile - SO 

100.lt 
The angite which abonnda in the non-olivinitio doierite that 
fttms tho greater part of Monterville, does not appear to differ 
ftrai that joal deaoribed. 

An average speoime a ofthia olivinitic doierite, or perido^te, was 
ndnced to powder : it did not effervesce with nitric acid, and whea 
jgniled lost only 0.5 per cent. When gently wanned with snlphuria 
leid, the oliviae was i«adily dooomposed, with the separation «f 
loecDJent silica; andhy the aiibseqnent use of a dUnte solution 4^ 
nda, followed by ohlorhydrio acid, and a second treatment witk 
the alkaline ley, 55.0 per cent of the whole were dissolved. This 
portion ooDusted of silica 37.30, magneeia 33.50, protozyd of iroi 
86.20, alamiaa 3.00 = 100.00 : being equal to 18.4 of magnet 
&c the enUre mass. In another experiment, 18.0 per cent wen 
obtained. Taking the mean of the two analyae^ of olivine aboTC 
nferred to, which givea 39.5 per cent of magnesia, 18.0 parte of 
this base oorreqwnd to 46.5 parta of olivine. The remaining 9.6 
parts of dissolved matter represent alnmlna and ailioa from tba 
bldspar, and oxyd of iron from thenu^etite; bothof which were 
ssmewfaat attacked by the aoida. The nndlsaolved portion of Um 
vak equalled 44.7 p«T oest, abd appealed to «oiuut of a feldspti^ 



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180 TBB OAHADUN HATCKALI8T. [Jane, 

nith pyroxene, SDiue mioa, and a little magnetite. Its analysis 
■fforded aitica 49.35, aluaiiiia 18.92, protozyil of irnn 4.51, liui« 
18.36, magnesia SM, loss (alkaUes?) 2.60 ; = lOlJ.OO. 

In some portions of the dolerite of Moolarville, the feldspar is 
more abunilant, ami appears in slender ciystala with augite, and with 
a smaller proportjon ot'oliTine than the last. A specimen of this 
Tarietj, being crushed and washed, gave 3'9 percent, of m^ietiU, 
md 10.0 peroent ofamiitureof ilmenite witho ivine. The teldsp.ir 
was obtained nearly pure, in yellowish vitreous grains, having a 
■peoific gravity of 2.73—2.74, and nearly the oompnaitiou of 
ttbradorite. The results of its aoalyeis are seen nnder xviii. 

Silica 63.10 B3.60 

Aluraiaa. 3U SO 14.40 

Peroijd of Iron 1 . 3S 4-60 

Lime 11.48 B.tfl 

Magnesia 12 .80 

Potash .71 aadet. 

Soda 4..!4 " 

ToUtlle 60 .80 

99.00 

The dolei-ite of Moatamlle is tnveraed by veins belonging to 
several diffei^nt periods. In one inatanoe, the blue k and highly 
augitio mass is out by a dyke of a fine-grained KTcyish-wfaite dolo- 
rite. This is intersected by a dyke of a fioe-grained greenish rock, 
which, in its turn, is oat off t^ another small dyke which is grayish- 
while liki the first. 

Rduueuont. — The rooks of Bongemont offer a general resem- 
blance to those of Montarrille. SoneporUons are soo.irso^rained 
dolerite, in which angite greatly predominates, with grains <^ 
feldspar, and a liti4e dissemiDsled' carbonate of lime. In siiine 
parts, the angit« crystals are an ioeh m more in diameter, with 
brilliant eleavagee ; and grains <^ pyrites are abnodant, with cal- 
rite in the interstioea. This rook resembles the hi<;hiy augitie 
dolerito of Muntarville. Oliline Is very ahandant in two varieties 
of dolerite firam Rougemont. One of these has a grayish white 
tncly granular feldspathio bses, in whidi are disseminated blaek 
Kafft* and ambureolDred oUvine, lh« latter sometimee in dtetioet 
sryHtalB. The proportionate these dmsntsBometimes vary in the 
•ame spemmen j the ^Hafn ttatiag awn Ihan half ^e mass ia 



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1S64,] T. SMBRT H1RIT ON LHHOLOQT. ISl 

one ptrt, vTiite in another the ai^^te and olivine predominate. Bj 
tbe wtion of the weather, the ibldapar aoquirea an opaqoe whit* 
mrfioe, npoo wluoh'the biwfc ahiBii^ Anjtite and the rustj-red 
dficompmuD^ olivine nppettr in Strong ooatrttst. 

The dnierite of this mooatain is travereed by nnmeronB djkrm, 
tome of which are dioritee like thoee of MoaQ»ir and Belnil, abont 
to be described. A dvke of eompaot dolerite boldlog oryatals of 
AldspyraDdgraiaHofnlivine, is found intereeetlng the strata of tb* 
Budson River for[Q:itioti at St. HjFaointbe. 

M ipsT Rotal. — This hill which rises immediatelj in the reai 
flf Mriotreal, oonsisl« for the moat part of a mass of highly BOgitit 
dolerite. In some pirte lai^ titytAa.\s of augite, like those of 
Hnntarvilta, are diMeminated through a fine^ lio'^ base, nhiiA 
is d trk ash-gray in oilor; and often effervewjes freely with aoid^ 
from the preaenoe of a portion of tntermingled oirbonate of limn. 
At other times this is wanting, sod the rock is a mass of black 
crystalline au^te, oonstitnting a Teritable pyroienite, from whidi 
feldspar is absent. Miitjires of angite with teldxpar are also met 
with, ooDsCituiing a granitoid dolerite, in parts of which the fel^ 
i^ar predominates, giving rise to a light grayish rook. Portions of 
this are sonieU ' es found limited on either nde by bands of neurlj 
pure black pyroxeuiie, givii^ at first sight an aspect of stratifio*- 
tton. The bandsof these two varieties are found curiously oonioncd 
tn-l ioterupted, and as at HontaiviUe, seem to have resulted from 
movements in a hetercgeneoos pasty mass, which have eSected a 
partial blending of an augilMBMgnta withanothec more feldspatbis 
in its nature. 

The miireaugitic parts of Mount Royal contain, like the umilai- 
nrieties trom Boagemontand Montarville, conaiderabte portions 
of magnetite, and some ilmenite. At the east end of the mountain 
t, variety of dolerite, eenttiining olivine, oecurs. It consists of n 
base of grayish- white granular feldspar, which 'n the specimen ez- 
unioed coastitutesaboa,t one half of the mass, and eneloses erystala 
df brilliant black angit«, and of semi-transparent amber-yellow olv 
vine. Tills rook el»sely resembles tbe feldspatbio peridotite of 
Bougemont, described above ; but tbe imbedded crystals are some- 
what larger, although lees titan those in tbe dolerite of Monturvills. 
A portion of the feldspar, freed as much as possible from augita, 
furnished by analyxis the result already given under SIX ; whiek- 
ibows that it upproaohea labradorile in eouipoaition. 



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168 THl OAHADIAN NATDaALIBT. JaDt, 

DtOBTTKS. 
Yauaska. — It BOW reiDUDB to desoribe thediorite6 wIiiohhaTt 
already been notioed as forming several important masses among 
the intrusive rocks of the Montreal group. In the first pliioe mdj 
Ite considered ihatof Tama^a. The greatcrpartof thismonntaio 
eonsists, as already descnbed, of a mioaoeous granitoid trachyte; 
bat the soatheasteni portion is entirely different, being a diorito 
made up of a pearly white crystiilline translucent feldspar, with 
black brilliant hornblende, ilmenite, and magnetic iron. This 
look is sftmetimefl rather fine-grained, though the elerucnto an 
always very distinct to the naked eye. In other parts are seen 
large cleat age-surfaces of feldspar half an inch in breadth, 
which exhibit in a very beantifal manner the strise oharaoter- 
iatio of the polysynthetic maoles of the Vriclinto feldspars. TIw 
associiitcd orystals of horoblende are always muoh smaller and 
less distinct, forming with grains of feldspar, a b ise, to whitdt 
the larger feldspar crystals give a porphyritio aspeot. Finer- 
gruined bands, in which magnetite and ilmenite predominate, 
^averse the coarser portion', often reticulating; and the whole 
muss is also occasionally oat by djkcB of a whitish orbrown<sb- 
gray trachytic rock, which are often porphyritio, and may 
perhaps be branches ^m the trjchytic part of the mountain. 

A portion of th ' coarse-grained diorite sileoted for examination, 
oontained, besides th'- minerals aln-ady enumerated, ^mallpor iona 
«f blackish mica, with grains of pyrites, and a little disseminated 
«arboDateof lime, which caused the mass to i ffervesoe sli^^hlly with 
nitric aoi I. The maoled feldspar crystals, somL-times half an inch 
in length, were so much penetrated by hornbten e that they were 
«> t fit for analysis ; but by onislung and washing the rooc, a por- 
tion of the feldspar was obtained, which did not eiTervesce with 
nitric acid, and contained no viubie impurity, except a few scales of 
mica; its specific granty was 2.7fi6 — 2.7^. It was decomposed 
fay hydroohlorio acid, with separation of pulveml nt silica; and ita 
analysis, which is given under XX and XXI, shows it to be near 
ito anorthite, and identical in oompoeition with the feldspar of a 
Jiorite from Bogoslowsk, in the Uni Monntaina. This is aiisooia- 
tod with a greenish-black hornblende containing some titanic actd, 
Tith a little mica, and some qnarti. (B. H. Soott, L. IS. and D. 
Philos. Magazine [4], xt, 518.) 

MoNNOto. — Monnoiror Mount Johnson isoomposedof a diorit^ 



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1864.] T. STBBKT HD5T OM LFPHOLOaT. 183 

vtiicti, in its ^DeralaBpt^t, greatly resembles that of Yamaskajnit 
described, except that it is rather more feldspathic. The fiaer- 
grained Tarietiea are grajiah in color, and exhihlt a mixtare of 
grains and amall oryatala of feldspar, with hornblende, brown mica, 
and magnetite. Frequently however the rock is muoh coaraer- 
grained, conaisting of feldspar grains, with slender prisms of black 
hornblende, often half an inch long and tenth of an inch broad, 
and numerous small crystals of amber-colored sphene. In thu 
i^jre^ate there arc imbedded cleavable masses nf the feldspar, 
Bometinies an inch long by half an inch in breadth. At the eonth- 
em foot of the mountain, large blocks of the coarse-grained diorite 
are fband in a state of disintt^ation, affording detached crystals of 
feldspar with rounded angles, and weathered externally to an opaque 
white, from a partiul decomposition. Near to the base of the moun- 
tain, a coarse-grained variety of the diorit*'. encloses small but dis- 
tinct crystals of bnwa mioa;aad a finograined micaceous variety, 
containing sphene, occurs near the immuit. 

The feldspar, in all the specimens examined from this monntain, 
appears to be nniform in character. Its color is white, rarely 
greenish or grayish - it has a vitreous lustre, inclinlDg to pearly, 
and it is somewhat transluconL The cleavages of this feldspar 
resemble those of oligoclaac, with whioh species It also agrees in 
SpeoiGo gravity and chemical composition. The macled forms, so 
common in the crystals of triclinio feldspars, have not however 
been detected ia the specimens from this locality. A fragment of 
a crystal uave a density of 2.631, and another portion in powder, 
2.659. Theresullflof its analysisare given under XZii and xxiu. 

XX. XXI. XXI!. XUU, KXIV. 

Silica 4d.90 47.00 el. OS 63 10 68.30 

AlutDina 3>"l33.6S "■«" -l 14.71 

PerojydoflrOQ l.»l .75 .... » 

Lime 1S.07 1S.90 3.SS 3.e» B.42 

Ha^Bfiia 65 .91 

Poiath 68 .... l.BO .... J.M 

Bo<la 177 .... 7.96 .... 8.7J 

ToULil 1.00 80 .... .60 

99.41 .... 99.91 .... 99. 3S 

BttiXEtL. — The Specimens which have been examined from Ibis 

mountain onsist of a kind of micaoeons diorite. The feldspar, 

which BO far predomioBtee as to give a tight gray color to the maiv, 



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184 'BB OANADIAN NATITaALIBT. [JtUlQ, 

■8 in white translnoent vitreoiu oleavuble grains; associated wild 
■mill distinct prisms of black hornblende, scales of copper-cnlored 
mioa, and jiTiiiiis of magnetite. The analjEis of the feldspar, 
eztriioted by wasliing a portion of the crushed rock, and stiil con- 
taining a little mica, is jitven abiiTe nnder ZXIT. This result 
approaches to tho« obtained from the micaceous feldspar roek of 
Yam^'ska, V and Tlj vhicb has been descnbed as a kind of 
tr^ichyi^, and with the rock of Belceil seems to constitute a pasaaga 
between the trachytes and dioritea. 

RtaAirn. — A portion of Rigaud Monntain consists of a rather 
ooan^^^ined dior te, which is made ap of a crystalline feldspar, 
white or greenish in color, with small priBois of brilliant bluok 
hornblende, and crystals of black mica. In some Epecimens th« 
feldspar, and in • thers the hornblende predoniinatee. This rock 
resembles the diorites of Beleeil and Monnolr. 

The granitoid dolerites of the Montreal grou , oontaining eonrse- 
ly crystalline augite and olivine, break throngli the Lower Silu- 
rian strata; and portions of these two minerals, p/ob:ibly derived 
from these intrusive rocks, are found in the dolomitio conglomer- 
lites near Montreal, which in some cases include masses of Upper 
Sllnrian limestone, and are cut by dykes of a fine grained doLerite. 
These, which perhaps correspond to the newer dykes of the same 
rock at Orenville, show that there we.e at least three disiinct 
eruptions of dolerite, — one during the Silurian period, one before 
it, and another after it. The traobytes of Montreal and Chauibly 
appear to be sti I more recent than these, and to traverse the 
newest dolerites. 

The trachytes of Bromeand Shefford seem toeon«titnteagroup 
apart ; but the diorites of Yamaska und Mount Johnson, althouglli 
nmilar in aspect, differ widely in chemieal composition. Facts art 
■till wanting to establish the goolo;tica) afce of these into'sain 
Basses. The different dolerites, which are related in mineral ooin* 
position, belong as we have seen to different geological periods; 
and i wonid not be safe to affirm that the different diorites or the 
different trachytes of this vicinity are con tempora neons. Nor, on 
the otiier hand, should even great dii<cordanoes in chemical or 
mineralogical constitndon be necessarily r^arded as eBtablishing 
S difference in the age of eruptive rocks. Evidence to theoontrary 
of this is sten in the eont^nons and intermingled raasBes of black 
pyroxenite and grey fiiidi^athic dolerite in Monnt Royal and 



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1864.] r. BTUUT BttNV OS uTSOU>eT. las 

HAnt^rvillB ; and it ta DotiioprAbable Uut tlie olimitic dderite 
vhiob iH KSNOcUted with these, ma; be coatraaporuneooa. If. ea 
lias beeD inaintaiDed id the fiivt part of this |Nipcr, the variiiiii 
JDtrasiTe rooks sre only dis bused sedifDenta of deeply-buried and 
probably UQOonformable strata, it will roadilf be oonoeived that 
plitatic DiasBes of very unlike obaraotiirB may be ejected umnlbi- 
neonalj aioDg a line of diaraption. 

The vurioiu LDtnuive massea of the Montreal group which hsTC 
been here deeoribeil, appear, from their oompsot and cryntatlius 
■truoture, to have beea dUpluoed and ooDBclidated under the pree- 
■are of a ooniddenible masa of nperincnnbunt strsttu 'I be faot 
that even their sumniita, wbiob are in some eases moro than 1000 
feet Hbove the present level of the plain, appear e<)Qal1j solid and 
etTStalliiie with their baaea, Implies the removal by denudation, 
aim-e the eruption of these masses, of a ibiokneH of s diment ry 
strata mui-h exeeeding their present bei^t This denudiitioa 
must however have taken pLioe before tbe emption nf the latei 
trachytes and dolerites ; sioee the dolomite oonjclomcrates, whiok 
enclose the fragments of tbe olivinilJc dolerite and of Lower 
and Upper Silnrian rocks, repnse uocoaformably npon the Lanren- 
tian and tbe various Lower Silurian strata, ia such a niaoner as to- 
ahow that these offered nearly their present distribution at tbe 
epoch of tbe dejioeitioD of the oongloner^tes. If then, as ia 
prob^le, the exposure by denadatioo of the whole • f the eight 
bills whieb have been described, took plaoe at one e och, these ax* 
all shown to have a greater antiquity than the trachytes and tho 
dolerites, wbioh traverse tbe oonglomerates. Tbe fiDe-^rained ant-' 
earthy irochytes of Mo: tresi areoonsequeutlytarmorereoentthaa 
the crystalline ones of Bronte and Sfaefford; with which bowevw^ 
lome uf them agree in chemical compoaitioo. 

The general absence of granite from among these intruuv* 
mosses is a faiot worthy "f notice. Quarts bas not yet been de(e«U 
ed in th' feldapathic rocks of Brome and Sheffi>rd ; although, a* 
ftbove mentioned, the buse of tbe feldspatbie porphyries of Chambly, 
and Shelbnrne, eontains a slight excess of siliea. Tbe graniti* 
rocks of Shipton, and of St. Joseph on the Chandidra apf ear t9 
be indig Doos masses, belonging to the strata of tbe Quebec groups 
but the higher fossiliferous lormations b> the east of the Notr« 
Dame -tJountains. are traversed in varinoa places by veins and 
great masses of intrusive granita, as in Stanslead, Barfurd, and 



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186 THB CAMADUH KATUEALIST. [Jmifl, 

nun; other plaoes to the nortbeaet, and nlong the fVoDtier of Can- 
ada. It is worthy of oote, that the intnuiTe maises od the two 
iidea of the moantain range are, ao f &r as yet ohaerred, entirely 
distinct in character; and that eruptive rocks are generally wnnt- 
infi nraong the Notre Dame Mountains, nhich consist chiefly of 
Stratified rocks. It is also to be remarked, that the intrusive gra- 
nif«8 at their eastern base, are not unlike, in mineralogical oharao- 
ters, to the indigenoos granites of the moantains ; thna suggest- 
ing he vieir that tJiese are possibly the source of the intmsiTS 
granites whioh break through the I 'evonian strata. A similar 
relation has been pointed out by Durocher, in Scandio ma, where 
the palsaozoio strata are broken by iotmsive masses of gr«nil«,' 
orthnphyre, liroon -syenite, and diorite. These rooks, according to 
bin), are specifically analogous to those of the nnderlying primitive 
gniess. but petroL^phically distinct. (Bull, Soo. Gvol. de Fr nee, 
£2J, vi 33.) These facts are in aooordance with the theory of 
smptiTe rocks developed at the commenaemeot of this paper ; and 
it would be eany to extend the comparison to the iotmsiTedioritefl 
mnd dolcrites about Montreal, and to shuw their resemblance with 
ilie stratified feldapathio rooks of tha Lribrador series. (Silli- 
-man's Journal [2], xxix, 283, and zxxi, 414.) 

IV. Local Hbtahobphish. 
In the second part of this paper I have asserted that the silioated 
minerals of crystallin<< rocks have a two-fold origin. In the first 
place they may result from the molecular change of silicated sedi- 
menta. These ar • either derived from the mechanical dlsint^rratioD 
Kndptrtiil deoompoailion of pre-existing Btlicates, or have been geo- 
Onted by chemioal processes in waters at the earth's surfiice. In 
fliis way steatite, serpentine, pyroxene, hornblende, chlorite, and in 
many cases gar et, epidote, and other silicates, are ibnned by a 
tryatallitjtion and molecular re-arrangement of ohemically form d 
■iticate!!, in a manner anatogons to that in which meohanioally de- 
rived olays are converted into cryatalline species. I have however 
pointed out that in the second place many of these silicated minerals 
may bj generated by chemical reaotious which take place among the 
nechanioally mixed elements of sediments under the influence of heat 
aided by alkaline solutions. Both of these methods are involved io 
roek-raetamor|ihi8m ; and in t^e case of the local alteration of ' ocks 
by igneous masses, it is easy by comparative examinations to trace 



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1864.] T. STIBBT BUltT OIT UTHOLOOT. 187 

ihe chemical changes involved in the production of silicated min- 
srsU by the second method. In this way Detexso has shonn that 
in several onses where tbe clialk of Ireland has been altered b; the 
proximity of intrasive traps, the sand and clay which the former 
■ontain have been converted into calcareous ulioates. (Ann. dea 
Mines [B], lii, pp. 189, 208, 212.) 

An instructive example -fthie process is fnrntsbed at Montreal, 
where the bluish fostnliferous limestone of the Trenton group is 
toaversed by dykes of dolerite, which arc subordinate to the great 
intrasive mass of Monnt Royal. The limestone for a ilistance of 
k foot or two, is hardened, but retains its bluish tint. Within k 
few inches, it is chan^i^ed to a greenish- white color, which is seen 
to be due to a granular mineral disseminated in the white car- 
bonate of lime. The unaltered limestone- from the vicinity 
•ontain vsriabl - amounts of Insoluble argillaceous mattei-s. A epeoi- 
nen treated with dilute hydrochloric acid, left a resitlae of about 
twelve per cent of a fine clayey substance, colored by a small 
imonnt of oarlwnaceouH mutter, and mixed with a little pyrites, 
which was removed by cilnte nitric acid. This residue, after 
ignition, gave to a solution of carbonate of soda, 9 5 per cent of 
its weight of soluble silica; and the insoluble portion, being sub- 
mitted to analysis, gave the result i. A portion of the limestone 
which was near to the intrusive rock, and h:id become hardened and 
partially altered, was subjected to the action of dilute nitric acid, 
and gave an insoluble residne with the composition it. The more 
thoroughly altered greenish limestone was also treated with dilute 
nitric acid, which dissol^ ed the carbonate of lime, and Ivft a r si- 
dne, the analyses of which, fh)m two different portions of the rock, 
■re ^ven nnder UI and iv. 

1. ji. m. rv. 

Silica, T3.01 Bt.OO 41.60 40 30 

Alumina, 18.31 14.00 1370 0.30 

Lime, 03 16.14 3169 38.40 

HaKnxaio, BT It 31 4 IT 3.T0 

Prutoijdof iron, tracrt 3.60 4.68 6-33 

Poriuh fi.fiS S 14 DDdet. anilet, 

Hoii^ BO 1.33 " " 

Tol«iile,. 90 1.30 1.30 

09 67 98. TT 98.04 96.01 

The residue from the unaltered limestone, including the silica 
•oluble in alknUus, contains nearly 75.!» hundredths of silioa, and 



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188. THK OAHADUIf HATUKAURT. [JuD^ 

16. & of alumina. These, in the noinity nf the dslerite, have b«> 
eorae S'tturtted with protoxyil bsMs, inoludin^ the small portioni 
of tu^nesia anH of osvd (^ iron which the limestone onntaina, 
This ;>roces9 evidently involves a deoom position of the carbonat* 
of lime, a'<d the expulsion of the oa bonic acid. It is worthy of 
remark that while the unaltered limestenc contains a little on^ 
honate of m^nesia, the rook from which ill was obtained yielded 
to 'li'u'e nitrio acid not a traoe of mFi^nesJa. Il mnrks an intei- 
mediiite eta^e in the process, and ebows moreover thut the alknlie* 
ftre still retained in combination with the alvmonins eilicHte; 
- These granular silicates, which have been formed by local 
metHmorphism, might, under favorable oircamstances, havecry» 
talliied in the forma of feld^sr, soapolite, gurnet, pyroiena, 
or some other of the silioioua minerals which so often oconr in metai- 
morp ic limestones. The agent in producing those sliioates of 
protoxydx at the expense of the carbonates of the limestone, was 
probably a portion of alkaline salt, either derived from the feld- 
■patliicmatter of the UiueBtooe, or possibly infiltrated from the con- 
tains fuld^pathic rock ; whose elevated tempemture produced th» 
reaction whioh bus resulted in thus altering this limestone. 

Similar examples of local alteration are m t with in several nthai 
places near to the intrusive rocks of the Montreal group. The 
schUts of the Utica fonuiition to oontaot with a dyke of intruaiva 
rook at Point Su Chirlea, and also near a mass of tmohyte on % 
■mall island opposite the city of Montreal, ooaisionaliy exhibit small 
crystals of pyroxene, and in some oases prisuis of hornblcode. 
Among similarly altered shales at Boogemont are beds which ood- 
ust of a highly fdrriferooa orystalltne dolouiito intermingled witk 
dark'<freen oleavuble h'>rnhlende, whioh forms thin layers, or in 
Other oases enclosea. am.iU rounded musses of the dolomite. (See 
fbr a deaoription and aodlyees of this rook the Geology of Canada, 
page 634.) 

At Montarvitle the shales of the Budson Bivcr formation 
axe altered in the vicinity of the dolerite which forma the mass of 
the mnantain. Some portions of the strata are very fine-grained, 
leJdish-brown, and h,-ive an earthy sub-conohoidal fracture, witk 
oeotHional cleavage joints. The hardnees of this rock is not grea^ 
and it is apparently a kindof argillitei bat between two beds of it 
is one of a harder coarse^n'aiaed rock, iireenisb-firay in color, and 
mottled with a ligbler hue. This appears to be feldspjthio in 



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1864.] 0B8MIBTET OT MANtTMB. 189 

flO'nposition, and is penetrated in variouB directions by nnmerom 
■lender prisms of black cleavable pyroxene, Boiueriiues bulf un iiioh 
in length. The layers of sedimentation are distinctly miirkvd ia 
this bed, OS well us in the fioer-graiaed airuta irhich enclose it; 
and the who lo affords an intereating exutupleof'the different effevts 
of the aaiD.! agency upon beds of anliie compoMilinn ; aIthou<;li it 
would be impoBiible witliout comparative oliemic.il analyses to de- 
termine whether the silioite which has here crystallized in the form 
of pyroxene existed in th<) unaltered sediment, i<r whether, as in tha 
ease of the uncryst.iUized silicate from the altered limestone at 
Montreal, it has been generated aoder ^e influence of Che intm- 
mve rock. In by fur the groat«r number of coieH, the only apparent 
tffiot of the igneous rocks in die region under deKcriptiim upon 
tiiepalseiizoioliiueittones and Bhales,has been a very local induration. 
The appeuranoeoforystula in these oircomstinces is a comparatively 
rare occnrence, and seums to dapend upon conditions which are 
ezcoptionil, showing, as I have elsewhere reniaiked, that beat and 
moisture are not the only ooudition of metamorpbisiu. ^SUiiuian'f 
Journal [2], xxzvi, 219.) 

With these few exaiuplea oflooal metamorpliisni I conclude the 
present piper; propusin>; however to give in a i^ulwequent ime the 
results of some invesiigutions of certain indi^ennuii cryaialliue roeki. 

Montreal, Marob 15, 1864. 



CHEMISTRY OF MANIRES.* 



ClHERKALf CONSTITDKHTS OP PLANTS. — It is DOl boweVW 

txcluaively by carbon, nitrogen, aud the uleuieuU of water that 



■ Oonilnntd tram pagf 124. 
t This term eintrfat, from rtntrtt, aafaes, naf I'r vc cnnrenieat 1« todl* 
eal«, witboui periplira4ia, ih*asb-conititneaiiof {)liiD[a In con trad is lino- 
tioD From their rulaiile elements. Some writra iXii into ttie error of em- 
plofins the efiUiet " mineral" to deaote the aah-inKredUaia; an error 
in DomenoUture prob.ib'j arising from some cm ugeil ImiirfasioD that, 
becaaae of iu earth; drrivntiou, the asb of plania is miire mineral in 
eharacter tbao the Tolntils or gaseont elemriiu wliich Hir sa|iplirs and 
flrv dissipates. The IMnstrions anthor of Ihe niia ral-ihporT- seems, In 
tome of bis earlierw.liingSi'hlmBsir (o hare eounteiiniiceil this error. 
Herertbeless, ita simple indteatioiiillfflM* for ii« refutation, Cartraaand 



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190 THE OAHAmAH NA.TDRALI8T. [JuBt, 

plants are nonrislied ; nor is it solely in quest of food, such as tiM 
leaves also can assimilate from the air, that the rooU spread forth 
their manifuld ramiGoations amidst the earth. 

Lieiieg first set forth, io all tbeir peculiar interest and import- 
anoe, the fixed in^^redients of plants ; that is the compounds which 
appear as ash, when the voUtilizable air-derived elemeots of planta 
are burned off. These ash-ingredients constitate, as iie explained, 
the special (though not the sole) food of the roots; and they ar» 
tiieoniy kind of nutriment which has its primary and ezoL'Sin 
•ource in tbe soil. 

These essential asb-ingredieots, aof&raa we yet know them, an 
the two filed alkalies, potash and soda ; two earthy basea, lime and 
magnesia; one heavy metallic base, oxide of iron; three aoid^ 
pbosphorio, siliolo, and sulphuric; aod lastly, ehlorine, which, 
though a gas, is always taken up by phots in fixed combioatioai 
(u for example in oommon salt), so as to remain in the ash or 
uoineration. 

Small as are the proportions of these fixed ingredients assimilated 
by plants during their growth, they are yet as necessary to tht 
plant's development as the carbon and water which make up iU 
maio bulk. 60 again, as between tbe fixed ingredients themselves 
dtbough some of tbem are needed in larger, and some in suiallci 
proportiocis, each species of plant having in this respect, ita special 
' requirements; although, for example, one ingredient may form 
more than one half the total ash of a given plant, and another 
teaa than a tenth part thereof ; yet are they all'equally essential 
to iu development, which languishes as much for want of the mi- 
nutest as of tbe bulkiest cinereal supply, Soils wholly deficient 
in any one of tbe ash ingredients of a particular plant, cannot pro- 
duce that plant, bowsoevor abundantly every other of its elements, 
Tolatile and fixed, may be supplied. Partial deficiency of either 
of the normal ingredients of plant-food, whether fixed or volatile^ 
ioTolves a proportionately Boanty crop; and noheaping of other 

carbonic acid, Ditrogen, ammonia, and nitric acid, oijgen, hydrogen, 
and wat«c, all appertain to tbe mineral kingdom, in gvery sense as 
•tuUj at silica, potaali, the pbospbaies, Ac. The epithet "mineral* 
■ppliej therefora equallj to all the elemenla, botb TOlatJle and fixed, of 
plant-rood; it isfor tbe leparaie detigoation of thafixed oraiheouatito- 
fUM, that tb^ epithet ciTttrtal b ptopoaed. In thii sense (to test Ui 
WaTenieaoa) it viU b« employed In the renuOadM of this section. 



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1664.] OHUtlBTBT or UANDBIB. 191 

nunores on the soil oun lave the slightest effect, so loog sb th» 
one iogredieat, wholly or partly deficient, remaios unsuppiied. 

Nor does the more presence of the oinereitl plant-food io th* 
■oil suffice: it most be availably present. Ihat is, besides anj 
portioL,, however large, of cinereal element, that may be held la 
mechuoicol isolation within the substance of the stones or olod^ 
beyond the reach of the roots ; or that may be locked op in ohein- 
ioa] combination, too refractory for tbe solvent agencies present la 
■obd'iej besides any isolated or locked-ap portion which may, is 
tenth, be retried as absent for all immediate purposes of nutri- 
ttOD ; there mast be a sufficiency of Bsh-ooDStitaents, Leld lij^htlj, 
other by tbe Burfuce-aclioa of the moist and porous earth, or (a»- 
cording to another view) by the ohemioal attraotlon of the alumii^ 
ouB silicates, in snob manner as to bo, both physically and ohemi- 
oally, sooessible to the roots. No doubt the locked-np matenala of 
one seaS'D, may, and do become, in due course of tillage and fal- 
lowing, the accessible food of the next ; and, indeed, it is to sueh 
gradually-decomposing reserree that tbe prolonged fertility of oer- 
taia soils, worked l>y tillage and lallowing only, without manuR^ 
is due. But forallimmediatepurp08es,aBoiliBexhaust«d, wheo, 
rich as it may be io the ooad.tions of future ierlility, it lacks an 
adequate present supply of the ash-oonstitaentfl of plants, in &t» 
■ooesrible diffusion. 

High Fabhino: qow fab jobtipiablb : at what poin* 
RXHAirsTrVK. — And here it beoomes opportune to resume the 
queatioD of high farming, wliioh in a previoua page was roserTed 
&a subsequent elucidation. 

High &rming, as already pointed oat, is jostlGable in so far u 
it serves to concentrate, within limits adapted to tbe asumilativ* 
powers and ciroumatanoes of annual and biennial planls, the food- 
Supplies diffused by natnreoveramuoh wider ezpanseof time and 
^oe. to suit T^etation of perennial growth. Bnt it is of tbe 
deepest importaooe to observe, that the more abundant crops, and 
apparently inoressed fertility usually induoed by high farming, an 
in too many oases but the premonitory symtoms of an accelerated 
process of exhaustion. The sembhnoe of prosperous husbandry 
thus created is as facUtioos, as the Bpendthrift's roinoiu nuigDi&' 
OSDoe maintained by squandering his capital ; and " high farming," 
eren when coupled with "high manuring," and the keeping of 
many cattle for their daag, is oileo, for the nawary busbandaui^ 
*Ij * flowwj road to dettruoiion. 



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192 THB OANADIAN NATtTBALIST. [JuDS, 

For it IB to be remembered that a soil may, by the excemiye use of 
Haie, oommoD salt, Ditrates, and other solvent or dieiiitcfirsDt 
BMiures, as also by dil^nt ploa^rhing, soarifyinp;, erosbing, and 
Other processea of meoboDioiit ooinuinutioa, be made to yield its 
nservea in aooossible form, at ao anduly aocelenited rate. Tka 
■auie result may eoaue, if tbe volutile tbrms of plant-food, «hicb 
n«iure supplies only in moderate annual propnn.ion, be addrd to 
pr foaion to the soil, without due eure to conjoin ^crewitb pro- 
portiuujt« supplies of sBh-constituenta, or cinereal food. 

KuTATiON or CBOPaoTT£N fixBAirsTEVK — Utod tbe Tunnt- 
ed system of rotation — %. «., the growth of fodder-crops alternate 
ly with cereals, theoe latter receiving as manure the dung of dis 
eattle ted on tbe former — is but too olten so oarried on as to be 
in truth a spoliatory operation ; a t»ort of artiGen, eerviog only (0 
dii^uise and retard tbe period of finiJ eitiausu6n ; which an far 
from averting, it does but make more protonnd. For the powe^ 
All, deeply. penetrating rootd of the fodder-cropb extract from t)>e 
SubsoL ibj ash-eonsti taenia; vhioh, after passing through tbe 
bodies of tbe oatde, are deposited in their dun<; on the suriitee, 
tbenoe to sink into the upper layN« of the soil, and so to find their 
way to the libres of tbe young, slender-rooted cerea) plants ; in 
«h03u grain l^ey are finally exported from the iurm. 

Loia-WsEDON Syeteh ; its Spoliatokt Charactkk. - 
Tlie so-called i»iB-Weedon system of euitivution is optm lo cinii- 
br obje^tiun. This system, as is well known, consiHte in the ^ioir> 
ia^, year after year, apon soil whieb is never manured, of oonh 
pkuM thinly sown iu rows, separated by wide int«rTalB ; the in- 
tiirals tteingeadi year stirred and hdlowed, t« beoiHne the next 
jmr'sgrowiag spaces; and so on in annual alternation Tbisxyt- 
4em of lmsbaiMlry,'«hiohn^ be regarded aa an eitrerae ezeoi- 
^i&oauonof Jetttro f aU'ii duetritie, is stated to have elicited froU 
the tields in which. it is pursu«d, a aeries ot fnll gmin.oi>ipB ler 
^kuiy years in soeceniett. This remit is in tbe h^e^t degree 
probuble. And this appareot prosperity may be kept np tor a 
MTies of years, longer or shorter t'M- eacti soil, as this may happen 
to have been originahyiuarecr lesfrriehly endowed by nature wi^ 
onereal {dantJbod. But «tae end «f ttiis ututhod akoueznuustion, 
-T-ipevitable IbrB^wwiedethaBstiow,— exbaoetiaa o> wuion eaeta 
.". pn»pertMis " orop'is Mt an. advaaeii^ stage, aa4 whom rate tbe 
,dMNua(<nMiti9«%'«itta:ataMfiMUneii;aD tlwABiHnl^ 4«n«q[ 



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1864.] OHIHIBTET or HANnUB. 193 

veiffht of ■ little dust in the pan of a balance. UnleEB the weight 
of tb«t dust (the available BBh*o.>nstitneiit8 of the Boil) remain 
year nft- r jear a oonstant qnaDtlty, the ttiBbandtuBii, hoveoerer 
prosperous he may seem to be, pursues a downnard roail ; and he 
is fntallj' prepariog for hiineelf or his posterity, impoTeriehiDent 
and fititi) ruin. 

DisPROPiiETioVATE Mancrino. — Nay wore : the weight of 
ash in the balance may even be annually increased, by a profuse 
manaring of the soil, and yet exhaustion and ruin may impend. 
This will be the result, if one of the fixed atinients— phoHphorie 
acid for example — be added to the soil in superabundance, with- 
out proporlioDate supplies of other cinereal oonstituents, — say for 
example, silica or potash. So, again, if manures which, like 
guano, are at onoe nitrogenous and phosphatic, but iiot propor- 
tionately rich in all the cinereal elements of plant-food, be em- 
ployed iu esceea, the farming will be higher still, the crops more 
luxuriunt, the " prosperity " more brilliant than ever, and the 
eatiistrophe proportionately nearer t^e more disastmns. 

The practice of multiplying cattle on a farm, and of fattening 
tliem with the oil of purchased oil-calce, in order that the ash of 
the oaktj, after pasmng through their bodies, may become aTsilable 
for the cinereal replenishment of the soil, is another form of high 
farming, at present very much in fashion. Bat, broadly Tiewed, 
with reference not to individual but to eollective interests, this 
^st«m also will be found to originate in an- overnight, and to end 
in an illusion. The facts overlooked are, thut oil-oake purchased, 
ia also, of necessity, oil-cake sold ; that all oil-cako is the produce 
of land; and that, consequently, what one farm gains, another 
loses, when oil-eake chuDgee hands. The ash of oil-cake, together 
with the fertility, immediate or prospective, which that ash 
represents, is a fixed quantity, which commerce may serve to 
distribute, but oannot possibly increase, The distributive opera- 
tion may be more or less useful to vary the apportionment of 
fertility in space and time. But cake-fed cattle are not, as they 
are frequently supposed t« be, a $ourai of cinereal manure ; and 
the practice which grows oat of this illusory belief Is but one 
taore, and not the least dangerous in ita tendent?, of the fashion- 
able agricultural abuses decorated with the name of high 
fimning. 

Should high fanning, in either or all of th«M sporiOBB 



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194 THX CANADIAN NATtTBAUST. [JoiW, 

forma unh&ppil; become prevalent among civiliEed nations, so w 
to bring about the exhaustion of extensive tracts of the earth's 
anrface, at about the same period of time, — aaj, for bsUnce, in 
the third or fourth generation hence ; in each case the demand 
for cinereal manures, arisii^ simultaueouely over whole continents, 
would necessarily exceed all possible supplies, and incalculable 
misery, in the form of famine and pestilence, must ensue. 

The exhaustion consequent on scanty manuring has been the 
theme of many exhortations ; but the danger of similar evil from 
injadicioua or excessive manuring has not been sufficiently 
inmsted on. 

One more example of this danger is all for which space oan be 
afforded here. 

Thegrowthof the wheat-plant may be divided, like that of the 
biennial turnip. Into three main periods; — the first, during which 
the growing power of the plant Is chi^y employed in developing 
its earliest leaves and its root ; the second, during which its vital 
force is directed to increasing its foliage and shooting forth its 
stalk ; the third, during which flowering and fruition take place, 
and the grain fills with nitrogenous and amylaceous compounds, — 
^e main objects of its culture. Now, injudicious manuring, with 
excess of nitn^nous compounds and of the special ash-constitaenla 
of straw, may cause such a development of stalk and leaf, and so 
undne a consumption, by these, of food and force required to form 
the grain, that, when this comes in its turn to the ripening period, 
the conditions of its evolution fall short, and the result is a crop 
of magnificent straw, with only half-filled ears. 

All these dangers and disasters disappear, all perplexity oeases, 
and the course of the farmer becomes clear and safe, if he takes 
for his guidance the natural laws of husbandry, — prominent among 
which is that which enjobs the scrupulous restitution to the soil 
of the ash-ingredients removed in the crop. 

SOCLAL AND FoLIXIOAL AsPBOTB 07 TDK QltESTION. — By 

%noranoe or neglect of these laws, ancient families, possessed of 
vast estates, have been brought to ruin ; distress, the perturber of 
dynasties, has befallen great nations ; and migh^ empires have 
fallen to decay. 

It is a remarkable fact, and well worthy of the meditation of 
statesmen, that the line which indicates, by its rise and fall, the 
finctuating price of com in France, from year to year, during the 



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1864.] QHKKIBTRT Ot HANUKES. 19fi 

first bilf of tlie present oenlury, rises, at two pomte of time, to 
aaddea and conspicuous eminence. Those significant pinnacles 
bear date 1829 and 1847. The political catastrophea which 
followed these two seasons of distress respectively, do not require 
indication. How far the precursory distress depended on inclement 
BBasoDs, how far on erroneous bushandry, the reporter is not 
aware. But lie believes that no institutions strike root deeply in 
a country that is badly farmed. 

Empihioal MANoaES. — From these oorsory remarks it will 
be apparent that mannres can only be used with success, when 
they are applied with judgment and moderation, and with doe 
reference, as well to the nature and condition of the soil to h» 
amended, as to the parUcular description of the crop to be raised. 
Empirical mixlnres, vaunted as suiting special crops, are likely 
(even when honestly composed) as often to fail as to snoceed, 
beoaose they are commonly employed, in blind confidence, on all 
Iduds and conditions of soils. So extensively does haphazard pre- 
vail, as yet, in this matter, that costly ammoniacal salts or composts 
are often applied, without avail, to fields which a cheap dressing 
(say with lime or ullca) would have fitted to bear a good crop. 
Nay, in some cases a manure may chance to be efficient by the 
very ingredient employed for its adulteration ; as, for instance, 
land-mixed gnano by its silica. 

LlEBlo's Manubes. — The history of Liebig's mineral manure 
—a mixture of ash -ingredients patented by the illustrious philoso- 
pher in April 1845,* as the practical embodiment of hie theory 
published five years previously — is too remarkable to be passed 
In silence here. This manure is stated in the specification of the 
patent, to be composed of substances "containing the elemente of 
the ashes of the plants to be grown," ground up, and " oocaeionally 
mixed with gypsum, calcined bones, silicate of potash, magnesian 
and ammoniacal phosphates, and common salt " Here appeared, 
indeed, to be the elements of a restoratiTC, well adapted to renew, 
in con&rmity with theory, the fertility of ssh-exhauBt«d soils. 
Nevertheless this manure, which excited the highest antioipations, 
and was eagerly tried on fields mnumerable, occasioned universal 
disappointment; and was everywhere abandoned as a failure. 

• ThU paUDt (Ho. 10,816, April 15, 1B4H) ii {ranted to J. Haspratt, 
at "for a commantcatton fram JnitcR Liebig." 



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196 THE CAWAWAM KATOEALIBT. [JoM, 

Many, indeed, in tbe excesi of their diMppointment, were led to 
repudiate the " minerd theory " itsetf, and to impugn all scienttSo 
fansbaodry ab a dangerous delnnon. 

It is now easy, and also in the highest d^rce inatructiTe, to 
Croce thi^ error of tbe lUustrioos philosopher to its source in the 
then Btjite of science. The spedal discovery, which has rendered 
impossible the recurrence of such an error, may abo now be 
pointed out; and this is, in itself, of so much interest aod impor- 
tance that it deserves our moat careful attention. 

Early View of the Inoesiiok op Cisereai, Aliment. 
— At the iaU) of Liebig's patent it vae universally believed tb&t 
the ash-const itucnta of plants were supplied t« tbe roots in moving 
aqueous soiutiun ; i. e., in soluUons permeating the soil uaebanged, 
■nd uieetinj^ in its passage rootlet after rootlet, so that tbe tonfier 
■pougioJes, boing immersed tberdn, could drink. According to 
tbU view, it nus tiot the roots vhiob travelled to the asb-constitii- 
entd, but the ash-cone titnents which were carried, in solution, to 
. tbe roots, Tliis belief led Liebig to fear that the more soluble 
alkalino injjrcdierits of his manure would, by the rain falling on 
the land, bo washed away from the other ingredients, and thus 
■eparutcd therefrom. He therefore directed his niisture to bo 
tri;iiied " iu suuLi a manner that the character oi' the alkaline 
matters may be changed, and tbe same renderud less soluble" ; and 
he indicalud, as the best mode of effecting tliis obJL'Ct, rhe/utum 
of the m-iUruiU in a revtrberatory fumaee. Tbe danger feared 
by Liebig w^s, wo now know, ilhisory ; and the treatment he 
adopted to avert the Bupposed evil was auch as to render Ub 
mixture eoiup:ir» lively inert. It wae reserved for an Engliab 
ehemiat, John Thomas Way, to make, same five years later, tlie 
important invcstL<:ation whioh led to tbe abandonment of tbe 
kbove-stated opiniuu aa to the oonvt^nee of rt<|uid plant-food to 
the roots, and introduced in its stead ao entirely new view of tiie 
distributive a\- < h::uiam of the soil. 

AflaoRPTivt: I'.iwer of SorLB.^Way's observation, briefly 
stated, was that -oils possess an absorptive pmiT, in virtue itt 
which they withlr lw from aqoeona solutjons oi .'^.iline plant^fbod 
filtered through them, sometimes the whole, sometimes the base 
only, of tbe dissolved Salt. He tbond that, in the tatter case, the 
acid of the salt from which tbe soil bad thus withdrawn the base, 
passed through the soil in oombliiation with lime. By a w^> 



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1864.} OEUKIBTBT OV HAUCSEa. 197 

devised uid extenaiTely-Taiied series of e^Mariments, he detenoined 
the comparative amouotof this absorptive power pt^Beeaed by 
several varieties of soil, whether natural, or artifioially composed, 
These he tried, both in their raw state, and buried, as also under 
<^toar7 and eitraordinar^ conditions of oompresston, comminu- 
tion, &c, tesUng each with solatiods of the alkalies and alkalin* 
esrUui, sometimes caustic, sometimes oarbocated, sometimes in 
eombinatioa with the strong mineral acids. Bj thaae experiments 
be confirmed and extended partial observations of like kind 
recorded Iod)^ ago by Lord Bacon and Dr. Hales, as also a number 
of analogous fucts, experimentally ascertained b; Beraelius and 
Matteucci abroad, and by Mr. Huxtable uid Mr. H. S. Thomp- 
son ia this country. Referring tjlie reader for details to Way's * 
original papera on the aabjeot, the reporter may simply state hers 
that Way attributes this power to tbe peculiar properties of th« 
alnminiferouB double silioates, wbicb be states to he more abun- 
dant in soils in proportion as these possess higher absorptiv* 
power. This interpretation of the observed pbenomanon has not 
met with universal acceptance i many, with Liebig at their head, 
denying the proportionality alleged by Way, and seeing in tbs 
■bfiorptive power of soils for salts dissolved in water, only anothor 
aspect of the physico-chemical surfece-action due to their 
porou^, and enabling them t« absorb gases and vapors from 
tbeir difiuaion or aolatioD in the atmosphere. Tbe reporter, 
&U his own part, rather iuolines to the latter view. 

But the facts mveetigated by Way, independently bi their 
{^ysical oonditioQS and theoretical interpretation, possess an 
importwce and a generality which entitle them to rank among 
the most conspicuous contributions to modem agrieultural science.. 
They prove, among other things, that the plant-food arrested by 
the soil can be delivered only to tbe spongiolea in immediate 
■outset therewith : and that, consequently, these can obtiun fresh. 
food only under one of two conditions ; — (a) when, by the grow- 
ing of the rootlets, they are pushed forward into contact with fresh 
portions of the mould ; (b) when tbe descent of rain through tha 
soil effects the solution of fresh saline matter, and calls again into 
(lay the surfacoi^ttraction of the pores, so as to replenish those 
pevionaly exhaosted by the condguous sponglcles. Showen 

■ Boyal Agrle. 3oo. Jouin. ISSO-U'SB. 



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f98 THK OANASIAir NATUBALIfiT. [Jul 



, ia a doable Bense, "genial"; firati;, as liberatii^ 
withia tlie soil a fresh enpplj of surface-held plant-food, aTailable 
for the rootlets to touch and take; seoondly, as promoting the 
growth of the rootiets, and bo moving forward thousands of spon- 
gioles simultaneonslj into contact with fresh food-holding sur- 

Tbeee beautifal relations of the soil, tlie food, and the roots, 
now that thej are discovered, are peroeived to be bo indispensable, 
that. one almost w<Miders they were not arrived at by d priori 
reasoning. For, had soils been undefended bj this absoq)tive 
^xiperty, the runfall of centuries passing through them must 
have, ages ago, washed away every trace of their soluble salta. 
Subsoil drainage, so fiir &om tending, as it does, to fertiliEe land, 
would but have exposed its sandy remnants to a lixiviating process 
more rapid and exhausting than even that of the natural filtration. 

Distributive Mechanism or Soils. — It does not of connw 
fall within the scope of the present rapid sketch, to trace this 
newly-discovered property of soils, to all its important conse- 
quences. As one example, perhaps the most striking, of these, 
the reporter would single out the admirable distributive influence 
of the absorptive power ; which (counteracting in this respect the 
force of gravitation) tends to mtuntain the nutritive ingredients 
where they are most needed, t. e., in the upper layers of the soil, 
leaving the. surplus only to be deposited, as in a reservoir, in the 
layers beneath. Each layer, in fact, when saturated itself, lets 
pass unchanged the sur[dus solution, to saturate the layer next 
below i and so on, in pn^resmon, through the whole depth of the 
cultivable soil. 

Kevertii^, with this property of soils before as, to Liebig'a 
patented manure, we see clearly the cause of its fiulnre. In aiming 
at its improvement by the reduction of its solubility, the illustrious 
inventor inadvertently placed himself in opposition to a law of 
nature. How nobly he retrieved this error will presently appear. 

DiSTaiBUTiVE Meooanuui of Faru-yard Dunq. — Mean- 
while, it is a point worth notice, that an error, similar to Licbig's, 
is apt to vitaate ezpeninental comparisons between the immediate 
fertilizing effect of farm yard dung, and that of the ash obtained 
tty its incineration. The inferiority of the ash to the dung itself, 
as an immediate fertilizer, is oommonly ascribed solely to the dis- 
sipation by fire of the volatile ooDstitnenls of dung, and particularly 



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1864.} OaiHIBTBT OV HARUBBS. 199 

of its ammonia; and maoh prominenoe has been given to the 
reeulls of such trials, as erideDce of the alleged inefficacy of 
cinereal snppUes to com. Among the objecdons to this line of 
argument it may be mentioned that the observed difference proba- 
bly depends, in a oonuderable degree, on the modification by 
fire of the ash-oonstituents themselves. lo the unburnt dung, 
composed, to a large extent, of decaying straw, the cinereal ele- 
ments are diffosed throogbont the organic tisanes, in a state of 
uGniteaimoI molecular subdivision. By the decay of the dung 
in the soU, the organic molecules are gradually converted into 
carbonic acid and water, the proper solvents of cinereal food. 
Thoa considered, a decaying straw containing (say) five per cent, 
of ash-ingredients, constitutes as perfect a piece of distributive 
mechanism as can easily be conceived, for spreading throughout 
the soil the needful cinereal restoratives, along with the liquid and 
the gas requisite for their solution and final delivery to the roots. 
But this is not aU. The straw acts with equal efficacy as a distri- 
butive vehicle of the urine with which it is soaked, and of the 
cinereal and volatile plant-food dissolved therein. Before decay, 
its fibrous tissues constitute a sponge, to absorb and retain, as also 
widdy to expand, the nutrient solution ; and when the sponge has 
brought tbis solution into contiguity with an extensive surface of 
soil it silently disappears ; its solid tissues dissolve, — tbcir capil- 
larity, having done its office, ceases to eiist, — the capillarity of the 
toil comes into play, and its pores delioalcly take up the ailment 
which be straw, in the act of its dissolution, as delicately depoBit«d. 
Hoffmann, in one of his Phantiuint&cke, desoribes a mysterioua 
hand, which, moving in palpuble sobstanoe through the air, car- 
ries a cup of food to one of the personages of his talc, and having 
set it down before him, vanishes into thin sir. Each fragment of 
strawindungaclsaBsuchaband totbesoil. The substantive, palpa- 
Ue vehicle melts into gas and water when its work is done. Nor is 
the apace left empty by its disappearance without a special use : 
it forms a channel for the tender rootlet to travel along, — a channel 
which the decay of the straw at once hollows out, und warms, and 
lines with aliment; with aliment, as we have seen, finely divided, 
aarfucc-beld, and provided with its approprialfi solvent. 

All this delicate adjustment of means to a special end is utterly 
destroyed by fire, which disaipntes the hydro^oarboaaceous matter 
of straw, so that its ash-ingredlents, no longer separated by inter- 



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£00 *THI OAHASUN HATDRA.IIST. [JdU^ 

Tening moleonlea, ooUapse into dust. In this form they do Dot 
ocoapy a bnndredtli p&rt of the Tolnme throi^rh which tbej wen 
[ffeTiODsly spi'ead ; and thej are, moreover, very apt to be fnrthtc 
eompaoted bj 'aotual fnsioa during thu agitation. Fann-dnng 
ash is particularly liable to vitrification, becanse its Btraw oontaios 
both the alkaline and siltoioos elements of glaaa. The vitreoDf 
or semi-vitreonB ash thna produced by ineineration is batahghtly 
soluble. In a word, the efieet of incineration on &rm-daD|; 
closely TCBembleB that produced by Liebig's fomacMreatmeDt on 
his Mineral Manure. 

These oonsiderations should he atteotivdy borne in mind, ia 
estimating the value of experiments adduced to prove the ioeS- 
cacy of the einereal eoostitneutfl of farm-dang, as oontradistia- 
guished fVom its ammoniacaj ingredientd.*= 

Thk NiTKoaEM Thsort, and the Doctkinb or Spwipio 
Mandees. — It is not however to be inferred from the foregoiog 
remarks that einereal plant-food, such as Lietug's mannre (or U 
the ash of incinerated dang), even if su|^lied in a prifectly sala- 
ble fcffm, would be indtserimiDately applieaUe to increase in an 
•qnal d^^ree the immediate productive power of all oonditioDS of 
soil, for every kind of crop. It was against this undue prelennoo, 
which was supposed to follow from some of the statements pat 
fbrth in Liebig's earlio- works, that the advocates of the M-osHod 
" Nitrogen theory" .(who also support the doetriite of " SpeaGu 
mannres") originally raised their flag. It.may be doubted whether 
the illustrioos author of the mineral theory, even in his earliect 

* Id pointing out the Taluable dJsCributire properties of &nn-duiig 
tbe reporur would doI he suppo»d to orerlook tbe still wider diffil- 
sion oTfertiliaiDK matters ol)titJaabIe bj liquid msDurin^. Thissrsiem, 
indeed, hu been already Indicated as the prinoipal distributlremfthin- 
iim of tbe fumre. It eaables tbe brmer to direct, firom a central point 
ndiating itreami of plaot-fbod to bis remotest field* ; and by the men 
tDraios of a tap, to adopt tbs-iapplj with the utmost aicety to tlw 
requiiemeots of eier; plot. The carlage-cost, and manual labor Ineuri- 
Tsd in spreodiag dung apon tbe soil, maj tbus to a great extent be 
replaced by aieam-power ) or erta, in faTorable caera, by the iliU 
cheaper force of graritation. To soil t requiring a carbonaceoas luppif 
Sucb u the cattle-litter in dnnff affardi, tbts material (cut up) »^^ 
perhapt be economically conveyed in suspension in the liquid dmoi'^ 
streams. For clay, and other insoluble matters capable of suapenticn 
in water, this mode of distribution h<is been found arailabie. 



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1864.] OHUOSTBT or HANIF&Ba. 201 

and cradest eaoDciatioDB (^ tb&t dootrioe, otot oommitted bimeelf 
to the fallaoj imputed to him by the upholders of the rivul sys-' 
tem. If he did, be has long eiooe abjured his error ; or rather it 
has fallen, like a deoidooos leaf, in the gradual ripening of his 
opinioDB during more than ttrent; years of eiperimeot and 
research. The reporter belierea that, upon this point, there exists 
at the present time but little real difference between the views of 
the contending parties; i. «., between those who affirm that the 
■dies removed in the crop do, and those who maintain that they 
do not, represent the return to be made to the soil, to keep np its 
ftrttlity. No two opinions, oertatnly, can seem more diametrically 
opposed than these; and at the outset of the oontroversy, the 
opposition was not only apparent but real. But for many yeats 
past, the disputants have be^ n gradually approaching eaoh other, 
by approaching the great central truths which lay between 
them. By the dropping, on both sides, of some earlier crudi- 
ties, often perhaps rather of phrase than thooght, and by the 
discussion, by common consent, of maturtd opinions only, many 
of these truths will, the reporter is convinced, be foand expres- 
sible in terms acceptable to both. 

With reference, for example, to the effect of cinereal manuring, 
both parties will certainly admit that, whether soils be rich or 
poor, they derive ^eoeteru paribm) from equal increments of their 
cinereal stock, equal absolute benefit; to be manifested, sooner or 
later. Id equally increased production. It will also be allowed on 
all hands that soils, already containing enough cinereal food, in 
the surface-held soluble stale, to supply a series of maximum crops, 
cannot immediately make manif^t, and retorn, in the form of _ 
augmented produce, the value of the additional supply received. 
Such immediate return, tt wiU be agreed, is to be looked for only 
&om soils already exhausted of one or more of their cinereal 
ingredients ; or if not absolutely exhausted thereof, at least defi- 
cient of the requisite supplies in the unlooked soluble condition, 
which alone renders them available for immediate assimilation by 
plants. Bven in this case, moreover, botii parties will admit that 
aasinulatlon cannot take place, and there can consequently be no 
immediate return, except in ao far as alt the other conditions 
(ponderable and imponderable) of plant-growth are rimultaneonsly 
supplied,— nitn^n among thereat. In mentioning nitrogen, w« 
touch the veij centre and throbbing heart of oontroversy ; on* 



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202 THK CANADIAN NATURALIST. [Jlioe, 

party looking to Mature, ttie other to Art, for sufficieDt a^jricultn- 
ral supplies of this element, in the form of ammooia. Yet both 
udea mast and do admit that eaoh acre of soil receives from natare 
ui aDDual quantity of ammonia, greater or less as the seasoDS are 
more or less propitions; part being supplied by the air, la th« 
maauer already explained, part (as we may now fairly presume) 
being generated within the soil itself, by some reaotioo ana]<^u« 
to that observed by SohSnbein. 

Thus much agreed on, both parties would probably be prepitred 
to admit, aa a perfect or typical soil, for the growth of any given 
rotation of maximum cropa, one coDtainiDg a duly proportioned 
snd available supply of all the oin^reals requisite during such 
rotation ; and on the other hand, receiving from nature, during 
(be same period, a quantity of volatile plant-food, nitr<^enoua, 
oarbonaoeoos, and aquatic, precisely correepondingto this cinereal 
supply. Assuming, of course, the mechanical and physical con- 
ditions of such a soil to be also typically perfect ; and assuming it, 
further, to be worked durio;: a series of typical Beaeons; it would 
evidi^Dtly require only typical manunog; i e., the exact restita- 
tioD, during each rotatjon, of the cinereala withdrawn by the crops. 
This is a proposition to which no one, at the present time, will 
demur. But in reality, as we all know, these various classes of 
typical conditions, mechanical, physical, chemical, and climatic, are 
never simnltaueou'-ly fulfilled. Each deviation from one or more 
of them involves a corresponding deviation from typical manur- 
ing. Hence arises a scries of special agricultural oases, as manifold 
as the changes on a set of bells ; and an aoonrate knowledge of 
every condition, in each of auy number of cases selected for com- 
parison, is necessary for their correct interpretatioD. It is in the 
midst of these complications that oversights take place, and dlffer- 
mces creep in. Many of these are wholly irrespective of the nature 
of the soil. Take for example, two experiments, otherwise (by 
hypothesis) equal, but made in two different counties or districts, 
one happening to enjoy, during the growth of the crop, a larger 
onmber of boors of uninteroeptted sunshine than the other ; it ia 
obvious that, notwithstanding the assumed equality on all other 
points, the results must differ mure or less, and may differ very 
notably, in the two cases. Agiin, assame, for ai^ument's sake, 
absolute equEility in all the external conditions of plaut-growlh, 
bitt a difference In the quality of the seed employed in two trials ; 



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1664,] OOIHIBTRT or UANHBES. 203' 

OTideDtly there will be a disparity in tbe resnlts, which will appear 
ineiplicable. br which will perhnps be attribute I, by the adTOcntefl 
of rival theories, to thia or that property of the manure employed. 

Bat it ie not nooessary to go beyond the soil itself in search 
of aach dcclensioDB from type. Ddects of the soil occur, ^rade 
below grade, th-ongh all the possible Ysrieties of poverty, down 
to sbsolate barrenness ; and the characters and cauRee of defective 
fertility differ fully as much as do its innumerable degrees. One 
■oil, for instance, will contaiu but a poor supply of one or moro 
of the essential cinereal inp^dients of the plants to be grown, or 
will even be totally deficient thereof. Another, well endowed with 
cinerenls, duly apportioned to supply the desired rotation of crops, 
will be deficient of carboniferous material, or non-retentive of 
moisture, or not porous enough to bold a suCBcient supply of air. 
A third, perfect perhaps in those respects, will fall short as to the 
peculiar physioo.chemical properties necessary for the absorption, 
or generation, or retention therein, of ammoniaoal supplies, in pro- 
per proportion to the air and water, to the carbon, and to the 
oinereals. All parties moat assuredlv admit, with respect to such 
soils, that their natural deficiencies, whether cinereal or ammo- 
niacal, aerial, hygroscopic, or carbonaceous, may with propriety be 
artificially made good, — so farasauob amendment be economicilly 
possible ; and, in each such case, some particular kind of manure 
will of course prove specially beneficial for the growth of cmps. 
Thus much will be conceded by those who, with Baron Liebig, 
most strennously oppose the doctrine of " specific" manures. In 
some cases, for example, nitrogen will be " specific" for com ; 
though only in the same sense, and in the same dc^ee, that lime 
will, in other oases, " specifically " benefit the same crop. 

Again, that leguminous crops rapidly assimilate atmospheric 
ammonia by means of their widely-spread leal^, whereas tho 
oereals. with their scanty foliage, are much more dependent on their 
roots for ammoniaoal supplies, — these are facts which no one will 
dispute. Th- use of fodde^^)^opB and cattle-feeding, as means of 
artificially accumulating the ammonia-supplies naturally difi'nsed 
over the whole period of rotation, and bringing this concentrated 
provision to bear on the cereals, which could not else absorb 
ammonia at a sufficiently rapid rate to keep their nitrogenous on & 
par with their oinereul, carbonaceous, and aquatic alimentation, — 
thia also will certainly be admitted by all. 



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204 THE OAHASUjr HATUBALIBT. [J<">^ 

This accumulative and diBbibntive agency of a normal rotation 
of crops, s^rowin^ (by hypotheaia) on a typdcal soil, most strikinji;ly- 
nfleota, in what may be termed the phyBiolo(i;ica1 mechaniam of 
agriculture, tlie regulative inftuenoo ezercieed in mecbanics by the 
II -wbeel ; which, in like manner, during each rntatioa, stores uf 
the momvDtum Ruined at the period of maiiiDUtii impulsion, to 
pve it out aa work at the period of maumum resistance. Thna, 
nuoh beinir udiaitt^d by all with reference to the auppoaed typical. 
■oU, there will only remain for conaideration the case of soils fall- 
ing so far abort of this hypotbetitnl perfection, with respect to 
their natural aomoniferous endowmenta, that the total supply, 
inolading that ooUected by the legaminosae, proves inadequate to 
neet the demand of the cereaU. The utility, in snob oaaea, of 
nitroxenoua manurea, and the. propriety of the husbandman's 
iaterrentioD, thus artificially to make good the defeot of th9 
natural amiQOoia-supply, will not by any one be contested. 

Thus, point by point, the maio ground of difference (the alleged 
preponderating value of nitrogen) aeems reducible to a mere 
Itatistical question ; — how many European com'fielda are relatirely 
poor in this or that cinereal ? how many are deficient of hnrans, 
or water, or air 'I how many fall short as to their natural ammo- 
niferuB properties? Whichever element, fixed or volatile, might 
be indicated by the result of tbia inquiry, as deficient in the laigeat 
number of cases, might be described as the element ot prepondti- 
atin0 " importance, witboat yiolenoe to the opinions of either 

This method of settling the great Ditr<^n-coDtrovenjy would, 
however, still leave open for disonssion agrave question coDcerning 
this element of plant-food, — a qaeatlon which the intellectual for- 
eee, heretofore expended in conflict, might be nsefuUy combined to 
Mt at rest. This queatbn is, how much ammonia is it possible, in 
the present state of our industrial resonrces, to provide for soils 
not naturally well supplied therewith ? If high farming is to 
become nniversal, and to be carried out on second and third clasi 
soils, at as high a pitch above their nataral ammooiferoos endow- 
ments, as is now aimed at in many Engliah farms, the demand for 
uumonia seems hkely to exceed all the means at onr disposal for 
its supply. 

The saving of urban ejects, and the consequent return to the 
soil of the eaormous masaea of cinereals now wasted, appean 



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1864.] CHiMBTBT or MAirtrEEe. 205 

likely to incre^iBe the relative dem&nd for ammonia ; eapeoiallj u 
poor lands, of natnrally low BmmoniferoaH endnwmenta, « ill proba- 
bly be those selected <Bofar as local lircumsiances permit) for 
ini^tJon with town Bewage. For, though sewage is rich, as well 
Id the nitroj^enous as in the cinereal oonstituents of tht.' food con- 
sumed in towns, it is not proportionately so ricli in the tbnner ai 
in the latter inijredicnla ; the reason being that part of Ihe ararao- 
nia of food is dissipated daring the procenses of animal life,* 
wherea- all the fixed cinereal oonstitnents that are tikun into tho 
lyatem of aduhs reappear andimiuished in their rjoct:i. Moreover, 
no waste nece)<4,irily attends the transit of thi: eincn^iU in .solution, 
mloDg the subterranean oonduite, from the hous(!3 in which they 
are produced to the fields in which they are consumed ; whereas 
the ammonia of sewage is liable to undergo a considerable amount 
of waste durinn its passage from town to country in the ordinary 
oonduits ; a circumstance vhiah (it maybe piriintbcttcilly men- 
tiooedi has led .Mr. F. 0. Ward to the beliuf that, in tiie lutnr« 
progress of urban organization, It will be found oetmouiical to pro- 
vide separate uriuarj and fsecal systems; bringing ilius, by a far- 
ther refinement, tho collective organism into okinor oiirro.sjioiidcnoe 
with the individual. The probability of this ult<:ri<>r ini|irovuiueat 
' Till, perhaps, be the more readily reci^ized, when it is <^onHidered 
that three tbunbs and upwards of the value of liuman >■} ctu. are 
comprised in the urine, — only the firaotional retnaindi:riii itiettcces. 
But, as even the wparation of sewage from raiutlill ia not yet 
officially admitted, it would be a premature ^tnd [liurulun: a hop«> 
less cmsade to press, at present, fiw further niiM;in.'s nl org.miia- 
tion. These will come in due time, irben the rtaiiiua ol lowai^ 
DOW officially described an " a noisance to bo gut ria oi," shrill bt 
r^arded in their just %ht as " a propertjto be iidiuhUHlered," 
— naymore, as the propertyonirtiaee sound adiu.niat rat ion depends, 
in a greater degree than on any Other single condition, t.lie laaiing 
prosperity of nations. 

Beverting to the nitrogen question, should U provu true that ft 
dissipation of ammonia takeaplaoe, as some cx[K'riuiciitaiints m^n- 
taio, during the growth of oenal plants; anU^hum^j this waata 

* This polDt bu been vsmiM tha sntgnct of direci GiriiiioniDUirby 
BonHlngault, Burral, BegDaol^ B«lMt, and Law«!i, Karl ii uny be twIiaB 
•« ■ fair arentge eglimatt, tbat, of the uiUogea. coudi.uiL '.< in tbe (tpif 
ObIj about fuar fiftbi ar* NcoTciabla in tlw ej«cia. 



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206 THK OANADIAN NATTEALIST. [Jaoe, 

lie foaad to exceed the annuoDia-accaranlating power of the iega.- 
minosse, when growo, in due proportion, in rotation with cereals; 
ander such hypothetiual ooaditioDS the drain of ammoDia will 
doubtless, in s still larger number of oases, exceed the oatanl 
■applj, and compel recourse to ammoniacal manures. 

Liebig's view of the suffioienoj of natural ammoDia-supplies, 
eren for the purposes of b^h faiuiiiig, wheo fairljand skilfully 
conducted on suitable soils, is not incompatible with the opinion 
that artiSoial ammonia- supplies may become in an increasiog 
degree the husbandman's principal requirement hereafter, under 
the modified agricultural conditions rapidly sketched aboTe. 

How far it may be wise to encourage the development of such 
% system, is a serious question. For, nnliss some cheap source of 
ammonia should be iu the meantime discovered, the exhaustion 
of the goanO'deposits (relatively a limited quantity) must, under 
Buch circumstaDoes, bring ruinous disaster in its train. The col- 
lapse of the foundation would of necessity involve that of the 
edifice reared therooo ; and large populatjoos, called into esistenoe 
by these fiiotitious means, would find themselves deprived, more or 
less suddenly, of their accustomed food-supplies. 

(Jonsidered from this point of view, the great " nitrogen ques- 
tion " merits the gravest consideration, not only of agriculturists, 
but also of statists and politicians. 

Thus far the matteiB in dispute seem capable of settlement in 
terms admissible by both the contending parlies; but the questions 
at issue comprise points, or rather perliaps are presented in forms, 
on which the divergences of opinion appear too wide to afford any 
prospect of harmonization. 

Thus, for example, it is affirmed on one side, and denied, point 
blank, on the other, that potash acts " specifically " (i. «., otherwise 
than in oonfbrmity with Liebig's law) in promotii^ the growth of 
the leguminous plants, such as beans and peas. Those who main- 
tain this view all^e, as their reason, that the l^;nminDSEB, though 
, characteristically rich in nitrogen, require potassic, not ammoniacal 
manures. The fallacy of this reasoning becomes apparent when 
it is eonsidered, first, that the l^pim inous pi an ta, absorbing as they 
do ammonia in abundance by their leaves, can naturally dispense 
vith a supply of this aliment to Uttar roots ; seoondly, that of all 
Ae ingredients in the ash of the l^nmini^sa, lime and potash ara 
' the two most pominent ; so that for soils abounding in lime (ai 



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1864-3 CHEHIBTRT OF HANTIRBS, 207 

oultivat«i] Boila for the meet part do) pottmh remaios, conformably 
with Lithig"* hie, the ohiiracteriatio manure for the It^mlnosse. 

The root-orops, however, and partionUrtj turnips, are brought 
forward as contradictory to Licbig's law, and coofirmatory <>f the 
theory of manurial " apecifics" ; because, though the aih of the 
tumip oontaiaa more potash than phos, horio acid, this plant is 
nevertheless found to benefit, oouvcrsely, more by artificial 'supplieB 
of phosphoric acid than of potash. 

"It muat be admitted," say the principal cbatnpioDB of the 
dootriae specific, " that the extraordinary effect of auperphosphata 
of lime oannot be aooouoted for by the idea of merely supplying 
itin the actual constituenla of the crop, but that it is due to gome 
tpedal agena/ in devdoping the agrimilative proceuet of tJu 
plant."* And sgdn they say, " It is at any rate certun that 
phosphoric acid, though it forms ao small a proportion of the ash 
of ^e turnip, has a very striking effect on its growth when applied 
» m™™."t 

On these statements it is first to be remarlced that the experi- 
mental results on which they are founded, and which were obttuned 
ftt Rothamstead, are at variance with those obtained on other soils 
by other equally trustworthy observers. Aocording to the best 
analyses of the aah of turnips (swedes), these planta may be taken 
to contain about 01 per ceot. of phosphoric acid. On the other 
band, ordinary superphosphate of lime contains about 16 per cent, 
of this ingredient in the soluble form of combination ; so that three 
owt. of this manure oontain between fifty-three and fifty-feur lbs. 
of immediately-available phosphoric acid. Mr. J. Russell t divided 
a tnrnip-field into plots : upon one plot he applied three owt. of 
superphosphate ; upon two others five owt. ; npon tvo otbere aeven 
cwt. and ten cwL respectively. On comparing the crops yielded by 
the two plots equally manured, a difference of38 owt. was observed 
between their respective weights. The figure fixes the limit of varia> 
tion fairly attributable in this case, to causes other than the quan- 
tity of manure employed. The plot manured with three owt. of super- 
phosphate yielded to Mr. Rnsaell 480 owt. of swedes. These would 

■ Od AffrioaUttral Ohemiab'j, cspeciallj la Belstion to the HinBral 
Tbeorf of Baron Llebig. Jaom. B07. Ag. Soe. of Bnglaod, vol. xU, 
part i, 18G1. 

t Ibia. 

t Joom. Boy. Ag. Soc., vol. xxll, p. M. 



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208 THB OANADIAN NATURALffiT. [JunO, 

conttun in their aah, at thp sbove^tated proportion of 0-1 per cent, 
just 53-76 lbs. of phosphoric acid ; a resnlt in ourio isl j-close corres- 
pondence with the quantity of phosphoric aoid contained in the 
superphosphate used. The mean yield of the two ploM manured 
with fivecwt.of auperphosphftte each did not differ from the yield of 
the plot manured with only three cwt. so mnoh as the respective pro- 
ducts of those two plota differed from each other. Hence it appears 
that the addition to the soil of a larger proportion of soluble phos- 
phoric acid than the tamip-plants oonld consume had no " specific" 
influenoe in promoting their growth in this case. As for the crop 
of the plot manured with seven owt, of superphosphate, it not only 
did not exceed, but fell shortby a few cwt. of the mean yield of the 
plots manured with five cwt. each. A still further deficit, of a few 
owta., was observed in the yield of the plot manured with ten ewt. 
of superphosphate. Both these deficiencies, however, were less than 
the difference of yield by the two plots equally manured. So that 
in this case, the yield of the plot which received in the manure 
the esact quantity of phosphorio acid removed in the onip was 
(within the limits of eiperi mental error) equal to the yield of 
plots respectively supplied with quantities 66 per cent, 133 per 
oent, and 233 per cent greater. Two plots which wen* left 
unmBDured, on this occasion, for comparison's sake, gave a meau 
yield of only 330 cwt, of turnips per aero : being about one third 
lebs than the yield of the manured plots. 

Hence it would appear that the turnip-plant benefits l>y an arti- 
ficial supply of soluble superphosphate up to, but not beyond, the 
limit of its assinitlating powers. And if it be admitted that the 
phosphates of the soil are in a less solable state than the artificial 
•ttperphosphate (a probable supposition), this case would seem to 
, Wgue that the roots of the turnip, when simultaneously presented 
with difierentformsof phospbatio food soluble in different d^reea, 
, preifer the most soluble, and imbibe this first. 

These results, ia the reporter's jadgmeat, stand in strong oppo- 
. ,ltion to tiose obtained at Rothamsteid, and tend to negative the 
Tiew that phosphorio a<nd benefits tamipe by some "speoifie 
.^enoy," other than tliat doe to it as k eonsttenent of their ash. 

Theadvooatee of th« "sporifie" doetrine, however, take np 
another ground. It is, they say, a aniyerwlly reoogniied fart 
among farmers, that, in the ordinary ooarw of husbandry, super 
phospluUe— not pot»«h-^» Uie nuoore for turnips, thouj^ potath 



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1864.] OHxiosTBT or luiniBia. 209 

{nedominatea over phoaphonc acid in their ash. To quote their 
own laa|2^iige oo tbia point, as given in the paper already referred 
to: " Common practice has," theysay, " definitely detennioed in 
favor of phosphoric acid rather than of the alkalis, as the special 
manure to be provided for tbe turnip from souroee external to the 
farm itself." 

Admitting this case to be a very freqnent one (it is certainly 
not aaiversal), it appears to the reporter susceptible of an explan- 
atJOQ, by which it falls, quite simple and readily, within the scope 
of Liebig'a law. 

For, in the ordinary coarse of rotation, cereals and root-crop 
follow each other, and alternately feed on the soil. Now the 
cereals, as every one knows, are greedy ooasumers of silica, partly 
for the coating of their grain, but principally for that of their 
straw. Tbe cereals alao assimilate phosphoric acid, and divide it 
in like manner between their grain and straw ; this time 
however depositing it mostly in the groia. The silica and phos- 
phates of the grain are, be it remembered, exported from the land. 
Of potash, the cereals are far less greedy than of phoaphorio acid \ 
and of the potash they do assimilate, the larger proportion a 
deposited in their straw, and retaros in tbe dncg to the soil. 
Keeping these facts ip view, and considering also the original 
composition of fair arable soils, containing ordinary proportioos of 
potaasic silicates in course of gradual diaintegratioa, it appears to 
the reporter that the cereals tend to withdraw tbe Hcid-iagredieDt 
of these silicates, leaving their alkaline bases aa a bequest (so to 
apeak) to the following geoeration of plants. Thus, when tbe 
root-crop enters into possession of the field, it meets with a soi 
recently droned of available phoaphatea, bat not by any means 
exhausted of potash. What more nataral, under such circum- 
Btanoen, — what more strictly ooDformable with Liebig'slaw, — than 
that soluble phosphates, not potash, abould be the oiaereal supply 
required? 

Upon the whole, therefore, tbe reporter is constrained to believe 
that phosphoric acid is no more a " apedfic" {in any peculiar or 
mysterious sense) for the root-crops, than potash is for beans and 
peas, or nitrt^n for oora. The more attentively, indeed, the 
&ots are examined, the more strongly do they appear to confirm 
the grand and simple mle Wd down by Justus Liebig, as tbe prime 
oooditioQ of sonnd and dnrabte Boeoew in hosbaadry, via., (Ae 
Tot. I. o Mo. 8.' 



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210 THI OAHADUir NATtTBALIBT. \^.^! 

/aith/ui ratibUxon to the $oU of the ath-coattUutntt removed in 
the crops. 

Twelve yeara >go iodeed, the leaders of the " nitrogen " soho<tl 
O&rried their doctrine so far bb to declare ammoDia a auffioient 
" subetittite " for oinereal manures. " Even mpposiog," said they 
(writing in 1851) — "evea Bupposiog a mineral manure, founded 
on a knowledge of the ashes of plants, to be still the great desid- 
eratum, the farmer maj rest ooDtented meanwhile that he has in 
ammortia, supplied to him by Peruvian guano, by ammooiaoBl 
salta, and by other sources, bo good a BUBSTlTnT£."* The 
reporter does not hesitate to condemn the doctrine set up in this' 
passage as one of unjustifiable spoliation. 

Nine years later (in 1861)f the same vrilers tell the farmer 
that an ordinary oorn-growing soil, taken as one foot deep, culU- 
yated in the usual way, and annually exporting its whole produce 
of corn and meat, without rettitutum of their eiitereal conslituenlt, 
contains enough [AosphcM^o aeid to support this drain for 1000 
years, enough potash to meet the demand for 2000 years, and 
enough silica to last for no less than 6000 years. 

The evident tendency of these stupendous figuros is to produce 
the impression that " restitution" to such a reservoir ag this would 
be a more absurdity. If the available cinereal treasnrra, lying 
withiB twelve iocbes under the soles of our feet, be really of this 
dazzling description, a proportionate supply of ammoni^i, to bring 
them as last as possible into activity, may well be put forward as 
our chief agrioultural requirement. 

We are thus brought hack to the nitrogen ^oestion; which, in 
the light of this doctrine of inezhaastibility, actjuires a new and 
incommensarable importance. For, if we oan only match our 
"inexhaustible" cioereals with a similar supply of ammonia, the 
lamp of Aladdin (so to speak) is at the disposal of mankind, and 
the language of Soheherzade is soarcely gorgeous enough to paint 
the golden future of our happy race. 

To the momentOQB question thus raised, tbs prophets of cinereal 
jilenty uSbrd us, by their new mode of oompntatton, the means of 

* ' On Agrioaltaral Obembtij', espocial^,' Ac, see the preoedisf 
■note. 

t'On SoDM Poiata in Oonnection with the BihaastloDof Soils.' 
'Bapon of the Brit. Anoc. for the Advancement of SoiauM'for 18SI. 



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1864] oaaiOBTBT oi> XAinrKSB. 211 

Biddng & moat satiaftetory np\j. We know, fivm tlie ranlts of 
nnmberltts anidyses of soils, that wberaaoerer we plaoge a spade 
tea ioehea deep into ao average arable soil, we iDteraeot a layer of 
Bitingenoiu plant-food, held as " availably " as the oiaemJ itcree, 
and safficieol in quantity to noorish good whe&t-oropa, year after 
yeutj/or upward* of tent^ cenfitriet. 

To thiB magnifiooDt nitn^aons reserve large-handed Nature 
Ubraally adds, ont of onr pleateons BtmoBpherio stores, at least 
two thirds of the quantity annually required, even when this is 
ealcnlated at the most liberal rate of farming ; so that it will take 
2100 years to eshanst our aadergronnd stock of nitrc^n. If 
theiefare we have, as we are assured, phosphates for 1000 years, 
onr ammoniaool wealth (computed by the same rule) is fully twice 
as great; and these figures, be it observed, do not take into 
aeconnt (on either aide) bo mnob as a third of the depth really 
explored by the sbsorbeat roots. 

Why, then, do these annual wbeatHiiops refuse to grow f With 
all this ammonia lying amongst their roots, and with einereal sup- 
plies in similar profusion, why are these oorn-plants (to use the 
huBbaodmaa's metaphor) so " shy ?" We turn Daturally (o the pro- 
pounders of the " inexhaustible " theory for an explanation. Alas I 
we find that they studiously refrain from pressing the ammouiaoal 
halfofthur argument. They place at our disposal phosphates 
tor 1000 years, potash for twenty centuries, and siliea for a three- 
fbld cycle of time ; but of ammonia, by the same rule simUarly 
abandaut, they will not grant ua one poor century's supply, nor, 
indeed, a tingle yea^t. 

They supply us, instead, with the eurious fact, that an artificial 
aaline dressing, calculated to supply to a cornfield " lOO lbs. of 
ammonia per acre," and " only iuoreasing the percentage of am- 
monia in the soil by 0-0007," — a ehemioally inappreciable addi- 
tion, — will give " a pndaee at leatt dovhle that of the unmanartd 
land."* Thos, with the ammonia of centuriet crowded iuto a 
qwn-deep layer beneath onr f^et, we have still to go, money in 
hand, year by year, to the gas-works or Uie guaoo-atores for each 
mooeeding erop's supply. 

One ooosolatJOD remains. Though ammonia, Qie " good sub- 
fltitute " fat otnereahi, is withheld, and the application of the " i;fi- 

■ ' On Agrionltuial Chemistry,* Ao-t loe. pru. 



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212 THB OANADIAR KATVBAUBT. [June, 

Qzbsnstible" theory to thi>, "tbemoetprecioiiB" of plant-foodB, is 
forbidden, we bave gtill our grant of oinereal treasures to fall back 
on. To these, at least, the '' iDezhaostible " theory does appljr ; 
for are not its magniGcent conclusions before «s, stated in figures 
b; its creators themselves ? 

There is in this much comfort. For, of the ammonia we need, 
Nature supplies, after all, the major part ; whereas, of the cinereals, 
every ounce exported from the fields by man, must be by man, 
at his own cost, restored. 

But this comfort also is snatehed from ns 1 Our gravely de- 
monstrated oinereal wealth,— our "inexhaustible" treasure of 
silica, potash, and tht phosphates, turns out to be as impalpable 
as the ammonia itself. Like conjurers' money, this treasure also 
vanishes oot of our hands, even while we are trying to count it. 

Who then deprives na of this, the remaining moiety of our 
agricultural fortune 7 Can it be that the theorists who gave it 
OS, themselves also take it away ? It is even so. The promulga- 
tors of the grand doctrine of cinereal affluenee, caution ns iwt to 
act on it. They idl ns that they do not adopt it " iu practice " 
fi)r their own guidance ; and we learn with sorrow, from their 
own pre-oited paper, the disastrous issue of an attempt, continaed 
daring eighteen years to carry it into effect ■. — 

" They [the authors of the paper] had grown ^heat for ei^- 
teen years consecutively on the same land, respectively without 
manure, with farm-yard mBOure, and with different constituents 
of manure, and they bad determined the amounts of the different 
mineral constituents taken off in the crop from the respective 
plots. Numerous tables of the results were exhibited. * * 

" Turning," they add, " to the bearing of the results on the 
main subject of inquiry, It appeared that when ammonia-salts 
were nsed alone, year after year, on the same land, the composi- 
tion of the ash, both of the grnn and straw, showed an appreciable 
decline in the amount of phoiphoric acid, and that of the straw a 
cotuida-able reduction in the percentage o/ ntica." Farther on in 
the same paper, the farmer is told that the experimentalists "do 
Dotreoommend such exhaustive practice as that quoted from their 
own experiments." Ten years previously (in 1851) the "inez- 
banstible " theory was in a more vigorous stage of its existence. 
Then the colossal reserves were only deemed liable to contingent 
exbauetion, in the double event, first of the discovery (not yet 



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1864.] OHBMIST&T OF XAirUBtS. 213 

aooomplisbed) of " a cheap soaroe of ammonia" ; and, secondly, 
of the " exoessiTe" nse of each newly-lband nitrogenous sn]^lieB : 
in which case, said the theorists, " the available mineral [cinereal] 
oonstitnenta might, in their tarn, heoome exhausted." — (ioe. 
prec) 

Rererting to the paper of 1861 foronemore quotation, — and it 
shall he the last, — the doctrine that nitrogen is a " specific " for 
ooro, anda "good eahstitate" for oinorcals, is, in tolerably explicit 
terms, abandoned hy its anthora themselveB ; wlio, after referring 
to the oomparatire oropa they obtained by means of (1) ammonia 
taltg alone, and (2) mineral [oinereal} oonstitnenta only, thns 
epitomise their experienee : — 

" Bat in neither of these cases was there anything like the 
amonnt of mineral oonstitneata obtuned in the crop, that there 
was when the ammonia-salts and mineral manures were ased 
together, or when farm-yard manure was employed." 

To sum this matter up in plain words : the " good anbstitnte " 
for cinercals, pat forth in 1851, has had a fair trial, and has failed. 
Ammonia, judged by the experiments of its advocates (as well as 
by many other trials), provee not to be, as was allied, a " specific " 
manure for corn. The " specific " value of potaeh and the phos- 
phates, for leguminons and root crops respectively, stadds equally 
disproved. Oom and meat cannot be oondnnonsly exported from 
soils for 6000, 2000, or 1000 years, without restitution (respec- 
tively) of the siUoa, potash, and phosphates, removed in their 
tdssne^ from the soils. These illusory views, whioh their advocates 
(to do them jostice) have already, to a large extent, honorably 
renoauced, must be utterly abandoned. The celebrated "nitrc^en 
theory " is at an end ; and with it &I1b also the doctrine of 
"mannrial specifies." 

We now know that the costliest ammoniaoal salt, and the obeap- 
eet and commonest of the oinereals (say for example silica or lime), 
judged by the spongiole of a plant's root, are of precisely equal 
value ; — each priceless, so tar as essential to the plant's natrition ; 
each worthless, aa to every molecule beyond. 

We know alao that thegreat law ofRftsTlTUTlON applies equally 
te fixed and volatile, to scarce and to abundant, ingredients of plant- 
food; though the fiilfilmentoF that law devolves unequally on man 
and natore, in every different ewe.' 

We know that the prosperi^ of tha orop, whieh represents 



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214 THE OANASUM HATtTBALlBf. {JmH,' 

dividaul, » bat a delnsiva te$tv£ SmtiMtji-aaitBt it be BMomp»- 
nied by tbe proaperit; of tbe soil, vbioh itfnaeiHa capffnf. 

Everj- exoeaa, nhethea' on the side of expeDditan or oap&tidiw 
tion, irhetber on tbe side of OTar-eroppiog the land ei of undvly 
aogmentiDg its reaeires, ia eqaaily a derelietion of agiioultarsl 
duty, and equally reprehenaible as a frmn of teorte. For, if dis- 
proportionate expeaditnre diaBipates tbe subetuiM of wealth to 
apaoe, dispropOTtionate c^italisalJOD (tbe mistir'B findt) aqsaaden 
its usnfruet in time. It ia therefoie onr dnty to call tbrth and 
oonsume tbe largeat erope ire can ; bat onlj asd alvajB on tb« 
oonditioD of sot iufKi^ng on the rabAvee of tbe soil. If, tbroiqjli 
indolence, we fail to prodnoe the lai^jett poaMUe enpfAj of food 
for tho consamption c^ the prweat generation^ we retard, ptv 
tatUo, the maltiplicatioQ of oar raee, and fw) in our dnty to tiio 
unborn. If, on ike other hand, greed of immediate gain tempt 
us to redooe the mineral balanee in tbe soil (of ^irit, be it, 
remembered, we are not omXrt bat Muteai) i we eqnally sin gainst 
tbe unborn, bj derouring their inheritance. We owe to onr 
fathers, end we are boond to pay to oar diildren, who are also 
thars, a doulde debt, — life, and the meani of it* sapport. A 
generous race as soomfally di>daii» to band down to its |iioet«rit^ 
an impo7wished soil, as a d^neiate Mood. The nitrc^n ibeocy 
failed to reoi^niie these priaoiplee, and benoe its downfall. 

Skwaoa-Mangki £xpebihsmt6 at Rdqbt. — If, from tbe 
point of view now reaohed, attention be given to tbe oonrHe of 
ezperimentB reeendy undertaken, and Moll in ptognm, at Bugbj, 
to det^mine tbe valiie <^ sewag^mannre, it will he readily per- 
oeived that tbeee experimenta are btsed on a miBOOneeptioa, u 
well of the problem to foe solved, as of the ezperimeotid melliod 
which alone Is adequate to its conelaBive eolation. 

The nature of liiis twofold miseonoeption is inffioentfy mani- 
fested iu the tests of value ezelusively appealed to in Uiese trials. 
These tests are, on the om; hand the qtiantitj, and on tbe otber 
band the quality, of the oiops raised upon measBred areas of 
land, under the influence of dlSbreot volomes of sewi^, as com- 
pared with the yield of a similar area kept purposely unmanored. 
A few yean ^o this method would have met with rery general' 
approbation and ooncurroQce. But in the present state of agri- 
oaltural knowledge its fallacy will be readily perceived. We are 
now aware that the value' of' a manure doai not bear any snob 



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1864.] dfiiHisTRT or manitbes. 21^ 

fited and exclasive relation, as the method in queation enppoaes, 
to its immediate influence on the crop. The reader who haa 
accompanied the reporter throngli the foregoing pages of this 
section will be prepared to recognise that, nader cooditione of 
&eqaent oeonrrenee, a luxuriant crop, obtained by the use of an 
artificial mannrc, so far from tnaoifesting increased fertility, may 
liiit be the sign and measure of accelerated ezhauBtion. He will 
alao understand that a maitiire may have added not a single sheaf 
to the harvest, not so much aa one blade to the yield of hay, and 
yet may have solved the great problem of agriculture, hy exactly 
batancing the drain made on the soil hy the crop. 

An unlimited supply of the former mannre might be a positive 
CiiTse to a nation, by tempting them nndnly to exhaost their 
soil. The gratuitcns gift of the latter, on the contrary, in due 
adaptation to every field, would be tlie most precious boon a 
nation could receive ; because it vould place their agriculture on 
a footing of perdurable prosperity. 

It may however be urged that the object of the Bagby experi- 
ments is simply to determine the lutnnsic valae of the Rugby 
sewage ; meauing its degree of richness in available plant-food of 
all kinds, or its absolute orop-inoreasing power. And this infor- 
mation, it may be contended, the direct teet to which the sewage 
is brought at Bogby (and which may be compendiously termed 
tlie crop-teit), seems, at all events, well adapted to elicit 

But a very brief consideration of the matter, in the light of the 
above-stated principles, will suffice to show that these reasonings 
fjso are illusory; and that the orop-test, of itself, cannot afford 
^y reliable or conclusive information as tc the crop-increasing 
power of sewage. 

For the benefit resolting to any given crop, from the use of 
lUiy given manure, wiU vary from absolutely nil up to the maxi- 
mum attainable effect, aooording to the nature and composition 
of the soil, which, in the Rugby experiments, does not appear to 
have been determined. The richer the soil of the experimental 
fields, the poorer must the Rugby sewage seem ; because, however 
nch this sewage maybe, the increase It can determine in the crop 
depends, uot merely on the wealth it brings, but also on the want 
which it supplies. 

The blowing sands at Craigentinny, manured with the Edia- 
bui^ sewage, want every form of plant-food bat silica, and con- 



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216 THK OAHADIAM NATnRALtBT. [June, 

tEun even that only in ite insolnble Tuietj. It is, aooordioglj, 
on these sands that tlie richeet increase ever obtained by means 
of sewage has been achieved, It is impossible to infer from this 
inoreaee what the effect of the Edinburgh sewage would be on 
the grass-crop of the Bugby meadows ; or on any other crop else- 
where. Still less oan the crops obtiuned, either at Oraigentinny 
or Rugby, afford of themselves the slightest indication of the area 
to which the sewage of the British population is due. 

It is not necessary, and it might seem invidious, to pursue 
these reasonings further, or to trace in minuter detail the erro- 
neous conditions, which involve in doubt, and render inconclusive, 
the trials in progress at Rugby. Those trials are carried od by 
a body of able men, who will doubtless improve their method as 
tfaey proceed. The reporter however is anxious, in quitting this 
subject, to record his conviction that no experiments on sewage 
oan determine its value, or settle the problem of its atilizatton, 
unless the measurement of its influence on the avp be conjoined 
with that of its effect on the toil ; unless, in other words, the 
maintenance of capital receive a share of attentiou, as well as the 
increase of expenditure ; unless, to sum up all, we approach this 
question, not merely in the hope of advantage to ourselves, but 
also under a deep sense of our duty to posterity. 

Tbibute to Messbb. Lawes and Gilbert. — Having spoken 
in condemnatory terms of the " nitrogen theory," and of the doo- 
trine of " manurial apeeifios," and having declared these theories, 
to the beat of his judgmeut, defunct, the reporter is anxious in 
justice to add, that their career, if brief, has been brilliant; that 
they have been advocated oonrageously and conscientiously, in 
ungle desire to arrive at the truth ; and that the princely experi- 
neuts uodertakeM for their support, if they have failed in estab- 
lifhing untenable propositions, have nevertheless elicited incidental 
Apd collateral results, of very high interest and importance. Twen- 
ty years of indefatigable labor in a difficult field of research entitle 
Messrs. Lawes and Gilbert to an ample tribute of public recogni- 
tion. It is indeed impossible tobelievethatreaaoners so acute, and 
experimcntaliste so persevering, will long continue to maintain 
the slightest remnants of a doctrine so manifestly opposed to the 
laws of nature. In this respect their eminent anti^nist, who, in 
1845, found himself in a similar predicament, — i. e., iu unwitting 



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1864.] 0B1KI8TRT or KANtTRXa, 217 

<q)positiontoalBwofiiBtare (as above explained), — has set a noble 
example, 

HouAOB TO Jneius LiSBia. — The oorreclion of his error by 
Way, Ltebig frankly and nnheeitatingly aooepted. Hia genius 
instantly appreciated the value of the Ei^lish chemist's obserra- 
Uon ; and shed upon it so bright a light as may be said to have 
doubled its importance. Liebig, in fact, studied the new tiiith 
in all its bearings, supplied its most generally-reoeived interpreta' 
tion, displayed its momentous consequeneee, elevated it to the 
rank of a law of nature, and embodied this law as one of the 
OOmei^toneB of his great edifice. 

Probably, in all Liebig'a illustrions career, no incident bean 
higher testimony than this to the vigor and fertility of his intel- 
lect, to his andeviating candor, and to his diunterested solidtude, 
on all oooasionfi, for truth and truth alone. 

The writer would, indeed, be doubly untrue to his functions afl 
reporter on this occauon, and to his feelings as Iiiebig's country' 
man and former pupil, if he foiled to acknowledge here, in a few 
words uttered &om his heart, the debt of Europe — nay, of man- 
kind at Urge — to the illustrious r^enerator of agriculture. Con- 
tinuing the work of his revered predecessors, Lavoisier and Sir 
Humphrey Davy, Liebig has nobly trod the arduous path which 
it was their gloiy to point out. And, ude by side, as long as hus- 
bandry shall last, will these three names shine in co-equal glory,— 
Antoink Lavoismb, Hcmphrbt Davy, Justus LrEsia. To 
Lavoisier belongs the noble initiation of the work ; to Davy, its 
e^endid prosecution ; to Liebig, its glorious consummation. Em- 
bracing in his masterly induction the results of all foregone and 
contemporary investigation, and supplying its large defects by his 
own incomparable researebee, Liebig has buUt up on imperishable 
foundations, as a connected whole, the code of simple general 
laws on which r^nerated agriculture must henceforth for all 
time repose. 

Li speaking thus of his illustrious countryman and revered 
master, the reporter does not fear to be misunderstood. No nar- 
row spirit of patriotism animates his words. Qenius, indeed, in 
its highest manifestations, transcends mere national boundaries ; 
Idngdoma are too narrow to be its birthplace ; and in the homage 
it reodves, not this or that country, or continent, or hemisphere, 
but humanity at large, is exalted. 



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Tui akWMtAii Nii^rlUtiBV. {iJsheV 



NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY. 

AHMnAL HKKTtNQ. 

The anouil meeting of ttn Society was held in its rooms on 
tbeevetainig of May 18th, PrinoipKl Dawson, President, in the 
chm. A iitgfi number of the members were pieeent. Mr. 3. ¥. 
WhiteBTea, the Recording Seoretaiy, road the minntee of the l«8l 
uioaal meeUng; after whieb the u^tuil ann&al addren of the 
President was read, as follows :— 

Addribs or TOM Frbsidxnt. 



GBNTLBMEtT, — I labor on this occasion nnder the dtsadvant^e 
of having had twice' in sncoession to pi-epara the annnal address 
of the President; a circnmstance which should not ordinarily' 
oobnr in a society of this character, in which, following the usage 
of our older sisters, we should endeaTor to have a new mind 
bought to bear on this work in each sucoessive year. I shall 
however tak^ advantage of this circamstancc to deviate somewhat 
frina the course usual with Us on such occasions, and, aftermerely 
ghnciog at the scientific wort of the Society, to direct your atten- 
tion to some speculations of my own on snbjeota now attracting 
the attention of natur&Iiats. 

The BoientiftA papers laid befbie this Society in its session jngf 
concluded, if not quite so nant^ns as in some previous sessions, 
art not inferior in point of interest and importance. In geolc^, 
Sir William Logan has continned in our journal the discussion of 
the age and distribution of the Quebec Oroup of Rocks. Dr. 
dnntbas given further and important &ctB in ohemioal geology. 
Professor Bell has illuatnited certain portions of the super&cid 
deposits, and has deserihed one of our most important quarries 
of roofing-slate. Mr. HoFaTlane has contribntcd an elaborate 
disoussion of the interior oondition of our planet and of the 
mode of formation of Metunorphic and Igneous Rooks. Professor 
Bidley has elueidated an obscure portion of the Qeology of New 
Brunswick, indirectly of mnch interest to Canadian geologists. 
Hr. BillingB hu oontributed & paper on % disputed genus of Bra- 



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18S4.] NAirtraiAi; rijMPoBT BocniiT^ 219" 

oMopods. Froftesorfiow hu given TIB ADalpeB of Mineral Watera 
in NoTi Scotia. Mr. Jones has sent ns an interesting paper qo the 
geoIogtoal'iintKirtanoe oTOoean Gorrents. I t&ve myself occupied 
Witib Bpa<fe in onr protSeedingswitli my reSearchea on Reptiles and 
Plants of the Cod-Period; and in connection with these, I would' 
desire to say here that I regard the conclusions of Hr. Hant in 
hit short bat vslnable paper on tfa6 Climate of tlte Pateoxoic 
period as of great importance. Whatever views we may adopt 
U to the (^ginal heated condition of the earth, if we take into 
aooonot the enormous length of time required by the calculations 
ot pfaysicists ''^ fbr tlie reduction of the earth's temperature even 
one degree, it seems chimerical to suppose that any appreciable 
efeat on afinfate could have been produced by internal heat 
in tike eoal-period. Tet thie character' abd distribution of the 
flora of that pleriod would appear to imply a comparatively 
high and equable temperature in the northern temperate and buV 
sMtic tones. Now if the experiments of Tyndall, cited by Dr. 
Hnnt, oan be taken to establish that a small percentage of carbonio 
acid and an additional amount of aqueous vapour diffused ihron^ 
the atmosptme would largely econotdise the solar beat by prevent^ 
ing radiation, and thus give conditions similar to those of a glass- 
ibofed oonservatory, we have in this consideration, in connection 
irith the known distribution of land and water in the oubonifer- 
ons era, a snffii»ent cause for any difference of olimatal conditions 
required by the flora. To appreciate more folly the vdue of this 
Bi^lgestibn, it wonld be necessary to make experiments as to the 
amount of oarbonio acid which might be beneficially present in 
the air, in the case dt plants like those of the coal-period, for 
instance Ferns, LyeopodUuxa and Cycadacce, and also to oalcn- 
lato the effect of such proportion of carbonic acid in' impeding 
radiation. 

Before leaving the work of the Society in the past year, I must 
Mtomit to mention that we have not n^ected soQlogy and botanj^ 
ud among oontribntions of this kind I could have wished to 
notice at some length those of Mr. Packard on the Marine Inver- 
tebratee of Labrador, and of Professor Lawson on Canadian 
Botany. 

* For example, those of Poistoa and Hopkins, which wonld gtre 
100,000,000,000 of jeara for a ditninntion of one to thrM dagreei of 
ttmperatare. 



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220 THX OAHADUH NATUBALI8T, [Jane, 

By far the most importaat poblioation of the past year, in the 
Natural History of Canada, has been the great Report of the 
Qeological Survey, a work in which, aa the aohievement of mem- 
bers of this Society, we may very well take pride ; and on whioh 
we may oongratalate onrselves as faoilitatiag the labors of those 
wnong OB who pay attention to geology, either with a view to prae- 
tioal or Goientifio results, and aa greatly rai^ng the seientiGo 
reputation of this oonntry. 

The Report of the Survey has already been reviewed in the 
NataralUt, and I propose here not so much to say anything as to 
its general merits, as to refer to a few points in Canadian geolt^ 
to which it directs our attention. 

One of these is the discovery uf fossils in the old Laoreotian 
rooks, heretofore usually named Azoic, as being deatitnte of life, 
and much older than any rocks known to oontain fossils. The 
oldest remains of living beings, until this disoovery, had been 
found in rocks known as Oambrian, or Primordial, and equivalent 
in age to our oldest Silurian of Oanada, or at the most to our 
Borooian. But the Huronian series in Oanada rests on the 
aptnraed edges of the Laurentian, which had been hardened and 
altered before the Huronian seriee was deposited. Again, Sir 
William Logan has shown that the Laurentian system itself 
contaios two distinct series of beds, the npper of which rests 
nnoonformably on the lower. There are thus in Canada at least 
two great series of rocks, of such thickness as to indioate two 
distinct periods eaeh of vast length, below the lowest fossiliferous 
rooks of other oountries. Tet in the lowest of these so-called 
Azoio groups fossils have now been found; Canada thus dis- 
tancing all other parte of the world, so far as yet known, in the 
antiquity of its oldest fossils. 

I have had the happiness to submit these remarkable specimens 
to mioroBOopio examination, at tiie request of Sir W. E. Logan, 
and have arrived at the conclusion that they are of animal nature, 
and belong to the very huinbleat type of animal ezistenoe known, 
that of the Rhiaopodt, though they far outstrip in magnitude any 
known modern representatives of that group, The discovery of 
this remarkable fossil, to be known as the Eozoon Canadenie, will 
be one of the brightest gems in the scientific crown of the Geo- 
logical Survey of Canada. 

In oonneotion with this snbjeot, it is to be observed that the 



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1861.] NATtmAI. BI8T0BT SOCIXTT. 221 

greDd order of snocession in (he [Lanrentian ByBtem seems to b« 
the same with that so often repeated in other parts of the geo- 
Ic^ical Bcale, — coarse fragmentary beds represented by conglomer- 
ate and gneiss ; oaicateons and fossiliferous basds represented b; 
tiie EoiooD limestones ; and finer earthj deposits, represented by 
felspatbio rocks. This brings the Lanrentian, into a cycle some- 
what similar to that of the Potsdam gandatone, the Chazy and 
Trenton limestone, and the Utica slate and Hudson Biver in the 
Lower Silnrian; or to that of the Medina sandstone, the Niagara 
limestone, and Lower Helderberg in the Upper Silorian ; or to that 
of the Oriskany sandstone, Comiferous limestone, and Hamilton 
uid Chemung groups in the Devonian ; or to that of tbe liower Car- 
boniferous conglomerates and sandstones, the Carboniferous lime- 
stones, and the Coal-measures in the Carboniferous period. This 
recnrrenoe of cycles of deposit cannot be accidental. It is more or 
kea to be seen throughout the geological scale, and in all countries ; 
and aa I have elsewhere pointed out, it inolndea numerous subor- 
dinate cycles within the same formation, as in the coal-measurea. 
Eaton, Hunt, and Dana have referred to it ; but it deserves a moT« 
careful study as a means of settling the sequence of oscilla- 
tions of land and water in connection with the saccesaion of life. It 
will also be important in giving fixity to our geological classifications, 
and may eventually aid in establishing more preoiae views of the 
dynamics of geology and of tlie lapse of geological time. The prog. 
Tees of the earth has, like most other kinds of progress, been not 
by a continuous evolution, but by a series of cycles, of great summers 
and winters, or days and nights, of physical and vital changes, in 
eaofa of which all things seem to revolve back to the place of begin- 
oing ; only to begin a new cycle or new turn of a spiral, similar to 
the last in its general course, though altogether different in its 
details, accompaniments, and results. 

There is another subject of great geological importance onwhiob 
the publication of the Report enables strong ground to be takeo. 
I refer to the conditions under which t&e Boulder-Drift of Canada 
was deponted. It has been customary to refer this to the action of 
ioe-laden seas and currents, on a continent first aubdding and then 
le-elevated. But this opinion has recently been giving way before 
a re-aasertion of the doctrine that land-glaoiers have been the 
principal agents in the distribution of tbe boulder-drift, and in the 
etouoDfl with which it was aooompanied. I oonfess that I have stead- 



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222 lEUC OANAJ)!^ i^xuaALisx. [Jni^, 

U; rejected thiH last do4triii£;beiD^ooiimoedtlutiiaaperd9ls^7ffi^ 
cal and meteorologioalolyeotiqDH might b6 urged agaioBt it, and that 
it irafi not in aooordanoe with the facta wliioh I bad mjaqlf observed 
in J4ova Scotia and in Canada. The additiooal &ot8 coutaioed 
in the present Report enable ine to assert with ooufideooe, 
though with all humility, that glacierB could souoely b^re beep 
the t^ente in the striation of Canadian rocks,, the transport of 
Canadian boulders, or the excavation of Canadian laketb^^ns. In 
making this statement I know that I differ in some degree from 
many of m; geological friends, but I know that they irill be 
rejoiced that I should freely and franUy sti)te the reasons of my 
belief. 

The facta to be accounted for are the striation and polishing of 
rock-surfaces, the deposit of a she^tof unatraldfied day and stoneB, 
the transport of boulders from distant sites lying to the north- 
ward, and the deposit on the boulder-day of beds of stratified 
olay and sand, containing marine shells. The rival theories in 
discussion are—Jirtt, that which supposes a gradual subsidence and 
re-elevation, with the action of the sea and Its currents, bearing ioe 
at oertoin seasons of the year ; and, seeoadlj/, that which supposes 
the American land to have been covered with a sheet of glacier 
several thousands of feet thick. 

The last of these theories, without attempting to undervalue its 
application to such r^ons as those ^ the Alps or of Spitxbei^en or 
Greenland, has appeared to me inapplioable to the drifi-depodts 
of eastern America, for the foUowmg ammg other reasons : 

1. It requires a series of suppositions unlikely in themselves 
ftnd not warranted by facts. The most important of these is 
the coincidence of a wide-spread continent and a nniveraal ooyer- 
ing of ice in a temperate latitude. In .the existii^ state of the 
world, it is well known that the ordinary conditions reqaired by 
glaciers in temperate latitudes are elevUed dkains snd peaks ex- 
tending above the snow-line ; and that cases in which, in BOoh 
latitudes, glaciers extend nearly to the sea-levd, occur only where 
the mean temperature is jednoed by odd ooean^curren,ta iq^voaohing 
to high laud, as for ipalja^oe fa Teriia del Fuegi> agd the sonthew 
extremity of South Amerioti. Bji,t t^ Uapftxtia ttf^oia of North 
America could not be ooyered with a permanent j^antle of ise 
under the existing conditions of solar ndiation ; fi» evm if the 
whole were deyated into f t^le-laiid,itfl bntdtjh would aMfue asufi- 



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A8^.] w^■WM. ^^vom jwhwt. .223 

jjent evnmer heai to m«lt aw&y the m, ezoept jrom high mavnUin- 
peaks. Either thea there iqtut haye been unmense moontuB- 
phaina which hfive disappeared, or there miut have beea Bome 
onexampled aatronoDiioal cause of refrigeration, aa, for example, 
ibe earth pasuDginto ,a oolder portion of sp&ce, or the amount of 
BoUr beat being dimiiiiahed. But the former mppoaition has no 
warrant from geology, and astronomy affords no evidenoe for ^e 
Utter views, whiqh besides would imp); a diminnlioii of evapora- 
ikta militatiag as muoh against the gl^cierrUieorjr as wonid an 
uoess of heat. An atUmpt has recently been made by Professor 
Fnnldand to aooon^t for snph a state of things by Uie sappoeition 
of a higher temperature of the aes, along wjtb a qolder temperature 
of the land : bat ttua inveraion of the usual state of things is 
unwarranted by the dootdne of the secular cooling of the earth ; 
it is contradicted by the fossils of the period, which show that the 
seas were ctHder tluu at present ; and if it eziated, it oonld not 
produce the effects n>qnired, unless a pr.- tematural arrest were at the 
same time kid on the winds, which spread the temperature of the 
sea over the land. The all^d facts obserTod in Norway, and 
Stated to support this view, are evidently nothing but the results 
ordinarily observed in rangesof bills, one sideof which fronts cold 
BSft-water, and the other land warmed in summer by the sun. 

2. It seems physically impossible that a ^eet of ice, such as 
diat sapposed, could move over an uneven suriaoe, striating it in 
direotions uniform over vast areas, and often different from the 
present inclinations of the Enrface. Qlacier-ice may move on veiy 
slight slopes, ,bat it must follow these ; and the only resnlt of the 
immense aoonmulation of ice sapposed, would be to prevent motion 
alt(^;ather by the want of slope or the ooanteraction of opposing 
slopes, or h) indape a slight and irregular moUon toward the 
matins or oatward from the more prominent protaberanoes. 

It is to be observed, also, that, as Hopkins has diown, it iaonly 
lite Hiding motiop o( glaoiers that can ptdisb or erode sorfiuMS, 
and that any iaternal ehangea runlting from the mere weight of a 
thjek mass of ioa reptii^ on a level aaxtkaa, ooold have little or no 
inflnrace in this way. 

3. The trauspoctof boulders togreatdistanoes, and thelodgment 
of thooa on hilktope, oould not have been ooeaaloned fay gla<ners. 
Xhcfle carry downward the blocks that fall on them from wasting 
iHiSa. Bat the anivenal glacier sapposed oovid have no sooh 



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224 THE CANADIAN MATCBALIST. [June, 

oUfi ^m wMoh to ooUeot ; and it uiut have carried boulden for 
hnndredB of mileB, and left them on points as high as those they 
were taken from. On the Montreal MonotatQ, at a height of 
600 feet above the aea, are huge boulders of feldspar from 
the Laurentide hills, which most have been carried 50 to 100 
miles from pointe of scarcely great«r elevatioD, and over a 
valley ia which the etrise are in a direction nearly at right angles 
with that ot the probable driftage of the boulders. Quite as strik- 
ing examples oooar in many parts of this country. It is also 
to be observed that boulders, often of large size, occur aoattered 
through the marine stratified clays and Bands containiag sea-shells; 
and whatever views may be entertained as to other boulders, 
it cannot be denied that these have been borne by floating ice. 
Kor is it true, as has been often affirmed, that the honlder-clay is 
destitute of marine fossils. At Mnrray Bay and St. Nicholas, on 
the St. Lawrence, and also at Cape Elisabeth, near Portland, there 
are tough stony days of the nature of true " till," and in the lower 
part of the drift, whioh contain numerous marine shells of the 
usual Post-pliocene Bpeoiee. 

4. The Post-pliooeoe deposits of Canada, in their fossil remains 
and general character, indicate a gradual elevation from a state of 
depression, whioh on the evidence of fbsdlBmnsthaveestendedto 
at least 500 feet, and on that of far-travelled boulders to nearly ten 
times that amount, while there is nothing but the boulder-olay to 
npresent the previous subsidence, and nothing whatever to repre- 
sent the supposed pri'vions ioe-clad state of the land, esoept the 
soratehes on the rock surfaces, which must have been caused by 
the same agency which deposited the boulder-clay. 

5. The peat deposits with fir-roots, found below the boulder, 
olay in Cape Breton, the remains of plants aD4 iand-snails in 
the marine clays of the Ottawa, and the shells of the St. Lawrence 
olays and sands, show that the aea at the period in question had 
much the temperature of the present arotio ourrents of our ooostG, 
and that the land was not covered with ice,but supported a vegetation 
umilar to that of Labrador and the north shore of the St. Law- 
rence at present. This evidenoe refers not to the later period of 
the Mammoth and Mastodon, when the re^evation was perhaps 
nearly complete, but to the earlier period oontemporaneons witli 
or immediately following the supposed glaoier'period. In my 
former pikers on the Post-jdiooene of the St Lawrence, I have 



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1864.] HATQBAL HIBTOftT BOOHTT. 225 

abovn that tlie ohange of climate inTolved is not greater than that 
which maj have been doe to the snbiiideDoe of land, and to the 
ohaoge of coarse of the Arctic current, actually proved by the 
deposits themselves. 

These objections might be pnrsned to maohgreater length; 
bat enough has been said to show that there are in the case 
cf northeastern America, strong reaaona against the existence 
of any such period of extreme glaciation as sapposed b; many 
geolo<;ist8i and that if ire can otherwise explain the rook Htriatton 
and polishing, and the formatloa of fiords and lako-basinH, the 
strong pointe with these theorists, we can dispense alt<^ther 
with the portentous chanttea in phygioal geography involved in 
their views, and which are not neoessary to explain any of the other 
phenomena. 

It is on these points more espeoially, that the Report of the 
Geological Survey throws new light ; though Sir William, with his 
osnal oaation, has not comiuitled himself to theoretic^ oon- 
doaiotis ; and in one or two local oases he aeems to favor the- 
^aciei theory. It has long been known to geologists, that ia 
Dortheaetern America, two main directions of striatioo of rock-sur- 
&ces occur, from northeast to southwest, and from northwest to- 
southeast ; and that locally the directions vary from these to north 
and south and east and west. Various attempts have been mude, bnb 
without much success, to account for these directions of striiition 
by the motion of glaciers ; and while it is quite easy for any one pre- 
possessed with this view to account in this way for the striatioo. 
in a parlicaUr valley or part of a valley, yet so may exceptional facta 
occur as to throw doubt un the explanation, exoept in the case 
of a few of the smaller and steeper mountain-gorges. 

lathe Report of theSnrvey of Canada a valuable table of these 
Bbriatioos is given, from which it appears that they are locally 
distributed in sooh a way as to throw a decided gleam of light on 
Qtai origin. 

It would seem that the dominant direction in the valley of the 
St. Lawrence, along the high lands to the north of it, and across 
weatemNewYork,ie northeast and southwest', and that there is 
another series of scratches running nearly at right angles to the 
fiffmer, across the neck of land between Georgian Bay and Lake- 
Ontario, down the valley cf the Ottawa, and across parts of the 
Bastera Townships, connecting with tite prevalent soutiieask 

Tw. L r Ho. 8. 



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226 THK OAKADIAN HATUBALIBT. [JmU) 

. Bbriation whioh oooon in the valleys of the GoDneodoat and Lake 
Ghamplaia, and elsevbere Id New EogUnd. What were the d«tor- 
miniog oonditiona of theu two cooraea, and were tixej oontempo- 
raneous or diatinot in time? The first point to be settled in an- 
nrering these qaestions, is the direction of theforoe which caused the 
itrise. Now, I have no hesitation in asserting, from my own 
observations aa well as from those of othera, that for the southwest 
striation the direatJon was /ttmh f&« oc«an toioard the intetior, 
agrtintt the dope of the St. Laurence valley. The crag-snd-tail 
forms of all oar isolated hills, and the dir otion of transport of 
boulders carried from them, show that througbont Canada tlte 
moveraeat was from aor^east to southwest.* This atonce disposes 
of the glacier-theory for the prevailiag set of strite; for we cannot 
suppose a glaoier moving from the Atlantio up into the interior. 
Oo the other hand, it is eminently favorable to the idea of ooean 
drift. A subsidence of Amarioa, such as would at present convert 
all the pluias of Canada and New York and New England into 
sea, would dstermino the oourse of the Arctic current over this 
submerged land from northeast to southwest; and as the current 
would move u^ a tlope, the ioe which it bore woald tend to ground, 
and to grind the bottom as it passed into shallower water ; for it 
mnat be observed that the cburucter of slope which enables a 
glacier to grind the surface, may prevent ioe home by a onrrent 
from doing so, and vice vena. 

Now we know that in the Post-pliooene period eastern America 
was submerged, and oonseqnently the striation at oooe oomea into 
harmony with other geological facts. We have of course to sap- 
pose thai the striation took place during submergence, and that 
the process was slow and gradual, beginning near the sea and at 
the lower levels, and carried upwards to the higher grounds in 
enccessive oeatariea, while the portions previously striated were 
covered with depositsswept down from the sinking land or dropped 
from melting ice. It would be easy to show that this view oor- 
nsponds with many of the minor foots. 

Farther, the faots thus asoertained aooonnt for the excavation 
of the deep and land-looked basins of our great American lakes. 
Ocean cnrrents, if oold, and ctingiag to the bottom, must out out 
pot-holes, just as riTers do, though geologists are too apt to 
limit their Inno^on to the throwing op of banks. The oontae 

■ Tbe few eiceptlonal cues appear to belong mostlj to the later 
period of the stratified sands. 



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1864.] HATtniAL HI8T0BT BOOIXIT. . 227 

of the preaent aretio onrreDt along tfae Amerioan coast Imb its 

deep hollows as welt aa ite Band banks. Our American lake- 

bosiaa are out out deeply iulo the softer atraU. Bunoiug water 

on the laod would uat have done tbu, for it ooald hiive n > outlet ; 

oor oould this result be effeoled by breakers. Glaciers could not 

have efiectedit; ibr even if tfae climalal conditions for these were 

admitted, there is no height of land to give titem momentum. 

Bat if we suppose the lund sabmerged so that the Arclio oarrent, 

flowing from the northeast, should pour over the Lanrentian 

rooks on the north side of Lake Superior and Lake Huron, 

it would neceeSArily out oat of the softer Silarian strata jnstBUoh 

baaios, drifting their materials to the southwest. At tfae same 

time, the lower strata of the onrreat would be powerfally 

determiued through the strait between (he Adirondae and 

L&oreulide MIIb, and, flowing over the ridgo of hard rock which 

oooneots them at the Thousand Islands, would cat out the long 

basin of Lake Ontario, heaping up at th»8ame time in the lee 

of tfae Laurentian ridge, the great mass of boulder-clay which 

intervenes between Lake Ontario and G^rgian Bay. Lake 

Brie may have been out by the flow of the opper layers of water 

over the Middle Silurian esoariHDent ; and Lake Michigan, though 

le» olosdy connected with the direction of the ourrent, is, like 

the others, due to tfae action of & oontlnnons eroding force on rocka 

of unequal faardnesa. 

Tfae predominant aoutfaweet striation, and tiie cutting of the 
upper lakes, demand an outlet to the west for the Arctic current. 
But both during depression aud elevation of the land, there must 
have been a time when this outlet was obstruoted, and when the 
lower levels of Now York, New England, and Canada were still 
under wat«r. Then the valley of the Ottawa, that of tfae Mohawk, 
and tfae low country between Lakes Ontario and Huron, and tfae 
valleys of Lake Champltun and the Connecticut, would be straits 
m arms of the sea, and tfae current, obstructed in its direct flow, 
would set pnocipally along these, and act on tfae roeks in north 
and south and northwest and souUieast directions. To tfais portion 
«f tfae process I would attribute the nortfawest and Bontheast stria- 
tion. It is true tfaat tfais view does not account for tfae southeast 
Btriaa observed on some high peaks in New England ; but it must 
be observed that even at the time of greatest depression, the 
Arctic oarrent would oling to the northern land, or be tfarown w 



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2SS TBI OANADUR NAnnuLm. [June, 

npidly to the west that its direct utioii might not readi moh 
mrnmits. 

Nor would I exclude altogether the actbo of glatnen id eastern 
Amerioa, tboo}^ I most diseent from any view which woald 
asaign to them the priaoipal ageooy ia onr glacial phenomena. 
Under a condition of the oontinent in which on); its higher peaks 
were above the water, tlie air woold be so moiat, and tiie tempera- 
tnra solow, tbatpennanent ioemay have dang about moaataios in 
the temperaU latitudes. The atriaUon itself shows that there most 
have been extenaive gtaoiers as now in the extreme Arotio regions. 
Yet I think that most of the alleged instances moat be founded on 
error, and that old sea-beaches have been mistaken for moraines. 
I have failed tofind ev«) in the White Monntains tuy distinct sign 
of glacier action, though the aotion of the ooean-breakers is visible 
almost to ihdr summits ; and though I have observed in Canada 
and Nova Sootia many old sea-beaohes, gravel-ridges, and lake- 
mai^ns, I have seen nothing thut oonld fairly be regarded as tho 
work of gliMJiers. The so4alled moraines, in so far as my obser- 
vatioD extends, are more probaUy shiogle beuehee and bars, old 
coast-lines loaded wiA boulders, trains of boulders or " oaars." 
Host of them convey to my mind the impreeuon of ioo-aotion along 
a slowly subsiding coast, forming succeasive deposits of stones 
in the shitllow water, and hnryiog them in clay and smaller stones 
as the depth increased. These deposits were b^d modified dur- 
ing emei^ODce, when the old ridges were sometimee bared by 
denudation, and new once heaped np. 

I shall dose these remarks, perhaps nlready too tedious, by a 
mere reference to the allied prevaleoce of lake-batiBB and fiords 
in high northern latitndes, as onnneott d with glaoiul aotion. In 
reasoning on this, it seems to be overlooked that the prevalence 
of disturbed and metamorphio rooks over wide areas in the north 
is one element in the matter. Again, cnld Aretio currents are the 
cutters of baainB, not the warm sarfae^eurrenls. Further, the 
fiords on coasts, like the deep lateral valleys of monntuns, are 
evidencesof the action of die waveBrathBTthanofthatof ice. lam 
sare that this is the oass with the nuuierous indeotationB of the 
eoaatofNova9ootia,whidiare cut into the softer and more shat- 
tered bmda of rock, and show, in raised beaches and gravel 
ridges like thoee of the present coast, the levds of Hie sea at the 
time of theii fhrmation. 



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1864.] VATUKAL HIBTOST SOOIXTT. 229 

In oondiinoo, allow me to ezpresB my r^^t that the preeeiure 
of odter DOOMpatioos has allowed me so little time to discharge my 
daties as your premdent, and to hope that the oonrae of the Sooiety 
in the coming year may be still mora prosperous and successfdl 
thaa in the past 

BKPORT OP THB OOITNOIL. 
The Connoil of the Monti^ Natnral History Society, at their 
thirty-sixth annnal meeting, and in conformity with their prescribed 
duty and the yearly cnstom, b^ to lay before its members an 
account of their prooeedings doling their tenure of office, which 
this evening brings to a close : and in so doing have mnoh pleasare 
to congratulate ite members on the steady and onward progress 
which has eharaotericed the prooeedings of the past year. 

Thk Mdsedm. 

Thedonations to the Muaeam have been nnmeroos and valuable ; 
and yonr Council would more especially acknowledge donations 
from the University of our sister city, the Laval UniTentity ; of 
■ome418 species of insects from Mr. Saunders of London, G.W.j 
also donations from our worthy president, Dr. Dawson, oon«sting 
of fishes and shells; several birds, and three oases of insects from 
Mr. Perrier, oar treasurer ; and some valuable donations from Mr. 
Baraston ; beddes several small donationa from other parties, 
which though not so oamerons, are not the less valuable A list 
oftbeflcwill be found appended to thisrepmt. 

Yonr Council would b^ to make special mention of the Scien- 
tific Curator, Mr. Whiteaves, who oontinnes to give the most 
entire satis&otion. His work has been onerous and diffionlt. An 
inspection of the Museum will at once convince anyone of the 
labor and eara he has bestowed on the ola88ifi(^ation and labelling 
of the specimens in each department of Natural History. And 
yonr Council would ooogratolatetlie Society on this judicions and 
effirient appointmen t. 

Thx Librabt. 

The donationa to tbe Library have not been very nnmeroos ; the 
oompletionof Silliman'sJonrnal (by purohase), and the nsusl ex- 
changes from uster Societies form by far the greatest featnre on the 
lilt of new books. The Oonncil easnofe but express its K^ret, tha^ 



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THE CANADIAN NATURALIST. 



[Jni 



owing to the wnot of faad«, few new parohaBes bare been able to 
be mode. Notwithstanding, vdaable doDstioDB of sonie twenty- 
four rolumsa bave been received from the Literary and BiBtoriol 
Soeietj oi Quebec ; and jonr Conncil baie again to record the 
generosity of Mr. Ferrier, our treasurer, who hae also presented 
some eleven or twelve volumes. 

Original Papers Bsad. 

Daring the past Beaaon twenty-fonr original papers have been 
read and discussed on the various departments of Natural His- 
tory, viz., Qeology, Zoology, nnd Botany. Host of these pxpers 
have been published in Thx Canadian Naturalibt; which, 
besides being the record of our own tmnsnctioDS here, is the means 
of disseminating and spreading an account of our prooeedings to 
other countries ; and your Council cannot but regard this publiod- 
tion as an important feature in oor future progress and nseftil- 

Owi[^ to the liberality of the publishers, Messrs. Dawson 
Brothers, The Canadian NATUaALiST has become second to no 
other publication of a like nature, containing, as it does, a 
great amount of osefiU and scientific knowledge. The Editing 
Committee deserve from your Council special mention for thur 
successful labors in this important department. 

PUBLtO LSOTITRES. 

The annual ooarse of Sommerville Lectures was delivered in 
the Lecture Hall of the Society, to ver; kige and respectable 
audienoed. The following form the subjects of the course : — 

First Lecture— 18th February 1864, by W. Eingston, M.D., 
F.R.C.S.E., " On the Harmony observed in Nntnro." 

Second Leotnre — 'i&th February, by Charles Smallwood, M.D., 
LL.D., " On Terrestrial Miigoedsm." 

Third Lecture— 3d Slurch, by H. B. Small (Lin. Coll. Oz.), 
" On a Trip to our Satellite." 

Fourth Lecture — lOtb March, by James Peoh (Hus. Doo.), 
" Co Music and the People." 

Fif^h Lecture— 17th March, by T. Sterry Hunt, M.A., F.R.S., 
" On the Correlation of Forces." 

Sixth and concluding Lecture on the 24th M^iroh, by Dr. 
Dawson, F.R.8., F.G.S., io., (the President,) " On Man's Plaoe 
in Nature." 



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1864.] NATtlSAL HISTORT SOOIXTr. 231 

GONTBKBAZIONB. 

The BMond annual ooQTeraaiinne was held in the Society's roomB 
on the evening of the :^nd of February, and was, as on n former 
oooanon, very well attended. Some wotIcb of artwere exhibited, and 
also several mioroBOopea /ind other philosophical instruments. A 
variety of very snooesafnl ohemio^l experiments vere shown bjr 
Prof. Bobbins ; and dissolving views were also kindly exhibited by 
Hr. C. Hean, optioian. AddroKaeawnre delivered by tbePresident, 
Dr. Dawson, Hon. Mr. Sheppard, and Professor Milea. Efforts on 
the part of your Coonoil were mad' to secure severul scientific and 
literary friends from a distance, but who, from variuus causes, 
oould not be preaent. The Hon. Mr. Sheppard of Drummond- 
nlle, and Professor Miles of Lennoxville College, were the only 
two geo^emen who kindly aaaisted on Uie occasion. 

Your Council would also b«^ to mention, that, owing to the kind- 
ness of Col. Dunlop, the Bund of t <e Royal Artillery perf^.rmed 
■ome choice pieces of music daring the evening. 

The snooess of these re-onions has been very decided; and 
your Council Ibndly bope, that they have proved a source of great 
intelleotoal enjoyment to those persona preaent,and which they trust 
will tend to prove the increasing desire on the part of the ciliiens 
of MoDtreai generally for the attainment of a knowledge of Natu- 
ral History and ita kindred Bolencfe. 

In oonneotioo with this subjeot yonr Council would state, that a 
Course of twelve Lectures on Qeclo'^, and twelve oo Botany, won 
delivered by Mr. Whiteavea in the rooms of the Society and under 
its auspicee during the past winter, at a reduced charge to menjbers 
of the Society. The reaulta were satisfactory, and some additional 
members were thus obtained, and some few donations to the library. 

MlBOBLLANBOUa. 

Your Council, in accordance with the desire of the Snoiety, have 
oansed the silver medal to be transmitted to Dr. Daniel Wilson of 
Toronto, bearing an appropriate inscription, to which Dr. Wilson 
has returned a very suit ible and feeling reply. 

And your Council, in furtherance of the objects of the Socie^^ 
utd in accordance with itseonstitution, would recommend that the 
Society's silver medal for tbia year be presented to Sir W. B.. 
Logan, one of liie early and very active members of the Socie^, 
and who has so long and so well labored in developing the vait 



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232 THK OAHASIAH MATURALI8T. [Junt, 

geolc^oal and mineral resouroen of Canada ; and jour GonnoU 
wonld BUKgost that the present time seems a ver; appropriate one, 
on the oooasioD of the publioatioa of his general work on OanadiaD 
Geolo);;. 

Some defects in the qhimnejs (cansed by the method of warming 
the rooms of the Society) gave rise to some neoenaryrepursfwhidi 
were stated to be of frequent oocarrenoe) ; and it was deemed ad- 
visuble to ooDSult with Meaan. Frowse & MoFariane as to the 
ohenpeat and best waj of keeping the rooms warm during the winter 
months. It was thought deairablo to erect a hot-air fornaoe; but 
wjtioD in this matt«r was not taken until somewhat late in the 
Ksson, which consequently ineurred a somewhat large expenditure 
for coal, which will be obviated iD future, by purohaaing it at an 
earlier period. A contract was entered into with Hesars. Prowse & 
McFarlane,wha, in a most generouaand liberal spirit, offered to give 
a long credit if required, for the cost of its erection. Your Cooocil 
fully believe that in the end it will effect a considerable saving. 
Double windows are also required, at a cost of abont tlOO. Your 
Oouncil wonld respectfully urge this on die atteutiou of thor sue- 
oeseore. 

New cases have been made fiir the reoeptiou of the mammals, 
and also a cabinet for the collection of insects. Some new cases 
have been set up for the reception of apemmena of Canadian fishea, 
also four or five additional cases for birds. Much remains to be 
done in this department, and a still greater want of proper casei 
ud cabinets for the reception of the numerous specimens already 
olaaeihed. 

Your Coanoil wonld Ix^ to tender to Mr. Ferrier, the treasurer, 
the thanks of the Society for the liberality with which he has at 
all time made advances for the purposes of liquidating the mort 
nrgeal demmds of the current expenses of tbe Society. Your 
Oouncil would also bear a willing testimony to the efficiency of 
Hr. Sunter, who has discharged his duties with satisfaction : and 
it is pleasing to be able to testify to his obliging and kind manner 
on all occisions, and also to make mention of many specimens of 
fishes and birds furnished by him to tbe Museum. 

The Council would also report that they have received a grant 
■of money (though of smaller amount thau in any previous year) 
Aom the Oovemment for the past year ; and wonld also further 
«tate with re^^t, that no action has at present been taken to dis- 
dioTge the debt still dae by the Society. 



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1864.] MATim&L BIBTOBT SOOIIIT. 233 

During tbe put winter your Gooaoil have permitted tlie NnmU- 
matio Societ; and the Montreal Literary Club to hold their meet- 
ing in their roome on eTeningg not spedally devoted to our own 
Sooietj, and at a reasonable rate for fuel luid l^hL 

Your Counoil would Further Bu^est, and in aceordaace with 
tiie amended aot of Farliameat, that the number of Vioe-Preai< 
dente should not exceed nine, and that the Council should alao 
ooneiet of nine members. 

Your Counoil would b^ leave further to state, that tliey have 
received a communication fVom Mr. Leeming, calling attention to 
the fact that the remains of the late Rev. TAt. Sommerville are at 
{ffeaent in the old Protestant burning-ground in Dorchester street, 
and calling on the Society to asaist, conjointl; with the Cor- 
poration of the Montreal General Hospital, the Trustees of St, 
Gabriel Church, and a clergyman now resident in Quebec, for the 
removal of die body to the Mount Royal Cemetery, and also the 
Honument at preseDl erected over his remains. Your Council 
would therefore snggest that some action be taken in this matter 
at as early a period as possible. 

They have also received a communication from the Board of 
Arts and Manufactures, in which it sets forth that it has " in 
its hands a oonsidcrable property, subject to a ground-rent, and 
burtheoed with bypotheqncs so large as to consume all its 
annual grant, and render the Board unable to carry on its proper 
(^rations, vis., to increase and maintiun its free Library, to 
eetabliah and keep up a Museum of Industrial Products, and to 
pomote the education of mechanics and artiaans. 

" The property thus held has been set apart for the use of scieu- 
tific and iiteritry bodiw who might wish to erect buildings for 
their aooommodation, having been acquired with a view to such 
uses. In tact the Board has considered itself, in some sort, a 
trustee for these other publio bodies, either existing or projected. 
But the members of the Board, hitherto disappointed of relief 
from the Provincial Oovemment, feel that they cannot continue 
to hold this property for a much longer period, at a cost so great 
■8 the abdication of their own functions under the statute, and 
are therefore desirous, as speedily as possible, to come to an 
arrangement— if it be possible — with your own and other socie- 
ties, by which a building-site may be traoBferred to you on easy 
terms, afid co-operation secured between the Society and this Board 
in promoting objeots which we may have in o 



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234 THE OAKADIAS NATtmALIBT. [June, 

" Either by tamafemng a portion of tlie land aronnd the Exhibi- 
tion building, bj aesiBting yoar Society to erect apon it a build- 
ing adapted for its uses, or by securing your oo-operatioo in the 
exlenaion of the present building upon a plan adapted to your 
wants, we hope that this Board may be of aseistanoe to you, and 
receive oo-operation and support in return.." 

Tour Oouuoii would reoommeud the consideration of this mat- 
ter to the Society, in furtherance of the said object. 

Your Council cannot but express ita regret, that the report of 
the treasurer showe a balance aguost the Society ; and would 
urge, that offorts he m tde by each indiridual member, to endeavor 
by all means to increase the funds so necessary for the support 
and furtherance of the objects for which it was founded. 

Tonr Oounoil must now resign their charge into ihe hands of 
others, wishing them a prosperous and increasing year of useful- 
ness. One thing your Gouacil would place on record, is the kind- 
ness and unanimity that has actuated the whole of the memben, 
a Bare prestige of increasing strei^th and usefulness ; and they 
close their report with a fervent hope, that the Montreal Natural 
Histoiy Society may grow and prosper. 



HOHTHLT HBBTINO. 



The monthly meeting of the Society took place at its rooms, on 
Monday evuniuK, May 30lh, Dr. Dawson, President, in the chair. 
The following donations were announced : 

To TEC MDBBtlH. 

From A. Ramsay, Esq.— Fine specimen of Uie Snow Goose 
(Atuer hyperboreui, Pallus), shot at Nun's Island. 

From James Ferrier, jun., Esq. — The Turnstone Streptilat 
inUrpret, IW'igBf ; Carious Japanese Mirror and Case. 

From Mrs. MoCullooh.— 138 skins of Canadian birds, & do 
foreign, 20 do. mammals. 

From U. B. S.ielton, Elsq.— 4 Indian pipes, from an excavation 
in Hospital Street. 

From Jas. Ctaxton, Esq. — 8 Bpeoimens of minerals (Quarti, 
Quart! with Pyrites, C ito Spar, and Sulphate of Barytes;, from 
Devon and Cornwall, Engknd, 



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1864.] HATtnUL HI8T0BY BOOEBTT. 236 

Prom Mr. W. Hnnter.— The yellow-bellied Woodpecker (Cen- 
(•nif flaoiventrit, SwaiDSon) ; tbe golden-wioged Vordpecker 
(Colaplea aur-itut, Linn.) ; 2 Robins (Thirdug migraloriut, 
Linn.); 1 blae yellow-backed Warbler {Parula Amerieana, 
Bonaparte). 

To THI LlBBABT. 

Preliminary List of the Plants of Boffalo. — From the Buffalo 
Society of Natar d Sciences. 

Arboretum etFruticeium Britaonioam, byJ. C. Loudon; 8 
Tole. 8vo., illustrated.— From James Perrier, juD., Ksq. 

Bombay Magnetical tod Meteorologiosl Ubservations, 1862. 

NXW MRMBERa. 

John Tempest, and Alexander S. Ritobie, Esqs., were eleoted 
ordin&iy memberB of the Society. 

Fbooixdinqb. 
The Reoording Secretary then read a communication by Dr. 
Bowerbaok, on two new N. Amerioan Sponges. Thefiretof these 
was a small marine form (of the genus Tethea), dredged by Dr. 
Dawson off tbe coast of Portland, Maine. The second was k 
green fresh-water speeiee (of tbe genue SpongiUa), occarring in 
quiet little bays along tbe St. Lawrence about Montreal, also in 
Upper Canada, in whioh plaoee it has been taken by Dr. Dawson, 
Rev. A. F. Kemp, Mr. R. J. Fowler, and others. Dr. Dnwson 
remarked that a greai number of the N. Amerioan sponges differed 
somewhat from allied European forms, and were probably new 
species. The present paper, be remarked, might be looked upon 
SB the first instalment of a somewhat ehiborate memoir upon these 
very ill-anderetood and low forms of animal life, to the study of 
which Dr. Bowerbank has paid much attention. Dr. Dawson 
then gave an aeoonnt of several species of Annelida and Bryosoa, 
from Mingan and Metis. Tbe Mingan specimens were collected 
by Mr. Ricbardi;on, jun.,ortheQeol. Surrej.and the Metis forms 
by Mrs. H. Parkinson. The doetor commenced by making draw- 
ings explanatory of the stmoture of the animal of the genua 
Spirorbis. He explained that these creatures were marine worm- 
like animals, which conetmeted small, flattened epira] shells, wbick 
were generally attaebed to sen-weeds, stones, or shells. Hetbeno- 



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S^S THl OANADtAH MATimALIST. [JvBe, 

hibited eigbtdiffereiit8p«oieBofthiigenDS,and|KnDtedout laoidly 
the difference between Uiem. After exhibiting a species of Ser- 
pnla, with its insular ejUndricil shellj tube, the Doctor oalled 
atteotion to some of the Bryoioa of the Galf. He stated that 
some of the species resembled brown sea-weeds, otbeis corallines, 
bnt that the strooture of the animals was nearest to that o'' some 
tif the hivalre shells. He exhibited examples of some fifteen or six- 
teen species, illiutratiD^ the subject by dia{rramB,and by mierosoo|d- 
oalprcparationsshowin^ the shape of the cells of theee creatures, and 
some of their organs of defence. After come discnssioii as to the 
supposed usee of these animals, the meeting broke up. 



On TBI BlVALTKD BNTOUOSTOAnA 0¥ TBS CaKB0HI?KB0U8 

Strata of Grkat Britain and Ireland. 
Bj ProfMsor T. Rdpibt Joaaa, P.O.3., and J. W. Eikbt, Esq. 

Afier a review of what forraer oba -rvers hare pnblisheil on the 
Biva'ved BntoraostrHCH of >he Cnrbonife oiis f Tmxtions. the aa- 
tbor' proceed to point not: 1st, a fuv* rather deubtful Cypndet 
or Candana. fmm th'* CnaUmeasureii. Smlly, Cgthtrti; of whicb 
the<e are about ei^ht 'ip<oi-«. tihieflf rom the Coal •nteasDrea. 
Srily. BairivB; sb lut eight apeuies, mo<'ly from the MountaiD- 
lim-st'ine anl \i* ithales. 4tlilj. Cgpridinilna; comprising 
OypridiiM, Oi/firidella, O^prella, E'tlamxonehai. and Ci/tkerella, 
from ihe MoDii ain-li nestone- A fine culltjctioi of tliose thth torma 
from Little lalaiid, Cork, liberslly |iUc d hi Hossn. Jones and 
EiikUy'H dispowil by Ur. Jfr^ph Wiiifbt, will eincidate ih« rela- 
tioiishiiia uf thu-e liiiherto obscure genera and tlieir speiiiea* 
tfthly, Ltperdttida ; comprioinK Leprrditia (to which genus 
J>eloiiiI tlie so-'-allel GgprU Soolab'trdigaUtuii, C. inJIaUi, O, 
mbrtxia, Cfftk^r inariiala, and oibers; many of thein dwarf 
yari«ti«a uf odu s|>e-'i<-e, and mostly bKlonging to the Moaiibtin- 
UmwUone series) i £ulomit (Uountnin-limesioBe), D. vonian aod 
Cnrlioiiireroiis firinnuf whitibhave been mistaken for Ggp>\dimi- 
Mb; B-yfickice (from nearly all pan8i>riheOHrU>niferouKBy%ttiiD, 
WVrral speoien, of which B. arcuaia, Bean, sp., is Ihe moxt com- 
JDon); Hod Ki-kbi/iK, somewhat rsit^, and chiefly firom the Moun- 
tain-limeslone serin, 

Lfpvditia and Beyriehia are also Silurian and Devonian 
j[enera; they do not appear to pus upwards into the Permian 



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1864.] msoKLLAKioira. 237 

formation. Bairdia aiirl Sirkhya aaawr first in ihe CHrl>onif-roD8 
and re-8ppear in the PermiHO deposits, even in il.e same s|»-i-iGo, 
forms ; an I Bairdia h i* been freely rupr-JsenltHl in S ■condnry find 
Teniary deposita, and esisuai present. Of tiiu CifpriUnida ander 
notii^e, Cyprideila, Cj/prellt, an<l EatomoeonehaB a|>peHr ti> be 
contintid to the Man'iiiiii-liiaHdtono; C'gpridina occurs in ibe 
Perm an, and with Ggtherella is found in Sawnday and Ttjriinry 
rockx, Hnd in eiisting Bra<. JSntomh is u Silurifin and Oevunian 
genus, mpeoiailychHrHctonaingibe so-called "Oyiiridineii-Si-Jiiofer" 
of Gertimny. 

M'Uoy'ti Daiihna priinani is a Cypridina ; Di- Kminck's Cy- 
pridina Edwardaiana and ^gitridelU eraeititn axu C'jpndKlla : 
his C/pridinn annulata and Cypreth cKryKlidea are Cjfpreiia j 
knd his CjfpriditM conemlnea is an EtUomit. 



MISCELLANEOUS. 
THK LATB i'RINClPAL LBITOH. 
Our issue of yesterday oontaiued the sad, though not mVL- 
peoted, anooanoement of Principal Leitch's death. '^Uiatn 
Leitch was born at Rothsay, in the Island of Bute, Sootlaod, in 
the year 1814, and was ut his death under Ufty years of age. 
The robost health of his boyhood was taken from him by an aeu- 
dent, whioh ooofioed him for eighteen months, and threatened 
even his life bdore he reoorered. When about fourteen years of 
^e he fell from the mast of a yacht in the bay of his native town, 
and the fall prodnoed a eomminnted fracture of the hipgoint, 
whioh made him lame for life. This accident was the oooaeioa of 
determiQiDg,iD a somewhat remsilable way,the tendencies by which 
■11 his subsequent life has been characterised ; for during his long 
and dreary confinement, the relief from intense snffaring, wbitdi 
most boys of ereu high intellectual character would have sought in 
the fascination of fiction, be found in the study of mathematics ; 
and his after lifb, whioh became almost from neoessity that of a 
Btndent, was devoted chiefly to the mathematical sciences. After 
finishing his preparatory studies for the Church of Scotland, he 
did not immediately enter on the practical work of his profession, 
but remained for some yens in oonneotion with the Qla^w 
Obserratoiy, under the late Frofeuor Nichol. In the year 
1843 however, he aooeptad a presentation to the Parish of Hunt 
mail in Fifhohin, where he tbund that congenial quiet in whkh he 



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238 TEX OAItADIAM NATtTBAlIST. 

was able to oootinae his stnilies and to extend his inquiries 
into other branches of physical scienoe, aa well as ioio those 
departments of philosophy and theology with which tJie physical 
wuenoea are more closely connected. During bis resiclence at 
Monimail, he made himself known by eztfiuuve oontributiona to 
various periodicals and cyolopedias, on those subjects to which he 
had specially devoted his time; and tiy ^is means he enjoyed an 
intimate aoquaintance with many of the most distinguished literary 
nuentifiomeain Oraat Britain. The scienoeto which he remained 
most fondly attached was that of astronomy ; snd from his 
thoroagb familiarity with the praclioal work of an Observatory, 
fh)m the enthusiasm with which he studied every improvement in 
astronomical inatrumeats, and hailed every fresh discovery to 
which it led, as well as from his general scientific attainments, it 
was thought probable that, had ha not left Scotland, be would 
have been appointed to the chair of bis teacher, the lute Professor 
Nichol, in the University of Olusgow. De Quinoey, in a noble 
article on Lord Rosee's telescope, speaks of his friend Professor 
Nichol as havini; contributed more than any other living man to 
keep general English readers, who have not time fbr the soientific 
investigations of astronomers, acquainted with the latest and pro- 
foandest leaulta to which these investigations are leading ; and 
during the two years which have passed since the Professor's death, 
it would be difficult to point to a man for whom the same distinc- 
tioQ could have been bo justly claimed as the late Principal of our 
University. 

In 1860 he was invited by the Trustees of the Queen's Uni- 
veraity to beoome its Principal ; and afterspending session 1860- 
61 in the duties of the ofioe, he decided to accept their invitation. 
His brief and sad career among ns is so unfinished that even its 
imperfect results, and oertainly, at least the larger and nobler aims 
by which it was guided, oould be adequately described only at 
greater length than is poeelble In a hnrried newspaper notice. 
Those who have been interested in his movements must have 
reot^nized the hopes which he entertHued for the progress Ol 
•oience by the efficient working of our Observatory, and for the 
advancement of higher education by a more orderly government 
of our University, aa well as by a reform in the general relations 
of all the Universities of Upper Canada. — Kingtion Ifeiet, May 
l\ih. 

PnUished, Montreal, June 1&, 1864. 

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CANADIAN NATIJEALIST. 

BECOKD KBIEB. 



ELEMENTARY VIEWS OF THE CLASSIFICATION 

OF ANIMALS. 

Bt J. W. DiiraoH, LL.D. P.R.S. 

[The matter of the fotlowiaj; pages has been prepared priDcIpalljr 
for the benefit of students, who are in geaeriil mnch more apt to 
learn names and details than to attain to general views. It is 
introductory to the printed sjaopsis of lectures which I annnally 
prepare for my oUsses, and is now pabliahed under the impression 
tbat, though bat elementary and geaeralj the views which it con- 
tains may prove interesting to naturalists, and nsefni. to some of 
those who may be stru^ling with the difficulties incident to the 
study of zoology nnder the heterogeneous methods of claasification 
which are found in most elementary books. Shoald time permit, 
it may be followed by illustrations of the details of some of the 
classes and orders of animals. The writer acknowledges his 
obligations, as soarces of recent information, to Agassii's Essay 
on Classification, Dana's Remarks on the Classification of Animals 
based on Cephalisation, and Huxley's Leotutes on Classifioatioo, 
thongh be cannot follow throughout the systems of any of these 
authors.] 

1, Inteoductobt Rkbcabks. 

No Bubjeet is at present more perplexing to the practical cool* 
ogist or geologist, and to the educator, than that (^ xoi>l<^CBl 
olassificBtioa. The sabjeot in itsdf is very intricate, and the 
views ^Ton as to certain groups by, the most eminent naturalists 
BO conflicting, that the student is tempted to abandon it in despair, 
as incapable of being gatie&ctoiily oom^Aended. 

The reasons of this, it seems to tlra vrriter, are- twofold. First, 
loOlogy ia so extenrive, that it has beeome divided into a number 
of sabordinato branohee, the oaltivatoTS of which attaeb an cxag- 

ToL. I. 4 Ho. 4. 



Ctxic^lc 



242 THK CANADIAN NATURALIST. {A^g- 

gerated value to their own specialties, and are unable to appre- 
oiate those of others. Thus we find natordista subdividing one 
group more miautel; than others, or raising onegroap to a position 
of equivalency with others, to which, in ihe opinion of the stu- 
dents of these others, it is quite subordinate. So also we have 
some EoiJlogisCs basing olassificatiou wholly on embryology or on 
mere anatomical structure, or even on the functions of some 
one class of organs. Secondly, there is a failure to perceive 
that, if there is any order in the animal kingdom, some one pria- 
oiple of arrangement must pervade the whole; and that our 
arrangement most not be one merely of convenhnoe, or of a 
desultory and uncertain character, but uniform and homogeneous. 
The writer of these pages does not profess to be in a position 
to escape from these causes of failure ; but as a teacher of some 
expericQce, and as a student of certain portions of the animal 
kingdom, he has endeavoured carefully to eliminate from bis own 
views the prejudices incident to bis specialties, and to take a general 
view of the subject ; and is therefore not without hope that the 
results at which he bas arrived may be found useful to the young 
naturalist. 

Classification in any department of Natural History is the 
arranging of the objects which we study in such a manner as to 
express their natural relationship. In other words, we endeavour 
in classiSoation to present to our minds such a notion of the 
resemblances and differences of objects as may enable us to under^ 
stand them, not merely as isolated units, but as parts of the sys- 
tem of nature. Without such arrangement there could be no 
scientific knowledge of nature, and our natural history would bo 
merely a mass of undigested facts. 

At first sight, and to a person kuowing only a few objects, such 
arrangement may appear easy ; but in reality it is encompassed 
with difficulties, some of which have not been appreciated by the 
framers of systems. The more important of these difficulties 
we may shortly ooudder. 

1. There are in the animal kingdom a vast number of kinds or 
spcdes. To form a perfect classification it would be necessary t« 
know the characters or distinctive marks of all these species. 
To make even a tolerable approximation to a good system, re- 
quires an amount of preparatory labour which can be estimated 
only by those who have oorefiilly worked up at least a few species 
in these nspeota. 



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1864.] SB. DAWSON ON CLAdSIFIOATION Or ANIMALS. 243 

2. So B[>oa as we have ascertained the characters of a ooDsid- 
erable number of epecies, we fiod that in their neareet Tesemblaoceg 
these do not oonstitate a linear series, but arrange themselves ia 
groups more or less separated from each other like constellations 
in the heavens, and having relationships tending with more or 
less force in different directions. This not only introduces com- 
plexity into our systems, but renders it impossible to represent 
them adequately in written or spoken discourse, or even by tables 
or diagrams. We think and speak of things in aeries, bat nature's 
objects are not so arranged, but in groups radiating from each 
other like the branches of a tree; and our imperfect modes of 
thought and expression are severely tested in the attempt to 
understand nature, or to oouvey ideas of classification te the minds 
of others. 

3. The conuderatious above stated oblige ub to enquire what 
leading characters we may take as the principal thread of our 
arrangement, so as to make this as natural as possible and at the 
same time intelligible. It is simplest to teke only one obvious 
character, as if for example we were te arrange all animals accord- 
ing to their colour or to the number of their limbs ; bat the greater 
the number of characters we can use, or the more completely we 
can represent the aggregate of resemblances and difi^ences, the 
more natural will our arrangement be, and conseqnently also the 
more scientific and useful. 

In attempting te weigh the several characters presented by 
any object, we find acme that ore of leading importance, others 
that are comparatively unimportant, though still not to be 
neglected; and we find that some indicate grades of complexity, 
others are connected with adaptations to certain uses, and others 
indicate plan of constmotion. Doe weight must be given to all 
these kinds and degrees of oharactera. It is perhaps in the proper 
estimation and value of their relative importance and different 
modes of application that the greatest failures have been made. 

Keeping in view these difficulties of the subject, we may now 
proceed to the con^daration of the more elementaty of the groups 
in which ve arrange animals. 

2. Tbe Speoieb in Zooloot. 

We cannot consider the animals witli which we are familiar 

without perceiving that they constitute kinds or Specia, which do 

not appear to graduate into each other, and which can be dlstin- 



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244 TBI OAHADIAK NATURALIST. [Ang. 

gabbed by certwn cKaTactert. Tet Bunple tbongli tbis at firet 
sigbt appears, we eball find that many intricate questions are con- 
nected vitb it. Oar idea of the species is based on the resem- 
blance of the individuals composing it in all the oharaeters which 
we consider essential. If, for instsDce, a nambcr of sheep and 
goats are placed before ns, we readily select the individuals of 
each species. In doing this we give no r^ard to di&rences i£ 
sex or age, but put the young and old, the male and female, of 
each species tc^ether. Nor do we pay atteotioD to merely acci- 
dental differences : a mutilated or deformed spedmen is not oo 
that account separated from its species. Nor do we attaoh nine 
to characters which experience has proved to vary according b) 
oircumstances, and in the same line of desoent. Such, for ex- 
ample, are differences of colour, or fineness of the hair or wool. 
The remaining resemblances and differences are those ou which 
we rely for our determination of the species, and which we tens 
essential. Wo shall find that these essential characters of the 
species are points of structure, proportion of pdrts, omameutation, 
and habits. 

These characters oonstitute onr idea of the species, which we 
can readily separate from the Individual* composing it. The 
individuals are temporary, but the species is permanent, beii^ 
oondnued through the suoceasion of individuals. If all the adalt 
individuals are alike and indistinguishable from each other, then 
any one may serve as a specimen of the species. If there are 
differences of sex or Varietit* subordinate to the species, then i 
suite of specimens showing these will represent the species. The 
species is thus an assemblage of powers and properties manifested 
in certain portions of matter called indiWdnals, and which are its 
t«nporary representatives. It follows that the spedes is the tnte 
nnit of our classification, and tliat the indefinite multiplicadon of 
individuals leaves this unchanged. 

Our idea of the species will however be imperfect if we do not 
distinctly place before our minds its continued existence in time. 
This depends on the power of reproduction, whereby the indi- 
viduals now existing have descended from similar prc^nitots, and 
will give birth to successors like themselves. A moment's 
thought will suffice to show that, independently of this, species 
could have no real existence in nature. If animals were not 
reprodnotive, tlie spedes would beoome extinct afW the lapse of a 
generation. If tlieir reproduction fi^owed no oertain law, and 



,Cooc^lc 



1864.] DB. DAVBOK ON OLABSITIOATION 07 ANIUALS. 24$ 

Qie progeay might be difiereat iroin the pirenta, then the oharao- 
ters of the speoiee voald speedily become changed, kbA it woald 
[WMtically cease to be the same. Again, it is necessary that the 
reproduction of speoiee should be pare or unmixed ; for an indie- 
oriminate hybrtdity would soon obliterate tlio bonodarieB of spe- 
cies. It is impossible, therefore, to separate the idea of species 
from the pover of continuous unohaDged reproduotion, without 
deprivii^ it of its essential oharaotois. 

In like manner it is obviouB that ve must aaaume a separate 
origin for eaoh species, and that we need not aeeume more than 
one origin. Practtoally, species remain unchanged, and do not 
originate fVom one another ; and if all the individuals of a species 
were destroyed except one pair, this would, under fayourahle cir- 
onmstances, be sufficient to restore the species in its original 
abundance. 

The qnestions which liave been raised aa to the origin of spec'es 
by deecent with indefinite variation, and as to the possible creation of 
individuals of the same species in different places or at different 
times, are not of a praodeal character, at least in loology proper, 
and the wht^e burden of proof may be thrown on those who assert 
such views. 

We are thus brought to the definition of species, long ago pro- 
posed by Cuvier and De CandoUe, and may practically unite in 
one species all those individuals which so resemble each other that 
we mny reasonably infer that they have descended from a common 
ancestry. All our practical teeta for the detennination of species 
resolve themselves into iba general oonaideratjon. The only 
modification of this atetement on which even a Darwinian can 
insist, is, that a sufficient time and groat geological changes being 
given, one fpceies may possibly s[dit into two or more ; and since 
this is an unproved hypoUiens, we may practically n^lect -it, 
except as a warning te be very sure that we do not separate as 
distinct species any forms which may be merdy varieties of a 
single qteoies, an error exceedingly prevalent, and which viuates 
not a little of onr reasoning on anoh subjects. 

The origin of the first individuals of a species may he, and 
probably is, a problem not within the province of natural history. 
In the case of vital force it is the same as in the case of gravita- 
tion and other forces. We can observe its operation and ascer- 
tain the lawaof ita aotion,bnt of the force itself we know nothing. 
It is to OB merdy an expresuon of Ibe power and will of the 



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216 THE CAMADUN MATtlBALtST. C-^^' 

Creator. Witb r^srd to the creative force or power, ve axe still 
more ignorant. We do not witnese its operation. We know 
nothing, except b j inference, of its laws ; and whatever we maj 
succeed in aBcertaining as to these, we may he snre that in the 
last resort we shall, as in the case of all other natural effects, be 
obliged to pause at that line where what we call force resolves 
itself into the will of the supreme spliitual Power. The 
" miracle " of enactment must necessarily precede law ; the 
" miracle " of creation, the existenoe of matter or force. Those 
who deny this have no refuge but in a bald Ecepticism, discred- 
itable to a scientific mind, or in metaphysical subtilties, into wbiob 
the loologist need not enter. 

We most not suppose, however, that the species is absolutely 
invariable. Variability, in some species to a greater extent than 
in others, is a law of specific czisteQcc. It is the measure of tbe 
influence of diatnrhing forces from without in their action on the 
specific unity. In some cases it is difficult to distinguish varie- 
ties from true species, and with many naturalists there has been 
& tendency to introduce new species on insufficient grounds. Such 
errors oau he detected ordinarily by comparing lai^ suites of 
specimens and ascertaining tbe gradations between them, which 
always occur in tbe case of varieties, bnt are absent in the case of 
species truly distinct. Such comparisons require much time and 
labour, and must he pnrsacd witb much greater diligence than 
heretofore, in order to settle finally the question whether tbe 
varietal perturbations always tend to return to a state of equili- 
brium, or whether in any case they are capable of indefinite 
divei^noefrom tbe specific nni^. 

The species is the only group which nature furnishes to us 
ready made. It is the only group in which tbe individuals must 
bebonnd tc^ther by a reproductive oounection. There m^htor 
might not be affinities which would enable us to group species in 
larger a^r^ates, m genera tmd/amilie*; and the tie which binds 
these together is merely onr perception of greater or less resem- 
blance, not a genetic connection. We say for example, that 
all the individuab of tbe commou Crow constitute one species, 
and we know that if all these birds were destroyed except one 
pair, the species would really exist, and might be renewed in all its 
previous numbers. We can make the same assertion with reference 
to the Raven or to the Blue Jay, considered as species. But if, 
because of resemblances between these species, we group them in 



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18&4.] SB. DAWSOH ON OLASSH'IOATION OF AMIHALS. 247 

the genus Cormtt or in the family Corvidce, ve ezpreaa merely our 
belief in a oertaia stmotaral resemblanoe, not in any genetic con- 
neotion. Nor need ve Bnppoee that if any of the species of a genns 
were destroyed they would be reproduced from the others. Further, 
while all the individuals of any of the species may be precisely 
similar to each other and still be disUnct individuals, all the species 
of the genos cannot be simUar in all their characters, otherwise 
they would cooatitate bat one species. 

In other words, the species and the genus, considered as groups, 
differ not in degree hut in kind. To make this very plain, let us 
take a familiar illustration. I have a number of maps, all uniform 
iasizeandinstyleofexeoationj but in the whole there are only two 
kinds, — maps of the eastern hemisphere, and maps of the western 
hemisphere. Now all of the maps of one kind constitate a species ; 
tliose of both kinds, a genus. The individuals of one species, say 
of the eastern hemisphere, are all alike. They have all been stmek 
from one plate, from which many simUar maps may be produced. 
Bnt the other map, though necessary to make up the set or genns, 
may be quite disumilar in all its details from the first, and could 
not be produced fh>m its plate. We have no difficulty here in 
understanding that the specific unity is of adifferent kind from the 
generic unity, wd that the distinction is by no means one of mere 
grade of resemblance. A very little thought must oonvince any one 
that this applies to species and genera in Ecology ; and that those 
naturalists who affirm that species have no more real existence in 
nature than genera, have overlooked one of the essential elements 
of classification. Nor would this distinction be invalidated by 
the assumption of a descent with modification, unless it conld be 
shown that in actual nature species shade into each other ; and 
this is certainly not the case in those which are reckoned as good 
species. 

I have been thus careful to insist on the nature of the species 
in natural history; because I believe that loose views on this 
subject have caused a large proportion of the errors in olasufica- 
tJon. 

Though the groups higher than species do not elist in nature 
in the same sense in which species exist, they are not arbitrary, 
but depend on our conception of resemblances and differeuces which 
actually exist. We go out into tbe forest and perceive different 
species of trees ; hut, at the same' time, we find that these species 
can be grouped in genera, as Oaks, Bircbes, Maples, &c., under 



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248 TBB OANADIAM NATDBALIST. [Aug. 

each of wbioli generie Quaea there maj be Beveral speciei. It 
is evidently not an arbitrary arrangement of oars thas to group 
species : tiie; naturally arrange themselTes in such groups, under 
the action trf our oomparing powers. 

3. Genera and HiasEa GBorpe. 

In oomparing species mtii each other for purposes of clasBifica- 
tion, there are four distinct grounds uniriuch suoh oomparlsanoan 
be made. These are: — Ist. indmate struotoral or analomieal resem- 
l^noe; 2nd. Grade or rank; 3rd. Use or function; 4th. Flan 
or type. All of these may he, indeed must be, used iu olasaiGca- 
tioQ, though in very different vays. 

1. Intimate itructural relatiojuhip is the ground on whioh we 
frame Genera. Two of more species resemble each other structurally 
to such an extent that the same deGuition will in many impOTtant 
points apply to both. Such apeciee we group in a genus. It is 
most important to observe, as Agassis has well pointed out, that 
this close resemblanoe in strueture is really our main ground lor 
the formation of geaera. But for this very reason it is not to be 
expected in oar higher groups. It is the mistalcen application of 
this oriterion to classes, which constitutes the leading defect of a 
work otherwise very valuaUe, and which I cordially reeoiumend 
to students, — Huxley's " Lectures on Classifioation." 

2. Grade or rank refers to degree of complexity of structure, 
or to the degree of development of those functions that are the 
highest iu the animal natore. A coral polyp is more umple in 
structure than a fish, and is therefore lower in rank. A fish is lese 
highly endowed in brain, seosation, and iatelligenoe,than a mammal, 
and is therefore of bwer rank. An egg or an embryo is simpler 
than Uio adult of the species to which it belongs ; and when one 
animal resembles the embryo of another, it ranks lower in the 
scale. A w<»in ranks lower than an insect whose larva it resem- 
bles. 

We use ihie difference of grade or rank in grouping genera in 
Orden; but it occupies a very subordinate place in the construo- 
tion of other groups. Hauy grave errors have arisen from its 
mdisoriminate application ; most heterogeneous assemblages being 
formed when we construct groups larger than orders merely 
on the ground of lower grade : and when, on the other hand, we 
separate the lower members of natural groups on the ground of 
aimplicil; of structure, we fall into an equal mistake of another 



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1864-3 ^^' DAW80N ON OliABSlflOAIION OF ANIUALS. 249 

kind. Of errors of tltese kinda atill carrent, I may instoDce the 
attempt of aome naturalists to establish a province or eub- kingdom of 
Protozoa, toiaclode all thesimplestmemberB of the Animal Kiog- 
dom, aod the separation of the Sntozoa or intestinal vorms from 
die other worms aa a distinct class. The olassifioation in Owen's 
" Leotureson the Inrert«brale Animals," which I have long used 
with advantage as a texUbook, is defective in some parts ia this 
respect. 

There are two kinds of investigation much used in classifica- 
tion, which more especially davelope the idea of grade or rank 
among animals. One is tiiat of embryology, or the development 
of animals from the ovum. Another is that of cephaliEation, or 
the development cS the head and organs connected therewith. 
Both of Uiese are of great importance, bat, on the principles 
above stated, th^ aid as chiefly in referring animals to their 
Orders. Other limitations of the criterion of grade or rank will 
appear when ve arrive at the consideration of Ckusea. 

3. Function or Uie. — In different animals we often find the 
same use served by different kinds of organs, as, for instance, the 
wing of a bird and the wing of an insect, which, though both 
used for flying, are constructed in very different ways. It woold 
lead us as^y were we to arrange animals primarily on this ground : 
for instaDce, if we were to group togellier fishes and Crustacea 
because both swim ; or birds and insects, because both fly. Again, 
in different groups of animals, certain functions and the oigans 
which subserve them are greatly developed in comparison with 
Others. For example, the enormous reproductive power of fishes, 
or tiie remarkable development of the locomotiveorgansin birds, aa 
compared with other vertebrates. This con^deration is not ap- 
plicable in onr primary division of animals, but it constitutes the 
principal ground on which naturalists have based the secondary 
divisions or Cloittt; and it serves also to indicate the analogic* 
between the corresponding members of difierent primary groups, 
as, for instance, of the birds in one group to tJio insects in 
anothra. 

4. Plan or Ti/pe. — Under this head we consider the similarity 
of construction in different animals or organs, witbont regard to 
uses. We say, for example, that the wing of the bird and the bat, 
the paddle of the wbale, and the fore-lE^ of the dog, are similar 
in type or homoloyoia to each other, because they are made up of 
nmilar seta of bonee. They are modifioatioas of one general plan 



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250 THB OANADtAM NATURALIST. C^Og* 

of strnctaro. Animfils thuB construoted on eimilar plana are said 
to have an affinity to each otber. 

It ia evident that this conaideratton of homology or sffinit;, if 
we can really detect it in nature, should be a primary groand in 
our arrangement; beoaase, if ve r^ard nature as an orderly 
Eyatem, and atill more if ve regard it aa the expression of an 
intelligent mind, this must be the aspect in which we can best 
comprehend its scheme or plan of construction. 

As a simple illustration of this and the preceding heads, we may 
suppose that we are writing a treatiae on architecture, or the art 
of building. We observe 1st, that there are differeooes of mate- 
rial employed, as stone, brick, or wood ; 2nd, that tbereare varioas 
gradesof buildings, from the simplest hut to the moat elaborate pal- 
ace or temple ; 3rd, we find a great variety of nsea for which bnild- 
ing are constructed, and to which they are adapted ; 4th, there are 
different orders of architecture or styles, which indicate the 
various plans of constfuction adopted. It will, in stndying snch 
a subject, be the most logical order to consider, let, the several 
orders of architecture or plans or types adopted ; 2nd, under each 
of these to classify the various kinds of buildings according to their 
OSes; 3rdly, under each of these aecondary heads, to treat of 
buildings more or less elaborate or complex; and 4thly, to con- 
sider the materials of wliicb the structures maybe composed. This 
is precisely what the most successful formera of systuns have done 
in natural history, in dividing the animal kingdom into provinces 
or branches, classes, ordere, and genera. On the other hand, 
classifications produced by mere anatomists who content themselves 
with a close adherence to similari^ of structure and T^d defini- 
tions based on these, may be compared to a system of architec- 
ture produced by a mere bricklayer, who r^rds only the mate- 
rials nsod and the manner of putting them together. 

4. The Oenebal Natubx of the Animal. 

Having settled the more important of the general priuciples of 
classification, we now proceed to their practical application ; and 
first, as a necessary preliminary, to ascertain what we understand 
by the term Animal, and what are the preeiie limitt o/the Ani- 
mal Kingdom. 

In answer to the question. What is an animal 7 we may aay 
in the first place that the animal is a being possessing oiganiaation 
based oo cell-Btmctares, and vital fiiroe. This suffices to diatin- 



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1864.] DB. DAVrSOH ON 0LA8SIFI0ATI0N OT ANIMALS. 251 

gaiBh it from mineral Bubatances, bat not ttom the plant, whioh is 
also on^oised and liWog, tboogli in a mode aomeirhBt diSereDt. 

To distingaisb the animal from the plant, ve ma; affirm, let, 
that it is reprodnctive by ^s and not bj seeds; 2nd, that in its 
processes of nntritioD it digests oiganic food in an internal cavit;, 
subfieqoently consuming a part of this food at the expense of the 
oxygen of the atmosphere ; and ttiat it builds up its tissues prin- 
cipally of nitrogenised matter; 3rd, tliat tbe animal possesses the 
poirer of voluntary motion, and, to subserTe this, moscular tiesue; 
4th, that it posseBses sensation, and, to subserve this and motion 
as well, a nerrous system and external senses. 

We tbns find four general obaracteristios of Uie animal : 

1. Sengatio/t — by means of a nervous system and special 

sensee. 

2. VoliMtari/ motion — by means of the muscular and nervous 

systems. 

3. Nutrition — by means of a stomach and intestines, with 

absorptive, circulatory, and respiratory apparatus. 

4. Reproduction — by ova and sperm-cells. 

In every animal, even the simplest, these fbnotlons are in 
greater or less perfection performed; and it is the presence of the 
aggr^te of these fuactioDS or the organs proper to them, that 
enables ns to call any oi^anism an animal. It is important to carry 
with us this definition of the animal ; first, as indicating the limits 
of the creatures which the zoologist has to classify ; and secondly, 
as pointing out to ns the nature of the characters on which we 
must rely, in our classification. For the student I hold it to be 
necessary, before prooeeding further, to understand well these 
fanotioDB and stmotures, as they exist in some one of the higher 
animals. 

5. Fbiuart Divibion of Animals into Provinces or 
Branches. 

This, on the principles already stated, most be made solely on 
the ground of type or plan, and this taken in its most general 
aspects. 

If we bring before us mentally the several members of the ani- 
mal kingdom, we shall probably be struck in the first instance 
with the general prevalence of bilateral symmetry, or the arrange- 
ment of parts equally on the right and left sides. We may 
observe, however, that there is a large group of animals to which 



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252 THE OANABUN SAXVJULlSt. [-^Og- 

diis general style of constraoUon doee not spply, and vbidi have, 
Id the words.of AgasHE, a "varUoal axis aroaad which the pri- 
mary elements of their Btnieture an Bymmetrically arranged," 
OonfariuiDg in thia reapeot, and also often in other points, to the 
symmetry of the plant, rather Uian to that of the m«e perfect ani- 
mals. We would thns obtain what is perhaps the moat obvionsof 
all primary divisioos of animsla, — that into those with bilateral 
symmetry and Utoee that are radiated, or the Artioxoaria and the 
Aeiinozoaria of Blainville. We shall soon find, however, on more 
detailed examination, that this division is very nneqnol, since the 
first gronp includes by far the greater part of the aninul kingdom, 
and its members are nearly as dissimilar among ttianBelves as any 
of them are from the radiates. 

Penetrating a little deeper into structural character, we find 
that one large group of the bilateral animals possesses an internal 
skeleton, arranged in such a way as to divide the body into an 
upper chamber holding the brain and nervous VTB^m, and an 
under chamber for holding the ordinary viscera; whereas in the 
greater number of the bilateral animals and all the radiates, there 
is bat one chamber for containing the whole of the ot^:ans. The 
first of these groups, from the vertebras or joints of the backbone, 
peculiar to its members, we name Vert^fota, and all the oth« 
aniraals laverUbrala, as proposed by Lamarck: this division 0(»- 
responda to the enaima and a»aima of Aristotle. Here also how- 
ever we have a very unequal division, — the invertebrata being a 
vast and heterogeneous assemblage. 

If, however, after separating the vertebrata on the one hand, 
and the radiata on the oAer, we study the remainder of the ani- 
mal kingdom, we find that it readily resolves itself into two groups, 
known as the Articulata and the Mollueea. Wc thus reach the four- 
fold division of Cuvier ; which is by much the most natural and 
philosophical yet proposed, however much it may be carped at by 
some merely anatomical systematists. This system may be sum- 
marised as follows : 

ProoiTteea or Branches of the Animal Kiiigdom. 

1. VESTEBaATA, including Xammals, Birds, Reptiles, and 
Fishes. All these animals are bilateral and symmetrical, have an 
internal vertobrated skeleton, a brain and a dorsal nerve-cord lodged 
in a special cavity of the skeleton. With reference to the general 



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1864.] TE. DAWBOH ON OLAaSIFIOATIOIT 01* ANtUALS. 263 

form, they may be termed donUy symmetrioal animals i with 
Tefexmce to their neirooa sjetem, Mi/elencq>halov». 

2. Abticulata,* inoludii^ Anchsida, or spiders and 
SOorpioDs; laseots; Crustaceans, and Wonns. These animals 
are bilateral and symmetrical, have an external annnlose skeleton, 
a oervons system, oonEisting of a ring and ganglion around the 
gullet, connected with a double abdominal nerve-cord. They are 
Otherwise named Amadota, loDgitudloal animals, or Htnnogan- 
gliata. 

3. MoLLUSOA, including Gutlle-fish and their allies; Oaater- 
opods or univalve BbcU-fishea and their allies ; Lamellibranchiates 
or bivalve shell-Gshea, &e. ; Braohiopods and llieir allies. They 
are bilateral but not always symmetrical, have no skeleton, and 
an ceeophageal nervous ring widi nerve-fibres and ganglia not 
symmetrically disposed. They are otherwise named massive 
animals, or Heterogangliata. 

4. Kadiata, including Sea-urcbins and starfisbes ; Sea-nettles 
and bydras; Polyps and coral-animala ; and Sponges and their 
allies. These have the porta arranged radially aroond a central 
axis, and the nerve-ayatem when discernible oonsisting of a central 
ring with radiating fibres. They may be otherwise named peripheric 
animal-', or Npnatoneara. 

This fbnrfold diviuon includes the whole animal kingdom, 
and is the only rational one which can be based on type or plan of 
stractnre. Sinoe the time of Cuvier, tbough modifications in 
detail have become necessary, it has been strengthened by the 
|vogress of discovery ; and more especially Von Baer has shown 
that the study of embryology establishes Cuvier'e branches, by 
showing that in their development, animals pass through a series 
of forms belonging to their own branch and to that twly. 

The attempts which have been made to introduce additional 
branches or provinces, I r^ard as retrograde steps. Such for 
example is the province Ccelenterala of Lenckart, including the 
Polyps and the Aoalephs, both of them good classes, but not 
together constituting a group equivalent to a Prorince; the 
Pn>vince Pmtoxoa of Siebcdd, which to resume onr arohitec. 
tnral ffgnre, inclndee merely the bats and cabins wbicb it is difficult 
to refbr to any a^le of architecture, but which do not, on that 

> I prefbT this term to " Annnlosa," u iKing Oaviet'i original Dome— 
a&ct which iboald overiQle merely verbal objectionsi 



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254 THX OANADUN NATUKALIBT. [A^- 

xooooat, themselfes ooostitate a oew style; &nd the FroriaceB 
MoUMooida and Annuloida of Hasley, which, as thdr names 
indeed import, are in the main merely simple forms of MoUusoa 
oaA Artionlata. 

6. DrvTBiON or Provinces into Classes. 

Ha^g formed our Primary divisions or Provinces on the 
ground of type or [Jan, we must, in dividing these into ctaasea, 
hare regard either to subordinate details of plan, or to some other 
ground. Id point of fact, naturdtsts seem to have taoitly 
agreed to form classes, on what Agaaslz terms the " manner in 
which the plan of their respective great types is executed, and 
the means employed in their execution." In other words, they 
hare in forming classes adopted, perhaps unconsciously, a func- 
tional system, similar to tiiat employed by Oken in forming bis 
pnmnry groups. They have taken the relative development of 
the four great functional systems of the animal, — the sensative, the 
locomotive, the digestive, and the reproductive. This is very 
manifest in the ordinary and certainly very natural sub-division of 
the rertebrates into the four classes of Mammals, Birds, Reptiles,* 
and Fishes. The Mammals are the nerve or sensuous animals, 
representing the highest development of sensation and intelligence. 
The Birds are eminently the locomotive class. The Reptiles 
represent merely the alimeutary or vegetative life. The Fishes are 
the eminently reproductive or embryonic class. 

If this is a natural division of vertebrates into classes, and if 
the other three Provinces are of equivalent value, then there 
should be but four olssses in each, one corresponding to each of 
the great functional systems. We may name the first of these 
the nervous class ; the second, the motive class ; the third the 
nntridve class; the fourth, the reproductive or embryonic class. 
Let us then endeavour, as a test of the truth of this system, to 
make such an arrangement of the classes of the animal kingdom. 



* The.d'npAtKii,asI>aDawellargneaon tbepriDCipleofc«phelisatioD, 
are clearly Reptiles, becaase we arraoga aDunals in their matare and 
not in their embryonio conditioa, aod because the poiots of reproduction 
ia whicb Amphilria diSTer from ordiDarf reptiles, have relation to an 
wjaatic babltat, and are ordioal or raak characters merely. 



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1864.] DB. DAWSON OH OLASBIFICATION OF ANIUAL8. 255 
TABLE OP CLASSES OF ANIMALS. 



Provinces or 
Brancb«s. 




ArticDista 


Mollaaca. 


RadUta. 


1. NerrouB cIoaB. 

2. Hotire clus... 

3. Nalrilifi clus. 

4. Embryooio or 

Reprodnadre 

ClUi. 


j1v*$ 

RtplUia.... 
PUcu 


Sradtnida. 
Initela.... 

Onutacia... 
Snnulala.. 


aphalopodc 

eluding Ptero- 
poda) 

[Ola. 
MoUuKoida (in- 

cIudingT^iea- 

flrjoMO, 


Echimdtr- 
Lmala. 



All of the above groups are recognized by common consent as 
classes, except a few wbtob have been already incidentally ad- 
verted to, and to whiob it is not DeoBSsary agua to refer here.* 

It will be observed that the order in descending the oolamns is 
that of affinity ; that in reading across the colnmnsis the order of 
attahgy. The affinities no naturalist vill seriously doubt. The 
analt^ies may be less familiar. In examining them, it will be 
seen that the firat class in each province includes animals remark- 
able for condensation of the head and body, where the former 
exists ; for high nerrons energy, sensation, and intelligence ; for 
prehensile apporatos, and for absence or simplicity of metamor- 
phosis. The classes in the second line are characterized by the 
greatest locomotive powers in their respective provinces; Uiose in 
the Uiird line by the development of the nutritive apparatns and 
of v^etative growth ; those in the fourth line by embryonto char- 
acters when mature, and by abundant reproductive energy. 

It will be observed also as a necessary consequence of the sys- 
tem we have pnrsaed, that each of onr classes includes animals of 
very various rank or grade. Indeed, most of them have at their 
bases forms so simple or imperfect that it is almost impossiblo to 
include them In the clasB-charaoters. This is no objection to onr 
arrangement, but a proof of its correctness ; for we have now 
arrived at the point where wo must ibrm Ordert based solely on 

* The rank g^l Ten to U]e.jrafi(nid(> will bsdiapntsd bfiomenatDraliiU; 
bat a consideration of the itmeturas of theie anlmala will ibow that 
their relations to tbeinaectaand the cmaUeeaare similar to those of the 
mammals to the birds and the reptiles; and that it is no more rtoaonable to 
aa; that the aracboidaDS are nearer to tbe eriutaceaai than to the Insects, 
on the KTOond of general stmelare, than it would be to do the same in 
(be case of the mammals and the reptiles as compared with the birds. 



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256 THE CAHADtAH MATUBALraT. [^ng- 

tbia coDsideratton of rank. Of these humbler members of our 
classes ve may mention ihe MarmpitUt and the Monotreme* among 
the mammals, the Amphibia among the reptiles, the Xitet among 
the araohnidans, the Myriapodt among the inaeots, the Entotoa 
among the worms. Indeed it is quite posaiblo on thU ground to 
divide each of our classes into two or more Suh^latiet. This is 
sometimes convenient for the st^e of more accurate definition ; 
but it is not neoessarj, since the division into orders sufficiently 
expresses these grades of complexity or elevatjon. 

7. DiTIBIOK OF CLA88K8 INTO ObDKBS AND FAMILIES. 

Orders, as already stated, are based principally on rank or 
grade, to be ascertained by relative complexity or by the develop- 
ment of the higher nature of the animal. The laat seclioD, how- 
ever, obliges us to take this with some limitation ; for since we 
have four descriptione or sorts of classes, each of these must have 
the grade within it ascertained on special grounds. For example, 
the orders of birds, insects, gasteropods, and acalephse, should 
be ascertained chiefly by reference to the locomotive organs, as 
being the system of organs most eminently represented in the 
class. If we glance for a moment at the systems which have 
been proposed, we shall see that this view has unconsciously com- 
mended itself to naturalists. The orders of insects, for exam- 
ple, are very plt^nly based on such characters, being founded 
mainly on the wings. This is nearly equally manifest in the 
ordinarily received orders of birds. It appears in the division 
into Pteropods, Heteropods, and Gast«ropods proper among the 
Gasteropoda. It is also seen in the orders Clenophora, Diico- 
phora, SiphoTwphora, among Acalepbse. It would be easy to show 
by a detailed review of the orders in the animal kingdom, that, 
in BO far as they have been disUnctly defined, they have in most 
cases been framed with a reference to the prevailing cbaraoteristics 
of the class ; and also with the idea of grade or rank as a leading 
ground of arrangement. As previonsly observed, also, it is in the 
construction of orders, and in ascertaining rank in other divi- 
sions, that embryology and the doctrine of oephalisatiou are 
chiefly useful For the present, however, we must leave this sub- 
ject until we shall hare an opportanity to enter into descriptive 
zoology. 

In Botany, orders and &milies are identioal. In Zoology we 
use the term Family for a group inferior to an otder, and equi- 
valent to the Bub-OTder or tribe in botany. The family con- 



C^.txiglc 



1864.] DB. DAWSOH OH OLABBIFIOATION 07 AIIUIAL8. 25? 

sists of an aasemblage of genera resembling each other in general 
aspect. Most large orders sre readil; diviaible into such assem- 
blages, which, though in themselfea somewhat vagne, have the 
advantage of being formed on gronnds which, being conspicuous 
and obfiona at first sight, much aid the naturalist in the prelimi- 
nary parts of bis work. For example, among the carnivorous 
mammalia snob gronpe aa the Mwtelidce or weasels, the Canida 
or dogs, the Feluke or cats, are so obvioua that any member of one 
of these groups oan be referred to that to which it belongs almost 
at first sight. Still I do not regard families as necessary divi- 
sions of the Older. Some small orders may not admit of division 
into families; and even where snch division is admissible, the 
genera may be studied as members of the order, without being 
grouped in families, though this grouping is often very useful and 
ooDVcnient. 

It is important to observe, before leaving this part of the snb- 
jeet, that, in consequence of the great multiplication of species in 
some groups, and the close scrutiny of their structures, it is the 
tendency of specialists to form many small genera. This leads to 
the constrnotion of numeroos families, many of which would more 
properly remain as genera. A still worse consequence is, that, In- 
stead of forming sub-ordere and sub-classes, such specialists often 
call sub-orders or even &milieB orders, and rMse sub-classes or 
orders to the rank of nominal classes, thus introducing a confusion 
which leads the stndent to supprae that these terms have no defi- 
nite meaning. I would further observe here, that I do not so 
much insist on the nse of one name for a group rather than another, 
as on the constant use of each term for groups truly equivalent in 
the system. 

It may be necessary here to state that the formation of orders 

on the ground of rank, and of families on the ground of general 

aspect, does not exclude the ideas of rank and general aspect from 

the province or cbss. On the contrary, as a secoDdary ground, 

general aspect is a good character in the province and class, and 

a grodution of rank oan be perceived in provinces and classes. In 

the provinces, the Vei-tebrata stand highest, and the Radiata 

lowest, the Arlievlata and the Mollutea being nearly equal, and 

their lower members not so high as the highest Radiata ; so that 

they would stand in a diagram thus : 

VertthraUt 

Artiealaitt llollwk$ 

Radiattt. 



258 , THE CANADIAN NATURALIST. {.^^S- 

So among classes, the nerve class in each province is the highest 
and the embryonic does the lowest, and the other two inlenne- 
diate ; but the idea of rank is not here the primary one, as it is 
in forming the orders. It is also trne that from the prorince 
downward the idea of type or plan is constantly before ns. 

We have now in descending from provinces reached the genera 
and species, with the consideration of which we commenced ; and 
if the preceding views have been onderstood, we shall he prepared 
to commence the study of Descriptive Zoology, or to enter upon 
the details which fill np the outline which has been sketched. 
In doing this we most take speoimens of known species and 
stndy them in their stmctaral and physiological peculiarities, and 
in their relations to the other species congeneric and co-ordinate 
with them. 



ON THE OCCURRENCE OF PIEEI3 RAP.^ IN CANADA. 
Br 0. J. Bowles, Sec, Eat. Soc. of Caaada, Quebec Branch. 

During the summer of 1863 — my first collecting aeaaon — I 
captured in the vicinity of Quel>ec numerous specimens of a but- 
terfly of which no description coald be found in any work on 
American entomology. Mr. Cooper, to whom I applied for 
assistAnce, was equally at a loss to determine the species, con- 
sidering it, as I did, to be indigenous to Canada. lu order to 
solve the problem, however, he forwarded some specimens of the 
imago to Mr. William Saunders, of London, C, W., who pro- 
nounced them to be identical with Pierit rapce, the small white 
butterfly of England, one of the most common and injurious 
lepidopterous insects of that country. In the meantime I bad 
enclosed a drawing of the butterfly, ti^ther with the wings, to 
Mr. S. H. Scudder, of Boston, Mass., from whom I received a 
reply, stating that af^er comparing the drawing and wings with 
specimens of P. rapce in the Museum of Comparative Zoology 
at Cambridge, he saw no reason to consider them distinct: at the 
same time he desired further investigation to be made respecting 
the larva and pupa states of the insect. This investigation has 
been successfully carried out, and places beyond doubt the iden- 
tity of the butterfly with the English P. rapae, thus establish- 
ing another instance of the transportation of a lepidopterous 
insect across a wide expanse of ocean, and its naturaliiation io 



CVtxiglc 



1864.] BOWLES OS FIEKIS EAP^ IN CANADA. 259 

& new coantrj, — an inatanoe nliich, when tlie evidence ia cod- 
Bidered, must be regarded as the moat conclusiTe on record. 

The identity of the English and Canadian species is thus 
proved by the exact similarity of the two insects in all their 
stages. That the imagiaes are alike, in both sexes, I have on the 
anthority of the gentlemen above named ; for in Quebec I could 
have DO opportunity of comparing specimens taken in both coun- 
tries. It is singular, too, that a curious variety of the male is 
common to both : in Canada, however, (perhaps from the effect of 
ft different climate) it is more frequently met with than in Eng- 
land. Two males of a bright canary color, but with the usual 
markings of the species, were captured here last summer — one by 
Mr. Couper, the other by me; and this season I have already seen 
several similar individuals. On referring to a valuable work in 
thelibraryof Parliament, (Curtis's Farm Insects,) Iwos gratified 
to find that the author mentions having in his collection a male 
P. rapac, " taken near Oldham, in Lancashire, which has alt 
the wings of a bright yellow color." As to the pupa, in size, 
color and markings, it exactly agrees with engravings and descrip- 
tions of the English chrysalis, and also in its usual place of depo- 
sition, &c. The last link in the chain is furnished by the simi- 
larity of the cuterpillar, which also agrees with the best English 
descriptions. I took several of these larvie from cabbie-plants 
in hotbeds on the 8th of June, and have reared four of them to 
maturity. When about half-grown, they b^n to exhibit the 
characteristic markings of the species, — these markings becoming 
more decided as they increased in size. 

That this in^ct is not native to Canada, is certain from two 
interesting circumstances connected with its history. A limit can 
be set to its existence in Canada; and the place where it first 
appeared can be specified. Until within a few years, the butt«rSy 
was unknown in this country. No description of it is found in 
Kirby's "Fauna Boreali Americana"; nor in the "Canadian 
Naturalist," by Gosse, who visited (Juebec, and collected here 
about 1839. The "Synopsis" of the Smithsonian Institution is 
also wanting in this respect; and I have carefully examined the 
volumes of our magazine of natural history, (the " CunadiuQ 
Naturalist," Montreal) without finding any notice of the species. 
This periodical contains two lists of lepidoptera collected in 
Lower Canada ; one by Mr. R. Bell, Jun., of butterflies taken on 
the Lower St. Lawrence; the other by Mr. D'Urban, of those 
found in the vicinity of Montreal in 18o7<8-9. The only Pierii , 

iglc 



260 TBI CAKASUN NATUOALIBT. C-^^' 

meDtioned in these liats is P. oleracea, a speoiea which ma; be 
diBtinguished &t a glance iVom P. rapa, the markings bdng 
altogether different. Mr. Gouper captured a specimen of P. 
rapa withia the city limits of Quebec, about fiye years ago, bat 
did not iDveatigate the subject, though considering the insect a 
rare one, his special study being coleoptera. This is the earliest 
notice of the butterfly in Canada; and it evidently points out 
Quebec as the hcaliCy of introduction, and fixes the period at 
about seven or eight years ago. 

W^th respect to the means by which it has been brought into 
the country, some plausible conjectures may be advanced. Of 
course the introduction took place during the season of navigation. 
The turnip, cabbage, and other kindred v^etablcs, constitute the 
principal food plants of the insect; and, adhering to one of thcse^ 
it must have been carried across the ocean, either in the egg, 
larva, or chrysalis, — the last being the most unlikely, as the larva 
always forsakes its food-plant, and becomes a pupa in some shel- 
tered situation, usually under the coping of a wall, &o. The ^^ 
are laid on the under side of cabbage and turnip leaves, where the 
larva, on emerging, find themselves in close proximity to their 
food. Perhaps the vegetable refuse thrown from one of oar ocean 
steamers on her arrival, has contained a few eg^ or larvie, which 
under these unfavourable circumstances, have retained their vita- 
lity ; and from these have sprung the imagines destined to become 
the parents of the species in Canada. 

The habitat of the insect is siill very limited. After making 
enquiry, I do not think that it has extended more than forty miles 
from Quebec as a centre, so that a circle of eighty miles diameter 
would include the present habitat. This may seem great progress 
during the short period of its naturalization, but, considering the 
fecundity and habits of the species, it is not surprising. 

There is some importance connected with the introduction of 
this butterfly, apart from the scientific interest of the subject to 
entomologists. Hitherto, Lower Canada has poseessed but one 
species of the genus Pierii (P. oleracea, Harris ; Pontia ca$ta, 
Kirby,) and this apecies so insignificant in numbers, at least in , 
the Quebec region, that its depredations have passed unnoticed. 
The new importation, however, must be regarded in a different 
light. As the insect is now permanently settled in the country, 
is very prolific, and the larvse extremely voracious, we may anti- 
cipate its becoming a great pest to farmers and gardeners, not only 
where it is now found, bat ultimately in the whole of Canada, and 



1864.] BOWLES ON PIEBtS EAP£ IM OANABA. 261 

parts of t^o United States. And that it will in the course of time 
epreod over these regions, admits of no doubt. The food-plants of 
the Bpecies are cultivated Id every partof the country, and besides, 
the insect has the power of accommodating itself to altered cir- 
cumstances. Mr. Curtis, in the won: before mentioned, states 
that the caterpillars have been found feeding on the willow, and 
on mignionette, nasturtiums, &c. It is therefore probable that its 
progress westward will not be impeded bj the scarcity of its fa- 
vorite food in certain localities, but that it will overcome all diffi- 
culties of this nature by resorting to other plants, not confining 
itself to the cruciferse. 

Last autumn, in the vicinity of Quebec, the ravages of these 
larvsB were very great. Large plots, and even fields" of cabbages, 
cauliflowers, &c., were completely destroyed ; the caterpillars only 
rejecting the strong supporting ribs of the leaves. Serious loss 
was thus occasioned to market gardeners and others. One inform- 
ed me that he had sustained a loss of more than two hundred dollars 
by their depredations ; another that nearly the whole of his crop 
of cabbages was deatrojed, the small portion saved requiring to be 
carefully washed before being sent to market, A gentleman also told 
me that they had not only eaten up his garden produce, but had 
demolished a bed of mignionette, even to the stalks. 

Nature bae provided more than one means of checking the in- 
crease of the species. The chrysalis is attacked by a parasite, 
(probably one of the Ichneumonidte) as several collected by me 
this spring gave evidence. Laige numbers of the pupee are also 
killed by the frost, where they have been placed in exposed situa- 
tions, and thus the spring brood of butterflies is materially les- 
sened. I noticed a singular circumstance connected with these 
winter pupse. Living chrysalids, brought into the warm house 
from the cold outside, invariably shrivelled and dried in a few 
days. Out of many that I gathered during last winter, not one 
produced a butterfly. 

Last year the species was exceedingly abundant in the neigh- 
borhood of Quebec, flying by hundreds over the fields and gar- 
dens, and even in the most crowded parts of the city ; and this 
season it promises to be equally numerous. Early in March, the 
butterflies b(^n to appear in houses, from pupa which had been 
suspended on the walls during the previous autumn. On the Cth 
April, at Laval, about fifteen miles trom Quebec, several specimens 
were taken in the open air ; and on tbe 26tb May, loountedmore 



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262 THK CANADIAN NATURALIST. [^<1S- 

than fifty iodi victuals, met with on about a mile of road withia a 
short dialBuce of the city. 

Considering their great ahaudance within their preMeat habitati 
and tbeir proBpeotive diBSeminatioD over the Province, it is deeir- 
able that information respecting the appearance and habits of these 
insects should be given to the public, and means devised for their 
destruction. Farmen and gardeners shonld kill every caterpillar 
on their turnips, cabbages, &o., and be provided with nets to cap- 
ture the perfect inscots. The ohrysalids should also be sought for 
on the fences during the fall and wint«r, and destroyed. Unless 
these precautions be taken, tha injury caused by this butterfly to 
the green crops in Canada may become very serious. 

The following is a description of the insect : 

Mate — wings white, (or light yellow) with one blackish spot on 
the fore winga above, and two beneath, a black band on the apex 
on the upper side, extending a short distance along the adjacent 
margins, a black dash on the fore edge of the bind wings, which 
are beneath of a pale yellow sprinkled with black Body black, 
antennjB annujated with black and white. Female has tiro black- 
ish spots on upper side of anterior wings. Expands about two 
inches. 

Chrysalis — Pale green, speckled with black, suspended horizon- 
tally by the tail and a thread across the middle. 

Caterpillar — Ahont 1^ inches long when full grown, green finely 
dotted with black, a yellow stripe along the back, and a raw of 
yellow spots along each side in a line with the spiracles. 

The caterpillars reared by me were about one-twelfth of an inch 
long when I procured them, and attained their full size in eleven 
days. On the 1 9th Jane they beeame pupse, and seven days after 
the perfev:t insecta appeared. The butterfly therefore passes 
through all its changes in leas than a month. Three or four 
broods are produced during the season. 

(_Read be/ort thi Qutbtc Branch, Entomological Socitty of Canada. T(& 
Juli/, 1S64.) 

SYNOPSIS OF CANADIAN FERNS AND FILICOID 

PLANTS. 

Bt Oioaoi Lawboh, Pa.D., LL.D. 

The following Synopsis embraces a concise statement of what Is 

known respecting Canadian ferns and filiooid plants. Imperfect 

as it is, I trust that it will prove useful to botanists and fern 



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1864.] LA.VBON ON CANADIAK FEESS. 263 

&nciera, and stimulate to renewed diligenoe in investigation. The 
whole nnmber of speoiea enumerated ia seventy-foiir. Of these 
eleven sre doabtful. Farther investigation will probably lead to 
the elimination of several, of the doabtful species, whioh aro 
letained for the present with a view to promoto inqniry ; but a few 
additional spedes, as jet unknown within the bonndariea of 
Caiuula, may be discovered. The above number may be regarded, 
theo, aa a fair estimate — perhaps slightly in excess — of the actual 
aamber of ferns and filiooid plants existing in Canada. The 
DumbeF certainly known to exist, after deducting the species of 
donbtfut occurrence, is sixty-three. 

The nnmber of species described in Professor Asa Oray's exhane- 
tive Manual, as actually known to inhabit the northern Unitod 
Sttttes, that is to say, the country lying to the eonth of the St. 
Lawrence River and Great Lakes, stretching to and including Vir- 
ginia and Kentncky in the sonth, and extending westward to the 
Mississippi River, is seventy-five. This number does not include 
any doubtful species. 

The nnmber described in Dr. Chapman's Flora, aa inhabiting 
the Southern States, that is, all the states sooth of Virginia and 
Kentucky and east of the Mississippi, is sixty-nine.* 

From these statements it will be seen that we have our due 
cihare of ferns in Canada. 

The whole number of ferns in all the American States, and the 
BHtiah North American Provinces, is estimated, in a recent letter 
from Mr. Eaton, as probably over 100. 

In the British Islands there areabout 60 ferns and filiooid planta- 
in ialands of wanner regions tlie number is greatly increased. 
Thus Mr. Eaton's enumeration of the true ferns collected by 
Wright, Scott, and Hayes, in Cuba, embraces 357 species. The 
proporticnsof ferns to phanerogamous plantain the floras of dif- 
ferent countries are thus indicated by Professor Balfour, in the 
Claas-Book of Botany, page 998, §1604 ;— " In the low plains of 
tlie great oontlnents, within the tropics, ferns ate to phauerogamoas 
plants as 1 to 20 ; on the mountainous parte of the great conti- 
nents, in the same latitudes, as 1 to8,or 1 to6j in Congo aa 1 to 27; 
in New Holland as 1 to 26. In small islands, dispersed over a 
vide ocean, the proportion of ferns increases; thus while in 



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264 THE OANADIAN HATDBALIST. [^Ilg- 

Jamioa the proportion is 1 to 8, in Otaheite it u 1 to 4, and in St. 
Helena and AacoDsioQ nearly 1 to 2. In the temperate zone, 
Humboldt gives the proportioa of ferns to phanerogsmons plants 
as 1 to 70. In North Amerioa ihe proportion ii 1 to 36 ; in Fronoe 
1 to 58; in Germmy 1 to 62; in the dry parts of southern Italy aa 
1 to 74 ; and in Greece 1 to 84. In colder r^ons the propor^on 
increases ; that is to say, ferns decrease more slowly in number than 
phanerogamous plants. Thus in Lapland the proportiin is 1 
to 25 ; in Iceland I to IS ; and in Greenland I to 12. The pro. 
portion is least in the middle t^nperate tone, and itincreaeesbolh 
towards the eqnator and towards the poles; at the same time it 
must be remarked, that ferns reach their absolute maximum in 
the torrid zone, and their absolute minimum in the arctic sone." 

Canada consists of a belt of land, lying to the north of the St. 
Lawrence River and the Great Lakes. By these it is separated, 
along nearly the whole extent of its south-eastern and western 
boundaries, from the northern United States, which thus eDoioBe 
Canada on two sides. A striking resemblance, amonnting almost 
to identity, is therefore to he looked for tn the floras of the two 
oountriea. Yet species appear in each that are absent in the 
Other, 

The species of ferns and filicoid plants which are certainly 

Canadian, amount to (i3 

Of these there inhabit the Northern States, 68 

Do. do. Southern States, 38 

Do. do. Europe, 36 

The following table is designed lo show some of the goographioal 
relations of our Canadian ferna. The first column (I.) refers cjc- 
olusively to theoccurrenceof the species within the Canadian boun- 
dary. The pluy sign ( + ) Indicates that the speciej ia general, or 
at least does not show any decided tendency towards the extreme 
eastern or western, or northern or southern parts of the Provinoe. 
The letters N, S, E, W, &o., variously combined, indicate that the 
species is BO limited to the corresponding northern, Bouthern,eastera 
or webtern parts of the province, or at leust has a well-defined tea* 
dency lo such limitation. The mark of interrogation (7) signifies 
doubt as to the occurrence of the speciea. The eeoond oolumn (II.) 
shows what Canadian species occur also in the Northern States, that 
is the region embraced by Gray's Miinual ; and the third column 
(III.) those that extend down south into Chapman's territory. 
The fourth column (IV.) shows the oocurreooe of our species iu 



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1864.] LAW80N OK CANADIAN FERNS. 26S 

Europe; G in this CoIoidq iodicating CoDtinental Europe, and B 
the British Islands. Tho fifth or last column (V.) shovs the spe- 
cies that extend northwards into the Arctic circle — 35 in all, of 
which hoffever, only 14, or perhaps 15, are known to be Arctic ia 
America. Am., As., Eu., and G., indicate respectively Arctic 
America, Arctic Asia, Arctic Europe, and Arctic Greenland. The 
information contained in the last column has been chiefly derived 
from Dr. Hooker's able Memoir in the Linneean Transactions 
(vol. xxiii., p. 251). 

Hitherto no attention whatever has been paid, in Canada, to the 
study of those remarkable variations in form to which the species 
of ferns are so peculiarly liable. In Britain, the study of varieties 
has now been pursued by botanists so fully as to show that the phe- 
nomena which they present have a most important bearing upon 
many physiological and tautological questions of the greatest scien- 
tific intecest. The varieties are studied in a systematic manner, 
and the laws of variation have been toa certain extent ascertained. 
And as the astronomer can point out the existence of a planet 
before it has been seen, and the chemist can constmct formnlss for 
oi^nio compounds — members of homolc^us series— in antici- 
pation of their actual discovery, so in like manner the pteridologist 
now studies the variations of species by a comparative system, 
whichenableshimtalookforequivalent forms in the corresponding 
species of different groups. Studies so pursued are calculated to 
evolve more accurate and definite notions as to the real nature of 
species, and the laws of divergence in form of which they are 
capable. I would therefore earnestly invite Canadian botanists to a 
more careful stndy of the varietic$ of the Canadian ferns, after 
the manner of Moore and other European leaders in this compara- 
tively new path. The elasticity, or proneness to variation, of the 
Bpecies in certain groups of animals and plants has been somewhat 
rashly used to account for the origin of species, by what is called 
the process of variation. It seems to tell all the other way. In- 
numerable as are the grotesque variations of ferns, in forkingsand 
frillings, and tassellings, andabnormarveiningSj &o. (see the figures 
in Moore's works), we donot know of asingle species in irhlchsuch 
peculiarities have become permanent or general, that ia tprxifie, 
BO that the species can be traced back to such an origin. Surely 
something of the kind would have happened had all species origin- 
ated by a process of variation. 



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266 TBB OANADUn NATUaALIST. [Aug. 

Tiibular View of the Dlilribulion of O-tnadian Ferns and Allied 



Planu over Certain ParU 0/ the A^orthem Memisphere* 


Nm. 


I. 


II. 


HI. 


IV. 


V. 


J 




i 


y 


IJ 


PoLTPODIACEjB. 












1. Polypodinm Tulgare, . . 


+ 


+ 


+ 


C.B. 


El. 


2. P. hexagonopUinuii, . . 


+ 


+ 


+ 






3. P. Phogopteris, .... 


+ 


+ 




c'.'b. 


Eu!'g. 


4. P. Dryopteris, .... 


+ 


+ 




C.B. 


En.Am.G 


B. P. RobertiaQum, . . . 


+ 


+ 




C.B. 




6. Adiantum pedatum, . . 


+ 


+ 


+ 






7. Pteria aquilina, .... 


+ 


+ 


+ 


C.B. 


Eo. 


8. Pellaia atropurpurea, . . 


9. 


+ 


+ 






9. AlloaoraB Stelleri, . . . 


+ 


+ 










WW 






"i 


■Am. 




+ 


+ 




C 


En. 




+ 


+ 


+ 






13. Asplenium Trichomanea, '. 


+ 


+ 


+ 


C.B. 




14. A. viride, 


N.E, 






C.B. 


Eu.'q. 


15. A. anguatifolinm, . . . 


9.W. 


+ 


+ 






16. A. ebeneum, 


+ 


+ 


+ 






17. A. msrinum, 


E.? 






C.B. 






+ 


+ 


+ 






19. A. montaaum, .... 


? 


+ 


+ 






20. A. Ruta muraria. . . , . 


? 


+ 


+ 


C.B. 


Ett. 


21. Athyrium Filix fcemina, . 


+ 


+ 


+ 


C.B. 


Eu. 


22. Woodwardia Virginica, . 


S.W. 


+ 


+ 






23. Scolopendrium vulgare, . 


WW 


+ 




C.B. 




24. Gamptosorns rhizophylliu, . 


w. 


+ 


+ 




... 


25. Lastrca dilataU, .... 


+ 


+ 




C.B. 


En. Am. 


26. h. marginalia, . . 




+ 


+ 


+ 






27. L. Filii-mas, . . . 




77 






C.B. 


Eu^'o. 


28. L. criatata, . . . 




+ 


+ 




C.B. 




29. L. Goldieana,. . . 




W. 


+ 








30. L, fragrana, . . . 




NW7 


+ 






Ai!.Am.G. 


31. L. Thelypteris, . . 




+ 


+ 


+ 


C.B. 




32. L. Nov-Eboracenaia, 




+ 


+ 


+ 






33. Polystichum angulare. 




+ 


+ 




C.B. 


En. 


34. P. Lonchitis, . . . 




N.W. 


+ 




C.B. 


Ea.Am.G 


35. P, aoroatichoidee, . 




+ 


+ 


+ 






36. Cvstopteria fras-ilia, . 




+ 


+ 


+ 


C.B. 


Ga.Am.G 


37. C bulbifera, . . 




+ 


+ 


+ 








+ 


* 


+ 







,.,.d.i. Google 



1864.] 



LAWSON OH OANASIAM VKENS. 



KlHI. 


r. 1 I.. 


III. 


n.\ V. 1 


1 


li 


I 


1 


I| 


39. Woodaia IlveMiB, . . . 


+ 


+ 


+ 


C.B 


lEu.As. 
1 Aid. 8. 


*0. W. olpioa, 


+ 






C.B 


E„. G. 


11. W. glabella, 


+ 


+ 






Am. 


42. W. obtiwa 


? 


+ 


+ 






*3. OBmanda wgalis, . . . 


+ 


+ 


+ 


cVi 




U. 0. cinnftmomea, .... 


+ 


+ 


+ 






15. 0. ClaytoDiana, .... 


+ 


+ 


+ 






16. Schizaa pnsilk, .... 


? 


+ 








Ophioqlossacrk. 












17. Botryohium Vii|;iiiiciim, , 


+ 


+ 


+ 




En.e. 


48. B. lunarioidea 


+ 


+ 


+ 


y 




19. B. lunaria 


N. 






C.B 


En's. 




? 


+ 


+ 


C.B. 


Eu. 


LreopoDiAOEA. 












bl. FlaDaathna Selago, . . . 


N.? 


+ 


+ 


C.B. 


fEu.Ai 
{Ain.G. 


52. P. luoidolua, 


+ 


+ 


+ 


0. 


&3. P. alopecuroidea, . . . 


?? 


+ 


+ 






54. P. inuudatns, .... 


+ 


+ 


+ 


C.B. 




55. Lfcopodium clavatum, . . 


+ 


+ 


+ 


C.B. 


b»!'b. 


56. L. aonotinum, .... 


+ 


+ 


+ 


C.B. 


Eii.Am.a 


57. L. deDdroideum, . . . 


+ 


+ 


+ 






58. L. complanatum, . . . 


+ 


+ 


+ 


C. 


EuVai 


59, Selaginella spiaalosa, . . 


N.B. 


+ 


+ 


C.B. 


En. a 


GO. Slachygynandrum mpestre, 


+ 


+ 


+ 






Gl. Diplostachjum apodiun, . 


+ 


-t- 


+ 






Ma,rsileaoe.S. 












62, Azolla Caroliniana, . . . 


8. 


+ 


+ 






63. Siilvinia naUna, .... 


?? 




+ 


c! 




64, IsoStes laoustria, .... 


+ 


+ 


+ 


C.B. 


Eil'a 


Equisetaob*. 












G5. Equisetum sylvaticum, 


+ 


+ 




C.B. 


Eii.Ad.G 


66. E. umbrosum, .... 


+ 


+ 




C.B. 


En. 


B7. E. aryense, 


+ 


+ 




C.B. 


f En.AB. 
lAm.G. 


B8. E. Telmateja, .... 


W. 


+ 




C.B. 


69. E. limosum 


+ 


+ 




C.B. 


Eu. 


70. E, hyemale, 


+ 


+ 




C.B. 


Eu. 


11. E. robaatum, 


+ 


+ 








12. E. varif^mu, . , , . 


N. E. 


+ 




C.B. 


f Eli' Am 


73. E. scirpoides, .... 


+ 


+ 




0. 


1 G. 
(En. A.. 
(Am. G. 


7(. E. palnBtre 


K. 


:i 


::: 


C.B. 


En. Am. 
1, 



tXIc^lc 



268 THE OANADUH NATUBALIST. l.^^- 

Nat. Ord. POLYPODIACE^. 

POLYPODIDM. 

P. vulgare, Linn. — Frood linear-oWongor somewhat lanceolate, 
more or lesK acnminate, deeply pinnatifid, in some forma almost 
pinnate ; lobes (or pinnse) linear-obloog, obtose, often acute, rarely 
acuminate, entire or crenate or serrate ; sori large ; very variable 
aa rt^rds outiinc of the frond, form, &o., of the lobes, and serrature, 
P. vufffare, Linn., A. Gray, Moore, &o. P. Virginianum of English 
gardens. P. oalgare, Tar. Americanum, Hook., Torrey, Fl. N. Y., ii, 
480. — On rocks in the woods, not rare around the oity of Kingston ; 
abundant on the rocky banks of the St. Lawrence, in Pittsburg; 
in the woods at Collina's Bay ; and ou Judge Mallooh's farm, a mile 
west from Brookville ; Q-ananoque lakes and rivers ; Farmersville ; 
Newboro on the Rideau ; Toronto ; on the great boulder of the 
Trent Valley, near Trenton ; on rocks west from Brockville, outcrop 
of Potsdam Bundstone at Oxford, and Hull, mountains near Chelsea, 
C. E., B.Billings, jun. ; near Gatineau Mills, D, M'GilliTray, M.D. ; 
Mount Johnson, C. E., and Niagara River, P. W. Maclagan, 
M.D. ; Brighton, in the crevioe of a rock in a Geld, and abundant 
on rocky banks right bank of the Moira, above Belleville, J. Maconn ; 
Bamsay, Bev. J. K. McMorioe, M.A. ; nofth-weat from Granite 
Point, Lake Superior, R.IBell, jnn.; mountain top,near Mr. Bridge's 
house, Hamilton, C. W., Judge Lc^o ; River Rouge and lower end 
oF Gut Lake, W. 8. M. D'Urban ; Cape Haldimand, Gaapd, John 
Bell, B A. ; Bed River Settlement, Governor M'Tavish ; foot of 
Cape Tourmente, Abb^ Provancher; L'Orignal and Grcnville, 
C. E., J. Bell, B.A. The habitata above cited show that although 
this fern is not so common in Canada aa in Britain, itia neverthe- 
less widely dititribut«d. It ia common in New York Stat«, accord- 
ing to Professor Torrey, and in the Northern States generally ac- 
cording to Professor Asa Gray ; rarer in the South, according to Dr> 
Chapman. 

P. hexOgonopta-um, Mich. — Frond triangular in outline, acumi- 
nate, pinnate, huiry throughout; pinnae broadly lanceolate, pinna- 
tifid ; lowest pair of pinnae lai^r than the othera, not deflexed ; 
lobea of the pinnie linear-oblong or lanooolate, strongly toothed, or 
almost pinnatifid, The decurrent pinnse haye a tendency to form 
conspicuous irregular-angled winga along the rachis. !^tipe not 
scaly except at the base. Rhizome long, slender, ramifying. Whole 
plant muoh larger than P. Phegopterti, and quite a different apeeies. 



,,;. Google 



1864.] LAWBON OH OAHADIAM PBEN8. 269 

P. hexa^onoplerum, Micbx., A. Gray,4o. The figure ia Lowe's 
Ferns, vol i, p. 143, tab. 49, is a little too moeh like Phegopteris, 
i*. Flu-ffopterit, y maju», Hook, Fl. Bor. Amor., ii,p. 258. Hooker's 
yS. intermedia of Ph^pteria is connertile, Willd., which A. Gray 
refers to P. Phegopterit, L. Ph^oplerit hexagonoptera, J. Sm. 
CaL, p. 17.— Canada, Goldie in Hook. Fl. B. Amer.; Chippawa, 
C. W., P. W. Maola^n, M.D. ; Mirwio'a Wood*, near Prescott, 
rarOgB. Billingsjaa. inearWeatmiasler Pond, London, W. Saun- 
ders. Not by any means so general in Canada aa in New York 
State, where Professor Torrey states it is coramon. 
P.PhegaplerU, Linn. — Frond acutely triangular in ontline, acumi- 
nate, pinnate; the pinnte llnear-lanoeolata, pJnnatiGd, lowest pair de- 
flezcd; lobes of the pinn»Dblong,Boythe-9hBped,obtnse approximate, 
entire; rachis hairy and minuteljscalytothe apex of thefrond, as 
well as the midribs (^the pinnee. P. Phegopterit, Linn. , A. Gray, 
Moore, &a. Pkegopterii vulgaris, J. Sm., P. eonnectile, Michx, 
Pursh Fl. Am. Sept., 2nd ed., vol. », p. 669. — Canada, Hookeri 
Black-Lead Falls and DeSalaberry, west line, W. S. M. D'Urban ; 
Ramsay, Rev. J. K. McMorine, M.A. ; Nicolet, P, W. Maclagan, 
M.D. ; Prescott, damp woods, not common ; Osgood Station of the 
Ottawa and Prescott Railway ; also Gloucester, near Ottawa, grow- 
ing on the side of a ravine, and Chelsea, C. E., B. Billings, jnn ; 
opposite Grand Island, Lake Superior, R. Bell, jun. ; L'Orignal 
and Harrington, J. Bell, B.A. 

P. Dryoplerit, Linn. — Frond thin, light^reen, pentangular ia 
outlino, consisting of three divaricate triangular aubdivisiona, each 
of which is pinnate, with its pionse more or less deeply pinnatiGd; 
pinnules oblong, obtuse, nearly entire ; stipe slender and weak, not 
glandalose. P. Drgopteria. Linn. A. Gray, Moore, &c. Phegoplerit 
J)rgoplerii,3.3m. — Abundant in the woods around Kingston; 
Itamsay, Rev. J. E. M'Morine, M.A.; very common in woods 
about Prescott. B. Billings, jun. ; Montreal and Nioolet Rivers, 
C.E., P. W. Maclagan, M.D. ; Belleville, common in the wooda, 
J. Maconn ; opposite Grand Is' and. Lake Superior, R. Bell. jun. i 
River Rouge, Round Lake, Montreal, De Salabeny, west line, 
and Black Lead,Falls, W. S. M. D'Urban ; Newfoundland, Labra- 
dor, Somerset, and St. Joachim, Abb^ Provancber; L'Orignal, 
J. BeU, B.A. 

Var. /3. ereetum. — Frond erect, rigid, with a very stout and very 
long glabrous stipe (18 inches long) ; beech woods at ColUns's Bay, 



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270 THB CANADIAN NATCIIALIBT. [Aug. 

near Kingston, with the normal fonn. This variety resembles P. 
Rolerlianum Id general aspect, but is not at all glandulose. 

P. Robertianum, Hoffman. — A stouter plant than P. Dryoplerh ; 
fronds more rigid and etect ; raohis, &o., closely beset with minute- 
Btalked glands. P. Robertianum, Hoffoian, Moore. &o. P. calca- 
ream, Sm,, P. Dryoptent, var. Mlcareum,A. Gray, Canada, Mooro 
andotherauthorB;Unitcd States, Oraj and others. This species 
is commonly spoken and nrittun of as a Canadian fern. Not 
having had an opportunity of seeing Canadians specimens, I cannot 
cite special habitata. The minntely glandulose rachis serves at once 
to dietingiiLsh it. 

Adiantcm. 
A.pedatam, Linn. — Stipe blaokand shining, erect, forked at top, 
the forks secundly branched, the branches being oblique triangular 
oblong pinnules. A. pedatum, Linn., A. Gray, &c., Low's Ferns, 
vol. iii, pi. 14. Abundant in v^;elable soil in the woods around 
Kingston; woods around the iron-mines at Newboro-on-the-K,ideau ; 
Farmersville ; Toronto; Montreal, Ghippawa, Wolfe Island, and 
Maiden, P. W. Maclagan, M.D. ; Belleville, in rich woods, abun- 
dant, J. Maooun ; Ramsay, Rev. J, K. McMorine, M.A. ; Ke-we- 
naw Point, R. Bell,}UQ; attho Sulphur Spring, and common every- 
where about Hamilton, Judge Logie ; Lake Huron, Hook. Fl. B. 
A.; Ue Salabcrry, west line, W. S. M. D'Urban ; on the Oatincan 
near Qilmour's rafting-ground, D. M Gillivray, M.D. ; Lon.lon, 
W. Saunders; St. Joachim and Isle St. Paul, Montreal, 
Abb6 Provanchor ; West Hawkesbury and Grenville, C. E., J. 
Beil, B. A. Apparently common everywhere in Upper Canada. 
I cannot speak so definitely of the Iiower Province. This is one 
of our finest Canadian ferns ; " the most graceful and delicate of 
North American ferns," says Torrey. It is easily cultivated. Fine 
as it is in the Canadian woods, I have specimens even more hand- 
some from Schooley's Mountains (A. 0. Brodie, Ceylon Civil Ser- 
vice) ; their fan-like fronds spread out in ^ semicircle, with a rndius 
of 2J feet. It is not a variable species in Canada. T. Moore, in 
" Index Filicnm," gives its distribution as N. and N. W. America, 
California to Sitka, North India, Sikkim, Noapul, Gurwhal, Simla, 
Kumaon, Japan. There is a var. j8. Aleutictimj Bupr., in tbe 
Aleutian Islands. 

Pteri8. 

P. aquilina, Linn. — Stipe stout, 1 to 3 feet high, frond ter- 

nate, branches bipinnate, pinnules oblong lanceolate, sori oontino- 



X'.ooglc 



1864.] LAWBON ON CANADIAN FERNS. 271 

(ma noder their recurred mar^ns. Pi. aquilina, Linn., A, Gray, 
Moore, Ac. — Abundant on Dr. Yatca's farm in Pittabui^, and else- 
where about Kingeton; Wuterdovn Road, Hamilton, commoD, 
Judge Logie -, Chippawa and Maiden, C. W., P. W. Maclagan, 
U.D.; Ramsay, Rev. J. K. M'Morine, M.A.; PreBcott, oomraon, B. 
Billings, jun., Belleville, very common on barren ridges, J. Macoun ; 
Grand Island, Lake Superior, R. Bell, Jan. ; Red Lake River, also 
between Wild Rice and Hed Lake Rivers, and Otter T^iil Lake and 
River, between Snake Hill River and Pembina, &c,, J.C.Schulti, 
M.D. ; Black Lead Falls, and Portage to Bark Lake, W. S. M. 
D'Url>an ; Gatineau Mills, very common, D. M'Gillivray, M D. ; 
Lakefield, North Dooro, Mrs. Traill ; New Brunswick, Hook. Fl. 
Bor. Amcr.; L'Orignal, J. Bell, B.A.; London, W. Saunders. 

a. vera. — Pinnules pinnatiGd (the normal or typical form of 
Hoore), Dr Yates's farm, Kingston. 

j3. inte^errima. — Pinnules entire (a sub-variety), common in 
Canada and westward. There are various other sub- varieties; 
differing in size, pabescence, &e. 

■f. decipient. — Frond bipinnate, thin and membranous, lanuginose, 
pinnules pinnatiSdly toothed, or in small forms, entire, barren; 
L'Aose i. Cahielle, Gaspd, John Bell, B.A. This ia a very 
remarkable fern, resembling a Lastrea, and in the absence of fmo- 
lilication, it is doubtfully referred to Plerit ojuvfiua, yet the vena- 
tion seems to indicate that it belongs to that speoies, which is 
remarkable for its puzzling forms. Being at a loss what to make of 
this fern, I sent it to Mr. D. C. Eaton, H.A., who is justly looked 
up to by American botanists as our best authority on American 
ferns, and he Ukewise failed to reoc>gnise it. I hope some visitor 
to Gasp^ will endeavor to obtain it in a fertile state, and thus 
relieve the doubt.* 

[Var.S. caudala appears occasionally in lists. I have as yet no 
satisfactory evidence of its oecurrence In Canada proper. The 
nearest approach to it is aspecimen from thcHudson Bay territories^ 
probably from the Red River Distriot (Governor M'Tavlsh}. In 
the South it is a very distinct form, of which there are beautiful 
Bpecimens in Wright's Cuban Plants (No. 872), and is very close 
to the Fierit eteuknta of Australia, j 

* Since the above was written, I bave bad aa opportunily oretiidjrlng 
Ibe fcroig and development o( Plerit aguilina and am quite satisfied that 
the donbirul plant U a Btat« of tbat species, not old enough to be fertile. 



„ Google 



THB OANADIAH NATUaMilST. [^"fr 



FELLiBA. 



P. atropuTpurea, Liok. — Stipe and raobis almmt black, shiniag, 
6 to 12 incbes high, frond coriaceous, piaa&te, divisions opposite, 
linear-oblong or somewhat oval. PterUalri^urpwea,liiaii. Piaty- 
loma atrop., J. Stn., Torr. N. T., ii. p. 483. Allotorut alrvpur- 
pureoM, A. Gray. Pelkea atropurpurea, Link., 1^66, J. Sm. in Cat., 
Eaton. — Niagara River, at the Whirlpool, three miles below the 
Falls. This fern seems to retain its fronds all winter, for I have 
fertile specimens, in a fine Btat« collected at the Whirlpool at the 
end of February, 1859, by A. 0. Brodie. Dr. P. W. Maolagan has 
also collected it there. It ie not common anywhere on the Ameri- 
can con^nent so far as I can learn. Mr. Lowe speaks of it as in 
cultivation in Britain, " an cve^een frame or greenhouse species, 
not sufficiently bordy to stand over winter's cold." There must be 
Bome other reason for want of success in itsoultivation in Britain. 

Allosorits. 

^.iS'feZ2«n',Baprecbt.— -Fronds pale gre«>, thin and papery, 3 to 
9 inches long, bipinnate and tripinnate, some of the smaller barrel) 
fronds soaroely more than pinnate ; pinnse five or sii pairs ; lobes of 
the barren frond, rounded, oval, veiny ; of the fertile frond, much 
narrower, linear-lanoeolate, firmer ; aori at the tips of the forked 
veins along the margins, stipe red, whole plant glalnvus. A bcanti- 
{u[ and delicate fern, growing in the crevices of rocks, rare. Allo- 
lortti Stelleri, Ledeb, Fl. Roesioa. Allotorui gracilU, Presl., A. 
Gray, Torrey Fl. N. T. ii. p. 487. In aletterfromMr. T.Moore 
(1857), he mentioned to me that be had learned from specimens 
from Dr. R^el, St. Petersburg, that "the Nortii American ^I^kk'us 
gradlii is the old Fterit Stelleri of Amman, so that it spreads 
from North America through Siberia to India, whence Dr. Hooker 
has it." Alloioriu minuliu, Turoz. Pl.Ezs. Ckeilanthet gr^cilit, 
Klf. Cryptogramma gracilu, Torrey. Pterii Stelleri, Gmelin, 
PUrU minula, Turcs. Cat. PI. Baik. Dah. Pt.gmci/it, jMichaux. 
— Near Lakefield,NorthDonro,O.W., on rooks, Mrs Traill; abun- 
dant in crevices of limestone rocks, on the rocky banks of the 
Moira, Belleville, Co. Hastings, J. Maoonn; Lake of Three Moun- 
tains, W. S. M. D'Urban j Canada to the Saskatchewan, Hook. Fl. 
Bor. Am. ; Dartmoath, Oasp^, John Bell, B. A. This is a North- 
em species, and rare in the United States. 



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1864.] lAWBOM OS OAMADUM »TO»8. 273 

OaTPTOaRAHUA. 

C acrottichoidv, B. Br. — " R«markabl« far ito sporaDgia ^- 
tondingfai down on the obliqae Tains, boas to fonn linear linee of 
fruit." I have not seen the plant. It is referred by Sir William 
Hooker to ^IfoK)nMerMfMM(A. 6r. in GDnm. of Dr. Parry's Ro4^ 
Mt-Plante). Crgptogramanaaeroitic}uniie»,'R.BT.,VltMro. AUok- 
rtu aerottirhoidei, A. Gr. — Isle Boyele, Lake Superior. Plaoed 
in Dr. Hookor't Table as a CaQadUn speoiee that does not extend 
into the United States. It haa reoeotly been found on the Roc^ 
UooDtains. AUotoru* critpw is general Utrongfaoat Borope, and 
ooonre at Sitka, in North- West Am«doa. Mr. Moore observes that 
tlte Eastern (Indian) speeies, A. BrmMmitMut, is very donbtfidly 
diatinot ftom the European plant. 

Stehthioftkbis . 

S- Otntuaiica var. P Peiuu^loaiUea. — Rhizome stont, ereet ; 
fronds tufted ; atnile ones large pioDato, ereet-spreading, de^y 
pinoatiGd ; ^le fertile ones eteot, rigid, with revolote oontraet«d 
divisioDB, wholly covered on the haok by sporangia. A nty 
grteefnl fern, well-flaited f» onltiTadoD in gardens. StrvpAwp- 
terii Penn^vaniw, WiUd,, Ptush, J, Sm. Cat. S. OtrvKintea, 
Hooker, Torrey Fl. N. T., ii, p. 486, Gray. Ownunda Struthiop- 
terit, Lino. ; Onocha Struthiapterit, Sobkr.-, Onoclea noduhia, 
Sohkr., according to Hooker. Torrey refers 0. nodulota, Michx., 
to WoodwaTdia anguttifolia. — FrankvilJe, Kitley ; Loogpoint ; 
Lansdowne; Hardwood Greek ; nsnally fonnd along the margins 
of creeks, &c. ; common in rich, wet woods Dear PreGcott, and 
abnndant aronnd Ottawa, B. Billings, jnn. ; low rich groands, Bel. 
leviUe, abundant along Cold Creek, J. Macoon ; Ke-we-naw Point, 
Lake Superior, in low ground, at times under water, R. 'BkW, jun. ; 
Ramsay, Rev. J. E. M'Morine, M.A. ; near Lakefield, North 
Donro, Mrs. Trail ; field beyond Waterdxwn, Hamilton, Judge 
Logie ; Osnabmck and Prescott Junction, Rev. E. M. Epstein ; 
near Montreal, W. 8. M. D'Urhan ; Assiniboine River, John C. 
Scbnlti, M.D.; Canada, to the Saskatchewan. Hook. Fl. Bor. 
A.; fbot of Cape Tonnuente, Abb^ Provanchcr. Tbieis theoom- ' 
movest plant in the Bedford swamps; Gasp4 and L'Original, J. 
Bell, B.A. ; London, W. Saunders. Found in tbe weatero part 
of New York State, but tare, aocording to Torrey. 

TnL, I. a No. 4. 



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2t4 thl oaaadun natukalibt. [.^^^■ 

Onoclea. 

0. imnbilu, Lino. — Rhizome creeping ; barren frond broad, 
leafy, deeply pinnatifid ; fertile odcb erect, spioate, coatraoted, 
doubly pinnate, irith unall revolute pinnalea, encloaing the spor- 
angia, not at all leafy. Onoclea teiuibilit, Linn., Gray, J. Sm., 
&a, Loire's Ferns, vol. vi. pi. 1. — In voods along the banks <f 
the Little Cataraqui Creek in great abandance, and in moist 
Bwampy plaoee in the woods in rarions other plaoes about Bling- 
Bton; west end of Loughboroogh Lake; Beoanoonr, Abb^ 
ProTanober; London, W. Saanders; oommon in marshy ground 
at Hamilton, Judge Logie; Lakefleld, North Douro, Mrs. Traill; 
St. John's, C. E., Niagara and Maiden, P. W. Maolagan, M.D. ; 
Belleville, in low marshy places, abundant, J. Maconn; Ramsay, 
Rev, J. K. M'Morine, M.A. ;- Amagos Greek, Lake Superior, B, 
Bell, jnn. ; Presoott, oommon, B. Billings, jun. ; on the river shore, 
Gatineau Mills, D. M'GilliTray, M.P. ; L'Anse an Cousin, Gaspd 
and L'Orignal, J. Bell ; Nova Bootis. This carious fern has 
been caldTated in England since 1699 ; at Kew, sinoe 1793. It 
is very variable as i^ards the outline and subdivision of the barren 
frond. 

Var. fi. bipiTmata. — Fronds bi[»nnate ; perhaps not a eoDsiant 
form. Fertile fronds of this variety originated the 0. obtvnh- 
lata, Sehkr. Fdohe Rirer, and near Gantley, Hull, D. M'Qilli- 
vray, M.D. 

ABFLINnFH. 

A. Triehomanei, Linn. — Frond small, narrow, linear, pinnate ; 
pinnee roundiBh^oblong or oval, oblique, almost senrile, crenate : 
laohis blackish brown, shining, margined ; sori distant from the 
midrib. Atpleniwn Trichotnanet, Linn,, Moore, Gray, &o., Lowe's 
Ferns, vol. v. pi. 22. Atp. mdanocaulon, Willd., Pursh. Fi. Sept. 
Amerio., 11., p. 666. J«p. ancep*, Lowe. — Inhabits rocky river 
banks, &e., but is not oommon in Canada. On rocky banks, at 
Marble Rook, on the Gananoque River; Mamainse, dry ground 
on the top of a mountain, R. Bell, jun. ; rooky woodlands west 
from Brockville, rare, B. Billings, jnn.; Montreal, Jones's Falls 
and Niagara, P. W. Maclagan, M.D. ; Lake Medad, Hamilton, 
Judge Logie; Pittsburg, near Kingston, John Bell, B. A. ; foot 
of Gape Tourmente, Abb^ Provancber ; near Belleville, J. Macoun. 

p. delicatulum. — Frond narrower, pinnie much smaller, thin- 
ner, and wider apart than in the normal fbnn. This is a sub 



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1864.] LAWBON Olf OAMADIAN rBBHB. 275 .' 

variety, passiog by intermediate atatea into the tyfaoal plant, which 
ia the common fonn of northern Europe. The variety is the 
prevalent fbrm in Canada, bnt alBo oooura farther sonth in the 
United Stat«e, for I have speoimens from Catskill (A 0. BTodie) : 
and ia oot oonfined to the Aroerioan continent, for Profesaor 
Camel, the aonte author of " Flora Italiana," aenda apeoimena 
of a eimilar form from Florence. There ia an .1. Trich. var. 
majiu, in Cuba (according to Mr. Eaton's enumeration of 
Wright's Cuban fema). A. aneept Is a Madeiran fcmn, not dis- 
ting;aiBhabl6, eo far as I can see, irom common European atotea of 
A. Trichomantf. 

A. viride, Hudson. — Frond small, linear, pinnate ; pinnte 
Toundish-oblong or oval, more or lees onneate at base, slightly 
stalked, orenate or slightly lobed ; raohia bright green ; eon . 
■ppro\imate to the midrib; in outline of frond and general aspect 
reeembles the preceding species. A. viride, Hudson, Flora 
Anglioa, 385 ; Sm., Bab., Uoore, &a. A. TnchomoKa, ramo- , 
turn, Linn. — Tbia beantiiul alpine fern was found in Canada for 
die first time last summer, having been oollected in oonaiderable '. 
quantity at Q»af6, C.E., by John Bell, B.A., who formed one of 
a party of the Provincial Geoli^al Sorv^. It was previously 
Icnown to oconr sparingly in N. W. America, at one apot on the 
Bocky Mountains, and in Greenland, Mr. Bell's diaooveiy of its 
occurrence in Qaspd is Uierefore extremely interesting in a 
geographical point of view. The Oaspj specimena, although 
young, agree perfectly with the typical European form of A. viride, 
of which I have a full aeries of Scotch examples, as well as others 
collected in Norway by T. Anderson, M.D. In young specimens 
the ptnnee are usually Urge, thin, and more cnneat« and lobed 
tban in the matore plant, in which they aie roundish-ovate. 

A. an^viti/olium, Michx. — Frond hrge (1 to 3 feet high), 
annual, lanceolate, pinnate; pin me long, linear-lanceolate, acute; 
ferUle fronds more contracted than the barren ones, " bearing 
sixty 10 e^ty curved fruit4ots on the upper branches of the 
pinnate forking veins," (Eaton). A. angu$ti/olium, Hiohimx, A, 
Gray, Eaton, J. Smith, Lowe's Feme, vol v, pi. 24. — In Canada 
tikis fern appears to be confined to the extreme south-western point 
of thepioviDcc;* Maiden, P. W. Haclagan, M.D. ; at the Oil 
Wells, township of Ennisldllen, Lady Alexander Bnaaell. For 

■ SabMqiwntly found in tbe BelUvUle dUtrkt by Ur. Hacoan. 

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27C DBS 0£SiStUM VATCatXIMt. C-^- 

infimualiini of die latter sUtion 1 sm indAtoJ to the tisdnen 
of Jnijge Lo^ of Hamilton. Thie fsm appeue to be >tlll rare 
in coltivatioo Rmong tbe fbn'&ncUra of Surape. It miB inlro- 
daced to Britain ia 1812 by Mr. John Lyon of DnndM. 

A. ebeneum, AitoB. — Frond erect, Unee-lioear, pinnate ; pinnie 
DDmerona, lanceolate (tbe lower oblong), BeaHle, ili^tly anricled at 
base and finelj^ serrate ; Tushis blaekid)J>rowii, shining. Atpiaium 
ebeneum, Ailon, Hortua Eowenab, ed. 2, vol. v, p. M6, Gh«y, Eaton, 
•T. Smith, Lowe's Ferns, vol. t, pi. 2. A-poigpodvAdu, B<Akr. — 
Hookj woods, BrooknUs, B. BiiUngt, Jan.; the only looali^ in 
Canada from whioh I have seen specimens.'^ Althot^ so rare 
with OS, this Bpeoies tppMrs to be not nDoomnimi in tte United 
States. Oraiy speaks of it as " eather ominon ; " I hare sperimcnB 
from Sobooiar'B Homtaina, West point, N. T., Prondeme, Fbil- 
adelpbia, &e. Jndgiiig from Mr. latoa's indioation in Chap- 
man's Flon, it again aeema to deoraaaa in the sontb, so that its 
praaent headqnartera are in the NoChen States. 

[A. man'num, Linn.— Frond broad and Icaiy, linear-laneeolate, 
tapered above, piniwte; pinne orate^obloBg or linear, oblique, 
shortly stalked, rarely pinnntifid, the upper ones eonflnent, stipe 
brownish, raobis brown below, green and winged abore, sori large, 
linear, obUqoe; grows on rooks. Ajepkniwn martnum, Linn., 
Moore, J. Smith, &c. A. Icetum. Hort.-'Naw BnunwiiA, E. N. 
Kendal, in Hook. Fl. Bor. Am. I cannot learn that this fern has 
been saboequendy found in North Ameriea, and hope, theretbie, 
that botaoistfl will look for it on the roeky shores of New Bnuu- 
wick. It osually grows ont of the crevices of ehore>oli&, and is 
very limil«d in its geograpbieal range, growing, according to 
Moore, only in the western part of £nn^, oroasing i^m Spain 
to Tangiara on the Afrioan oaast, and being again met with in 
Madeira, the Aiorea, end Canary Isles.] 

A. tMi/pteroida, Hicbanx. — Fronds large Dbk>ng<ivate, pin* 
Date; .pinnm laaoelokte, aonminate, from a broad seaaile base, and 
de^ly pinnatjfid, the lobes obl<Mig, minutely toothed. A^tmtum 
theli/pieroidet, Miohanz, Fnrsh, Bigelow,Torrey, Beck, Darlington, 
Gray, Eaton. Diphzivm thtlypterotdtt, Prefll, J. Sm. — In rich 
woods, SeSalabcrry, west line, W. S. H. B'Urban ; Minvin'a 
woods, &o., Preseott, B. Kllings, jr. ; BcIimI Monntaui, P. W, 
Madagan, M.D.; nunst woods near the Hop Qarden, BeUeville, 
rare, J. Haconn (a deeply serrated, leafy fbrm) ; Ramsay, Ber. 



■ Sabtequentlj fooad near BellcTille b; Ur. UaGoua. ' 



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1864.] LAVBOH ON OAiuJ>uir Fxass. 277 

J. K. M'Morine, M.A. ;8t. JouMm, Abb^ProvaiMiber; London, 
W. Sannden. Not a c<nniiion fero in Canada ; perhaps more 
pleatifnl in tiie United Statae. I have a fine •eriea of ■peoimenB 
from Schodey'B HounlAina (A. 0. BiodieJ, and otLera from 
FrovidoBoe. 

;S, taraltmu — Lobea of the pinnn ovate-oblong, approximate, 
■troDgly and iociadj Mirate. TioB may be regarded as a snb- 
Tarietj. — Belleville, J. Macoun. 

[^. montama», WiSd., vhioh eitendaaloDg tlie Alleghanica, has 
not ;et been fbnod in Canada, but ma; poeaibly ooonr. It growa 
onclift.] 

[^A. KtUttmuraria, Linn. — The wall-me, a small speeies, whioh 
gFowB in til* oNTtoe* of limflBtone oliSa in Uie Northern 3t«t«8, 
and is oomnioM on Btone walla and i^ bmbMoBB in Britain, is to 
be looked for in Cuiada.J 

Athtbich. 

A. Filix-fcemina, B. Br. — Trond ample (1-3 feet long), broadly 
oblong-lanceolate, bipinnnle ; pinnae also lanceolate ; pinnnlefl ovate- 
lanceolate or oblong, incisely toothed. Grows in lat^ tnfla, the 
frond* delicate, of a br^t green fane. Lady Fetn of the poets. 
Aiij/rum FUxxfaemina, B. Br., Spreng., Roth., Hook.. Moor^ 
&B. Atpidium Filic-fixmvia, Bwarta, Pnrsh, Beck. Aepidium 
mtpleuwida, Swarti, Willd., Pnrafa. A^tlenivm Alhyrijan, Scbkr. 
Atplenium Miehavxii, Spreng. Atplentum JPiUx^cnnina, A. 
Grsy, Man., p. &9&. ^eykrodimn aapleniotdei and Fil^/omiina, 
Hichz. Afptmiutn a>tjiuaf«m, WiUd., Pnah. — Common in the 
woods near Kingston, Toronto, Trenton, &b.; P&he River, 
Ottawa, Dr. M'OiUivray; Temiacooata, Chippawa end Maiden, 
P. W. Madagao, H.D. ; Belleville, ttoiat woods, veiy oommon, 
several varieties, J. Maoonn ; Raiasay, Rev. J. K. H'Horine, 
M.A. ; month of the Awaganisns Brook, Onlf of St. Lawrence, 
C.E., and Sebihwab River, Lake Superior, R.Bdl.jnn. ; Gemeteiy 
groaods, Hanihon, and od Prinee'i Island, Jadge Logic ; Hamil- 
Mhi'b farm and base of Biker Mt., W. S. M. D'Uriwn ; Mountain 
Pall, H. B. t., Ckivemor H'Tavish ; Snake Hill RIvct, John C. 
SehulU, M.I>. ; L'Anse k la Barbe, Gt»ap6 and L'Orignal, John 
Bell, B.A. ; St. Tite, Abb« Provan^er ; LondoD, W. Saunders. 

j9. on^iuftfm.— Proad narrow, lineerrlaDoeotate ; pinnae rather 
etowded ; pinnnlei not pinnaiiftd, but incisely toothed, with reenr- 
vedtKargina; aotiabortfesrved (.d«pu/tumallflMtllln,WiUd.?)— 
Fa^nersvi^e : Delta ; Belleville, J. Macoun, 



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.278 . THB OANADIAH KATURALIBT. C-^^- 

y. rhxtiaan. — Frond ratlier small, finn, narrowl; lanceolate 
in outline ; pin» more or le^s distant and narrovi; Uneeolate ; 
pinnules inoliely toothed or deeply pinoatifid, linear, or more fre- 
t^aently Ianoeolal«-acnte, and acquiring a linear aspect from the 
reReolion of the lobes, often crowded with coDflnent son.— Dr. 
Yatea'e farm, on the banks of the St. Lawrenoe, near Kiagstou ; 
. near Hontrenl, Rev. E. M. Epstein, M.D. ; near Lakefield, North 
Donro, Mrs Traill. 

d. rigidum. — Frond small, rigid; pinnules approximate, con- 
neeted at the base b; a broad deourrent membrane, son oonfined 
to the lower part of each pinnule. — Lakefield, North Douro, Mrs. 
Traill. 

There are other forms of this speoies, dependent in many oases, 
no doubt, upon situaiion ; some with thin Tsiny fronds of great 
sise, bearing few scattered son. One form, yeiy like the British 
Tar. molle, was gathered at BellcTille by Mr. Macoun. I kaow no 
fern more variable than Uiis. Onr Canadian forma require careful 
examination. 

WOODWAXDIA, 

W. f^f^inton, Willd.— Frond pinnate; pinnn lanceolate, piu- 
natifid ; son arranged in Hoe on either side of the midribs of 
pinnee and pinnules. Wondwardia Virginiea, Willd. ; Gray 
Hao., p. 593. {Doodia, R. Br.)— Millgrove Marsh, G. W., Judge 
Xogie; sphagnoos swamp near Heck's mills, ten miles from Pres- 
eott, Augusta, C. W., B. Billings, jun. ; Pelham, C. W., P. W. 
Haolagan, M.D. ; Belleville, J. Haoonn. 

SOOLOFXNDBIITH. 

S. vuigare, Smith. — Fronds (in tuAs) strap^haped, with • 
cordate base undivided, margin entire, stipe scaly. StxhpmdTiwm 
wig'tre, J. £. Smith, Bab., J. Sm.. Moore, &o. S. oficinarum, 
Swarta, Suhkr., Gray, Man., p. 593 ; Torr. Fl. N. T. ii, p. 490. 
S. PhylUfui, Roth. 8. officitMie, DO. S. lingua, CavaniUes. 
Atplenium Sa>l"pendnvm, Linn. 8p. Plantamm, tu. A. don- 
gatum, S^lisb. Bltchnwrn linguifolium, Stokes. Phi/lliti* Scolo- 
pendriam. Newman — Owen Sound. Georgian Buy, Lake Huron, 
OD soft sprinsy ground, amongst latge stones, growing in tufts, 
abundant, 1861, Robert Bell, jun. This interesting addition 
to our list of Canadian ferns has been oolleoted in the same 
t^ace by the Rev. Prof. William Hinoks, F.L.9. Mr. Bdl's 



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1864.] LAVflON OM OANADUN nEKNS. 279 

apecimenB agree, in ereiy reepeot, with the typical European form 
of the species, which is exceedingly Tarinble. Only one station 
waa prerionsly known for this fern in all North America, tie,, 
limestone rocks along Ghtttenango Creek, near the Falls, reapcting 
which Profeasor Toirey observed : — " This fern is nudoobtedly 
tadigenoua in the loeality here friven, which is the only place where 
it has hitherto been found in North AmerioL" It was first 
detected by Porsh, who fonnd it in shady woods, among loose 
rooks in the western p^rts of New York, near Onondago, on the 
plnntations of J. Oeddis, Eaq. This speiries (he said) I have 
seen in no otlier plaoe bat that here mentioned, neither have I 
had any information of its having buen found in any other part 
of North America. (PunA.) Nattoll states that he found it in 
the western part of the state, without giving the locality ; but 
according to Dr. Pickering, the specimens of Mr. Nnttell, in the 
berbariom of the Academy of Sciences in Philadelphia, are 
marked, " near Canandoigna, at Qi^ddis's farm, in a shady wood, 
with Taxttt Canadennt," Torrey Fl. N. Y., ii,p. 490. This fern 
occurs thronghout Europe, and also in Northern Aua. Mr. 
Hoore considers the Uezioan S. Lindeni as a mere veriety of this 
species. In Europe there are many remarkable varieties, of yrhioh 
Hr. Moore has figured and desoribed more than fifty that oocur 
ID BKtaia. The great beauty and remarkable character of many 
of tbese render them very suit ible for cultivation. None of the 
abnormal forms have as yet been found in America, probably 
merely because they.Iiave not been looked for. 
Cauptosobus. 
C. rhiiophyUut Presl. — Freed lanceolate, broad and hastate, 
or cordate at base, attenuated towards the tip, which strikes root 
and give-i rise to a new plant; hence this fern is called the Walk- 
ing Leaf; fronds evergreen. Oamplotortu rhizophylltu, Link, 
Preal, A. Gray, Eaton, Hooker. ^pUnium rhixop?u/Uum, Linn, 
in part (Linnmus's name included Faiyma proli/era, a totally 
different plant), Miobanx, Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept. ii, p. 666, Bige- 
low, Torrey, Beck, Darlington, Lowe's Ferns, vol. t, pi. 14 a. 
Anligramma rhixophUa, 3. 8m., Torrey, Fl. N. T. il p. 494. 
CamptotOTut rumicifoliut, Link. — On tiie flat perpendicular face 
of a rock in the woods, on the Spike's Corners side of the mills 
at High Falls, township of Portland, 0. W., July 1862. In a 
rooky wood, a mile north-west from the Ozfbrd station of the 



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280 THI OAMABIAH NATCAAUST. [Ah^ 

Ot kwa and Preeoott Rulvay, npon a rode aliglitlf covered with 
mould, B. Biliogs, jua. ; monnUin-ude west from Hamiltoa. ilw 
At Anoaater and al Lake Medad, Judge Logie; Wolfe Idand, £. 
J. Fox; not mo aboat Owen Sonnd, Rev. Prof. W. Hmoks; 
Montreal HoDQtatn, Ahb6 Provaaeher; rather northern in its 
range in North Ainerioa, but not common anjwhete in Canada. 
This oarions fern haa been loag in ooltivatioa io the botanio 
gardens of Europe. 

Labtbia. 

i. dilatata, Preel. — Fronds spreadiog, broadly Isnoeolate, 
rather pale but vivid green, bipinnite; the pinnules pioDate or 
pinnatiSd with pointed lobes; on the lower pinnm the posterior 
pinnules are longer than the anterior ones; stipe with rather 
distant pale uniooloms soales; sori smaU. This desoription refers 
onlj to the oommonest form in Canada. It Is a vary viiriabla 
species. Aipidium $pmulotum, Graj. — Abundant in the woods 
about Eingstoa, as CoUins's Bay, &a.. Smith's Falls, Odessa, 
woods near the Falls of Ningara, Hinchinhroolc, Oananoque lelces, 
Farmeraville, Hardwood Creek, Delta, Upper Rideau Lake, New- 
boro-on-the-Bid«an, Longpoiot; Mouth of the AwaganUsia Brook, 
Onlf of St. Lawrunoe, Goulab River, also Grand Island, and at 
Elo-we-naw Point, Lake Superior, R. Bell, jun. ; Ramsay, Rev. J. 
K. M'Morine, M.A. ; Preaoott, very common. B. Billings, jun. ; 
St. John's, St. Valentine, and Betoil, P. W. MaoUgan, M.D. ; 
Belleville, very common, J. Maoonn ; St. Foy Woods, W. S. M. 
D'Urban; Daniel's Harbor, Newfonmllaad, James Richardson 
(a peculiar form) ; FSche River, Chelsea and CanUey, Hull, D. 
M'GUIivray, M. D. Of varieties referable to var. Bootlii, Gray, 
var. dumetoram, Gray, or others, di&ring from the oommen 
(whieh, howi:Tur, is perhaps not the typioilj form, I have seen 
speaimons from, or obtained informatioD of their having been 
eoUeoted in, the following looalities ; — Maiden, Brighton, Point 
Rich, Newfunndluid, Haoiilton's Farm, Murray, Hamilton, &o. 
These rariedes still require careful stndy, with a view to th«r 
tdea:iSaation withEiiropeanforms, which are now well understood. 

0- tanaettifolia. — Frond largo and very broad, triangular, 
tripinnate, with tha pinnules pinnatiGd or deeply incised, lobed. 
P. tanaceti/olium, DC. ?— Pointe des Mens, Gaspd, John Bell, 
Mr. Bell's specimeo seems to agree well with Mr. Moore's 
deacription of var. taitaeaifolift. The typwal L. dilatata, with 



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1864.3 LAwson oh cakasiah rmm. 281 

iuk'teaini walce, to oemmon in Soodan^ I bsn not j«i seen 
poving ia the CaiudiaD wood<; but a fragment, tbo nppn 
portioD of a frond, fvoot Point lUah, NewfoandUnd, Jbbws 
BicturdflOB, htoks like it. 

if. mor^'noZM, J. Saiih.— Fraud ovale oblong, a foot, mora or 
Ian, in lengUt, Inpinnftte, pale green, sotuevb&t ooriaoaoos, laatii^ 
tba viater ; pinine linearJuuedate, broad at bKge ; pinnnkc 
obloo;, Tery obtuse, obeoletely incised ; sori margiiial ; stipe of a 
pals eiBoaooB oolor whoa old, with la^^e tbio pale scales proftise 
bdow. Ii. maifinalit, J. Sm., Aynditm margintiie, Swarta^ 
Pnish, B^cJow, Beok, DarHngton, Gray, Eaton, Love's Ferns, 
Tol. ri, [d. 6 (a bad ftg<^), Torrey Fl. N. Y. ii, p. 465. Fbfy- 
podium MMf^Mofe, Linn. N^krodmm mdrymaJe, Midiaax.— - 
This apeciw is as eommon in the Canadian woods as Latrea Filio' 
ma* is in Hiose of Britain ; woods arooitd ffiogston, abandant ; 
near Odessa; Newboro-oo-tbo Bidean; along Ae coane of tiia 
Gananoqns lUrer and Uies, in Tarions [daoes ; very fine at Har- 
Ue Bock ; FumeraviUe ; ^rdwood Greek ; Valley of the Trent, 
feand on the ftreat boolder, fta. -. on Judge Mallooh'a farm and 
slaevhwn about BroeknUe ; on Umestone rooks above the Biq>idB 
at Sbaw'a H^l, Lakafidd, North Dooro, Urs. Traill ; Snlphuz 
Spring, Hamilton, Judge Logie; Cedar Uand, A. T. Otvi^ 
Boad, juo., B.A. ; SmitJi'e Falls, and Chlppawa, P. W. Haol^n, 
1I.D. ; RaniBay, Bev. J. E. H'Morine, H.A. ; PteaeoU, oommon, 
B. Billings, jun. ; Bellerille, in rich low moist woods, common, J. 
Maoonn; above :raaeklead FaSa, W. S. M. D' Urban ; Gatineaa 
HiUi, D. M'Gillirray, M.D.; Oape Tonrmeute, Abb« Pr>- 
rancher ; Hirrington, J. Bell, BA. ; Loodon, W. Saonders. 
This is exoloaively an Ameriean fern. It Tariea in aiu and 
^peanneo ; in some speeimans the pinan are wide apart, thnr 
(Unsions amall and narrow ; in others, the pinnae overlap each 
•tiier, and Uieir divisions are broad and laaf^, also overlapping, 
sod in snoh forms they am osnaily toothed into rounded lobea. 
Mr. Haooun eeads a form from B^eville, more deeply serrate 
than osaal. 

?■ JVaiflB.— Fronds very l^e m feet long), bipinnate, afl 
lb pinnules pinnatifid.~Lakefield, North Douro, ^rs. TrsilL 
TlusHa a vury handsome variety, and woidd form an attraotive 
pUnt in enltivation. It has the saine relation to the type (tf £. 
Maryina/ii whkh L. mois {ttota) has to typed FQ,ia>'ma», 



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282 THl OARADUM NATUKALIST, [Aug. 

La»trea FHin^nat is wieneonalj refbrred to in some American 
works on Materia Medica as a eommon North American and 
Canadian fern. It has recent);, however, been fbnnd on the 
Boclcy Monntuns by Br. Parry. Profeeaor Gray says that Dr. 
Parry's specimens are apparently identiosl with the Europoan 
plant. Nothing like it ooonrs in Canada, so &r as I can ascertain. 
Varieties of L. manpnalU have been sent to me nnder the name 
of L. Filix'Buu. 

L. crittata, Presl. — Fronds ereot, rigid, lineaP«blong in outline, 
vivid green, pinnal« « slightly bipinnat«; pinnas triangalar- 
lanceolate; pinnules largo, oblong, approximate, decorrent; aori 
Im^, in a rin^e seriee on eaeb side of, and near to, the vun ; 
stjpe with few pale scales. Lastrea crittala, Presl, Moore, Ao. 
Polypodiwm erittatum, Linn. Atpidium crUtalwn, Swarti, 
■mild., Pursh, E. B., Beck, Torrcy PI. N. T., ii, p. 496. Gray. 
Atpidium crifftiAaw, p. Laneattrimse, Torrey ; A. Lanca$trUiue, 
Spreng., Bigelow, Beok, Darlington, Hooker. — Woods around 
Kingston ; near the Pfohe River, Oatinean, a tributary of the 
Ottawa, D. M'Gillivray, M.D. ; Three Rivers, St. John's and 
Obippawa, P. W.' Madagau, M.D. ; Spronle's Swamp, east irom 
Belleville (a cedar swamp), not common, J. Haoonn ; Ramsay, 
Bev. J. E. M'Morine, M.A. ; Presoott, eommon, B. Billing, 
jun. ; Lake of Three Motmtains, W. S. M. D'TTrban ; Silver 
Brook, Gasp^ John Bell, B.A. j SL Fereol, Abbd Provancber; , 
L'Orignal, J. Bell ; London, W. Saunders. 

L. GoldUana, J. Smith. — Frond very laige (3 or 4 feet or 
more in length), dark green, bipinnate; pionm 6 to 8 inches long, 
narrow, linear-lanceolate, not much attoonated towards the tips ; 
jdnnules (12—20 pairs), linoar^blong, approximate, uniformly 
curved forwards, aoythe-shaped, sometimes with an extra lobe at 
base ; sori small, near the midrib ; stipe with pale sha^y scales 
above and latter dark-centred ones below ; our loigoet Canadian 
fern, usoally barren. Lcutrea Goldieana, J. Smith. Atpidivm 
Goldianum, Hooker, Edin. New Phil. Jour, vi, p. 333, and Fl. 
Bor. Am., ii, p. 260, Gray. NepHrodiam Ooldieanum, Hook, 
and Orev. A^tditan Fiia-mai, Pursh, not of Willd., Jto. — 
Farmersvillf, in woods near the village, abundant and very fine, 
forming immense tufts ; near Hamilton's farm and De Salaberry, 
town-line, W. S. M. D'Urban ; Bolmil Honntain, Hootreal and 
Maiden, P. W. Maolagan, M.D. ; Belleville Woods, near Castle- 
ton ; woods below Heely's Falls, west ude, and in Simon Terrill's 



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■ 1864.] LAWSOM ON OA.NADUN HRNB. 283 

WckmIb, Brighton, J. Maooun ; At^;nsU, Robert Jsrdine, B.A. ; 
sbont MoDtreal, Mr. Qoldie in Hook. Fl. Bor. Amet. London, 
W. Sanndera. This fine fern was appropriately named Ij Sir 
William Hooker in Iionor of iia diaooTerer, a snocessfnl inTesU- 
gator of Canadian botany, now resident at Paris, C. W. The 
Bpeoies belongs ezoluaivelj to the American oontineot. In Canada 
we have two aah-Tarietiee : — 

a. terrata, in whioh the divisions of the {anose are ooarsely 
serrate. Monb«al. 

p. inlegerrima, in which the divisions of the pinnae are almost 
or qnite entire. FarmersTille. 

i. fragrant, Moore. — Frond 8 to 12 inohee long, ooriaoeons, 
bipinnate, pionee triangular, of few (4 or fi pairs) of pinnnlea, 
which are crowded and oovered beneath by the lai^e rusty mem* 
branons indnsia, which conceal the BorL Baohis with proflise, 
large, palish scales, especially near the base. A^tidiumfragranty 
Swarte, A. C^ray. — Booka, Penokee Iron Bidge, Lake Superior, 
Mr. Lapham, and north-west — Professor Wood, in Glass-Book ; 
shaded trap rooks, Falls of the St. Croiz, Wisoonstn, Dr. Parry, 
and high northward, Gray's Manual. I have not yet seen Cana- 
dian specimens of this species, which is quite a northern fern, 
stretching al >ng the northern shores of the Russian Artio domi- 
nions. I have specimens from Repulse Bay, collected by Captain 
Rae's party while wintering there in 1855. This plant does not 
appear to be in caltivation in any European garden. 

L. ThfJgplerii, Presl. — Frond erect, lanoeolate, mostly broad 
at base, and narrowed upwards, thin, and herbaceous, or slightly 
ooriaoeons, glabrous or downy, pinnate; pinnie linear, rather 
distant, deeply pionatifid; pinnules with revolnte margins, veins 
forked, sori near their middle, beooming confluent. Stipe as long 
as, or longer than, the frond, and naked. Lattrea TkelypterU. 
Presl, Moore, J. Sm. Aspidimn Thtli/pterit, Swartz, E. B. 
Willd., Pursb, Bigelow, Beck, Darlington, Torr^ y Fl. N. Y. ii, p. 
696, A. Gray, Man. Polypodium Thdi/pteriii, Linn. Dryop- 
terit ThdgpUrit, Gray. — Swamps in the woods, tewnships of 
Hinohinbrook, Portland, Emeetown, toa. ; Millgrove Marsh, 
Hamilton, Judj^ L<^e; Gatinean Mills on the Ottawa, D. 
M'GDlivray, M.D. ; Prescott, oommon, B. Billinf^, jun. ; Temis- 
conata, Thorold and Maiden, P. W. Maolagan, M.D. ; Belleville, 
very common in swamps, J. Maooun ; Bauuay, Rev. J. K. M'Mo- 
rirte, M.A. ; portage to Bark Lake, and on Inmber-ioad through 



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284 TOB aXHAJIUlS NAIITBAUBT. . t'^Og- 

the woods east fhnn HuniliOD's fittin, W. 8. H. D'Hrbm ; 
Hontreal, Dra. MaoUgan aod Epstein ; Hodaon Bay Territories 
near Red Kiver SetAteinent;, Governor U'TaTiBh ; St. Joactrim, 
AbM Prorandier; L'Orignal, J. Bell, B.A. ; London, W. 
Saanders. In the State of New York the tpeeiee ia eommon in 
swamps and wet tliiclteta (Tom;). Ihxn it from West Pditt, 
N. Y. In the sonth, Eaton indioatee Florida and northward. 
Very Mtflom ftFond widi froetifieation (Ptush). Fertile epedaene 
arc not rare with ub. The forked veins of the pinnules dislia- 
gniih this spedea tmn the neat In the Oanadian plant, the ont- 
line of the frond is a little different from SetAdb and IrMi speoi- 
mena, being leea naiTow«d attbebase. There are tiiree fbrms of 
tiiia species in Canada. The first (a)seemBtobelliepUntof0n7's 
Hanu^, the fleooBd(j8) is more like tlie L. Ti^pleru of Bnnope, 
and tJtc thirdly) ^ intexmediate between this speoiea and Ae next. 

a. pvbeKeiu. — ^Frond somewhat eoriaomu densely p^)eaoeDt 
or downj throngfaoat. Odessa, Hodson Bay. 

p. glabra. — Frond thin, barbaoeone, ^abrona. Hontreal, Chd 
na, Hichmbrook, to. 

y. inttrmedia.— Frond narrowed below, glabronaj stipe sl^fafly 
elongated (veins fotked). QMp6, J. Bdl, B. A. 

L. Not-Ebormsmn*. — Frond lanceolate, narrow at llie base, Wb 
and herbaceoBB, pinnate ; pinns linear-laneeoUte, m<»e er lea ap. 
prszimate, deeply pinnatifid; pinnnlea oblong, uenally flatj vane 
umpte (not forked), son never confluent ; stipe short, raohb, fte., 
downy, phnnlss more or lees distinetly cilnta. Lattrea Nov^iot- 
*o«nti*, Prenl. Palgpodittm .NoeeioniemM, Linn., Sohk. Aipi- 
tlimm iM^ptarotdet, Sworta. Atpinium Haveboracente, Willd, 
A. Gray, Baton — Pittaburg near Kingston; Lakefield, North Donro, 
Hra. Traill; Mowitain ude, Hamilton, Judge Logie; Preseott, 
common, B. BilUnfis, jqd., HeuDts Johnson, Montreal, and Beicml, 
P. W. HaoUgan, M. D. ; Ramsay, Rev. J. K. N'Mmne, M.A. ; 
near Chelsea, J). MISiHivniy, H.D. ; London, but not eommon, 
W. Sauodera; L'Origaal, J. Bell. This fern bebni^ exolnaivelj 
to the American eentinent. It ssems to be more idmndant and 
more distinat in the United Statea then with ns. In Flora BoreaR' 
Amerieami, Sir William Hooker observed : " The A^ndiun 
Noeeboraeeiue is ([nite ideatieal witii A. TheU/pUrit." In the 
reoently-publi^ed volnae of SpeoU* FUiaim (wbidi at present 
I can only quote at sseond hand), doubts an still etprsesed as to 
it being a qnoiea really distinct fron L. TWyptem. Mr. Eaton 



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1864.] LAVMH OR CAVAtaAK nXKB. 265 

and oAer AmeriMn pteridolt^iitB think it qnita distinet. Ita mont 
obvioaB cbarMtersffK — (1.) Tbs Upmingfomi of the lower part of 
the frond (althongb there ia also a fonn of £. ThHgpttrit having 
this peculiarity ; (2.) eon few, mostly near the base of the |an- 
nnles, and not Mnflnent, not overiapped hj a reenrved ma^a ; 
(3.) Teios of the pIdduIm nmple, not forked. The oatlioe of the 
frond moBt not be depended upon, U the Sfmteh and Irisli L. 
Thei^teru m narrowed at the baie like L. ^ov-EboraututM, 
This epeeiei is allied to X, nunttona, Hoore [Oreopttrit, Bory.) 

POLTSTIOHUU. 

P. annulare, f}. Srannii. — Frond soft, herbaeaoni, laneeolste, 
bipinnate ; pionolea italked, Bcrada ; the small teeth tipped by soft 
briatlei ; stipe and ndtis scaly tbrouf^nt ; In tiie Canadian 
plant the Bcaiee of the raohie are larger than in the typical P. annu- 
lare of England, iVom which it may be speiifioally distinct : At- 
pidiwn BrmutH, Bpenner. Atpidimn aaUeAtum Tar. Braunii, A. 
Oray, Han. Bot., p. MI9, A. aoukatum, Abb6 Proranehw; Hap- 
rington, Cape Bon-Ami and Dartmontii, N. fork, €iaap^, JcAv 
BeU, B. A. ; baseof Silver Monataia, W. 8. H. S'Urbsn. 

P. LonehaU, Both. — Frond rigid and shiniog, Ihiear-laneeolate, 
amply pinnate ; pinut nytb««1)&ped, anriried, spinore. Poh/t- 
tuAum Lo»ehitit, Both, Moore, J. Sm., &o. Fiilgfodutm Ltm- 
«itti», Linn. Lapidimm Lonehtti; SwarU, 8ohk. — Limestone 
rae^ Owen Sonnd, C. W., 166,9, Rer. Professor Hincks. 
Profcesor Hinoks faaa ako kindly ftamidied me with apoimenB from 
the above looalily. Woods, sontbern diere of Lake Superior and 
north-westward, Professor Asa Gray, in Han. ; BTitieli America, 
Professor Wood in Class Book. It will be observwi that Pro- 
fessor Hinoka's statioD la the only deflnite Canadian one vith 
which weare acquainted. Mr. T. Dmmmond foond thU fern on 
the Booky Mountains many years a|^. 

P. aorattiekoidet, Sohott — Frond pale green shining, long and 
narrow, Iinear4anoeolate, simply pinnate ; pin nss long and narrow, 
liBea7>laaoe(4at«, shortly stalked, anrided anteriorly at the bese, 
mere or less distinedy aemte, widi hair4jpped teeth ; fertile (upper) 
piaue slightly oontraeted, ooveted beneailiby the large eonfluent 
son stipe proftwely riiaffy, with pale seales, FolgttUAmm acrvi- 
li<Ju»de», Sohott, J. Sn. jtspt^utm aav$tielMtltt, Swarti, 
A. Oray, Baton. Aipid. owrioalatum, 8ohk. Nephrodimm 
aero4litAoida, Michx. — Abundant in-tb»w«eda a ftw miles fi«a 



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286 TBI OAHADIAR NATDRALIST. [Ang 

Kingston ; abo not rare in the woods of the Midland District of 
Canada generally ; Upper Rideaa Lake ; woods aronod Toronto, 
Bev. Dr. Barclay; Stanfold, AbbS Pronnoher; L'Orignal, 
J. Bell ; London, W. Saunders ; Solphur Spring, Hamilton, Judge 
Lope, PresoottgOommrai, B. Billings, jdd; Micoletand St. Valentino, 
G. £., and Chippawa, G. W.,P. W. Maolagan, M.D.; Btrlleville 
Ter; oommon in rooky woods, as in Hop Garden, J . Maoonn ; 
B^maay, RcT. J. K. M'Morine, M.A. ; hills and woods, portage 'to 
Bark Lake, W. S. H. D'Vrban ; Gilmonr's Fann, Chelsea, D. 
M'GiUivray, M.D, ; Ognafamok and Presoott Junction, Bev. E. U< 
Epstein. This species is exoluflively American. 

[p. indtum, pinnte strongly eerrateor incissd into lobes. AtpC- 
dium /ichioeinUtii, BecL This form, whioh I have from Schooley's 
Hbuutains, &o. (A.. 0. Brodie), will no doubt be found in Canada.] 

CrsTOPTEBIS. 

C./ragili*, Bemhardi — Pronds delicate, green, lanceolate in out- 
line, glal^ons, bipinnate ; pinnte and pinnules ovate-lanceolate or 
oblong; the latter obtuse, incisely toothed, thin and veiny; sori 
large ; stipe dark purple at the base. Cj/itopterU fragilU, Bem- 
hardi, Hook., Bab., Moore, Newm., A. Gray. Polypodivm fragihj 
Linn. Cytlapterit orientaiiM,'DBmaai. Polypod. viriduliim,Det:v. 
Aik]frium/raffiU,8id\er. Gyat1ieafrag\li»,8m, C.c]/wipi/olia mi 
C- a»thri*ei/olia, Both. Cgitea fragilU, Sm. Cy^opteri*, S. F. 
Gray. — Booky woods and olib about Kingston, in various places 
but not abundant; Fannersrille ; Mountain side, Hamilton, on 
moist rooks, Judge L<^ie ; rocks by the bay'«hore,L' Anse an Cousin 
and Dartmouth Uiver, Gaspj, John Bell, B.A. ; Mirwin's woods, 
Presoott, conuuon, B. Billings, jun. ; Montreal and Jones's Falls, P. 
W. Maolagan, M.D. ; rooky bank of the Moira, rather rare, J. 
Maooun ; Bamsay, Rev. J. K. M'Morine , M.A. ;- camp at base of 
Silver Moant,on rocks, also BiverBot^, abundant; DeSalaberry, 
west line, and at Black Lead Falls, W.S. M. D'Crban; St. Jo- 
aohim, Abb£ Provanoher ; Grenville, C. E. John Bell, B. A.; 
London, W. Saundera. In Dr Hooker's valuable Table of Arctic 
Distribution this plant is indicated as a Canadian species that 
does not enter the United Stat«8, which, I presume, arises from a 
misprint, as the species is not uncommon in the Northern StetoSj 
and extonds south to the mountains of Carolina. The delicata 
C. tenvM is the form known in the south, but in Canada we have 
the stout ty^oal Enropeaa foim of V./ragUu, 



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1864.] lAWBON ON (UHAStAN FERNS. 287 

p. anguitata. — PinnnleB iiKnsed, withlongiih and apraading teeth. 
Cyst. frag. ^m. a/napi/olia, J. liOwe.— Gaep^, Join Bell, B. A. 
Speoimens referable to tbia form were likeviee gathered at Lake 
of Three MonntuDB by Mr. D'UrbsD. Mr. Bell's epecimens 
agree perfectly vitb Esgliab BpecimeDS from Dr. John Lo»« 
((7./. egnapi/olia). Italian apeoinens from Professor Camel of 
Pisa, labelled " Cytt.fragilit" belong to this variety. Mr. Bell 
has a fertile frond from Gasp^ vitb very broad veiny pinnse, 
deeply incised, but not pinnat«. 

C^. 6u2&>yera, Bemhardi. — Frond thiD, green, lanceolate or Uneu- 
lanueolate, bipinnate, bulblferooB towards the apex on the nader 
surface ; pinnie oblong-lanoeolate, narrowed at the tips ; pinnules 
oblong-obtnse, inoisely toothed j son small, not very numerons ; in> 
dusiom abort. Tery variable in the ute and form of the frond. C. 
httlbi/era, Bemhardi, A.Or., J. Sm. ; AMpidiam bvlbi/entm, Swurti, 
Sehk., Pnrsb. A^idium ulomaritan, Mnhl. — Moist, swampy 
woods about Kingston, as Collins's Bay, KingstoD Mills, &o. ; 
abundant on Jndge Malloch's farm, a mile west from BroclcTille ; 
PeUt Portage, &o., Gasp£, John Bell, B.A. ; Wolfe Island, A. T. 
Dmmmond, B.A. ; Mirwin'a woods, Presoott, common, B. Bil- 
lings, jun. (short form); Belceil Mountain, F. W. Maolagan, M.D. ; 
rocky banks of the Moira, Belleville, and in oedar swampa and 
wet woods, very common, J, Macoun ; R&msay, Rev. J. K. M'Mo- 
line, H.A. ; Monntain side, Hamilton, common, Jndge Logie; 
Bhick Lead Falla, on limestone rook, W. 8. M. D'Urban ; Foot 
of Cape Tonrmente, AVbi Provancher; Grenville, G. E., J. 
Bill; London, W. Saunders. There are two distinct forms or 
varieties of this species. 

a- horiamtaUt. — Frond triangniar-lanceolAte, broad at base, not 
more than three or four times longer than broad; pinnie boriioD- 
tal. Nugara Falls, within the spray, Collins's Bay, &o. 

p. flagelli/oTtnu. — Frond linear, attennated upwards, very 
long and narrow, six or seven times longer than broad ; jnnue 
less horiiontal. Frankville, Montreal, Gasp^, tie. 

DXMNSTJEDIIA. 

D. punctihhula, Moore. — Frond broadly lanoeolate, pale green, 
thin, witli a stout raobis, bipinnate; the pinnnlea pinnatifid ; sori 
minute, usually one on the anterior basal tooth of each lobe of 
the pinnole, which is reflexed over Uie soms ; the proper indusiiua 
to pale, cnp-ahaped, opening at top. Bbixome slender, creepi^ 



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288 THl (UltADUIt NATITRAI.aT, [Adg 

throi^ tbe loil ; whole plant f^dnUrdown^. J>e»tnttaidtia 
(Bernhtrdi, 1800) ptmeHloMa, Moore, Index Filionm, p. zoriL 
XKektania ptuKfUoMa, HocJcer, A. Gnj, 3. 8m. D. pUotivt- 
evia, WiUd., Hook. VI. Bor. Amer. Nephroditimpiiitetiiobulttm, 
Hichz. Aqtidium puitetilobulum, Swarti. Patania, Freal- 
Diduonia pt^ieKtiiu, Sohkr. Silolobitun pUotiuiathim, Desr., 3. 
Sm. Gen. Fil. — Fittebarg neir KiogBtoo, John Bell, B.A. ; Kiver 
Boage, W. S. M. D'Urbui ; Montroil, P. W. Haolagan, «. D. ; 
Prescott, on Dr. Jeeenp's moist pastnre-land, B. Billinga, Jan.; 
New Bmoiwidc, E. N. Kendal, in Hook. Fi. Bor. Amer. ; Bam- 
ny, R«7. J. EL H'Morine. Mr. Baton has mentiontd to me that 
the drying ftnnda have the odor of new hay. 

WooDBii., 
IT. iZreMtf , B. Br—- Frond l«neeoUte,anulljfiMrorfivfiinohM 
long, bqtiniwte, or nearly ao, ptonn approximate, pi oiuiln oblong, 
obtose, atipe (red), raobia and whole lower anriaee of the frond 
oloHied with ohnlFf Males, whieh are nisty at maturity. Scwi 
nanally oonflnent aronnd the mai^ne of die |»nnBlea. Flnt 
obaerred in the IbU of Elba (Iln), henoe named, after Dal»- 
champ, AenttiiAam JIveate hy Linnteus, whow PhoBniz waa 
veej wroth thereat; see Englidi Flora, voL It, p. 323. Woodiia 
Itoauig, B. Br., Hook., Moore, J. 8m., Gray, &o. ^^hrodivm 
luiuMtun, MitAiz. — Abnndant on the ridge of Lanrentian rocks at 
Kingston Mills; Rooks west from Brot^ville and at Ohelaea, B. 
Billiogs, jnn.,; Mount Johoaon and Belonl Monnttua, P. W. 
Maotagan, M.D.; mountain gnotsa nx^, opposite Bonge River, 
W. 8. M. D'Urban. I have likewise speotmens from the HudsDn 
Bi^ territories (Ooveraor M'Tavi^), but without special looality. 
On foeke, Canada, Pnreh ; Canada to Hndaon Bay, Hook. Fl. 
B. A. ; foot of Cape Tonreiente, Abb4 Provaaaher. I think 
ovr plant most be mneh larger and more sealy than the European 
one. A tnft Whidi I have &(»t CatakiU Moantains (A. 0. Bro- 
die) has richly &uited frends a foot k>ng and two io^ee wide. 
(I find that large American forms of this species have been mis- 
taken for W. obtttia. The ioTolucre, which is large and not split 
into hairs in ihe latter ^eoiee, serves readily to disttngnieh it.) 
Morfi of tlK TT. Mventit in oultiTatioo in Europe is prcbahlj' tJte 



fi- jfraeUit. — ^Frofid more slender, mere hairy and less eoaly 
than the type ; pinnte ra^er dirtant, dee^y {anitatifid, or par 

n,s,t,..dDi. Google 



1864.] LAWSON ON CANADIAN PBRNB. 289 

tially piDDale. Dartmouth River, Gasp^, John Bell, B.A. In 
technical characters, this form agrees better with W. alpina 
(Tiy perhorea), but it has quite a different aspect. 

W. alpina, S. F. Gray. — Frond small (from one to two or three 
inches long), broadly linear, pinnate, somewhat hairy without dis- 
tinct scales; pioDic ovate, somewhat triangular, obtuse, pinoatifidly 
divided into roandish lobea. TVojdna alpina, S. F. Gray, Brit;, 
PI., Sloore. Woodtia hyperhorea, B. Br. in Linn. Trons., vol. zi ; 
Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept. ii, 660.— In the clefts of rocks, Canada, 
Pursh; Canada to the Saskatchewan, Hooker. Noticed in 
Dr. Hooker's Table of Arctic Plants as a Canadian species that 
does not extend into the American States. 

IT.jifoW/a, R. Br.— Fronda few (2-4) inches long, linear, 
bright greea and glabrous on both sides, simply pinnate ; the pin- 
me short, rounded or rhombic, cut into rounded or wedged lohes. 
Stipe with a few scales at the base only. Woodtia glabella, R. 
Br,, Hook. FI. Bor. Amer., tab. 237 ; Gray. Canada, Prof. 
Wood in Class Book. Sir W. Hooker, in the Fl. Bor. Amer., 
gave Great Bear Lake as the only station then known for W. gla- 
bella. Mr. D. C. Heaton has kindly furnished me with speci- 
mens from Willoughby Lake, Vermont (Goodale leg.', and Pro- 
fessor Grey notices ite occurrence on rocks at Little Falls. New 
York (Vasoy), and " high northward." 

^. Belli. — Frond larger (6-7 inches long) ; pinnes more elong- 
ated, pinnatifidly incised in rounded lobes (bright green, glabrous). 
Gaspi', on the Dartmouth River, twenty miles from its mouth, 
John Bell, BA. 

ir. obluga, Torrey. — Frond nearly a foot long, linear-lanoeolate- 
glandulose, bipinnate; pinnules slightly decurrent, oblong, obtuse, 
crenate, or somewhat pinaatiSd ; ioduaium large, enveloping the 
Bonis, torn into a few marginal lobes ; stipe with few scattered, 
pale, eliaffy scales. Woodsia obtuta, Torrey, A, Gray, J. Sm. 
Aspidium oblutum, Willd. Pki/iemalium obtusum, Hook, Fl. 
Bor. Amer. Woodtia rcrrincana. Hook, and Orov. Ic. Fl. PoiTy- 
podl-im. obtttuan, Swartz, — An impression prevails that this plant, 
which is B^d to be common In the Northern States, especially 
towards the weet, grows also in Canada. Mr. D. C. Eaton, in the 
kindest manner, out out of his own herbarium a specimen for me, 
&om near High Bridge, New York city, in an excellent state for 
examination, which has enabled me to understand the species, and 
to ascertain t^t we have as yet no Batisfaclory evidence of its 
ToL. I. T No. *. 



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290 THB OAHADIAN MATimALIST. [Aug. 

ocoarrenoe in Canada. Large fonns of W. Ilventi* have in some 
oasea passed for it. (I introduce this notice of the plant with a 
view to promote farther inquiry.) 

OSMUNBA. 

0- regiilU ?■ ipectabiUs. — Fronds erect, pale green, glabrous, bi- 
pinnate; pinnules oblong-lanoeolate, oblique, shortly stalked, very 
slightly dilated at the base, nearly entire; fertile pinnules forming 
a racemose panicle at the summit of the frond. Otmvinda tpecta- 
bilU, WiUd., J. Smith. Fa»mersville ; Hardwood Creek, Hinch- 
inbrook, and other places in rear of Kingston, usually in thiokety 
swamps, by corduroy roads, &o.; Millgrove Marsh, Hamilton, 
Judge Logie; Kamsay, liov. J. K. M'Morine, M.A. ; woods near 
the Hop Garden, Belleville, not common, J, Macoun ; Prescott, 
common, 6. Billings, jun. ; around Metis Lake, &c. ; opposite Gros 
Cap ; also Sou-sou-wa-ga-mi Croek and Sohibwah Biver, R. Bell, 
jun.; near iMontreal, Kev.B. M.Epstein andW.S.M. D'Urban; 
mountain, Bon oe Bay, Newfoundland, on rocks 1000 feet above 
the sea, James Richardson (a small form) ; Welland, J. A. Kemp, 
M.D. ; Osnabruck and Fresoott Junction, Bev. E. M. Epstein, 
Nicolet; Wolfe Ishmd and Navy Island, P. W. Maolagan, M.D,; 
Lake St. Charles, Abb£ Provaaoher ; Caledonia Springs and 
L'Orignal, J. Bell; Portland. Thoa. B. Dupuis, M.D.; Bedford; 
London, W. Saunders. The fronds of our plant are a little more 
'drawn out than those of the European one ; the pinnules are often 
distinctly stalked, and the overlapping auricles either altogether 
absent or only slightly developed. This is 0. »pectahilU, Willd. ; 
0. regalii, 3. Linn. Sp. PI. Some botanists distinguish two Amer- 
-ican forma, one agreeing with the typical 0. regalU of Entope ; bat 
it is difficult U> do bo. The typical 0. regalU is a larger, more 
robust, and more leafy plant, with more widely spreading or diw- 
gent pinnae, and more leafy aaricled sessile pinnules, more or lesa 
pinnatiGd at the base ; in oar Canadian plant they are quite en- 
tire. The divisions of the fertile portion of the pinuie are also 
more widely divergent In a regalu. The fiond, moreover, is of « 
darker color. 

0. cinnamomea, Linn. — Sterile and fertile fronds distinct, the 
former ample, broadly lanceolate, pinnate ; the pinnss rather deeply 
pinnatiGd ; lobes r^ular, entire ; fertile frond contracted, erect, 
in the centre of the tut^ of sterile fronds, and not at all foliaceous. 
Sporangia ferruginous. Fertile frond decaying early in the sam* 



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1864.] LAWSOK ON CANADIAN FXONS. 291 

mer. Otmunda eintiamomea, Linn., Gray, J, Sm. 0. Clayton- 
tanu, Conrad, pot of Linn. — Fairfield farm and elsewhere about 
Kingston, not uncommon; Millgrove Marsh, Hamilton, Judge 
Logie; Sandwich and Montreal, P. W. Msclagan, M.B. ; opposite 
GrosCap; also Two-Heart River, Lake Superior, R. ISell, jun., 
C>E. ; Bellerille, swampa and low grounds, oontni on, J. Macoan; 
Bamsaj, Rot. J. K. M'Morine, M.A.; St Joy Woods, on the 
river shore, near Gatineau Mills, D. M'Gillivray, M.D. ; New- 
foundland, Miss BrentOD, in Hook, Fl. Bor. Am. ; Presoott, com- 
men, B. Billings, Jan.; Nicolet, Abb^ Provancher; L'Or^nal, 
J. Bell ; near London, W. Saunders. 

0. Clagtonuina, Linn. — Frond narrowly lanceobte, pinnate; 
pinnie lanceolate, about three pairs of pinnie near or below the 
middle of the frond contracted and fertile ; sporangia brown, with 
green spores. This species, when fresh, has a strong odor, re- 
sembling that of rhubarb (Pie-plant) stalks. 0. Claytoniojut, 
Linn., Gray, J. Sm. 0. interrupta. Michaus. — Between King- 
ston and Kingston Mills, in wet swampy places by the roadside > 
Little Cataraqui Creek ; Waterloo ; banks of the Hnmber, near 
Toronto; Princes Island, Hamilton, Judge Logie ; Ramsay, Rev. 
J. K. McMorine, M.A. ; Ke-wc-naw Point, in wet soil, R. Bell, 
jun. ; Belleville, low rich grounds, not rare, J. Maooun; Prescott, 
common, B. Billings, jun.; Round Lake, W. S. M. D'Urban; Lake 
Settlement, and on the river shore near Gatineau Mills, D. McGiili- 
vray, M.D. ; Newfoundland, Miss Brenton, in Hook. Bor. Am.; 
Oanabruck and Prescott Junction, Rev. Dr. Epstein; on Judge 
Malloch's farm and elsewhere about BrookviUe ; Dartmouth River, 
Oaspi, John Bell, B.A.; St. Fereol, Abb^ Provancher. 
Abundant on uncleared bnd along the Bedford Road, where the 
dried fronds are used by the farmers as wint«r-fodder for sbci^p. 
Augmentation of Granville, C. E., J. Bell, B.A. ; near Eomoka, 
C. W., W. Saunders. This fern is common also in the Northern 
States. I have a lax form, with long stipes and remarkably short 
somewhat triangular pinnae, from Sohooley's Mountain. 

SCHIZ^A. 

[S.panUa, Pursh, — Newfoundland, De la Pylaie. I have no 
further information respecting its oceurrenoe in British America. 
Professor A. Gray indicates its distribution in the United States 
thus; — "Low grounds, pine-barrens of New Jersey, rare," which is 
not at all favorable to its being found in Newfoundland or Canada! 



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292 THE CANADIAN HATDBALIST. E-^^- 

Mr. Eaton has eent me beaotifdl epecimena team eaxtdj Bwamps 
in Ocean County, New Jersey.] 

Ifat. Ord. OPHIOGLOSSACE^. 

BOTRTCHIUM. 

B. Virginiwrn, Sirartz. — Barren branch sessile, attached above 
the middle of the main stem, thin, delicate, veiay, tripionat^, lobee 
of the pinnules deeply incised ; fertile braooh bi- or sightly tri- 
pinnate. Very variable in size, usually a foot or more in height, 
but sometimes only a fen inches. Botrychium Virginicum, Swarti, 

A. Gray, J. Sm. jB. Virginianum, 8chk. Otmunda Virginica, 
Linn. Sp, PI. Botrypai Virginiciu. Michx. — Not uncommon in 
the woods about Eingston and the surrounding country, as near 
Odessa, in Hinchinhrook, &c. ; Delta; Toronto; Sulphur Spring, 
Hamilton, Judge Logic; Prescott, in woods, common, B. Billings 
jnn. ; Nicolet, Montreal, Wolfe Island and Chippawa, P. W. Mao- 
lagan, M.B.; Bellcyille, rich woods, very common, J, Macoon; 
Bamsay, Rev. J. E. M'Morlne, M.A. ; Biver Marsouin, St. Law- 
rence Gulf, also opposite Grand Island, Lake Superior, B. Bell, 
jttn., C.E. ; Biviere Bouge, and De Salaberry, west line, W. S. 
M. D'Urban; Montreal, Osoabmck, and Prescott Junction, Bev. 
£. M. Epstein; Hill Portage above Oxford House, Oovemor 
MeTarisb; Newfoundland, Miss Brenton, in Fl. Bor. Amer. ; Lake 
Huron to Saskatchewan, Hook. Fl. Bor, Am. ; GasptS, John Bell, 
B.A.; Stanfold, Abb6 Provancher; Grenville, C. E., J. Bell; 
London, W. Saunders. 

/3. jrflctfe.— Very small (5 or 6 indies high), fertile branch 
less divided. B. gracile, Pursh. Hill Port^e, above Oxford 
House, Governor MoTavish. 

y. simplex. — Barren branch oblong, pinnatiGd, the lobes ovate, 
incised, veiny. B. timpttst, Hitchcock. Grenville, C. E„ John 
Bell, B.A. 

B. lunarioidei, SwartE. — Barren branch long-stalked, arising 
from near the base of the main stem, thick and leathery, bipinnate, 
the pinnules sltuhtty crcnate ; fertile branch bipinnate. Root of 
Ions thick tuber-like fibres. Botrycliium lannrioidet, Swartu, Gray. 

B. fam-irioidei, Willd., Provancher. Botn/pua limiirwida,'M'K]a.. 
Gananoque Lake, May 1861 ; Plains near Castleton, and woods 
near the Hop Garden, Belleville, rare, J. Macoun ; Three Rivers, 
C.E., P, W. Maolagan, M.D., ; Waste pkoes west from Prescott 



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1864.] LAWBOS ON OANADIAN FXKNS. 293 

Janction, rare, B. Billings, jr. ; St. Joiicliim, Abb^ Provancheij 
L'Orignal, J. Bell: Soglisb's Woods, W. Saunders; in the 
Northern Statea thia species grows in dry rich woods, " mostly 
Boathward," aooordiDg to Professor Gray's Manual. 

B, obli^um, Muhl., appears to be chiefly distinguished hy its 
laiger size, more compound fertile frond, and the narrower oblique 
divisions of the barren one. B. obliguum (Muhl.), Pursh. Fl. 
Amer. Sept., vol. ii, p. €56. Newfoundland, Dr. Morrison in 
Hook. Fl. Bor. Amer ; Wesleyan Cemetery, London, W. Sann- 
dera. 

B. Lunaria, — Swarti. — Barren branch ses»le, arieiog from the 
middle of the stem, thick and leathery, oblong, pinnate ; pinnte 
laoate or fan-shaped slightly incised on the rounded margin. 
Botnfchium Lunaria, Swartz, Schk., Hook., Moore, J. Sm, 
Onnunda Lunaria, Linn. — Nipigon, 18S3, Governor McTavish ; 
N.S. America, Dr. Hooker's tab. ; Newfoundland, Saskatchewan, 
and Rocky Mountains to Behring's Bay in N. W. Am., T. Moore, 
Hbk. Brit. Fens. 

Ophioolossuu. 

\0. vulgatum, L., which is widely distributed throughout 
Europe and Northern Asia, and grows also in tha Northern United 
States, although there "not common," is to be looked for in 
Canada. In one of its forms (0. reticulatum, Linn.), it extends 
to the West Indies.] 

Ml. Ord. LYCOPODIACE.ffl.* 
Plahakthits. 
p. Selago, PaltisotrBesuvois. — Stem diohotomonsly branched, 
erect fasiigiate; leaves in about 8 rowei, more or less convergent or 
spreading, lanceolate, acuminate, entire; sporangia in the axils of 
the common leaves (not in spikes). Lycopodiam Sehgo, Linn., 
E. B., Bigelow, Beck, Hook and Grev., Torrey PI. N. Y. ii, p. 
Ii08, Gray.— Labrador, Hudson Bay to Bocky Mountains, Hcok. 
FL B. A. ; shore of Lake Superior and northward, Professor A. 
Gray, Man. Bet., N. S., p. ()03. I have not seen Canadian sped- 

• Id thia order the arrangement of A. U. F. J. pBlligot-Beauroia is 
adopted, ai it aeems to afford the best basis for a re-adjustnieDt of (he 
genera of Zycopodiacex, which ia much required. For F.-B.'s genua 
Lepidotit, I bare thought it better to sabstitate the avne Lscopoditim, na 
old name that sbonld not be discarded. 



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294 THE CANADIAN KATURALI8T. [Al^. 

mena of tbis pUot. The Btations koown ahow that it enoirclee 
Canada, and some of them are probably within our limits. Prin- 
cipal DawBOD obtained the alpine variety on the White Monntains, 
Herb. Bot. Soc. Canada, It ia a rare plant in the Unit«d States. 
There are two forma of this species (both of which are figured by 
Dillenina) ; a. iylualicut, leaves convergent, almost appressed; ^. 
alpinv*, leaves widely-spreading, stems shorter. 

P. lucidulut. Stem dichotomonsly divided into long erect 
branches; leaves bright green, in about 8 rows, reflexed, Unear- 
lanceolate, acute, deaticulat« ; sporaogia in the axils of the oom- 
moa leaves (not in spikes). Lympodium luciduhan, Miohaui, 
Pursh, Bigelow, Torr. Fl. N. Y. ii, p. 508, Gray, Beck, Darling- 
ton, Hook, and Grev. Bot Mis. L. rejleicum, Schk. Lycopodimn 
luhereeliim of Lowe, a Madeira plant. Selago Am^eana,/oliU 
denliculatu TtJkxU, Dill. Hist. Mus. t. Ivi. — Gananoque Lakes, 
Collina's Bay, Newboro^)n-the-Rideau, woods in rear of Kingston, 
&c. ; PreScott, common, B. Billings, jnn. ; Nicolet, C. E., St. 
Catherines and Grantham, P. W. Maclagan, M.D.; Belleville, in 
Bwamps and cold woods, rather common, J. Maconn; River Bis- 
tigouche, St. Lawrence Gulf, R. Bell, jun., G.E. ; L'Orignal, J. 
Bell, B.A. ; London, W. Saunders ; Ramsay, Rev. J. K. McMorine, 
M. A. This species is stated by Professor Torrey to be rather oom- 
mon in New York State. " Frequently bears bulbs instead of 
capsules," Pursh. 

[P. alocuperoida, P. Beauv. — The habitat " Canada" is given 
for Lyeopodium aloeuperoida, Linn., in the " Species Plantarum," 
ed, 3, vol. ii, p. 1565; but it is probably not a Canadian plant.! 

P. inundatui, P. Beauv. Steins prostrate, adherent to the soil, 
the fertile ones erect ? leaves secund, yellowish-green, lance-awl- 
shapcd, acute ; sporangia in diatinot, terminal, leafy, sessUe, solitaiy 
spikes. Lyeopodium inundatum, Linn., E. B., Michauz, PnTsb, 
Beck, Tuokerman, Torr. Fl. N. Y. ii, p. 608, Gray. Plananihut 
inundatui, Beauv. L. alocuperoidet, hiaa., ia part? — In cedar 
swamps and overflowed woods, Canada, Pursh. Professor Torrey 
notices its occurrence in the uorth-westero part of the State of 
New York. Professor Gray observes, that the leaves are narrower 
in the American than in the European plant, and suggests that it 
may be a disdnot species. I have not yet seen Canadian specimens. 

LYCOPODinM. 

L. clavatum, lAnh. — Stems robust, and very long, prostrate, 
rooting, forked, with short ascending branches; leaves pale, in- 



, Cooc^lc 



1864.] LAVSON ON flANADIAM TSBNS. 295 

' curved, lioear-awl-sliaped, tipped with a white bur point ; Bporen^ 
in Boaly catkins, which are usually ;n pairs on common pedancles. 
Lyeopodium ctavatwm, Linn., E. B., Michaoz, Fnrah, Bigelow, 
Beolc. Darlii^toD, Spring, Hook., Torrey, Gray. L. trittachyum, 
FuTsh 1 L. integri/oUum, Hook. L. arwtatum, Humboldt.— 
Oooaalonally fbuod in the woods in rear of Kingston, but not com- 
mon ; Newfoundland, Hook. Fl. Bor. Amer. ; between Tbessalon 
and Mis«sagni Bivere. Lake Huron, R. Bell,jun. ; Fresco tt, com- 
mon, B. Billings, juD. ; Three Rivera, Temigcooata, and Wolfe 
Island, P. W. Maclagan, M.D. ; Seymour, in pine woods, rare, 
J, Macoun ; Ramsay, Rev, J. K. MoMorine, M.A. ; River Ris- 
tigouche, St. Lawrence Gulf, R. Bell, jun. ; London, W. Saunders, 
L'Orignal and L'Anse an Cousin, Gasp^, J. Bell ; Belmont. 
The spores, chiefly of this species, oonsljtuto the pulvU iyixpodH, 
which is used by apothecaries, and was at one time employed for 
making artificial lightning in the theatres. 

L. annoUnam, Michaux. — Stems very long, prostrate, creeping, 
forked, with ascending branches; leaves bright green, spreading 
or slightly deflczed, in about five rows, linear-lanceolate, mucronatei 
serrulalo; sporangia in scaly catkins, which are sessile, solitary, 
oblong-cylindrical, thick. Lyeopodium aniiotinum, Michaux, £. B., 
Fursh, Beck, Tuckerman, Torrey, Fl. New York State, ii, p. 509. 
— Pine ibrests in Hinchinbrook ; rocky woods in Fittsburgh, oq 
the north bank of the St. Lawrence, near Kingston ; Gananoqne 
Lakes ; L'Anse an Couun, Gosp^, John Beil, B.A. ; Prescott, 
common, B. Billings, jun. ; Riviere dn Loup, Nicolet, Montreal, 
and Kiugston, P, W. Maclagan, M.B. ; Belleville, in cool woods, 
common, J. Macoun; Ramsay, Rev. J. E. McMorine, M.A. ; 
Priceville, C. I. Cameron, B.A. ; Newfoundland, Hook. Fl. Bor. 
Amer.; St. Augustin and Cape Tonrmente, Abb€ Provancher. 
Frequent in New York State, according to Professor Torrey. Of 
this species there are two forms, only one of which, the normal 
one, or type, I have as yet observed in Canada. The var. yS alpo' 
tre, Uartm. Scan. Fl., having broader, shorter, paler, less spreading 
leaves, I have from the Dovrefleld (T. Anderson, M.D.), Lochna- 
gar, Scotland (A. Croall), and entrance to Glen Fee, Clova, where 
I found it growing with the typical form. 

L. dendroideum, Michz. — Stems upright, bare below, bushy 
above (giving the plant a tree-like aspect), arising from a long 
creeping rhizome, leaves more or less appressed ; sporangia, in scaly 
oatkins, which are sessile, cylindrical. Lyeopodium dendroideum^ 



OoO'^Q 



296 THE OANADIAtr NATtTEALIST. [Ang. 

Michx., Purshj Bigelow, Hook., Beck, Darlington, i. ohKunim, 
Linn., Bigelow, Oakes. — White-cedar woods near Batb, abundant, 
and throughout the woods generally in rear of Kingston ; Gana- 
noque River; Prioeville, C- I- Cameron, B, A.; Pre scott, common, 
B. Billings, jun. ; Nieolet, Mount Johnaon, and Montreal, P. W. 
MaclagaD, M.D.; Seymour and Cramahe, in cool moiat woods, 
J. MacouD ; River Riatigoachej Gulf of St. Lawrence, R. Bell, 
jun.; Ramsay, Rev. J. K. McMorine, M.A. ; New Brunswick, 
Hook, F.B.A. ; Osoabruok and Frescott Junction, Rev. E. M. 
Epstein; London, W. Saunders; Harrington, L'Orignal, and 
Gasp^, John Bell, B.A. ; St Joachim, Abb^ Provancher. 

L. complanatum, Linn. — Stems rhizome-like with ascending 
branches, which are dichotomoaSly divided, flattened ; leaves short, 
in four rows, those of two rows imbricated, apprcssed, of the other 
two somewhat spreading; sporangia in scaly cylindrical catkins, 
in twos, threes, or fours, on a common peduncle. LytopotUum 
complanatum., Linn., Gray, Blylt. L. ckamwci/jtarittiiis, Braun. 
L. mbina/otium, Willd. — Not uncommon in the woods about 
Kingston, and in rear ; Newhoro-on-the Ridean ; Gananoque 
River ; River Ristigouche, St. Lawrence Gulf, and St. Joseph's 
Island opposite Campment d'Ours, Lake Huron, R. Bell, jun. ; 
Ramsay, Rev. J. K. McMorine, M.A. ; pine grove near Bine 
Church Cemetery and woodlands west from Brockvilte, not com- 
mon, B. Billings, jun. ; Three Rivers and Temiseouata, C.E., 
P. W. Maelagan, M.D. ; sandy woods around Oastleton, sterile 
hills, Brighton and Murray ; J. Maconn ; L'Orignal and L'Anse 
an Cousin, Gasp6, J. Bell, B.A., Trois Pistoles, Abbd Pro- 
rancher; London, W. Saunders. To this species is referred 
L. tabin<E/ot{wn, Willd., L. chammei/paritgias, A. Braun ; 
with branches more erect and fascicled. Prof Asa Gray remarks : — 
" The typical form of L. complanatum, with Spreading, fan-like 
branches, is abundant southward (in N. States), while northward 
it pnsses gradually into the var. sahinafoliwm,." I have only one 
rather imperfect specimen of the European L. chamacyparUdat, 
collected at Bonn on the Rhine, by my friend Professor G. S. 
Blnckie, which does not differ in the branching from ordinary 
Canadian forms of L. complanatum. It appears to be quite a 
common species in the States, for I have it fVom a great many places. 

SCLAaiNELLA. 

S. tpinulota, A. Braun. — Small, prostrate, leaves lanceolate, 
acute, spreading, spinosely toothed ; fertile branch atoater, ascend. 



.(XH^Ic 



1864.] LAWSOM ON OANADIAN TEBNS. 297 

ing spifco aesaile. Selayindla tpimthta, A. Braun, BIytt, Norges 
Fl. ; Lycopodium tehginoidet, Linn. Pursh Fl. Am. Sept, ed. ii, 
p. €54. SelagiTiella epinosa, Beaav. Selaginella lelaginoxdee, A. 
Grey, Man.Bot. N. States, p. 605.— Gasp^, John Bell, B.A. ; 
Canada, Michani ; Lake Saperior and norltiTtard, pretty rare, 
FrofesEor Abb Gray in Man. Bot. N. States ; Canada, Pureh, viho 
oteerves, " the American plant is smaller than the European." 
Staohtqtnakdecm. 
S. rupestre, P. Beauv. — Much branched, leaves slightly spread- 
ing when moist, appressed when dry, carinate, hair-tipped ; com- 
pact and moss-like, growing od bare rocks. Selaginelh rupestrit, 
Spring, A. Gray, Eaton. Lycopodium rupatre, Linn., Pursh Fl. 
Am. Sept., od. ii, p. 654. — On the perpendicular faoea of Lauren- 
tian rocks, along the north bank of theSt. Lawrence, in Pittsburgh, 
and on the Thousand Islands at BrockviUe, &o. ; Long Point on 
the Gunanoque Eiver ; near FarmerBville, C, W., T. F. Chamber- 
lain, M.B.; rocks in pine groves two miles west from Prescott, 
near the river, and on rooks west from BrockviUe, not Dommon, 
B. Itillings, jnn.; Bamsay, Rev. J. K. McMorino, M.A.; Bcloeil 
and Monnt Johnson, C. E., P. W. Maolagan, M.D. 

DiPLOSTACHYUM. 

2). apodum, P. Beauv.— Slcma creeping, branched ; leaves pale 
vivid green, of two kinds, — the larger spreading horizon tuUy, 
ovate-oblique, the smaller appressed, acaminate, stipule-like. Forms 
compact tufts. Lytopodium apodum, Linn,, Pureh. Fl. Am. 
Sept., cd. 2. ii, p. 654. Selaginella aput, Gray, Eaton. — Abun- 
dant on low wet ground east of Front street, Belleville, below the 
hill, where it was pointed out to me by Mr. J. Macoun, July 1863. 
In September 1863, I found it sparingly but fertile, on grassy flats 
by the river side at Odessa. Near London, ... Saunders; Detroit 
Eiver, 0. W., P. W. Maclagan, M.D. Apparently not common 
in the United States. I have it from Schooky's Mountain. This 
is a very small, compactly-growing moss-like species, welt adapted 
for cultivation under a glass shade. It was agreat favorite with 
the late Dr. Patrick Neill, in whose stove-house, at Canonmills, 
Edinburgh, I first saw it many years ngo. 

JV"a(. Ord. MABSILEACE.ffi. 

AZOLLA. 

A. Canliniana, Willd. — Pinnately branched with cellular, 
imbricated leaves ; plant reddish, circular in outline, ^1 inch ia 



, Cooc^lc 



298 THB OANADIAH HATUBAIJST. [Aog. 

diameter; leaves ovate obtnae, ronnded aad roughened on tbe 
back (Eaton). Resembles a fioatiog moss or Jnngennannia 
(Torre;). Oray, Man. Bat., t. 11. Floating on the waten of 
Lake Ontario, Fursh FI. Am. Sept., ed. 2, il, p. 672. In Uw 
adjoining states, Professor Asa Gray notices it as occurring in 
pools and lakes, New York to Illinois and southward, and observes 
that it is probably the' same as A. ma^eUanica of all Sonth 
Amerioa. 

Salvinia. 
[^Sfilvinia natangi^ Marxilea natatu, Linn. Sp. pt. " Floating 
like Lemna on the surfaoe of stagnant waters, in several of the 
small lakes in the western parts of New York and Canada." — 
Porsh Fl. Amer. Sept. ed. 2, ii, p. 672. Professor Asa Gray sUtes, 
that it has not been found by any one except Pnrsh, and be there- 
fore omits it from bis Manual of Botany of the Northern States.] 



/. heu$trU, L.— Belroil, C. E., P. W. Maolagan, M.D.; 8a»- 
katebewan, Hook. Fl. Bor. Amer. This plant is spoken of by 
Pursh as growing in the Oswego River, near the Falls ; and Pro- 
fessor Gray and others allude to it as not rare in the New England 
States. It should be oarefolly looked for in the numerous lakes 
and creeks of Upper Canada. It ^ows in jnoddy bottoms, form- 
ing green meadows under water. Much interest is attached to 
the genus ho'itet, since Professor Babington has shown tha 
instead of one there are many species, or at least diBtioct races or 
forms, in Britain. In the United States four are known: — 
/. lacuslrie, Linn.; /. riparia, Engelm.; /. Engehnani, Braan; 
and I.fiaccida, Shattlew., the last a southern form. Professor 
Babington is certain of the existence of at least eight European 
species ; — I. lacualTis, h. ; I. echinotpora, Dar. ; /. tenuUtima, 
Bor.; I. adsperga, A. Br.; /. tetacea, Del.; I. vdata, Bory.; 
/. Syxlrix, Dur. ; and /. Duricei, Bory. As yet we know of 
only one Canadian species, which is here rendered, rather unoe^ 
tainly, /. lactutrU. The American species are described in 
Gray's Manual, the British ones in the new Journal of Botany, 
London. 

Nal. Ord. EQUISETACEJE. 
Equisetum. 

The Equiseta having been described in a previous paper, it 
will be sufficient te give here a mere list of the species, with eonu 
additional notes obtained since the former paper was written. 



Ctxic^lc 



1864.] LATTBON ON CANADIAN FERNa. 299 

E. sglvaticrtm, Linn. Newfoaadland and New Brunswick, 
Hook. Fl. Bor. Amer. 

E. tylvaticitm, ^. capilVire, Much branched ; branches veiy 
long straight, and exceedingly slender (capillary). FarmersTille, 

E. umbrotam, Wilid. Belmate. 

E. arveite, Linn. West from London, W. Saunders. The 
rhizome beara large spherical piU-like modules, which are how- 
ever more conspicuous in var. fi. granulatwn. 

E. arvertte, ^. granulatum. 

E. Tdmateja, Ehrhart. Shores of Lake Ontorio, Beck. 

E. limoaum, Foria. — The great value of this species and of 
E. arvettM as fodder-plants, is confirmeil. On the western prairies 
horses are said to get " rolling fat " on equiaetum in ten days; 
and experienced travellers tell me, that their horses always go 
fester next day after resting at niijht on equisefum pasture. The 
horses do not take to it at first ; but after having a bit of equise- 
turn put oooafiooally into their mouths, they soon acquire a 
liking for it, and prefer it to all pther herbage. Near Komoka, 
W. Saunders. 

E. %nnafc, Linn. Lake Huron, Hook. PI. Bor. Am.; 8t. 
Joachim, AbbS Provancher; London, W. S. 

E. robustum, Braun. Stems much thicker than in E. Jiffemale, 
the rid^^es with one line of tubercles; sheaths shorter than broad, 
with a black band at base, and a less distinct one at the margin ; 
teeth about forty, three-keeled. E. rohuttiim, Braun, A. Gray. 
Grenadier Pond, on the Humber River near Toronto, 3d June 
1862. It is diffioolt to decide whether this and other forms are 
really distinct from E. ki/emale; certainly that species varies in 
size, in roughness, and in other characters. In E. robustum the 
teeth are twice as many as in E. hi/emaU, but even this is perhaps 
not a constant character. 

E. variegatum, Weber and Mobr. ; St, Joachim, Afab^ Pro- 
vancher. 

E. Kirpoidet, Miobatiz. 

E. gcirpoidei, ^. miTuyr. 

E. pnlmtre, Linn. — " Canada, from Lake Huron, Dr. Todd, 
Mr. Cleghorn, Mrs. Perceval, to the shores of the Arctic Sea, Dr. 
Riohardson, Drnmmond, Sir Joba Franklin, Captain Back." — 
Hook. Fl. Bor. Amer. — Pr6fessor A. Gray speaks of " the Euro- 
pean E.paltttlre," attributed to this country (the N. American 
States) by Pnrsh, probably incorrectly." Dr. Hooker indicates its 



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300 TnS OANADU.N NATURALIST. [Aug. 

eziatenoe, irithoat doubt, in Arctic Weet AmericH and Arctic East 
Amerioa. The name of the plant haa occasionally appeared in 
CaDadiaa lisU, but I have as yet seen no Canadian specimen. 
It remaiua for Canadian or Hudson Bay botanists to trace its south- 
ern Yiniii on the American Continent. In Europe and Asia it has 
no tendency to Arotio limitation. — From the Edinhwgh New 
Philoiophical Journal. 



OBSERVATIONS ON SUPPOSED GLACIAL DRIFT IN 
THE LABRADOR PENINSULA, &o. 

Bt Hknuv Todlb Hind, U.A., F.R.G.S. 

[The most important pan of this paper is that which relates to 
the Labrador Peninsula, which we copy entire : — Eds.] 

During an exploration of a part of the interior of the Labrador 
Pcuinaulaiu 1801, 1 had au opportunity of obserTiogthe extraor- 
dinary immber, magnitude, and distribution of the erratics in the 
valley of the Aloisie River and some of its tributaries, as far north 
as the south edge of the table-land of the Labrador Peninsula (lat- 
50' 50' N., long. 66" W,), and about 110 miles due north of 
the Oulf of St. Lawrence. Boulders of large dimensions, ten U> 
twenty feet in diameter, began to be numerous at the Mountiua 
Portage, 1460 fuet above the sea, and sixty miles in an air-line 
from the mouth of the Moisia River. They were perched upon 
the summits of peaks estimated to be 1500 feet above the point of 
view, or nearly 3000 feet above the sea-level, and wera observed 
to occupy the edges of clifis, to be scattered over the slopes of 
mouotatu-ranges, and to be massed in great numbers in the 
intervening valleys. 

At the " Burnt Portage," on the north-cast branch of the Moide, 
nearly 100 miles in an uir-line from the Gulf of St. Lawrence, 
and 1850 feet above the oceun, the low gneissoid bills for mnny 
miles around were seen to be strewed with erratics wherever a lodg- 
ment for them could be found. The valleys (one to two miles 
broad) were not only floored with them, but they lay there in tiers, 
three or more deep. Close to the banks of the rivers and lakes 
near the " Burnt Portage," where the mosses and lichens have 
been destroyed by fire, very coarse sand conceals the rocks beneath ; 
but on ascending an eniiueiice away from the immediate banks of 
the river, the true character of the country becomes apparent. At 
the base of the gneissoid hills which limit the valley of the east 



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1864.] H. T. HIND ON GLACIAL DRIFT. 301 

braocb (&bont three miles broad) at this point, they are observed 
to lie two or three deep, and, although of laige dimenBiona, that is 
&om five to twcDty feet in diameter, they are nearly all ice or 
water-worn, with rounded edges, and gonerally polished or smoothed. 
These accamulatlons of erratics frequently form tongues, or spots, 
at the termination of small projecting promontoriis in the hill- 
ranges. I have several times counted three tiers of these travelled 
rocks where the mosses, which once covered them with a uniform 
mantle of green, had been burnt; and occasionally, before reach- 
ing the sandy area which is sometimes found on the banks of the 
river. I have been in danger of slipping through the crevices 
between the boulders, which were concealed by mosses, a foot and 
more deep, both before and after passing through the " Burnt 
Country," which has a length of about thirty miles where I 
crossed it. I oxtraot the following note from my journal of the 
appearance of these travelled rocks in the " Burnt Country " : — 

" Huge blocks of gneiss and labradofite lie in the channel of 
the river, or on the gaeissoid domes which hero and there pierce 
the sandy tract through which the river flows. On the summit of 
the mountains, and along the crest of the bill-ranges, about a mile 
off on either side, they seem as if they had been dropped like bail. 
It is not difficult to see thut many of these rook-fragments are of 
local origin ; but others have evidently travelled far, on account of 
their smooth outline. From a gaeissoid dome, I see that they are 
piled to a considerable height between hills 300 and 400 feet high; 
and from the comparatively sharp edges of many around me, the 
parent rook cannot be far distant." 

On all sides of Cariboo Lake, 110 miles in an ur-line from the 
Gulf, and 1870 feet above it, a confli^ation bad swept away trees, 
grasses, and mosses, with the exception of a point of forest which 
came down to the water's edge and formed the western limit of the 
living woods. The long lines of enormoos nnworn boulders, or 
&af;mente of rocks, skirting the east branch of the Atoiaie at this 
point, were no doubt lateral glacial moraines. The coarse sand in 
the broad valley of the river was blown into low dunes, and the 
surrounding hills were covered with millions of erratics. No gla- 
tnal stria) were observed here, hut the gneissoid hills were rounded 
and smoothed at their summit ; and the flanks were frequently 
seen to present a rough surface, as if they had been recently ex- 
posed by land-slides, which were frequently observed, and the 
oaose which prodaeed them, namely, frozen watei&lls. 



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302 THE CANADIAN NATUaALIST. [-A.Og- 

No clay or gravd was seen after passing the mouth of Cold- 
water River, forty miles from the Oolf, and 320 feet above it. The 
soil, where trees grew, was always shallow as far as observed ; and 
although a very luxuriant v^tatioa existed in secluded valleys, 
yet it appeared to depend upon the presence of labradorite-rock or 
a very ooarse gneissoid rock, in which flesh-colored feldspar was 
die prevailing ingredient. 

Observers in other parts of the Labrador Peninsula have re- 
corded the vast profusion in which erratics are distributed over ita 
su'faoe. There is one observer, however, well known in another 
branch of science, who has left a. most interesting record of his 
journey in the MistasBinni oonntry, between the St. Lawrenoe at 
the mouth of the Saguenay, and Rupert's River, in Hudson's Bay. 
Andr6 Miohaux, the distinguished botanist, traversed the country 
between the St. Lawrenoe and Hudson's Bay in 1792. He passed 
through Lake Mistaseinni ; and in his manuscript notes, which 
were first printed in 1861, for private circulation, at Quebec, a 
brief description of the journey is given. ".The wholeMistassinni 
counti;y," says Miohaux, " is cut up by thousands of lakes, and 
covered with enormous rocks, piled one on the top of the other, 
which are often carpeted with lui^ lichens of a black color, and 
which increase the sombre aspect of these desert and almost unin- 
habitable regions. It is in the spaces between the rocks that one 
finds a few pines (^Pinui rupulrU), which attain an altitude of 
three feet; and cveu at this small height showed signs of 

The remarkable absence of erratics in the Moisie, until an alti- 
tude of about 1000 feet above the sea is attained, may be ex- 
plained by the supposition that they may have been carried away 
by icebergs and coaat-ioe during a period of submergence, to the 
extent of about 1000 feet. I am not aware that any traces of 
marine shells or marine drift have been rect^nized, north of iho 
Labrador Peninsula, at a greater elevation than 1000 or 1100 
feet. In thevalleyof the St. Lawrence, marine drift has not been 
observed higher than 600 feet above the sea. Glacial striie were 
seen on the "gneiss-terraces" at the " Level Portage," 700 to 
1000 feet above the sea. The sloping sides of these terraces are 
polished and furrowed by glacial action. Orooves half an inch 
deep, and an inch or more broad, go down slope and over level 
continuously. It is on the edge of the highest terrace here that 
t^e first tai^ boulders were observed. 



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1864.] B. T. HDfD ON OLAOtAL DBIVT. 303 

The entire Bbsence of claj, and tho eztraordinar; profasioD of 
both worn and ragged masses of rook piled one above the other in 
the valley of the east branch of the Moisie, as wo approach the 
table-land, lead me to attribute their origin to local glacial action, 
as well as the excavation of s lai^ part of the great valley io 
which the river flows. Its tribotary, the Cold-water River, flows 
in the strike of the rooks throngh a goi^ 2000 feet deep, excavated 
in the comparatively soft, labradorite of the Labrador series.* 

The descriptions which have recently been publishedf of differ- 
ent parts of the Labrador Peninsula not visited by me, favor the 
supposition that the origin of the sorfaoe-features of the areas 
described may be due to glacial action, similar to that observed 
in the valley of the Moisie River. 

The remainder of the paper treats of the " Forced Arrangement 
of Blocks of Limestone in Boulder Clay," " The Driflless Area in 
Wisconsin," " Beaches and TerrMc^," " Anchor-ice and Excava- 
tion of Lake-basins," " Parallelism of Escarpments in America." 
Many interesting facts are adduced in these subjects; and the author 
takes strong ground in advocacy of the action orglucicrs rather than 
of icebergs in the production of glucial striic. He cliiims this 
view as suggested by him in 1869. His view in reference to 
the excavation of lake-basins is stated in the following terms. It 
suggests some new views; though probably all geologists will not 
acoept the cause assigned, as the most important of those which 
have acted in producing thb effect : 

It has been frequently stated that a difficnlty arises as to the 
modut operandi by which a moving glacier can excavate lake- 
basins. May not the manner in which stratified rocks, at least, over 
which a glacier may be moving, can be involved in its mass in the 
form of slabs or mud, constituting dirt-beds, be partially explained 
by the phenomena attending the formation of anchor- ice 1 It is 

* See Sir WilllBm Logan's "Qeologjof Oanada" (1863), on tbe 
• Diviaion of the LanrentlaD Rocks into " two rormalioiiB " : 
iBt. Tbe Labrador aeries. 
2od. The LaDr«nil«n. 
Tbe Labrador series, I have been reeeatlj informed hj Sir William 
LopiD, has been aieertained bf him to teat aaconformabl/ upon the 
older Lanrtntiao, and will be distiagaiibed b; a separate color on his 
new Uap of Oanada. See also Ut. Sterry Hunt on Ohemiatty of Meta> 
morpbic Kocka. 

t See m; " EiplocaUoos in tbe Inleiior of the Labrador Feainsala." 
Longmans, 1893. 



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304 THX CANADIAN NATSOALIBT, C"^^- 

no nnoominoTi occnrrenoe for the anoliors of the nets of a " seal- 
fishery " on the north shore of the Qulf of St. LawreDoe to be 
frozen to the bottom at the depth of from thirty to sixty feet ; 
and when anchors are then rused, they briag with them frosen 
masses of sand. But it i< in rapid rivers that the formation of 
anohor-ioe Is most remarkable, and most effective in exoavatiog 
these beds. It forms on the beds of rivers above the head of a 
rapid, and frequently bursts up with a load of frozen mnd or 
shingle, or slabs of rooks, which it has torn from the bottom. This 
phenomenon is witnessed every winter in the valley of the St. 
Lawrence ; but it is best observed after a prolonged term of cold, 
when the thermometer indicates a temperature considerably below 
sero. Anchor-ice has only been observed, as far as my knowledge 
of the subject goes, in rapid currents in open water; and thesud- 
den and apparently inexplicable rise of the St. Lawrence during 
extreme cold is most probably due to this cause.* It is not diffi- 
cult to see how the rivers issuing from beneath the precipitous 
walls of glaciers, as described by Dr. Kink, may rapidly excavate 
deep channels by means of anchor-ice, to be widened by the sub- 
sequent operations of the glacier itself. Nor ia it improbable that 
by tdbis means a glacier in very oold climates may increase from the 
bottom upwards with a load of frozen mud and fragments of rock, 
particularly near its base, when that does not meet the open sea. 
The great lakes of North America, inclading Lake Winnipeg, are 
excavated on the edges of the fossiliferous rook-basins ; and these 
lakes may represent the boundary of a glacial muss similar to that 
which now oevers Oreeoland. — From the Journal of the Geological 
Society. 



DESCRIPTION OF TWO AMERICAN SPONGES. 
Bt Dr. J. S. BowiRBAHE. F.R.8., Ac. 

1. Tethea hUpida, Bowerbank. 

Sponge sessile. Surface strongly and thickly hispid. Osonlf 
and pores inconspicuous? Dermis abundantly spiculous; epicula 
diqioscd at right angles to the surface, uniformly crowded 
tj^etber; super-fusiformi, sub-ovo-Bpinulato, very minute; form- 
ing a secondary series of defensive spicnla. Primary series of 
defensive spicnla super-Aisiformi-aouate or snb-ovo-epinulate, veiy 
large and long. Skeleton spicnla super-fusiformi-acuate and sub- 

■ See "NolcB on Anchor-Ice," bj T. 0. Eeefer, O.B., OaaadSan Jour- 
nal, new series, vol, vii, p. 173, (18S3). 



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1864.] DB. BOWESBAKK OK AUXBICAM BPDNQEB. 305 

OTO-epinabte, luge and long. Teodon epiciila saper-fiiHifonui 
sab-OTO-spiotilate, small, irregolarl; dispersed, Domeroas. 
Color. Dried, l^ht gray. 
Habitat. Portland, Muae, N. America. 

Dr. DaffsoD, McOill College, Montreal : 
Examined in the dried state. 

I received a small slice of this spoi^ from Prof. Dawson. From 
the curve of the snrface the specimen appears to have been about 
an inch and a half in diameter. In its present state the bispida- 
tiofi' of the sorfaoe is very strongly produced, and probably 
much exaggerated by drying; the spionla are comparatively very 
Luge and bug, more bo than those of the skeleton fasoiouli. The 
secondary series of defensive spionla are of the aamefocm as those 
of the interstitial membranes, but not more than half their 
average size. The whole of the spicula are exceedingly fusiform, 
the middle of the shaft being frequently twice the diameter of the 
base of the spioulom. The ovo-spioulate character prevails more 
or less in all the spicula, but is more distinatly produced in those 
of the interstitial membranes, and the secondary dermal defensive 
ones. I could not detect any gemmnles in the piece of sponge 
Beat to me. 

2. SpongiUa Daioioni, Bowerbank. 

Sponge sessile 7, branching ; surface smooth. Oscula and pores 
inoonspicupus. Dermal and interstitial membranes abundantly 
Bpicaloua; spicula fusiformi-acerate, entirely spin ed ; spines numer- 
oaa, short, and conical. Skeleton-spicula aoerate or snbfusiform- 
aoerate. Ovaria spherical ; dermal spicala numerous, disposed in 
flat fasciculi, or groups of spicula parallel to each other ; groups 
irregularly dispersed ; spicula acerate or subcylindrioal, entirely 
spioed; spines numerous, obtuse, and ill- defined. Sarcodeaspi- 
oolous. 

Color, in the dried state, emerald^reen. 

ffab. Kiver St. Lawrence, Montreal, Canada (jtfr. Fowler, and 
Bea. A. Kemp) ; a lake near Brockville (^Reo. A. Kemp). 

Examined in the dried state. 

About two years ago I reoeived a small fragment of this species 
fix>in Dr. Dawson, who stated that it was found in the River St. 
Lawrence, at Montoeal ; but, as the Iragment was destitute of 
gexumules and very small, there were not anffioient characters to 
mrraot a speciSo deeoriptioa of it. la October 1859 I received 

ToL. L V No. 4. 



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306 TBI OAHADUN IIATDBALI8T. [Ang. 

ftom the suue getttleman a farther supply of fragments of tills 
species, oontaiaiDg ovuia, and ^vii^; a better idea of its form than 
those first sent to me. The largest of the pieces sent was 1^ inch 
in length and 2^ lines in diameter, evideotlj a portion of a longer 
branch. At the proximal end tLere is a short branch, 3 lines In 
length and one line in diameter ; and Ae distal end divides into 
two small bninohefl of mmilsr dimensions to the first, thna satis- 
&otorilj indicating the branching habit of the speeiea. In several 
parts of this piece there are ovaries imbedded in the sponge, and 
there were maoy others in the fragments of the same apeoira that 
aocompanicd it. The general external oharaoters appear vorj like 
those of the European speoioa S. lai-tutni ; and from this simi- 
larity, I haTo very little donbt of its sarfaoe In the living state 
having been smooth and even, as in that species. In the Euro 
pean species the branches spring from a broad spreading base, 
about half an inch in thickness i and I think it highly probable 
that the Amerioan species will be tband to poasoss the same 
habit. I oonid not detect oacuta on any of the Iragments in my 
possession. 

The dermal and interstitial membranes abound with tension- 
spicala, and especially the dermal one, in which they seem to 
attain their fullest degree of development. Th^r normal form is 
Atsiformi-acerate i but, ^m the abundant production of the 
spines at their terminations, they freqnently appear to be cylin- 
drical rather than sccrate. Th(7 are dispersed on these tissues 
rather nnevenly, abounding in some q>ot^ while they are com- 
paratively scarce in others. 

The spicula of the skeleton are of abont the same proportions 
as those of the Enropcan species. They are usnally of ther^;nlaT 
acerate form, but occasionally beoome subfnsiform. 

The spicula and their mode of arrangement in the dermis of 
the ovarium cannot be readily seen without the aid of treatment 
with hot nitric acid, in which they should be immersed for a few 
ee< ends, and the acid should then be immediately dilnted widt 
water, afW which they should be dried on the glass, on which they 
are to be mounted in Canada balsam. The sjucuk in the dermis 
of adult ovaries are very abundant. They are similar in form 
and proportions to those of t^ dermal membrane; but, generally 
speaking, they are more fully produced, and the greater portion 
of them are soboylindrioal from the prtrfusion of spines at their 
i^iow. Theii form and mode of arrangement in the OTS17 render 



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1864.] DR. BOVERBANK ON AHBBIOAM SFONQES. 307 

them exoeedingly valaable as specific oharacters. In some of the 
yoDDg and incompletely developed ovaries I could not detect a 
single specimen of these sptoula. The only difference I oould 
find between these spiuula and those of the dermul membrane 
was, that the spioee on those of the latter were more sharply 
and fully prodnced, while on those of the ovary they were fre- 
quently ill-defined and often only in an incipient state, bnt very 
abundant. 

In the preparation of the spicula for examination, I found a 
few birotulate ones having the rotoke very deeply divided. These 
spicula were no part of the sponge in ooune of desoription, but 
were nadoubtedly from the gemmules of another speoies inhabit- 
ing the 8t. Lawrence. 

(Note by thb Editoos.) The above descriptions may be 
taken as a first instalment of descriptions of Canadian and other 
Aiberioan Sponges, now in the hands of Dr. Bowerbank. The 
first was forwarded to ua in MS. by the author. The second 
is taken from a late paper in the Proceediogs of the Zoological 
Society of London. 

The first of the above species was dredged by Dr. Dawson at 
Portland. The original specimen, part of which was sent to Dr. 
Bowerbank, is of an oval form, an inch and a half in its longest 
diameter, and about a quarter of an inch thick intheoentre. It is 
. attached partly to a stone, and partly to the side of a lai^e speci- 
men ot Balanui porcatus. 

The second speoies was collected by Mr. Fowler and Rev. 
Mr. Kemp, and the ^lecimens were presented by these gentlemen 
to the Museum of McOill University, whence the portions exam- 
ined by Dr. Bowerbank were sent with a number of others by 
Dr. Dawson. 



MISCBLLANEOnS. 



Hail-Stobu in Pontiao. — Extract of a Letter from Wm-Kixg, 
Etq., of Briatol. — Two days ago a very deelructive hail storm 
occurred in this and tlie neighboring townships. Some singular 
(MToamstances connected with it may be noteworthy. On Mon- 
day, IJie 11th, about two p.m., the storm came, accompanied by 
thunder uid lightning. IlscouTBewas from west to east, ondabout 
two mijes wide. Almost all the glass in the westerly windows of the 
brm-houaee within its range was broken ; the crops of wheat, in 



, Cooc^lc 



308 ,. TBE OAHADIAK NATURALIST, [Aug. 

com, oats, potatoes, &c., greatly injured, and in some instanoea 
wholly destroyed. The pieces ofioe were from half an inch to over 
two inches diameter, round, angular, and square ; some of them had 
small spicules round their edges. A farmer told mo that on his 
land the hail corered the grouod from three to four inches deep, 
hard and closely packed ; but the most extraordinary thing is, that 
a respectable farmer of undoubted veracity says he picked up a 
piece of hail or ice, in the centre of which was a small grefnfrog 
dead. Deeming suoh a thing rather rare in meteorology, I com- 
municate it to you. I may remark that the heaviest hail-storms 
occur here in the month of July. — Bristol, July 13, 1864, 



NATURAL HISTOEY SOCIETY. 
Repobt of thb Sciemtifio Cckatoe. 

In this account of the work done since the last annual meeting, 
I propose to adopt a natural history order. A large case, divided 
into five compartments, has been erected (at a cost of $120) for 
the reception of the Society's collection of mammals. A few 
species, viz., the moose, the white whale of the St. Lawrence 
(delpkinapterui) and two seals, are too bulky to be admitted into 
this case without muchdifturbing the general classification : these 
have accordingly been omitted. AVith these exception', the rest 
of the collection has been arranged aa f ar as practicable in accord- 
ance with Prof. Baird's elaborate monograph on North American 
mammals. Large printed labels have been attached to each 
species, the nomenclature adopted being that of the author just 
quoted. Several new specimens have been put up ; and the col- 
lection now contains eighty-nine specimens, illustrating forty-nine 
North American species. 

The miscellaneous mammalia have been grouped in one com- 
partment by themeelvea, and have been named according to the 
most recent authors. It would be very desirable if a. small sum 
of money conid he voted annually for the purchase of specimens 
of such of the wild animals of Canada as are wanting to complet« 
our local collection. I propose in the annual report of this year 
to publish a list of all Uie Canadian species of mammals, birds, 
reptiles, and fiah^ contained in the museum, so tiiat our friends 
may see what species we want. The collection of birds has been 
regrouped, and a number of additional oases full nf Bpeoimena 



Ctioglc 



1864.] HATUEAL HBTOET SCtCIETT. 309 

have been prepared. The aeries of names printed bv the Society 
Bome years ago is oat of date, and it ie proposed to BnbBtitate for 
item the labels issaed by the Smithsonian Institute. Thepreeent 
arrangement of the species in small oases, and tiiese not of uniform 
size, oanses a great waste of room. Were each specimen monnted 
on a proper separate stand, as is nsnally dooe in lai^ museums, 
tbe oollection might be arrai^d in a much more acoaratesoieatiGc 
order. We have now about 210 species of Canadian birds, but 
several spedes are wanting to complete our local series. A collec- 
tion of the qrgs of oar local birds has been made; the series has 
been named and arranged in a glass case, with a covering of green 
baize, to prevent the iojarioas effects of light on the specimens. 
We have now the ^gs of some fifty Canadian species carefully 
identified ; and friends at Quebec have lundly promised to add 
largely to this branch of onr collection daring the snmmer. The 
reptiles have been arranged and named as far as our oases would 
admit, with the exception of severxl exotic snakes. Three oases 
of Canadian fi sbes have also been prepared by Mr. Hunter, con- 
taining some thirty-one speoies: these I have named and labelled. 
Two eases of mieoellaaeous fishes have also been prepared, and 
have been named so far as the limited access to proper books of 
reference in Canada will admit. Our collection of Canadian fishes 
is still very im perfect, particularly as r^ards the marine fishes of 
the golf, which are almost unrepresented in the musenm. 

In the invertebrate seotion of the animal kingdom progress has 
been made as far as our material would admit. We have now 
25 cases of shells, alt oarefally arranged and named. Of species 
pnrely Canadian we have nearly 200. Five oases are devoted to the 
illoitration of the land and fresh water shells of the United States, 
and to the marine shells of the east and west coasts of the same 
country. The general series ocoapies thirteen large oases. This 
portion of onr collection has been oonuderably more than doubled 
during tJie past fourteen months. The orustaoeans, barnacles, sea- 
nrchins, corals, and sponges have been named as fkr as possible, 
and arranged in one large oase at the end of the gallery. Large 
donations of insecta have been made to the Society, by Mr. Saun- 
ders and Mr. J. Ferrier ; and a cabinet to hold all our specimens 
has been made at a cost of some t37. I am waiting for the arrival 
of some proper cork irooi England for the lining of the drawers, 
to work at this important branch of our oollection. 

I wonld oalt special attention to the large seriea of rooks and 



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810 THE OANADIAH NATtraALIST. [-^^> 

minerals beloDgiDg to the Society, many of which are atill nn- 
packed. Ponr table-cases, to hold our foadls snd minerals, 
would cost US fVom 100 to 120 dollars, and this is aa improve- 
ment which I think shonld be onr first object when the state of 
our funds will permit. I think it is no esaggem^on to saj that 
we have some 3000 or 4000 specimens of rocks, minerals, aod 
fossils that we have no means of exhibiting, The only proper 
case we have contains some 1800 spedmens. Of theee I have 
carefully classified and labelled a little over 1200. Onr collection 
of fossils I have partially arranged and nuaed, and have placed 
them tempcmtrily in the drawers under the mineral cabinet. In 
acknowledgment of the liberality of the Geol. Survey, the oonnoQ 
of the N. H. S. have anthoriied rae to paek up mi distribute 
five series of the duplicate shells, sea-nrcMos, &o., belonging to the 
Survey, to the following Societies: Laval University, and the 
Museum of the Literary and Historical Sooie^, Quebec ; MoCHll 
College, Montreal; Queen's College, Kingston ; and UniverBtty 
Collage, Toronto. I have aocordingly selected, named, and for- 
warded these Bets to the afore mentioned institutions; and among 
the resalte proceeding from this, may be meotiooed a valuable 
donation of books from the Literary and Historical Society of 
Quebec, and the aoqui^tion of several interesting additions to the 
Museum from MoG-ill Oolite in this oity, and from the Laval Uni- 
versity of Quebec. Sinoe the date of my first connection with the 
Society, some 2000 specimens have been added to the Mnsenm, 
and it is hoped that satisfaotoiy progress has been made during 
the past year in the work of arrangement and classification. Dr. 
Smallwood having adverted to tiie conrse of leotures I had the 
pleasure of giving during the past winter, further allusion to them 
is nnnooessary. 

As Beoording Secretary to the Society, it has been my duty to 
issue notioe of council meetings, and to prepare and direct 
cirenlars calling the usual monthly meetings, to keep the minntee 
of all ordinary and special meetings, to prepare proper aoconnta 
of onr monthly proceedings fbr the press, and for the Naturalist, 
to return thanks for donations, to issue diplomas and notices 
of election, and to transact many little items of general bnsiness 
for the Society. Finally, as an ex-officio member of Uie edi^ng 
committee of the Naturalist, I have endeavored to do what I could 
for the Joomal, whether directly or indirectly. 

J. P. WeiriAVBS, P.G.8., &o., 
Bee. Secretary and Soientifio Curator, N.H.S. 



C^.txii^lc 



1664.] HATU&AI. mSTDBT BOQinT. 311 

Mr. Jas. Fenier, Jan., thea presented his Report as Treaeurer 
of the Society, which will be foond on Ao other side. 

It was moved by Uie Right Rev. the Lord Bishop, Becoaded by 
Stanley C. B^g, and unanimously rewlved: " That the reports 
just read be adapted, and printed for diatribntion among the 



A vote of thanks to the officers of the past year was moved by 
Dr. David, aeocnded by L. A. H. Latonr. 

The followiog gentlemen were elected as office-bearers during 
ttie ooming year, as follows : 



0PWCEK3 FOB 1864-65. 

iVentJenf.— Principal Dawson, LL.D., F.R.8., &□. 

VUe-Presidentt.—Rev. A. De Sola, LL.D. ; Sir W. B. L(^n, 
LL.D., P.R.S., ic.; E. BiUings, F.G.S.; Dr. T. Sterry Hunt, 
M.A., F.B,S., Ac. ; W. H. A. Davies ; The Bight Rev. the Lord 
Bishop ; C. Smallwood, M.D., LL.D. ; Rev. A. P. Kmp, M. A. ; 
John Deeming. 

Tteaiurer. — Jas. Ferrier, jun. 

Cor. Seeretaiy.—Frot. P. J. Darey, M.A. 

Rec Secretary and Scieruijk Curator. — J. F. Whitoaves, 
P.O.S., &c. 

Librarian. — Stanley C. Bagg. 

Council. — A. Rimmer, G. Bamston, E. Murphy, Dr. Hing- 
Bton, L. A. H. Latonr, D. A. P. Watt,.C. Robb, J. H. Joseph, 
aaA Dr. David. 

Library ' Committee. — Messrs. J. C. Becket, Prof Comiah, 
Dr. Fenwick, Dr. David, and Dr. Mackay, 

Editing Committee of the "Canadian Naturalist." — D. A. 
Poe Watt, Acting Editor; Dr. Dawson; Dr. Hunt; E. Bil- 
lings; Rev. A F. Eemp,M.A.; Prof Robins, B.A.; Dr. Small- 
wood; and the Corresponding and Recording Seoretoriea. 



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THE OAlfADUK NATITBALIST. 



[Ang. 



If I li ?iffiiis-i5ir=i°i' 



AS a 
si P 



S B r-B a " B S 



n,s,t,..dDi. Google 



1864.] KATCHAL BtSTOBT 800IITT. 313 

LiBT or DoRATiOMs TO THE Miraiinc. 

IT.B.— The d*tei relbrta the meeUagi of the Soidetj mt whiah the ■peaiment 



Dohorb' Nahis. 



Ju. F«rrier, jnn., 
Mr, W. Hantar.... 



Jm. Ferrier, Jan., Esq.. 



Jul7 Ist, 1863. 

StuflTed BpecimcQ of tbe nnaller, or "puIliDg- 
donn" otCer. (Lufra dtitmctor, BarnatOD.) 

EggB of tbirteeo species of birds from Sew 
BruDBvick. 

Egg-capsula of P;nila. (^ noruw unjmltx 

12 ipedea of marine shells from Jftm&ica. 

S apeciet of foreign shells. 

Tbe mud or b«aT«r lisb. Amia ocetlicanda, 

Ricbardson; (..dmia eoZm, Linnseus?) from 

Sorel. 
Red seabe. 

Specimen of the grnDtilated (T) salamander. 
(Saiamandra granulatat Holbrook). 
Abnormal groirth of spiucc from tbe White 

Houn tains, with specimens of qnartzjte id 

which it woe imbedded. 
Dendroica coronata? Graf, male. (FrUotv- 

crointad wood-ieaTbler,} 
Troglodytes byemalis, VIellot, male. (W1»- 

Ur-wrtu.') 
Certbia AmerlcAna, Bonap«rte. (Jmtrican 

CbrjiomilTiB pinna, Bonaparte. (PiiM-JIneft.) 
Cyanospiia cyanea, Baird. Ondigo-bird.'i 
Tree-Frog. (/fy/a turncoJor, Leconte.) 

September astb, 1S83. 

3 caaeg of miacellaneona inaecta. 
1 chameleon. iChoniaUo vulgarUJ') 
Large block of crystals of ealc-spar. 
Collection of CaDadlan inaects (in Jivt eatit), 
which took the firat prize at the ProTinclal 
Exhibition oflS63, and of irhich tbe follow- 
ing is an estimate : 
Lepidoptera,(Suftfr/IiuiHuf jroJAi,)T88pec>«>. 
ColeopCera, (Bttlltt,) 394 " 

Hymenoptera, {Bta, mltp; 4«.,) IB " 
Diplera, {FiU;) 3 " 

Kenroptera, (Dragon-Jlia, ie.,) 6 " 
Hemiptera, 4 " 

Ortboptera, (CricktU, hcuiti, $c.,> B " 
(Id all nearV 400 species of Oanadlao in- 



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THS OAlf ADUIT KATDBALKT. 



[Aug. 



DoHou' Hima. 



Dr. DouglBB, Quebec. 

Mr. Jos. Hartley, (Park 
Farm, near Braniford, 
O.W.) 



John Leeming, Esq . . . . 

Ju.Shen>r,Eaq....... 

Jno. Swanaton, Esq,... 

O. Bamston, Beq 

Principal DairsoD 

J. F. WhiteaTBB, Esq. . . 
W.L. Dontney, Esq... 



DaTid Hou, Eiq 

Hn. Bdirlu AtwaMr. . 



Septembar 38th, ises, (CtoXinucd.) 

aecU, beaatifbllj prepared and carefally 

named.) 
6 spBcies of corals. 
Egg of elder duck (Somateria tlioUUnina,Ltach,') 

from Hare Iiland. 
Sea-urchin. (^Falaatltrina — 7)rroiii the Eoeeae 

limeBtane at the base of the great pyramid 

at Ghizeh. 
B Bpecies of DeTooiaa fMaBi, from Caoada 

West. 
4 Bchlnocyamiigp Dili Ids, ^J imall tAvtodrmi,) 

and 4 Trochna Uagas, (^ marine thtU,) 

both from Britain. 

1 Bpecimen of the violet aalamander, ($a:{a> 
mandra mbviotacta, BartOD.) 

Sponge. (HallchondraT) from Portland, He. 
'^Mcimen of the Tloiet Balamaoder. (^Sala- 

mandra lubviolacea,) and do. of another 

apeclea of Salamandra. 
Two speciee of fosBJls (IVrritiUa eariaalat 

and an OitTad), from (he Potomac. 
Dress worn bjoneof the Loncheauor "Sqnint* 

ejed " Indians, from the HcKenale River. 
The red throaled diver. (CWyntui Stpltntri- 

analit, Ltnnsius.) 

2 Bpecies of marine sheila. {Myadora ovata. 
Reeve, N. S. WaJeii and Donax ana/MM, 
Britain.) 

eggs of the chtpping-aparrow. {SpistlUi 
locialii, Bonaparte.) 

apeciea of freeh-waler sheila ttoat tho 
Southern States. 
Specimen of the chipmoak. (_TiimiaffriAtui, 
LinDeene.) 

3 scorpions from the West Indies. 

The red tiat. (^Vtiptrlilio Noetboraetntii, 

lie iiramp aparrow. (Mdotpita paliuMt, 

Baird ) 
The Philadelphian Bjcatcber. ( Virio FhUadtt- 

pAtcui, Oaisin.) 
Pacaimile of I^mdnn Timtt of October 3rd, 

ITSB, eon tainlDg despatches an noan clog the 

Ti«torj of the Nile, 
A home-made ireddiag-apron, span, vrovea, 

and embroidered by Mrs. Aim;, about the 

jear li5G0. 
Capelin (JiaUofM vQlanu), in a drift nodola 

fiiom the Ottawa district. 



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1864.] 



HATURAL msTOBT eOOtBTT. 



DoaOBE^ Nahu. 



Frinoiptl DawBon. . 



0. Barm ton, Esq.. 
Hr. W. HoBter 



JobnOilinonT,BM|., Qm 
Jag. Ferrler, jon., Esq.. 



October 36tb, 1863. 

The bADded ptpe-fisb, (Synfnatkiu fOKiattit, 

DeKay) from Nova SeoUa, also an eiotio 

apecies of Sjngoalbui. 
Two corallines from Florida. (Leptogor^ 

virgala, and Ztpkigorgia anetpt, botb of Gd- 

wards and Haim«.) 
Star Sab, {Ophiura Egtrtoni,") trom tbe Li&B ot 

Lfme Regie, England. 

ipecimens of native aoppar, froni tbe Laka 

Superior dlBtriot. 

eiamplo of iron pjritw, in oonglomerata 

from Uaasachnsetu. 
ifeadow moase. (Jrmcola Hparia, Ord.) 
Head of tbe eoDnDon or woodland caribou, 

tRangiftr Caribou, Andubon and Bacbman.) 
3 laa.gullB, in immatnre plillnflg«, species an- 

determined. 



Jas. Ferrier, job., Esq. . 

Rer. 0. Brnnet, Laval 

Untversitf, Qnebac< 
J. F.Whiteaves, Esq , 



Hr. W. HnnlM 

Principal Dawson. ■ 



C. Eobb, Esq., O.B 

A. Rimner, Esq 

CapMin Noble 

Jno. BrowD, Esq.,Hamil' 

lon,O.W 

li. Oocbrane, Baq 

W. Leamont, E«q 



NoTember 30th, 1833. 



1 specimen of tba hooded merganser. {Lopho- 
dytit cucuUatut, Reich.) 

2 Species of eiotic starfishes. 

" of foreign Bbells. 
species of foreign shells. 

1 fossils (named), from the Trenton lime- 
stone, near Qnebee. 

pecimen of the chipmunk or striped gronnd- 
■quirrel. (romiof flrio/ui, Linnsos.) 
"cone in oone" concretions from the coal 
fteldi of Oiaoe Bay, Cape Breton. 

December 2Sth, 1863. 

Star-nosed mole, CCotidyfuracri«(o(a,Linnffins.) 
Tbe mole shrew. {Btarina taijKndtt, Qraj.) 
Snowy owl, {Nycttanitta, Gray.) 
Tbe doable- crested cormorant. (OraailtadUo- 

phut, Gray.) 
Specimen of the spotted Menobrancbns, (Jlfeno- 

brim(hut lattralii, Say) in spirits. 
Cairngorm stone, cat and polished. 

Jan. 2Btb, 1S64. 

8 species of Chinese marine shells. 

1 example of Andonta Implieata, Bay. (J 

rather tcarc* Lover Canadian frtth-vattr 

bivalvt Aril.) 



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THK OANADIAM MATnEALIBT. 



[Ang. 



Aadrew Allui, Esq. . 
H. Q. Tennor, Esq... 



Piof. Uilea, LennoiTille. 



Prinolpal Damon.. 
Hr. W. Hunter 



Ju. SSth, I8S4. (Omlinutd.) 

Slar-FiBh, (J$lTopkyl<m —?) frotc the Galf of 
St Lawreoce. 

iro spGcimcns of the "drinker" moth, (Gon- 
opttra tibatrii,') from a cftve at the Cote St. 
Michel, near UoatreAl. 

February SBih, 18fl4. 

2 Specimeutof gotta percbaia its erode slate, 

of qaalities No. I aod 2. 
Fibres from the bark of tbe Spanieb aloe, 

(Jfam,) aa extracted by machiaerj. 
Another eianiple of aloe fibre. 
Specimen ofCingalaie aloe fibre, with pteceof 

cord made from the same and reddened by 

vegetable juicei. 

eiamplea of raw mohair, ai it comes from 

tbe aniinal, — of two inlermediate qualities. 
Another sample of mohair. 
" Kcimen of pare mofaaic "top," combed to 

preparation for maDufacture. 
Example of yam spun from pare mobair 

" top." 
2 specimens of down of the silk cotton tree. 

(^Briodendron anfractuotum.) 
Prepared Sarracenia purpurea, (^The pUcker- 

planl,') the Indian remedy for Bmalt-poi, 

aa used by the Micmacs ; from Nova Scotia. 
Samples of llr. Bacben's proposed sabsUtuta 

for cotton, the fibrous alva. 
Specimen of a Javan vegetable fibre proposed 

as a enbstitute for coiton,bat aa prepared for 

manufacture by Uessrs, Marshall li Dalmer 

of London, (England,) found to answer bet- 
ter in admixture vltb silk. 
10 specimens of fossil plants (named), from 

the coal measnres of Kova Scotia. 
Small brown weasel. {Putoriui cigognanii, 

Bonaparte. 
Hairy woodpecker, variety. (_Pieui vilktm, 

Linnvus.) 
Bohemian chatterer.. (Jnpettt garmliu, 



March aatb, 1864. 

Jas. Ferrier, jnn., Esq... 1 stuQ'ed ipeclmea of tbe goshawk, female, 
I (Jttttr airicapiUuif Bonaparte.) 



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1864.] 



NATURAL HIBTOBT SOOIKTT. 



Ur, W. Hunter 

Ura. H. Parkiaaou 

A. RaniHy, Faq 

Ju. Ferrier, Jan., Esq.. 
Ut.W. Hunter 

Ifra. UcGulloch 

B. E. Sbelton, Eaq 

Jbs. Claiton, Eaq . . ■ ■ . 



April SStb, 1864. 

DC example of the iroadchuek or groand- 

bog, {Arctomy monax, Gmelin,) Itom 

BrockTille, C. W. 
The downy woodpecker. (Pinw ptAuetnt, 

LiDDtene.) 
A small collection of mArine sheila, brjozoa, 

Rnnellda, and seft-weeds, frem Little UeUs 

Bay, Oaepd. 






U«y 30tb, ise4. 

'goose. (Jiutr hyptrboreta, Pallae,) 

Nud'b Island. 

;one. {StrtptUa* Mtryrtt, llliger.) 
GiiriODB Japaoese mirror and case. 
The J el low-bellied woodpecker. (C«niurui 

fiavivtntrU, Swainaon.) 
The golden -winged woodpecker. (Colapttt 

auralai, Swainaon,) 
Two robina, male aadfemale. (_Tiirdtu migra- 

lorim, Linnsiia.) 
The blue jeliow-backed warbler. (Parulo 

jmericana, Bonaparte.) 
13S skina of Canadian birds. 

G " Foreign " 

20 mammala, (mosilj howerer duplicate apeci- 

Indian pipea, from an eicaration in Hoapital 
street, Montreal. 
8 epecimeoB of minerals, viz., qnartz, and 
quartz with pjtitea, calc-apar and sal- 
pbatii of barytes ; — from Devon and Corn- 
wall, England. 



J. F. Whiteatbs, P. G. S., &j., 
Soientifio Cmator & Beo. Secretary N. H. S. 



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318 tbs oanaduh hatdoalist. [^%- 

The Cakadun Natukalist. 
The CaTtadian Naluralitt ie Mnt to the ibUowiDg InatitutionB 
and Societies : 

OAHADA, ETO. 

University Coll^, Toronto. 

Trinity College, Toronto. 

Canadian Inatlttito, Toronto. 

Enos'sGoIl^e, Toronto. 

Victoria College, Coboui^. 

Queen's College, Kiugaton, 

HcGill College Montreal. 

Bishop's Gollt^ LennoxTille. 

Laval University Qnebeo. 

Literary and Historionl Society, Quebec. 

Natural History Society, St. John, N. B. 

TMITED STATES. 

Harvard College, Camhiidge, Mass. 

Amherst Collie, Amherst, Mass. 

Yale Coll^, NeiT Haven, Cmid. 

Natural History Society, Boston, Mass. 

State Library, Albany, New York. 

Albany Institute, Albany, New Yoric 

Essex Institnto, Salem, Mass. 

Lyoeum of Natural History, New York. 

Astor Library, New York. 

Aoadoiny of Natural Sciences, ....Philadelphia. 

- Franklin Institute, Fhiladelphia. 

Smithsonian Institnto , Washington. 

Academy of Science, St. Louis, Missouri. 

University of Nashville, Tennessee. 

Natural History Society Portland, Mune, 

OBEAT BftlTAIN. 

Geological Socie^, London. 

Linntean Society, London. 

Royal Society, London. 

Boyal Qeographioal Society, London. 

British Museum Library...... London, 

Univerai^ Gollc^ London. 



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1864.] THB OAKADIAK NATURALIST. 3X9 

Society of Arts, Loodon. 

Geologio^l Surrey of Great Britain,... .London. 
Natural History Society, Dawson St.. ..Dublin. 

BojbI Dublin Society, Dublin. 

Literary and Fhiloaopbicat Society, Manoh^ter. 

Natural History Society, Newcutlo-upoa-Tyne. 

Bodleian Library...... Oxford. 

University Library, Cambridge. 

Univeraily Library, Edinbui^b, Scotland. 

tJniveraity Library, Gla^w, Scotland, 

UniTeraity Library, St. Andrew's, Scotland. 

Colle^ Library, Maynooth, Ireland. 

Queen's College, Cork, Ireland. 

Queen's College, Belfast, Ireland. 

CWNTINXMT or ETSOFI. 

Soci^t^ G^ogiqoe de Franoe, Paris, France, 

Acad^mie des Sciences, Paris, France. 

AcadiJmie des Sciences, Bologna, do. 

Academia Car. Loop., Jena, Saze Weimar. 

Imper. Geoli^ioal Institute, Vienna, Austria. 

Deutiiches Geolog. Gesellschafit, Berlin, Prussia. 

Soci^t^ HoUandaise des Sciences, Haarlem, Holland. 

Eouigl. Saobs. Geaellschaft der Wissen- 

scbaAeo, Leipzig, Saxony. 

Soci^t^ Imp^riale des Naturalistefl, Moscow, Russia. 

Konigl. Bayerischen Akademie der Wis- 

Benschaften, Muniob, Bavaria. 

Stockholm Biksbiblioleket, Stockholm, Sweden. 

Upsala Univerdty, Upsala, Sweden. 

Academy of Soienoes, Stockholm, Sweden, 

Christiania University, Christiania, Norway. 

Koyal Library, Copenhagen, Denmark. 

St. Petersburg, BibUoihSque Imp6riale,St. Petersburg, Russia. 

Dorpat University, Dorpat, Bussia. 

Elasan University, Kasan, Russia. 

Helsii^ors University, Helaingfors, Russia. 

Amsterdam Stadsch Bibliotheok, Amsterdam, Holland. 

Leyden Batavian Academy, Leyden, Holland. 

GiQoingen Unlveruty, GrOningen, Holland. 



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320 THK OAMADIAK NATUOALIST. 

Bonn ITniveraity,. Bonn, PruBsia. 

Breslau University, Breslao, PruBeia. 

Freiberg Royal Acad Freiberg, Saxony. 



And to the following Periodicals : — 

CANADA. 

Canada Medical Journal, Montreal. 

Journal of tbe Board of Arta,.., Toronto. 

tTNITXD STATES. 

Silliman'a Journal New Haven. 

QRXAT BKITAIM. 

ZoologiBt, 1 Paternoster Row. 

Intellectual Observer, 5 Paternoeter Row. 

Technol<^Bt, 23 Paternoster Row. 

Geological Magazine, 39 Paternoster Row. 

Popular Science Review, : 192 Piccadilly. 

Seemau's Journal of Botany, 192 Piccadilly. 

Jonmal of Science, 11 New Burlington St. 

Natural History Review, 14 Henrietta Street, Co- 
vent Garden. 
Pbytologist 28 Upper Manor St. 

CONTINENT OF ECROFE. 

Annales dea Sciences Naturellea, Paris, France. 

Allgemeine Dcutecbes Naturb. Zcitnng,Diesden,' Saxony. 
Arehiv. for Naturgeschicbte by Weig- 

man, ; Berlin, Prussia. 

Leopoldoia, Jena, Saxe Weimar. 

Leonbard und Brobu Jabrboob, Stntgardt, Wnitembntg. 



Pal>li8hed,iUoabtea], September 15, 1864. 

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CANADIAN NATURALIST. 



MICHAUX AND HIS JOURNEY IN CANADA. 

B; tbe AsBi Ovub Bhuhit, Profeasor of Botan; at the Laval DniveraitT' 

Qaebec* 

It ia well known to botanists, that the Flora Boreali-AmeritMna 
of Michaus oft«n fails to iDdicate the precise localities of the plants 
there first desoribed, and thut, in oonsequence, many of these plants 
are either still nnknown to collectors, or esoeBsivelj rare. In 
the hope of being able to determine the localities of those plants 
which this anthor has noticed as occurring in Canada, I attempted 
several years since to trace the steps in his journey to tbe Sague- 
nay, and to Hudson's Bay. At that time however, the only 
materials at my disposal were the Flora, and some scattered notes 
in the works of his son. I had not then seen his Herbarinm, 
which is rich in notes of localities ; and the manuscript journal of 
his journey, in the library of the American PhiloEOphical Society 
in Philadelphia, was unknown to me. Since that time however^ 
I have been able to consult the original collections of Michauz, 
which are in part at the Jardin des Plantes of Paris, and in part 
in the museum of Mr. Benjamin Delessert of that city. Tbe 
American Philosophical Society has moreover permitted me to 
copy the manuscript journal, for which favor I take this occasion 
of expressing my thanks. 

■ TaufBLiToa'sNoTi. — ThUiaterestbg paper was printed a few months 
Biace, ia French, bj Ur. Brnnet, for private distribalioa onl^. I have 
accordingl; translated it for publication in the Canadian NaturalUI, Eup- 
presaing aome anessential portiona, with tbe approbation of the author - 
who has added to it a map of tbe region from Lake St. John to 
Hndsoa's Baj. A MS. map bj tbe Jesuit Lanre, wbo was a mls- 
aionar; in Canada daring the early part of ihe last centurj, ia the chief 
authority for the region beyond Lake St. John, tbongh other oldFrencIt 
mapa were consnited. The map of Laare is in tbe library of the Oano- 
dian Parliament.— T. S. H. 
Tob. I. w So. S. 



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326 THE CANADIAN NATDttALIST. [Oct. 

In the following piig^, which I have prepared with the aid of 
the materials thus placed at my disposal, I shall ^ve a list of the 
most interesting plants found by our botanist in the variouB 
localities visited during hia Canadian journey ; while for the more 
common species, I shall only notice the most northern points at 
wbiob they were observed. There will be found in these pages, 
notices of more tlian one hundred and sixty plants observed by 
MIehaux in localities not mentioned in hia Flora. These indica- 
tions, it is to be hoped, will not he devoid of interest to collectors, 
and to students of geographical botany; while in addition will "be 
found some interesting details from the journal of iMicbaox on the 
chsrBct«rs of a portion of that almost unknown region which forms 
the water-shed between the St. Lawrence and Hudson's Bay. 

Andr^ Michaux, the early years of whose life were devoted to 
agriculture, soon conceived a plan for visiting foreign countries 
with the object of studying their plants, and, if possible, intro- 
ducing them into France. As a preparation for this, be came 
to Paris in 1779, and studied botany for two years under Bernard 
de Jusiiieu. Aflcr having in the pursuance of his plan visited 
England, and crossed the Pyrenees into Spain, he visited Persia, 
from whence he brought great colleotlons of plants and seeds. 
The French government, desirous of introducing into France some 
of the trees of North America, then decided on sending Hichanx 
to this continent ; where bis orders were to travel through the 
United States, and collect both trees and seeds, which were to he 
sent to France. In pursuance of this mission, he sailed on the 
25th of August 1785, and reached New York the 1st of October, 
accompanied hy a gardener. Although his journey had for its 
chief object the introduction of fores t-trecs, Michnux had received 
orders to send also such shrubs and plants as might serve to orna- 
ment the king's gardens. 

He at first made New York bis bead-quarters, from which he 
visited New Jersey, Pennsylvania, and Maryland, and he esbb- 
lished a nursery in New Jersey, with a view of raising young 
trees which should be of better growth than those found in the 
forests. In the year following, Michanx sent to Paris twelve boxes 
of seeds, and several thousand young trees. After a time he 
removed to Charleston, South Carolina, and there established a 
second nursery, which soon obtained great dimenuons from the 
immense collections of trees and shrubs, the fruit of more than 
eixty jotumeys in varioas parts of the int«iior. The muiaacript 



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1864.] UIOHAUX AND EIS JOUBNXT IN CANADA. 327 

notes of Michanx, however, g^ve ns no details of these excur^ODS 
up to the month of April 1787, when he made hia first 
journey to the AJlf^hanies, going np the Savannah River to its 
head, and thence gaining the heights of the moantun region. 
Having made fViends with some of the Indians, he then ascended 
with them one of the trihutartes of the Savannah, and reached 
a branch of the Tennessee on the other side of the monntains. 
This was the limit of his voyage, and he then returned to Char- 
leston on the first of July, after a voyaf^e of 300 leagnee in 
South Carolina and Oeorgia. His manuscript notes of this 
journey contain many observations on the plants met with, and 
precise indications of their localities. In 1788 and 1789 he vis- 
itod, successively, Florida, the Lncayan islands, and Virginia, pass- 
ing through the mountain region of North Carolina, He returned 
to Charleston from this last excursion in September 1789, but 
revisited the region in the course of the following winter, accom- 
panied by his son, reaching Charleston again in the spring of 1790, 
where he remained until April 1791. His notes during this year 
are wanting. 

Michaux had now spent six years in America, his pecuniary 
resources were nearly exhausted, and he feared to be obliged to 
return to France without having completed hia plans on this 
coDlioent. He had long desired to add to his studies npoa the 
American Flora, some researches on the gec^raphicaj distribution 
of the forest trees, and to determine the native region of each, 
which he regarded as that ia which the plant attains its greatest 
size and strength. The tulip'tree (^Inriodendron tidipifera) 
for example, appears in Western Canada with a maximum height of 
sixty feet, and a diameter of three feet ; while westward, and espe- 
cially in Kentucky, where it forms by itself vast forests, it reaches 
a height of one hundred and forty feet, and a diameter of seven 
or eight feet To the northward, on the contrary, it becomes 
rarer and smaller, and Michaux was hence led to regard this tree 
as a native of Kentucky. In accordance with these views, he 
resolved to study the top<^raphy of the North American trees. 
He had already extended his travels southward to Florida, but 
another journey, longer and more difficult, but still more important 
to his investigations, yet remained to be accomplished, — a visit 
to Canada and northward as far as Hudson's Bay, This project 
be attempted in 1792. Leaving Charleston in April, he proceeded 
northward by land, and, as we leam from his mauusoript notes, 



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328 THE CANADIAN NATURALIST. [Oot. 

went first directly to New York, thenc« to New Haven, and finallj- 
to Albany, where be arrived on tbe 14th June. On the 18th 
we find him at Saratoga, and on the 20th he embarked on Lake 
Champlain at Whitehall. The remainder of this month was 
employed in examiniag the vegetation on the shores of the lake, 
which he crossed several times. In his Flora, mention is- 
made of a great number of plants which be found in this r^on.* 
On the 30th of June, Mlchanx reached Montreal, where he spent 
ten days in coUectiog the plants of the environs. On the let of 
July, he tells us he botanized on the mountain. " On the 3rd, in 
the country and the low meadows," and " on Sunday the Sth, in 
the wood of Lachine, for a league along the river-side." In thes» 
excursions he collected the following plants, which are marked in 
his herbarium as having been colleoted about Montreal: 

Sdrpia spatkaceus, Michi. ; Slodea CanadenfU, Michx. ; Poa 
oompreisa, Linn. ; Scutellaria parvvla, Miohx. ; Oxalit comicn- 
lata, Linn. ; Hyperimm macrocarpum, Michx. ; Acalypha Fir- 
gitiica, Linn. ; Zanthoxylum/raxineum, Willd, 

On the 11th June Michaux left for Quebec; but adverse- 
winds obliged him to put in at Sorel and at Batiscan, where he 
made collections. In the latter locality he found Scheuchzeria 
palustria, Lino. ; Triglochin marilimtim, Linn. ; Drotera longi- 
/olia, Linn. 

He reached Quebec on the 16th July, and remained there a 
fortnight, in which time he made several exonrBions in th& 
environs, visiting the Falls of Montmorency, Lorette (probably La 
Jeune Lorette), and botanized in the forest on the right bank of 
the river St. Charles. As the season was advancing, he now 
made arrangements for his journey to Hudson's Bay. Engaging 
as an interpreter a young half-breed, who had been three year» 
with the Indians, he started for the Saguenay. The following 
extracts from his notes will show his route : 

■ It woald b« BaperflooDS to forniab lists of plaats whoae names and 
localities are fonnd in the Flora of Michaux. - When therefore ia this, 
narrative I give a list of plants found b; our botonist io an? locality, it 
will be understood to include onl; those which have not been mentioned 
In his Flora as tbers occurring ; but which ore given in his Herbariumr 
or in bis manuscript notes as having been foaad in that locetity. For 
the caaTeaicDce of reference, bovrever, I give in tbe following manner, 
the p^eB where the plants not here named will be found ipentioned: 

Flora Boreal i- Americana, in Canada, ad ripas lacDS OttunjiJafn, voL 
i, fol. 4T, TS, 136, 1^3, 304 ; vol. ii, fol. S8, 198, 12T, 246. 



V, Google 



1864.] HtCHAUX AND HIS JOtJUNEY IN OANASA. S29 

" Leil Quebec J\x\y 31, Bailtng by Oape Toarmento and Cape 
BraU, which are distant twelve and fourteen leagues from Qaebeo. 
Sow upon the moantains Juniperu* communit, Tkaja, Abies 
haUamea, A. alba, Epigoea repent, Linnaa hoTealU, etc., et«. 

That aight lay off Bay St. Paul August 1st. The 

"niod changed and rain fell ; botanized on the mountains 

August 2nd. Arrived at Malbaie, and left there on the 4tb, reach- 
ing the mouth of the Saguenay, where I passed the night. On 
the morning of Sunday the 5th reached Tsdonaeao, forty-six 
leagues from Quebec." 

Tbe plants collected by Micbaui at Maltude were as follows : 

Ilippurie vulgarit, Linn. ; Salicomia kerbacea, Linu. ; PuI- 
monaria parvijlora, Miohx, ; Ligasticum Scoticum, Linn. ; Sai- 
tola gdUa t Michz. ; Polygoratra eUinode, Miohx. ; FotentUla 
Jiirtala, Micbx. ; Aitragalvt itcundus, Michz. ;* Medicago lup^ 
Una, Linn. ; PterU gracilu, Michz. 

A little lower down on the shores of the St Lawerence he 
gathered Salieomia herbaeea, Linn.; Arundo arenaria, hiao. ; 
Glaux mariiima, Linn, ; Sdliola »alm ? Michz. ; AtripUxpatula, 
Linn. ; Rumtx verticillatut, Linn. ; Armaria rubra, Linn., 
( = Spergvlaria rubra, Pers.); Potenlilla hirmla, Michz. ; Emp6- 
4rum nigrum, Linn. 

The picturesque little village of Tadoussao is built upon a point 
of rock at the entrance to the Saguenay, and was a poet of tbe Hud- 
son's Bay Company. Here Micbanx bought two bark-caaoes, and 
«ngaged three Indians; here also, as we learn from his Flora and 
hia Herbarium, he collected the following plants : lAgutticam 
Scoticum, Linn. ; L. acUei/oUum, Michz. ; Gentiana acuta, 
Michz.; Epilobium tetragonum, Linn.; Vacdnium Vitit-Idaea, 
Linn. ; Potentilla hirmtta, Miobz.; Ilex Canadentis, MIchi. f 

He was soon however on bis way up tbe Saguenay, which for a 
-distance of twenty-seven miles flows between immense walls of 
gneiss, often extremely bold and picturesque. The banks are 
almost destitute of vt^lation, ezcept in .tbe fissures of tbe rocks, 
where a few stunted pines and spruces, wild gooseberries and blae- 
iherries laden with fruit, and a juniper (Juniperui tabina), form 

■ S«e nol«t on page 331. 

t Flora Boreal i- A mericBDa, ad ripas Sumiaia 5. £aur«nfii, jaila Ta- 
-doussac, vol.], Tol, IBS, ITT; ia&am]nti S.Lavrentii tqaia affluents mara 
sabsalsiB, toI. L fol. 1, 6T, 96, 102, 133. 



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330 THE CANADIAN NAirEAUBT. [Oct. 

a green tapestry hangiog on the embanlcmeuts, which rise Bome- 
times a height of 1 100 feet* 

As weapproach Hal hal Bay the shores beoome lower, and tie- 
great piae forests which form the wealth of this r^ion are seen. 
At Ghicontimi, where the river ceases Ut be aavigable for large 
Teasels, it spreads into a wide basin which receives a cascade of 
ibrty feet in height. Miohanx reached this spot on the 11th of 
Atigust. 

Chicoudmi, which signifies deep water, was then a little villsge 
at the junction of the river of this name with thet^aguenay. Upon 
a point which projects into the basin was a small chapel abont 
twenty-five feet long, bnilt by the Jesnits, and having within a single 
altar and a few pictures, while outside was seen the tomb of Pere 
Coquart, the last of the Jesuits, who, with the PSre Lahrosse, had 
first preached the Ooepel to the natives. Michanx, in the mann- 
Boript notes which he left to his son, thus speaks of this obapel : 
" On my way to Hudson's Bay I reached in the month of August 
the Lake Chiooutimi, near the 48th degree of latitude, and there 
found the church erected in 1728 (as indicated by the date placed 
over the principal entrance) by the Jesuit fathers for the natives 
of the vicinity. This building, made of squared timbers of white 
cedar {Thuja occidentalie) placed upon each other, was in good 
preservation ; and although these beams had never been covered 
either within or without, the wood at the depth of half a line was 
not the least altered after a lapse of more than sixty years."-)- This- 
little chapel was still standing in 1857. 

The route to Lake St. John was then much more difficult than- 
that which is now followed. Michauz went up the river Chicou- 
timi in a canoe and then passed through Lake Kinogomi, from 
whichfbyaportageofhalfa mile, he reached Lake Kinogomichiche ; 
this discharges itself by a slow and tortuous stream into Belle 
Biver, which falls into Lake St. John, which our traveller reached 
after a journey of six days from Chtcou^mi, gathering the follow- 
ing plants in his way : 

Seirpu* tpalkaceu*,illiebx.] Steerlia comicttlala,'Lijm.; Pri- 
not verlicillatu», liinn.; Gerttiana pneunionanthe,IAan. ; Drosera 
rotundi/olia, Linn. ; Tnglockin_patttglre, Linn. ; JuncutflnitaiiMf 
Miohz.; Milella diphyUa,li\aD.; Sparganium natani, }/li<Aii.. ; 

* Flora Boreali-AmericaoB, in sazosU ad amnem Sasntnay, vol. 1^ 
fol. 3. vol. ii. fol. 246. 
t Uichaui Gl8, Arbrea Foreattera, vol. iii, p. 34, 



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1864.] HICHADZ AND BIS JOURNEY IN CANADA. 331 

NymphBalutea,^. Za/miana, Lion.; Spergulattrum laneeola- 
tam, Michz., { = SeeUaria horeali*, Bigelon) ; Alnm critpaf 
Michx. ; A. glauca-, Michz. ; Lohdia Dortmanna, Lian. 

Lake St. John lies between latitude 43° 23' and 48° 42', and 
between longitude 71° 29' and 72° 9', its greatest length being 
sixteen leagues; it is more than thirtj leagues to the north of 
Quebec. Miohaux went entirely around it, and collected a great 
number of plants ;* but in pursuance of his plan of studying the 
trees, he also penetrated into the surrounding forests, which abound 
in valuable timber-trees, details with regard to the nature and 
distribution of which, will be given further on. 

It was on the 16th August that oar botanist reached this lake, 
but, delayed by an adverse wind, he spent the next day at the 
month of Belle River, where he found Lgcoput Virginicus, Linn. ; 
Ciraea Canadentis, Linn. ; Bromus Canadensit, Michx, ; Arando 
areitaria, LioQ^. ; Galium CUiytonii, Michx.; G. afpreUvm, 
Miohx, ; Comut altemifoUa, Lian. ; Polygonum amphibium, 
Linn. ; Ceroiut pumila, Michx, ; Laihyrua paluslris, Linn. ; 
Attr-jgalut seciindut,'\ Michx.; Sedyianim alpinum, Michx.} 
Aeter amygdalinitt, Michx.; A. cordifoliM, Linn.; Solidago 
Jlexicaulis, Linn.; S. axpera. Ait. ; Senecio pauperculvt, Michx.; 
Arlemitia Canadensis, Micbx. ; Lobelia Kalmii, Linn.; Erio- 
caulon pellacidum, Michx. ; Calla paliulrii, Linn. ; Salix car- 
data, Michx. ; /fcx Canadentii, Michx. ; Viti* riparia, Michx. 

Of the Ftfis JDst named, Michaux has in his Herbarium the 
following notes : " Called beach-vine {vigne des hatlurei) by the 
French voyageurs on the Ohio and Mississippi, because it grows 
upon the rocks and sands which are exposed to the annual floods, 

This species is never found to the east of the All^hany 

Mountains." 

• Flora Boreal i-Amerlcao a, in laco vel jujtta lacum S. Joannit, vol. i, 
fol. 340, Tot. ii, fol. 305, 220, 225. 

t Prof. Asa Gray had for some time aappoied the ^ilragatui itcundtu 
of Uichanx to be (he Pkaca atlra^alirta, D. C, (^itragalui atpititis, 
Linn.,) when in 1861, I re-discorered the planl at Lake St. John, where 
Uichaoi bad Grat Toand it, aad gent BpecimeDS of [t to Prof Ora;, which 
fullj confirmed bU optnioa Ibal it ia bat aoolher form of .4. alpinvr, 
Linn. But whence this diSereace of form T L»st year, at tbe Uland of 
Orleans, where this speciea is abundaat, I found the two Tarietica in tbe 
same localitj; and I was able to observe that when it grows on exposed 
rocks tbe pUnt baa tbe ordiaary fonn ol Phaca aiiragalina ; while on Iha 
contrary, (rhen sheltered by a growth of taller plaala, it asBumas the 
Blender and elongated form of tbe plant of Uicbanx. 



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332 THE OANADIAM NATtT&ALIST. [Oot. 

Among the rivers which fiJl into Lake St. Joha is the Mistasuni, 
called alao R. dea Sahlea, from the great qaantitj of sand which it 
brings down. Bj this river, which has a length of abont 150 
miles, the Indians known bj the name of MistoBsins, and living 
around the great lake of that name, were accustomed to descend 
at Pointe Bleue, the most northern trading-post in this region, 
where they sold their furs. They still come down every year in 
the month of June for the purpose of trude, and also to meet the 
missionary who pays them an annual visit. It was by this river 
that MichaDZ proposed to pass to Hudson's Bay. Leaving the 
post at Pointe Bleue on the 21st August, he reached in a few hours 
the river Mist^ssini. The waters were shallow, and for five or six 
leagues flowed through banks of moving sands, which were some- 
times more than half a league long. The lands on either Bide 
were low and fertile, no mountains were visible, and the trees were 
chiefly elms, ashes, and pines, of a good growth.* At the end of 
about eighteen leagues Miohauz arrived at a beautiful waterfall 
about eighty feet in height, and on the evening of the 22nd August 
encamped on the borders of the basin below. 

This point which was known as Larges Kapides, Michauz 
observed as the northern limit of PotentiUa tridentata, while 
daahkeria procumheitff disappeared ten leagues above Lake 
St. John, although Hooker, in his FUira Borealt- Americana, has 
indicated Qaebec as its northern limit. 

The 23rd being a day of rain, Michauz remained in camp ; but 
the three following days he continued the ascent of the river, 
which became narrower, and so rapid that the canoes could only 
be propelled by means of poles. At length he reached the portage 
called Mmte-i-peine, where he was obliged to make a difficult and 
even dangerous ascent of a hill eight or nine hundred feet in 
height. From the summit he looked down into an immense 
valley, traversed by green hills which resembled great waves in an 
ocean of verdure. A single small river alone broke the monotony 
of this landscape ; to it the travellers directed their steps, and soon 
reached a stream which was only abont eighteen feet wide. During 

• Flora, in Canada sd amoem Uislatiitii, vol. i, fol. 31, 61, 110. 

t Some botanists hare ventured to change tlic natne of this plant to 
Gaatiera; but the trae ortbographj of the name of lis discoverer is Gaa- 
tbier, as appears from the reKiatera of Xotre Dame de Quebec (Register 
of Aug. S6, 1751). It would besides be undesirable to change a name 
consecrated lilie tbis b; loug Mtt. 



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1864-3 MIOHADX AND HIS JOUEHBT IN CANADA. 333 

the portage the folloniag plants were met with ; Vaccinium cces- 
pitosum, Michx. ; Epigcea repena, Linn. ; Arbutui Jlvaurn, 
Linn.; Lycopodium inwidatum, Linn.; L.Selagitwidcs,lA\an.-j 
Sotrypxa lunaroiilesj Michx. 

The little riveron which they now embarked was generally deep 
«nongh for their canoes, but the navigation was often interrupted 
by the dama constructed by the beavera, whose cabins were seen 
on the ahores. This stream led them to Swan Lake (Lao des 
Oygnes), which they reached in the afternoon of the 29th Angnst. 
This picturesque little lake, which is about forty-five leagueti from 
Lake 8t. John, is very irregular in form, in some parts having a 
breadth of two leagues, and at others being very narrow. The 
shores are generally low, with occasional hills covered by stunted 
trees. Around the shores of this lake Michaux found the following 
plants : Avena striata, Michx. ; Anindo Canadmiu, Michx, ; 
.SytosteumTit^foium, Miohx.; Jancuimelanocarput, Michs. ; Vacei- 
nittm VilU-Idtea, Linn. ; Epigma repent, Linn. ; Epilohium 
oliganthum, Michi. ; PotentUla/ruticota, hinn.; A»ter uniflurui, 
Micbx. ; Carex lenticalaris, Wicti^. ; Jiies 6o?sann/eTo, Michi. ; 
A. denliculala, Micbx. ; Betula glanduhta, Michx. 

He remarks that Avena striata is the only gramineous plant 
observed by him in this vicinity, and also that Swan Lake appears 
to he the most northern limit of Vaccinium Vitit-Ideea. 

Lake Mistassini is about 100 leagaes from Lake St. John, and 
Michaux had already traversed about half the distance, but the 
most difBcult part remained. He had to cross a dismal wilderness, 
where the v^tation consists only of a small number of stunted 
and depauperated species. " The trees which predominate in the 
forests, a few degrees to the southward, have here almost entirely 
disappeared, from the severity of the winters and the sterihty of 
the soil. All this region is traversed by thousands of lakes, and 
-covered with enormous rocks piled upon one another, and generally 
covered with huge black lichens, which add to the gloomy aspect 
of this desert and almost uninhabitable country. Between these 
rocks are seen here and there some specimens of a stunted pine 
(Pinus rupettrU), which at the height of three feet is seen 
bearing fruit, and having all the marks of decrepid old age. 
One hundred and fifty miles to the southward this pine attains a 
height of eight or ten feet, and jiresents a much more vigorous 
growth."* 



■ Michaui fila, Atbrea ForesUers, vol. i, pag« i' 



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334 THE OANADIAM KATUBALIST. [Oct. 

Of this r^ion, between Swan Lake and Lake MiBtassini, 
Micbaux remarks in his journal, that it evidentl; occupies the 
height of land, ^nce the waters of the latter lake fall northward 
into Hudson's Bay, while those of Swan Lake through the 
river Mistassini reieh Lake St. John and the St. Lawrence. We 
cannot give a better notion of the climate and v^etation of this 
elevated and semi-arctic region, than b; the following extracts 
from the manuscript journal of Michaax : 

" August 30th. We have passed through three lakes, which lie 
among low hills, and are connected by short streams. The whole 
of this r^on is cat up into mountains and bills; the low places 
between which are filled with water, forming innumerable lakeB, 
which for the most part have no names among the Indians who 
hunt in this country. Wide intervals are often covered with 
Sphagttum, in which the traveller sinks to his knees, and which 
even in the dry weather is always saturated with water. In the- 
conrse of the day we have made three portages, and have travelled 
three or four le^ues only, on account of the difficulty of crossing 
these marshes. 

" These marshes abound in Kalmia glauca, Andromeda poll/- 
folia, Sarracenia purpurea, and Vaccinium Oxj/coccm. In the 
drier parts are Andromeda calyculata, Ledum pahittre, Kalmia 
attgusli/olia, Epigma repem, and Pinus rubra. AHe» bahami/era, 
may be said to cease at Swan Lake r I saw only three specimen* 
of it to day in the form of little shrubs. All the plants here seem 
like decrepid pigmies on account of the sterility and the severity 
of the cold. 

" August 31st, We paddled for an hour ; and then came to » 
portage . The cold was excessive, the sky cloudy for the last two 
days, and the rain like melted snow. When we stopped for 
breakfast, the cold took away our appetites, and the Indians, who 
were drenched with water, trembled with cold. 

" September let. The rain prevented our travelling, and one of 
our Indians was sick. In the afternoon the weather was clearer, 
and ne went on notwithstanding Ibe rain. All night we had rain 
with thunder and lightning. We made six leagues, passing 
throngh a lake and along streams scarcely wider than a canoe. 

" September 2nd. Sunday. The weather was very thick in the 
morning, and a balf-melted snow fell ; the cold became less severe, 
but we had a portage of three quarters of a league across a marsh. 
De^ite showers of hail, which lasted all day, we kept on, for the 



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1864.] MIOHAUZ AND HIS JOtTRNEr IN CANADA. 33& 

Indians, like myself, were most ansioua to reaob Lake MiBtaseini 
before the aoow and cold should aogmeDt, We crossed three lakesr 
&nd travelled about tea let^ea. 

" September 3rd. Ice formed about a tine in thickness. After 
midnight a white frost was seen on tbe vegetation aroond onr 
camp, and there was promise of a fioe day ; bat about seven in 
the morning the air became thick, and we had alternations ot 
snow, rain, hail, and sunshine, * * * At eleveno'olock we 
reached a great river flowing northward, and with a favoring 
onrrent we made eighteen or twenty leagues today. The &Dil 
appeared to grow better. 

" September 4th. We were obliged to make three portages, on ■ 
account of rocky rapids, and at a quarter past ten reached Lake 



The following plants, in addition to these already mentioned, 
were met with in crossing the height of land : ScirpJti erw- 
phonan, Michx. ; Cinna arundinacea, Linn.; Avina striata, 
Miohx ; Symphoricarpot racemosui, Micbs. ; Gentiana pneu- 
monanlhe, Linn.; Juncu$ mdanocarpus, Michs.; Triglochin 
maritiftmm, Linn.; Aluma plantago, Linn, ; VacciniuTrt 
O3ycoccu$, Michx.; F, caspitotum, Michx.; V. myrtilloide*, 
Michx. ( V. Pennsylvanicum, Lam.) ; Mentha horcalit, Michx. ; 
fimiJ inopg f Ait. ; Lycopodium SelagiTwides, Linn. 

Of the great Mistassin Lake but little is known ; the sketch of it 
given in the accompanying map represents its size and shape as far 
as can be gathered from the misuonaries and Indian traders. 
Bapert's River, by which it empties into James's Bay, is described 
aa being from fifty to sixty leagues in length, and latter than the 
Saguenay. Its name, and that of the natives of its shores, is 
derived from the Indian word nii<(OMini, by which they designate 
a huge rock which hangs over the lake near its outlet, and is 
regarded as the abode of a Manitou or Great Spirit, who is an object 
of religions worship. When crossing the lake they are said to- 
keep their eyes turned away from this rock lest he in bis ire 
should excite a tempest. Near tbe lake, on a smalt river which flows 
into it, is said to be a rude cavern in marble, which the Indians 
call the house of the Great Spirit. The notes of Michaux add 
but little to our knowledge of this lake. He tells us, however, that 
the shores are low, and the hills remote, and adds that " the wa- 
ters of the lake are discbai^ed by rivers to the north and northwest, 
vhieh fall into Hudson's Bay, the journey to which, from the 



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NATURALIST. [Oot. 

lake requires, according to the iDdiane, foar days, although, oa 
iLCCoant of the rapids, it requires ten days to return." 

Michaux reached Lake Mistassini on the 4th of September, aad, 
after paddling along it for ten or twelve leagues, encamped on a 
long peninsula on the west side of the lake. The next momiog 
he hegan to collect plants, of which he gives the following namea, 
■exclusive of those mentioned in his Flora as occarriog in this 

Lycopm Virginia^, Linn. ; Scirput tylvaiiaa, Linn, j S. 
'eriopkorum, Michx. ; Pkalarie arundinaeea, Linn. ; Corruu 
Canad^ntii, Linn.; C. sloloni/era, Michx. ; Pota'moge(on perfo- 
■iiatum, Linn.; LinncBa borealii, Qronov.; Ulmusfuha, Michx.; 
Strfpti^mt distortut, Jilichx-f ConvaMaria »tdlata, Linn.; 7Wj- 
hchin maritimum, Linn. ; EpilobiumangutitfoKmn, LiDn. ; Vac- 
<inium oxycoecus, Linn, ; V. higpidulum, Linn. ; T. ttliffinomm, 
Linn.; Pyrola secimda, Linn.; Hpigaearepetu, Linn.; Spergtdat- 
irum lanceolatum, Michx. ; Cerasia borealit, Michx. ; Sorbas a«- 
■cuparia,ljiiin., <^I'i/ru8 Americana,!). C); Geum rivale, Lina. • 
Potenfilla/ruticosa, Linn. ; Euhut oeddentalis, Linn. ; R. arcti- 
■cus, Linn. ; Prunella vulgarU, Linn. ; Rhinanihus CrUta-gaUi, 
Linn. ; SUyrinchium Bermudiana, Linn. ; Geranivm Caroli- 
nianum, Linn, ; Bartsia pallida, Linn. ; Sedt/garvtn alpinum, 
Miohi. ; ffieracium acabrum, Michx. ; H. Ganadense, Michx. ; 
Aiter macrophijllut, Linn. ; Solidago atpera. Ait. ; SeiKcio, 
■aureut, Linn. ; Lobelia Dortmanna,'^ Linn. ; Carezftaoa, Linn. ; 
Betulapapyrifera, Miohx. ; Sparganium angutti/olium, Michx, ; 
Abies alba, Miohx. ; A. balsami/era, Miohx. ; A. dealiculata, 
Michx. ; PiTiui inops f J Ait. ; Salix incana, Miohx ; Acer monta- 
■num, Ait. ; OsTnunda riyalia, Linn, 

Having made his eoUectJons, and reached the other side of the 
'lake, Michaux proceeded on his jonmey ; chostng for this purpose, 
Among the discharges of the lake, a large and fine river falling into 
Hudson's Bay, and known as the BiviSre des QoSlands (Gull 

* Flora Boreali-Americana, ad aiDum ffuitoniiet juitalacuE,Jl(i(famni, 
■vol. i, fol. G, II, 14, 61, 64, 111, 134, 191, 323; tqI. ii, fol. 3, 115, 121, 
t23, 153, 154, ITl, 172, 173, lT5, 180, 383. 

t Ttie Lobelia Dorlnianna is a rare apeciee in Canada : I have aa jet 
foand it in bat two localities. Lake Eenogami and Lake St, Joachim. 

X The Pimin inop$ here mentioned is the P. Sanktiana, Lamb., P. 
ruptitrit, Uichi. Git,, alread; mentioned on page 333. It mt,y be here 
remarked, however, that it attains In gome looalitles a height of thirlj 
(feet. 



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1864] BEHINI80ENOES OF AMHERST OOLLEOB. 337 

River), whicb is very probably that designated id the maps as 
Rupert's River. He followed this for some distance, and camped 
on the night of September &th, near the Atchoukae or Seal River. 
The next day a cold fog was Baooeeded by rain and sdow, and 
compelled him to slop. The Indians, fearing the rigors of the season, 
refused to go further, assnring him that if the snow continued it 
would be impossible for them to return. It was therefore decided 
that they should immediately retrace their way to Lake Mistassini, 
where they arrived that night. Along the hanks of the Gull 
River the following plants were collected: — X\/lo»teum villotam, 
Michz. ; Primula Mittaetinica, Miobz. ; Ledum latifoUam, 
Ait.; Ruhu» Chamamorue, Linn.; AeUr v^dflorat, Michz.; 
Car^ Richardi, Thuill. ; Betula nana, Linn. ; MynophyUum 
gpicalum, Linn. ; Salix incana, Michz. ; Mffrica Gak, Linn. ; 
Lycopodiwm amiotinvan, Linn. 

Michaux left. Lake Mistassini on the ?th of September. His 
journey back, although difficult, was rapid ; and from the height of 
land the descending currents of the rivers, now swollen, enabled 
the travellers to pass down in their oanoes over most of the rapids 
where they had made portages in ascending. On the 9th of Septem- 
ber be passed Swan Lake and camped at Monte-&-Peine, and OD 
the 10th reached the river Mistassini, and camped at night "four 
leagues below the Larges Rapides, near the first Weymouth pines 
(Pi'niM strobui) which we met on our way downwards." On the 
12th, Michaux reached Lake St. John, and two days later left for 
Quebeoj from which he returned, by way of Montreal and Lake 
Champlain, to Philadelphia, where he arrived on the 8th of 
December, 1792. 



" REMINISCENCK9 OF AMHERST COLLEGE." 
Bt Bdwibd HiTCHOOOB, D.D., LL.D.* 

Tbis is a book which should be read by all our young natural- 
ists, and by all connected with onr collies and schools. It shows 
what can be done for natural Bcienoe, edncatioD, and Christianity 
by the earnest labors of a self-denyiug mao, even under the dis- 
advantages of poverty, want of educational privileges, and bodily 
weakness ; and is full of suggestive hints as to the best means of 
overcoming the difficulties which beeet the pursuit of soienoe and 
education in this country. 

* NocChamptoD, Uoss., U. S. : Published by Bridgman A Ohildi, 1883. 



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338 THE CANADIAN NATBRALI8T. [Oct. 

Its interest as a Darrative &nd as a study of human natore ia 
also great. Mixed with some purdonable egotisms, it briaga 
before us a vivid picture of the genuine old New England puritan 
character, in its energy, its stubborn endurance, its rigid honesty 
and integrity, ita horror of debt and dependence, and its quiet 
enthusiasm, — qualities which, it is to be feared, hare somewhat 
died ont in more recent times, and which certainly require cnl- 
ture among the young men of Canada. 

We purpose, in the present notice, to give a few estracta illus- 
trative of the early life and character of Dr. Hitchcock, and of his 
efforts in behalf of natural hbtory, and especially of the museum 
of Amherst College. 

The following extracts refer to the dlfEculties of his early life : 

" One of these cireumetancea was the comparative poverty of 
my early condition. It was not absolute poverty, for my father 
moved among the most respectable of the people of Deerfield, where 
I was bom, and was honored among them especially by being 
chosen deacon of the Orthodox church, of which he was long one of 
the strongest pillars. But he had to struf^le hard with a trade 
not very lucrative, to feed, clothe, and educate a lai^e family. 
He had commenced his family career during the Revolutionary 
War, in which he had been twice engaged as a soldier, as was his 
father, who fell a sacrifice to the diseases of the camp. The dehta 
which he contracted when Continental Notes were almost the only 
money, bung like an incubus npon him nearly all his life, and he 
was relieved only when his sons were old enough to aid him. Bnt 
he was highly intellectual in his habits, and studied theology 
especially, with much success." [Towards the close of his life, as bat 
few sympathized with him in his religious views, the church with 
which he was connected having passed into other hands, he com- 
mitted many of his thoughts towriting, and some of the essays and 
sermons which be left " would do no discredit to educated 
«lei^men."3 

" 1; cannot be doubted that auoh a father would do all he could 
for the education of his children. We were first carried thoroughly 
through the primary school, and then had the advantages of a 
good academy, as much as we could find time and means to 
improve. But he could go no farther with eay of us — be had 
three sons. And nothing vaa before me but a life of manual 
labor. But as I had a great aversion to being apprenticed to a 
tradesman, he did not attempt even to t«ach me hia own trade. 



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1864.] BEMINISOENOEB OP AMHERST COLLEGE. 339 

that of a batter. FarmiDg was the only reBort, and I worked on 
the form — not on my fother's, for he had none — but on Jand hired 
by mj brother — I know not how many years. I liked the employ- 
ment; but,ae I shall state more particularly in afew momenta, I had 
acquired a strong relish for ecientific pursoita, and I seized upon 
«Tery moment I conid secure — especially rainy days and evenings — 
for those studies. I was treated very leniently by my father and 
brother, who probably did not know what to do with me, but saw 
plainly that I should not become distinguished as a farmer. My 
literary taste was also greatly encouraged by a few companions in 
Seerfield with whom I united in a society, whose weekly meetings 
we kept up for years, which had a department for debate, and 
another for philosophical discneeion. I always regarded this as 
one of the most important means of mental discipline that I ever 
«n joyed. 

"But perhaps the mostimportantlesson taught me by my strait- 
ened circnmatancee was habits of rigid economy. I learnt that 
these were more important than a lai^e income. I learnt the value 
of money, and that the use of it is one of those talents for tvhicb 
■we must give an account. It has made me ever since opposed to 
any useless expenditure of money in clothing, food, furniture, ser- 
Tants, equipage, jouroeyings, &o. I have been opposed to large 
salaries ; and am confident, that, if the truth were known, our 
public institutions, literary, political, and religious, have the greatest 
real prosperity when their officers' salaries are low ; for the 
temptattOQ to extravagance with an increase of means is well nigh 
irresistible. I have always felt it to be an imperious duty for the 
officers of a literary institution, which contains indigent young 
men, to set an example in plainness In dress, equipage, and living, 
that they might be encouraged. In respect to books, apparatuF, 
and specimens, and even objects to improve the taste, such as 
paintings, statuary, and articles of vertu, I would counsel as large 
an expenditure as possible, for that is true economy j and to get 
large sums for these and benevolent objects is the great purpose of 
economy in personal expenses. But I have ever found men more 
ready to call your economy parslmoniousness, than to inquire into 
the liberality of your benefactions for worthy objects. 

"For the formation of a taste for science I wasdoubttess indebted 
to my uncle, Major-General Epaphras Hoyt, of Deerfield, a near 
neighbor. He gave the most attention to military science, on 
which he published some valuable works, and to which I devoted 



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340 THE OAKAItlAN NATURALIST, [Oct. 

myself with coDBiderable ioterest, especially to fortification, wbeo 
fVom fifteen to eighteen years of age. But he was also deeply- 
iDterested Id astronomy and natural philosophy, and these branches 
became my favorites. The great comet of 1811, and aocess to 
some good instruments for observing it, belonging to Deerfield 
Academy, gave me a decided bias for astronomy. From the 7tb 
of September, 1811, to the 17th of December, corresponding to 
the appearance and disappearance of the comet, I was engaged in 
making observations, not only on the comet's distances from stars^ 
but on the latitute and longitude by lunar distances and eclipses- 
of the sun and moon, and on the variation of the magnetic needle. 
I gave myself to this labor so assiduously that my health failed, 
and I well remember that when my physician was consulted he 
said, ' I see what your difficulty is : you have got the comet's tail 
in your stomach.' To reduce my numerous observations cost me 
several more montba of study, so imperfect were the means of cal- 
culation in my hands. Yet I have sometimes thought, when 
looking over my record of these observations and the reuults, that 
they might almost he worth publication, although much inferior 
to similar works in the observatories of the present day. Indeed, 
General Hoyt, under whose direction I labored, and who often 
aided me in observations, communicated some of them to tho 
American Academy of Arte and Sciences, and they were published 
by that society. But I experienced great benefit from the work, 
in the mental discipline it required, and I acquired a strong love 
for theoretical and practical astronomy. I became, in fact, sucb 
an enthusiast in this respect, that I could cheerfully forego every 
ordinary source of pleasure sought after by young men, in order 
to gratify this scientific passion. 

" But I was destined to a sad disappointment in this, my first 
Bcientifio love. I had for a considerable time been engaged in the 
study of Latin and Qreek, in the hope of entering the University 
at Cambridge in advanced standing, and using my eyes upon 
Greek during an attack of the mumps, a sudden weakness of the 
eyes came on which compelled mo to suspend nearly all study and 
to change tbo whole course of my life, abandoning a college couiso 
as impracticable, and, for a time, nearly all hope of pursuing science 
or literature as a profession. I have uow struggled with this 
affliction fifty years j and though for some time past, through the 
kindneaa of Providenoe, it has been much mitigated, it has seemed to 
be a very serious obstacle to my literary puTsaits, and it certainly 



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1864.] BEUINIB0CN0I8 OF AUHIBST GOLLEQE. 341 

bas produced much BoffertDg. I am not eura, honever, but it has 
been a merciful check npou nj disposition tc over-nork, and 
therebj boa tended to lengtben out luy life and ability to labor. 
If so, how thankful I ought t« be for it I 

" But Providenoe had better things in store for me in a variety 
of respeota, to whiah this trying failure of my eyes and blasting of 
my plana and hopes would introduce me. To aay nothing of 
spiritual blessings, new fields of science were thus to be opened to 
me, where woniters yet more attractive awaited me. My eyes 
feiled in the spring of 1814, and for two years darkness that might 
be felt rested upoa my prospects. Still loould not give up study, 
and tried all maoner of ways to make some progress. In 1816, 
the Trustees of DeerGeld Academy ventured to commit that Insti- 
tution to luy care ; where for three years I labored intensely to 
miUDtain myself, in spit« of a defective education, weak eyes, and 
poor health. It was at this time that I oommenoed study for the 
Christian ministry, having been led by my trials to feel the infinite 
importance of eternal things, and the duty of consecrating myself 
to the promotion of God's glory and man's highest good. There, 
too, at first, chiefly as a means of promoting health, my attention 
was turned to Natural History. About that time Professor AmoB 
Eaton had been lecturing ut Amherst, and we became acquainted 
with him, and I always r^arded him as the chief agent of intro* 
dncing a t^te for these subjeote in the Connecticut Valley. Dr. 
Stephen W. Williams, Dr. Dennis Cooley, and myself, all of Deer 
field, took hold of mineralogy and botany with great zenl. Dr. 
Gooley and myself collected nearly aU the plants, pheDOgamous and 
oiyptogamoos, in the Valley. Dr. Cooley became an excellent 
botanist; and even to a recent date, when he died in Michigan, 
had purauad the subjoot with zest. Dr. Williams afterwards 
became Professor of Medical Jurisprudence in the Berkshire 
Medical School. 

" I ought also to state a few facts which formed a part of my 
education, and which served to diminish the evils of a self-tanght 
oonrse. I have already referred to the benefits which I derived 
from being for many years aleading member of a debating society. 
I there had an opportunity So practice oitempore speaking and 
oompoiition, and to aoquire facility in philosophical reasoning, prob- 
ably to a ten times greater extant than does a student in coUc^. 
It was also an admirable discipline I was compelled to go through 
vhen called to instruct in die academy in Deerfield. As thera 

Vol. I. X Ho. S. 

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342 THE OAKADUN NATURALIST. [Oct. 

were always in the sohool a uamber who were Sttjog for collie, I 
foand a thorough review of a large part of my olaasioal studiee 
indiepensable — not ODce merely, but over and over again, so that 
the details have remained in my mind even to the present time) 
and the same is true of the many other stadles one is called to 
teach in an academy. It waa a mnch more severe discipline than 
if I had been throagh college drilliDg ; and I would advise do 
young man to venture upon it unless driven to it, as I was, by 
dire necessity. 

" The academy owned a very good philosophical apparatus, and I 
prepared a Dumber of lectures on aatural philosophy, which wei« 
delivered with eiperimcnts before the school, and in the evening 
before the citizens of the village. This was my first attempt at 
lecturing. 

" Bntmybestmental discipline was connected with the nse oft]ie 
astronomical instrnments of the academy. In another place I have 
described the observations which I made on the comet of 1811, as 
well as on other heavenly bodies. The subsequent winterwas in a 
good measure devoted to a reduction of those observations ; and as 
I had access to only a few books, I was obliged to calculate by 
spherical trigonometiy many elements which at this day are 
found in the tables of practical astronomy. The mere effort to 
form an accurate idea of the numerous spherical triangles I had to 
construct out of the imaginary circles of the celestial sphere, 
was an admirable discipline, and their accurate solution not 

Much more might be usefully said on this subject ; but we turn 
to his experiences as Professor aud President at Amherst Coll^. 

"When I joined the College in tho wiuterof 1826, there was no 
laboratory, no philosopbioal cabinet, no natural history cabinet, 
and no chapel. Two dormitory balldlags had been erected, and 
in the fourth story of the most northerly of these (the present 
North College South £ntry) two rooms were thrown tt^ther, a 
jdatform built od which was placed a small tab-like pulpit, which 
oonld be moved off to allow the Professor of Natural Philosophy 
to leotnre one part of the day, and the Professor of Chemistry the 
other part, taking care to finish before evening prayers. 

" On the catalogues for 1825 and 1826 my title appears as Pro- 
fessor of Natural History and Chemistry. The order of these 
subjects was changed on the aubsequeat catalogues, and continued 
time till IdiS. For nearly twenty yeate I hut entire charge of 



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1864.] BEUINI80BH0ES OF AUEEBST GOLLEOE. 343 

these two wide fields, except that in 1843 Mr. Sheppard was 
appointed Lecturer of Agricaltural Chemiatiy and Mioeralf^. 
Bnt it should be recollected that these branches, especially natural 
history, thirty years ago were but little thought of in thiscountry, 
and were in fact in eoQiparative iofanoy. And besides, we had 
then nest tu no collections, and a leading object before me vras 
to provide them. Indeed, I may state it as a general fact, that 
in all the subjects in which I have given instmction in Amherst 
College, I hare been obliged to provide the apparatus, models, and 
epecimens, sometimes with, but more often withont, funds, except 
my private resources. Nevertheless, my first oonraes of lectures 
and recitations were nearly as extensive as they have been since. 
They averaged nearly four exercises per week, or about one hun- 
dred and fifty in the year. In partioular branches, as new instruo- 
tors have been appointed, more time has been given. For instance, 
when Professor Adams took the department of zoology he was 
allowed from thirty to fi^rty recitations and lectures, as was also 
Professor Clark, though, for what reason I know not, they have 
since been reduced to ten lectures, which is equivalent to five reci- 
tations; for it is common now to put lectures in different depart- 
ments side by side, so that two shall be eqnal to one recitation — 
that is a half day. Even in its infant days, I never gave less than 
twenty or thirty lectures on zo6]ogj — say ten to fifteen on mam- 
malogy, omithol(^, herpetology, and ichlhyolc^, and ten to fifteen 
on conchology and the other branches of invertebrate zoSlogy ; also 
ten to fifteen on botany. At this day, all those important discus- 
siona respecting the distribution of specie, their metamorphoses, 
and the unity of the human species, must require several more 
lectures, or it is impossible to teach graduates how to defend 
religion against the assaults of sceptics. 

" The title of Professor of Chemistry and Natural History, which 
I had for twenty years, conveys but an imperfect idea of what I 
attempted to teach, or rather of the grand object I had in view. 
That object waste illustrate, by the Bcientificfaeta which I taught, 
the principles of natural theology. This I stated at the com- 
mencement of my course, and on other proper occasions. At 
length when I became President, I took natural theology as the 
leading titJe of my professorship. And really the instruction 
^ven in the natural sciences in college is scarcely more— often 
lees — than is neoesBary to understand their religious bearing. But 
this is their most important uBe, as it is of all knowledge, and this 



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344 THB OASADIAM NATDRALISX. [OcL 

thought I made the basis of my iQaagurol AddresB, when inducted 
into the Presidency. I had endeavored to act on this prinoi[Je 
in all my teaching ; but now I pat It into the form of a profesaor- 
ahip, and a richer or nobler field I do not know in the whole circle 
of science. I called it a Professorship of Natural Theology and 
Geology, adding this latter science because I have been in the 
habit of going more into detail concerning it, and because no 
science equals this in its religious applications. 

" It was a deep conviction of the importance of such a professor- 
ship that led me to seek its endowment. The manner in which 
it was secured has already been referred to. Mr. Witliston bad 
just agreed to endow a professgrsbip, which was finally called the 
Graves ProfeaaoTship, in honor of Mrs. Williston's maiden name, 
and be offered to give half enough to endow another, if some gen- 
tleman could be found to take the other half, and proferhis name 
to the whole. I immediately communicated with Samuel A. 
Hitchcock, of Brimfield, and I merely stated the case and told 
him that as he waa childless, I wanted that be should make the Pro- 
fessorship of Natural Theology and Geology his heir, and that so 
long as I was oonneoled with the College, I would fill the chair, 
and thus make it a HItohcook q/^ut'r all round. The oonoeit struck 
Hm favorably, and by return mail the proposal was accepted. Sub- 
sequently, through fear that some of hia securities might fall below 
par, he added two thousand dollars more, making the whole endow- 
ment twenty-two thousand dollars, which is the largest among the 
profestiorsbips, and the income is almost sufficient to sustain two 
professors." 

The perplexities in the management of a New England Col- 
1^ are amusingly sketched as follows ; 

"There are threebodiesof men officially connected with Coll(^, 
at whose meetings the President is expected to preside, and for 
which his duty is to prepare business. The first is the Trusteee, 
vboae meetings, in ordinary times, are only once a year. The 
second is the Pmdential Committee, who look aAer pecuniary 
affiiirs, and almost anything, in fact, needed to be done in tbe 
absence of the Trustees. These hold their meetings r^ularly aa 
often aa once a mouth, and frequently much oftener. The third 
is the Faculty, who hold a weekly meeting for attending to the 
discipline and government of the College, considering petitions, 
and seeing to it that everything is in place and order. Here 
everything that makes friction or is out of gear, among officers or 



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1864.] OXHINiaOKHOBS OF AHHXRST OOLLEOE. 346 

stndeots, is developed ; and though men who have a kDDCk of 
throwing off personal respoanbilit; and shirking their duties oaa 
go through Bach meetlDgs lightly, and even jocosely, tiiey often 
weigh heavily upon the President, who is personally responsible 
for the proper adjustment and man^ement of the whole nrochine. 
Consequently these Faculty meetings, held, as they usually are, 
in the evening, and aometimes protracted to a late hour, are 
among the moat trying of a President's duties. They often wore 
very much npou me, especially when followed, as they sometimes 
were, by the admonition, dismissal, or expulsion of delinquents. 
In almost every such case, the public sentiment and sympathy in 
Goll^ wonld be with the offender, however gross his crimes. 
The same wonld generally be the case with friends at home, and 
with the communitj' at large. A coll^ Faculty are looked upon 
by many as an aristocratic, arbitrary, and tyrannical set, whom 
every humane man is bound to oppose ; and multitudes who never 
saw even the outside of a college, feel fully competent to sit in 
judgment upon their acta and to denounce them. It is this out- 
side sympathy with those who arc under discipline that does more 
than anything else to sustain them in their misdeeds, and to 
encourage the rebellions that are the frequent consequence of coll^ 
discipline; and it is the necessity of thus going against the popular 
will, and of enoountering reactions as the consequence that may 
rend the college in pieces, that is more trying to a President than 
all his literary labors. Even in a Christian coUt^, where is often 
a sprinkling of some of the most difficult elements to control, he is 
not anfhsquently made to feel that he sits upon a volcano, which, 
though now quiet, may at any moment become active. 

"My epistolary correspondence in the Presidency was peculiarly 
onerous. I had previously been so much of a jack at all trade* 
that I had laid myself open to enquiries and assaults trom a" 
classes. The same mail (and I hardly essggerate the literal fact) 
might bring inquiries about some point in the theory of temperance 
— how to empby garnet in making sand-paper— Jiow to reconcile 
the imputation of Adam's md with onr sense of justice — where to 
find the best beds of sulphate of baryta — whether I would like to 
exchange or buy shells, minerals, and fossils — how cheaply an indi- 
gent young man oan go through the collie, and with what helps 
— whether I knew of any one who would muka a good teacher of a 
common school or of an academy, or a professor in a coll^, or any 
ono to supply a pulpit — what I thought of a new theory of drift, or 



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346 THV OANADUM MATtTOALlST. [Oot. 

of latoot beat— or new views of the rel&tionB of geology to Moses 
—or a new poem— or a new work — all of whioh were sent, and an 
answer requested, if possible, by return mail. During my Prem- 
dency I oaloulated tbat I was obliged to answer as many as foor 
hundred or fi^e bundred letters annnally, and to these should be 
added at least one bundred reoommendations to students going 
out to teaob school, and for other purposes, and to graduates." 

Along with this we may place the practioal difficulties of the 
Professor of Chemistry : 

" I bave already given some idea of the state of preparation in 
the College for obemicol experiments when I joined it. Not only 
vras I obliged to lecture in the fourth story and in a sort ofohapel, 
but there were no instrumenta or iagrediente worth uBming pro- 
vided by those wbo preceded me. For four gentlemen bad lectured 
on tbat subject before me, viz.. Col. Rufus Graves, Professor 
Olds, Professor Amos Eaton, and a Mr. Cotting, who was after- 
wards appointed State Geologist in Georgia. 

" I most have given at least two fourth-story courses of lectures. 
But when the ohapel building was erected in 1826, an opportunity 
was presented for fitting up a laboratory. Tbo basement story 
at the east end was mostly above ground, with cellar rooms adjoin- 
ing. I had ample space for a large lecture-room, apparatus-room, 
and office, and means enough were furnished for supplying eco- 
nomically furnaces, oisterns, gasometers, and apparatus. Tbe only 
difficulty was that the room was beueatb all tbe otbers, and par- 
tially under ground. But at that time the idea generally was tbat 
such was the proper place for a laboratory. Because the chemist 
eliminates many mepbitio gases, therefore place him where he 
cannot get them out of hia room; or if they do escape through 
the ceiling, they will let all in the rooms above him get a whiff of 
the atmosphere which he is obliged to breathe in concentrated 
purity. Nevertheless, I spent at least a third of my time for 
eighteen years in that laboratory, and found it in moat respeota 
very convenient. I do not doubt tbat its dampness and tbe 
unwholesome gases which I got rid of only by opening the doors 
and windows, have oontributcd to bring on and aggravate those 
pulmonary and bronchial difficulties that now press so heavily 
upon me, and will soon t«rmiDal« my days. But probably aperson 
in good health need not fear active employment in such rooms. I 
have found analytical chemistry to be more trying in such a place 
than the mere preparation for lectures, because the former requires 
such long-continued attention." 



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1864.] KEHIMIS0EN0E8 Of AHHEEBT OOLLXOS. 347 

We reserre oar remaiciiDg spaoe for extraots from the remark- 
able history of Dr. Hitohoook'e mnaeum ; the whole of vhich is 
well worthy of being read : 

"When loame here, in 1826, a Natural History Society existed 
among the students, which had b^;un to bring together specimena 
chiefly in mineralogy, geology, and mammalogy ; bat they were too 
few to be employed in lecturing. I therefore took up the bufiinesa 
of collecting. I had, however, in previons years, obtained a few 
hundred specimens, mostly in minerali^y and geolc^, and the 
Trustees in 1826 " voted that Professor Hitchcock be requested 
to deposit his private geological cabinet in the Cabinet of the 
College." Previous to this time, I beheve, the Natural History 
Society had presented tite whole or part of their collections ; so 
that, so far as numbers were concerned, oar cases looked quite 
respectable. But to one acquainted with natural history, probably 
the laiger part would come under the ironioal title of JactaUtet ; 
Hat b, specimens to be thrown away. However they did a very 
good Bervioe so long as no bettor collections were near. And it is 
a fact that some of the ablest naturalists fho graduated here (ex. 
qr. Shepard and Adams), started in these daysof meagre scientiGo 
illustration. Their fewness led such men to study what we had 
with more attention, end that awakened the desire to see and 
possess more ; and in these two facts, conjoined with good native 
talent and schobrship, you have tiie elements of able naturalists. 

"In 1830 1 was appointed to make a geological survey of Alassa- 
cbnssetts, and this opened a door for the introduction of numerous 
specimens. The Government, indeed, directed that a collection 
of the rocks and minerals of the Stale of moderate size should be 
collected for each of the collies. They amounted, I believe, in 
the first survey, to about eight hundred. I also collected four 
times as many for the State Cabinet, and nearly as many for 
myself. Having deposited the latter in the Cabinet, tlie Trustees, 
feeling under obligation to Williston Seminary, or rather to its 
founder, presented to it the collection of eight hundred speci- 
mens. 

" Another way which has been a prolific one of increasing the 
Cabinet in all its branches, organic and inorganic, is by securing 
the help of tbe graduates of the CoU^e, especially the foreign mis- 
sionaries. The Zodlogical Afnsenm has in this way often been 
enriched. In the Woods Cabinet is a collection of rocks and 
minerals chiefly from Asia, of more than twelve hundred speoi- 



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348 THE OANA.DUK NATURALIBT. [Oct. 

tnenB, sent in a great meunre by mieuoii&ries, or by men on inio- 
rionary ground. Many of these speeimene poBeeea a (ipecud 
interest from the sacred localities from which they came. Bat 
they are numerous enougli fkim some extenuTe re^ong to give a 
tolerable idea of the geology ; as for instance Syria and Palestine, 
especially Mount Lebanon, Armenia, and dio nortb<veet part of 
Persia, and the Ghaut Mountains of India. 

" My oolleetion of fossil footmarks waa b(^n in 1835. For aa 
soon as I had turned my attention to lefanology, Icommenced the 
accumulation of specimens, and from that day to tha present I 
have never ceased to gather in all which I oonld honestly obtain. 
For no other part of the cabinet have I labored so hard or encoun- 
tered so many difficulUes. ^rue, for some years at first I had ^e 
fiel<] essentially, to myself; and had I then been fnlly aware of its 
riohnesB and extent, I might have secured alai^ amount of speci- 
mens at a reasonable rate. But the subject opened npon me 
gradually, and the disclosures made by my writings attracted 
others into the field who became uncompromising competitors in 
the way of collecting, and with some it became a matter of trade. 
The oonseqnence was that the value of specimens rose to idmost 
^buloas prices. The man who had made the laigest collection 
was Dexter Marsh, of Greenfield, who was himself a quarryman, 
and had the ambition, as he told me, to get togetiier the largest 
collection in the world. He succeeded, if we take into account 
tbe quality of the Specimens. But, poor man I he died before his 
work was done ; having, in my opinion, hastened his decease by 
excessive labor in the hot sun in getting out beryls and other 
minerals. His executors sold hb collections at auction. I kneir 
they would sell higfa, for I was one of the appraisers, and we marked 
them high. But I could not see those fine specimens ail scattered 
through the land without making an effort to raise some money to 
secure some of them, and I adopted this plan. My collection of 
footmarks had beoome so large, that, in tbe opinion of so good a 
judge as Professor G. U. Shepard, its value was not lees than 
$3,500 ; and that it oould be disposed of for at least $2,000 in 
cash. In a circular to ^veral benevolent gentlemen, I offered to 
present this to the Coll^, if others would furnish me with six or 
seven hundred dollars with which to secure some of the slabs at 
Marsh's auction. It so happened, or rather, as I view it, Provi- 
dence so ordered it, tliat I first addressed John Tappan, Esq. 
He responded by a subscription of (600. To this extraordinoiy 



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1864.] BEUIHIfiOIMOKS Of AUHBBST OOLLEOB. 349 

liberality I attribate mj snoce« in filling np the preeeat lai^ 
cabinet. For » high a standard had imitators. Hod. David 
Sears soon added another $500; Gerard HoUoclc fbllowed with 
9250, Hon. £. P. Frantioe with 9150, and several other gentle- 
men with 8100 eaoh. So that I went to the auction with nearly 
$2,000 in my pocket. MoreoTer the Htmam of bencTolenoe which 
had thns been diverted into this channel did not oeese to flow with 
&.e Slorsh sale; bat almost to the present day new aod liberal 
inorementa have continued to be made to the t^inds in my hands 
diiofly devoted to footmarks ; bo that they have risen to $3,800. 
Among the donors was the widow of Hon. Abbott Lawrence, 
who sent me $300, although I suggested as a maximum 
<mly $100. Had Mr. Tappan headed the aubeoription with $50, 
— and I could not reaeonabty have expected more, — prcbably I 
should have been compelled to see it okse at $500, and the Ich- 
nologieal Cabinet would have been a meagre a&ir compared with 
what it is now. 

" When I reached Greeofield to attend the anetaon in September, 
1 8^3, 1 found Eereral naturaliste there fhnn Boston with poolcets w^ 
Uned, who oame with the intenlioQ— ^as they had a right to do- 
to t«ke the whole of Mr. Marsh's collection for the Boston Society 
of Natural History. I told them that tliere were many duplicates 
in the collection, enough if divided to supply both the College and 
their Society. But if they insisted upon monopolizing the whole, I 
had made up my mind, having $2,000 on hand; to be very benevolent 
towards the widow by compelling them to pay voy liberal prices. 
They seemed to feel the reaaonableness of my sn^jestions, and 
they fbnnd as I statod that there were enough speoimene for ns 
both. My bill went as high as $700, and theirs higher. 

" Since this auction I have continued to lay out large sums in 
tite purchase of tbotmarks. To Roswell Field, who lives on the 
most remarkable known locality, and has disinterred more tracks 
than any other man, I have paid not tar fVom $4,000. His 
prices have indeed been generally high, bnt when the specimea 
was unique, I must give him what he asked, or leave it for some 
one else; and Mr. Field has, in at least two oases, presented 
e^imens to the Cabinet which I have eetimBt«d at $300. 

"To persons not fitmiliar with the value of natural history speoi- 
mens, the idea of giving $160 for a broken stab of stone a ftm 
feet square — I have several speoimens that cost me that sum- 
seems eztravaganoe and felly. I may mention an aneedal« in 



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350 THK OAHASIAH HATTIBALIST. [OoL 

point AtbBT the aaotion at Greenfield, I employed a waggoner 
to transport my specimens to the railroad. I h&ppened to be a 
Little ont of sight, and heard hitn describing to a oitiien standing 
by the sums I had paid for them. ' The man,' said the citizen, 
' who will waste money like that, should have a gaardian placed 
over him.' I could not restrain a loud laugh, which brought us 
into conversaljon, when I said, ' Yon will at least acknowledge 
that my insane prod^ality ia a good thing for Mrs. Marsh.' 

" I must acknowledge, however, that in no enterprise in my life 
have I been obliged to work so hard, and exercise so msoh strate- 
gic skill to avoid paying exorbitant prices, and even being defeated, 
as in the collection of thip lohnoli^cal Cabinet. The high prices 
paid at the auction (one slab sold for (375) produced an impreft- 
sion of the great value of these relies throughout the Talley, and 
exorbitant prices were attached to them wherever found. But very 
' few, however, knew enough about the different kinds to distin- 
guish the rare and valuable ones. But since I had studied them 
all, I found that wherever I expressed any particular interest in a 
qie^men the presumption was that it was rare, and the price went 
up accordingly. I was obliged, therefore to exercise a good deal 
of prudence, and show much sangfroid, or I oould not, with my 
small means, make much headway. I worked as quietly as pos> 
dble, with my plans looked up in my own bosom, yet with inflexible 
resolution and perseverance, looking constantiy to Qod for help. 
I felt that such a collectioti would illnstrato a curious chapter of 
His providence towards our globe, and that the lai^er the ooUeo- 
tion, the more full the illustration. I expected myself to make 
only a beginuing ; but I wanted to provide the means for mysno- 
oessors to carry forward the work which they never ooutd do if the 
specimens are scattered all over the world, or rather if all the 
varieties are not found in some one cabinet. Large as the oolleo- 
tkin now is, I have been often pained to see very fine specimens 
taken out of my hands by those who could pay more for them than 
I could, and carried, I know not whither. 

"In such circumatanoes, I have tried to beaseoonomioalaapos- 
uble in the use of the money in my hands for this purpose. When- 
ever I could, I have myself gone to the quarries and dug out tiie 
specimens. When not too large, also, I have transported them on 
my own business-waggon. Again and again have I entered 
Amherst upon such a load ; geuerally, however, preferring not to 
arrive till oTeniug ; because, especially of late, sueh manual labor 



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Ili64.] BIUINISGXNOKS OV AUHEBST OOLLIQB. 3R1 

u r^arded by many as not oomporting witli the dignity of a prv- 
fiaesor. I have not howerer, la general, paid mnofa attention to 
snob a feeling, except to be pained by seeing it increase, because 
its prevalence wonld change the character of the Collie, by driv- 
ing away thoBe who are obliged to do their own work. 

" During theee twenty-six years' experience in gathering these 
foolmatke, I have met some very unique examples of human 
nature. While some of my conntrymen in the lower classes of 
society have shown a sbrewdness and generosity and made me feel 
proud of New Ei^land, others have exhibited a eelfiahnesa and 
meanness that made me exclaim, Farvum parva decmt I For 
iDstsnoe, suppose on your arrival at a locality of footmarks, one 
bad preceded you with whom you were on friendly tonus, bntwho 
was so anxious to prevent your obtaining any specimeoH, that he 
hsd mutilated the good ones that were aocesaible, which he had 
not time to remove I Alas, if I had not known this vandalism 
practiced several times by professedly respectable naturalists, I 
should not mention it. 

" Some of my experiences have been quite amusing. Having 
found some impressions which I called tracks {Earpagoput Hud- 
tonivt) in the sidewalks of Qreenwich Street, in New York city, 
I requested a moulder to take a plaster cast of them, which he 
did- But on going to the spot again some hours later, I was told 
that some one else had meantime taken caste of them I although 
he conid not have known that they were of any value; but it shows 
bow prone men are to follow an example. A laigo crowd bad 
gathered when I took Uie first oast ; and I was told afterwards that 
all which saved me from being voted a fit subject for a Innatio 
asylum, was the testimony of a young lady, in one of the adjoin- 
ing houses, who had attended my lectures on geol<^ at Amherst, 
aud who testified tJiat I was no more deranged than sach men 
usually are." 

These ore but specimens of tJie enthnsiastio work of a lifetime, 
which occupies in the narraliTe no small portion of the book. The 
lesalts are very marvelloua, even whan we take into account the 
credit due to Profs. Adams and Sheppard, and others; all of 
which is acknowledged by Dr. Hitchcock. The museum, as it 
DOW stands, is one of tie finest in America, and, in some respects, 
as in pbonolites and meteorites, second to none in the world. It 
is valned at more than 9100,000, and has been collected at an 
e^«nso to the College almost nominal. 



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352 THB OAKABIAH NATimALIBT. [Oot 

AuaefulpnrposewUlbeseirediD this ooan try, where snch tMnga 
are as yet too little appreciated, by qaoting Br. Hitchoodc's eeti- 
mate of the utility of natural bbtory oollecHous. 

"1. Theyare indispensable to give Btndente a knowledge of the 
natural prodnotiooa of di&rent partu of tbe earth ; and without 
vhiob, Ifaeir views would be narrow, and they would be liable to 
constant blunders in their literary produotiooB. 

"2. When studied, they helpTerymnohta sharpen the disorimV- 
natjon, and teach students how to distii^ish between the appa- 
rent and the real. Indeed, aa a means of mental disnpline, no 
branch of knowledge goes before natural history ; though, from the 
very limltod attention usually given to such snbjeotA, this effect is 
but slightly realized. 

" 3. They are indispensable, also, to ^ve ftoilities to any stu* 
dents who have a natural taste and fitness for such pursuits, to 
qualify themselves for &ture distinction in them ; and this they 
can do, if the collections are good, without interfering with recita- 
tions in other branches, by devoting those. leisure hours to tlie 
cabinets, which most give to useless recreation or to something 
worse. 

"4. They deeply iut»«st and instmet the oommunity sur- 
rounding a college, and all who visit it, and thus give reputation 
to it. Visitors cannot be shown much in mathematios, or in tba 
classics, as they pass through coll^e-halla, unless partioularly well 
acquainted witb the subjects, and even large libraries are all sees 
at a glanca But almost every one will see enough in nature's 
[ffoducta to awaken interest, inquiry, and admiration. Thla 
explains the fact that as many as fifteen thousand viMtora annually 
have registered thdr names in the Amherst Cabinets, small and 
retired as the plaoe Is. The Collie could not afford to lose the 
influence in favor of the institntion thus s|»ead through tbe ooua- 
try. It turns Uie attention of many young men to this plaoe ; and 
irtien they learn that in aH other respects tJie institntion stands 
high, this feature often brings them here, in spite of the claims of 
rival colleges. This is not indeed the most important tiling in 
the College ; but we need to combine all the influences tJiat we 
can to enable the College to maintain the high position it has 
ttiken, and to continue its upward course. 

" 6. These cabinetfl form an anchor to steady the CoU^ in 
stormy times. Snoh periods of trial not nnfrequently come, when 
the temptation is to give up tbe dup, or transfer it to to some otlier 



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1864.] KEMIHISOSHOES OF AUHEBfiT OOLIEOK. 3!»S 

place. Bat though it be easy to transfer able teaohBTS aod funds, 
&nd even libraries, large cabinet buildings, with oosUy fixture^ 
oannot so easily be changed; and the friends of the College would 
be quite apt to rally aronnd the fruit of seventy-five years of laboi 
which theycontain, since mere money oannot make their place good. 

"6. Theee oabioets are indispensable to toaoh young men how 
to defend and illustrate religion. This ia their most important 
use. For I hesitate not to say, that, however otherwise well eda- 
oated a scholar is, he cannot defend ChrislJanity, or even natural 
religion, from the subtle attacks which of late years have been 
drawn from natural history, from geology uid zofilogy. For instance, 
if he has not seen, and to some extent studied the specimens oa 
which these objections are founded, he must see and examine rooks 
and fossils before he can UDdustand the disoussions raised by 
geology on the ago of tiie world, on die eternity of matter, on the 
pio-adamio existonoe of suffering and death, on special Divine inters 
ventions in nature, and on the extent of the deluge. He must 
study animals and planta, or he oannot rofiite the advocates of the 
development-hypothesis or of the plurality of origin of the human 
species. Where else but in college can those who mean to bo 
ministers of the Qospel acquire such knowledge ? Surely not in 
oar theologioal seminaries, nor in the familiee of private cleigy- 
men. The abstract, metaphysical way of treating those subjects 
which they may learn elsewhere, will only excite the ridicule or 
contempt of the able, sceptical nataralist. 

" On the other 'hand, it is only by the study of cabinets that 
theological studeute can learn how to use with ability those nume- 
TOOB illustrations and oonfirmations of religious tmth which of 
Ute years have been derived irom natural history. The krger 
part and the most striking of tiie proofs and iUustradons r^;ard- 
ing the Deity end his attributes, have been derived from this 
department of knowledge. It is a rich field, and furnishes, besides 
the case just indicated, numerous striking confirmations and illuB- 
trations of some of the most preoions truths of revealed religion, ss 
the works of MoCosh, Hugh Miller, Dana, Harris, Chalmers, and 
many others show. 

" 7. Finally, large cabinets are neoesaaiy to enable instructors 
to make new discoveries in science, and to trace out new religions 
illustrations. With small collections, the prospect of finding 
vndescribed objects would be small. And in this fact, not in want 
of abUity, do we see a reason why so fen ptofessoM of natoral 



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354 TBS CANADUH KATURALIST. [Oot. 

history add maoy new feots to their departments, or suggest now 
illustrations of religion. Tnie, the vaat in oar libraries of the 
great standard books on these subjects published in Europe, is 
another almost equally powerful obstacle to new disooverias,^ as the 
want of Bpeoimens. But what a pity that in both theee ways our 
professors should be deprived of a credit they ought to have the 
power to attain, and be oompelled to put into the hands of Euro- 
peao Datundiste every object apparently new which they meet, 
because they are afraid to describe it, lest it shonld have beea 
already described by transaUantio naturalists I 

" It is for such reasons that I felt justified in devoting so mnoh 
time and effort during thirty-eight years, to build up and fill the 
Cabinets at Amherst. I have no expectation or wish to give the 
subjects of natural history here an undue prominence, but only to 
make them subserve the objeetf I have specified, and to do something 
towards sustaining the credit and popularity of the institation." 



NOTES ON THE HABITATS AND VARIETIES OP 
SOME CANADIAN FERNS. 

Bt David E. HoOobd, B.A., HontieaL 

POLTPODIDM YUIQABK. — Common m Lower Canada ; eight to 
twelve inches long, oooasioaally smaller. Ab it grows upon rocke, 
it may sometimes be seen curled up by drought. I have not yet 
observed any abnormal forms ; bat eiooe in Qreat Britain there 
are, according to Lowe, thirty-seven varieties more or less constant 
in cultivation, attention to this fern is particularly to be desired 
&om Canadian pteridologists. Montreal, not common; Chatiiam; 
Waterloo ; Sorel, Lady Dalhouue ; Temiaoonata, common, J. Q. 
Thomas, M.D.; Qnebeo, Hon. William Sheppard. White Monn- 
talns, New Hampshire. 

PoLTFomTH HEZAOONOPTXBUH. — Usnally thinner, less ooria- 
oeooB than P. Phegopterit. Waterloo; Chatham; Sorel, Lady 
Dalbonsie ; Quebec, Hon. William Sheppard. 

PoLYFODiuu Pheooptkeis. — Rhizoma many rooted, stipes 
ascending at short intervals ; oooaaionally sixteen inches in hught, 
(including stipe). Temiscouata, common, J. Q. Thomas, M.D. ; 
Waterloo : Lennoxville ; Chatham ; Durham, Wickham, and Hel- 
bonine, John A. Botbwell, B.A. ; Qaebe<^ Bev. Prof. Braneb 



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1864.] H'OORD OM CANADIAN FIBN8. 356 

POLTPODIUM Dbtoptkris.— Bbizoma black, few rooted. Mon- 
treal, not fine ; Waterloo ; Lennozville, very fine ; Chathatn ; Dor- 
ham, Wiokham, and Melbourne, Jobn A. Bothwell, B.A. ; Quebec, 
Hon. William Sheppard j TemiBCosata, oommon, J. Q-. Thomas, 
M.D. White Monntuns, New Hampshire. 

p. erectum. — I have a specimen whiob appears to correspond 
with this variety, fifteen inchee high and nine inches broail, hnt its 
size is the ohieF difference I can detect between it and the normal 
smaller specimens. Tbe pinnse are however more deeply pin- 
natifid, and, in the case of the lowest ones, almost pinnate. 
Waterloo, June 6, 1862. 

PoLYPOBiDM RoBEBTiANUH. — Sorel, Lady Dalhonsie. 

AniANTUU PBDATDU. — When it first t^pe&rs in spring, in Ha 
early part of May, tbe stipe is covered with thick chaffy scales, 
and the frond circioate ; the scales soon disappear, and in a week or 
two the stipe is at foil height. Common almost everywhere in 
Lower Canada. Montreal; licnnciville ; Waterloo j Chatham; 
Sorel, Lady Dalhonsiei Quebec, Hon. William Sheppard; Dur- 
ham, Wiokham and Melbourne, John A. Bothwell, B.A. White 
Mountains, New Hampshire. 

Var. trUiTyulare. — From Chatham, where a large clump 
grew. Very deep green, fewer pinnn (branches) than normal, 
and fewer pinnules; these more deeply pinnatifid, sometimea 
divided half way to tbe midrib at back. Instead of the common 
oblong-shaped pinnules, this variety displays a triangolar form, 
and the whole aspect is in a measure different. 

Ptbbis aqdilina. — Common everywhere ia Lower Canada. 
Montreal; Watorloo ; Chatham; Lennoxville; Durham, Wick- 
ham, and Melbourne, John A. Bothwell, B.A. ; Temiscouata, 
J. G. Thomas, M.D. ; Sorel, Lady Dalhonsie. White Mountains, 
New Hampshire ; Portland, Maine. 

The varieties of this fern are very numerous. F(ir«. a. vera 
and p. mtegeirima. I have collected sperimens of both these 
varieties, though they do not adhere exactly to Dr. Lawson's 
descriptions of them. I have also one or two beautiful specimens 
of another variety, with a brown stripe of six and a balf inches iu 
length, surmounted by the frond, which is three inches high, and 
three and a half broad. The branchefl are pinnate, the pinne 
pinnatifid and very clearly divided. The spedmeus were min- 
utely chaffy-hairy and in fruit. Now the vart a. vera and fi. 
tnUgtrrUna areof largeuie,andnot80thiokorooriaoeous,thoii^ 



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S66 TBS OUIADIAN MATDBALIBT. [OoL 

they agT«e irith this v&rietj id the namber of braDcbee and ia 
point of pinnatifioation. Whether specimenB of this variety in a 
sterile state would be lees ooriaceoua, I uu not in a position to say. 
These ket mentioaed specimenB were coUeoted at Chatham on the 
Ottawa, a locality rich in ferns; and I may also add, in phce- 
DOgamous plants. I hare bIbo another variety of P. aquilina dis- 
playing extremely lanceolate pointed pinnules ; bnt whether this 
aonminate property be constant, I cannot now affirm. 

ALLOSoaua oeaoilis. — Rare. Rooks, county of Presoott, C. 
W. ; on the shore of River Ottawa, opposite the residence of Lem- 
uel Gushing, Esq. ; Chatham; Caoonna, very fine q>eouDeQa, Dr. 
J. W. Dawson ; Riviere du Loup (en baa), J. G. Thomas, M.D. ; 
near Britannia MiUa, rare, Hon. William Sheppard ; Murray Bay, 
B. Anstruther Ramsay, B.A. 

Stkdthiopterib Geruakioa. — Very oommon. Among other 
localities: — Montreal; Waterloo; Lennoxviile; Chatham; Sorel, 
Lady Doihousio; Quebec, Hon. William Sheppard; Durham, 
Wiokham, and Melbourne, John A. Botbwell, B.A. ; along the 
Green Riv»', J. Q. Thomas, M.D. White Monnuine, New 
Hampshire. 

Onoolea SKN8IBILIS. — A very variable and intereeting fem. Of 
many barren specimens some are de^ly pinnatifid, which appear* 
the normal state, or with the last pair of divisions almost pinnate ; 
but in every onse that I have yet observed there is a wing, however 
minute, upon the rachis, so that we cannot properly apply the 
term pinnate to this fern. I have several sterile varieties, one 
covered with glands, another in which the propertiea of the stt^ile 
and fertile are seen in the same frond, as may be observed in pia- 
nnles oi 0»miindaTeg<dit,yax. tpectabilU. Some are contracted and 
deeply pinnatifid ; one obtusely terminated at apex and at ends of 
divisions. Whether these would be constant under cultivation I can- 
not say, as I have not had time to invesdgate this fem sufficiently, 
aikl have only mentioned these varieUes as a sUmulns to observa- 
tion. On the whole it would appear that from the earliest develop- 
ment of Onodea tiiere are two general forms. One from the mol- 
taf^ication of wavy-toothed divisions, the other by the development 
of lanceolate-triangular divisions; under these may be included 
all the abnormal forms whwb I have seen. Common. Montreal ; 
Sorel, Lady Dalbouue ; Waterloo ; Chatham ; Lennoxviile ; Que- 
.bec, Hon. William Sheppard; Durham, Wiokham, and Met- 
bonme, John A. Bothwell, B.A. ; TemisoouaU, J.G. Thomaa,M.D.i 
White Mountains, New Hampshire; Portland, Maine. 



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1864.] U'OOOD ON OA.NADIAJI FEKNa. 367 

Abplkmidh vnuDB. — Qaa^, John Belt, B,A. A very iatet- 
eeXing little fern. From the BpecimeDS diat I have Been, thoogli 
not from tlie above-mentioned locality, it may be distingaiBhed 
from A. Trichomant* (among otJier didferenoesj) by having a 
green raohis, and a dark colored stipe, while A. Triehomana 
beaiB a stipe and rachis of dark shining blacldah-brown. In 
A. viride the frucUfioatioo oocapies more of the enrfaoes of (be 
lunnse, and thej are lem numerous. 

AspLKNiDU Tbiobomanks. — Chatham, on rooks, in laige 
tdumps ; obserred in no other locality in Lower Canada. 

AsPLSNiDU A-HQvatirohmu.. — Vtxj beautiful, not oommon. 
Montreal, lai^r and smaller mountuns ; open woods, in company 
with Lattrcea Goldiana; Sept., 1863. Obaerred specimens wiA 
a bifuroatioD at apex, as in some British varietiea of Pol^ipodivm 
and also of A. Felix-/cemitia. 

Abplenktu THKI.TPTKB0IDE8. — Montreal; Waterloo; Leo* 
nozville; Chatham, and northward to Wentworth, Harrington, 
Howard, and Arundel ; Qoebeo, Hon. William Sheppard ; Bur- 
ham, Wickham, and Melbourne, John A. Bothwell, B.A. Port- 
land, Maine ; White Mountains, New Hampshire. 

/3. terratum. — Very fine, Chatham. 

Athfbidh Felix-v(euina. — Common, Montreal ; Chatham, 
and northward ; Lennoxville; Waterloo; Quebec, Hon. William 
Sheppard j Durham, Wickham, and Melbourne, John A. Both- 
well, B.A. ; Temiscouata, very oommon, J. O. Thomas, M.D, 
White Mountains, New Hampshire; Portland, Maine. I have a 
variety or two, agreeing in some respects irith p. erectwm, and also 
with y. rhceticum, bat would not presume to identify them, as I 
have not studied the varieties of this fern. 

Caupiosokus aaizoPHTLLira. — Rare ; dry rooks at TAbord-ft- 
Floufie, on the river Jesus, rear of the island of Montreal; bub 
not easily found even there. St. Helen's Island, rare, Hon. Wil- 
liam Sh^iipard; Sorel, Lady Dalhousio, as Atplenium rAw- 
ophyllum. 

LiSTB-Si DILATATA. — (^AtpvUwia tpinulotum, of Oray's 
Manual.) — I have many specimens of this most variable speoiea 
from those ^ort both ia stipe and frond, and triai^ular, the pin- 
soles being deeply toothed orlobed.h^dlypinnatifid, to those that 
are broadly lanceolate, spreading or not, and finely cut. I cannot, 
however, identify j8. tonoceti/blta with any of them. Ihavetbevar. 
BooUii (of Gray's Mannal), with g^aodolar indnuom. I also found 

ToL. I. T No. B. 



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358 THE CANADIAN NATURALIST. [Oot. 

at Waterloo, June &th, 1862, aoontnioCed, depauperated, thoDgh tall, 
specimea of X. dilatata, wbioh bore indosia thickly covered with 
glands, Btalked, and many furnished irith a fnnnel-shaped head. 
In this case the pinnules were curved towards the back of 
frond, and these glands were also thickly scattered over the front 
and the back of the pinnse. The abnormal appearanoe of Ibis 
specimen indnoedme to esamine the front of the frond for glands, 
and in other specimens they might perhaps be discovered aimilarly 
sitnated, if search were made. This fern requires careful study. 
Montreal ; Chatham ; Lennoxville ; Sorel, (?) Lady Dnlhousie ; 
Durham, Wickham, and Melbourne, John A. Bothwell, B.A. j 
Temiscouata, common, J. G. Thomas, M.D. ; Quebco, Rev. Prof. 
Bninet. White Mountains, New Hampshire ; Portland, Maine. 
Lastrsa Maroinalis. — Common. Montreal; Chatham; Len- 
noxville; Quebec, Hon, William Slieppard; Sorel, Lady Dalhousie; 
Durham, Wickham, and Melbourne, John A. Bothwell, B.A. ; 
Temiscouata, J. G. Thomas, M.D. White Mountains, New Hamp- 
shire; Portland, Maine, I do not know the var. (3. Traillce, which 
must be very handsome. I have two speoimcna of s small varie^ 
(eleven inches long), with few pinnse, where the apex is composed 
of a pinna instead of the ordinary mode of growth; aimilar in 
style to the top of Polypodium vulgare, var. erenalum (Moore), 
or var. umilacerum. I do not think this variety is constant. 
Another variety displays only three plnnie in a slightly circular 
form. Montreal, 1863. 

Lastraa CRISTATA. — Not uncommon. Montreal; Chatham ; 
Lennosville ; Qaebeo, Hon. William Sheppard ; Durham, Wick- 
ham, and Melbourne, John A. Bothwell, B.A. I am inolbed to 
think, that, from a number of specimens I possess, there is a 
variety of this fem, larger, broader, the pinnules less triangular, 
more lanceolate and more scythe-shaped than the normal, and, 
jtom their size and their position, not to he referred to Jj. 
Boldiana. It is a handsomer fern than the common L. crUlata; 
and intermediate forms may be traoed between this variety and the 
triangular-pinnated specimens. Chatham, C, E. 

Lastrsa Ooldiana. — I think my specimens may be referred 
to rar. a. terrala, bat cannot speak oertunly, as I have only 
observed the fern in one spot, near Montreal ; and the sori are 
lai^r than in any other fern we have, which bears an indusinm ; 
whereas Dr. Lawson says the sori are small. My barren fronds 
aie smaller than the fertile. Montreal, sniallar moontaio, with 



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1864.] U'OORD OM CANADIAN VIRNB. 359 

Atplmium anguiti/oUnm. Durham, Wiokhun, &nd Melbourne, 
John A. BothweU, B.A. 

LabtbiEA Thbltpteris. — Common. Montreal, very fine speoi- 
mens; Chatham; Waterloo; Sorel, Lady Dalhooue; Durham, 
Wiokham, and Melbourne, John A. Bothwell, B,A.; Queheo, 
Rev. Prof. Brunet. White MounUine, New Hampahire ; Port- 
land, Maine. 

Lastb^a Not-Ebobaosnsis. — Montreal ; Wat«rloo ; Quebeo, 
Hon. William Sheppard; Dnrham, Wickham, and Melbourne, 
John A. Bothnell, B.A. 

FoLTSTiCHUU ANO0LARB.— ^. Braunii. Quebec, Hon. Wit 
liun Sheppard, as P, aculeatum. Temisoon&ta, not common, 
J. G. Thomaa, M.D. 

P0LT8TICHUM AoaosTioaoiDBB,— Montreal ; Waterloo; Chat- 
ham ; Lennoxville ; Sorel, Lady Dathoosie ; Durham, Wickham, 
and Melbourne, John A. BothweU, B.A. ; Quebeo, Hon. William 
Sheppard. 
p. tneuum.— Montreal, July 24th, 1861. 
Otstofteris FRA01LI8. — Montreal ; Sbefibrd Mountains, near 
Waterloo, in one spot only ; Chatham, very fine; Dnrham, Wiok- 
bam, and Melbourne, John A. BothweU, B.A. ; Quebeo, Rev. Prof. 
Brunet. My specimens from Montreal measure about ten inches in 
length, three of which are stipe; narrowly lanceolate, not more than 
one and a half inch in breadth; whUe those fkim Chatham are 
much finer, being eight inches long, ezclnslTe of sdpe, three inches 
broad, bi-pinnate, pinnules incised, and, like the ordinary specimens, 
the pinnse are not approximate. This constitutes, I think, a variety. 
Those from Waterloo are more triangular, thinner, pinnie more 
^proximate, but are twice pinnate, hence they cannot be roterred 
to Mr. Bell's speoimens, whose pinna are not pinnate. This fern 
requires careful study. 

CrsTOPTERis BCLBirsRA. — Montreal ; Chatham ; Waterloo, 
me, only one clump seen ; Quebec, at the Falls of Lorette, north 
declivity of the river, Hon. William Sheppard ; Upper Falls of 
the Riviere du Loup en has, variable in outline, J. G. Thomas, 
M.D. ; Sord, Lady Dalhonde. 

DiNNST^soTiA PDNOTILOBULA. — Said to be at Long Point, 
near Montreal, but I cannot vouch for it. Sorel, Lady Dalhouaie; 
Daleeville, near Chatham; LennozvUle; Waterloo; Quebeo, Hon. 
William Sheppard; Durham, Wickham, and Melbourne, John 
A. BothweU, B.A. Portland, Mune; White Mountains, New- 
Hampshire. 

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360 TBI OANASUIt HATD&ALIBT; [OoL 

WooDSiA Ilvenbis— Montreal ; ChaUiam ; Wolfe's Core, Que- 
bec, Hon. William Sheppard ; Lachate ; Rtvi^ dn Loup en 
baa, on rocl^ bouka, J. G-. Tbomu, t/ij).; Sorel, Lady Dat 
hooeie. 

j8. ffracilit. — If I have this variety, aa I am dbposad to tbink, 
tbepiniue and pianides are bolli more lBnDeDlate,andmQre covered 
with ohaffy aoales, as meotioiied by Dr. Lawson ; the Btjpea are aln 
not BO dark in oolor. 

WooimiA OLABSLLA.— Montreal? very Tsre; Chath&m ; ran, 
at the Upper Falls of the Biviere du Loap en baa, J. Q. 
Thomas, M.D. 

OsuUNDA HKOALiSj TBT. ^. tptctobxlii. — Montreal; Waterloo; 
Chatham; Leanoxville, rare; Qoebec, Hon. Wifliam Sheppard; 
Sorel, Lady DUhooaie, aa Otmunda regalu; Durham, Wiokham, 
and Melbourne, John A. Bothvell, B.A. I also noticed thia fam 
in the White MoantEunB, New Hampdiire ; Portiand, Maine. It 
is common in this fern to observe a pinnule partly in iroit and 
partly barren. 

OsuUNDA oiNHAUOUEA.— Montreal ; Ohatliam ; Waterloo ; Len- 
Bozville; Qaebec, Hon. William Sheppard; Sorel, Lady Dal> 
bonsie; Durham, Wiokham, and Melbourne, J(An A. Both- 
Vell, B.A.; Temisoouata, J. Q. Thomas, M.D. Portland, Maine; 
While Mountains, New Hampshire. 

Obudnda Clattoniana. — Variable in ute. Montreal; 
Lennozville ; Waterloo ; Chatham ; Soiel, Lady Dalhoosie ; Que- 
bec, Hon. William Sheppard ; Temiseouata, J. G. Thomas, M.D. 
White Mounttuns, New Hampshire; Portland, Maine. 

BoTRTOHiDU VnUHKlOUU. — Oonunou. Montreal; Cfaatluua; 
Waterloo; Qaebec, Hon. William Sheppard ; Lennoxville; Bur- 
ham, Wiokham, and Melbourne, Jolm A. Bothwell, B.A. ; Tent* 
isoonata, J. 0. Thomas, M.D. 

y. tttnplisc— Montreal, July 28th, 1661 ; Quebec, Iter. Prof. 
Brunet ; Temisoouata, rare, near the eea>-diore, J. G-. Thomas, M.D. 

BoTaTOHinic LDNAaioiDSS. — Bather rare. Montreal ; Sore], 
Lady Dalhousie, aaB./umaTioidet; Quebec, Hon. William Shqt- 
pard, rare; Durham, Wiokham, and Melbourne, John A. Both- 
well, B.A, 

My specimens hardly agree witii Dr. Liwson's dividon of thki 
fern. One, with barrel branch M-pinnate and fertile bruioli b(- 
almoet tri-pinnate, wonld appear to agree with £. htnariotdtij 
another with a lai^, tri-^nnUe fertile ftvnd, agrees in this retpMt 



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1864.] M'OOBD 0> OAHADIAS TXSMa. 361 

with B. obUqmim, bat not in die barren frond, whiob, aldiongh Ih- 
pnnate, hu not nannwer divuiona. They are simply mon 
oousely oienato and more ooriaoeoiiB. This may of oonrse be not 
at all A obUqtmm of Dr. LawBon, and I liad regarded it aa 
m variely of the B. btnarioidM. I can add nodiing farther, as I 
have not seen many BpeoimeDS of this fern. I have a variel^ of 
it ot^lected at Lake Memphraoagt^, C E., in 1862, by Mn. 
J. H. Thompson, whiob wonld be in the aune relation to B. 
hakorioidei tJiat the variety y. mmplex is to 3. Vxrginician, The 
■terilo Iwanch is almost twioe pinnate, with few wedgo-sh^ied 
minntdy-tootbed lobes ; the ferUle braaoh is also almost or entinly 
twtoo pinnato : bnt the whole Bpeaimen has this peooliarity, tliat 
instead of there being three barren branoblets, and one fbrtile, 
there are three fertile and one barreo. 

BoTRTCBiDH Ldnabu. — NoTtfa side of Island of Orleans, 
J. F. WhiteaTOs, F.G.S. ; and Rivi^ da Loup en bas. 

OPHioflLOSsuu vuLGATnii. — Mdhoome, C. E., where eioeedr 
in^y fine specimens are to be &aiid. Miss Isabella Molntosh, Buin- 
mde Hoose, Montreal. This fon, witii the Bolrgchium Lvnaria 
mmtioned above, are now for the first time recorded as bang 
aatives vi Canada proper. 

The above brief statement of tJie Lower Gui&di^ ferns, intended 
aa a supplemest to Dr. Lawson's ralvaUo paper, iiKlndes thirty- 
seven ^eoies, to which, if we add the six addidoosJ ones which 
•re as yet peooliar to Upper Canada, we have a total of forty- 
three speoles of CanaiUaa ferns. I enumerate the six abov« 
alluded to. 

PeLLJA ATKOPUaPUBKA, Link. 

OKTPTOaKAHHA AGROSTIOBOIDES, R. BrOWn, 

ASPLENIUU BBENXUH, AitOn. 

WooDWABDiA ViitaiNiOA, WiUdenow. 

SOOLOPENURIDH VOLOASE, Smith. 

F0LT8TICHDH LONOHITIS, Both. 

There are, then, in Canada almost as many species of ferns as 
in Qreat Britain, and much is yet left for observation, particularly 
in Lower Canada, — where other species may, perhaps, be dia- 
covered ; and we have also the iaveatigatjon of varieties to in- 
terest us. 

There are forty-nine species mentioned by Gray as being in the 
Borthern United States; andof Qieseagood namber, txLygodivm 
paimatum, Swarls, Schixata pmilta, Fursh, and others, are not 



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362 IHB OANASUM MAIUBALIST. [Oot 

to be looked for in Oankda, from ita nortfaem position. On t}ie 
other band, Dr. Lawson's liala include AtplmiTim viride, Hudson, 
Botrychium lunaria, SwartE, and others which are beyond Qra.y'a 
Btatcd limits, (see pa^e 263). Should we, then, not find some 
Canadian ferns recorded by Gray or other Ameiioan authorities, 
we must look to other countries of the same latitude, eleraljos, 
&o., as ours. Taking a general view, more than half of the 
Lower Oanadian ferns are inhabitanta of tracts of country not 
dry; they are found in open meadowa, or swamps; the remainder 
grow upon rocks, with little moisture, as Woodsia Ilvensis, Cy*- 
iopteru fragilU, (oooasionally,) Atlotorut gracilU, &o. ; or 
upon rocky positions but requiring moisture, in which ease 
they suffer during dry seasons, aa Atpienium TrUhomanet, Ac. 
Not a few grow in either dry or damp positions, in shade or 
sunshine, when different varieties may be looked for ; while a 
change of habit, such as is produced by clearing land, proves fatal 
to some species. A northern aspect is also sometimes noticed- 
What the progress of civilization may do in affec^ng the ferus, 
time will evince, aa I havenotioedfernsslowly disappearing; though 
the loss of species will of course require loog lapses of time. For 
instance, have we any record what were the ferns of Europe, or 
of Great Britain, some centuries ago 1 

With r^ard to Quebec, one of the localities indicated in the 
above not«e, the Honorable William Sheppard, who kindly furaisbod 
me with a list of the ferns to be found there, is disposed to thick 
that some more species than he has named might ba discovered. 
He was guided by notes, and Ir^ memory, aa his own collection was 
UDfortuaately destroyed by fire some years ago. 



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1864.] DAV80N ON THE OENDB BUBOFHTCUa. 363 

ON THE FOSSILS OF THE GENUS RUSOPHYOUS. 
Bt J. W. DiwsoN, LL.D., F.R.S,, Ac. 

The genus Rutophyait was CBtabliehed by Prof. Hall foi 
certain transversely wrinkled impresBioDS found in the Clinton 
group of Oneida County, New York, and supposed to be fossil 
Bea-weeds. Objects of similar appearance have been detected by 
Mr. Billings in the Chazj sandstone of Greuville, and described by 
him under the name of R. Grenvilleugit. They much resemble 
one of Prof. HaL's species, B. bilobatiu, which ia the type of short 
bUobat« forms Incladed in the genus. Similar markings, bat of 
much smaller size, oconr in the Lower CarbonlferouB of Nova 
Scotia, and have been described and figured by the writer as prob- 
ably casta of the lower extremities of worm-buirows, in the Journal 
of the Geological Society of London, vol. xiv, p. 74. In the 12th 
volume of the same journal, Mr. Salter had described small bilobate 
impressions, not striated transversely, from the Longmynd rocks 
of England, under the name ArenicoUtet didyma. He supposed 
tihem to be burrows of worms. 



Fig. 1. Rmophyctu Grtavillmri*, rar. a, half nat. site. 
I bad an opportunity last summer, in oompany with Mr. J. A. 
Botbwell, B. A., to examine the locality of th e Grenville speolraeus, 
and fonod them to be quite abaadaat in certain layers of sand- 
stone alternating with shale on the bank of the Orenville canal. 
The facts obtuned from their study in place enable me to throw 
some light on their probable nature, and possibly to reacne them 



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361 THK OANADIAH NATURALIBT. [Oot. 

fVoro the coDTemeot groap of facoids, into wbich pabeoutologiBtB 
H&ve throwD so many obsenre and doubtful foMils, 

Mr. Billings describes ihe species as follows : 

" This Bpecies is found in tbe form of irr^olar, oblong-ovate or 
depressed hemispberioal masses, one end uflQallj divided into two 



Fig. 3. Rvtophycm OrenvUlerait, tit. b, Mf nat. aiie. 
parts b; a farrow of more or less depth. Tbe whole mass is gen- 
erally crossed by numenras nndDlating wrinUea, which have a 
trsnsrerse direction to that of the furrow. The more common 
dimeosions are f¥om three to four inohea in length, and from 



Pig. 3. Rtuophytut earbonaritit. 
two and a half to three and a half in breadth, bnt ooctsionany speei- 
meos occur mnoh larger and also sranller ; one of them is nine and 
a half inches by five and a half, and, in addition to the principal 
groove, eihibita two or duee obsenre fnRowB oit eacA fflde." 



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18ft4.] DAW80N oM tHi onms strsoPHTODs. 3S6 

To this description it is only neoesiary to add, tliat, in oomparing 
a lai^ unmber of specitnoDS, many divenideB are apparent in the 
relief of tho forms, in the extent of the lon^tndinal tiirrow, and in 
the number of the transrerM wrinkles. The two lobeB are also 
most frequently slightly nneqn&l in thdr relief ; and some of the 
qteoimens riope gradaally at one end, and are thus somewhat elon- 
gated. In all oasee, however, the gmeral fonn is the same, the 
lofiptndinal and transTerse fiirrows are oonstant, and the former ia 
always more strongly marked at one extremity of the fossil. The 
qfiecimens have no indication of a stem or stalk ; though a oast of 
a worm-burrow or shrinkage-oraok sometimes simulates such »a 

In viewing these ibesUs and tlte sorfhoes of the beds oontaining 
(h«n, it ftppetuvd evident that they are in reality oaata of hollows 
M holes excavated in clay, and filled with sand which has taken 
and retained in ita oonsoUdated state the impression of their forma. 
The supposed foasib project from the lower surfaoe of the Band- 
stone, where this rests on friable, dark gray shale. They have the 
same appearance with the surfaeea of the beds of sandstone, and 
diow no traces of organic matter. There are on the same surfaces 
tMsts of worm-traoks, dso in relief, and which sometimes extend 
omr the Bpemiaeae ol Baaophj/eut. TherearealsoonllieseBurfaeas 
Miws of wrinkles, or easts <^ furrows umilar to those of J^*oph>/eui ; 
and some of thess form trails to or Avm the ends of the latter. 
(Fig. 2, a.) Casts of shrinkage^racks in' relief, also occur on the 
Same Borfaoee. La^ speoimens c£ Suiophj/cut sometimes overlap 
imafi ones in sneh a manner aa to show that they must have been 
scooped oat of the clay. On the othw hand, if Hm supposed 
fdeoids were really ^ that oharacter, they must have been solid 
masses or vesii^es, and in the former ease must have left some 
tnee of oi^anie matter, while in tbc latter they coold souoely have 
im^eaeeil tbemselveB so deeply on ttie clay. 

These appearances nan, I think, be explained on the snppo- 
tftticn that some animal orawlliig on the soft mud at the bottom 
of shallow water, by means of feet which made a double series of 
tetnsverse marks, was in the haUt of ezoava^g deep burrows for 
Aelter or repose, and that these burrows were filed with drifted 
Mud ooustitutii^ the lower partof whatisnow a thin bed d'dark- 
M^red Sandstone. The burrowing of Uta modern LimKlut, as 
deeeribed bf the vrriter in vol. vii of this journal, would produce 
a similar eSect. I have not seen the burrows of ImmiIiu in day j 



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366 THE CANADIAN NATT&ALIBT. [Oot 

and iQ sand a quantity of thia material ia thrown out b^nd, 
which in a oaat would have left two hollows, not present in tbe 
fossils ; bat should a Limuiut bnrrow in fine mud, which would 
become diffused or washed away as Uirown out, then the appeai- 
ance would be not nnlilce that of these fos^. The front of the 
carapace would give the rounded, anterior end; the two rows of 
walking and swimming feet would form the depressions with traus- 
verae strife; and the only addition would be tlie mark of the 
caudal spioe of Limulut, of which there is no trace in the fossils. 
The animal required would therefore be aomstacean, having feet 
and habits of life geDerally resembling those of Limvlut, bnt 
without a caudal spine. The only known animals of the period 
that could have fulfilled these conditions are the Trilobites; and 
since the interesting discovery, by Mr. Billings, of the feet, or bases 
of the feet, of Axaphut, the objeotion to this view which mi^il 
Jiave been taken from our ignorance of the feet of these aaimaU, 
no longer exiats. The feet of AMaphtu, in short, appear to oon- 
stitute juat such a double aeries of laminie as would necesaarily 
produce markings like those referred to. 

From the great depth of these burrows, and the indications of 
shallow water in the vicinity of a shore presented by the shrink. 
age-cracka, I would further consider it probable that these hdee 
were places of incubation ; and that the Trilobites carried tbdr 
spawn atteehed to their swimming-feet, and were in the habit of 
resorting to shallow water for the purpose of incubation. 

The above remarks apply more especially to R. GrenviUtntit. 
I can speak with less confidence of Professor Hall's species ; but 
the only specimen which I possess of the R. bilobatut of New 
York, differs from the QrenviUe apecimens (inly in the proportions 
of length and breadth ; as might be expected, if, as is probably the 
case, it ia the track of a different species. My bilobate impres- 
sioDS from Nova Scotia have been produced by a small animal ; 
perhaps the little species of Phillipna which cccuts in the same 
formation. Mr. Salter's ATenxcola from the Longmynd wants 
the transverse markings, and the impressions are somewhat separate^ 
so that they may be of a different character from the others. I think 
it quite likely, however, that the more elongated apecies of Ran- 
phgau, in the Clinton of New York, may be casts of tracka of 
Trilobites, and I have long believed that a similar explanatioii 
will apply to some at least of the supposed focoids known u 
Arthrophyau. 



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1864.] DAwaoM OH thk genub etjbophtodb. 367 

Taking this view of the origin of these singular objects, I 
would surest to change the generic name of the Grenville fossil to 
Raichnitei. Id such impressions it is scarcely to be expected 
Uiat good specific characters can exist. I think it probable, how- 
ever, that the Grenville speoimena may Indicate the presence of 
three species of Trilobites. Some of the smaller specimens are 
more elongated than the others, and have more numerous furrows. 
Other and larger ones are Bhort«T and with fewer and more obtuse 
transverse furrows. A third variety is that referred to by Mr. 
Billings in his description, as having traces of lateral longitudinal 
ftirrows. These may in the meantime be included under i?, Gren- 
villensit, Billings, as varieties (a), (6), and (c). (Figs. 1 and 2). 

Bfy Nova Scotia specimens, though small, show little difference 
of character, but 1 would regard them as constituting a distinot 
species, under the name R. carbonariut. (Fig. 3). 

A third species of Rasichniles has recently come into my pos- 
session, in a collection of fossils from the coal formation of Sydney, 
Cape Breton, sent to me by my friend Richard Brown, Esq. 
These impressions are, like the others, casts in relief, on a slab 
of sandstone. Each impression consists of the oasts of oontigaons 
rounded furrows, each about on&«ighth of an inch in breadtb, 
and crossed by carved undulations and striie, in such a maoDer 
as to give the appearance of a pinnate leaf carved in high relief. 
At each side of these impressions, and about a tenth of an inch 
distant from them, aro ioterrupted lines, in relief in the casts, 
and running parallel with the casts of the furrows. The whole 
has exactly the appearance of the track of the swimming feet and 
edgea of the carapace of a small Limvloi, about half an inch wide. 
The tracks have also the same tortuous charaoter with those of 
the modem Limulus. Lvmali have not yet occurred in the ooal 
formation of Nova Scotia, though they occur in rocks of this age 
elsewhere ; but from these traoks I infer that animals of this 
kind lived in the Sydney ooal field, where their remains will 
probably hereafter be found. I propose for these impressions the 
name R. Acadinu, and will endeavor to ^ure tbem in the next 
number of the NdturaUit. 



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368 TBI OiMADIAN If ATrSALISX. [Oct 

ON THE GEOLOGY OF EASTERN NEW YORK. 
B; ProfewoT JlHU Eub and Sir Wuuui E. Loau. 

Profeesor James Hall and Sir Williun Jjogaa epeDt & few itys 
together last sumnier in oxaminii^ aome points of the geology of 
Eastern New York, and propose to oontinne their examiaalioos 
next season, when we may expeot from them a detailed acooant of 
their results. Their priDoipal objeot was to compare the rooks rf 
that region with some of those of Eastern Canada; and I ham 
BOW permission, in the abeeaee of tbeae gentlemen, to lay befora 
tiiia Society some of the resulle of this exploration. 

The shales of the Hadson River group, which are seen for a 
oonsiderable distance north and south of Albany, disappear a few 
miles east of the Hudson, and are suooeeded by harder and 
coarser shales, sometimes red or green in color, and pasung into 
green argillaceous sandstones. These various strata, which ace 
associated with cono^tioaaiy and shaly Umeetones, are now reoog- 
niEcd as bdonging to the Qnebeo f^up. The line of oontaot 
between Utis and the much more reeeat Hudson River group has 
nowhere been clearly seen in this region, but the two series are 
readily distinguished by tiieir diffsrenoes in oolor, texture, and 
bardneas, — difierenoes which were formerly supposed l« depend 
apon the partial metunorphiem of the eastern portion, when this 
was looked upon as a paA of the Hudson Biver group. The 
green sandstones and conglomerates of Grafton Muuntain, formerly 
looked upon as a portion of the Sfaawaugunk conglomerate, are 
recognized as belongiiig to on outlying portion of the Silleiy foE- 
nation. This mountain Professor Hall had found in a previoas 
Biploration (1844-4!^) to have,^apoiBt ftither south, a syncluW 
■tmotnre, and it probably lies in three low synclinal axes. The 
Silleiy formation soaroely extends south of Rensselaer County. 

CauaMi Mountain is also ^pu»ntly syni^inal, and, while Ume* 
atones appear in the valleys on each side of it, crasists chiefly <^ 
slates, the highest beds being a hard gteeo sandstone, sometuaes 
shaly, without any of \h.6 eonglomeratee of the Sillery ; although 
boulders and angular fragments of these are found in the adjacent 
Tatleys. To the east of this, Richmond Mountain, in Massacha- 
eetta, presents in its upper portion a compact green slate, passing 
upwards into a liarder lock similar to that of the summit of Car 
nsan Mountain. To tite southward, as &r as Hillsdale, the 



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1864.] ON THX OIOLOOT Or BABTIBM ITBW TORE. 309 

sparry limestones of tlie Quebec gnrap appear in the valleys, 
wliile the hills are of slate. Proceeding thsnoe 'westward towards 
the river, only the lower portions of the Qnebeo group are met 
with, nntil we oome npon the rocks of the Hndson River group. 

Washington Mountain is also of slate, flanked by limestone, all 
of the Quebec gnrap, end is probably synclinal in stnioture. The 
T&lley to the south of the mountain exhibits limestones, apparently 
tlternating n'Hh slatee. Columbia and Dntohees counties appear 
to be mainly ocou|Hed by the shales of the Quebec group, witli 
broad ezposores of its limestones, until we approach the river to 
the westward, when the shales of the Hndson River group are met 
with, extending a coiuuderable distance below the city of Hudson. 

From Fishkill the explorers proceeded to Coldspring, oroasuig 
what Mnther called the Mattewan granite, hut which they found 
to be an altered sandstone. Soon aAer this they came upon the 
great gneiss formation of the Highlands of the Hndson, whiob 
continues beyond Peekskill. They failed to find the sandstone 
described hy Mather as ooming out at this place; nor was anything 
representing the Potsdam sandatone detected in appioacbing the 
Highlands from Fishkill, nor elsewhere along their northern limits. 
Near to Peekskill, in the vall^ of the oreek, was found a low 
ridge of bhick slate, supposed to belong to the Quebec group, and 
a similar slate was observed along the north dde of the Highland 
range, not far from the gneiss. The gneiss of the Highlands 
presents all the aspects and oharaoterisdca of that of the Laoren- 
tian system, as seen in northern New York and in Canada. 

Further examinations are necessary to determine the extension 
to the north-east of the Lanrentian rocks of the H^blands, and 
also the succession of strata to the south-east of them. The recog- 
nition of the Sillery and of the Quebec group in this region are great 
and iropor)ant facts £>r its geology, and not less so the identification 
with the Laurentian qrstem of. the gneissic district of the High, 
lands, to which the interesting mineral region of Orange connty 
and the adjacent parts of New Jersey doubtless belongs. This 
oonclnsion, although opposed to the views df Mather and Rogera, 
who looked upon ihe crystalline rooks of the latter r^ifm as 
altered Lower Silurian strata, is in acoordance with the older 
observations of Vannxem and Keating, and with the more recent 
ones of Professor Cook, according to all of whom the gneiss and 
erystalline limestones of Orange Connty and of New Jersey 
nnderiie nnconformably the I<ower Silurian strata. T. s. a. 



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870 TEX OANA.DIAir MAIU&ALtST. [Oet. 

KATUBAL HISTORY SOCIETY. 

The fiTBtmouthl J meeting of the Society for the Session 1864-65 
waa held at its rooms on Moada; eveoiiig, September 26tli, Dr. 
DavBOD, Preeident, in the chair. A large nnmber of donations 
vere announced : 

To THX Mdbkuh. 
Blackbomian warbler (Dmdroiea Blachhumxee) and the black- 
throated green warbler (^Dendroiea virena), ehot near Montreal, and 
presented by Mr. W. Hunter. AlargecoUcctionof English beetles, 
^m W. M. S. D'Urban, Esq. A fine series of Canadian insects, of 
all orders, from Messrs. John B. Goode, C. Foley, R. J. Fowler, aod 
Jas. Ferrter, Jan. Fossils and recent shells from Prof Dana (New- 
haven), Dr. Hobbard (Staten Island), E. Seymour (New York}, 
and C. Hart. Also a number of single specimens of ioterest, but 
which we cannot particularize from want of space. The donations 
to the Library were also numerous, 

Nev Meubsrs. 
Prof. R, Bell was elected a oorrceponding, and G, W. Simpson, 
Esq., an ordinary member of the Society, 

Pbocbedihos. 

The ftrst paper (On Rusophyew Grenvillmng, Billings) was 
then read by Friaoipal Dawson. This paper is printed ia the pre- 
sent number. 

Mr. Billings read a paper, " On a remarkable specimen of Aia- 
phu» Plati/cephaliu." The principal point of interest in this com- 
mnnication was that the author claims to have discovered what the 
1^ of trilobites were like. The atmctare of the npper part of 
these remarkable foseils, so familiar to the student of the older 
fossiliferons rocks, has long been known to naturalists. Dr. Buok- 
land, in his Bndgewater treatise, has described the microscopio 
details of the eyes of these curious crustaceans, which oi^ns are 
not unfreqnently preserved in the rooks, — and has fully illustrated 
their complex, compound character. But until now, the only por- 
tion of the under surface known was the part oontaioiog the 
mouth. This oi^an is situated in a plate on the under sorfaoe of 



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1864.] NATTIBAL HIBTOBT 800IBTY. 371 

the head, a conaidarable dUbinoe from its apex. From ibia ciroom- 
atanoe Bnrmeister infers that " they sn'am in an inverted position, 
tba bell; upwards and the back downwards," as the moath ia 
situated so far backwards oa the nnder side. Bat although even 
the e;e8 of these cnriona creatoreB are often preserved, no traces 
of the l€^ have hilherto been detected. It was supposed that they 
were thin and foliaoeons, for it was plauubly urged that if these 
aalmals had the stout, calcareona k^ of ordinary orabs, some trace 
of tJtem would have beeD met with in the rocks. 

Mr. Billiags exhibited a specimen from the Trenton limestone 
of Ottawa, which had been in part careAilly extricated from the 
matrix. He stated that in his opinion trllohites had a piur of thin, 
ibliaceous 1^ to each s^jment of the thorax, or rather abdomen. 
The specimen of A$aphiu Platt/rephalui which he passed round 
for examination was a speoimen with eight thoracic s^ments, and 
exhibited on the nnder side eight semicylindrical ridges on each 
aide of the median line, all curving outwards and forwards. 
These he believed to be the bases of the attachment of eight pairs 
uf swimming feet — one pair for each s^ment of the thorax. 
Bnrmeister had made a sketch of wliat he supposed the legs of a 
trilobite would be like, and Mr. Billings stated that this ideal res- 
toration was fully borne out by his specimea, except that in Bur- 
meister's drawing the legs were directed backwards, whilst thoseof 
the actual specimen pointed forwards. 

Dr. Dawson remarked that the Natural History Society might 
well feel proud that this important discovery in palseontolcgy had 
been made by one of its own members. 

Mr. BlIllDgs stud that in his opinion the specimen exhibited 
tended to verify the views that Dr. Dawson advocated with respect 
to the Grenville fossil previously treated of. 

Mr. D. R. McCord, B.A., next made a commnnioation " On 
Canadian Perns, their Yarietiea and Habitats." This paper is 
printed in the present number. 

The Becordiag Secretary exhibited a collection of native ferns, 
OoUected and prepared by Miss Isabella Mcintosh (of Burnside 
Hoose), among which were three species of peculiar interest. The 
first was the " green spleenwcrt " {^Agplenium viride, Hudson), a 
small species oconrriog somewhat rarely in mountainous distriotfl 
in England, and in various localities in Europe. It had been 
previously detected in Gasp^, in the summer of 1863, by John 



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372 THE OAKASIAS NATUBALI8T. [Oet. 

Bell, B A., tod this vas the onlj atatioD in which it was previimsly 
kaovn to oocor in Canada. The other apeeies are the " Adder's 
tongue fern," (Ophioglauitm vulgcUum), at which fine speoimens 
veie ooUeoted at Melbourne, in the Eaatarn TowDshipa ; and the 
" Moonwort " (BofrycAiBm Inatana), two apeoiea well known to 
inhabit Europe, bnt now for the first time reoordod as oocniring 
in Canada. 

0. Robb, Esq., exhibited a series of ferns odleoled in Canada 
West, by Mrs. Traill, the well-known autboreas. 

Dr. Dawson remarked that the study of the non-flow»ing plnta 
of Canada was as yet bnt in its infancy, and that Prof. Lawson's 
and Mr. UcCord's papers, excellent as they were, most be oon- 
ndered as only fwming the commeneement of an inveatigation 
full of inteicet and pnHuise. 



The second monthly meeting of the Society fer the Besston 
1864r-65 was held in its rooms on Monday evening, Ootobei 24th. 
The following donations were announced : 

To iHi MmBUH. 

From Frinoipal Dawson, twen^-three spsnes of Canadian drift- 
SjshIb, and twenty-two specimens of coal-plants from Nova Soolaa. 

From C. Bobb, Esq., Columnaria alveolata, a fosul-cor&l ttom 
the Black River limestone of Boi^ess, C. W. Specimen of 
diallage from Brompton, and examples of native and mannfaotoied 
gntimony fVom Sooth Ham. 

From Mr. W. Hunter, stuffed specimen of Uie night heron 
{Nyctiardea Oardeni), Baird. 

From Mra. Mclntoeb, a quantity of living fishes for the 
Aqnaria. 

To TBK lilBSAilT. 

From tihe Antlior, Geologjoal Survey of Mtohigan, 1860, by 
Ft^. A. WinoheU. 

Nkv Mkhbebs. 

Hugh Fraaer, Esq., was elected a life member, and ihe Ber. 
Ilobt. McDonald and Prof. H. Y. Hind, corresponding memb^i 
oftheSode^. 



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1864.] natural hi&toet 60ciett. ' 373 

Pkooeedinos. 

The first paper, entitled "Notes on the Geolog; of Eastern 

New York, by Prof. James Boll and Sir Wr E. Lc^an," was 

read by Dr. T. Sterry Hunt. This paper is printed in the 

present number. 

Dr. Hunt then made a verbal communication on pbospbate 
of lime; he described its nature and composition generally', its 
sources in nature, and its various uses, particularly as a manure. 
After notiDg the manufacture of superphosphate of lime from 
bones, coprolites, and guano, he protreeded t« describe the supplies 
of the phosphate of lime known to mineralogists as apatite, which 
is met with in crystalline rocks and especially in Canada ; where 
the mineral is fonnd abundantly in the victDity of Perth, and olro . 
at several points along the Ottawa. The pbospbate occurs both 
disseminated in small crystals through certain beds of crystalline 
limestones of the Laurenttan system, and in r^ular veins which 
intersect the rocks of the same system. In these veins the mineral 
is sometimes found nearly pure, and at other times associated with 
pyroxene, large crystals of mugnesian mica (which are wrought), 
and other ailioated minerals. Not unfrequently also it is mingled 
with lauellur carbonate of lime, which sometimes so far predomi- 
nates as to give rise to what may be called a crystalline limcslone, 
holding grains and crystals of apatite, and can scarcely be dis- 
tinguished from those stratified Laurentian limestones of the 
region, which also contains apatite, except by the fact that it 
occurs in veins, cutting tiie strata. Many of these are too poor 
in apatite to be wrought with advantage ; but Dr. Hunt exprei^sed 
the opinion that all the workable phosphate of the region occurs 
in true veins, some of which are of considerable width, and are 
filled with phosphate of lime almost without any foreign admixture. 
Dr. HuQt then proceeded to give a history of these deposite, which 
were first described in 1848, in the report of the Geological Sur- 
vey, the officers of which had since, on repeated occasions, called 
attention to the value of this material, and had shown it at the 
great exhibitions of London and Paris. He then described the 
attempts now being made to work the deposits of this mineral by 
some New York capitalists in North Bm^;e3S, where they have 
tbrty or fifty workmen, und^i the direction of a skillful mining 
engineer. 

\0L. I. I No. 5. 



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THS OANABUH NATDBALIST. [Oct 



ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF CANADA. 

Tbb ordinaiy monthly meeting of the Society was held in the 
Goanoil-room of the Canadian Institute on Tuesday, Dec. 8th, at 
3 p.m. Nearly all thetuemberB from Toronto and the vicinity were 
present. Id the absence ofProf. Croft and Mr. Saunders, Dr. 
Morris was called to the chair, and Mr. Hnbbert appointed secretai; 
pro tern. The mioates of the previous meeting were read and 
cooSrmed. 

CommuDications were received from Prof. Hincke, ezpresdog 
r^et at his inability to attend from in disposition ; from F 
Grant, £sq., and R. V. Rogers, Esq., on business connected with 
the Society. 

Rev. H. P. Hope, aod Bice Lewis, Esq., Toronto, and Jamee 
Wright, Esq., Vienna, C. W., nei-e proposed as suitable peraonB 
to become members. 

The following donation!) were acknowledged, and the tbanks of 
the Society voted to the donors : 

Fhm Prof. Croji. 

A cabinet or MTSD drawers. 

Totht Library, from thi Smithtoniim Imtitutioti. 

UoDOgcapb of tbe Diptera of North America, b; U. Low. Part I. 
From tht author, W, Saundtn, Etq., London, C. W. 

(1.) Honogrnph of tbe Arctiades of Canada. 20 copies. 

(2.) Description often new gpeeiei of Arctia. 

(3 ) " On BomB bitbecto undescribed Lepidopterous Larvn." 

JVoia ^. S. Packard, Eiq., Jun., Camiridge, Mam., through Priae^ 
DatBion. 

Photographs of the followlD^; andeaccihed bombjces ; 

C ram bida pail ida, Cailimorpba Testa, Oallochlora chlorata, Oyrlosla 
alb [pun c Lata, male and female, Bntrutricudes tcsucea, Cj'rtosia gemt- 
Data,Cilodas7BcinerearronB,LaphDdoDtafeirDgiQea, UluphiiLatriliDeata, 
maie and female, Platjarma furcilia, Cilodasjs biguttata, Edaplenjx 
bilioeata. 

From Jamti Hubberl, E$q., B.^. 

Popuiar Entomoioey, by Maria E. Catlow. 

British Butterflies, b; W. S. Coleman. 

To tht Cabinet, from Prof. Croft. 

48 specimeas, iacludiDg 2T species of Chinese Lepidoptera. 

164 specimeas, iacludiag SI ipecies of Coleoptera. 
From a. R. Morrit, Eiq., B.A., M.D. 

41 specimens, inclndiag 16 Bpeciea of Ooleoptera. 



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1864.] ENTOMOLOaiOAL 800IBTT OF CANADA. 375 

A-OH J. B. Saagiter, Etq., M.J. 
33 Bpecimeos, laclndiiig Ilspeciea of Coleopterft. 
6 " " 6 " " Lepidoptara. 

U " " 10 " " Diptera. 

10 " " 10 " " Hymenopteio. 

6 " " A " " Neuroptcn. 

* " " 4 " " Orthopterft. 

Fran B. BOUngt, Etq., Oltaaa. 
IseBpecimBngfincludiDg 132>p«cies oF Coleoplera. 
31 " « 18 " " LepidopMra. 

6 " " G " " Diptera. 

1 " " e " " Orthoptera. 

3 " " 2 " " Sttepsiptet*. 

3 " " 3 " " Hamiptora, 

JV-on/anifi Hubbert, Etq., B.J. 
261 specimeiu, including ITS sp«ciea of Ooleoptera: 
63 ■ " " 25 " " LepidopWra. 

44 " " 40 " " DEptora. 

38 " " 3T " " Hymenoptera. 

13 " " 10 " " Orthoptera. 

13 " " 8 " " Neuroplara. 

16 " " 10 " " Hemiptera. 

From Thomat JUynoldi, Eiq., Mmtrttd. 
13 >p«cimen8, including B epeeiea of Goleoptera. 
159 " " 63 " " Lepidoptera. 

1 " " 1 " " Diptera. 

9 " " e " " Hf menoptera. 

2 " " 1 " " Hemiptera. 

From W. Savruttri, Etq., London. 
345 Bpecimens, iDcladiog 121 apeeiea ofColeoptera. 
Ill " " 31 " " Lepidoptera. 

8 " " 6 " , " Neuroptera. 

1 " " 1 " " Dipleia. 

4 " " 1 II II Strepgiptera. 

A oommnnication was read from Mr. Saunders r^;ardiag the 
piacticability of publishing a catalogne of the Icnown Canadian 
BpecieB of each order of insects. After considerable diBOnaBion as 
to the best form, etc., it was moVed and seconded, That the 
Society take immediate steps to prepare and pnbliah catalogues of 
the Coleoptera and Lepidoptera; to be followed by similar cata- 
li^es of the other orders as soon as possible; and that Mr. 
Sanadera, Prof. Croft, and Mr. Billings be a committee on 
Coleoptera ; and Prof. Hincks, Mr. Sanndem, and Dr. Moiris on 



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376 THE CANADIAN NAXUBALI8T. [Oot 

Lepidoptera. Carried, The Committees are very sDzioaa to 
secure the oo-operntion of all persons baviog either named col- 
teotioDs or lists of species. Any information which would aid in 
bringing out full and aoonrat« catalogues should be commnnicnted 
without delay to Mr. Saunders or Prof. Hioclcs. Moved and 
aeconded that a supply of entomological pins, and sheet cork for 
lining cabinets, be procured and kept on hand, to be furnished to 
members at the lowest cost prices. Carried. 

It ia intended ultimately to keep all the apparatus required in 
capturing and preserving inaecU. 

Moved and seconded that the Rev. Chas. J. Bcthnne, B.A., be 
requested to use his influence to advance the interests of the 
Society among entomolt^ists in Britain. Carried. 

A verbal communication waa made by Dr. Morris on insects 
captured in the vicinity of Orillia during the summer of 1863. 

Among tlie interesting specimens exhibited by Dr. Morris weie 
several examples of Coliai edueaco, seldom met with in Canada, 
only two or three individuals having been taken as yet. The Dr. 
remarked that this insect seems to differ from the C. eduta of 
British naturalists in its habits of Sight, etc., which seem to indi- 
cate either a new species or very wide variations. 

Both sexes of Leriai leia, also very rare in Canada, had been 
captured. A species of ArrheriocUt, taken by Mr. P. Grant of 
Orillia, was also exhibited. The general appearance of the insect 
closely resembled that of A. teptenlrioait, of which it is probably 
a variety. The form of the rostrum, however, is so peculiar as to 
lead the Dr. to think that possibly there may be two species 
with us. 

Papers presented by Mr. Hubbert r 

(1). '■ Notes on Insects captured near Kingston, 1863." 

(2). " What the Insects do in January." 

The meeting theo a^jonrned. 



ON TBE LABT.a O? ATTACtTS POLTFHXMQS. 

BT wtLbUM ooanv, qmato. 

On the 14th of August 1863, 1 found two caterpillars of A. 
poh/phemut feeding on sweet-briar in the vicinity of Montmo- 
renci river, near Qnebeo. They were carefully carried to my 
home, and the above food<|ilant supplied daily, excepting Hint the 



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1864.] XNTOUOLOaiCAL SOOIETT OF CANADA. 377 

thorns were picked off the branches belbre the larvte were attnched 
thereon. The lepidopteristwill no doubt understand my astonish- 
ment to find the large, soft, thin-skinned, and hairless lar^a of ^. 
polifpkemut feeding (in the sweet-briar, a plant said to be intro- 
duced into Canada. Harris gives three food-plants, i. e., tbe oak, 
elm, and lime trees. Formerly I fonnd it feeding on a species of 
maple at Toronto, and now in tbe Lower Provinces we find it 
on the thorny briar. How Ibey manage to turn and creep from 
one branch to anotber without coming in contact with the nume- 
rous thorns, I am unable to explain. They continued to feed on 
the supplied food up to the 28th of August, on wbicb day they 
ceased to feed, and prepared to spin. The caterpillar that pro- 
duced the male first ceased feeding ; it was also tbe first to issue 
from its coeoon, although both were subject to an equal tempera- 
ture. A short time previous to spinning, both caterpillars ejected 
tbe contents of the viscera, consisting of about a t^aspoonful of a 
dark green fluid, and immediately afterwards they began to form 
their cocoons. I notice this singular caterpillar tjectamentum, 
as I think it has been hitherto overlooked, and it would be 
advancing oar knowledge in entomological science to have this 
flnid analyzed. The caterpillar that produced the male had the 
dorsal tubercles much shorter than the one that issued from the 
other coeoon ; they were tipped with bright yellow, with a slight 
golden reflection. The caterpillar of the second cocoon, or tbe 
one producing the supposed female, had the lateral and dorsal 
tubercles bright orange red, mingled with golden, the tubercles 
were more robust and longer than the one which produced the 
male. Unfortunately, during my absence from home, the moth 
from the second cocnon escaped through the window, and I am 
therefore unable to prove tbe imago sex with the larvas. But 
from external eharaetcrs alone, I rest satisfied that tbe future inves- 
tigator will find that the richest colored caterpillar forms the 
cradle of the female. I trust my short ioTestigation may lead 
others to study the metamorphosis of this genus of moths. No 
doubt if a thorougli search is also made for tbe larvES of A. hina 
in the Lower Provinces, it will be found feeding on a plant differ- 
ent from its western food, and probably hitherto unknown to be 
used as such by this beautiful moth. 



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378 THK CANADIAN HATDRALIST. [Oct. 

MISCELLANEOUS. 

Calldna Vdlqabis. — Professor Laweon, of Dalhouaie Col- 
lie, Halifax, has seat to one of the editors a speoimen of this 
plaot, the oommon heather of Scotlaad, from St. A.dd's Bay, Cape 
BretoD. This oonfirma an old report, referred to in vol. vii of 
this joarnal, p. 343, of its occurrence in that island; and affords 
another certainly ascertained Amerioan locality, in addition to those 
preTiously known in Massachusetts and Newfoundland, It should 
be satiafaatory to the Scotsman in British America to know that 
there is at least one spot in his adopted oonntry where he can plant 
his foot on his native heather. The apparent rarity of the plant 
in Amenoa is however no less curious than its extension to this 
oonntiy ; and it remains as a question for future botanists to settle 
whether it is now being introduced to the new world or gradually 
dying out from it. 

Thb Geological Magazine. — The GeohgUt, of London, has 
been merged in a new periodical, to be edited by Prof. T. B. Jonea 
and Henry Woodward. Its prospectus says : 

The rapid progress of geolc^ in all iU branches, and especi- 
ally the wide-spread interest imparted to this science by the 
recent careful investigation of some of the more modern strata, 
have largely increased the number of those who study geology, 
either professionally or as amateurs. The frequent discoveries, 
also, which result from the exertions of practical geologisls, both 
at home and abroad, appear to indicate the necessity of a monthly 
periodical, not only for the publication of original papers on geol- 
ogy and kindred subjects, as well as of translations of important 
foreign memoirs, but also as the means of oommunicution between 
geologists and palteontologists in England and other countries. 

The valuable Journal of the Geological Society fulfils some of 
these requirements; but being published only quarterly, and 
necessarily restricted almost entirely to the proceedings of that 
Society, it cannot serve all the purposes proposed by the oondno- 
tors of The Geological Magazine. 

In Germany the Neae* Jahrbuch has fulGlled the require- 
ments of the geological public for the last thirty years with un- 
varying success ; and the editor and publishers of the Monthly 
Geologut have during six years endeavored to meet them in 
England, The latter work is now merged in The Geologital 
Magazine. 



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1864.] LIOT0U BT DB. UVINOSTOHE. 379 

The publishers and editors of The Qeologieal Magazine have 
not hastily nadertaken the tadt which lies before them; bat, 
having consulted the most eminent geologists and palseontolo^sta 
of the da; (amongst whom may be mentioned Sir Philip Egertou, 
Sir Roderick Marcbieon, Sir Charles Lyell, G. Poulett Scrope, Esq., 
Professors Sedgwick, Phillips, Owen, Ramsay, Morris, and Huxley, 
and Dr. Falconer), they are not unaware of what will be expected 
of them ; and they have received such annranoes of support and 
encouragement, as well as promises of original contributions, that 
they confidently trust thdr efforts will meet with success. 

Another well-known soieutifio magazine, the Edinburgh New 
Philotopkieat Journal, has been merged in the uew Quarterly 
Journal of Science, published in London. 



MEETING OF BRITISH ASSOCIATION. 

LECTUBB BY DB. LPTINOSTONB. 

On the evening of September 20, the theatre was crowded by 
members of the Association, anxious to hear the lecture announced 
by Dr. Liringstoue on his travels and labors in Africa. 

Sir B. Murchison stated that the asustaat-general-seoretBry, Mr. 
Griffiths, had made such excellent arrangemenls that, while Dr. 
Iiivingstooe b lecturing there, his lecture would be read in another 
place to many hundreds of the Associatjon who could not &nd room 
in the theatre; and that when that assembly was adjourned, his 
Mend would move to the other room, and there thank that assembly 
which was met to do him honor also. 

Dr. Livingstone then delivered the ibllowing lecture : — In 
order that the remarks I have to offer may be clearly understood, 
it is necessary to oalt to mind some things lAich took place previous 
to the Zambesi Expedition being sent ont ; and most of you are, 
no doubt, aware, that previous to the discovery of Lake Ngami and 
tbe well-watered oountiy in which the Makololo dwell, the idea pre- 
vailed that a la^ part of the interior of Africa was composed of 
vast sandy deserts into which rivers ran and were lost. In a jcor- 
ney from sea to sea across the continent, somewhat north of the 
lake first discovered, it was found that there, too, the country was 
well watered. Large tracts of fertile soil were covered with forest, 
and oocupied by a couuderable popnlalXcn. We had, then, the 



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380 THK OANADIAN NATttBALISI. ' [Oet 

form of trlie oontinent revealed to be an eleTnted piftteaa, somewhat 
depressed in the centre, nith fissures at the sides, by which tlie 
rivers escaped to the sea : and this great fact in physical geography 
can Dever be referred to withoat mentioning the remarkable hy- 
pothesis by which the distinguished President of the Royal Geo- 
graphical Society (Sir E. Murchison) clearly delineated it h^ore 
it was verified by actnal observation of the altitudes of the ooantry 
and courses of the rivers. It was published in one of his famona 
anniversary addresses ; and he has been equally happy in bis last 
address in pointing out the ancient geological condition of the in- 
terior of this continent ns probably the oldest in the world — a fact 
we, wlio were on the spot, could but dimly guess. But he aeeina 
to have the faculty of collecting facts from every sonree, and con- 
centrating them into a focus in a way no one else can accomplish. 
(Cheers.) We understand it only after he has made it all plain 
in his stady at home. Then followed the famous travels of Dr. 
Barth and Francis Gallon ; the mo^t interesting discoveries of 
Lake Zangnyika and Victoria Nyawya, of Captain Burton, and 
Captain Spcke, whose sad loss we all now so deeply deplore, and, 
again, of Lakes Shirwe and Nyassa ; the discoveries of Van der 
Decken and several others; but, last of all, the gr^md discovery of 
the main source of the Nile, which every Englishman must feel 
proud to know was accomplished by our countrymen Speke and 
Grant. In all this exploration the main object in view has not 
been merely to discover objects of nine days' wonder — to gaze, and 
be gazed at by barbarians — I would not give a fig to discover even 
a tribe with tails I — but, in proceeding to the west coast, to lind 
a path to the sea, whereby lawful commerce might be introduced 
to aid missionary efforts. I was very much struck by observing that 
the decided influence of that which isknown as Lord Palmerston's 
policy existed several hundreds of miles from the ocean. I found 
piracy had been abolished, and that the slave-trade had been so far 
suppressed as to be spoken of aa a thing of the post ; that lawful 
commerce ha 1 increased from 20,000^. in ivory and gold-dust to be- 
tween 2 000,000/. and 3,000,000^., 1,000,000;. of which was in 
palm-oil to our own country ; that over twenty missions had been es- 
tablished, with schools in which 12,000 pupils were taught ; that 
life and property were secure on the coast, and comparative peace 
established in large portions of the interior ; and all this was at n 
time vhea, from reading the speeches of well-informed gentlemen 
&t home, I had come to the oonolusion that oar craisers had done 



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1864.] LBOTITRX BT SB. I.tTUIGBTONX. 381 

nothing but a^rsmte tLe evils of the slare-trade. Well, not finding 
what I wished by going to the west coast, I came down the Zambesi 
to t^e east coast, and there I found the country scaled up. The 
same eflforts had been made by onr oruisere here as on the west 
coast, but, in oonscqaence of foreigners being debarred fiomentas 
ing the country, neither traders nor missionBrics had established 
themselTes. The trade was only in a little ivory, and gold-dustand 
slaves ; just as it was on the west coast before Lord Paimerston's 
policy came into operation. It seemed to me, therefore, that as the 
Portuguese Government professed itself willing to aid in opening 
the country, and we had a large river, Zunbcsi, which, l>eing full 
when I first descended, it seemed a famous inlet to the higher lands 
and interior generally ; I knew the natives to be almost all fond of 
trading, and,whcn away from the influence of the slave-trade,fricndly 
and mild, the soil fertile, and cotton and other products widely 
cultivated. It therefore appeared to me that if I could open this 
t^ion to lawful commerce I should supplement the eflbrls of oar 
cruisers, in the same way as has been done by traders and missioo- 
ancs on the west coast, and perform a good service to Africa and 
to England. To acoomplisfa this was the main object of the Zam- 
besi Espcdition, and in speaking of what was done, it is to be on- 
derstcod that Dr. Kirk, Mr. Livingstone, and others composed it; 
and when I speak in the plural number I mean them, and wish to 
bear testimony to the zeal and untiring energy with which my com- 
panions worked. They were never daunted by difficulties, nm^ 
dangers, nor hard fare, and were their services required in any 
other capacity might be relied on to perform their duty. The first 
discovery we made was a navigable entrance to the Zambesi, about 
a degree west of the QuilHbiane River, which had always been re- 
presented as the month of the Zambesi, in order, as somo matn- 
t^ned. that the men-of-war might be induocd to watch the false 
mouth while slaves were quietly shipped from the real mouth. This 
mistake has lately been propagated in amapby theColooialMinis, 
ter of Portugal. On ascending tho Zambesi we found that the I'orto- 
gueee authorities, to whom their Government had kindly com- 
mended us, had nearly all fled down to tho sea-coast, and the conntiy 
was in the hands of the natives, many of whom, by their brands, 
we saw had been slaves. As they were all quite Wendly with uB, 
wc proceeded to our work, and ascended the river in a littie steamer- 
which, having been made of steel plates, a material never before 
tried, and with an engine and boiler, the sweepings of some shop, 



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382 TBE CANADIAN NATUBALIBT. [Oot 

very soon fkiled ns. Indeed, tbe common oanoee of the conntrr 
pused as with ease, and the people in them looked buck, wondering 
what this puffing, asthmatic thing oonid mean. The crocodiles 
diought it was a land-animal swimming, and rushed at it in hopes 
of having a feast. The river for the first 300 miles is from half a 
mile to three miles wide. During half the jear the water is abun- 
dant and deep : during the other half, or the dry seasoo, it is very 
ihallow ; but withproperlycoostraotedvessels much might be made 
of it during the whole of ordinary years. We proceeded as soon 
SB we could to the rapids above Zett«, our intention having or^- 
nally been to go up as far as the Great Victoria Falls, and do what 
we oould with the Makololo, but our steamer could not stem a four- 
knot current. We then turned off to an affluent of the Zambed, 
which flows into it about 100 miles from the sea ; it is called the 
Shire, and, as for as we know, was never explored by any European 
before. It flows in a valley about 200 miles long and twenty broad. 
Ranges of bills shut in the landscape on both sides, while the river 
itself winds excessively among marshes ; in one of these we counted 
800 elephants, all in sight at one time. The pojiulation was 
very large ; crowds of natives, anned with bows and poisoned ar- 
rows, lined the hanks, and seemed disposed to resent any injury 
that m^ht be inflicted. But by oare and civility we gave them 
no occasion for commencing hostilities, though they were oncejust 
on the point of dischargiug their arrows. On a second visit they 
were more friendly, and the women and children appeared. We 
had so far gained their confidence that we left the steamer at Mur- 
ohison's Cataracts ; and Dr. Elrk and I, proceeding on foot to the 
N.N.U., discovered Lake Shirwe. This lake is not large ; it is 
said to have no outlet, and this ia probably the case, for its water 
is brackith ; it abounds in fish, hippopotami, and leeches. The 
scenery around is very beautiful, the mountains on the east rising 
to a height of 8,000 or 9,000 feet. We were now among Manganja, 
a people who had not been visited by Eoropeons, end as I am 
often asked what sort of folk these savages are, I may answer 
they were as low as any we ever met, except Bushmen, yet they 
all cultivate the soil lor their sustenanoe. They raise large quan 
titles of maize, or Indian oom, and another grain, which grows in 
a stalk ten or twelve feet high, with grain very much like the 
hempseed given to oauaries, and called by the Arabs dura (^Sat- 
ctM georghum} ; another kind of grain (tennisetum) ; several Jcinda 
of beans, pumpkins, and melons ; ououmbeis, from the seeds of 



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1864.] LIOTUBI B7 DB. LITTOOSTOin:. 383 

which & fine oil is extracted ; oaBBavs, from which onr tapioca ia 
made ; gronnd-natB, which yield an oil for cooking ; oaetor-oil, 
with which they anoiot their bodies; and tohacco and Indian 
hemp for smoking. The labor in the fields seemed to be per- 
fbrmed by the whole family, — men, women, and children heiiig 
generally seen in the fields together. Eaoh family had a patoh of 
cotton, jast as our forefathers had each a patch of lint; and iha 
ootton was spun and woven by the men, white the women malted 
and groood the corn, and made the beer. Near many of the Til- 
lages fiimacea were erected for smelting iron f^om the ore, and 
excellent hoea were mnde very cheap. All were very eager tra- 
ders, and very few were banters ; so they can scarcely be called 
Bavages, though, withoat a doubt, they were d^raded enough. 
Their life has always appeared to me to be one of fear. They may 
be attacked by other tribes, and sold into slavery; and the idea 
this brings is, that tJiey will be taken away, iattened, and eaten by 
tiie whites. The slaTO-trader oalls them beasts and savages, and 
they believe the slave-traders to be cannibals. They also live in 
fear of witchcraft ; and suspected persons are frequently compelled 
to drink the ordeal water, which is just about as sensible a means 
of detecting witches as our former mode of ducking in a pond. If 
the suspected person vomits, she is innocent ; if not, guilty : and 
yet we laugh heartily at our forefathers believing that the woman 
who sank in the pond was innocent, and guilty if she swam, — just 
as monomaniacs do with their illusions. Cultivating large tracts 
of land for grain, a fiivorite way of using the produce is to convert 
it into beer. It is not very intoxicating, but when they consume 
lai^ quantities they do beoome a little elevated. When a family 
brews a large quantity, the friends and neighbors are invited to 
drink, and bring their hoes with them. They let off theexcttement 
in merrily hoeing their friend's field. At other times they consame 
lai^ qnantitiee forthe same object as oar regular topers at home. 
Weentered one village, and found the people all tipsy together. On 
seeing us the men tried to induce the women to run away ; but the 
ladies, too, were, as we mildly put it, " a little overcome," and 
laughed at the idea of their running. The village doctor arranged 
matters by bringing a large pot uf the liquid, with the intention, 
apparently, of reducing us to the general level. Well, the peo|da 
generally, if we exoept the coast tribes, are very much like these, 
without the drankenness. Wherever tietze exists the people poa- 
seas no cattle, as this insect proves fatal to all domestic animali^ 



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ZSi THE OANADIAK ITATUBALIBT. [Oot. 

except the goat, man, and donkey. Its bite doM no barm to mui 
nor to the donkey, thongb one donkey we took through a tsetse 
district did die, probably from over-fatigue. We msde no discoTery 
as to the nature of the cnrions poison injected by the insect, nor 
could we find ont where it laid its e^e. Where the slave-trade is 
unknown the cattle are the only oaose of war. The Makoblo 
will travel a month for the sake of lifting cattle ; this is not consid- 
ered stealing; and when the qneetion Is put, " Why should yos 
lift what does not belong to you ?' ' they return the Scotoh answer, 
" Why should these Makalaka (or black fellows) poBsess cattle if 
tJiey can't defend them ?" Having secured thegood-wiUof all the 
people below and adjacent to Murchison's Cataracts, we next pro. 
ceeded further nortb,and discovered the Shire flowing in a broad, gen- 
tle stream out to Lake Nyassa, about sixty miles above the cataracts. 
The country on each side of the river and lake rises up in what, 
from below, seem ranjies of mountains, but when they have been 
ascended they turn out to be elevated plateaux, cool and well watered 
withetreams. Toshow thediffcrcocc of temperature, we were drink, 
ina; the waters of the Shire at eighty-four degrees, and by one day's 
march up the ascent, of between 3,000 and 4,000 feet, we had it at 
sixty-five degrecB, or nineteen degrees lower. It felt as if iced. We 
bad no trouble with tbo people. No dues were levied, nor fines de- 
manded, though the Manganja were quite independent in their bear- 
lug towards us, aod strikingly dilfereut from what they afterwards 
became. Our operations were confined chiefly to gaining the friend- 
ship of the diflerent tribes, and impartii^ what information we 
could with a view to induce them to cultivate cotton for expor- 
tation. It has already been mentioned that each family had its 
own cotloo-patch ; some of these were of considerable extent ; one 
field, close to Zedzan Cataract, I lately found to be 630 paoes 
on one side, and the cotton was of excellent quality, not requiring 
replanting oftener than once in three years, and no fear of injury 
by froHt. After careful examination, I have do hesitation in 
re-asserting that we have there one of the finest oott«n-fieldi 
io the world. Oo remonstrating with tha chiefs against sellii^ 
their people into slavery, they justified themselves on the plea 
that none were sold except criminals. The crimes may not always 
be very great, but I conjecture, from the the extreme ugliness of 
many slaves, that they are the d^raded criminal classes ; and it 
is not fair to take the typical nef^ from among them any more 
than it would be to place "Bill Sykes" or some of Fuaeh't 



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1864.] LECTORI BT DB. UVINQSTOHB. 385 

garrotters as the typical JohQ Boll. For years I had boen luokiDg 
out for the typical negro, and oever felt satisfied that I had got. 
him, for many of them are the piotures of the old Assyriaos ; 
othera, barring color, which wo soon forget, cloeely resemble - 
acquaintances at home. But Mr. Wiawood Read, in his work, 
" Savage Africa," seems to have l^hted right on the head of the 
idea, in saying that no typical negro b seen in the portraits and 
tnonniuents of die anoient Egyptians. When we had succeeded 
Id gaining the goodwill of tho people which crowded the 
Shire valley, the mission under the late Bishop Mackenzie came 
into the country. Dr. Kirk had performed a journey from the 
Murohisou Calaraotfl across to Zctte, a Portuguese village upon the 
Zambesi. Slave-hunters then were sent along Dr. Kirk's route 
by the sanction of the present OoTemmeut, calling themselvea 
" my children." The scamps I They joined themselves to another 
tribe called Ajawa, then in the act of migrating from the south- 
east, and who had been accustomed to take slaves annually dowa 
to Quiilimane, and otlier settlements on the coast Fumbhing the 
Ajawa with arms and ammunition, tlkey found it easy U> drive those 
who were armed only with bows sod arrows before them. When Dr. 
Kirk and Mr. Charles Livingstone, and I went up to show Bishop 
Mackenzie on to tho highlands, we met a party of these Portuguese 
slavescomingwith eighty-four captives bound and led towards Zette. 
The head of the par^ we knew perfectly, having had him in our 
employment in Zette. No force was employed, for even the slaves of 
the Governor knew that they were doing wrong, and fled, leaving 
the whole of the captives on our bands. Bishop Mackensie received 
tliem gladly, and in a fertile country, with laud free, in the couise 
of a year or two, might, by training some sixty boys to habits 
of industry, have rendered his mission independent as &r as native 
support was concerned. Havlngbeenengagedintheformation of two 
misMons in another part of the country, and having been familiar 
with the history of several, I never knew amission undertaken under 
more favorable auspices. This would be the opinion of all who 
have commeuced similar enterprises in other parts, and it was 
tlut of the good bishop himself. He was so thoroughly unselfish, 
Mid of suoh a genial dispoaitjon, that he soon gained the confi- 
dence of people ; and this is the first grea6 stop to suooees. The 
best way of treating these degraded people must always be very 
much that which is pursued in m^ed schools. Their bodily 
naots must be attended to as the baais of all dtos at their ele- 



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386 ' THE OANASUN NATTTOALIST. [Oot 

Tation. The slaTe-trade is the gig&ntio eTJl which meets ns at 
every step Id the oountTy. We oanuot more through any put 
without meeting captured men and women, bound, and sometimeB 
gagged; bo no good can be done if thb orjing evil is not 
grappled with. The good hisbop had some 200 people entirely 
at his disposal, and would eoon have presented to the conntry 
an example of a free community, supported by its own industry, 
where fair dealing oould ho met, which undoubtedly would have 
created immenae influence; for wherever the English name is known 
it is associated with IVeedom and fair play. Some seem to take » 
pleasure in running down their fellow-countrymen ; but the longer 
I live, I like tiiem the better. They oatry with tJiem some aenee 
of law and justice, and a spirit of kindliness; and were I in a 
difficulty, I should prefer going to an Englisbman rather than to 
any other for aid. And as fot EnglisbwomeD, tbey do, undoubt- 
edly, make the beet wives, mothers, sisters, and daughters in tbe 
world. It is this conviolaon that makes me, in my desire to see 
slavery abolished, and human happiness promoted, ardently wish 
to have some of our oountrywomen transplanted to a region where 
tbey would both give and receive beDefit, where eyery decent 
Christian Gngliahman, whether churabman or dissenter, learned 
or ODleamed, liberal or bigoted, would certainly become a bles- 
sing by introducing a better system than that which has pre- 
vailed for ages. We conducted Bishop Mackenize and party wf 
to the highlands, and after spending three or four days with them, 
returned, and never had any more oonneotioa with the conduct of 
that misdoD. We carried a boat past Murobison's Cataracte. 
By these the river descends at different leaps of great beauty, 1,200 
feet in a distance of about 40 miles. Above that we have sixty 
miles of fine deep rivers, flowing placidly out of Lake Nyassa. 
As we sailed into this fine freshwater lake, we were naturally 
anxious to know its depth — ten, twelve, twenty, thirty fathoms — 
then no bottom with all onr line ; and John Neill, our sailor, at 
last pronounced it fit for the Great Eastern to sail in. We touched 
the bottom in a bay with a line cS 100 fathoms, and a mile out 
could find no bottom at 116 fathoms. It contains plenty of fish, 
and groat numbers of natives daily engage in catching them with 
neta, hooks, spears, torches, and poison. The water remains at 72°, 
and the crocodiles having plenty of fish to eat rarely attack men. 
It is from fifty to uxty miles broad, and we saw at least 225 miles of 
its length. As seen from the lake, it se^na snirooiided by moon- 



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1864.] LEOTnaB bt dr. LivffiaBTOME. 387 

tains, and from tbesefurioiu storma come suddenly down and raise 
b^hseas, which are dangerous for a boat, but the native canoes are 
formed bo as to go easily along the aurfaoe. The apparent mountains 
on the vest were ascended last year, and found to be only the 
edges of a great plateau, 3,000 feet above the sea. This is cool, 
well watered, and well peopled with the Manganja and the Maori, 
some of whom possess cattle ; and I have no doubt bat that, the first 
hardships over, abd properly housed and fed, Europeans would enjoy 
life and comfort. Thia part of Africa has exactly the same form 
as Western India at Bombay, only this is a little higher Bad 
cooler. Well, having now a fair waj into the highlands by means of 
the ZamI)eBi and Shire, and a navigable course of river and lake, 
of two miles across, which all the slaves from the Bed Sea and the 
Persian Gulf, as well as some for Cuba took, and nearly all the 
inhabitants of thia densely-peopled conotry actually knowing how 
to cultivate cotton, it seemed likely that their strong propensity to 
trade might be easily tnmed to the advantage of our own country 
u well as theirs. And bere I bc^ to remark that on my first jour- 
ney, my attention not having then been turned to the subject, I 
noticed only a few oases of its oulUvadon, but on this I saw much 
more than I had previously any idea of. The oottou is short in 
the staple, strong, and like wool in the hand — as good as upland 
American. A second variety has been introduced, as is seen in tho 
name, being foreign cotton, and a third of very snperior quali^, 
very long in the fibre, though usually believed to belong to Sooth 
America, was found right in the middle of the oontinent in the 
country of the Makololo. A tree of it was eight inches in diameter, 
or like an ordinary apple-tree. And all these require planting not 
oftener than onoe in three years. There is no danger of frosts, 
either, to injure the crops. No sooner, however, had we begun 
our lalrars among the Manganja tlian the African Portuguese, by 
instating the Ajawa, with arms and ammunition, to be paid for in 
slaves, produced the utmost oonfusion. Village after village was 
attacked and burnt; for the Manganja, armed only with bows and aT> 
tows, could not stand before firearms. The bowman's way of fight- 
ing is to be in ambush, and to shoot his arrows unawares, while 
those with guns, making a great noise, cause the bowmen to run 
away. The women and children become captives. This prooeEB 
of slave-hunting went on for some months, and then a panio srazed 
the Manganja nation. All fled down to the river, only anxious to 
get that between them and thdr enemies ; but they bad left all 



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368 TBI OANADIAH KATHBALIST. [Oct 

their food behiod diem, and starvation of tfaonsande ensued. The 
Shire valley, where thousands lived, at our first visit was converted 
literuily into a valley of dry bones. One cannot now iralk a mile 
vrithont seeing a human skeleton ; open a hut in the now deserted 
villages, and there He the unburied skeletons. In some I opened, 
there were two skeletons; and a little one, rolled up in a mat, 
between them. I have always hated putting the blame of being 
baffled upon any one else, from a oonviction that a man ought to 
succeed in all feasible projeclfi, in spite of everybody; and, more- 
over, I wish not to be underatood as casting a slur upon the Por- 
tuguese in Europe, for the Viscount Lavaidio, ihe Viscount de la 
Bandeira, and others, are as anxious to see the abolition of the 
slave-irade as could be desired; but the evil is done by the asser- 
tbu in Europe of dominion in Atrica, when it is quite well 
kuowii that the Portuguese in Africa were only a few half'^eastas, 
the children of converts and black women, who have actually lo 
pay tribute to the pure natives. Were they of the smallest benefit 
to Portugal? If any one ever made a fortune and went home to 
spend it In Lisbon ; or if any pleasure whatever could be derived 
by the Portuguese government from spending £5000 annunlly od 
needy governors, who all connive at the slave-trade, the thing 
could be understood. But Portugal gains nothing but a shocking 
bad nanfe, as the first that b<^n tho slave-trade, and the last to 
end it. To us it is a serious matter to see Lord Paluierston's 
policy, which has been so eminently suco^slul on the weet, so 
largely nentralised on the east coast. A great nation like ours 
cannot get rid of the obligations to other members of the great 
community of nations. The poiioo of the sea must be maintained; 
and should we send no more cruisora to suppress the slave-trade, 
we would soon be obliged to send them to suppress piracy, for no 
traffic engenders lawlessness as does this odious trade. The plan 
I propose required a steamo- on Lake Nyassa to take up the ivory- 
trade, as it is by the aid of that trade that the traffic in slaves is 
carried on. The Goveruuient sent out a steaiuer, which, though 
an excellent one, was too deep for the Shire. Another steamer was 
then built at uiy own expense ; this was all that could be desired, 
made to unsorew into twenty-four pieces, and the Lady Nynssa, or 
Lady of the Lake, was actually unscrewed and ready for conveyance 
to the scene of the missionary work, but that must be done by 
younger men, specially educated for it — men willing to rough it, 
and yet hold quietly and patiently on. When Z became Consul, it 



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1864.] ADDRESS BT SIE OBABLES LYELL. 389 

was with the oonfideot hope that I should carry out this work, und 
I do not mean to give it up. If being baffled bad ever made me lose 
heart, I should never have been here iti the position which hy your 
kindness I now occupy. I inteod to make another attempt, but 
this time to the north of the Portuguese territory ; aad I feel greatly 
encouraged by the interest you show, as it cannot be for the person, 
but from your sympathy for the cause of human liberty; for it 
startles us to see n great nation of our own blood despising the 
Afi lean's claims to humanity, and drifting helplessly into a war 
about him, and then drifting quite as helplessly into abolition 
ind slavery principles; then, leading the Africans to fight. No 
mighty event like this terrible war ever took place without teaching 
terrible lessons. One of these may be that, though " on the side 
of the oppressor there is power, there be higher than they." With 
respect to the Africnn, neither drink, nor disease, nor slavery can 
root him out of the world. I never had any idea of the prodig- 
ious destruction of human life that takes place subsequently to the 
skve-huntini;, till I saw it ; and as this has gone on for centuries, 
it gives a wonderful idea of the vitality of the nation. 

EXTRACTS FBOM THE ADDRESS OF THE FRESIDENT, 



Gentlenien of the British Association, — The place where we 
have been invited this year to hold our thirty-fourth meeting 
is one of no ordinary interest to the cuitivnlors of physical science. 
It might have been selected by my fellow-luborers in geology as 
a central point of observation, from which, by short ezcursl ns to 
the east and west, they might examine those rocks which constitute, 
on the one side, Ihe more modern, and on oth^r the more ancient 
records of the pnst, while around them and at their feet lie monu- 
ments of the middle period of the earth's history. But there are 
other sites in England which might successfully compete with Bath 
as good surveying stations for the geologist. What renders Bath, 
a peculiar point of attraction to the student of natural phenomena 
is its thermal und mineral waters, to the sanatory powers of which 
the cilj has owed its origin and celebrity. The great volume and 
high ta;niperature of these waters render theui not qniy unique 
in our island, but perhaps without & paralled in the rest of Europe, 
when we duly take into account their distance from the nciireat 
r^ion of violent earthquakesorof active or extinct volcanoes. The 

ToL. I. ki. No. G 



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390 THE OANADIAK MATDEALI8T. [Oct. 

spot where tbej issue, as we learn from the researches of the his- 
torian and aDtiquary, was lonely and desert when the Romans first 
landed in this island, but in a few years it was ooDverted into ono 
of the chief cities of the newly conquered prorinoe. On the site 
of the hot-springa was a largo nioross from which clouds of white 
vapor rose into the air ; find there Gratwas the spacious bath-room 
built, in a highly ornamental style of architecture, and decorated 
with columns, pilasters, and tessellated pavements. By its side 
was erected a splendid temple dedicated to Minerva, of which 
some statues and altars with their inscriptions, and ornate pillars, 
are still to be seen in the Museum of this place. To these edifices 
the quarters of the garrison, and in the course of time the dwellings 
of new settlers, were added ; and they were all encircled by a 
massive wall, the solid foundations of which still remain. 

A dense mass of soil and rahbish, from 10 to 20 feet thick, now 
sepiirates the level on which the present city stands from the level 
of the ancient AquK Solis of the Romans. Digging through this 
mat^s of heterogeneous materials, coins and coffins of the Saxon 
period have been found ; and lower down, beginning at the depth 
of from 12 to 15 feet from the surface, coins have been disinierred 
of Imperial Home, bearing dates from the reign of Claudius to that 
of Maximus in the fifth century. Beneath the whole arc occasion- 
ally seen tessellated pavements still retaining their bright colors; 
one of which, on the site of the Mineral-water Hospital, is still care- 
fully preserved, affording us an opportunity of gauging the difiierence 
of level of ancient and modern Bath, 

On the slopes and summits of the picturesque hills in the neigh- 
borhood rose many a Roman villa, to trace the boundaries of which 
and to bring to light the treasures of art concealed iu tbeni, are 
tasks which have of late years amply rewarded the researches of 
Mr. Scartb and other learned antiquaries. No wonder that OD 
this favored spot we should meet with so many memorials of for- 
mer greatness, when we reflect on the length of lime during which 
the imperial troops and rich colonsils of a highly civilized people 
sojourned here ; having held undisturbed posse:uion of the country 
for as many years as have elapsed from the first discovery of America 
to our own (iraes. 

One of our former Presidents, Dr. Daubeny, has remarked that 
nearly all the most celebrated hot-springs of Europe, such as those 
of Aii-la-Chapelle, Baden-Baden, Naples, Auvergne, and the Py- 
renees, have not declined Id temperature since the days of the Ro- 



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1864.] ASSRESS BT 8IE OBASLES LTELL. 391 

mans ; for many of tbem etill retain sb great a heat as is tolerable 
to the haniHD body, fand yet when employed by the aDcientH they 
do not seem to have required to be firat cooled down by artificial 
meBQS. This aniformity of temperature, maintuined in some places 
for more than 2000 yeurs. together nith the oonstancy in the vol- 
ume of the water, which never Tariea with the seasons, as in ordinary 
springs, the identity also of the mineral ingredients which, century 
after century, are held by each spring in aolution, are Btrilcing &cts, 
and they tempt ub irresistibly to speculate on the deep subterranean 
sources both of the heat and mineral matter. How long baa this 
uniformity prevailed 7 Are the EpringB really ancient in reference 
to the earth's history, or, like the course of the present riTera and 
the actual shape of our hills and valleys, are they only of high an- 
tiquity when contrasted with the brief space of hnman annals ? 
May they not be like VeBuvins and Etna, which, although they 
have been adding to their flunks, in the course of the last 2000 
years, many a stream of lava and shower of ashes, were still moun- 
tains very mi^ch the same ns they now are In height and dimensions 
from the eailiest times to which we can traee hack their ezlstenoe 7 
Yet although their foundations are tens of thousands of years old, 
they were laid at an era when the Mediterranean was already in- 
habited by the same species of marine shells as those with which 
it is now peopled; so that these volcanoes most be regarded as things 
of yesterday in the geological calendar. 

Notwithstanding the (.'cneral persistency in charaoter of mineral 
waters and hot-springs ever since they were first known to us, we 
find on inquiry that some few of them, even in historical times, 
have been subject to great changes. These have happened during 
earthquakes which hare been violent enough to disturb the sub- 
terranean drainage and alter the shape of the fisenrea up which 
the waters ascend.' Thus during the great earthquake at Lisbon 
in 1755, the temperature of the spring called La Source do la Beine 
at Bugn^res de Luchon, in the Pyrenees, was suddenly raised as 
much as 75° F., or changed from a cold spring to one of 122° F., 
a heat which it has sinoe retained. It is ulso reoor Jed that the hot- 
springs at Bagn^res de Bigorre, in the same mountain-chain, bo- 
came suddenly cold during a great earthquake which, in 1660, threw 
down several houses in that town. 

It has been ascertained that the hot-springs of the Pyrenees, the 
Alps, and many other regions are situated in lines along which the 
rocks have been rent, and usually where they have been displaced 



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392 TBB CANADIAN NAinRALIBT. [Oct 

or " faulted." Similar dislooationB in the Bolid crust of the earth 
are generally suppose! to have determined the spots where active 
and extinct volcanoes have burst forth ; for several of theso often 
affect a linear arrangement, their position seeming to have been de- 
teruitned by great lines of fiesure. Another connecting link he* 
tween the volcano and the hot-spring is recognizable in the great 
abundance of hotrsprings in regions where volcanic eruptions still 
occur from time to time. It is also in the same districts that the 
waters occasionally attain the boiling-temperature, while some of 
the associated stufus emit steam considerably above the boiling- 
point. But in proportion as wo recede from the great centres of 
igneous activity, we find the thermal waters decreasing in frequency 
and in their average heat, while at the same time they are most con- 
npicuousin those territories where.as in Central France or the Kil'el in 
Germuny, there aro cones and craters still so perfect in their form, 
and streams of lava bearing such a relation to the depth and ehapo 
of the existing volleys, as to indicate that the internal fires have 
become dormant in comparatively recent t mes. If there be excep- 
tions to this rule, it is where hot-springs are met with in parts of 
the Alps and Pyrenees which have been violently convulsed by 
modern earthquakes. 

To pursue still further our comparison between the hot-spring 
and the volcano, we may regard the water of the spring as represent- 
ing those vast clouds of aqueous vapor which are copiously evolved 
for days, someticnes for weeks, in succession from craters during 
an eruption. But we shall perhaps be asked whether, when we 
contrast the work done by the two agents in question, there is nut 
a marked failure of analogy in one respect — namely a want, in the 
case of the hot-spring, of power to raise from gre^it depths in the 
earth voluminous masses of solid matter corresponding to llie heaps 
of scoriio and streams of lava which the volcano pours out on the 
surface. To one who urges such an objection it mEiy be s;ii<l that 
the quantity of solid as well as gaseous matter tran.st'erred by springs 
from the interior of the earth to its surface is far more considerable 
than is commonly imagined. The thermal waters of Bath arc far 
from being conspicuous among European hot-springs for the quan- 
tity of mineral matter contained in them iu proportion to the water 
which acts as a solvent ; yet Professor Ramsay has calculated that 
if the sulphates of lime and of soda, and the chlorides of sodium 
and magnesium, and the other mineral ingredients which they con- 
tain, were solidified, they would i'orm in one year a square column 



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1864.] ACDBZBS BY SIR CHARLES LTELL. 393 

- nine feet in diameter, and no less than 1 40 feet in height. All this 
matter is now quietlj conveyed by a Etream of limpid water, in an 
■DTisible form, to the Avon, and by tbe Avon to the sea ; but if, 
instead of being thus removed, it were deposited around the orifice 
of eruption, like tbe silioeoaslnyers which encrust the circular basin 
of an Icelandic geyser, we should soon see a considerable cone built 
ap, with a crater in tbe middle ; and if the action of the spring 
were intermittent, so that ten or twenty years should elapse be- 
tween the periods when solid matter was emitted, or (say) an in- 
terval of three centuries, as in the case of Vesuvius between 1306 
and 1631, tbe discharge would be on so grand a scale as to afford 
no mean object of comparison with the intermittent outpourings of 
a volcano. 

Br. Daubeny, after devoting a month to tbe analysis of the Bath 
waters inlB33, Ascertained that the daily evolution of nitrogen gas 
amounted to no less than 250 cubic feet in volume. This gas, he 
remarks, ts not only characteristic of hot-springs, but is largely 
disengiiged from voloanio craters during eruptions. In both cases 
he suj^sts that the nitrogen may be derived from atmoephcric 
air, which is always dissolved in raia-water, and which, when this 
water penetrates the earth's crust, must be carried down to great 
depths, so as to reach the heated interior. When there, it may be 
fubjected to deoxidating processes, so that the nitrogen, being left 
in a free state, may be driven upwards by the expansive force of 
heat and steam, or by hydrostatic pressure. This theory has been 
very generally adopted, as best accounting for tbe constant disen- 
gagement of large bodies of nitri^en, even where the rocks through 
which the spring rises are crystalline and un fossil ife reus. It will, 
however, of course be admitted, as Professor Bischoff has pointed 
out, that in some places organic matter has supplied a large part of 
the nitrogen evolved. 

Carbonic-acid gas is another of the volatilised substances dis- 
charged by tbe Bath waters. Br. Gustav Bischoff, in the new 
edition of his valuable work on chemical and physical geology, 
when speaking of the exhalations of this gas, remarks that they 
are of universal occurrence, and that they orginute at great depths, 
becoming more abundant the deeper we penetrate. He also 
observes that, when the silicates which enter so largely into the 
composition of the oldest rocks are percolated by this gas, they 
must be Cimtinually decompORcd, and the carbonates formed by 
the new combinations thence arising must often augment the 



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394 THIS CANADIAN HATCRALIST. [Ocl. 

Tolutne of the altend rocks. This increase of balk, he says, most 
Bometimes give rise to mechanical force of expansion capable of 
uplifting the incumbent crust of the earth ; and the same force 
may act laterally so us to compress, dislocate, and tilt the strata 
on each side of a mass in which the new ohemical changes are 
developed. The calculations made by this eminent German chem- 
ist of the exact amount of distention which the origin of new 
mineral products may cause, by adding Ui the volume of the rocks, 
deserve the attention of geologista, as affording them aid in explain- 
ing those reiterated oscillations of level — those ridings and sink- 
ings of land — which have occurred on so f;rand a scale at succes- 
sive periods of the past. There are probably many distinct causes 
of suoh upward, downward, and lateral movements, und any new 
Bn^eetioQ on this head is most weloome ; but I believe the expan- 
sion and oontroctioo of solid rocks, when they are alternately 
heated and cooled, and the fusion and subsequent consolidation of 
minerjl masses, will continue to rank, as heretofore, as the moat 
influential causes of such movements. 

The temperature of the Bath waters varies in the different 
springs from 117' to 120° F. This, as before stated, is eioep* 
tionally high, when we duly allow for the great distance of Bath 
from the nearest region of active or recently extinct volcanoes and 
of violent earthquakes. The hot-springs of Aix-la-Chapeli- have 
a much higher temperature, viz. 135' F., but they are situated 
within forty miles of those cones and lava-streams of the EifuL 
which, though they may have spent their force ages before the 
earliest records of history, belong, nevertheless, to the moat modem 
geological period. Bath js about 400 miles distant from the same 
part of Germany, and 440 from Auvei^e — another volcanic 
re.'ion, the latest eruptions of which were geologically ooSval with 
those of the Eiffel. When these two regions in France and Ger- 
many were the theatres of frequent convulsions, we may well sup- 
pose that England was often more rudely shaken than now ; and 
such shocks as that of October last, the sound nnd rocking motion 
of which caused so great a sensation as it traversed the southern 
part of the island, and seems to have been partioulariy violent in 
Berclbrdahire, may be only a languid reminder to us of a force 
of which the energy has been gradually dying out. 

But there are other ehariicters in the structure of the earth's 
crust more mysterious ia their nature than the phenomena of 
metalliferous veins, on which the study of hot-springs has thrown 



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1864.] ADDBSSB BT 8IK GHABLEB LTELL. 395 

light — I allude to the metamorphism of Bedimentary roclis. Strata 
of TuioQS ages, many of thorn once full of organic remaius, bare 
been rendered partially or wholly orystdliae. It U admitted on 
all hande that heat has been instrameotal in brioging about this 
re-arrangement of particles, which, when tie metamorpbism has been 
oarried out to its fullest extent, obliterates all trace of the imbed- 
ded fossils. But as moan tain-masses many miles in length and 
breadth, and severul thousands of feet in height, have nndergone 
Bnch alteration, it has always been difficult to explain in what 
manner an amount of heat capable of so entirely changing the 
molecular condition of F«diraentary masses could have come iuto 
play without utterly annihilating every sign of strati6cation, as 
well as of on^anic structure. 

Various experiments have led to the conclusion that the min- 
erals which enter most largely into the composition of the metauior- 
phio rocks have not been formed by crystalli/.ing from a state of 
fuaon, or in the dry way, but that they have been derived from 
liquid sotutioQS, or in the wet way — a process requiriog a fur less 
intense degree of heat. Thermal springs, charged with carbonic 
acid and with bydro-fluoric aoid (which last is often present in 
small quantitiea], are powerful causes of decomposition and chemi- 
oal reaction in rocks through which they percolate. If, therefore, 
large bodies of hot water permeate mo untu in -masses at great 
depths, they may in the course of ages superinduce in them a crys- 
talline Btrocture ; and in some cases strata in a lower position and 
of older date may be comparatively unaltered, retaining their fosHl 
remains undefuced, while newer rocks are rendered metamorphic. 
This may happen where the waters, after passing upwards for 
thousands of feet, meet with some obstruction, as in the oase of 
the Wheal-Cliffotd spring, causing the same to be laterally diverted 
80 as to percolate the surrounding rocks. The efficacy of such 
hydro-thermal action baa been admirably illuatruted of late years 
by the experiments and observations of S^armont, Daubrde, 
Delesse, Soheerer, Sorby, Sterry Hunt, and others. 

The changes which Daubr^ has shown to have been produced 
by the alkaline waters of Plombi^rea, in the Vosges, are more espe- 
(Ually instructive. These thermal waters have a temperature of 
160" F., and were conveyed by the Romans to baths through long 
conduits or aqueducts. The foundations of some of their works 
consisted of a bed of concrete made of lime, fragments of brick, and 
nndstone. Through this and other masonry the hot waters have 



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396 THE CANADIAN NATURALIST. [Oot 

Wn percolatinj^ for Oi'titurips, and have given rise to various 
zeolites — apophyllite and chabazit« among others ; also to calca- 
reous spar, arragonite, and fluor spar, together with siliceous min- 
erals, such as opul, — all found in the interspaces of the hrioks and 
mortar, ot oonstituting part of their rearranged mat«rials. The 
quantity of heut brought into action in this instance in the course 
of 2000 years has, no doubt, been enormous, although the inten- 
sity of it developed at any one moment has been always incon- 
siderable. 

The study, of late years, of the constitaent parte of granite has 
in like manner led to the conclusion that their consolidation has 
taken place at temperatures far below those formerly supposed to 
be indispensable. Gustav Rose has pointed out that the quartz 
of granite has ihe specific gravity of 2'6, which characterizes silica 
when it is precipitated from a liquid solvent, and not that inferior 
density, namely 2-3, which belongs to it whea it cools and solidifies 
in the dry way from a stale of fusion. 

But some geologists, when made aware of the intervention on a 
large scale, of water, in the formation of the component minerals 
of the granitic and volcanic rocks, appear of late years to have been 
too much disposed to dispense with intense heat when accounting 
for the formation of the crystalline and unstrutified rocks. Aa 
water in a state of solid combination enters largely into the alumi- 
nous and some other minerals, and thi-refore plays no small part 
in the composition of the earth's orust, it follows that, when rocks 
are melted, water must be present, independently of the supplies 
of rain-water and sea-water which find their way into the regions 
of subterranean heat. But the existence of water under great 
pressare affords no ailment against our attributing an esces- 
sivcly high temperature to the mass with which it is mixed up. 
Still less does the point to which the melted matter must be cooled 
down before it consolidates or crystallizes into lava or granite 
afford any test of the degree of beat which the same matter mu«t 
have acquii-ed when it was melted and made to form lakes and 
seas in tho interior of the earth's crust. 

The evidence of a period of gre^t cold in England and North 
America, in the times referred to, is now so universally admitted 
by geologists, that I shall take it for granted in this Address, and 
briefly consider what may have been the probuble causes of tho re- 
frigeration of central Europe at the era iu question. One of those 
causes, first suggested eleven years ago by a celebrated Swiss geo- 



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1864.] ASDRESB BT BIB CHARLES LYELL. 397 

legist, has not, I think, received the attention which it well de- 
served. When I proposed, in 1S33, the theory that ullerationa in 
phyaic&l gcog^phy might hare given rise to thoi^c revolutions in 
climate which (he earth's surface has experienced at successive 
epochs, it was objected by many that the Bigns of upheaval and de- 
pression were too local to nocount for such general chan;^ of tem- 
perature. This objection was thought to be of peculiar weight 
when applied (o the glacial period, because of the shortness of the 
time, geologically speaking, which has since transpired. But the 
more we examine the monuments of the ages which preceded the 
historical, the more decided become the proofs of a general altera- 
tion in the position, height, and depth of eeaa, conlinenta, and 
mountain-chains since the commencement of the glacial period. 
The lueteorolf^ist also has been learning of late years that the quan- 
tity of ice and snvw in oertuin latitudes depends not merely on 
the height of mountuin-chains, but also in the distribution of the 
Burrounding sea and land even to considerable distances. 

M. Escher von der Linth gave it as his opinion in 1852, that if it 
were true, as Ritter had suggested, that the great African desert, 
or Sahara, was submerged within the modem or post-terliary period, 
the same submergence might explain why the Alpine glaciers had 
attained so recently those colossal dimensions which, reasoning on 
geological data, Yenetz and Charpentier had ussigacd to them. , 
Since bli-cher first threw out this hint, the fact that the Sahara was 
really covered by the sea at no distant period has been confirmed 
by many new proofs. The distinguished Swiss geologist hiiusetf 
has just returned from an exploring expedition through t!ie caat- 
ern part of the Algerian desert, in which ho was accouipanied by 
M. Desor, of Neuchatel, and Professor Marlins, of Monlpellier. 
These three experienced obaervera satisfied IheniseWes, during 
the last winter, that the Sahara was under water during the 
period of the living species of Testaoea. We had already learnt in 
1856, from a memoir by M. Charles Laurent, that sands identical 
with those on the nearest shores of the Mediterranean, and contuin- 
ning, among other recent shells, the common ooclcle {Cartlium 
edule), extend over a vast space from west to east in the desert, 
being not only found on the surface, but also brought up from 
deplha of more than 20 feet by the Artesian anger. These thella 
have been met with at heights of more than 900 feet above the eea- 
leve), and on ground sunk 300 feet helow it; for there are in 
Africa, as in Western Asia, depressions of land hclow the level 



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398 THE OAITADIAN NATOBALIBT. [Oot 

tie xa. The same cockle baa been obflerved BtiU Imng in several 
salt'laken in tbe Sahara: and anperficial inerustations in many 
places seem to point to the drying up by evaporation of eevenl 
inland seas in certain districts. 

Mr. TriRtram, in his travels in 1859, traced for many miles aloDg 
the soathern borden of the Frecoh possessions in Africa lines of 
inland sea-clifis, with caves at their bases, and old sea-beaches form* 
ing suooessive terraces, 'n which recent shells and the casts of them 
were a^liitinated blether with sand and pebblea, the whole having 
the form of a conglomerate The ancient sea appears once to have 
Btrelched from the Gnlf of Gabea, in Tunis, lo the west coast of 
Africa north of Senegnmhia, having a width of several hundred 
(perbsps where greatest, according to Mr. Tristram, 800) miles- 
The hi'ch binds of Burbary, including Monicco, A^ria, and Tunis, 
most have been separated at this period from the rest of Africa by 
a sea. All that we have.lcamt from zoologistA and botanists in re- 
gard to the present fanna and flora of Barbary favors ihb hypo- 
tbesis, and seems at the same time to point to a former connexion 
of that country with Spain, Sicily, and South It;ily. 

When speculating on these changes, we may call to mind that 
certain deposits, full of marine shells of living species, have long 
bef n known as fringing the bordf rs of the Bed S«a, and rising sev- 
eral hundred feet above its shores. Evidence baa also been obtained 
that Egypt, placed between the Red Sea and the Sahara, partici- 
pated in lhei;e great continental movements. This may be inferred 
from the old river-terraoea, lately dercrihed by Messrs.- Aaams and 
Murie, which skirt the modem alluviul plains of the Nile, and rise 
above them to various heighta, from 30 to 100 feet and upwards. 
In whatever direction, therefore, we look, we see grounds for assum- 
ing that a map of Africa in that glacial period would no more resem- 
ble onr present maps of that continent than Europe now resembles 
North America. If, then, argues Rscber, the Sahara was a sea in 
poet-tertiary times, we may understand why the Alpine glaciers 
formeriy attained such gigantic dimenuons, and why they have left 
moraines of snch ma^itnde on the plains of northern Italy and 
the lower country of Switxerland. The Swiss peasants have a say- 
ing, when they talk of the melting of the snow, that the sun could 
do nothing without the Fohn, a name which they give to the well- 
known sirocco. This wind, after sweeping over a wide expanse of 
parched and burning sand in Africa, blows occasionally for days 
in saoi-ession across the Mediterranean, carrying with it the acordi- 



CtXH^Ic 



1864.] ADDBBSB BT BIB OBARLES LTZLL. 399 

ing heat of the Sahara to melt the snows of the Appenninee aod 
Alps. 

M.Denzler, in a memoir oq thbeubject, obaerTeathat the Fohn 
blew tempestuooslj at Algiers on the ITth July 1&41, and then, 
erossing the Mediterranean, reached Marseilles in sis hours. In 
five more hours it was at Geneva and the VaUis, throwing dowa 
a lai^ extent of forest in the latter distriot, while in the cantons 
of Zurich and the Orisons itsuddenlj turned the leaves of many 
trees from green to yellow. In a few honrs new mown grass wbb 
dried and ready for tie haystack ; for althoogh, passing over the 
Alpine snows, the sirooeo absorbs much moisture, it is still far be- 
low the point of saturation when it reaches the sub-Alpine countiy 
to the north of tbe great chain. MM. Escber and Denzler have 
both of them observed on different occasions that a thickness of one 
fi>ot of snow has disappeared in 'four boars durin<[ tbe prevalence 
of this wind. No wonder, therefore, that the Fohn is so much 
dreaded for the sudden inundationB which it sometimes causes. 
The snow-line of the Alps was seen by Mr. Irsoher, the astrono- 
mer, from his observatory at Neucbatel, by aid of the telescope, to 
lise sensibly every day while this wind was blowing. Its influence 
is by no means ounfined to tbe summer season, for in the winter of 
1S62 it visited Zurich at Christmas, and in a few days all the sur- 
rounding country was stripped of its snow, even in the shadiest 
places and on the crests of hif^ ridges. I feel tbe better able to 
appreciate the power of this wind from having myself witnessed in 
Sicily, in 1828, its effect in dissolving, in tbe monih of November, 
the snowB which then covered the summit and higher parts of 
Mount Etna. I had been told that I should be unable to ascend 
to tbe top of the highest cone till tbe following spring; hut in 
thirty-six hours the hot breath of the sirocco stripped otf from the 
mountuin its whita mantle of snow and I ascended without diffi- 
culty. 

It iswell known that the number of days during which particular 
winds prevail, from year to year, varies considerably. Between 
tiie years 181 2 and 1 820 the Fohn was less felt in Switzerland than 
nsnal; and what was the consequence? All the glaciers, duiing 
those eight or nine years, increased in height, and crept down below 
their former limits in their respective valleys. Many similar ex- 
amples might be cited of tbe sensitiveness of the ice to slight vari- 
fttioDS of temperature. Captain Godwin-Austen has lately given 
OB a description of the gigantic glaciers of tbe western Himalaya 



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400 THE CANADIAN NAT0EALI8T. [Oot 

in th<ne valleys where the sources of the Indus rise, between the 
latitudes 35° and 36*^ N, The highest peaks of the Karakornm 
rang^ attain in that region an elevation of 28,000 feet above the 
Bea. The gUciers, says Captain Austen, have been advancing, 
vithin the memory of the living inhabitants, so as greatly to en- 
croach on the cultivated lands, and have so altered the climate of 
adjoining valleys immediately below, that only one crop a year can 
DOW be reaped from fields which formerly yielded two crops. If 
snuh changes oin be experienced in less than a century, without 
any perceptible uiodificiition in the physical geography of that part 
of Asiu, what mighty effects may we not imagine the submergence 
of the S:ihara to have produced in adding to the size of the Alpine 
glaciers? If, between the years 1812 and 1820, a mere diminu- 
tion of the number of days during which the sirocco blew could so 
much promote the growth and onward movement of (he ice, how 
much greater a change would result from the total cessation of the 
same wind 1 But this would give no idea of what must have hap- 
pened in the glacial period ; furwc cuhnot suppose the action of the 
south wind to have been suspended ; it was not in abeyance, but its 
character was entirely different, and of an opposite nature, under 
the altered geographical conditions above contemplated. First, 
instead of passing over a parched and scorching desert, between tlie 
twentieth and thirty-fifth parallels of latitude, it would plentifully 
absorb moisture from a sea many hundreds of miles wide. Nest, 
in its course over the Mediterranean, it would take up still more 
aqueous vapor ; and when, after complete saturation, it struck the 
Alps, it would be driven up into the higher and more rarified 
regions of the atmosphere. There the aSrial current, as fust as it 
was cooled, would dischai^ its aqueous burden in the form of 
Bnow, so that the same wind which is now called " the devourer 
of ice " would become its principal feeder. 

If we thus embrace Escher'a theory, as accounting in no small 
degree for the vast size of the extinct glaciers of Switzerland and 
Northern Italy, wo are by no means debarred from accepting at 
the same time Charpen tier's eu^es tie n, that the Alps in- the 
glacial period were 2000 or 3000 feet higher than they are now. 
Such a difference in altitude may have been an auxiliary cause of 
the extreme cold, and seems the more probable now that we have 
obtained unequivocal proofs of such great oscillations of level in 
Wales within the period under consideration. We may also avaU 
ourselves of another source of refrigeration which may have colii- 



COOC^IC 



1864.] ADDBEB3 BT SIB CHARLES LTSLL. 401 

oided ia time vith the Eubmer^ence of the Sahara, namelj, the 
diversioD of the Galf-etream from its present course. The shape 
of Europe and North America, or the tjouadaries of sea and land, 
departed so widely in the glacial period from those now established, 
that we canoot suppose the Gulf-stream to have taken at that 
period its present north-western course across the Atlautic. If it 
took some other direction, the climate of the north of Scotland 
would, according to the calculations of Mr. Hopkins, suffer a 
diminution in its average annual temperature of 12° F., while that 
of the Alps would lose Z" F. A combination of all the conditions 
above enumerated would oertuinlj be attended with so great a 
revolution in climate as might go far to account for the excessive 
oold which was developed at so modern a period in the earth's 
history. Bui even when we assume all three of them to have 
been simultaneous in action, we have by no means exhausted all 
the resources which a differenco in the g^ographtoal condition of 
the globe might supply. Thus, for example, to name only one of 
them, we might suppose that the height and quantity of land near 
the north pole was greater at the era in question than it is now. 

The vast mechanical force that ice exerted in the glacial period 
has been thought by some to demonstrate a want of uniformity in 
the amount of enet^ which the same natural cause may put forth 
at two successive epochs. But we must be careful, when thus 
reasoning, to hear in mind that the power of ice is here substituted 
for that of running water. The one becomes a mighty agent in 
transporting huge erratios, and in scoring, abrading, and polishing 
rooks; but meanwhile the other is in uheyance. When, for 
example, the ancient Khone glue ier conveyed its moraines from the 
upper to the lower end of the Lake of Geneva, there was no great 
river, as there now is, forming a delta many miles in extent, and 
several hundred feet in depth, at the upper end of the lake. 

The more we study and comprehend the geographical changes 
of the glacial period, and the migrations of animals and plants to 
which it gave rise, the higher our conceptions are raised of the 
duration of that subdivision of time, which, though vast when 
measured by the succession of events comprised in it, was brief, 
if estimated by the ordinary rules of geological classification. The 
glacial period was, in fact, a mere episode in one of the great 
epochs of the earth's history ; for the inhabitants of the lands 
and seas, before and after the grand development of snow and ice, 
were nearly the same. As yet we have no satisfactory proof that 



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402 THE OANADIAK KATDBALI8T. [Oot. 

man existed in Europe or elsewhere dnring the period of extreme 
oold ; but our investigations on this head are Btill in their infancy. 

In an early portion of the poatfrlscial period it hoB been 
ascertained thai nan flourished in Europe ; and in tracing the 
fligns of his existence, from the historical ages to those immediately 
antecedent, and so backward into more aneiept times, we gradually 
approach a dissimilar geographical state of things, when the 
climate was colder, and when the configuration of the surface 
departed considerably from that which now prcTuils. 

I will now briefly allude, in conclusion, to two points on whiofa 
a gradual change of opinion has been taking place among geo]<^8t8 
of hite years. First, as to whether there has been a continnoos 
Buccessinn of events in the organic and inorganic worlds, uninter- 
rupted by violent and general catastrophes j and secondly, whether 
clear evidence can be obtained of a period antecedent to the crea- 
tion of organic beings on the earth. I am old enon^ to remember 
when geologists dogmatized on both these questions in a manner 
very different from that in which they would now venture to 
indulge. I believe that by far the greater number now incline to 
opposite views trom those which were onoe most commonly enter- 
tained. On the first point it is worthy of remark, that, although 
a belief in sudden and general conTnlsions has been losing ground, 
SB also the dootriae of abrupt tranutions from one set of species 
of animals and plants to another of a very diflerent type, yet the 
whole series of the records which have been handed down to us 
are now more than ever r^arded as fragmentary. They ought to 
be looked upon as more perfect, because numerons gaps have been 
filled up; and in the formations newly intercalated in the series we 
have found many missing links and various intermediate gradations 
between the nearest allied forms previously known in the animal 
and vegetable wcrids. Yet the whole body of monnmenta which 
we are endeavoring to decipher appears more defective than be- 
fore. For my own part, I agree with Mr. Darwin in coni>idering 
them as a mere frtiction of those which have once existed, while 
no approach to a periect series was ever formed originally, it having 
never been part of the plan of Nature to leave a complete record 
of all her works and operations for the enlightenment of rational 
beings who might study them in after-ages. 

In reference to the other great question, or the earliest date of 
vital phenomena on this planet, the late discoveries in Canada have 
at least demonstrated that certain theories founded in Europe on 



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1864.] ASDftESB BY SIR CHARLES LTSLL. 403 

mere negative evidence were alhigetber delusive. In the coarse of 
a geological Bnirey, carried on under the Hble direction of Sir 
William E. Logso, it has been shown that nortbward of tbe river 
St. Lawrence there is a vast series of stratifieil and crystalline 
rocks of gneiss, mitu-schist, quartsite, and limestone, about 
40,000 feet in thiokDess, whicb have been called Laurentian. 

They are more ancient than the oldest fossiliferous strata of 
Europe, or those to which tbe term primordial had been rashly 
assigned. In the first place, the newest part of this great crys- 
tallioe series is unconformable to the ancient fossiliferous or so- 
oalled primordial rocks which overlie it ; so that it must have 
undei^ne disturbing movenients before the latter or primordial 
set were formed. Then again, the older half of the Laurentian 
series is unconformable to the newer portion of the same. It is 
in this lowest and moat ancient system of crystalline strata that a 
limestone, ahont a thousand feet tl.ick, has been observed, contain- 
ing organic remains. Theee fossils have been examined by Dr. 
Dawson, of Montreal, and he has detected in tbem, by aid of the 
microscope, the distinct structure of a lai^ speoira of Bhizopod. 
Fine speoiiueus of this fossil, called Eozoon Canadente, have been 
brought to Bath by Sir William E. Logan, to be exhibited to the 
members of the Association. We have every reason to suppose 
that the rocks in which the^e uoimal remains are included are of 
as old a date as any of the formations named azoic in Europe, if 
not older, so that they preceded in dale rocks once supposed to 
have been formed before any organic beings had been created. 

But I will not venture on speculations respecting " the signs of 
a beginning," or " the prospects of an end," of our lerrestrial 
aysteiij — that wide ocean of scientific conjecture on whicb so 
many theorists before my time have suffered shipwreck. ^Vithoat 
trespaEsing longer on your time, I will conclude by expressing to 
yon my thanks for the honor you have done me in asking me to 
preside over this meeting. I have every reason to hope, from the 
many members and distinguished strangers whom 1 already see 
assembled here, that it will not be inferior in interest to any of 
~ Ae gatherings which have preceded it. 



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CANADIAN NATURALIST. 



SEOOim SEBtBB. 



OBSERVATIONS ON CANADIAN GEOGRAPHICAL 
BOTANY. 

Bt a. T. DBtrHHo:iD, B.A., LL.B. 

The more observikble features id the distributiOD of oar native 
plants can now, I think, be indicated with some degree of accuracy 
by tbe lud of the catalogues, published and unpublished, of va- 
rioua collectora in different parts of the province. The range 
of many species is of course not yet satisfactorily ascertained, and 
doubtless in coming years there may be some plants at present 
thought Co be restricted to particular localities, which will be found 
to have a somewhat wider distribution. I feel certain, too, that 
a careful search along our boundary-lines will be rewarded by 
the discovery of many species as yet unknown to Canadian col- 
lectors, which will thus increase the floras peculiar to differ^t 
districts. Many details, therefore, require to be yet worked out, 
before results entirely satiefuctory can be arrived at. 

Gec^raphically, Canada ezteuda over an area of abont twenty- 
eight d^rees of longitude and ten and three quarters d^rees of 
latitude; stretching from East Gape, Antioosti, to the Biver 
Kaminastiquia, which flows into Lake Superior; and from Point 
Pel^e, which juts into Lake Erie, to latitude 52° ib', the northern 
limit This area, whilst extensive, has some peculiar physical 
features, which have a most important bearing upon tbe distribu- 
tion of the plants composing its flora. The southern and western 
limits are bounded, for the greater part of the distance, by the river 
St. Lawrence and a chain of extensive sheets of wat«r, which 
stretch through several degrees of latitude, locating our proviow 

Vol. I. ■■ Ha. «. 



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406 THE CANADIAN NATURALIST. [DeO. 

ia the same parallels with Maine, Vermont, New Hampahire, and 
nearly the whole of New York and MaBsachnsetts on the east, and 
with Michigan on the west. Our north-eastern border, moreover, 
adjoina Labrador, and extends far into the Hudson's Bay Terri- 
tory. We therefore meet in the western part of the province 
many plants having decidedly a soathem character, and some of a 
peculiarly western tjrpe ; while on Anticosti and the neighboring 
^ores are found alpine species till recently tinobserved south of 
the Labrador coast. 

While the remarkable natural extension of our boundaries has 
the effect of including within our limits many interesting plants, 
other causes have also exerted their iafluence. Apart from the 
characters of soils, as their looseness and temperature, there is one 
cause — the chain of great lakes — which must exert a very con- 
siderable inflnence upon the vegetation of Canada. These bodies of 
water, 00 account of their great extent and depth, have an equalii- 
ing effect upon the temperature of the air near their shores, the 
water not being subject te those sudden extremes of heat and cold 
which we obmrve in the atmosphere. The great amount of evapo- 
ration, constantly taking place over the broad surface of each 
lake, also tends to make the neighboring air more moist than 
in inland localities. A similar effect being produced upon the 
sea^coast, instances of alpine and sub-alpine plants occurring far 
down ou the coast-line are not rare. 

In' taking a general view of the distribution of the various 
species of plants which occur in Canada, — excluding mossos.Hchens, 
and lower forms, — I think that the following types will be readily 
recognized : 

I. Canadian Typb. — Species generally distrihoted through 

the whole or greater part of the province. 

II. Krie Type. — Species chiefly restricted to the district bor- 

dering Lake Erie. 

NoTi.— Id addition to published catalogaea of plants, I have to ackaaw- 
ledge having received much valuable ioformalioD from lists made at the 
fallowing places : — Nenrfouadland, J. Richardsou of OeoLSarver, coll. in 
herb. Bo(, Soc. Can. ; Gaspd, J. Bell, B.A.; Quebec, J. RichardsoD, coll. 
in herb. Bot. Soc. Cau.; L'Orignal, J. Bell, B.A. ; Carletoa Place, J. 
Bell,B. A. ; Ramsaf, Rev. J. E. HcUoriae, M.A. ; Brockville, R. Jardine, 
B.A.-, Belleville, J. Uacoun. H7 0wn collectioDS have been chieajmade 
at Uontreal, amoDg the Thousand Islands, at Kingston, Stone Uilla, 
CoboDfg, Gollingwcod, Hiagara Falls, London, and Port Stanlej.-A.T.D. 



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1864.] DRUMHOND ON CANADIAN BOTANY. 407 

III. SOPERIOR Type.— Species ooly found about Lakes Huron 
and Superior, and most of which have evidently migrated 
from the country watered by the Saskatchewan, 

iV. Maritime Type.— Species confined to the aea-shore. 
V. Alpine Type. — Species chiefly known, at preaeat, to 
occur abont our north-eastern borders. 

I. Canadian Type. 

The flora of Canada (aa do the floras of all other cotintries) 
inclndes a very large number of species which are widely spread 
over the whole provioce. They are found thriving upon the 
shores of Lakes Superior, Huron, and Erie, and range thence 
to the mouth of the St. Lawrence, and many even beyond into 
Newfoandland. A considerable number appear to have their 
centre of range within the province or near its north-western 
border. They are distributed over the more northern portions of 
the United States, and, overspreading Canada, find their limit id 
the Hudson's Bay Territory ; but the m.ixima of the individuals of 
each species appear rather to be in Canada than in the wide dis- 
tricts on either side. Other Canadian species, again, extend not 
only throughonl the northern United States, but even as far south 
as the Gulf of Mesico. Very many, too, are common to Europe and 
America, whilst a number are widely diffused over the temperate 
r^ons of both hemispheres. And did I include the lower 
cryptogamic plants, numerous instances might be noted of species 
which are almost, if not quite, cosmopolites. 

As yet the north-eastern and north-western limits of some of our 
most common plants have not been ascertained as definitely aa 
could be desired. Some species met with in almost every other 
part of the province do not appear — judging by lists to which I 
have had access — to range down the St. Lawrence banks beyond 
Quebec ; and qnite a number, as Tilia Americana, Hepaliea acu- 
lilobia, and Ilepatica triloba, abundant in Central and Western 
Canada, are entirely wanting in the Lake Superior lists and in 
the lists from the maritime counties. IMore northern limits than 
hitherto observed may yet be ascertained for many of them. Dis- 
tributed, however, as they are, over the greater portion of the 
province, they may be classed under the general Canadian flora. 

It is not difficult to trace somewhat approximately the northern 
limit of distribution of some of the more conspicuous plants. 
Surveyors and others readily recognise our forest trees, and with 



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408 THE CANADIAN NATURALIBT. [DeO. 

the identity of some of these trees there can be do possibility of 
error. I shall only here iDstancc the basswood ( TUia Aniericatia), 
■nd the red oak {Qaercai rubra), — trees not easily mistakeD, 
Entering Canada from Maine, the biissnood is observed in the 
counties of Arthabaska, Wolfe, and Nicolet, thence it ranges along 
the St. Lawrence to the river Ottawa, and fur up that stream, 
throu'^h Argenteuil and Ottawa, to the Island of Alumette. Cross- 
ing the country, it ia met with in the townships of Richards, 
BruDel, and Stephenson, ond finally appears to take ite leave of 
Canada at Sturgeon Bay on Lake Huron. It re-appears on the 
south shore of Lake Superior, and at Rainy Luke on the British 
side, whence it extends to the Red River, and northward to latitude 
52**. A most remarkable locality is Lake St. John near its outlet 
into the Saugenay, recorded by Professor Bell in the Oeological 
Survey Report for 1857. The red oak, again, ranges from the 
neighborhood of Quebec, where the variety Q. rubra var. borealit 
is siid by Cooper (Smithsonian Reports) to attain its north-eastern 
limit, up to Montreal, and thence skirting the Ottawa, apparently 
sparingly, it extends westward to Lake Huron; on the north 
shore of which, and on the Manitoulin Islands, where it is said to 
attain considerable size, it is frequently observed. On the eastern 
shores of Lake Superior, too, red oaks are met with ; but, accord- 
ing to .\gassiz, Michipicoten Island forms in Canada the north- 
western limit of distribution. 

The following species may be instanced as some which have a 
wide range over the province: 



Anemone PenDsylvanica. 


Solidago bicolor. 


Thalictrum corauti. 


S. CanadenstB. 


RiiniiQCLilua repens. 


AaleDDaria margarilacea. 


CKlih« i>aluslris. 


Vaociniura PenoaylTanicu 


Nuptanr adreaa. 


Chiog^oM Mspldula. 


Naslurliutn palustro. 


Veronica Amaricaoa- 


Droeera rol.uidi folia. 


Lycopu3 Virgintcas. 


St«llncUlu.,gifolia. 


Menyanlhea tri folia ta. 




Ulmus Americana. 


RbuE Toil cod endroD. 


Cory ills rostra ta. 


Acer saccbnrinum. 


Be tula papyracea. 


A. spicatum. 




LalhyruB pal ua Iris. 


Plaunihera pay codes. 


Pruau9 Virginiana. 


P. diUtau. 


P. Pennsylvaiiica. 


Smilacioa racemoaa. 


Geum atrictum. 


SlreptopuB roaeus. 




Seirpus Eriopborum. 



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1864.] DRUUUOND ON CANADIAN BOTANY. 409 

Eabag triBuras. Carex aure». 

Epilobiam aDguBtifolInm. Avena gtriala. 

Ribes lacustrs. Equisetum sjlTaticum. 

Uiiella nada. B. arrenw. 

Sanicula Harjlaadica. Polypodinm vulgare. 

LicnEea borealis. Strutblopteris Grrmanica. 

LoDicera ciliata. AspUnium Elii-f<EiniDa. 

Aster punTceua. Ljcopodium complanstuia. 

Gupatorium pnrpaream. L. dendroideum. 

Among the larger orders, Rosacese and Bricacete afford, in pro- 
portion to the Bpecies represented in Canada, the greatest number 
of species of very extensive dietributioD. Contferae and Beta- 
lacese, amoDg the amalter orders, have a large proportion of u wide 
range. Among the CoDiferse, in fact, only Abiet Fraaeri, Pinvt 
rigida, P. Banktiana, and P. miti* appear to be sparingly 
diSiised. 

H. Brib Ttpb. 

The forests of that part of the deep peninsula of Upper Canada 
vbich borders Lake Erie, are characterised by an abundance of 
beech {/'oywa/errujinea), sugar-maple {Acer laccharinum), oak 
{Quercua rubra, Q. macrocarpa, and Q. alba), and walnut (Jii- 
fflani niffra). Clumps of white pine {Pinvg ttrobut) are sometimes 
seen; bat I have not yet observed the red pine (Pinut rainosa), so 
common in some parts of Canada. The flats on either side of the 
Thames, io the neighborhood of London, are remarkable for a 
splendid growth of the buttonwood (^Platanm oceidentalis), which 
in this locality is rarely seen elsewhere. Nearer the mouth of 
the river, where the country is very level, this tree attains an 
enormous size. The chestnut [G<t»taHea eesci), though not abun- 
dant, is yet characteristic of these western forests. Neither the 
chestnut nor buttonwood appear to esten<l farther north than the 
counties oF Middlesex and Halton. The tuHp-tree (Liriodenilron 
tulipi/era) rarely occni'S in the central part of the district around 
London and St. Thomas, bat is a familiar tree at Chatham, and 
is occasionally met with in the Niagara district as far west as 
Hamilton. 

The flora of the Lake Erie district resembles very much that 
of the western part of the State of New York; and this resem- 
blance will become closer the more the district is explored. Mag- 
nolia acuminata and Anmina triloba, both of which have been 
observed at Lewiston on the Niagara river, Gillmia stipnlacea. 



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410 TSB CANADIAN NATURALIST. [Dec. 

Silphtum, irl/oliaivm, and others of similar range in the Northern 
States, and not yet fumiliar to ne as Canadian plants, are to be 
loolicd for here ; and possibly some species of a more Southern 
type in;iy, like Viola villoan, Polygala NiUtullu, and Affrimonia 
paivijtorn, also he discovered in this district. * 

The flora, peculiar as regards other parts of Canada to the 
neighborhood of Lake Erie, embraces no plant not likewise 
met with in one or other of the adjacent United States. 
Many of the speeies composing it form only the outliers, as it 
were, of a flora which has its centre in the central States of the 
Union. Others, again, are rather western in their range. To 
those of a somewhat southern type already mentioned, may be 
added Polygala fa»tigiato, PliaseoJu* helvoliu, Comat Jlorida, 
Lobelia puheruh, L. Nultallii, Scutellaria inlegri/olta, and 
Vrlica purjiurascens. Among western and south-western species, 
or species not frequently observed in the Eastern States, are Je/- 
/enonia diphylla, Baptitia lencanlha, Artemliia biennii, I/ithot- 
permutn eanexixnt, I'latanut occidentalii, Juglatit nigra, and 
Qtttrcut cagUinea. Plalanut oecidentiili* is said to be also ft 
native of Lower Canada, and I have seen one or two trees of 
Querati cattanea in the township of Pittsburg, near Kingston. 
The Erie district, hoirever, here forms the northern limit of these 
species, though many of them extend nortb-westwardly to Wis- 
consin, and even penetrate the section of country watered by the 
Saskatchewan. This peculiar north-westward distribution of 
many American plants is a remarkable feature in the vegetation 
of both the northern United States and Canada. Humboldt, I 
believe, ascribes the circumstance to the diSerent directions of the 
valleys in the Atlantic and Western States. 

Among the species characterising the district along Lake Erie, 



LiriodendroQ tulipifera. 




JeffcMonm dipbjUa. 


Scutellaria iategrirolia. 






VioU VilloBl. 


Lilhospermum canescona. 




Hjdroplij-llHm append icolatum. 


EuonjmuB alropurpureUB. 


Fraaera CarolinensU. 


E. AmericaDua. 


ABclepiftB varipgata. 


Polygala NutUllii. 


HoDtelia tamariaciaa. 


P. faatigiata. 




LupiDUB perennis. 


Benioin odoriferum. 




Euphorbia corollaia. 



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1864.] DRUHHOND ON OANACIAH BOTANT. 411 

Phaseolas helTolai. L. Nuttallii. 

BaptlsU leucantba. PtaUnuB accldentaKj, 

Oilleaia trifoliata. Costaaea Tesca. 

AgrimoDJa patTiflora. Crlica parpuraBcens. 

L.Ttbrum alatnm. Boebmeria laleriflora. 

CEaoibera cbrjMiDtba. Juglaiu nigra. 

Tbaspium barbiaode, Quercus castanea. 

ErigenU bulbosa. Hypoxis erecta. 

Rudbeckia fulgida. LUium snpeibnin. 

R. horta. L. Cawsbtei. 

Artemisia bieuniB. Prosartea tanuginOBa. 

Lobelia pabernla. AndrDpogou argentens. 

L. ipicata. AltoBorus alcopatpDreus. 

Two or three of the species above enumerated are stated bj 
Prof. Gray to be common in the northern United States, but I 
am not aware that they have been observed in Canada in localities 
beyond the Erie district 
ill. Sdperioe TrpE. 

It is upon the shores of Lakes Huron and Superior, especially 
of the latter, that the v^ietation bc^ns to partake somewhat of 
the character of that west of the Red River. Such plants aa 
Linwn perenne, Lomcera involucrata, CrepU rvncinata, and 
Coriotpermmn hgttopi/oHum do not fail to remind us of the 
country watered by the Saskatchewan, aad of the adjacent Amer- 
ican territories. Not many of these far-western species have as 
yet been met with ; oOTerthelesB, the resemblance is sufficiently 
marked to be noticeable. Future collectors will, there ia little 
doubt, not only increase the number of these species already 
detected, bnt also add to the list of sub-alpine plants whose 
occurrence has been noted on the north shore of Lake Superior, 

Were theee western plants absent, the flora of the east and north 
diorea of Lake Superior would much resemble that of Uie section 
of country along the south shore of the St. Lawrence from about 
Quebec downwards to the Gulf. The Cupulifera find their limits 
upon the eastern coasts of the lake, whilst TiHa AmericaTta is 
entirely absent, Fraxinm gambud/olia is still met with, bnt 
F. Amerieana does not penetrate much beyond the upper shoree 
of Lake Huron. 

Among the weat«m apeoiea at present known to difiiise them* 
selves as far as our borders, are included the following plants: 

Anemone narclsaiflora. Ctepia ruacinata. ^ 

Rananculm abortiTDB, Uulgedium pulchellam. 

var. mieraDtbas. Taaacetum Uaronense. 



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412 THE CANADIAN NATUKALIST. [Dec. 

Caltba DBtana. Senecio etnas. 

Aqnilegia Tulgarii. ArtemUia LodoTictsaa. 

Arabia petrea. Nardosmia sagittala. 

Turrltia patuU. MvlBmpjram praleiiEe. 

T. br&cbjcarpa. Uerteosia pUoaa. 

T, retrafracta. U. pnaiculala. 

DroBera linearis. Polemoaicm denileam. 

Li nam pereaoe. EumuluB Lupnlue. 

Rosa stricta. Cotiospermam hjssopifoliaai. 

Rubus ffiilkanns. Elsagnns argentea. 

Looicara inrolucrata. Comandra livida. 

Sjmpboricarpus occidentalis. Echinodorus subulatns. 

Malricaria inodora. Carei Vahlii. 

Aster graminiroliua AllosoruB acrosliclioLdes. 

Cirsium Pitchert. Aspidlnm fragcaosl 

C. nndnlatum. A. Loachitis. 

I have not stations for Anemone naraitifiora, TarritU pahila, 
T. retrofracta, Linutn perenjtt, and Polemonium axruleum, 
beyond the mere fact of their presence in Canada; but judging 
\>j their range in British America, the Lake Superior or Lake 
Huron region must be the place of their occurrence. 

The shores of Lake Huron, it may be mentioned, are the only 
recorded stations in Canada for Matricaria inodora, M-algedium. 
pukhellum, Cirsium TittdulatTim, Crepis ruTicinata, Senecio canut, 
and Atpidium Lonchilis. Owen Sound, on the Georgian Bay, is 
a station for the very rare Scolopendrium ojidnamm. Mesperit 
matTOHcUit, and Poterium sajtguiwrba, both garden-plants, are 
said by Hooker to have been found on the shores of the same 
lake. The very rare Juncus ttygius haz also been gathered at the 
Brace Mines. 

In addition to the plants enumerated in the above list, there 
are some which in Canada appear to be confined to this district, 
but in their range beyond the province cannot be classed as 
western plants. Such are Sitymbriam caneteent, Goreopti* lancety 
lata, and C- verliceUata (?), which extend into the southera 
United States. 

There are also a few species met with around the upper lakes, 
which in the United States flora appear to be exclusively north- 
western plants, but which re-appear near the north-eastern Cana- 
dian boundary-line, and doubtless are spread over the iuterveaing 
qiace. Parnauia palitttrit, a species of Upper Michigan, the 
Lake Superior region, and north-westward, likewise occurs in 
Labr.idor and Newfoundlaud ; and ArUmitia horealit, another 



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1864.] DKUMMOND ON CANADIAN BOTANY. 413 

north-vestern plant, appears also in Anticosti and Labrador. 
Sofn/thium Lunaria, a foreigner to the United States flora, and 
Allium Schcenopratum, bave a similar range to the Atlantic coast, 
the former occurring oa Orleans Island, and the latter extending, 
according to Prof. Bailey, to the Nepisiquit in New Branswick. 

Some of the plants which I have above ennmerated are dis- 
tributed through Michigan, Wisconsin, and Minnesota, and others 
even extend to Oregon and Oalifomta. The following are, how- 
ever, not included in Gray's Manual of Botany, as being within 
those States east of the Mississippi River : 

AnemoDS niir<'isalSot'a. Crepis runcinata. 



Callhft natans. 


Matricaria inodora. 


Aqailcgia TnlgarU. 
Arabia petroea. 
Tnrrilis patula. 


Mulgedium palcheUmn. 
Uelampymin prate nee. 
Hert«neia piloaa. 


Linum percDoe. 

Rosa stricta. 
Loniwra in»olucr«ta. 


Corioapermum hyasopifoli 
Ela;«enoe argealea. 
EchinodoruB subulains. 


Seaecio canal. 


Carei Vabln. 


NardOBmia sagitlata. 


Allosorus acroBtichoides. 



Carex VahlU and Alhgorut aerostichoidet, it is to be observed, 
have been found on Isle Royale ; which island forms a part of 
the State of Minnesota, and is therefore within Gray's limits. 
Melampyrum. pratenie and Echinodorut eabulatut, though not in 
the Manual, are, aceordin;; to Dr. Parry (Owen's Geol<^cal Sur^ 
vey of Wisconsin and Minnesota), fonnd at St. Croix in Wis- 
consin. 

It wilt, in this place, be proper to mention, before adverting to 
the maritime type, that Upper Canada and Lower Canada appear 
each to have a peculiar flora. The materials requisite to 4eflne 
with sufficient accuracy the distinctive features of each flora, 
which are at command, are not, however, so ample aa could ba 
desired. From the upper province I have several fall and reliable 
catalogues, though much may yet there be done ; hut the eastern 
townships and vicinity of the neighboring United States boundary- 
line, have not been sufficiently explored to preclude the hope that 
not a few species, at present thought not to range into Lower 
Canada, will be detected there. Most of the plants indigenous to 
the northern districts of Maine and Termont, Ghould occur there, 

I may here, for the sake of illnstrating the two floras mentioned, 
and with a view of more fully indicating in this paper the general 



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414 THB CANADIAN NATDRALIST. [Dec. 

features in the dUtribatioD of our Canadiao plants, poiat out a 
few of the species which seem to be restricted, or nearly so, to 
each province. 

There appears to be a very large number of Upper Canadian 
species which have not been met with in Lower Canada. Many 
of these, however, occur in Maine und Vermont, and will, I doubt 
not, be observed by collectors in the eastern townships. Still, 
there are a number in the upper province which, judging by the 
range ascribed to them by Gray, are not to be looked for far 
beyond the dividing-line between the provinces. Among these 
are such plants as HydraUii Canadeniii, Altine Michauxii, Poly- 
gala »enega, Aitrogolu» Canadentit, MyriophyllumhelerophyUam, 
Lonicera ohlongifolia, Vibunium puheteetu, lAatrit cyliniiracea, 
and Asler ptarmieoidet. Pinui riylda appears to be of very 
restricted occurrence,— the only reliable locaiitj of which I know 
being the Thousand Islanda ; and recorded stations for, among 
others, Helianthemum corymhotum, Hkm aromalica, Geum tri- 
Jlorum, Valeriana Kylvatica, Pycnantliemum lanctolatum, and Ae- 
plaiium eheneam (for which fern I may here mention the neighbor- 
hood of Kingston as a third Canadian locality), are as yet rare. 

tn Lower Canada there are a number of species whioh may be 
regarded as confined to that province, others which range for a 
considerable distance along the St. Lawrence towards Lake On- 
tario, and not a few whicb appear on the shores of Lake Superior, 
though not found elsewhere in Upper Canada. Thus Draba vtma, 
Stellaria cragsi/iiUa, Astragalus alpinut, Oxytropit Lamberti, 
Comut suecica, Rhodora CanadaisU, and Platanthera fimhriala, 
have no recorded Upper Canadian stations; and Corydalii glauca, 
Viola Selkirkii, Cloytonia CaroUiiiana, Bctula alba vai.popU' 
U/olia, with others, have but a limited range in the triangular 
section of country between the rivers Ottawa and St. Lawrence. 
As to those eastern species which are common to Lower Canada 
and the Lake Superior country, in addition to Allimn Schceno- 
pratum and Sotryckium Lunaria already noted, it will not be 
necesBary here to refer to more examples than Anemone parvijiora, 
Ihaha arabixans, PoteatUla tridentala, P. /ruticoea, Gcntiana 
taponaria var. liiiearis, and Piniit Banktiana, 

I shall not at present farther illustrate these two floras, but hope 
to recur to the subject on some future occasion, and to be able to 
give fuller and more definite details. 



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1864.] DBtlUMOND ON CANADIAN BOTANT. 415 

rv. Maeitime Type. 

Dr. Gray, in the American Journal of Scienoea, has enumerated 
sixty species of maritime plants inhabiting the American ooaat 
betiTcea Maiae and Vii^nia. Our maritime district, in addition 
to being Eituated far up on the Atlantic coastrlinc, is of veiy 
limited latitudinal extent, and yet I have evidence of the occur- 
rence there of twenty-eight shore species. This number includes 
Sahbatia gracilU, which is a Canadian plant according to Kalm, 
and S. stellaris, the occurrence of which within our limits rests 
upon the authority of Wood. The aea-lavendcr (Statice Limonium), 
judging by the range assigned it by Dr. Gray, is to be looked for 
upon the gulf-ooaat. It is a native of Newfoundland. A»ter 
EjiIuIu, a coast form, which, in the United States, ranges from 
Delaware to Maine, is found in Anticostl and Newfoundland. 
Though resembling the sea-shore species in its preference for the 
coast, it does not appear to be a strictly maritime form. It is not 
included in Dr. Gray's list. 

The small catalogue here given embraces every species known 
to me to occur on the gulf-coast between the Bay of Chaleura 
and Labrador. 

Ranancutns C}'ml>alaria. Mertensia maritliDa. 

Cakile Americaoa. Sabbstia gracilis. 

BudsoDia tomentosa. S. stellaris. 

Boakenja peploide«. Atriplex boatata. 

Spfrgularia rubra, Salicoraia herbacea. 

var, mariiia. Cbeaopodina mtirititns. 

Hibiscus moscbeutoa. Salsola Kali. 

Latbyrus marilimus. Acaida eannabina. 

Ligusticura Scoticnm. Euphorbia polfgoaifolia. 

Archangelica pereBriaa. Triglocbla palustre. 

SulidagD semper firena. T. maritimum. 

Plan (ago marilima, Judcus bulbosns. 

var. juDcoidea. Calamagrostis arenatia. 

Armeria vulgaria. Spartiua polystacbja. 

Glanxuaritima. Brizopyrum spicatum. 

In conneoljon with this snbject, it may not be inappropriate 
here to notice the peculiar occurrence of maritime species in the 
interior of Canada, and of New York and other States. They are 
found as well upon the coasts of Lakes Superior and Huron, as 
near the matins of Lakes Eric, Ontario, and Champlain. Mr. J. 
E. Cabot, the author of the narrative of the expedition in Agassiz'a 
Lake Superior, thus adverts to the eastern side of the lake : " The 



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416 THE CANADIAN NATDOALIST. [DeC. 

resemlilaDoe to the sea-shore ofleo recurred to my mind. Accord- 
ing to Dr. Leconte, several iosocte foood here are identical irith 
specieB belonging to the aea-shore, and others corresponding or 
similar. The beach-pea {Lalhyna maritimui), and Polygonum 
m'lritimum, both of them sea-shore plants, are abundant in this 
Deighborhood ; the former, indeed, throughoat the north shore of 
the lake." In addition to these two species, six truly sea-shore 
species have been observed in the immediate vicinity of the same 
lake. 

The neighborhood of the lai^e lakes is not, in every instance, 
the place of growth of these maritime plants; for at the salt-springs 
of Salina in New York State, according to Torrey, Gray, and other 
authorities, there have been fonnd Raauncnlut Cyntbularia, Sibit- 
cus motckeutoi, Salicomia herhacea, Triglockin marUitaam, T. 
palutire, and Scir^ut marititnvg. 

From varioas sources, I have ascertained that the following 
species occur along the Great Lakes, or near salt-springs in New 
York. 

Euphorbia polygon [folia. 
PoIjgoDum marititnum. 

Cakile AiDecicaoa. Triglocbio a 

EibiBcuB moscheuWs. T. palustre. 

Latliyrus maritimns. Scirpus mari 

Alriplei hastata. Calamagroal 

Galicoraia berCacea. Qordeum jubatum. 

The occurrence of these maritime species in localities now so 
far distant from their natural homes appears to point to a time 
when a very considerable portion of the province was covered by 
the ocean ; when the ocean limits were maeh farther inland than 
they are now, and sea-shore vegetation, as a consequence, occupied 
a different location from that which it at present retains. The 
most recent period during which such a. change in the aspect of 
our province took place, was at the time wheu the marine clays of 
the Ottawa valley were deposited. There is evidence derivedfrom 
T^etable remains in these clays that some of our moat common 
plants had an existence then, and we have thus reason to suppose 
that present species, including maritime plants, had been created 
at that time. During this period, the maritime plants, compelled 
by the gradual depression of the land and the consequent inroads 
of the ocean over what is now eastern Canada, must have migrated 



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1864.] SRUHUOND ON CANADIAN BOTANT. 417 

to localities previonsl; tar inlaad, aod towards the lakes. The 
lakes were then, doubtless, much lai^r than at present, and it 
maj be that at that time thej nere united into one vast inland 
fresb-water sea, extending from near the then ocean-coast west- 
ward. Means of diffusion was thus afforded, to these sea-shore 
plants. The presence of extensive bodies of fresb-wuter would 
bave a moderating effect upon the atmosphere, which would, 
with the exwption of the absence of the saline element, be 
much the same as that of the sea-coast. That the vicinity of 
these lakes would form a not altogether unfavorable habitat 
for a maritime vegetation is shown by t!ie fact, that, as a general 
rule, the maritime species scattered through Canada at the present 
time, are only found in such localities. We may then readily 
imagine that having become settled there, when, after the gradual 
lapse of time, the waters of the lake retreated to their present 
limits, these plauls would follow, still continuing to retain their 
positions near the shores, which would thus accouutfor their wide 
diffusion throughout the country at the present time. We may 
then regard these peculiarly distributed plants as the relics of 
a, more extended maritime vegetation of the post^tertiary period. 

This theory of the causes of the distribution of sea-shore 
plants over Canada, which I bave briefly endeavored to explain, 
resting as it does almost entirely upon a consideration of the past 
geological conditions of the country, and upon some assumptions 
not yet fully sustained by facte, may be open to objections. It 
may be a question whether the facilities for migration to the ancient 
lakes and for distribution along their shores, were, at that time, 
ao ample as I have supposed. Still it is conceived that the 
peculiar diffusion of these species must have originated in some 
such way as that conjectured. I cannot think that it Is due to 
mere accident. 

V. Alpine Type. 

The species enumerated in the list given below to illustrate onr 
alpine and sub-olpine floras have been chiefly obtained from the 
Uingan Islands, Anticosti, and Gaap£. The Mingan Islands and 
AnticoBli have recently afforded to collectors many very interesting 
ftlpine forms, — some hitherto unknown south of Labrador, unless 
found upon the high alpine tops of the White Mountains. Draba 
wcana,Cochlearia tridaetylitet, Dryae iategri/olia,Rubu* arcticut, 
and some other boreal forms detected there, form valuable additions 



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418 THE CANADIAN MATCRAL18T. [DeC- 

to the Conadian flora. On the GaBp^ cliffs, however, the vegetation 
psrtakes more of n sub-alpine character. Solidago ikynoidea, 
Dn/iis Drummondiif Vaccinium Vilie-Idoai, and Saxi/raga aisoon 
are there, with Aiplenivm viride, a fero until lately unknown on 
the Atlantic coast Bouth of Greenland. The northern shore of 
Lake Superior appears also to be sab-alpine. 

The north-western parts of Newfoundland near the Straits of 
IWisle have been recently visited by "Mr. Kiehardson of the Geo- 
logical Survey of Canada, and in a small coUeation of plants made 
by him occur Lychnis alpina, Dryas integi-i/olia, Rabu» arctieut, 
SoUJago virga-aurea var. alpina, DitipejiEia Lapponica, Satix 
reticulata, and S. phylicifolia, all alpine species. Rubus Chamcemo- 
ru», Vacccinium uliginosum, V. Vitis-Idaa, Empetrum nigrum 
and two or three other sub-alpine forms, were aiao obtained by him 
in the same localities. On the neighboring coast of Labrador 
the alpine plants collected by the Abbfi Ferland were Silmeacaulii, 
Rubus arcticiiB,&dum Rhodiala, Aretotfapkt/hs alptna,Diapenna 
Lapponica, Fleurogyne rotata, and Salix alpestrit. Anticostl and 
the north-western part of the island of Newfoundland appear to 
form the southern limit of alpine v^etation upon the Atlantic 
coast. Their complete exposure to the effects of the p