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Full text of "Canal celebrations in old Fort Wayne"



ALLEN COUNTY PUBLIC LIBRARY 




3 1833 02612 9145 



G c 9 7 '7 „ 2 2" F 7 7 c a n 

P u. b 1 3. c L i tn r a r y o f F o r t. W a y rj e 

and Allen County. 
Canal celebrations in old 

Fort Wayne 



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c3^ .Ji«Tfiroveinen.t o( Trie Uohoin Xu/^r. 



CANAL CELEBRATIONS 
IN 
OLD FORT WAYNE 



Prepared by the Staff of the 

Public Library of Fort Wayne and Allen County 

1953 



Allen County Public Library 

900 Webster Street 

PC Box 2270 

Fort Wayne, IN 46801-2270 



One of a historical series, this pamphlet is published iinder the di- 
rection of the governing Boards of the Public Library of Fort Wayne and 
Allen County. 

BOARD OF TRUSTEES OF THE SCHOOL CITY OF FORT WAYNE 

B. F. Geyer, President 
Joseph E. Kramer, Secretary 
W. Page Yarnelle, Treasurer 
Willard Shambaugh 
Mrs. Sadie Fulk Roehrs 

PUBLIC LIBRARY BOARD FOR ALLEN COUNTY 

The members of this Board include the members of the Board of 
Trustees of the School City of Fort Wayne (with the same officers), together 
with the following citizens chosen from Allen County outside the corporate 
city of Fort Wayne: 

James E. Graham 
Arthur Niemeier 
Mrs. Glenn Henderson 
Mrs. Charles Reynolds 



FOREWORD ; 

Our pioneer forebears were certain that canals would ensure a prosperous 
economic future for the western country. The system of waterways from the Atlan- 
tic Coast to the Gulf of Mexico would permit free interchange of products, which 
was destined to bring great prosperity in Its wake. 

On July 4, 1835, the Wabash and Erie Canal was opened to traffic from Fort 
Wayne to Huntington, Indiana. On July 4, 1843, the completion of the Canal from 
Toledo, Ohio, to Lafayette, Indiana, was celebrated. It was deemed fitting that 
both of these inaportant events in the history of the Canal should be celebrated on 
the Fourth of July, for it was believed that industrial and economic independence 
should rank with political independence. One has only to examine the files of the 
FORT WAYNE WEEKLY SENTINEL and the FORT WAYNE TIMES AND PEOPLE'S 
PRESS to realize tliat the birthday of the nation was a great occasion in Fort Wayne 
before the Civil War. Succeeding celebrations of July 4 were magnified in impor- 
tance by the extravaganza of July 4, 1843. 

General Lewis Cass, a popular figure in the western country and well known 
In Fort Wayne, delivered the address of the day at the 1843 celebration. He was al- 
ready a prospective candidate for the Presidency of the United States, and partici- 
pation in the canal celebration kept him before the electorate. Many of the nation's 
great wrote letters of regret at their inability to attend. It was, perhaps, the great- 
est event, by any relative comparison, ever to take place in Fort Wayne. 

Although inaugurated with high hopes and great expectations, the Canal proved 
Inadequate to the needs of the area within a few years. However, it continued to be 



an Integral part of the industry, politics, and mores of the community for many 
years; and it served as an artery of transportation for more than three decades. 

Please permit contemporary accounts to tell the story of the canal celebra- 
tions. The language of the orators, of the news reporters, and of the absent guests 
is prolix and redundant; the various accounts of the history of the Canal differ in 
some details. But it was thought best to reprint the contemporary materials as o- 
riginally published. 

Most of these accounts appeared in the FORT WAYNE WEEKLY SENTINEL 
and other periodicals more than a century ago. The "Genesis of the Wabash and 
Erie Canal" is reproduced from Brice's HISTORY OF FORT WAYNE. Punctuation, 
spelling, and grammar have been changed to conform to current usage throughout. 



CONTENTS 

I. GENESIS OF THE WABASH AND ERIE CANAL 1 

n. LETTER OF HUGH McCULLOCH 7 

m. ORATION OF HUGH McCULLOCH 8 

IV. REPORT ON THE CANAL OPENING 35 

V. CANAL CELEBRATION AT DEFIANCE 38 

VI. ANNOUNCEMENT 1 43 

VIL ANNOUNCEMENT 2 44 

Vm. ANNOUNCEMENT 3 45 

K. THE ORDER OF THE DAY 46 

X. THE CELEBRATION (PART I) 48 

XL ORATION OF GENERAL LEWIS CASS. 54 

Xn. THE CELEBRATION (PART II) 80 

Xra. REGULAR TOASTS 84 

XIV. VOLUNTEER TOASTS 88 

XV, LETTERS FROM INVITED GUESTS 90 



I 

GENESIS OF THE WABASH AND ERIE CANAL 

On March 2, 1827, by an act of Congress, every alternate section of land 
equal to five miles in width on both sides of what is now the Wabash and Erie Canal 
was granted to the state of Indiana for the purpose of constructing a canal from the 
head of navigation on the Wabash, at the mouth of the Tippecanoe River, to the foot 
of the Maumee rapids. Construction was to be commenced at the expiration of the 
five years following the passage of the act and was to be completed within twenty 
years from that time . 

Soon after tills grant, the land office commissioners closed the sales and 
entry of all government lands Ijring along, and embraced within, the limits of said 
grant until the state should select and locate herbounty under the grant. For atlme, 
this had the effect of retarding, rather than superinducing and encouraging, settle- 
ment In the northern portion of the state and along the region of the intended line of 
the Canal. A large body of this land, amounting to some two hundred and fifty thou- 
sand acres, lay In the state of Ohio. It was eventually ceded to that state by an act 
of Congress with the consent of the state of Indiana, under certain stipulations: viz. , 
that the Canal should be commenced and completed according to the original grant, 
and that it should be sixty feet wide on the surface of the water and five feet deep 
instead of forty feet wide and four deep. The Honorable Jeremiah Sullivan, during 
1829, was commissioned to adjust and settle this matter. 

In the winter of 1826 and 1827, a board of canal commissioners was created. 
It was the duty of the board to examine the practicability of a canal route from the 

1 



Maumee to the Wabash and to determine If a supply of water therefor could be ob- 
tained from the St. Joseph, St. Mary's, Maumee, or Wabash rlyers, or all of them. 
For this purpose $500 was appropriated; and Samuel Hanna of Fort Wayne, David 
Burr of Jackson County, and Robert John of Franklin County were elected commis- 
sioners. It was very difficult to get this board together, but finally it was convened 
by Governor Ray on July 14, 1828, at Indianapolis. There the board received from 
him plats, maps, surveys, profiles, notes, etc. , from the report of a survey made 
by a corps of government engineers from the mouth of Little River — at which point 
a prior survey had been suspended In 1826 — thence down the Wabash, and from the 
summit at Fort Wayne down the Iftaumee River. 

This board of commissioners met at Fort Wayne in the summer of that year 
(1828). They had no level or any other Instrument to work with and no engineer; 
the $500 of appropriation was insufficient for any practical purpose. Judge Hanna 
agreed to procure the Instruments. He was thereupon dispatched to Detroit, which 
he reached on horseback in two days. He then proceeded to New York, procured 
the instruments, and returned In an extraordinarily quick time for that day. 

Early in September the board proceeded, with the aid of the engineer, John 
Smythe of Miamisburg, Ohio, to gauge the St. Joseph, St. Mary's, and the Wabash 
rivers at the forks. During these observations, Smjrthe was taken sick; and he left 
the board members (none of whom were engineers) to carry on the work as best 
they could. From September 10 to 23, they spent the time in examining the St. 
Joseph River and the adjacent country for the purpose of locating the feeder for the 
Canal; and they finally succeeded in locating the dam and feeder lines to the summit. 
They made their own estimates and adopted the estimates of Colonel Moore, under 

2 



whose directions former surveys had been made down the Wabash and Maumee 
rivers. The latter estimates, in the meantime, had been received from the War 
Department and enabled the commissioners, after the most diligent work, night and 
day, to present a report of their labor on December 26, later than was Intended by 
flie law creating the commission. So exhausted was Colonel Burr by constant fa- 
tigue in calculation that for a time his mental powers were overcome; hence It de- 
volved on Judge Hanna to report, and he did so. His report was replete with liber- 
al suggestions and sound sense. This report was concurred In; and from that day 
went on a work which has proved so great a benefit to Indiana. In this capacity 
Judge Hanna served three years. The canal lands were located by the commission- 
ers under the act of January 25, 1829, and platted. A sale opened at Logansport 
after some delay In October, 1830; and an office opened In the first week of Octo- 
ber, 1832, at Fort Wayne. 

The sale at Logansport was attended by a large number of persons, and much 
land was then sold In Cass and adjacent counties. The sale resulted In the attrac- 
tion of quite an Influx of Immigrants to that section and to contiguous parts of the 
state. "But," says C. B. Lasselle, Esq. , "owing to the length of credit given on 
the purchase, the sale availed but little in affording means for the prosecution of 
flie construction of the Canal. It was, therefore, found necessary to appeal to the 
state. Accordingly, a bill was introduced in the legislature during the sessions of 
1831-32 for effecting a loan upon the faith of the state. The loan was to be based 
upon the moneys arising from the land sales and the Interest thereon, together with 
the tolls and water rents of the Canal. The bill met with fierce opposition on the 
part of many prominent men in the legislature, but it finally passed. Its success 

3 



was duly celebrated by the citizens of Logansport. " 

The CASS COUNTY TIMES of March 2, 1832, gave the following Interesting 
account of the meeting of the commissioners and the commencement of the work on 
the Canal at Fort Wayne. 

"The commissioners of the Wabash and Erie Canal met at Fort Wayne on 
February 22, 1832, for the purpose of carrying into effect the requisition of the late 
law of the legislature of this state, providing for the commencement of said work 
prior to March 24, 1832. Whereupon, the commissioners appointed the anniversary 
of the birth of the Father of his Country as the day on which the first excavation 
should be made on said Canal. By an order of the board, Jordan Vigus, Esq , was 
authorized to procure the necessary tools and assistance and to repair to the most 
convenient point on the St. Joseph feeder line at two o'clock on said day for the 
purpose aforesaid. 

"The Intention of the commissioners having been made known, a large num- 
ber of citizens of the town of Fort Wayne and Its vicinity, together with a number 
of gentlemen from the valley of the Wabash , convened at the Masonic Hall for the 
purpose of making arrangements for the celebration of this important undertaking. 
Henry Rudislll, Esq. , was called to the chair, and David H. Colerick was appoint- 
ed secretary. 

"The procession, having been organized agreeably, proceeded across the 
St. Mary's River to the point selected. Then a circle was formed, in which the 
commissioner and the orator took their stand. Charles W. Ewlng, Esq. , then rose 
and, in his usual happy, eloquent manner, delivered an ^proprlate address, which 
was received with acclamation. Jordan Vigus, Esq. , the only canal commissioner 

4 



present, addressed the company. He explained why his eolleagaes were absent, 
adrerted to the difficulties and embarrassments which the friends of the Canal had 
encountered and overcome, and noticed the Importance of the work and the adTan- 
tages which would ultimately be realized. He then concluded by saying, 1 am now 
about to commence the Wabash and Erie Canal in the name, and by the authority, of 
the state of Indiana. ' Having thus spoken, he 'struck the long-suspended blow' — 
broke ground — ^while the company hailed the event with tnree cheers. Judge Hanna 
and Captain Murray, two of the able and consistent advocates of the Canal in the 
councils of the state, next approached and excavated the earth; then commenced an 
indiscriminate digging and cutting. The procession then marched back to town in 
the same manner as it went forth, and it dispersed in good order. " 

W. A. Brice, HISTORT OF FORT WATNE (Fort Wayne. Indiana: D. W. Jbies, 
1868), pp. 303-5. 



n 

LETTER OF HUGH McCULLOCH 

Fort Wayne, Indiana 
September 2, 1835 

Mr. John Spencer 
Dear Sir: 

In accordance with your request, I herewith send you a copy of the address 
delivered by me In this place on July 4 last. It would have been forwarded to you 
at an earlier day had not other engagements prevented me, until this time, from 
giving It even a hasty revision. 

Soon after Its delivery, I heard with some surprise and regret that some 
passages in it were considered to be of a party character and to give offense to some 
of the friends of the present administration. If such be the fact, the tenor of my 
remarks must have been misapprehended. It was foreign from my intention to cast 
any reflections on the President of the United States or on his administration. Upon 
the subject of executive patronage, I did Indeed speak freely; but If my remarks on 
this subject are candidly examined, I doubt not that I shall be exculpated from the 
charge of having availed myself of my appointment as orator of the day to cast cen- 
sure upon the President or those whose political sentiments do not accord with my 
own. I am respectfully, 

Yours sincerely, 
HUGH McCULLOCH 
7 



m 

ORATION OF HUGH McCULLOCH 

Fellow Citizens: 

The celebration in which we are now engaged is one of more than ordinary 
interest. We have, all of us, laid by our usual avocationB to commemorate events 
of no common character. We have assembled as American citizens to celebrate 
the anniversary of our national freedom and as citizens of Indiana to celebrate the 
commencement of the navigation of the Wabash and Erie Canal. In both these events, 
we feel deeply interested. As Americans, we hail with delight and enthusiasm the 
return of that day which witnessed the commencement of our national existence. On 
that day, the bold spirits of our fathers refused longer to submit to foreign domina- 
tion; and the infant colonies, throwing off the chains which bound them to the Brit- 
ish throne, rose in the majesty of liberty to take their stand as an independent na- 
tion among the nations of the earth. With this event are connected the loftiest and 
most soul-thrilling associations. To it we are indebted for all that, as a nation, 
we now are and for all we e:q>ect to become , for all the national blessings we now 
enjoy and for those we look forward to possessing. 

The Fourth of July is a day which every true friend of America holds sacred. 
It is the birthday of freedom not only to the United States but also, we confidently 
trust, to the world. It is the day to which the American looks with joy and exulta- 
tion and the European turns with confidence and hope. From it and the events that 
are connected with it, monarchs may learn how weak is their power when arrayed 
against those who have the knowledge to imderstand their rights and the resolution 

8 




Judge -Hugh /AcCuLLoch 



to defend them. And the people may learn that they are the center of power and 
that to them is legitimately entrusted the right and the ability to select their own 
rulers and to become their own masters. To the former, this day is a warning of 
the fallacy of the doctrine of the divine right of kings; it is a warning of the danger 
of exercising a power inconsistent with the interests of their subjects. To the lat- 
ter, it is a day of promise and of hope. 

Never may this day lose its Interest to the people of the United States. Nev- 
er may its return cease to be hailed by them with pride and with Joy. Never may 
that day dawn when its recollections shall cease to cause the hearts of the people 
of this country to throb with patriotic emotion. When that time does come — if come 
it ever shall — we fear that the sun of our national existence will have been quenched 
in night. We fear that the star of liberty will have passed away to shed its splen- 
dors upon more favored or deserving climes; that our free institutions will have 
crumbled into dust; and that anarchy or despotism, unbridled passions or slavish 
fear will be shedding their blighting influences upon the fairest country upon the 
earth. That day, however, we trust, will never dawn. Year after year, century 
after century shall roll away. Generation after generation shall pass into forget- 
fulness. Our whole country, from ocean to ocean and from the Lakes to the Gulf of 
Mexico, will be teeming with people. And yet, we trust that this day will be wel- 
comed as a day of national Jubilee and rejoicing. We trust that then, as now, the 
old and the young will meet together for mutual congratulations and to offer the de- 
votion of honest and patriotic hearts upon the altar of freedom . 

The day and the celebration are interesting to us, as citizens of Indiana, for 
other reasons. We celebrate, on this day, not only our national Independence but 

10 



also the commencement of the navigation of the Wabash and Erie Canal. We do 
this in compliance with established custom and because we think the Importance of 
the work justifies and demands it. We celebrate today the full commencement of a 
noble enterprise In earnest appreciation of the advantages we are one day to derive 
from the Canal. It Is an event interesting to the whole state and particularly inter- 
esting to the northern section of the state. 

In addressing jrou upon this occasion, I shall touch successively upon a few 
of the many topics which seem to be aiq)ropriate to the different objects of our cel- 
ebration. 

First, we have assembled to celebrate this day as the Fourth of July; and 
the question naturally arises. Why do we commemorate this day? Why do we ob- 
serve, throughout our whole country wherever civilization has been extended, people 
of all ranks and classes rejoicing at its return? Why is the plow left in its furrow? 
Andwhy are the shop of the mechanic and the storehouse of the merchant abandoned? 
Why is the banner of our country floating upon every breeze? And why are mani- 
fested throughout our land such signs of universal Joy? The subject is a trite one; 
but it is, nevertheless, one of interest. 

Turn back for a moment to the period of 1776, and what arrests your atten- 
tion? Tou cast your eyes along the seaboard (for 3rou know that the tide of popula- 
tion had not then begun to flow over the mountains), and your interest is riveted by 
the scene before joxi. Tou see the people of the colonies evidencing, by their aban- 
donment of their usual avocations and by their thoughtful, determined, but still anx- 
ious countenances, that events of mighty moment are on the wing. A crisis of aw- 
ful Importance to the coimtry is approaching. Here and there, you see groups of 

11 



men collected together, discussing with stem and determined air the affairs of the 
nation. Tou listen to their words, and their conversation Is of blood. They grow 
animated In the discussion; their arms are raised In defiance; their eyes spartde 
with pride. You listen again, and you hear of Lexington and of Bunker Hill. In oth- 
er places, you see active preparation for war; all who can bear arms are preparing 
for the field. The war cry has been raised, blood has been shed, and the watoh- 
word which you hear is liberty and revenge. 

But there is another scene of far greater Interest before you. Tou see as- 
sembled at Philadelphia the representatives of the colonies. Expectation sits upon 
every face, for an Important report Is anticipated; anxiety, too, is there, for all 
feel the tremendous responsibility of their situation. Tou observe there nothing 
like popular excitement, no Intemperate zeal; you hear no idle bravado; you see no 
indication of fear or indecision. All is grave, calm, dignified, determined. At 
length the expected conunlttee appears; the all-important document is presented. 
It is opened amid breathless silence. As the reader proceeds, every eye is fastened 
upon him; every face is beaming with interest. The very silence is eloquent; the 
applause is heartfelt and thrilling. "These United Colonies are, and of right ought 
to be, Free and Independent States. " The sound is caught up by a thousand tongues; 
it is borne upon every breeze; it spreads from one end of the country to the other 
and meets an echo in almost every breast. 

The scene is changed. Deliberation is at an end. The dogs of war are fair- 
ly let loose. The ships of the mother country are pouring their thunders upon our 
coast. Her armies are in possession of many of the strongholds of the country. 
Blood is flowing upon a hundred hills. The success of the conflict is for a long time 

12 



doubtful. Atone time, total and Irretrievable defeat seems to threaten the cause 
of the union of the states. The armies are Ul-clad and poorly paid. Dispirited by 
the power of the enemy and by partial defeat, they are losing, in the stem realities 
of unsuccessful campaigns, the ardor which had excited them to buckle on the sword 
and to grasp the musket. Day by day they are dwindling away, while the armies of 
the invader are continually strengthened by fresh supplies. The hearts of the strong- 
est and most resolute begin to sink within them. Confidence yields to despondency; 
and the cause of liberty, for which blood had been poured out like water, seems lost 
forever. 

At this moment of general gloom on the part of the states, Fortune again 
smiles upon their struggle. Victory perches upon the banner of Washington. One 
advantage is followed by another and another. Hope is again excited in the breasts 
of the people, and they flock once more around the standard of their noble leader. 
The Battle of Yorktown closes this scene. The only remaining army of the invader 
surrenders, and complete and undisputed victory crowns the American cause. There 
is again heard the song of peace and the hum of industry. The ocean is white with 
the sails of our commerce. Enterprise pushes its discoveries into every region. 
Wealth is poured in upon the country. The population spreads Itself over the moun- 
tains and along the Lakes; and, although great difficulties are inseparable from the 
formation of a new government, on every hand are seen the unerring indications of 
prosperity and happiness. Time rolls on; and the United States, in a half -century, 
becomes what we now behold — a great, powerful, and prosperous nation. 

It is because we trace these things to the Declaration of Independence on the 
Fourth of July, 1776, that we celebrate this day. And is it not good for us to be 

13 



here? Is It not meet that this day should be to us a day of national jubilee? Where, 
on the pages of history, do you find recorded an event more magnificent In Itself 
and more Important In Its consequences than that which we now commemorate? Had 
not the Declaration of Independence been signed and published, we might even now 
be tributary to Great Britain. Previous to this event, there had been but little con- 
cert among the colonies. Sectional prejudice had been excited, and local interest 
had strengthened it. True, there existed throughout the country a settled hostility 
to the encroachment of the mother country and a determination to resist it; but the 
spirit of resistance, which everyone cherished, had not then been embodied. The 
sword had been drawn in the North; It exulted in the success with which its first 
blood had been attended. But concert of feeling and action was wanting, and this 
concert was effected by the signing and publication of the Declaration of Independ- 
ence. It was this that gave force and character to the Revolution, this that sup- 
pressed sectional jealousy and united the different and disjointed memJaers of the 
confederacy into one active, powerful, and efficient mass. 

The circumstances under which that Instrument was put forth were such as 
to stamp the names of its signers with immortality. It was not the result of popular 
excitement, of rashness, or of intemperate zeal. It was the act of those who had 
seriously reflected upon the consequences, who had sat down and soberly and calm- 
ly counted the cost. Dreadful as that cost was likely to be, they had determined to 
abide the event. It was the act of those who esteemed liberty of more value and im- 
portance than anything else, who preferred an honorable death in its cause to an in- 
glorious servitude, and who had deliberately resolved to live in its possession or to 
die in its defense. The result of the revolutionary struggle stamped their noble act 

14 



with eternal glory; and as long as liberty is considered a blessing, and self-sacri- 
fice and moral courage are considered honorable to man, the memories of these 
men shall be embalmed in the hearts of their countrymen. 

I do not purpose, at this time, to enter upon any of the political discussions 
of the day. Many of them are fraught with interest for all of us; but this is neither 
the time nor the occasion for discussing them. A few general remarks, howerer, 
upon one or two subjects connected with the present state and history of our country, 
I cannot forbear making. 

I am not one of that number who seem to suppose that the elements of our 
goyemment are about breaking up; that its pillars are shaking to their fall; that our 
political fabric , erected with so fair proportions and cemented with so much treas- 
ure and blood, is already undermined and ready to fall to the ground. And I cer- 
tainly am not one of that number who act as though they thought that national liberty 
possesses a self -perpetuating power; that all we have to do is plant it in a propitious 
soil, and it will then extend its roots deeply into the earth, spread its branches in 
the air, and live and flourish in spite of the neglect of its friends and the assaults 
of its enemies. I rejoice to believe that the banner of our freedom is where It was 
once planted by the hand of Washington upon the ramparts of the Constitution, and 
that the vital spirit which formerly breathed through our body politic animates It 
stUl. But, nevertheless, I feel that constant vigilance and care are necessary on 
the part of the people. I feel that, as ours is a popular goyemment, those who are 
its legitimate guardians — the people themselves — should look well that those who 
are placed in authority neither usurp powers that have not been granted to them nor 
exercise those powers that they have received in a manner inconsistent with the 

15 



rights and the Interests of their constituents. 

Human nature, modified In some measure by custom and education, is, and 
eyer has been, the same. And the history of the world teaches us that man Is not to 
be trusted; that he is never contented; that If the wealth and power of the world be 
bestowed upon him, he will still grasp for more. It is this principle of human nature 
(doubtless Implanted in man for wise and noble purposes but very likely to be abused 
and constantly running into extremes) from which danger is to be apprehended. The 
more valuable the charge committed to the keeping of others is, the more valiant 
shouldmenbe in scrutinizing the manner in which that trustis performed. The more 
we prize our free institutions, the more careful should we be that those whom we 
place in official situations perform faithfully the duties which devolve upon them; 
that they act up to the letter and spirit of the Constitution and the law; and that they 
exercise no power inconsistent therewith. 

But danger may be apprehended from another source. The present age is 
one of liberal thought and free inquiry. The human mind has awakened from the 
torpor in which it has long slumbered; it is shaking off the lethargy which has clung 
to Its power. Men are beginning to think boldly and to inquire freely. They have 
lost, or are rapidly losing, their reverence for ancient institutions; and they are 
breaking from the shackles which usage and long-established custom had thrown a- 
round them. Andwhlle we rejoice at the manifestation of this spirit, we sometimes 
fear for what may be its consequences. We are, to a great degree, creatures of 
Impulse. We are governed much by excitement. In breaking from one extreme, we 
are very likely to plunge into another. In our desire to exercise free inquiry, we 
are in danger of becoming licentious. In attempting to attain to entire political 

16 



freedom, we are in clanger of overlooking the landmarks of prudence and safety; we 
are In danger of falling into anarchy. 

Such was the case with the people of France. When they burst from the slav- 
ery in which they had long been held, they threw off all necessary restraint and laid 
by their reverence for the law as they would a garment that was no longer needed. 
They overturned the very foundations of their government and, mad with excitement, 
buried the good and the bad of their old institutions in one undistinguishable ruin. 
At the same time, they inflicted agonies upon themselves and hurled destruction up- 
on all who opposed their mad career. This spirit, when kept within proper bounds, 
is highly salutary in its influences; when permitted to exceed those bounds, it be- 
comes a spirit of anarchy and misrule. And I think that history warrants the opin- 
ion that there is as much danger to political institutions, to say nothing of religious 
institutions, to be apprehended from an excess of this spirit as from a deficiency 
of it. There is at present, throughout the United States, an uneasiness in the public 
mind. There is a disposition to wage war with imaginary dangers while those of a 
real character are overlooked and disregarded and a tendency to popular violence 
which threatens the supremacy of the law. In short, there is a restless and turbu- 
lent spirit which is entirely Incompatible with good order and constitutional govern- 
ment. 

The existence of this spirit may be traced to various causes, but it may be 
traced principally to the absence of a high-toned morality In the breasts of the mass 
of the people. An Immoral nation cannot long be Independent. Moral sentiment on 
file part of the people is as necessary for the existence of a republican government 
as food is for the support of the animal frame. As long as the people of this country 

17 



continue to be moral people, the pillars of our government will remain firm as the 
hills; when they cease to be so, those pillars will crumble to the ground. I fear 
that there is adisposition on the part of the people to disregard the claims of moral- 
ity, to look upon virtue as but a name and upon political integrity as an impediment 
to one's ascent to political eminence. This disposition must be checked. Public 
virtue must be aroused. The claims of morality must be regarded; or the people 
will, ere long, require for their control the strong arm of despotic power. 

There are two subjects connected with the present history of our country 
which particularly deserve our attention. I mean the immense and growing patron- 
age of the executive of the United States and the excitement which prevails upon the 
subject of southern slavery in some of the northern, middle, and one or two of the 
western states. In speaking upon the former of these subjects, I know that I shall 
occupy rather delicate ground. I would, therefore, disclaim all party feeling. I 
would divest myself of all party prejudice. And I would feel and speak like anAmer- 
ican citizen upon a subject in which every American has an interest. 

By the patronage of the executive (to which at this time I refer) is meant 
that power by which the President of the United States holds in his own hands tiie 
purse strings of the government. It is that power by which he fills the different of- 
fices of the government — offices of honor and profit — with men of his own selection 
and removes them at his pleasure. There is no surer way of making a man subser- 
vient than by rendering him dependent upon you for his livelihood. And I affirm, 
without fear of contradiction, that the possession of this power by the President is 
at variance with republican institutions and may become incompatible with the rights 
of the citizen. 

18 



There are now in this country not less, probably, than fifty thousand per- 
sons In the employment of the government. All of them are appointed by the Pres- 
ident through the Instrumentality of his subordinates; and all of them are liable, 
with a yery few exceptions, to be dismissed when he thinks fit to dismiss them. 
Now, let it be understood by these fifty thousand men in office that the tenure of 
their offices is their fidelity to their chief; and among that whole number, how many 
fearless and independent minds could you find? Who of them would dare to think 
freely and to speak boldly if thinking freely and speaking boldly might deprive htm 
and his family of their customary support? Who would dare to call tn question the 
acts of the President when to do this might be to send himself penniless upon the 
world? In my judgment, the existence of our government will be coextensive with 
the free exercise of individual opinion on the part of the people. The unrestrained 
exercise of enlightened public sentiment is the sacred safeguard of our republic; it 
is the very groundwork and essence of our popular institutions. Now, this power 
of the President and practice that may arise under it are indisputably at war with 
everything of this kind. They check inquiry by holding up to the mind of the man in 
office the punishment which may be the result of the exercise. They fix the chan- 
nels in which opinion must flow and the bounds over which it may pass. They pre- 
scribe and lay down the result to which all must arrive; and that result may be that 
the President, like the absolute monarch, can do no wrong. 

Let this patronage increase for a few years to come, as it has done for some 
years past, and the President of the United States may wield a power that is pos- 
sessed by no crowned head in Christendom. He will have at his command an army 
of men—officeholders and e:q>ectant officeholders— whose numbers and influence 

19 



there may not be sufficient strength and Independence In the country to resist. He 
may triumph, if he please, over the rights of the citizen and nominate his succes- 
sor. He will possess the power of a king; and it wlU matter little to the people 
whether this power be drawn from and exercised under the Constitution, or whether 
It be inherited. It may be just as oppressive to them and just as incompatible with 
the true spirit of their institutions in the one as in the other. 

This is no picture of the imagination. Patronage is power; dependence gen- 
erates subservience; subservience is a stranger to the free exercise of opinion, 
which is the very Irfeblood of our institutions. But it may be urged that apprehen- 
sion from this patronage of the President is unnecessary, inasmuch as the people 
have the power in their own hands. They can elect those for their chief magistrates 
who will use it only for the advancement of the best interests of the country, ii re- 
ply, I would merely say that the people themselves may be unable to end patronage; 
history and experience teach that it is best to entrust to those in authority (who are 
men and therefore subject to human frailty) as little power as is compatible with 
the efficient action of government. 

I have thus spoken freely, though briefly, upon this subject. I think it one 
of a highly important character, and one that cannot too frequently be brought to the 
attention of the people. It is a subject that should not be viewed through the medium 
of party feeling but should be kept entirely distinct from it. It is a national subject 
and demands the attention and candid examination of every American citizen. 

The other subject to which I would advert is the excitement which prevails 
in many of the free states upon the subject of slavery in the South. It is to be re- 
gretted that this excitement is spreading, inasmuch as it is not likely to Improve 



the condition of the slave and may seriously affect the friendly feeling and good un- 
derstanding which should ever exist between the different members of our confeder- 
acy. This excitement is particularly unfortunate at the present time. The old dif- 
ferences which have long existed between the free and slave states seemed, a little 
while ago, to be dying away. Jealousy and animosity, which a supposed inconsist- 
ency of interests had excited, seemed to be subsiding; and greater harmony and 
good feeling than had for a long time existed between them seemed about to be ef- 
fected. At this moment, so auspicious and so much desired, the immediate aboli- 
tionist — doubtless with pure intentions but with much more zeal than prudence — 
comes forward to excite again this slumbering and dying jealousy, to renew the old 
sectional strife, and to jeopardize the Integrity of the Union. 

I am as much opposed to slavery as any man. I lament the existence of 
slavery in this country as deeply, I sympathize with the slave as sincerely, as any- 
one else; but I feel no sympathy with the abolitionist. I feel inclined to throw the 
broad mantle of charity over the errors of mistaken zeal. But I feel little charity 
for those who, with the full light of experience before them and with the knowledge 
of that spirit of mutual concession under which our Constitution was adopted by the 
different members of the confederacy, are throwing firebrands into the southern 
states. I have no sympathy for those who, by their incendiary publications, are 
exciting the slave to Insurrection and who, by their rash and Imprudent exertions 
for his benefit, are only reviving his chains and adding bitterness to his servitude. 

We do not think that the people of the free states are to hold their peace up- 
on the subject of slavery. We consider this a subject of national Interest and there- 
fore a subject for cool and dispassionate discussion throughout the Union. But this 

22 



discussion should be carried on with due regard to the feelings of the slaveholder 
and to his constitutional rights. Odium should not be heaped upon him for an evil 
which has been entailed upon him and which, perhaps, he laments as deeply as oth- 
ers. Nor should his character be assailed for retaining those in servitude whom, 
consistently with his own safety and their Interests, he cannot at once emancipate. 
It is too late, at the present day, to argue the question of slavery In the abstract. 
The world has long ago been enlightened upon this subject. Everybody admits, and 
none more readily than the slaveholder himself, that slavery is an evil and one that 
ought to be banished from the country. But the trying question is. How shall this 
be effected? This is a question which, we trust, is receiving the attention of patri- 
otic and enlightened minds throughout the country. It is a question that we feel our- 
selves unprepared to answer. But we hazardnothlng In saying that slavery is never 
to be abolished in America either by exciting the slave to rebellion or by heaping 
bitter and unqualified reproach upon his master. 

But we deprecate this excitement principally because its movers look for- 
ward to an Interference with the civil regulations and constitutional rights of the 
southern states. The subject of slavery may be freely discussed, and its disad- 
vantages and Immorality may be fully portrayed. But here the effort on the part of 
the people of the free states must, for the present, be stayed. If ever our country 
is to be freed from this evil, the slaveholders themselves must take the lead in the 
work. Our southern brethem are jealous of their rights and particularly sensitive 
upon the subject of slavery. Any interference on the part of the general government 
or of the people of the nonslaveholding states will but aggravate the evil and put in 
Jeopardy the best interests of the country. 



We trust In God that slavery will, ere long, cease to sully the otherwise 
fair fame of our country. We trust that we may soon be freed from the gross in- 
consistency of styling ourselves the friends of the rights of man while we hold with- 
in our own borders millions of human beings in absolute and degrading servitude. 
We feel that this is a blot upon our national banner. Would to God that we were able 
to wash it out I We commiserate with the blacks in their deplorable situation. We 
would gladly extend to them all the aid in our power to improve their condition, to 
strike off their chains , and to let in upon their minds the light of knowledge and of 
liberty. But we can extend no aid to those measures that seem to us only calculated 
to excite sectional discord and to aggravate the servitude of the slave without ac- 
complishing any permanent good. 

But the evils to which we are exposed and the dangers which threaten us are 
small in comparison with the advantages we enjoy and the safeguards we possess. 
In view of the present condition and future prospects of our country, we have ample 
cause for congratulation. The people of the United States are the freest, happiest, 
and most prosperous people upon earth; and if they do not continue so, the fault will 
be at their own doors. The Constitution under which they live was framed in wis- 
dom; and, although imperfect in some respects (for imperfection clings to every- 
thing human), it is the most admirable work of the kind which the world has ever 
known. If the sun of liberty which now shines upon us with beams of glory shall ever 
go down in blackness, it will be because the people have neglected their duty and 
have been false to the high trust that was committed to them by their fathers. And 
when they sluill see the fair fabric of their free institutions tottering and ready to 
fall to the ground, they can cast no imputation upon its architects or its builders. 

24 



They can only exclaim, In the bitterness of their anguish and self-accusation, that 
the building was fsiir in its proportions, strong and beautiful in its workmanship; but 
that they, the keepers, have been wanting. The walls have been undermined while 
we were asleep. In its fall it must bury beneath its ruins all that we have held dear 
and the hopes of the world. 

But we must turn our attention to subjects of a local character. We cele- 
brate on tills occasion the opening of the navigation of the Wabash and Erie Canal. 
fii this event we feel an interest which perhaps we are excusable for not feeling in 
relation to national subjects. It is an event that comes under our immediate ob- 
servation, an event to which we have looked forward with the most sanguine expec- 
tation. 

The navigation of our Canal is fairly commenced. The noble work which 
reflects so much honor upon our young state is now in operation. The waters of 
the St. Joseph, destined for the Gulf of St. Lawrence, are wending their way through 
the Canal to find their outlet, through other channels , in the Gulf of Mexico . It is 
an event worthy of being commemorated. Let us rejoice together in what it real- 
izes and in what it promises. 

The occasion requires some history of this work. I regret that the very 
short time I have had to prepare myself to address you, my short residence in the 
state, and the entire absence of documents to which I might have referred for in- 
formation upon this subject will oblige me to confine myself on this head to a few 
general statements. 

The importance of connecting the navigable waters of the Wabash and the 
Maumee rivers to the Lakes is said to have suggested itself to the first explorers 

25 



of the country. The route now pursued by our Canal, as early as the days of Wash- 
ington, was considered to be an important thoroughfare. Such is the situation of 
the country — the lowness of the summit level, the general evenness of the ground, 
and the importance of the streams to be connected — that one is almost induced to 
believe that Nature herself had made preparation for the noble work which is now 
fairly in operation. 

In the year 1824, the attention of Congress was turned to the importance of 
connecting the navigable waters of the Maumee and the Wabash by canal; and an act 
was passed, authorizing the state of Indiana to survey and mark, through the public 
lands of the United States, the route of a canal to connect said rivers. For that 
purpose ninety feet of land on each side of said canal was donated to said state. 
This act, unimportant in itself, is only interesting from the fact of Its being the 
first law that was passed relative to the projected work. 

In the treaty of 1826 between the United States and the Miami Indians, refer- 
ence is again made to the proposed canal. In that treaty, there is the following 
section: "It is agreed that the state of Indiana may lay out a canal or road through 
any of these reservations; and for the use of a canal, six chains along the same are 
hereby appropriated. " This grant has been of some value to the state; but, like the 
one contained in the act of Congress to which I have referred, it did not offer suf- 
ficient encouragement for the state to embark upon an enterprise that would cost, 
for its completion, $1,200,000 or $1, 500,000. 

In the session of 1826-27, the claims of Indiana for assistance in commenc- 
ing the projected work were again brought before the attention of Congress; the re- 
sult was the passage of the law, approved May 6, 1827, to which we are indebted 

26 



for our Canal. By this law was granted to the state of Indiana, to aid her In opening 
this Canal, a quantity of land equal to one half of five sections in width on each side 
of the Canal. Each alternate section, from one end of the Canal to the other, was 
reserved to the United States. The Canal was to be commenced within five years 
and completed within twenty years from the passage of the act. 

This grant of the general government was accepted on the part of Indiana in 
the following year (not, however, without fierce and bitter opposition), and the state 
became pledged to commence and go on with the work. A board of commissioners 
was then appointed. The board's duty was to locate the Canal and to ascertain 
whether, and on what terms, funds could be obtained for its completion. 

By act of the legislature approved January 23, 1829, the line of the Canal 
was conditionally defined; and the board of commissioners was directed to select 
the lands donated to the state by the act of Congress of 1827, before referred to. 
In 1830, the first sales of canal lands were authorized. And the board of commis- 
sioners was instructed to employ an experienced engineer of known skill and estab- 
lished character to act as chief engineer of the state. His duty was to proceed to 
examine, determine upon, and prepare for contract the most eligible line of the 
summit level section of the Canal — before conditionally established — and to report 
his progress to the next General Assembly. 

In 1832, the final location and reported estimates of the middle section of 
the Canal, as submitted by the chief engineer, were approved and adopted. A canal 
fund was constituted, to consist of such moneys as might arise from the sale of 
land. And the board of fund commissioners was organized and empowered to con- 
tract for a loan of $200 , 000 which, together with the moneys received from the cash 

27 



payments on canal lands, was estimated to be sufficient to construct the feeder canal 
and the middle section of the Canal. In the same year, the canal lands were classed 
and rated, and the time was fixed for a reopening of the public sale of the same. 
The canal commissioners were authorized and directed to make a commencement 
of some portion of the Canal previous to the second day of March of that year to 
comply with the terms and conditions of the act of Congress of 1827. In pursuance 
of this authority and direction, in February, 1832, a contract was made by the com- 
missioners for the construction of section one of the middle division. In the follow- 
ing June, fifteen miles, and in the succeeding November, four miles including the 
dam across the St. Joseph River, were put under contract. In January, 1833, the 
commissioners were directed to let the balance of the section from the Abolte River 
to Huntington. This was accordingly done; the whole thus put under contract is not 
completed. 

In 1834, the commissioners of the canal fund were authorized to contract 
for a loan of $400,000. And the canal commissioners were directed to put under 
contract that part of the line not then under contract, between the mouth of the 
Tippecanoe River and the Maumee at the junction of the St. Joseph and St. Mary's, 
and to keep the expenses within the appropriations before made. At the last session 
of the legislature, a further loan of $227,000 was authorized; and a letting was 
directed to be made of all the line not under contract as far west as Georgetovm. 

The different laws which have passed our General Assembly in relation to 
our Canal were not carried through that body without great difficulty and severe op- 
position. There has been, until within the last year or two, a strong party in the 
legislature which has maintained a steady, and in some instances almost a fatal, 

28 



opposition to this noble work. The party lines between the friends and the opponents 
of the Canal were, I understand, first fairly drawn upon the question of accepting 
the liberal grant contained in the act of Congress of 1827. The opposing parties 
were then about equal in numbers. Feeling ran high, and discussion became bitter 
and heated. Each party had its respective champions, and the result of the question 
is said to have been for a long time doubtful . 

The opposition ranked among its numbers some of the ablest men in the 
state. Their diversity of talent qualified them for the skirmish of debate or for the 
more difficult contest of argument with argument. Ridicule and reason, argument 
and satire were by turns resorted to. The idea of making a canal through a wilder- 
ness country was represented as Utopian. The grant of Congress was spoken of as 
unimportant and entirely inadequate to justify its commencement. The value of the 
lands was underrated. And the expenses of the projected work were foretold as 
such as to overwhelm the state inextricably in debt. 

But the strength of the legislature was not all on the side of the opposition. 
There were, among the friends of the Canal, men of enlarged minds and liberal 
feeUng who had the sagacity and penetration to foresee what has proved to be the 
fact — that the commencement of the Canal was the right way to improve the country. 
It was the right way to make the donated lands valuable to the state , to attract to 
them the attention of emigrants, and to make the wilderness of which so much had 
been said the very. . .of the state. The arguments of the opponents of the Canal were 
met by the stronger arguments of its friends; and, although every inch of ground was 
contested, the opposition, after a hard struggle , was discomfited. The better genius 
of the state triumphed; and the grant, with its accompanying conditions, was accepted. 

29 



Well was it for us and for the state that such was the issue of this contest; 
well was it for us and for the state that when the projected undertaking was weak 
and comparatively unpopular, patriotic and enlightened minds were enlisted in its 
support. And while we are celebrating the results of this victory and the victories 
which were gained in other struggles which arose upon the passage of the different 
laws for the comimencement and extension of the Canal, we should be guilty of in- 
gratitude if we did not remember with gratitude and respect the services of the 
Canal's supporters. 

I have thus thrown a brief glance over the history of our Canal. I regret 
that circumstances have rendered me unable to make my notice of it more perfect 
and satisfactory. The work, as far as it has been completed, reflects high honor 
upon those under whose management it has thus far progressed. It is to be regretted 
that the unfortunate difficulties which have lately arisen between the United States 
and Ohio, in relation to her northern boundary, are likely to prevent that state from 
completing that part of the Canal which is to be made through her territory as soon 
as is required by the Interests of Indiana. The course which Ohio has pursued rel- 
ative to this work and towards our state generally has been such as to lay us under 
weighty obligations to her. While we lament that anything should occur to create 
collision between the general government and any member of the confederacy, and 
while we regard the Union as of paramount importance to almost everything else 
and hold ourselves ready to sacrifice everything for its preservation, we cannot at 
the same time be unmindful of our obligations to Ohio. Nor can we overlook the 
fact that in the question that is now agiUting our sister state the interests of Indiana 
and Ohio are the same. A decision against the claims of Ohio to the disputed terri- 

30 



tory may be seized upon as a precedent by whlchwe may lose an interesting portion 
of our own state and may be shut out from Lake Michigan. Under these circum- 
stances, the people of Indiana would be blind to their own interests if they did not 
hope for a termination of this difficulty in favor of Ohio. They should do everything 
in their power to sustain her in the claim which she asserts and in the attitude which 
she has assumed. 

I do not intend, at this time, to enter upon a discussion of the merits of the 
question in which we all have a stake. Nor perhaps is this necessary. The subject 
is well enough understood here, and the people of Indiana need not be told what 
should be their position in relation to it. I fear, however, that in other parts of flie 
Union there is much misapprehension in regard to this question. The controversy 
has been spoken of as one between Ohio and Michigan. As was proclaimed in Con- 
gress by an eminent eastern statesman, it is a controversy between the powerful 
state of Ohio with herfour and twenty representatives and the humble and powerless 
Michigan with her single delegate. The chivalry of the nation has been appealed to; 
and the question has been put, in tones of triumph, whether, in this country of equal 
laws, power shall lord it over weakness — whether a powerful state shall trespass 
upon the rights of an unprotected territory. This misapprehension, however, we 
trust, will be of short continuance. The press is beginning, in many Instances, to 
speak truth and to shed lighten the merits of this controversy. It is beginning to be 
viewed as a controversy between the United States and Ohio In which the territory 
of Michigan is not a party. Let the subject be fully understood, let it be fairly 
brought before Congress, and let no party influences there be brought to bear upon 
it, and we will cheerfully abide the event. 

31 



We celebrate, at this time, the commencement of the navigation of the Ca- 
nal. We look upon this Canal as the first link (if I may so speak) In a chain of im- 
provements which will one day — and at no very remote period — extend from Lake 
Erie to the Mississippi. Nature herself seems to have prepared the way for such a 
connection; and in undertaking and effecting this, man will only carry into operation 
her original designs. And how noble is the prospect which such improvements open 
before usl How mighty a nation may our country one day become, if it is not ship- 
wrecked by the negligence or misconduct of the people I How mighty have been her 
strides! To what a dizzy height of glory and power may she not, ere long, attain! 

Who that could have taken a survey of our western country but thirty years 
ago could have anticipated a day like this? Then, as his eye passed over the vast 
valley of the Mississippi, with the exception of two or three mere specks of im- 
provement, nothing would have met his gaze but one unbroken, illimitable, but mag- 
nificent wilderness. Then he looked upon the deep forests, the beautiful prairies, 
the noble rivers, and the silvery lakes; and he sighed, perhaps, that almost the on- 
ly inhabitants of so fair a country should be savage men and the prey which they 
hunted. How little could he have dreamed of a scene like the present. These lakes 
and these rivers are bearing upon their bosoms the products of every clime; these 
prairies are converted into smiling fields; these forests are rapidly yielding to the 
axe and are already dotted with extensive farms and flourishing towns. The whole 
country, from the Alleghenles to the Mississippi, and far beyond it, is the seat of 
enterprise, improvement, and prosperity. And hundreds of people are assembled 
at this place to celebrate the opening of a canal. 

The history of our country is an argument in favor of internal improvements 

32 



— an argument which no intellect can misunderstand and no sophistry weaken. The 
objections which are sometimes raised to s^ipropriations being made by the govern- 
ment to aid the states In carrying such improvements into operation are, it seems 
to me, the result of narrow views and illiberal policy. They are founded principal- 
ly upon the opinion that such appropriations, inasmuch as it wUl be difficult, if not 
impossible, to make a satisfactory distribution of them among the states, will give 
rise to jealousy and will be creative of endless bickerings and strife. But is there 
not good reason to believe that sectional feelings are in some measure kept alive 
by the very absence of such improvements, and that railroads and canals, extend- 
ing their benefits through large tracts of country, will tend to overcome and destroy 
them? In my judgment, such improvements, although carried into operation in the 
different states through the assistance of the general government, are calculated to 
destroy local prejudice and to unite our whole country in the bands of national at- 
tachment. Whatever tends to bring the people of the different states together and 
creates a commuinlty of interests among them acts directly and powerfully to make 
them liberal in feeling and national in character. We are all American citizens, 
inheritors of the same privileges which were purchased by the blood of our common 
ancestors, supporters of the same government. And as the people become more 
familiar with each other, the peculiarities which distinguish them will become less 
and less perceptible; and national harmony and good feeling will be produced. 

But I have already trespassed too long upon your patience. The event which 
we now commemorate, the commencement of the navigation of our Canal, will in a 
short time be forgotten in the realization of its benefits; but, as the beginning of a 
chain of important improvements in Indiana, it may again be called to mind. A 

33 



hundred years may roll away, and the people who then inhabit this country may 
meet together on this spot to celebrate the commencement of canalling operations 
in this state . God grant that he who is called upon to speak at that time may ad- 
dress, as I do today, a congregation of free men. And although everything else may 
be changed but the solid earth and the heavens above them, though the Canal which 
is now in progress be but a hand's breadth In comparison with the important im- 
provements that shall then be in operation, God grant that the Stars and Stripes, the 
banner of our country, may float over their heads, an emblem of liberty, union, 
and prosperity. 

INDIANA JOURNAL, September 18, 1835 



34 



IV 
REPORT ON THE CANAL OPENING 

Fort Wayne, Indiana 
July 7, 1835 
To the Editors: 

It may be a matter of some interest to you and your readers to learn that on 
the fourth of this month the navigation of the Wabash and Erie Canal was most suc- 
cessfully commenced. On the second of July, three canalboats passed from this 
place to the foi4ts of the Wabash. On the third they returned, crowded with pas- 
sengers. And on the fourth, the event was celebrated in a spirited and becoming 
manner by the citizens of the state assembled at this place. Thirty-two mUes of 
the summit section, connecting the keelboat navigation of the Wabash and Maumee 
rivers, are now in good order; and boats are passing daily. 

It is certainly a fact worthy to be noted that this country, through which 
canalboats are now passing, was purchased of the Indians only eight or nine years 
ago. It is believed that an Instance of such rapid improvement is nowhere else to 
be found. The credit is due partly to the enterprise of the state of Indiana and part- 
ly to the liberal and enlightened policy which prevailed in the general government 
when the grant of land was made to aid this work. It does appear to me that the 
great benefit conferred upon the whole country by this grant of land to Indiana ought 
to remove all doubts in regard to the policy of similar donations in aid of internal 
improvements. Such donations benefit not only the state to which they are made but 
also the treasury of the United States. More money has doubtless already been 

35 



received Into the treasury for the sale of lands In this part of the state than would 
have been received had the grant never been made. 

NATIONAL INTELLIGENCER, July 22, 1835 



36 



V 
CANAL CELEBRATION AT DEFIANCE 

The Wabash and Erie Canal is now filled with water to Independence, five 
miles below Defiance, and boats are regularly running to that place. Li two or three 
weeks more, the water will be let in to Florida, some three or four miles below, 
and at the foot of the Flat Rock ripples. From this point, the Maumee is free from 
all obstruction and is navigable at all seasons to Providence, at the head of the rap- 
ids; and as the Canal is already completed from the latter place to Toledo, we shall 
have a good water communication with the Lake. It will be but little more esqpensive 
now to ship off our produce than if the Canal were already completed. All that will 
be required will be to transship the loading from the boat in the Canal to another in 
the river, a distance of but a few rods; this can be accomplished easily without the 
use of teams. We may, therefore, state that the long-looked-for opening of naviga- 
tion between Lake Erie and the navigable waters of the Wabash is consummated. 
This will cause a great revolution in the course of trade. The entire produce of the 
Wabash Valley will now pass through this place and be shipped on Lake Erie. For- 
merly, it had to be transported by land seventy or one hundred miles to Chicago or 
Michigan City; thence it was taken by the circuitous route of the upper lakes to mar- 
ket 

Emigrants to many parts of the West will now find this the cheapest, most 
pleasant, and most e:q>editlous route. There is a daily stage line between Toledo 
and the present termination of the Canal. There they can enter a canalboat and. In 
two or three days at an expense of but a few dollars, find themselves at Lafayette 

38 




- n 



in the center of the Wabash country. Thence they can embark In steamboats for al- 
most any point In the West or Southwest. Those who prefer can enter a canalboat 
at Toledo or Maumee and come the whole distance from the Lake by water. 

The Canal from Fort Wayne to Defiance is one of which we may be justly 
proud. It Is sixty feet wide and six feet deep, constructed in the most durable and 
scientific manner; it reflects equal credit on the skill of the engineers and contrac- 
tors and on the liberality of the states of Indiana and Ohio. We are assured by a 
competent judge of such matters — a gentleman of well-known talents in that line, 
who was himself a contractor on many of the public works in Pennsylvania and Mary- 
land — that this portion of the Wabash and Erie Canal is equal, tf not superior, to 
any similar woric in the United States . 

We have been led into so many remarks on the Canal that we have not much 
room for the celebration. We will, therefore, briefly state that the first packet 
boat, the Jesse L. Williams, belonging to Captain Samuel Mahon, arrived in Defi- 
ance on Monday night last; it was escorted by the Defiance band and a number of Hat 
citizens. It was received with the greatest enthusiasm. The inhabitants of Defiance 
felt that a new era had davmed upon them as they beheld the consumniation of their 
long-cherished hopes. The next morning, a large party of ladles and gentlemen, 
accompanied by the band, embarked in the canalboat and took a trip to Independence. 
All were animated and in good spirits, despite the hardness of the times. On the 
return of the boat, the gentlemen on board organized a meeting by calling Judge 
N. B. Adams to the chair and by appointing W. A. Brown secretary; they passed 
the following resolutions: 

RESOLVED, That in the completion of the western division of the Wabash 

40 



and Erie Canal, we anticipate a triumph over every obstacle; nothing now can pre- 
vent our rapid Improvement. 

RESOLVED, That to the enterprising contractors, we owe a tribute of grat- 
itude for their steadfast perseverance to the completion of their work on this divi- 
sion of the Canal. 

RESOLVED, That we fully appreciate the talents and industry of our worthy 
commissioner, R. Dickinson, and also our resident engineer on the western divi- 
sion of the Wabash and Erie Canal, S. Medbury; we tender them our united thanks 
for their services. 

RESOLVED, That we still bear in mind the valuable influence of General 
Hunt of Maumee City in establishing this line of canals; his untiring zeal, while he 
was a senator in the Ohio Legislature, obtained appropriations for the same. 

RESOLVED, That we fully appreciate the importance of the Wabash and Erie 
Canal as being the connecting link between the Ohio River and Lake Erie; it brings 
tiie northern trade into competition with that of the South. 

RESOLVED, That the thanks of this meeting be tendered to Captain Mahon 
for his polite Invitation and his attention to the citizens of Defiance and for his gen- 
tlemanly deportment on this occasion; his enterprise deserves the encouragement 
of the citizens of the Maumee and Wabash valleys and is fully entitled to the patron- 
age of a generous public. 

RESOLVED, That the proceedings of this meeting be signed by the officers 
and published In all the papers In the United States that feel an interest In the pros- 
perity of Indiana and northwestern Ohio. 

N. B. Adams, Chairman 
41 



W. A. Brown, Secretary 



FORT WAYNE WEEKLY SENTINEL, July 16, 1842 



42 



VI 

ANNOUNCEMENT 1 

It has been deemed expedient to have a public celebration of the opening of 
the Wabash and Erie Canal from Lake Erie to Lafayette, 
on the FOURTH of JULY next 
at some convenient point, to be participated in by the citizens on the whole line. A 
public meeting of the citizens of Fort Wayne will be held at the American House, on 
Wednesday evening next, at early candlelight, to take the matter into consideration 
and to ^point corresponding and other committees. A general attendance is re- 
quested. 

FORT WAYNE WEEKLY SENTINEL, May 13, 1843 



43 



vn 

ANNOUNCEMENT 2 

"It is an contemplation by the citizens of the vast region of country border- 
ing along the valley of the Maumee, to celebrate in a suitable manner the comple- 
tion of the Wabash and Erie Canal, at Fort Wayne, in the state of Indiana, on July 4 
next. And it Is Intended, we learn, to solicit our distinguished feUow citizen. Gen- 
eral Lewis Cass, to deliver an oration on the occasion. No other Individual could 
be selected who would perform such an undertaking in better style. His presence 
would be most cordially received by the hardy Hooslers and Buckeyes who will 
doubtless be there congregated in vast multitudes. He has long been identified with 
the great interests of the West. He is personally known to thousands of its early 
inhabitants, although he has been separated from them for a time in the discharge 
of important public duties. We trust he will not fail to accept the invitation. And 
it is further hoped that those citizens of Miclilgan who have leisure and can afford 
to will likewise participate in the contemplated celebration got up by the hardy bor- 
der settiers of our sister states. "--DETROIT CONSTITUTIONAL DEMOCRAT. 

Our friends at Detroit are rather in advance of the mails. The committee 
has not yet selected an orator. General Cass has been invited to attend the celebra- 
tion and, of course, would be expected to address the assemblage. He may, per- 
haps, be selected as the orator of the day; but the choice is not yet made. The se- 
lection of General Cass would be a judicious one and would give general satisfaction. 

FORT WAYNE WEEKLY SENTINEL, June 3, 1843 

44 



vm 

ANNOUNCEMENT 3 

The approaching celebration of the completion of our Canal will, we expect, 
be numerously attended. We hear, verbally, that the inhabitants of every town a- 
long the line feel the liveliest interest and are preparing to participate. The Toledo 
Guards and the con^)anles in Lafayette and probably other places will be here. We 
have no doubt that there will be as many come as all the boats on the Canal can ac- 
commodate. 

The committee of arrangements has selected a grove on the farm of Colonel 
Thomas Swinney as the place at which the exercises of the day will be held. It is a 
beautiful site, exactly suited for the occasion, large enough to accommodate the vast 
crowd which will assemble, and sufficiently shaded from the sun to be pleasant and 
agreeable. 

FORT WAYNE WEEKLY SENTINEL, June 3, 1843 



45 



IX 

THE ORDER OF THE DAY 

The committee of arrangements for the canal celebration announce the fol- 
lowing as the 

ORDER OF THE DAY 

1. At sunrise, a national salute of twenty-six gims from the fort. 

2. At nine a. m. , a salute of thirteen guns in honor of invited guests and 
strangers. 

3. At ten a.m. , the firing of three minute guns. Then the procession wUl 
be formed on the Public Square and will march to the ground under the direction of 
the marshal of the day and his assistants. 

The invited guests arriving by boats will be received by the committee of 
reception with a band of music at the foot of Clinton Street as they arrive. Those 
who arrive on horseback wUl be received at the Public Square. 

The members of the committees of reception and arrangements and the of- 
ficers of the day will be designated by appropriate badges. 

FORT WAYNE WEEKLY SENTINEL, July 1, 1843 



46 



. X 

THE CELEBRATION (PART I) 

Tuesday, July 4, 1843, was a great day for Fort Wayne. On that day, thou- 
sands of citizens of Indiana and Ohio assembled here to celebrate the opening of our 
Canal from the Wabash to Lake Erie. This Canal unites, by the shortest and most 
eligible route, the navigable waters of the northern Lakes with those of the Missis- 
sippi. It is a work which we sincerely believe ranks in importance second only to 
the great New York canal — a work which is destined to create as great a revolution 
in the route of trade and travel as even that great work Itself. Boats have been run- 
ning from Manhatten to Lafayette ever since the opening of the navigation in April 
last; but the celebration of this auspicious event was postponed until the anniversary 
of our national independence. 

It was a celebration not only by the citizens of Fort Wayne but also by those 
of the whole line of the Canal and the surrounding country. Our city, being on the 
summit level and on the point where the work was first commenced, was selected 
as the most eligible place for the celebration to be held. Our citizens cheerfully 
entered into the spirit of the occasion and made ample preparations to receive and 
entertain all who might come to participate in the festivities of the day and to inter- 
change congratulations on the consummation of this work — this work to which we 
have looked forward for so long with such earnest solicitude and fond anticipation. 

A free dinner was provided; it was abundantiy furnished, by the liberality of 
the citizens of both county and town, with everything the country produces. The 
citizens all made arrangements to accommodate as many guests as their houses 

48 



would hold; they planned to furnish homes for all during the time they might remain 
here. The result was that, of the thousands who that day assembled here, not one, 
as far as we have heard, failed to be comfortably accommodated; not one left here 
without being satisfied and grateful for the hospitality experienced. We take pleas- 
ure In recording the noble conduct of the inhabitants of our city. It shows the spirit 
which animated every breast and the buoyant feelings which the completion of this 
important work excited. 

On the Saturday previous, the guests began to arrive; and by Sunday eve- 
ning, the taverns were overflowing. On Monday afternoon, the canalboats began to 
line our wharves and continued without intermission through the night to land their 
passengers. All were anxious to participate in the coming celebration. Each boat 
was met on its arrival by the reception committee, who took the passengers to the 
houses which they were to make their homes during their visit. On Monday night, 
the Toledo Guards arrived. They had brought their camp equipage with them and 
pitched their tents on a beautiful green west of the city. On Tuesday morning about 
six o'clock. General Cass, the orator of the day, arrived in the packet boat Ohio 
and was escorted to the mansion of Allen Hamilton, Esq. Here he remained during 
his sojourn among us; and here he was visited by many of our citizens, who were 
much pleased with the urbanity and affability of his deportment and with the boimd- 
less hospitality of his host. 

Throughout the forenoon, visitors from the interior of the country, remote 
from the canal line, flocked in by hundreds on horseback or in wagons and vehicles 
of every description. We have not learned the exact number of canalboats present; 
they extended in a double tier the whole length of the city, from the upper to the 

50 



lower basin. Being mostly decorated with flags, they gave to our wharf a very In- 
teresting appearance. 

The following gentlemen officiated as officers of the day: Marshall — S, 
Edsall; Assistant Marshals — Colonel Sigler, General Curtis, General Hanes, S. S. 
Tipton, Alexander Wilson, Colonel Pollard, Captain Rudisill, Captain Stophlet, 
Captain Ferry, Captain Morgan, Colonel hoiz, S. C. Freeman, R. Bird, B. B. 
Stevens, F. K. Brackenridge, C. S. Evans, and Messrs. Wolkie, Schmitz, and 
Trentman. 

At eleven o'clock, an Immense procession was formed on the Public Square 
and marched to a beautiful shady grove on the farm of Colonel Swinney. There, the 
exercises of the day were performed. The procession was nearly a mile in length 
and was enlivened by several bands of music. The Kekionga and German bands of 
our city fully maintained their high reputation; the latter appeared to great advan- 
tage in their new and tasty uniforms. They carried several appropriate banners. 
The Defiance and Marion bands ably seconded them and deserve much credit for 
their attendance. 

ORDER OF PROCESSION 

Martial Music 

Toledo Guards 

Revolutionary soldiers and soldiers of 

the late war, with the national colors 

Orator—GENERAL LEWIS CASS 

Reader—HUGH McCULLOCH, ESQ. 

Chaplain—REVEREND MR. BOYD 

President— ETHAN A. BROWN 



Vice-Presidents— W. G, Ewing, S. Hanna, J. L. Williams, A. Hamilton, 
R. Brackenrldge, A. S, White, E. Q. Hannegan, J. E. Hunt, R. Dickerson, S. 
Medbury, General Myres, Colonel Pepper, L. B, Wilson, Jesse D. Bright, J. H. 
Bradley, James Blair, S. Foster, E. Murry, P, Evans, W. W. Barlow, Colonel 
Raybum, Judge Keller, Colonel Hanna, General Wiley, General Walker, J. S. 
Hanna, H. Elsworth, and Messrs. Taber, Pratt, and Robinson. 

Ladles 
Defiance Band 
Invited Guests 
Committees 
Marion Band 
Engineer Corps 
German Band 
Citizens of Ohio and Other States 
Miami Warriors 
Keklonga Band 
Citizens of Indiana 
On arriving at the ground, we found several hundred ladles in attendance. 
After the bands had played some national airs, the Reverend Mr. Boyd made a fer- 
vent and appropriate prayer; Hugh McCulloch, Esq. , read the Declaration of Inde- 
pendence; and General Cass delivered the admirable address. 



52 




gEMiLnA.L Lewis Cas5. 



XI 
ORATION OF GENERAL LEWIS CASS 

This day, fellow citizens, is memorable in the history of man. It is the an- 
niversary of the birth of this great republic. Today we were bom into the family of 
nations. In the calendar of time, there is no event which will produce a more pow- 
erful and permanent effect upon the destinies of the world. Our revolution sancti- 
fied, by success, the momentous principle of resistance to oppression. It opened 
to inquiry the whole system of government, with a freedom of investigation and a 
power of discussion which had never before been united in any practical examination 
into that great department of the concerns of man. 

The threescore years and ten, the term of human life, have not yet passed 
away; and where are we? From dependent colonies we have become an independent 
republic. From a small people, thinly scattered over the Atlantic Coast, we have 
become a mighty nation with a power everywhere acknowledged and respected, with 
a name known and honored, and with all the elements of present prosperity and of 
future advancement such as Providence has rarely designed to confer upon man. 
Within this brief period — brief in the history of societies—the great tide of civiliza- 
tion has passed the Allegheny Mountains and has spread and is spreading over the 
prairies and forests of our own beautiful West. That tide will not stop till it reach- 
es the boundary of the continent upon the shores of the Pacific. The decree has gone 
forth and will be fulfilled. The prospects of the future may be seen in the progress 
of the past. He who runs may read. Neither political jealousy nor mercantile cu- 
pidity can stop our onward march. If they could, fellow citizens, our march would 

54 



be stopped. Perhaps, while I address you, measures are in progress to wrest from 
UB our territory west of the Rocky Mountains. 

Island after Island and country after country are falling before the ambition 
of England. She Is planting her standard wherever there Is a people to be subdued 
or the fruits of their industry to be secured. With professions of philanthropy, she 
pursues the designs of ambition; and she is encircling the globe with her stations 
wherever she can best accomplish her schemes of aggrandizement. The sun never 
sets upon her empire. It is my deliberate opinion that no nation since the fall of the 
Roman power has displayed greater disregard for the rights of others or has more 
boldly aimed at universal domination. 

Our claim to the country west of the Rocky Mountains is as imdenlable as 
our ri^t to Bunker Hill or to New Orleans; and who will call in question our title to 
these bloodstained battlefields? And I trust our rightwlll be maintained with a vigor 
and promptitude equal to do justice. War is a great evil, but not so great as na- 
tional dishonor. Little is gained by yielding to insolent and unjust pretensions. It 
is better to defend the first inch of territory than the last. It is far better in deal- 
ing with England to resist aggression, whether of territory, of impressment, or of 
search, when first attempted than to yield in the hope that forbearance wiU be met 
in a just spirit and will lead to an amicable compromise. Let us have no red lines 
upon the map of Oregon; let us hold on to the integrity of our just claim; and if war 
comes, let it come. I do not myself believe it will be long avoided, unless it is 
prevented by intestine difficulties in the British Empire; and woe be to us if we flat- 
ter ourselves that it can be arrested by any system of concession. Of all delusions, 
this would be the most fatal; and we should awake from it a dishonored, if not a 

55 



ruined, people. 

It Is profitable In the career of life occasionally to pause; to withdraw our- 
selves from the ever-busy scenes with which we mingle; and to look back upon the 
progress we have made and forward, as far as it Is given to us to look forward, up- 
on the prospect before us. These are high places in the journey of life, whence ttie 
region around us is best contemplated and understood. In all time, great events 
have been thus commemorated. The principle has its foundation in human nature, 
although it is perverted in its application by power or superstition. And many a 
monument, which has survived its own history and the objects of its founders, looks 
out upon the silence around it and finds itself to be the solitary evidence of some 
great but forgotten event in the fitful drama of life. We have come up today to one 
of these high places to commime together. We have met from many a portion of our 
common country; and this great assemblage testifies, no less by its numbers than 
by the imposing circumstances which surround it, that there is here passing one of 
those scenes which mark the progress of society and which form its character and 
oftentimes its destiny. And so it is, and it is good for us to be here. We have not 
come to fight a battle or to commemorate one. We have not come to worship at the 
shrine of power or to celebrate the birth or the death of some unworthy ruler — the 
last step in political degradation. Nor have we come to commence, to complete, or 
to commemorate some useless but imposing structure erected by pride but paid for 
by poverty. 

I would not, however, be misunderstood. Far be it from us to censure or 
to check those feelings of love of coimtry or of religion which seek their outpourings 
in the erection of memorials upon spots which havednmk the blood of the patriot or 

56 



of the martyr. The erection of memorials is a tribute to virtue, and it honors the 
dead and the living. But let it be voluntary; then it will be neither unjust in its ob- 
ject nor oppressive in its accomplishment. It will teach a lesson to afte rages; it 
may stimulate virtue to action and may give fortitude to endure till the day of deliv- 
erance comes with its struggle and its reward. Look at the mighty pyramids which 
rise over the Arabian and Libyan wastes. They cast their shadows far in the desert, 
mocking the researches and the pride of man. They tell no tale but the old tale of 
oppression. They speak, in their very massiveness, of pride and power on one side 
and of misery and poverty on the other. 

Little channels which the fellah has diverted from the great river at the 
bases of the pyramids spread verdure and fertility over the valley thatowes so much 
to God and so little to man. One of those channels is far dearer to the oppressed 
population than these useless but mighty structures. 

Our eastern brethren, with that characteristic liberality and patriotism 
which make the descendants of the Pilgrims proud of the land of their ancestors, 
have just completed and dedicated a monument to mark the site of the battle which 
opened the great contest between a powerful empire and her young and distant prov- 
inces. The influence of that battle, if it did not give to the Revolution its fortunate 
issue, impressed its character upon the whole struggle. We have no such place to 
hallow; but we have the people to do the deeds by which places are sanctified. We 
have neither the wealth nor those "appliances" by which the long and imposing pro- 
cession and the gorgeous pageantry (which a great city can arrange and display) af- 
fect and almost subdue the imagination. We have not the Chief Magistrate of the 
republic with his official counsellors to mark, as it were, with a national character 

57 



the occasion of our assemblage. Nor have we constructed an obelisk, simple and 
severe in its style and lasting as the deeds it commemorates, whose foundation is 
laid in the graves of martyred patriots and whose summit rises toward the heavens, 
telling the story of their fall and proclaiming the gratitude of their countrymen. But 
there are here stout hearts and strong hands. There are here thousands who would 
devote theraselves as did the men of Bunker Hill to the cause of freedom, and who 
would fight as they fought and die as they died should their country demand the sac- 
rifice. On the face of the globe, liberty has no more zealous defenders, nor patri- 
otism more ardent votaries, than in this great assembly. The people who have made 
this region their own by all the ties that bind man to his home will defend it and all 
the institutions which belong to it, by all the means that energy, intelligence, and 
devotedness have ever brought to the great day of trial. 

We have come here to join in another commemoration. We have come to 
witness the union of the Lakes and the Mississippi and to survey one of the noblest 
works of man in the improvement of that great highway of nature , extending from 
New York to New Orleans, whose full moral and physical effects it would be vain to 
seek or even to conjecture. 

And fitly chosen is the day of this celebration. This work is another liga- 
ment which binds together this great confederate republic. Providence has given 
us imion and many motives to preserve it. The sun has never shone upon a country 
abounding more than ours does in all the elements of prosperity. It is needless to 
enumerate the advantages we enjoy, which give us so distinguished a position among 
the nations of the world. They are seen and felt in all those evidences of prosperi- 
ty and improvement which greet the traveler wherever he passes through our coun- 

58 



try. Still more striking are they when we contrast our situation with that of the 
older regions of the world. I shall not enter into the comparison. I could speak of 
it from personal knowledge, but the task would not be a pleasant one. It would re- 
call many a cause of discontent and many a scene of misery which meet the eye of 
the most careless observer who exchanges the new hemisphere for the old. An 
American who does not return to his own country a wiser man and a better citizen, 
prouder and more contented for all he has seen abroad, may well doubt his own 
head or heart and may well be doubted by his countrymen. 

Still, it is not to be disguised that, from the very constitution of human na- 
ture, causes may occasionally exist which tend to weaken (though they cannot sever) 
the bounds which unite us. Happy is it that these causes may be counteracted and 
ultimately, we may hope, rendered powerless by measures now in progress which 
will add the ties of interest to the dictates of patriotism. Our railroads and canals 
are penetrating every section of our territory. They are annihilating time and 
space. They are embracing in their folds the ocean and lake frontiers and the great 
region extending from the Allegheny to the Rocky Mountains through which the 
mighty Mississippi and its countless tributaries find their way to the Gulf of Mexico. 
Once this work is completed, we will be bound together by cords which no strength 
can sunder. The moral and political effects, therefore, of the great work before 
us are even more important than the physical advantages it promises. This great 
work will bear upon its bosom the products of a thousand fertile valleys; it will 
spread gladness and prosperity over regions which have just been rescued from the 
Indian and from the animals, his cotenants of the forests which minister to his 
wants. But it will do more than this. It will make glad the heart of the patriot; for 

59 



as he sails along it, he will see not merely the evidence and the cause of wealth 
and prosperity but also one of the ties which knit us together. By a process more 
fortunate than the alchemist ever imagined, the feeblest element will be converted 
into the strongest bond . It will bear the boat and its freight to a market where 
products may be interchanged and wealth acquired; but it will also interchange in- 
terests and feelings which no wealth can purchase and for which no price can be 
paid. 

Well then may we rejoice upon this day I The occasion and the time are in 
imlson. And while we thank God for the services and sacrifices which he enabled 
our fathers to make in the acquisition of freedom and independence, let us thank 
him, also, that we are able to strengthen their work and to transmit to our chil- 
dren, as they transmitted to theirs, the noblest inheritance that belongs to man. 
The ark of the Constitution is yet untouched. Withered be the hand that would pol- 
lute it. 

I did not come here to speak to you of the political questions which divide 
us. "Sufficient unto the day is the evil thereof. " It is good that we should find the 
Sabbath our day of rest — a day when we can put behind us the secular concerns of 
men, when we can meet and greet one another as brethren of the same family, as 
the countrymen of Washington and Jefferson and Franklin, as the heirs of their 
labors and the guardians of their fame. I am no believer in the sinister predictions 
of those who are perpetually crying, "Woe unto thee, O Jerusalem!" Our Jerusa- 
lem is neither besieged nor in danger. It will survive all the dissensions of the 
day. Whatever other monuments may fall (as they have fallen upon the plains of 
liberty), this, we may trust, is destined to remain unharmed, a refuge for us and 

60 



a guide for others when the waters of oppression are out over the earth. 

The foundations of our freedom are too broadly and deeply laid to be easily 
shaken. They rest upon institutes, upon manners, upon relations, upon all that 
gives character and energy to the social system. In Europe, government depends 
for security upon physical force. Here, it depends upon moral force or, in other 
words, upon public opinion. And this brief contrast explains almost all that is pe- 
culiar in the political systems of the two hemispheres. There, large armies, nu- 
merous fleets, a powerful police, a heavy debt, and an established religion are es- 
sential portions of the machinery by which the engine of government is kept in mo- 
tion. Here, I need not say, these contrivances by which the few rule the many are 
utterly unknown. The government is here in the hands of all; and not a day passes 
in the life of any man — from the cradle to the grave — when it could not be peaceably 
and legally changed by the general will. This is a state of things to which no par- 
allel can be found in the present condition of the social and political systems of 
Europe. Nor could it exist there a day. It would lead to convulsion and would end 
in revolution — a revolution whose consequences are beyond the reach of human sa- 
gacity. Here we are educated to a habitual obedience to the law. It is our law, and 
we are all interested in its observance. There the law is too often a taskmaster to 
be eluded or opposed as interest or some other passion may dictate. Here an of- 
ficer, in the execution of his duty, is armed with a small piece of paper which, like 
a magic wand, ensures the submission of the strongest and boldest. There an of- 
ficer is attended by an armed party, and the sword and bayonet are conspicuously 
displayed as the true ensigns of authority. But I shall not pursue this contrast; it 
is not necessary for any purposes I have in view. I allude to the subject in order to 

61 



teach a lesson which may be useful to all; to remind you of the deep debt we owe to 
Providence for what we possess and enjoy; to inculcate not merely content but also 
gratitude; to recall to you that you are American citizens, the depositories of your 
own political fate and, under God, the trustees of libertyfor the nations of the earth. 

This is not my first visit to this interesting place. I have been here before 
imder other circumstances — under circumstances, indeed, illustrative of the prog- 
ress of our country and of those wonderful changes which are perpetually going on. 
Out creations are not due to the magician's lamp; they have a purer origin. They 
spring from industry and enterprise; they are protected by equal laws and invigor- 
ated by a benign religion; and they bring with them their reward. Scarcely two 
centuries have passed away since a small band of adventurers seated themselves 
upon the shores of a distant ocean. An interminable forest was around them, and 
its recesses were occupied by a fierce and vindictive foe. They came to suffer In 
their day and to become glorious in their generation. And well did they fulfill their 
mission. Where is now the forest which shut them in? It is laid low. The great 
wave of civilization has swept onward, bearing down the forest and its tenants, till 
this little band has become a mighty people who have spread themselves over a great 
continent. They seemed destined, in the providence of God, still to go on till checked 
by one of those chastisements by which the moral government of the world is vindi- 
cated and the ingratitude of nations punished. 

Well may we exclaim, in the language of inspiration, "The lines are fallen 
imto us in pleasant places; yea, we have a goodly heritage I" when we survey this 
noble country between the Lakes, the Ohio, and the Mississippi, where we have es- 
tablished our dwelling. There is probably no region upon the globe better fitted for 

62 



the residence of man and for the supply of the products which are essential to his 
wants. All those who participated in its first settlement have not yet passed away, 
and the survivors find themselves the members of a community of three million 
people. 

I have myself witnessed much of this progress; I have had my share of its 
toils and rewards. It is forty-three years since I landed upon the northern shore of 
the Ohio as a youth and an adventurer seeking the land of promise; that land has 
been to me, as to many others, the land of performance. At that time the territory 
of Indiana was not organized; and the states of Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, and Michigan 
and the territory of Wisconsin formed one government under the name of the North- 
west Territory. I shall not stop to bring before you the incidents of a frontier life 
or the difficulties and privations and sufferings, in peace and in war, by which the 
forest is acquired, reclaimed, and finally subdued. 

During many years, this region had its full share of troubles. The line of 
yourCanalwas abloody warpathwhich has seen many a deedof horror. This peace- 
ful town has had its Moloch, and the records of human depravity furnish no more 
terrible examples of cruelty than were offered at his shrine. The Miami Indians, 
our predecessors in the occupation of this district, had a terrible institution whose 
origin and object have been lost in the darkness of aboriginal history. It was con- 
tinued to a late period, and its orgies were held upon the very spot where we now 
are. It was called a man-eating society, and it was the duty of its associates to eat 
such prisoners as were preserved and delivered to them for that purpose. The 
members of this society belonged to a particular family; and the dreadful inherit- 
ance descended to all the children, male and female. The duties it imposed could 

63 



not be avoided, and the sanctions of religion were added to the obligations of im- 
memorial usage. The feast was a solemn ceremony at which members of the whole 
tribe were collected as actors or spectators. The miserable victim was bound to a 
stake and burned at a slow fire with all the refinements of cruelty which savage in- 
genuity could Invent. There was a traditional ritual which regulated, with revolt- 
ing precision, the whole course of procedure at the ceremonies. Latterly, the au- 
thority and obligations of the institution had declined; and I presume the institution 
has now wholly disappeared. But I have seen and conversed with the head of the 
family, the chief of the society, whose name was White Skin. I need not attempt to 
describe my feelings of disgust. I well knew an intelligent Canadian who was pres- 
ent at one of the last sacrifices made to this horrible institution. The victim was a 
young American, c^tured in Kentucky towards the close of our Revolutionary War. 
Here where we are now assembled in peace and security, celebrating the triumph 
of art and industry, our countrymen have been thus tortured and murdered and de- 
voured. 

But thank God that council fire is extinguished I The impious feast is over; 
the war dance is ended; the war song is simg; the war drum is silent; and the Indian 
has departed to find, I hope, in the distant West, a comfortable residence. And I 
hope also he will find, under the protection and, if need be, under the power of the 
United States, a radical change in his institutions and a general improvement in his 
morals and condition. 

A feeble remnant of the once powerful tribe which formerly won its way to 
the dominion of this region by blood — and by blood maintained it — has today appeared 
among us like a passing shadow, flitting around the places that know it no more. 

64 




Ihe fnisera6/e vk.hin was hoond to a siakt. 



-"**"€<„. 



Its resurrection, if I may so speak, Is not the least impressive spectacle that marks 
the progress of this imposing ceremony. It is the broken colunm which connects us 
with the past. The edifice is in ruins, and the giant vegetation which covered and 
protected It lies as low as the once mighty structure which was sheltered in its re- 
cesses. These Indians have come to witness the first great act of peace in our 
frontier history, as their presence here is the last great act in their own. The 
ceremonies upon which you heretofore have gazed with Interest will never again be 
seen by the white man in this seat of the former power of the Indians. Thanks to 
our ascendancy, these representations are but a pageant, but a theatrical exhibition 
which, with barbarous motions and sounds and contortions , shows how the ancestors 
of the Indians conquered their enemies and how they glutted their revenge in blood. 
Today, the last of the race are here; tomorrow, they will commence their journey 
towards the setting sun. There their fathers have preceded them; and there the red 
men will find rest and safety. 

In coming to this place, I passed along the Canal and marked with delight 
the beautiful river upon whose bank It is constructed and the charming country to 
which it gives new life and value. I was forcibly struck with the contrast between 
this journey and a former one. Nature has been prodigal of her favors to the valley 
of the Maumee. I can never forget the first time it met my eye. It was at the com- 
mencement of the late war when the troops destined for the defense of Detroit had 
passed through the forest from Urbana to the rapids. The season had been wet, 
much of the country was low , and the whole of it was unbroken by a single settle- 
ment. We had cut our road and transported our provisions and baggage with great 
labor and difficulty. We were heartily tired of the march and were longing for Its 

66 



termination, when we attained the brow of the tableland through which the Maumee 
has made a passage for Itself and a fertile region for those who have the good fortune 
to occupy It. Like the mariner, we felt we had reached a port; like the wanderer, a 
home. I have since visited the three other quarters of the globe and have passed 
over many lands and seas. But my memory still clings to the prospect which burst 
upon us on a bright day in June — the valley of the Maumee; the river, winding away 
beyond our view; the rapids, presenting every form of the most picturesque objects; 
the banks, clothed with deep verdure; and the rich bottoms, denuded of timber as 
though inviting the labor and enterprise of the settler. 

In a subsequent journey, led by official duty, I ascended the river in a birch 
canoe. There is something romantic associated with that mode of conveyance, but 
it soon palls upon the traveler. During many a weary mile and hour, I have been 
borne by this aboriginal skiff over the lakes and rivers of the Northwest. I have 
seen it carried through dense forests, across wild portages, and then floated upon 
some little stream which, gradually swelled by successive tributaries, became a 
large river. It was thus I passed from Lake Superior to the Mississippi; I launched 
my frail bark upon a mere rivulet and descended some days before the peculiar 
characteristics of the stream announced that we were upon that mighty river which 
flows from Its fountains in the North to the tropical seas. 

But I have found the canalboat a more comfortable conveyance than the bark 
canoe; and this change is not the least improvement which has accompanied the 
march of the white man. Your valley was then thinly occupied; the settlements were 
sparsely scattered over It; but the pioneers were moving on. Their task was a hard 
one; it was met, however, with an energy which deserved the success it gained. 

67 



The fruits of that success now greet the traveler in all these evidences of a fertile 
country and a prosperous people which meet him wherever he moves from the Ohio 
to Lake Erie. 

Here, where your Canal prepares to leave the basin of the Lakes for that of 
the Mississippi, I left the river with my birch canoe. I placed It upon a wagon, and 
It was transported to Little River where my faithful voyagers re-embarked In It. 
They joined me at White Raccoon's Village, to which I had ridden; there I passed 
the night. My friend. White Raccoon, treated us with great hospitality, but he was 
a little too hospitable to himself and his kindred. He produced his keg of firewater, 
to do honor to the arrival of the Che-mo-kee maun [sic] ; but, unfortunately, he 
was too free at his own feast. One of those scenes of intoxication followed which 
are at once the bane and the attendant of Indian life. I retired to my blanket, leav- 
ing my host and his friends at their orgies. 

In the morning I embarked upon the Wabash and descended that river to its 
mouth. I stopped occasionally to examine and admire the beautiful country, unsur- 
passed probably upon the face of the globe. I refer to these incidents of frontier life 
to place in bolder relief the change which has rescued this region from the bidian 
and has crowned it with the precious work of civilization. 

The two sister and contiguous states of Ohio and Indiana have projected and 
completed this great communication. To enter upon the statistics of its cost would 
not be suited to the present occasion. This is a day not for figures but for results. 
I know, and we all know, that a great enterprise has been accomplished; and we have 
come together to rejoice at it. We have come to feel and not to calculate . A stu- 
pendous undertaking has been brought to a fortunate termination after many diffi- 

68 



cultles. It has been accomplished bythe energy andperseverence of two new states, 
the oldest of which has Just seen its fortieth anniversary. Another route has been 
opened, by which the two great issues of our republic are brought together. This 
Canal gives to the inhabitants of the fertile country along it a choice of markets and 
a chance of a better price and quicker sale for their products. It is the second 
mingling of the waters of the Lakes and of the Mississippi. A third route is in pro- 
gress which, we may trust, will ere long be completed. And there are others, 
formed by nature, which require but little aid from man to render them useful. 
They, too, will be undertaken and accomplished; and the tableland which divides 
these great internal seas from the Ohio and the Mississippi will be furrowed by 
canals wherever the country permits and its wants require. 

That region is peculiarly favorable for these works of internal improvement. 
Streams which find their outlet in opposite directions have their sources interlocked 
and may be united with little labor and upon dividing ground, elevated but level, 
presenting no formidable obstruction to these enterprises. I have traveled along 
four of these lines of communication — one from Lake Superior to the head of the 
Mississippi, one from the Fox River to the Wisconsin River, one from the Illinois 
River to Chicago, and another where your Canal has taken the place of the portage 
path. Over three of them, by canoe I was carried from one extreme navigable point 
to the other; but I kept along on the fourth without disembarking and thus passed, by 
water, from the Mississippi into Lake Michigan. 

Near the head of the Des Plaines, one of the principal sources of the Illinois, 
we found an extensive marsh, which we entered and followed; but, unfortunately, we 
were too late to reach Its termination before the night closed upon us and prevented 



our further progress. It was covered with the large Illy, and It was Impossible to 
proceed on our route In darkness and equally impossible to find the shore. We 
passed a comfortless night In our frail lodgment, with the accompaniments of mos- 
quitoes and a thunderstorm. The next morning we made our way laboriously to the 
northern termination of the marsh, where Lake Michigan broke upon our view. It 
stretched off to the horizon till it was lost in the distance. We entered a small 
channel; rapidly descending an Inclined plane, we soon found ourselves in the Chicago 
River, a short distance from the Lake. 

Our works of internal Improvement were honorable in their conception, and 
many of them have been vigorously and successfully prosecuted. The system has 
been checked by temporary causes, but these are gradually passing away, and the 
great work will again go on. More was no doubt planned than could be imnaediately 
constructed. The whole project was too gigantic for prompt execution. But this 
fault, if fault it be, finds its origin in our national character. There is a reckless 
energy about us. If I may be allowed the expression, which prompts us to the most 
gigantic enterprises. This ardor of expectation, this confidence in the result, is at 
the foundation of all great success. The will to dare must precede the power to do. 
Even rashness is sometimes wisdom. He who stops, coolly to calculate every step 
in life, may Indeed move forward; but he will soon find himself behind his contem- 
poraries. "Onward" is the great word of our age and country. Never, In the his- 
tory of man, has human exertion been more displayed and rewarded than in the 
miracles of improvement which start up around us. These improvements have 
checkered our land and history from Plymouth and Jamestown to Lake Superior and 
the Mississippi, from the landing of the Pilgrims to the work whose consummation 

70 



we have this day come to hail. 

A legend like that of the Seren Sleepers of Ephesus would be more illustra- 
tive of the progress and change upon this continent than it was of the course of events 
in Asia Minor. There the young converts to Christianity were thrown into a mirac- 
ulous sleep. They found, on awakening from their trance, that more than two cen- 
turies had elapsed since they had left the world and had taken refuge from persecu- 
tion in a temporary tomb. Emerging Into life, they were strangers in their native 
city; but they were greeted by the cross, which had supplanted the ensigns of pagan- 
ism, and were surroimded by brethren of that new faith for which they had suffered 
and by whose power they had been preserved and rescued. 

But no such sleep is necessary to make the changes which come over the 
face of our country. During a period equal to the seclusion of the Epheslan youths, 
a continent bas been occupied and settled; empires have been founded in regions un- 
known in Ephesus. That proud city has fallen. Her monunaents are in ruins; her 
people are in the dust; her glory has departed; and her sleepers are sleeping the 
sleep that knows but one awakening. It is the eloquent historian of the lower Empire 
who tells this legendary tale; but the story still lives in the traditions of the East. 
This is a striking proof that brass and marble are far more perishable than popular 
fables which are transmitted from generation to generation and almost enter into 
the character of the people. 

On the top of one of the most arid hills in Syria, near the renowned city of 
Sidon, I found the granddaughter of the first Pitt (the niece of the second). Lady 
Hester Stanhope, who had abandoned, I know not why, her country, her kindred, and 
her religion. She had sought a resting place for herself In that secluded nook and a 

71 



refuge for her conscience In the vile dogmas of Islamlsm. She alluded to the Ephe- 
slan legend and, with true Moslem gravity, asked some questions respecting the 
young men whose conversion and its consequences the legend records, as though 
the story were authentic and the actors were yet alive to establish its truth. 

It has been but a few years since our attention was systematically turned to 
the improvement of our means of internal communication. The first impulse was 
given by the state of New York in the projection and commencement of her great 
work, which is an evidence of her energy and wisdom and an enduring monument of 
her perseverance. The whole country is now gathering the fruits of that work. 
Since then, many other states, unwilling to be left behind in the career of advance- 
ment, have followed the same route; and everywhere canals and railroads have 
sprung into existence. They facilitate the communication between the most distant 
parts of the country and minister to those wants of intercourse which are at once 
the cause and the effect of active exertion and of commercial prosperity. Our social 
and political institutions and our national character, alternately operating upon each 
other, have never achieved a prouder triumph nor furnished a more irrefutable 
proof of their tendency to promise human tu^jplness , than In this peaceful victory 
over the natural Impediments which divided us, though they could not separate us. 
This victory has increased our edacity for defense as much as it has added to our 
stock of wealth. 

The fate of republican institutions is in our hands. If the great experiment 
that is in progress among us — the experiment of the power of man to govern him- 
self — should fail, ages may pass away before the rights and safety of all are again 
committed to the custody of all. Fortunate is it, therefore, when the operation of 

72 



our system can be presented to the Old World In a point of view In which It can be 
examined and appreciated. It can be brought Into comparison with the effects of the 
InstltutionB that prevail there. No effort of this country tn Its onward march has 
awakened more attention or excited more admiration than the successful progress 
we have made In this great enterprise — this greatest of enterprises In the history 
of Internal Improvement. 

The geographical maps make known the gigantic features of our confedera- 
tion; and the statistical tables and the reports of travelers make known the communi- 
cations, natural and artificial, by which It Is knit together. The woriu, both of 
nature and of man, are on a scale of proportion unknown In that part of the world — 
rivers traversing the earth from the Arctic to the tropical regions; lakes, or rather 
seas, where navies have sailed and victories have been gained; railroads extending 
from the Atlantic to Lake Erie, a distance of five hundred miles, and intersecting 
the country in all Important directions; and canals penetrating our valleys and as- 
cending our mountains and forming, one after another, great lines of communica- 
tion which would circumscribe many a European kingdom. And before these works 
the forests gave way. They are not confined to the more densely peopled portions 
of our country; but, like the hardy settler, they are marching with the times. Al- 
ready, they have passed the cabin of the pioneer and the hut of the Indian. They re- 
move from their path the lofty and primeval trees, the relics of a former age and 
the contemporaries, perhaps, and witnesses of arrangements forever lost to the 
knowledge of the world. Before these works our primitive people are receding and 
seeking new homes where the approach of the white man may be delayed but cannot 
be prevented. It is a popular remark with the Indians, that when the bee comes a- 

73 



mong them, it is soon followed by the Big Knives. There is now another precursor 
which announces to the secluded village that the civilized stranger is at hand. Pro- 
pelled by some monster whose fearful sound precedes it, the boat ascends the soli- 
tary stream, penetrates the recesses of the forest, and proclaims to its Inhabitants 
that, ere long, their council houses will become desolate, and the plow will pass 
over the graves of their fathers. 

In Europe, this is a rate of progress utterly unknown and comprehended 
with difficulty. If caution would give more certainty of success, it would take from 
us that energy of purpose and action which has carried us forward In our career, 
both physically and mentally, with a rapidity unknown in the history of the world; 
that energy opens to us a future cheering to the heart of the patriot and encouraging 
to the lover of humanity. It is that energy which, if It commits faults, can repair 
them. Always operating, it is never discomfited; it accomplishes its projects when 
practicable and turns to others with equal confidence and perseverance, although 
checked by insuperable difficulties. 

And it is to the operation of freedom that these miracles are due. They are 
the results of a political system which takes as little and leaves as much of personal 
liberty as is compatible with general security; the system Is not embarrassed, as 
one of the patriarchs of our republic happily and expressively said, by too much reg- 
ulation. Regulation is the bane of the Old World. It presses upon the freedom and 
upon the faculties of man, and it is felt in all the departments of life. It checks 
enterprise, checks emulation, and multiplies useless restraints till they are as 
numerous as they are vexatious. Happy would it be for us. If we could learn to 
know and to appreciate the blessings we now enjoy; if we could differ without bitter- 

74 



aess and contend without enmity; if we could maintain our own views, but regard 
charitably those of others; if we could be American patriots and brethren, while we 
are political pjirtisans; If we could advocate the principles best fitted. In our opin- 
ion, to render the Constitution enduring and the country prosperous; if we could 
support the men who believe as we do and who would act as we would act. Let us 
think more of our blessings and less of our complaints. Let us thank God for all we 
enjoy. While we look abroad upon the nations of the East and compare our lot there- 
with, let us do so, not in a spirit of envy or of pride, but with feelings of gratitude 
in our hearts. Let us do so with words of thankfulness upon our tongues for that 
Providence which guided and guarded our fathers and which has given this precious 
heritage to their sons. 

We have come here to rejoice together. Memorable deeds make memorable 
days. There Is a power of association given to man which binds together the past 
and the present and connects both with the future. Great events haUow the sites 
where they pass. Their returning anniversaries, so long as these are remembered, 
are kept with sorrow or joy, as the events are prosperous or adverse. Today a 
new work is bom-~a work of peace and not of war. We are celebrating the triumph 
of art and not of arms. Centuries hence, we may hope that the river you have made 
will still flow both east and west; that it will bear upon its bosom the riches of a 
prosperous people; that our descendants will come to keep the day which we have 
come to mark; and that, as it returns, they will remember the exertions of their 
ancestors, while they gather the harvest. 

Associations are powerful in the older regions of the eastern continents and 
sharply affect the Imagination. Here, they are fresh and vigorous and belong to the 

76 



future. There, hope Is extinct; history has closed Its record; and time has done Its 
work. Here we have no past. All has been done within the memory of man. Our 
province of action Is the present; of contemplation, the future. No man can stand 
upon the scene of one of these occurrences, which have produced decisive effects 
upon the fate of nations and which history has rendered famUlar to us from youth, 
without being withdrawn from the Influence of the present and carried back to the 
period of conflict, doubt, and success which attended some mighty struggle. All 
this is the triumph of mind and the exertion of intellect which elevates us to the 
scale of being and furnishes us with another and pure source of enjoyment. 

Even recent events, round which time has not yet gathered Its shadows, 
sanctify the places of their origin. What American can survey the field of battle at 
Bunker Hill or at New Orleans without recalling the deeds which will render those 
names Imperishable? Who can pass the Islands at Lake Erie without thinking of 
those who sleep tn the waters below and of the victory which broke the power of the 
enemy and led to the security of an extensive frontier? There, no monument can be 
erected, for the waves and water wUl roll over It. But the patriot and his devoted 
companions , who met the enemy and made them ours , wUl live in the recollection of 
the American people while there is virtue to admire patriotism or gratitude to re- 
ward it. 

I have stood upon the plain of Marathon, the battlefield of liberty. It is si- 
lent and desolate. Neither Greek nor Persian Is there to give life and animation to 
the scene. It Is bounded by sterile hills on one side and lashed by the eternal waves 
of the Aegean Sea on the other. But Greek and Persian were once there, and that 
dreary spot was alive with hostile adversaries who fought to determine the future 

77 



of the world. And I have stood alone upon the hill of Zion in the city of Jerusalem; 
I have seen the place of our Redeemer's sufferings, crucifixion, and ascension. 
But the scepter has departed from Judah;and its glory, from the capital of Solomon. 
The Assyrian, the Egyptian, the Greek, the Roman, the Arab, the Turk, and the 
Crusader have passed over this chief place of Israel and have shorn it of its power 
and beauty. Well was the denunciation of the prophet of misfortune when he. de- 
clared that the Lord had set his face against this city, and not for good, and when 
he pronounced the words of the Most High, "Then will I cause to cease from the 
cities of Judah, and from the streets of Jerusalem, . . . the voice of the bridegroom, 
and the voice of the bride; for the land shall be desolate. " 

In those regions of the East where society passed its infancy, it seems to 
have reached decrepitude. If the associations which the memory of past glory ex- 
cites are powerful, they are yet melancholy. They are without gratification for the 
present and without hope for the future. But here we are in the freshness of youth; 
we can look forward, with national confidence, to days of progress in all that gives 
power and prosperity to the agents of human nature. No deeds of glory hallow this 
region, but Nature has been bountiful to it in her gifts. Art and industry are at work 
to improve and extend them. You cannot pierce the barrier which shuts In the past 
and separates you from the great highway of nations. You have opened a vista to 
the Atlantic and the Gulf of Mexico. From this elevated point, two seas are before 
us; your energy and perseverance have brought them within reach. It is better to 
look forward to prosperity than backward to glory. To the mental eye, no prospect 
can be more magnificent than that which here meets the vision. I need not stop to 
describe it. It is before us in the long West, to the south and north, in all the ad- 

78 



vantages which Providence has liberally bestowed and In the changes and improve- 
ments which man is making. The frontier is fading and falling; towns and villages 
are rising and flourishing. And better still, a morally Intelligent and industrious 
people are spreading themselves over the whole face of the country and making it 
their own and their home. 

And what changes and chances await us? Shall we go on increasing and im- 
proving, or shall we decay and just add another to the list of the republics which 
have preceded us and have fallen the victims of their own follies and dissensions? 
My faith in the stability of our institutions is enduring; my hope for them is strong, 
for they rest upon public virtue and intelligence. There is no portion of our country 
more Interested in their preservation than this; and none is more able and willing 
to maintain them. We may here claim to occupy the citadel of freedom. No foreign 
foe can iqiproach us. And while the West is true to itself and its country, its ex- 
ample wUl exert a powerful Influence upon the whole confederation; and its strength, 
if need be, will defend it. 



79 



xn 

THE CELEBRATION (PART ip 

The company then proceeded to another part of the ground and partook of a 
plenteous cold collation prepared for the occasion. After drinking the toasts, lis- 
tening to speeches from some of the distinguished gentlemen present, and listening 
to replies to letters of invitation from those who could not attend, they returned in 
the same order to the city. All were well pleased with their entertainment. Every- 
thing was conducted with the utmost regularity and decorum; and nothing occurred 
to mar the pleasure of a celebration which, we predict, will long be remembered 
by all who participated in it. 

The number present has been variously estimated at from ten to fifteen 
thousand. It was allowed by all to be the largest assemblage ever witnessed in &i- 
diana, with the exception of the Tippecanoe convention. 

The next morning. General Cass left here on his return home. He was ac- 
companied to the first lock by the committees, several citizens, and our bands. He 
expressed himself highly pleased with the appearance and prospects of our city and 
the attention he had received from its inhabitants; and his visit here has made an 
impression on the minds of all, which will not soon be effaced. 

It might be proper here, did our limits allow, to give some history to the 
origin and construction of this Canal; but we must forbear. By the letter of General 
McAfee, it will be seen that the feasibility of this work was ascertained, and its 
construction was predicted, as early as 1812 by the officers stationed here during 
the war. We have heard the late Miami chief, Rlchardvllle , say that the French 

80 



f,j^W^%^ 





f>arioo/e of CL p/zniious cc/e/ colloition. 



traders, more than half a century ago, used to ascend the Wabash to the portage on 
this summit and then descend the St. Mary's and the Maumee to Lake Erie. And he 
had known Instances, when the water was high and the marsh lying between Little 
River (a branch of the Wabash) and the St. Mary's was overflown, of boats actually 
being pushed across, thus achieving the voyage from Vlncennes to the Lake without 
unloading. 

The question of the Canal early engaged the attention of some of our leading 
men, even before the adoption of the state constitution. In 1826, General Cass, in 
a treaty with the Miami Indians, who then owned a large part of the country through 
which the Canal passes, secured a right-of-way and a strip of land a few rods in 
width along the whole length of the line for this object. In 1827, Congress made a 
donation to the state of Indiana of every alternate tier of sections within five miles 
of the Canal to aid in Its construction, provided that the work was completed within 
five years and opened for navigation. The legislature approved the work; in the en- 
suing spring, the first letting took place and the work was commenced. That part 
of the work lying within the state of Indiana was completed more than a year ago and 
would have been opened two years earlier if Ohio had pushed her portion of the work 
with corresponding energy. The latter state, however, did not complete her part 
until the present spring. 

The total length of the Canal now completed is two hundred and twenty-five 
miles; and ninety miles more, from Lafayette to Terre Haute, will be completed 
next year. The gradient from Lake Erie to the summit at Fort Wayne is two hundred 
feet, and the descent to Lafayette is about the same. The whole cost of the work 
has been about two million dollars, one half of which was met by the proceeds of 

82 



the funds donated by Congress. From Fort Wayne to the Ohio line, the Canal is 
sixty feet wide and six feet deep; thence to the Lake, it is fifty feet wide and five 
feet deep. West of Fort Wayne, it is forty feet wide and four feet deep. The sum- 
mit is plentifully supplied with water, and some valuable water power is created by 
a feeder canal from the Little St. Joseph. Feeders are also introduced from the 
Wabash at the forks of Little River and at several points below; and a large reser- 
voir is constructed in Ohio, near the state line, for the supply of that part of the 
work. 

To any person who will examine the aspects of this work, it will appear evi- 
dent that when its completion becomes known abroad, nearly the whole inland com- 
munication between the Atlantic states and the Southwest will be through. 

Packets now run from Lake Erie to Lafayette in two days. Thence to St. 
Louis can easily be accomplished by stage in two days or more. When the Canal is 
finished to Terre Haute, the communication between the Canal and St. Louis will be 
by the National Road. At Terre Haute, the Wabash is navigable at all seasons for 
steam power. 

In conclusion, we will just remark for the information of emigrants that a 
large part of the country now thrown open to them by this Canal is yet unoccupied; 
and lands ofunequaled fertility may be bought at extremely low prices. These lands, 
in addition to their fertility, have the advantage of being contiguous to a market. 



83 



xm 

REGULAR TOASTS 

1. The Day We Celebrate — gloriously consecrated as the justice of our lib- 
erty. 

(3 cheers — 3 guns). 

2. The Patriots, Heroes, and Soldiers of the Revolution — their memories 
are embalmed in the hearts of their countrymen, 

(Silent — standing) 

3. The Statesmen and Leaders of the Late War — by their outstanding achieve- 
ments they have added immortal glory to the national independence and the achieve- 
ment of the Fathers. 

(3 cheers — 3 guns) 

4. The Ex-President of the United States. 

(3 cheers — 3 guns) 

5. The President of the United States. 

(3 cheers — 3 guns) 

6. The Army and Navy — the nursery and school of future heroes whose chiv- 
alry will vindicate and sustain the national flag and national honor upon the land and 
upon the sea. 

(6 cheers — 6 guns) 

7. The Congress of the Union — the people's champion, chosen to vindicate 
and maintain inviolate constitutional liberty, 

(6 cheers — 6 guns) 
84 



8. The Memory of John Tipton — his mastermind was foremost In discover- 
ing the utility and practicability of constructing the Wabash and Erie Canal, fore- 
most in conceiving the design, and foremost in exertions to compass its comple- 
tion. His memory will be cherished as long as human voices shall be found in this 
broad valley to speak his name . 

(SUent — standing) 

9. The Union of the Waters of the Wabash and Lake Erie by the Wabash and 
Erie Canal — we now celebrate this as a great and glorious achievement. Just grat- 
itude and honor are due to the Congress of 1827 for its generous grant of land for 
the construction of the Canal and to the states of Ohio and Indiana for their energy 
and enterprise in consummating the great work. 

(20 cheers — 20 guns) 

10. The Union, by National Thoroughfares, of the Atlantic and the Lakes 
with the Great Rivers of the West — that union will bind together with imperishable 
ties the states of our widespread republic; it will consummate their prosperity and 
preserve forever their most glorious and happy Union. 

(6 cheers — 6 guns) 

11. The Distinguished Orator of the Day and Our Invited Guests — their pres- 
ence at our jubilee has greatly added to the interest of the day and evinces their 
deep solicitude for the prosperity of the West. 

(10 cheers — 10 guns) 

12. Ohio and Indiana, Adjoining and Sister States with Kindred Feelings and 
Interest — may they long continue to act in union and harmony in all great western 
enterprises . 

85 



(6 cheers — 6 guns) 

13. The Fair — first in our thoughts and hearts, their happiness is invoked 
whilst we celebrate the independence and prosperity of our country. 

(10 cheers — 10 guns) 

After the seventh toast, the Honorable Albert S. White, Senator in Congress 
from Indiana, rose to return thanks in behalf of that body. Mr. White spoke for 
some time, touching upon various topics appropriate to the occasion. 

Mr. White then offered the following toast: 

Agriculture and Commerce — as the track of the gathered harvest is seen 
upon the ocean, so Commerce, by her interior channels, penetrates the farthest 
interior of our country. Both claim the protection of the government. 

The Honorable E. A. Hannegan, United States Senator, was called on and 
addressed the assemblage in a most happy and felicitous manner. He expressed 
his gratification at being present on this interesting occasion and pointed out the 
utility and importance of the Wabash and Erie Canal. He passed a deserved eulogy 
upon General Tipton, to whose perseverance and untiring zeal we were mainly in- 
debted for the grant of land from Congress which enabled the state to accomplish 
this gigantic work. It was his first visit to this region; and he took the occasion to 
express how much he had been delighted with the richness of the country and the 
beauty, activity, and thriving appearance of our growing city. Both had far ex- 
ceeded his expectations. He sat down amidst the most enthusiastic applause. 

He then offered the following sentiment: 

The Day and the Occasion — the one is a No. 1 illustration of the other. 

After the reading of the thirteenth toast, the Honorable Ethan Allen Brown 

86 



rose. In a brief and appropriate manner, he returned thanks on behalf of the in- 
vited guests and especially for the honor conferred upon himself in being asked to 
act as president of the day. 

Governor Brown concluded by offering the following sentiment: 
Joyous be the nuptials that wed tlie waters of the North with those of the 
South on this level, and prosperous be the offering of that union. 

The Honorable Henry L. Falsworth, Commissioner of the Patent Office at 
Washington City, in compliance with a call, entertained the company with a speech 
full of interest. 



87 



XIV 
VOLUNTEER TOASTS 

By W. G. Ewing: The Several Bands of Music — who have attended our cele- 
bration. They richly merit our thanks for their fine music and able assistance upon 
this thrilling occasion. 

By Mr. McCulchen of Ohio: Being with the citizens of Ohio who are present 
on this occasion, we remember the hospitality of citizens of the beautiful city. 

By Samuel Hanna: The Toledo Guards — citizen soldiers, we thank you for 
your visit and for your able and efficient aid in the ceremonies of the day. We ad- 
mire your gentlemanly deportment. May the god of battles long protect and guard 
you; and at the final muster call, may your tents be pitched on the right of the Com- 
mander. 

By J. L. Habbel: The Wabash and Erie Canal — the great artery of the West. 

General Wiley, one of the vice-presidents, had taken the chair, and Mr. 
J. L. Williams gave the following toast: 

The President of the Day — twenty years ago as governor of Ohio, amid the 
sneers of the skeptical he persevered, year after year, in urging the connection of 
Lake Erie with the western waters by a canal. He has lived to see two such con- 
nections in successful operation. A distinguished piece at this canal festival is his 
due. 



88 



XV 
LETTERS FROM INVITED GUESTS 

The following letters were received by the committee of arrangement in re- 
ply to invitations to attend the canal celebration on July 4, 1843. 

Detroit, Michigan 
June 17, 1843 
Gentlemen: 

I am honored by your polite invitation to be present at Fort Wayne on July 4 
next, there to participate in an intended celebration of the Wabash and Erie Canal. 

The occasion I consider worthy to be celebrated with ^propriate ceremonies 
and with exultation and rejoicing. Were the results of so great a public work limited 
even to the agriculturalists of the rich and fertile valley of the Wabash alone, its 
completion would be worthy of cordial and animated rejoicings. For who can meas- 
ure its value, especially when boats upon that great Canal shall, by the progress- 
ing improvements in the application of steam, be seen propelled along its course 
by that mighty power I But happily, the benefits of the work are not thus geographi- 
cally united. The Canal recompenses the industry and brings wealth and gladness 
to the population of the beautiful country through which it passes. At the same time, 
in combination with other and similar works now in progress, it stimulates through- 
out the broad West a spirit of well-balanced enterprise; it gives increased activity, 
variety, and expression to its business. It pours ample riches along the whole av- 
enue of the Great Lakes. Our interests thus become yours and your interests ours. 
But do those benefits stop there? Far from itl The bold and gigantic projects of 

90 



internal Improvement of the British and colonial governments throughout Canada 
are holding out to the whole West the promise of the advantages of active competi- 
tion between and markets of Montreal and Quebec on the one side and those of our 
Atlantic cities on the other. Our clear-sighted and energetic fellow citizens of the 
East, therefore, will not long fail to perceive that their great interests will be best 
promoted by fostering and defending ours. They will no longer refuse to protect 
our commerce, for it will, in some sort, be theirs also; and they will make haste 
to multiply and perfect the means of cheap and rapid intercourse — commercial and 
social — between themselves and us. And thus will the East meet us midway; and 
upon their canals and railways, the East will shake hands with the West I 

The Illinois and Michigan Canal cannot long remain unfinished to Chicago. 
The "Queen City of the West" will not permit the completion of the Miami Extension 
Canal to be greatly delayed. Lines of intercommunication are rapidly prevading 
the whole land! A volume would hardly contain the well-reasoned speculations to 
which the subject may give rise! But among the probable consequences of such a 
system (not the least important, it may be conjectured), wiU be that, as the wide- 
spread fellow citizens become more intimate, sectional jealousies will merge more 
in a sense of mutual and common interest. The bitterness of local prejudices will 
be left without advocates or reasonable apology; motives, new and powerful, will 
lead us with increasing fervor to cherish the history of our country. Without his- 
tory's benign and protecting influence, our cheering hopes must become as a blight, 
and our prosperity be turned into hopeless ruin! 

But I have no right, gentlemen, to obtrude these speculations upon you. 
Having had occasion not long ago, in another place, to investigate the general com- 

91 



mercial relations of the country of the Great Lakes, I became more awakened, per- 
haps, to a consideration of their magnitude. I began to realize their pervading and 
indissoluble connection with the continuance and the prosperity of the whole Union I 
In this will, I trust, be found my apology for so long delaying you. The destinies 
of no people under heaven were ever, it seems to me, more emphatically under 
the providence of God, in his own keeping, than the destinies of his people. No 
people ever rose into being among the nations of the earth and into great power more 
rapidly, none with more grandeur. Upon none were all the elements of happiness 
and of prosperity poured out more abundantly or in greater variety. It would seem 
as if, under the providence of God, it remained entirely with the people to deter- 
mine whether or not their meridian splendor shall be proportionate to the early 
promise of their beginning, or whether we shall permit their glory to become over- 
cast by our folly, and their prosperity to become exting^ulshed under the dark and 
dreadful influences of our misgovemment and the reckless obstinacy and wicked 
profligacy of our administration. 

Cherishing sentiments such as these, in the spirit which they inculcate, I 
respectfully tender to you gentlemen and to our fellow citizens of Ohio and Indiana 
whom you represent, my cordial congratulations on the occasion which you are a- 
bout to commemorate. I fear I must be deprived of the gratification which my per- 
sonal attendance at the celebration would afford me. My remoteness from Fort 
Wayne, my feebleness of health, and a pressure of duties resultlngfrom my contin- 
ued absence from home seem to prevent me from attempting such a journey. And 
if, when the period assigned shall have arrived, I should not be found in attendance, 
I hope these considerations will plead my excuse. I have the honor to remain, 

92 



gentlemen, with great consideration, 

Your obedient servant, 
W, WOODBRTOGE 

Harrodsburg, Kentucky 
June 17, 1843 
Gentlemen: 

Your kind invitation to the celebration at Fort Wayne on July 4 next of the 
opening of the Wabash and Erie Canal has been received; for it, I return you my 
sincere thanks. And If I consulted my inclinations alone, I would certainly be with 
you. My recollections of the condition in which we found that place in September, 
1812, when General Harrison's army relieved it from the attacks of the Indians who 
had burnt and plundered every house outside of the fort, are yet fresh in my mind. 
I was, at that time, an officer in Colonel R. M. Johnson's mounted volunteers. The 
contrast which your flourishing town now exhibits must be gratifying to every pa- 
triot; I hope few take a deeper interest in it than I do. Being strongly impressed 
at that time with the admirable locality of the place, I then predicted, and so entered 
in my journal which I have now before me, that a canal at no very remote period 
would unite the waters of the Lakes with those of the Ohio and the Mississippi. I 
now find that prediction realized in a much shorter time than was expected. Fort 
Wayne must, of necessity, Increase in its population and prosperity; and, in a few 
years, it must take rank among the proudest of our inland cities. Your Canal con- 
stitutes one of the greatcords which is destined to bind our glorious Union together. 
Circumstances over which I have no control will prevent my attendance, but my 

93 



kindest feelings will be with you. I can only send you the following sentiment: 

Fort Wayne, one of the pioneers of civil and religious liberty — may the Wa- 
bash and Erie Canal be the great highway of Indiana's prosperity. 

Yours with respect, 

ROBERT B. McFEE 

Indianapolis, Indiana 
June 24, 1843 
Gentlemen: 

It affords me pleasure to acknowledge your very polite invitation, on behalf 
of your fellow citizens, to be with you at Fort Wayne on July 4 next for the purpose 
of celebrating with appropriate ceremonials the completion of the Wabash and Erie 
Canal. And while I caimot, under present circumstances, gratify myself with a 
participation in the festivities of the day, I assure you I must heartily congratulate 
you on the auspicious event you purpose to celebrate. I have long desired to see 
the completion of thatgreat work. And I believe that the most sanguine of its friends 
are wholly imable to make any estimate of its great value to all concerned. I need 
not assure you that I have felt a lively interest in the prosperity of the beautiful por- 
tion of Indiana through which your Canal passes; I have the same interest in every 
other part of the state. And if any act of mine, as the representative of the state, 
has contributed in any degree to the result you so justly appreciate, a consciousness 
of the fact wUl at all times afford me a peculiar satisfaction. 

Accept, gentlemen, the assurances of my high esteem and regard. 

Your obedient servant, 
O. H. SMITH 



Caaal Commissioner's Office 
Syracuse, New York 
June 13, 1843 
Gentlemen: 

I have received your invitation on behalf of the citizens of Ohio and Indiana 
who live on the line of the Wabash and Erie Canal to meet with them on July 4 next 
to celebrate the completion of that important work. It would give me great pleasure 
to accept the invitation were it possible for me to do so; but my official engagements 
are such as to compel me to decline it. 

I congratulate you and those you represent on the completion of a work of 
such importance not only to the states of Ohio and Indiana but also to the state of 
New York, whose citizens have felt a deep interest in the success of that undertak- 
ing. 

Please accept my thanks for the invitation and the kind manner in which it 
has been communicated to me. 

Yours with great respect, 
JAMES EARLL, JR. 

Buffalo, New York 
June 14, 1843 
Gentlemen: 

I feel highly honored by being included among those whom you have invited 

95 



to join in celebrating with appropriate ceremonies the completion of the Wabash and 
Erie Canal on July 4 next. The importance of this noble work cannot be overesti- 
mated; the enlightened judgement which conceived it and the detemilned and ener- 
getic perseverance which has so far consummated it under the most discouraging 
circumstances are worthy of, and must command, all honor. 

If I can possibly so arrange my affairs as to be present, nothing will give 
me greater pleasure than to be present on this most interesting occasion. I am, 
most respectfully. 

Your obedient servant, 

G. W. CLINTON 

Rockvllle, Indiana 
June 16, 1843 
Gentlemen: 

I have the pleasure to acknowledge your letter inviting me to attend the ca- 
nal celebration at Fort Wayne on July 4 next. 

It is out of my power to attend, and I regret that I was HI when I received 
your invitation and omitted to answer your letter for some days. I had the hope 
that I might be able to come. It is, however, impossible for me to do so. The peo- 
ple of the Wabash and Maumee valleys have great reason to congratulate each other 
on the union of the waters of the Mississippi and the St. Lawrence and the opening 
to them of a water communication with the Hudson. It would surely be pleasant to 
witness the messages of congratulations from the thousands who are present — it Is 
to be hoped, will be present — at the celebrated event. It will excite In many minds 

96 



fervent hopes in reference to the future, and it will serve to dispel those gloomy 
forebodings so extensively expressed when progress is projected in our state af- 
fairs. But I will not trouble you with a long letter; I will content myself with send- 
ing a sentiment which may be presented if occasion offers. 

The state of Indiana — her resources, her honor, and her honesty are equal 
to all her obligations and the protection of her fame against every reproach. 

Yours truly, 

T. A. HOWARD 

Madison, Indiana 
June 15, 1843 
Gentlemen of the Committee: 

I have received your kind invitation to be present at Fort Wayne and to par- 
ticipate in the proposed celebration of the completion of the Wabash and Erie Canal 
on July 4 next; and it would give me great pleasure, indeed, to be present with you 
at that celebration. 

This great work is one which I have looked upon as more extensively nation- 
al In its character, both commercial and political, than any other in the western 
portion of the Union. It Is to commerce one of the main arteries of navigation 
through the great interior of the United States. It is on the shortest route of inter- 
nal navigation between New York and New Orleans. And politically, it is the strong- 
est bond of union between the northeastern and southwestern states. And while this 
work has gone on with steady progress to its completion, it has not been liable to 
the objections which may justly be made to the system of internal Improvements 

97 



created for the state; for It Is based upon the munificence of the general government 
in the grant of lands made by Congress in 1827 for its construction. 

This grant was made in the furtherance of a wise and sagacious government 
policy which was adopted by compact as early as the year 1787. This compact de- 
clared that the portage near Fort Wayne (where the completion of this woric is to be 
celebrated) should be, and should remain forever, a common highway. It declared 
that "the navigable waters leading into the Mississippi and St. Lawrence, and the 
carrying places between the same, shall be common highways and forever free, as 
well to the inhabitants of the said territory as to the citizens of the United States, 
and those of any other states that may be admitted into the confederacy, without 
any tax, impost, or duty therefor. " 

This compact was made agreeable to the Constitution of the United States; 
and it is irrevocable unless by common consent. No future regulation of Congress 
can ever effect, in any way, the great internal navigation. No power of taxation 
over tills work has ever been exerted, or claimed to exist, over this portion of the 
waters of the United States. 

The Wabash and Erie Canal is a work of incalculable value; no one can con- 
template the prospective greatness of this republic and view the Canal with indif- 
ference. It must always remain an important tributary to the internal commerce 
of the states and a strong bond of union among them. 

The union of the waters of the Mississippi with those of the northern Lakes 
through this Canal is a grand national spectacle. And no one will behold it with 
more admiration and pleasure and pride of country than the individual who hereby 
acknowledges the flattering attention he has received in your kind invitation but 

98 



regrets that It will be impossible for him to be with you on the occasion referred to. 

With much respect, 
WILLIAM HENDRICKS 

Upper Piqua, Ohio 
June 23, 1843 
Gentlemen: 

I have duly received your letter of May 24 last, containing an invitation to 
participate in the festivities of your celebration. By reason of other and impera- 
tive engagements. It will be out of my power to attend. 

I cannot be indifferent to the occasion of your meeting, for I had the honor 
of serving for many years on the canal board of Ohio. I was a co-worker with the 
public men of Indiana in the great work, the completion of which you are about to 
celebrate. I was also, at a very early period of my life, a resident of Fort Wayne 
in the public service; and, if it were possible for me to revisit a spot endeared to 
my mind by so many recollections, I could not forego the pleasure. Of the officers 
who successively commanded there, I am not aware that a single one now survives. 
Hamtramck, Hunt, Whistler, Pasteur, Pike, and others, after having served their 
country with distinguished honor and usefulness, have all long since sunk into the 
grave; they have left nothing to their children but the inheritance of an honorable 
fame with the public men of that day. The accumulation of wealth by defrauding the 
government did not enter into their calculations. The trade in politics was then un- 
known. The honest and incorruptible Harrison presided over the destinies of Indi- 
ana; he always did the thing that was lawful and right himself and caused all others 

99 



subject to his authority to do the same. 

Gentlemen, it is in the highest degree creditable to your state and my own 
that, amidst all the fluctuations and revolutions in parties and amidst the base a- 
bandonment of principles by public men for the sake of office, the cause of internal 
improvement has been steadily prosecuted to completion. Public credit has re- 
mained inviolate. I trust it can never be said that a single voice will, in all future 
time, be raised either in the councils of Indiana or in those of Ohio in favor of the 
accursed doctrine of repudiation. I trust that another McNutt (worse, if possible, 
than the traitor Arnold) will never be found disgracing the annals of our common 
country. 

It is fifty years since I first set my feet on the soil of Ohio. Then the red 
men covered the face of the whole country. Now they are gone, and two militias of 
our race are in their place and stead. Such a change has no parallel in history. 
The evidences of greatness, wealth, and refinement meet the traveler in every di- 
rection. Indiana is fast following our example. May God speed her; my best wishes 
attend her. My first-bom is a native of your town; and now for upwards of twenty 
years he has been an officer in the United States Navy. He is a gallant spirit who 
will never bring reproach upon the Hoosier State of his nativity. My second son is 
an officer in the dragoons now serving in the far West. 

Gentlemen, it has fallen to my lot to sit down at the festive board on July 4 
at Fort Wayne in years long since passed away; some of the happiest days of my 
life have been spent there. I caimot refer to the associations connected with your 
town and country without living over again a life of fifty years. I cannot be with you 
in person on the occasion which has brought you together; but I shall be with you in 

100 



the spirit and in all the anticipations of profit, honor, and glory — public or private 
— growing out of the completion of the great work which reflects so much credit on 
the constancy, public spirit, and patriotism of the citizens of Indiana and Ohio. 
I beg leave to offer to the company the following sentiment: 
The bona fide taxpaying citizens of Indiana and Ohio — by their public spirit 
and patriotism in the completion of the Wabash and Erie Canal, they have reflected 
imperishable honor on themselves and their posterity as well as on the cause of 
popular government. 

I am, gentlemen, with very great respect. 

Your most obedient servant, 
JOHN JOHNSTON 

Piqua, Ohio 
June 30 , 1843 
Gentlemen: 

I received, a few days ago, your kind letter of invitation to a canal celebra- 
tion to be held in your town on the day of our national anniversary. I thank you for 
this distinguished mark of favor. The ill health of my family and business engage- 
ments combine to render it impossible for me to attend your meeting. 

The construction of a canal from the interior of your state through Fort 
Wayne to the Maumee Bay and the completion of the Miami and Erie Canal from 
Cincinnati to unite with the Wabash and Erie Canal have been, with me, objects of 
deep Interest for more thanfifteen years. When Isurveyed Fort Wayne for Messrs. 
Barr and McCorkle about twenty years ago, with the aid of Mr. Davis and other 

101 



gentlemen, I made a survey and level from the waters of the Wsdiash to the St. 
Mary's, near Fort Wayne, with reference to a canal. I was convinced then of the 
practicability and Importance of the work; both in public and private life, I have 
since used all the Influence so humble an individual could use in favor of this great 
public improvement. 

The late contracts to finish the Miami and Erie Canal are peculiarly oppor- 
tune and must give a little additional zeal to your celebration. Although I cannot 
visit you now, I hope in two years to visit you in a canalboat. 

Very respectfully, 

ROBERT YOUNG 

Lindenwald 

Kinderhook, New York 
June 5, 1843 
Gentlemen: 

I have had the honor to receive your letter inviting me to unite with the citi- 
zens of Ohio and Indiana upon the line of the Wabash and Erie Canal in celebrating 
with appropriate ceremonies the completion of that important work. Most cordial- 
ly, gentlemen, do I subscribe to the opinion which regards the event you propose to 
honor as making a new and glorious era in the history of the West. Nothing, be as- 
sured, could afford me more pleasure than to be favored with an opportunity to ex- 
press, in person, to the worthy and enterprising inhabitants of the Maumee and Wa- 
bash valleys, my heartfelt congratulations on the final accomplishment of an under- 
taking for which they have so long, so sedulously, and so perseveringly labored. 

102 




/\AQTIM-VAN'BUPE.N 



As a New Yorker, and one, too, who has, to some extent, had It in his power to 
judge from personal observation of the vast utility of this magnificent work, I feel a 
more than common Interest in an event which cannot fail to be gratifying to every 
citizen of our extended coimtry. 

Circumstances, however, I regret to say, put it out of my power to be with 
you; and it only remains to thank you for your polite attention and to assure you of 
the unfeigned respect with which I am. 

Your friend and obedient servant, 
MARTIN VAN BUREN 

White Sulphur, Kentucky 
June 12, 1843 
Gentlemen: 

Your invitation has been received to attend the celebration of the completion 
of the Wabash and Erie Canal on July 4. My previous engagement to meet the Ore- 
gon Convention at Cincinnati will prevent me from attending. Fort Wayne is a mem- 
orable place in the early settlement of the western coimtry. It is a place at which I 
was occasionally stationed during the late war, when I had the honor to command 
the gallant sons of Kentucky in defense of that wilderness frontier, in conjunction 
with the brave sons of Ohio. It brings to my mind many Interesting reminiscences 
connected with the condition of our country at that day. There is no place in the 
wide valley of the Mississippi where I should be more gratified to visit; and I regret 
that it will not be in my power to meet my fellow citizens, as requested. 

The Fourth of July is a very appropriate period to celebrate the completion 

104 



of that interesting and splendid Improvement which opens a safe water communica- 
tion to the Atlantic and middle states by means of the Lakes and other similar Im- 
provements. Each Improvement gives strength to our federal union, increases our 
wealth and happiness, and tends to perpetuate our free Institutions. 

I sincerely congratulate you and our fellow citizens of Ohio and Indiana in 
the beneficial results of the consummation of this important Canal. I am, with great 
respect, 

Your friend and fellow citizen, 

R. M. JOHNSON 

Elizabethtown, New Jersey 
June 26, 1843 
Gentlemen: 

Since I had the honor of receiving your invitation, I have endeavored so to 
shape my official engagements as to allow me to have the high gratification of being 
present at your approaching celebration. But I have just been detained nearly a 
month on special duty at the United States Military Academy, and I am now obliged 
to hasten back to my office at Washington, 

The completion of the Canal uniting the Wabash with Lake Erie is one of 
those great works which cannot fail greatly to benefit more than one quarter of the 
Union and to shed joy over the remaining part. It marks the progress of the age. 
That its results may more than realize the anticipations of its patriotic projectors 
and supporters is the prayer of your fellow citizen, 

WINFIELD SCOTT 
105 



Ashland 

Lexington, Kentucky 
June 23, 1843 
Gentlemen: 

I duly received your invitation to attend the celebration of the completion of 
the Wabash and Erie Canal on the fourth of next month; and I should be most happy 
to assist in the ceremonies of such an event which reflects so much honor on the 
enterprise of the states of Ohio and Indiana. But I regret that I cannot leave home 
at this busy season of the year; the growing crops on my farm are very much behind 
in consequence of the extremely unfavorable spring which we have just passed. 

Accept, gentlemen, my respectful acknowledgments for your obliging in- 
vitation and my wishes that the proposed celebration may realize all your expecta- 
tions. I am, with great respect, 

Your friend and obedient servant, 
HENRY CLAY 

Boston, Massachusetts 
June 9, 1843 
Gentlemen: 

Circumstances do not allow me to accept your kind Invitation to be present 
at the celebration of the completion of the Wabash and Erie Canal; but I partake, 
nevertheless, in full measure, in the satisfaction which the accomplishment of so 
noble a work affords to all friends of internal improvement. The Maumee joined to 
the Wabash! Lake Erie connected with the Ohio and the Mississippi! New York and 

106 




^EMi^y CLay 



New Orlesms, rival markets for the products of a vast portion of the most fertile 
West with easy and certain communication to either 1 Certainly you are very right 
In rejoicing In this event as a new and glorious era in the history of the Westl Well 
may the thousands of inhabitants of these valleys assemble together to give expres- 
sion to their feelings of exultation and to congratulate one another on the attainment 
of an object of such high importance. 

I am accustomed to regard our whole country as one country and to look with 
equal interest on the progress of improvement in all parts of it; and I am deeply 
impressed with a sense of the value of these great lines of communication in the 
new and rich states of the West. I should, therefore, join in your celebration, if it 
were possible for me to attend it, with the most sincere gratification. Let the com- 
pletion of this great work encourage us all. Let us hope (and for myself, I both 
hope and believe) that the darkest hour in the day of our depression has passed a- 
way. And let us trust that an enlightened public spirit, private Industry, public 
and private economy, and the prevalence of just principles and honorable sentiments 
Eoay, ere long, place the whole country even in advance of any stage of its former 
prosperity. Believe me, gentlemen, with sincere regard. 

Your friend and obedient servant, 

DANIEL WEBSTER 

Springfield, Illinois 
June 10, 1843 
Gentlemen: 

I have had the honor of receiving your invitation on behalf of the citizens of 

108 




DANILL WEB5TLR 



Fort Wayne to attend on the Fourth of July next the celebration of the completion of 
the Wabash and ErieCanal. As theClrcuit Court of the United States will commence 
its session at Cincinnati on the first Monday of July, it will not be in my power to 
attend the celebration. It would afford me peculiar gratification to unite with my 
fellow citizens of Indiana and Ohio in celebrating such an event which, you justly ob- 
serve, constitutes a new era in the West. 

I recollect that when the illustrious and farseeing Clinton was using all his 
influence to enlist public sentiment in favor of a system of internal communication 
by canals, he was opposed strenuously and bitterly by many of the leading men in 
his own state. Some of them doubted the practicability of the great western canal 
which he projected. So strong was this opposition that the friends of the system 
were often brought to doubt whether public opinion would not set so strongly against 
them as to defeat all their efforts. But the Indomitable spirit of Clinton and the in- 
fluence of his great name triumphed at last; and never was a triumph more glorious 
to a country. The first and greatest difficulty was overcome. The great canal of 
New York has been completed, and connecting lines through Lake Erie in Ohio and 
Indiana have been projected and accomplished. These, by connecting the waters of 
the Atlantic with the waters of the Gulf of Mexico, give an internal transportion of 
many thousands of miles through as rich a coimtry as the sun enlightens. 

The Wabash and Erie Canal constitutes a most important line In the system. 
Thirty years ago, no one could have had the temerity to predict that, within so 
short a time, the Wabash and Lake Erie would be connected by a work so magnifi- 
cent as that which you are about to celebrate. Along the line of this great work, 
flourishing villages and towns will rise as Lf by magic; and the people of the adjacent 

110 



country for many miles will find themselves, in effect, brought near to the great 
marts of the Union. This and other works of internal Improvement similar in char- 
acter and effect will afford means for a rapid development of the exhaustless re- 
sources of our country. 

But fertile as is our country, and exhaustless as are its resources, three 
things are necessary to secure to us national prosperity: 

1. A soimd and equal circulating medium which shall be sufficient for the 
business of the country 

2. A steady policy for the action of the federal government which shall draw 
from imports, by an enlightened and judicious discrimination, a sum sufficient to 
meet the public expenditures 

3. The payment or satisfactory adjustment of the state debts. 
With the greatest respect, I am. 

Your friend and fellow citizen, 
JOHN McLEAN 

Treasury Department 
Washington, D. C. 
June 2, 1843 
Gentlemen: 

I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your kind invitation to unite 
with my fellow citizens of Ohio and Indiana in celebrating the completion of the Wa- 
bash and Erie Canal on the Fourth of July next; and I regret extremely that the 
pressure of official duties will deprive me of the pleasure of being present on that 

111 



interesting occasion. 

The great importance of those internal improvements uniting the Lakes with 
the MlBslsslppi has always been regarded by me with the liveliest interest as a 
source not only of local, but also of national, wealth. It gives me, then, great 
pleasure to learn that, by the energy and enterprise of their citizens, amid the most 
perplexing embarrassments, Ohio and Indiana have been able to complete so tri- 
umphantly one of the most important works in the country. With assurances of 
great respect, I remain, gentlemen. 

Your obedient servant, 

J. C, SPENCER 

Post Office Department 
Washington, D. C. 
June 30, 1843 
Gentlemen: 

I have been honored through you as a committee of the citizens of Ohio and 
Indiana with an invitation to attend the celebration of the completion of the Wabash 
and Erie Canal on July 4, 1843, at Fort Wayne. I would be much gratified to be 
present and unite with you on that day — itself consecrated to freedom — in the ex- 
pression of that joy which all must feel at the completion of a work so pregnant 
with advantages to the citizens of all the states. 

I cannot but reflect that your assembly place and the states whose energies 
and patriotism have united the waters of the Lakes with those of the Mississippi 
were uninhabited by civilized man only a few years ago. When I behold your 

112 



present power — moral, physical, and political — I am led to inquire what will be the 
mighty power and energy of those two young giants of the West in a few more years I 
God speed them in the work of moral, intellectual, and physical culture. 

I am compelled to decline the invitation because of the distance from this 
place, where my official duties so constantly require my whole time. 

If the occasion is one which allows the expression of a sentiment, permit 
me to offer one: 

The citizens of Ohio and Indiana — may their interests, sympathies, and 
opinions unite as harmoniously and as indissolubly as glide the waters of the two 
states along their Canal, whose completion is this day celebrated. 

Your obedient servant, 
C. A. WICKLIFFE 

Portsmouth, New Hampshire 
June 5, 1843 
Gentlemen: 

Allow me to express warm acknowledgments for the invitation you have 
given me to attend the celebration of the completion of the Wabash and Erie Canal. 
Distance and other engagements near July 4 must prevent my acceptance; 
but I cannot refrain from congratulating you on the event to which your festivities 
will be dedicated. I sincerely hope that many more arteries and veins wU.1, ere 
long, help your great work to pour lifeblood and vigor through the remotest extrem- 
ities of the Union. 

Respectfully 
LEVI WOODBURY 



Indianapolis, Indiana 
June 2, 1843 
Gentlemen: 

Yours of the date of June 22, 1843, was received by me last evening; and I 
talte the earliest opportunity of replying to it. 

The union of the waters of Lake Erie with those of the Wabash — and as I 
fervently hope ere long, of the Lake and the Ohio — has been with me a subject of 
deep Interest as an American, and of much more interest as an Indianian. I feel 
proud of the energy and enterprise which has effected this great work. As soon as 
the Canal is opened to the Ohio, we shall have, in my opinion, the best and most 
direct communication which can be opened between the Lake and the valley of the 
Mississippi. And the time is not far distant, as I believe, when the whole trade 
between the mouth of the Green River on the Ohio and the Balize [ sic] will find its 
way to the north, through the Maumee Bay, via the Wabash and Erie Canal. Imag- 
ine, for a moment, that the Canal is completed to the Ohio, and that there is a war 
between this country and Great Britain; suppose a British armed force lies off the 
mouth of the Mississippi. Could not the whole cotton and sugar crop of Mississippi 
and Louisiana find its way to the north inland, through our Canal? The event al- 
luded to, a war with Great Britain, it may be said, is not very probable. It is e- 
nough for my argument that it is possible. For, assuming the completion of the 
canal connecting the Illinois River and Lake Michigan, he who looks at the map of 

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the United States and traces the distance from the Maumee Bay to Chicago (upwards 
of nine hundred miles of difficult lake navigation), thence down the Illinois to the 
Mississippi, must acknowledge that even when completed, it will not be as safe, as 
cheap, or as certain a route as that through our own state from the Maumee Bay to 
the Ohio River. 

Our fathers before us seem prophetically to have foreseen the advantages 
of the internal communication above alluded to. By the ordinance for the govern- 
ment of the Northwest Territory of July 13, 1787, they declared, "the navigable 
waters leading into the Mississippi and St. Lawrence, and the carrying places be- 
tween the same, shall be common highways and forever free. " Little did these 
great and good men, prophetic as they were, imagine that in a little more than half 
a century their children would meet in the midst of thriving farms, populous vil- 
lages, and cultivated fields to celebrate atone of these very carrying places the 
mingling of the waters of the Lake and the Mississippi. Little did they think that in 
the same period, the footsteps of the last of the Miami would be seen on the sands 
of the Wabash, as he wended his way before the march of civilization across the 
Father of Waters. Little did they dream that the mart of commerce, the temple of 
justice, and the church of the living God would reach their spires to Heaven where 
then stood alone the wigwam of the Indian and the council house of his nation. Lit- 
tle did they dream that a country inhabited only by the trapper and the Indian would, 
in 1843, teem with wealth, population, and intelligence and present, in only one 
third of its area, a state the sixth of the confederacy and a population of 750,000 
souls. 

The late talented and venerable Colonel Francis Vigo of Vlncennes was prob- 

115 



ably the first white man to traverse the country between the Wabash and the Maumee 
by water. He informed me that in 1788 he went fromVinceimes to Detroit with pelt- 
ry, without unloading his pirogues. He went up the Wabash in a high stage of water 
as far as Little River, thence into the St. Mary's, thence into the Maumee, and 
down that river to the Lake. His canoes were shoved, without unloading, through 
from Little River into the St. Mary's where the waters of the two united. In the 
commencement of the eighteenth century, the French were in the constant habit of 
passing from the Lake to the Wabash. Their settlements at Vincennes, Ouiatenon 
(or mouth of the Wea), and I may add, Fort WajTie (for they had a small settlement 
there in 1750), were visited by ascending the Maumee, crossing the portage, and 
descending the Wabash. And long before theOhlo had been discovered by the whites, 
the Maumee and the Wabash had been navigated. In point of antiquity, you see, we 
rank with the "Belle Riviere. " 

Accept, gentlemen, collectively and individually, my best wishes, and be- 
lieve me respectfully. 

Your obedient, humble servant, 

JOHN LAW 

New York, New York 
June 28, 1843 
Gentlemen: 

I had been anticipating much pleasure in accepting your kind Invitation to 
attend the opening of the Wabash and Erie Canal on the fourth of next month, but I 
am unfortunately detained at home by Illness in my family. 

116 



I was particularly desirous of being present on this most interesting oc- 
casion regarding the completion of this important channel of communication. This 
celebration is an event of the deepest interest, not only to the great central region 
which it traverses, but also in fact to every portion of this American Union con- 
nected directly of indirectly with the chain of lakes. Upon several occasions, it 
had fallen to my lot, in the discharge of official duties connected with the public 
works of this state, to urge upon our legislature and people the important and abid- 
ing influence which the junction of Lake Erie with the navigable waters of the Wabash 
must inevitably exert upon our fiscal and commercial condition. And now that the 
great work — thanks to the forecast and energy of our fellow citizens of Indiana and 
Ohio — is happily accomplished, I look with confidence to the rapid development of 
the advantages It cannot fail to produce. 

I beg to be permitted to exchange with our valued fellow laborers in the 
broad field of internal improvement throughout the West, earnest and fervent felic- 
itations at the consummation of a work destined, as I firmly believe, to open out 
for years to come a ceaseless stream of prosperity upon our common country. The 
completion of the Wabash and Erie Canal I had also regarded, for some time past, 
with still deeper solicitude. It will solve the problem of whether our patriotic and 
intelligent friends in the interior wUl sink beneath the disheartening disasters 
through which the country has been passing and hopelessly abandon their noble sys- 
tems of physical improvements, or whether they will successfully and honestly per- 
severe amid the difficulties of the times and carry forward those systems to a suc- 
cessful and profitable issue. I cannot but believe that the completion by Indiana of 
the main stem in the western chain of works must dispel all doubts on this head. 

117 



It proclaims to the world that Indiana, at least, is willing and able to struggle 
through those difficulties and not to falter in her career until the boundless re- 
sources of her extensive and fertile territory shall all be adequately developed and 
the industry of her whole population shall be brought Into full and beneficial action. 

Need we add how instructively valuable is her example to her sister com- 
munities who are still struggling with the embarrassment of extensive and valuable, 
but unfinished, works — works destined eventually, like the Wabash Canal, to become 
sources of enduring prosperity and imperishable renown? 

Believe me, gentlemen, that I do most deeply regret my inability to be with 
you in person at the celebration of the interesting event which now calls you to- 
gether. I beg, however, to express my feelings, though most inadequately, in the 
following sentiment: 

The Wabash and Erie Canal — a signal triumph of intelligence, patriotism, 
and honest enterprise, amid the disheartening influence of the times. The example 
is replete with instruction and encouragement. 

I remain, with high regard. 

Your most obedient servant, 
SAMUEL B. RUGGLES 

Albany, New York 
June 17, 1843 
Gentlemen: 

It would give me pleasure to accept your polite invitation of June 22, 1843, 
to unite with you in celebrating the completion of the Wabash and Erie Canal on 

118 



July 4, 1843; but public engagements in this state will prevent me. 

Nearly twenty years of the best period of my life have been devoted to the 
construction of the public works in this state. And I have become strongly impressed 
with the utility of roads and canals to develop the resources of a country. Under 
the influence of the Erie Canal, I have seen western New York rise as tf by magic 
from agricultural despondency to a high state of prosperity. 

The rich and productive country bordering on the Wabash and Erie Canal 
has, In effect, been transferred by public improvements about as near to the Hudson 
River as the county of Cayuga was before the construction of the Erie Canal. 

The completion of your Canal will give new life and vigor to your enter- 
prising population. And the day is not distant when the western states will rise in 
their majesty above the financial embarrassments with which they have been re- 
cently oppressed. 

Allow me to present, through you, to your fellow citizens my cordial con- 
gratulations for the important event you are to celebrate on the Fourth of July. I 
am, with great respect. 

Your obedient servant, 
WILLIAM C. BOUCK 

Howard's Hotel 
New York, New York 
June 27, 1843 
Gentlemen: 

lam favored with yours of a late date inviting me on behalf of the inhabitants 

119 



of the Maumee and Wabash valleys to unite with them in celebrating the com- 
pletion of the Wabash and Erie Canal at Fort Wayne on the Fourth of July next; and 
I regret to say that official engagements will detain me here. 

The completion of this vast enterprise is an event worthy of the attention it 
is about to receive at the hands of the generous and patriotic people to whom we are 
Indebted for its design and execution. And the day sacred to American liberty and 
independence has been appropriately selected for the exchange of congratulations 
upon a subject so deeply fraught with good to the Union, and especially to the grow- 
ing West. 

Be pleased to accept my acknowledgments for the honor conferred by your 
invitation, and believe me to be with high regard, 

Your friend and fellow citizen, 
D. S. DICKINSON 

JOHN EWING, Esq. , at Vincennes, sent a long letter givii^ much interest- 
ing information in regard to the early legislation of the state on the subject of the 
Canal and setting forth his claims as one of the originators and earliest supporters 
of the work. The extreme length renders it impossible for us to reproduce the let- 
ter here. He concludes with the following sentiment: 

"The Fourth of July and the Wabash and Erie Canal east of Lafayette — the 
conception of the one emanated from, and is consummated in, the true spirit of the 
other. May their fruits be reaped in plenty and enjoyed with happiness, and may 
they amply reward their brave, enterprising, and industrious friends. " 

FORT WAYNE WEEKLY SENTINEL, July 15, 1843 



HECKMAN IXI 
BINDERY INC. |s| 

MAR 95 



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