Skip to main content

Full text of "The Canadian nurse"

See other formats



Highlight for , 

JULY 1955 



See pp. $16 & 5S9 

tin SQ WW 



New Morning Milk... 
Developed especially 
for Babies 



Morning partly skimmed Milk protects your suggestion 
by assuring you of these important quality controls: 

!. AIJ mflk is protected at its source. The fanns that tupplj 
milk to our condcnseries arc selected and reicularly 
inspected by our own highly trained dairymen. 

2. Constant lahoralory control to maintain the quality 
of Morning Milk. 

3. Inspection of milk at every stage of production. 

4. Standardization lo strictest levels to insure 
digestibility and food values, uniformity 
of color, flavor and consistency. 

5. FortiHcation with vitamin D to 800 Uniu 
per pint of Morning Milk, to insure 
proper use of the looih and bone- 
building minerals in the milk. 


Morning Milk 

from Saunders ••• 

new (6th) edition ! . . Wright & Montag — 
Pharmaealag^' & Therapeuties 

Thoroughly revised and reorganized into units, this text includes 
among its new additions, references to the British Pharmacopoeia and 
an appendix on Canadian Drug Legislation. 

By HAROLD N. WRIGHT. Ph.D., Professor of Pharmacology, Univcrsitv of Minnesota; and 
MILDRED MOXTAG, EdD.. R.N., Associate Professor of Nursing Education. Teachers 
College, Columbia L'niversity. 557 pages, illustrated. $4,75. 

New (6tk) Edition — Just Ready! 

new (4th) edition ! . . In|{rani — 
Psyehiatrie !Vur!4iii|g 

Many important changes have been made in this discussion of the 
complete nursing care of those who are mentally ill — new methods 
of treatment, new chapters on the arts, education, etc.. as treatment. 

By MADELENE ELLIOT INGRAM. R.N., formerly with the Graduate Program in Psychia. 
trie Nursing. Adelphi College. Long Island, N.Y.; Consultant in Ps>xhiatric Nursing Educa 
tion. 529 pages, illustrated. $4.75. ATw (4tk} Edition ~ Just Ready! 

new ! . . MeKenna — 

Thredholdn to IVi^fe^ifiiianal ^urs^in}^ Pra€»ti<>e 

This new professional adjustments book is designed to span the 
period which extends from an undetermined moment in a student's 
senior year until she has established herself as an independent worker. 

By FRANCES M. McKENNA, R.N.. M.A.. Dean, School of Nursing and Professor of 
Nursing. Bavlor Iniversity. Waco. Texas. 347 pages. $4.25. Sew! 

new ! . . llayo»i «& Ipazaway — 
lluiiiaii ltelalii»n!4 in XuVs^iiiij 

Here, society is analyzed, first generally, and then more specifically by 
discussing the human relationships involved in the professional ser\icc 
of the nurse. 

By WAYI^ND J. UAYKS, Ph.D.. Professor of S<KuAo^y, \ University; and RENA 
GAZAWAY. R.N., B.S., Ph.N., M.A.. Assistant Pr..trw>r of Nursing and Health. University 
of Cincinnati. 471 pages, illustrated $4.50. ^ewt 


West Washington Square Philadelphia 3, Pa. 

Canadian Reprmrnlativr : McAioafa & Co. Lid.. 1251 Yonge Su ToroBlo S 

JULY. 19« • Vol. 51. No. 7 jjj 



JULY 1955 


B1 8 New Products 

626 Begin Planning Now 

62T Recent Advances in Poliomyelitis 

AND Other Virus Diseases A. /. Rhodes 

632 .Adjust^-e Mechanisms /. W. Spalding 

639 Flight Nurses 

Royal Canadian Air Force G. M. Somers 

64-1 Pioneering in Okinawa... 

..^r. A#. Carmel 

64A The Registered Nurse — A Specuust 

Psychiatric Institutions 

Need Them H. S. Atkinson 

5*6 Organizing Public Health Services £, A. Wake 

64S CHOLECYSTms and CHOLEcvsTECTOMy.-.^V. / KilUrn 

663 Methodes d'Enseicnement en Sciences 

Physiques et Chimiques Sr, M.-R, Lacroix 

66T Driver's Eyes — An Unsolved Puzzle 

665 Nursing Across the Nation 
660 Le Nursing a travers le Pays 
662 In Memoruvi 

664. Selection — A Propos de Poliomylite 

666 Book Reviews 

668 From Small Beginnings 
660 Li\'ER Microsomes 
672 News Notes 
681 Positions Vacant 
692 Ofhcial Directory 

Editor amd Bmiimea Mammger 

Asnstami Editor 

Th£ vinv4 expressed 
in the various articles 
are the tnews of 
the authors and 
do not necessarily 
represent the policy 
or views of 

The Canadian Nurse 
nor of the Canadian 
Surses' Association, 

SmbscripHtn RmUi: Canada k ncnmida: 6 nontlM. %\.7Siane jrcar. IJ.OO; two rmr%^ 15.00. 
Student nan«-- ooe yw. $2.00; tliree y^on, $5,00. U.&.A. k fornn: oot Tt«r, $J.50; two fmn. 
In co mb in a t ion with the Am^icmn Jmtnml cf N^rtmg or Nmtmg Ooflodl . om jmr, $7.00l 
^. , ^ . Stnfle cpi»c», 35 conCa. 

'^^S. ^**W5^^ "»^?^ <****" Payable to TW Comodimm Nmte. 
Dcttilcd Ofcisi Dtrectcry appcan in i«w A ~ 


National A( 


1S22 SKorbrooko Str—U WmI. MonlroAl 2S. Q««b«c 




Rice Cereal 

Hypo-oUergvnkl Ideal suiting solid for all babies, 
G«rber Rice Cereal is preferred where there is a 
family history of allergy. Prepared only from rice and 
hypoallergenic nutritional supplements. Gintains no 
yeast, mait or milk solids. 

Enriched! Gerber Rice Cereal is fortified with rice 
polishings — a particularly rich source of natural 
vitamin-B complex — plus crystalline thiamine, ribo- 
flavin and niacinamide. Iron is also added to support 
hemoglobin levels a few weeks after birth. 

Di9«ttibl«l Thorough precooking and low crude fiber 
(ftverage8 0.8%) assur e easy dipstibility. Bland flavor 
and smooth texture make Gerber Rice Cereal es- 
pecially palatable to the young infant. 

Important P. S, Gerber's famous five cereals— Rice, 
Barley, Oatmeal, Wheat and Mixed Cereal make it 
easy for the mother to select and introduce cereal 
▼ariety. Once the baby is established on Ri«, the 
other cereals may be introduced, one at a time. If 
cereal allergy shows up, diagnosis is relatively simple. 




Qji^Y FOODS •'^^*''^ '""^ 0*^ fc'*'*^*'*** 

• ceiveALS • OVER m strained and junior foods 

JULY. 19»*Vol. &1. No. 7 

OtA^M^ kuSMt«sf 


^etaAeeH^ Occueluc^ 

Do you remember the tremendous burst of 
newspaper publicity with which we were 
bombarded last spring when the report of 
the efficacy of Salk vaccimt for the prevention 
of poliomyelitis was first released. There was 
scarcely a page in the newspaper we read 
that did not include some news item or pic- 
ture. Subsequent events have moderated the 
initial enthusiasm somewhat, but the story 
of the progress that has been made in recent 
years is fascinating. Dr. A. J. Rhodes has 
been closely associated with many of the 
recent developments. You will enjoy reading 
about the step-by-step discoveries that led to 
the production of the much- talked -of vaccine. 
Still more discoveries are needed to provide 
a vaccine that will be "as nearly 100 per cent 

effective as possible." 

* « * 

Our very effective cover picture this 
month is of F/O Marioo Neily, Middleton, 
N.S., who has the distinction of being the 
first R.C.A.F. nurse in Canada to make a 
jump, or in para-rescue parlance to '"hit the 

Seven R.C.A.F. nursing sisters have re- 
ceived training so far at the R.C.A.F. Para 
Rescue School. The first seven weeks of the 
eighteen- week course are spent at Edmonton. 
There the students receive preparatory work 
before going on to Jasper, Alta., for para- 
chute drops into open and bush territory, 
mountain and glacier climbing, and bush lore. 
Each graduate has made ten jumps during 
the training period, six into open country 
and four into heavily timbered areas. 

Another branch of specialized training 
for R.C.A.F. nursins: sisters is described for 
us by F/L Owen Somert. There may not 
be quite the same degree of excitement in 
the life of a fiigki mmrs€ as in her high leap- 
ing sister's but it is a most reassuring thing 
for wounded men to know that alt of the 
highly qualified skills of a well trained nurse 
are available to him as he is lifted to safety 
and recovery. 

Last year, an advert i-^rmmt for a super- 
intendent of nurses for the Manitoba School 
for Mentally Defective Persons appeared in 
our Journal. It did not bring a single, soli- 

tary nibble. Pondering on the reasons for 
this complete indifference among graduate 
nurses, both to the need and the opportimity 
pro\nded. Dr. H. S. AtkmMMi has put his 
diagnostic skills to work and has come up 
with some pretty convincing arguments why 
registered nurses should not leave such an 
important position as was advertised to a 
qualified psychiatric nursing assistant. Is 
opportunity knocking at your door? 
« « * 

Announcement was made to all schools of 
nursing early last year that a cmsh mwrnrd 
of $25 would be given by Macmillan Com- 
pany of Canatia for the two best articles on 
comprehensive nursing care written by stu- 
dent nurses in each calendar year. The jud- 
ges selected by the Editorial Board of The 
Canadian Nurse were beset by seasonal com- 
plaints, one after the other, so that the actual 
evaluating was delayed. However, early in 
May. cheques and letters of congratulations 
were mailed to : 

1. Miss Norma Joan Killeen. a 1956 B 
student at Royal Inland Hospital, Kam- 
loops, B.C. Miss Killeen's article is pub- 

. lished in this issue. 

2. Miss Ann O'Rafferty. a student of 
Halifax Infirmary and Mount St. Vin- 
cent College. Halifax, N.S. Her article 
dealing with Acute I.^r\ngotracheo 
Bronchitis would be more appropriate 
for winter publication than for August 
but to keep the sequence straight, we 
shall publish it next month. 

Book prizes were awarded by llacmillan's 
to two other student nurses who also re- 
ceived first class rating (over 80 per cent). 
Their articles will follow in ^*7^t#»ftiher and 
October. They are: 

Miss Esme Baker of University of Al- 
berta Hospital, Edmonton, Alta. 

Mis? Martha Harlow of Victoria Gen- 
eral Hospital. Halifax. N.S. 
We offer siiKere congratulations to all 
four of these students. A ntmiber of twigs 
of the grape-vine have let os know that 
many more entries may be expected this 
year. Send them along, students nurses. Who 
knows? You may win $25 and who woukln't 
like that? 

A small girl wrote in an essay on -Pa- 
rents" that The trouble with parents is that 

when we get them they are so old, it's 
hard to change their 





maternity pad 

Because it's Thicker, Softer 

Oct more pad for your money with the thicker, sofler 
U-IncIi No. 656 Rotex. An improved process lays 
CcOyootton fibres into a fuller, fluffier ailer. As a 
fwh , fewer pads are needed and less time spent in 
cteiifinf pads. 

NtW MATIKNmr iiLT. For most efficient operation 
with the No- 656 Maternity Pad. use the new Koicx 
Maternity Belt. Forget old-fashioned T-binders. 
New bell fits around waist and snaps on— m) pins' 

MO SAVINGS! Save dressing costs and hours of nurse 
time. See your Curity represenutive for details today! 

Ejnre Fm^0vrt of l^-^J^ Ho. dSd ITol^x P^ 

••ft 4-#ty tnpm wdrflm . • Ai •• i«« imtnmm h» prlcal 






JULY. 1965* Vol. 51. No. 7 


Edited by DEAN R N. HUGHES 

Published Through Courtesy of Canadian Pharmaceutical Journal 


Manufacturer— Burroughs Wellcome & Co. (Canada) Ltd., Montreal. 

Description— Each scored tablet contains Piperazine citrate in an amount equivalent 
to 500 mg. piperazine hexahydrate. 

Indications: For the eradication of pinworms and roundworms. 

A<iininistration— The tablets should be given for seven days, withheld for the next 
seven days, then given again for another seven days. Or given for fourteen consecutive 
days. Perianal application of an antipruritic ointment is helpful. 

To prevent re-infestation, hygienic measures such as daily washing of the rectal 
opening and genitals, washing hands before meals, keeping finger nails short and well 
scrubbed are recommended. 

Instruction leaflets for handing to patients may be had on application. 


Manufacturer — Ciba Company Ltd., ^lontreal. 

Description — An oral, moderate or short acting, non-barbiturate sedative and hyp- 
notic, with rapid onset of action, absence of excitation or morning hangover and minimal 
side effects. Doriden is a-ethyl-a-phenyl-glutarimide. (gluthethimide). 

Iniiicationt — Insomnia; daytime sedation in anxiety-tension states (hypertension, 
menopause, coronary thrombosis, anxiety neuroses, hysteria, epilepsy, thyroid disease, 
etc.) ; pre-surgery sedation. 


Manufacturer — Can. Dist,: Fidelity Pharmaceutical Co.. Toronto, Ont. 

Description — Flesh-colored lotion containing: Salicylic acid Wf, ammoniated mer- 
cury 39^. with anthracene, phcnanthrene. naphthalene, carbazole, picolene, quinoline. 
pyridine, cresol, phenol, zinc oxide, talc, propylene glycol, and water. 

Indications — F«)r palliative control of psoriasis. 

Administratton — Thoroughly cleanse and dry the scaly area. Apply a thin film of 
lotion, blend gently into the patches. I>o not apply more than once a day and only to 
localized lesions — not to extensive patches except under close supervision of the physician. 


Manufacturer — Smith Kline & French lnter-.\mencan Cor|K)ration. .Montreal 

Description — Each capsule contains : 
Rauwolfia serpentina (whole root) 
Protoveratrine 0.1 mg. 

'Dibenzyline' (phenoxybenzamine hydrochloride) 
*Equivalenis (biologically assayed) 

Indications — Mild, moderate, and severe hypertension. 

Administration — In mild and moderate hypertension, the initial dose should usually 
be 1 capsule (No. 1) three or four times a day. Severe cases may be started on the same 
number of (No. 2) capsules. This initial dose should be maintained for at least two weeks. 
If the desired effect has not been achieved in this time, the daily dose may be increased 
by two or three capsules at weekly intervals until the resjjonsc is satisfactory. 


Manufacturer — Ingram & Bell Limited, Toronto. 

Description — .V red sugar-coated tablet containing: Rone meal 5 gr., ferrous gluco- 
nate 3 gr , vitamin A 1500 I.U.. vitamin I) 500 II*,, vitamin C 25 mgm., thiamin mononi- 
trate 2 mgm.. riboflavin 2 mgm., niacinamide 5 mgm., sodium iodide OJ mgm., pyridoxine 
HCI 3J mgm. 

Indications — As a dietary supplement, particularly indicated during pregnancy and 
lactation Contains a full vitamin B« requirement for protection against toxemias of 

Administration — One tablet, three times daily. 

Manufacturer— Con Dist,: Fidelity Pharmaceutical Co., Toronto, Ont. 
Description— Each tablet contains 750 mg. of a-ethyl-b-(2. 4. 6-triiodo-3-hydroxy- 
phenyl) i^ropionic acid. 

Indicattoos — For oral cholecystography. 

The Joomal preMtnts ph^macenticmli for informmtUm. Nmrse$ •mdfrsfnd tkmi omiy m pkyhcimm mmy prtteHbt, 

No. 1 

No 2 

12.5 mg.* 

25 mg.* 

0.1 mg. 

02 mg. 

25 mg. 

5 mg. 




Weston, Ontario 

Fost'Gradmaie Course in ike 

Treatment, Prevention, ami 

Control of Tuberculosis: 

1. A nine-week certificate course in 
surgical and medical clinical ex- 
perience, lectures and demonstra- 
tions. Rotation to all departments. 

2. An extra month in special depart- 
ments may be arranged for those 
nurses preparing for Public Health, 
Operating Room or Surgical Nurs- 

Far further particulars apply to : 

Director of Nurses, Toronto 
Hotpitat, Wcfton* Ontario 


Offers to qualified Registered Grad- 
uate Nurses the following oppor- 
tunities for advanced preparation : 

1. A six-month Clinical Course in 

2. A six-month Clinical Course in 
Operating Room Principles and 
Aivamced Practice. 

These courses commence in January 
and September of each year. Main- 
tenance is provided. A reasonable sti- 
pend is given after the first month- 
Enrolment is limited to a maximimi 
of six students in each course. 

For further information please li'rite to: 




ScKool of Nursing, Monfreal 


1. A four month clinical course in 
Obstetrical Nursing. 

2. A two-month clinical course in 
Gynecological Nursing. 

Salary — After second month at 
General Staff ratei. 

For information apply to: 

Director of Nuriinfl 

Royal Victoria Hotpttal 

Montreal 2. Oue. 




for Staff and Supervisory positioos in 
various parts of Canada. 

Applications will be considered from 
Registered Nurses without Public 
Health training but with Univcrtity 
entrance qua Uficat ions. 

I i 


L I 

Apply to: 

Director in Chi«l, 

Victoriaa Order of Nvraes 
for Canada, 

OttawB 4. Ont 

JULY 1*^'-'- • ^■"^ '^^ V- 



Manufacturer — The British Drug Houses (Canada) Limited, Toronto, Out. 

Description — Each sugar-coated tablet contains : Ferrous sulphate, exsiccated 200 mg, 
(equivalent to ferrous sulphate B.P. 42 gr.), ascorbic acid 10 mg., menadione as the dia- 
cetyl derivative 1.5 mg. 

Indications — The treatment and prevention of iron-deficiency anemias. Clinical trials 
have shown that ferrous sulphate when combined ^^-ith vitamins C and K is well tolerated 
even when there has previously been severe gastrointestinal upset with other iron prepa- 

Administration — Orally, Children — one tablet once or twice daily. Adults — one 
tablet three times daily or as directed by the physician. 


Manufacturer — Frank W. Horner Limited, Montreal. 

Description — Each capsule contains : Vitamin A 10.000 I.U., vitamin D 2,000 I.U., 
vitamin Bn (amorphous) 3 meg., thiamine 3 mg., ribo^avin 1 mg., pyridoxine 1 mg., 
niacinamide 10 mg,, ascorbic acid 25 mg., calcium (as powdered bone meal) 33 mg., phos- 
phorous (as powdered bone meal) 15 mg,, iron as ferrous sulfate 20 mg., zinc as zinc 
sulfate 1 mg., copper as copper sulfate 1 tng,, magnesium as magnesium sulfate 1 mg., 
manganese as manganese sulfate 1 mg., potassium as potassium chloride 1 mg., cobalt 
as cobalt sulfate 0.1 mg., boron as sodium borate 0.1 mg., iodine as potassium iodide 
0.1 mg., fluorine as calcium fluoride 0.015 mg., molybdenum as sodium molybdate 0.2 mg. 

Inflications — Whenever intensive vitamin-mineral supplementation is required. 

Administration — One capsule daily, or as required. 


Manufacturer — Parke, Davis & Company, Ltd., Walkerville, Ontario. 

Description — Combines 4 per cent of zirconium oxide (as zirconium carbonate) with 
2 per cent of benadryl hydrochloride, in a water-miscible base. 

Indications — For prevention of, or treatment of, rhus dermatitis resulting from con- 
tact with poison ivy or poison oak. It may be applied to exposed surface of the body 
before anticipated contact; used immediately after known contact; or applied after 
dermatitis appears. 

The Journal presents phartmaceuHcah for infonmaticn. Nwrses uuderstmmd $hmi only a pkysicmn mmy prescribf. 

Flower Names 

Traced to their sources, names of many 
flowers show how keenly they were ob- 
served by early growers. Here are a few 
examples : An ancient blossom tormented 
the nose of those who sniffed it, so from 
nasm (nose) and torqueo (twist), the nose 
twister was called nasturtium. Another 
flower was made up of spikes somewhat 
like the short Roman swords carried by 
gladiators. From the name of the sword, 
gladius, the plant was termed gladiolus. 
French gardeners noticed that the expanded 
blossom of a little flower resembled a 
tulipan (turban). So they called it tulip, 
Linnaeus — famous botanist — observed 
that the seed capsule of a familiar flower 
is shaped like a cup, or miniature water 

pitcher. Eklving into Greek, he combined 
hydr (water) and angos (vessel) to cotn 
the name hydrangea. Because a type of 
three-colored violet had a thoughtful ex- 
pression on its face, early French botanists 
called it pensie (thoughful). No other 
common flower has had so many names. 
At various times, it has been known as 
love-in-idleness, kiss-me-at-the-garden-gate, 
three- faccs-under-a-hood. and hearts-ease. 
How these names originated, no one knows. 
They were popular for many years, but 
eventually the French name was adapted 
as pansy. In time, it won over all con- 
tenders as a designation for the flower 
with a pensive countenance. 

— Webb B. Garrison 

Aqueous penicillin should be given slowly 
to avoid sudden spreading apart of muscle 
bundles. (Two cc. given rapidly through a 
No 23 needle attains the velocity of a 22 

bullet !) When removing the needle, with- 
draw it very rapidly. If oozing of material 
occurs, gently massage the immediate area 
with an alcohol fluff —D Karl Hunt, M.D. 




Offers to qualified Registered Nurses 
a 16- week supplementary course in 


with instruction and practice in the 
general surgfical, neurosurgical, plastic, 
orthopedic, g>'nccoIogic. urologic and 
ear, nose and throat oi)erating room 
services. Maintenance and stijiend are 

Far information xvrite to: 

Director, School of Nursing 

Th« iohnt Hopicins Hotpitol 

Bottimere 5, Morylond, U.S.A. 








This course is es}>ecially valuable 
to those contemplating Public 
Health, Industrial, or Tuber- 
culosis Nursing. 

For further information apply to: 

Director of Nursing, 

Mountain Sanatorium, 

Hamilton, Ontario. 


Posf-Groduaf* Courses offcrod in: 

\. Obstetrical Nursing — 4 months, 
commencing in September to coin- 
cide with medical lectures given to 
Medical Students, to wliich the post- 
viraduate students are invited. 

I Operating Room Technique and 

Management — Registration is full 
to January, 1956. 

Registkatiox Fee — $25 .(X). 

Gross Salary: $75.00 for 1 st 2 nn»iuiis 
$100.00 for 2nd 2 months 
$150.00 for 3rd 2 months 

Residence accommodation availahle, if 
desireti. at $J5.C0 a month. 

Meals ohtainable at reasonable rates 

in cafeteria, laundering of uniforms 


For infonnatitm u*ritf to: 





The Nova Scotia Hospital offers to 
quaHfied Graduate Nurses a six- 
month certificate course in Fsfckimtric 

• Classes in June and December. 

• Remuneration and maintenance. 

/ .'r further information apply to: 

8uperiiit4*ndeiit of Nuraes 
Soxm ScoUm HonpiUl 
Drawer SAO 
Dartmouth, Nova Scotta 

JULY. 1965 •Vol. 51 No 7 






School of Nursing 



A Four-Calendar-Year Course designed to prepore students for alt 
branches of community and hospital nursing practice and leading to the 
degree. Bachelor of Science in Nursing (B.Sc.N.). It includes studies in the 
humanities, bosic sciences and nursing. Bursaries, loans and scholarships 
are available. 


A Two-Veor Course designed to prepare graduate nurses to teach basic 
sciences in schools of nursing and leading to the degree. Bachelor of 
Nursing Education (B.N.E.). It includes studies in the humanities, the phys- 
ical, social and biological sciences, teaching and nursing education. 

For addifionat information, write to: 

School of Nursing, Hamilton College, 
McMasfer Universily, Hamilton, Ontario. 


The Allan Memorial Institute of 


Hospital offers six-month courses in 
Theory and Practice in Fsyckiairic 
Nursing to GradtuUe Nmrsti in good 

standing in their own province. 

Classes — Spring and Fall. 

Complete maintenance or living-out 
allowance, meals in liospital and uni- 
form laundry for the first three months. 
General duty ratts the second three 

For further information write to 

Miss H. M. Latnoat Dirvctor of Nurtinf. 
Royal Victoria HosptUJ. Montraal 2. Que. 
m MiM Kalhlcvn Mar>hall. SxMpmrwimm ol 
N !■■■■, Allan Memorial Institute ol Psy- 
Cklatoy. Royal Victor U Hoapital, MoqItmI 



Offers to Graduate Nurses a Six- 
Month Course in Tubercmtosis Nursing, 
including Immunology. Prevention, 
Medical & Surgical Treatment. 

1. Full series of lectures by Medical 
and Surgical staff. 

2. Demonstrations and Clinics. 

3. Experience in Thoracic Ofieratiiijk' 
Room and Post-Operative Unit. 

4. Full maintemince. salary & all staff 

5. Classes *t a ft \\a\ Kt ntul Vnvrm. 
bcr Ut 

For in formation d^f/y to: 





Nursing Assistants or Practical Nurses 

required for 

^€dm€d Andean ^eaJUA. SenmceA 


Oshwekcn, Manitowaning, Mcx>se Factory and Sioux Lookout, Ont. ; 
Hodgson, Pine Falls and Noru^ay House, Man. ; Fort Qu*AppeUe, North 
Battleford, Sask. ; Edmonton, Hobbema. Gleichcn, Cardston, Morley 
and Brocket, Alta. ; Sardis, Prince Rupert and Nanaimo, B.C. 


Outpost Nursing Stations, Health Centres and field positions in Provin- 
ces, Eastern Arctic, and North-West Territories. 


(1) Public Health Staff Nurses: up to $3,300 per year depending upon 
qualifications and location. 

(2) Hospital Staff Nurses : up to $3,120 per year depending upon quali- 
fications and location. 

(3) Nursing Assistants or Practical Nurses: up to $185 per month, 
depending upon qualifications. 

• Room and board in hospitals — $30 per month. Statutory holidays. 
Three weeks' annual leave with pay. Generous sick leave credits. Hos- 
pital-medical and superannuation plans available. Assistance may be 
provided to help cover cost of transportation. 

• Special compensator}' leave for those posted to isolated areas. 

For interesting, challenging, satisfying work, apply to: 
Indian Health Services at one of the following addresses : 

(1) 422 Federal Building. Vancouver, 2. B.C. ; 

(2) Charles Camsell Indian Hospital, Edmonton, Alberta ; 

(3) 10 Travellers Building, Regina, Sask. ; 

(4) 522 Dominion Public Building, Winnipeg, Manitoba ; 

(5) Box 292, North Bay, Ontario ; 

(6) 55 "B" St. Joseph Street, Quebec. P.Q. ; 

(7) Moose Factory Indian Hospital, Moosonee, Ontario. 


Chief, PerMDoel I>i%iAloii. 

Department of NaUoiuiI Healtli mnd Welfare, 

Ottawa, Ontario. 

JULY. 1<«\'> • Vol. 51. No. 7 SBS 


This little housewife had a 
problem — sweet-tooth Hubby on 
a sweet-firee diet. (And beginning 
to get nervous about it.) She 
tried everything. Fancy salads. 
Bigger helpings. But Hubby's 
frown darkened by the day. Then 
one day she read in a magazine 
about a discovery, a new 
non-caloric sweetener. One that 
she coald actiially cook and bake 
with — in any food, at any 
temperature. One which gave 
the perfect taste of sugar — with 
no bitter aftertaste in ordinary 
use. That night there were 
cookies, pudding, coffee - sweet 
coffee — and a big, big smile acrosB 
the table (Q»M ) 

. . . and so she 
started using 


(Cyclamate, Abbott) 



For samples 


recipe booklets, 






THE CeOflDlfln nURSE 



NUMftEl 7 


Begin Planning Now 

KE YEAR FROM NOW the 1956 bi- 
ennial meeting of the Canadian 
Nurses' Association will be a matter 
of historical interest. I>elegates will 
have mailed home all of the reports, 
samples, literature and so forth» and 
be busy with their kodaks recording 
scenic beauty spots they visit on one 
or another of the fascinating post- 
convention tours that are being plan- 
ned. Your editor will be hard put 
to get the stor\' of the convention 
written in time to be published in the 
August issue — it may have to l>e held 
over until Scpteml)er because of this 
business of deaclliiit s * Tliat will be 

What of the imriMiiin^ months? 
There is no absorbing topic for group 
and individual study as there was in 
the previous biennium when consider- 
ation was being given to the sweeping 
changes in our asscK^iation's structure. 
Most of the provincial associations 
have already attended to the matter 
of altering their conunittee structure 
to conform to the new jxattern adopted 
at Banff in 1934. Is there any pre- 
convention thinking and planning, 
therefore, that nurses should be doing 
during the coming months as prepara- 
tion for the 1956 convention? What 

will be discussed at the meetings in 
Winnipeg ? 

It is too early yet to make any pre- 
diction or announcements regarding 
the program. However, the theme of 
the convention has been decided 
upon — "Nursing Serves the Nation." 
Both those engaged in the many dif- 
ferent branches of nursing ser\nce and 
those interested primarily in nursing 
education will find stimulus in analyz- 
ing their own endeavors. How does 
the contribution of each nurse in her 
own sphere add up to "serving the 

There is another side to the prep- 
aration that also net*ds to receive some 
consideration well ahead of time. 
Those who will receive financial as- 
sistance from one or another of the 
nursing asstxriations may stop reading 
here! The rest will l>e interested to 
know what the prolxible convention 
costs wnll Ik* so that the necessary 
amount can be added to the sum re- 
quired for the fare and any post-con- 
vention tripping. Here are some in- 
teresting straws in the wind: 

This is the third time a University 
cam|>us has served as our coiTveniion 
locale — Mount Alison at Sackville, 
\ n in 1048 ; University of British 

JULY. 19S5«Vol. 51. No. 7 


Columbia at Vancouver. B.C., in 1950; 
University of Manitoba at Winnipeg, 
Man., in 1956. 

Residence accommodaticm on the cam- 
pus will be available for 550 nurses. 
As this will be the most economical 
place to stay, as well as being good fun 
for all, watch for the pre-registration 
forms that will be published next Oc- 
tober. Get your registration in early. 

Do you prefer the comforts of a 
hotel? Fifty double rooms are being 
reserved for this week at both the 
Royal Alexandra and the Fort Garry 
Hotels. Those who plan to drive to 
Winnipeg may want to stay at one of 
the new motels that are not too far 

from the campus. Be an early bird! 

The all-important question of "where 
do we eat'* is being arranged well in 
advance The campus dining room will 
hold 450 persons at a sitting. In addi- 
tion, for those who desire a light snack, 
there will be room for from 200 to 250 
in the canteen. • 

From now on there will be many 
articles and much infonnation appear- 
ing in the various issues of the 
JourftaL W'atch for all of the exciting 
events that are being planned. But 
most important of all, begin your own 
planning now so that you won't be 
disappointed when June 25, 1956, rolls 
around. Winnipeg in 1956! 

Our Kind of Democracy 

We know that our democratic system is 
not perfect We know that is permits in- 
justices and wrongs. But with our whole 
hearts we believe in its continuous power of 
self-remedy. That power is not a theory — 
it has been proven. Through the years 
democracy has given more people freedom. 
less persecution, and a higher standard of 
living than any other system wc know. 
Under it, evils have been alwlished. in- 
justices remedied, old wounds healed, not by 
terror and revolution but by the slow 
revolution of consent in the minds of all the 
people. While we maintain democracy, wc 
maintain the greatest power a people can 
possess — the power of gradual, efficient. 
and lawful change. 

Most of all, we believe in democracy 

itself — in its past, its present and its 
future — in democracy as a political system 
to live by — in democracy as the great liope 
in the minds of the free. We belie\'c it so 
deeply rooted in the eartli of this countr>' 
that neither assault from without nor dis- 
sension from within can ever wipe it entirely 
from the earth. But. Ixxause it \%'as estab- 
lished for us by the free-mindcrl and the 
daring, it is our duty now. in danger as 
in security to uphold and sustain it with all 
that we have and are. We believe that its 
future shall and must be e\'en greater than 
its jwist. .And to the future — as to the past 
of our forebears and the present of our 
hard-won freedom — we pledge all we have 
to gi%'e. 

— Stephen Vincent Benct 

Crashing the Age Barrier 

.\s aeroplanes approach the speed of sound 
they hit the "sound l»arrier.*' Travel within 
this range of sfieeds is stormy; the [ilanes 
rock and shake, buffetwl by air vibrations. 
At higher velocities, however, smooth flight 
is again possible. 

Recent studies in<licatc that the "sound 
barrier" has its counterpart in the human 
bo<ly. According to one rescarcfier. our 
bodies reach an "age barrier", when we get 
to be 60 years old. Between 60 and 75, 

tfie physician declares, many of the body's 
gradual aging processes cease: the break- 
down of certain tissues and organs stops, 
and is actually supplanted by a period of 
renewed growth. Most of us die before 
reaching this "age larrier/* or while we ire 
gcMiig through it. But if we manage to sur- 
vive it. the physician notes, tliere is smooth 
sailing ahead — the chances of lirtng to 100 
are good. 


Saftty Sole: The car to watch is the car behin<l the car in front of you. 


Recent Advances in Poliomyelitis 

and Other Virus Diseases 

A. J. Rhodes, M.D., F.R.C.P. (Edin.) 

bacterial infections by means of 
antibiotics, virus diseases are assum- 
ing a more and more inipc^rtant place 
in medical and nursing practice. 

Some of the virus diseases with 
which you are familiar rank among 
the most important human illnesses: 
the common cold, influenza, virus 
pneumonia, herixs, measles, German 
measles, chicken jk>x, small jk>x, |x>lio- 
myelitis, mumps, hydrophobia, virus 
meningitis, encephalitis, tropical dis- 
eases such as yellow and dengue 
fevers, trachcjma, and the whole group 
of typhus and lyphus-Iike rickettsial 

The casual agents of virus diseases 
differ considerably from l>acteria, and 
have to be studied by s^x^cial tech- 
niques. For example, viruses are 
smaller than bacteria and cannot be 
seen properly with the ordinary- 
microsco]x\ Furthermore, they are 
much more difficult to cultivate than 
bacteria in the lalx>ratory, and will 
not grow in broth, on agar or similar 
media, for they require living cells 
for their growth. 

Of recent years, considerable im- 
provement has been made in the 
metb(Kls of studying viruses. Thus, 
it is now possif)le to demonstrate many 
vinises with the electron microscoj^e, 
and with newer techniques of tissue 
culture it is ix>ssible to grow, in the 
lalxiratory. many viruses that pre- 
viously could not be cultivated. These 
new techni<|ues have led to the demon- 
stration that many disi'ases thought 
to l)e of unknown cause, are in fact 
virus diseases, and have led tt> the 

Dr Rhodes \s director, The Research 
Institute, The Hospital for Sick Chil- 
dren. Toronto. This {>aper was prescnte<l 
at the annual meeting of the Registered 
Nurses* Association of Ontario last 

accumulation of more detailed knowl- 
edge about many of the old-established 
virus infections. 

For example, within the last few 
years, many new viruses have been 
discovered. One of the most interest- 
ing of these is Coxsackie virus. This 
virus causes an ulcerative pharj-ngitis 
known as herpangina, also aseptic 
meningitis, and epidemic myalgia or 
epidemic pleurod\Tiia. 

Quite recently, a new group of 
viruses has lx?en discovered by work- 
ers in Washington, D.C., and some 
meml)ers of this group seem to cause 
'Voids." It is hojxxl that, at last, some 
progress will be made in the study 
and perhaps eventual prevention of 
some types of common cold. 

Here, I shall confine my remarks 
to recent advances in the study of 
|K)liomyelitis, adv<inces that have been 
made possible by the introduction of 
suitable techniques for growing the 
virus in the laborator}'. 


Poliomyelitis is perhaps more feared 
than any other infection of childhood 
l)ecause of the jx^rmanent crippling and 
disability that may result. It is not. 
however, a very common disease, and 
it has been estimated by Dr. Henry 
Kumtn of the National Foundation 
for Infantile I'aralysis that, in the 
State of New York, only alKnil I in 
every 200 children contracts the 
disease by the age (»f 20 and only 1 
in ever)* 1,900 dies from [xilio by the 
same age. 

Although the disease is evidently 
not nearly as frt^fjuent as meast^ls, in- 
fluenza or nuunps, it appears to be 
on the increase, not only in Canada 
and the United States where there 
have Ix'en epidemics for many years, 
hut in those [)arts c»f the W(trld where 
polio was previously almost unknown. 

JULY. 1905 • Vol. 51. No. 7 


The customary public health meas- 
ures for control, such as isolation of 
the case, and quarantine of contacts, 
have been of little aiail in halting 
the spread of polio. Fortunately, two 
products for immunization have been 
developed : gamma globulin and, more 
recently, poliomyelitis vaccine. 

The recent introduction by Dr. 
Jonas Salk and his collaborators of 
a tissue culture vaccine represents the 
fruits of nearly 50 years of toil by 
many workers in many countries. I 
shall tr>' and tell you something of 
the major discoveries that have led 
to the present situation. We probably 
have not yet reached the end of the 
search for the perfect answer to polio, 
but how many more milestones there 
may be along the road, I cannot guess. 

Discovery Number 1 

Xearly 50 years ago, in 1908, Land- 
steiner and Popper demonstrated the 
virus etiolog>' of polio, and showed 
that the infection could be transmitted 
to monkeys. For about 30 years, in- 
oculation of monkeys remained the 
only means of demonstrating the pres- 
ence of polio virus. 

These animals were expensive, and 
work was carried out in only a few 
centres well-equipped with financial 
and material resources. Nevertheless, 
it is indeed suprising how much was 
learned about poliomyelitis during this 
"monkey era.'' The basic facts of im- 
munity were established, but progress 
in the de\'elopment of a practical vac- 
cine was seriously restrictefl by the 
lack of a simple means of growing 
the vims. 

Disco\'ERY Number 2 

In the early 1930's. Kolmer and 
Brodie showed that monkeys could 
be immunized against polio by means 
of vaccines. These vaccines were sus- 
pensions of central ner\*ous tissue of 
monkeys infected with polio virus. The 
suspensions were treated with chem- 
icals, such as formalin. 

This work actually reached such an 
advanced stage that several thousand 
children were inoculate^d with an ex|>er- 
imental vaccine. Unfortunately, a few 
cases of paralysis develoi)ed following 

the inoculation with these vaccines, and 
no further experiments were carried 
out. The hands of the clock were kept 
back for 20 years by this experience, 
and progress awaited the finding of 
some other source of virus than nerv- 
ous tissue of monkeys. 

Discovery Number 3 

In 1939. Armstrong reported that 
one particular strain of polio virus, 
known as the Lansing, could be trans- 
mitted to cotton rats and mice. This 
immediately made it much easier to 
study polio, for mice are cheap and 
can be obtained in large numbers. How- 
ever, the Lansing strain is the least 
common of the three types of polio 
virus, and the other types do not infect 

Discovery Number 4 

Working with Lan.sing polio vims, 
Morgan and her associates in Balti- 
more demonstrated the imjx^rtant part 
played by serum antibody in the pre- 
vention of polio. She showed that 
monkeys inoculated with virus in the 
muscles resisted a subsequent injection 
of virus into the brain, provided that 
a high level of antil)ody had developed 
in their blood. The degree of immunity 
in these vaccinated animals was di- 
rectly related to the amount of anti- 
body circulating in the blood. If the 
level was low, the vaccinated animals 
became paralyzed when they were in- 
jected with virus into the brain ; if it 
was high, they resisted. 

These studies demonstrated con- 
vincingly that blood antibody that has 
the property of neutralizing and de- 
stroying polio virus plays a major 
role in detennining resistance. 

Discovery .Number ^ 

It had l)een suspected for sonu- liinc 
that polio strains were not all alike 
and varied in their antigenic structure. 
The National Foundation for Infantile 
Paralysis, in the days when monkeys 
were still recfuired for such exfieri- 
ments, organized a cooperative study 
in a number of laboratories in the 
United States. 

Over 200 strains of polio vims 


isolated from various parts of the 
world, including our own laboratories 
in Toronto, were studied by special 
methods. It was found that these 
strains fell into three antigenic t^'pes 
which we know as polio virus, Type 1, 
Type 2. and Type 3. 

T\T>e I was much the commonest. 
These types have quite distinct viruses 
and infection with one type will not 
give rise to resistance to infection 
with the other types. Polio virus typts 
causing poliomyelitis in Canada belong 
in over 90 per cent of instances to 
Type 1. It is evident that any vaccine 
against polio must contain all three 
types of virus. 

Discovery Number 6 

Early in 1949, Doctors Enders, 
Weller, and Rohbins of the Harvard 
Medical School, Boston, reported their 
fundamental discover)' that polio virus 
could be grown in cultures of human 
embr}onic tissue in small flasks or 
test tubes and that it eventually de- 
stroyed the tissue. This so-called 
"cytopathogenic eflPect" could be seen 
with the microscope. 

Techniques were rapidly improved 
and it was found that monkey kidney 
was the most suitable tissue for the 
growth of virus. Arising out of this 
discovery has come, not only a simple 
method for the diagnosis of polio by 
isolation of virus in tissue cultures. 
but a method for the mass production 
of polio virus for * incorporation into 
a vaccine. 

No longer is it necessar>' to in- 
oculate live monkeys in order to study 
the virus, flowever, monkeys are 
needed in larger numbers than ever 
bi*fore, as sources of kidney tissue 
for cultures. Whereas before, one 
monkey could be used in a single test 
only, now one monkey *s kidneys pro- 
vide culti!res for one hundred or more 

Discovery Number 7 

This |>artiailar discovery was t' 
in Toronto, where Doctors Mci. 
Morton and Parker of the Connaughl 
Medical Research Laboratories had 
been working for some years on the 
development of synthetic chemical 

medium rich enough to support the 
growth of tissue cells in test tubes 
and outside the animal body. 

Their original work had no par- 
ticular application to polio, for it was 
part of a cancer research program. 
In 1950 they described a medium 
which they called ^'Mixture No. 199" 
as being suitable for the growth of 
chick embr>'0 cells in tissue culture. 
This medium was prepared from a 
large number of chemicals and did not 
contain any organic material such as 
horse serum that had been customarily 
used in tissue culture work.. 

Early in 1952, working in the Virus 
Research Department of The Hospital 
for Sick Children, Toronto, my as- 
sociates. Doctors Franklin and Wood 
with Miss Thicke and Mrs. Duncan 
reported that this Medium 199 could 
be used to grow polio virus in tissue 
cultures. The new medium had several 
advantages over media used hitherto. 
In particular, it appeared to us that 
it would be useful in the development 
of a vaccine, since it did not contain 
any horse or other animal serum that 
might cause allergic reactions on in- 
jections in children. 

In 1953. at the specific request of 
the National Foundation for Infantile 
Paralysis, Doctors I^one Farrell and 
Wood and others in the Connaught 
group developed a method for the mass 
production of polio viruses of all three 
tvpes in tissue cultures of monkey 
kidney nourished with Medium 199. 

In this method, three-quarters of 
a liter of polio-infected fluid was ob- 
tained from each tissue culture bottle. 
Previously, only a few cubic centi- 
metres had been obtained from each 

Under the active direction of Dr. 
R. D. Defries. the staff of the Con- 
naught Medical Research I^il>orato- 
ries. during the rest of 1953 and early 
1954. prc}>are<l large amounts of vims 
that were shipped to commercial firms 
in the United States and there pro- 
cessed into the **Salk vaccine*' used 
in the trial carried out in the United 
' > and Canada in the spring of 
• This involved the addition of 
tormalin to kill virus. This vaccine 
was subjecte<l to exhaustive tests of 
safety to make certain that no live 
virus remained. 

JULY. 1965 • Vol. 51. No. 7 

Discovery Number 8 

Discovery Number 10 

It had been known for some years 
than an inoculation of polio antibody 
will protect animals against a sub- 
sequent injection of live polio virus. 
Polio antibody can be administered 
to experimental animals in the form 
of convalescent monkey serum or more 
suitably in the form of human gamma 
globulin. This product contains anti- 
body to the three types of virus be- 
cause the blood of most adults contains 
antibody as a result of a previous mild 
or subclinical infection. 

In 1951 and 1952 Dr. Hammon 
of the University of Pittsburgh carried 
jout a large scale trial of gamma 
globulin as a preventive of polio in 
man. He found that it did indeed 
prevent some cases. The effect was, 
however, short-lived and did not come 
into operation for approximately one 
week following inoculation. 

One of the interesting findings was 
that although relatively low levels of 
antibody were produced in the blood 
of the inoculated children, these levels 
were sufficient to protect against polio. 
This study confirmed the important 
protective role of antibody but in- 
dicated that some more practical way 
of producing it would have to be 

Discovery Number 9 

About 1952, Dr. Jonas Salk, Pitts- 
burgh, started to develop a vaccine 
consisting of killed polio virus and 
he worked out a method of treating 
polio-infected tissue culture fluid with 
fonnalin so that the virus was killed, 
yet at the same time retained anti- 
genic properties. He demonstrated that 
injection of this material stimulates 
the production of antibody in monkeys 
and in man and that these antibody 
levels remain raised for an appreciable 

He carried out his ex|XTiments at 
first on a fairly small scale in human 
beings in the Pittsburgh area and 
later was the driving force in organ- 
izing the large scale trial carried out 
in 1954 with the support of the 
National Foundation for Infantile 

During the last few years virus 
workers have been studying the meth- 
ods whereby polio virus spreads 
throughout the human body and there 
have been two alternate theories. 

One school maintained that polio 
virus is "neurotropic," that is to say 
that it enters the body through the 
mouth, passes through the mucosal 
surface of pharynx or intestine and 
then spreads to the brain or spinal 
cord along nerve fibres. The second 
school maintained that there is a stage 
of viremia early in polio infection in 
which virus circulates in the blood. 
The great majority of workers sup- 
ported, until recently, the first or 
neurotropic theory for which there 
seemed to be adequate proof from 
experimental work in monkeys. 

The results of experiments by 
Horstmann and Bodian on chimpan- 
zees and monkeys have caused most 
workers, however, to revise their 
opinion. It has been shown conclu- 
sively that when these animals are 
fed virus by mouth, virus appears in 
the blood and circulates for a few 

Tests carried out in human cases of 
polio confirmed that viremia occurs 
in man also. Accordingly, Bodian and 
Horstman have postulated that in 
human polio, virus first proliferates 
in the wall of the intestine, then enters 
the blood and finally settles down in 
the central nervous system. Here it 
may cause a localized non-iwrahiic 
type of disease or may spread more 
widely and cause paralytic disease. 

During the phase of viremia. virus 
is exposed to attack by antibody cir- 
culating in the blood stream and is 
thereby neutralized and destroyed. 
Qearly, inoculation of Salk-type vac- 
cine is the obvious method of produc- 
ing this antilxxly in those who are 
susceptible to polio, chiefly children. 

The 1954 Trial 

Against the background of these 
discoveries, the National Foundation 
for Infantile Paralysis staged, in 1954. 
a large scale trial of the vaccine elab- 
orated and pioneered by Dr. Salk. 


This was carnea out in the United 
States, three provinces and Finland. 
Dr. T. Francis, Jr., Ann Arbor, 
Michigan, was entrusted with the 
colossal task of evaluating the results 
of this vaccination program that in- 
cluded nearly 2,000,000 children. 
Some 400,000 received the vaccine, 
the others being "controls." 

In his report recently issued, Dr. 
Francis concluded that the Salk vac- 
cine was very effective in reducing the 
incidence of polio. He stated that the 
reduction in incidence in vaccinated 
children was approximately 80 per 
cent. That is to say, the number of 
cases in vaccinated children was re- 
duced to one-fifth of that in un vac- 
cinated children. 

Of particular interest is a com- 
parison of the follow-up of a group 
of children who received vaccine and 
a group who received medium alone, 
thus serving as controls. When con- 
sideration is given only to patients 
in whom laboratory tests confirmed 
the clinical diagnosis during the six 
months after vaccination, eight cases 
of spinal poliomyelitis occurred in 
200.000 vaccinated children, whereas 
45 cases occurred among a similar 
number of controls who received the 
medium only (Table 1). 

The vaccine proved absolutely safe 
and there were ver\' few reactions 
attributable to the injection. 

1955 AND Beyond 
Elalxirate plans arc now under way 

in this country and the United States 
to produce as much Salk-type vaccine 
as quickly as possible and to inoculate 
at first those who are at greatest risk : 
children in kindergarten and Grades 
1, 2. 3, and 4. 

The Ontario Government will pro- 
vide vaccine made in the Connaught 
Medical Research Laboratories to in- 
oculate all school children free-of- 
charge. It is hoped to complete this 
program before too long but it will 
take many njonths before it can be 

All vaccine made in the Connaught 
Medical Research Laboratories is 
given rigorous safety tests, both in 
Toronto and Ottawa. 

In the original trial, vaccine was 
given in three doses but now, follow- 
ing recent work by Dr. Salk, it is 
believed that two at intervals of 2-4 
weeks will be adequate for the first 
course, a booster being given not less 
than seven months later. 

The future status of polio vaccina- 
tion is not yet certain. The vaccine 
must be improved to make it as nearly 
100 per cent effective as possible. It 
is not kTiown how long the resistance 
conferred by the present vaccine will 
last, although it is hoped that it will 
be of some duration. If the protection 
proves to be short-lived, it may be 
necessary' to look for an alternate type 
of vaccine. Such a vaccine would be 
one containing modified virus which 
would give a mild infection yet im- 
munize permanently against the dis- 
ease. Such a modified polio virus 

Tabi^k I 

Evaluation of Salk-type Polio Vaccine by Dr. T. Francis, Jr. 

Results in Laboratoo' Confinncd Cases in Control Areas 


(3 shots) 

Number of cases of polio: 









Medium 199 





of vaccine 



JULY. 1955 • Vol 51. No. 7 

would be analogous to vaccinia virus of the Salk-type fomialin-treated vac- 

which prevents smallpox. cine is a major step forward in the 

Whatever the future holds in store, eradication of poliomyelitis and that 

today we can say that the introduction the future seems to be full of promise. 

Adjustive Mechanisms 

Jean W. Spalding 

mechanisms should be of value to 
anyone engaged in the profession of 
nursing. It should assist the instructor 
who is helping nursing students to 
understand these mechanisms and thus 
supply them with some of the tools 
that will result in developing a greater 
awareness of the patient as a person. 
Such knowledge will provide a foun- 
dation that will enable the teacher to 
have a better understanding of the 
student as a person. This does not 
suggest that one hopes to perform 
in the role of a psychoanalyst. A nurse 
utilizes this knowledge to help her 
understand some of the complexities 
of human beings and to recognize 
developing maladjustments early, so 
that those qualified to deal adequately 
with such problems can be brought 
in for consultation. 

The body maintains itself by the 
process termed homeostasis. Likewise 
the psychological integrity of the indi- 
vidual is safeguarded by adjustive me- 
chanisms over which one has little 
control.. Adjustive mechanisms, also 
called defense mechanisms or dyna- 
misms of defense, are auto-corrective 
devices which all individuals utilize 
to protect themselves against exces- 
sive tensional states and to maintain 
their self-esteem. Everyone encounters 
emotional states that form a direct 
barrier in achieving satisfaction. In 
such instances the individual behaves 
defensively instead of directly because 
uncomfortable tension must be re- 
leased. The use of one of the mechan- 
isms brings about a certain degree 
of temporar>' satisfaction.! 

Miss Spalding is educational director 
at Toronto East General and Ortho- 
pedic Hospital. 

DN-namisms are the dynamic processes 
which psychoanalysts believe mediate 
between the Id and the permissions of 
the Ego and Superego; they arc the 
unconscious or auto-corrective means 
by which the Ego avoids capitulation 
and maintains itself in the face of so- 
cially unacceptable desires and devia- 
tions in conduct.! 

Because all persons experience ten- 
sional states and almost none has 
abilities or qualities that permit a 
successful direct attack on all prob- 
lems, adjustive mechanisms are 
normal and necessary in the life of 
every individual. 

Defense mechanisms are not deliber- 
ately acquired by the person who 
displays them. They arc for the most 
part unconscious. In a process of trial 
and error he discovers some responses 
that reduce his tensions and afford 
relief. These mechanisms tend to be 
repeated and perpetuated and do not 
involve deliberation or consctousness^ 
It is only when an individual, in 
reacting to tensional states over a 
period of time relies extensively on 
the adjustive mechanisms for support 
of his Ego that he shows evidence of 

There appears to be an almost un- 
limited number of classifications of the 
adjustive mechanisms. While the clas- 
sification of the mechanisms is not 
important a better understanding of 
their function is since more than one 
meclianism may \yc involved in the 
l)ehavior pattern of an individual. 
However the systematized organiza- 
tion of this paper lends itself to the 
adoption of a ^'- -^ration. Kaplan 
and Baron's i ion which is 

based on the mdivhluars quest for 
satisfaction and comfort will l>e used. 
1, Mechanisms of Deception: .Some 


mechanisms tend to alter the individuars 
perception of a tensional situation by 
reconstructing his attitudes and feelings 
so that he senses no threat to himself. 
Included arc the mechanisms of ration- 
alization, projection, displacement, re- 
pression and suppression. 

2. Mechanisms of Substitution: Some 
mechanisms attempt to change the 
tensional situation by substituting at- 
tainable goals for non-attainable or 
threat-reducing goals. The mechanisms 
of compensation, substitution, reaction- 
formation, sublimation and egocentric- 
ism are classified in this group. 

3. ^fechanisms of Azmdancc: Some 
mechanisms enable the individual to 
employ psychological escape techniques 
whereby he attains temporary emotional 
comfort by removing himself from a 
threatening situation. The mechanisms 
of fantasy, negati\'ism. motor hysteria 
and identification are included in this 

Mechanisms of Deception 

Rationalization: Shaffer statts that 
irrationalization would bt* a better 
temi.« This mechanism protects the 
E^o because it provides plausible 
reasons for behavior, rather than 
acknowledg^ing the tnie reasons which 
the individual regards as inferior or 
blameworthy. This self- justification 
removes feelings of guilt and anxiety, 
and he avoids the discomfort accom- 
panying such fet*lings. The use of this 
mechanism provides comfort that be- 
comes an automatic habit, protecting 
him when threats occur. There is an 
element of rationalization in each of 
the following features: (a) When we 
blame circimi stances or people for our 
shortcomings and failures; (b) in 
prfHrrastin^tion, and (c) when we per- 
fonii acts that are not socially acccept- 
ablc "because others do it" and 
thereby justify our actions. The fol- 
lowing illustrates this process: 

Miss Green entered the school for 
nurses with an excellent academic 
record. At first, her theoretical arxi 
practical results were on a par with 
her former achievement. Then her work 
began to show a marked decline. VVhen 
this necessitated an interview with the 
director of education. Miss Green stated 
that slio v\.is iiitf rcNtf<l in nursing, but 

that her associates made so much noise 
in the residence at night she could not 
study. She also indicated that her in- 
structors failed to give her the assist- 
ance she required. Investigation into 
this situation revealed that Miss Green 
didn't try to study within the residence 
environment, because she left it during 
her oflF duty time, and that she had not 
approached any instructor to request 
assistance. As Miss Green was demon- 
strating no effort to correct this 
problem, she was referred to the hos- 
pital psychiatrist. With the psychiatrist's 
help she was able to see how her use 
of rationalization was increasing the 
problem for her and took steps to 
make the necessary adjustments in her 
behavior pattern. 

Persons using rationalization are 
quite unconscious that they are dis- 
torting facts and that explanations are 
fabricated to protect their self-esteem. 
Rationalization must not be held in 
contempt as a mechanism of adjust- 

Rationalization of one's behavior is 
no less an act of organic defense 
against disturbance than is a change of 
white blood count against infectious 

Ovenise of rationalization may re- 
move a person from reality to the 
point that he finds himself in a real 
crisis. In its exaggerated form» ra- 
tionalization is manifested as delusions 
which characterize severe personality 
disorders. 4 

Projection: This is an ego-pre- 
serving mechanism. It is the tendency 
to place responsibility for one's acts 
or thoughts on circumstances or per- 
sons beyond one's control. The in- 
dividual remains guiltless because he 
can*t be responsible for what hap- 
pened. It is a universal tendency of 
both children and adults. These in- 
dividuals are unaware that they are 
making themselves comfortable by re- 
moving self-guilt from conscious 
recognition. In her lectures Dr. Dris- 
coll described three types of projec- 

The basis of gossip is projection. In 
gossip one transfers to another person, 
elements of one's own personality which 
one doesn't like. For example, when a 
group of adults gossip about the evils 


;>i. No. 

of the younger generation, they are es- 
sentially revealing the things they would 
like to do but haven't the nerve to do. 
The realization of this is something that 
should be conscientiously investigated 
by nurses. 

The transfer of thoughts, feelings and 
wishes toward some person or toward 
a more distant object, is evident in a 
person who has had harsh parents and 
cannot accept the concept of love. 

The projection of one's unfulfilled 
desires and wishes onto another person. 
This is encountered when a parent 
unknowingly, and in good faith, pro- 
jects his or her professional aspirations 
onto a son or daughter who is unsuited 
for that profession. It is evident in the 
nursing profession, when a student 
enters training because of the projection 
of her mother. When it occurs, it often 
results in failure or in some degree of 
inadequacy on the part of the person 
concerned. In the educational field, 
teachers should be fully aware that 
what they may term "direction of a 
student," may be the use of the mechan- 
ism of projection.! 

Displacement: A special fonti of 
projection is k-nouTi as displacement. 
This is the technique of shiftinjj a or reaction from the original 
object to another uhich is less 

In displacement the feelings are un- 
recognized until one becomes aggrav- 
ated beyond control and then literally 
blows up. Many of the fears and 
dislikes in childhood and adulthood 
can be traced to the process of dis- 
placement. The object of the aware 
observer is to try to determine on 
what the fear or dislike has been 
placed. As this mechanism oi>erates 
on the unconscious level, one cannot 
offer adequate reasons for these ac- 
tions. In the student-teacher relation- 
ship, displacement may account for the 
teacher upbraiding the class and the 
student disliking the teacher. The fol- 
lowing incident will illustrate the use 
of this mechanism. 

Dr. Smith had a student in her class 
who violently disagreed with the con- 
tents of her lectures after each class. 
Dr, Smith called her in to talk the 
problem over. Eventually the student 
admitted she could listen to her if she 

didn't have to look at her. It turned 
out that this student's brother had 
married a girl who strongly resembled 
Dr. Smith. The student had no one to 
take the place her brother had formerly 
held in her life and developed a strong 
resentment towards his wife, which she 
could not express. The solution was 
temporarily solved by Dr. Smith placing 
this student with another professor. 

Repression and Suppression: 

Repression is an unconscious process 
whereby guilt-producing thoughts and 
actions, unhappy experiences and un- 
pleasant tasks are removed from 
awareness. Suppression is deliberate 
conscious control that keeps hazardous 
and undesirable impulses in check, 
perhaps holding them privately while 
denying them publicly. An individual 
is aware of a suppressed impulse. Over 
a period of time, these suppressed 
reactions take their place in the un- 
conscious mind with the products of 
repression. Repression appears to be 
concerned with the manner in which 
the Ego and Superego deal with the 
impulses of the Id. 4 

Freud distinguished between primary 
and secondar>' repression. Primary re- 
fers to the denial of facts, that, if 
brought to awareness, would cause suf- 
fering through guilt or other negative 
self-feelings. Secondary refers to the 
tendency to avoid situations thai might 
serve as reminders of the facts that 
led to the primar>' repression. Cases of 
amnesia can often be explained on the 
basis of secondary repression.. 
The mechanisms of repression and 
suppression have a useful purposi* in 
our adjustment to the anxieties en- 
countered in living. We would find it 
ver>- difficult to adjust if all disturbing 
memories and socially prohibited 
wishes were pennitted to remain in 
the realm of consciousness. However, 
it is wise to realize that persistent use 
of these mechanisms will tv<u]\ In the 
disorganization of behavior 

Emotional patterns forced out '►! the 
conscious realm ha\T their emotional 
forces retained in the unc oi i «cioni where 
the>' continue to exert itfctttnre for 
release. This prestore may find oiUlett 
through various symptoms of tension 
such as tics, chronic anxiety states or 
nenrottsness. Another trndesirablc aspect 



is the energy it takes to prevent repres- 
sed emotions and experiences from 
gaining admission to consciousness. If 
most of his energy is used in inner 
struggles then Uttle is left for living 
and the person becomes emotionally 
impoverished. He suffers from chronic 
fatigue and lacks spontaneity and 

It niay assist nurses to understand 
some features of neurotic personalities 
if they realize that such conditions do 
occur when no mechanism operates to 
cut off past threats and apprehensions 
of the future, so that the individual 
can live in the present. Some neurotics 
become so overwhelmed by their guilt 
of the past, that they brood over it, 
neglecting to participate in the present, 
whereas others become so concerned 
about future problems that they fail 
to be aware of the present. 

Mechanism of Substitution 

Compensation: This is a mechan- 
ism that atones for reality. Com- 
pensatory behavior enhances the self- 
esteem by overcoming a failure or 
deficiency in one area through the 
development of personal qualities or 
skills where success is possible. It is 
used to cover up weakness, to coun- 
terbalance failure, or to achieve 
prestige. The degree to which an in- 
dividual uses this mechanism depends 
upon his interpretation of the attitudes 
of others toward him. It evidences a 
good adjustment if not accompanied 
by an attitude of defense. 

Compensation may appear in either of 
two common forms known as direct 
and indirect comixrnsation. In direct 
compensation the individual attempts to 
achieve self -esteem or mastery by re- 
fusing to accept the threatening differ- 
entiation. He denies that any handicap 
exists and acts accordingly. In indirect 
comj>ensation a person possessing a 
handicap may he driven to seek self- 
esteem in other areas entirely. The 
individual has given up attempting to 
deal with the perception of his handicap 
directly. He attempts to rehabilitate his 
damaged conceiit of self by "snowing 
under" the threatening percq>tinn with 
a series of other enhancing perceptions.r 
Irrational l>ehavior of children — 
stealing, vandalism, disobedience and 

bragging — should be thought of as 
attempts to compensate for frustra- 
tions rather than as deviltry or in- 
herent wickedness. Adults have a 
greater awareness of the social con- 
sequences of their actions and select 
substitute satisfactions that will be 
acceptable to society.4 

Some persons over-use this mechan- 
ism which is then termed over-com- 
pensaiion. The individual may develop 
habits of finding the easiest way out 
when he can't obtain a goal and thus 
portray qualities of resignation. Adler 
referred to over-compensation as an 
attempt to excel where one is weakest, 
for example, dictators such as Hitler. 
Over-compensation is energizing and 
leads to effective, though not neces- 
sarily admirable, performances.j 

Thorpe refers to compensatory 
identification — the individual who 
feels that he has not attained suffi- 
cient distinction through his own 
efforts may manage to become a mem- 
ber of some exclusive firm, dub, etc. 
He has initiated his Ego by identifying 
himself with a superior group or 
organization. 8 

Substitution: Kaplan and Baron 
refer to this process as "transferred 
compensation. "4 It is the process 
whereby one diverts energies from a 
desired to a substitute goal. The in- 
dividual heightens his possibilities of 
success instead of being doomed to 
failure. In utilizing this mechanism 
it is necessary that the substitute goal 
do something about reducing the 
underlying source of tension or the 
individual is left WMth feelings of un- 
happiness. The following incident 
illustrates the use of this mechanism. 
Although this only represents a por- 
tion of this individual s problems, it 
demonstrates the effective use of the 
mechanism of substitution. 

Miss Brown had worked to prepare 
herself a concert pianist, a field in which 
she had displayed talent. She had 
reached the stage of achieving the 
theoretica] and practical aspects of this 
area, when she suffered a so-called 
"nervous breakdown,^ which pre\Tnted 
further progress. Rather than live a life 
regretting this disappointment, she en- 
tered a school for nurses. The direction 
of \^»r ,.flror»c ;.i fiiit p,.»v field has 

JULY. 1965 • Vot 51. No. 7 

resulted in considerable success. This 
was not an easy achievement because, 
despite the external eWdence of success. 
Miss Brown still experienced periods of 
unhappiness and inadequacy in her 
transferred compensatory eflFort. Within 
the past two years she has accepted the 
factors contributing to her earlier 
failure and has obtained the "peace of 
mind'* that can ensue. 

Reaciian'F&rmation &r Reversal 
Formation: Dr. Driscoll states that 
this mechanism comes into play 
when one possesses a negative emotion 
which is laden with guilt feelings, 
and transfers it to a positive one. The 
individual adopts feelings and at- 
titudes opposite to those that would 
normally result in spontaneous ac- 

(a) A child becomes angr>' at his 
mother so rather than strike her, he 
says, *'Mother, I love you ver>' much." 

(b) In a social group, an individual 
who is actually shy and retiring, be- 
comes noisy and bold. 

(c) The individual who led a so- 
called "wild*' life in his youth and then 
becomes a strong church supporter in 
his adulthood. 

Sublimation: Many authorities 
state that no such mechanism can be 
described. Either real growth and 
change take place or, if the behavior 
is negative, it can be described under 
another mechanism. However the fol- 
lowing information is available for 
those who consider it an adjustive 

Sublimation is the transference or 
substitution of one*s desires or wishes 
into socially acceptable forms of ex- 
pression. It is necessar\' in many 
aspects of life and is healthy if it 
gives real satisfaction. 

In the sublimation of sex, the cnerg>* 
of tfie original impulse finds expression 
through other means. The expression 
is disguised, but it is the original im- 
pulse that gains expression. Hence 
successful sublimation reduces tensions 
and leads to satisfying behavior. This 
is the theory hut it is subject to criti- 
cism. Whether or not direct sublimation 
takes place, substitute activity undoubt- 
edly occurs when a basic drive is 

Sublimation may draw off a poten- 
tially dangerous excess of libidinal 
energy but it does not take the place 
of lasting satisfaction, which could be 
derived from attaining the original and 
desired goals.4 

Egocentricism: Because of basic 

insecurity, the individual appears to 
need reinforcement of his Ego. So he 
attempts to establish himself as the 
centre of attention. Self-cent redness is 
expected in a child. As he develops, 
he should become less self-centred and 
his demands for attention should give 
way, in large measure, to self-suffi- 
ciency and independence. Egocen- 
tricism in an adult represents a 
fixation of behavior at the childish 
narcissistic level. It is an inadequate 
technique for adjustment. 4 

This mechanism may be encoun- 
tered in nursing some patients who 
seek greater attention, despite the 
evidence of adequate nursing care. In 
the classroom, it may be detected in 
students who devious means to 
obtain the teacher's attention. 

Mechanisms of Avoidance 

Fantasy: This is literally for- 
getting reality, in which the individual 
substitutes imaginary satisfactions for 
real satisfactions. Having l)een thwar- 
ted in his efforts to obtain Ego satis- 
faction in the realm of reality, he finds 
relief from his tensions in the domain 
of fantasy. 

When this meclianism is used to 
achieve a balance between active ad- 
justment and imagine<l satisfaction, 
fantasy is harmless. It provides us 
with a temporary escape from the 
pressure of daily living. It is closely 
allied with creative thinking, which is 
an imaginative act. The prfKess of the 
menial incubation of a discovery lies 
near the realm of fantasy. However, 
this mechanism represents maladjust- 
ment when it becomes a substitute 
for concrete achievements and for 
meeting the practical requirements of 
daily living. Withdrawal iunn reality 
into a world of fantasy characterizes 
psychotic behavior. 

This is an area which should re- 
ceive the attention of nurses. It is not 
wise to neglect the individual who is 


too quiet and unassuming. He may be 
overusing the mechanism of fantasy. 

Regression and Fixation: It is 

difficult to discern between regression 
and fixation unless one is skilled and 
is provided with the entire story of 
the incident concerned. Fixation in- 
dicates lack of progress beyond a 
certain level of development. At birth 
one is -dependent and endeavors to 
achieve independence, both physically 
and emotionally. The problem appears 
most frequently as a clinging to emo- 
tional dependence. Many i)ersons stop 
developing at the adolescent level, that 
is, they are emotionally independent 
for the pleasant things of life but 
accept no responsibility for the un- 
pleasant. This is demonstrated in 
couples, who marry and accept finan- 
cial assitance from home but resent 
any parental interference.! 

Regression is the return to behavior 
patterns tliat have outlived their use- 
fulness. It indicates emotional infan- 
talism in a weak and insecure ''inner 

Regression is not a true mechanism. 
It is a general cliaracteristic of many 
forms of maladaptive behavior^ 
In children this behavior may be 
observed when a new baby enters the 
family circle and a child of three or 
four years regresses in respect to 
elimination habits. Parents pave the 
way for regressive behavior when they 
are overindulgent and overprotectivc 
of their children. 

T*bc primary condition underlying 
regression is the failure of the indiWd- 
ual to cope with his present adjustment 
j>rc>blems satisfactorily. Another factor 
that underlies regressive behavior is the 
tendenc> to remember only the pleasant 
experiences of the past, forgetting much 
of the unpleasant.! 

This mechanism may have tempo- 
rary value as a release from tension 
or unpleasantness, but overuse ulti- 
mately results in imhappiness and is 
a serious peril to jx^rsonality develop- 

Negativism: Among the most 
common techniques in dealing with 
threatening |X'rcepiions is the denial 
of such |>erceptions in one form or 
another. This is particularly coninvm 

among children but often exists in 
adults as well. Negativism can be used 
as a very positive device for seizing 
control as illustrated by a child who 
refuses to eat his meals or the 
technique employed in industrial 

It is a nonadjiistive emotional re- 
sponse of the rage type. Its original 
stimulus seems to be an interference 
with self-initiated activity of the in- 
dividual. The motor aspect of the rage 
response becomes inhibited by training 
and fear of punishment but the emo- 
tional mood remains.* 
It is an avoidance mechanism which 
protects the Elgo by the resistance of 
involvement in undesirable activities 
and is an Ego gratification which 
compensates for the loss sustained. 
Problems are not solved by negativ- 
istic behavior regardless of the ap- 
parent amount of internal satisfaction 
derived. The mechanism is displayed 
in persons who, without justification, 
rebel against authority, suggestions or 
the accepted mode of life — the stub- 
bom die-hard who refused to com- 

Motor Hysteria: This mechanism 
is the technique of developing symp- 
toms which enable an individual to 
withdraw from a difficult situation. 
This is an unconscious device in which 
the individual avoids an unpleasant 
situation and absolves himself from 
guilt. It differs from malingering, be- 
cause the malingerer feigns an ail- 
ment. The hysteric actually feels his 
ailment although there is no organic 
basis for his difficulty.4 

Malingering is a compensatory 
mechanism in which the subject at- 
tempts to escape the odium of in- 
adeijuacy through feigning illness or 
physical disability. It is a process of 
creating infirmities which can be used 
as an escape from responsibility or as 
an exaise for failure. Functional dis- 
sociation is a retreat from reality, in 
which the emotionally tense organism 
develops. without foreknowledge, 
physical symptoms which solve the 
conflict and preclude the need for 
further action. As a result of intense 
fear or conflict an individual's physical 
fimctions may l>ecouie seriously im- 

JULY. 1965 • Vot n. No. 7 

Conversion occurs when a person 
is faced with a conflicting situation 
that he cannot solve on the level of 
conscious awareness. Somatic symp- 
toms of various kinds appear — 
hysterical motor manifestations, head- 
aches, vomiting, diarrhea. There tends 
to be a relation between the individ- 
ual's capacity to tolerate conscious 
anxiety and the appearance of psycho- 
somatic symptoms.5 

Conversion results when tensions 
from unexpected emotions are converted 
into a physical discomfort The weak- 
est part of the organism tends to be 
broken down by tension. For example — 
in anger, the blood sugar le\'el rises. 
If anger continues long enough, diabetes 
mellitus may result. A diabetic is often 
a hostile person. This is the major 
aspect of psychosomatic me<iicine, as is 
evident in gastric ulcers, ulcerative 
colitis and asthma.i 

For nurses, the obvious conclusion 
to draw from these opinions is an 
awareness of the origin of psycho- 
somatic illness. The individual who 
develops such conditions should be 
encouraged to adopt desired adjustive 
behavior. This is an imjKirtant aspect 
of assisting the individual toward 
recovery. From the view[>oint of 
personal mental hygiene, the nurse 
should realize that it is a \\\)C of l>e- 
havior that does not solve problems. 


This is a type of fantasy in which an 
individual, afllictcd with feelings of in- 
security and inadequacy, vicariously 
assumes the role of a person of superior 

This means the literal copying of an 
individual whom one admires. // is 
a part of the gnmntuj-up process. 
The child identifies with tht* |)arent of 
the same sex nf admired l As he 
develops he l)egins to copy adults 
whom he admires ( identifying with a 
renowned athlete). In adulthrKxl many 
identify themselves with a profession. 
This nu*chanism is a normal reaction 
and cme that can be helpful ancl stin>- 
ulating. However, it should not 
IxTome a substitute for concrete 
reality, or social action.. 

In the extreme us<* of this meclian- 
ism. the process of identification may 
proceed to the point where the indi- 

vidual loses his own identity and 
actually thinks he has become another 
person' for example, in delusions of 
grandeur, the individual may believe 
he is some famous, influential person 
( Napoleon ) . 


Adjustive mechanisms are utilized 
in the process of daily living to pre- 
vent disturbing threats and tension 
from interfering in the attainment of 
ambitions and happiness by the nomial 
person. The maladjusted individual 
uses the mechanism to protect himself 
from both major and minor threats, so 
he possesses insufficient energy to de- 
velop a constructive adjustment. 

In conclusion, how may the meclian- 
isms contribute toward a satisfactory 
a<ljustment or. conversely, fail to pro- 
vide a satisfactory adjustment? The 
adjustive mechanisms serve as jial- 
liatives comparable to drugs that 
reduce .^^ymptoms without curing 
disease. The reduction of symptoms 
permits the body defenses to operate 
to establish health. Likewise the 
proper use of the mtThanisms assists in 
the development of mental health. 
They may act as a |)rotective shield 
while wc are learning nw)re mature 
and realistic ways of solving our prob- 
lems. They provide a time element to 
solve problems that might othen%ise 
overwhelm us. The mechanisms may 
permit experimentation with new 
roles an<l hence lead to new nKxles 
of adjustment. When we adopt new 
roles for faulty reasons, as in reaction- 
formati(»n or misjudge people as in 
projection, we ex}x>se ourselves to cor- 
rective experiences from which we 
may learn social techniques. What 
begins as self -cK»cept ion. may provide 
occasions for modifying the M'M. 

However, if one depends on defense 
mechanisms for protection, one may 
never achieve mature modes of con- 
duct. Withdrawing from s«Kial con- 
tacts may usurp the role of rearming 
and isf)lated behavior may take the 
form of useless rituals or wasteful 
compulsions instead of creative effort. 
Even socially useful l)ehavior, if it 
has its rm>ts in irrational purjxise^i. 
will not prove complelely satistMn^ 
to the jHrrscm. ( )verde|KMidence on 


reality-distorting mechanisms leads in 
the direction of personality distil rb- 

Kaplan and Baron, in evaluating the 
adjustment mechanisms, use the fol- 
lowing criteria, which anyone can 
apply : 

1. Docs the mechanism reduce the felt 
tensions of the individual and minimize 
his anxieties? 

2. Is the mechanism socially ap- 
proved ? 

3. Does the mechanisni facilitate fur- 
ther adjustments?* 


1. Driscoll. Gertrude P. 200 MM. 
Teachers College, Columbia University. 

2. Fletcher, J M. Hf>meostasis as an 

Explanatory Principle. Psycholoni.'al 
Rnnetv (1942). 

3. Hilgard, Ernest R. Introdutiu,,, ,:■ 
Psychology. New York, Harcourt, 
Bruce & Co. 1953. 

4. Kaplan, Louis and Baron, I>enis. 
Mental Hygiene and Life. New York. 
Harper & Bros. 1952 

5. Xfay, Rollo, The Meaning of 
Anxiety. New York The Ronald Press 
Co. 1950. 

6. Shaffer, Lawrence Frederic. The 
Psychxflopy of Adjitstmettt. New York. 
Houghton Miftin Co. 1936. 

7. Snygg, Donald and Combs, Arthur. 
IndiLstnal Behai^ior. New York. Harper 
& Bros. 1949. 

8. Thorpe, Louis P. The Psychology 
of Mental Health. New York. The 
Ronald Press Co. 1950. 

Flight Nurses 

Royal Canadian Air Force 


THE TRANsi»oRTATio.\ ol Casualties 
by air dates back to 1870 when, 
during the siege of Paris. 160 patients 
were successfully t-vacuated by bal- 

Air evacuation ex[>anded during the 
years prior to World War II. At first 
it might be said that the evacuation 
of patients by air was considered by 
some with active disiipproval and On the other hand others 
were far-sighted enougli to see the 
advantages of air evacuation. It did 
take considerable time, however, tci 
defeat the op|)osition to airlift of sick 
and injuretl.; 

Workl War II proved that it was 
not only jxissible to move piitients 
by air, hut it was safe and [)racticable 
as well. lK>th from a medical and a 
military standjwint. The speed with 
which treatment can lie given when 
[xuients are CNTicuated by air accom- 

Flight Lieutenant SonKrr.«, a graduate 
of Toronto General Hospital, is pre- 
sently at Air F<»rcr Ift tdquarters 
where she is as.sisi;H I'nncifNil 

plishes these important objectives: 

(a) Reduces loss of life from shock; 

(b) cuts d<»wn on permanent dis- 
ability ; 

(c) shortens |>eriod of hospitalization 
aixl make* |K)ssible an earlier return to 
duty ; 

(d) makes it jMissible for a small num- 
ber of personnel to care for casualties; 

(e) cuts down c»n the supplies needed 
in forward areas ; 

{I) increases the morale of both the 

AhtHird an Air hixicualton Aircraft 

patients and the effective troops left 

in the battle area^ 

Late in 1942, it became evident that 
due to the acute need for aircraft of 
all types, planes could not be assigned 
solely for use in air evacuation. Ex- 
perience had shown that regular 
transport planes, already designed for 
forward transporting of troops and 
material and equipped with removable 
litter supports, could be used for 
evacuating casualties from a theatre 
of war. 

There is no doubt that predictions 
made about the value of air evacuation 
of f)atients have been more than ful- 
filled. During World War II patients 
were removed from battle zones to 
definitive care at hospitals a few hours 
after they had been injured. 

Since the war, many improvements 
have been made in techniques, equip- 
ment and administrative procedures 
to make air evacuation safer and more 
comfortable for patients. But improved 
aircraft and equipment alone will not 
make it possible for the success of air 
evacuation to continue. Each evacua- 
tion flight must l>e accompanied by a 
highly trained and eflicient flight nurse 
or the safety of the patients cannot 
l)e assured. Thus, nipid growth of 
aerial transportation has o|x^ied still 
another specialized field, aeromedkal 
nursing, 4 

The medical and nursing care of 
patients in flight involves the same 
objectives as does care in the hospital 
ward; only the environment is dif- 
ferent. Any medical or surgical care 
available to the patient on the ward 
of a well-regulated hospital is likewise 
available to patients in flight. In fact 
an air evaaiation plane may be 
thought of as an airborne ward. The 
objectives of instruction in the Plight 
Nurse Course arcji 

(a) To orient and indoctrinate stu- 
dent flight nurses in the basic principle* 
of aviation medicine in order that they 
may understand the problems imposed 
on human physiolo^, therapeutics and 
tmrsing care by flight. 

(b) To enhance the development of 
skills and techniques required for acro- 
metlical nursing of medical and surgical 
patients, and those with personality 

let To acquaint the student with the 

history, development and present organ- 
ization of air evacuation and the ecjuip- 
ment. materials, and planning necessary 
to transport patients safely by air. 

(d) To provide knowledge of crash. 
ditching and survival procedures and 
preparations necessary to evacuate dis- 
aster victims. 

Special training is provided in a 
five-month course in aeromedical 
nursing being offered by the USAF 
School of Aviation Medicine at Gunter 
Air Base, Montgomery, Alabama. 
Students devote six weeks to work 
in the classrooms and three months 
to supervised experience with active 
air evacuation units. 

Since 1948 the Royal Canadian Air 
Force has sent 36 RCAF nursing 
sisters to the USAF Sch<x)l of Avia- 
tion Medicine to be trained as flight 
nurses. Upon completion of this course 
the nurses proceed to Hickam Air 
Force Base, Hawaii, to complete the 
practical phase of their course. While 
here, trips to Tokyo. Guam, Manila 
and California are made. The outbreak 
of the Korean hostilities necessitated 
the institution of full-scale air evacua- 
tion. Patients who were not able to 
return to the Ijattle area were flown 
to Japan. By the time they arrived, 
the first stages towards rehabilitation 
had already been started and they 
were well on their way to recover}-. 
From Tokyo, they were returned by 
air to Honolulu. There they remained 
in hospital for further treatment or 
until the next airlift was scheduled 
to take them home to the United 
States. Canadian servicemen followed 
through the same channel of evacua- 
tion. Once stateside, the continental 
divi.sion of MATS (Military Air 
Transport System* flew the wounded 
to the closest medical centre to their 
homes. The Canadians were routed to 
Madigan Army Hosp*~* -^iacent to 
.McChord Field. W >n, and 

thence back to Canada by RCAF air- 

The experience gained while fl 
with the Korean airlift in the Pai....v 
has been of inestimable value, not only 
frir the experience gained from the 
practical application of the theory 
taught at Flight School, but also for 
the ofiportunity to see new parts of 
the world and meet people from so 



many different countries. The training 
RCAF flight nurses received while 
with the USAF was used for the 
repatriation of the sick and wounded 
casualties of Korea and the continued 
air evacuation to their homes in Can- 
ada. Today, flight nurses are stationed 
at strategic points across Canada and 
the Canadian airlift carries patients to 
their homes as far east as Newfound- 
land, The aircraft for this airlift are 
usually supplied from 435 (T) Sqn. 
at Edmonton, 426 (T) Sqn. Lachine 
and 412 (T) Sqn. Rockcliffe and are 
North Star or Dakota aircraft. From 
\'ancouver to Halifax is 2»520 air 
miles, and with good weather con- 
ditions the trip can be made in three 
days. Usually the first overnight stop 
is at Winnipeg, the second at Mont- 
real. During overnight stops the 
patients are given care in the DVA 
hospitals, dressings are changed, hot 

meals given, or any necessary medical 
care which is indicated. 

The work of a flight nurse could 
not be called glamorous, but it is one 
of the most satisfying forms of 
nursing. The morale of the patients 
is of the highest and their cheerful- 
ness and grateful thanks far exceed 
any hardships that might ever have 
to be endured. 


1. Transport of casualties by air — 
DGMS Air Ministry 1950. 

2. Lecture delivered to DOT MOs 
lAM — Oct. 18, 1950. 

3. Flight Nurse Manual Air Univ. 
USAF School of Aviation Medicine — 
Sept. 1949. 

4. American Journal of Nursing — 
Mar. 1950 pp. 149-152. 

5. USAF NC Publication, a Career 
with a Future. 

Pioneering in Okinav/a 

ESifor^s At'.'i Ihc following letters 
give us a glimpse into the activities at 
Vista Maria-in-Okinawa. the only con- 
vent in a radius of 400 miles. The 
writer. Sister Mary Carmel. F.M.S.I., 
is the superior of tlie missionary sisters, 
the Daughters of Mary, Health of the 
Sick. The sisters went to the Island in 
September, 195J. 

Sister is the former Clarissa Hurley 
wlio. after graduating from Hotel Dieu 
School of Nursing in Cliathani, N.B., 
was employetl at Halifax Infirmary. 
Halifax, N.S., Ottawa Civic Hospital 
and St. Joseph*s Hospital, Saint John, 
N.B. She entered the Daughters of 
Mary, Health of the Sick at Vista 
Maria. Cragsmoor. Neu' York, in 1949. 
We are sure that Sister's pioneer work 
will be of interest not only to her 
friends, but to all Canadian nurses. 
* « ^ 

vent for a dispensarv'. At first a 
few f>atients came to l)c treated, then 
nxire, and now we have an extremely 
busy schediilt ^ »*v. •v--<on will tell 

another al>out us and so on until a 
large number have come to know the 
"Dotei-Samas** (Sisters). Take this 
case as an example: 

One lady brought her little boy in to 
have an infected ear treated. She was 
very faithful and brought the child 
back each day imtil finally the ear was 
healed. About a week later the same 
woman brought a friend and the latter's 
son from another town. Apparently they 
had been visiting in our neighborhood 
and had heard from the first woman 
about the cure of her son's car. The 

irti^tng Skillfd Care 

JULY. 1966 •Vol 


friend was eager to bring her son who 
had a very sore and swollen nose. We 
gladly treated him and a few days later 
they returned with a bouquet of wild 
flowers in payment for the boy's re- 
covery. Another week went by, and the 
first woman was back with another 
visiting friend who had sore eyes. And 
so from one to the other, we've come 
to be known and trusted by many. 
Daily we give vitamins and milk to 
the children, all of whom are suffering 
from vitamin and protein deficiencies. 
Because some of our sick are too ill 
to come to us, we visit many in their 
homes gi^'^ng them, besides nursing 
care, much needed food, clothing, and 
vitamins. I wish you could see the 
faces light up when they see us com- 
ing with a bag of rice I The poor of 
Okinawa are ver>' ix>or, and many of 
them do not have enough to eat. 

On the Road 

When we go to the homes and see 
people with sore eyes and skin lesions 
of all kinds we tell them to come to 
us and we will take care of them. Some 
do come but they are so accustomed 
to these diseases that they do not 
take them tfx) seriously. 

We have visited many of the homes. 
The mothers may be with the children, 
usually just outside the door doing 
the wash. So many men were killed 
during the battle here that women 
are working everywhere. As the work 
on the roads in the native villages 
is done by hand, women carry the 
rocks and dirt in Iwskets to fill up 
the ruts. They also work side by side 
with the men rf)ofing the lifmses. Of 
course their fiwn homes are very low, 
but they also work on government 

.4 Typical Okittiu^an Home 


buildings which are two*storey, climb- 
ing up and down the ladders, fixing 
the locally-baked tile roofs. Great 
poverty exists as a result of the com- 
plete destruction of war, so when a 
person does stay in bed it means they 
are just too sick to walk! For most 
of them, it is the beginning of the end. 

Century after centur)^ on Okinawa, 
the sick have been cared for by the 
family. G)nsequently, in many cases, 
facilities for the sick adjoin the doc- 
tor's office. Such places resemble a 
rooming-house rather than a hospital, 
for no heat, water or food is supplied. 
The family brings in all l>ed clothing 
and necessities, c*ares for the patient 
and does the cooking at the l)edside. 
The patient lies on the floor on a mat. 
As many as four patients and their 
families may occupy a typical rcKim. 

Tuberculosis is a problem on the 
Islands. The tulx-rcular j)eople work 
longer, from nt^cessity, than Cana- 
dians; which means that doctors 
seldom see a jx-rson who can l)e cured 
even with the treatments that are now- 
available. It was not so bad In-fore 
the war, but during the Battle of 
Okinawa, the |)eople were literally 
under the sky. We were told that when 
the battle started, the women and 
children left their homes and walke<l 
to the northern piirt of the Island. 
They were out in all the rain and ale 
only once a day. When the little was 
over the>' came back to devastate<1 
houses. In one area where 300.000 
jx^ple had lived, just a few dozen 
habitable homes were left. In the <ine- 
UM^m homes, disease rapidly sjireads 
through a family. 

One morning when we were walk- 
ing down a narrow path, a woman 
came ninning tt» show tis a home 
where there was a sick man. We found 
a 28-year-oId Okinawan who, to our 
surprise, spoke English as well as we. 
( He was an interpreter In^fore he be- 
came ill. ) He was lying on blankets 
on the floor. His mother, an elderly 
lady, was taking care of him. We 
learnefl that two years l>cfore he ha<l 
spent three months in one of those 
dcKior's office-clinics. He was told he 
had tuberculosis and sent home. I saw 
bl(KMl flecks on his shirt. He said the 
doctor, whom he hid not seen in six 
UKmths. told him this bleeding wa* 



from his lung. We cared tor him and 
iTiade him as comfortable as we could. 
He had a litde mirror by his head, 
and when I finished, he looked at 
himself and said, **good looking," 
meaning '*lhat looks good." He has 
such high hopes of getting better — 
it is really sad. An army cot was 
found for him. When we got him into 
it, he was so happy, his hopes of re- 
covery soared twice as high. 

This morning I asked him if there 
was anything sjK^cial he would like 
to read, and he replied, '*Yes, I would 
like the Xew Testament in English. 
I can read English and I would like 
to comf>are it with the one I have." 
He showed me his. It was in Japanese. 
He got it when he was a prisoner of 
war in San Francisco. He was in the 
Battle of Okinawa, was taken prisoner 
and was in California for six months. 

Xormally we would say that a man 
in his condition was dying, hut there 
is no saying how long these people 
can live like tliat. He is bright and 

Frie.vds among the Children 
We have a slit in the front door 
with a lx)x under it to catch the mail. 
When the door is closed, we often 
see pairs of brown eyes at the mail 
slit as the children peek in or maybe 
a hand sticks through. The people 
are very friendly and are noted for 
their gentle, docile ways. 

One day we took some of the 
children with us on our mission trip. 
They had not seen the China Sea and 
were quite excited as I drove by it 
in the jeep. Sister asked if they would 
like to be fishermen. They replied no, 
because they would not want to live on 
water. We discovered Sister had used 
the word "fish" instead of the word 
for "fishermen" and the children 
thought fish must live on water as they 
saw no other f(x>d in sight. WTien we 
got that straightened out. I asked, 
"Well, what would you like to be 
when you grow up?" His eyes big 
with that longing enw of childhood, 
the little boy l)ehind me replied, "A 

A Guide to Better Food Habits 

It \vc take an honest, appraising look at 
the current food fad situation, we reallize 
tliat a simple ii^ide to better food habits may 
be welcomed l»> some of our readers. The 
following suggestions should help to provide 
a serious, sensible approach to the daily 
business of eating ami living : 

1. Use Cana<la's Food Rules as your 
daily guide to healthful eating They 
advice \ou to incUidc milk. meat, fruit, 
potatoes, and other vegetables, whole 
grain cereals, bread with butter or mar- 
garine, eggs aixl cheese every day. 

2. Consult a reliable source of ethical 
mc<lical advice when you have serious 
fcetling or diet problems. D«in'l allow 
yourself to \*c misinf<>rme<l or misled by 
advice from neighliors or frieiuis. 

X Doijt let your |H)Wcrs of reasoning 
become dulled by your emotions in plan- 
ning either a normal or a reducing diet. 

4. Be suspicious of any food or prod- 
uct or eating plan which is claimed to 
prevent or aire numerous diseases. Simi- 
larly, lie on guard against the person 

for his prodiict. with no regard for the 
wisdom or practicability of the state- 
ment . 

5. .\vt>id the use of expli>iteil ''food 
supplements*' to replace or supplement 
your normal dail>- choice of foods — 
unless prescribed by a phy<i<i;*n i'«»r a 
specific nutritional purpose. 

6. Consult ethical scientific jnnTiiajs or 
reliable publications for food informa- 
tion. Quacks and faddists do not write 
for such journals, nor do they present 
addresses or talks at conferences and 
conventions spofisoretl by rcpiit:»hl«» 
scientific organizations. 

7. Beware of the pseu<lo-scienti>i> vsiio 
arc eager to sell anything — be it a 
pill, a pamphlet or a ** wonder food" ! 
Reliable and ui>-to-date nutrition infor- 
mation, and practical guidance in meal 
planning ami food preparation are avail- 
able, free, from federal and provincial 
government departments, as well as from 
many consumer service departments of 
reputable industries and voluntar>- or- 

• Vol. 51. No- 7 


iflSlllG SERVICf 

The Registered Nurse - A Specialist 

Psychiatric Institutions Need Them 

H. S. Atkinson, M.D. 

IT IS ACKNOWLEDGED at the ver\' be- 
ginning that grave difficulties have 
been encountered in developing the 
argument in this article. This would 
seem to be a poor introduction, when 
one would fervently wish his pen en- 
dowed with a special gift because the 
need is so great and immediate. It 
would, however, seem necessary to 
acknowledge a ''disability" before we 
can hope to "cure" it. It is perhaps 
almost natural that a doctor would 
use this approach. The "symptoms" 
are indeed serious and are clearly 
indicative of a grave condition called 
a '^shortage" of certain aids in the 
arts of healing. If the doctor is, in 
addition, an administrator of a Psychi- 
atric Institution — and continuing our 
analt^y — the prognosis is far 
from reassuring. The need for regis- 
tered nurses in Psychiatric Institu- 
tions may l>e easily dealt with — 
amenable to treatment — but how to 
deal with the very highly competitive 
field in which registered nurses can 
participate is quite another thing. The 
best we can do is to be factual and 
sincerely present the situation as it 
is seen in the hope that seeds of in- 
terest will be sown which will flower 
to attract registered nurses toward 
the field of mental illness and defect. 
Our title perhaps requires an ex- 
planation. The registered nurse has 
indeed become a specialist. By precise- 
ly the same methods that produce 

Dr. Atkinson is medical superin- 
tendent of The Manitoba School at 
Portage la Prairir. Manitoba. 


specialists in any other field she has 
entered into a different era. By in- 
creased entrance standards to schools 
of nursing, by greatly increased learn- 
ing from expanded curriaila to post- 
graduate and university degrees, she 
can hardly be expected to remain the 
same nurse of a few years ago. Due 
to the ver>' fact of insufficient recruit- 
ment her specialism has become more 
desired and the premium on her serv- 
ices has become high. She has earned 
it. When the call for her service has 
merited her response she will be found 
in the wilderness, in the outpost, in 
the danger of battle, in the slum, in 
the air, and underground. Her courage 
and skill are unquestioned. The high 
premium placed on her services is 
not always paid for in material gain 
either, because she will Ix* found in 
social work, in orders pledged to 
service to her fellowman with no out- 
standing reward. She is indet*d a spe- 
cialist in all terms and in many fields. 
Why then do we find Psychiatric 
Institutions in such dire need? It may 
be more apparent than real. The fact 
is tha^ all fields seeking her service 
are suffering shortages, even those 
that were the cradle in which she was 
raised. Envy of others may be un- 
founded and our inferiority complex 
an evidence that we are iXK>r ther- 
apists. We must be as courageous and 
skilful, if possible, as the nurse. 

We therefore proceed to develop our 
argument. The first consideration is 
the need — an absolute one — for 
the nurse specialist in Psychiatric In- 
stitutions. Some generally accepted 


and proven facts are presented: 

The incidence of mental illness and 
defect is alarming. 

More families are aflFected than by 
any other human ailment. 

There are as many beds in mental 

institutions as in all others for the sick. 

The economic loss and the personal 

loss to human rights far exceed any 

other disability. 

The new Psychiatric Institution is 
using modern techniques and treatments 
requiring the hands of the skilled nurse 
as much as any other hospital. 

In training their own staff the Psychi- 
atric Institutions need leaders and 
teachers. As the primary disciplines are 
the medical sciences only nurse spe- 
cialists can be the teachers for much of 
such programs. 

The above is perhaps only part of 
the need, yet it is a formidable array. 
It is somewhat disconcerting to one 
who has spent a lifetime with the 
mentally afflicted to read such com- 
ment as this: **The field of mental 
illness seems to offer some interesting 
possibilities for the registered nurse." 
Interesting possibilities ! ! It offers a 
challenge to the best they can give — 
and we need it now. But perhaps we 
did not present the case. 

The proposition mentioned at the 
beginning of how we were going to 
enlist the help we need was stated 
as another matter. And so it is! Any 
clear window has two views — one 
in. one out. It is incumbent on us 
to present the other view. We find 
nothing in it of a critical nature. Good 
reason is the essence of any bilateral 
agreement. I therefore attempt to 
present the desirability of registered 
nur.«!;es joining our ranks and. even 
in these days of rather ^'vicious" 
competition » we would not put on rose- 
tinted glasses to read the findings of 
our argimient. 

The need of all institutions is an 
ancient thing, whereas the nursing pro- 
fession is very young. It is only 101 
years since "The Lady of the Lamp." 
The first school of nursing in Canada 
is only something over 80 years old 

Statistically, according to birth rates 
the number of 18-ycar-olds is never 
enough for recruitment for all present 
and anticipated needs. Many other pro- 
fesftiofw are in the same potitioa The 

nurse is not the villain of the piece? 

The present number of registered 
nurses in Canada is, perhaps, 50,000. 
More could easily be used. 

The "young profession" is under ex- 
treme pressure from all sides. Its most 
philanthropic leaders could not be ex- 
pected to stem or turn the tide. Glowing 
opportunities are offered by commerce, 
industry, transportation, chain stores, 
offices — and husbands. From global 
travel to the highest calling — just 
mothers — they can operate, participate, 
and control more human situations with 
grace, dignity, and skill than any others. 
What competition, all justifiable, legiti- 
mate, satisfying, rewarding, that we 
have to meet ! With the new Psychiatric 
Institutions now appearing it is felt 
there is a rebuttal. 

Nursing administrators, for large 
staffs, in large institutions, carr>ing 
large responsibilities, are needed. 

Instructors in Psychiatric Schools of 
Nursing (and in Manitoba at least) 
combined with Licensed Practical 
Nursing are needed. 

Medical nursing specialists to direct 
ward nursing services, modern method- 
ology, and implication of modern treat- 
ments are needed. 

Surgical nursing specialists are 
needed for modem psycho-surgeo' and 
other surgical procedures. 

!n research projects nursing speciaL 
ists are needed, not only for the projects 
but for their highly trained powders of 
observation and ability to relate facts on 
scientific basis. 

In Psychiatric Institutions new and 
modem buildings oflFer superior work- 
shops as found in the best of hospitals 
in which the nurses's skills are not lost 
in struggles with poor equipment. Diag- 
nostic aids such as basal metabolism, 
electrocardiograph, x-ray, electroence- 
phalograph, physiotherapeutic apparatus, 
allow her to continue among the 
familiar aids of her training. 

Working hours are in line with the 
modem conception of maximum effi- 
ciency with the shortest working hours. 
Psychiatric Institutions (at least in 
Manitoba) are close to large centres 
with easy transportation to recreational 
and cultural activities. 

Nurses' residences provide good living 
accommodation and maintenance rates 
are indeed very moderate. 

JULT. 1966 • Vol. 51. No. 7 


Privileges under Civil Service ap- 
pointment provide generous holiday 
leave with pay, sick leave benefits, and 
superannuation rights. There is rest 
for the hardest working, security for 
the well-intentioned, and earned retire- 
ment funds in life's last years. There 
are no better in any field and few 
can equal these provisions. These emolu- 
ments of service are given with special 
reference to Manitoba but are not alone 
to be found in Manitoba. 

Bursaries under Dominion-Provincial 
Health Propects are available under 
certain conditions for those showing 
special abilities and promise for high 
posts of responsibilities. 
If these concrete facts are not 
enough by themselves, there does re- 
main one that has no precise measure 
but is the privilege of all. That is the 
opportunity for service to our afflicted 
fellow-man. This has unlimited pos- 
sibilities, dictated by the most potent 
forces man has ever had — his ideals. 
When one can look back along the 
road of life there have been battles 
won and lost. There have been losses 
and gains. There has been success and 
failure. But the one value that has 

surxived the most destructive forces 
in human history is man's ideal of 
service in God*s name. 

I close with a quotation from a 
poem by George Santayana, Spanish- 
boni American philosopher, one time 
professor of philosophv at Harvard 
University (1889-1912), who was at 
one time regarded as a materialist. 
I wonder! Perhaps he looked back on 
the road of life when he wrote: 
Oh World, thou choosest not the better 

It is not wisdom to be only wise 
And on the inward vision close the eyes. 
But it is wisdom to believe the heart. 
Columbus found a world and had no 

Save one that faith deciphered in the 

To trust the soul's invincible surmise 
Was all his science and his only art. 
Our knowledge is a torch of smoky pine 
That lights the pathway but one step 

Across a void of mystery and dread. 
Bid then the tender light of faith to 

By which alone the mortal heart is led 
Unto the thinking of the thought divine. 

Organizing Public Health Services 

E. Anne Wake 

BanflF! — the verj- word causes 
most people on our continent to en- 
vision the Creator's handiwork at its 
majestic loveliest. 

Banff! — the very '^ultimate'* in a 
traveller's dream. 

Banff! — to twelve nurses who 
lived there, a town without a public 
health nursing service! 

Some of the mothers who couldn't 
afford regular clinic fees, vaccinations, 
and inoculations for their children, 
just weren't attending to this all-im- 
portant health '*must." iXictors were 
greatly overburdened with work that 
properly trained nurses could do. 

Our author is an active member of 
the Banff-Canmore Chapter o( the 

Banff! — the town that had every- 
thing, had nothing in the way of a 
public health program for its own 
children ! 

The twelve nurses decided this 
wouM l>e their project, although at 
first thought, it seemed rather over- 
whelming in vifw of thrir small num- 
bers. There followed long and careful 
prei>aration. First, **Reil Taf)e!'* 
(what a pity it couldn't have been 
used later on. for clinic gowns!) 

Banff, being in almost a stepchild 
category, is in .ilberta, but at the same 
time, is iw a national park, and there- 
fore not in a position to iKMiefit from 
the provincial public health program 
because it is directly under the juris- 
diction of the Dominion Government. 
Thus, long before weighing scales. 



hypo needles, and arrowroot cookies 
were needed, it was necessary to ob- 
tain many a pennit ! 

The approval of the superintendent 
of Banff National Park, the medical 
health officer for Banff, the various 
medical clinics, and the staflF at the 
Banff Mineral Springs Hospital was 
sought. Hearty endorsement by all 
soon followed and one hurdle was 

What next ? Twelve "slightly rusty** 
nurses who were also young mothers, 
took a refresher course given by a 
local doctor. Further help was forth- 
coming through an enlightening lec- 
ture from the nursing director of the 
Public Health Department in Edmon- 

Now, with the twelve nurses 
"dusted oflfr" and feeling more self- 
assured, it was time for the question, 
where could they procure the money 
needed for their undertaking? A 
canvass of the town's ser\*ice organiza- 
tions brought the gratifying total of 
well over $100! With these funds, the 
nurses rented humble basement quar- 
ters for their clinic and obtained the 
necessarv* supplies. 

The next item on the agenda — 
who would convene this project and 
make it function smoothly and effi- 
ciently? The only member who had 
no job and no children was persuaded 
tliat she had real talent along this 
line 1 

The nurses soon found themselves 
doing everything from scrubbing con- 
crete floors that promptly emitted dust 
again as they dried, to making a "W'ell 
Baby Clinic" sign for outside the 
building. Because most of the members 
were mothers with small children, or 
were working, the problem of staffing 
was the greatest during those first 

Clinic Day 

several months. Four nurses were 
needed for each clinic period, and 
"madame convener" had her head- 
aches! However, through the years, 
since the Well Baby Clinic began in 
March, 1951, both interest and mem- 
bership have grown, thus eventually 
eliminating the staffing problem. 

For the first 18 months, a doctor 
was on hand for consultation for one 
hour during the clinic period, but this 
was found to be un sat isf actor}*. The 
mothers who needed a doctor's advice 
seemed to arrive either too early or 
too late to consult him, and the doctor 
often wasted precious time waiting 

No further problems were encoun- 
tered, other than to have a mother 
complain that her children "always 
got colds after they took them Mtamin 
D drops!" 

Today, wnth the Qinic prospering, 
and a greatly enlarged group, the 
meml>ers have undertaken the conver- 
sion of an unused room at the Banff 
Mineral Springs Hospital, into a 
cheen' Children's Ward. 

Evrry now and then go iway, have a 
little rclaxatiofi. for when y<ni come Hack- 
to your work, your judKnicnt will be sure, 
since to rrtnain constantly at work will cause 
you to lose power of judgment ... Go some 
distaace away because then tlie work appears 
smaller and more of it can he taken in at 
a glance, ami a lack of harmony or propor- 
tion is more readily seen. 


Short Course in Human Relations. 

Fftr most important words: I am proud 
of you. 

Four most important words: What is your 

Thrtf most imporUmi tpords: If you 

Two most important words: Thank you. 

l^rtut important word; I. 

— Citirenship Items 

JLLY. 1995 •Vol. 51. No. 7 


cholecystitis and Cholecystectomy 

Norma Joan Killeen 

was admitted to the Royal Inland 
Hospital, Kamloops, B.C., on June 8, 
1954. He is 49 years old, a Protestant, 
a carpenter by trade. He appeared 
distressed by financial worries and 
wanted to regain his health and return 
to his trade. He was a ver>' nervous 
and apprehensive individual at first 
and appreciated our interest in him 
and reassurance as to the course of 
his illness. At every opportunity he 
would speak of his three children to 
whom he appeared ver>- devoted. As 
he progressed towards better health, 
he was found to be a fairly cheerful 
and cooperative patient. 

On examination, Mr. Hicks was 
very distressed with right upper ab- 
dominal tenderness and indefinite pain 
in the epigastrium. Two small nodules 
were felt below the ribs on the right 
side. He stated he had been unable 
to eat greasy or gas-forming foods. 
He gave the history of having had this 
discomfort since 1941. X-rays were 
taken at that time but the results were 
unknown here. In May, 1954, he had 
epigastric pain for about two weeks 
continuously, then was free from it 
until his present attack. He was in 
hospital for investigation, by gastro- 
intestinal x-ray series, for a possible 
peptic ulcer and for cholecystograms. 

When admitted, Mr. Hicks was 
having severe epigastric pain. He was 
nervous, apprehensive, complaining of 
insomnia and anorexia. Discomfort 
was not relieved by eating. Demerol 
100 mgm. every four hours was 
ordered for discomfort. Aniphojel, 
drams 2, with tincture of belladonna 
minims 10, was given four times a 
day. The amphojel reduces the acidity 
in the stomach while the belladonna 
relieves spasms of the stomach, 
gall bladder and bile ducts. These 
medications gave relief of discomfort 

Miss Killeen is now a senior student 
at Ro>*al Inland Hospital, Kamloops, 
B.C. This study won her the first prixe 
in the 1954 Macmillan Awards. 

for only short periods at a time. 

Mr. Hicks had to be treated for his 
possible peptic ulcer and was, there- 
fore, placed on a second -week ulcer 
diet, which is composed of non-irritat- 
ing, bland foods with caloric content 
sufficient for body nutrition. It consists 
mostly of eggs, milk and bland vege- 
tables. Feedings were given frequently 
and he was encouraged to eat slowly 
and chew his food thoroughly. 

For cholecystitis, fats are restricted, 
adequate protein is given, ample carbo- 
hydrates are taken to stimulate the 
flow of bile without irritating, water 
and skim milk are given. Again, small 
meals are given at regular intervals. 
EflForts were made to try and obtain 
foods that would cause as little dis- 
turbance to him as possible. 

Mr. Hicks frequently complained 
of anorexia and indigestion. Anorexia 
could have been caused by the lack 
of bile. To counteract the indigestion, 
the amphojel was changed to drams 2 
after meals and as required. He was 
troubled by nausea and vomiting and 
usually appeared tired and listless. 
Repeated enemas had to be given for 
constipation and he ran an intermit- 
tent temperature. 

He appeared to have very severe 
spasmodic discomfort in the epigastric 
region. Demerol was usually given 
to relieve this, but on one occasion, 
when the spasms appeared more 
severe, largactil 25 mgm. was also ad- 
ministered. This gave only short relief 
of the spasms. 

On June 17, Mr. Hicks had a very 
severe attack of sharp, spasmodic pain 
in the right hypochondrium, radiating 
through to the thoracic region of his 
back. Morphine gr. 34 was given for 
its sedative effect alon^ with atropine 
gr. 1/100 and hyoscme gr. 1/150. 
These last two drugs aid in reHeving 
gall bladder colic and reduce hyper- 
motility of the stomach or intestine. 
Some relief of symptoms was obtained. 

Many x-rays and other diagnostic 
tests were to be done. Before these 
were taken, the routine of these pro- 


cedures was explained to Mr, Hicks 
and the necessity of following the 
instruction for the tests was stressed. 
A barium swallow was taken, which 
is an x-ray examination very useful 
in diagnosing gastric ulcers or any ob- 
struction by outlining the tract. This 
examination showed no evidence of a 
gastric ulcer, but showed that one had 
been present as there was a scar in 
the middle third of the stomach. A 
barium enema was also given but no 
organic lesion was present. 

Since traces of blood are often found 
in the stools of persons affected by 
gastric ulcers, a stool specimen was 
sent to the laboratory. The report was 
negative for occult blood. The only 
abnormality noted was an increase in 
the white cells count to 12,300 per 
cu. nm\. This, together with the ele- 
vated temperature, denoted the pres- 
ence of some infection. 

Mr. Hicks was prepared for a 
gastric analysis, a test used mainly for 
diagnosis of peptic ulcers. The pro- 
cedure of Levine tube insertion was 
explained to him and the morning 
meal was withheld. If an ulcer is 
present, there is nearly always a 
higher than normal concentration of 
acid in the stomach. However, 
throughout the test, the total acidity 
was within normal limits. After the 
stomach tube was inserted, the stom- 
ach contents were aspirated. On the 
fasting specimen! no hydrochloric acid 
was noted. When 50 cc. of 7 per cent 
alcohol was added via the tube, HCl 
was present at 40°. the normal being 
from 20° to 60 ^ On the three tests 
following this no free hydrochloric 
acid was found. Absence or marked 
decrease in free hydrochloric acid is 
indicative of gall bladder disease, gas- 
tritis or pernicious anemia. Blood was 
present in small quantities but no bile 
was noted. 

The patient was then prejxired for a 
series of cholecystograms. A flat plate 
was taken first. The evening l>efore. 
a fat-free supfHrr was provided and 
telepaque tablets were given directly 
after. These tablets are especially de- 
signed for use in visualization of the 
gall bladder and duct system. Calculi 
are more readily visualized. Untoward 
reactions are less fretjuent with tele- 
paque tablets than with driijj> tliat 

have been used previously. Still, 
nausea, vomiting, and anuria do some- 
times occur and they must be watched 
for. Any abnormality of the gall blad- 
der may prevent the concentration 
of this drug in the organ and thus 
it will not be rendered visible. 

On return from the x-ray, a fatty 
meal was given after which another 
x-ray was taken. This fatty meal 
causes the gall bladder to empty and 
determines the presence of any ma- 
terial in the organ, Mr. Hicks did not 
complain of any increased severity of 
symptoms after this meal. The report 
from the x-ray department revealed 
that the gall bladder was unable to 
concentrate the dye sufficiently to out- 
line the viscus. A round opacity was 
noted which was thought to be a 

A pre-operative diagnosis of gall- 
stones was given and Mr. Hicks was 
prepared for surger>\ He was placed 
on a soft diet to aid in building up 
his general physical condition before 
undergoing his cholecystectomy, al- 
though on admission, a physical exam- 
ination had been done by his doctor 
and he had been pronounced a healthy 
individual. As the liver and gall blad- 
der are so very close together diag- 
nostic tests had to be done to eliminate 
the possibility of any impairment of 
liver function particularly since there 
was some jaundice. 

To find out if the jaundice was due 
to an obstruction or to excessive blood 
destruction, a van den Burgh blood 
test was done. If a direct color reac- 
tion is obtained when a specially pre- 
pared reagent of sulfanilic acid and 
sodium nitrate is adde<l to serum, it 
indicates that the jaundice is of the 
obstructive type. This type produces 
clay-colored stools. Mr. Hicks' reac- 
tion was negative. The indirect test 
using an alcoholic extraction of the 
serum to produce color is indicative 
of hemolytic jaundice. With this the 
stools are nonnal in color. Mr. Hicks' 
indirect test was 0.1 mg. per 100 cc, 
and the nonnal amount of bilirubin in 
the serum is from 0.25 to 1.5 mg. per 
100 cc. 

A thymol turbidity test for liver 
damage was done. This test is usually 
j)ositive in infectious hepatitis and 
negative in cases of jaundice due to 

JULY. 19a •Vol '1 \ 


extrahepatic obstruction ; it was nega- 
tive in this case. A cephalen -choles- 
terol flocculation test was ordered. 
This demonstrates a change in plasma 
proteins that is usually constant with 
liver damage. X^omial is zero to plus 
one. Mr. Hicks had a reading of plus 
two. His white blood count was re- 
checked and it was found to be 9,300 
per cu. mm. 

Before going under an anesthetic, 
the kidneys as well as the liver should 
be checked as so many anesthetics 
affect these organs. A non-protein 
nitrogen test was done and found to 
be within normal limits at 30 mg. per 
100 cc. blood. This is usuallv a fasting 

Mr. Hicks was nervous and appre- 
hensive pre-operatively. Explanations 
of the procedures carried out helped 
him somewhat. By reassuring him of 
the capabilities of his surgeon, of the 
new methods and equipment of hos- 
pitals today, and trying to maintain 
as quiet and unhurried atmosphere 
as possible, he seemed to be aided to 
some degree. 

Shaving preparation was done from 
nipple line to pubic region. This is 
done to ensure adequate skin disin- 
fection. A soap suds enema was given. 
If the contemplated surgery does not 
involve the intestines themselves, it is 
usually better psychology to give the 
patient the enema the evening preced- 
mg the operation rather than on the 
morning of surgery. The evening be- 
fore surgery, Mr. Hicks was given 
Seconal gr. Ij/^ to ensure adequate 
rest, sleep, and to allay fear and ap- 
prehension. Xothi ng was given by 
mouth for approximately eight hours 
preceding his operation. An empty 
stomach allows anesthesia to l^e in- 
duced more easily, reduces the pos- 
sibility of vomiting and the consequent 
dangers of aspiration and overexertion 
post -ojK rat ively. 

On the morning of ojKTation. June 
25, a urine specimen was sent to the 
laborator}'. Seconal gr. IJ/2 was again 
given to allay fear and apprehension. 
The action of Seconal is not carried 
over into the fHTif>d of anesthesia, but 
will lessen the amount of morjihine 
and atropine needed. Its use as an 
analgesic lasts only about half an hour. 
This was followed by morphine 

sulphate gr. 1/6 and atropine gr. 
1/150. Morphine depresses the sen- 
sor\' and psychic areas of the cerebrum 
thereby quieting the patient, allaying 
fear and making the induction of the 
anesthetic easier. Respirations must be 
checked as morphine depresses the 
respiratory centre in the medulla, giv- 
ing slower and shallower respirations. 
The heat regulating centre is depres- 
sed and diaphoresis may be present, 
therefore, the patient should be kept 
warm and free from draughts. Atro- 
pine decreases the secretions of the 
saliva and muajs in the nose, pharynx 
and bronchi, thus leaving the mouth 
and air passages dry. It also favors 
the absorption of the anesthetic agent 
and makes the hazard of aspiration 
less. It is a heart and respiratory 

Mr. Hicks was taken to the operat- 
ing room for a cholecystectomy and 
was inducted under [x*ntothal sodium, 
c\xlopropane and nitrous oxide. So- 
dium pentothal is a powerful, intra- 
venous, ultra short -acting barbiturate. 
It provides a rapid, timesaving and 
more pleasant induction. It is gen- 
erally used in a 2^49^ to 5^r solution, 
the amount, though, htnng dqx»ndent 
on the needs of and the effect on the 
I);itient. It is rapidly de.'^troyed in the 
Ixxly. It is a depressant acting chiefly 
on the cerebral cortex. Respiratory 
depression can be very great depend- 
ing on the rapidity of induction, 
therefore atropine sulphate should al- 
ways be given previously. Muscular 
relaxation is gCKxl except for the 
muscles of the alxloniinal wall, 
pharynx and larynx. If sneezing, 
coughing or twitching occur the injec- 
tion should !>e discontinued. 

Nitrous oxi<le may be given as a 
prolonged anaesthetic if the gas is used 
with the necessary amount of oxygen. 
It is a respiratory de[)ressant and 
cyanosis must Ik- watche<l for. Un- 
toward effects on the kidneys, liver, 
circulation and respirations usually 
Cf>me from an oxygen deficiency. It 
is most frequently used as an induc- 
tion anaesthesia. 

Cycloproi>ane, a colorless gas. is 
administered by inhalation. It is ex- 
plosive but has a wide margin of safety 
and oxygen can be given with it. It 
has a greater mttscular relaxation than 





nitrous oxide but causes more post- 
anesthetic nausea. Respiratory depres- 
sion may come on very rapidly and 
danger signals, such as slowing of the 
heart and arrhythmia, must be 
watched for. 

Syncurine 8 cc. was given during 
surger>'. It aids muscular relaxation 
and abolishes certain reflexes. It has 
no anesthetic action but reduces the 
total amount of anesthetic that has to 
be used. It is frecjuently used with 
nitrous oxide. 

A cholecystectomy, excision of the 
gall bladder, was done. It was revealed 
that the gall bladder contained six 
choleliths, each approximately one inch 
in diameter. A culture was made from 
the removed organ and contained no 

The gall bladder is a i>ear-shaped 
sac from three to four inches long 
and one or more inches wide. It is 
situated on the under surface of the 
liver and is attached to it by areolar 
connective tissues. The wall of the 
gall bladder consists of four layers, 
a mucosal lining of columnar epi- 
thelium, a layer of smooth muscles, 
a third layer is connective tissue con- 
taining blood and lymphatic vessels, 
the outer surface, serous membrane. 

The liver secretes approximately 
500-800 cc. of bile per day. This is 
concentrate<l to approximately 100 cc. 
and stored in the gall bladder until 
it is needed in the small intestine to 
assist with digestion. In the gall blad- 
der, bile contains 90yr water, mucin, 
bile pigments, cholesterol, lecithin and 
inorganic salts. It is concentratt^l by 
the loss of water and the addition of 
mucin from the gall bladder wall. 
Waste i)roducts. as bile pigments, 
bilirubin, biliverdin — the green pig- 
ment of bile — are passt^l into the 
intestine and eliminated with the feces. 

Cliolelithiasis form due to infection 
or to the precipitation of bile con- 
stituents such as bile salts and choles- 
terol. Stones are most fre([uently seen 
in women or in the obese person, 
but may l>e found in either sex. The 
presence of stones usually means some 
dysfunction *»f the gall bladder. They 
give ris<» to sym[)ti>ms for mechanical 
reasons and may caus<* obstniction of 
the cystic or common bile ducts and 
thereby cause jaundice. 

To remove the gall bladder, an in- 
cision is made in the upper right 
abdominal wall, the cystic duct and 
blood vessels are divided and ligated 
and the organ is removed. In this case, 
a pen rose drain was inserted ; often this 
is placed near the stump of the cystic 
duct. This ensures that if leakage 
should occur the bile will escape from 
the wound through the drain rather 
than spread over the entire peritoneal 
cavity. When the danger of leakage 
is over, usually after five or six days, 
the drain is removed. 

Mr. Hicks was taken from the 
operating room to the recovery room. 
Alternating intravenous glucose 5% 
solution in water and normal saline 
to the extent of 3.000 cc. was ordered 
and running when he was taken from 
the operating room. This aided in 
raising the blood pressure by increas- 
ing the blood volume. It also combat- 
ted dehydration and protected against 
carbohydrate depletion. His blood 
pressure dropped to 90/70. and 
oxygen per mask was given. Oxygen 
aids in raising blcxxl pressure by re- 
tarding the blow! entering the right 
atrium of the heart, thereby slowing 
circulation slightly and raising the 
blfx>d pressure. 

On retuni to his room, Mr. Hicks 
was place<l in Fowler*s position, which 
lessens temperature reaction and 
promotes free drainage from the in- 
cision. Deep breathing was encouraged 
to prevent any respiratory complica- 
tion. He had a high abdominal inci- 
sion, which would cause pain and 
muscular spasm during respiratory 
movements and it was ver)' difficult, 
during his first few days after surgery, 
to get him to breathe deeply enough. 

During the first day, he had iKrimls 
of nausea, exjxnrt orating moderate 
amounts of green emesis that could be 
causefl by the presence of bile in the 
stomach |K)st-<i|H»ra lively. The next 
day the slight amount of emesis 
present was clear. While he was still 
drowsy from his anesthetic, emesis 
was present and gocxi drainage was 
maintainetl to j)revent the aspiration 
of \T)mitus. A quiet atmosphere and 
the sedatives ordered aideil in sup- 
pressing emesis and thereby prevent- 
ing any wound disruption. Demerol 
1(YI iiiiTin \v:i< iinltTtfl as scdative. 

JULY. 1965 • Vol. 51. No. 7 

During the evening, Mr. Hicks' 
respirations became shallow and his 
color appeared ashen. Oxygen was 
given per mask and respirations be- 
came fuller. Blood pressure, pulse and 
respirations were watched every four 
hours during the day. He was having 
quite severe spasmodic pains in his 
operative area, his temperature was 
99.4°. The sedative order was changed 
to moqJiine gr. % and relief was ob- 

Distention is almost always quite 
severe following biliary' tract surgery. 
Despite efforts to get him to breathe 
deeply, to cough, aiding him to move 
slightly and thereby stimulate peri- 
stalsis, he did so only after very much 
urging and even then, very reluctantly. 
Repeated 1-2-3 enemas had to be given 
for relief of distention. 

On June 26, the day after his opera- 
tion, he was allowed to sit on the edge 
of his bed; the next day he was al- 
lowed to be up for a short period. Mr, 
Hicks was unable to void and had to 
be catheterized for two days ix)st- 
operatively. Early ambulation ap- 
peared to give him relief. Frequent 
back and mouth care was given to 
provide comfort. A reddened, raised 
rash was noted on his arms, legs, and 
anterior chest. Caladr\I lotion was 
applied for pruritis, with relief. The 
morphine was discontinued. Demerol 
was once again ordered, as needed, for 
discomfort. The rash and pruritis 
cleared within two days. 

On June 27, Mr. Hicks complained 
of a sharp anterior to posterior chest 
pain, which became more severe on 
inspiration, his respirations became 
labored and temperature rose to 
101.4''. Achromycin 250 mgm. was 
given at once, then four times a day 
thereafter. Achromycin is composed of 
tetracycline hydrochloride and is ef- 
fective against a great number of 
Gram-positive and Gram-negative or- 
ganisms. Therapy with this drug is 
usually carried on for two or three 
days after regression of symptoms. 
Milk was given with the tablets to 
aid in absorption and prevent irrita- 
tion due to the high concentration of 
the drug in the intestinal tract. New 
symptoms may develop during ther- 
apy, therefore the patient must be 
watched carefully. For the next two 

days, Mr. Hicks had an intermittent 
temperature though chest discomfort 
became less severe. The achromycin 
was discontinued on July 2. 

On return from the operating room, 
a moderate amount of serosanguinous 
drainage was noted on his dressings. 
These were changed as necessary to 
maintain asepsis. Draining wounds 
with pus or bile present need frequent 
dressings; bile has a very irritating 
effect on the skin and may cause 
pruritis. The penrose drain was moved 
out one inch per day starting June 27, 
and was totally removed on July 2. 
A dry dressing was kept over the 
incision, showing a small amount of 
serous drainage present. On July 5, 
10 days post-operatively, the sutures 
were removed and a dr}* dressing 

After surgerv', vomiting was quite 
persistent and nothing could be taken 
by mouth until it subsided, then sips 
of water were given. Intravenous 
fluids had been maintained to provide 
the tissues with fluid. A record of his 
fluid intake and output for 24 hours 
post-operatively was kept, noting a 
higher intake than output. 

He was placed on a fluid diet for 
three days post-operatively. It was 
taken only fairly well. He was slightly 
jaundiced which would account for 
some of the anorexia. His appetite 
improved and he was changed to a 
soft diet. Six days post-operatively, 
he was placed on a full, fat -free diet. 

After a cholecystectomy, jaundice 
may continue to show. It may indicate 
that a stone is obstructing one of the 
ducts or that bile is not fonning and 
discharging properly. Slight jaundice 
usuallv clears in a very short time. 

On' July 5, 1954, Mr. Hicks was 
discharged — a much happier and 
calmer man. He appeared confident 
that he was on the road to better 

In preparing this study, I learned 
the special points in the surgical 
nursing care of a cholecystectomy and 
the signs and symptoms to watch for 
in this specific condition. I learned 
and appreciated the value of the dif- 
ferent diagnostic tests used and how 
these tests helped to differentiate be- 
tween the two diseases — gastric ulcer 
and cholecystitis. 


Methodes d'Enseignement en 

Sciences Physiques et Chimiques 

SoEUR Marie-Rose Lacroix, s.g.m. 

I'enseignement des sciences, dans 
nos ecoles d*infirmieres demeurc 
un cauchemar pour la plupart des 
institutrices, s'il faut en croire les con- 
versations echangees avec les respon- 
sables j)articulierement en ce qui con- 
ccnie la physique et la chiniie. Le 
present article se propose d^apporter 
un peu de lumicre en ce domaine. 


La necessitc de Tenseignement de 
ces deux sciences a nos aspirantes in- 
firmieres est-elle encore a prouver? 
Devant la multiplication et la com- 
plexite croissante des appareils de 
toutes softes en usage dans les hopi- 
taux, ne voit-on pas I'urgente respon- 
sabilitc d'assurer a la jeune infirmiere 
des notions au moins elementaires de 
physiaue et une connaissance plus 
considerable, meme assez elaborec dc 

Pourquoi, objectera-t-on» inclure de 
la physique dans un programme deja 
si charge? Si la candidate a ctudie 
cctte matierc pendant son cours pri- 
maire, je concede que Tecole n*a pas 
a s'en prcoccuper davantage. Ces no- 
tions antcricurcs n'ont certainement 
pas etc adaptees aux besoins des in- 
firmieres, il faudra [lourtant en tirer 
le meilleur parti possible. 

L'institutrice en sciences appli- 
quees: anatomic, physiologie et sur- 
tout en techniques s'efforcera de relier 

Soeur Lacroix est p r o f c ti c u r k rimd- 
tut Marguentc d'Youville. Univrr«it^ de 

ses donnees actuelles aux principes 
prealablement etudies en physique. 
Tout Fappareil de la locomotion 
s'eclaire par la theorie de Tinertie et 
des leviers. L'equilibre des forces 
expliquera la station debout et la 
marche. Des notions precises et assez 
etendues d*energie et de calorimetrie 
sont indispensables a la comprehension 
du metabolisme et de ses variations. 
Les lois de la tension des gaz initieront 
a Tetude des phenomenes respiratoires 
et des echanges gazeux. Les connais- 
sances sur les pressions osmotiques et 
hydrostatiques trouveront leur appli- 
cation dans Tetude de la circulation 
du sang et Fechange des tluides orga- 
niques. Ajoutons que les notions 
dliydrostatique et de pression atmos- 
pherique sont indispensables pour 
manier avec intelligence les mano- 
metres, svphons, tubes de Levine, etc. 
L'etudiante etablira aussi facilement 
des rap{)orts avec le pneumothorax. 
EUe comprendra plus facilement le 
danger des transports en avion des 
cas d'abces appendiculaire. L'optique 
re<^ue sappliquera aux appareils tels 
que microscoi>e et autres instruments 
plus compliques des salles d*examens 
de toutes sorles. Le developpement dc 
la science contem|x>raine exige Touver- 
ture en physique d'un chapitre sur 
Telectricitc statique dans les salles 
d'operations, sujet au moins aussi im- 
portant pour les infimiieres que pour 
les chirurgiens. 

En un mot, la physique enseignc 
les principes de la plupart de appa- 
reils en usage dans les hopitaux. 
Souvent. il arrive que Tinfirmierr doit 

i • Vol. SI. Na 7 



ajuster un instrument en Fabsence du 
medecin ou de Tinteme. De plus, une 
comprehension parfaite du maniement 
d'un appareil inspire confiance de la 
part du patient qui sera etabli ainsi 
dans un etat de securite favorable a 
sa guerison. 

Contrairement a la physique, la 
chimie doit toujours etre enseignee 
aux infirmieres etudiantes, indepen- 
damment des notions revues au cours 
primal re. Inutile de repeter ce qui a 
ete dit maintes fois sur le role primor- 
dial de cette science par rapport a 
un grand nombre de matieres au pro- 
gramme. Une etudiante, beneficiaire 
d'un cours de chimie. adapte et bien 
compris avouait que la physiologic, la 
nutrition et Fhygiene ont ete des ma- 
tieres tres faciles pour elle ; que la 
microbiologie, la phanuacologie et la 
patholc^e furent grandement eclairees 
par ses notions de chimie, assimilees 
et bien appliquees. 

Cette science est difficile a enseigner, 
objectera-t-on. Les institutrices, pre- 
parees pour donner cet enseignenient 
sont rarissinies. Peut-etre! II faut 
maintenir cep<*ndant que la personne 
la mieux qualifiee pour donner ce 
cours demeure Tinfirmiere specialisee 
"ad hoc." 

Le programme d'etudes de nos 
ecoles est trop charge pour Tcn- 
combrer de details inadequats et 
inutiles. A nous de preciser les di- 
verses matieres enscignees et surtout 
les connaissances que comportent ces 
matieres. Mentionnons done immedia- 
tement que toutes les notions de 
chimie doivent etre orientees vers le 
nursing. Les heures etant limitees. il 
faudra sastreindre au principal et 
encore une fois, Tadapter continuelle- 
ment aux autres matieres du pro- 
gramme et a la nouvelle vie praticjue 
de I'etudiante. Un exemple illustrera 
cette affirmation. Les acides et les bases 
par exemple, seront enseignecs en 
fonction de Ttxiuilibre acido-basique de 
Torganisme, du pH huuKiral et du 
role des substances tampons. Les sels 
fourniront une rxrcasion de parler de 
la valeur de leurs ions metalliques 
dans les contractions cardiaques et 
musculaires en general. L'etude de 
Tenergie, des calories et du metabo- 
lisme posera des jalons tres utiles, 
voire meme indispensables aux cours 

de nutrition de meme qu a ceux d*hy- 

Ainsi, tout sera rapporte a I'ensei- 
gnement connexe et concourra au 
developpement scientifique int^ral de 

Methodes d'enseignement 
des sciences 

Abordons maintenant la considera- 
tion des meilleures methodes a utiliser 
dans renseignement des sciences. 
Disons dalx>rd que cette formation 
scientifique doit ouvrir des perspec- 
tives sur la vie. II faut moins s'arreter 
sur les lois, les principes que sur la 
disposition psychologique a acquerir 
en presence de ces phenomenes. Si 
letudiante. au cours de ses etudes en 
sciences, a appris a reconnaitre, at- 
taquer et resoudre les problemes, il 
est probable qu'elle pourra s adapter 
plus facilement et plus efficacement que 
si elle n avait pas re<;u cette prepara- 
tion. Cette possibilite d*etablir Ic 
transfert des connaissances scienti- 
fiques aux divers jiroblemes de la vie 
courante gagnera Tinteret des eleves 
et maintiendra Fenthousiasme dans un 
cours, repute monotone et depourvu de 
conclusions praticjues. 

La classe est generalement conduite 
sous forme de can series iK-aucoup plus 
que genre "conferences.*' Prc)ce<ler du 
connu a Tinconnu est un axiome peda- 
gogique qui a sa valeur dans toutes 
les branches. I.a jK>pulation etudiante 
de nos ecoles d'infinnieres est consti- 
tuee d'un grouiK-menl |>arfois homo- 
gene: mais bien sun vent aussi. la 
culture anlerieure est a.ssez variable 
jwnni les membres cVun meme groupe. 
II n est pas rare de rencontrer <lans 
une classe de prolwnistes, plusieurs 
etudiantes qui nVmt a \k\i pres jamais 
etudie de chimie, war exemple. 
Dautres sont pretes a renier leurs 
etudes primaires en sciences a cause 
de la limitation des notions qui leur 
sont restees. Le melhcHle socratique 
semble done indif|uee afin crobtenir 
<les re|x>nses qui «irienteront le maitre 
dans la distribution des miuvelles con- 
naissances a inculquer. 

Cette melhcKle < iff re aussi Ta vantage 
de forcer letudiante a participer aux 
ccnirs. En effiTt. la discussion doit 
etre cncotiragee le plus iK>ssibb 



niveau, le disciple doit posseder un 
bagage respectable d*idees et etre 
capable de les exprimer librement. II 
y aurait d'ailleurs interet a developper 
cette aptitude chez nos canadiennes- 

Xaturellenienl, il faudra veiller a 
maintenir Fordre et la discipline tou- 
jours necessaires en classe. Pour cela, 
le niaitre veillera a n'accorder la parole 
qua une seule personne a la fois; 
cel!e-ci en aura re<;u Tinvitation sous 
fomie de question. Les eleves useront 
largcment du privilege de poser des 
questions au professeur qui les ac- 
cueillera avec patience et indulgence 
chaque fois qu elles savereront per- 
tinentes et ressortiront du sujet 
enseigne. Les ecarts et trop longues 
digressions devront etre l)annis afin de 
ne pas modifier le progranime trace. 

Ces causeries devront s'illustrer de 
demonstrations de la part du profes- 
seur ou d'exj)eriences realisees par les 
eleves. II va sans dire que IVnseigne- 
nient des sciences se prevaut de toute 
Kaide visuelle possible. Ainsi, en phy- 
sique, il est facile d*illustrer les effets 
de la pression atmospherique au 
nioyen d'un bidon de fer blanc duquel 
la \*apeur dVau a chasse lair qu'il 
contenait. Kn optique. la loupe et le 
micnisco[)e serviront a de nombreuses 
demonstrations. Que d apj>areils elec- 
triques simples |X)urraient etre utilises 
pour comprendre les nombreuses 
manifestations de ces fluides mys- 
terieux (|ue 1 on nomme magnet isme 
et electricite. 

En <lepit de tons les abus et nialgre 
ce (ju'on a dit iK)ur on contre les 
maiuiels ils restent cei>endant un 
instrument accessoire, mais necessaire 
pour Tacquisition des sciences. I^ dif- 
ficulte cnnsiste a cboisir. j>anni la 
profusion offerte sur les marches, les 
mieux adaptes a notre curriculum. 

I -a meilleure methode a preconiser 
semble etre les notes personnelles. 
I/etudiante sVfforce de reaieillir assez 
de notes en class<* afin de se creer 
une Umne chaqHtUe de la matiere a 
assimiler: puis. |x*ndant letmle et a 
Taide des livres de references trouves 
a la biblioihecjue, elle complete ses 
notes i)ersi>nnelles, en ayant soin de 
schematiscr tous ses appari'ils. s*il 
s'agit de physique et d'illustrer les 
experiences de chimie par des dessins, 

s'il y a lieu. Elle traduira en equations 
chimiques les reactions qu*elle a ren- 
con trees au cours de ses etudes ou au 

Ces notes personnelles, redigees 
avec soin, forment sans contredit 
rinstrument de travail ideal, le plus 
apte a procurer le developpement in- 
tegral de Fesprit de Tetudiante. 

Une methode a preconiser est le 
traiml de groufcs, Le maitre partage 
ses eleves en petits groupes, a chacun 
desquels il assigiie un probleme a 
resoudre, une investigation a pour- 
suivre, un domaine a explorer, etc. 
Chaque groupement se choisit un chef 
charge de diriger le travail, coordon- 
ner les eflForts et compiler les resul- 
tats. I^ classe se reunit en suite pour 
entendre les rapports des chefs de 
groupe. I^ discussion sera permise et 
on accordera assez* de temps aux etu- 
diantes qui veulent prendre des notes 
et conserver les connaissances acquises 
par ces procedes. 

Le travail d'ecfuipe ne differe pas 
beaucoup du precedent. II s*agit plutot 
ici de partager la tache au sujet d'une 
experience compliquee a pour suivre ou 
d*une recherche quelconque et de 
mettre les resultats en commun. 

II y a aussi le plan de correlation 
ou Ton s eflforce de coordonner Ten- 
seignement de plusieurs maitieres par 
la consideration d'un as[>ect special 
etudie par plusieurs classes a la fois. 
Ainsi, les etudiantes de premiere annee 
peuvent ap[)rofondir Taspect social de 
hrvgiene publique tandis quau cours 
preliminaire on considere la necessite 
d'un lK>n approvisionnement d'eau 
dans une localite. Dans ce cas, il faut 
viser a promouvoir Tintegration dans 
les esprits et non seulement sur le 

Les heures allouees aux etudes chez 
les infinnieres ne pennettent mal- 
heureusement pas de consacrer le 
temps necessaire a la verification des 
hyixnheses. et les professeurs sont 
forces de presenter le probleme, suivi 
immediatement de la solution avec 
verification jxar la methode experi- 

Materiel d'knseic.nkmknt 
des sciences 

Disons un mot maintenant du ma- 

JULY. 1985 •Vol. SI. No. 7 

teriel necessaire a Fenseignement des 
sciences. Un laboratoire de chimie, 
pourvu de tous les react if s habituelle- 
ment utilises dans la poursuite du 
programme d 'etudes actuellement pro- 
pose aux ecoles d'infirmieres est tres 
recommandable. A defaut de labora- 
toire. il est facile de se monter un petit 
cabinet de chimie apte a servir aux 
principales demonstrations. Les cadres 
de ce travail ne permettent pas 
d'entrer dans les details ; disons cepen- 
dant qu*il faut absolument illustrer 
par des demonstrations ou par des 
experiences individuelles, la theorie 
re^ue en classe. II va sans dire que 
les experiences realisees par Televe 
doivent etre attentivement sun^eillees 
et controlees. La niarche a suivre est 
remise a Tetudiante sur des feu i lies 
preparees a Tavance; un espace blanc 
entre chaque procede permettra a 
Feleve d*inscrire ses remarques et le 
resultat de son experience. Quelques 
questions habilement redigees stimule- 
ront Tetude et la recherche person- 

I^ marche a suivre est toute in- 
diquee dans le curriculum propose par 
I'A.LRQ. II renferme assez de de- 
tails pour permettre a I'Institutrice qui 
possede sa matiere, de Tenseigner. 
Ajoutons simplement que la visite 
dirigee de musees scientifiques et de 
laboratoires phamiaceutiques pent 
etre d'une grande efficacite. 


La chimie est done indispensable 
au programme des infirmieres. Xous 
avons vu brievement comment elle doit 
etre enseignee. Considerons mainte- 
nant quels resultats on est en droit 
d*en attendre. Disons tout de suite que 
la ailture scientifique doit concourir a 
la formation integrale de la person- 
nalite de Tinfirmiere, d'abord a cause 
de Texactitude de ces donnees con- 
cretes qui ne laisse aucune place a 
rignorance ou a Tincertitude. De plus, 
un cnseignement raisonne des sciences 
force les etudiantes a reflechir et a 
comprendre, [)our\'u que not re preoc- 
cupation porte sur le (level oj)pement 
des qualites menlales autant que sur 
Tacquisition du savoir. Ricn commc 
les sciences n'entraine au sens de Tob- 

servation, a Texactitude, a Tabstrac- 
tion et a Tesprit de sj-nthese. Chez une 
professionnelle comme Test Tinfir- 
miere, la culture scientifique doit 
suppleer Thumanisme des etudes 
secondaires. Cet effort doit tendre 
d'abord a degager les valeurs culturel- 
les de la formation technique, puis a 
ouvrir les intelligences sur des hori- 
zons plus vastes par lesquels sont 
rejointes les dimensions illimitees de 
rhumanisme integral. 

La formation scientifique favorise 
les possibilites d'affirmation et d'epa- 
nouissement de la personnalite. a-t-on 
dit. par Tacquisition des qualites de 
jugement, de decision et de justice. 
En eflPet, le laboratoire est une 
ecole de probite, car le mensonge, 
dans le domaine de la matiere, 
est tou jours sanctionne par un echec 
ou une catastrophe. C'est aussi 
une ecole d*humilite et de sou- 
mission au reel. Cette formation oflfre 
de multiples possibilites d*education 
de la sensibilite et de la maitrise de 
soi, dans un milieu qui se rapproche 
de la vie. A la faveur d*un cnseigne- 
ment au fait des realisations pratiques, 
samorce la reconciliation de Tesprit 
avec la main dans la manipulation 
d*une technique qui requiert toutc 
Facuite d'une intelligence attentive. 

Si Finfirmiere accepte de considerer 
lli\1X)these scientifique comme son 
probleme personnel qu*elle s engage a 
resoudre. les faits lui apparaitront 
comme des evenements humains» 
repondant a des exigences humaines. 
Pour finir, voici un paragraphe du 
Rev. Pere A. Ravier (jui resume tout 
ce Gui |K>urrait etre dit sur le sujet: 
I^ vatmr morale du travail manuci, 
sa dtgnite ct sa grandeur, les neces- 
saires |>atiences dans la recherche de la 
perfection de Foeuvre ... cet ^uilibre 
humain, cette comiuetc de la person- 
nalite, qui s'instaurcnt peu k peu chez 
(Faspirante-infinniere), lorsquc ses sens, 
ses facultes, tout son etre font con- 
traints a Fharmonie pour se concentrer 
sur un objet qui lui resiste . . . en un 
mot tout le prix du travail ou la per- 
Sonne t'engage toat entiere et de fa^on 
^minaitc doime k ton effort un ciract^re 
sacr6 que ictile la souflfrance peut lui 

L enseignemcnt des sciences dans 


nos eco'.es d mfirmieres est peut-etre Plus qu'une tache. c'est un apostolat, 

une entreprise difficile, mais il faut la et comme tel, il resulte "d'une sorte 

poursuivre avec toute la tenacite et le de surabondance, celle de la vie de la 

devouement desinteresse que I'appre- grace, qui nous est toujours donnee 

nension de s« beaux resultats merite. sans merite de notre part." 

Drivers' Eyes - An Unsolved Puzzle 

"Sorry, Officer. I just didn't see it." 

Running past a red light — wrong way 
on a one-way street — making a prohibited 
left turn — passing in a no-passing zone — 
sideswiping another car's fender — why 
do these little driving mishaps occur? Why 
does a head-on collision occur? 

The best traffic-management brains in the 
country are today probing for the causes 
of automobile accidents. Excessive speed, 
stupidity, irresponsibility, alcohol, all have 
been cited and all are doubtless to blame 
in one way or another. The key explanation 
has yet to be found. 

But there is one thing the experts agree 
on — if a driver cannot see the road, the 
road signs, and the traffic distinctly and 
rapidly, he is a likely candidate for a smash- 
up, sooner or later. It*s just commonscnsc 
that no driver is going to ran head-on into 
trouble if he can see it coming. Seeing, 
in such a case, is actually foreseeing. Fore- 
seeing gives a chance to avoid the accident. 

There are car speeds, of course, at which 
no amount of seeing and foreseeing is of any 
avail. At a mile-a-minute, no pair of human 
eyes can do the seeing job that they can 
do at half-a-mile-a-minute. All that can be 
said in such cases is that if you are going 
to drive at 60 m.p.h. and up, you need the 
best pair of eyes that Nature, or a pair 
of properly fitted driving spectacles, can 
provide you with. 

The problem of drivers' vision has never 
been successfully grappled with. Not even 
the capacity of the drivers* eyes has ever 
been accurately measured, for no means has 
been found for discovering how well the eye 
sees at high speeds. True, nearly all prov- 
inces apply an acuity test to applicants 
for licenses. That's fine — as long as >"ou 
arc sitting still to read the test card that 
remains in a fixed position. But you are 
not sitting still when doing 60 m.p.h. in 
your car, and the thiof you are looking 
at is not in a fixed position. It may be 
another car approaching at 60 m.p.h. ! 

If it were possible for you to look at 
the eye chart instead of the approaching 
car under such conditions, the whole card 
would be an illegible blur. Yet you may 
have scored a triumphant 20/20 on it in 
the examiner's chair. This fact merely dem- 
onstrates that there is no way of measuring 
how well you see at high speeds. The only 
sure fact is that people who make a good 
score at the card test, with or without 
spectacles, will see better than others as 
auto drivers. 

The speed with which we see can be 
measured in the case of reading — so many 
words per minute. But it cannot be meas- 
ured in the case of the driver. And speed 
of seeing, along with clearness of seeing, 
is something on which life may depend. 

TTicre are other visual shortcomings that 
can imperil a driver's life. Among them are 
color blindness, faulty depth perception or 
poor judgment of distance, and "tunnel 
vision" or inability to see sidewise over any 
considerable range. And we may as well 
face the fact that little or nothing can be 
done to correct these three defects. The 
driver must learn to live with them by 
taking extra precautions. But it is highly 
important for him to know that he has such 
defects. Many people don't realize it. The 
surest way to find out is to have a thorough 
eyesight examination by a qualified spe- 

That same specialist can often provide 
glasses that will improve the driver's visual 
acuity at distances of 20 feet and over — 
the vitally important distances in safe 

Eventually, it is to be hoped that all 
localities will take the elementary step 
of requiring re-examinatioo of drivers* 
vision every few years, for it is a fact that 
vision deteriorates with age. In the mean- 
time, the obligation to provide himself with 
the best possible vition rests on the indi- 
vidual motorists. 

— Brrm Vision iNSTrrun 

If you knew how unreasonably sick people suffer from reasonable causes of distress. 
yoa wottld take more pains about all these things.—joHNSON 

JULY. 1M5 • Vol, a. No. 7 



Ma Condion Nm^' Assoostioa, Ottowo 


Earning While Learning 

about nursing education is directed 
at the economic obstacles placed in the 
way of many girls who would like to 
prepare as nurses — particularly at 
the university level. For promising 
students of insufficient means, scholar- 
ships are available, but it is doubtful 
if there are nearly enough of them. 

It has long been hoped that some 
arrangements might be made which 
would provide those wishing to em- 
bark upon a university program with 
some assistance in realizing their de- 
sires. A period when the nurse may 
gain some financial assistance, would 
be a boon to many. 

A constructive step would appear 
to have been taken by the University 
of Toronto School of Nursing. Those 
students who are registered for the 
basic degree program but who cannot 
finance four consecutive years at the 
University may now take advantage 
of an earning period at the half-way 
point. After the first year, which is 
a combination of cultural, scientific 
and clinical courses, these students 
may elect in the second year to com- 
plete their study of subjects necessar>' 
for the practice of nursing. Following 
this they enter into an eleven months* 
internship in Toronto hospitals where 
they practice and earn. 

After writing registration examina- 
tions, they are eligible for registered 
nurse status. On returning to the Uni- 
versity for the remaining two years, 
they complete requirements for 
Bachelor of Science in Nursing which 
allows them to nurse in lx>th the hos- 
pital and public heahh fields. 

It is to be hoped that the Toronto 
plan will suggest a similar pattern to 
other institutions. In the meantime, it 
may have done a little to dispel the 
illusion that someone must be trying 

to make it hard for young women to 
obtain a nursing education. 

Preparing Students for CD 

Canadians are often unjustly ac- 
cused of a[xithy in certain fields, but 
there can be no denying the lack of 
interest and thought they have de- 
voted to the subject of Civil Defence. 
Steps are currently being taken to en- 
sure that the Canadian nursing pro- 
fession cannot be accused of apathy 
in this respect. 

Reading one or two hospital "Dis- 
aster Plan" manuals should convince 
e\'en the most complacent that nurses 
must be better prepared to function 
effectively under emergency condi- 
tions. In recent years there have been 
repeated op|x>rtunities for nurses to 
understand and become skilful in the 
nursing of casualties, particularly 
those resulting from nuclear, bio- 
logical, and chemical weapons. But a 
better way to ensure that nurses will 
have an adequate knowledge of these 
techniques, is to make it a part of 
teaching in all schools of nursing. 

Giving additional impetus to this 
idea is a new program l)eing Iaunche<l 
this vear by the Civil Defence Health 
Planning Group of the De[)artment of 
National Health & Welfare. The 
Group plans to bring to the Civil 
Defence College at Amprior. Ontario, 
directors of nursing education or 
senior instructors from all schools of 
nursing in Canada. Civil Defence 
planning and the technical as[x^ts of 
the treatment and care of casualties 
will be discussed, with six-cial em- 
phasis on how this infonnation may 
l)e integrated into the sch<x)rs nursing 
curriailum. The first course took place 
at the end of June this year, with two 
others planne<l, for early autumn and 
mid -winter. 




Dusting off the Welcome Mat 

One of the attractive features of a 
nursing career is the opportunity to 
travel either on the job or in the pro- 
cess of changing assignments. For a 
nurse moving to a new area where 
she has no friends, however, travel 
may lack enjoyment unless brightened 
by an hospitable reception. 

Usually, we can depend on a warm 
welcome from fellow nurses in other 
countries. Can they depend on us for 
an equally good reception ? Each of us 
can wntribute to the reputation of 
Canadian nursing abroad by providing 
a warm welcome for fellow nurses 
from across the seas. This will also 
contribute to the reputation of our 
Association as a body with impressive 
international affiliations. 

A Quick Glimpse of Canada 

Speaking about welcomes, a warm 
one was surely accorded recently to 
Miss Frances Rowe, Executive Secre- 
tary of the National Council of Nurses 
of Great Britain & Northern Ireland. 
Miss Rowe, here on a fellowship from 
the Commonwealth Fund in New- 
York, visited both the U.S.A. and 

Due to her limited time, it was only 
possible to plan visits to Toronto, 
Montreal and Ottawa, with a weekend 
in Sherbrooke, Quebec, where Miss 
Rowe was the guest of Miss Oara 
Aitkenhead, Director of Nursing, 
Sherbrooke Hospital, 

While in Ottawa, ;Miss Rowe spent 
time in our National Office, and met 
with representatives of the Depart- 
ment of National Health & Welfare, 
Victorian Order of Nurses for Can- 
ada, Department of Labour and the 
Department of Health, City of Ottawa. 

A blending of business with pleas- 
ure allowed for a visit to the Muskoka 
Lakes and to Niagara Falls, 

We were pleased to w-elcome Miss 
Rowe to Canada and our discussions 
with her were helpful to both our 
countries as regards nursing on an 
international basis. 

Canada Visits Abroad 

August 29 to September 3, 1955, 
are the dates of the International 
Council of Nurses Board of Directors 
Meeting to be held in Istanbul. 

Gladys Sharpe, president, CNA, 
and Pearl Stiver, general secretary, 
will be attending. An important item 

JtLV 1885 •Vol. n. No. 7 

of discussion will be the ICN Eleventh 
Quadrennial Congress to be held in 
Italy in 1957. 

A visit to the World Health Organ- 
ization in Geneva will enable our rep- 
resentatives to meet with Miss Lyle 
Creelman, Chief, Nursing Section, 
W.H.O., and with other members of 
the World Health "team/' 

Then on to Great Britain where the 
National Council of Nurses for Great 
Britain & Northern Ireland will be 
visited. Quite an itinerary for a two 
weeks' visit! 

Canada's opportunity to contribute 
to, and to gain knowledge of the 
nursing world scene is assured when it 
is possible for our representatives to 
be present. 

Bon Voyage — Miss Sharpe and 
Miss Stiver. 

World Mental Health Meeting 

"Family Mental Health and the 
State" will be the theme of the An- 
nual Meeting of the World Federation 
of Mental Health which meets in 
Turkey, from August 21 to 27, 1955. 

CNA members who may be for- 
tunate enough to be travelling in 
Eastern Europe at that time are wel- 
come to attend the sessions. Further 
details may be obtained from: The 
secretary-General, World Federation 
for Mental Health, 19 Manchester 
Street, London Wl, England. 

The languages used will be Turkish, 
French and English. Simultaneous 
interpretation will be supplied for the 
principal meetings and for group dis- 
cussions where required. 

Is there a Better Wayf 

All areas of nursing feel the same 
need and share the same concern about 
the improvement of nursing service. 
The most eflfective utilization of 
nursing personnel demands good ad- 
ministrative policies and procedures 
in all areas and levels of nursing 
service administration. 

The Third Report of the W.H.O. 
Expert Committee on Nursing dealing 
with the problems of nursing service 
administration offers the following 
assistance: Defines nursing service 
and discusses its present stage of 
development. Stresses the importance 
of sound planning in administration. 
Outlines the steps in making, execut- 
ing and evaluating a plan for solving 
a problem. Discusses some principles 
of administration and suggests the 
preparation necessary for nursing 
service administration. 

This publication is part of the 
World Health Organization's Tech- 
nical Report Series No. 91 which may 
be obtained from the Ryerson Press, 
299 Queen Street West, Toronto 5, 
or Periodica. 5112 Avenue Papineau. 
Montreal 34. 

^e TlwtMHf k i^uufmd le fuu^ 

s.os. s.os, 

S.O.S- est ordinal retnent Ic signc dc 
detresse des navires en peril ; auijourdliui, 
en tete de ces notes, il stgnific: S^rteux 
oubli de Suzanne. Oui, oubli du texte que 
j'avais a traduire, dans unc des ecolcs d*in- 
finnJeres vt si tees au cours de la semaine. 
Flspcrant avoir Ic temps dc fairc ccttc tra- 
duction en cours de route, j*ai glisse nioa 
texte dans une enveloppe de papier bnsn 
puis, dans mon sac de voyage, pour msuite 
la laisser en route. 

Je fais done 4 mes Icct rices roes plus 
humbles excuses; je profiterai toutefois de 
cette occasion fortuite pour parler du tra- 

vail qui s'accompUt dans la province de 
Quebec en fait de nursing. 


Les infirmiercs dans la province de Qw^ 
bee sont au nombre de 9,369 (membres 
pratiquants) ; les etudiantes, de 4,058. 

L* Association des Infirmiercs de b Pro- 
vince de Quebec a certifi^ 35 Ecolcs d'in- 
firmieres, de Gaspe i Hull et de Chicoutimi 
a Noranda. Elk a approuv^ en plus, quatre 
ecoles d*auxiliaires en mirsing dans les- 
quelles se poursutt le programme rccom- 
mand^ par KAssociation des Infirmiercs 




Les families nombreuses du Canada 
francais nous i)ermettent dc fairc un recru- 
temcm intense et dVnvisager I'avenir avec 
con fiance. En mai dernier, le Comite de 
Recrutemcnt a organise a Montreal une 
exposition qui fui un succes. Plus de mi lie 
jcunes filles des ecoles superieures de la 
Cofiunission scolaire de Montreal visit^ent 
les differents kiosques illustrant les phases 
de la yit de Tetudiante et les carri^res 
oflFertes aux infirmicres. Nous ne savons 
pas ce qu*il fallait admirer le plus: leflfort 
concerte des ecoles d'infirmieres, la colla- 
boration bienveillante de la Commission 
scolaire, I'imagination et le sens artistique 
dont a fait preuve Til lust ration du theme 
adopte par chaque kiosque, ou le dcvoue- 
ment des jeunes infirmieres organ! sat rices 
dc cette demonstration. 

Defense Civile 

Deux hopitaux de not re province: THopi- 
tal Not re- Dame a Montreal et THopital du 
Christ- Roi a Xicolet ont cf)mplctc dcr- 
nierement Torganisation de leur hopital en 
cas de desastre. Cette preparation, poussce 
jusquau moindre detail, a donne commc 
a vantages immediats une evaluation com- 
plete de leurs ressources — personnel, ma- 
teriel, etc. et la constatatiun, une fois de 
plus, de rinterdependancc des ser\'ices hos- 
pitallers. Admtnistrateurs, m^cdns et in- 
firmieres fureni incites de toutes les parties 
dc la prm'ince a venir etudier, pendant 
deux jours, cette organisation. Des sugges- 
tions interessantes et pratiques furent faites. 
cntre autrrs. le projet d'un cours en fran<;ais 
5ur la defense civile, pour les directrices 
du nursing et les institutrices. Les iniliateurs 
de cc mouvement merilent nos felicitations. 

Jmmrmee d*Etude 

Les infirmieres. se rendant compte de 
rfvohitkici rapide dc la medecinc dans cer- 
t&im domaincs. ont organise dans leurs 
districts retpectifs dei joumces d'^tude. 
Crttc afiii^« j*ai cu le plaisir d'assister i 
U stem du district no XI (Montreal) 
laquelle portait sur "le coeur ** La science 
du corur ncitis fut exposce en trois parties: 
Tage anatomique, celtii des decouvertes dc 
la circulation, etc.. I age du stethoscope et 
cnfin Tage modemc de la chirurgic car- 
diaqtie. Cet expose, suivi d^im qiicttioaiiaire* 

a contribuc a remettre a la page un grand 
nombre de nos infirmieres. 

Mission jren^mst en Ameriqn^ 

Notre position de seule province fran^aise 
dans les Ameriques nous amene parfois i 
jouer un role particulier et utile. Durant 
la guerre, notre connaissance de Tanglais 
et notre parler normand faisaient de nos 
soldats des parachutistes de choix avant 
rinvasion. AujourdTiui, toujours a cause de 
notre langue. nous recevons des infirmicres 
des pays eloignes oii Ic frangais est parle, 
soit pour des visites d'observations ou pour 
des etudes speciales; en d'autres mots, pour 
apprendre le nursing americain en fran<^ais, 
il faut venir dans notre province. Qu'elles 
viennent d' Haiti, du Laos ou du Viet Nam 
Sud, toutes sont chez nous les bienvenues 
et nous esperons que leur sejour leur aura 
bcneficic et qu'elles en apporteront \m bon 
souvenir; quant a nous nous n'oublierons 
jamais leur courage devant le froid, leur 
generosite et leur bonne volonte ; notre 
ami tic formule les meil leurs voeux a leur 

Lm Jommee des Hipitmmx 

Le 12 mai. tous les hopitaux ouvraient 
leurs portes au grand public. "Jeanne Mance, 
premiere infirmiere laique/* et "le devouc- 
ment de rinfirmiere" furent les themes mis 
en evidence, seion la recommandation des 

Histeire in Nmrsing 

Un film sur Florence Nightingale a et^ 
prepare par la Compagnie d'Assunince-Vie 
Mctropolitaine. a la demandc de TAssocia- 
tion des Infirmieres Canadiennes, film silcn- 
cieux, avec texte en frani;ais. La Compagnie 
a mis gracieusement a la disposition de 
I'Association des Infirmieres de la Province 
dc Quebec cinq bobines et des textes que 
nous roettons. a notre tour, a la disposition 
dc nos ecoles d'infirmieres ainsi que des 
ecoles superieures dc jeunes filles. Nous 
sommcs tres rcconnaissantes a la Mctro- 
politaine dc cette nouvelle marque d apprc> 
ciation; deja. nous lui devons un programme 
dc radio qui marque, chaque annce, le debut 
de fK)tre campagne de recrutemcnt. 

Aux institutrices qui ensdgnent I'histoirc 
du Nursing, jc m*en voudrais de ne pas 
sigtuler les belles lemons qui sc degagcnt 

I • Vol M. No. 7 


dun "fragment de texte sur sainie Elisabeth 
de Hongrie** dans Edith Stein — edition 
du Seuil — ce sont des lignes tra<;ant de 
la sainte un portrait noble et humain. 

Saviez-vous que dans les tresors de nos 
hopitaux il se trouve, a T Hotel -Dieu de 
Quebec, une lettre ecrite de la main de 
saint Vincent de Paul; a-t-elle ete adressee 
directement aux Meres fondatrices ou a-t- 
elle passe des mains de la Duchesne d*Ai- 
guillon dont st. Vincent etait le directeur, 
au monastere, nous ne le savons pas mais 
nous laissons a quelques docles Meres le 
soin de nous renseigner. 


Parlons d'abord de celui de 1* Association 
des Infirraieres Canadiennes qui aura lieu a 

Winnipeg du 25 au 29 juin 1956; les pre- 
paratifs vont bon train: convoi special, 
programme recreatit, en route, excursion 
dans les Rocheuses, au pays du soleil de 
minuit. la cote du Pacifique, en somme, un 
congres dans le milieu solennel de TUni- 
versite du Manitoba suivi de vacaiKes dans 
un decor merveilleux. 

La presidente de FAIC, Mile Gladys 
Sharpe, et la secretaire. Mile Pearl Stiver 
se rendront prochaincment a Istamboul, p<>ur 
discuter avec les membres du Conseil Inter- 
national des Infirmi^res le programme du 
Congres International qui se tiendra a Rome 
en 1957 Nous leur souhaitons un bon voyage 
et a vous, la fidclitc dans vos resolutions 
d'economie que vous ne manquerez pas de 
prendre en vuc de rcaliser cc revc d*un 
beau voyage' 

in memortam 

Annie Ethel (DeniiMin) Au»t, a gradu- 
ate of the Lady Stanley Institute, Ottawa, 
died suddenly on April 4, 1955. 

« * » 

HilfU B&rtscli, who graduated from The 
Montreal General Hospital in 1931, died on 
May 9, 1955. Miss Bartsch was appointed 
executive secretary and registrar of tlie 
New Brunswick Association <»f Rcgisteretl 
Nurses in July, 1954. Previously she had 
had a distinguished career as director of 
nursing in several New Brunswick hos- 
pitals including the Carlcton County Hos- 
pital in St. Stephen and the Victoria Public 
Hospital in Fredericlon. She had also ably 
served as instructor at the Alexandra Hos- 
pital, Montreal, and at the General Hospital 
in Vancouver. Miss Bartsch was president 

Hilda M. Bartsch 

of the N.B.A.R.N. during the bietmium 


* • • 

MAybelle (May) Campbell, who grad- 
uated from \V<»men*s College Hospital. 
Toronto, in 1926. died at Toronto <>n April 

20. 1955 

* # « 

Fannie Sarali Dalzeil, a i.....w .. :,.w 
Brunswick who graduated from Oty Hos- 
pital, Worcester, Mass.. in 1911, died 
recently following a brief illness. Miss 
Dalzell had lived at Castalia, N.B.. since 
her retirement in 1954. 

9 m • 

Melba Rae (Devtne) Elworthy, v^i* • 

graduated from the Oneral Hospital. Yar- 
mouth. N.S.. in 1931, died at Montreal f>n 
April 17, 1955. at the age of 45 Mrs Kl- 
worthy worked with Victorian Order of 
Nurses for a time and, prior to her 
marriage, was a staff nurse at Grace Dart 

Hospita^ Montreal. 

« • ♦ 

Annie Welton Foster, who graduated 
from Victoria (kneral Hospital. Halifax, 
in 1926. died on April 9, I9S5. after an 
illness of twt> weeks. Very shc»rtly after 
she graduated. Miss Foster was appointed 
rintendcnt of Western Kings Mcmonal 
iMtal. Berwick. N S. Slie filled thi» post 
until the time of her death, takmg leave 
of absence for military service during World 
War H. In 1939 she enlisted in the RC 
A.M.C and served overseas with No 15 




and No. 9 CG.H.. later becoming matron 
of No. 19 General. She was active in nursing 
associations and was a member of the 
Halifax Unit of the Nursing Sisters' 

♦ ♦ ♦ 

Emily Jane Grinyer, who graduated 
from Hamilton General Hospital in 1913, 
died on April 1. 1955. Miss Grinyer had 
engaged in Private nursing until her retire- 
ment in 1949. 

« « ♦ 

Ella Lowe, who graduated in Chicago 
many years ago, died at OrilHa, Ont.. on 
April 23, 1955. in her 90th year. Miss Lowe 
was on the staff at Soldiers* Memorial 
Hospital. Orillia, at one time. 
^ m m 

i^ m n MacLean, a graduate of Toronto 
General Hospital, died at Halifax on May 
4, 1955, in her 55th year. Following gradua. 
tion Miss Maclean, who had taught public 
school for many years, secured her certifi- 
cate in teaching from the University of 
Toronto School of Nursing, completing the 
work for her degree in nursing later at 
the McGill School for Graduate Nurses. 
She spent many years at T.G.H. as a head 
nurse, supervisor, then clinical instructor 
before enlisting in the R.C A.M.C. in 1943. 
Fdlowtng her discharge she became super- 
visor of Red Cross outpost hospitals in 
Nova Scotia. More recently she organized 
and directed the School for Nursing Assist- 
ants at Camp Hill (O.VA.) Hospital in 
Hahfax Illness cause<l her retirement last 

• « ♦ 

Sarah C. MaeRae. a graduate of Cal* 
gary General Hospital. die<l recently at 
Calgary. SIh* had held super>Tsory positions 
at the Calgary an<l Regina (ieneral Hos- 
pitals h«*f<»rf tMilisfittt? ult)i \]u- U (^ \ M.C. 

|k.\n MacLeax 

in 1940. She served overseas with No. 8 
Canadian General Hospital. Followdng her 
discharge. Miss MacRae had been in charge 
of the D.V.A. Convalescent Hospital in 

* m * 

Marion, Ogilvte, who graduated from 
the Royal \'ictoria Hospital. Montreal, in 
1926. died at Victoria, B.C., on March 21, 

♦ » * 

Margaret (Henderson) Reid. a grad- 
uate of Memorial Hospital School of 
Nursing, died at Niagara Falls on April 
27, 1955. For several years Mrs. Reid had 
servcti in that city as school nurse. 

# * ♦ 

Florence Mary Thomson, who gradu- 
ated in 1905 from Mount Sinai Hospital. 
New York, died recently at Montreal. For 
more than 45 years she had engaged in 
private nursing in Montreal. 

• « « 

Mattie Thompson, a graduate of Engle- 
liart Hospital. Toronto, died at Bethany, 
Ont., on April 9, 1955. 

Babys First Breath 

The crucial moment of childbirth for 
many mr»t tiers is the instant when the baby 
utters its first cry. But. for the infant itself, 
the crucial moment comes a few seconds 
earlier, wlien it draws its first breath — 
without which the cry could not be uttered. 
What hafteiH when the first breath is drawn 
has recently l»eeii denK>nstrate«l dramatically 
by a Swedish scientist. wIk> made x-ray mo- 
tinn t- »..r.. ..» »u-» ..r.,^-,.. I.,., -.^t^-r birth, 

the film sliowed, the infant's heart is en- 
larged. When the ribcage expands and air is 
drawn into the lungs, the heart shrinks, its 
content of blood drawn into the inflated 
lungs. When the lungs empty — perhaps to 
tlie accompaniment of the cry for which the 
mother is listetiing — the heart increases in 
sine as normal bKiod flow begms. There- 
after. N>th the heart and Kings operate 
rhythmically and life has begun. — ISPS 


fmm who vfiU nol a**/.— SorHoa.E> 

JVLY 1«QB*Vo1 

A Propos de Poliomyelite 

**L*apparition d'epidcmie demeurc un 
mystere. II y a quelque chose dc plus, lors 
de I'eclosion dune epidemie, que la simple 
coexistence, en un lieu donne, du vims 
poliomyelitique et des elements receptifs de 
la population. Nous sommes ainsi reduits 
a formuler des hypotheses. 

"L'etude de certaines epidcmies eclatant 
dans des communautes isolees a souligne 
rimportance de la contagion directe as- 
surant la transmission d'un porteur de 
germes a un sujet sensible, ct I'influence 
des infections anterieurcs, en particulier de 
la coqueluche. Meme dans ces conditions^ 
il reste a expliquer les differences de sus- 
ceptibilite qui se manifestent d'un indi- 
vidu a I'autre, cela dans des conditions oil 
les chances de contamination ont etc cqui- 
v'alentes. On peut mettre en cause des 
facteurs genetiques de susceptibtlitc, des 
facteurs endfKriniens concemant la resis- 
tance a Pinfection, des facteurs physiolo- 
giqucs divers (surmenage, fatigue), les 
traumatismes ou les injections irritantes. 
Mais une place importante df)it ctre attri- 
buee a I'inaptitude a immunisation generale 
presentee par certains sujets. Parmi une 
population, ceux qui devieraient roalades 
sont ceux qui sont moins aptes que les 
autres a s'immuniser contre Finfeclion, i 
former et a conserver des anticorps. 

*'Le nombrc de cas paralytiques. dans 
une epidemic donnce, depend de la propor- 
tion existant entre les iiidividus ayant deja 
un certain niveau d'immunite resultant 
d'atteintes anterieures et ceux qui n'ont 
aucune immunite. Quand la poliomyelite 
s*abat sur une region isolee. ellc de\-ient 
une maladie extrcmemenl contagieuse qui 
gagne rapidement chaque individu '* 

I^ concIiisif»n de cet exiK>sc est inttres- 


p«f ^ > lit' I. i\ iii>«ii I' »ii v\i»iuvt'. ijui ont 

autrefois connu une immunite etendue a 
toute la pr>pulation, analogue a cellc qui 
persiste dans les pays sous-developpcs, 
s'achrminent progressivement vers un etat 
ile scnsibtlttc comparable a celui des popula- 
tions isolees. Ccci resulte de retablisscment 
de rimmtmite spontanee i un age de plus 
en plus avance et du fait qu'une prrip^irtiofi 
croissantc de la population atteint main- 

tenant lage adulte sans avoir eu IVjccasion 
de s'immuniser ou sans avoir pu entretenir 
son immunite par des reinfections latentes 
dcvenues de plus en plus rares. 

**I1 devicnt egalemcnt evident, qu'iiu fur 
et a mesure de lamelioration du niveau 
de vie dans les pays arrieres. I'iiKidence 
de la poliomyelite paralytique augmenlera, 
a motns que Ton ne decouvre un procWe 
d'immunisation active contre rinfection." 

Le Dr. Payne, de la section d' Epidemio- 
logic de rO.M.S., a montre. au cours d'un 
tres interes.'iant rapport, qu'il y a une 
relation entre faugmentaiian du nombre de 
cas de poliomyelite et la diminution de la 
mortaiite infantile, Les deux courbes. Tune 
ascendante et Tautre descendants se rencoo- 
trent en un point qui est sensiblement Ic 
meme dans tous les pays. 

Cette constatation est facile a com prendre. 
L amelioration des conditions sanitaires 
gcncrales et de ITiygiene des populations 
est un des facteurs esscntiels de la luttc 
contre la mortaiite infantile. Le taux plus 
ou moins bas de la nvirtalite cies enfants 
du premier age. peut etre considere comme 
un temoin des progres realises dans ce 

I>ans le pays oti la mortaiite infantile 
est tres elevee, les cc editions d'hygiene sont 
telles que les enfants font pratiquemmt tous 
une poliomyelite-infection dans les premiers 
mois de la vie et drviennent des lors, iin- 
muns contre la maladie. 

Au contraire. dans les pays qui possedent 
un niveau ele\*e au point de vtje sanitaire, 
les enfants ne s'immuniscnt pas *ni s'imma- 
nisent plus tard et courent. <les lors. un 
risque plus grand d'etre atteintt de la polio- 
myelite -maladie. 

Ix probleme consiste done, c^imnie font 
dit les rapporteurs, a remplacer. par line 
m^thode d'immunisation active, rimmtmisa- 
tion spontanee naturelle qui protege les 
populations sous-devrloppto au point de 
vue de l*hygiene. 

— La TiKMsiiMC Coxr^bttstct 

Iktonatioxale k la 


Da. P. Recmt— Z/^n/dfil 

— Oriftrr S'atu/nale de 

Vlinfamce, Bruxelles. 


Stf^ l^eucetuA 

The Johns Hopkins Hospital Sciiool of 
Niursijifc. by Ethel Johns and Blanche 
Pfffferkom. 416 pages. Bums & Mac- 
Eachcm, 12 Grcnvillc St., Toronto 2, Ont 
1<>54. Price $5.00. 

Rnnetved by Sahmea Tretiak, Director 
of Education, General Hospital, Winnipeg, 

Two well-known nursing leaders have 
written the history of an outstanding 
pioneer iKispital school of nursing. 

In Part One, Miss Johns takes us through 
the years 1869-1907. This is an era of 
marked progress in the fields of medicine, 
public health and science. The history of 
the hospital and the school is written into 
the lives of the men and women who were 
instrumental in its inception and develop- 
ment. We sec the influence of Florence 
Nightingale and her associate, Florence S. 
Lees. We see the constancy of purpose to 
provide a high quality of nursing service 
built uiKm education for skilled care of the 
sick. Through use of documentation and 
Miss Johns' inten>retations we are treated 
to enriching glimpses of the greats who 
•*not only made history — they also wrote 
it.'* Iftabel Hampton, L^\*inia Dock, Adelaide 
Nutting. Doctors Osier. Welch, Halstead 
and Kelly live again before us. 

Part Two deals with the period from 
1907 to 1949 Miss Pfefferkom takes us 
through the years of rapid development in 
education, health and social work. World 
War I. the influenza epidemic, the depres- 
sion ami on its heels World War 11, all 
take the centre of the stage in turn. The 
school \s piloted through tliese crises by 
Georgina Ross. Elsie I^wler and .Anna D 
Wdf. We see their hopes and their vision; 
thdr courage amid hardships aiKl disappoint- 
mentf. Through all these years the school 
maintains its purpose of education for 

The book als«> contains studies of special 
aspect » of the scIkxjI These cover tlie li- 
brary, nursing in the aNnmunity, life in the 
school, the work of the Endowment Fund 
Conouttce and the Johns Hopkins Hospital 
Nurses* .\himiiae AfMiciati«in 

Exhaustive research, understanding, in- 
tight and skill ha\'e produced a meaning- 
ful setting f«>r the unfolding of the history 
of the school in the social framework of the 
country. It mirrors the struggles of a hos- 

pital school of nursing. For this reason 
nurse educators and those interested in 
nursing should find the book well worth 

The ChUd, His Parents and the Nurse, 

by Florence G. Blake, R.N.. MA. 440 
pages. J. B. Lippincott Co., 208J Guy 
St., Montreal 25. 1954. Price $5.00. 
Reviexved by Sister Miriam, Clinical 
Instructor in Obstetrics, St. Mary's Hos- 
pital, Montreal. 

A generous grant made available b> the 
Kellogg Foundation for the development of 
an advanced course in "Nursing Care of 
Children." enabled the author to do research 
work in this particular field. In her introduc- 
tion, the author stresses the importance of 
developing in the student the qualities most 
essential to the art of nursing. 

This comprehensive study is written 
primarily for those interested in the newer 
trends of nursing. It presents excerpts from 
many sources, including areas of psychiatry, 
growth and development, and the social 
sciences. The questions found at the end 
of each chapter are an excellent guide for 
clinical instructors and should prove of 
sound educational x-alue to the students by 
promoting their activity and participation. 
Suggesteti readings are also listed at the 
end of each chapter. 

The material is divided into age groups 
for the purpose of clarity and organization. 
F-ach phase of development continues into 
the next i>eriod and becomes fused with 
it. Chapters two and three are of particular 
interest to those concerned with obstetrical 

I feel sure that this book will be most 
beneficial in de\eloping a helpful coopera- 
tion between the child, his parents and the 
nurse, thereby fulfilling the author*s purpose. 

Mlcrot»es and You, by Stanley E. We<i- 
bcrg. F^h.I). 43V pages. The Macmillan 
Co. of Canada Ltd., 70 Bond St., Toronto. 
Ont. 1954. Price $4.50. 
Kei-ietved by VtH^nne Mogen. Assistant 
Director of Sursing and Rducatumal 
Director, General Hospital, Medicine Hat. 

Students in courses in microbiolog>- fre- 
quently enrol as complete novices as to the 
whys and wherefores of the bacterial worki. 


• Vol. 91 

To incon>c»rate into the curriculum the 
rudimcntao' aspects of bacteriology, the 
principles evolved from research and study, 
and the applications pertinent to our work, 
presents a challenge to the instructor who 
is limited by time. That the auth(»r has un- 
derstood this problem is indicated in his 
preface when he states that the book "has 
been written as a text for an intrcKiuctor>'. 
terminal, surxey course in microbiolog>- for 
students with little or no background in 
scieiKe." He has succeeded in providing 
much more than background material. Of 
the 23 chapters, 16 are devoted to general 
considerations of bacteria, incorporating 
practical, everyday applications useful to 
nursing practice. Enough detailed explana- 
tion has been provided to insure basic 
knowledge of the various relationships of 
microbes to man. 

The style adopted by the author emanates 
interest from the beginning. The introduc- 
tion provides pertinent facts relative to the 
influence of scientific progress on the life 
span. Such chapter headings as "Microbes 
Must Eat" an<! "Pollute<l Waters Can Kill 
You" indicate the author's ability to capture 
the eye — a prerequisite to gaining atten- 

"Microbes and You" serves a useful role 
for the instructor in presenting and sup- 
plementing her lectures, and f<»r the student 
who feels the disad\'antage of her position 
as a newcomer to the realm of bacterio- 
logical study. 

Eni^Ush Comprehenaloii Ptecoii, lor 
Nursefi and Ho«pftal TechnlcUuift, 

by Leonard B. Harrop. M.A.. Fellow of 
the lastitule of Linguists 44 pages. 
Published by the Author, McGill Uni- 
versity. Montreal. 

Rcinewed by Mrs. Venwn Bolgtr, 
Science Instructor, Charlottetoum Hos- 
pital, Charlottftaum, P.EJ. 
In his book Professor Harrop has taken 
selections from medical and nursing litera- 
ture to illustrate the study of words in 
context. He has assigned the learner the task 
of supplying the syixmyins and anton>Tns 
of these words. In addition to indivtdttad 
words, attention is given to idiomatic ex- 
pressions which the student is directed to 
use in sentence construction. A number of 
questions on each selection, designed to im- 
prove cc>mprehensic>n skill, are included in 
each assignment. 

The excerpts frf»m the writings <»n medi- 
cine and nursing arc well chosen to give 

authoritative information and to interest the 
sttsdent in doing further reading on the 
same topic. The assignments serve the two- 
fold purpose of building a larger vocabulary 
and of improving comprehension skill. 

Dr. Harroi» wrote this book especially 
for non-English-speaking students, but it 
could be used to advantage by every Cana- 
dian student. Many students oi nursing 
complain of the difficulty of undersiaiKiing 
so many new terms — it is like learning 
a new language. It helps a great deal to 
have these words used in context. I would 
like to see Prt»fess^>r Harrop dt> another 
series with mure sampling of scientific 

The Nursing Couple, b> \terell P- 
Middlemore. M.D. 195 pages British 
Book Scr\'ice (Canada) Ltd, Kingswood 
House. 1068 Broadview Ave., Toronto 6, 
Ont. 2ml VA, 1953. Price $1.50. 
Ret-inved by Miss Christine E Charter, 
Victori*!*^ Orii.r oi Surscs. Vancouver, 


This liitK oooK. \Min Mivii dii iiuriguing 
title, is said to rei>resent the first serious 
attempt made b>- a qu;dified psychoanalyst 
to study the psychic "sucking situation- 
between nfH>ther aiKi infant. 

The main thesis which Dr. Middlemore 
presents is that mother and baby coaW 
secure a happtcr and more profitable adap- 
tation to each other, if. in place of the 
traditional rigid methotls. tlie motlier could 
use. under skilled guidance, a flexible tech- 
nique for breast feeding which would take 
full account of the psychological as well 
as the physical needs of herself and her 
baby. Strong support is given to the thcor>' 
that what happens to the baby at the breast 
can affect il all through life, and that the 
factors oi activity. i>assivity and mental 
stress set up by frustration at the time 
of nursing are of paramoutit importance tn 
the de\ek>pment of character. Dr. UkSdlc- 
mores observations, made in the obstetrical 
wards of a general hospital in England, are 
concerned, therefore, with the pliysical and 
emoticmal difficulties experienced by the 
mother and infant in establishing satis- 
factory breast feeding and are included 
under such chapter topics as: Routine and 
Standard Nursing Technique, Satisfied and 
Unsatisfied Sucklings. The Mother's Emo- 
tional Attitude. Principles <m Whirl 
nique Might be Mdchfied 

First publislied in IWl, it i% uniorlunate 
that the author did mit In the 



>\c»rk l-ierself in the light of current trends 
in this area, but the inferences she draws 
from her observations at that time seem 
objective and sound, yet show a kind ap- 
preciation of diflicuhies encountered. This is 
a book which should help doctors and nurses 
to realize that the mutual adaptation of 
mother and baby may be advanced by sym- 
pathetic nursing and delayed by "misguided 
interference/* It could also be read profit- 
ably by intelligent mothers. 

No Thought for Tomorrow — The Story 
of a Nofthem Nurse, by Cecilia Jowett, 
R N 104 jiages. The Ryerson Press, 299 
Queen St. W., Toronto 2B. Ont. 1954. 
Price $275. 

RnHrtvrd by LUlian Ma<Kencie, Director, 
Public Health Xursing, H^mnipeg Health 

From her cabin hf»me in Northern On- 
tario Miss Jowett ha5 written this moving 
and inspiring account of the strange and 
full years of her life, A victim of circum- 
stances which placed her in an orphanage 
at the age of three and brought her to 
Oina<ia from England at five with an iden- 
tification ticket pinned to her coat. Miss 
Jamrtt*s story reveals how through tireless 
eoci'fy. grim dctermifiation, and the early 
inHoencr of Dr Bernardo's care, she was 
able to cncrcriinc all obstacles and accom- 

plish her childish resolve to make a place 
for herself in the world by helping others. 

Following graduation from the Orillia 
General Hospital, Miss Jowett was able to 
realize her ambition to become a missionar>' 
nurse when she oflFered her seF\4ces to the 
settlers in a tiny rural community. 

The first 11 chapters bring us into in- 
timate contact with these hardy Northern 
Ontario settlers. Miss Jowetl*s descriptions 
of this settlement, its fxrople, and her seven 
years* experience are so vivid and real that 
one can readily imagine oneself sitting in 
her humble cabin or accompanying her in 
winter and summer as she answers the call 
"Missus Nurse, you come, pliz." 

Miss Jowett's second resolution — to 
return to England in search of her family 
— was made possible by a small legacy 
from a grateful patient. In chapters 12 to 
16 her description of the preparation for 
the journey, and the humorous and pathetic 
incidents throughout the trip leave the 
reader full of compassion and admiration. 
Her true puri)Ose in life brought her back 
to Canada. In the final chapter of her book 
we find her established in a cabin on Lake 
Couchiching ministering to the needs of 
her Indian friends of the Rama reserva- 
tion. Throughout the pages of her book. 
Miss Jowett's life stor>' exemplifies the joy 
of achiex-ement, and the dignity of ser\'ice. 

In the Good Old Days 

(The Camadian Xurse — Jilv. 1915) 

•*! ha\*e a feeling that there is a tend- Even today some doctors claim that the 

ency among us, in this day of standards pressure can be judged by the finger as well 

and rflfictency in our training schools, to as by an instrument.*' 
talk of the science of nursing, forgetting 

"Mcilica! in>i*Lcti<ni <'t >ch«»«>l chiirirm 
has produced many striking examples of the 
ratilU of attenr 't 

rcmoiral of div <i- 

Tliere was a rapid improvement of general 
nutrition^ a quickened inteUigetKc arxl a 
readier application to school work with a 
marked improvement o( school progress.** 
• • # 

"If in only recently that the experiments 
for finding the level of bknd pressure have 
h?en titcd in clinical medicitie. The first 
study of blond pressure in man wa» made 
m Vtenrai in 1876 Before that time doc- 
iid nu>fr attemion to pulse and skin. 


Victorion Order of Nurses 

The following are staff changes in the 
\ uMorian Order of Nurses for Canada : 

AppointiiHMita — Calgary : AV//i> Fisher- 
Dax-ics (Royal Free Hosp., Ireland). Ot- 
tawa: Margaret Godin (St. MichaeFs 
Hosp., Toronto). Pictou: Mrs. Anne Smith 
(St. Martha's Hosp.. Antigonish, N.S.). 
Saint John, N B. : Lorratne MacKay (St. J. 
On. Hosp. N.B.) Toronto: Mrs. Shirley 
Qnemey (N'ictoria Ht>sp., London) ; Mrs. 
Ruth Sharpe (Tor. West Hosp.) Win- 
nipeg: Shirley Mansbridge (Grace Hosp.. 
Winnipeg). Woodstock: Mrs. Mur\, 


From Small Beginnings 

A fascinating old book was loaned to us 
recently by the Director-in-Chief of the 
Victorian Order of Nurses for Canada. Miss 
Christine Livingston. It was the verbatim 
report of the Jubilee Congress of District 
Nursing, held at Liverpcx:)!, England, 50 
years after Mr. WilHam Rathbone had 
lautKhed the very first such program in 
that city. 

The Congress was attended by numerous 
titled folk including Lady .\berdeen who 
sparked the development of the Victorian 
Order in 1897. Representatives from many 
countries reported on the growth of bedside 
nursing in the homes, on pensions for nurses, 
and the comparative newcomer in the pub- 
lic health field, school nursing. 

Students in public health nursing courses 
would love to have a chance to pore through 
these pages. Miss Amy Hughes, general 
superintendent of the Queen Victoria Jubilee 
Institute read a paper on the '* History of 
District Nursing in England and Other 
Countries** that is a gem so far as source 
material is concerned. Because Mr. William 
Rathbone, the founder of district nursing, 
found it impossible to secure qualified 
nurses, in 1862 he generously made it pos- 
sible for the Royal Infirmary. Liverpool, 
to start a training school along the lines 
of the one Miss Nightingale had starte<l 
to ''supply nurses not only for the Infirmary 
itself but also for the por^r in their own 
homes and for private patients** Despite 
the fact the district nursing was planned 
originally to provide care for the poor, 
"from the very first, Mr. Rathbone foresaw 
the dangers of indiscriminate sick relief; 
the nurses . . . were urged to avoid tlie e\il 
nf pauperising the patients.** 

An interesting emphasis was reflected in 
the report read on the work of the Henry 
Street Settlement in New York. **Nursing 
the sick in their homes should be done 
seriously and adequately, instruction being 
itKidental to it and not the primary motive." 

Sclux>l nursing evolved fnmi district nurs- 
ing when, in 1892. a Queen's Nurse visitcil 
a school in London at the request of the 
school board. ''The idea originated during 
the enquiry into the feeding of school chil- 
dren in l8*M-92. when it was discovered 
that unnecessary suffering was inflicted 
on the children by the neglect of minor 
ailments such as broken chilblains, etc 
TK*» ....r..^\ cl.ii ..rwi.,.-..-i ....I, beneficial 

results so far as attendance was concemeti 
that by 1904 the London County Council 
had appointed a large staff of school nurses. 
The salaries ranged from 75 to 100 pounds 
a year. 

In the light of present-day developments 
the following excerpt from an address de- 
scriptive of an active school nursing pro- 
gram shows what a poor prophet the 
speaker was : "I am afraid the days of the 
school nurse are numbered (Cries of *no, 
no'), because I am afraid there is an in- 
fluence at work which is against her ... In 
working or manufacturing towns, the life 
of a medical man is very hard and difficult, 
and his earnings are very small. The fee 
he can charge is, in many cases, only a 
shilling. It may be that doctors in such 
a town may resent a nurse giving dressings 
and doing this work for 89.000 children 
in five years, representing 89,000 shillings 
out of medical men*s pockets.** 

A question that is sttll of burning interest 
to mirses received contiderabtc attention 
and discussion — pensions. Space does not 
permit the reproduction of the principal 
address but .some of the comments arc still 
very pertinent, some amusing : 

**A nurse cannot commence to work for 
herself until much later in Hfe than the 
ordinary working woman . . . she is ZJ or 
28 before she is qualified to work on her 
own account — before she is able to earn 
anjTthing be>ond the most trifling sum to- 
gether with her biard, kxiging and profes- 
sional clothing. 

**Her working life is short. The age at 
which a nur?* must be prepared to cease 
work is ncjt absolute but experience . . . 
shows lliat most nurses fail to obtain reg- 
ular employment after the age of 45 and 
that very few can earn a livelihood at 50. 
I am, of course, dealing with the rank and 
file " \tkins' of the profes- 


**There i> amHlirr consideration which has 
a most important bearing on the .subject, 
that is. the ^-itaiity of nurses. It is higher 
than tliat of the average woman. The nurse 
lives kinger than the Government annuitant 
— the longest lived person in the country * 
Thus there is a longer penod to bridur 
over between the inability to obUin work 
a?)d death." 

contributory pension scheme was in 
•I'^fation to which, e%-en in 1909. a great 




many hospitals and many district nursing provision of pensions for those in private 
associations belonged. Then, as now, the nursing presented a problem. 

Liver Microsomes 

Special mechanisms by which the body 
destroys drugs and other '* foreign" com- 
pounds have been discovered, revealing that 
the body has systems of ''counter agents" 
that attack and inactivate drugs. The counter 
agents are contained in !ittle-studie<i liver 
microsomes — tiny particles of the body's 
cells too small to be seen even with a micro- 
scope. This discover>' stems from research 
into the fate of drugs in the body being 
conducted by the U.S. Public Health Serv- 
ice's National Heart Institute. Knowledge 
of these mechanisms will be valuable in the 
designing of better drugs for specific action 
in the body. 

Before the discovery of this function of 
liver microsomes, it was assumed that drugs 
were inactivated by becoming "enmeshed" 
in biochemical mechamsms which did not 
distinguish between drugs or other foreign 
compounds and substances used in the body's 
normal economy. The new finding estab- 
lishes the existence of chemical systems 
which seem to work solely to limit the 
action of intruding foreign substances and 
which may have no function in the handling 
of substances that the b<xly uses for nutri- 
tional purposes. 

The events which led to this disco\*er> 
began at the Heart Institute some time ago 
with the study of a tiien new compound 
called SKF 525- A. This compound, which 
lacks any activity of its own, was known 
to possess a remarkable ability to prolong 
or "potentiate" the effects of other drugs 
in the body. Rats, for example, slept ten 
times as long with a barbiturate when its 
iwe was accompanied by SKF 525 -A than 
without it. This potentiating effect was seen 
not only with barbiturates but also with an 
unrelated variety of compoumis — nar- 
cotics, muscle relaxing drugs, and e\*en 

That SKF 525-A could stew the break- 
down of such unrelated compounds was 
surprising and interesting to Heart Institute 
investigators. It suggested the possible exist- 
ence of a commoQ denominator which ties 
together in some way all of the body's 
diflfercnt pathways of drug breakdown and 
makes them all open to the action of SKF 
S2S-A. This cc im in on denominator was the 

liver microsome which was foimd to con- 
tain nearly all of the enzyme systems re- 
sponsible for drug breakdown. 

Liver microsomes, however, will not work 
to break down drugs without help. Oxygen 
and reduced TPN (triphosphopyridine 
nucleotide), an "enzyme helper" present in 
various kinds of chemical systems in nature, 
are also necessary common denominators. 
With the use of all three, microsomes, 
oxygen, and reduced TPN, many drugs arc 
now being made to undergo in the test 
tube the same kind of metabolic disintegra- 
tion as they would undergo naturally in the 

In the course of evolution, however, it 
is obvious that the microsomal enzyme sys- 
tem did not arise in the body as a way of 
limiting the duration of action of medicinal 
compounds. It is present in many animal 
species that have never been exposed to 

It has been suggested that the microsomal 
enzyme systems developed in the liver of 
an ancestral species as a way of disposing 
of useless or harmful substances taken into 
the body with food. Hundreds of compounds 
of no value to the body are swallowed 
with food and absorbed into the blood. 
Many more are made by the bacteria 
of the digestive tract. A separate mechanism, 
siKh as that of the liver microsomes, which 
functions to rid the body of such useless 
accumulations would be of great survival 
value. — U.S. Department of Health, 


Camels hardly ever sweat at all. even in 
extreme heat. This "stinginess" with body 
moisture enables them to go for months 
without a drink. In an experiment one camel 
subsisted for 17 days on nothing but hay and 
dried dates out in the scorching sun. But 
when a camel does drink, it can tank up in 
a hurry. One moisture-star>'ed animal 
downed 30 gallons within ten minutes. 
« « « 

Unless you make regular deposits in the 
Bank of Goodwill, your demands may come 
back marked "Insufficient Funds." 


> Vd. a. NOi 7 

The greatest enemies of good mental 
health are fear and an inability to deal unth 
problems, which if not faced and dealt with 
eventually give rise to mental and emotional 
disorders. Developing the following patterns 
of everyday behavior will help to sustain 
good and to improve poor mental health : 

1. A sense of humor. 

2. A habit of living in the present. 

3. Freedom from worry, an ability to relax 
and to minimize strains and tensions that 
arc unavoidable. 

4. A sense of perspective, recognition of 
what is important and what is not — be 
disturbed about a situation only when some- 
thing can be done about it and action is 


5. A sense of purpose, of meaning in life, 
a set of goals. 

6. Hobbies and interests outside of work 
— an absorbing interest in something you 
would rather do than eat. 

7. An open-minded approach to difficulties, 
a willingness to experiment 

8. A habit of making prompt decisions 
and accepting the consequences. Delay 
causes strains and tensions since it involves 
living through an experience three times — 

(a) apprehension about making the decision; 

(b) living through the experience; (c) 
looking back with regret. 

9. An ability to face reality. 

Two Rapid-Stop Blockeyes 

One of the shortest — and most daring — 
of medical exeriments recently took place 
on the fiat sands of New Mexico in the 
U.S..A. A rocket-driven sled, mounted on 
rails, roared to a speed of over 630 miles 
per hour within a few seconds after take- 
off — then, in less than 2 secomls, braked 
to a shattering stop. In the sled, tied to a 
seat with nylon straps, was Colonel John 
F. Stapp of the U.S. .\ir Force. The colo- 
nel, an expert on aviation medicine, volun- 
teered for the test designed to duplicate the 

windblast and other physical forces which 
buffet pilots attempting to bail out from 
supersonic jet aircraft. 

Though exposed to a deceleration 35 tiroes 
the force of gravity, and a wind pressure of 
more than two tons. Colonel Stapp suffered 
only minor ill effects from his supersonic 
voyage; two black e>es as a result of pres- 
sure on the eyelids during the incredibly 
rapid stop, and a small skin blister from 
dust particles in the air. 



The following are staff changes in the 
Ontario Public Health Nursing Services: 

Appolntmento — Vema Bates, formerly 
with Fon William and District Health Unit 
to Toronto Dept. of Public Health; 
Kathleen Xehon (Health Visitor and 
Queen's Institute of District Nursing) to 
York Qninty H.U.; Christina Whitford 

(Health Vis. and Queen's I. of D.N.) to 
Toronto D.P.H. 

EedgnmHo— — Muriel (Hansen) Hughes 
from Scarborough Township Board of 
Health; Amy Keown from Brant Co. H.U.; 
Jean (Hawkins) Love from Kingston B. 
of H. ; Lydia (Henry) S charter from 
Elgin-St. Thomas H.U. 

Take time to work — it is the price of success ; 

Take time to think — it is the source of power ; 

Take time to play — it is the secret of perpetual youth ; 

Take time to laugh — it is the music of the soul ; 

Take time to give — it is too short a day to be selfish ; 

Take time to save — it is the foundatioQ d your ftsture ; 

Take time to read — it is the foundation of wisdom ; 

Take time to worship — it is the highway to reverence ; 

Take time to be friendly — it is the road to happiness ; 

Take time to dream — it is hitching jrour wagon to a star ; 

Take time to love and be loved — it is the privilege of the gods. 



The 1955 edition of the well-known 
Knox *'£at-«nd-Reduce" booklet elim- 
inates calorie counting for obete pa- 
tients under your care. This year's edi- 
tion is based on the use of Food Exchange 
Liats* which have proved so accurate in 
the dietary management of diabetics. 

The first 18 pages of the new booklet 
present in simple terms key information 
on the use of Food Exchanges (referred 
to tn the book as Choices). In the center, 
double gatefold pages outline color- 
coded diets of 1200. 1600. and 1800 cal- 
orica based on the Food Exchanges. 

To help patients per s e vere in their 
reducing plans, the last 14 pages of the 
new Knox booklet are devoted to more 

than six dozen. t99ted, low-calorie rec- 
ipes. Use the coupon below to obtain 
copies of the new "Eat-and-Reduce" 


l.pcve iopcd by the U3. Public Heaith Service 
•■•■ted by oommi ttw of Th« Americaa Dia* 
betn Anociatioa. Inc. Mid Ttie American Die- 
tetic Aaaociatioa. 

XaoK Odatuie Limited 
Johaatown, N, Y., Dept. Cl» 7 

FlaaMMfidma copi—of thmttmm 

itfuMtrmted Knot " Emt-mnd-Rrndttcm** 
booklet bm»9d on Food EKchmn^—, 



JULT. liOft*Vot 81. No. 7 


If you would cure anger, do not feed it. 
Say to yourself: **I used to be angry every 
day; then every other day; now only every 
third or fourth day." When you reach thirty 
days offer a sacrifice of thanksgiving to the 

— Epictetus, 60, A.D. 

We should remember when dealing with 
the handicapped child that it is the ability — 
not the disability — that counts. 
* « # * 

He had a ^ood job, but his wife com- 
plained because his average income was 
about midnight. 

^JUml^ %^tC^ 


District 2 


Election of officers of the cliapter recently 
resulted as follows: President, Sr. M. 
Geralda; vice-president, Mrs. L. Forrester; 
secretary-treasurer, Mrs. R. Andress. 
Mmes J. Danforth and Byers are com- 
mittee conveners. Twenty-one members were 
present. Delegates to the convention in 
Calgary were chosen. Films on glaucoma 
and juvenile delinquency were shown. Dr. 
Mclver was guest speaker at a later meet- 
ing and spoke on the fluoridation of drink- 
ing water. Twenty-four members were 
present and plans were made for a Jubilee 

District 3 


E. Shaw, president, conducted a recent 
meeting of the district attended by 40 mem- 
bers. Miss Street was one of the speakers 
during the discussion of the proposed re- 
vision of the A.A R.N. Act. A $100 bursar>' 
will be awarded to a deserving candidate 
for nurses' training in each of the two 
training schools. 


Twenty-three member^ attcrxied a recent 
meeting of the chapter. Mmes G. Barker 
and C Langridge were made delegates to 
the convention in Calgary. Mrs. Brey re- 
ported 49 families in attendance at the 
clinic. Mrs. Worth reported that the film 
series in the children's ward of the hospital 
were successful and it was derided to pro- 
ceed with the furnishings of the ward. The 
funds raised by the cancer workshr>p is used 
for cancer eduaition an<l research. It was 
unanimously decided to support the council 
in its drive for compulsory registration of 

High River 
Mrs. Eaton presided at a meeting of the 

chapter recently and 17 members attended. 
Reports of the Hc>spital £>ay tea committee 
were heard. 

District 4 
Medicine Hat 

Forty-nine members attended the recent 
dinner meeting of the district. Special guests 
were ten members of the graduating claiss 
and the syjeaker for the evening. Rev. H. 
Meadows and Mrs. Mcadtms. Mr. Meadows 
spoke on his work among the Indians in 
Northern Manitoba. Three members and a 
student nurse were chosen to represent the 
district on the Golden Jubilee committee. 
Mrs. C. R. McKay conducted a later meet- 
ing when 26 members were present and 
B. Hk>hovslcy represented the student 
nurses' association. The registry report 
showed Z! calls received with six unfilled. 
Misses Hlohovsky. Ireland, Mmes McKay. 
Dederer. and Wall reported on the coo- 
▼cmion in Calgary. Mist E. Bietsch. pro- 
vincial president, spoke briefly on the rural 
nurse affiliation program. 

Distkkt 7 



Kin on 

. There 

At a recent meeiinK "* «" 
Pcnhale and Johnson led 
the revision of the provincial \,j 
were 24 members present. 


The regular nxxting of the chapter re- 
cently tfKik the form of a bridge party 
and was alteftded by 22 members. Proceeds 
were used for the rcirist ration fee of the 
delegates to the ; ' convention. A 

briff business meet; wed. 


Ofhcers electeil at the annual meeting of 
the chapter were : F*resident, Mr'* H Stan- 
ton; vice-president. Mrs. J Wallace; icc- 
retary-ireasurer. I. Fletcher. Average at- 
tendance during the year was 16. Dekfatct 
were •sent to all the coavcnttons uA at- 



The Floor Supervisor 

CaH lights Bashing, medications to be 
given, rounds to be made— this is no 
time to talk to a detail man! But 
Imowledge of the drugs you handle 
is important. So . . . when you get a 
chance, talk with fhe Lederle Repre- 
sentative. He con give you much 
helpful information on regularly used 
products like: 

A»k yovr p^arTnocl»f to I*! yov know wh«ft 
tt)« l*d«rl« mon h m fh« KcHpital. (Mayb« 
fow'd Ukm Id 9d»«dvl« him to »p*ak of 
yovr iieiit mtpmy/hon' meeting 

ACHROMYCIN- Tetrocycline. fh. 
leading fefraqfdine, today's foremost broad- 
spectrum antibtotk. 

> OL5KSYN* Vitomins, high potency 
parenteral B-complex wrtti C. 

i^'iAMOX* Acetoioleomide, o carbonic 
anhydrase inhibitor, the ovtstanding drug of 
iti kind, useful in edema, gtoucomo, epilepsy. 
VARIDASE* Streptokinose-Streptodor- 
nase, tised for eniymatic debridement and 
control of inflammation. 

soHTH AMKRiCAs (yonamid umtTED 

iVLY. 19QB«Vol. «. No 7 


Readily Digestible 



Crown Brand and Ltly Whhe Corn Syrups are well 
known to the medical profession as a thoroughly tafe 
and satisfactory carbohydrate for use as a milk modi- 
fier in the bottle feedin|£ of infants. 

These pure eom syrups can be readily digested and 
do not irritate the delicate intestinal tract of the 

^ LILV^ 


Manufactured by THE CANADA STARCH COMPANY Limited 


sistance was given at the Blood Donor 
clinic and the can\^ssing for the cancer 

District 8 

Mrs. Steele re]xirted on the convention in 
Calgary at a recent meeting of the chapter. 
Films on care of the three types of polio 
sent by Miss Barker from Calgar>' were 
shoM^-n. A banquet was plannetl for the last 
meeting of the season in June. 



Average attendance at chapter meetings 
during the year was 22. Guest speakers 
were: Mrs. Asche, speaking on tuberculosis; 
L. Langdale, on his work as probation of- 
ficer for the Upper Fraser Valley; Dr. I. 
Fast, on the diagnosis of abdominal condi- 

/h/7 'tjast ask for ' mineral oif* 




tions. Interesting films were shown. Dooi- 
tions were made to: The cancer campaign; 
CN.I.B. ; CA.R,S. and Community Aid 
A $100 bursary was awarded to a local 
girl who is entering training. Members 
made tours of the rehabilitation centre dL 
the Cerebral Palsy Assodation and the 
Crease clinic. Home nursing classes were 
pro\ided for residents of the district. A 
Tupper Wear party, card party and a rum- 
mage sale were fund-raising projects. New 
officers are: President, Mrs. C. Lillics; rice- 
president, Mrs. F. Scott; sccreuo'* Mrs. J. 
Irvine; treasurer, M. Mueller. 


At a recent meeting of the chftpter Dr. 
C Law of the Coquafeetjca suff was guest 
speaker The topic was tuberculosts turgery 
illustrated by colored slides. Ifrs. C Pen- 
nock cutltned the vunkog care. II. Ilc- 
Kinlay thanked the spttkers. The business 
meeting was chaired by Mrs. A, Edmeston. 
Two bursaries of $100 each were presented 
!o pro.Hficctive nursing students. A radio 
•Irama of the life of Florence Nightingale 
wa«i sp^msrjred Flowers were placed on the 
altar in memory of the late R. Chadsey, 
M. Swanw.n. and Mrs M Rowberry at 
the service commemorating Miss Nightin- 
gale's birthday. Members dressed a \ocM^ 
store win«low emphasiiing the rc4e of 
ntirsing in the prevention and treittnent of 
]''iio. V. Day and B. Beck were chapter 
'klegate* tr. t»^ provincial convcntioii in 




Thirty-five members attended a recent 
meeting of the chapter conducted by the 
prrsident. Mrs. Ross. A letter of thanks 
from Nelson Chapter for the annual dinner 
was read. Plans were made for a tea and 
to have Dr. McCreary speak at a sub- 
sequent meeting when the district chapters 
will be invited to attend Proceeds of the 
tea will be donated to the fund for hospital 
curtains. It was decided to approve the 
adoption of proposed amendments in the 
provincia] constitution and by-laws. Miss 
Whittington reported that over 1,600 chil- 
dren had had polio vaccine. A dinner 
meeting, convened by Mmes Meyers and 
Garland, was planned for June. At the 
close of the meeting Miss Whittington 
showed a film, -Search," on cerebral palsy. 


St Paul's Hospital 

Mr. A. L. Mc 1^1 Ian was scheduled to be 
guest speaker at (he May meeting of the 
alumnae association on the topic of the 
growth and development of the Medical 
Senrkes* Association. Mrs. G. Collishaw. 
acting president, was made dfidal delegate 
to tlnr provincial convention in Penticton. 
R. Smith plans to take a nursing d^ree 
at McGill School for Graduate Nurses. 
P. Home b in Lima, Peru. 


District 2 


Mrs. M. Hannah, president, opened the 
district anmol meeting and welcomed the 
nierobers of Brandon Menial Ho«;p!tal who 
farticipated in a s>: ,' nurs- 

ing. P. Beeclier t avail- 

aUc^ in psydnatnc nursmg; i Zylich, 
norsiiit nttrvctor, duKoncd the nurses' 
role; Mrs. J. Hannah, superintendent of 
nttnes. spoke on nursing service. Other 
makers were: Vf-- <M,.fh - - .?M.itional 
tncrapist. cm handi >; Mr. 

L. Henderson, sL.i: :.l-_:. ^_ :tsearch 
inaljrst, on rcMlts <4 tr o n ne m by surgery 
and medicine, indtidint the use ol the drug. 
• Miss Kendall, on the benefits 

r«mi her prjst -graduate course. Dr. 
lyiukll, recently frt»m Vienna, asked all 
nurses to assist in directing [»a!imf!« to 
mental health clinics and later h* 
m rehahihtatton A \'Ote of a, 
tor the f> pretcnution ol tr»c sym- 

Vmxun y< : ^ the secre^^ry. 

\* '» -^ -tii» atlcoded by 18 

^'"'" !. mt rttiffMlion of 

f.r>t ,...,.,..„„, M. :.i McPhmou, was at- 
vqited with regret. The present slate of 
^moers was trotcd to cootiniK for siother 
'«>r. Problcwi to be procntad at the an- 
'^^1 proviadal meccsag in liay i 
He CNA. Bicnmal ta Wii 




Pleasantly-scented Tan-Gel 
soothes like magk . . . imme- 
diately easing pain and sore- 
ness from sunburn. Protects 
your skin from roughening, tool 

Tan-Gel also provides swift 
relief from other summertime 
complaints — poison ivy, cuts, 
scrapes, insect bites, etc 

To make your vocation more 
pl^osant, we will be glad to 
w&nd you a regular-size tube. 
Just send us a post card with 
your name ond address. 

'ULY 1965 •Vol. a. No 7 



Imk CMor*^ • M««llkei 

rmmal4*kfdm - Sor<lior.M« 

Oil Cmmmnmi • Oil Cl«**f 

Ak«li«l S% 


1956 were discussed. It was announced that 
the by-laws had been accepted and are to 
be submitted to the Lieutenant Governor in 
Council. The joint Hospital and Nursing 
conference will be held October 18-20. At 
the annual dinner of the Graduate Nurses* 
Association, the president conveyed the 
greetings of the district to the graduating 
classes of Brandon General and Mental 
Hospitals. The next meeting will be held 
in October. 


General Hospital 

One of the special functions in the celeb- 
ration of the Golden Jubilee of the hospital 
was the dinner and dance, in honor of the 
67th graduating class, at the Fcjrt Garry 
Hotel. Seventy-eight nurses received their 
diplomas and special guests included six 
graduates of 1890-1905, among them Mrs. 
McKee from the West coast and Mrs. 

Pa/F 'tjust ask for '"mineral oiP 




Graham of Winnipeg who is over ninety. 
Nineteen members attended the 1925 clatfl 
reunion and 20 members attended the 25th 
anniversary of the 1930 class. Miss Cam- 
eron, director of nursing, drew attention 
to another milestone, the gradtation of the 
3,000th nurse. Dr. H. Saunderson, president 
of the University of Manitoba, as guest 
speaker, chose the topic, "What of the Next 
Fifty Years?" The alumnae association 
awarded $100 and a gold medal to the grad- 
uate vvith the highest grades in bedside 
nursing while the Vancouver Chapter 
donated $50 for the highest mark in ob- 
stetrical nursing. 

Misericordia Hospital 

Dr. A. Gordon was master of ceremonies 
and Dr. J. Farr a<idrcs$ed the 16 graduates 
at the ♦•eceni graduation exercises. Sr. St. 
Odilori. dirtHTtor of nurses, admini^^tered the 
Florence Nightingale pledge and Rev. H. 
Daly presented the dipU^mas. B .Linklater 
presented awards to the following: M. Os- 
trowski. M Herman, O. Rojtwood. L. 
Cymbalisty. J. Wood A $500 scholarship 
for post-graduate study was presentd to 
1) Balcacn by Mrs. C Cruden. president 
of the altMimae association. L. Le^pcrance 
woo The Ca$iadiam Nurse award. The un- 
dergraduates entertained the graduating 
class prior to the exercises and iht alumnae 
•ssoctatton held a banquet and dance in 
their honor. 






Two-year prograrr for graduafe nurses holding McGill Senior Matricuiation (or 
its equivalent) or three-year program for candidotes holding McGill Junior 
Motricukition. Students may elect to do the major part of their work in one of 
the following areas: 

TMKKinf A Sup*rvition in Hospifotf A SchooU of Nursing 
Administrofien in Hotpitols ft Schools of Nursing 
Swp«rvtftion ft Administrotiea in Public Health Nursing 

Students who elect Teoching and Supervision may specialize in one of the 

MUdkol- Surgical Nursing, Psychiatric Nursing, 
Teoching of Sciences, Motemol ft Child Heolth (Students 
nwy cheese either Pediatric or Obstetric Nursing as a 
majer field of interest). 


Candidates who possess McGill Junior or Senior Matriculation or equivalents 
may be granted a diploma at the completion of one year of study in the 
School. Candidates working for a diploma may elect to study Public Health 
Nursing or Teaching ond Supervision in any one of the above clinical areas. 

for further informofion write for 

Director, McGill School for Graduote Nurses, 
1266 Pino Avo. W., Montreal 25, Que. 


Nurses' Huyyuu* Aid 

Mrs. G. Shaw» president. condtKtcd recent 
meetings of the Aid. Mrs. M. Perry was 
made convener «>f thr sraduation dinner 
and dincc and Mrs L Moore, represent- 
ative to the Monet on Council of Women 
Mrs C johnstin. a new member, was wel- 
comed. XI r». S. Dunham won the mystery 
box. Mrs. Shaw presided at the graduation 
dinner for a cUst of 23 members, including 
three from the school ol radiolofic tech- 
nolo|r>. and wekomed the gvests. Miss K. 
Ricturdton, •oprrinlendent oC nortes. gave 
the mvocation while Miss A. MacMaster. 
FACHA. former ia|irniilcndeBt of mtrtcs. 
addretied the chut ml MMMd fSm toast. 
C Clark l o powlrd. Sttidmt mirse C 
Earlcy. aecompanied by Miss Clark, was 

Kuesi soloist. Other special guests were: 
Dr. and Mrs. C. Ibbotson, Mr. and Mrs. 
L. IxKrkton. and Mrs. H. Radcliffe. Three 
hundred guests attended and a dance and 
singsfmg followed. 




Furnish Nurses 

• at any hour • 


TELEPHONE WAlnut 2-2136 
427 Avenue RoikI. TORONTO S. 

Jean C Brown. Reg N 

i«e • Vol. U. Ho. 7 







Irritotifif diopcr ro«ti i« cows«d by 
wfiicii it predwced by bac«*fio. TH* r««wtr it 
Hmt tfi« wet dioper ii>oti becomes like on CK id- 
soaked pod ogainst boby's tender skin. A few 
drops of Diaporene Rinse (does not contein boric 
acid) odded to the finoi rinse water will stop 
dangerous bacterio from forming ond the baby 
will hove day ond night onttseptic protection. 
Also, Otoporene prevents dioper odor. 

If the boby already has o rash, use Diaparene 
Ointment Eiberally on the affected ports. At 
every dioper change use Oioparene Anfiseprir 
Dusting Powder to ensure baby's coinplete com- 
fort ond protection. 




Plctoria General Hospital 

The president of the alumnae asscxriation, 
Mrs. H. S. T. Williams, presided at the 
annual meeting. Average attendance during 
the year was 46. Miss F. MacDonatd, direc- 
tor of nurses, was made honorar>* president. 
Special speakers at meetings included: M. 
Graliam who spoke on her work with 
WHO; P. MacOonald. social worker, on 
her work at the hospital; Dr. J. Staplcton, 
radiolugist, on Australia, his former home. 
DonatioTis were made to: Red Feather 
campaign, \farch of Dimes, Cancer Society. 
Salvation Army, and the students' Year 
Biok fund. Christmas and Easter boxes 
were sent out. The year's copies of The 
Canadtan Xnrsc were bound for the resi- 
dence librar>'. Senior students held a pantry 
sale to raise funds for their year book. Plans 
f<ir 1955 include : Award to the graduate 
(ihtaining the highest marks in surgery ; a 
$K)0 bursary held in reserve for a post- 
graduate course for graduates; apfKtiniment 
of a representative and twf> student nurses 
to the provincial convention in New Glas- 
gow ; a ctnirse f<jr members in public 
speaking and parliamentary procedure 

New officers are: President. L. Hitz: 
vice-presidents. G. Flick. Mrs. K. Blain ; 
secretary, Mrs. F. Macl^eod ; treasurer, Mrs. 
L. Bell. Others assisting in various caiac- 
ities are: P. Maclsaac, M. Ripley. K. 
Halihurton, C Macl-ean, Mines J. Cameron, 
V. Gormley. G. Freeman, L. MacRae, C 
H(xigcs<jn, H. S T Williams. 


District 2 


At^ the annual meeting of the district, 
H. Naudett liecame chairman replacing Mrs 
M Read wlw has moved from the district. 
M Snider is past chairman while M. 
Ihonipson IxTomes first vice-chairman. S 
IxadUitcr resigneil as secretary and the 
treasurer. M. Haviland. will be secretary- 
treasurer. There were 110 member* regis- 
tered. J. Wilcox, a victim of cerebral palsy 
herself, gave an inspiring talk on the disease 
atwl presented the film. "A Place in tl»c 
Sun." The after-dinner speaker was Dr 
W. I.. C. McGill who gave a resume of 
recent advances in surgery accompanied by 

j4c/s regvf3ris clock wrk fo re/fm 
ordm^ry consf/p3t/o/f 





slides. It was noted that a good goodly 
percentage of those present subscribes to 
The Canadian Nurse. 

District 5 


Women's College Hospital 

Members of the 1955 class attended a re- 
cent meeting of ilie alumnae association. 
Miss R. Ford c)f the public relations de- 
partment of the T. Eaton Co. Ltd., spoke 
on **It*s a Woman's World/' followed by 
slides on the latest fashion trends. Plans 
were made for a tour of the new residence. 
The dinner and dance for the graduating 
class, convene<i b> D, Gordon, was a great 
success. S. Houston was made vice-presi- 
dent. A gr<X]p oi patients has established 
a Marion Milliard Fund. Procee<ls will be 
used medically and Ixrar her name. Presenta- 
tion to Dr. Hilliard will be made on January 
Nite. 1956. .\ddress contributitms to Mrs. 
W. J. Rapsoti, 19 Ix>wer Unds Rd., Willow- 
dale, Ont. 

CivU Hospital 

Mrs J. .\ylefi is the first woman to be 
appointed chairman to the Board of Trus- 
tees of the hospital. Mr D. R. Peart has 
istomed his duties as superintendent. Mrs. 
M. Ked<1ie is a member of the Renfrew- 
Hospital board. M. ( Hollingworth) Holm 
is instructor of nurses at New Water ford 
General Hospital. K. Tingley. J. Douglas. 
and S Black are attending University of 
Torontf^ while Y. I^roque is niajoring in 
public health at Queen's. L. Schieman is 
doin^ physiotherapy w<>rk at a Costa Rican 
liosplal while B. McLean is nursing in 
California and R Belter in Moncton. X.B. 
M. Smith is <ni the staff at Westminster 
Hospiul, l^mdon, and G. Ralph with T.C..A. 
in Montreal. P. Brown is with the CP. 
Mission, Alirajpur« India. 

On behalf of the alumnae association, 
Miss K. Horsey presented a Hammond 
electric organ at tlie opening of the new 
educatinttat tniilding for use in the chapel. 
The governor -general, Rl. Hon. Vincent 
Mavvy wa.* pnncipal speaker. Others in- 
cluded tlu" H<in. Paul Martin, minister of 
health ami welfare. Mayor C. Whit ton and 
Miss K Young, director of nursing and 
nurse education. 

The alumnae association is 25 years old 
and it u noted that of tlie 1.623 graduates 
ol the school of nursmg. SS7 are alumnae 
^ CWkrrs electrr! * '^-^ atinual 
[ are : Hotvjrary pr« Young ; 

^ M. I). Ainger; j^*- ,.. .imt, V. 

Adilr; vtcr-presi<k*nts . J. Mithgan. B. 
CMnpbHI; >rcrctanes. J. FVrriu Mrs. W. 
Davtdsfm; tremsarcr. y Ihoroson. 

Excliisive Designers 
of the Ne^f 





By Ella L, Rothwcilcr. Jean M. While and 
Doris A, Geitgey. Several new chapters 
have l)ceu added to the completely revised 
itlition of this widely used textbook. More 
nursing procedures are presented than for- 
merlv. 81*> pages, 180 illustrations, fifth 
Hition. \9>4 $5 50 


ClaretKe W. Taher. Kditor-in-Chief. .\ 
lKx>k for study, for |»assing examinations 
and for constant use after graduation. 
Sixth Edition, right up to date in hoth 
content ami format. 1312 fiages. 298 illus- 
trations. 1953; thumh-indexetl, $575; 
plain, S5 25 



JULY. 1MB • Vol. SI, Na 7 



UNIFORMS — They are 
made to the highest 
standard. ELLA SKIN- 
give you the "poise 
through conBdence" 
that only comes from 
knowing you are cor- 
rect in every detail. 



( PrtfM hy laWrittry tnt ). 

Writm foe y9»f fit A SKINHU UMfFOtM 
cofolofv« TOO AY. 

The Label of Qualify 


7lt-77S Bathnrsl St., ToroBto, ORt. 







wHh Nq-So CMmmnt, Horn dkolMY or 

MtM'i itutftui i. o«t 

CASH'S; 3 Dor. il.M; f Dot. UM; NO-SO 
NAMES: • Doz. $2.4f; 12 Dox. S3^; 2Sc ptr HiIm 

5>erving in other capacities arc: M Lamb. 
W. Gemfncll. E. roiiras, A. Dickinson, 
Nfmes G. Gibson. T. Moffait. M. Arbucklc. 
V. Hcney. J. Argue. R. Lake 

Lady Stanley Institute 

The annual meeting of the alumnae as- 
sociation was well altendetl. Oflker* elected 
are; Honorary president, Mrs. W. Lyman; 

honorary vice-presidents. M. Stewart, E. 
Yoimg; president, Mrs. G. Skuce; vice- 
presidents. Mmcs C. Port H. EUIard; sec- 
retary, Mrs. M. E. Jones; treasurer. M. 
Scott. Others assisting include: D. Booth. 
C. Pridmore. Mmcs W. Frascr. Jones. G. 
Bennett, J. VVaddcH. E, Johnston is the 
representative to The Canadian Nurse. 

District 11 


Thirty-six members attended the last of 
the spring meetings. Students from the 
graduating classes of General and Marine 
H<)<«pital, CoUing^'ood. and Royal Victoria 
Hospital, Barrie, were present. A member 
of each class participated in the panel dis- 
cussion on the recent provincial convention 
in Toronto. Other meetings of the chapter 
were : The annual meeting and dinner ; one 
in Barrie with the guest speaker, Ina 
Dickie, relating experiences while with 
WHO in Thailand; the third, in Colling- 
wood, with Dr. Storey S|>eaking on new 
drugs in medicine. Interest in the two-year 
old chapter was noted. The attendance 
average is 40. The annual dinner on Sep- 
tember 19 will open the fall program. 



Roy*al Victoria Hospital 

Officers elected at the annual meeting of 
the alumtiae a^-^— •• - are: Prcsider* ^t 
Purcell; vice M. (lfacN> 

Butler; secret^;.. ..^- urer, L .Fcthcr.: :. 
haugh ; recording secereUry. L. (Ro»c\*ear) 

Guest speaker at the annual alumnae 
dinner in horior of the graduating class, 
was Miss C V. Barrett, supervisor <A 
Montreal Maternity Hospital. R.V H.. who 
re\-iewed the development of that hospitml, 
184J-1955 G. Yeats thanked the speaker. 
.\t the graduating exercises. 103 members 
• )f the class receive*! their diplomas from 
Miss Barrett and Dr. E. Smith presented 
awards to the following: I. Russdl. P. 
Walker. B. Eraser. C. Walkem, A. Stewart, 
S. Holmes, D Clark, F Dawsim. S. Mes- 
senger. W. Cairns. Mrs. S Dawes presented 
the Women's Auxiliary bursary to G. Pur- 
cell N Patten wc»n The Canadian Nurse 
award. Dr. W. G. Penfield. director of the 
Montreal Neurological Institute, was guest 
s;x-aker. A parent and dattghter tea coo- 
chidcd the graduation activities. 

A reunion of Class 'M) during graduation 

week was attended by 3^ members. F. Gass. 

y -^ k'ar. E. < Hamilton) Dawson. E. 

attended a recent meeting of 

n.«.Mrt\ i^hapter. 

B (InwcKjd) Klatx. Montefiore Hospital. 
Bronx. N.Y.. is going t*- i^*'—'^*-* " !.'»••>«» 
is fm the staflF of the N 

pital. Mayo. \Y I' 

R.V.H recently 



Positions Vacant 

Advertisimg Rates — $5.00 for 3 lines or less; $1.00 for each additional line. 
U.S.A. & Foreign — $7 JO for 3 lines or less: $1.50 for each additional line. 

Closing date for copy: 20th of the month preceding the month of publication. All letters 
should be addressed to: The Canadian Nurse, 1522 Sherbrooke St. W., Montreal 25. Que. 

Dtr«ctor of Nursing for General Hospital of Fort .Arthur. .Applications are being 
received for this position. Hospital capacity — 275 beds. 26 bassinettes. Duties include 
overall supervision of nursing & nursing education. School of Xursing — 53 students. 
Address applications to Administrator, General Hospital of Port Arthur, Port Arthur, 
Ont.» stating qualifications, experience & salary requirements. 

Superintendent of Nurses for 22-bed Hospital. Good salary depending upon experi- 
ence; increments every 6 mo. for Zyj yrs. Living accommodation in separate nurses' 
residence equipped with automatic heating & hot water supply. I mo. vacation after 
1 yr. employment ; statutory holidays & cumulative sick leave. Hospital well equipped 
& constitutes a staff of 4 registered nurses, 4 aides, combined x-ray & laboratory 
technician, cook, assistant cook, housekeeper & caretaker. No business matters to 
handle such as: bookkeeping, purchasing, admissions, etc. Apply in writing or phone 
Scc.-Nfanager or Supt, of Nurses, Union Hospital, Hafford, Sask. 

Matron for 25-bcd hospital, duties to commence at once. Apply, stating experience & 
»alar>' expected, Sec.-Treas., Municipal Hospital, Three Hills, Alta. 

Assistant Siipormtoo<lent for active 60-bed General Hospital in town with popubtion 
of approx 4,000. 25 miles from London. Good working conditions & personnel policies; 
all graduate staff. Apply stating qualifications Supt., General Hospital, Strathroy, Ont. 

Supervisor of Nurstag for 28-bed general hospital in Huntingdon County, in a small 
industrial town 45 miles from Montreal, offering many pleasant social and recreational 
activities. Pleasant working conditions; living quarters in hospital; annual holiday 
of 1 mo.; statutory holidays; two wks. sick leave; Blue Cross paid. No previous Super- 
visor has ever left us due to dissatisfaction with working conditions or salary. Losses 
mainly have been due to marriage. Good starting salary. Apply: F. G. McCrimmon, 
M D., Medical Supcnntcndenl, Box 488, Huntingdon, P.Q 

r ol Narsing for 26-bcd General Hospital ; new 50-bed hospital Orpening in Sept. 
Central B C. community of 10,000. Good organizer, experience in O.R. & obstetrics. 
Private suite m modern residence. State qualifications, salary, age & references. Apply 
Administrator. General Hospital. Quesnel, B.C. 

Head Instructor for Traiaing Scliool to teach Scteaces. 86-bed hospital; 50 students. 
Complete maintenance provided in comfortable suite. Apply, stating qualifications 8t 
salary expected, A. J. Schmiedl. Sec-Manager. General Hospital, Dauphin, Man 

Instructor in Sciences, including curriculum planning. Clinical Instructor in Medicine 
and Clinical Instructor in Surgery required for School of Nursing by August 1, 1955. 
in 177-bed hospital, affiliation arranged in T.B. nursing. Psychiatric Nursing and Pedia- 
tric Orthopedic affiliation. Maximum of 60 students One class a year. Excellent per- 
.sonnel policies. For further particulars apply to Miss E. A. Bietsch, Director of Nursing, 
Medicine Hat General Hospital, Medicine Hat, Alberta 



44.hour week, annual increments, cumulative sick leave, statutory holidays. 
Vocation: 4 weeks for Instructor and Head Nurse; 3 weeks for General Duty. 


40 hour week, 2 weeks vocotion. orher benefit* comparable to Registered Nurses. 


ftart#«« Ufmi Unit • Moynl Homilton Mo»pit«l • Nwtt-Fronc*» H*nd«rson Hotpitol 

Communicate directly with the Superintendent of Nurses of the tiospifal 

in which interested. 

iX, • Vol. SI. No. 7 5BI 



Affiliation — Pediatrics, Psychiatry and Tuberculosis 

200-bed hospital in pleasant city, 33,000; 2 colleges 

Good salary and personnel policies 

Allowance for degree with experience 

For further details apply to. 




Instructor to teach anatomy and physiology, microbiology first term, followed by sur- 
real nursing lectures and clinical supervision on surgical wards. Starting salary: 
$255; $10 for 2 yrs. experience; $10 yearly increments; US days sick leave, cumula- 
tive; 10 statutory holidays; 40-hr. wk ; 1 class per yr. in September. Apply lo: Director 
of Nurses. Royal Inland Hospital. Kamloops, B.C. 

Instructor for Nursing ArU & Surgical Nursing, followed by Clinical Teaching. Good 
salary & personnel policies. Apply Director of Nurses, St. Joseph's Hospital, Chatham, 

Nursing ArU Instructor for School of NursinK with capacity 195 students attached 
to expanding hospital of 571 beds. B.S. Degree in Nursing Education preferred or at 
least 3 yrs. experience & workinj^j toward degrtre I.ocated in "all .American City" of 
120,000. in North Eastern Ohio with educational, industrial, recreational & agricultural 
primary interests. Salary commensurate with qualifications. Write Director of Nursing. 
.\uliman Hospital. Canton. Ohio. 

Science Instructor for School of Nursing of 200 Students in 755-bed Hospital: Duties 
to commence Sept. I. 1955. Apply Director of Nursing. Royal Alexandra Hospital, 
Edmonton. Alberta. 

Instnactor in Nursing Arts, Instructor ta Sci«oc«, Cliaieal lastroctor ni Opomtmf 
Room Technique, Clinical Instructor in Pedintrics. Modern 450- bed Hospital. Maxi- 
mum of 90 Students — 1 class a yr. Excellent personnel {>oIicies. .-Vpply Director of 
Nursing Education. Kitchener- Waterloo Hospital. Kitchener, Ont. 

instructor for Science A Nursing Arts teachiii}^ 90 students. One Class per yr. New 

Hospital. Ciitoil Personnel Policies, .^ahiry depenflent on qualifications Sic ex|>erience 
Api»ly: Director of .VursinKJ. Moncion Ho'ipital. Moncton, N.B. 

Assistant Science Instructor 4c Nursing Arts Instructor. (1) Class yearly (35) in Class. 
Attraction for week-ends is nearby Rocky Mountains. VVaterton & Glacier National 
Parks. Apply St. Michael's School of Nursing, Lethbridge. .Mta. 

Obstetrical Administrative Supenrisor for 570-bed General Hospital. 76-bed dept.; 

supervision birth rooms, post partum & nursery. Salary: $5,936-$4.92Q. Degree pre- 
ferred; collegiate schor^l of nursing; N.L.N. lem|)orary accreditation. 40-hr wk 9 
holidays; 15 days cumulative sick leave; 12 working day vacation. .Annual increments, 
.Social .Security & retirement. Living accomnKnlations available. Apply Miss Lource 
f*ottinger. Xfedical College of Virginia. Richmond. Virginia. 

Obstetrical Clinical instructor for .School of Nursing with capacity 195 students at- 
tached to expanding hospital of 571 beds. B.S. Degree in Nursing Education preferred 
or at least .? yrs experience & working towards degree. Located in "all American City** 
of 12(MX)n. in North Eastern Ohio with educational, industrial, recreational & agricul- 
tural primary interests. Salary commensurate with qualifications. Write Director of 
Nnrving. AiiltTnan Hospital. Canton. Ohio. 

Operating Room Supervisor. Salary commences $300 per mo.; Cradttate N«r«es f^r 
UX)-bed West Coast General Hospital. Salary: $250 per mo less $40 for board. rcM 
dence, laundry. J annual increments; $10 per mo. night duty bonus. 1 mo. vacation 
with full salary after 1 yr ser\4ce. l!i days sick leave per m«> cumulative to 36 days 
Trans|)ortation alk>wance up to $60 refunded after 1st vr Apply Director of IMursing. 
General Hospital, Prince Rupert. B.C. 



invites applications lor Stirr and Aomiiiistrativc positions in Hospital, Pubuc Health 
NuRsiirG Services, and Blood Transfusiom Service for various ports of Canada. 

• The majority of opportunihes are in Outpost Services in British Columbia, 
Saskatchewan. Manitoba. Ontario. Quebec, New Brunswick, and Nova Scotia. 

• Commensurate salaries for experience and quaB&cations. Transportation arrange- 
ments under certain circumstances. Bursaries are available for post-graduate 

For /urfher particulaxt apply: 

Natiohal Director. Nursing Services, Camadum Red Cross Sociztt. 
95 Welleslet St.. Torowto 5, Ontario 

Operatinf Room Supervisor qualified by experience or Post-Graduate training to com- 
mence duty July or August in preparation for taking charge of Operating Room late 
in the Fall. For full particulars please apply Director of Nurses, Union Hospital, 
Swift Current, Saskatchewan. 

Operating Room & Central Supply Supervisor on or before July 1 to take charge & 
be rcs|K>nsible lor administration oi both. 60-bcd General Hospital in South Western 
Ontario approximately 23 miles from London with good bus or train ser\'ice. Apply: 
Supt.« General Hospital, Strathroy, Ont. 

Oporatiaf Room Sttponrisor. experienced, preferably with p.g. course; also Clinical 
Instmctor for Sur|,ic«l Norttsf. Salary dependent on qualifications and experience. New 
wing near completion. For further particulars apply: Director of Nursing, Union Hos- 
pital, Moose Jaw, Sask. 

Oporatiaff Room Nurses, immediate appointments, for 511 -bed newly enlarged and 
finely equipped hospital; 10 operating rooms now completed. Northeastern Ohio stable 
"All-American City" of 120,000. In centre of area of recreational, industrial and educa- 
tional friendly activities; living cost reasonable. Within pleasant driving-distance 
advantages of metropolitan Cleveland and Columbus, Ohio, and Pittsburg, Pa. Friendly 
and considerate working associates and conditions. Progressively advanced personnel 
policies Starting salary : $340 per mo. with 4 merit increases. Paid vacation, sick leave, 
recognized holidays, premium pay. sickness insurance and hospitalization program, 
retirement. Contact Director of Personnel. Aultman Hospital, Canton. Ohio, by letter 
or collect telephone 4-5673. 

Oporatiiif Roes NvrsM and Gonoral Duty Nurses for new 150-bed hospital. Starting 
salary for Registered General Duty Nurses $230 with annual increases to $40. VA days 
per mo. cumulative sick leave; 40 hr. wk; 28 days vacation; 10 statutory holidays. 
Apply: Supt. of Nurses, Trail-Tadanac Hospital, Trail, B.C. 

Oporating Room A Goneral Suff Nursos for 110-bed Hospital in Fraser Valley. Basic 
Salary: $230. per mo. 40-hr. wk K.N.A.B.C. agreement in efTect. Address applications 
or enquiries to General Hospital. Chilliwack. B.C. 

Niflit Suporrisor. Hoad Nursos it Conaral Duty Nursos for 147-bed Medical & Surgical 
Sanatorium Salary dependent ui»on experience i*v qualifications. Residence accommoda- 
tion if desired; transportation arrangements for those living out. 1 mo. vacation 
annaally, sick benefits, etc. Time allowed for university study. For full particulars 
apply Ihrector of Nursing. Grace Dart Hospital, 6085 Shcrbrookc St. K., Montreal 5. 

Nivkt Sup«rritor ft Gottoral Duty Nursos f<»r new 100-bcd General Hospital. Salary de- 
p, fions & expenence 3-wks. annual vacation; sick benefits, etc. Apply 

A< rin Area Hospital, Orangeville, Ont. 

w%mmm nmnm with Univernitv Certificate & previous experience preferred for 44-bed 
Medical I nit CKmical Instructor in Obstetrical Nursing (1). duties to include assisting 
the hea.l imrKr in Jf. I>ed unit Vl'ply I Mrecior oi ^u^sm^;, Central Hospital, Oshawa. 

llCi5 • V(.! 




General Duty and Operating Room 

Opportunities available at the new 


For full parficvhrs wrif# to. 

Nurses for Obstetrical. Surgical A Operating Room Services in new 200-bcd General 
Hospital Starting Salary: $260 per ino., 40-lir. wk., good personnel poHcics. Limited 
number of accommodations for living in. Apply Director of Nursing Ser\'ice. St. Charles 
Hospital. Toledo 5. Ohio. ^ 

Operating Room Nurses & General Daly Nurses immediately. Apply Dirdector 
of Nursing Service, St. Joseph's Hospital, Bellingham, Washington. 

Obstetrical Nursing Staff needed. (1) Assistant Supervisor of Obstetrical Ward. 
(1) Delivery Room Nurse. Good personnel policies; 44-hr. wk. Post-Kraduatc prepara- 
tion with experience preferred. Apply Director of Nurses, Public General Hospital. 
Chatham, Ont. 

Operating Room Nurse (1> & Floor Duty Nurses for 50- bed General Hospital. Apply 
Supt., l^camington District Memorial Hospital. Leamington, Ontario. 

Graduate Nurses, Evening Supervisor. Nigkt Suponriaor for modern 44-bed Hospital 
m southern Ontario 44-hr wk. ; roiatin^ shifts; 8 statutory holidays; 3-wks annual 
holiday. New residence under construction. Apply Supt., Haldimand War Memorial 
Hospital. Dunnville, Ontario. 

District Supervisor for City of Ottawa Health Depl.. preferably with certificate in 
administration & supervision in Public Health Nursing. Generalized program under 
director of Public Health Nursing CKX)d Personnel Policies. Blue Cross & pension 
plan available. For further details apply Employment & LatK>ur OfBce, Treasury Dcpt^ 
Transportation Bldg., 48 Ridcau St . Ottawa 2, Ontario, 

Public Healtb Nurse Grade 1. British Columbia Civil Serxice. Dept. of Health & V^ < 

fare Starling Salary $253. $26(>. $266 per mo. depending on experience, rising to S-"^" 
per mo. Promotional opportunities available. Qualifications : Candidate must lie eligible 
for registration in British Columbia & have completed a University degree or Cer- 
tificate course in F^ubHc Health Nursing. (Successful candidates may be required to 
serve in any part of the Province.) Cars are provided. 5-day wk. in most districts. 
Uniform allowance. Candidates must be British subjects; preference is given to ex- 
service women. Application forms obtainable from all Crovernment .Agencies; the 
Civil Service Commission. 544 Michigan St.. Victoria, or 411 Dunsmuir St., V'ancouver 
3, to l>c completed & returned to the Chairman. Civil Service Commission. N'ictoria. 
f'^urther inff)rmation may be obtained from the Director, Public Health Nursing. 
Dept. of Health & Welfare, Parliament BIdgs., Victoria, B.C. 

Public Health Nurses (2) for August 1, for generalized program in rural area. Salary 
commensurate with experience. Liberal car allowance. Preference given to one with 
secon<lary school experience. Apply Muskoka District Health Unit, Bracebridge. Ont 

Public Healtk Nurses (qualified) for generalized public health nursing city service & 
(1) for secondary school program Basic salary $2,900 for C P.H N & $3,000. for B Sc. 
N . adjusted according to experience on starting. Annual increment $150 Shared pen- 
sion, medical care & hospitalization plans. Sick leave accumulative. 1 mo. vacation 
Transportation provided or car allowance. Apply: Medical Officer of Health. Peter- 
t>orough. Ontario. 

WvMc HoaltK NursM for Dept. of Health, Gty of Kingston. Salary range in effect 
5-day wk. Pension & hospitalization plans available. Apply Medical Officer of Health. 
City Hall. Kingston. Ont 



$2,430 per annum $3,120 

According to QualificaHons 

for the 

Department of Veterans' Affairs Hospitals 



Apfiltcetion forms, ovoilabl* of your neorest Civi) Service Commisston OfRce, National 

Employment Service & Pott Office, should be forwarded to the Civil Service Commission, 

25 St. Clair Ave., E., Toronto 7, Ontario. 

Public H«altb Nurses (8) in North York Township (adjacent to Toronto.) Generalized 
program; J5 hr. wk. ; 4 wks. vacation with salary; cumulative sick leave. Free hospital- 
ization insurance; pension plan; group life insurance. Small suburban districts avail- 
able. Salary schedule in effect with 4 annual increments & car allowance of $60 per mo. 
Address inquiries to Dr. Carl E. Hill, M.O.H., 5248 Yonge St., WiUowdale, Ont. Per- 
sonal interviews should be arranged. Staff appointments become effective Aug. 1 or 
Sept. 1. 

Public Health Nors*. Township of Michipicoten, 160 miles north of Sault Ste. Marie. 
$J,00(). per yr. with 1 mo. vacation annually. 5-day wk. Annual salary increase. Blue 
Cross \fedtcal Coverage. Sick leave. Transportation provided. Program of general 
public health nursing in community of 3,000. people. Apply Dr. F. G. Pearson, M.O.H., 
Township of Michipicoten. Jamestown, Ont. 

Public Health Norsas qualified for generalized program. Salar\' : $2,700-3,200 depending 
on experience. Annual increment $100. S-day wk. ; pension plan. Blue Cross & P.S.I, 
available. Car provided or car allowance. Apply Dr. Charlotte M. Horner, Director, 
Northumberland-Durham Heahh Unit, Cobourg, Ont. 

Qoalifiad Public Health Nurses for Generalized Public Health Nursing Service for 
City of Toronto. Dept. of Public Health. Salary Range: $3,186-3,618. Starting Salary 
based on experience. Annual Increments; 5-day wk. V^acation. Sick Pay & Pension 
Plan Benefits. Apply Personnel Dept. Room 320. City Hall. Toronto, Ontario. 

PuUic Health Nurses, bilingual, required by Prescott & Russell Health Unit. Minimum 
Salary : $2,600. with allowance for previous experience & annual increments. Car 
provided or allowance for own car. 5-day wk.; Blue Cross & sick leave. Apply to 
Dr. R. G. Grcnon. Director, Prescott & Russell Health Unit. Hawkesbury, Ont. 

Public Health Nurse for York Township. Minimum salai^: $2,800. with annual in- 
crement. Accumulative sick leave, 5-day wk., pension plan. Generalized program. Apply 
Dr. W. E. Henry. Medical Officer of Health, 2700 Eglinton Ave.. W., Toronto 9, Ont. 

PubUc Health Nurses required for Generalized Program in Seaway Development 
Area Minimum Salary: $2,700. with allowance for experience. Group Insurance & 
Blue Cross available. Apply R. S. Peat, M.D., Medical Officer of Health, S.D. & G. Health 
Unit, 104 2nd St.. W., Cornwall, Ont. 


A qiiaUi«d staff for the following positions: 




Gross solory commensurate with experience, 28 days vacation after one 
year, 8 statutory holidays, sick leave accumulative to 60 days; Residence 
accommodation available at reosonoble rotes. Hospital has recently completed 
a well equipped and staffed wing with extensive renovation program pro- 
gressing in the old section. 


JULY 1%5 • Vol. U. No. 7 

Sthool of Nursing, Metropolitan Generol Hospital 


The fotlowing positions combining both classroom and clinicot instruction will be open August, 




This is a new school of nursing v/ith o curriculum pottern of two years of ngrsing education 
foMowed by one year of guided nursing service. It offers an excellent opportunity for instructors 
to participate in the development of a sound educational program since the hospttol does not 
depend on students for nursing service during their two educational years. 

for furfhmr informotlon appi/ to: 


Public Health Nurs«s for generalized program (bedside nursing included). Minimum 
salary: $2,700 with allowance for previous experience. Annual increments. Cumulative 
sick leave plan. Blue Cross available. Interest free loans for purchasing cars if neces- 
sary. Transportation allowance. 1 mo. holiday at the end of I yr. Apply Dr. J. I. 
Jeffs. M.D., D.P.H.. Lennox & Addington County Health Unit. Memorial Bldg., 
Napanee. Ontario. 

Public Healtb Nurse for well established i?eneralized program in Grey County, popula- 
tion of towTi, 4,000. Minimum salary: $2,700; allowance made for experience; 4 wks. 
vacation. Apply to D. D. Brigham, Secretary, Board of Health. Hanover, Ont. 

Public Health Nurses for a generalized program in a rural-suburban Health Unit near 
Toronto. Minimum salary- $3,000. Pension plan. For full details apply Supervisor. Peel 
County Health Unit, Court House. Brampton. Ont. 

Psychiatric Nurse to assume position as Head Nurse & Clinical Supervisor of new 

38-bed l*sychiatric Unit in a 500-bed General Hospital An excellent opportunity for 
a Psychiatric Nurse who wishes to assume leadership in developing the i>olicies, pro- 
cedures & teaching program of this new Psychiatric I'nit. Patients treated only by 
psychiatrists. The most mcxlern facilities & treatment methods. Cooperative ad- 
ministration. Bachelor's Degree required plus Psychiatric experience. Salary com- 
mensurate with experience & abilities. Write Director of Nursing, Aultman Hospital. 
Canton, Ohio. 

General Duty Nurses (2) for new 22-bcd Hospital. Salary: $175. per mo. basic with 
$5.00 per mo. for each 6 mo. of experience to a maximum of $200. with full maintenance. 
Apply Miss Helen l>eagle. !^fatron. Municipal Hospital No. 22, Consort. AJla. 

General Duty Nurses (3) at once for 25-bed hospital; 2 hrs. from Calgary. 8-hr. shifts; 
6 day wk . 1 mo. holiday with pay after 1 yr. ser\ice. $5.00 increments at 6 mo. & 1 yr. 
Fully raodem. Alberta's Wheat Centre. Apply: Matron. Municipal Hospital, Three Hills. 

Refistered Nurses O) for 70-bcd Municipal Hospital. New wing, modem. Three 
separate services — Medical, Surgical & Maternity. Salary: $180 i>er mo. plus full 
maintenance with $5.00 increase every 6 mo. service for four years. 44-hr. wk.; J-8 hr. 
rotating shifts. 3 wks. holiday with pay after 1 yr. service. Statutory holidays. Apply 
Matron. Municipal Hospital. Box C 550, Taber, Aha. 

Gmnmrmk Duty Graduate Nurses for 70-bed acute General Hospital situated 200 miles 
northwest of Vancouver on the B.C. coast. Salary $222 per mo. plus four semi-annual 
increments, less $25 per mo full maintenance; 4 wks. holidays plus 10 statutory holidays 
after 1 yr. TransjKjrtation advanced if desired. Apply: Matron, St. George's Hospital, 
Alert Bay, British Columbia. 

GMeral Duty Nurses for hospital 300 miles north of Vancouver, on the B C. coast. 
Salary $215 per mo. less $40 maintenance; 2 annual mcrements of $5.00 per mo. Sick 
time lyi days per mo. cumulative; 1 mo annual hohday. plus 10 days in lieu of sta- 
tutory holidays. Transportation to Bella Bella refunded after 1 yr Apply Matron. 
The R. W Large Memorial Hospital of the United Church of Canada. Campbell Island 
P.O.. Bella Bella. British Columbia. 

^r a^'W ^^^ ?*7 3a-bed hospital. R.N ABC polidef in effect. Apply Matroa 
Creston Valley Hospital, Creston. B C. 



Requfred on or before July 1 5 for New 1 25-bed Hospital in Suburban Toronto. 

Solary open depending on training and experience. 

Enquiries treated in confidence. 

Apply Administrator, 

R«ri»tercd Nurses for General Duty Staff. Salary commences at £40-10-0 per mo. with 
full maintenance. Trans|>oriation allowance. For full particulars apply Nlatron, King 
Edward V'li Memorial Hospital, Bermuda. 

Graduate Nisraes (Z) for 22-bed hospital Salary: $230 per mo., if B.C. registered; less 
$40 board, room, & laundry. 2S days vacation after 1 yr. on full pay. lJ/» days sick leave 
per mo. cumulative. Apply, giving references, Matron, Bums Lake Hospital, Bums Lake. 
British Columbia. 

Graduate Nurses for General Duty (3). One to commence duties as soon as possible & 
Two to commence duties about October 1. 1955. Salary: $220 per mo. less $35. for full 
maintenance. 40-hr. wk.; 2i< days vacation after I yr. scr\ice & 10 statutory holidays per 
yr. Fare refunded after 1 yr. service. Only graduate nurses accepted. Apply The 
Matron, (Veneral Hospital. Golden, B.C. 

Re gittered Nurses (2 or 3) for General Duty. l8-bed hospital in beautiful Windermere 
Valley. B.C. Separate nurses' residence, fully modern. Salary; $220 per mo. less $50 
full maintenance. 28 days vacation after 1 yr. service: 2 wks. vacation at end of 6 
mot. if desired. Satutory holidays & 18 days sick leave per yr. cumulative. 8-hr. 
alternating shifts; 40-hr. wk. Good swimming, fishing, hiking; near Uadiiim Hot 
Sprinj{>; new modern theatre. Apply, stating age & when available, Mrs. 1). Cookson. 
Matrt.n, Lady Klizabeth Bruce Memo rial Hospital. Invermerc. B C. 

General Duty Nurses. Salary: $2J0-$270. $10U) increment for experience. 40-hr. wk. 
ly^ davs Mck leaxe per mo. cumulative; 10 statutory' holidays. (1) mo. vacation. Must be 
eligible for B.C. registration. Apply Director of Nurses, Royal Inland Hospital. Kam- 
loops. B.C. 

Inquiries invited from Gruaoate Nurses for General Staff Duty. 40-hr. wk Salary: 
$2J5.50 i»er mo. as minimum and $273.75 as maximum, plus shift difTereniial for evening 
and night duty. Tcni|»oraiy residence accommodation is available. Applications should 
be accompanied by letter' of acceptance of registration in B.C. from Registrar of 
Nurses. 2524 Cyi»ress St.. V'ancouver, B.C. Please apply to Personnel Department, Van- 
couver (General Hospital. Vancou ver. B.C. ^ 

RofftstorW Nurses. 27-bed Hospital, e.xpanding. Good personnel policies & salaries; 
nice community. Nurses who have not written Canadian Test Pool must write Wyom- 
ing State Board test Apply Hot Springs County Memorial Hospital. Box 710. 

T hernin|N»lis. \V'\C!nin;: ^ ^ 


mvtf«s appiicafion% from 

1. General Duty Nurses 

2. Supervitofs — Obstetrical (1) 

Pediatric (1) 

Accommodation in new modem residence ovoloble. Liberal Personnel Policies. 
Fifty Dollars refunded on tronsportation after one year's service. 

Apply fo 

JULY. 1«85« Vol. 81. No. 7 *^ 



400 BEDS 

Good salary and personnel policies. Apply: 
Director of Nurses, General Hospital, Saint John, N.B. 

Grmduate Nur««s (2) for small Community Hospital in "Silvery Slocan" district of 
British Columbia. Salary: $230 per mo.; annual increments of $5.00 per mo. Board in 
hospital, $40. 40-hr. wk. ; graduate complement 5. 28 days holidays after 1 yr. service. 
Customary sick leave. Ij/s days per mo. Duties to commence in July. Apply giving 
full details. Sec. Slocan Community Hospital. New Denver. B.C. 

Gmierml Duty Norses for 430-bed hospital; 40-hr. wk. Statutory holidays. Salary: $235- 
268. Credit for past experience. Annual increments; cumulative sick leave; 28 days 
annual vacation ; B.C. registration required. Apply Director of Nursing, Royal Colum- 
bian Hospital, New Westminster. B.C. 

General Duty Nurses for 40-bed hospital. Salary : $250 per mo. less $45 full maintenance. 
42-hr. wk. 28 days annual holiday plus 10 statutory hoHdays. Rotating shifts. Cumula- 
tive sick leave. Self-contained residence. Apply : Director of Nursing. General Hospital, 
Princeton. B.C. 

GrMlttete Norses (3) for 24'bed hospital. Salary: $230 per mo. if B.C. registered; less 
$40 board, lodging, laundry. 1 mo. vacation after 1 yr. on full pay. \y» days sick leave 
per mo. cumulative. Apply, stating experience. Matron. Terrace & District Hospital, 
Terrace. British Columbia. 

Generel Doty Norses for Western Memorial Hospital. Gross salary: $2,100- 2^; 
4 wks. vacation. Transportation from outside the Province paid, subject to I yr. service. 
Apply Supt. of Nurses, Western Memorial Hospital. Corner Brook, Newfoundland. 

General Staff Norees for 400-bed Medical & Surgical Sanatorium, fully approved 
student aflUliation & post-graduate program. Full Maintenance. Kecreauonal facilities. 
Vacation with pay. Sick benefits after 1 yr. Blue Cross coverage. Attractive salary; 
40^hr. wk. For further particulars apply Supt. of Nurses, Nova Scotia Sanatorium, 

Kentville. N.S. 

Registered Norses (2) for General E>vty at 30'bed hospital in Dryden. Northwestern 

Ontario. Fully modern nurses' residence. Salary: $160 per mo. plus full maintenance; 
subject to increase after 6 mo., with regular annual increases thereafter. 30 days 
vacation after 1 yr. service. Successful apphcants reimbursed rail fare after 1 yr. 
Apply, stating age & when available. Supt.. District General Hospital. Dryden. Ont. 

Registered Norses for General Doty. Initial salary: $200. per mo.; with 6 or more 
month's I*sychiatric experience. $210. per mo. Salary increase at end of 1 yr. 44-hr wk; 
8 statutory holidays, annual vacation with pay. Living accommodation if desired. For 
further information apply Supt. of Nurses, Homewood Sanitarium, Guelph. Ont. 

General Duty Norses for Modern 450- bed Hospital. Excellent personnel policies & 
working conditions. Apply l>irector of Nursing, Kitchener-Waterloo Hospital 
Kitchener, Ontario. 

General Doty Norses for Medical Sorgical, Pediatrics. Obstetrics. Good salary & 
personnel policies. Apply Director of Nursing. Victoria Hospital. London. Onl. 

General Doty Nurses for all departments. Gross salary: $200 per mo, if registered in 
Ontario with 1 yr or more of experience; $190 with less than 1 yr. of experience & 
until registration has been established. $20 per mo bonus im evrnirik' or night duly; 
annual increment of $10 per mo. for 3 yrs. 44-hr. wk . H -. 21 days 

vacation & 14 days leave for illness with pay after 1 yr. of r- : Director 

of Nursing, General Hospital, Oshawa. Ont. 





One Science Instructor — One Night Supervisor 

Two Clinical Instructors (one qualified in Obstetrics) 

Additional staff for our new Hospital. 



Graduate Nurm«t for modern 125-bed Community Hospital in suburban Toronto, opening 
new wing. Salary range : General Duty — $205 to 275 monthly, Head Nurse — $225 to 
295. Supervisor — $260 to 310. Residence accommodation optional. Apply Director of 
Nursing, Humbcr Memorial Hospital, 200 Church St., Weston, Ont. 

Registered Nurses & Maternity Nurses. Basic salary: $150 & $105 respectively, with 
additional increases. Blue Cross & many other benefits. Attractive nurses* residence, 
motel style Additional help required for opening of new floor. Apply Supt., Barrie 
Memorial Hospital, Ormstown. Que. 

Graduate Nuraes for General Staff Duty in 350-bed Tuberculosis Hospital in Lauren- 
tian Mtf. For further information, apply Director of Nursing, Royal Edward Laurentian 
Hospital, Ste. Agathe des Monts, Quebec. 

Reflstered Nurt«s needed at once for new 60-bed Hospital in Sidney, Nebraska. All 
shifts. Beginning salar>*: $250. Apply immediately to Administrator, Frank Harris, 
Cheyenne County Memorial Hospital, Sidney, Nebraska. 

Graihaate Nursea for General Duty. Basic Salar>' $300. plus differentials. 118-bed 
Hospital along the shores of Lake Michigan, 25 miles from Chicago. Modern ranch 
style Nurse's homes. (k)od Personnel policies. Apply Highland Park Hospital Founda- 
tion. 718 Glen\'iew Ave., Highland Park. Illinois. 

Regialered Staff Norte*, immediate appointments, in 511-bed newly enlarged and finely 
equipped general hospital. Duty assignments in medical, surgical, pediatrics, psychiatric, 
obstetrics, or contagion units. Northeastern Ohio stable **AIUAmerican City" of 120,000. 
In centre of area of recreational, industrial, and educational friendly activities. Living 
costs reasonable. Within pleasant driving-distance advantages of metropolitan Cleve- 
land and Columbus, Ohio and Pittsburg, Pa. Friendly, cooperative work relations and 
conditions. Progressively advanced personnel policies. Starting salary: $240 per mo. 
with 4 merit increases. Paid vacation, sick leave, recognized holidays, premium pay, 
sickness insurance and hospitalization program, retirement. Contact: EHrcctor of 
Personnel Aultman Hospital. Canton, Ohio, by letter or colkct telephone 4-5673. 

GiWwito N«raes for new & modern "Hospital of Ideas." 300-bcd Cancer Research 
Hospital located in the beautiful Texas Medical Center. Opportunity to learn advanced 
methods in Cancer Nursing. Excellent working conditions; good salary; liberal em- 
pk)ycc benefits plus the advantage of associating with a University Hospital. For 
further information on the most talked-about hospital in the largest city in 
the largest state in the United States, write to the Personnel Manager, The Lniver- 
lity of Texas, M.D. Anderson Hospital and Tumor Institute, Houston 25, Texas, U.S.A. 

RMMler^ Staff N«raM for 200-bed Teaching Children's Hospital located in Puget 
Sound in heart of Pacific Northwest Starting Salary: $255 per mo. 40-hr wk Op- 
portunity for study at nearby University of Washington, Wnte: Director of Nursing. 
C1itldrefi*s Orthopedic Hospital, 4800 Sand Point Way. Seattle 5. Washington. 

S«pt. •! Hmnm for modem 60-bed general hospital. Apply stating qualifications to 
Dr. II. It Stalker, Hon. Medical Supt, Barrie Memorial Hospital, Ormstown, Que. 

JULY. l«i«Vol. «, Mo. 7 *• 



200'bed hospital 

Pleasant city of 33,000. Tm o colleges. 
Good salary and personnel policy. 

For further information apply to: 

Hospital Supt. for modern, fully equipped 34-bed hospital. Located in a friendly town, 
32 miles south of Ottawa. Duties to commence Aug. 1. Excellent meals, laundry pro- 
cessed, live out. Please furnish references stating age, qualifications, experience & sala- 
ry expected. Apply Mr. F. Erie Helmer. The Winchester & District Memorial Hospital, 
Winchester, Ont. 

Operatiiiy Room Supervisor for new llLbed hospital to have charge of O.R.*s, Post 
Anes.. Central Dressing Rooms & Emergency Dept. Post-graduate preferred. Minimum 
starting salary: $260 Credits for P.G. & experience. Apply Supt. of Nurses, West 
Coast General Hospital, Port Alberni, B.C. 

Asst. Head Nurses for children's orthopedic hospital. Good personnel policies. Apply 
Director, Shriners Hospital for Crippled Children. Montreal, Que. 

Graduate Re^tered Nurses for general liuty. 375-bed industrial hospital, all graduate 
staff. Good salary with differential for evenings & nights; periodical raises. Good 
personnel policies, 40-hr. 5 day wk. 1 meal & laundry of uniforms free. $45 per mo. 
complete maintenance if desired. Apply Director of Nurses, Missouri Pacific Employes' 

Hospital, St. Louis 4, Missouri. 

Registered Nurses for 35-bed Hospital. Salary $200 per mo. with complete maintenance 
in residence. Apply Supt., Little Long Lac Hospital. Geraldton, Ontario. 

Nurse to ciirect Public Healtli Nursing Program for City Health Dept. Preference given 
to B.Sc^ Nursing (Public Health) plus administrative & supervisory training & expe- 
rience. 5-dav wk.; sick leave & pension scheme; 1 mo. holiday after 1 vr. State salary 
expected. Apply Dr. W. H. Hill, City Health Dei»t., Calgary, Alberta. 

Public Healtli Nurses to commence Sept. I for Health Dept. City of Calgary. Minimum 
salary $2,724 with allowance for experience 5 day wk. Pension & hospitalization plans 
available 1 mo vacation after 1 yr. Apply Dr. W. H. Hill, Health Dept., Calgary, Alta. 

A f-mo Postgraduate Course in Plastic Surgery commences on Oct. 1 at St. Lawrence 
Hospital Chepstow. Mon. England. MM) Plastic Surger>% 50 Orthopedic beds Ai)plica- 
tions are invited from Canadian Trained Nurses. Frosts afford an opjiortunity of gaining 
experience in Plastic Surgery methods & of seeing something of England .^successful 
candidates can be accepted a couple of months earlier if desired, to gain experience 
before course commences & see England in the summer. Salary iJ60 a yr.. less il35 for 
board residence. Must pay own fare lo England. Write stating age & 2 references to 
T. A. Jones, Group Sec. 64 Cardiff Rd., Newport. Mon., England. 

Medical-Surgical Clinical instructor. Student body of 55. 1 Class enrolled annually 
Good personnel policies For further information apply Director of NursinR. General 
Hospital, Belleville, Ont. 

General Duty Nurses (2) as soon as possible Salar>' $180 per mo plus full maintenance. 
3 increases of $5 (R) mo. for each yr. exf»erience to a maximum of $195. 3 wks. vaca- 
tion with pay plus all statutory holidays. Separate nurses' residence. Apply Matron. 
Municipal Hospital, Fair\iew, Alta. 

Registered Nnrses (2), immediately, for small hospitals held by Notre4>ame Sisters 
Salary : $225. For further information apply Gabriel Hospital. Ponteix. Sask. or Notre- 
Dame Hospital. Val Marie. Sask. 

Registered Nnrses for 36-hed General Hospital. Basic salary: $230; increments $10 
4(> hr wk , full maintenance $45 R N A B.C agreement. Half fare refunded after 6 mo. 
balance after I yr. Apply Matron. Nicola Valley General Hospital. Merritt« B.C. 





44-Hour Week - New Hospital 

Attractive Benefits 

Salary $2,460 to $2,860 Per Annum 

Experience and training will 
be taken into account in de- 
termining salary. 






to organize the deportments of 
Pediatrics and Surger/ in new 
hospital. Duties to commence July, 


Director of Nursing 

University Hospital 

Saskatoon, Sosk. 

Flint, Michigan 

428<bed Teaching Hospital 
expanding to 850. 

We need 
Instnictars $246-413 

Supervisors 346-413 

Assistant Supervisors 315 - 375 
Instrument Nurse 292 - 341 

General Duty Nurses 292 - 341 

• Op^Atngt ovotlobl« in M*dicif)«. Sur> 
g«ry. Em^rg^ncy, Communicobl^ Dit- 
•oMft. NychiotfY. 

• 40 hovr w««li. 

• 5% 4iff*f«ntiol for afternoon ond ntght 

• lib«fol p«nonn«l polkiot. 

Writ* to 

Personnel Director 
Hurley Hospital 
Flint, Michigan 



Posf-Scolofres offerts: 

1. Medecine generale 

2. Chirurgie generale 

3. Solles d'operation 

4. Chirurgie nerveuse 

5. Chirurgie thorocique 

6. Obstetrique 

l«t courj commencenl en ft«ptembrc et morf 
d« cKoque onn^e et durent 6 moit. R4- 
munirofion, bloncHiiKig* d%% uniformet. 

Pour rmnfignmm^ntt §vppUnfntaift 


JULY, ten • Vol. SL No. 7 


Official Directory 

270 Laurier Ave., W., Ottawa 

President Mlai Gladys J. Sharpe. Western Hospital. Toronto 2B. Ont- 

Fast Presideat ... Mlsa Helen G. McArthur, 95 Wellesley St. E.. Toronto 5. Ont. 

rirrt Vlce-PresWeat MUs Trenna G. Hunter. Metropolitan Health Com., aty Hall. Va^ 

couver. B.C. 

8e«Md Tiee-PrMideat ... Miss Alice Glrard. Hftpital St. Luc. Lagauchetlfere St. Montreal. Que. 

Third VIce-Presldeat Miss Muriel Hunter. Provincial Health Dept.. Fredericton. N.B. 

Geaerml SecreUry Miss M. Pearl Stiver. 270 Laurier Ave. W.. Ottawa. 


Fr9tid€nn •/ Pfmmcid AMMeciaiimms— 

^I^rta ^^*ss Elizabeth Bletsch. General Hospital. Medicine Hat. 

Britl.liO»Vambla*" Miss AlberU Creasor. 1W5 West lUlh Ave.. Vancouver 9. 

Manitoba M"^*^ Mary Wilson. Ste. 18. Lenore ApU.. Lenore St., Winnipeg. 

New Braaiwick Miss Grace Stevens. Box 970. Edmundston. 

N.wfonndlaad Miss Elizabeth Summers. 55 MlllUry Rd.. St. John's. 

Ilava Sc»tia Mrs. Dorothy McKeown. T9H Allen St.. Halifax. 

0atari*. Miss Alma Reld. McMaster University. Hamilton. 

Prinee Edward lalaad Sister Mary Irene. Charlottetown HosplUl. Charlottetown. 

Qaebec Mile Eve Merleau. Apt. 52. 3201 Forest Hill. Montreal 26. 

SMkatchewaa Miss Mary MacKenzle. St. Pauls Hospital. Saskatoon. 

R0iigi0m$ SUiers (Rwgi^mmi Repr0semt^i$0m)^ 

MAriUmea Rev. Sister Helen Marie. St, Joseph-s HoaplUl. Saint John. N.R 

Qaebee Rev. Sister Denise Lefebvre. Inttltut Marguerite d* Youville. 

■ 1185 St. Matthew St.. Montreal 25. 

Ovtarie Rev. Sister M. de Sales. St, Michaels HosplUl. Toronto 2. 

Weatera Caaada Rev. Sister BUry Luclta. St. Joseph's Hospital. Victoria. B.C 

Ckmirmem a/ l^miUmmi C^mmitU^s-- 

If arslag SerHce Miss Alice Glrard. HftplUl St. Luc. Lagauchetl*re St. Montreal. Que. 

Narslag Edacattott Miss Evelyn Mallory. School of Nursing. Unlvertlty of Brttlah 

Columbia. Vancouver 8. B.C. 

''*'*Biutlfar'^*** Miss Evelyn Pepper. Rm. '726. Jackson BIdg.. OtUwm, Ont. 

LegiaUtlaa * By-Laws . . . Miss Helen Carpenter. 50 St George St. Toronto 5, Ont. 

naaaee ... - Miss Trenna G. Hunter. Metropolitan Health Com., aty Hall. Vmrn- 

couver. B.C 


Alberta Asa's af Segtateted Naraea, Mrs. Clara Van Dusen. Ste. 5. 1012»>103nd St.. Edmonton. 

Registered Narses* Aas'a at Britlsb Calaabta. Mlas Alice U Wright. 2S24 Cypress St.. Van- 
couver 9. 

Manitaba Am'm af Eeglatered Naraea. Mlaa LIUImn E. PetUgrew. 247 Balmoral St. Winnipeg. 

New Branftwick Asa'a of Beglstered Narses. PC Box 846. Frederlctlon. 

Aaa*a of Registered Narses mt Newfaaadlaad* Miss Pauline Laracy. CaboC BIdg.. Duckworth St. 
St. John's, 

Registered Naraes' Aaa*a af Neva Scatla. Miss Nancy H. Watson. 301 Barrington St. Halifax. 

Registered Narsea' Aaa*a •§ Oatoria. Miss Florence H. Walker, 515 Jarvls St. Toronto 5. 

Asa'B of Narses el Priace Edward Island. Miss Muriel Archibald. 188 Prince St. Charlottetown. 

AaaaciatloB of Narses of the Provlaee of Qaebec. Miss Wlnonah Lindsay. 906 Medical ArU 
Bldg.. Montreal 25. 

Saakatekewaa Registered Narsea' Aaa'n, MlM Lola Wilson. 401 Northern Crown BIdg.. Reglna. 


Caaadlaa Narses' Asaoelatlaa: 270 Laurier Ave. West OtUwa. Genfrmi S^trtimihTrfP^wttr, MlM 
M. Pear! Stiver. Secretmj of Nmtimm S dm e t t i c n, Mlaa Frances U. McQuarrte. Stcretmry of Nmfs%m$ 
Serx-Mt, Miss F. UlUan Campinn AMsisimd Stc^ttmrj, Mias RIU Macfiaac. 

UteraaUoaal Coaaeil of Nataaa: 19 Queen's GaU. London S.W. 7, Biglnnd. fl stf ca l i af 5 ^u< •ar J^ 
Mlaa Daisy C. Bridges. 


For control 
of diarrhea 

In common diarrheas, KALPEC 
soothes the irritated howel and leads 
to the production of well-formed 
stools. Kaolin has high adsorptive 
power, removes irritants from the 
bowel; pectin and alumina gel exert 
demulcent action. These features, 
useful in the common diarrheas, help 
in diarrhea associated with broad- 
spectrum antibiotics. 





The KALPKC donaiEr M-hediilr if* logical. After the initial clo<>e, each loo«e bowel 
movement i« the .ipial for the ne%t do*e. Thuii, d««ge t» 8elf-limiling in that the 
Ibrmation of normal Moob indicate* that no further medication i* neceswry. 

Why hospitals the world over use 



Elastoplast Elastic Adhesive Bandages are made 
from superior quality cloth with an extra-soft, 
non-fray edge. They possess remarkable stretch 
and regain properties. For years, they have been 
used successfully in the treatment of Varicose 
veins, and their complications, and for general 
surgical purposes. 


bandages are adjuvants in the treatment of 

Varicose conditions and in 

the after-treatment of below- 
knee fractures. 

Sfadr in England by 






ttm Papinemu Avenue, MONTREAL 24, Que.