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Nurses were among the first to discover Noxzema for skin comfort and new skin beauty! 

Why so many nurses have 
lovely complexions 

Every good nurse wants to look fresh and at- 
tractive at all times. It's a matter of professional 
pride. But a nurse has so little time to fuss 
with her face. She needs a quick beauty rou- 
tine that really works. 

That's why so many nurses use Noxzema 
^nd the sensible routine developed by a noted 
si in specialist. In carefully supervised clinical 
n sts this quick routine with medicated 
Noxzema Skin Cream helped 4 out of 5 women 
.;•> look lovelier in just 10 days. They were 
th rilled to discover the remarkable improve- 
•». cnt Noxzema made in their skin. Note how 
v inple this routine is: 

Morning— 1. Apply Noxzema liberally to 
f.-'ce and neck. With a cloth wrung out in 
-arm water, actually wash your face with 
A oxzema as you would with soap. Note how 
e'ean and fresh your face looks and feels after 
' reamwashing. 2. Smooth on a protective 
frm of greaseless Noxzema as a powder base. 
K zoning —3. Before retiring "creamwash" 
;• ;ain with Noxzema. See how quickly you 

wash away make-up and the day's dirt and 
grime. 4. Now use Noxzema as your night 
cream to help skin look smoother, softer, love- 
lier. Pat a little extra over any blemishes to help 
heal them. It's greaseless — no messy pillow! 

Save Vj! Today, get the big 6-ounce jar of 
Noxzema for only 98f. You'll save one-third 
over smaller sizes/ You'll see how Noxzema 
can help your skin look smoother, lovelier/ 
Don't wait! Get your jar today-at any drug or 
cosmetic counter— while this ofTer lasts! 


Try Noxzema Skin Cream to help heal the 
sore irritation of patients' sheet burns. Thev'll 
appreciate the delightful soothing relief they 

Set from Noxzema *s mediated formula. And 
ere's a new idea in skin comfort they'll love I 
Use this dainty greeselets cream as a refresh- 
ing body massage. It's a wonderful skin tonic 
-will make them feel good all overt Noxzema 
is greaseless— so there's no worry about stain- 
ing bed linen. Start using Noxzema todey. 

C TOBER. 1952 


I he Canadian Nurse 

VOLUifB « 


, OCTOBER, 1952 

New Products ; 7SJ 

Achieving Understanding AbbS Arthur Maheux 787 

Pleurisy S. Marcus, M.D. V) > 

The Nursing Care of Pleurisy M. Aldrich 79.* 

The Patient's Point of View. P. Jones 70S 

Air-Borne Allergens C. H. A. Walton, Af.D. 799 

Action in a Catastrophe . .M. G. Douglas 804 

Lyle Creelman Writes 807 

Nursing Profiles 810 

Testing Nursing Aptitude M. Fahrig 814 

Evaluating Faculty Competence . .Sr. St. Thomas d' A quirt 816 

Step Up and Be Counted I . . 818 

Health Education Program for Student Nurses M. Mackenzie 819 

Bonne Entente VAbbt Arthur Maheux 822 

Drug Addiction in Canada 827 

Trends in Nursing 830 

Orientation et Tendances en Nursing 831 

Ligatures and Sutures B. Martin 833 

Perfume and Toilet Water W. Schwcisheimcr, M.D. 836 

Book Reviews 840 

News Notes '.851 

Official Directory Inside Back Cover 

The views expressed in the various articles are the views of the authors and do not necessarily 
represent the policy or views of The Canadian Nurse nor of the Canadian Nurses 9 Association. 

Editor and Business Manager: 

Asst. Editor: 
Catherine Perkins, B.Sc. N., R.N. 

Asst. Busituss Manager: 
Kathleen Willie me Bullish 

Authorized as second-cleat mail. Post Office Department, Ottawa. 

Member of Canadian Circulations Audit Board. 

Subscription Rates: $3.00 per year— $5.00 for 2 yean ($1.75 — 6 mos.); Foreign & U.S.A.. $3.50; Student 

Nurses. $2.00 per year — $5.00 for 3 years. In combination with The American Journal of Nursing, $7.00 per year. 

Single Copies, 35 cents. All cheques, money orders, and postal notes should be made payable to The Canadian 

Nurse. (When remitting by cheque, add 15 cents for exchange.) 

Change of Address: Four weeks 1 advance notice, and the old address as well as the new, are necessary fci 
change of subscriber's address. Not responsible for Journals lost in mail due to new address not being forwarded. 
PLEASE PRINT Nam* and Address. 

Editorial Content: News items must reach the Journal office at least six weeks prior to publication. 
Ojficial Directory: Published in full in March, June, Sept. & Dec. issues. 
Address all communications to 8ulte 522, 153$ Sherbrooke St. W., Montreal 25, One. 

The Quick, Sure 
Method for 


Vol. 4$, No. 10 

Literature available 
on request. 


CtipreX kills all lice and nits in one 
fifteen-minute treatment. 

lUprGX is non-irritating. 
ClipreX is non-sticky. 

vUpr6X is economical to use. 


OlTOBBR. 1952 

MERCK e\ CO. Limited 

Mm^fictmrimj (limit* 



Retween QuMetueA 

One hundred months is a long time — eight 
• and one-third years. Looking ahead it seems 
Ian endless period. As this month's issue, our 
one-hundredth, goes to press the time 
seems very short since the morning in 1944 
when, full of misgivings, we launched Vol. 40, 
No. 7. The lapsed time seems unbelievably 
short. Now, as then, our goal is to provide the 
best material that we can procure. With the 
active cooperation of nurses in every part of 
Capada, as well as doctors and other special- 
ists, we look forward happily to the next 
► hundred issues. 

* * * 

-'■ Reference has already been made to the 
interest that Abbe* Arthur Maheux aroused 
when he delivered the Mary Agnes Snively 
Memorial oration during the C.N.A. con- 
vention. It is available in this issue for sub- 
scribers in both languages. * 

It was noted in the August issue that re- 
prints would be prepared following publica- 
tion of this address. Due to the fact that the 
demand for reprints of previous orations was 
so small, the C.N.A. has decided to dispense 
with them this year. While the supply lasts, 
extra copies of this issue may be secured from 
the Journal office for 35 cents each. 

* * * 

The oncoming winter season is marked by 
an increased incidence of pleurisy. Here to 
describe this complication of many diseases, 
and the essentials of nursing care, are 
Dr. S. Marcus and Martha Aldrich, both of 
Sherbrooke, Que. 

Most commonly pleurisy occurs as an ex- 
tension of a disease process in the lung — 
pneumonia, tuberculosis or a pulmonary in- 
farct. Inflammation may spread out from an 
abscess in the surrounding chest wall or 
the pericardium to the pleura. Occasionally, 
pleurisy may be a symptom during a systemic- 
disease such as acute rheumatic fever or 
leukemia. Usually, the first intimation of the 
condition is a sudden "stitch" in the side. 

* * * 

There is a common saying that a nurse is 
more considerate of and more understanding 
about her patients' demands upon her after 
she has had the experience of being confined 

to a hospital bed herself. Since we are not 
wishing for any of our readers the discomforts 
of an operation we are giving ydu an oppor- 
tunity to look behind the scenes, so to speak, 
at what a patient's normal reactions are 
likely to be. Patricia Jones is the nom de 
plume of a well known professional woman 
who was forced to undergo eye surgery. Her 
reactions were typical of those of hundreds 
of patients. • 

* * * 

Directors of schools of nursing who are 
responsible for the selection of candidates, and 
educational directors who are charged with 
the training of the students once they have 
entered the school, will be interested in 
Marjorie Fahrig's study and findings rel- 
ative to the use of an aptitude test for 

Prior to undertaking study in psychology, 
Miss Fahrig cwas trained and worked as a 
medical laboratory technician for seven 
years. During this time she lectured to pro- 
bationary students and' became interested in 
nurse selection procedures. This piece of re- 
search was the result of this interest. 

* * * 

The course in nursing offered at the Tor- 
onto Western Hospital continues to attract 
interest and speculation as observations arc- 
made on how this two-year basic course plus 
one year of salaried interneship operates. 
Margaret Mackenzie, as health instructor, is 
in complete charge of the health education 
program provided for the students. Her de- 
tailed explanation of how the program func- 
tions and what is included in it may well 
serve as a guide to other schools of nursing 
• in the expansion of their programs. The 
position of this article on the Public Health 
Nursing Page is evidence of the varied 
values this article possesses. 

* * • 

That very busy person whose informal, 
information -packed letters have been 
enjoyed by Journal readers for the past two 
years, Lyle Creel man, has recently returned 
to Canada for a period of study. The current 
letter is almost the last we shall have for 
several months. We shall watch for their 

God will not look you over for medals, degrees and diplomas but for scars. — Fra Elbertus. 


Vol. 4«. No. 10 


Contains everything you need to knoub 

There are big moments ahead in your 
nursing career. You need this first- 
rate Caxton book on nursing to help you 
prepare for them. 

You need it just the same if you are 
Qualified already — to keep knowledge at 
your fingertips against day-to-day prob- 
lems and emergencies. 


: ives all the information required for the 
iligher Degrees of the profession. It 
contains over 1,800 pages, including 
-5 pages of colored and black and white 
plates, and 594 ordinary, illustrations. 

The contents include, First Aid, Hygiene, 
Bacteriology and Clinical Pathology, Theory 
and Practice of Nursing, Materia Medici, 
Therapeutics and Dietetics, Medical 
Nursing, Surgical Nursing, Gynaecology, 
Obstetrics, Social Aspect of Disease, etc. 
Just fill in the coupon below. 


The Caxton Publishing Company (Cm**) Limited 


J Please send me ; without cost or obligation, full particulars 

I of " Modern Professional Nursing" together with your 

■ terms of easy payment. 


| (Please print in BLOCK capitals) 



•<:T0BER, 1952 




Published Through Courtesy of Canadian Pharmaceutical Journal 


Manufacturer — Nordic Biochemicals Limited, Montreal. 
Description — Oxycellulose purified ACTH as a lyophilizcd sterile powder. 
Indications -— For injection in collagen and allergic states where ACTH is indicated. 
Administration — The addition of sterile water for injection to the multidose vials makes 
a solution suitable for intramuscular or subcutaneous injection. 


Manufacturer — A. Wander Limited, Peterborough, Ont. 

Description .— Each tablet contains: acetylsalicylic acid 5 gr., Alocol (Aluminum Hy- 
droxide) 2 gr. 

Indications — For relief of pain of headache, neuralgia, rheumatism, lumbago, sciatica, 
and for colds, grippe, muscular pains, etc. 

Administration — One or two tablets as directed by physician. For best results drop 
tablets in a little water and drink when tablets disintegrate. 


Manufacturer — John Wyeth & Bro. (Canada) Limited, Walkerville, Ont. 

Description — Each scored Bicillin 200 L-A (long-acting) tablet contains 200,000 units 
of N,N-dibenzylethylenediamine dipenicillin G (Benzethacil). One Bicillin 200 L-A tablet 
produces demonstrable blood concentrations for periods of 12 hours in most patients. They 
contain no buffer, are virtually tasteless, and may be taken without regard to meals. 

Indications — Pneumococcal infections, hemolytic streptococcal infections, staphylococcal 
infections and gonorrhea. Also recommended as prophylaxis to prevent recurrent attacks of 
rheumatic fever and secondary infections in other conditions. 

Administration — Two tablets daily provide continuous penicillin protection. One tablet 
every 12 hours or as directed by the physician. 


Manufacturer — Rougier Freres Inc., Montreal. 

Description — A combination of Herisan ointment and the antibiotics Bacitracin and 

Indications — Pyogenic dermatoses; infected, degenerated or damaged tissues, etc. 


Manufacturer — John Wyeth & Bro. (Canada) Limited, Walkerville, Ont. 

Description — Each cc. of Bicillin 600 L-A (long-acting) injection contains 600,000 
I.U. N,N'-dibenzylethylenediamine dipenicillin G in aqueous suspension. 

Indications — In infections that require prolonged penicillin blood levels — e.g., for pre- 
operative and post-operative penicillin protection in tooth extraction, childbirth, tonsillec- 
tomy, and the average surgical case; in the prophylaxis of rheumatic fever, etc. 

Administration — A single dose of 600,000 units provides long-acting penicillin pro- 
tection. When administered every 14 days this dose maintains blood levels between .05 and 
.12 unit per cc. 


Manufacturer — Ayerst, McKenna & Harrison Ltd., Montreal. 

Description — Two capsules contain: Vitamin A 25^)00 I.U., vitamin D 2,000 I.U., 
vitamin E 10 I.U., thiamine 10 mg., riboflavin 5 mg., niacinamide 100 mg., pyridoxine 1 mg., 
d-Pantothenol 10 mg., vitamin Bu 2 meg., biotin 100 meg., folic acid 2 mg., ascorbic acid 
150 mg., choline 30 mg., d-Methionine 20 mg., Inositol 30 mg., cobalt 0.1 mg., copper 1 mg. f 
fluorine 0.025 mg., iron 76.2 mg., calcium 165 mg., manganese 1 mg., iodine 0.15 mg., 
molybdenum 0.2 mg., potassium 5 mg., zinc 1.2 mg., manganese 6 mg., phosphorus 127.4 

Indications — As a nutritional supplement in the aging patient, in preparation for 
surgery and in convalescence, in chronic alcoholism, in restricted food intake, or where there 
are increased vitamin-mineral requirements as in metabolic disorders, infections, extensive 
burns, rapid growth, and pregnancy. 

Administration — 2 or more capsules daily. 


Vol. 4*. No. 10 


for each, according to her need 

so comfortable 

so efficient 

so safe 


1 Brampton, Ontario. 

J Please send professional supply of Tampax 
i in the three absorbencies and related 

• literature. 

, i Name 


J Address 

• City Prav 

OCTOBER. 1°52 






in maintaining drainage after Eallblac Her I?'" « al ' blaaa « « still able to expand, and 
disorders associated with pregnancy ISmS jJ"""'? 1 . Particularly in gallbladder 
common duct and in severe hepatft'is ' n obs ' ruc,,ons of the hepatic or 

Administration - Two tablets after meals, two or three times daily, as required. 

x. t „ BUTADEX - • . ' 

Scr S W ~ F Bar ' owMan 5y Laboratories Inc., Hamilton, Ont. 
bu££X£l% 7, EaCh CrCaSCd - Pmk tab,e < """.in,: d-amphetamine sulfate 5 mg.. 

adSv , iTea^en F rof Sy obe r sar ,iC treatmem ° f mema ' a " d «**«"»■ '•*««» and the 


Manufacturer — Rougier Freres Inc., Montreal 

Description -, Purified extract of liver derived from pregnant cattle 
bS^uZ £A^A t X?Zr**' » *e ^^osteoarthritis. No, 
or the anemias of pregnancy or faul SwoT'l," maCr0C * ,,C »r hypochromic anemias, 
of rheumatoid arthritis. y nu,r,,,on - II ,s "commended for the treatment 

Administration - The usual dose is 3 c.c. injected intramuscularly in the gluteal area. 

x, c . „ . BUTAZOLIDIN 

Manufacturer — Geigy Pharmaceuticals, New York 


Manufacturer — Merck & Co. Limited, Montreal. 

Manufacturer — Wm. S. Merrell Co., Toronto. 

chl^Se°nerin Ea v C e h ee1ah^ iT^' COn,ains ' 2 . m R- °f chlorotianisene (tri-para-anisyl- 
The art nnlTffi, ve K e table oil; a new synthetic compound having estrogenic activity 

The eftVctte o alXe'^VT ^ ^ °! de ' ««"*«»(««••«. and synthetfc) 
stored fnVnZ fit a . CC '" " tS IS a PP ro *'™tely twice that of hexestrol It is 

associate with other o«l «L « cne ""y do « not cau " «he side-efTects commonly 

hypercakemTa estrogens, such as nausea, vomiting, fluid retention, and 

of'l^ta* has^S ?L C ^ di }' 0nS T, hen - *" e - i $ Mtr °« en deficienc y- Carcinoma 
Br««T» £™. ?wf ^ a,cd for P all, ation with estrogenic substances At the 

KTS re^TsurgS7ncrn of b rhe e S d '° '" Sen *« "« d .'" «<* ^notis 
Administration - Palliative treatment of prostatic carcinoma. 24 mg. by mouth daily. 

Vol. 48, No. 10 

'^ffl/«rt*eA»s wSnal<ES -' 





Children's "217" Tablets have the 
iamt in gradient) at those for adults, 
out in strengths suitable for children, 
^nty disintegrate rapidly in milk or 
water. Available in tubes of 36 and 
bottles of 100. 

Keep "21 7" Tablets handy for fast protec- 
tion. Three ingredients acting synergistkally . 
provide a strong analgesic and antipyretic 
effect that quickly overcomes headaches, 
neuralgia, rheumatic and arthritic pains and 
colds. The handy tube of 12 tablets fits 
conveniently in pocket or purse; economy 
sizes of 40 and 100 are ideal for home use-. 

Ctkftleo &eftod6t&&. 



iCTOBER. 1952 




Dicalet tablets t.u. supply 


for pregnancy 
and lactation 

PLUS Bit, Folic Acid, 
Pyridoxme and 7 Trace Minerals 

Abbott Laboratories Limited • Montreal 





(Abbott's Vitamins and Minerals for Pregnancy and Lactation) 


2 DICALETS tXd. provide Percent 

Vitamin A 8000 Int. Units 


Vitamin D 400 Int. Units 

Vitamin li 1.5 mg. 

Vitamin Bi 3 mg. 

Niacinamide 15 mg. 

Vitamin C 150 mg. 

Iron 15 mg. 

Calcium 1 500 mg. 

Phosphorus 1 500 mg. 

Pyridoxins 1.5 mg. 

Vitamin Bis 3 meg. 

Polk Acid 1.2 mg. 

Cobalt 0.3 mg. 

Copper 3 mg. 

Iodine 0.45 mg. 

Magnesium 18 mg. 

Manganese 3 mg. 

Potassium 15 mg. 

Dnc 3.6 mg. 

f Reeommtedtd Daily Dietary Allowaaces 

uacy aad Lactation. 
•JOA la pragaaacy 1500 mi, ia lacUUaa 

of HDA* 






for Prtf- 

Vol. 4%. No. 10 









Achieving Understanding 

Abb£ Arthur Maheux 

The problem of national unity may be 
considered in many different ways. I have 
endeavored for many years to explain 
that problem throughout Canada — by lec- 
tures, booklets, contributions to various 
periodicals, and especially by books. I 
Jo not pretend to have solved all the 
difficulties. My weekly articles in the 
Montreal Star, 360 in seven years, have 
offered a great variety of details on the 
same subject. The best way, of course, is 
to go directly to the roots. There is no 
Joubt that the roots of our national prob- 
lems are our prejudices. 

Let us approach the topic from an- 
other angle and consider the relationship 
between national unity and Laval Univer- 
sity. It has often been said that the French 
Canadians have been very late in estab- 
lishing a university; that, for lack of 
uch an institution, they have been 
relatively ignorant, consequently des- 
picable. Is that true? 

Your convention is being held at Que- 
bec at the time of the centenary of Laval 
University — the centenary of the granting 
f a Royal Charter in 1852 to the Que- 
bec Seminary. It is not, however, the 
v entenary of teaching at university level 


in New France or among the French 

To find the origin of such teaching we 
must go back as far as 1635. In that year, 
a few months before Samuel de Cham- 
plain died, the Jesuits opened a college 
on the heights of Cape Diamond, not 
far from the residence of the Governor, 
in front of the present-day Basilica. It 
was a "classical college" — that is, a com- 
bination of high school, for the first 
four years, and of a college of Arts and 
Sciences, for the last four years. Preceding 
these eight years, there were elementary 
classes for those who were not sufficiently 
prepared to study latin. After these eight 
years there was higher teaching in prac- 
tical sciences, such as navigation, survey- 
ing, mathematics. 

The Jesuits' College was organized 
along the very same lines as their colleges 
in France and other parts of Europe. 
These colleges were already famous in 
Europe for the excellence of their teach- 
ing. It certainly was a daring feat to open 
such an institution in Quebec, when the 
total population of that village and the 
surrounding farms amounted to not more 
than 300 persons, leaving very few chil- 



~ r 



dren to attend the classes. Yet the Jesuits 
were spurred to that audacity by what 
had happened in Spanish America, 
where colleges had to be opened very 
early after the settlement of white 
people The ambition was the 
same for France as for - Spain 
— to train and educate the Indians 
as well as the white people. The Indians 
did not do well and had to be 
finally excluded but the institu- 
tion stood and was operated for the 
white colonists. 

The Jesuits were alone till the arrival 
of the first bishop — Monseigneur Fran- 
cois de Montmorency Laval in 1659. His 
first care was to organize a seminary for 
the training of young men to priesthood. 
That was done by a Royal Charter 
(lettres patentes) obtained from the King 
of France in 1663. Hence the teaching 
of theological sciences began early and at 
the same level as most of the European 
theological colleges. Right then New 
France had the equivalent of two facul- 
ties — arts at the Jesuits' College and 
divinity at the Seminary. 

Bishop de Laval was not satisfied with 
the accomplishment. In 1668 he decided 
to have his own Petit Seminaire that 
would also be a classical college. How- 
ever, since the population was not 
numerous enough for two colleges, 
especially in the same locality, he made 
an arrangement with the Jesuits. He 
would send to their college his seminary 
students for the classics and he would 
give the rest of the training in his 
own institution. That combined system 
operated for the duration of the French 
Regime, till the Seven Years War forced 
both institutions to close their doors 
under the bombardment made by Wolfe 
from the heights of Levis. Consequently 
we can say that teaching at university 
level has been a permanent institution in 
New France since 1635 for Arts and 
since 1663 for theology. The third cen- 
tenary of the Jesuits' College was cele- 
brated in 1935. The third centenary of 
the Quebec Seminary will be celebrated 
in 1963. 

But, you may ask, what was done for 
law and medicine. Very little, indeed, 
is my answer. Lawyers were not well 
considered in New France. Justice was 
administered by the seigneurs, each 

seigniory having its own courts, and by 
the Conseil Souverain in which sat the 
governor, the intendant, the bishop, and 
a few others. A certain Mr. Verrier gave 
some public lessons in law. For medicine 
there was only apprenticeship with a sur- 
geon or physician. Of course, it would 
have been easy to organize courses in law 
and medicine. Even in France such 
faculties were operated with very few 
professors and very few students. 
But the government at Paris was not very 
generous towards the colony in such 
matters. Small grants in money would 
have been very useful for higher teaching 
in New France but we had to wait, as 
we did for printing, which was not 
allowed here during the French Rule, 
while it began in the English colonies 
as early as 1639. 

The Jesuits' College and the Quebec 
Seminary operated without the power of 
granting diplomas. This did not impair 
the value of the teaching. It was really 
at university level and was not inferior 
to the teaching given in France and 
in other European countries, including 
England. It was as good as the teaching 
given in the English colonies. Harvard 
began in 1636 as a classical college which 
later developed into a full fledged uni- 
versity, just as the two Quebec institutions 
were to merge later and finally become a 
complete university. 

When did that combination come? 
It was a result of the Seven Years War 
and of the Treaty of Paris (1763) and 
of the new policy of Great Britain toward 
the French Canadians. The new English 
power was Protestant and would nor- 
mally act as Protestant. One of the first 
decisions was against the Religious 
Orders, namely the Jesuits and the Re- 
collets. They were not killed nor exiled 
but they were not allowed to take new 
novices nor to continue their teaching. 
The members would die one after one 
and finally the Order would become ex- 
tinct and their properties would return 
to the state or government. 

Such a decision meant a very great 
change for the French Canadians and 
some new arrangement was essential. 
James Murray understood , well the 
situation. He saw clearly that a clergy was 
necessary for the French Canadians and, 
consequently, a bishop and a seminary. He 

Vol. 48, No. 10 



two red the appointment of Olivier 
Hriand, as Bishop of Quebec, and he gave 
i emission to the Quebec Seminary to 
tontinue as, a teaching institution. The 
teaching of theology, partly interrupted by 
the war, was resumed and completed. As 
tor the classics, the Seminary succeeded 
the Jesuits, adopting their books, pro- 
grams, methods, etc. The priests compos- 
ing the faculty of the Quebec Seminary 
I. ad been students of the Jesuits, either in 
! urope or at Quebec. So, in 1765, after 
♦he buildings ruined by bombs had been 
restored, the classical course was re- 
established, at the Seminary. From then on 
the Seminary took as students not only 
those who wanted to become priests but 
all young men who would like to study. 
It became a college instead of just a 
seminary. It certainly was an arduous task 
for the priests of that institution but they 
managed very well. They wanted a very 
strong course of studies and they reached 
that level. The final examinations, in the 
higher classes, were held in public. Theses 
were prepared, read, and defended in 
public. There was no diploma but there 
was a public recognition of talent and 
success. The young man, after eight years 
of training in classical languages and 
literatures, in history and geography, in 
philosophy and sciences, could enter ad- 
ministration, theology, politics, commerce, 
the Bar, medicine and surgery, with ad- 
ditional years of study or service with a 
lawyer or a doctor. 

However, the idea of a full university 
v% as not dead. It remained alive among 
both the French and the English-speaking 
Canadians. The French were really 
favored, having a classical and theological 
ollege, and even more when new similar 
alleges were opened in other localities. 
I he English Canadians had only private 
institutions — one-man grammar schools. 
They did not want to send their sons 
or daughters to American schools. For a 
long time they preferred registering them 
n the French-Canadian colleges, par- 
Jicularly at the Seminary at Quebec. 

I feel pretty sure that it would have 
>een easy for the French Canadians to 
obtain a university charter in 1774, when 
ihey had the Quebec Act. At that time 
hey obtained confirmation of their right 
o remain Catholic, to maintain the 
eignioral system, the tithes, and more, 

OCTOBER. 1952 ' . 

the dispensation from the oath of Test. 
All these concessions from Great Britain 
were hard sacrifices coming from a de- 
cidedly Protestant government. They were 
obtained with the help of Governor 
Carleton. Consequently if the French 
Canadians had asked for a complete uni- 
versity they certainly would have obtained 
it; but they did not ask for it. 

Later, the English wanted a university. 
They foresaw a sort of state university 
that would be neutral in religion. All the 
students would have followed the sartie 
courses, except theology, where two 
separate colleges, one Protestant and one 
Catholic, would have been necessary. The 
Catholics did not like the idea of 
neutrality and the Dissenters hated the 
idea of a theological college which 
.would have been . Anglican. Eventually 
the project, legally named the Royal 
Institution for the Advancement of 
Letters, Arts and Sciences, became McGill 
College, through a legacy made by James . 
McGill at Montreal. McGill began just 
as a college of arts, a position similar to 
that of the Jesuits' College and the Que- 
bec Seminary. The same must be said of 
King's College which became the Uni- 
versity of Toronto and other now existing 
Canadian universities. 

The need of a university became more 
and more felt, especially when the Bar 
was established, when the medical men 
had a Bureau of Examiners, when lawyers 
and physicians migrated to Canada from 
the Britfsh Isles, when various medical 
institutes sprang from the new American 
" soil, when McGill pushed forward with 
the power of granting degrees. These 
are reasons to be kept in mind. 

Other reasons, however, urged upon the 
the French Canadians the idea of a uni- 
versity. The main one is to be found in 
the Durham Report. Like most Canadians 
you may not have read that Report, which 
so deeply influenced the development of 
Canada. I believe that all Canadians, at 
least educated Canadians, should read it. 
Durham was sent here in 1838 by the 
British Government, in order to calm the 
rebellion which raged both in Upper 
and in Lower Canada. He made an in- 
tensive inquiry into the situation, either 
personally or by his agents. His report 
was presented to the House of Commons 
in London in January, 1839. It must have 




• been a sort of scandal for the British 
Government, for Durham had only blame 
for that government. He had mostly 
blame for the English Canadians. As for 
the French Canadians he rather praised 
them in the first part and he scorched 
them in the last part. 

One paragraph has been retained— the 
one in which he said that the French 
Canadians were a people of no history, 
no literature, no drama, no fine arts. Of 
course, he meant that actually they had 
not written a history, or literary works, or 
plays, and had not produced works of 
art. In that last case he was wrong, a fact 
that has been abundantly proven by 
various books of historical research and 
which is presently proven by the Ex- 
hibition ot old French Canadian Art at 
the Provincial Museum. He was right for 
the rest. Garneau's "Histoire du Canada" 
had not yet been printed. Our first liter- 
ary movement dates only of I860. As 
for drama there was nothing of the 
sort, since the church prohibited 
the people from going ,to theatre. 
Durham never meant that matter was 
lacking for writing historical, literary, 
and dramatic works. Yet that was un- 
derstood by a good many French Can- 

Durham's Report was considered as a 
final condemnation of the French Cana- 
dians as lacking culture. The recommen- 
dations of the Report were implemented 
in the Union Act of 1840, and then be- 
gan a supreme assault against the French- 
speaking group. The official use of the 
French language was abandoned, at least 
for a few years. The Catholic religion 
was attacked, especially by the French- 
Canadian Missionary Society. Politically 
the French Canadians were merged into 
the English-speaking community, so as to 
counterbalance their numerical influence. 
These were really hard times for Jean- 
Baptiste but his spirit of resistance had 
been underrated. Only four years after 
the Durham Report, the French came to 
the fore with a plan for a university, 
thinking that only such an institution 
could save them. That plan was based on 
the use of the Jesuits^ Estates. It was 
under consideration for four years and 
then abandoned because it was felt that 
the British Government would not give 
away those Estates. That failure made the 

French Canadians only more desirous of 
having the university. They turned their 
eyes on that old institution, the Quebc- 
Seminary, which had seigniories, farms 
houses for rent and, above all, the respec 
and esteem of all the people for ii 
academic accomplishments. The Semin 
ary yielded to the pressure and, with the 
help of the Governor General, it ob 
tained a Charter for a university fron 
Queen Victoria in 1852. You may sec 
now, what importance the Frend 
Canadians give to the centenary of ou- 

There is presently full evidence tha 
their ancestors were right in thinking 
that salvation resided in the organization 
of a full university. How much cultural 
work has been done during 100 year^ 
is easy to see in this year 1952. Literature 
history, philosophy, and sciences all have 
well organized courses. Thousands oi" 
young men and young women are pre 
pared every year for more than 50 dif 
- fcrent careers and they are in great dc 
mand everywhere. 

One of these careers is nursing. It is 
relatively new in Laval University, since 
the first school of nursing was affiliated in 
1923. The first courses for the degree of 
Bachelor in Nursing date only from 1933. 
Yet, even there, one must look at the 
historical data. Nursing in New France 
is as old as the colony itself. Officially 
New France began with the foundation 
of Quebec in 1608; but it remained in a 
very precarious condition until 1 63 ^ 
when, after the Treaty of St. Germain-en 
Laye (1632), a new beginning came for 
the colony. Six years later (1639) the 
first nurses came from France to open 
the first hospital in Quebec— l'Hotel- 
Dieu— still existing today. This wa* 
a bold move, since the population 
was still very scarce. Let us eon 
sider that these nuns had nc 
other purpose than nursing, for the teach 
ing was given at the Ursulines. Of course 
they had no university diploma, no other 
diploma than their good will and * 
general education. As for the technica: 
part of their work, they depended upon 
the physicians, surgeons, and druggist*, 
of the time. One of these men was the 
main doctor of the hospital but all wen 
admitted to treat the patients. The re 
gisters show that even the surgeons c 

Vol. 48. No. U» 



;:ie incoming ships were accepted at the 
i!6tel-Dieu. With the hard climate, with 
•ic frequent epidemics, with the seamen 
irom various parts of the world, there 
was a sufficient variety of cases. These 
conditions made for a better practice on 
me part of physicians and for a 
i ctter apprenticeship on the part of 
future physicians. Later the Hopital 
(general was established. Under the 
I nglish rule the Hopital de la Marine 
was open and the asylum for mental 
<, iseases. 

The nuns of the Hotel-Dieu were 
closely associated with the Jesuits first 
md later with the Quebec Seminary. 
Usually one of the priests of that 
Seminary was the spiritual and even the 
general adviser to the nuns. The 
Seminary, the Jesuits* College, the 
Ursulines, and the Hotel-Dieu formed 
.i sort of cooperative for buying goods in 
France. The books of accounts of the 
Seminary show surprising entries, with a 
ejuantity of feminine . articles, which 
evidently were for the various Sisters, 
since the Seminary had very few female 

As soon as the new faculty of medicine 
began its teaching in 1854, the relations 
between the medical professors and the 
nursing sisters of the Hotel-Dieu became 
more active. Clinics were established very 
early. The medical faculty and the Sisters 
have always worked in cooperation. As 
Tor training in nursing, the Sisters of the 
Hotel-Dieu at first looked upon it as a 
very modern invention and maybe some- 
thing dangerous for their traditions. 
Seven schools of nursing were affiliated 
with the university before the • Hotel- 
Oieu made its request for such an ad- 
vantage, ten years after the first affiliation. 
Yet they entered that new field with de- 
termination. They accepted the idea of a 
higher course in nursing, which I pro- 
posed to them in 1933. The first lessons 
for that course were given at the Hotel- 
Dieu in the winter of 1934 for some 20 
Sisters of various orders. At the present 

ime 15 schools of nursing are affiliated 
with Laval University for the basic 

ourse. Besides these schools, there are 

ourses in surgery, obstetrics, and gyne- 
cology. All these teachings are controlled 
i>y the medical faculty and by some of the 

ldministrative officers of the university. 


Though there would be much to say 
about the French Canadian nurses and 
the various professional associations of 
nurses, I shall refrain from making any 
comments, since there are in that matter 
very delicate problems and 3ince it would 
require a pretty long development. 

Most of the nurses present it this con- 
vention speak English and I presume they 
would like to know what the relations 
are between the university and English- 
speaking Canadians. These relations have 
always been very friendly. Even before 
the charter it was customary for the Que- 
bec Seminary to register a good many 
English-speaking pupils. When the uni- 
versity began to give courses, young men 
of English language registered in law, 
in medicine and in arts, especially for 
pharmacy. Their proportion was about 25 
per cent of the total registration. That 
practice has continued without interrup- 
tion and it is now quite remarkable, 
especially for the summer, courses. It is 
impossible to find in Laval University the 
slightest trace of narrow-mindedness in 
that field. This university is strongly in 
favor of the bi-cultural and of the 
bilingual system for Canada. 

Recently in Quebec there was a con- 
ference where 50 university professors, 
all bilingual enough to understand each 
other in either language, met to discuss 
the same high problems from different 
angles. It has been said that such a con- 
ference was an "ideal little Canada" and 
the best means to promote national unity. 
Of course there is still a long way to go 
before we achieve a perfect understanding 
between the two major groups of Canada. 
There are still many prejudices to abate, 
but light will corrie — it is coming. The 
idea of a Canada with two cultures is 
gaining momentum. 

Ypur association can take its part, and 
a leading one, in that splendid work. One 
goal might be for every member to be 
bilingual when, in your discussions and 
reports, either language may be used. 
Every educated Canadian, and you all are, 
should study the remaining prejudices 
that still prevent a true Bonne Entente. 

Your immediate duty is-to treat suffer 
ing humanity; but you are citizens of this 
country and as such you must contribute 
to the building of a great nation — the 
Canadian Nation. 


S. Marcus, B.Sc, M.D., CM., F.C.C.P. 

Pleurisy or pleuritis is an inflammation 
of the pleura with or without a liquid 
effusion. It is a very common affection 
and may be either a primary or secondary 
condition. In most instances it is secon- 
dary to some other process. 

Most cases of primary pleurisy, or so- 
called idiopathic pleurisy, have been de- 
monstrated to be of tuberculous origin. 
Secondary pleurisy is usually due to ex- 
tension of disease from the chest con- 
tents or through the blood stream and 
may be due to a variety of bacterio- 
logical agents. 

Classification of the pleuritides: Acute 
fibrinous pleurisy (dry); serofibrinous 
pleurisy (wet); purulent pleurisy (em- 
pyema); hemorrhagic pleurisy; chyliform 
pleurisy; cystic and fungous infections. 

Morbid Anatomy 

The area of pleural involvement may 
be limited to a small site or may involve 
a complete side. The apices of the lungs 
are most frequently involved although 
clinically it is diagnosed usually in the 
anterolateral portion of the lower part 
of the chest. Friction and pain are often 
found in this region. The inflammation 
may be limited to the pleura covering the 

In fibrinous pleurisy a threadlike 
exudate forms on the pleural sur- 
faces. This may ultimately disappear, 
although more commonly it undergoes 
fibrous changes, which produce adhesions 
between the visceral and parietal layers. 
At times the pleural space may become 
completely obliterated. 

In serous pleurisy there is an outpour- 
ing of serous fluid that may vary from a 
few centimeters to several litres. The 
mechanism of its production is still the 
subject of much discussion. The fluid in 
serofibrinous pleurisy is yellowish and 
clear in color. It may be opalescent and 
contain flakes or coagulated masses of 
fibrin. Microscopically leukocytes and a 
few blood cells are noted. 

Dr. Marcus is a practising physician in 
Shcrbrooke, Que. 


Most cases begin with a sudden sharp 
pain in the side, with a chill followed by 
fever. The character of the pain is ex 
tremely variable. During the early perioci 
of the attack the picture is that of all 
^ acute infections— slight fever, headache 
anorexia and, in addition, sharp pain, 
worse during respiration and cough. It 
may be agonizing in character. The 
respirations are rapid and shallow in dry 
pleurisy. The patient, by breathing in 
this manner, unconsciously tries to 
prevent the inflamed pleural surfaces 
from rubbing together. Cough is short 
and hacking. With the development of 
an effusion the pain disappears entirely 
or leaves only a feeling of soreness. 
The temperature may reach 102 - 103°, 
it may be continuous or remittent 
though it usually falls gradually by 
lysis. The pulse is usually 100 or over. 
Dyspnea is not marked if the effusion 
is insidious in onset. Nevertheless, diag- 
nosis must not be casual. 


Many cases of acute pleurisy with 
effusion escape notice. Primary fibrinous 
pleurisy should always be considered as 
tuberculous in character. It is a com- 
mon symptom of the onset of pulmonary 
tuberculosis. The possible extension of 
this disease into the lung is important. 
Pleurisy with effusion is more closely 
related to tuberculosis than the fibrinous 
type. Acute lobar pneumonia that in- 
volves the surface of the lung gives rise 
to fibrinous pleurisy. Any disease of the 
lung that involves the surface may give 
rise to fibrinous pleurisy. 

In pleurisy with effusion diagnostic 
thoracentesis should always be performed. 
The character of the fluid is important- 
bacteriological smears, cultures, and 
guinea pig inoculation should be made 

In the differential diagnosis we must 
exclude empyemata, pericarditis with 
effusion, pneumonia, chronic suppurative 
conditions in the lungs, intrathoracic 
tumors and cysts and, occasionally, liver 
and subphrenic abscesses and cysts. 

Vol. 48. No. 10 




If untreated, chronic pleurisy with 
effusion may persist for months and even 
years. Chronic dry pleurisy is not an un- 
common sequela. Pulmonary fibrosis 
may occur in long-standing cases. 

Treatment is that of any acute infec- 
tion, plus symptomatic therapy such as 
fixation of the chest and sedation. With 
effusion repeated thoracentesis may be 

Primary fibrinous pleurisy and pleurisy 
with effusion must be considered as 
tuberculous in origin until proved other- 
wise. The patient should be kept under 
observation and regular chest roentgeno- 
grams taken. It has been variously esti- 
mated that 35 to 50 per cent of patients 
with pulmonary tuberculosis give a pre- 
liminary history of some type of 

The Nursing Care of Pleurisy 

Martha Aldrich 

Since pleurisy may be the first mani- 
festation of pneumonia, a spreading 
tuherculosis, or pleurisy with effusion, the 
condition must be handled carefully. This 
is largely a matter of nursing care. Care- 
ful x-rays and sputum examinations are 
done to try and discover the underlying 
condition. Those patients with an ap- 
parently spontaneous fibrinous pleurisy 
should be treated with a view to prevent 
further development of any tuberculosis 
which may be present. Pleurisy with 
effusion sometimes begins as a fibrinous 
pleurisy but more often the onset is in- 
sidious and the patient may not even 
notice its presence. Empyema, also, often 
develops insidiously but the patient with 
this condition appears much sicker, has a 
higher fever, and becomes more anemic 
thin one with an uninfected pleural 
effusion. More specialized nursing care is, 
therefore, required. 

Bed rest is essential in all cases of 
pleurisy, at least as long as any fever is 
present. Temperature, pulse, and respira- 
tion are taken and recorded every four 
hours. This usually is a good indication 
of the patient's progress because as long 
as there is any infection present the tem- 
perature remains elevated. Immobiliza- 
tion of the affected side gives relief from 
pain and may be accomplished by using 

Miss Aldrich is on the staff of the 
Shcrbrooke (Que.) Hospital. 

OCTOBER. 1952 

a tight binder or strapping with adhesive 
plaster, the latter being more satisfactory 
if it is convenient to use it. If something 
more is necessary to relieve the pain, 
sedatives, such as codeine or morphine, 
may be used. 

Because of the pain caused by each 
respiration, the patient naturally takes 
the shallowest breaths possible. Some- 
times a deficiency of oxygen results, with 
cyanosis. Then the use of oxygen, given 
by nasal catheter or tent, is indicated until 
the patient is able to maintain an efficient 
supply of oxygen himself. If he has a 
cough, which is usually short, painful, 
and non-productive, a bronchial sedative 
or expectorant is given with relief. The 
sputum, if any is produced, should be 
collected and examined to discover the 
, particular organism which may be causing 
the infection. The patient should be im- 
pressed with the importance of rest even 
- after the infection appears to have sub- 

The patient is kept as comfortable as 
possible by the practice of everyday good 
nursing procedures. A daily bath is 
essential, whether taken by the patient 
himself or given by the nurse, depending 
upon his condition. The patient with a 
high fever may require more bathing than 
just once daily. Frequent alcohol rubs 
' add to his comfort. His position, although 
he prefers usually to lie on the affected 
side, should be changed from time to 




time. He is usually more comfortable 
with the head of the bed elevated and 
his back supported with pillows. Good 
oral hygiene is necessary as in all cases 
with a high fever. Regular elimination 
habits are maintained, either by the use 
of laxatives or an enema when necessary. 
The patient should be in a cool, bright, 
well ventilated room where a pleasant, 
cheerful, atmosphere is maintained by the 
nursing staff. 

Those patients who develop a pleurisy 
with effusion require all the nursing 
care outlined in the preceding para- 
graphs plus additional procedures. The 
presence of fluid in the pleural cavity 
causes difficult respirations and consid- 
erable discomfort to the patient. 
Therefore sufficient fluid should be re- 
moved often enough to keep the 
patient comfortable. However, the 
fluid should be first examined 
and cultured. If it is found to be 
purulent, complete removal is con- 
sidered. . 

Three methods of drainage have been 
commonly used: open drainage by rib 
resection; closed drainage through in- 
sertion of an airtight tubing opening 
under water; and repeated thoracentesis 
with aspiration of the exudate. In chil- 
dren aspiration often is sufficient. In 
some cases, repeated removal of the 
fluid through a needle and the instilla- 
tion of penicillin into the pleural 
cavity has been successful. If, on cul- 
ture, the causative organisms have 
been isolated other antibiotic sub- 
stances, specific for treatment of 

these organisms, may be given orally or 
by intramuscular injection. Terramycin, ' 
aureomycin, and streptomycin have been 
used. Special attention must be paid to 
care of the skin around the drainage tub- 
ing, especially after each thoracentesis. 

During convalescence, deep breathing 
and other exercises may be of value in 
helping in the reinflation of the lung 
previously collapsed by the pleural fluid. 

The diet is an important feature in 
the nursing care of patients with pleurisy. 
During the acute stage when the patient 
does not feel like eating, easily digestible 
fluids with a high caloric content are 
given as often and in such quantity as 
the patient can tolerate. The nurse may 
have to insist upon his taking something, 
because in this condition he will not 
take enough voluntarily. As his condition 
improves, so does his appetite. The diet 
is increased from fluids to soft and 
gradually to full. Iii some cases, especially 
those of pleurisy with effusion, the patient 
may. be weak, underweight, and anemic. 
Symptoms should be treated, as indicated, 
with dietary supplements, digestive stimu- 
lants, cod liver oil, iron and vitamins, in 
whatever form the doctor prescribes. 

More is needed than just good nursing 
care while the patient is in the hospital. 
While giving this regular care the nurse 
has a wonderful opportunity to teach the 
patient the importance of rest and good 
health habits, especially during con- 
valescence and after he has recovered 
completely. It is well to remember that 
"an ounce of prevention is worth a pound 
of cure." 

The Patient's Point of View 

The Oldest Known Will 

Translation of Will of Uah — an Egyptian — 
made in 2,548 B.C., 4,500 years ago. 

"I, Uah, am giving a title to property to 
my wife Shcftu, the woman of Gesab, who 
is called Teta, the daughter of Sat Sepdu, 
of all things given to me by my brother 
Ankh-ren. She shall give it to any she 
desires of her children she bears me. 

I am giving to her the Eastern slaves, 
4 persons, that my brother Ankh-ren gave 
me. She shall give them to whomsoever she 
will of her children. 

As to my tomb, let me be buried in it 
with my wife alone. 

Moreover as to the house built for me 
by my brother Ankh-ren, my wife shall 
dwell therein without allowing her to be 
put forth on the ground by any person. 

It is the dep'uty Gebu who shall act as 
guardian of my son. 

Done in the presence of these witnesses: 
Kemen, Decorator of Columns, 
Apu, Doorkeeper of the Temple, .- . 
Senb, Son of Senb, Doorkeeper of the 

Patricia Jones 

Going into hospital for an operation is 
an unnerving proposition, however you 
look at it. Getting undressed and climbing 
into a strange, and unnaturally high, bed 
in the middle of the day; wrestling with 
the intricacies of a hospital nightgown 
that opens, with no regard to modesty, 
right down the back, and is far too short; 
submitting to having your pulse taken 
while a thermometer is thrust into your 
mouth; obeying the orders of a crisply 
dressed nurse; anticipating with mixed 
feelings the visit of your doctor — that 
competent impressive person who holds 
your destiny in his hands. Maybe you 
have been planning this operation for . 
some time so that your affairs are all in 
order, your suitcase appropriately stocked 
with necessities, your will signed and in 
the hands of your lawyer. More likely 
this is an emergency, a sudden illness that 
has snatched you from the middle of a 
myriad of affairs and you are totally 

In either ; event, hospitalization is 
traumatic. It is not to be confused with 
humdrum events like going to your work 
or attending a movie. The hospital itself 
is impressive. It is a place of life and 
death, of healing and of pain. For the 
time you are there you must, perforce, 
regress to childhood and be dependent — 
in the most intimate matters — on 
strangers. You must submit to the in- 
dignities of enemas, bed-pans, bed-baths, 
perhaps shaving of hair on various parts 
of the body. All these strange proceed- 
ings, accepted so calmly by the nurses, 
have enormous importance to you, the 
patient, and attain something of the 
quality of mystic rites. You wonder, un- 
easily, if you are being prepared for 
death. The amazing assortment of gar- 
ments that custom decrees necessary for 
the operating theatre — the white stock- 
ings, white turban and sheet — add a 
bizarre note that heightens tension. 

Miss Jones is not a nurse so her 
observations of what it is like to be the 
patient give us some constructive sug- 

In the hospital you are in a new world. 
You, the patient, are stripped of the 
dignity built so laboriously in home or 
business. You have a new status. You 
are the patient — at once the most impor- 
tant and the least important person there. 
Without you the hospital would not exist. 
For your benefit, doctors, nurses, social 
workers, laboratory technicians, and a 
dozen more professional groups have 
studied and toiled for years to attain 
more and wider skills. You are the centre 
of interest — the focal point of trained 
teamwork. Your physical reactions are of 
enormous importance. Your intake and 
output are carefully charted. Your 
medication is thoughtfully planned. Yet, 
in the hierarchy of the hospital, where the 
doctor is king, you are expected to sub- 
merge your individuality, meekly obey 
orders, submit without complaint to treat- 
ments, cease to use your trained intelli- 
gence. Your enquiries into the reason for 
certain procedures, or the type of medi- 
cation you are ordered to take, are treated 
coldly. You arc "the patient" and, as 
such, are expected to have a childlike 
faith in the infallibility of doctor and 
nurse. The "what" and the "why" are 
not your business. ; 

Let us be frank. They are usually right 
— these determinedly professional people. 
You have confidence in them and you 
are sure their training has been 
thorough. They arc unfailingly kind 
and thoughtful. They know all sorts of 
tricks' to make you comfortable. Their 
whole interest is in your physical 
well-being and they do a wonderful 
job. Your only real complaints 
are that they do not always recognize the 
uniqueness of the experience you are 
undergoing; and they seldom choose to 
treat you as a person of equal intelligence, 
one who has the capacity and, indeed, the 
right to share in the teamwork being 
undertaken on your behalf. 

The doctor, often working 12 or 14 
hours a day, usually is toa rushed to 
spare more than a passing thought for 
the emotional strain you may be under- 
going. The nurses hurry to and fro, 

Vol. 48. No. 10 

(K TOBER. 1952 




striving to remember the myriad details 
of care required by each patient. Is it any 
wonder that your personal reactions are 
ignored or overlooked? Yet something 
of real importance is being passed over. 
There are emotional scars in the making, 
deep wounds that may fester if they are 
not tended. 

Take, for example, an eye operation. 
There are a lot of them done these days- 
wonderful operations that save sight. 
With minute instruments, the doctor 
works natiently on one small area of an 
eye and performs miracles. But how often 
does he see the necessity of preparing 
you emotionally for post-operative 
care? If he is a good doctor— and 
most of them are— he will describe 
in advance and in layman's terms 
what he plans to do in the oper- 
ation, outlining the risks involved 
and the probable results. All too often 
he forgets to prepare you for temporary 
blindness — for that big wad of cotton 
that will cover both eyes for several days. 
It has probably become a commonplace 
to him, so inevitable a procedure that he 
does not give it a second thought. When 
the bandage goes on— and you protest — 
then the doctor will probably explain 
that it is the only way to rest the eye 
and keep it from moving. He would 
have saved you an unnecessary shock 
if he had told you about it in advance. 
You would have been emotionally 
prepared. You might also have made 
sure you had a radio to comfort your 
loneliness in the darkness and perhaps 
friends to visit you. 

You also need preparation for post- 
operative pain. Operations are so strange 
to you that you do not always anticipate 
such things. When the anesthetic wears 
off and you feel a thousand little devils 
stabbing you with knives, you are apt to 
imagine that "something has gone 
wrong." If the doctor explains, in ad- 
vance, that the stitches may pull as the 
eye swells and retracts, then fear is 
banished and the pain is accepted as a 
necessary evil that is unpleasant but not 

The blindfold plunges you into dark- 
ness. It is an abnormal situation that 
awakens primitive fears. You do not 
realize how much you have depended on 
your sight until you are deprived of it. 

You cling, precariously, to reality. Your 
doctor has told you— and you believe 
him — that this is a temporary measure. 
Your present blindness, you tell yourself, 
is not a tragedy but merely an embarrass- 
ment. You try to find the funny side of 
it, to joke over your fumblings. It is not 
too easy. You are chagrined when you in- 
advertently knock over a vase of flowers 
or smash your feeder. You break into a 
cold sweat when you cannot locate the 
bell to call the nurse. Lying flat on your 
back in bed, you seem to float in space. 
The walls of your room no longer exist. 
Your ears strain in an effort to replace 
your eyes. You hear rustles, murmurs, 
creaks that you cannot identify. You 
wonder whether you are alone or whether 
people are walking about near you. The 
darkness begins to ripple as panic rises. 
It breaks into waves, explodes into light 
flashes, stars, strange shapes and faces. 
You are unable to shut out this weird 
assortment of "long-leggedy beasties" 
that is tormenting you. Your body is 
tense — your breath comes fast. For a short 
time you may even be disoriented. 

There are some simple ways of keeping 
panic at bay but these require the help 
of hospital personnel. You can quickly 
learn to "see" with your fingers. On your 
bedside table, within easy reach, can be 
placed paper handkerchiefs, candy, toilet 
water, feeder and so on. The maid, when 
dusting, should take care to return each 
object to its exact position and you can 
check them before she leaves the room. 
The radio can also be within easy reach 
of your hand, so that you can turn it off 
or on at will. This gives you a measure of 
independence that is very precious. 

People entering your room, or ap- 
proaching your bed in the ward, will 
help you a lot if they announce them- 
selves. In the workaday world you are 
accustomed to recognizing friends by their 
appearance. When you are blindfolded 
you must depend on your memory of 
their voices. It is embarrassing to both 
you and your visitor if you make a mis- 
take. This applies to the doctor, too. It 
is customary for him to enter with a 
nurse or, perhaps, other doctors. It is dis- 
concerting, to say the least, when you 
and your doctor begin to talk privately 
— or so you imagine — then you hear a 
shuffle of feet or a rustle of starched 

Vol. 48. No. 10 



uniform and discover that you have an 
audience. It would be comforting if the 
doctor said, "Good morning, I'm Dr. X. 
I have Dr. Y with me and Miss Q is 
here, too, to assist me with the dressings." 
You know where you are then. It helps, 
too, if the doctor takes your hand when 
he speaks. A handclasp is an additional 
method of communication, compensating 
fo some extent for that facial expression 
of interest in your welfare that you can- 
not see. 

Conversely, it is important for you to 
know when people leave the room. You 
ian get quite a nasty "turn" jf you have 
been chatting to the nurse as she moves 
about your room. For some reason she 
lias occasion to leave, but you don't rea- 
lize this since she moves silently in her 
rubber-soled shoes. The breeze blows the 
window curtains, sounding like the rustle* 
of the nurse's uniform, so you speak to 
her. She doesn't answer. You speak 
louder, alarm mounting. Your imagina- 
tion plays tricks as you listen intently, 
trying to figure out what she is doing. 
She could have saved you some bad 
moments if she had mentioned that she 
was leaving the room. 

There is another point that causes you 
imusement and sometimes annoyance or 
strain. People shout at you. You may 
have caught yourself in the same error 
when talking to someone who does not 
understand English. You talk more 
loudly! Even nurses fall into this error, 
sometimes, when talking to you while 
you are blindfolded. They imagine you 
tannot hear either. Actually, nothing 
<ould be further from the truth. Unless 
you are hard of hearing, your" ears are 
more alert when your eyes are covered. 
You catch the softest whisper and are 
particularly aware of nuances of tone, 
fatigue, irritability, boredom — they stand 
out like sore thumbs in the tones of voice. 
Conversely, it is wonderfully comforting 
to be greeted by a warm friendly voice 
when you ring for a nurse— to be assured 
hat "it is no trouble at all" to answer 
our enquiries as to whether it is night 
^r morning or some other apparently tri- 
* ial matter. 

The nurse who has sufficient imagina- 
ton to realize the uniqueness of your 
; resent experience is quiclc to realize how 
: nportant it is for you to cling to reality. 

OCTOBER, 1952 

When she comes into your room to fix a 
flapping window shade and you remark 
that you have had a good night's sleep, 
she helps you to see the funny side of 
things as she explains, with a chuckle, 
that it is only 2:00 a.m. so maybe you 
could manage another "forty winks" be- 
fore breakfast. If you cannot doze off 
again — and the nights are extra long in 
your situation — she may be imaginative 
enough to anticipate your needs and bring 
you, unasked, some tea and toast, hot milk 
or a sedative. You appreciate that very 
much because you hate to be dependent in 
every area and have to "ask." 

It helps, too, i( the nurse is not too 
hidebound by regulations, i( she recog- 
nizes you as a person and not just one of 
the patients assigned to her care. There- 
are times when the usual sponging of 
hands and face and plumping up of pil- 
lows will do nothing to add to your com- 
fort. One of those times is when you have 
just got over a bad bout of pain and are 
relaxed, fearful of moving a muscle, in 
case the pain should recur. You don't 
even want to talk. Drowsy with sedation, 
you long to be left alone. The bright 
cheery nurse, bustling in with a bowl of 
hot water,* and full of desire to wash and 
powder your back, is someone you resist 
viciously. You snap angrily at her. 

Another time that you may resent her 
is after a particularly bad night, when you 
have finally fallen asleep and she 
awakens you with a snap or the window 
blind and a flick of the thermometer 
at least half an hour before your breakfast 
is due. Poor nurse! In your saner 
moments you realize that she may easily 
be unaware of your "bad times" and thus 
can hardly be blamed for carrying out 
her busy schedule with as much despatch 
as possible. 

The healing process that is so impor- 
tant during those days and nights of im- 
posed darkness is quickened when you 
have peace of mind. It is slowed down i( 
you are tense, anxious, confused. If your 
illness has struck suddenly, you may have 
a myriad of worries with which you need 
help. Neither doctor nor nurse can help 
you here. Many hospitals make available 
to you the assistance of • the trained 
medical social worker, regardless of your 
financial status. You can feel comfortable 
with her. She does not hurry and you 




know, because your doctor has told you f 
that she will treat your affairs as con* 
fidential, sharing them only with him and 
the head nurse. She seems to understand, 
without your having to put it into words, 
the strange fears you are experiencing. 
She is interested in learning how your 
illness affects you personally. She is prer 
pared to attend to intimate matters con- 
cerning your personal affairs or your 
family with the minimum of fuss. You 
realize also that she is handling 
effectively that "emotional component" 
that is an important part of your illness 
and that your doctor has told you must 
be solved if you are to return to full 

You find, however, that it is some- 
times hard for you and your social worker 
to establish a good working relationship 
when you cannot see her. You wish to 
goodness she had seen fit to make your 
acquaintance before the operation instead 
of waiting until you are plunged into 
darkness. You wish, too, that she would 
remember to tell you that you and she are 
talking privately, . without onlookers, 
when she drops in to see you. You would 
feel more comfortable about speaking 
freely to her. 

The dietitian has an important part to 
play in helping you during your "dark 
days." It is so humiliating to be fed— 
and quite .unnecessary as a rule. Food 
seems to taste so much better when it 
reaches your mouth at the moment you ex- 
pect it. You can have some interesting dis- 
cussions with the dietitian as to the food 
you are permitted and ways it can be pre- 
pared so that you can handle it. Even 
though you must lie flat on your back, 
a bib can be draped round your neck 
and chest to catch the splashes. Salads 
can be prepared so that lettuce, celery, 
tomato slices, and chicken can be handled 
in the fingers. Moist meat and vegetables 

can be cut up so that you can handle - 
them in a spoon, with a cracker in the 
other hand as a pusher. Liquids can go 
in a feeder. Mealtimes then become a 
pleasure instead of an ordeal. 

Visitors are generally good for morale 
but you do wish there was some way of 
weeding out the ones who overwhelm 
you with sympathy or, conversely, de- 
press and tire you with long recitals of 
their own woes. In the main, however, it 
is a wonderful help to "see" your friends, 
especially if they come prepared to read 
aloud or keep you entertained with news 
of mutual friends.' One visitor at a time 
is usually more comfortable than several 
at once. It is exasperating when they 
bring you lovely flowers that you cannot 
see, except maybe for one brief moment 
when the bandages are being changed. 
Flowers are friendly things in a hospital 
ward, however, and "the thought behind 
them" brings you a warm feeling. 

When you have had a good day and 
are feeling relaxed and comfortable, a 
strange thing happens. You have a sense 
of sight. All at once you are aware of 
light shining through the bandages. You 
know who is around you and are able 
to follow their movements round your 
bed as though you could see them. You 
chat and laugh, you are at peace with 
the world, and you can almost sense the 
healing process going forward at top 

Soon it will be time for the bandages 
to come off for good and for your doctor 
to talk in terms of discharge date. Sur 
prisingly enough, you are not too en- 
thusiastic over the prospect of leaving 
the hospital. The uniqueness of your 
experience has gradually diminished 
You have become reconciled to your 
status of "patient" and are almost fearful 
of resuming your former responsibilities 
in the outside world. 

Volunteer Societies 

Democratic countries do well to encourage 
the voluntary societies in the field of health 
because citizens, associated in committees to 
work for the common good with no thought 
but the good of the community, can do work 
cheaply and effectively. It should be obvious 

that citizens organized to protect themselves 
and their children will work with an enthu - 
iasm which cannot be duplicated by any for 1 
of organization to be found in a totalitarian 
atmosphere where their activities are di - 
couraged. — Dr. Gordon Bates. 

Air-Borne Allergens 

C. H. A. Walton. M.Sc, M.D., F.A.C.P. 

An allergen must enter the body before 
an allergic reaction can take place. There- 
are several routes of entry. The allergen 
may be swallowed or ingested, such as 
food or drink or medicine. It may be 
injected as with medications, such as in- 
sulin, liver, penicillin, etc. It may enter 
the body through the skin as in the case 
of contact dermatitis. Finally, the 
allergen may enter the body through the 
respiratory tract. 

To be inhaled the substance must be 
suspended in the air in the form of dust 
particles. A dust particle cannot enter 
the respiratory tract unless it is air-borne 
so that it reaches the nose or the lung in 
a current of air. The dust particle comes 
to rest in some part of the respiratory 
mucosa. There it undergoes an aqueous 
form- of extraction. The aqueous extract 
is absorbed through the mucosa and 
may affect the cells directly if they arc- 
sensitized or it may travel via the body 
fluids to other tissues. If such other tissues 
are sensitized a reaction will occur there. 
The site of the reaction depends on the 
location of the sensitized cells and it is 
not necessarily related to the route of 
entry of the allergen. The allergen may 
enter the nose and cause a reaction in the 
nasal mucosa. It may enter the lung and 
do likewise in the bronchial mucosa but 
it may also enter the lung and circulate 
and reach such an organ as the skin, lead- 
ing to dermatitis. 

I would like to emphasize the obvious 
point that the dust particles must be air- 
home before it is possible for them to 
nter the respiratory tract. As these dust 
urtkl^s are inanimate bodies it is ap- 
parent that they will become air-borne 
only in the presence of a current of air. 
3n perfectly still air dust settles and is not 
lir-borne. In air which is greatly agitated 
lie dust becomes air-borne readily. 

Airborne allergens are among the com- 
nonest of all and come from a great 

Reprinted, with permission, from The 
Bulletin, Vancouver Medical Association, 
British Columbia. 

variety of sources. As they are commonly 
invisible, except in a beam of strong 
light, most of us are unaware that we arc- 
constantly breathing, in and out of our 
respiratory tracts, a great variety of very 
numerous dust particles. These particles 
are ordinarily innocuous — that is to say, 
they are not toxic. However, many of 
. them have the property of becoming 
allergens to sensitive people. No doubt 
there are many dust particles which we 
have yet to recognize but, fortunately, for 
practical purposes we know the origin 
and properties of many and their effects 
on individuals who are sensitive t6 them. 
If these properties are known much can 
be done to recognize the source of the 
patient's trouble and, therefore, how to 
deal with it. 

Seventy-five years ago Blackley in Lon- 
don demonstrated that he, and various 
other people like himself, suffered from 
hay fever and asthma during the season 
of grass pollination. He demonstrated 
conclusively that he had symptoms only 
when grass pollen was in the air. He- 
demonstrated the grass pollen floating in 
the air and he estimated its quantity. He- 
showed that it was in the air ofcly when 
grass was actually pollinating in June 
and early July. He also demonstrated that 
if grass pollen saved from a previous 
season was placed in his nose or inhaled 
into his lung in some other season 
symptoms were produced. Finally he 
demonstrated that if grass pollen was 
scratched into his skin, that an urticarial 
wheal resulted. 

This is the classical demonstration of 
air-borne allergy. Since his time we havc 
learned that the pollen of many plants 
is allergenic and that it does, indeed, 
cause symptoms of hay fever, asthma, and 
some cases of dermatitis in many in- 
dividuals. It is obvious that such pollen 
must be air-borne before it can reach 
the patient. Thus only plants which can 
produce air-borne pollen are of impor- 
tance in allergy. Many plants, particularly 
those with bright flowers, are insect 
pollinated. Their pollen is too large and 

Vol. 48, No. 10 





sticky and too heavy to be readily air- 
borne. Such plants are not important in 
allergy. The rose and the goldenrod are 
myths in allergy. Plants with small, in- 
conspicuous, ugly and badly scented 
flowers do not attract the insects and, 
therefore, to achieve cross pollination • 
(hey must produce large quantities of 
small, dry, light pollen grains which float 
in clouds in the air and thus reach other 
plants. These are the plants which con- 
cern us. 

Tree Pollens 

These plants may be divided into three 
groups: the trees, the grasses, and the 
weeds. Such trees as the poplar, willow, 
elm, maple, ash, alder, .and the oak 
commence pollination usually rather sud- 
denly in late April and continue to pol- 
linate into May. These dates, of course, 
vary in different latitudes and in different 
areas. It is obvious that if a patient is 
sensitive to the pollen of any of these 
trees he will develop symptoms only when 
that pollen ~ is in the air and can reach 

Grass Pollens 

The next item in the pollination 
calendar is the flowering of the various 
grasses. Generally this starts early in 
June and increases in intensity into the 
early part of July but many species con- 
tinue to pollinate* though not heavily, 
throughout the summer. The amount of 
pollination, of course, varies greatly with 
climatic conditions. Grass pollen is thin- 
shelled and absorbs moisture very easily. 
If there is much rain or humidity grass 
pollen grains absorb moisture, become 
heavy and fall rapidly to the ground 
where they are harmless. In a hot, dry 
summer, if growth has previously been 
good, pollination is heavy and bothers 
the patient a great deal. 

Weed Pollens 
In the great plains of North America 
and throughout the eastern part of the 
continent, the next pollen season is that 
of the weeds. Generally this season starts 
at the end of July and extends through 
August into September. The weed pollen 
sensitive case suffers his trouble in the 
weed pollinating season. If he has the 
good fortune to be in an area where weed 
' pollen does not exist, he will, of course, 

have no symptoms. In large areas of this 
continent one hears a great deal about 
ragweed pollinosis. Some three-quarters 
of the populated area of the continent 
suffers to a greater or lesser degree from 

This, in brief, is the story of pollinosis. 
Do not worry about the brightly 
flowered plants or the brilliantly- 
flowered trees because they cause no 
trouble. The beautifully flowered lilac 
attracts attention in June but it is the in- 
conspicuous blossoming grass around 
about it that in reality causes such misery 
to the patient. 


There is another group of air-borne 
allergens which has some seasonal 
characteristics and which is somewhat 
analogous to pollen. These are the spores 
and cells of fungi or moulds. Any study 
of the atmosphere will demonstrate 
dozens of fungus spores. These vary 
greatly in each area and depend on local 
characteristics. There are some fungi 
which produce spores in varying quanti- 
ties throughout the year, irrespective of 
the temperature or other atmospheric con 
ditions. Such fungi are found outside 
and also inside buildings. I refer to this 
group of fungi as the perennial type and 
it includes such common moulds as yeast, 
penicillin, aspergillus, rhizopus, mucor, 
monilia, etc. All of these can be identified 
and counted in air studies and this is 
done quite simply by the exposure of 
suitable culture plates. 

There are a number of other fungi 
which are characteristically seasonal. 
These seasonal fungi are found thriving 
after the snow has gone in early spring 
and they persist in large quantity until 
they are heavily blanketed with snow in 
the late fall. During winters in which 
there is very little snow, small number- 
of them survive and throw off a feu 
spores throughout even the coldest 
months but, in general, they only appear 
in significant amounts in the air in early 
April, gradually increasing throughout 
the summer and reaching their height in 
late September or October, long afte 
the last pollen grain has left the air. Th 
three common examples of this seasons? 
group are alternaria, hormodendrum, ami 
helminthosporium. In addition, in agn 

Vol. 48. No. 1" 



. ultural areas we find the spores of rust 
md smut. Such parasitic spores are very 
videspread and dense but their season 
.>» very short. Rust and smut can be 
illergenic and are demonstrated in a few 
uses but the other seasonal spores cause 
he greatest number of allergic reactions 
md are comparable in their effect to 
pollen, such as ragweed. The perennial 
spores also seem to be important, though 
itss strikingly so than the seasonal ones, 
.md they occur under many circumstances. 
Exacerbations occur under special cir- 
cumstances such as the cleaning out of a 
mouldy basement, the opening of a 
summer home, etc. 

Insect Scales 

The third type of seasonal air-borne 
allergens is represented by the scales from 
insects. While physical allergy to these 
substances is not common, it does occur 
in a very severe form under some cir- 
cumstances. We have an insect, known 
as the May Fly, which* occurs along rivers 
which are rapidly flowing. This fly col- 
lects in great quantities in such places 
as power houses, so that in a sense it , 
represents an occupational hazard and the 
employees of hydroelectric plants are apt 
to show sensitivity to these insects and 
their scales. 

Most of the other dusts occur through- 
out the year and are not seasonal in the 
ordinary sense of that term. There arc- 
certain seasonal characteristics for these 
dusts in that during the colder months 
of the year they are more troublesome be- 
cause the habitations, barns, and work- 
shops are closed up for warmth and the 
dust concentration becomes higher in the 
confined, slightly ventilated space. Thus 
a patient who is sensitive to the family 
cat may be very much better in the 
summer when the animal is out more and 
when his house is more open — that is, 
the dust density of cat dander in the air 
at home is less. 

Animal Dander 
Haired animals are a great source of 
allergenic dust and obviously those 
animals with which man is most in- 
timately associated are the worst offenders. 
Cats and dogs, which are so common 
as household pets, produce great quan- 
tities of dander. This dander becomes 

an integral part of the house . dust. 
Whether the animal is in evidence at any 
particular moment or not, his dust is in 
the air and the sensitive person inhaling 
it will manifest symptoms. No animal 
should ever be permitted in the home of 
an allergic patient, whether or not 
sensitivity has been demonstrated. It is 
well to remember that, apart from these 
two pets, families very often have un- 
expected pets such as rabbits, rats, 
hamsters, and so on. Even the old cow- 
hide rug or the bearskin, so proudly won 
hunting, may be a source of trouble. 
There is much joking about the human 
animal and, his dandruff and whether one 
can become sensitive to it. Ordinarily 
this is a small problem but it is perhaps 
of some importance among hairdressers 
and barbers. Apart from pets, animals on # 
the farm, or in other establishments 
where they may be kept, are of great 
importance. Cows, horses, animals in a 
circus, a zoo or a riding academy are 
all important sources of dander and all 
cause a great deal of trouble. 

Bird Scales 
Birds are another source of dust. The 
scales from their . feathers are highly 
allergenic. A pet bird or birds in a poul- 
try house or finally, of course the most 
important of all, the feathers in our pil- 
lows, in our eiderdowns, and even in our 
mattresses are a great source of trouble. 
The allergic child or the child of an 
allergic parent should not be introduced 
to a pillow. If he doesn't become 
accustomed to one he will never miss it 
and he may be protected from a very 
troublesome allergy later in life. If he 
must have a pillow, make it of sponge 

Domestic Dust 
There are certain domestic dusts which 
are of great importance. House dust is a 
mixture of many things — textile dust, 
such as cotton lint, the lint from wool; 
the dust from special forms of mattresses; 
from bathpowefer, from insecticides used 
to kill moths, particularly pyrethrum, and 
finally the dust from tobacco. Such dust 
is remarkably uniform allergenically from 
house to house. It is a very potent 
allergen and is a great source of trouble 
to many patients. 

OCTOBER. 1952 



Occupational Dust 
There are many occupational dusts. In 
my section of the country grain dust is of 
the greatest importance. Farmers, elevator 
operators, and other employees of the 
grain trade are very common sufferers 
from respiratory and skin allergy due to . 
sensitivity to this very potent allergen. 
The dust from seed, old granaries and 
from feed, particularly crushed feed, is 
related to and very much like grain dust. 
Another occupational dust, perhaps some- 
what related, is flour dust. The dust which 
the miller and the baker inhale when 
carrying out their normal duties may be 
the cause of much asthma, rhinitis or 
dermatitis. An occupational dust of great 
importance is fur dust — the dust which 
occurs in the establishment of furriers. 
'Still another is that which arises from set 
or hair-wave lotions. Hairdressers are 
peculiarly prone to this form of sensitivity 
and it is also seen, of course, among 
women who are not hairdressers but who 
work on their own hair and that of their 
friends. The basis of this particular dust 
is vegetable gum such as tragacanth, 
karaya and gum arabic. People who are 
highly sensitive to fish may develop 
symptoms if fish is in the same room. 
Workers in the fish industry are inclined 
to suffer this way. Much glue used com- 
mercially comes from fish. Dried glue 
forming a dust is a very potent allergen. 
Today plastic and other substances are 
replacing fish glue to some extent and 
perhaps this particular allergen will be- 
come less important. 

Specific Management 
of Inhalant Sensitivity 
If one accepts as a clinical fact that 
various air-borne dusts can cause many 
cases of respiratory allergy, some cases 
of skin allergy, and perhaps even a few 
cases of migraine, knowing their pro- 
perties aids one in making a diagnosis. 
Diagnosis can be aided by carrying out 
skin tests. Fortunately, skin tests are 
highly specific and quite valuable in the 
diagnosis of inhalant allergy. Generally 
speaking, skin tests are very simple. If the 
suspected dust is rubbed into a super- 
ficial scratch and perhaps moistened by 
some agent — tenth normal, sodium 
hydroxide — a reaction will occur if the 
skin cells of the patient are sensitive. The 

reaction consists of an erythematous flan 
surrounding an irregular urticarial wheal 
The more sensitive the skin the mor 
irregular and large the wheal and/or th. 
erythema. This reaction is accompanied 
by considerable itching. Such a test i 
described as "the scratch test." 

Skin Test 
The scratch technique is still the best 
and certainly the safest way of carrying 
out skin tests. Given a reasonably pun 
sample of the dust, there is no problem it 
carrying out tests. For convenience sake 
the commercial houses now prepare ex 
tracts of the dusts. These are a litth 
simpler to handle, probably less trouble 
some and expensive, and are equally good. 
The only difference in technique is tha: 
the extract is rubbed into the scratch in 
the skin rather than the dry dust. A 
positive reaction, of course, means only . 
that the skin or dermal cells are sensitized. 
Fortunately, in inhalant allergy this in 
dicates, in the vast- majority of cases, that 
the nasal and bronchial mucosa are also 
sensitive. However, false reactions may 
occur — that is, the patient may suffer from 
animal dander sensitivity and yet his skin 
may not react to it. On the other hand, 
positive skin tests may occur without 
clinical manifestations. 

Direct Test 

The only test which is really acceptable 
is a direct test. If the patient is subject 
to hay fever it should be possible to re- 
produce the hay fever by planting the 
suspected pollen on the nasal mucosa. If 
no reaction occurs the suspicion is 
obviously ill-founded. Similar tests are 
done on the conjunctiva or by inhaling 
the dust, in the form of an aerosol, 
directly into the lung. Obviously such 
tests are usually impractical because of 
their inconvenience and because most 
patients would refuse to submit to them. 
Luckily, the skin test is more convenient 
but must not be accepted blindly and onlv 
with a knowledge of its limitations. 

Negative skin tests do not mean 
the patient is not allergic. They simply 
mean that his skin cells are not sensitive 
to the agents tested. His respiratoiy 
mucosal cells might still be sensitive 
Nothing is more tragic than to tell 1 
mother that her boy does not react to dc £ 

Vol. 48. No. 



.lander by skin and, therefore, that he 
nay keep the dog when the dog might 
veil be causing much of his trouble. 

Intracutaneous Test 
Another form of skin test often used 
•s the intracutaneous test. This is carried 
ut by injecting an extract of the sus- 
pected dust into the dermal layers of the 
kin and the subsequent reaction is similar 
o that produced by a scratch test. This 
est is more delicate but it is also more 
langerous and false reactions are more 
■pt to occur. In the hands of the ex- 
perienced doctor the intradermal test is 
valuable but there can be little or no ex- 
cuse for it when it is used occasionally 
<nd is apt to do more harm than good. 
Skin tests are only useful as an aid to 
viiagnosis and are not a diagnosis in them- 
sclves. A patient should not be given a 
list of skin reactions to carry around 
with him any more than a list of his 
blood sugars, blood urea nitrogens, or 
other laboratory tests. He cannot inter- 
pret them and he nearly always gets into 
trouble with them. A careful history and 
a knowledge of the patient's environment 
are the most important factors in diag- 
nosis. Skin tests serve to supplement these 
diagnostic measures and are not diagnostic 
in themselves. The misuse of skin tests 
has probably done more to put clinical 
allergy, into disrepute than any other 


Once a diagnosis has been accurately 

made, the proper treatment is to attempt 

to separate the patient from the offending 

agent if this is possible. It is obvious 

that the ragweed patient cannot be 

separated from the ragweed pollen during 

August and September unless he goes to 

^om'e place where ragweed does not exist. 

This is obviously impractical in most in- 

tances. However, if the patient is sen- 

itive to cat dander it is perfectly clear 

that it would be much better for him to 

part with his cat and clean the house out 

horoughly than to undergo desensitiza- 

ion for the rest of his life or, at least, 

or the rest of the life of the cat. In 

general, it is possible and practical to 

eparate the patient from his offending 

igent when that agent arises from 

nimals, birds, cosmetics, tobacco, in- 

ecticides, etc. 

CTOBER, 1952 

Sometimes, of course, . the patient's 
livelihood depends on him remaining 
in his unfavorable environment. The 
average farmer is not able to leave his 
farm, particularly in the harvest season. 
Such a patient must have other protection. 
The engineer who has spent his whole 
professional life in a hydro-electric plant 
obviously is unable readily to move to 
another and strange job. The operator of 
a grain elevator may have no other train- 
ing and needs to stay with his job at all 
costs. Similarly with the furrier, the hair- 
dresser, the fish worker, or the miller. All 
these are highly specialized trades and 
it is rare that one can separate the victim 
from his trouble. In all instances where it 
is impossible to separate the patient from 
his allergens, the method of treatment 
is to offer him desensitization or, more 
correctly, hyposensitization. 


Briefly, this is carried out by making 
an extract of the offending material with 
physiological saline and injecting tiny 
amounts of this into the patient sub- 
cutaneously. These amounts are gradually 
increased as the patient is able to tolerate 
them and, in many instances, a re- 
markably effective immunity results. 
Generally speaking, desensitization to 
animal dander is sometimes effective. 
Often the treatment carries an element of 
danger and it should only be used when 
no other method is available. Feathers are 
seldom of use in desensitization and 
avoidance is the only solution. Obviously, 
house dust itself cannot be avoided, 
although it can be mitigated. Substances 
such as pyrethrum are better not used for 
desensitization. Desensitization to grain 
dust is very effective. Fish dust and glue 
dust are much too dangerous to use. Flour 
and other cereal dust cannot effectively 
be made into suitableOfclutions for 
desensitizing. The vegetable gums are 
also unsuitable and the hairdresser had 
best find another occupation. 

Desensitization is an effective procedure 
in selected cases. Unfortunately, it is not 
permanent but has to be continued for 
many years. It must be done carefully 
because if too large a dose is given a 
very grave general reaction, and even a 
fatality, may occur. If too small amounts 
are given protection is poor. A conscien- 



tious doctor who carries out a desensitiza- 
tion program very carefully will often 
be rewarded with good protection for his 
patient. Ingenuity, of course, will suggest 
the use of a rubber pillow and other pro- 
tective devices to help the patient. Grain 
elevator operators, even with desensitiza- 
tion, find they must wear a mask when 
the dust density is great. A pollen sensi- 
tive patient should not go to the country 
at the height of his pollen season. The 
housewife will learn new methods to keep 

dust down — perhaps she will use a 
vacuum cleaner with a water bath dust 
collector. Suitable cosmetics are available 
for allergic women. The bird fancier 
must deny himself the luxury of pets ii 
his home. 

Inhalant allergy is common. Diagnosis 
must be specific. With an accurate 
etiological diagnosis treatment will 
readily suggest itself and will be most 
satisfactory to both the doctor and the 

Action in a Catastrophe 

May G. Douc.las 

The Jasper Chapter of the Alberta 
Association of Registered Nurses was or- 
ganized in November, 1949, and con- 
sists of a small group of housewives who 
are graduates from accredited schools of • 
nursing. Some of us graduated as far back 
as 1910, others as recently as 1949. In- 
asmuch as we left the field of active nurs- 
ing to marry and raise families, we are 
sometimes termed "wastage" by the pro- 
fession. We rather resent this term. We 
are still nurses, actively interested in 
nursing, who feel that through organiza- 
tion we can further the cause of nurses 
and nursing in the outlying areas. 

The Jasper Chapter holds monthly 
meetings in the homes of its members 
who, held together by the common bond 
of nursing, rarely miss a meeting. The 
meetings are interesting as well as social. 
Speakers and films keep the members 
informed of new developments in the 
constantly changing field of medicine. 
The chapter does not, however, concern 
itself only with personal topics. Our 
community, to which we feel a deep 
moral obligation, is without public health 
services. Our sense of obligation, as 
nurses, prompts us to try to remedy this 
situation. Acting on the theory that the. 
Public Health Department helps those 
who first of all help themselves, we 
operate a well-baby clinic once a month. 
We also provide, free of charge, a ser- 
vice to care for the newborn in the home. 

We often feel inadequate and look for- 
ward to the day when the proper author 
ities assume the responsibility of these 
public services. 

• Two members of the Jasper Chapter 
had the privilege of attending the lec- 
tures on A. B.C. Warfare in Edmonton. 
The duty assumed in accepting this course 
was to pass the information acquired to 
the other chapter members. This was 
done and the tuition was received grate- 
fully by all members. 

Nurses across Canada who have taken 
the course will be interested in comparing 
the teachings of Civil Defence nursing 
with what is actually applicable in a local 
disaster. The behavior of the Jasper 
nurses at the Canoe River train wreck 
highlights many points expounded in 
the Defence course for nurses. Super- 
vision of untrained personnel, improvisa- 
tion of supplies, and teamwork art 
stressed. First and foremost comes the 
duty of the nurse to her profession, to her 
patient, and to her community. Below ! 
have outlined the facts of our part in trn 
Canoe River wreck. It is interesting, in 
deed, to follow the pattern of Civil De 
fence nursing which appears again anJ 
again throughout this anecdote: 

At 11:30 a.m. on November 21, 1950, 
there came a loud knock on the door and 
the doctor's voice called, "There's been a 
wreck west of here. Dress warmly and 

Vol. 48. No. n- 



get to the station inside half an hour. 
We're sending out a hospital train." 

I paused, startled, with a pan of eggs 
in my hand, the makings of my first- 
grader's lunch. A wreck! Words that 
spell panic and dread in a railroad town 
where most of the women are railroad 
wives. I calculated quickly. Could it be 
my husband? Could it be my friend's 
husband ? 

Thinking furiously, I went out the back 
door, pan of eggs still in hand, and called 
over to my neighbor. Would she take my 
child? There had been a wreck. She 
would — willingly. I handed her the pan of 
eggs and headed for another neighbor. 
Would she stoke my fires? I was needed 
to go to a wreck. She agreed to tend my 
fires. I was free — I ran home, dressed 
warmly in ski slacks and parka, threw a 
few toilet articles in a bag along with my 
• hypo syringe and was off to the station 
before 15 minutes had passed. At the 
station were seven other nurses, house- 
wives like myself. After comparing notes, 
we found that the above scene had been 
enacted in each home. Husbands, children, 
dogs, cats, and furnaces had been hastily 
provided for, mainly through the kind 
help of willing neighbors. By twelve 
o'clock noon, the hospital train, staffed 
by two Jasper doctors and eight Jasper 
nurses, was on its way to the scene of 

The accident occurred at Canoe River, 
B.C., at 10:30 a.m., when a westbound 
troop train collided head on with an east- 
bound passenger train. The wreck, which 
is rated as one of the worst in the history 
of Canadian railroading, happened in a 
completely isolated area in sub-zero 
weather complicated by blizzard con- 
ditions. Engineers and firemen of both 
trains were killed instantly and their 
engines were reduced to a great pile of 
twisted steel. The baggage and mail 
cars of the passenger train were damaged 
but the coaches and passengers were 
relatively unharmed. The brunt of the 
collision was borne by the troop train, 
carrying hundreds of young untrained 
soldiers to American training camps. The 
front cars of the trooper were flung into 
the air and splintered like match wood. 
Steam lines were broken, heavy fixtures 
were torn loose, glass was shattered and 

fire broke out. In this snow-covered 
mountainous region, 21 people lost their 
lives and at least 64 persons were in- 
jured, 22 of whom were in serious con- 

Communications had been such that we 
were ignorant of important details. We 
had no knowledge of the gravity of the 
accident, the number of wounded, or the" 
types of injury. During the 83-mile trip 
from Jasper to Canoe River, we made 
what preparations we could. Supplies 
were appraised, we tore linen for bandages 
and slings, and ampoules of morphine, 
coramine, and adrenalin were pocketed. 
We boiled up our syringes and needles 
on the caboose stove, laid out jars of 
sulfa cream, and prepared splints in 
readiness. After we had completed our 
arrangements, the conductor of our train 
made and served us coffee and a portion 
of his own lunch. We fell upon this with 
great gusto for we had missed our meal. 
It was many hours before we saw food 

When we reached the scene, two and 
a half hours later, we found that all 
the injured had been removed from the 
debris and had been placed in the berths 
of the undamaged coaches. The dining-car 
was being used as an emergency hospital 
with the seriously injured on army cots. 
This proved a wonderful arrangement for 
the cooking ranges in the diners provided 
the only heat in the entire train. We had 
reason to bless these coal ranges and the 
staffs of the dining-cars before our mis- 
sion was completed. A doctor from Edson, 
Alberta, who had been a passenger on the 
transcontinental train, had taken charge of 
first aid and had accomplished miracles 
in view of the fact that he had no sup- 
plies with which to work. 

We went to work immediately and 
never were frightened young soldiers 
more grateful to have women relieve them 
of their arduous tasks! These same young 
men placed themselves at our service — to 
fetch and carry, to watch over their com- 
rades and to call us when changes 
occurred. They took instructions like sea- 
soned veterans and without their help 
our task would have been much harder. 

We automatically paired off in teams — 
two nurses to a coach, each nurse with 
her two volunteer soldiers. Our first con- 

OCTOBER, 1952 



ccrn was to combat shock and control 
pain. This we did as quickly as possible 
after the doctor's first cursory examina- 
tion and his carte blanche to give sedation 
where needed. Although there was no 
hysteria, many of the men were shocked 
and frightened. They needed smiles and 
reassurance. These we gave and morale 
and spirits rose. We worked quickly from 
patient to patient, giving priority to the 
most serious cases. We found an amazing 
multiplicity of injuries. Extensive steam 
burns were complicated by powderings of 
fine ground glass upon the denuded tissue. 
Fractures Were accompanied by more steam 
burns. Puncture wounds, lacerations, 
crushing and internal injuries vied with 
one another for priority. There was 
hardly a case with only one type of 

We worked without ceasing. Our sup- 
plies were limited and, when we ex- 
hausted them, we improvised. We ripped 
table linen for bandages and dressings, 
when the sulfa cream 'gave out we made 
our own from ground tablets and lard 
from the diner. We filled bottles and 
tins with hot water for external heat for 
the men. We were without heat for nine 
hours and the temperature outdoors was 
17° below zero. The nurses suffered from 
the intense cold but we managed to keep 
the patients warm, thanks to the wonder- 
ful cooperation of the cooks and stewards 
who kept their fires raging and willingly 
found and filled containers for us. We 
used tins and bottles for urinals.. Our 
intravenous sets' hung from coathangers. • 
We used milk jugs ' for feeders. Too 
numerous to mention are the small 
innovations we evolved for the comfort of 
our patients. Slowly but surely out of the 
chaos came order. We were able to jot 
down on a small tag, attached to the 
patient, the salient points of treatment 

and medication. By the time our train 
pulled into Jasper at 10:00 p.m., wt 
could safely say that the majority of our 
patients were "resting comfortably." 

While in Jasper our supplies were re- 
plenished and we were able to get some 
plasma which we immediately admin- 
istered to those most in need. The two 
Jasper doctors left the train and the 
doctor who had administered first aid at 
the site took charge again. Two fresh 
nurses replaced three of our nurses who 
had to return to their families. We 
carried on until we were relieved by fully 
equipped army personnel from Edmonton 
who boarded the train at Edson, 100 
miles west of Edmonton. Although we 
had been on duty 20 hours, it was with a 
deep sense of personal loss that we 
rendered up "our boys" to other capable 

The Jasper Chapter of Registered 
Nurses went wearily home to collect 
up families and to resume household 
tasks but they were proud, indeed, with 
the knowledge of a big job well done. 

This is our story of the Canoe River 
. wreck. The Jasper nurses, a group of 
housewives, were able to handle it be- 
cause they had previously organized. The 
automatic reaction of trained nurses 
illustrates the fundamentals of the Civil 
Defence nursing course. Our story brings 
into focus the capabilities of untrained 
personnel as shown by the heroic co- 
operation of young soldiers. The team 
work evidenced by our neighbors, the 
train crews, and the staff of the diners 
all contributed to a successful under- , 
taking. The Canoe River wreck shows that 
every Canadian nurse can serve her pro 
fession and her country by assuming her 
place in the over-all plan of Civil 
Defence. ..-..'.. 

Nurses' Contribution 

Nurse advisers have a valuable contribution 
to make in the planning of hospital buildings, 
teaching units, clinics, etc.; in selecting and 
testing equipment; and in assessing the num- 
ber and categories of staff which will be re- 
quired. They can advise against the expen- 
diture of money on buildings which cannot be 
used owing to lack of funds to equip them or 

the lack of personnel to staff them. They can 
also help to design home-care programs t( 
supplement the service of hospitals and to 
plan preventive and curative programs with 
equal emphasis on both promotion and cure — 

WHO Expert Committee on Nursing 

Second Report. 

Vol. 48, No. 10 


Lyle Creelman Writes 

I wish you could have a glance at 
the world map in our Nursing Section 
office. It is dotted with colored pins, 
now over 100, each representing a 
WHO nurse in one of the various pro- 
jects where they are assisting countries 
to prepare their own nursing and 
health personnel. The largest grouping 
is in the countries which we used 
vaguely to refer to as the "Far East" — 
India, Afghanistan, Pakistan, Thai- 
land, Ceylon, Malaya, and Borneo. 
JThere is another cluster in the 
"Middle East" — Lebanon, Syria, and 
Iraq. Central America also has a few 
and the vast area of South America has 
a sprinkling. 

Fifteen of the present nursing staff 
are from Canada. The others come 
from the United Kingdom, United 
States, Denmark, Holland, France, 
Switzerland, Belgium, Finland, New 
Zealand, Chile, Australia, Norway, 
Portugal, Panama, Brazil, and 

The real nursing projects usually 
start with giving assistance to a school 
of nursing which may already be in 
existence or one which is being started. 
For example, Mary Harling (Mont- 
real) who went to Penang in Malaya 
found a very good school under the 
direction of the British Colonial 
Service. However, there was need for 
further assistance in this school, which 
WHO was asked to give. Our team 
helped introduce public health aspects 
and some clinical supervision. There 
was need also for the extension of this 
supervision to hospitals outside 
Penang to which students were sent 
for experience before they completed 
their training. Along with the nursing, 
midwifery was given attention. Fully 
qualified midwives were prepared and 
supervision was given to the bidans 
who are the local untrained midwives. 
Thequestion of domiciliary midwifery 
teaching was a problem. The bidans 
used to return to their kampongs (vil- 
lages) without any experience of the 

OCTOBER. 1952 

home conditions under which they 
would be working. 

One of the greatest difficulties was 
the educational background of the 
nursing students. It was estimated that 
only about 25 per cent had sufficient 
background ability to attain to profes- 
sional nurse level. This created a real 
problem in teaching as, of course, in- 
struction has to be geared to the aver- 
age level. The solution was to limit the 
school of nursing students to the 25 
per cent who could attain professional 
status and who would be able to 
assume leadership positions and to pre- 
pare a less qualified group in a shorter 
period for duties as ward auxiliaries. 
This program in Penang is continuing 
and we hope that the team will have 
a male tutor as an additional member. 
Male hospital assistants (or dressers) 
take the same course as the female 
nurses. However, in Malaya, nursing 
implies a loss of prestige to the mare- 
student and it is hoped that the pro- . 
vision of an international male tutor 
will help to give the male nurse the 
status he deserves. 

Helena Reimer (Winnipeg) has 
gone to a completely new situation — 
to the delightful sounding city of 
Phnom Penh in Cambodia. When 
Elizabeth Hill, our nursing adviser, 
first visited there she was taken in the 
King's private aeroplane to see the 
ruins of Angkor Vat, which was one 
of the greatest architectural Jeats in 
the history of the world. It is said that 
thousands of artisans, artists, and 
laborers carved and chiselled fran- 
tically for over 30 years to achieve this 
wonder. Willy Visscher is with Helena 
and soon a Swiss nursing instructor 
will join them and later on a mid- 
wifery teacher. This will complete the 
team of four who are establishing a 
new school in which there is plenty of 
room for experimentation to find the j 
kind of curriculum which should be 
developed for this country. Helena's 
first reports have just been received; 


' <\ 


T HE C A N A D I A N • N U R S E 

she really must tell you herself about 
her work but I cannot help quoting 
some of her statements which indicate 
the soundness of her approach to her , 
task of helping to establish nursing in 

The Cambodia people are shy so it 
took us some time just to get acquain- 
ted. Then we placed ourselves in a 
learning position and let them talk to 
us about their country, its people and 
its customs, its resources and its needs. 
They are both (the two Cambodian 
nurses working with the WHO team) 
well informed and proved to be able 
teachers. They made us realize how im- 
portant it is for us to know something 
about the country if we are to develop * 
a program to really serve the needs of 
the country. 

In introducing these two young 
people to modern nursing we have be- 
come very critical of our own concepts 
because there is so much, that we have 
taken as so right and for granted, that 
does not fit in with the needs of this 
country at all. We are also fully con- 
vinced that the only sound way of in- 
troducing a new program into a 
country is by working step by step with 
some responsible persons even if it 
takes much longer. Let it take root in 
their thinking as they help to develop 
it, so that it will be something that 
they themselves have planted and 

• We have said that the work required 
vision and common sense but it also 
required a persevering interest. In this 
climate, where enthusiasm and interest 
drop so easily, a steady unshakeable 
day-to-day enthusiasm seems to be an 
essential personal qualification for the 

North to Taipeh in Taiwan (For- 
mosa) we come to the University Hos- 
pital School of Nursing which is 
directed by Stella Chen, a well known 
Chinese nurse who has studied in 
Toronto. She rieeded assistance and 
WHO is sending in a group of five. 
The -first to go was Isobel McKay 
(Toronto). Isobel is really returning 
home because her parents are there and 
have been leading missionaries in For- 
mosa for many years. Closely asso- 

ciated with this school of nursing, 
WHO is also going to give assistance 
in developing a field training program 
for nurses and other personnel. 

There are many other countries 
where nursing assistance is needed — 
for example, Ethiopia. When Miss 
Magnusen, nursing adviser, visited 
that country, she found that the prob- 
lems are very great and qualified per- 
sonnel very few indeed. As a matter of 
fact no qualified Ethiopian doctor 
exists as yet and only one qualified 
Ethiopian nurse is working in the 

You may recall that nursing . in 
Ethiopia had a severe setback several 
years ago when the daughter of the 
Emperor Haile Selassie, who had taken 
her training in London, died. By 
taking nursing herself she indicated to 
other girls that it was a worthwhile 
career. One of the great difficulties, of 
course, in Ethiopia is the fact that only 
a small number of girls are educated 
even up to the secondary school level. 
However, education is now being 
given top priority and we hope that 
this will be reflected in the general 
level of education for girls. At the 
present time the total number of girls 
in secondary schools in the whole 
country is less than 100; the popula- 
tion is estimated at some 12,000,000. 
The first nurse to go to Ethiopia will 
be Queenie Donaldson (Vancouver) 
who will be the nurse member of a 
VD demonstration team located at 
Addis Ababa. 

Turkey will be the first country in 
Europe to receive a team of WHO 
nurses. Marion Pennington (Cran- 
brook, B.C.) will be there to help de- 
velop some post-graduate courses. 

As an example of another type of 
activity, Marjorie Hudson (Montreal) 
will soon be completing her assign- 
ment in a TB demonstration project in 
Delhi. I wish you could have visited 
with her, as I did, in Old Delhi to see 
real problems in TB control — great 
poverty, crowded living, and ig- 
norance, together with relatively com- 
plete lack of facilities for care. In the 
picture you see Marjorie with Miss 
Thomas, the Indian nurse who is 

Vol. 48. No. 10 

lyle Creel man writes 


Home visiting in New Delhi. Home 
treatment for tuberculosis is essential 
in countries like India where sana- 
torium accommodation can never hope 
to be adequate. The young doctor ex- 
amining -the patient is a WHO Fellow 
from Ceylon. Marjorie Hudson ex- 
plains to the family the needs and care 
of the patient. 

working with her and who will take 
over responsibily for the nursing ac- 
tivities of the demonstration. Miss 
Thomas was married recently and 
Marjorie felt very honored in being 
asked to be her bridesmaid. 

Justine Delmotte (Montreal) is 
working hard in a Yaws demonstration 
project in Thailand. Some of our 
senior officers who visited there 
recently were much impressed with the 
work that she is carrying on under 
\ery difficult conditions. Her <\utics 
take her on trips through the rural 
ireas and sometimes she has no bed to 
>leep on and only a straw roof over 
her head. She rolls up her sleeves and 
^oes about her job of teaching local 
personnel with real spirit. Here you 
see Justine with her following of most 
attractive Thai youngsters. Probably 
>ome of them have been treated for 

Our first Health Demonstration 
\rea is in El Salvador. Jean Webster 
(Vancouver) joined that team some 
been assisting 

step in developing the public health 
nursing service in that area. There are 
few nurses in El Salvador. The first 
task, therefore, was to train some type 
of personnel who could work under 
the supervision of the few available 
nurses. * 

These are just samples of some of 
the activities in which Canadian nurses 
with WHO are engaged. 

At Headquarters we continue to be 
very busy trying, among other things, 
to find more nurses for new projects in 
many countries. Personally I am look- 
ing forward with great anticipation to 
a visit to Finland, where I shall partici- 
pate in a seminar on in-service educa- 
tion and in social casework which is 
being organized by the European 
Office of the United Nations. It will be 
a real learning experience for me and 
I hope that I may also have time to 
see something of the excellent nursing 
program there. 

In Thailand, one person in 18 suffers 
from yaws. In order to tackle this pro- 
blem on a mass basis, the Thai govern- 
ment called on the United Nations for 
aid. A joint team composed of UNICEF 
and WHO experts was immediately 
rushed to Thailand where they helped 
train local personnel, provided the 
necessary medical supplies and trans- 
port. Soon the campaign was well 
under way in the province of Ratch- 
buri. Here Justine Delmotte holds an 
open-air clinic in Ratchburi. 

:ime ago. She has been assisting in 
training auxiliary personnel as the first 

Dermatitis caused by wearing apparel begins at the site of contact with the offending 
Tuterial, five days or more after the garment was first worn. This is the 'length of the period 

•»f incubation for the development of sensitivity. The dermatitis may appear before five days 
f the patient has been sensitized to the/offending chemical in the garment by exposure from 

Mime other source previous to the time that the garment Was first worn. 

OCTOBER. 1952 



Nursing Profiles 

Myrtle Pearl Stiver, known affectionately 
to her wide circle of personal acquaintances 
as ""Penny,* will start this month to make 
her imprint on the affairs of the Canadian 
Nurses' Association when she assumes the 
duties of general secretary-treasurer of our 
national organization. 

Born in Grey County, Ontario, of 
Holland Dutch and English parentage, Miss 
Stiver received her elementary and second- 
ary school education in Stayner. She entered 
the school of nursing of the Toronto 
Western Hospital. Following graduation in 
1932, she took post-graduate training in 
psychiatry and mental hygiene at Toronto 
Psychiatric Hospital. Private nursing oc- 
cupied her professional activity for the 
next seven years. She was awarded the 
Beatrice L. Ellis Scholarship, given by the 
T.W.H. Alumnae Association, for a year's 
study in public health nursing at the Uni- 
versity of Toronto School of Nursing. She 
secured her Bachelor of Science degree in 
1947 from Teachers College, Columbia 

A brief period of staff work with the 
Victorian Order of Nurses preceded Miss 
Stiver's plunge into official agency activity. 
After two years on the staff of the Toronto 
Department of Public Health, she joined the 
Division of Venereal Disease Control of the 
provincial Department of Health as nurse 
epidemiologist. During the next six years 
she served with that division as supervisor, 
nurse consultant and, finally, regional 
supervisor and consultant in venereal 
disease. In 1949 she was appointed director 
of public health nursing with the city of 
Ottawa Department of Health. 

That is Pearl Stiver, the nurse — the new 
general secretary. Thoughtful, capable, co- 
operative, energetic, with a real flair for 
organization and administration, Miss 
Stiver will play a vital role in nursing in 
the ensuing years. 

It is not enough that the nurses of 
Canada should know only these outlined 
facts regarding their appointed leader. 
What of Penny Stiver, the woman? One of 
her outstanding characteristics is her even 
disposition. She is usually happy, looking 


on the bright side of things as far 
possible. A well adjusted personality, sh; 
gets along evenly with people. She is .» 
good listener, easy to talk to, for those wh, 
come to her with their problems. Sh. 
believes in helping people to work out thci 
own solutions rather than laying down : 
line that should be followed. Nevertheless 
she can and does take a firm stand in ex 
pressing her own opinions. 

Miss Stiver's interests outside her 
working day arc many and varied. Ar. 
amateur photographer for many years, sin 
has excellent pictorial records of the places 
she has visited. Recently she acquired ;i 
moving picture camera and is currently 
studying the art of producing good movies. 
A "home-body'' in the truest sense, Miss 
Stiver is firmly convinced that cupboard 
shelves should be well stocked. Each year 
she revels in preserving, making jam and 
pickles, with the ardor of a mother of ten. 
All the goodies rapidly disappear for sru 
seldoms visits a person, sick or well, with- 
out leaving a sample of her homemade 
wares. She can seldom pass a counter of 
gift wrappings without buying the attractive- 
paper, cards and ribbons to do up the many 
thoughtful presents that are always on 
♦hand for that "special occasion." Her circle 
of friends is large because she is herself a 

Her flowers, a garden and all outdoors 
are probably her most absorbing interest. 
Proof of her "green fingers" is seen in her 
large, collection of African violets in mag- 
nificent bloom. Before she owned a car 
she spent many happy years as a youth 
hosteler, cycling far and wide. On a vaca- 
tion trip to the Rockies she had a wonderful 
time on a hiking tour. She prefers to desert 
the main highways and take the more leis 
urcly paths in order to better see the plant 
and bird life. 

A member of the University Women's 
Club, Miss Stiver will live at their residence 
in Montreal. 

Winonah Lindsay has been appointed 
secretary-registrar of the Association of 
Nurses of the Province of Quebec, succeed- 

Vol. 48, No. in 

.ng Margaret M. Street who has joined the 
'acuity of the School of Nursing, Univer- 
ity of British Columbia, Vancouver. 

Born in Montreal, Miss Lindsay is a 
graduate from the Queen Elizabeth Hos- 
pital in that city and holds her Bachelor of 
Cursing degree from the McGill School for 
Graduate Nurses where she specialized in 
•caching and supervision. A broad variety 
' uf hospital experience has given Miss Lind- 
say a keen insight into the present-day 
problems of schools of nursing. In addition, 
*he served overseas with the R.C.A.M.C. 
during World War II and for a time after- 
wards was educational assistant in a large 
D.V.A. Hospital. An active member of the 
British Empire Service League, Miss Lind- 
Niy is an omnivorous reader. Bilingual, she 
*ill guide the destinies of this, the largest 
provincial nurses' association in Canada, 
with unerring aim toward the goal of 
ureater service. 

school of nursing there. She began her new 
duties this month. She will be working in 
close cooperation with Dr. L. O. Bradley, 
formerly executive secretary of the Canadian 
Hospital Council, who Is now the executive 
director of the C.G.H. Another well-known 
nurse who has joined the faculty there is 
R. Catherine Aikin, who is educational 
director. Miss Aikin, formerly assistant sec- 
retary-registrar with the A.N.P.Q., recently 
completed a year of post-graduate study at 
the University of Chicago. 

We shall all watch the developments 
in this school of nursing, under the skilled 
guidance of such distinguished leaders, with 
keenest interest. 

Van Dyck, Montreal 

Winonah Lindsay . 

During the past eight years when, as 
general secretary of the C.N. A. Gertrude M. 
Hall has consulted with hundreds of hos- 
pital administrators and directors of nursing 
regarding their problems, a decision was 
building up in her mind that she must some 
day direct a school of nursing herself and 
try to put into effect some of the cherished 
plans she has had for others. It was no 
surprise to her colleagues, therefore, when 
she accepted the invitation from the Board 
of Directors of the Calgary General Hos- 
pital to take over the prineipalship of the 

OCTOBER. 1952* 

Gertrude M. Hall 

Jean Graham Church has been assistant 
director of the School of Nursing at 
Dalhousie University, Halifax. She succeeds 
Marion Pennington who has gone to 
Ankara, Turkey, as the representative of the 
World Health Organization, to assist the 
Turkish Government in modernizing their 
health facilities and activities. 

Born in New Glasgow, N.S., Miss Church 
secured her Bachelor of Science degree from 
* Dalhousie University before she entered 
her nurse's training at the Royal Victoria 
Hospital, Montreal. After a brief period 
in general staff work at R.V.H., she enrolled 
in the course in teaching and supervision 
at the McGill School for Graduate Nurses. 
Miss Church joined the teaching staff of 
the Children's Hospital, Halifax, as science 
instructor, going on to be educational 
director. Later she organized an under- 



Jean G. Church 

graduate and post-graduate program at the 
Nova Scotia Sanatorium in Kentville, N.S. 
Until her present appointment she has been 
a clinical instructor at Victoria General 
Hospital, Halifax. 

Active in nursing association affairs, Miss 
Church is interested also in musical organ- 
izations. She is a member of the Nova 
Scotia Opera Association. For relaxation 
she dabbles in oil painting, plays a smart 
game of bridge, or tries to outguess the 
authors of "whodunits." 

Phyllis Lavinia Wylie has been appointed 
director of nursing of her alma mater— 
the St. John's General Hospital, Newfound- 
land. Born and educated in St. John's, Miss 
Wylie holds her diploma in nursing educa- 

tion and administration from the Universitv 
of Toronto. Following graduation slu 
qualified as laboratory supervisor a* 
S.J.G.H. She served for a couple of yeai 
as assistant supervisor of the pediatric flooi 
at the Jewish General Hospital, Montreal 
then returned to St. John's as nursing an^ 
instructor. Until recently Miss Wylie wa* 
field consultant with the provincial publu 
health nursing service. 

An executive member of the Gradual 
Nurses' Association of Newfoundland,' Mis 
Wylie is a past president of the St. John'-. 
General Hospital Alumnae Association ano 
an active member of the alumnae asso 
ciation of the University of Toronto School 
of Nursing. She is a group captain of the 
Community Concerts Association and en 
joys bowling, swimming and skating. 

Phyllis L. Wylie 

3n Jfflemoriam 

Edith M. Brown, a graduate of the Hos- 
pital for Sick Children, Toronto, died on 
July 31, 1952, from a coronary thrombosis. 
Miss Brown had engaged in private nursing 
for many years prior to her retirement some 
time ago. 

Lauretta (Hughes) Kneil, a native of 
P.E.I, who graduated from a school of 
nursing in Newton, Mass., late in the 19th 
century and who organized the school of 
nursing at the Ottawa General Hospital in 
1899, died in Ottawa on July 1, 1952, at 

Vol. 48. No. 10 

I N 



'he age of 83. One of Mrs. Kneil's treasured 
. lementoes was a medal awarded to her by 
• ie American government for her service 
s a nursing sister during the Spanish- 
American War. 

. * * * 

Sister M. Mona, a member of the Com- 
munity of the Sisters of Charity of the 
-nmaculatc Conception, who graduated St. Joseph's Hospital, Saint John, 
\\B., in 1918, died there on May 31, 1952. 
Mster M. Mona had held many positions of 
responsibility in the hospitals of this Com- 
munity. For a time she was superintendent 
<J the Holy Family Hospital in Prince 
Albert, Sask. Latterly, she had charge of 
fhe outdoor department at St. Joseph's 
Hospital in Saint John. 

Hilda Keith Smith, who graduated from 

the Vancouver General Hospital in 1921, 
died suddenly on August 8, 1952, at the 
age of 71. Miss Smith was appointed super- 
visor of the private pavilion at V.G.H. 
when it was first opened and continued to 
serve there until her retirement in 1946. 

Augusta (Plett) Stewart, who graduated 
from St. Luke's General Hospital, Ottawa, 
in 1917, died suddenly in Ottawa on August 
12, 1952, in her 69th year. Mrs. Stewart had 
maintained her interest in the professional 
aspects of nursing all through the years. 

Margaret Isabel Thirsk, a graduate of the 
hospital in Cobourg, Ont., died in Toronto 
on July 2, 1952, at the age of 72. Miss 
Thirsk was decorated for bravery while 
serving with the C.A.M.C. during World 
War I. She retired from nursing in 1925. 

In The Good Old Days 

(The Canadian Nurse — October 1912) 

"At the convention of the Superintendents 
of Training Schools for Nurses, held in May, 
1911, it was decided to form a Dominion 
Registration Committee. . .At conferences 
the convener held with representatives of the 
Graduate Nurses' Associations all across 
Canada it was most gratifying to find the great 
interest that was being taken in this question 
... To have a uniform Bill, ensuring uni- 
formity of standards for admission and for 
graduation throughout Canada, would do 
away with much trouble and confusion in the 
i';ture." - 

* * * 

"We hope that eventually all our large 
< hools will have open-air classes equipped 
» n the roofs which may be carried on all the 
; < ar round. When a child of below normal 
: • alth is found in the classroom he could be 
: nt to the open-air class where food, rest, and 
' esh air would bring him to his normal 
valth so that he might again take his place in 
• s grade/* • 

* ♦ ♦ 

"Aspiration — our motto for the next trien- 

il period — expressed a desire to seek eagerly 

iter that which is above us. That was the in- 

: iration of the International Council of 

"TOBKR, 1952 

Nurses and that is its goal. The essential es- 
sence of nursing is not merely to offer 
skilled help to suffering and diseased human- 
ity — it is something far higher than that. It 
is the endeavour to appropriate the spiritual 
force which is the common heritage of our 
profession, bequeathed to it by many noble 
men and women who have served the sick^of 
all ages in every land; a reserve force upon 
which as long as we walk worthily we may 
freely draw; a force potent with grace so that 
in helping to heal the body, those to whom 
we minister may discern the fineness of 
motive which inspires our vocation, the up- 
lifting spiritual zeal which inspires our ser- 
vice, and may be sustained and comforted 
thereby." — Mrs. Bedford Fenwick, at 
the 1912 l.C.N. Congress. 

"It has been revealed that the use of the 
ice bag is positively harmful in appendicitis. 
In 50 per cent of the operations, there ap- 
peared to be a noticeable lack of effort on 
the part of Nature to wall off the appendix 
from the rest of the abdominal cavity when 
the ice bag was used." 




Nursing Profiles 

Myrtle Pearl Stiver, known affectionately 
to her wide circle of personal acquaintances 
as "Penny," will start this month to make 
her imprint on the affairs of the Canadian 
Nurses* Association when she assumes the 
duties of general secretary-treasurer of our 
national organization. 

Born in Grey County, Ontario, of 
Holland Dutch and English parentage, Miss 
Stiver received her elementary and second- 
ary school education in Stayner. She entered 
the school of nursing of the Toronto 
Western Hospital. Following graduation in 
1932, she took post-graduate training in 
psychiatry and mental hygiene at Toronto 
Psychiatric Hospital. Private nursing oc- 
cupied her professional activity for the 
next seven years. She was awarded the 
Beatrice L. Ellis Scholarship, ^i\cn by the 
T.W.H. Alumnae Association, for a years 
study, in public health nursing at the Uni- 
versity of Toronto School of Nursing. She 
secured her Bachelor of Science degree in 
1947 from Teachers College, Columbia 

A brief period of staff work with the 
Victorian Order of Nurses preceded Miss 
Stiver's plunge into official agency activity. 
After two years on the staff of the Toronto 
Department of Public Health, she joined the 
Division of Venereal Disease Control of the 
provincial Department of Health as nurse 
epidemiologist. During the next six years 
she served with that division as supervisor, 
nurse consultant and, finally, regional 
supervisor and consultant in venereal 
disease. In 1949 she was appointed director 
of public health nursing with the city of 
Ottawa Department of Health. 

That is Pearl Stiver, the nurse—the new 
general secretary. Thoughtful, capable, co- 
operative, energetic, with a real flair for 
organization and administration, Miss 
Stiver will play a vital role in nursing in 
the ensuing years. 

It is not enough that the nurses of 
Canada should know only these outlined 
facts regarding their appointed leader. 
What of Penny Stiver, the woman? One of 
her outstanding characteristics is her even 
disposition. She is usually happy, looking 


on the bright side of things as far a 
possible. A well adjusted personality, sht 
gets along evenly with people. She is i 
good listener, easy to talk to, for those who 
come to her with their problems. She 
believes in helping people to work out their 
own solutions rather than laying down a 
line that should be followed. Nevertheless, 
she can and does take a firm stand in ex- 
pressing her own opinions. 

Miss Stivers interests outside her 
working day are many and varied. An 
amateur photographer for many years, she 
has excellent pictorial records of the places 
she has visited. Recently she acquired a 
moving picture camera and is currently- 
studying the art of producing good movies. 
A "home-body" in the truest sense, Miss 
Stiver is firmly convinced that cupboard 
shelves should be well stocked. Each year 
she revels in preserving, making jam and 
pickles, with the ardor of a mother of ten. 
AlUtbe goodies rapidly disappear for she 
seldoms visits a person, sick or well, with- 
out leaving a sample of her homemade 
wares. She can seldom pass a counter of 
gift wrappings without buying the attractive 
paper, cards and ribbons to do up the many 
thoughtful presents flfat are always on 
hand for that "special occasion." Her circle 
of friends is large because she is herself a 

Her flowers, a garden and all outdoors 
are probably her most absorbing interest. 
Proof of her "green fingers" is seen in her 
large collection of African violets in mag- 
nificent bloom. Before she owned a car 
she spent many happy years as a youth 
hosteler, cycling far and wide. On a vaca- 
tion trip to the Rockies she had a wonderful 
time on a hiking tour. She prefers to desert 
the main highways and» take the more leis- 
urely paths in order to better see the plant 
and bird life. 

A member of the University Women's 
Club, Miss Stiver will live at their residence 
in Montreal. 

Winonah Lindsay \ has been appointed 
secretary-registrar of the Association of 
Nurses of the Province of Quebec, succeed 

Vol. 48. No. in 

.ng Margaret M. Street who has joined the 
faculty of the School of Nursing, Univer- 
ity of Briftsii Columbia, Vancouver. *• 

Born in Montreal, Miss Lindsay is a 
. raduate from the Queen Elizabeth Hos- 
pital in that city and holds her Bachelor of 
Cursing degree from the McGill School for 
Graduate Nurses where she specialized in 
caching and supervision. A broad variety 
i hospital experience has given Miss Lind- 
ay a keen insight into the present-day 
problems of schools of nursing. In addition, 
he served overseas with the R.C.A.M.C. 
luring World War II and for a time after- 
vards was educational assistant in a large 
D.V.A. Hospital. An active member of the 
British Empire Service League, Miss Lind- 
>ay is an omnivorous reader. Bilingual, she 
A-ill guide the destinies of this, the largest 
provincial nurses' association in Canada, 
with unerring aim toward the goal of 
greater service. 

Van Dyck, Montr eel 

Winonah Lindsay 

During the past eight years when, as 
general secretary of the C.N.A. Gertrude M. 
Hall has consulted with hundreds of hos- 
pital administrators and directors of nursing 
regarding their problems, a decision was 
building up in her mind that she must some 
lay direct a school of nursing herself and 
try to put into effect some of the cherished 
plans she has had for others. It was no 
urprise to her colleagues, therefore, when 
he accepted the invitation from the Board 
■ »f Directors of the Calgary General Hos- 
pital to take over the principalship of the 

OCTOBER, 1952 

school of nursing there. She began her new 
duties this month. She will be working in 
close cooperation with Dr. L. O. Bradley, 
formerly executive secretary of the Canadian 
Hospital Council, who is now the executive 
director of the C.G.H. Another well-known 
nurse who has joined the faculty there is 
R. Catherine Aikin, who is educational 
director. Miss Aikin, formerly assistant sec- 
retary-registrar with the A.N.P.Q., recently 
completed a year of post-graduate study at 
the University of Chicago. 

We shall all watch the developments 
in this school of nursing, under the skilled 
guidance of such distinguished leaders, with 
keenest interest. 

Gertrude M. Hall 

Jean Graham Church has been assistant 
director of the School of Nursing at 
Dalhoirsie University, Halifax. She succeeds 
Marion Pennington who has gone to 
Ankara, Turkey, as the representative of the 
World Health Organization, to assist the 
Turkish Government in modernizing their 
health facilities and activities. 

Born in New Glasgow', N.S., Miss Church 
secured her Bachelor of Science degree from 
Dalhousie University before she entered 
her nurse's training at the Royal Victoria 
Hospital, Montreal. After a brief period 
in general staff work at R.V.H., she enrolled 
in the course in teaching and supervision 
•at the McGill School for Graduate Nurses. 
Miss Church joined the teaching staff of 
the Children's Hospital, Halifax, as science 
instructor, going on to be educational 
director. Later she organized an under- 








Jean G. Church 

graduate and post-graduate program at the 
Nova Scotia Sanatorium in Kentville, N.S. 
Until her present appointment she has been 
a clinical instructor at Victoria General 
Hospital, Halifax. 

Active in nursing association affairs, Miss 
Church is interested also in musical organ- 
izations,^ She is a member of the Nova 
Scotia Opera Association. For relaxation 
she dabbles in oil painting, plays a smart 
game of bridge, or tries to outguess the 
authors of "whodunits." 

Phyllis Lavinia Wylie has been appointed 
director of nursing of her alma mater — 
the St. John's General Hospital, Newfound- 
land. Born and educated in St. John's, Miss 
Wylie holds her diploma in nursing educa- 

tion and administration from the University 
of Toronto. Following graduation she 
qualified as laboratory supervisor at 
S.J.G.H. She served for a couple of years 
as assistant supervisor of the pediatric floor 
at the Jewish General Hospital, Montreal, 
then returned to St. John's as nursing arts 
instructor. Until recently Miss Wylie was 
field consultant' with the provincial public 
health nursing service. 

An executive member of the Graduate 
Nurses' Association of Newfoundland, Miss 
Wylie is a past president of the St. John's 
General Hospital Alumnae Association and 
an active member of the alumnae asso- 
ciation of the University of Toronto School 
of Nursing. She is a group captain of the 
Community Concerts Association and en- 
joys bowling, swimming and skating. 

Phyllis L. Wylie 

3n iWemoriam 

Edith M. Brown, a graduate of the Hos- 
pital for Sick Children, Toronto, died on 
July 31, 1952, from a coronary thrombosis. 
Miss Brown had engaged in private nursing 
for many years prior to her retirement some 
time ago. 

Lauretta (Hughes) Kncil, a native of 
P.E.I, who graduated from a school of 
nursing in Newton, Mass., late in the 19th 
century and who organized the school of 
nursing at the Ottawa General Hospital in 
1899, died in Ottawa on July 1, 1952, at 



the age of 83. One of Mrs. Kneil's treasured 
mementoes was a medal awarded to her by 
»he American government for her service 
>s a nursing sister during the Spanish- 
American War. 

. * * • 

Sister M. Mona, a member of the Com- 
nunity of the Sisters of Charity of the 
mmaculate Conception, who graduated 
.rom St. Joseph's Hospital, Saint John, 
M.B., in 1918, died there on May 31, 1952. 
Sister M. Mona had held many positions of 
responsibility in the hospitals of this Com- 
munity. For a time she was superintendent 
»f the Holy Family Hospital in Prince 
Albert, Sask. Latterly, she had charge of 
he outdoor department at St. Josephs 
Hospital in Saint John. 

* * * 
Hilda Keith Smith, who graduated from 

the Vancouver General Hospital *in 1921, 
died suddenly on August 8, 1952, at the 
' age of 71. Miss Smith was appointed super- 
visor of the private pavilion at (V.p.H. 
when it was first opened and continued to 
serve there until her retirement in 1946. 

* ♦ t 

Augusta (Plett) Stewart, who graduated 
from St. Lukes General Hospital, Ottawa, 
in 1917, died suddenly in Ottawa on August 
12, 1952, in her 69th year. Mrs. Stewart had 
maintained her interest in the professional 
aspects of nursing all through the years. 

Margaret Isabel Thirsk, a graduate of the 
hospital in Cobourg, Ont, died in Toronto 
on July 2, 1952, at the age of 72. Miss 
Thirsk was decorated for bravery while 
serving with the C.A.M.C during World 
War I. She retired from nursing in 1925. 

In The Good Old Doys 

(The Canadian Nurse — October 1912) 

"At the convention of the Superintendents 
if Training Schools for Nurses, rjeld in May, 
1911, it was decided, to form a Dominion 
Registration Committee. . . At conferences 
the convener held with representatives of the 
Graduate Nurses' Associations all across 
Canada it was most gratifying to find the great 
interest that was being taken in this question 
... To have a uniform Bill, ensuring uni- 
formity of standards for admission and for 
graduation throughout Canada, would do 
away with much trouble and confusion in the 
i iture." 

* * • 

"We hope that eventually all our large 
schools will have open-air classes equipped 
on the roofs which may be carried on all the 
) ar round. When a child of below normal 
V alth is found in the classroom he could be 
s nt to the open-air class where food, rest, and 
f ; esh air would bring him to his normal 
rvalth so that he might again take his place in 
f s grade." 

* * * ' 
"Aspiratio* — our motto for the next trien- 

n il period— expressed a desire to seek eagerly 
a er that which is above us. That was the in- 
s ration of the International Council of 

Nurses and that is its goal. The essential es- 
sence of nursing is not merely to offer 
skilled help to suffering and diseased human- 
ity — it is something far higher than that. It 
is the endeavour to appropriate the spiritual 
force which is the common heritage of our 
profession, bequeathed to it by many noble 
men and women who have served the sick of 
all ages in every land; a reserve force upon 
which as long as we walk worthily we may 
freely draw; a force potent with grace so that 
in helping to heal the body, those to whom 
we minister may discern the fineness of 
motive which inspires our vocation,* the up- 
lifting spiritual real which inspires our ser- 
vice, and may be sustained and comforted 
thereby.'* — Mas. Bedford Fenwick, at 
the 1912 l.C.N. Co*gress. 

* * • 

"It has been revealed that the use of the 
ice bag is positively harmful in appendicitis. 
In 50 per cent of the operations, there ap- 
peared to be a noticeable lack of effort oo 
the part of Nature to wall off the appendix 
from the rest of the abdominal cavity when 
the ice bag was used." 

Vol. 48. No. 10 

TOBKR, 1952 



tit ut t. 

10 no. 

i A 



Testing Nursing Aptitude 

Marjorie Fahrig, M.A. 

Reports of the Canadian Nurses' As- 
sociation regarding the size of the an- 
nual graduation class indicate that 14- 
40 per cent of the nursing failures occur 
in the preclinical training period and 
are largely due to academic failure. Such 
failure represents a large cost to both 
the hospital and the student. In terms 
of the first, there is the actual money 
cost of supporting the student during 
an unproductive part of training. The 
presence of a failing student tends to 
lower the "average" of the total group 
for which courses must be planned. 
Much costly time and attention are 
given by instructors' who might other- 
wise be involved in guiding the more 
capable students. In terms of the 
second, the experience of failing and 
being forced to withdraw may have a 
traumatic effect upon the student. All 
of these costs might be avoided if the 
selection process were adequate in dis- 
criminating between those most and 
least likely to succeed in nursing train- 

The object of this study is to evalu- 
ate the merits of an aptitude test for 
nurses. The thesis is that an aptitude- 
test will select those individuals who 
will succeed in the classroom work of 
the preclinical period. It is not ex- 
pected that such a test will throw light 
upon other factors such as tem- 
perament, emotional stability, etc., 
which are undoubtedly important in 
later training. The greatest failure rate 
is sustained in the preclinical period, 
when classroom work receives the 
greatest emphasis. 

The Aptitude Test (Form 2) of the 
George Washington University Series 
of Nursing Tests was administered to 
200 students distributed in five 
Canadian (Grade A) teaching hos- 


pitals, at the end of their preclinical 
training. This test is composed of si y 
parts purporting to measure: 

1. Judgment in nursing situations. 

2. Visual memory. 

3- Memory for content. 

4. Information on general subjects re- 
lated to nursing. 

5. Scientific vocabulary. 

6. Ability to understand and follow 
instructions in writing a nurse's report. 
The tests were administered under 

the direction of the superintendent 
of nurses in each of the hospitals and 
were returned to the writer for scoring 
and evaluation, accompanied by infor- 
mation concerning grades obtained in 
the preclinical period. 

The means and standard deviations 
of aptitude test raw scores and of class 
and ward 'averages were calculated. 
These results are shown in Table I. 

Table I 




































• 79.8 


(a) Aptitude test raw scores. 

(b) Classwork averages. 

It is apparent from this . table tli t 
marked differences exist between t! e 
groups. The discrepancy between ap'<- 
tude scores and classwork a vera/! > 
when, for example, hospitals 1 and > 

Vol. 48. No 



are compared suggests that the grading 
policies of the hospitals are at var- 
iance. This fact takes on definite sig- 
nificance when a test is considered for 
use in different areas without special 

The next statistical procedure 
parried out was a series of correlations 
between aptitude test raw scores and 
i lasswork averages, aptitude raw scores 
ind practical marks, intelligence test 
r>e/centiles and classwork, -intelligence 
percentiles and practical work (s^c 
Table II). . . V 

Table II 

Correlation of Various 

Measures in Hospitals 1-5 


Measures Correlated 

1-4 A.R.S. and CW.A. 
1-4 A.R.S. and 
1,3,4 I.P.(d) and 

1,3,4 I.P. and P.W.M. 

.32 to .47 ' 

-.75 to +.41 

19 to .38 

.06 to 


(c) P.W.M.— practical work mark. 

(d) LP.— intelligence test percen- 

The correlations between aptitude 
tests scores -and classwork averages 
varied from .32 to .47 in four hos- 
pitals. In contrast to this, the aptitude 
uw scores and practical marks varied 
from minus .75 to plus .41. The range 
m the latter suggests that the test is not 
adequate for predicting success in the 
practical side of nursing. The correl- 
ations between intelligence tests results 
;nd classwork averages are lower and 
s.'iow greater variability than the apti- 
tude correlations, suggesting that the 
aptitude test is a better measure of 

* iccess than the intelligence test The 
correlation .13 found between aptitude 
rtw scores and classwork averages 
*■ hen the total number (200) were 
i msidered together, is accountable in 
t rms of the variation in mean scores 
< the measures, and in terms of the 

* ct that in hospital 5 the practical 
' ark was combined in the final aver- 
a :e. 

( TOBER. 1952 

From the foregoing results, the fol- 
lowing statements may be made: 

1. A positive relationship exists be- 
tween the aptitude test and success in 
the academic training in the preclinical 


2. This relationship is greater than 
that demonstrated between "intelligence 
test results and success. 

3. The test must be considered in 
terms of the individual hospital and re- 
sults obtained with one group cannot 
be applied without modification to an- 

In conclusion, the writer would like 
to suggest that this test has value as a 
selection tool but with the following 

1. The results from one hospital will 
not necessarily apply to another. Each 
hospital should give the test to a series 
of classes in order to establish local 

2. The extent to which such a test is 
valid is dependent on the size of the 
population from which a group is to be 

' selected. 

3. The test will not predict success 
in the practical side of nursing. 

, Acknowledgments 
I wish to express sincerest apprecia- 
tion for the assistance received from 
the directors of nursing of the Van- 
couver General Hospital, Winnipeg 
General Hospital, Royal Alexandra 
Hospital, Edmonton, Victoria General 
Hospital, Halifax, and Victoria Hos- 
pital, London Without their cooper- 
ation, this study would not have been 


1. Berg, I.A. A Study of Success and 
Failure Among Student Nurses. /. 
Appl. Psychol.. Vol XXXI, (1947) 

2. Cardew, Emily. Evaluating Admis- 
sion Requirements. Amer. J. of Nkrshijr. 
March (1949) pp.179-180. 

3. Cronbach, Lee J. Essentials of 
.Psychological Testing. Harper Bros., 

New York, 1949. 

4. Douglass, H. R. & Merrill, Ruth 
H ; , assisted by C. M. McCullough. Pre- 
diction of Success in the School of 
Nursing. University of Minnesota 






'* I 







Studies in Predicting Scholastic 
Achievement, Part II, University of 
Minnesota Press, Minn. 1942. 

5. Garrett, Henry E. Statistics in 
Psychology and Education, 2nd Ed. 
Longmans, Green & Co., Toronto, 

6. Goodcnough, F.L. Mental Testing. 
Rinehart & Co. Inc., New York. 1950. 

7. Hobbe, Stephen. The Selection of 
Student Nurses.. J.Appl. Psychol. Vol. 
XVII (1933) pp.564-580. 

. 8. Hunt, Thelma & Healey, Ernest. A 
Study of Three Tests used in the Selec- 
tion of Applicants for Admission to 
Nursing Schools. Centre for Psycho- 
logical Service, Gecfrge Washington 
University, Washington, D.C. Oct. 15, 

9. Kraft, Louise. The Relationship 
Between Some Criteria Commonly used 
in Selecting Nurse Applicants and Suc- 
cess in the School of Nursing. Unpub- 
lished Master's Thesis, University of 
Buffalo. 1940. 

10. Lennon, Laurence J. Predicting 
Student Nurse Aptitude in Eight Penn- 
sylvania Nursing Schools. Abstract of 
Doctoral Dissertation at Penn. State 
College, 1947. University Microfilms, 
Ann Arbor, Mich. 

11. Nygaard, P.H. Percentage Equiv- 

alent for the Coefficient of Correlation. 
J.Educ. Psychol. Vol. 17 (1926) pp. 86- 

12. Report of the Canadian Nurses' 
Association, Jan. 1951. Student Nurse 
Withdrawal Rate from the Graduation 
Class of 1950. 

13. Rinehart, J.B. An Attempt to 
Predict Success of Student Nurses by 
Use of a Battery of Tests. J.Appl. 
Psychol., 1933: 7, pp. 277-293. 

14. Rosenstein, J.L. Intelligence Test 
Ratings and Trainability of Nurses. 
Psych. Clinician, 1932: 21, pp.260-267. 

15. Smith, G. Milton. A Simplified 
Guide to Statistics. Rinehart & Co. Inc., 
New York, 1946. 

16. Super, D.E. Appraising Voca- 
tional Fitness. Harper Bros.; New 
York. 1949. pp.32-42. 

17. Tiffin, Joseph. Industrial Psy- 
chology, Prentice Hall, New York. 

Abstract of a thesis submitted to 
Dalhousie University, Halifax, in 
partial fulfillment of the requirements 
for the degree of Master of Arts, Sept. 
1951. — "A Preliminary Study of the 
Aptitude Test (Form 2) of the George 
Washington University Series of Nurs- 
ing Tests in Five Canadian Hospitals." 

Evaluating/ Faculty Competence 

Sister St. Thomas d'Aquin, o.s.a., M.Sc 

Since self-evaluation is essentially a 
problem of the teacher, it would seem 
wise to give an opportunity to the 
faculty members to evaluate themselves 
and their work by using some sort of 
rating scale. Every progressive teacher 
is eager to help ascertain the qualities 
that make for better teaching and for 

Sister St. Thomas d'Aquin was for- 
merly instructor at the School for 
Graduate Nurses, Laval University, 
Quebec, and is now at H6tel-Dieu, 
Quebec City. 

the highest development of her stu 
dents and seeks to attain outstanding 

The students may likewise evaluate 
the teachers. There are various types 
of student ratings of teachers— for ex 
ample, check lists prepared by the 
director herself or by the faculty mem 
bers to which the students may answer 
"yes — no" or "true — false." The items, 
about 75 or more, might enlarge o r 
the following points: personality, atti 
tude towards work, students, prcpara 
tion of the class, and teaching tech 

Vol. 48. No. 1" 


niques. Sometimes the students can add 

additional comments. A pattern of 

such a rating scale is as follows: 

Suggested Questionnaire on 

Evalution of Course 

Part I 

Answer questions "Yes" or "No" 

1. Did the content of the course start 
at the level for which you were pre- 

2. Have you found the subject matter 

3. Do you consider the subject matter 
of this course a valuable addition to 
your knowledge? Commensurate with 
the effort expended? 

4. Has the course helped you to 
make other educational experiences 
more meaningful? ^^ 

5. Has the course helped you to de- 
velop a more wholesome or Christian 
philosophy of life? 

6. Has the course opened up for you 
any new field of interest? 

7. Has the course increased your un- 
derstanding of human nature? 

8. Were discussion periods long 

9. Were discussion periods valuable? 

10. Have your powers of observation 
been, increased because of this course? 

11. Was the presentation of material 

12. Were the methods of presenta- 
tion varied? 

13. Were the methods used effec- 
tively? . ~ . 

Part II 

1. Approximately how many hours a 
week have you spent in studying for 
the course? 

2. Do you feel this was sufficient 
study to master the material? 

3. If not, explain what factors pre- 
vented you from further study. 

4. List the subject touched upon in 
class, which you would like to pursue 

OCTOBER. 1952 

5. Do you feel you have gained 
knowledge through the use of the test 
in this course? 

6. What suggestions would you 
make for improving this course? 

The essay type of rating may also be 
used. Some classroom instructors, in 
the final test at the end of the course, 
ask a question about the appreciation 
of the course and the teacher. If two 
student judges attribute the same trait 
to the same person in the same degree, 
an instrument of measurement is mani- 
fested which has some quality of re- 
liability. Generally speaking, student 
ratings are regarded as valid since it is 
students that are being taught and who 
alone are competent judges of the 
daily conduct of teachers. Moreover, 
they usually give every indication of 
sincerity in rating teachers. 

The director of the school can also 
make some evaluations, either individ- 
ually or by groups. An evaluation of 
the methods of teaching can be made, 
for instance, through a judgment of 
the use of visual aids by the teacher or 
of new and active methods of teaching 
— if interest is shown in some study or 
research concerning nursing education; 
if teachers are active members of the 
nursing organizations; if they partici- 
pate in school activities and cooperate 
at faculty meetings, and if they take i 
their responsibilities concerning fac- 
ulty policies seriously. 

This evaluation can be done individ- 
ually but the nursing school faculty 
should evaluate its own competence 
not only as individuals but as a group. 
In an article in Hospital Progress, Sister 
M. Olivia Gowan suggests some criteria 
for such evalution as follows: 

1. Are the graduates of the school 
sought by other schools? hospitals? 

2. Arc the ratings of graduates good 
in the general practice of nursing? 

3. Do the schools offering affiliations 
seek students from the school year after 

year ? 

4. Do the graduates do well in ad- 
vanced positions? 



5. How many graduates enter uni- 
versities for advanced education? 

6. Do they have good academic and 
professional rating? 

7. Do graduates encourage - young 
women to enter the school? 

8. What contributions have the grad- 
uates made to the profession? 

9. Are the records of students in 
Registered Nurse examinations good? • 
In each school other indications of 

faculty competence can be foui.d which 

each group may add to evaluate its 
own work. 


1. Beecher, Dwight E. The Evalu- 
ation of Teaching, Background and 
Concepts. Syracuse University Press. 

2. Gowan, Sister M. Olivia. The Fa- 
culty of a Catholic Nursing School. 
Hospital Progress. Aug. 1950. 

3. Greene, A. Harry and coll. Meas- 
urement and Evaluation in the Second- 
ary School. Longmans Green & Co. 


This challenge is ringing out to all graduate, licensed practical and Psx- 

rtardin'nh" totafnu'?" ?*' ^1 P £nnin « ^^ "™" information 
afar uf couVt of M * ^ '" ^ f' ™"- T * secure this information 

nrovM^ n k V rSeS> W ' th Certam detai,s to be f i»ed in on the fornis 

provided, will be made during the last week of October 1952 

week l U cSct a o n ri r be 25T ted! W*"™ Cen / res wi,1> ^ Seated during that 
Assoriatinn n?R , a k,~ '"■ "" bos P" als '" Manitoba. The Manitoba 
P^roTect Be a /J| eg ' ^ ,s enthusi ^ally supporting this census-taking 

project, be as active yourself. h 

How can every nurse help? 

1. By registering early in the week. 

2. By rounding up everyone who is or ever has been a graduate nurse 

u!n^l$? 1 nurse ' °' a psychiatric nursc and **"* *«^y "«'P 5 

# 3^ By volunteering for at least part-time service as a census interviewer 
Manitoba is serving as the guinea pig in this essential experiment. Success 
in obtaining satisfactory results there, will influence similar surveys in the other 
provinces. 7 vmci 

The Date — October 27-31, 1952. 

The PI *ce — Every hospital in Manitoba. 

The word efficiency applied to a nurse so 
often conjures up a picture of a brisk, bustling 
person crackling with starch who whips out 
stitches and applies poultices with great dis- 
patch but no sympathy; one to whom a 
human being in a bed is a disease which 
happens to have a personality rather than 
the other way about. When applied to work 
in a hospital this manual dexterity is not suf- 
ficient. There must also be a strong sense of 
what i$ t and will be, needed by the patient, 
both mentally and physically. There must be 
dexterity, neatness, and punctuality in prac- 

tical matters as well as thought to forestall 
the inward growth of fear and unhappiness. 
To this end great experience of human needs 
and failings is necessary, together with a 
large capacity for charity in the sense of 
St. Pauls letter, and the cultivation of 
emotional detachment or at least of good 
emotional control. All these qualities go to 
the blending of an efficient nurse so that she 
will be learning to be more efficient 'during 
the whole span of her working life. 

— The Nursing Times. 
Vol. 48. No. 10 

pJtic J4eM J\l* 


f ... 

Health Education Program 
for Student Nurses 

Margaret Mackenzie 

The aim of the course in health 
education at the Toronto Western 
Hospital is to help the student develop 
a positive attitude towards mental and 
physical health for herself and her 
patients and gain an appreciation of 
the social aspects and implications of 
illness for the patient, the family, and 
the community, so that she may 
function as a health teacher. The 
course has been developed around four 
basic points: 

1. It is treated as a continuous 
course throughout the first two years, 
with additional community experience 
in Jhe third year. 

2. The individual and the community 
are considered concurrently. 

3. There is community observation in t 
connection with each series of lectures. 

4. The material presented is basic 
and supplements that which is given in 
other courses. It has been developed in 
close cooperation with the instructors 
in the various clinical services and 
every attempt is made to illustrate that 
the social aspects are a part of total 
patient care. 

The course is presented in four parts 
to correlate with the basic curriculum 
— three in the first year and one in the 
secpnd, for a total of approximately 75 

Part I 
This deals with the physical health 
of the individual and the provisions 
made by the community for its preser- 

Miss Mackenzie has been responsible 
for the organization and development 
of this program. She is health instruc- 
tor at Toronto Western Hospital. 

OCTOBER. 1952 

vation. The following premises form 
the basis for this unit: 

1. That in any health program active 
participation by the individual and 
planning by the community are es- 

2. That knowledge and understand- 
ing precede participation. 

3. That the student health service 
program can provide good teaching 

Our program provides for pre- 
entrance health examinations con- 
ducted at the school by school 
physicians. On entrance a brief review 
of the examination shows the individ- 
ual the value of participating in and 
maintaining good health. -At this 
time the function of the student health 
service is outlined and stress is laid on 
the fact that it can only fulfil its 
function if the student makes her 
needs known. Thus she is encouraged 
to come with any problems or com- 
plaints and a course of action is dis- 
cussed with her. A sympathetic ear and 
a positive attitude on the part of the 
nurse in charge is necessary if this is to 
be a constructive program. It is essen- 
tially a counselling service. 

Two examples will serve to illustrate 
the methods employed. Tuberculin 
tests are compulsory, by provincial 
law, for all students entering a school 
of nursing. Previous to testing, an ex- 
planation in simple, non-technical lan- 
guage tells the purpose, dosage, 
% method, interpretation and significance 
'to the individual. The students read 
their own tests, are responsible for re- 
turning for repeat tests. There is, of 
course, an adeauate checking and re- 
cording system but every effort is made 

• 19 











to encourage the students to accept re- 

The second example concerns nutri- 
tion. When the course in normal 
nutrition is being given, our discussion 
centres around the factors that inter- 
fere with good nutrition, the socio- 
economic factors, reasons for poor 
eating habits, and how these problems 
may be approached. The community 
approach is made by a discussion on 
safe milk supplies, a film on com- 
mercial pasteurization, government 
control, home pasteurization and care 
of milk, etc. 

Part II 

Following the lectures on individual 
and community health, Part II starts 
with a brief introduction to teaching. 
Examples from Part I are used to illus- 
trate method. The points stressed are: 
(a) Discovering the patient's needs; 

(b) presentation of material from the 
point of view of interest, the patient's 
level of understanding and approach; 

(c) opportunities for teaching; and (d) 
the need for the nurse to understand 
the patient's difficulties and why each 
patient requires individual consider- 

This leads to the development of 
the individual. Both heredity and en- 
vironment are discussed. Heredity is 
not considered in detail, the emphasis 
being placed on the fact that each in- 
dividual has started life with a distinct 
set of characteristics that are peculiar 
to him alone. From here we go on 
to those aspects that affect the develop- 
ment of the individual; some of the 
ways in which our culture provides us 
with patterns for living; some of the 
variations that occur in different cul- 
tures; and the influence of the group 
on the individual. The changes that 
have taken place in our culture and the 
effect these changes have had are also 
brought out. Thus an attempt is made 
to show the development of the var- 
ious social needs in the world of to- 

The fact that there is recognition of 
individual needs and the community's 
attempts to meet them is provided 
through tours of social agencies, such 
as community or settlement houses. 

The problems of environment are 
shown by means of a visit to .Regent's 
Park Housing Project and the needs 
of special groups by a visit to the 
Canadian National Institute for the 

The need of dealing with the patient 
on an individual basis is provided by 
a day spent in the Out-Patient Depart- 
ment. The student observes several in- 
terviews with new patients. She then 
accompanies one through the clinic, 
explains the routine admission pro- 
cedures and remains with the patient 
during the doctor's examination and 
the interview with the Hospital Health 
Service nurse (a public health nurse of 
the City of Toronto Health Depart- 
ment who acts as liaison between the 
hospital and the district). She remains 
with the patient if he is to be ad- 
mitted or until he has his instructions 
and appointment for a return visit. 
Emphasis is laid on how the interviews 
are conducted, what information is 
received, and how assessment of the 
patient's eligibility for clinics is deter- 
mined, also the sources of referral. 
This provides the basis for a discussion 
with the students and demonstrates the 
contribution the department is making 
to the health care of the people. The 
student then observes a home visit 
which assists her in recognizing some 
of the problems of our patients. 

Part III 

In the medical and surgical blocks 
that follow in our curriculum, Part III 
attempts to deal with some of the 
social aspects of illness as they affect 
the patient and his family and the 
significance to the community. I 

The need for recognizing problems 
and their referral, the application of 
her knowledge to prepare the patient 
for his return home, the presence of 
various community services and how 
they are provided through official and 
voluntary agencies are all discussed. 
This approach is general rather than 
specific. The application to specific 
problems is dealt with by the clinical 
instructors in medicine and surgery. 

Part IV 
The fourth and last part of 

course is given during the student's 
experience in the Out-Patient Depart- 
ment. The four-hour class perioci for 
each week is an uninterrupted morning 
session. There is ample opportunity for 
student participation and, as the group 
is small, it may be informal. 

The student is assigned to one main 
clinic for the entire four-week period 
so she does not learn a variety of 
routines. She has an opportunity to 
know the patients, their ability to carry 
out teaching which has been given, 
and to assess her own teaching. The 
student docs assist in various other 
clinics such as the chest clinic, venereal 
disease, prenatal, etc., so that her ex- 
perience is not limited. These are held 
in the afternoon or evening and do not 
interfere with morning assignments. 

Again observation is provided in the 
interviewing of new patients coming 
into the clinic. The student is en- e 
couraged to take the initiative in 
looking for and referring problems. 
The administration of the department 
and the nursing staff work in close co- 
operation to make * the students' ex- 
perience an educational one. 

Field work is provided for some of 
the students by the Victorian Order 
of Nurses at certain periods of the 
year. This is a valuable experience as 
they have an opportunity to see and 
participate in bedside nursing pro- 
grams as well as a teaching program. 
The other students are taken on home 
visits early in their experience and 
again later. These visits are made pos- 
sible by referral from the Hospital 
Health Service. The students prepare 
for the visits by obtaining information 
from the histories and social index 
cards of the patients. On return from 

*by the other 

the visit they report to the Hospital 
Health Service the problems, teaching 
given, and other pertinent infor- 

In the classes at this time the 
student presents a social study on a 
patient she has visited. This includes 
a budget for the family and thus she 
Yealizes the many financial needs that 
must be met and appreciates the 
services provided by the social and 
health agencies. Each student also pre- 
pares for a demonstration of a home 
nursing situation, using one* of the 
families visited as a setting. She in- 
cludes a picture of the total situation 
and how, as a nurse, she might proceed 
to deal with it and teach the patient 
or the family. Suggestions ana ideas 
for alternative methods are discussed 
students during the 
Here the student has 
an opportunity to apply her know- 
ledge in relation to specific conditions 
— for example, how she might help a 
patient to obtain the extra rest that she 
had been ordered or how a special diet 
may be fitted into the family pattern 
of eating, which might also be im- 

Throughout the course no par- 
ticular emphasis is given to public 
health nursing as a special post-grad- 
uate field. The emphasis rather stresses 
the fact that the nurse, as a profes- 
sional worker, should be prepared to 
consider the patient as an individual, 
with difficulties that have to be met 
in a way that is satisfactory to him and 
most compatible with his environment. 
Also as a professional person in the 
community she should know the avail- 
able resources and be prepared to en- 
courage and develop them. 

A feature of modern nursing education is 
he emphasis given to the planning of cur- 
icula based on the educational principles 
ommon to all disciplines. The nurse has to 
^e taught to react to situations which are 
hangeable in themselves (because human 
d'ngs are dynamic) and which are also af- 
ected by advances in medical and general 
cience and by the impact of one culture 

upon another. The help of educationists, as 
well as of persons familiar with the culture, 
and particularly educated members of the 
society who have learned to look objectively 
at 'their own customs and beliefs, is urgently 
needed in developing a program for the 
school of nursing. 
WHO Expert Committee on Nursing 







<^A-w>c <z^nri 

it mute* L^ana 

Bonne Entente 

L'Abbe Arthur Maheux 



Le probleme de l'unite nationale se 

• peut envisager, de differentes fa^ons. 
Depuis plusieurs annees, a travers tout 
le Canada, j'ai essaye de I'expliquer par 
des conferences, des brochures, des 

• articles de revues et surtout par des 
livres. Je ne pretends pas avoir r£solu 
toutes les difficult^. Mes articles 
hebdomadal res du Star de Montreal — 
360 en sept ans — offrent une grande 
variete de details sur ce sujet. Sans 
doute, il est preferable d'aller tout 
droit aux racines du mal; or ce sont 
bien les prejug£s qui sont a la racine 
de nos problemes nationaux. 

Toutefois, mettons-nous a un autre 
point de vue et etudions les relations 
cntre l'unite nationale et cette Uni- 
versity Laval dont on celebre le 
i Centenaire. Et d'abord posons nous 
cette question: Comment l'idee d'une 
university s'est-elle developee che2 
les Canadiens francais? On dit souvent 
que les Canadiens francais ont 
beaucoup tarde 7 a £tablir une universite 
et que, par l'absence d'une telle insti- 
tution, ils ont ete plutot ignorants, et 
cons£quemment m^prisables. Est-ce 

Vous tenez votre congres a Quebec 
a I'occasion d'un Centenaire — ce que 
Ton appelle le Centenaire de l'Univer- 
sit£ Laval. C'est une Etiquette trom- 
- peuse, qui demande explication. II y a. 
vraiment un centenaire, mains c'est 
celui de la Charte universitaire obtenue 
par le Seminaire de Quebec en 1852. 
Ce n'est pas le centenaire de l'enseigne- 
ment au degre" universitaire en Nou- 
velle-France ou chez les Canadiens 

En fait, pour trouver le commence- 
ment d'un tel enseignement il faut 
rcmonter jusqu'a 1635. Cette ann£e-la, 

3uelques mois avant le deces de Samuel 
e Champlain, (es Jlsuites ouvrirent un 
college sur les hauteurs du Cap Dia- 


mant, non loin de l'habitation du 
gouverneur et en face de la Basilique 
d'aujourd'hui. Cetait un "college clas- 
sique," c'est a dire une combinaison de 
cours primaire sup^rieur (high school) 
pour les quatre premieres ann£es et 
d'un college des arts et sciences, pour 
les dernieres quatre annees. Ce cours 
de huit annees 6tait pr£c£de de classes 
61ementaires pour ceux qui n'6taient pas 
assez pre'paris a l'etude du latin. Apres 
ces huit annles il y aurait bientot des 
cours supe'rieurs de sciences pratiques, 
telles que la navigation, l'arpentage, 
les mathlmatiques. 

Ce college des J6suites avait la 
meme organisation que les colleges des 
J£suites en France et autres pays 
d'Europe. Ces colleges jouissaient d6ja 
de ce^brite' en Europe par l'excellence 
de leur enseignement. Ce fut certes un 
coup d'audace de mettre sur pied a 
Quebec une telle institution, a un mo- 
ment ou la population totale du village 
et des environs de Quebec ne d^passait 
guere les trois cents ames, avec par 
consequent peu d'enfants pour suivre *( 
les classes. 

Cette audace avait sa cause dans 
l'exemple de l'Espagne en Am6rique 
du Sua ou Ton ouvrit colleges et uni 
versite*s peu apres l'&ablisseVnent des 
Blancs. France et Espagne avaient In 
meme ambition: instruire et former les 
Indigenes aussi bien que les Blancs. Les 
sauvages n'y rlussirent guere et il 
fallut abandonner ce bel espoir mai^ 
I'entreprise tourna a l'avantage de> 

Les Jisuites furent seuls a Quibe. 
jusqu'a I'arrivic du premier £veque- 
Monseigneur Francois de Montmo/ 
ency-Laval. C'est en 1659 qu'il arriva -\ 
Quebec. Son premier soin fut d'orga 
niser un seminaire pour former le 
jeunes gens a la prStrise et a cette fin 
il obtint des lettres patentes (un 

Vol. 48. No. i 

charte royale) du Roi de France en 
1 663. Ce fut le dibut — assez precoce — 
le l'enseignement de la theologie, au 
meme niveau que dans les 6coles de 
rheologie d'Europe. Des ce moment ia 
Mouvelle- France, avait Equivalent de 
leux facult6s: les arts chez les J&uites 
U la thlologie au s&ninaire. 

Ce n'^tait pas assez pour l'ambition 
Je Mgr. de Laval. *II r&olut d'avoir 
aussi un Petit S&ninaire en 1668. Ce 
Jevait etre un college classique. Cepen- 
dant, la faiblesse numerique de la 
population ne pouvait assurer Exis- 
tence de deux colleges, surtout au 
meme endroit. Aussi l'eveque fit-il un 
iccord avec les J6suites. II enverrait a 
leur college les enfants de son s£mi- 
naire pour les Etudes classiques et il leur 
donnerait le reste de la formation au 
. seminaire meme. Cette combinaison se 
continua toute la dur£e du regime 
tranc.ais, jusqu'a ce que la Guerre de 
Sept Ans format les deux institutions a 
Termer leurs portes, vu que Wolfe, in- 
stalls sur les hauteurs de Levis, lari^ait 
ses obus sur toute la ville. 

En tous cas il' est legitime de dire 
cjue l'enseignement au degre univer- 
sitaire fut en Nouvelle-France une in- 
stitution permanente depuis 1635 pour 
les arts et depuis 1663 pour la th6o- 
logie. Le College des J6suites a cel6brc 
son troisie'me centenaire en 1935 et le 
seminaire le c616brera en 1963. 

Vous demanderez ce qu'on faisait 
pour le droit et la m^decine. Je 
repondrai: tres peu. On avait peu 
d'estime pour les hommes de loi en 
Nouvelle-France. Les seigneurs admi- 
nistraient la justice, chaque seigneurie 
tyant sa propre cour, et le Conseil Sou- 
verain, ou siegeaient le gouverneur, 
i intendant, l'eveque et quelques 
lutres, entendaient aussi les causes. 
Un nomme* Verrier donna des cours 
publics de droit. Quant a la mWecine il 
n'y avait cjue l'apprentissage. 

Certes, il eut 6ti facile de donner des 
' ours de droit et de midecine. Meme 
« n France certaines* faculty, en ces 
natieres, avaient peu de professeurs et 
.^eu d'itudiants. Mais le gouvernement 
le Paris se montra peu g£n£reux pour 
l\ colonic en ce domaine. II cut suffi 
J c peu d'argent pour fairc vivrc en 

' '< TOBER. 1952 

Canada l'enseignement supirieur mais 
en cela ce fut comme pour rimprimerie 

• qui fut refused aux colons francos, 
tandis que les^ colons anglais l'eurent 
des 1639. 

Le College des J6suites et le Semi- 
naire de Quebec enseignaient sans avoir 

. licence de conferer des diplomes; mais 
cela ne diminue en rien la valeur de 
l'enseignement qui ctait vraiment au 
degr6 universitaire d'alors pour les arts 

e ^. P ou . r ,a tn *°'og^; il n'avait rien 
d*inf^rieur compart a la France et aux 
autres . pays d'Europe, y compris 
TAngleterre; il £tait aussi bon que 
l'enseignement dispense dans les 
colonies anglaises. Harvard commence 
en 1636 comme simple college clas- 
sique, pour devenir plus tard une uni- 
versity complete. A Quebec les deux 
maisons en viendraient a etre fusion- 
nees, pour devenir, aussi, une univer- 
site" complete. Quand cette combinaison 
se produisit-elle? Elle fut le rfsultat de 
la Guerre de Sept Ans et du Trait* de 
Paris (1763) et I'effet de la politigue 
adopted par la Grande-Bretagne, nou- 
velle maitresse, a l'6gard des Canadiens » 

^ Le nouveau gouvernement £tait 
protestant et agirait naturellement 
dans le sens protestant. L'une dc scs 
premieres decisions fut de supprimer 
les ordres religieux, particulierement 
les J6suites et les rccollcts. On ne les 
tua pas, on ne les cxila pas, mais on 
leur interdit d'accepter des novices ct 
d'enseigner. Les religieux mourraient 
I'un apres l'autre jusqu'a complete ex- 
tinction et leurs biens deviendraient 
proprie'te* de I'Etat. 

Pareille decision constituait un 
grand changement pour les Canadiens 
francais, et exigeait dc nouvcaux ar- 
rangements. James Murray, Ic gou-' 
verneur, comprit la situation. II vit que 
les Canadiens francais avaient besoin 
d'un clerg*, ct done d'un e\cquc ct 
d'un se'minairc ct* il permit au Senii- 
naire dc Quebec dc continucr a donner 
rcnscigncmcnt, Celui -dc theologic 
avait M particllemcnt intcrrompu par 
la guerre; on lc rcprit en le compll- 
tant. Pour les classiqTKs, lc seminaire 
rccucillit la succession des Jcsuitcs, 
succession complete avec livres, mi- 



nucls, programmes, m&hodes, etc. Les 
pretres qui composaient le Slminaire 
de Quebec avaient etc* eleves des 
J6suites, soit a Quebec, soit en Europe. 
Apres le bombardement, le seminaire 
rouvrit ses portes en 1765 et cette fois 
avec les etudes classiques chez lui. De- 
sormais on accueillerait tous les jeunes 
gens, meme ceux qui ne songeaient pas 
a se faire pretres; il devint un college 
au lieu de seulement un seminaire. Ce 
fut une rude tache pour les ecclesias- ' 
tiques de cette maison mais ils la 
prirent avec ardeur et ils y excejlerent. 
II voulurent donner un cours tres 
solide et ils y parvinrent. L'examen 
final annuel des classes superieures se 
tint en public. II n'y avait pas de 
diplomes mais au moins une reconnais- 
sance publique du talent et du succes. 
Apres huit annees consacr£es a l'^tude 
des langues, literatures classiques, de 
l'histoire et de la g£ographie, de la 
philosophie et des sciences, les jeunes 
gens pouvaient entrer dans l'adminis- 
tration, la politique, le commerce, le 
barreau, la medecine, la th£ologie, 
apres y avoir donne soit les annees 
d'itudes, soit le§ annles d'apprentis- 
sage dans le cas du barreau et de la 

Ne croyons pas, cependant, que 
Yidic d'universiti fut morte. Elle 
restait vivante dans les deux groupes 
— fran^ais et anglais. Les Canadiens 
fran^ais avaient une situation de fa- 
veur avec un college classique et un 
seminaire thiologique, sans compter 
les autres colleges classiques qui s'ou- 
vrirent dans d'autres lieux. Les Cana- 
diens anglais n'avaient que des icoles 
privees, 1'afTaire d'un seul maitre; 
d'autre part, ils n'aimaient pas a en- 
voycr leurs fils et leurs filles dans des 
ecoles am£ricaines. Pendant longtemps 
ils pre7e*rcrent les inscrire dans les col- 
leges canadiens-fran^ais, particuliere- 
ment le seminaire et les ursulines. 

II semble bien que le groupe fran^ais 
aurait pu obtenir facilement une uni- 
versity en 1774, avec l'Acte de Quebec. 
Ils eurent alors confirmation de leur 
droit de rester catholiques, de leur 
droit au regime seigneurial, aux dimes, 
et, ce qui est plus, la dispense du ser- 
ment du test. Toutes ces concessions 

furent de durs sacrifices pour la 
Grande-Bretagne, pays debridement 
protestant. Le Gouverneur Carleton et 
le French Party contribuerent a ces lar- 
gesses. Par consequent, si, les Canadiens 
franc.ais avaient demands une univer- 
site complete, ils l'auraient eue mais ils 
ne la demanderent pas. 

Plus tard, l'61£ment anglais voulut 
une university. Ils imaginerent une 
sorte d'universite* d'etat qui serait 
neutre en religion; tous les eleves 
auraient suivi les memes cours, sauf en 
tWologie, ou on aurait eu deux col- 
leges separ^s — un protestant % et un 
catholique. Les Catholiques n'aimaient 
pas la neutrality et les Non-Confor- 
mistes abhorraient l'id£e d'une theo- 
logie anglicane. Le project, legalise 
sous le nom destitution Royale, 
deviendrait le McGill College, grace i 
un legs de James McGill a Montreal. 
L'Institution McGill comment comme 
simple college des arts tout comme 
jadis le college des J^suites et la Semi- 
naire de Quebec. On en^dira autant du 
King's College devenu l'universite* de 
Toronto et d'autres university cana- 

Le besoin d'une university se faisait 
sentir de plus en plus, surtout avec 
l'organisation du Barreau et celle du 
Bureau d'Examinateurs en Medecine, 
puis avec la venue de m6decins et 
d'avocats des lies Britanniques; puis 
avec la naissance de plusieurs Ecoles de 
medecine aux Etats-Unis; puis lorsque 
McGill obtint une charte avec pouvoir 
de conterer les grades universitaires. 
Retenons ces raisons. Mais d'autres 
raisons encore incitaient le groupe 
fran^ais a creer une university. La prin- 
cipal se trouve dans le Rapport Dur- 
ham. II se peut que, comme la plupart 
des Canadiens, vous n'ayez pas lu a 
rapport qui a si fortement influence lc 
dcVeloppement du Canada. Et pourtant 
j'estime que tous les Canadiens in- 
struits devraient le lire. Le gouvernt- 
ment de Grande-Bretagne envoya Dur 
ham au Canada en 1838 pour apaiser 1.% 
rebellion qui sivissait dans le Haut t* 
dans le Bas-Canada. Durham proce'dx 
a des enqueues llaborles, soit par lui 
me'me, soit par ses agents. II present i 
son rapport a la Chambre des Con. 

Vol. 48. No. !«» 



munes de Londres en Janvier 1839. Cc 
fut etre un scandale pour le gouverne- 
ment britannique car Durham n'avait 
que des blames pour ce gouvernement 
et pour le groupe anglais du Canada il 
avait autant de blames que de lou- 
anges. Quant aux Canadiens fran^ais il 
les louait clairement dans la premiere 
partie mais il les Icorchait dans la 
seconde partie. 

On en a retenu surtout un passage — 
celui ou il dit que les Canadiens fran- 
^ais sont un peuple sans histoire, sans 
literature, sans tWatrc, sans beaux- 
arts. Durham voulait dire qu'en fait les 
canadiens n'avaient pas encore ecrit 
leur histoire, n'avaient encore produit 
ni literature ni oeuvres dramatiques ni 
oeuvres d'art. Dans ce dernier cas 
l'erreur est »manifeste ce qui est abon- 
damment prouve* et par divers travaux 
de recherche historique et par cette ex- 
position retrospective des oeuvres d'art 
des anciens Canadiens fran^ais, que 
vous avea» vue au Musle Provincial. 
Pour le reste, Durham avait raison. En 
effet, l'Histoire du Canada de Garneau 
n'avait pas encore paru. 

Notre premier mouvement littlraire 
date de I860; quant au drame il n'y en 
avait pas, pour la bonne raison que 
l'Eglise interdisait aux fideles d'aller 
au theatre. Durham n'a pas voulu dire 

3ue les Canadiens fran^ais manquaient 
e matieres pour 6crire des oeuvres 
historiques, littlraires, dramatiques. 
C'est pourtant l'intention que plusieurs 
Canadiens ont pretec a Durham. Ils 
virent dans son rapport une condam- 
nation finale a 1'eftet que le groupe 
fran^ais manquait de culture. Durham 
incluait, dans son rapport, des recom- 
mandations qui furent incorpore'es 
dans 1'Acte d'Union de 1840. C'est 
alors que commenqa un supreme assaut 
contre les Canadiens fran^ais. La 
langue fran^aise perdit le caractere of- 
ficiel qu'elle avait eu jusque-U; la re- 
ligion catholique fut attaqule, surtout 
par la French-Canadian Missionary 
Society; le groupe fran^aise fut, dans le ; 
domaine administratis meli au groupe 
anglais, afin de diminuer son impor- 
tance numlrique. 

Ce fut une dure ipoque pour Jean- 
Baptiste mais on avait compte* sans sa 

force de resistance. Quatre annees a 
peine $'6taient ecoulees depuis la paru- 
tion du rapport de Durham, que le . 
groupe fran^ais surgissait avec le plan 
d'une university plan inspire* par la 
conviction que seule une university 
pourrait les sauver. Ce plan se fondait 
sur l'emploi des Biens des Jesuites. II 
fut a l'£tudc environ quatre am et on 
dut l'abandonner parce que, eVidcm- 
ment, le gouvernement anglais na 
c£derait pas les Biens des Jcsuites. Cet 
echec ne fit qu'aviver; che2 les Cana- 
diens fran^ais la volont£ d'eriger une 
university. Ils tournirent alors leurs re- 
gards vers le Seminaire, de Quebec, 
cette ancienne corporation qui possl- 
cait des seigneuries, des exploitations 
agricoles, des maisons a loyer, et sur- 
tout qui jouissait de l'estime et du res- 
pect de tous a cause de sa haute 
valeur acadlmique. Le seminaire c£da a 
la pression; le gouverneur anglais 
l'appuya; la Reine Victoria accord a 
une charte universitaire en 1832. Ces 
faits vous feront comprendre, je crois, 
quelle importance les Canadiens fran- 
$ais donnent au Centenaire de cette 
charte. On voit, maintenant, combien 
nos peres eurent raison de penser que 
le salut du groupe r&idait dans . 
l'oeuvre universitaire. Aujourd'hui, il 
est ais£ de voir tout ce qui s'est pro- 
duit pendant ces cent annees de l'uni- 
versite*. Literature, histoire, phi- » 
losophie, et sciences sont en pleine pro- 
duction. Des milliers de jeunes gens et 
jeunes filles se prfparent chaque annec 
a plus de cinquante carrieres; les diplo- 
mas de Laval, sont recherches. 

L'une de ces carrieres est celle de 
l'infirmiere. A premiere vue elle est 
assez rcccntc dans l'universitc puisque 
la premiere affiliation est de 1923 et 
que les premiers cours pour lc bac- 
calaur6at en sciences hospitalicres 
datcnt de 1933. Mais n'oublions pas les 
faits historiques. 

La carriere d'infirmiere est aussi 
ancienne que la Nouvclle- France. Of- 
fkiellemcnt la colonic fran^aisc com- 
men^a avec la fondation dc Quibec en 
1608; mais son eUt rcsta trcs prccaire 
jusqu'en 1633. II sc produisit alors un 
recommencement, consicutif au Trait* 
de St-Gcrmain-en-Layc dc 1632. Six 




ans plus tard arriverent de France les 
premieres infirmieres qui ouvrirent le 
premier hopital a Quebec, l'Hotel- 
Dieu — qui existe encore; audacieuse 
entreprise, aussi hardie que la fonda- 
tion d'un college classique par les 
J6suites quatre ans plutot, car la 
population etait encore faible et clair- 
semee. N'oublions pas que ces reli- 
gieuses de lHotcl-Dieu n'avaient pas 
d'autre occupation que le soin des 
malades; l'enseignement 6tait reserve 
aux ursulines. Ces infirmieres, a coup 
sur, n'avaient pas de diplome universi- 
taire, pas d'autre diplome que leur 
bonne volont* et une instruction 
generate. Pour le cote technique de 
leur travail, elles prenaient conseil des 
medecins, chirurgiens et . apothicaires 
de l'epoque. L' ces hommes £tait 
le medecin principal de l'hopital mais 
les autres etaient admis a traiter leurs 
patients. Les registres de l'Hotel-Dieu 
montrent que meme les medecins des 
navires en rade etaient admis a cet 
hopital. La rudesse du climat, les epi- 
demies frequentes, les marins venus de 
partout offraient une suffisante vari6te 
de cas a traiter. Medecins et chirur- 
giens y trouverent leur avantage, ainsi 
que les jeunes en apprentissage. Plus 
tard s'ouvrit l'Hopital G6n6ral puis, 
sous le regime anglais, l'Hopital de la 
Marine et enfin l'Asile des Aliened. 

Les religieuses infirmieres de 
l'Hotel-Dieu se tinrent en relations 
£troites avec les J6suites d'abord, puis 
avec le Seminaire de Quebec. C'est un 
pretre de ce seminaire qui, d'ordinaire, 
6tait l'aviseur spirituel, et meme le 
conseiller g£ne>al, des Soeurs. Semi- 
naire, College des Jesuites, Ursulines, 
H6tel-Dieu formaient une sorte de 
cooperative pour les achats en France. 
Les cahiers de comptes du seminaire 
ont d'&onnants details — par example, 
• quantity d'articles fcminins, qui £vi- 
demment Etaient pour les religieuses, 
car le seminaire avait *tr6s peu de 
femmes a son emploi. 

Lorsque la Faculty de Medecine fut 
ouverte en 1854, les relations entre les 
infirmieres de l'Hdtel-Dieu et les pro- 
fesseurs de medecine se firent plus 
actives; de bonne heure s'ouvrirent les 
cliniques; me*decins et infirmieres col- 

laboraient volontiers avec succes. 

Lors des premieres affiliations 
d'6coles d'infirmieres (1923) les reli- 
gieuses redouterent un peu cette nou- 
velle invention, qui semblait attaquer 
leurs v£ne>ables traditions. Sept eo>les 
furent affiles avant que l'Hotel-Dieu 
ne bougeat; mais en 1933 il se privalut 
de cet advantage et entra dans la carriere 
resolument. Les Soeurs accepteren^ 
aussitot la proposition, que je leur fis 
en 1933, de faire donner des cours 
sup£rieurs et c'est a l'Hotel-Dieu que 
ces cours se donnerent pour la pre- 
miere fois l'hiver de 1934. Environ 20 
religieuses de diverses communaut^s 
suivirent ces cours. Aujourd'hui l'Uni- 
versite Laval compte 15 eo)les d'in- 
firmieres pour le cours ordinaire. 
Ajoutons des cours speaaux en 
chirurgie, en obst&rique et gyn6co- 
logie, en physiologic La Faculty de 
Medecine' controle ces derniers ensej- 
gnements, avec l'aide de quelques of- 
ficiers d'administration. Ces ecoles et 
ces cours desservent tout pres de mille 

II y aurait beaucoup a dire sur l'atti- 
tude des infirmieres canadiennes-fran- 
Caises a l'egard des diverses associations 
professionnelles d'infirmieres mais je 
me garderai d'en parler, car ce sujet est 
epineux et il y faudrait de longues 

La plupart d'entre vous sont de 
langue anglaise et je presume qu'elles 
aimeraient connaitre les relations entre 
l'Universite Laval et les Canadiens de 
langue anglaise. Ces relations ont tou- 
jours ete amicales. Meme avant la 
charte universitaire c'etait la coutume, 
au Seminaire de Quebec, d'acccpter bon 
nombre d'eieves de langue anglaise. 
Lors de 1'ouverture des cours en 1854, 
de jeunes Anglo-Canadiens s'inscrivi- 
rent en droit, en medecine et aux arts, 
particulierement pour la pharmacie. lis 
formerent environ le quart de la popu- 
lation etudiante. Cette pratique s'est 
toujours continuee. Elle est encore no- 
table; elle est meme trcs remarquable 
aux cours d'£te\ On ne saurait trouver, 
dans cette University Laval, la moiodre 
trace d'etroitesse d'esprit en ce do- 
maine. Au contralre, il y eut toujours 
bonne volonte de cooperation. L'Uni- 

Vol. 48. No. 10 



versite Laval favorise energiquement le 
bilinguisme et la double culture pour 
tout le Canada. On vient d'en voir un 
bel exemple a Quebec dans le congres 
de la Fondation Hazen. Ce congres a 
reuni 50 members* tous assez bilingues 
pour se comprendre dans Tunc ou 
['autre langue. Tous des professeurs 
d'universite et de diverses disciplines 
venus discuter les memes problemes 
sous differents angles. On a dit de ce 
congris que c'etait "un petit Canada 
ideal'" et que de telles assises sont le 
meilleur moyen de cree l'Entente 

II reste, certes, beaucoup de chemin 
a parcourir avant d'arriver a une par- 
faite entente entre les deux principaux 
groupes du Canada. Il y a encore des 

prejuges a dissiper mais la lumiere 
viendra. Elle vient deja; l'idee d'un 
Canada bi-culturel se repand tres vite. 

Votre association peut en cela faire 
sa part et une part de premier plan. 
Essayez d'en arriver au point oil tous 
les membres seront bilingues ou, dans 
vos discussions et rapports, Tunc et 
l'autre langue seront sur le meme pied. 
Tout Canadien instruit — et vous l'etes 
toutes — devrait etudier les prejuges qui 
bloquent encore la voie vers une veri- 
table Entente Nationale. 

Votre premier devoir est de soigner 
l'humanite souflFrante; mais vous etes 
citoyennes d'un pays et a ce titre vous 
devez cohtribuer a la formation d'une 
grande nation et evidemment je vcux 
dire la Nation Canadienne. 

Drug Addiction in Canada 

An old problem that has been 
brought into sharp relief in recent 
months is the incidence of narcotic ad- 
diction. It is not possible to obtain a 
satisfactory estimate of the number of 
drug addicts in Canada nor in any part 
of it. Some 4,800 persons who have 
been convicted on a drug charge are 
known to be free at the present time to 
continue their addiction. No formula 
has been devised to estimate the 
number of possible addicts from our 
knowledge of the number of convicted 
addicts. \ 

Endeavoring to find some favorable 
means of combatting this problem, es- 
pecially in view of the publicity that 
has been given to the rising incidence 
of drug addiction among adolescents, 
citizens' groups are being alerted to 
the dangers. In Vancouver, particu- 
larly, a special committee on narcotics 
has been organized under the auspices 
of the Community Chest and Council. 
Literature setting out the problem and 
a suggested solution is being made 
available. The co-operation of organ- 
izations is being urged to help arouse ; 
public opinion generally. The support 
of the nursing profession, both through 
the associations and as individuals, is 
being sought. 

Basically, narcotic addiction is a 

medical problem with definite 
psychiatric implications. Dr. Edward 
A. Strecker in his book "Fundamentals 
of Psychiatry" notes: 

In drug addiction . . . the individuals 
have resorted to an unreality produced 
by the drug, since they cannot face life 
at the level of sober, unnarcotized, 
mature, adult responsibility. Uncon- 
sciously, they seek to blur rosily the 
rigid and unrelenting outlines of reality 
and eventually to annihilate reality al- 

Dr. Lawrence E. Ranta, chairman of 
the Narcotics Committee in Van- 
couver, has written: 

Habituation to a narcotic drug arises 
when an individual takes a sufficient 
number of doses of a narcotic drug to 
have his body begin to depend upon its 
presence. This physiological depen- 
dency may occur if the drug is con- 
' sumed by mouth, inhaled into the nose, 
or taken with a needle under the skin 
or into a vein. 

Before the chemical mechanism of 
his body begins to depend upon the 
presence of the drug in order to main- 
tain normalcy, the individual may 
demand the drug only as a psycho- 
logical "prop." The drug may be used 
at first merely to assist the individual 
to withstand the normal pressures of 

OCTOBER. 1952 



life ii that individual finds himself 
psychologically unable to cope with 
normal situations. 

Others may avail themselves of an 
opportunity to acquire the drug and 
use it as a shield against the "slings 
and arrows of outrageous fortune." 
Still others may "stumble" into addic- 
tion through failure to recognize the 
dangers of drugs, while some may be 
lured into addiction by bravado or by 
the pernicious challenge of being a 
"good sport." Maladjustments to social 
and emotional situations^may, then, 
play a major part in the development 
of habituation. 

Once addicted, in a psychological 
sense," the addict is incapable of normal 
or seemingly normal action without 
periodic and daily recourse to the 
drug of his addiction or to a suitable 
drug substitute. 

As soon as the effects of the last 
dose begin to wear off, the nervous 
system of the addict awakens to a de- 
mand for the drug, expressed by a state 
of irritability and over-sensitivity. 
• Denial of the drug for even as short 
a period as 24 hours may induce "with- 
drawal" symptoms. With their severity 
somewhat dependent upon the size of 
the dosage to which the individual is 
addicted, these symptoms include a 
sense of severe restlessness, apprehen- " 
sion, and depression. 

Yawning and stretching and frequent 
sneezing are some of the signs of the 
addict's physiological dependence upon 
his drug. His hands shake. He trembles 
violently. He sweats and vomits. 
Cramps in agonizing spasms tear at his 
abdomen and at the muscles of his legs 
until he virtually collapses. These 
symptoms may last in violent severity 
for two or three days, gradually dis- 
appearing over a week to 10 days. 

In the course of these "withdrawal" 
symptoms, the administration of the 
drug completely and almost instantly 
transforms the "Hyde" of abstinence . 
into the "Jekyll" of affability. He be- 
comes contented, superior, good- 
nitured, disdainful of truth and reality, 
and too full of procrastination. In 
this state the addict is outwardly 
normal. His reaction times are, how- 

ever, depressed. He is prone to acci- 
dents and menaces himself and others 
in an age of mechanization. The world 
of reality is, on the whole, too fast for 
him, physically and emotionally. 

In the course of habituation, the 
addict finds that his requirements in- 
crease. He is tempted to permit him- 
self a slightly increased dosage above 
his usual requirement. The dosage may 
irfcrease in frequency and in quantity 
until . several grains are required to 
achieve the results previously achieved 
by a fraction of a grain. Now, 
physically harrassed, the addict takes 
foui or five doses of narcotic drug 

Eventually, with an average ad- 
diction-life of little more than a score 
of years, the addict may die of pneu- 
monia, from the long-term effects of 
intermittent skin infection upon his 
kidneys, or by accident, but rarely by . 
suicide, since the exhaustion of his 
nervous system seems even to deprive 
him of this final assertion of will. 
Though this side of the problem is 
serious enough, there is another and 
more dreadful side that also must be 
considered in connection with drug ad- 
diction. Dr. Ranta states that: 

As an addict is unable to maintain 
his .addiction and still make enough 
money by legal means to pay for his 
supply of drug, he usually resorts to 
crime. Male addicts undertake thieving 
of major or minor nature, while female 
addicts take to shoplifting and pros- 

The volume of crime initiated by 
drug addiction results in increasing 
numbers of jail sentences and raises the 
costs for penal institutions. The costs 
of incarceration must be considered 
high since there is no evidence that 
jail sentences cure addicts. On the con- 
trary, the lack of segregation of addicts 
from non-addicts results in a recruit- 
ment of drug users. 

The existence of the social abscess of 
drug addiction in any community re- 
mains a perpetual threat to the less 
stable or less knowledgeable elements 
of the community. By strong police 
action the availability of illicit drugs is 
decreased to some extent. The demand 

Vol. 48. No. 10 



is high and, consequently, the cost of 
illegal drugs mounts. With possibilities 
of great profits, criminal forces trading 
in drugs take desperate chances. Large 
profits encourage the recruitment of ' 
handlers since, if the handler is appre- 
hended, he may expect . "to take his 
holiday (in jail) with pay." The penal- 
ties that he may receive upon convic- 
• uon have been relatively light in view 
of the malignant nature of the crime. 
Though the maximum penalty is seven 
years' imprisonment with a $1,000 fine 
and lashes,, the sentences have fre- 
quently tended to approach the mini- 
mum of 9 to 12 months* imprisonment 
and a $200 fine. 

Every nurse knows that the various 
narcotic drugs, when used for medi- 
cinal purposes, have an important 
role in the prevention of pain. The 
supply for these legally recognized 
purposes is not limited though, ob- 
viously, some form of control must be 
provided in the form of the narcotic 
registers maintained in every ward. 

The methods used by the law en- 
forcement agencies to control the 
supply in order to prevent narcotics 
from reaching the hands of addicts 
have centred in the supervision of the 
manufacturing plants and keeping a 
watch for imported supplies. That they 
are unsuccessful is obvious. It is re- 
puted that the British system of 
control, in contrast, has been decidedly 

effective in minimizing their problem: 
In Britain it is possible for the 
physician to give ambulatory treatment 
to the addict, even over a long period 
of time. This may result in complete 
withdrawal of the drug without the in- 
humanity of "withdrawal" symptoms 
or, at least, maintenance of the addict's 
dosage at a low and safe level commen- 
surate with some degree of a normal 
. and useful life. 

Several other countries also concen- 
trate their punitive activities against 
illegal traffic but look upon the addict 
as a medical problem. Thus, Norway, 
Sweden, Denmark, Netherlands, Bel- 
gium, France, Switzerland, Austria, 
Italy, Australia, and New Zealand 
- number their addicts in the hundreds 
or less. For example, in 1949, with 
a population of 1,902,000, New Zea- 
land estimated her addict population at 
45! • 

These countries are virtually free 
from the illegal drug traffic. They even 
have difficulty in understanding our 
concept of the criminal addict, for 
their addicts arc not driven to crime- in 
order to support their addiction. 
Plans for the control of narcotic ad- 
diction in Canada call for the support 
of every citizen. Be informed your- 
selves and join with the groups that 
are working for the ultimate disap- 
pearance of this menace from our com- 

Flying Down to Rio 

If you hear strange syllables coming from 
the lips of your colleagues this winter, do 
not be surprised. You will be able to guess 
that they are among the lucky group who 
arc practising a few sentences in Portuguese 
preparatory to attending the I.C.N. Con- 
gress in Rio de Janeiro next July. 

Already the Canadian Nurses' Association 
has appointed Thos. Cook & Son as the 
official travel agents for this occasion. Pre- 
liminary information regarding tours is 
now available. Though the prices quoted 

must be considered tentative until the 1953 
rates arc released by the various airlines, it 
would appear that it will cost approxi- 
mately $1,100 for the return trip by air 
from Montreal. A conducted tour, at ap- 
proximately $1,675 per person, is being 
planned that will include round trip air 
transportation, hotels (excepting in Rio de 
Janeiro), and sight-seeing in Trinadad, 
Brazil, Uruguay, Argentine, Chile, Pero, 
Panama, and Jamaica. More complete details 
of itineraries will be published later. 

To be faithful in little things is a proof of a noble mind; ungenerosity is the fruit of a 
narrow mind, as is also ingratitude.— M. Armstrong. 

OCTOBER, 1932 

Stench in MwUintf 

International Council of 

• The Nursing Service Committee, which 
has been studying acceptable standards 
of nursing service, has forwarded papers 
from working groups in 15 different 
countries to the various member associa- 
tions for their comments. General dis- 
cussion will undoubtedly take place at 
the International Council of Nurses 
Tenth Quadrennial Congress in Rio de 
Janeiro on July 13, 1953. 

The I.C.N. Newsletter 

Miss Alice C. Sher, assistant secretary 
of the I.C.N., and president of the Inter- 
national Nurses' Screening Board, reports 
that during May, June, and July, 384 
letters have been sent out from I.C.N, 
headquarters on behalf of refugee nurses 
and others wishing to have their creden- 
tials established. As a result of informa- 
tion supplied, 40 cases have been accepted 
for registration. 

Mention was made of an International 
Hospitals Directory (Section A - D). 
This Directory, when completed, will 
give the names and addresses of all 
hospitals in countries affiliated to the 
I.H.F. and pertinent information con- 
cerning each. The Directory can be 
obtained from the following address: 

Captain J. E. Stone, M.C, 

Honorary Secretary 

International Hospital Federation 

King Edwards Hospital Fund for London 

10 Old Jewry, London, E.C.2, England. 

Great Britain: Word comes of two 
conferences in June, sponsored by the 
National Council of Nurses of Great 
Britain and Northern Ireland. One, par- 
ticularly for secretaries of associations 
affiliated to the National Council of 
Nurses, included lectures on Committee 
Procedure and Public Speaking and talks 
on the I.C.N, and F.N.I. F. by their 
respective leaders. The other, a pediatric 
conference sponsored jointly by the 
N.C.N, and the Association of Sick 
Children's Hospital Nurses of Great 
Britain, was widely attended by many . 


British nurses and by representatives from 
12 other countries. It consisted of a wide 
variety of lectures, demonstrations, and 

' At the summer school organized by the 
Old Internationals' Association and held 
at Bedford College, London, July 10 - 18, 
the main subject of discussion was 
"Human Relationships in International 
Nursing Affairs." 

Korea: The response to the appeal 
in May for textbooks and teaching equip- 
ment for the nursing schools in Korea 
has been good. Great Britain and New 
Zealand were noted, particularly for their 
contributions of anatomical charts, books, 
and periodicals. 

Iceland: In June the Board of Directors 
of the Northern Nurses' Association (a 
federation of the nurses' associations in 
Norway, Sweden, Denmark, Finland, and 
Iceland) flew by special plane from Oslo 
to Reykjavik, Iceland, for their meeting. 

Taiwan: The Nurses' Association of 
China, re-organised in Taiwan, has as its 
president, Miss Mei-Yu-Chow, dean of 
nursing of the National Defence Medical 
Centre. The association has 298 members 
registered. Miss Mei-Yu-Chow said in 
appreciation of the encouragement given 
her by I.C.N, member associations: "All 
these international relationships make us 
feel that we have come back to the big 
family again." Miss Stella Chen, prin- 
cipal of the school of nursing of Taiwan 
University Hospital, was able to attend 
the Study Week in New Zealand in 
March. Miss Chen will be remembered by 
many Canadians who met her here in 

Florence Nightingale 
International Foundation 

Miss Ellen Broe, director of the 
Foundation, reports that she spent a day 
in Cambridge visiting the new Institute 
on Human Ecology and University Health 
Service. This is the first chair ever estab- 
lished in Human Ecology (the study of 
the reaction of the human organism to 
his environment). 

The F.N.I. F. is continuing with its 

Vol. 48. No. 10 




study of Advanced Programs in Nursing 
Education for WHO. Miss Broe plans to 
visit post-basic schools in Belgium, Ger- 
many, and possibly the Middle East, be- 
fore Christmas. 

The Expert Committee on 
Nursing of WHO 

Attention is drawn to the second report 
of the Expert Committee on Nursing of 
WHO. The function of the committee is 
particularly directed to the consideration 
of the provision of nursing and the pre- 
paration of nursing personnel in those 
areas of the world where they are scarce 
or not immediately available and where 
the universal health needs are not met — 
food, shelter, clothing, provision of good 
health procedures, etc. It stresses the 
fallacy of attempting to superimpose a 
curriculum, found successful in one cul- 

ture, upon another culture where the cir- 
. cumstances of training differ to a marked 
degree. • 

Maternity Protection 

At the session of the International 
Labour Conference in Geneva in June, the 
Maternity Protection Convention was re- 
vised. This convention relates to safe- 
guards during the maternity period for 
women employed in industry and in most 
non-industrial occupations. It has been 
broadened to include agricultural and 
domestic workers. The total maternity 
leave period of 12 weeks has not been 
changed but has been made more flexible 
so that as long as the post-natal leave 
period is at least s^x weeks, there may be 
variation in the length of prenatal leave. 
Provisions relating to cash benefits have 
been made more precise. ' 

Orientation et Tendances en Nursing 

Le Conseil International des Infirmieres 
Quelles sont les normes en nursing? Un 
comit* special, apres avoir £tudi6 la question, 
a formula des normes geneialement accep- 
tables. Quinze diffeients pays, a leur tour, 
etudiront ces normes et feront des commen- 
tates approprtfs. II y 'aura une discussion 
generate, sur ce sujet, iors du Congres Inter- 
national des Infirmieres a Rio-de- Janeiro le 13 
• juillet 1953. 

Bulletin de Nouvelle du C.I.I. 

Mile Alice C. Sher, assistantc secretaire du 
CM., et pr6sidente du Comite" International 
de Selection des Infirmieres, rapporte que 
durant les mois de mai, juin et juillet, 384 
lettres furent ecrites a des re7ugie>s et autres 
personnes desirant faire evaluer leur dossier 
en vue d'etre reconnues comme infirmieres. 
Apres avoir ehidi* les renseignements donnes, 
40 furent acceptees comme infirmieres. 

Dans la meme bulletin, Ton mentionnait la 
publication d'un Repertoire International des 
Hdpitaux (Section AD). Ce repertoire, une 
fois complex, donnera le nom et adresse de 
tous les hopitaux des pays affiles a la Fede- 
ration Internationale des Hdpitaux. Pour plus 

OCTOBER. 1952 

de renseignements sadresser i: Cap i tain /. £. 
Stone, M.C, Honorary Secretary, International 
Hospital Federation, 10 Old Jewry, London, 
E.C 2, England. 

Grande-Bretagne: Deux conferences eurent 
lieu en juin sous les auspices du "National 
Council of Nurses" de Grande-Bretagne. La 
premiere sadresse aux secretaires des associa- 
tions affiliees au N.C.N, et porta sur les pro- 
cedures parlementaire et 1'art oratoire. Des 
conferences furent donnees sur le Conseil In- 
ternational des Infirmiere* et sur la Fondation 
Internationale Florence Nightingale. La 
pediatric fut lobjet de la deuxieme confe- 
rence organised conjointement par N.C.N, et 
les infirmieres des hopitaux denfants de 
Grande-Bretagne. L'assistance fut remarquable 
et Ton compta des repr^sentantes de douze 
pays Strangers. 

Corie: L'appel lane* en faveur des ecoles 
d'infirmieres de Coree recut une bonne 
Ireponse. Des manuels et » des fournitures 
scolaires, planches anatomiques et revues 
furent envoy^s. La generosity de la Grande- 
Bretagne et de la Nouvelle-Zelandc merite 
d'etre mentionnee. 

Ulslande: Les ComiteV de Regie des as- 



sociations des infirmieres dc Suede, Norvege, 
Danemark, Finlande ct d' Is land c se reuniront 
a Reykjavik. 

Chine: L' Association dcs Infirmieres dc 
Chine s'est rebrganisee a Taiwan. La preii- 
dente eluc est Mile Mei-Yu-Chow, dircctrice 
du nursing au Centre National de la Defense. 
L'association comptc 298 membres. Manifes- 
tant sa reconnaissance envers 1c CM., la 
presidente disait: "Ces relations Internationales 
nous donnent l'impression d'un retour au sein 
de la famille." 

Plusicurs infirmieres canadiennes se rap- 
pelent de Mile Stella Chen qui cUit avec nous 
en 1949. Maintenant cllc occupe le poste de 
principale de l'ecole dinfirmieres de l'Hopital 
de I'Universite de Taiwan. 

Fondation Internationale 
Florence Nightingale 
Mile Ellen Broe, directrice de la Fondation, 
rapporte quelle a pass* une journee a Cam- 
bridge a visiter ^'Institute' on Human Eco- 
logy" et le Service de Sante de luniversite. 
Lon entend par "Human Ecology" 16tude des 
reactions de l'organisme humain a son envi- 
ronnement. L'universit* possede la premiere 
chaire dans cette science. 

Protection Maternelle 
Lors dune seance de la Conference Inter- 

nationale du Travail a Geneve en juin dernier, 
la convention concernant la protection mater- 
nelle fut revisee. La convention contient les 
mesures prises pour proteger les femmes em- 
ployees en industries ou ailleurs durant leur 
grossesse. La convention s'&end maintenant aux 
ouvrieres agricoles et aux domestiques. Le 
cong6 de maternitl demeure de douze se- 
maines mais peut s'&endre aussi bien a la 
periode prenatale que post-naUle. Cette der- 
niere doit £tre au minimum de six semaines. 
Les dispositions concernant les allocations en 
especes ont ete precisees. 

Le Comite d'Experts des Soins 
Infirmieres de O.M.S. 

Le second rapport du comit6 vieht d'etre 
publie. Le comite estime que sa tache consiste 
d'etudier la facon dont les soins infirmiers 
sont assures et la formation du personnel in- 
firmier, en tenant compte tout particulierement 
des regions qui souftrent d'une penurie de ce 
personnel et ou les besoins sanitaires indispen- 
sables de la population n'ont pas et6 satisfaits. 
Le comite appui sur l'inutilite de tenter d'ap- 
pliquer dans certains pays un programme 
d'etudes qui a M llaborl pour d'autres nl- 
veaux culturels. II risque de n'6tre guere ef- 
ficace et il pourrait meme fairc obstacle a 
l'adoption d'un programme de caractere plus 

Hundred-Year-Old Problem 

Miss Nightingale insisted that training must 
consist of two branches, each equally im- 
portant — the training of the mind and the 
training of the character. The training of the 
mind can be done by classes and lectures and 
tested by examination but the training of 
character can only be done by personal con- 
tact and personal teaching and the only pos- 
sible proof is a testimonial from personal 
knowledge. This is where Miss Nightingale 
ran into serious difficulty. . . Everyone was 
asking for trained nurses and it was said that 
the form, of training she laid down, the 
exactions and the close supervision, of her 
method, could not possibly produce nurses by 
the thousands as they were now urgently 
needed. It was never suggested that her re- 

sults were not superior, only that it was im- 
possible that her method should meet the 
demand. She was urged to enlarge the Night- 
ingale Training School; to start new schools; 
to lower the standard, temporarily ^at least;/ 
not to be so particular about the girls she 
took. She refused. She would not let her 
standard down; she took a very long view. She 
remarked dryly that people expected great 
things to be done in six months whereas it 
was essentially the work of centuries. Never- 
theless, real difficulty existed and a number 
of people felt that it was a pity that the pro- 
duction of nurses should be so small when 
the need was great. 

— C. Woodham -Smith 

in The Nightingale Fellowship Journal. 

Vol. 48, No. 10 

<s>tuL*i yi/* 


Ligatures and Sutures 

Betty Martin 

Ligatures and sutures have been used 
since the beginning of medical history. 
Today they form a complex and varied 
part of the surgeon's equipment in the 
operating room. 

A ligature is a strand of material, 
usually the same as that used for sutures, 
with which vessels are tied off or con- 
stricted to prevent hemorrhage. , 

A suture is a strand of thread used 
with a needle to approximate or bring 
tissues together to promote healing. 
There are two types of sutures — absorb- 
able and non-absorbable. The absorbable 
sutures are those which are absorbed in 
the tissues during the process of healing; 
the non-absorbable are threads not 
absorbed during the healing process but 
which remain indefinitely in the tissues, 
sometimes becoming encapsulated. 

In the evolution of surgery certain sub- 
stances have been proven to be of better 
quality and have been adopted for use as 
sutures by the surgeons of today. The 
most common absorbable sutures are 
surgical gut, Kangaroo tendon and Rib- 
bon Gut, while the non-absorbable are 
silk, silkworm gut, Dermalon or mono- 
filament nylon, Surgilon or braided nylon, 
linen, cotton, horsehair, and surgaloy or 
wire. Modern surgical catgut is prepared 
from longitudinally split segments of 
submucous connective tissue of the upper 
third of the small intestine of government 
inspected sheep. Freshly removed in- 
testines are cleaned, conditioned and split 
lengthwise into strips. After other layers 
are removed these strips are twisted 
spirally to form a cord or strand. The gut 
manufacturing centres of today are 
located near large slaughter houses in 
order to prevent the deterioration that 

Miss Martin is a student at the 
Winnipeg General Hospital, Man. 

might lessen the quality of the gut pro- 

The name catgut is now used because 
earlier the gut was the same as was used 
on the fiddle, known as kitstring. Hence 
from "kit" has come "cat" or catgut. 
Since catgut is made up of animal pro- 
tein, collagen, it is readily absorbable in 
the tissues. To delay absorption, as the 
surgeon sometimes wants to be sure the 
wound is sufficiently healed before the 
_gut is absorbed, the catgut can undergo 
a chromic processing which combines 
with the collagen and delays absorption 
in the wound. This result is obtained 
because the chromic salts are resistant to 
the enzyme action of tissue cells. Catgut 
can be mild chromic, medium and extra 
chromic, depending on the surgeon's re- 
quirements. In both chromic and plain 
catgut the si2es range from very fine 
thread, such as five 0, getting coarser as 
it graduates to size one or two. Plain gut 
is absorbed in approximately five days. 
Absorption takes place more rapidly in 
infected tissues than in normal tissues due 
to the excessive phagocytic reaction which 
digests the foreign protein. In the repair 
of the cervix or vagina, either chromic or 
plain gut may be absorbed much more, 
quickly because of the digestive action of 
enzymes present in the cervical and 
vaginal secretion. In the tissues of a 
lacerated perineum also there may be 
markedly increased cellular activity, thus 
increasing absorption. 

Catgut should not pass through the 
skin because stitch abscesses axe likely to . 
result due to organisms present in the 
deeper structures of the skin. Rjhbon Gut 
Suture is flat absorbable gut, five-eighths 
of an inch wide and 18 inches long. It 
is a flat strip of intestinal suture instead 
of being a cord twisted spirally. Because 
of its width this suture distributes pres- 

OCTOBER, 1932 







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/%/«/ Ure 

%5//Au/at/r? hut 
■ ' — O uro //on 




— +1, 

— *v 

SM (6r«t</*</J 

sure over a broad surface, permitting the 
application of tension to delicate tissues 
without cutting through and with -a 
minimum of circulatory constriction. It 
can be readily tied into a knot which does 
not slip and is usually supplied as 
chromic. On delicate tissues, such as 
damaged liver or kidney tissue, this suture 
is very useful. Before using, ribbon gut 
should be fully unwound and immersed 
in a warm sterile solution to render it 
soft and pliable, actually gaining in ten- 


T ern7 at/on 



— -rod 
— *« 



sile strength with continued immersion. 

Kangaroo Tendon comes from the tail 
of the small kangaroo or wallaby. The 
tendon bundle from a freshly killed 
animal is air-dried by the trapper ami 
then separated into its individual tendons 
of various diameters. These individual 
tendons are used for sutures and 
ligatures, after having been chromicized 
Animal tendon consists of compact 
longitudinal fibres in their natural state 
which have never been separated and for 

Vol. 48, No. in 



this reason they absorb more slowly and 
more perfectly than spiral strands of gut. 
Smaller tendons are used in the radical 
cure of hernia, white the larger sizes are 
employed in bone surgery. 

Silk is probably the best known non- 
absorbable suture material consisting of 
thread prepared from the cocoon spun by 
the silkworm. Strands are processed to 
form threads of various diameters by 
cither braiding or twisting. Silk is used . 
for permanent sutures and may become 
encapsulated. Because of its exceeding 
pliability and ease of handling, silk is 
often used in surgery of the gastro- 
intestinal tract, eye, tendons, thyroid, 
nerves, and arteries. Anacap braided silk 
is non-capillary, non-irritating to tissues, 
ties readily in a firm knot which does not 
slip. This type retains all the smoothness 
and flexibility of natural untreated silk, is 
not affected by boiling or autoclaving, by 
action of tissue fluids, antiseptics or 
irrigating solutions. . 

Kal-dermic is made up of a basic strand 
of parallel silk fibres encased in a 
modified protein coating, rendering it 
resistant to the action of body fluids. 
Kal-dermic is used mainly for skin and 
tension sutures. , ' 

Silkworm gut is from the thick fluid 
secreted by the silkworm. When the worm 
is ripe for spinning, it is killed and the 
two gelatinous sacks of the intestines are 
stretched from end to end. These quickly 
harden into a thread of average length. 
This gut is used chiefly for skin and ten- 
sion sutures. 

Dermalon for skin and tension sutures 
is processed from the nylon mono- 
filament. Smooth, uniformly round, un- 
affected by tissue fluids, and free from 
irritative properties, it makes an excellent 
skin suture. 

Surgilon sutures are strands of braided 
nylon filament. Flexibility and adequate 
strength, added to the fact that a 
minimum of tissue reaction is produced, 
give Surgilon a wide range of application 
as a buried suture. 

Surgical cotton is a vegetable fibre 
spun from long fibre cotton of excep- 
tional tensile strength, uniformity of 
diameter and smoothness of texture. 

Linen, impregnated with celluloid, is 
employed chiefly in intestinal surgery. 

Horsehair, secured from the tail of a 
horse, is light, flexible, elastic, and is 
used principally in cosmetic surgery. 

Surgaloy, metallic sutures of stainless 
steel wire and of exceptional strength, 
flexible, non-corrosive, inert, is well 
tolerated by tissues. There are two types, 
monostrand and multistrand, used in all 
types of surgery. . 

All of these threads may be used as 
either primary, interrupted, continuous, 
or stay and tension sutures. 

A primary suture is the; one sewn to 
approximate the tissues at the incisional 
line and can be either continuous or in- 
terrupted. An interrupted suture is one 
in which each stitch is self-contained and 
tied independently of the other stitches. 
A continuous suture runs continuously 
from one stitch to another and only the 
first and last stitches of the series are tied. 
A stay or tension suture is of non- 
absorbable material inserted at a distance 
from the edges of the wound and passed 
through the skin, subcutaneous tissue, 
anterior sheath and portion of muscle. 
Used to offset forces tending to separate 
the edges of the wound, it acts as a 
secondary line of defence in case an 
unusual amount of tension is thrown on 
the primary suture line. Tension sutures 
are used in abdominal surgery, with 
Dermalon, Surgilon, Silkworm Gut and 
wire being employed. 

The types of sutures that have been 
discussed have had to fulfil the following 
qualities before being adapted for use by 

1. Sterile and free from irritating 
qualities. , 

2. Possess fine gauge coupled with 
sufficient tensile strength to hold the 
wound edges in perfeit apposition. 

•■• 3. Remain, in the tissues when and 
where placed, supporting them until 
strong enough to go unsupported. 

4. Be absorbed as soon as their job is 
done, otherwise remain orderly and peace- 
ful where the surgeon has placed them. 

5. Be pliable enough to tie easily yet 
hold the knot securely. 

*. References 

1. Davis & Geek Suture Manual. 

2. Ethicon Book of Sutures. 

3. Handbook of Ligatures and Sutures. 

4. Study of the Absorption Character- 
istics of Surgical Catgut. 

OCTOBER, 1952 


Perfume and Toilet Water 


i^NCE, at an international medical 
^-^ congress, a nurse asked one of 
the dermatologists to have a look at 
her face. He happened to be a German 
doctor and he said, 'That seems to be 
a dermatitis des rinnenden Tropfens" 
A French colleague, with whom he 
was conversing, confirmed the diag- 
nosis by stating: "We call it dermatite 
pigmentte en forme de coulee" If an 
American or British doctor had been 
present, he would have said, "Indeed, 
this is a case of perfume dermatitis." 
They all meant the same thing. 
Dermatitis due to perfume is more 
common than is generally assumed. 
The perfume may be part of a nail 
polish, a toilet water, or a hair lacquer. 
Perfume dermatitis as a rule affects 
only circumscribed parts of the body 
— those parts with which the perfume 
or lacquer has been in touch. This is 
obvious in the German name derma- 
titis des rinnenden Tropfens which 
actually means an inflammation of 
the skin along the track which a run- 
ning drop of perfume has left on the 
skin. Treatment of the skin condition 
must start with the avoidance of the 
irritant perfume or essential oil. 

In Sickrooms 

Spraying perfume is an excellent 
method of improving the air within 
a sickroom where one or several 
patients are suffering from chronic 
conditions of the bladder or the 
bowels, from bed-sores, or from a foul- 
smelling skin disease. No amount of 
airing or ventilation may be sufficient 
to remove bad odors from the pa- 
tient's room in some instances. Con- 
sequently, perfumes are a welcome 
help and relief — welcome to both the 
patient and the nursing personnel. 

A preparation containing oil of 
rosemary and other essential oils — 
eau-de-Cologne — may prove useful in 
nursing. It is added to the water used 
for washing or sponging the face, the 
hands and other parts of the bed- 
ridden patient. Most patients like 

M6- . 

the cooling and refreshing effect of 
the toilet water. A dilute solution of 
the preparation makes a quickly 
evaporating fluid out of which one or 
two layers of gauze may be wrung and 
applied to the forehead or an inflamed 
joint or bruised part, wherever the 
sensation of cooling is required. We 
are told by Clarkson that English 
nurses of Tudor times put the bruised 
fresh leaves of bergamot, mint, and 
lavender on the brows of their pa- 
tients. For nervous headaches, the 
nurses of that era would apply herbal . 
snuggs of basil alone or a combination 
of rosemary, betony, marjoram and 

Pliny, a Roman naturalist in the 
first century a.d., recommended hang- 
ing pennyroyal in bedrooms because 
he considered it valuable for the health 
of the inmates. During the period of 
the Black Death— the Plague— in 
Europe odoriferous candles were used 
in sickrooms. They contained the 
essence of red roses, cloves, storax, 
labdanum, frankincense, citron peels, 
juniper berries, musk, ambergris, etc. 
The mixture was formed into long 
and small candles with gumdragant 
which had been dissolved in rose 

Every substance used in the care 
of the skin, be it a lotion, a soap, 
cream, paste or whatever preparation 
seems most effective, generally has 
some perfume in it. Cleansing effects 
and stimulation of the blood vessels 
in the skin are the main points in this 
care but the addition of a perfume 
makes the method a pleasant one and 
guarantees its continuance. Perfumed 
soaps are in everybody's hands to- 
day—well to the advantage of the 
general health. This was not always 
so. We may remember Thackeray's 
word in "Pendennis" where somebody 
makes the caustic comment: "Gentle 
men, there can be but little doubi 
that your ancestors were the great 
unwashed." Things have certainh 
changed for the better! Good Queer 

Vol. 48, No. Id 



Bess, in the 16th century, took only 
one bath a month. The longing for 
scented baths was great even then. 

The pleasant scent of firs and pines 
in the warm rays of the sun produces 
a curative effect on the respiratory 
organs, soothing inflammation and 
catarrhs of bronchi and lungs. This 
fragrance is found in the pine-scented 
baths that give not only the welcome 
feeling of relaxation and care-free 
luxury but also are soothing for irri- 
tated nerves and after-work fatigue. 
Formerly fresh boughs of pines and 
firs were allowed to soak in warm 
water to produce this perfume. Nowa- 
days extracted oils of pine, etc., and 
artificially produced chemical com- 
pounds are used. 

The odor of the scented bath has a 
soothing and calming effect on many 
people. Other suitable perfumes for 
bath salts are the oils of citronella, 
lemongrass, lavender, rosemary, etc. 
Bath oils and essences, according to 
Bushby, are frequently made with a 
base of sulphonated caster oil or sul- 
phonated olive oil. These act, without 
influencing the odor, as emulsifying 
agents when mixed with water and 
so prevent the oily rim which other- 
wise tends to form round the bath. 

Perfumes and the scent of toilet 
water sometimes are able to help 
overcome a beginning irritation in 
nose, throat, and larynx, indicative 
of the onset of a cold. Several .urses 
I have known immediately poured 
some lavender water on their handker- 
chiefs whenever they felt the firs£ 
sign of a head cold or sore throat. 
They were convinced that they could 
check the cold by inhaling from the 

There is hardly any difference in 
medical efficiency between a natural 
perfume and a chemically prepared 
perfume. Chemists were successful 
in analyzing and building up, syn- 
thetically, quite a few of the frail 
substances, the combination of which 
is so characteristic of the odors of 
flowers. Many more shades and hues 
of fragrances are available today 
because of this development. Before 
the days of modern chemistry, there 
were only^about 200 odors and flavors 

OCTOBER, 1952 

available to the perfumer. This num- 
ber has increased to well over 1,000 
since inventive chemists have created, 
a whole new gamut of pleasant odors 
and flavors that do not exist in nature. 

Cake of Mouth and Breath 
We hear much today of the un- 
pleasantness of bad breath and its 
possible influence on the job of. the 
sufferer. Constant reminders over the 
radio and in magazines keep the warn- 
ing awake. Halitosis was recognized 
as an undesirable condition in ancient 
times; its presence excluded its victim 
from priesthood, made it impossible 
for a woman to nurse the sick. 

Common causes of halitosis are: 
poor condition of the teeth, inflamma- 
tion of the gums, chronically infected 
tonsils, nasal and sinus conditions. 
Decaying teeth and pyorrhea should 
be investigated. Some people are 
aware of bad breath on days when 
they are constipated, the trouble 
disappearing on days when their 
bowels have moved regularly. A per- 
fumed mouthwash may well render 
the whole condition inoffensive though 
the actual cause has not yet been 
removed. This was well known* to 
the Roman Emperor Nero who in- 
vited his friends to lavish meals but 
insisted that they used perfumed 
mouthwashes before coming to the 

Most modern dentifrices and mouth- 
washes include one or several per- 
fumes. Using a discreetly perfumed 
mouthwash several times a day, or 
an aromatic cachou or scented gum 
will at least mask and cover the un- 
pleasant condition of bad breath. 
This not only gives a feeling of com- 
fort and security but it may actually 
mean the difference between a job 
and unemployment in many occupa- 

Pomander Balls 
The first thing a nurse did when she 
.went to the sickroom of a rich man 
in medieval times was to renew his 
pomander. This is an English word 
which comes from the French pomme 
d'ambre— apple or ball of amber. It 
was shaped like an apple, one of its 




ingredients being ambergris. The po- 
mander, on the average, was the size 
of a nutmeg and was made of per- 
fumes and fragrant fixatives. It was 
first described by Pliny, early Roman 
naturalist. The scents used for its 
preparation in Pliny's day . were: 
cinnamon, cassia, calamus, carda- 
mom, balm, marjoram, myrrh, saf- 
fron, costus and storax, wild vine and 
betel nut. They were pounded and 
made into a paste with wine and 
honey and then enclosed in a gold or 
silver case studded with jewels and 
pierced with holes to emit the scent. 

Later, the receptacles became works 
of art. Pomanders were often hung 
from long silver chains about the neck 
or from the girdle. They enveloped 
the user in an aura of perfume. 

Another job of the nurse in times 
when no real antiseptics were avail- 
able was to strew herbs on the floor 
of sickrooms. Favorite was a mixture 
of hyssop, lavender, basil, tansy, 
balm and several mints. They were 
stirred and beaten so that a whole- 
some cloud of fragrance drifted out 
into the air — pleasure as well as pro- 
tection for both patient and nurse. 

Annual Meeting in Alberta 

Banff was the setting for the 34th 
annual meeting of the Alberta Association 
of Registered Nurses, May 19-21, 1952, when 
the president, Miss Frances Ferguson, was in 
the chair. 

Father Mackay opened the meetings on 
Monday morning with the invocation, fol- 
lowed by messages of welcome from the Park 
superintendent, Mr. Coleman, and Mr. 
Cameron, director of the School of Fine Arts. 

The president welcomed the members and 
the 17 student nurses, stressing the positive 
effects of working together with goodwill, 
using the quotation: "Goodwill is ... as 
powerful as a great turbine and as hard to 
bu^ld, as wonderful to use and as hard to 

Salient points in the report of the registrar 

1. That the projected plan for the appoint- 
ment of a full-time adviser to schools of 
nursing had to be dropped, as financial help 
from the government had not been obtainable. 

2. In an effort to establish closer liaison 
between the A.A.R.N. and the University of 
Alberta, the General Faculty Council had ap- 
proved the appointment of Miss Rae Chittick 
to act on the Internal Committee on Nurs- 
ing Education as a representative of the 

3. The increasing number of candidates 
writing the R.N. examinations has made 
necessary some changes in the administration 
of the examination. In April, 1953, the 
National League of Nursing Education State 
Board Test Pool papers will be tried on an 
experimental basis. 

4. The disposition of resolutions ap- 
proved at the 1951 annual meeting was re- 
ported, many of them to be discussed more 
fully by the specific sections concerned. 

5. Many visits had been made during 
chapter and district meetings. In more dis- 
tant areas by discussion the organization 
of new chapters had been stimulated. There 
are 12 chapters and 5 district associations at 
the present time. 

A most comprehensive report of the Nurs- 
ing Aids Committee was read by its chair- 
man, Miss Ferguson, showing continued 
progress and much good work on the part 
of the committee. It is planning to interpret 
the role of nursing assistants through 
regional institutes for graduate nurses. In 
this way, those employing the assistants will 
be given a thorough understanding of their 
role and should be able to use their services 
to the best advantage. 

The afternoon meeting was devoted to 
problems of civil defence, opening with Mr. 
Perrot's address on "Provincial Organization 
of Civil Defence." In his talk he stressed 
the necessity of thinking of civil defence as 
disaster defence — a form of insurance against 
disaster in whatever form it may occur. 

Mrs. Van Dusen, nurse coordinator for 
Civil Defence, presented developments 
directly concerning the contribution being 
made by nurses. Goals were defined and a 
definite plan had been set up. Selected nurses 
had attended a four-day institute on the 
nursing aspects of A.B.C. Warfare under in- 
structions of a national group. They, in 
turn, have taught other instructors who have 

Vol. 48. No. 10 



Front row (left to right): Mrs. C. Van Dusen, Registrar; H. Penhale, First Vice-President; 
Frances Ferguson, President; E. Bietsch, Second Vice-President; Sister L. Mongrain, Coun- 
cillor. Second row (left to right): J. Morrison. Treasurer; Jean Clark, Past President; Mrs. 
E. Garratt, Private Duty Nursing Committee Chairman; M. Fitzsimmons. Public Health 
Nursing Committee Chairman. 

given to nursing groups in local commun- 
ities a modified course of 12 hours. Included 
also was a report by Miss Mary Acland re- 
garding the work of St. John Ambulance in 
civil defence. 

Tuesday morning was arranged for the 
various special interest sessions. In the after- 
noon a "Survey of Alberta's Health" was 
presented in symposium form. This survey 
of the past and present health pattern, with 
recommendations for the future, was pre- 
pared by the Alberta Health Survey Com- 
mittee for presentation to the government of 
Alberta. The objective of the survey was not 
only to serve as a basis for the distribution 
of the Federal Health Grants but to evaluate 
the present health facilities so that valid 
recommendations might be made regarding 
all health services. The symposium was in- 
troduced and capably summarized by Miss 
Isabel Reesor, the other participants being: 
Miss W. Day, Mrs. E. Michael, Miss L. 
Kremer, and Miss M. Deane-Freeman. 

As a result of the recommendations, there 
has been expansion of existing rural health 
services by increasing the area of some units 

or incorporating smaller units into adjacent 
larger ones for more efficient administration. 
Of the 180 professional training grants 
awarded since 1948, 74 were requested by 

Mr. G. Willis of the North American 
Life and Casualty Company spoke briefly to 
explain that the A.A.R.N. .could not be in- 
cluded in their Group Insurance Plan as an 
insufficient number of members had applied 
for it. 

A report by Miss E. Bietsch regarding 
the Structure Study was the first item Wed- 
nesday morning. A review of the history, 
purpose, and functioning of the Study was 
clearly presented and an outline given of 
the suggested changes arising from it. It was 
expected there would be further study of 
this report following the biennial meeting 
of the C.N.A. . 

. % The following are recommendations aris- 
ing* from the various special interest sessions: 

1. That the minimum gross salary for 
registered nurses, full employment, first 
level, be $190-200; the current minimum 
salary for a head nurse be $205*215; the 

OCTOBER. 1952 



minimum gross salary for matrons be $250 
with semi-annual increases. 

2. Fees for private duty nurses were 
raised to $9.00 for 8-hour duty in home or 
hospital, those for other types of service 
being adjusted accordingly. t 

3. That the A.A.R.N. bring to the atten- 
tion of the Minister of the Department of 
National Employment Service, its disap- 
proval of the appointment of a non-nurse 
as director of the Nurse Placement Bureau 

for Alberta, and the strong feeling of the 
association that this position can most effec- 
tively be filled by a professionally trained 

In her closing remarks the president an- 
nounced the appointment of Miss Lois 
Kremer as nurse coordinator for Civil 
Defence for Alberta. 

Clara Van Dusen 
Alberta Association of Registered Nurses 

BaaJz (leaieuPi 

The Care of the Ageing and Chronic Sick, 
by A. P. Thomson, M.C, M.D., C.R. 
Lowe, M.D., Thomas McKeown, Ph.D., 
M.D. 133 pages. The Macmillan Co. of 
Canada Ltd., 70 Bond St., Toronto 2. 
1951. Price $1.45. 
.. When the National Health Services in 
Britain be^an its study of the problems 
presented by the old, the destitute, and the 
chronically ill citizens, it was found that 
the great majority of these patients were 
accommodated in * infirmaries which had 
evolved from the workhouses of an earlier 
generation. A detailed study, involving 
considerable research, was undertaken in 
1948 to determine the extent of the problem 
posed by these classes of patients. It was 
feared that the very weight of numbers 
might swamp the administration of the hos- 
pitals under the new service. This book is a 
report on the findings of the investigators. 
Some of their conclusions are of interest 
and significance in Canada because we have 
a gnawing problem of providing care for 
the aged and infirm. 

The survey revealed that no less than 60 
per cent of the * patients required neither 
frequent medical attention nor skilled nurs- 
ing. More than half of the patients could 
be looked after in their own homes or in 
institutions other than hospitals where they 
could be washed, fed, and dressed. The 
dearth of the latter type of institutions — 
much less expensive to operate than general 
hospitals — was striking. Housing problems 
and a disinclination on the part of younger 
members of the family to provide necessary 
facilities for looking after the old folk were 

vital factors. Only a small proportion of 
the inmates of the infirmaries had a wedded 
mate living. 

Dr. Thomson suggested that the problem 
of finding personnel to look after all those 
who did not require skilled nursing care 
might be solved by recruiting the staffs 
from the middle-aged and vigorous old age 
group. The administrative positions in such 
institutions might be made attractive 
enough to appeal to qualified nurses at or 
approaching retirement age. The mainten- 
ance of even a portion of these patients in 
their own homes requires the provision of 
some form of domiciliary nursing service. 

The lack of interest in chronic sickness 
of elderly people is due largely to the 
absence of the dramatic appeal that is part 
of the provision of care for acute illness 
in the young. Complete recovery in the 
older group is rarely possible and the 
results often seem disproportionate to the 
effort required. Still these problems are 
with us and must be met. 

Handbook of Diseases of the Blood, by A. 
Piney, M.D., M.R.C.P. 213 pages. J. B. 
Lippincott Co., Medical Arts Bldg., Mont- 
real 25. 1951. Price $5.75. 
Reviewed by Lottie Smith, Supervisor, 
General Hospital, Kingston, Ont. 
This is a neatly set up, well written hand- 
book on the pathology of the blood and the 
blood-forming organs, directed primarily to 
the general physician. 

The author has divided the text into five 
separate sections. The first gives a detailed 
description of the clinical signs and symptoms 

Vol. 4«. No. io 



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of the diseases of the blood; the second 
covers the anemias; the third, overgrowths of 
hemopoietic tissue; the fourth and fifth, 
hemorrhagic diseases and symptomatic blood 
changes, respectively. The written material is 
interspaced with four attractive color plates 
and a few black and white photographs of 
the various conditions. 

Dr. Piney emphasizes throughout the bed- 
side approach to the problems of the blood 
disorders as opposed to the relegation of these 
conditions to the clinical pathologist. "The 
present book is an attempt to depict 
hematology as primarily a bedside subject, 
which is the province of the physician who, 
like his cardiological colleague, must be able 
to deal with the fundamental laboratory work 

Because of the emphasis placed on the bed- 
side approach, there is adequate discussion of 
the more common entities but, unfortunately, 
the illustrations show almost solely the 

Nurses will find this book helpful in its 
description of the common blood dyscrasias but 
will not receive as much help from the de- 
tailing of methods of testing and the signi- 

ficance of the results obtained from these tests. 
This text would probably be most useful to 
nurses associated with the medical wards of a 
teaching hospital where there is a special 
interest in hematology. Also, it would be of 
value as a reference book on the pathology 
of the blood in the nursing school library. 

Essentials of Pharmacology and Materia 
Medica for Nurses, by Albert J. Gil- 
bert, M.D., and Selma Moody Brawner, 
R.N. 343 pages. McAinsh 6t Co. Ltd., 1251 
Yonge St., Toronto 5. 3rd Ed. 1951. Price 
• Reviewed by Sister Mary Doris, Pharmacy, 
St. Joseph's Hospital, Victoria. 
This volume, as the name suggests, was 
published to provide the student nurse with 
an outline of the essentials and basic principles 
of pharmacology. It is not intended to be a 
complete and exhaustive study of the subject 
• but rather a firm foundation on which to "* 
build more detailed knowledge. The manner 
of presentation is evidently designed to 
stimulate interest in further study. The text 
itself is written to fit a 30-hour teaching 

OCTOBER. 1952 





The study of pharmacology is very closely 
associated with that of anatomy and physiology 
and a thorough grasp of these subjects is 
essentia! before drug actions and effects can 
be interpreted intelligently. It is impractical 
to speak of basal anesthetics, diuretics, cerebral 
stimulants or depressants, or other medications, 
unless the student has a mental picture of the 
anatomical position and functions of the or- 
gans affected by these preparations. A quick 
review of basic anatomy and physiology is 
nearly always necessary before any new system 
. of drugs is introduced. Particularly is this true 
in modern nursing in which such an extensive 
course is covered in so short a time that de- 
tails are often forgotten. Gilbert and Braw- 
ner have included such a review at the begin- 
ning of each chapter, providing the nurse 
with a brief refresher course in anatomy and 
physiology before branching into phar- 
macology—a very practical and profitable ap- 
proach to a difficult subject. This feature also 
makes the book valuable as a ready reference 
on the wards, since from its pages needed 
information can be picked up quickly in its 

The usual classifications, such as will be 
found in the majority of books on this sub- 
ject, are adhered to in the text. However, par- 
ticular emphasis is given to the newer drugs. 
The only difference here from other texts is 
that these drugs are included in the particular 
division to which they apply rather than classed 
together under the general title of New Drugs. 
For example: In discussing drugs acting on the 
autonomic nervous system, Priscoline Hydro- 
chloride is mentioned as a sympathetic antag- 
onist. From this statement and from its position 
in the general picture, certain actions can be 
anticipated immediately — e.g., it would dilate 
the blood vessels and cause a drop in blood 
pressure, etc. Sufficient interest is aroused by 
this association of ideas to leave a permanent 
impression on the mind. While it is appreciated 
that any recently published book would 
naturally contain a greater number of the new 
therapeutic agents, the method of presentation 
plays a very important part, either to stimulate 
interest in the mind of the reader or merely to 
be another tabulated system of names and 
doses quickly learned and as quickly forgotten, 
leaving little or no lasting impression. 

The chapter on prescription reading is of 
considerable value. It would not need to be in- 
cluded in the 30-hour teaching program but it 
is an excellent method of acquainting student 

nurses with something that will form a Jar- 
part of their professional day— the reading 
of doctors' written orders and, still more im- 
portant, their prompt and precise execution. 
Many an embarrassing situation can f 
avoided by the nurse who is able to rea,| 
and, in reading, understand the intention <>< 
the physician. 

The book offers nothing new in the teach- 
ing of drugs and solutions. A short reviev. 
in arithmetic is included and then the usu^l 
word formulae are resorted to. The metho.i 
of memorizing certain formulae for specific 
types of problems is unsatisfactory for two 
reasons: first, the student relies entirely on 
memory with no effort to solve the problem 
from a mathematical approach; and, secondly, 
"memory is the faculty that forgets." Word 
formulae are always on the top of the list of 
things forgotten. This results in students do 
ing amazing and impossible mathematical 
gymnastics on paper whereas a little careful 
thought on the subject would have shown 
their absurdity. 

In appraising the volume as a whole, I 
would say that it is excellent. The language 
and phraseology are exact yet particularly easy 
to understand. It leaves the reader with a 
feeling of knowledge definitely acquired and 
a desire for more. For the student nurse, it is 
a valuable handbook; for the graduate, an ex- 
cellent ready reference; and for the teacher, 
a highly satisfactory classroom text for the 
standard 30-hour course in pharmacology. 

Anatomy and Physiology for Nurses, by 
W. Gordon Sears, M.D. 395 pages. The 
Macmillan Co. of Canada Ltd., 70 Bond 
St., Toronto 2. 2nd Ed. 1951. Price $1.90. 
Reviewed by Yvonne L. Mogen, Science 
Instructor, General Hospital, Edmonton. 
Immeasurable value is gained in this book 
by the fact that the author is a former teacher 
and examiner of nurses. As stated in the pre- 
face, and stressed throughout the chapters, he 
has attached extreme importance to "the 
necessity of keeping the work as simple as pos- 
sible but at the same time of maintaining the 
scientific and technical approach to the subject 
which the nurse will encounter in her work 
in a modern hospital." 

The presentation of the material is both 
comprehensive and concise. It not only in- 
cludes very pertinent illustrations of the prac- 
tical applications of various anatomical and 
physiological facts but also introduces the 

Vol. 48. No. 10 . 

Continuous quality 
you can trust 


>> &&&& 

^ \ 


newer observations on blood grouping, the 
Rhesus factor, the electroencephalogram, and 
Cortisone. Another favorable factor is the in- 
clusion of numerous, well defined diagrams 
which are easily interpreted by the reader. 
They would serve as excellent study guide 
material for the student. 

The clarity and conciseness of the book are 
brought out in the use of well defined charts, 
point-form tabulations, and statements in bold 
and small type which stress adequately the 
more important phases of the subject. Because 
of this the book would be of excellent service 
for review purposes. 


The following are staff changes in the 
Ontario Public Health Nursing Service: 

Appointments: Mrs. Louise Park (Hamil- 
ton Gen. Hosp. and University of Toronto 
general course and advanced course in ad- 
ministration and supervision) to the regional 
supervisory staff, formerly public health 
nursing supervisor with Leeds and Grenville 
health unit for past four years. 

A new health unit has been established in 
the district of Thunder Bay with Dorothy 
Adams (Winnipeg Gen. Hosp.; U. of T. gen. 
course; McGill University admin, and super- 
vision course), formerly with Neebing Town- 
ship, as public health nursing supervisor. The 
following have been appointed to the staff 
Ruth Baddeley (St. Joseph's Hosp., Toronto, 
jnd U. of T. gen. course) and Vetna Bates 
i Montreal Gen. Hosp. and U. of T. gen. 

OCTOBER. 1952 

The city of Owen Sound has effected an 
amalgamation of the nursing services of the 
boar'ds of health and education, resulting in 
the establishment of a generalized publi 
health nursing service under the board o 
health with Mildred Jarvis (St. Catharines 
Gen. Hosp. and U. of T. gen. course), for- 
merly with Northumberland and Durham 
health unit, as public health nursing super- 
visor. The staff includes: Marjorie Cruit i- 
shank (Gen. 8c Marine Hosp., Owen Sound, 
and U. of T. gen. course), formerly with 
Owen Sound board of education, Olga Stew- 
art (Gen. 8c Marine Hosp., Owen Sound, and 
U. of T. gen. course), and Greta Whitiley 
(St. Catharines Gen. Hosp. and U. of T. gen. 

Eleanor Earle (A. Barton Hepburn Hosp., 
Ogdensburg, N.Y., and U. of T. gen. course) 
from senior nurse to public health nursing 






Medical School and Hospital (Organized 1881) 

The Pioneer Post-Graduate Medical Institution in America 

• • 

We announce the following Courses for qualified Graduate Nurses:- 
No. 1. Operating-Room Technic and Management 
No. 2. Medical-Surgical Nursing - Supervision and Teaching.' 

, rv ?°- . 3 - Organization and Management of Out-Patient Demrtmon* 

s^AlK^^ Surgery - iSs ^SSi 

S "E77T' J™'™ in teachin * a " d "lanTgemf nTof Sh^St' 
selected. Full maintenance and stipend provided. specialty 

For information address: 
The Directress of Nurses, 343 West 50th Street, New York City 19 

supervisor with Leeds and Grenville health 
unit. The following have been appointed to 
the unit: Marian Cuthbertson (Ottawa Civic 
Hosp. and U. of T. gen. course), Dorothea 
Flood (St. Vincent de Paul Hosp., Brockville, 
and University of Western Ontario certificate 
course). LucilU Miauelon (Ottawa Civic 
Hosp. and U. of T. gen. course), and Jean 
S«&g (Royal Victoria Hosp., Barrie, and U. of, 
T. gen. course). 

Maries Atkinson (Women's College 
Hosp., Toronto, and U. of T. gen. course and 
advanced course in admin, and supervision) 
from senior nurse to public health nursing 
supervisor with Stormont, Dundas and Glen- 
garry health unit. The following have been ap- 
pointed to this unit: Martha Kryski (Univer- 
sity of Ottawa undergraduate and graduate 
courses), Margaret Bat Hit ul (Gen. Hosp 
Glace Bay, N.S.. and U. of T. gen. course)! 
and Laurette Boudreault (U. of O). 

Mrs. Jean Phillips (Victoria Hosp., Lon- 
don, and U. of T. gen. course and advanced 
course in admin, and supervision) and 
Roberta Mathit (St. Joseph's Hosp., Hamil- 
ton, and U.W.O, cert, course) as public health 
nursing supervisor and staff nurse respectively 
with DufTerin Co. health unit; Heather Mc- 
Donald (U. of O. undergraduate and graduate 
courses and U. of T. advanced course in 
admin, and supervision) and Elsie Uens 

(Women's College Hosp, Toronto, and U. of 
T. gen. course) as public health nursing 
supervisor and staff nurse respectively with 
Muskoka district health unit, Jean Falconer 
(Kitchener- Waterloo Hosp., UWO cert 
course; U. of T. advanced course in admin, 
and supervision), formerly senior nurse with 
Wellington Co. health unit, and Marion 
Lauren (T.G.H. and U. of T. gen. course) 
as public health nursing supervisor and staff 
nurse respectively with Prince Edward Co. 
health unit. ■ . . 

Frances Fish (Hamilton Gen. Hosp. and 
U. of T. gen. course and advanced course 
in admin, and supervision), formerly public 
health nursing supervisor with Bruce Co. 
health unit, to similar position with Halton 
Co. health unit; Mrs. Lyle Fauteux (T.G.H. 
and U. of T. gen. course and advanced course 
in admin, and supervision) as public health - 
nursing supervisor with Hamilton Dept. of 
Health; Rita Maclsaac (U. of O. under- 
graduate and graduate courses and U. of T. 
advanced course in admin, and supervision) as 
public health nursing supervisor, Ottawa 
board of health; Margaret Turner (H.G.H. 
and U.W.O. cert, course and U. of T. ad-, 
vanced course in admin, and supervision), for- 
merly with Halton Co. health unit, and Mary 
Buchanan (Guelph Gen. Hosp. and U. of T. 
gen. course) as acting public health nursing 

Vol. 48, No. 10 


supervisor and staff nurse respectively with 
Peel Co. health unit. , 

jane Minott (T.W.H. and U. of T. gen. 
i ;urse), formerly with Oshawa board of 
k-alth, to newly established school health ser- 
vice in provisional County of Haliburton; 
/ ibel Petrie (B.Sc.N., U. of T.) t Hazel Knox 
(Ottawa Gvic Hosp. and U. of T. gen. 
t .urse), formerly with Leeds and Grenville 
hjlth unit, Anna Leslie (Toronto East Gen. 
Hosp. and U. of T. gen. course), and Helen 
(Black) Selma'n (B.Sc.N., U. of T.) to East 
York-Leaside health unit; Mae Haviland (Vic- 
una Hosp, London, and U.W.O. cert, course 
and U. of T. advanced course in admin, and 
supervision) as senior nurse, Oxford health 
unit; Jean Hawkins (B.N. Sc., Queens Univer- 
sity), Edith Munroe (Ottawa Civic Hosp. and 
T. of T. gen. course), and Ethel Rutledgt 
( Kingston Gen. Hosp. and U. of T. gen. 
course) to Kingston board of health. 

Gisele Meloche (U. of O. undergraduate 
and graduate courses), Franc at it Vac ho ft (Stc. 
Justine Hosp, Montreal, and U. of O. cert. 
course), and Berthe Vat 11 an court (U. of O.) 
to Prescott and Russell health unit; Elsit 
Crawford (Peterborough Civic Hosp. and U. 
of T. gen. course) and Olive McKeachnit 
(O.C.H. and U.W.O. cert, course) to Kenora- 
Kttwatin-Dryden area health unit; Jtan 
Andrews (St. Josephs Hosp, Peterborough. 
and U. of O. cert, course) and Jennie Strew- 
ed i (Holy Cross Hosp, Calgary, and U. of 
T gen. course) to St. Catharines-Lincoln 
health unit; Mary Ankcurn (Owen Sound 
Gc-n. 6c Marine Hosp. and U. of T. gen. 
course), Christina MacLeod (McKellar Gen. 
Hosp., Fort William, and U. of T. gen. 
course), and Lucille Tracey (St. Michaels 
Hosp., Toronto, and U. of T. gen. course) to 
Simcoe Co. health unit; Marjorie Broad bent 
(Puhlic Gen. Hosp, Chatham, and U. of T. 
gen. course), Jean Couture (U. of O.). and 
Thelma Smith (Kingston Gen. Hosp. and t.\ 
T gen. course) to Temiskaming health unit; 
Fitly* Flaxman (T.G.H. and U. of T. gen. 
course) and Elizabeth Wilson (T.E.G.H. and 
L'. of T. gen. course) to Northumberland and 
Durham health unit. 

Ullian Lawder (Hosp. for Sick Children. 
Toronto, and U. of T. gen. course). Amy 
■Ktown (Wellesley Hosp, Toronto, and 
t T W.O. cert, course), and Ruth Paterson 
E.G.H. and U.W.O. cert, course) to Brant 
Co health unit; Ena Powell (H.G.H. and U. 
<»'" T. gen. course) and Anna Stein (Brantford 

OCrOBKR, 1952 

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770 .tatkvrst St., UrMto, Oat. 

G«i. Hosp. and U.W.O. cert, course) to 
Stratford board of health; Frances Hamlin 
(Women's College Hosp., Toronto, and U. 
of T. gen. course) and Helen Pinzboffer (St. 
Michaels Hosp., Toronto, and U. of T. gen. 
course) to Welland and district health unit; 
Anita Melvanin (St. M.H., Toronto, and U. 
of T. gen. course) to Port Arthur board of 
health; Dora Knell (St. Marys Hosp., Tim- 
mins, and U.W.O. cert, course) and Denise 
Tremblay (U. of O.) to Porcupine health 
unit. Mildred Seifert (Montreal Gen. Hosp. 
and McGill U. p.h.n. course) to Elgin-St. 
Thomas health unit; Gloria AkiwenzJe (St. 
Mary's Hosp., Kitchener, and U.W.O. cert, 
course) to Bruce Co. health unit; Mrs. Bessie 
Ballard (T.E.G.H. and U. of T. gen. course) 
to Etobicoke Township Board of health; 
Madeleine Carr (M.G.H. and U. of T. gen. 
course) to Lennox and Addington health unit; 
Josephine Hefferman (St. M. H. Toronto, and 
U. of T. gen. course) and Margaret Less ells 
(Brant ford Gen. Hosp. and U. of T. gen. 

course) tp Oshawa board of health; Viohi 
Sam (Brantford Gen. Hosp. and U. of T. gen. 
course) to Lambton health unit; Elizabeth 
Schaefer (St.M.H., Kitchener, and U. of T. 
gen. course) to Wellington Co. health unit, 
Wilhelmina Ahern (O.G.H. and McGill \ . 
p.h.n. course) to Sault Ste. Marie board co- 
education; Susan Scales (Guelph Gen. Hosp. 
and U.W.O. cert, course), formerly wit!> 
Stratford board of health, to Perth Co. schoc ! 
health service. Lenna Richardson (Hamilton 
Gen. Hosp. and University of Western Ontan > 
certificate course) as senior nurse, Wellington . 
Co. health unit;. Francoise Brind' Amour 
(University of Ottawa undergraduate 
and graduate courses) and Betty Elliott 
(Ottawa Civic Hosp. and University of Tor- 
onto general course) to Ottawa board of 
health; Juliette Fortin (St. Joseph's Hosp, 
Sudbury; U.W.O. cert, course; McGill Uni- 
versity advanced course in administration and 
supervision in public health nursing) an.J 
Winifred Jarvie (Victoria Hosp., London, and 
U.W.O. cert, course) to Windsor board of 
health; Muriel Morgan (H.G.H. and U. of T. 
gen. course) to Oxford health unit; .Mary 
Pickens (Civic Hosp., Peterborough, and 
U.W.O. cert, course) to Belleville board of 
health; Lena Riddell (Montreal Gen. Hosp. 
and U.W.O. cert, course) to Guelph board of 
health; Mona Sharpe (Women's College 
Hosp., Toronto, and U. of T. gen. course), 
formerly with Northumberland and Durham 
health unit, and Jean' (Taylor) Eagle (Van- 
couver Gen. Hosp. and University of British 
Columbia public health nursing course), for- 
merly with Hamilton Department of Health, 
to Etobicoke Township board of health. 

An exchange of public health nurses is 
being carried out for a period of one year 
between the Metropolitan Health Committee, 
Vancouver, and the Kitchener board of health. 
Kathleen Cameron of Vancouver has joined 
the Kitchener staff and Jean McEwan of Kit- 
chener is with the Metropolitan Health Com- 

Resignations: Evalyn Greene from Oshawa 
board of health to pursue post-graduate study 
at McGill University; Elizabeth (Kerswill) 
Westcott and Barbara Ross from Etobicoke 
Township. The following have resigned from 
the Stormont, Dundas and Glengarry health 
unit: Rhea Kavanagh as public health 
nursing supervisor, Kathleen Redgate t«» 
pursue post-graduate study, and Gran 

Vol. 4*. No. 10 



D.iigneault. Miriam MacDonald as public 
health nursing supervisor, Prince Edward Co. 
V alth unit; Mrs. Helen Littleton as public 
Ivalth nursing supervisor with Peel Co. health 
unit to pursue post-graduate study in admin- 
is' ration and supervision in public health 
r.ursing; Harriette Wilson from Kitchener 
h.urd of health; Mildred (Laughlen) Fox 
f'om Belleville board of health; Lyla Groat 
f;>m Owen Sound board of health; Beryl 
U illiams from Oshawa board of health; Eva 
i:Jdy from Brant Co. health unit; Laura 
Pitch from Welland and district health unit; 
/ rothy Pickering from Leeds and Grenville 
health unit; Beatrice Blair from Lennox and 
Aldington health unit; Fern McPhee from 
Uruce Co. health unit; ' Norine (Gardiner) 
Oompton from East York-Leaside health unit; 
Miry Heard from Elgin-St. Thomas health 

The following nurses have enrolled in the 
advanced course in administration and super- 
vision at the University of Toronto School of 
Nursing: Kathleen Abbott from North York 
board of health; Ruth Aiken from Porcupine 
health unit; Evelyn Dougher from Hamilton 
Department of Health. . * ■ 

Victorian Order of Nurses 

The following are the staff changes in the 
Vutorian Order of Nurses for Canada: 

Appointments — Amherst, N.S.: Nathalie 
Burning (Victoria Gen. Hosp., Halifax). 
Gait, Ont.: Mary Mitchell (Winnipeg Gen. 
Hosp.). Halifax: Sophia Koziol . (Hamilton 
Gin. Hosp., Ont., and McGill University). 
Montreal: Carolyn Brunning (Hartford Hosp., 
Gmn), Mrs. Gwendolyn Hermann and Lor- 
Tjine McGregor (Royal Victoria Hosp., Mon- 
treal, and McGill U.), Joan McF. Livingston 
(St. Bartholomews Hosp., London, Eng.), 
CI me (Harris) Smith (Jewish Hosp., Brook- 
lyn, N.Y.). Prince Albert, Sask.: Janet \Til- 
h.:ms (Vancouver Gen. Hosp. and University 
of British Columbia). 

Transfers — lsobel Angus from Vancouver 
t( Elphinstone, B.C., as nurse in charge; 
.Mugaret Arnett from Surrey, B.C., to North 
Vancouver; Anne Baker from Elphinstone to 
1 'ill, B.C., as nurse in charge; Mary De 
C. uomo from Thorold, • Ont., to Regina, 
S^k., as nurse in charge; Lois Leeson from 
Sixths Falls, Ont., to Dundas, Ont., as nurse 
»n charge; Jeannine Nobert from Rouyn- 
Ntiranda, Que., to Edmundston, N.B., as 
mire in charge. 

OCV1BER, 1952 • 


Offers to qualified Registered Graduate 
Xurses, post-graduate courses in: 

(I). Operating Rtnm Technique 
and Management — 6 months. 

(2). Obstetrical Nursing — I months. 
Includes: Premature Nursery, 
Milk Formula Room, Delivery 
Room, Admitting Office and Out- 
Patient Clinic, Field Trips, Ward 
and Nursery experience, Demon- 
strations and Nursing Classes, and 
Medical Student Lectures which . 
are given by Obstetricians. 

• For information apply to: 
Director of Nursing 
General Hoapltal 
Vancouver •, B.C. 




School of Nursing, Montrool 


1. A four-month clinical coune in 
Obstetrical Nursing. 

2. A two-month clinical course in 
Gynecological Nursing. 

Salary— After second month at Gen- 
eral Staff rates. 

For information apply to: 

Director of Nursing 

Royal Victoria Hospital 

Montreal 2, Que. 




This course is especially valuable 
to those contemplating Public 
Health, Industrial, or Tuber- 
culosis Nursing. t 

For further information apply to: 

Director of Nursing, 

Mountain Sanatorium, 

Hamilton, Ontario. 

Resignations — Dartmouth, N.S.: Ann- 
Adams. Edmonton: Josephine Burroughs 
Halifax: Frances Willis. Kingston Margan' 
Donevan, Muriel Read. Montreal: Annette an.l 
Jacqueline Gregoire. New Glasgow, N.S : 
Mrs. Winnijred Forbes. Owen Sound, Ont : 
Jane (Dunfield) Ouellette as nurse in charge 
Prince Albert, Saslc.: Mrs. Margaret McCon 
echy. Ste. Anne de Bellevue, Que.: Pierretn 
Daoust as nurse in charge. Sarnia, Ont.: Edna 
May Stoddart. Sherbrooke, Que.: Germaim 
D' Allaire. Trail: Grace Petti for as nurse in 
charge. Vancouver: Anne Steem. Windsor, 
N.S.: Jean Adams. Windsor, Ont.: Uehn 
Hill, Mrs. Mary Porter. 


The following are news items from the 
Alberta Division of Public Health Nursing: 

There are many new health units being or- 
ganized this year and in some areas it means 
a new service taking the place of the old. A 
full-time unit has been formed to include the 
city of Medicine Hat and surrounding district. 
This will replace the former well baby clinic 
served in that city by M. Hagerman and re- 
cently by Marion Story, who is now senior 
nurse. It will include the municipal nursing 
service at Bow Island and the one-nurse health 
unit at Brooks. The Hilda Municipal Nurs- 
ing Service will carry on as usual. 

The one-nurse health unit at Strathmore is 
now included in the East Calgary health unit, 
named the Bow Valley health unit, with 
Ethel Jones a member of this staff. 

The well baby clinic at Vegreville is now 
absorbed into a health unit. Mary Black, who 
has served on the staff of the clinic for 2f> 
years, has joined the new unit. 

Mrs. Katherine Cole, who for many years 
was on the staff as district nurse, went up 
to Hay River, N.W.T., just beyond the 
Alberta boundary, last May, to organize a dis 
trict nursing service for the local community 
It is a project sponsored by the local citizens 
as they are many hundreds of miles from 
doctors or hospitals. 

Mrs. Barbara Eben, who wrote the "Ob 
stetric Manual for District Nurses," will teach 
the advanced practical obstetrical course at 
the University of Alberta this fall. 

Lo'tM Hammett of Hints Creek and Ingor 
Sorenson of Grassland are on leave of absenu 
to take the public health course at the uni- 
versity. Marguerite Ries is enrolled in the at! 
vanced obstetrical course. 

Mona Wilson, public health nursing dirtv 
tor for Prince Edward Island, spent a shor; 
time in Edmonton visiting the various health 

Margaret Smith is stationed at New Brit: 
den, Valerie (Wheeler) Wiens resigning from 
this district. Edna P. Drake is at Sunnynook 

Vol. 48, No. !<> 



!:vangeline Boyarchuh is at Tulliby Lake, rc- 
i lacing Mrs. Mabel Grant who is now matron 
'f a small Saskatchewan hospital. Lois 
Aadgley is at Hines Creek. Esther (Dearing) 
' Anderson is carrying on the service at Dixon* 
v ille. Edith Gavin replaced Mrs. D. (Mynard) 
Valker at Fawcett. Mina Pool has returned 
<> Athabasca health unit after taking the 
I diversity of Alberta public health course. 
i he reorganization of this unit is under way, 
^cording to the new Health Unit Act. Jean 
ilrickman, formerly with Athabasca health 
-nit, is on the staff of the Aberhart Memorial 
Hospital. Mrs. V. Fadeeff replaces Mrs. Sabin 
. t Winfield. Sarah Mad n tyre is at Kinuso re- 
placing Carol Gaunt who resigned. Phyllis 
' Warner) O'Neill is continuing with her 
kilties at Peers. Madeline Bonneville has re- 
ined from Spirit River health unit. 

British Columbia 

The following are staff changes in . the 
British Columbia Division of Public Health 

Appointments — Isabel Anderson to Green- 
wood, West Kootenay health unit, after leave 
ff absence to attend the McGill University 
public health nursing course; M'arjorie Ban- 
utrman (Vancouver Gen. Hosp.) to Cran- 
io rook. East Kootenay health unit; Maxim 
Button to Oliver, SoutljA)kanagan health unit, 
.iftcr leave of absence to attend the Univer- 
sity of British Columbia public health nursing 
course; Mae Conn to Enderby, North 
Okanagan health unit, after leave of absence 
to attend U.B.C.; Marguerite Cusson (Univer- 
sity of Alberta School of Nursing and B.S.N., 
T.B.C.) to Acassiz, North Fraser Valley 
health unit; Audrey Dam guard to Kamloop*. 
Central Interior health unit, after leave of 
absence to take the p.h.n. course at U.B.C.; 
Jessica Field (Royal Alexandra Hosp., Ed- 
monton, and U.B.C. p.h.n. course) to 
Nanaimo, Central Vancouver Is. health unit; 
llnel Fulmore to Ladysmith, Central Van- 
couver Is. health unit, after completing the 
V B.C. p.h.n. course. 

Eileen Has sett (Royal Columbian Hosp., 
New Westminster) to Prince George, Cariboo 
health unit; Aldred Ktr to Ashcroft, Central 
Interior health unit, after leave of absence to 
t.«ke the U.B.C. p.h.n. course; Dorothy Kergitt ' 
< V.G.H. and B.S.N., U.B.C.) to Princeton, 
^uth Okanagan health unit; Jean MacAllisttr 
• V.G.H. and U.B.C. certificate course) to 
i rail, West Kootenay health unit; Catherim 

UcKinnon (Royal Victoria Hosp., Montreal. 

nd B.N., McGill University) to Kimberley, 

'last Kootenay health unit; Lorene Monahan 

t ; ien. & Marine Hosp., Owen Sound, Ont.. 

•'»id B.A. and p.h.n. course. University of 

Pronto) and Barbara Vidal (Holy Cross 

■i >sp. f Calgary, and McGill U. p.h.n. course) 
•■■■• Chilliwack, Upper Fraser Valley health 
^nit; Dorothy Morris (V.G.H. and B.A. 
♦< A.Sc., U.B.C) and Phyllis Payton (V.G.H. 

i CTOBKR. 1952 ' 



The following one-year certi- 
ficate courses are offered : 

1. Public Health Nursing. 

2. Teaching and Supervision 
in Schools of Nursing. 

For further information apply to: 


School of Nursing Education 

University of Manitoba . 

Winnipeg, Man. 






CIVIL SERVICE requires- 


Willow Chit Centre fir George Pearson 

iff ° hos l >ita 's located in Vancouver. 

All major services & student affiliation course. 
Registration in B.C. required. Cross Salary: 
$210.00 per mo.; annual increments of $5.00 
per mo. (over 6-yr. period), rising to $245. No 
residence accommodation. 
Tranquille l/nir-350 b?d T.B. Hospital, lo- 
cated 12 miles from Kamloops in southern in- 
terior. All major services except student affilia- 
tion. Gross Salary: $218.09 per mo. ri?ing to 
$250 per mo.; annual increments of $5.00 per 
mo. (over 6-yr. period). New modern residence 
—attractive bed sitting rooms. Recreational 
facilities. Maintenance deduction: Room $5.00 
—laundry $2.50. Kxcellent food at 30c per 
meal. ^ 

Conditions— All Units— R-hr. day; 5H-day 
wk.. rotating shifts. 4 wks. annual vacation 
with pay plus 11 statutory holidays. Sick leave, 
18 days per yr. (12 cumulative). Promotional 
opportunities. Superannuation. 

Write for information b* applications to: 

Supt. of Nurses In respective Units or to 
Personnel Assistant, Division of T.B. Con- 
trol. 2647 Willow St.. Vancouver 9, B.C. 


CIVIL SERVICE requires- 


(for the I)ept. of Health & Welfare. Province 
of British Columbia). 

Salary: $233 rising to $276 per mo. Promo- 
tional opportunities available for Public Health 
Xurses. Grade 2 — $250 rising to $303 per mo. 

Qualifications: Candidates must be eligible 
for registration in British Columbia and have 
completed a I'niversity degree or certificate 
course in Public Health Nursing. (Successful 
candidates may be required to serve in any part 
of the Province; cars are provided.) Further 
information may be obtained from the Director. 
Public Health \ursint, Dept. of Health &• Wel- 
fare. Parliament Bldgs.. Victoria. 

• Candidates must be British subjects, under 
40 years of age. except in the case of ex-service 
women who are given preference. Application 
Forms obtainable from all Government Agencies. 
the Civil Service Commission, Weiler Bldg., 
Victoria, or 636 Burrard St., Vancouver /. to 
be completed & returned to the 

Chairman, Victoria. 

and U.B.C. p.h.n. cert, course) to Cloverdale 
Boundary health unit; Ada O'Brien to Port 
Alberni, Central Vancouver Is. health unit 
after leave of absence to take the McGill U 
p.h.n. course; Phyllis Piddington (Royai 
J" b L l,cc - Hos P> Victoria) to Matsqi-Sumas- 
Abbotsford public health service; Betty Pullen ' 
having completed the B.S.N, course at U.B C ' 
and Paula Schwoerer (St. Paul's Hosp., Van- 
couver, and U.B.C. p.h.n. course) to Duncan 
Central Vancouver Is. health unit; Catherine 
Stevens (St. Mary's Hosp., Timmins, Ont 
and U. of T. p.h.n. course) to Smithers,' 
Skeena health unit; Ruth Stevens (VGH 
and B.S.N., U.B.C.) to Saanich and South 
Vancouver Is. health unit. 

Transfers— Alice . Beattie from West 
Kootenay health unit as supervising nurse to 
Kelowna, South Okanagan health unit, as 
supervisor; Helen Byrt from Enderby, North 
Okanagan health unit to Fernic, East Kootc ' 
nay health unit; Marjorie Craik from Chilli- 
wack, Upper Fraser Valley health unit to 
Fraser Canyon district; Doris Gi fjord from 
Cranbrook, East Kootenay health unit to 
Vanderhoof, Cariboo health unit; Betty Her 
man from Agassiz, Upper Fraser Valley 
health unit to Division of V.D. Control, Van- 
couver; Nan Kennedy to be senior nurse with 
Boundary health unit; Elizabeth Lay ton from 
Vanderhoof, Cariboo health unit to Saltsprin^ 
area, Saanich and South Vancouver Is. health 
unit; Mary McKinlay from Cariboo health 
unit to be senior nurse at Chilliwack, Upper 
Fraser Valley health unit; Beverley McNair 
from Ashcroft Central Interior health unit to 
Lake Cowichan, Central Vancouver Is. health 
unit; Kerstin Nelson from Matsqui-Sumas-* 
Abbotsford district to Creston, East Kootenay 
health unit; Dorothy Neuman from Green- 
wood, West Kootenay health unit to Coquit- 
lam area, Simon Fraser health unit. 

Janet (Maclennan) Rodgers from South , 
Okanagan health unit to Central Vancouver 
Is. health unit; Doris Vos burgh from Fernit, 
East Kootenay health unit to be senior nurse 
with Cariboo health unit; Mary Watson from 
Prince George, Cariboo health unit to Lake 
Cowichan, Central Vancouver Is. health unit; 
Hazel Whittington from Ladysmith, Central 
Vancouver Is. health unit to Trail, West 
Kootenay health unit; Joyce (Harrington) 
Young from Port Alberni, Central Vancouver 
Is. health unit to Langford district, Saanich 
and South Vancouver Is. health unit. 

Leave of Absence — To take the public 
health nursing course at U.B.C: Eleanor 
Bradshaw from Peace River health unit; Bett\ 
Drons field from North Okanagan health unit; 
Beryl Lucas from Skeena health unit; Beatrice 
MacKinnon from Upper Is. health unit; Eliz.) 
beth Ferrie, Margaret French, Clara Lysakou- 
ski. Alice Cannon to take the p.h.n. course. 
Dalhousie University, Halifax; Af*r> Kartnt 
from Boundary health unit to take the p.h.n 
course at McGill University; Janet Pallister to 
take the course in supervision and adminiv 
tration in p.h.n. at McGill U. 

Resignations — Irene (Rae) Berryman from 
Peace River health unit; Jean Ciceri to teach 

it St. Joseph's School of Nursing, Victoria, 
Dorothy Deeble to go to Toronto, Christine 
Humble, and Isla Tuck — all from Saanich and 
South Vancouver Is. health unit; Anna 
.5 pence) Donaldson from Boundary health 
init; Edith Fowler, Ethel MacPherson, Mary 
McNair to be married, Gwen (Farquharson) 
Mitchell to live in Alberta, and Ada Stadnyk 
—all from Central Vancouver Is. health unit; 
Shirley (Scanlan) Humphreys and Joan Mad- 
den from Central Interior health unit; Susie 
Jones from Gibson's public health service to 
^o to California; Shirley (Robinson) Leonard 
from Nakusp public health service; Eileen 
Lovett from Coquitlam staff, Simon Fraser 
health unit; Gwen (Oxley) McClelland from 
Hope, Upper Fraser Valley health unit; Rose- 
mary (Steward) Pesut from Princeton, South 
Okanagan health unit; Lenna Richardson and 
Margene (Clark) Yuill from Trail, West 
Kootenay health unit; Mary Wade from 
Haney, North Fraser Valley health unit. 

A/eiud, Hotel 



Delia McQuarrie of Coleman has been 
appointed matron of the hospital here. She 
has recently completed a post-graduate 
course in hospital management and super- 
vision at the New York Polyclinic Hospital. 
Prior to leaving for New York, Miss Mc- 
Quarrie was on the staff of the Crow's Nest 
Pass Municipal Hospital. 



A very successful dance was held in June 
by the Kelowna Chapter at the Aquatic 
Club, the net proceeds being $150. 


57. Pauls Hospital 

The Benevolent Group of the alumae as- 
sociation has had four more woollen blank- 
ets made from the old wool donated by 
members earlier this year. The annual 
bazaar is scheduled for November 19 at the 
nurses' residence. 

Muriel Wilkinson has replaced A. 
Belecky as registrar for the private duty 
nurses of St. Paul's. Miss Belecky is now a 
member of the 3rd East staff in the hospital. 
The private duty nurses entertained Miss 
Belecky at a surprise party when a lovely 
handbag was presented to her. 

Sr. Catherine De Bologne is first assistant 


By Rev. Charles J. McFadden. Second 
edition of a top-ranking book in its 
field. It includes a foreword by Fulton 
J. Sheen and a wealth of new material 
on: property rights, the safe period 
method, therapeutic sterilization, 
lobotomy, artificial insemination, nar- 
cotheraphy, sterility tests, the Rh 
factor, disposal of amputated mem- 
bers, cremation, the new Catholic 
hospital code, contraception and 
eugenic sterilization. 458 pages, 
second edition, 1952. $4.50. 


Solutions to the 174 medico-moral 
problems presented Jn the above text. 
88 pages, 1949. $2.00. 







is sufficient 

for ono 

Imki ktttk 

British Medical Journal report*: 
"Every caae eo far, of infestation 
treated with D.O.T. Emulaton, 
haa been cured in one application**. 
The D.D.T. content of Suleo Hair 
Emulsion remains in contact with 
the hair for at least fourteen days. 
Even if hair. is washed, protection 
continues. Suleo kill* all the lice 
and larvae too. It is widely 
recommended for eradicating and 
preventing head infestation. 
Pleasant to use. Made by Jeyes' 
of England. Sold by drug, farm- 
feed, hardware and general stores 
3-oa. bottle— 66*. 

Sole Canadian Distributor*: 


72 Duchess Street, Toronto. 



V0I448. No. n> 

OCTOBER, 1952 




Offers to qualified Registered 
Graduate Nurses the following: 

• A six-month Clinical Course 
in Obstetrics, including lec- 
tures, demonstrations, nursing 
classes, and field trips. Four 
months will be given in basic 
Obstetric Nursing and two 
months of supervisory practice 
in Supervision, Ward Admin- 
istration, and Clinical Teaching. 
Maintenance and a reasonable 
stipend after the first month. 

• Course begins Aug. 25, 1952, 
Jan. 12, 1953, aod May 4, 1953. 

Enrolment limited to a maximum 
of eight students. 

For further information write to: 

Supt. of Nurses, General 

Hospital, Winnipeg, Man. 


Offers to qualified Graduate 

• A six-month Clinical Course 
in Operating Room Tech- 
nique and Supervision, in- 
cluding major and minor sur- 
gery, recovery room, casualty 
operating room, doctor's and 
nurse's lectures and demonstra- 
tions, clinics and field trips. 
Maintenance and reasonable sti- 
pend after first month. 

• Course begins September 8, 
1952, January 12, 1953, and 
May 4, 1953. Enrolment limited 
to a maximum of six students. 

For further information write to: 

Supt. of Nurses, 

General Hospital, 

Winnipeg, Man. 

general, Providence Maison Mere, Montreal 
Sr. Teresina (M. J. Levasseur) is Mother 
Provincial at Lacombe Home, Midnaport 
Alta. Sr. Anne of the Sacred Heart (ped 
latrics) has completed her studies at Seattle 
University. S. (Towlan) Bates is on dut\ 
with the 3rd North staff, after several years 
residence in Victoria. P. Hunter is employed 
! f\, Dr - F Words office - T. Cahill and N 
Allen are nursing at Tillamook, Oregon. B 
Renshaw and A. Ackerman are in Kemano. 
B.C. B. Parlow plans to nurse in England 
On duty at the Herrick Hospital, Berkeley 
Calif., are: B. Pollock, L. Kirkland, | 
Murray, M. Christensen. K. Koop is doin^ 
private nursing in Winnipeg. V. Shopland is 
at the Queen Alexandra Solarium for Cripple/ 
Children, Cobble Hill, V.I. 


An effort has been made during the past 
few months to bind the private duty nurses 
of this city more closely together into a 
group, that thev may have a voice in chapter 
affairs and so be more aware of the comfort 
and strength of the Registered Nurses* Asso- 
ciation of which they are a part. In an effort 
to interest more of the nurses, it was decided 
to hold meetings of the group every two 
months, in the form of dinner meetings heKl 
in the evening, each nurse paying for her own 
dinner. To date three of these meetings have 
been held and the turnout has been m<»t 
gratifying. At the last meeting the clubroom 
of the Business and Professional Women's 
Club was rented and a caterer employed, thus 
keeping the charge to a minimum. The nurses 
are notified of the meetings through a tele 
phone committee, thus eliminating the ex 
pense of sending out notices. It is hoped t«» 
hold meetings monthly in the - fall, even 
second meeting to be held at noon so that the 
nurses who work the evening shift may at 
tend. These nurses, in particular, feel some 
what out of touch as they rarely are abk 
to attend either private duty or chapter meet 

At the instigation of the private duty group. 
a refresher course was sponsored by the Vic 
toria Chapter in June. Seven lectures and 
demonstrations of two hours and longer were 
held. In some instances the nurses were so 
interested in the demonstrations that thev 
stayed on asking questions long after the tw. 
hours were up. A fee was charged for thi- 
course to defray expenses of notices and t<- 
give the lecturers some monetary recompense 
for the time and energy spent preparing ani! 
giving the lectures. The class was limited u> 
50, with members of the private duty group 
being given the first opportunity to enrol 
Other interested chapter members complete! 
the class enrolment. 

During the past few months, through tin 
kindness of L. Woodrow, director of nurses 
Royal Jubilee Hospital, two or three private 
duty nurses at a time were invited to the hos 
pital for a week and, under the supervision of 
the assistant director of nurses, Miss Gasv 
were able to visit various floors where treat 

Vol. 48. No. I«» 



r v*nts were being carried out with which they not familiar or where new equipment being used. The nurses who availed 
t' emselves of this opportunity felt they had 
I amed much in a practical way that they 
(> uld not have learned from lectures alone. 

The Victoria Chapter is pleased to welcome 
Marion Lindeburgh to the city. 

ttoyal Jubilee Hospital 

Six members of the spring post-graduate 
i 'ass in operating room technique and man- 
nqement received their pins and certificates in 
July. They were: B. AylifTe, B. Freeman, B. 
Kornelson, E. N. McCulloch, D. Richmond, J. 
W. Spencer. Five members of this class have 
joined the O.R. rftafT at the hospital and one 
las returned to Abbotsford. 

C. Leask is now O.R. supervisor at the 
General Hospital, Penticton. M. MoncriefT of 
the O.R. staff and I. O'Brien of maternity 
have registered at McGill School for Graduate 
Nurses for the course in teaching and super- 
vision. D. Chung has decided to specialize 
in eye surgery and has entered the Manhattan, 
I-ye, Ear and Throat Hospital for studies.. S. 
Dorothy Andrew is now superintendent of the 
Shriners' Hospital for Crippled Children, 
Portland, Oregon. Miss Andrew is a native 
of Virden, Man. 


The members of the Nurses' Hospital Aid 
entertained the 1952 graduating class of the 
Moncton Hospital at a dinner and dance. 
The address of welcome was given by the 
president of the Aid, Mrs. J. Morrell. Grace 
was said by Mrs. Nash Smith. M. Bird, Mmes. 
Morrell and K. Mayhew participated in the 
various toasts. The pianist was Mrs. D. Bar- 
berry and Mrs. R. Miller rendered a solo. The 
quests were received by F. Breau, superintend- 
ent of nurses at the hospital, Mmes Morrell 
and K. Lamb. 

The closing meeting of the Aid was held 
at the summer home of Mrs. M. Perry at 
Hopewell Cape where the members went by 
chartered bus. Mmes. H. Henderson, G. Allen, 
and K. Lamb assisted the hostess in the prep- 
aration of a delicious lobster buffet lunch. 
Mrs. Morrell conducted the business meeting 
that followed. Mrs. S. Sinclair, who had con- 
vened the dinner and dance for the 1952 class 
of Moncton Hospital, assisted by several 
members, gave her report. 



Mrs. Ella E. Lamont has been appointed 
superintendent of the Fishermen's Memorial 
Hospital. She has served on the staffs of the 
Toronto East General Hospital, City Hos- 
pital, Sydney, General Hospital, Glace Bay, 
ind General Hospital, New Waterford. 

OCTOBER, 1952 


UDest Source of 





Weston, Ontario 

Post-Graduate Course in the Treat- 
ment, Prevention, and Control of 

1. A nine-week certificate course in 
surgical and medical clinical ex- 
perience, lectures and demonstra- 
tions. Rotation to all departments. 

2. An extra month in special depart- 
ments may be arranged for those 
nurses preparing for Public Health, 
Operating Room or Surgical Nurs- 

* ing. 

Far further particulars apply to: 

Director of Nurses, Toronto 
Hospital, Weston, Ontario 



McGffl University 
School for Graduate Hurst 


ftUnlrtal 25 

— Bodflor ofNuniog Court—— 

Two-year courses leading to the 
degree, Bachelor of Nursing. Op- 
portunity is provided for specialization 
in field of choice, registering in anv 
of the major fields indicated by as- 
terisk. 7 

— Ona-Yaar Certificate Courses— 

• Teaching in Schools of Nursing. 

• Administration in Schools of Nursing. 

• Public Health Nursing. 

•Administration and Supervision in 
Public Health Nursing. 

Supervision in Psychiatric Nursing. 

Supervision in Obstetrical Nursing. 

Supervision in Paediatric Nursing. 



• Announces a five-month supple- 
mentary Clinical Course (approved 
by the New York State Education 
Department) for Graduate Register- 
ed Nurses in the nursing care and 
treatment of diseases of the eye, ear, 
nose and throat. Operating room 
training is included in the course. 

• During the entire period the student 
will receive a monthly stipend of $80 
and full maintenance. 

• A pamphlet, detailing more complete 
information, will be sent upon re- 
quest to: 

Director of Nursing Service. 

21ft East 64th St. 

New York City 21, N.Y. 


Appointment of Mrs. Sarah MacCarthy as 
superintendent of Colchester County Hospital 
» ,_■?«* announced She succeeds Mrs. G. 
Bethel. Mrs. MacCarthy has been on the staff 
of the hospital for six years, serving as as- 
sistant superintendent for the last three. She 
ti * .aVtduate of Melrose (Mass.) General 
Hospital and came to Truro from the Daw- 
son Memorial Hospital, Bridgewatcr, N.S. 


District l 
The Kent County Board of Health recently 

££? pi N nn £ at G,cn Godon Manor to 
honor Phyllis Thompson, supervisor of nurses 

WHO M*SST t0 h ?. d T Ituie t0 S 
June 3, 1947, three months after it h*H 
started to function. Officials praised the 
part she had played during the S five 
K Wing the nurses' £? toS 

^ ^f?Ti C,, ^ ,C$ J throu « hout ** countt 5 
On behalf of the Board, Miss Thompson was 
presented with a pen pencil and therZme^ 

District 3 
Mount Forest 

xx Mr i?'i/* ^ Ctmy i$ now matron at the Louise 
Marshall Hospital. Mrs. Benny, who bJS 
her nursing career in Kingston was at one 
time matron at Fergus Hospital. 

_ District 5 


General Hospital 

nf A T grid ! iatC c? f TGH a °d the University 
of Toronto School of Nursing, Minriel 
Mackay has talcen up her a Pl x)in^ent as nurs 
in* arts instructor with the WHO nursme 
education project in Taipeh, Formosa Mi ? ss 
^J k at one time senJed on thV ieafi 
staff of her home school. icacning 

Irene Moore, a T.G.H. graduate and * 
native of Thamesville, Ont/has salied fn> m 

IZTrV ' Hon « Kon « where she will ™ 
main for fac years Miss Moore, as matron of 

sibihty of the organization of the colony sit- 
uated on Hay Ling Chau Island which has 

ESE rf H ° n ? Kon * ^ it$ °™ niotor 
Uunch. The appointment was made by the 
Woman s Missionary Society of the United 
Church as a result of an invitation from the 
Mission to Lepers Auxiliary in Hong Kong 

In July, 1951, the Hong Kong Government 
gave approval to the establishment of the 
Leprosarium on Hay Ling Chau Island where 
there are 100 patients at present and will have 
accommodation for 200 more in 1953. All 
work in preparation for building activities was 
carried out largely by the patients themselves. 
Miss Moore first went to China in 1938, 
working at the Canton Hospital until Pearl 
Harbor in 1941. After a period of intern- 
ment at Canton, she was repatriated from 
Shanghai m 1942. The next few years she 
worked in Canadian mission hospitals at 
Battle River, Alta., and Hearst, Ont. Return- 
ing to Kongmoon, China, in 1946 she re- 
sumed hospital work there until again dis- 
turbed conditions resulted in her return to 
Canada in 1949. 

On leave of absence for the last two years, 
Miss Moore has worked as clinical instructor 
at the Oshawa General Hospital. Having a 
knowledge of the Cantonese language, she 
has recently taken the advanced administration 
course at the University of Toronto School 
of Nursing. 



57. Michael's Hospital 

The first event of the Diamond Jubilee 
year, happening on July 2, 1952, exactly the 
60th anniversary of the founding of St. 
Michael's Hospital, was the formal opening of 
the new nurses' residence at Shuter and Bond 
Streets, opposite the cathedral. Cardinal Mc- 
Guigan blessed and dedicated the new build- 
ng and presented a golden key to Premier 
i : rost who officially opened the residence and 
was guest speaker. . ■> ■ 

The new seven-storey building, of red brick 

• ..nd stone, has terrazzo floors and pastel 
rainted walls, along with window drapes, 
»1oor rugs, and modernistic upholstered furni- 
ture of durable type. The residence is equip- 
ped with every modern convenience for teach- 
ing and living. 

At the June meeting of the alumnae associa- 
tion it was decided to make a gift of $500 to 
the hospital in honor of its Diamond Jubilee. 
Mrs. K. Gies gave her report as delegate to 
the C.N. A. convention in Quebec Gty. It 
was announced that L. McGurk would assume 
editorship of The News. A. Johnston was the 
winner of the door prize. 

Reunions were held of the classes of 1927 
and 1932. St. Michael's nurses in Sudbury 
also had a get-together. 

His Holiness Pope Pius XII has been 
pleased to confer the medal Bene Merenti on 
two nurses at Sunnybrook Military Hospital, 

• Toronto — Constance McCarthy and Julia 
Montgomery. The decoration is awarded in 
recognition of the devoted service they have 
Siven to the patients placed under their 
charge at Sunnybrook Hospital and in former 
years at Christie St. Military Hospital. 

Betty Hornell is with the American Red 
Cross in Pittsburg, Pa. Lulu Martin retires 
from the staff of the Henry Ford Hospital, 
Detroit, after 25 years' service. R. Cuddihey 
has accepted a position on the staff of King 
Edward VII Memorial Hospital, Bermuda. A. 
Creed is with the Windsor Receiving Hos- 
pital. J. Blaver is on the O.R. staff at Oak- 
vj lie-Trafalgar Memorial Hospital. G. Guil- 
niette is with Grace Hospital, Richmond, Va. 

Western Hospital 

A T.W.H. graduate, Margaret Gordon, has 
been appointed superintendent of the Hunts- 
Mile District Memorial Hospital, Ont. Born 
»n India, she has lived in St. Thomas. Miss 
Gordon has had extensive experience in execu- 
tive work and in active management of nurs- 
ing services in several large hospitals in 
Ontario. Miss Clark, who has been acting 
superintendent, is first assistant. 

District 7 

Flying Officer Frances Fardella, a Hotel- 
Oieu graduate, is taking a special flight 
purses' course in Alabama as part of her- 
H.C.A.F. training. The special course is being 
riven at thc U.S. Air Force School of Avia- 
ton Medicine at Gunter Air Force Base in 

ZtfecudLf jo* you!! 

"New York Imports" 

• Wonderful new fabrics. 

• Exciting styles — just arrived. 

ffxc#p#lomif Valves from $24.f 5. 

r : i 

Juniors - Misses - Women 

, Personal, Individual attention — away from tto 
HutfU and SvslU of Downtown. 


UMOrHMAvt. Wntiiml 

Now Sfcrfcr— fc o St., R. 7773 
.^ AAA -^^^ Mi nil 




1. A two-month diploma course in 
supervised nursing experience, lec- 
ture, and demonstrations in all 
branches of Tuberculosis Nurs- 

2. An extra month of specialized ex- 
' perience is offered to those nurses 

who wish to prepare themselves 
forther for Operating-Room 
work, Public Health Nursing, 
Industrial Nursing. 

3. This course is authorized by the 
Department of Public Health of 

which the Nova Scotia Sanatorium 
is a unit. 

Remuneration and maintenance 


For particulars apply to Su/i. mj Nurses, 
Nooa Scotia Sanatorium, KnuwilU, N.S, 

Vol. 48. No. 10 

< CTOBER. 1952 




WAtVl At ^OewOVvn^O 



COflly MWR ON, Of 

nren eeofers of 
S. e>*» 

CASH'S: 3 Do*. fl.M; • Doz. SJ.H; NO- SO 
NAMES: t Doz. $2.44; 12 Doz. $3.50; 25c per tube 





$2,850 - $3,340 
for the Department of Veterans 
Affair*. Anticipated vacancies at 
Sunnybrook Hospital, Toronto, and 
Ste. Anne de Bellevue, P.Q. 

Details and application forms at your 
nearest Civil Service Commission 
Office, National Employment Office 
and Post Office. 



GRADE 1— $2,300 - $2,640 

GRADE 2— $2,580 - $2,930 

for the Department of Veterans 

Affairs at Toronto, Halifax, Montreal, 

Ste. Anne de Bellevue, St. Hyacinthe, 

Winnipeg, Vancouver and Victoria. 

Application forms, available at your 

nearest Gvil Service Commission 

Office, National Employment Office and 

Post Office, should be forwarded to the 




required for 

Munroe Wing 

Dept. of Public Health 

General Hospital, Reglna. 

• Salary: $193 - 232 per month, includ- 
ing Cost of Living Bonus. 
Registration as a nurse in the Province 
of Sask. plus experience or an affiliation 
in Psychiatric Nursing. 
Apply to: 
Public Service Commission, 
328 Legislative Bldg., Regina, Sask. 

Montgomery. It consists of six weeks' instruc- 
tion and was instituted by the U.S.A.F. to 
qualify registered nurses in the bisic sciences 
and special techniques necessary for the safe 
and efficient transportation of patients by air. 
The course is given to R.C.A.F. nursing sisters 
in order to render more understanding and 
efficient service in air evacuation at any time- 
but especially in emergency. Upon successful 
completion of this course, F/O Fardella will 
receive three months' practical training in the 
Pacific theatre where she will be able to 
apply the lessons learned. 

District 9 

Flying Officer Mary Kennedy, a graduate of 
St. Josephs Hospital, is taking a special 
flight nurses' courses in Alabama as part of 
her R.C.A.F. training. Joining the service at 
Montreal, she was stationed at Rockcliffe, 
being posted later to the Maritime Group 
Headquarters of the R.C.A.F. Prior to joining 
the air force, F/O Kennedy was with the 
D.V.A. in Vancouver and Montreal. During 
the last war, she served as a nursing sister. 



• 4 

Royal Victoria Hospital 

After 24 years service, Annie Morris has 
resigned from the nurses' home staff to be 
married. She will be greatly missed by the 
nurses and other associates. Prior to her de 
parture, several teas and presentations were 
held to express the good wishes of the hos- 
pital staff. 

Margaret Street has resigned as secretary- 
registrar of the A.N.P.Q. to assume new 
duties with the University of British Columbia 
School of Nursing. Alma Foulkes is on the 
staff of the Cohama County Hospital, 
Clarksdale. Miss Margaret Baker is with the 
Mayo Hospital, Yukon. 

Recent visitors have included: N/S S. 
Sterns, now Sister-in-Charge at Camp Borden, 
K. Gibson, E. Hall, R. McCoy, and G. Hop 


Brome-Missisquoi-Perkins Hospital 

The superintendent, Mrs. E. M. Wright, 
and staff entertained at an informal coffee 
party in honor of Winnifred King. Miss Kinj: 
has resigned as assistant superintendent to 
take a position with the Richmond-Drum 
mondville Protestant School Board. 



St. Paul's Hospital 

Anna Cole is welcomed to the School of 
Nursing as health nurse. M. Do Ian, intraven 
ous nurse, has arrived from St. Michael's 
Hospital, Toronto. G. Johnston is in Cleye 
land, Ohio, taking a course in ward admin- 
istration and teaching in surgical nursing at 
Western Reserve University, under the aus 
pices of the W. K. Kellogg Foundation. 

Vol. 4S. No. 10 



• \± 

^/^ Effective reducing medl- II M* l ■ ■ M M* M| m M ■ 


^A^H I ^U I I sx. fobJet contains: 

VI ^^H ^^B fl^| ^fl d-Amphetomlne sulfate 3 mg. (Ovarian ext. 

^HWMi ^^^ V V I M ■ y v#r extract 50 ma. J Suprarenal ext. 1 nig 

( OSOLOGY: 2 to 4 ix. tablets daily 
or as directed by the physician. 

mg. I Suprarenal ext. 1 mg. 
Pituitary ext. 4 mg. | Dried thyroid 5 mg. 

Ordiitk ext. 40 mg. [lodo-casein 50 mg. 

Anglo-French Drug Co. Ltd.— Montreal 18 

Positions Vacant 

Advertising Rates — $5.00 for 3 lines or less; $1.00 for each additional line. 

Administration Asst. in Nursing. Beginning salary: $14 per day. Apply Director of Nurses, 
St. Joseph Hospital, Mt. Clemens, Michigan. 

Registered Nurses for General Duty at Lyndhurst Lodge, Canadian Paraplegic Ass'n 
Rehabilitation Centre. Annual salary: $2,100 with yearly increases. 8-hr. day, 44-hr. wk. 
3 wks. annual leave. 8 statutory holidays. Cumulative sick leave up to 30 days. Apply 
Dr. A. T. Jousse, 153 Lyndhurst Ave., Toronto 10, Ont. 

Registered Nurses for General Duty. 35-bed active General Hospital, 50 miles from 
Toronto. Gross salary: $178 per mo. Apply Supt., Lord DurTerin Hospital, Orangeville, 
Ont. • 

General Duty Nurses for 500-bed Teaching Hospital with well planned rotation schedule. 
Salary: $210 per mo. gross plus annual increments for 4 yrs. B.C. registration required. 
Apply Director of Nursing, Royal Jubilee Hospital, Victoria, B.C. 

General Duty Graduate Nurses for 60- bed General Hospital, situated 150 miles northeast 
of Vancouver on B.C. coast. Salary $222 per mo. less $25 for complete maintenance 6c laun- 
dering of uniforms. 4 wks. holiday with pay plus 10 statutory holidys. Transportation ad- 
vanced if desired. Apply Matron, St. George's Hospital, Alert Bay, B.C. 

Matron for new 17-bed Municipal Hospital. Easy access to Calgary 6c Edmonton. Pleasant 
working conditions. 1 mo. vacation with pay after 1 yr. of service. All statutory holidays. Sick 
leave time paid for if not used. Transportation refunded after 6 mos. service. Minimum 
salary: $195 per mo. \css $20 for full maintenance. Splendid opportunity for nurse to gain 
administrative experience leading to better position. One General Duty Nurse can be used if 

two girls wish to travel together. Apply Sec.-Treas., Municipal Hospital, Elnora, Alta. 

i ■ , 

Hospital Supt.— Registered Nurse with hospital administration experience for 50-bed hos- 
pital with Training School. Full maintenance, vacation with pay 6c sick leave. Apply 
Chairman, Board of Trustees, Carleton Memorial Hospital, Woodstock, N.B. 

Supt. of Nurses, Asst. Supt. of Nurses for 177-bed hospital. State salary expected. Nursing 
Arts Instructor. Salary: $220 gross. Science Instructor. Salary: $220 gross. Head Nurse 
for Private Wing — 27 beds. Salary: $215 gross. General Duty Nurses for obstetrical, medical 
Sc surgical floors. Salary: $180-195 gross, depending on experience. 44-hr. wk. 2y 2 days 
holidays per mo. Half day on statutory holidays. U/i days sick time per mo. cumulative to 
W days. Charge of $30 per mo. for board 6c room. Apply Mrs. M. Alexander, Acting Supt. 
of Nurses, General Hospital, Medicine Hat, Alta. 

Night Supervisor, General Duty Nurses, Registered 6c Grace Maternity Graduates, 
Laboratory Technician. Apply, stating experience,. Supt., Queens General Hospital, Liver- 
pool, N.S. ■ ' 

General Staff Nurses will find real opportunity to realize their ideals in our 337-bed Teach- 
ing Hospital with University affiliation. Community offers unlimited choice of cultural 6c re- 
creational facilities. 40-hr. wk. 3 wks. vacation. Paid sick leave. Rotating shift $1.30-1.40 per 
hr. Differential of 10 cts. per hr. for evening 6c night shifts. Apply Director of Nurses, 
Hvanston Hospital, 2650 Ridge Ave., Evans ton, Illinois. 

XTTOBER, 1952 


< '- 








Sf£.™. S ?? N T eS f0r n ^ wly con *«™c^d hospital. Starting salary: 1175 per mo oliis Ho 

?^!^ S f? Nuf$e$ for 6c J°" bcd Un »vcrsity Hospital. Opening in all services Per 
sonnel policies meet approved minimum standards of North Carolina State Nurses' As«'n" 
Salary: $160 per mo. with complete maintenance ($220 without maintenance) $20 additional 
> \I P Crfnanen ? cvcning$ & night5 ' |12 ° annual Cerement for sadsfactoT 
6 ho!L%v aCa r> t < lr n v the p 1$t J F 3( ! dayS pCr ? r » A««fter. Ill time allowance Tame as vacation 
6 holidays per yr ExcepUonal opportunity for furthering education in Duke UniversTtv 
Write Director of Nursing Service, Duke University Hospital, Durham No^th aXa \ 

Registered Nurses for General Duty for small General Hospital. Salary: $140 per mo with 
n erv^ *1™C ^ ^ ff'j duiY > I ™' 1 "* shift5 » 3 Cerements of $5.00 permo at*6 mo 

Add7v Lf! ^ U W 0$ R Pa,d i° day$ , SIC J?J CaVC . pCr y f ' 6 $tatut0f y holi W 28 days holiday' 
Apply Lady Supt., Barrie Memorial Hospital, Or mstown, Que. ««"a«y 

tewnccV wks ^cation ft ln^nf1 Uty * ,5 "°? CXt f a f ° f CVCning & ni f ht duties. Full main- 
MarinT* Snc^ PlUS ' ***** ^^ AP Ply A, ™ d " 

Graduate Nurses (2) for General Duty for immediate future. Starting salary- $200 with 
annual increments of $5.00 per mo. Full maintenance $40. Statutory holidays ^aid 28 dais 
vacation after 1 yr service. Usual sick leave. Apply Miss A. Naomi Pow Supt of Nurses 
Slocan Community Hospital, New Denver, B .C. ' P Wu " C5 « 

i^n"^ N T C5: ?™ enl ^ (3) |26 ° pcf mo ' Op««tinB Room Scrub Nurse (2) 
$270 per mo. Annual increase of $10 per mo. 8-hr. day, 40-hr. Wk. Paid vacation -7 wks 

OuIrtlZ ln\ 3 Wk l aftCf 3 T?? * "?' aftCf 5 yr$ ' ; sick ,cavc cumulative "o 30 day ! 
Quarters in nurses home available at $20 per mo. Train fare refunded after 1st vr of 
employment. Hospital ,s 155-bed General Hospital located in Fresno, Calif orn in he^ean 
of San Joaquin Valley convenient to San Francisco, Los Angeles, Pacific Ocein beaches ft 
many national parks Several Canadian nurses are presently*employed in this hospiVal a 
well as other hospitals in vicinity. Write for application form *visa information o C H 
Linville, Administrator, Community Hospital, 1234 "S" St., Fresno 1, California 

Graduate Nurses for General Staff Duty in 350-bed Tuberculosis Hospital. For further 
Mo°nTQ°u n e aPP Dircct ° r Nur$in *' Roytl Edward L » u '™tian Hospital, Ste. Agathe dc 

Graduate Nurses for General Duty. 48-hr. wk., > statutory holidays, 3 wks. vacation aftti 

17«; ' !%£ 7 - S ' w k ,Ct ^ £' Jt : ? XC f l,Cnt tfain * bus servicc ° °"™*« Apply Supt 
Arnpnor Be District Memorial Hospi tal, Arnprior, Ont. 

General Duty Nurses immediately for Trail-Tadanac Hospital, Trail, B.C. Personnel prac 
tices as outlined by Reg. Nurses' Ass'n. of B.C. Apply Director of Nursing . 

Ho3l wfth l^ZTfi*? ^ pttTbof ,I? r 9P^»'ng Room for 450-bed General 
Hospital with 150 students. Apply Director of Nursing, General Hospital, Saint John , N.B. 

Vol. 4A, No. 10 




has Staff and Supervisory positions in various parts of Canada. 
Personnel Practices Provide: 
e Opportunity for promotion. 

• Transportation while on duty. 
• Vacation with pay. 

• Retirement annuity benefits. 
For further information write to: 

Chief Superintendent, 

Victorian Order of Nurses for Canada, 

193 Sparka Street, 

Ottawa 4, Ont. 

General Duty Nurses for 430-bed hospital. 44-hr. wk. 11 statutory holidays. Salary: $215-253. 
Credit for past experience. Annual increments, Cumulative sick leave. 28 days annual vaca- 
tion. Apply Director of Nursing, Royal Columbian Hospital, New Westminster, B.C. 

Registered Nurses for General Staff in 21 -bed hospital. Salary: $155 per mo. Room, board 
& uniform laundry provided. Rotating shifts. 48-hr. wk. Blue Cross Plan, 3 wks. holiday . 
after 1 yr. service. Apply Supt. of Nurses, General Hospital, Espanola, Ont. i 

Registered Nurses (2) Be Matron for hospital with 27 set up beds. Salaries: $160 Be $200 per 
mo. plus full maintenance. 1 mo. holiday Be usual sick leave. Hospital located in thriving 
town with good train Be bus service. Apply Sec.-lyfgr., Porcupine-Carragana Union Hospital, 
Porcupine Plain, Sask. 

Registered Nurses for St. Joseph Hospital, Mt. Clemens, Michigan, 25 miles north of Detroit, 
near Selfridge Air Force Base. Optional 40- or 44-hr. wk. Staff Nurses: $12 day duty; $13 
afternoon or night duty. State Standards.' Apply Director of Nursing Service. 

Graduate Nurses for completely modern West Coast hospital. Salary: $210 per mo. less $40 
for board, residence, laundry. $10 annual increments. Special bonus of $10 per mo. for night 
duty. 1 mo. vacation with full salary after 1 yr. service. lVi days sick leave per mo. cumula- 
tive to 36 days. Transportation allowance not exceeding $60 refunded after 1st yr. Also 
Evening Supervisor from 4:00 till midnight. Salary commences at $225. Working conditions 
& perquisites same as nurses. Apply, stating experience, Miss E. L. Clement, Supt. of Nurses, 
General Hospital, Prince Rupert, B.C. 

General Duty Staff Nurses for 515-bed General Hospital. Beginning salary: $230 per mo. 
with advancement to $250. $20 additional for evenings Be nights. 40-hr. wk. Hospital Be school 
of nursing fully approved. Apply Director of Nursing, The Grace Hospital, 4160 John R. St., 
Detroit 1, Michigan. 

General Duty Nurses for 680-bed General Hospital with School of Nursing. Beginning 
salary: $258; increase to $273 at end of 6 mos. employment. $15 increase 1 yr. after 1st 
increase. Differential of $10 for special services Be p.m. & night duty. 40-hr. wk. 11 paid 
holidays. 3 wks. vacation. Free laundry. Cumulative sick leave. Temporary housing avail- 
able. Apply Director of Nursing Service, General Hospital, Fresno, California. 

Graduate Nurses — Attention! We're adding a few beds Be will be needing a few nurses. 
Are you interested in working in a 50-bed active hospital close to Vancouver, B.C.? Salary & 
holidays according to R.N.A.B.C. recommendations. Apply Miss M. R. Ward, Langley 
Memorial Hospital, Langley Prairie, B.C. ■■ ^ 

Graduate Floor Duty Nurses for General Hospital, Hamilton, Ont. Gross initial bi-weekly 
salary: $83 plus Cost of Living Bonus of approx. $6.00 per wk. 44-hr. wk. For other 
perquisites Be further informati on apply C. E. Brewster, Supt. of Nurses. 

Graduate Floor Duty Nurses for Mount Hamilton Maternity Hospital, Hamilton, Ont. 
44-hr. wk. Statutory holidays. Initial gross salary bi-weekly: $83 plus cost of Living Bonus. 
For other perquisites Be further information apply Supt. 

General Duty Nurses. Salary: $173.23 (one hundred seventy-three dollars Be twenty-three 
rents) monthly, paid on a bi-weekly basis: 26 pays in a yr. Salaries have scheduled rate of 
increase. 48-hr. wk. 8-hr. broken day: 3-11, 11-7, rotation. Cumulative sick leave. Pension 
;> lan in force. Blue Cross. 3 wks. vacation after 1 yr. service. Apply Supt. of Nurses, 
< 4uskoka Hospital, Gravenhurst Ont. ' 

OCTOBER. 1952 




A career specialty for the Graduate Nurse. Eligibility: Graduates 
of Accredited Schools of Nursing. Course: Study of the basic sciences 
related to Anesthesia. Clinical training in all phases of General Anesthesia 
Resuscitation, and Inhalation Therapy. Professional Opportunities'- 
Full-time position in teaching and non-teaching hospitals in United 
States. For special course write: Mary H. Snively, R.N., I„ Charge of Nu™.- 
Training Programs, Duke Hospital, Durham, North Carolina. 

Instructor of Nursing, Clinical-Obstetrical Supervisor & Ooerannir R™ m c ~ ■ 

Public Health Nurses (bilingual) for generalized program in Countv Htilth !.«.♦ u .7 
vacation; iy 2 days per mo. cumulative sick leave; pension plan if under ? T/rllK l 

pi^vrouve ; ^ s c ation in Bc nece$sary - App,y DitJo < of N^s^Geissras 

Operating Room Supervisor. Mature person with wide experience in O R serv.Y,. P„«, 

W , U lU r,a e v S ! Udy . deMrable - S r aUry ° pen - Annual i""«nen«s. vacation, sick time 7 fir wk' 
Will pay travel expenses for personal interview. Also Evenine Nursery SuMrZ wTth 
exper.ence m obstetric.. Post-graduate study desirable. Sala™ depend Tn quEtion" £ 

Hrs eT'Tfh Add, ' ,onal '""«"«« f °' ev ™"« duty- Expenses for person into We w 
Hrs etc.. as above. General Duty Nurses. Salary: $162.50 per mo. for new graduates ' 
meals, laundry. 8-hr day. straight shift. $15 differential evenings; $10 n°eh? Vacation sick 

«T3 , „. $ .? ,U, ° r i! f h ° ,,dayS V annua .' incre ™""- *«"""«! reco|„ tion "(Tuniversi i Po . 
graduate work or yrs. of exper.ence. Apply Supt. of Nurses. General Hospi til WJnnPpeJ. 

Registered Nurses (2) for 74-bed General Hospital. 44hr. wk.. rotated shifts 1 mo vaca 
A°2i m r „°/ $ lt a,ary i ,? I 7 - 50 P,U$ ,aund ». in « o { «"ifo«ns. *5.0() increases after 3' «nor9mo a s 
t,lt ™; '"' Re f ld ! nce , »ccommadstion available at $15 per mo. Meals available at hos 
pital-30c. per meal. Apply Supt. of Nurses. General Hospital. Portage la Prair ie, Man 

S^Dl^oT/h^JT^r'' 8 ! P fe P aration P'rf«'«»- Also Dietitian & Night Super- 
Zg Hgu^bjug flT^ ° n ^^» * ***"""• Apply" So.dEs' 

Registered Nurse for General Duty for new 30-bed hospital. Salary: $155 per mo. plus 

MitrTS n ^'. L H a,ed .. 20 w mi,M u S °i , , th ° f Lethb »d^ F« further information apply 
Matron, Municipal Hospita l, Magrath, Alta. , 

^Z^™^J?£L$T^JP% f0f Ki,,a ' nc V * D.m.ct General Hospital. Gross 
salary $190 per mo. 30-bed hospital all on one floor. Excellent living quarters. Summer 
Sn Mi°n n Killarney. Apply Matron, Miss E. Nixon or F. H. White Sec, 

Registered Nurses for 34-bed General Hospital. Salary $165 per mo. for 1st yr. f $175 for 
following yrs.; $30 per mo. extra for night duty. Full maintenance, 3 wks. vacation with pay 
-V. yf u i.j •£"*'. 2 yr$ * $cmcc / 12 days sick leave a yr., cumulative to 30 days. All 
statutory holidays Travel expenses paid within Province of Manitoba for personal interview. 
Apply Supt. of Nurses, Altona Hospital, Altona, Man. 

Graduate Nurses for 175-bed Tuberculosis Sanatorium near Prince Rupert. Salary for 
General Duty, $232 per mo. plus yearly increases. Room, board, laundry at $30 per mo. 

Vol. A*. No. io 




Inflrmikret demandSet par 


# Service general dans les avant-postes hospi taliers. 

# Postes d'infirmieres surveillantes et infirmieres visiteuses dans les avant-postes 
infirmiers. '•••«•• 

Service de Transfusion. 

Les infirmteres, poss6dant un dipldme reconnu par l'Association des Infirmieres 
du Canada, devront faire parvenir leur demande d'emploi a Tadresse suivante: 

Dlrectrice Nationale, Service du Nursing, 

La SocI6t6 Canadlenne de la Croix-Rouge, 

95 rue Wellesley, Toronto 5, Ontario, Canada. 

Transportation refunded on promise of 1 yr. service. Apply airmail, giving full details of 
experience, Matron, Miller Bay Indian Hospital, Box 1248, Prince Rupert, B.C. 

Operating Room Nurse (qualified). Salary according to qualifications. Also General Duty 
Nurses. Gross salary $175 for active 6l«bed hospital in progressive Western Ontario town 
with population around 4,000 — about 25 miles from London. Apply Supt., General Hospital, 
Strathroy, Ont. 

Supt. for 50-bed hospital. Must be well qualified person. Salary open. Apply, stating quali- 
fications, experience & reference, Administrator, Wri nch Memorial Hospital, Hazelton, B.C. 

General Duty Nurses f«*f modern 50-bed hospital. Gross salary: $215 less $40 board & lodg- 
ing. $10 annual increase. 10 statutory holidays. 4 wks. annual vacation. 1 Vi day* *»<* lc * vc 
per mo. cumulating to 36 days. Transportation allowance not exceeding $60 refunded after 
1st. yr. Apply Administrator, Wrinch Memorial Hospital, Hazelton, B.C. 

Graduate Nurse as Ward Supervisor — day duty/Also General Floor Day Duty Nurses. 
44-hr. wk. Full maintenance. Apply Director of Nursing, Freeport Sanatorium, Kitchener, 
Ont. • _j 

University of Alberta Hospital invites applications for General Staff Duty. Salary: Minimum 
$202 & maximum $230 per mo. 44-hr. wk. 3 wks. vacation annually. 11 statutory holidays. 
Cumulative sick leave. Pension plan & group insurance. Blue Cross. Consideration given to 
request for service in following depts: GeneraJ medicine, medical specialties, general 
surgery, surgical specialties, pediatrics, obstetrics; operating room. Cost of railway ticket 
to Edmonton refunded after 1 yr. continuous service. Apply Supt. of Nursing Service, 
University of Alberta Hospital, Edmonton, Alta. 

General Staff Nurses for 300-bed hospital — medical, surgical & pediatric services. Salaries: 
$1,620-1,920. Additional $10 per mo. for evening or night duty. Full maintenance pro- 
vided. Attractive new nurses' residence. For further information apply Director of Nursing, 
Tuberculosis Hospital, East Saint John, N.B. 

Graduate Nurse for 6-bed hospital. Salary: $165 per mo. plus full maintenance. Only 
maternity & minor surgery. Apply Matron, Union Hospital, Art>orfield, Sask. 

Nurses for all shifts in Psychiatric Hospital. Temperate climate year round. Citizenship not 
necessary to register in state. Pleasant surroundings. 40-hr. wk. Days off together. Overtime 
paid for any extra hours worked. Annual leave, sick leave & paid holidays. Social Security 
& pension plan. Supervisors. 8 needed. Starting salary: $3,092. 3 yrs. experience, one of 
which must have been in psychiatric field. Head Nurses. 10 needed. Starting salary: $2,732 
1 yr. of experience. If desired, complete maintenance at nominal charge. Some private baths. 
State registration necessary. Apply Isabel M. Reardon, R.N., Supt. of Nurses, Western State 
Hospital, Staunton, Virginia. ; . . 

General Duty Nurses (3). Commencing salary: $220; full maintenance $45 per mo. 44-hr. 
wk. 28 days annual leave plus 10 statutory holidays. Annual increases & sick leave. Fare 
advanced if desired. Apply Director of Nursing, General Hospital, Princeton, B.C 

Ginical Instructor. Salary determined by qualifications. Apply Director of Nurses, St. 
Joseph Hospi tal, Mt. Clemens, Michigan. 

OCTOBER, 1952 . ' ' 




The Indian Health Services of the Department of National Health & Welfare 
reqinr* Roistered Nurses ST Licensed Practical Nurses for Hospital, fuHy modem 
Outpost Stations & Public Health Nursing positions. 

Beginning Salaries - Registered Nurses, $2,300-2!720. Licensed Practical 
Plus add.fonal 12 days leave with pay in isolated areas. Educational op^Zitles 


522 Dominion Public Bid*., Winnipeg, Manitoba (Telephone: 927-100). 

General Hospital. g3? On,. information apply Director of &, * 

creases, 2y 2 % semi-annuallv for 2 vrs i ™ P l , T -: c h dfgree $31 ° per mo - Sa,ar y in 
wk. Position avadable No' y 1 Apply DirTco, T'NuJnZ'^u^ 0r . m laundr ^ 40hr 
Drive, Detroit 33, Michig an. * L " rCC,or of Nu "'"«.. Sma. Hospital, 6741 W. Outer 

me P Kenfc n ou:;;' L^V^ltvZ'tZi^l ^^ ^^'^ Nu ™ ">' 
Dept. of Public Health Ont AmI:«i?A«. PP 'ii i u have .Vwl'/'MtiOM »s laid down by 
cation, as laid dow by Dep, ^'pubhc He «h On,' W "m" /k' H Sta * *""<• <>"'*• 
County Board of HealJ, Ken P t CougXJjcg^ % * Abraham, Sec-Trea s., Ken, 

srs Beans are sra^^g^jgr^^ * 2 - 4o °- g ^ 

?^i 5 „ , f^ I i Jur$ * S «/o < !f Geoeral ^ for 50bed hojpital ^ town on Lake Ontario near 
Greri?H S o^a, , crbo P u7 g , m o° n , Wi,h ,ttW ' ltth ' 4 ' 2 du ^ Apply Sap^Hju^ 

R^niSr^^riSo^.ar 1 ^ Saff Nurscs - Appiy D "« to < °< n - 

SfirV^M^mo LOT* T"!"^,.'?' , ^ h , in « in Accredited School of Nursin, 
An£En?r~iE „F£i ■ c m "J P '" S h P 1,da y s - S,f k '«ve 6c vacation with pay. 40-hr. wk. 
Apply Director of Nursing, St. Marys Hospital. Quincy, I llinois. 

A^ t *i„ Sup ^ V '* 0r ( rc 9»' ,dfen "* De P« ^ large General Hospital in vicinity of Toront. 

, -SnSto7,.^'S^I < 2,?gi.'' CC ' C/ ° B ° X B '. ThC Can ' di ' n N "" C ' ^ " 2 - "" 

Mon'c,on eU N. , B.. (qualified) for 225bed hospital. Apply Chief Dietitian. Moncton Hospital 

Vol. 4«. No. I.' 





requires— Instructors (2) for the 
School of Psychiatric Nursing, Essondale, B.C. 

Salary: $239 rising to $266 per month. 

Qualifications: Eligible for registration in British Columbia and have 
certificate in teaching and supervision and post-graduate study (or its 
equivalent) and experience in psychiatric nursing. Candidates must be 
British subjects and under 40 years of age except in the case of ex-service 
women who are given preference. 

Further information and application forms may be obtained from: 
Director of Nursing, Provincial Mental Hospital, Essondale, B.C. 
or B.C. Civil Service Commission, Weiler Bldfc., Victoria, B.C. 

Night Supervisor (1) & 3-11 Supervisor (1) for well equipped 70-bed hospital with all 
graduate staff. Must be capable of taking charge in delivery & operating rooms. Salary: 
SI 70 per mo. plus full maintenance. Annual increases. Apply Supt. of Nurses, Douglas 
Memorial Hospital, Fort Erie, Ont. 

Registered Nurses (white) for 100 -bed General Hospital. 3 shifts. Excellent salary. 6 paid 
holidays. 12 paid sick days per yr. 2-wk. paid vacation after 1 yr. service. Apply Director of 
Nursing, Zieger Osteopathic Hospital, 4244 Livernois, Detroit 10, Michigan. ( Phone TA 
6 6400). 

Graduate Nurses for Floor Duty in modern 50-bed General Hospital. Also Operating Room 
Scrub Nurse. Apply Supt., District Memorial Hospital, Leamington, Ont. 

Nurses (2) for 24-bed hospital & nurses' home both up to date 8c modern. Salary: $173 per 
mo. with full maintenance. Usual holidays with pay, sick leave, etc. Transportation refunded 
if nurse stays a yr. or longer. Apply Matron, Union Hospital, Vanguard, Sask. 

Director of Public Health, Nursing for Dept. of Health, City of Ottawa. Staff of 22 nurses 
& 4 supervisors. Generalized public health nursing program. Apply Dr. J. J. Day, Medical 
Officer of Health, Transportation Bldg., 48 Rideau St., Ottawa 2, Ont. 

Immunization Week 

The observance of specially na/ned weeks 
or days is so commonplace today that our 
attention tends to become dulled. Never- 
theless, so important a reminder of the pre- 
\ention of communicable disease as National 
Immunization Week continues to merit our 
interest and support. 

This year the Health League of Canada 
observed the tenth of its annual celebrations 
luring the week of October 12-18. The 
primary purpose of thus concentrating 
•pecial attention on the value* of immuniza- 
tion is to refresh the memories of both the 
by and professional public with the import - 
mcc of preventing the occurrence of small- 
pox, whooping cough, tetanus, and diph- 
theria, in particular. 

Popular opinion to the contrary, whoop- 

"CTOBER, 1932 


ing cough is one of the deadliest of child- 
hood diseases. Among children under two 
years of age, whooping cough takes a higher 
toll of life than polio, diphtheria, measles* 
and scarlet fever combined. Of the various 
communicable diseases encountered today, 
whooping cough presents the chief problem 
from the standpoint of securing parental 
cooperation for immunization. The urgency 
of administering the vaccine early — by six 
months of age or even earlier — cannot be 
stressed too strongly if the high mortality 
rate is to be cut. 

To make protection easier for both parents 
and children, a combination of whooping 
cough vaccine and diphtheria and lockjaw 
toxoid can now be given, either by the 
family doctor or at public health clinics. 





The Verdun Protestant 
Hospital offers to qualified 
Graduate Nurses a six-month 
certificate course in Psychiatry. 
Classes in September and 

For further information apply to: 

Director of Nursing 

Box 6034 

Montreal, Que, 

There is often confusion as to the title of 
those who examine, treat, or perform surgery 
of the eyes. An oculist or ophthalmologist is a 
medical doctor who specializes in eye diseases 
and optical defects. He may perform surgery 
or prescribe treatment i( necessary. An optom- 
etrist is a non-medical practitioner who is 
licensed to treat optical or muscular defects 
without the use of drugs or surgery. He may 
examine the eyes and prescribe and provide 
glasses. The optician is qualified to grind lenses 
according to prescription. 

Relaxation is necessary to good health. 
When people live, eat, and work at high ten- 
sion, high blood pressure, accelerated pulse, 
and elevated temperature may result. This 
places a great strain on various organs of the 
body. Regular periods of relaxing, even if only 
for a short time, will help to preserve health 
in middle age and later years. 



The night is so long, and so dark and so dreary, 
The night is so long, and I am so weary. 
How long till the morn ? But what is that light ? 
Oh, yes, 'tis my beautiful lady in white! 

A strong heavy band encircles my forehead, 
A strong heavy chain binds me fast to my bed. 
I cry for release. Strong fingers so light 
Unfasten my fetters. 'Tis my lady in white! 

I see such strange shapes— their faces do fright me. 
I hear such strange sounds— their voices do haunt me. 
I feel creeping things, Hark out of the night 
A voice bids "Begone. 1 ' 'Tis my lady in white! 

I see a wide river, a dark sullen stream— 
I come to its brink— it flows deep as a dream, 
'Tis dark, my feet slip. Lo, gleaming and bright 
She holds high Faith's torch! Tis my lady of light! 

I enter the waters of Death's mystery, 
I am borne on its bosom far out to the sea. 
I look for a sign. In the distance afar 
Still bending above me— my Lady a star! 

—Mary Schmciitkr 

her he^ hliC K ,er ' S inSpiration / or these ve«« came when, as a young nurse, a patient told 
her he kne* why nurses wear white-'There is no shadow when you are near." 

Vol. 48. No. 10