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Full text of "Report on the conservation status of Penstemon lemhiensis, a candidate threatened species : Montana"

MONTANA 
STATE 




This -cover" page added by the Internet Archive fer formatting purposes 



STATE DOCUMENTS COLLECT! ON 

V.r ' 1 ^S93 

MONTANA STATE LIBRARY 

1515 E. 6th AVE. 
HELENA, MONTANA 59620 



REPORT ON THE CONSERVATION STATUS OF 
Penstemon lemhiensis . A CANDIDATE THREATENED SPECIES: 



MONTANA 



Taxon Name: 

Common Name: 

Family: 

States Where Taxon Occurs: 

Current Federal Status: 

Recommended Federal Status: 

Author of Report: 

Original Date of Report: 

Date of Most Recent Revision: 

Individual to Whom Further 
Information and Comments 
Should be Sent: 



Penstemon lemhiensis (Keck) Keck & 
Cronq. 

Lemhi beardtongue 

Scrophulariaceae 

U.S.A.: Montana, Idaho 

USFWS Notice of Review, Category 2 

USFWS Notice of Review, Category 2 

J. Stephen Shelly 

8 May 1990 

N/A 



Lisa Schassberger 

Montana Natural Heritage Program 

State Library Building 

1515 E. 6th Avenue 

Helena, MT 59620 



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TABLE OF CONTENTS 

Page 

I. SPECIES INFORMATION 

1. Classification and nomenclature 1 

2. Present legal or other formal status 2 

3. Description 4 

4. Significance 7 

5. Geographical distribution ..... 7 

6. General environment and habitat description 19 

7. Population biology of the taxon 25 

8. Population ecology of the taxon 35 

9. Current land ownership and management responsibility. . 37 

10. Management practices and experience 38 

11. Evidence of threats to survival 40 

II. ASSESSMENT AND RECOMMENDATIONS 

12. General assessment of vigor, trends, and status .... 42 

13. Recommendations for listing or status change 42 

14. Recommended critical habitat 43 

15. Conservation/recovery recommendations 4 3 

16. Interested parties 45 

III. INFORMATION SOURCES 

17. Sources of information 46 

18. Summary of materials on file 48 

IV. AUTHORSHIP 

19. Initial authorship 48 

20. Maintenance of status report 48 

V. NEW INFORMATION 

21. Record of revisions 48 



Literature Cited 49 

Appendix A (Element occurrence print-outs) 52 



I. SPECIES INFORMATION 

1. Classification and nomenclature. 

A. Species. 

1. Scientific name. 

a. Binomial: Penstemon lemhiensis (Keck) 
Keck and Cronguist. 

* 

b. Full bibliographic citation: Keck, D.D., 
and A. Cronguist. 1957. Studies in 
Penstemon - IX. Notes on northwestern 
American species. Brittonia 8: 248. 

c. Type specimen: Granite Mountain, Lemhi 
County, Idaho, July 1, 1937, Ray F. Blair 
s.n. (Dudley Herbarium, Stanford 
University) . 

2. Pertinent synonym: Penstemon speciosus Dougl. 
ssp. lemhiensis Keck (Keck 1940) . 

3. Common names: Lemhi beardtongue, Lemhi 
penstemon. 

4. Taxon codes: PDSCR1L3N0 (The Nature 
Conservancy); 7764, PENLEM (U.S. Forest 
Service, Region 1) . 

5. Size of genus: Penstemon lemhiensis is one of 
approximately 250 species in the genus; most of 
these species occur in the western United 
States (Cronguist et al. 1984) . 

B. Family classification. 

1. Family name: Scrophulariaceae. 

2. Pertinent family synonym: None. 

3. Common names for the family: Figwort Family, 
Snapdragon Family. 

C. Major plant group: Dicotyledoneae. 

D. History of knowledge of taxon: Penstemon lemhiensis 
was first collected in 192 0, in Lemhi County, Idaho, 
by E.B. and L.B. Payson ( 1975 , ID). Subseguent 
collections from the same county were made by R.F. 
Blair in 1936, 1937 and 1938 (Keck 1940), and in 



194 6 by Hitchcock and Muhlick ( 14335 , NY) . On the 
basis of the Blair specimens, Keck (1940) described 
Penstemon speciosus ssp. lemhiensis . The first 
collection in Montana was made in 1947 by F.H. Rose 
( 3502 . MONTU) , in Beaverhead County. The first 
collection in Ravalli County, Montana, was made by 
T.G. and V.C. McCall (352, MONTU) in 1950. These 
additional specimens, along with more detailed 
information regarding the distribution and 
relationships of P. speciosus . substantiated the 
need to elevate ssp. lemhiensis to the species level 
(Keck and Cronquist 1957) . 

During the period 1973-1988, 19 populations were 
documented in Lemhi County, Idaho; most of these 
were found by Dr. Douglass Henderson, University of 
Idaho. In Montana, an early assessment of 
threatened and endangered plant species (Watson 
1976) reported five populations in Beaverhead 
County, Montana. Subsequently, a detailed 
ecological study of the species was completed 
(Ramstetter 1983) ; four populations in Montana, and 
two in Idaho, were studied in detail. 

Field surveys in Montana were also conducted in 
1986, 1987, and 1989 by the Montana Natural Heritage 
Program (MTNHP) . These surveys have been partially 
funded by the U.S. Forest Service; funding was also 
provided by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service 
(Section 6 Project Agreement SE-5-P-1) . Prior to 
1989, P.. lemhiensis had been recently documented 
(1986-1988) from 18 sites in Beaverhead County; 12 
new sites were located in 1989. One recent report 
could not be verified (Medicine Lodge Creek, 022), 
and one historical collection (021: "West of Big 
Hole Battlefield," 1947, F.H. Rose (3502) . MONTU) 
has not been relocated. In Ravalli County, two 
historical records were known; it is believed that 
the 1989 surveys resulted in the rediscovery of 
these populations. Also, two previously unrecorded 
populations were found, and one population was 
reported to the MTNHP. Thus, P. lemhiensis is 
currently known from 35 locations in Montana (30 in 
Beaverhead County, five in Ravalli County) . 

E. Comments on current alternative taxonomic 

treatments: There are no known current alternative 
taxonomic treatments. 

2. Present legal or other formal status. 

A. International: None. 



B. National. 

1. United States. 



a. Present designated or proposed legal 
protection or regulation: U.S. Fish and 
Wildlife Service : Penstemon lemhiensis is 
currently included in Category 2 of the 
U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Notice of 
Review (U.S. Department of Interior 1990), 
under consideration for federal listing as 
a threatened species. Category 2 taxa are 
those "...for which information now in 
possession of the Service indicates that 
proposing to list them as endangered or 
threatened species is possibly 
appropriate, but for which substantial 
data on biological vulnerability and 
threat (s) are not currently known or on 
file to support the immediate preparation 
of rules." 

U.S. Forest Service : P. lemhiensis is 
currently included on the U.S. Forest 
Service Region 1 sensitive species list 
(U.S. Department of Agriculture 1988; Reel 
et al . 1989) . Sensitive species are 
"...those plant and animal species 
identified by the Regional Forester for 
which population viability is a concern, 
as evidenced by: a.) (s) ignif icant 
current or predicted downward trends in 
population numbers or density," and/or 
"b.) (s) ignif icant current or predicted 
downward trends in habitat capability that 
would reduce a species' existing 
distribution" (Reel et al. 1989) . Through 
its inclusion on the Region 1 sensitive 
species list, P. lemhiensis has legal 
protection under U.S. Forest Service 
agency policies (W. Ruediger, pers. 
comm. ) . 

b. Other current formal status 
recommendations: The species is currently 
listed as "threatened throughout range" 
(global rank = G3) by The Nature 
Conservancy. 

c. Review of past status: The species was 
originally included in the "notice of 
consideration" by the U.S. Fish and 
Wildlife Service in 1975 (U.S. Department 



of Interior 1975) . It was formally placed 
in Category 1 in 1980 (U.S. Department of 
Interior 1980) . It was placed in Category 
2 in 1983, and has retained this status to 
date (U.S. Department of Interior 1983, 
1985, 1990). 



2. State. 

a. Montana. 



i. Present designated or proposed 
legal protection or regulation: 
None. 

ii. Other current formal status 

recommendations: The species is 
currently listed as "imperiled 
in Montana" (state rank = S2) by 
the Montana Natural Heritage 
Program (Shelly 1990a) . 

iii. Review of past status: 
Previously listed as 
"recommended threatened" by the 
Montana Rare Plant Project 
(Lesica et al. 1984) . 



b. Idaho. 



i. Present designated or proposed 
legal protection or regulation: 
None. 

ii. Other current formal status 

recommendations: The species is 
currently listed as "imperiled 
in Idaho" (state rank = S2) by 
the Idaho Natural Heritage 
Program (Moseley and Groves 
1990) . 

iii. Review of past status: 

Henderson (1981) recommended 
that P. lemhiensis be accorded 
federal "threatened" status. 



3. Description. 



A. General nontechnical description: Penstemon 

lemhiensis is a stout herb with stems that are about 
15-30 inches tall. The flowers are bright blue to 
purple in color, and about 1^-2 inches long. The 



basal leaves are entire, with no teeth or lobes, and 
are large, being about 3-6 inches long. The stem 
leaves are shorter, about 1-4 inches long, and are 
opposite. The plants are in flower from early June 
to July, depending on weather conditions and 
altitude. 

B. Technical description: Perennial herb, 3-7 dm. (12- 
28 in.) tall, with one-several stout stems from a 
branched caudex; herbage often finely hirtellous- 
puberulent at least in part; leaves entire, the 
basal ones clustered, up to 15-20 cm. (6-8 in.) long 
and 1-2.5 cm. (0.4-1 in.) wide, with petiolate, 
oblanceolate to narrowly elliptic blades; cauline 
leaves sessile, opposite, mostly lanceolate, up to 
ca. 10-12 cm. (4-4.8 in.) long and 1-2 cm. (0.4-0.8 
in.) wide; inflorescence glabrous, of several-many 
loose verticillasters, more or less secund in life; 
calyx 7-11 mm. (0.27-0.43 in.) long, the segments 
lanceolate to narrowly ovate, evidently but not 
strongly scarious-margined below, tapering to a 
long-acuminate or subcaudate tip; corolla bright 
blue to purplish, 40-55 mm. (1.5-2 in.) long, ca. 
1.5 cm. (0.6 in.) wide at the mouth; pollen sacs 1- 
3 mm. (0.04-0.12 in.) long, divaricate, evidently 
dentate-ciliolate along the sutures, pubescent near 
the connective and on side away from dehiscence; 
staminode glabrous; capsules ca. 10-15 mm. (0.4-0.6 
in.) long; seeds ca. 2-3 mm. (0.08-0.12 in.) long 
(adapted from Hitchcock et al. 1959; Dorn 1984). 

C. Local field characters: Penstemon lemhiensis is a 
tall, conspicuous species; when in full bloom, it is 
easy to see during field surveys. The most reliable 
distinguishing features include: a.) the large, 
bright blue corollas, b.) the sharp, narrow, 
elongated tips on the calyx lobes, and c.) the lack 
of hairs on the staminode (sterile filament) . 
Penstemon lemhiensis is thus very distinctive in 
comparison to other species that were frequently 
encountered during field surveys (especially P. 
aridus . P. procerus , and P. radicosus ) . These 
latter species are smaller in stature, have smaller 
flowers, and differ with respect to the other floral 
features. 

D. Identifying characteristics of material which is in 
interstate or international commerce or trade: No 
interstate or international commerce or trade known. 

E. Photographs and line drawings: An illustration of 
P. lemhiensis is presented in Hitchcock et al . 
(1959) . The color slides (p. 6) are duplicates of 







Crenel Creek- (<ffi) 
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those taken at the sites indicated. Additional 
slides from other locations in Montana are housed at 
the MTNHP office, Helena, Montana. 

4. Significance. 

A. Natural: Within the genus Penstejnon, P. lemhiensis 
belongs to the subgenus Habroanthus, section Glabri, 
series Speciosi (Ramstetter 1983) . The subgenus 
contains four other species in the Pacific Northwest 
region (P. cyaneus, P. pavettensis . P. pennellianus , 
and P. speciosus ) ; of these, only the first two also 
occur in Montana. Although they are superficially 
similar, these species are "technically well-marked 
taxa which occupy distinctive and hardly overlapping 
geographic areas" (Hitchcock et al. 1959) . Thus, P. 
lemhiensis would be an important taxon in 
biosystematic studies that address the relationships 
within the subgenus Habroanthus. Also, studies 
adressing the pollination biology of P. lemhiensis 
indicate close relationships with certain insects, 
especially Pseudomasaris vespoides (Ramstetter 
1983) . Otherwise, P. lemhiensis is not known to 
have any peculiar adaptations or structures, or 
roles in stabilizing landforms. Obligate 
relationships with other species are unknown. 

B. Human: As discussed, P.. lemhiensis would be of 
scientific significance in biosystematic studies 
addressing its relationships within the genus. 
Because of its striking stature and beauty, it also 
has high horticultural potential. Otherwise, the 
species has no known agricultural, economic, or 
other human uses or significance at this time. 

5. Geographical distribution. 

A. Geographical range: Penstemon lemhiensis is 
currently known from a total of 54 occurrences: 19 
in Idaho (Lemhi County) , and 35 in Montana (30 in 
Beaverhead County, five in Ravalli County) . It is 
historically known from four locations in Lemhi 
County, Idaho, and one location in Beaverhead 
County, Montana. The range of the species in 
Montana is indicated in Figure 1, p. 8. 

B. Precise occurrences. 

1. Populations currently known to be extant 
(Montana): Table 1, pp. 9-16, lists 
populations currently known in Montana. 



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TABLE 1. Populations currently known extant in Montana, listed by county and occurrence number. 



BEAVERHEAD COUNTY 



Occurrence number: 001 
County: BEAVERHEAD 



Site name: ARGENTA 



Elevation: 
Subsection/additional sections: 



Latitude: 451818 Longitude: 1125545 

Township & Range: 006S011W Section: 15 

USGS Quad: ERHONT 

Size: 7.5 minute series 

Year of initial discovery: 1976 

Directions: S. PIONEER MOUNTAINS, N. SIDE OF BLACK MOUNTAIN ROAD 

(8EAVERHEAD N.F. RD. 2400), 0.2 MI. U. OF RATTLESNAKE CR 
ROAD (N.F. RD. 192), CA. 4 AIR MI. UNU. OF ARGENTA. 



6700 
SE4;22,NE4;23,NU4NW4 



Date of most recent observation: 1988 



Occurrence number: 002 
County: BEAVERHEAD 



Site name: TRAIL CREEK 



Latitude: 445733 Longitude: 1132132 
Township & Range: 010S014W Section: 18 
USGS Quad: EVERSON CREEK 

LEMHI PASS 
Size: 7.5 minute series 
Year of initial discovery: 1970 
Directions: TRAIL CREEK, ALONG ROAD TO LEMHI 

3909.2), CA. 3.5-4.5 AIR MI. ESE 



Elevation: 
Subsect ion/ additional sections: 



Date of most recent observation: 
PASS (BEAVERHEAD N.F. RD. 
OF LEMHI PASS. 



6520 

S2,17SU4,19NU4;T10SR15U:24NE4 



1989-06-29 



Occurrence number: 003 
County: BEAVERHEAD 



Site name: LEMHI PASS 



Elevation: 
Subsection/additional sections: 



Latitude: 445757 Longitude: 1132538 
Township & Range: 010S015U Section: 15 
USGS Quad: LEMHI PASS 

Size: 7.5 minute series 
Year of initial discovery: 1983 
Directions: NORTH SIDE OF LEMHI PASS ROAD (BEAVERHEAD N.F. RD. 3909.2), 
1.0-1.6 AIR MILES SE. OF LEMHI PASS, CA. 1.4-2.0 MILES WEST 
OF SELUAY RANCH. 



6960 
SE4NU4,NE4SE4,14SU4 



Date of most recent observation: 1989-06-29 



Occurrence number: 005 
County: BEAVERHEAD 



Site name: BADGER PASS 



Latitude: 451254 Longitude: 1125626 
Township & Range: 007S011U Section: 22 
USGS Quad: BANNACK 

Size: 7.5 minute series 
Year of initial discovery: 1972 
Directions: 1.45 AIR MILES SSE. OF BADGER PASS, ADJACENT TO MICROWAVE 

TOWER ON GRAVEL ROAD 1.3 AIR HI. S. OF BIG HOLE ROAD (ST. 

HWY. 278), CA. 4.5 AIR MI. NNE. OF BANNACK. 



Elevation: 7260 
Subsection/additional sections: N2NW4 



Date of most recent observation: 1989-06-14 



Occurrence number: 006 
County: BEAVERHEAD 



Site name: BIG HOLE NATIONAL BATTLEFIELD 



Latitude: 453842 Longitude: 1133919 
Township & Range: 002S017W Section: 24 
USGS Quad: BIG HOLE BATTLEFIELD 

Size: 7.5 minute series 
Year of initial discovery: 1976 
Directions: BIG HOLE NATIONAL BATTLEFIELD, 9 MILES WEST OF WISDOM ON ST 
HWY. 43. 



Elevation: 6320 
Subsect ion/ additional sections: W2SE4,13SW4,23SE4 



Date of most recent observation: 1986-07-08 



10 



TABLE 1. (cont.). 

Occurrence number: 008 Site name: JOHNSON GULCH 

County: BEAVERHEAD 

Latitude: 445217 Longitude: 1125858 Elevation: 6500 

Township & Range: 011S011U Section: 18 Subsection/additional sections: SE4 
USGS Quad: DEER CANYON 

Size: 7.5 minute series 
Year of initial discovery: 1984 Date of most recent observation: 1984-07-06 

Directions: NORTH SIDE OF JOHNSON GULCH, ALONG THE ROAD CA. 10 HI. SE. 
OF GRANT. 

Occurrence number: 009 Site name: FRENCH CREEK 

County: BEAVERHEAD 

Latitude: 451932 Longitude: 1125435 Elevation: 7000 

Township & Range: 006S011W Section: 11 Subsect ion/ additional sections: E2,14NE4NW4,2SE4SE4,1W2SW4 

USGS Quad: ERHONT 

Size: 7.5 minute series 
Year of initial discovery: 1986 Date of most recent observation: 1989-07-27 

Directions: PIONEER MOUNTAINS, SLOPES ALONG WEST SIDE OF FRENCH CREEK, 

ALONG THE FRENCH CREEK-THIEF CREEK ROAD (BEAVERHEAD N.F. RD. 

#606) 4 AIR MILES NU. OF ARGENTA; ALSO, MOUTH OF RED GULCH. 

Occurrence number: 010 Site name: quartz HILL GULCH 

County: BEAVERHEAD 

Latitude: 454305 Longitude: 1125509 Elevation: 8000 

Township & Range: 001S011U Section: 26 Subsection/additional sections: E2SE4 
USGS Quad: VIPOND PARK 

Size: 7.5 minute series 
Year of initial discovery: 1986 Date of most recent observation: 1986-07-08 

Directions: HEAD OF QUARTZ HILL GULCH, ALONG BEAVERHEAD N.F. RD. 187; 
0.7 AIR MILES ENE. OF GRAY JOCKEY PEAK, CA. 5 AIR MI. SSE. 
OF WISE RIVER, PIONEER MOUNTAINS. 

Occurrence number: 011 Site name: ECHO GULCH 

County: BEAVERHEAD 

Latitude: 454231 Longitude: 1125445 Elevation: 8100 

Township & Range: 001S011U Section: 36 Subsection/additional sections: U2.35E2SE4 
USGS Quad: VIPOND PARK 

Size: 7.5 minute series 
Year of initial discovery: 1986 Date of most recent observation: 1986-07-08 

Directions: NEAR HEAD OF ECHO GULCH, SLOPES 0-0.5 AIR MI. N. OF VIPOND 

PARK, ALONG BEAVERHEAD N.F. RD. 187; 0.5-0.75 AIR MI. W. AND 

SU. OF QUARTZ HILL, PIONEER MOUNTAINS. 

Occurrence number: 012 Site name: RED BUTTE 

County: BEAVERHEAD 

Latitude: 451908 Longitude: 1125600 Elevation: 6800 

Township & Range: 006S011U Section: 15 Subsection/additional sections: NE4.10S2 
USGS Quad: ERMONT 

Size: 7.5 minute series 
Year of initial discovery: 1986 Date of most recent observation: 1989-07-27 

Directions: CA. 4.5 AIR MI. NU. OF ARGENTA, CENTERED 0.5 AIR MI. ESE. OF 

RED BUTTE, RATTLESNAKE CREEK DRAINAGE CA. 1 MI . SE. OF KELLY 

RESERVOIR, PIONEER MOUNTAINS. 



TABLE 1. (cont.). 



1] 



Occurrence number: 013 
County: BEAVERHEAD 



Site name: BLACK MOUNTAIN ROAD 



Elevation: 
Subsection/additional sections: 



Latitude: 451749 Longitude: 1125745 
Township & Range: 006S011W Section: 21 
USGS Quad: ERHONT 

Size: 7.5 minute series 
Year of initial discovery: 1986 
Directions: CA. 5 AIR MI WNW. OF ARGENTA, ALONG BLACK MOUNTAIN ROAD 

(BEAVERHEAD N.F. RD. #2400) CA. 3 AIR MI. SSE. OF BLACK 

MOUNTAIN, PIONEER MOUNTAINS. 



7200 
W2SE4NE4.20SE4SE4 



Date of most recent observation: 1986-06-20 



Occurrence number: 014 
County: BEAVERHEAD 

Latitude: 451603 



Site name: ERMONT GULCH 



Longitude: 1125646 



Elevation: 6740 
Subsection/additional sections: NE4SE4.34W2 



Township & Range: 006S011W Section: 33 
USGS Quad: ERMONT 

Size: 7.5 minute series 
Year of initial discovery: 1986 Date of most recent observation: 

Directions: CA 4.3 AIR MI. USU. OF ARGENTA, ALONG BEAVERHEAD N.F. RD. 

#7467 AT HEAD OF ERMONT GULCH, CA. 2.2 AIR MI. N. OF BADGER 

PASS, PIONEER MOUNTAINS. 



1989-07-27 



Occurrence number: 015 
County: BEAVERHEAD 



Site name: ROBERTS GULCH 



Elevation: 
Subsection/additional sections: 



Latitude: 450025 Longitude: 1131908 
Township & Range: 009S014U Section: 33 
USGS Quad: COYOTE CREEK 

Size: 7.5 minute series 
Year of initial discovery: 1986 Date of most recent observation: 

Directions: MOUTH OF ROBERTS GULCH, CA. 1 AIR MI. NW. OF BLOOOY DICK 

CREEK, CA. 12.5 AIR MI. WEST OF GRANT AND 6.5 AIR MI. ENE. 

OF LEMHI PASS. 



6520 
N2SE4 



1986-06-22 



Occurrence number: 016 
County: BEAVERHEAD 



Site name: TRAPPER CREEK 



Latitude: 453913 Longitude: 1125154 
Township & Range: 002S010U Section: 20 
USGS Quad: CATTLE GULCH 

Size: 7.5 minute series 
Year of initial discovery: 1987 
Directions: PIONEER MOUNTAINS, TRAPPER CREEK DRAINAGE, ALONG BEAVERHEAD 

N.F. RD. #188; ABOUT 10 MILES WEST OF MELROSE; ABOUT 1 AIR 

MILE SSE. OF ORE CAMP HILL. 



Elevation: 6800 
Subsection/ additional sections: W2SE4 



Date of most recent observation: 1987-06-16 



Occurrence number: 017 
County: BEAVERHEAD 



Site name: BROUNES LAKE 



Elevation: 6650 
Subsection/additional sections: S2SW4 



Latitude: 453131 Longitude: 1124947 
Township & Range: 003S010W Section: 34 
USGS Quad: STORM PEAK 

Size: 7.5 minute series 
Year of initial discovery: 1987 
Directions: PIONEER MOUNTAINS, ROCK CREEK DRAINAGE, ALONG ROCK CREEK 

ROAD ABOUT 6 MILES WEST OF 1-15, NEAR WEST END OF BROWNES 

LAKE. 



Date of most recent observation: 1987-06-17 



TABLE 1. (cont.). 

Occurrence number: 018 Site name: KEARNS CREEK 

County: BEAVERHEAD 

Latitude: 451853 Longitude: 1125651 Elevation: 6900 

Township & Range: 006S011U Section: 16 Subsection/additional sections: NE4,15N2SW4,S2NU4 

USGS Quad: ERMONT 

Size: 7.5 minute series 
Year of initial discovery: 1987 Date of most recent observation: 1988 

Directions: PIONEER MOUNTAINS, KEARNS CREEK, ADJACENT TO SILVER RULE 

MINE; ABOUT 0.5 AIR MILE SOUTHWEST OF RED BUTTE; ABOUT 0.75 

AIR MILE WEST OF RATTLESNAKE CREEK. 

Occurrence number: 019 Site name: BADGER PASS NORTH 

County: BEAVERHEAD 

Latitude: 451437 Longitude: 1125648 Elevation: 6980 

Township & Range: 007S011U Section: 09 Subsection/additional sections: NE4NE4,10NW4,3SU4 

USGS Ouad: BANNACK 

Size: 7.5 minute series 
Year of initial discovery: 1987 Date of most recent observation: 1989-07-28 

Directions: SOUTHERN PIONEER MOUNTAINS, 0.7-1.2 AIR MILES NNE. OF BADGER 
PASS; ABOUT 15 AIR MILES WEST OF DILLON. 

Occurrence number: 020 Site name: SELWAY CREEK 

County: BEAVERHEAD 

Latitude: 450647 Longitude: 1132524 Elevation: 7200 

Township & Range: 008S015U Section: 27 Subsection/additional sections: SU4NE4 
USGS Ouad: KITTY CREEK 

Size: 7.5 minute series 
Year of initial discovery: 1987 Date of most recent observation: 1989-06-29 

Directions: BLOODY DICK CREEK DRAINAGE, SLOPES ABOVE SELUAY CREEK, ABOUT 

2 MILES SOUTHEAST OF RESERVOIR LAKE; ABOUT 4 MILES EAST OF 

MONTANA-IDAHO STATE LINE. 

Occurrence number: 022 Site name: MEDICINE LODGE CREEK 

County: BEAVERHEAD 

Latitude: 444359 Longitude: 1130224 Elevation: 6970 

Township & Range: 013S012U Section: 03 Subsection/additional sections: SE4NE4.NE4SE4 
USGS Ouad: TEPEE MOUNTAIN 

Size: 7.5 minute series 
Year of initial discovery: 1987 Date of most recent observation: 1987- - 

Directions: MEDICINE LODGE CREEK DRAINAGE, 0.15 AIR MILES WNU OF 

CONFLUENCE OF MEDICINE LODGE AND HILDRETH CREEKS, CA. 19 AIR 

MILES SOUTH OF GRANT. 

Occurrence number: 023 Site name: MINER CREEK 

County: BEAVERHEAD 

Latitude: 452017 Longitude: 1133135 Elevation: 7080 

Township & Range: 006S016W Section: 02 Subsection/additional sections: SE4 
USGS Ouad: MINER LAKE 

Size: 7.5 minute series 
Year of initial discovery: 1989 Date of most recent observation: 1989-06-30 

Directions: BICHOLE VALLEY, CA. 6 MILES SOUTHUEST OF JACKSON, NORTH OF 
F.S. ROAD 182. 



13 



TABLE 1. (cont.). 

Occurrence number: 024 Site name: FROG CREEK 

County: BEAVERHEAD 

Latitude: 450203 Longitude: 1131959 Elevation: 7280 

Township & Range: 009S0HU Section: 21 Subsection/additional sections: SW4 
USGS Quad: COYOTE CREEK 

Size: 7.5 minute series 
Year of initial discovery: 1989 Date of most recent observation: 1989-06-29 

Directions: HORSE PRAIRIE, CA. 1 MILE NORTHWEST OF HORSE PRAIRIE GUARD 
STATION. 

Occurrence number: 025 Site name: BRISTON LANE 

County: BEAVERHEAD 

Latitude: 453145 Longitude: 1133208 Elevation: 6260 

Township & Range: 003S016U Section: 35 Subsection/ additional sections: NE4,S2 
USGS Quad: HIGHLAND RANCH 

Size: 7.5 minute series 
Year of initial discovery: 1989 Date of most recent observation: 1989-06-30 

Directions: CA. 5.5 MILES SSW OF WISDOM. CA. 3.5 MILES ALONG BRISTON 
LANE, JUST WEST OF THE ROAD. 

Occurrence number: 026 Site name: SWAMP CREEK 

County: BEAVERHEAD 

Latitude: 453607 Longitude: 1133446 Elevation: 6260 

Township & Range: 003S016W Section: 04 Subsection/additional sections: E2 
USGS Quad: HIGHLAND RANCH 

Size: 7.5 minute series 
Year of initial discovery: 1989 Date of most recent observation: 1989-06-30 

Directions: BIGHOLE VALLEY, CA. 5.2 MILES WEST OF WISDOM, ALONG SWAMP 
CREEK RD., SOUTH OF ROAD. 

Occurrence number: 027 Site name: HORSE PRAIRIE GUARD STATION 

County: BEAVERHEAD 

Latitude: 450117 Longitude: 1131839 Elevation: 6690 

Township & Range: 009S014W Section: 27 Subsection/ additional sections: NW4SW4 
USGS Ouad: COYOTE CREEK 

Size: 7.5 minute series 
Year of initial discovery: 1989 Date of most recent observation: 1989-06-29 

Directions: HORSE PRAIRIE, CA. 0.5 MILES SE OF HORSE PRAIRIE GUARD 
STATION. 

Occurrence number: 028 Site name: BLOCOY DICK CREEK I 

County: BEAVERHEAD 

Latitude: 450017 Longitude: 1132132 Elevation: 6600 

Township & Range: 009S014W Section: 31 Subsection/additional sections: W2,SE4;T10SR14W:5NW4 

USGS Quad: COYOTE CREEK 

Size: 7.5 minute series 
Year of initial discovery: 1989 Date of most recent observation: 1989-06-29 

Directions: HORSE PRAIRIE, ALONG BLOODY DICK CREEK, CA. 7.1 MILES WEST 
OF RED BUTTE. 



TABLE 1. (cont.). 



14 



Occurrence number: 029 
County: BEAVERHEAD 



Site name: BLOOOY DICK CREEK II 



Latitude: 445947 Longitude: 1132048 
Township & Range: 010S014W Section: OS 
USGS Quad: EVERSON CREEK 

Size: 7.5 minute series 
Year of initial discovery: 1989 
Directions: HORSE PRAIRIE, CA. 5.1 MILES WEST OF RED BUTTE, ALONG BLOOOY 
DICK CREEK ROAD. 



Elevation: 4440 
Subsection/additional sections: NW4;4N2 



Date of most recent observation: 1989-06-29 



Site name: POLARIS 



Longitude: 1130715 



Occurrence number: 032 
County: BEAVERHEAD 

Latitude: 452237 

Township & Range: 005S012U Section: 30 

USGS Quad: POLARIS 

Size: 15 minute series 
Year of initial discovery: 1989 Date of most recent observation: 

Directions: GRASSHOPPER CREEK RD., CA. 0.5 MILES NORTH OF POLARIS, CA. 

0.1 MILE NORTH OF GRASSHOPPER CREEK CROSSING, IMMEDIATELY 

NORTH OF GRAVEL PIT. 



Elevation: 6400 
Subsection/additional sections: NE4NE4.19SE4SE4 



1989-06-28 



Occurrence number: 033 
County: BEAVERHEAD 

Latitude: 452428 

Township & Range: 005S012U 

USGS Quad: POLARIS 

Size: 15 minute series 
Year of initial discovery: 1989 
Directions: GRASSHOPPER CREEK RD 
CREST OF HILL. 



Longitude: 1130659 
Section: 08 



Site name: SHALE CREEK 



Elevation: 6560 
Subsection/ additional sections: SU4SU4 



Date of most recent observation: 
CA. 2.5 MILES NORTH OF POLARIS, ON 



1989-06-28 



Occurrence number: 034 
County: BEAVERHEAD 



Site 



BLOOOY DICK CREEK III 



Elevation: 6600 
Subsection/additional sections: SU4 



Latitude: 450102 Longitude: 1132318 
Township 4 Range: 009S015W Section: 25 
USGS Quad: KITTY CREEK 

Size: 7.5 minute series 
Year of initial discovery: 1989 
Directions: BLOOOY DICK CREEK RD., CA. 0.75 MILE SOUTH OF EAST PETERSON 
CREEK. 



Date of most recent observation: 1989-06-29 



Occurrence number: 035 
County: BEAVERHEAD 

Latitude: 450250 

Township & Range: 009S015U 

USGS Quad: KITTY CREEK 

Size: 7.5 minute series 
Year of initial discovery: 1989 
Directions: BLOODY DICK CREEK RD 
SOUTH OF DUTCH CREEK 



Longitude: 1132430 
Section: 14 



Site name: DUTCH CREEK 



CA, 



Elevation: 6760 
Subsection/additional sections: SW4.23NE4 



Date of most recent observation: 1989-06-29 
0.25 MILE NORTH AND 0.3 MILE 



15 



TABLE 1. (cont.). 

Occurrence number: 036 Site name: BLANCHARD POND 

County: BEAVERHEAD 

Latitude: 451603 Longitude: 1132630 Elevation: 6880 

Township & Range: 006S015W Section: 33 Subsection/additional sections: NE4SE4 
USGS Quad: JACKSON 

Size: 7.5 minute series 
Year of initial discovery: 1989 Date of most recent observation: 1989-06-30 

Directions: BIG HOLE RIVER DRAINAGE, SKINNER MEADOWS RD., CA. 6.5 MILES 
SSU OF JACKSON. 



RAVALLI COUNTY 

Occurrence number: 004 Site name: NORTH FORK RYE CREEK 

County: RAVALLI 

Latitude: 455855 Longitude: 1140204 Elevation: 4320 

Township & Range: 003N020W Section: 25 Subsection/ additional sections: NU4SU4,SW4NW4 
USGS Quad: ROBBINS GULCH 

Size: 7.5 minute series 
Year of initial discovery: 1952 Date of most recent observation: 1989-06-26 

Directions: WESTERN FOOTHILLS OF THE SAPPHIRE MOUNTAINS, NORTH FORK RYE 

CREEK DRAINAGE, EAST SIDE OF BITTERROOT N.F. RD. #321, 0.2 

AND 0.35 MILES NORTH OF RYE CREEK RD. (#75), CA. 7.5 AIR 

MILES ESE OF DARBY. 

Occurrence number: 007 Site name: MEDICINE TREE CREEK 

County: RAVALLI 

Latitude: 455426 Longitude: 1140459 Elevation: 4150 

Township & Range: 002N020W Section: 21 Subsection/additional sections: NE4SE4.SW4NE4 
USGS Quad: ROBBINS GULCH 

Size: 7.5 minute series 
Year of initial discovery: 1950 Date of most recent observation: 1989-06-29 

Directions: EAST FORK BITTERROOT RIVER DRAINAGE, NORTH SIDE OF U.S. HWY. 

93, 0.1 MI. WEST OF MEDICINE TREE CREEK, AND 0.3 AIR MI. 

NORTHWEST OF HWY. BRIDGE OVER CREEK, CA. 2.5 MILES SOUTHEAST 

OF CONNER. 

Occurrence number: 030 Site name: SPRING GULCH 

County: RAVALLI 

Latitude: 455925 Longitude: 1140116 Elevation: 5200 

Township & Range: 003N020W Section: 24 Subsection/ additional sections: SE4SE4 
USGS Quad: ROBBINS GULCH 

Size: 7.5 minute series 
Year of initial discovery: 1989 Date of most recent observation: 1989-06-27 

Directions: WESTERN FOOTHILLS OF SAPPHIRE MOUNTAINS, RYE CREEK DRAINAGE, 

SPRING GULCH, 1.15 AIR MILES NORTHEAST OF CONFLUENCE OF RYE 

CREEK AND NORTH FORK RYE CREEK, CA. 8 AIR MILES ESE OF 

DARBY. 



le 



> 



TABLE 1. (cont.). 



Occurrence number: 031 
County: RAVALLI 



Site name: ROBBINS GULCH 



Latitude: 455547 Longitude: 1140548 

Township & Range: 002M020W Section: 16 

USGS Quad: ROBBINS GULCH 

Size: 7.5 minute series 

Year of initial discovery: 1989 

Directions: WESTERN FOOTHILLS OF SAPPHIRE MOUNTAINS, EAST FORK 
BITTERROOT RIVER DRAINAGE, ROBBINS GULCH, NORTH OF 
BITTERROOT N.F. RD. #446, CA. 1 MILE NORTHEAST OF U.S. 
93. 



Elevation: 4500 
Subsection/additional sections: N2NW4.9SE4SW4 



Date of most recent observation: 1989-06-29 



HWY. 



Occurrence number: 037 
County: RAVALLI 



Site name: UOOOS CREEK 



Latitude: 453344 Longitude: 1142055 
Township 2 Range: 003S022W Section: 20 
USGS Quad: PAINTED ROCKS LAKE (15) 

Size: 7.5 minute series 
Year of initial discovery: 1989 



Elevation: 5440 
Subsection/additional sections: 19,21 



Date of most recent observation: 1989- 



Directions: WOOOS CREEK, PAST PAINTED ROCKS RESERVOIR. 



> 



17 

2. Populations known or assumed extirpated 
(Montana): Prior to 1989, two historical 
records were known in Ravalli County: 

a. 1950: T.G. & V.C. McCall (352) . MONTU 
(49394), "(b)etween Conner and Sula, on 
rocky hillside above river." 

b. 1952: J.C. Wright s.n. . MONT, "10 miles 
east of Darby, Sapphire Mountains 
foothills, sandy granitic soil, ponderosa 
pine zone." 

These areas were emphasized during field 
surveys in 1989. Although the original label 
data from both collections are general in 
nature, it is believed that both collection 
sites, or populations very near to them, were 
rediscovered. The element occurrence print- 
outs for these sites (007 and 004, 
respectively) are provided on pp. 59 and 56. 

3. Historically known populations where current 
status is not known: In Montana, one 
population in Beaverhead County (Medicine Lodge 
Creek, 022; see p. 74) has been reported by J. 
Christensen (Beaverhead National Forest) . 
Surveys adjacent to this location did not 
reveal any populations (L. Schassberger, MTNHP, 
pers. comm.); access to the site itself was not 
possible because permission to cross private 
land could not be obtained. 

Another population in Beaverhead County, 
Montana (021; see p. 73) is based on the 
following specimen: 

a. 1947: Frank H. Rose (3502) . MONTU 
(092520), "(w)est of Big Hole 
Battlefield." 

Although P. lemhiensis is recently documented 
from the Big Hole National Battlefield proper, 
surveys have not yet been conducted in areas 
west of the battlefield. It is likely, 
however, that the species is extant in this 
area. 

Four records in Idaho are based on historical 
collections, taken in 1920, 1937, 1938, and 
1946; details on these collections are 
available from the Idaho Natural Heritage 
Program. 



18 

4. Locations not yet investigated believed likely 
to support additional natural populations: The 
following areas in Beaverhead County, Montana 
may support populations: Big Hole Divide, 
south of Big Hole Pass; west Pioneer Mountains, 
including the upper Grasshopper Creek and Wise 
River drainages; east slope of the Beaverhead 
Mountains, between Jackson and Wisdom. 

In southern Ravalli County, potential habitat 
exists at low to mid-elevations in most major 
drainages; a recent report from the Woods Creek 
drainage (036; tributary of the West Fork 
Bitterroot River) substantiates the need for 
additional surveys in this region. However, P. 
lemhiensis may in fact be relatively rare here; 
the four Ravalli County populations located 
during 1989 surveys were widely scattered, and 
three of these were very small in size. 

5. Reports having ambiguous or incomplete locality 
information: None known. 

6. Locations known or suspected to be erroneous 
reports: None known. 

C. Biogeographical and phylogenetic history: The 

diversity of habitat types occupied by P. lemhiensis 
is fairly wide, which is unique considering the 
narrow geographic range of the species. In Montana, 
the known populations occur at elevations from 4,150 
feet along the East Fork of the Bitterroot River, to 
8,100 feet in the northeastern Pioneer Mountains. 
As a result, the plant communities with which P. 
lemhiensis is associated are highly varied. At the 
lowest elevations in Ravalli County it occurs in dry 
foothills habitats, and is associated with Pinus 
ponderosa and Purshia tridentata . Most of the known 
sites in Beaverhead County, however, are associated 
with Artemisia tridentata and various bunchgrasses, 
especially Agropyron spicatum and Festuca 
idahoensis ; the majority of these populations are 
very close to, and often extend into, the lower 
edges of the Pseudotsuga menziesii forest zone. The 
sites at the highest known elevations in Montana, 
near Vipond Park in the northeastern Pioneer 
Mountains, are actually associated with Pinus 
contorta , and occur in moist forb meadows and on 
open slopes. This wide ecological tolerance, in a 
species with a narrow geographic distribution, 
suggests that the range of P. lemhiensis may be most 
closely related to its evolutionary history, since 
it is apparently not strictly confined to a single 



19 
^ vegetation type or unusual geologic substrate. 

Within the subgenus Habroanthus, P. lemhiensis is 
one of five closely related species occurring in the 
Pacific Northwest region; these also include P. 
cyaneus . P. payettensis . P. pennellianus . and P. 
speciosus . Of these latter four, only the first two 
also occur in Montana. Although they are 
superficially similar, these species are 
"technically well-marked taxa which occupy 
distinctive and hardly overlapping geographic areas" 
(Hitchcock et al. 1959) . The above ecological and 
systematic observations suggest that a common 
ancestor may have given rise, through adaptive 
radiation, to this complex of regional endemics. 
Alternatively, it has been hypothesized that P. 
lemhiensis arose via hybridization between P. 
cyaneus and P. speciosus , followed by segregation 
and isolation (Keck 1940) . Chromosome counts for 
all of these species would be useful in evaluating 
this possibility (Ramstetter 1983); P. speciosus 
appears to be a diploid species with n = 8, but 
chromosome counts for the other species have not 
been published (Clark 1971) . 

t 6. General environment and habitat description. 

A. Concise statement of general environment and 
habitat: In Montana, P. lemhiensis occurs 
predominantly on moderate to steep, east- to 
southwest-facing slopes, often in open soil areas. 
At some sites, the populations occur partially or 
wholly on roadbanks. The populations are found on 
several geologic substrates, including granite and 
limestone. Associated vegetation types are most 
often dominated by Artemisia tridentata and 
bunchgrasses, including Agropyron spicatum and 
Festuca idahoensis ; P. lemhiensis is also associated 
with Pinus ponderosa/Purshia tridentata . Pseudotsuga 
mejTziesii, and Pinus contorta forest types in parts 
of its range. The populations in Montana occur at 
elevations from 4,150 to 8,100 feet. 

B. Physical characteristics. 
1. Climate. 

a. Koppen climate classification: Type Dfb 
(Canadian climate) , with snowy winters and 
moderately warm summers (Visher 1954) . 

b. Regional macroclimate: The climate of 
m southwestern Montana can generally be 



20 

classified as cool and dry, with locally 
greater amounts of precipitation in the 
mountains; there are numerous summer 
thunderstorms. For the distributional 
area of P. lemhiensis in Montana, the 
nearest, climatological stations are 
located' in Darby (1180 m (3880 ft.)), 
Dillon (1590 m (5215 ft.)), and Wisdom 
(1850 m (6068 ft.)). Data for the period 
1951-1980 are provided by the U.S. 
Department of Commerce (1982) . At Darby, 
the mean annual precipitation was 40.11 cm 
(15.79 in.); the mean annual temperature 
was 7.44°C (45.4°F), and the mean July 
maximum temperature was 28.83°C (83.9°F). 
At Dillon, the mean annual precipitation 
was 24.21 cm (9.53 in.); the mean annual 
temperature was 5.9'C (42. 6* F), and the 
mean July maximum temperature was 2 8.5°C 
(83.3'F). At Wisdom, the mean annual 
precipitation was 29.06 cm (11.44 in.); 
the mean annual temperature was 1.7'C 
(35.1*F), and the mean July maximum 
temperature was 25.7'C (78.2'F). 

c. Local microclimate: Penstemon lemhiensis 
generally occurs on open slopes with east 
to southwest exposures. These sites are 
likely to have comparatively warm 
microclimates . 

2. Air and water quality requirements: Unknown. 

3. Physiographic province: The range of P. 
lemhiensis lies in the Rocky Mountains and 
Idaho batholith provinces, within the Rocky 
Mountain System, as mapped by Hunt (1974) . 

4. Physiographic and topographic characteristics: 
The geologic structure of southwestern Montana 
is highly complex, consisting of many types of 
sedimentary and igneous rocks. The major 
formations with which P. lemhiensis is 
associated include the intrusive granitic rocks 
of the Idaho batholith, Cenozoic Tertiary 
sediments of the Willow Creek formation, the 
Precambrian Upper Belt formations of the Piegan 
and Missoula groups, and the Paleozoic 
Mississippian, Pennsylvanian, and Permian 
formations (Perry 1962) . 

The Big Hole Basin appears to be underlain by 
Tertiary lake beds; these beds are generally 



> 



> 



21 

overlain by bench gravels of Pleistocene age 
and by glaciofluvial alluvium on the broad 
bottom lands. In the vicinity of Sula in the 
upper Bitterroot River drainage, most of the 
rock exposed near the drainage bottoms is 
granitic; some pre-Cambrian sedimentary and 
Tertiary volcanic rocks are exposed in places. 
The bottom lands in this area are alluvium 
(Alden 1953) . 

In Montana, populations of P. lemhiensis are 
most often found on steep, east- to southwest- 
facing slopes. A few sites have been found on 
northeast- and northwest-facing slopes. In a 
few locations (i.e., Trail Creek (002), Big 
Hole Battlefield (006) ) , the populations occur 
partially on level ground. For four sites 
studied in Montana, Ramstetter (1983) found the 
slopes to range from 20-45%. 

The recently verified sites in Montana range 
from 1265 m (4,150 ft.) to 2470 m (8,100 ft.) 
in elevation. 

In Montana, P. lemhiensis occurs in the 
Beaverhead, Big Hole, Bitterroot, and Red Rock 
river drainages. These areas are within 
hydrologic unit numbers 10020002, 10020004, 
17010205, and 10020001, respectively, as mapped 
by the U.S. Geological Survey (1980) . 

5. Edaphic factors: Within appropriate habitat, 
Penstemon lemhiensis prefers areas that are 
more sparsely vegetated. The soils in these 
microhabitats are often very gravelly. 
However, the soil texture is highly variable; 
P. lemhiensis has been found in soils ranging 
from fine clay to sand (Ramstetter 1983) . 
During the course of field surveys by the MTNHP 
from 1986 to 1989, the species has been found 
most often in soil areas characterized as 
gravelly loams. 

Ramstetter (1983) obtained measurements of soil 
moisture content from three sites at the Big 
Hole National Battlefield population. The 
percent water in soil (fresh-dry weight/dry 
weight) ranged from 7 to 22 percent, at a soil 
depth of 20 cm, on 2 July 1982. On 28 August 
1982, these values ranged from 4 to 7 percent. 

Penstemon lemhiensis is not restricted to any 
particular geological substrate; known sites 



22 

have been found on granitic soils, as well as 
limestone and other sedimentary substrates. 

6. Dependence of this taxon on natural 
disturbance: It appears that P. lemhiensis has 
some degree of adaptation to natural 
disturbance, as evidenced by its ecological 
preference for more open microhabitats, i.e., 
rock outcrop areas and steep rocky slopes with 
some natural soil slippage. 

7. Other unusual physical features: None 
observed. 

C. Biological characteristics. 

1. Vegetation physiognomy and community structure: 
In Montana, P. lemhiensis is associated with 
a.) sagebrush-bunchgrass steppe, b.) savanna- 
like pine-shrub communities, c.) temperate 
evergreen conifer forests dominated by trees 
with more or less conical crowns, and d.) 
ecotones between the steppe and conifer forest 
types. 

2. Regional vegetation types: Penstemon 
lemhiensis occurs in four climax vegetation 
types as mapped by Ross and Hunter (1976): a.) 
Subalpine fir/Douglas-fir/Ponderosa Pine climax 
forest, b.) Subalpine fir/Douglas-fir climax 
forest, c.) Silty Range site, 10-14" 
precipitation zone, with bluebunch wheatgrass, 
prairie junegrass, etc., and d.) Silty Range 
site, 15-19" precipitation zone, with Idaho 
fescue, bluebunch wheatgrass, etc. The range 
of the species lies largely within the Douglas- 
fir Forest Section of the Rocky Mountain Forest 
Province, with a minor portion in the Cedar- 
Hemlock-Douglas-f ir Forest Section of the 
Columbia Forest Province, as mapped by Bailey 
(1976) . 

3. Frequently associated species: In Beaverhead 
County, Montana, Penstemon lemhiensis generally 
occurs in areas below or near the lower tree 
line of forests dominated by Pseudotsuga 
menziesii and/or Pinus contorta . The 
associated vegetation is most often dominated 
by Artemisia tridentata and bunchgrasses, 
including Agropyron spicatum and Festuca 
idahoensis. Other native plant species 
associated with P. lemhiensis at one or more 
locations include: 



23 

Achillea millefolium (common yarrow) 
Antennaria microphvlla (rosy pussytoes) 
Artemisia friqida (fringed sagewort) 
Aster stenomeres (northwest aster) 
Astragalus miser (weedy milkvetch) 
Balsamorhiza sagittata (arrowleaf balsamroot) 
Berberis repens (creeping oregongrape) 
Chrvsothamnus nauseosus (common rabbit-brush) 
Chrysothamnus viscidiflorus (green rabbit- 
brush) 
Comandra umbellata (bastard toad-flax) 
Eriogonum umbel latum (sulphur buckwheat) 
Geranium viscosissimum (sticky geranium) 
Geum triflorum (old man's whiskers) 
Helianthella quinquenervis (nodding 

helianthella) 
Juniperus communis (common juniper) 
Juniperus scopulorum (Rocky Mountain juniper) 
Koeleria cristata (prairie junegrass) 
Lupinus leucophyllus (velvet lupine) 
Lu pinus sericeus (silky lupine) 
Pedicularis contorta (coiled-beak lousewort) 
Penstemon aridus (stiff-leaf penstemon) 
Penstemon procerus (littleflower penstemon) 
Penstemon radicosus (mat-root penstemon) 
Phacelia heterophylla (varileaf phacelia) 
Phacelia linearis (threadleaf phacelia) 
Poa secunda (Sandberg's bluegrass) 
Rosa woodsii (woods rose) 
Sedum borschii (Borsch's stonecrop) 
Sedum lanceolatum (lance-leaved stonecrop) 
Senecio canus (woolly groundsel) 
Sitanion hystrix (bottlebrush squirreltail) 
Townsendia parryi (Parry's townsendia) 

Additional associated species reported by 
Ramstetter (1983) include: 

Castilleia spp. (paintbrush) 

Collinsia parvif lora (small-flowered blue-eyed 

Mary) 
Erigeron compositus (cut-leaved daisy) 
Frasera albicaulis (white-stemmed frasera) 
Hieracium cynoglossoides (houndstongue 

hawkweed) 
Lithospermum ruderale (wayside gromwell) 
Orthocarpus tenuifolius (thin-leaved owl 

clover) 
Potentilla gracilis (northwest cinquefoil) 

Associated introduced species include: 



24 



Bromus inermis (smooth brome) 
Bromus tectorum (cheatgrass brome) 
Cynoglossum officinale (common hound 's-tongue) 
Poa pratensis (Kentucky bluegrass) 
Tragopogon dubius (yellow salsify) 



The sites occurring at the highest elevations 
(Quartz Hill Gulch (010), Echo Gulch (Oil)), in 
the northeastern Pioneer Mountains, occur in 
openings in forests dominated by Pinus 
contorta , and to a lesser extent, Pseudotsuga 
menziesii . Artemisia tridentata is not an 
associated species at these locations. These 
openings are dominated by forb species, most 
notably Astragalus miser . Pedicularis contorta , 
and Townsendia parryi . These two sites are 
ecologically distinct from those found in the 
sagebrush areas to the south and west. 

In Ravalli County, Montana, P. lemhiensis 
occurs in the dryer Pinus ponderosa/Purshia 
tridentata habitat type. Associated species in 
this area include: 

Agropyron spicatum (bluebunch wheatgrass) 
Alyssum alyssoides (pale alyssum) 
Arabis holboellii (Holboell's rockcress) 
Balsamorhiza saqittata (arrowleaf balsamroot) 
Bromus tectorum (cheatgrass) 
Centaurea maculosa (spotted knapweed) 
Geranium viscosissimum (sticky geranium) 
Koeleria cristata (prairie junegrass) 
Lithospermum ruderale (wayside gromwell) 
Melilotus officinalis (yellow sweet-clover) 
Penstemon albertinus (Alberta penstemon) 
Phacelia heterophylla (varileaf phacelia) 
Phacelia linearis (threadleaf phacelia) 
Phvsaria geyeri (Geyer's twinpod) 
Verbascum thapsus (flannel mullein) 

Dominance and frequency of the taxon: Most 
populations of P. lemhiensis consist of 
scattered individuals; the percent canopy cover 
of the species is generally less than 5%. 
Portions of the French Creek (009) site contain 
dense subpopulations, and canopy cover of P. 
lemhiensis in some small areas is approximately 
10-20%. In 1989, three demographic monitoring 
transects were established in Beaverhead County 
(two at French Creek (009), one at Badger Pass 
North (019)), all on Beaverhead National Forest 
lands. The density (plants/m 2 ) in these three 



> 



25 

transects ranged from 1.4 to 3.5 (Shelly 
1990b) . 

5. Successional phenomena: As discussed above, P. 
lemhiensis appears to have an ecological 
preference for more open, often unstable, 
microhabitats; these include rock outcrop areas 
and steep rocky slopes with some natural soil 
slippage. This adaptation is further evidenced 
by situations where plants have colonized open 
roadbanks (i.e., Argenta (001), Trail Creek 
(002), Polaris (032)). The species is never 
abundant, and is likely to be ephemeral, in 
these disturbed situations. All known sites 
are in open habitats, and the species would 
probably be intolerant of canopy closure. 

6. Dependence on dynamic aspects of biotic 
associations and ecosystem features: Unknown. 

7. Other endangered, threatened, rare, or 
vulnerable species occurring in habitat (s) of 
this taxon: None known in Montana. 

7. Population biology of the taxon. 

A. General summary: In Montana, populations range in 
size from single, isolated plants to 1,845 or more 
individuals; these populations contain from one to 
13 subpopulations. During the period 1986-1989, 
drastic declines have been noted in three 
populations. Penstemon lemhiensis does have some 
capacity to colonize disturbed areas, and is 
occasionally frequent in such situations, but the 
plants in such areas are probably ephemeral. 
Studies of pollination biology revealed a possibly 
close relationship with a species of vespid wasp 

( Pseudomasar is vespoides ) , and Penstemon lemhiensis 
appears to be an obligate out-crosser (Ramstetter 
1983) . Demographic monitoring transects established 
in 1989 revealed the presence of relatively few 
seedlings, but the timing of seed germination and 
establishment is unknown. 

B. Demography. 

1. Known populations: Thirty-five recently 

documented populations are known in Montana. 
The average population size is approximately 
128. The total number of plants observed in 
Montana to date is approximately 4,4 20-4,525. 
The populations in Montana are sparsely 
scattered over an area of approximately 3,500 



26 

) square miles. 

2. Demographic details (Montana): See Table 2, 
pp. 27-30. 

Eight previously documented populations (002, 
003, 005, 009, 012, 014, 019, 020) were 
revisited in 1989. Of these eight, drastic 
decreases in population size were noted in 
three of them (Badger Pass (005) , Red Butte 
(012), Ermont Gulch (014)). At Badger Pass, 
190 plants were counted in 1986, approximately 
75 of which were within an exclosure 
constructed to protect part of the population. 
During 1989, however, only 5-10 plants were 
observed, most of them on a roadbank; none were 
found within the exclosure. Similarly, 142 
plants were counted in the main subpopulation 
at Red Butte in 1986; no plants were found 
there in 1988, and only ca. 12 plants were seen 
in 1989. Seventy-six plants were counted in 
the Ermont Gulch population in 1986, but only 
one plant was observed in 1989. The reasons 
for these declines are unknown; many of the 
plants may have been dormant in 1989, or they 
I may have actually been extirpated. Monitoring 

of these sites should be continued, to 
determine whether these observed declines are 
permanent. 

An increase in population size was noted at the 
Dutch Creek (035) site; during 1987, only one 
plant was observed there, on an open roadbank; 
searches in undisturbed habitat on slopes above 
the road did not reveal any other plants. In 
1989, approximately 28 plants were located in 
the same area. This information suggests that 
the plants can be periodically dormant, and 
that observed population size may fluctuate 
from year to year as a result. 

C. Phenology. 

1. Patterns: In Montana, Penstemon lemhiensis is 
in bloom from early June to late July, 
depending upon climatic conditions and 
elevation. On some very warm, exposed sites, 
such as south-facing roadbanks where the 
species has been sporadically found, it may 
begin blooming by late May. Mature fruits are 
present during August and early September, and 
. seeds are dispersed sporadically from the 

P dehiscing capsules during that time. At the 



27 



TABLE 2. Demographic details, listed by county and occurrence number. 
BEAVERHEAD COUNTY 

Occurrence number: 001 Site name: ARGENTA 

County: BEAVERHEAD 

Acreage: 10 

Population data: 206 PLANTS COUNTED IN 1986 (204 ON PRIVATE INHOLDING, 2 ON 
U.S.F.S. LAND); 100 PLANTS COUNTED IN 1988 (K. SCOW); A FEW 
PLANTS OCCUR ON ROADBANKS; LOW LEVEL OF GRAZING; WEED 
INVASION ALONG THE ROAD. 



Occurrence number: 002 Site name: TRAIL CREEK 

County: BEAVERHEAD 
Acreage: 13 

Population data: 70-100 PLANTS, 6 SUBPOPULATIONS; IN FULL FLOWER; HOST PLANTS 
OCCUR ALONG ROADSIDE. 



Occurrence number: 003 Site name: LEMHI PASS 

County: BEAVERHEAD 

Acreage: IS 

Population data: 164 PLANTS COUNTED, 3 SUBPOPULATIONS; CA. 90% OF THE PLANTS 

OCCUR ON NATIVE SAGEBRUSH SLOPES ABOVE THE ROAD; SPECIES 

OCCURS IN MORE OPEN, GRAVELLY AREAS. 



Occurrence number: 005 Site name: BADGER PASS 

County: BEAVERHEAD 

Acreage: 10 

Population data: 1986: 190 PLANTS COUNTED; CA. 75 PLANTS ARE WITHIN A FENCE 
EXCLOSURE, WHICH WAS CONSTRUCTED TO PROTECT PART OF THE 
POPULATION. 1989: VERY FEW PLANTS OBSERVED, AND NONE FOUND 
INSIDE EXCLOSURE. 



Occurrence number: 006 Site name: BIG HOLE NATIONAL BATTLEFIELD 

County: BEAVERHEAD 

Acreage: 50 

Population data: THREE SUBPOPULATIONS, WITH 447 PLANTS (S. OF "SIEGE AREA" & 
ROADCUT ALONG SLOPE), "HUNDREDS" <N. OF "SIEGE AREA"), AND 
CA. 40 BELOW VISITOR'S CENTER; NO PLANTS FOUND OUTSIDE 
BATTLEFIELD BOUNDARIES. 



Occurrence number: 008 Site name: JOHNSON GULCH 

County: BEAVERHEAD 

Acreage: 

Population data: ONE PLANT (SPECIMEN IS ONE TOPSNATCHED STEM). 



Occurrence number: 009 Site name: FRENCH CREEK 

County: BEAVERHEAD 

Acreage: 40 

Population data: 138 PLANTS COUNTED (CA. 150 TOTAL) IN MAIN POPULATION, WITH 
22 PLANTS COUNTED IN SUBPOPULATION AT THE MOUTH OF RED GULCH 
(1986); 1845 PLANTS, IN 13 SUBPOPULATIONS, COUNTED IN 1988 
(K. SCOW); AREA SUBJECT TO MINING DISTURBANCE; TWO 
MONITORING TRANSECTS ESTABLISHED IN 1989. 



Occurrence number: 010 Site name: QUARTZ HILL GULCH 

County: BEAVERHEAD 
Acreage: 15 

Population data: 203 PLANTS COUNTED, IN FLOWER; NEARBY AREAS SUBJECT TO 
MINING DISTURBANCE. 



28 



TABLE 2. (cont.). 

Occurrence number: 011 Site name: ECHO GULCH 

County: BEAVERHEAD 

Acreage: 45 

Population data: 252 PLANTS COUNTED IN SOUTH SUBPOPULATION, 100-150 PLANTS IN 

NORTH SUBPOPULATION; IN FLOWER; MINING TEST PITS OBSERVED 

NEAR NORTH SUBPOPULATION. 



Occurrence number: 012 Site name: RED BUTTE 

County: BEAVERHEAD 

Acreage: 20 

Population data: K2 PLANTS COUNTED IN MAIN SUBPOPULATION (CENTRUM), 169 

TOTAL, 3 SU8POPULATIONS (1986); NO PLANTS OBSERVED IN MAIN 
SUBPOPULATION IN 1988 (K. SCOU), AND ONLY CA. 12 IN 1989 
(SHELLY); MAIN POPULATION NEAR, BUT NOT RIGHT ALONG, A 
LIGHTLY-USED GRAVEL ROAD. 



Occurrence number: 013 Site name: BLACK MOUNTAIN ROAD 

County: BEAVERHEAD 
Acreage: 20 

Population data: CA. 100-125 PLANTS TOTAL, MAINLY IN TWO SUBPOPULATIONS AND 
SCATTERED ALONG ROADSIDE; IN FLOWER. 



Occurrence number: OH Site name: ERMONT GULCH 

County: BEAVERHEAD 
Acreage: 5 

Population data: 76 PLANTS COUNTED (1986); ONLY ONE PLANT SEEN IN 1989; AREA 
SUBJECT TO MODERATE TO HEAVY GRAZING. 



Occurrence number: 015 Site name: ROBERTS GULCH 

County: BEAVERHEAD 
Acreage: 5 

Population data: 54 PLANTS COUNTED; IN FLOWER; HABITAT RELATIVELY 
UNDISTURBED, SOME GRAZING USE. 



Occurrence number: 016 Site name: TRAPPER CREEK 

County: BEAVERHEAD 
Acreage: 1 

Population data: 18 PLANTS COUNTED; FLOWERING; POPULATION OCCURS RIGHT ALONG 
ROADSIDE. 



Occurrence number: 017 Site name: BROWNES LAKE 

County: BEAVERHEAD 
Acreage: 1 

Population data: ONLY 4 PLANTS SEEN, 2 ON ROADSIDE AND 2 ON NATURAL SLOPE 
ABOVE ROAD. 



Occurrence number: 018 Site name: KEARNS CREEK 

County: BEAVERHEAD 

Acreage: 5 

Population data: 52 PLANTS COUNTED, 4 SUBPOPULATIONS (1987); MOST ABUNDANT ON 
EAST-FACING SLOPE ALONG CREEK, ON GRAVELLY OPEN SLOPE; SOME 
GRAZING AND MINING ACTIVITY IN THE AREA; FIFTH 
SUBPOPULATION, CONTAINING 40 PLANTS, LOCATED IN 1988 BY K. 
SCOW. 



29 



TABLE 2. (cont.). 

Occurrence number: 019 Site name: BADGER PASS NORTH 

County: BEAVERHEAD 

Acreage: 4 

Population data: ABOUT 200 PLANTS COUNTED, POPULATION = EST. 300+ PLANTS, 3 
SUBPOPULATIONS OBSERVED; FLOWERING; NUMEROUS PLANTS GROWING 
THROUGH BRANCHES OF SAGEBRUSH SHRUBS; AREA IS LIGHTLY TO 
MODERATELY GRAZED; PERMANENT MONITORING TRANSECT ESTABLISHED 
IN 1989. 



Occurrence number: 020 Site name: SELWAY CREEK 

County: BEAVERHEAD 

Acreage: 1 

Population data: SIX PLANTS OBSERVED, IN 2 CLUMPS (19 JUNE 1987); FLOWERING; 
PLANTS ASSOCIATED WITH STEEP ROCK OUTCROP AREAS, AND NOT 
OBSERVED IN DENSER SURROUNDING VEGETATION. 10 PLANTS 
OBSERVED IN 1989. 



Occurrence number: 022 Site name: MEDICINE LOOGE CREEK 

County: BEAVERHEAD 

Acreage: 20 

Population data: UNKNOWN; POPULATION REPORTED TO BE LARGE BY J. CHRISTENSEN. 



Occurrence number: 023 

County: BEAVERHEAD 

Acreage: 10 

Population data: UNCOMMON, 17 PLANTS IN 1989. 



Site name: MINER CREEK 



Occurrence number: 024 

County: BEAVERHEAD 

Acreage: 1 

Population data: 26 PLANTS IN 1989. 



Site name: FROG CREEK 



Occurrence number: 025 

County: BEAVERHEAD 

Acreage: 10 

Population data: 110 PLANTS IN 1989. 



Site name: BRISTON LANE 



Occurrence number: 026 

County: BEAVERHEAD 

Acreage: 3 

Population data: 23 PLANTS IN 1989. 



Site name: SWAMP CREEK 



Occurrence number: 027 

County: BEAVERHEAD 

Acreage: 1 

Population data: ONLY 3 PLANTS, ON A ROADCUT. 



Site name: HORSE PRAIRIE GUARD STATION 



Occurrence number: 028 

County: BEAVERHEAD 

Acreage: 2 

Population data: 34 PLANTS, FOUR SMALL SUBPOPULATIONS (1989) 



Site name: BLOODY DICK CREEK I 



Occurrence number: 029 

County: BEAVERHEAD 

Acreage: 2 

Population data: 22 PLANTS, FOUR SMALL SUBPOPULATIONS (1989) 



Site name: BLOODY DICK CREEK II 



TABLE 2. (cont.). 



30 



Occurrence number: 032 

County: BEAVERHEAD 

Acreage: 

Population data: POPULATION OF 50+ PLANTS IN 1989 



Site name: POLARIS 



Occurrence number: 033 

County: BEAVERHEAD 

Acreage: 

Population data: POPULATION OF 2 PLANTS IN 1989 



Site name: SHALE CREEK 



Occurrence number: 034 

County: BEAVERHEAD 

Acreage: 15 

Population data: 74 PLANTS IN 3 SU8POPULATIONS IN 1989. 



Site name: BLOODY DICK CREEK III 



Occurrence number: 035 

County: BEAVERHEAD 

Acreage: 12 

Population data: CA. 30 PLANTS IN 2 SUBPOPULATIONS IN 1989 



Site name: DUTCH CREEK 



Occurrence number: 036 

County: BEAVERHEAD 

Acreage: 1 

Population data: 61 PLANTS COUNTED. 



Site name: BLANCHARD POND 



RAVALLI COUNTY 

Occurrence number: 004 Site name: NORTH FORK RYE CREEK 

County: RAVALLI 

Acreage: 3 

Population data: TWO SUBPOPULATIONS; 72 PLANTS (SOUTH), WITH 65 ON SLOPE 

ABOVE ROADCUT; 11 PLANTS (NORTH), ALL ON ROADCUT; HABITAT 
HEAVILY INFESTED WITH WEEDS; LARGEST POPULATION KNOWN IN 
RAVALLI COUNTY. 



Occurrence number: 007 Site name: MEDICINE TREE CREEK 

County: RAVALLI 

Acreage: 2 

Population data: 10 PLANTS OBSERVED, 7 ON ROADCUT, 3 ON SLOPES ABOVE. 



Occurrence number: 030 Site name: SPRING GULCH 

County: RAVALLI 
Acreage: 1 

Population data: FOUR PLANTS OBSERVED; ONE FLOWERING, 3 STERILE ROSETTES; 
HABITAT SERIOUSLY IMPACTED BY KNAPWEED INVASION. 



Occurrence number: 031 Site name: ROBBINS GULCH 

County: RAVALLI 
Acreage: 5 

Population data: 14 PLANTS 08SERVED, IN 5 SMALL COLONIES; 8 FLOWERING, 6 
ROSETTES, ONE PLANT ON ROADSIDE. 



Occurrence number: 037 

County: RAVALLI 

Acreage: 

Population data: 7 PLANTS COUNTED. 



Site name: WOOOS CREEK 



> 



31 

Big Hole National Battlefield (006), 
Ramstetter (1983) found that, in 1982, flower 
buds began to develop by 12 June, and plants 
were in bloom by 27 June; all flowers in an 
inflorescence opened within three to five days. 
In 1983, most inflorescences at Argenta (001), 
Badger Pass (005) , and Lemhi Pass (003) had 
dropped their flowers, and fruits were 
developing, by 23-26 July; at the Battlefield, 
most flowers had dropped, but no developing 
fruits were seen. Ramstetter (1983) 
additionally states that " (o)bservations made 
in 1982 and 1983 indicate that the sexual 
reproductive period at higher elevations is 
somewhat shorter than at lower elevations." In 
1986, the peak blooming period at the high- 
elevation sites in the northeastern Pioneer 
Mountains (Quartz Hill Gulch (010) , Echo Gulch 
(011)) had just begun on 8 July, indicating 
that the peak reproductive period is later at 
these sites. 

2. Relation to climate and microclimate: As 

mentioned, plants on warmer exposures may begin 
flowering earlier in the growing season. 

D. Reproductive ecology. 

1. Types of reproduction: The flowers of P. 

lemhiensis are protandrous (the anthers dehisce 
before the stigma is receptive) ; anthers begin 
to shed pollen approximately two days before 
the stigma becomes sticky and receptive 
(Ramstetter 1983) . 

Breeding system studies conducted at the Big 
Hole National Battlefield suggest that P. 
lemhiensis is an obligate out-crosser 
(Ramstetter 1983) . Plants with flowers that 
were not manipulated (control) yielded an 
average of 17.80% mature seed set. In 
comparison, plants cross-pollinated by hand 
yielded an average of 22.51% mature seed set, 
significantly higher than the average for the 
control plants. Thus, seed set may be somewhat 
limited by the level of insect pollination. 
Obligate out-crossing was further suggested in 
plants that were self-pollinated by hand; an 
average of only 2.10% mature seed set was 
obtained. However, open-pollinated flowers 
whose anthers were removed initiated an average 
of 17.29% seed set. Little evidence of 
agamospermy (asexual seed production) was 



32 

found. During surveys by the author in 1986, 
1987, and 1989, no evidence of any vegetative 
reproduction was observed. 

2. Pollination. 

a. Mechanisms: As described above, Penstemon 
lemhiensis appears to be an obligate out- 

crosser; the primary mechanism is via 
insect pollination. 

b. Specific known pollinators: During 
observations of insect visitors to P. 
lemhiensis at the Big Hole National 
Battlefield, 13 insects that made contact 
with some part of the flowers were 
collected (Ramstetter 1983) . Of these, 
two species, Pseudomasaris vespoides and 
Osmia brevis , were thought to be the most 
important pollinators. Pseudomasaris 
vespoides is a pollen-collecting vespid 
wasp; these wasps have long bodies, and 
during flower visits they completely enter 
the corollas. They were not observed to 
visit flowers of any other plants. 
Ramstetter (1983) concluded that •' (i)f P^. 
vespoides is as constant to Penstemon 
lemhiensis as my observations indicate, 
the wasp may be an especially important 
pollinator." Osmia brevis belongs to the 
mason bee family (Megachilidae) , whose 
members are known to be efficient 
pollinators (Essig 1958) . During surveys 
by the author in 1986, 1987 and 1989, the 
vespid wasp was by far the most frequently 
observed insect visitor to P. lemhiensis . 

c. Other suspected pollinators: Unknown. 

d. Vulnerability of pollinators: Unknown, 
but the primary pollinators ( Pseudomasaris 
vespoides . Osmia brevis ) may be vulnerable 
to management practices such as herbicide 
and insecticide spraying. Impacts to 
these insects, especially P. vespoides , 
may have a detrimental effect on seed set 
in Penstemon lemhiensis . 

3. Seed dispersal. 

a. General mechanisms: The seeds of P. 

lemhiensis have no appendages that might 
aid in long-distance dispersal; they are 



> 



I 



33 

irregular in shape, and up to 2 mm in 
size. It is likely that most seeds simply 
fall directly to the ground from the 
dehisced capsules. 

b. Specific agents: None known or apparent. 

c. Vulnerability of dispersal agents and 
mechanisms: Not applicable. 

d. Patterns of propagule dispersal: Details 
unknown. In demographic monitoring 
transects established in 1989, some 
seedlings were observed; these were always 
in the vicinity of mature reproductive, 
and presumably parental, plants (Shelly 
1990b) . 

4. Seed biology. 

a. Amount and variation of seed production: 
Seed production in three monitoring 
transects varied only slightly, from 32.7 
to 36.0 seeds per fruit; the average 
number of fruits per fruiting plant ranged 
from 12.1 to 19.2 (Shelly 1990b). 
Continuing measurements from these 
transects will provide information 
regarding variation in annual seed 
production. 

b. Seed viability and longevity: Unknown. 

c. Dormancy requirements: Unknown. 

d. Germination requirements: In laboratory 
seed germination experiments, only seeds 
that were cold-treated or treated with 
gibberellic acid (a growth hormone) 
germinated; it is likely that seeds of P. 
lemhiensis require a cold treatment prior 
to germination in the field (Ramstetter 
1983) . 

e. Percent germination: In both the cold and 
gibberellic acid treatments, only about 4% 
of the seeds germinated after 
approximately two weeks; most seeds did 
not germinate at all (Ramstetter 1983) . 
Germination trials have also been 
conducted by Bitterroot Native Growers 
(Corvallis, Montana) . The following 
treatments were performed: 1.) seeds were 



> 



34 

sewn immediately, and given 70° days/35 
nights, and 2.) seeds were sewn in flats 
and given 35° temperatures for 30, 45, and 
60 days; after each time interval, 
portions of the seed were removed from 
cold treatment and germination attempts 
made. None of these treatments resulted 
in germination. It was thought that this 
may have been due to the drought year in 
1988; additional attempts are currently 
being made using seed collected in 1989 
(P. Burke, pers. comm.). 

5. Seedling ecology: Details unknown. Ramstetter 
(1983) felt that because seed dispersal occurs 
so late in the growing season, germination 
probably occurs in the spring; the apparent 
requirement for a cold treatment upholds this 
hypothesis. In the three monitoring transects 
established in 1989, very few seedlings were 
observed (a total of 17 in 100 lm 2 plots) . 
Those observed were very small, and it is 
possible that others within the transects were 
missed during the studies. Also, numerous 
seedlings may perish or become dormant earlier 
in the growing season, as the habitats become 
drier; such a dormancy pattern has been 
observed for seedlings of Silene spaldinqii . a 
rare perennial plant species occurring in 
northwestern Montana. Seedlings of the latter 
become dormant during the summer months under 
greenhouse conditions (Lesica 1988) . 

6. Survival and mortality: No quantitative 
information; future readings of the monitoring 
transects will provide detailed data. See 
Section I.7.B.2., p. 26, for a discussion of 
observed fluctuations in some population sizes. 

7. Overall assessment of t axon's reproductive 
success: Although details on rates of seed 
germination and seedling establishment are 
largely unknown, these appear fairly low in P. 
lemhiensis . especially considering the relative 
abundance of observed seed production. Also, 
the small average population size suggests that 
reproductive success is fairly low. Additional 
studies on the ecology of seed germination and 
establishment are needed. 



ft 



> 



35 
8. Population ecology of the taxon. 

A. General summary: Penstemon lemhiensis appears to 
have a close relationship with a species of pollen- 
gathering vespid wasp. The plants are susceptible 
to browsing, probably by deer and cattle; in some 
populations this impact can be fairly, heavy. 
Although P. lemhiensis shows some tolerance to 
disturbance based on its occupation of roadbank 
habitats, the plants are never abundant in such 
situations, and are vulnerable to road maintenance 
and weed control activities. In undisturbed sites, 
it prefers more open microhabitats. These 
observations suggest that P. lemhiensis has a low 
tolerance for interspecific competition. 

B. Positive and neutral interactions: As described in 
I.7.D.2.b., P. lemhiensis may have a close plant- 
pollinator relationship with two insects, 
especially with a vespid wasp ( Pseudomasaris 
vespoides ) . The latter appears to be faithful to 
Penstemon lemhiensis . and may represent its most 
important pollinator. Other positive or neutral 
interactions are not known. 

C. Negative interactions. 

1. Herbivores, predators, pests, parasites and 

diseases: Penstemon lemhiensis is subject to 
moderate to heavy browsing, most likely by deer 
and cattle. Ramstetter (1983) found the 
percentage of browsed stalks at the Battlefield 
(006) and Argenta (001) sites to be 23% and 
90%, respectively. In three demographic 
monitoring transects established in 1989 
(French Creek (009) and Badger Pass North (019) 
sites) , the percentage of browsed flowering 
stems ranged from 3.0 to 47.8% (Shelly 1990b). 
Also, Ramstetter (1983) found no plants outside 
the Battlefield; the park is fenced, and is not 
used for livestock grazing. Similarly, during 
a 1986 survey by the author on the west side of 
the Big Hole Battlefield, individuals were seen 
growing right next to the boundary fence within 
Park property; none were found outside the 
fence, in an area subject to livestock grazing 
and weed invasion. One population observed in 
1989 (Briston Lane (025)), however, contained 
numerous individuals in an area that had been 
burned and grazed. This suggests that, in the 
short term, the plants can persist in areas so 
treated. Further studies are needed to 
determine the long-term effects of grazing on 



36 

P. lemhiensis . 

An unusual phenomenon that illustrates the 
possible long-term sensitivity of P. lemhiensis 
to grazing was observed at the Badger Pass 
North (019) site in 1987. Numerous plants were 
found growing up through the branches of 
sagebrush shrubs, many of which were dead. 
This may have been a result of the moderate 
livestock grazing that has occurred in the 
area. The microhabitat under the shrubs 
appears open enough for seedling establishment, 
and the mature plants are then apparently 
protected from browsing once they grow into the 
shrub canopy. This phenomenon was not observed 
at any other location in Montana. 

2. Competition. 

a. Intraspecific: The density of P. 
lemhiensis is low at virtually all known 
locations in Montana, and intraspecific 
competition is probably not an important 
factor in determining population size or 
structure. 

b. Interspecific: At the Big Hole National 
Battlefield (006) , sampling of vegetation 
in areas with and without P. lemhiensis 
indicated that the occurrence of the 
species is correlated with vegetation 
density (Ramstetter, 1983). Penstemon 
lemhiensis was found growing most 
freguently in areas of lower vegetation 
cover, and rarely in areas of higher 
cover; this pattern of sensitivity to high 
vegetation density was not apparent for 
the other plant species associated with P. 
lemhiensis . In particular, areas of 
higher sagebrush and bunchgrass cover 
contained the fewest occurrences of P. 
lemhiensis . Additionally, it was 
theorized that P. lemhiensis occurs more 
often on steeper slopes at the Battlefield 
site, where natural soil slippage may be 
greater, because the sagebrush and 
bunchgrasses are not as dominant as they 
are on more gradual slopes. 

Further evidence for the apparently poor 
competitive ability of P. lemhiensis is 
provided by the observation that, in 
several populations, individuals have 



> 



37 

colonized disturbed areas where vegetative 
cover is very low, i.e., roadbanks. In 
most of these cases, a few individuals 
have become established on roadcuts 
adjacent to steep slopes supporting 
undisturbed vegetation, but the majority 
of the plants occur in the native habitat. 
An exception was observed at the Big Hole 
National Battlefield (006), where the 
density of P. lemhiensis was much greater 
on the roadcut along the old highway than 
it was on the sagebrush slope above it 
(Ramstetter 1983) . However, the majority 
of the plants were still found on the 
undisturbed slope above the road. 

3. Toxic and allelopathic interactions: None 
known or observed. 

D. Hybridization. 

1. Naturally occurring: As discussed in 
I.5.C., it has been hypothesized that P. 
lemhiensis arose via hybridization between 
P. cyaneus and P. speciosus . followed by 
segregation and isolation (Keck 1940) . 
Additional systematic studies are needed 
to evaluate this theory. No evidence of 
recent genetic interaction with other 
species of Penstemon has been observed 
during field studies in southwestern 
Montana. 

2. Artificially induced: None known. 

3. Potential in cultivation: Unknown. 

E. Other factors of population ecology: The sparsely 
scattered distribution pattern of the populations, 
and their small average size, may have some 
influence on the pollination biology. Smaller 
populations that are more widely separated from the 
others may be visited less frequently by effective 
pollinators, thereby resulting in lower fruit and 
seed production. Field studies are needed to test 
this hypothesis. 

9. Current land ownership and management responsibility. 

A. General nature of ownership (Montana) : United 
States Government, private. 



I 



> 



38 

B. Specific landowners (Montana) : 

1. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service 
Beaverhead National Forest 

610 N. Montana Street 
Dillon, MT 59725 

2. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service 
Bitterroot National Forest 

316 N. 3rd Street 
Hamilton, MT 59840 

3. U.S. Department of Interior 
Bureau of Land Management 
Dillon Resource Area 

P.O. Box 1048 
Dillon, MT 59725 

4. U.S. Department of Interior 
National Park Service 

Big Hole National Battlefield 
P.O. BOX 237 
Wisdom, MT 59761 

5. Numerous individual private landowners. 

C. Management responsibility: As outlined under 
specific landowners. 

D. Easements, conservation restrictions, etc.: None 
known . 

10. Management practices and experience. 

A. Habitat management. 

1. Review of past management and land use 
experiences. 

a. This taxon: As discussed in I.8.C.I., the 
flowering stems of P. lemhiensis are 
vulnerable to browsing, probably by native 
ungulates and cattle. This undoubtedly 
reduces the amount of fruit and seed set. 
In time, this would result in declining 
population sizes if the mortality of 
established plants exceeded the rate of 
establishment of new individuals. A 
portion of the habitat in the Big Hole 
National Battlefield was burned by 
prescription, but the effects on P. 
lemhiensis have not yet been determined. 



39 

b. Related taxa: Unknown. 

c. Other ecologically similar taxa: Not 
reviewed. 

2. Performance under changed conditions: Although 
P. lemhiensis does have the ability to occupy 
disturbed habitats, the plants in these 
situations are not likely to represent long- 
term subpopulations. Road maintenance and weed 
control activities are likely to continually 
remove plants in these areas. The long-term 
effects of browsing are currently unknown. 

3. Current management policies and actions: 
Penstemon lemhiensis is included on the U.S. 
Forest Service list of sensitive plant species 
in Region 1 (Reel et a_l. 1989) . As such, it 
receives protection under U.S. Forest Service 
management policies. All of the federal 
agencies managing lands supporting populations 
are aware of the presence and locations of P. 
lemhiensis . 

4. Future land use: Most of the habitats occupied 
by P. lemhiensis in Montana are used for 
livestock grazing, and this land use is 
expected to continue. Three sites containing 
large populations are in areas of past and 
potential future mining activity: French Creek 
(009), Quartz Hill Gulch (010), and Echo Gulch 
(Oil) . At French Creek, numerous mines have 
been actively worked in the past, and renewed 
gold mining has recently been proposed (K. 
Scow, pers. conn.). At Echo Gulch, mining test 
pits were observed near the north subpopulation 
in 1986 (J.S. Shelly, pers. obs.). 

B. Cultivation. 

1. Controlled propagation techniques: None known; 
seed germination trials have been unsuccessful 
(see I . 7 . D. 4 .e. ) . 

2. Ease of transplanting: Unknown. 

3. Pertinent horticultural knowledge: Not 
reviewed. 

4. Status and location of presently cultivated 
material: No cultivated material known. 



I 



> 



40 
11. Evidence of threats to survival. 

A. Present or threatened destruction, modification, or 
curtailment of habitat or range. 

1. Past threats: In certain portions of its range 
in Montana, the habitat of P. lemhiensis has 
been impacted by mining. In Beaverhead County, 
numerous mines have been established in the 
Rattlesnake Creek drainage in the southern 
Pioneer Mountains, including four in the French 
Creek drainage (Park, Yellow Band, Cross, and 
Discovery mines) . These four mines are all 
within the known population boundaries of P. 
lemhiensis (009) , and their establishment 
undoubtedly caused the extirpation of some 
individuals. 

2. Existing threats: Renewed gold mining activity 
is occurring throughout western Montana, and 
the Yellow Band Mine has recently been 
considered for reactivation (K. Scow, pers. 
comm.). This mine is within the boundaries of 
the French Creek (009) site, which contains the 
largest number of plants of any of the Montana 
populations (1,845 individuals counted in 1988, 
representing approximately 40% of the plants 
documented in Montana) . 

Herbicides have been used in the French Creek 
drainage to control weedy plant species. Some 
of these applications have occurred within the 
habitat of P. lemhiensis (009) (J. Christensen, 
Beaverhead National Forest, pers. comm.). 

3. Potential threats: Mining is expected to 
continue in southwestern Montana, and it is 
possible that additional populations of P. 
lemhiensis could be threatened by this land 
use. Use of herbicides is a serious potential 
threat, especially to populations along or near 
roadsides. 

B. Overutilization for commercial, sporting, 
scientific, or educational purposes: No significant 
past or existing threats are known. Because the 
species is very showy, it could potentially be 
impacted through overcollecting by horticultural 
interests. 

C. Disease, predation, or grazing. 

1. Past threats: Portions of the range of P. 



» 



41 

lemhiensis in Montana have been impacted by 
livestock grazing. As discussed in I.7.B.2., 
significant declines have been noted in three 
populations in the southern Pioneer Mountains. 
Of these, one occurs in an area of moderate to 
heavy livestock use (Ermont Gulch (014)). 
Seventy-six plants were counted there in 1986, 
but only one plant was found in 1989. Similar 
declines were noted at Badger Pass (005) and 
Red Butte (012) ; however, these sites did not 
appear to have been grazed recently, and there 
is an exclosure at the Badger Pass site that 
was constructed to prevent impacts from 
grazing. Thus, although grazing may have 
caused the decline at Ermont Gulch, the 
decreases there and in the two other 
populations may have been related to other 
factors (i.e., the severe drought conditions 
that prevailed in 1988) . Browsing of flowering 
stems, by native ungulates and/or livestock, 
has also been observed in several populations 
(see I.8.C. 1. ) . 

2. Existing threats: Grazing use is ongoing 
throughout much of the species' range in 
southwestern Montana, and it is likely that 
impacts to some individuals are occurring as a 
result. 

3. Potential threats: Browsing by native animals 
and livestock is likely to continue in the 
future. The monitoring transects established 
in 1989 (Shelly 1990b) will provide data that 
can be used to assess the resultant impacts on 
population demography. 

D. Inadequacy of existing regulatory mechanisms: There 
are currently no state statutes that provide 
protection for rare or endangered plant species in 
Montana. 

E. Other natural or man-made factors: Of the 35 known 
populations in Montana, 17 (49%) of them consist of 
fewer than 50 individuals, and 11 (31%) contain 
fewer than 20 individuals. These low population 
numbers may render the species vulnerable to 
extirpation in many parts of its range in the state. 
Also, these small populations, many of which are 
very isolated, may be less exposed to effective 
pollinators, especially the vespid wasp that appears 
to be specific to P. lemhiensis . Lastly, the 
observed declines in two populations, where no 
direct disturbance was observed, suggests that the 



> 



42 

species may be vulnerable to dramatic climatic 
fluctuations such as the severe drought conditions 
that prevailed in 1988. 

II. ASSESSMENT AND RECOMMENDATIONS 

12. General assessment of vigor, trends, and status: 
Penstemon lemhiensis is a perennial plant species that is 
currently known from 35 sites in Beaverhead and Ravalli 
counties, Montana; it is also recently documented from 19 
sites in Lemhi County, Idaho. In Montana, the average 
population size is small (approximately 128 individuals) , 
and the total number of plants observed to date is 
approximately 4,420-4,525. While some populations appear 
to be relatively stable, drastic declines have been 
observed in three populations in Beaverhead County. 
Impacts due to browsing by native animals and livestock, 
and mining activities, have occurred in some populations; 
weed control via herbicide application also represents a 
current threat. The populations in Montana are very 
sparsely scattered over an area of approximately 3,500 
square miles, and there is much suitable habitat that is 
apparently unoccupied. Although the species has 
colonized disturbed habitats in some places, the plants 
are never abundant in these situations, and this probably 
represents an ephemeral response to sites that mimic its 
native habitat. Owing to the low population numbers, the 
widely dispersed distribution pattern, and the observed 
declines in some areas, JP. lemhiensis should continue to 
be closely monitored. Demographic monitoring transects 
established in 1989 will provide data that can be used to 
assess and predict population performance. 

13. Recommendations for listing or status change. 

A. Recommendation to U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service: 
On the basis of current information summarized 
herein, it is recommended that Penstemon lemhiensis 
be retained in Category 2. In Montana, the average 
population size is small, and the total number of 
documented individuals is low. Observed declines in 
several populations, and ongoing threats from mining 
and browsing, dictate that the species be closely 
monitored. Also, status surveys should be conducted 
in Idaho; a detailed status recommendation could be 
made upon completion of research in that portion of 
the species' range. 

B. Recommendations to other U.S. federal agencies: 
Penstemon lemhiensis has been placed on the lists of 
sensitive species in Regions 1 and 4 of the U.S. 
Forest Service. These designations should be 
retained. In addition, £. lemhiensis should be 



43 

fc placed on a list of sensitive species occurring on 

U.S. D.I. Bureau of Land Management lands in Montana 
and Idaho, and appropriate District and Resource 
Area offices should be notified of its known or 
potential presence in their jurisdictions. 

C. Other status recommendations. 

1. Counties and local areas: No recommendations 
at this time. 

2. States: Penstemon lemhiensis should be 
retained on the Natural Heritage Program lists 
in Montana and Idaho. In Montana, its status 
should remain S2 owing to the low total number 
of known individuals, the small size and widely 
scattered distribution of many populations, and 
the susceptibility of many sites to mining, 
browsing and herbicide use. 

3. Other nations: Not currently pertinent. 

4. International: Not currently pertinent. 

14. Recommended critical habitat: Because the status of 

k Penstemon lemhiensis needs to be more fully assessed in 

' the Idaho portion of its range, critical habitat is not 

being recommended at this time. 

15. Conservation/recovery recommendations. 

A. General conservation recommendations. 

1. Recommendations regarding present or 

anticipated activities: Penstemon lemhiensis 
has an ecological preference for more open 
microhabitats (i.e., rock outcrop areas and 
steep rocky slopes with some natural soil 
slippage) . Surface alteration of small areas 
adjacent to the larger populations may mimic 
these sites, and in some cases plants have 
colonized disturbed areas. However, it should 
be strongly emphasized that most populations 
are small, and the total number of known 
individuals in Montana is only approximately 
4,420-4,525. In addition, the species occupies 
a very small percentage of the apparently 
suitable habitat in southwestern Montana. 
Thus, the species is particularly vulnerable to 
extirpation should any large-scale habitat 
alteration (i.e., mining) be planned near or 
within any of the known populations. Though 
J capable of occupying lightly disturbed areas, 



> 



44 

it is doubtful that populations of P. 
lemhiensis could recover from such major 
alterations. 

The response of P. lemhiensis to herbicide 
spraying is currently unknown. Though it is 
likely that established plants would be 
destroyed by such treatment, it is possible 
that the species may be fairly tolerant if 
populations in native habitats are left 
carefully untreated. The plants in these areas 
may then be able to serve as a seed source for 
recolonization of treated sites. 

The sensitivity of the primary pollinators 
( Pseudomasar is vespoides , Osmia brevis ) to 
management practices (i.e., herbicide or 
insecticide spraying) should also be carefully 
considered. Impacts on these insects, 
especially Pseudomasaris . may have a 
detrimental influence on seed production in 
Penstemon lemhiensis . 

Areas recommended for protection: In Montana 
the largest known population, which accounts 
for approximately 4 0% of the known individuals 
in the state, is in the French Creek drainage 
(009) . This site has been impacted by past 
mining activities, and portions of it are no 
longer in pristine condition. However, because 
it represents a large, viable population, 
management actions should provide for 
maintenance of the 13 subpopulations comprising 
the site. 

Other sites that appear to support viable 
populations of P. lemhiensis in predominantly 
native habitat include: Argenta (001) , Lemhi 
Pass (003), Big Hole National Battlefield 
(006), Quartz Hill Gulch (010), Echo Gulch 
(012), Black Mountain Road (013), Roberts Gulch 
(015) , Kearns Creek (018) , and Badger Pass 
North (019) . 

Management and recovery recommendations: 
Additional research on the propagation of P. 
lemhiensis is needed, especially regarding seed 
germination requirements. This information 
would be useful in any future attempts to 
recover populations impacted by mining and 
other surface disturbances. Also, studies of 
the population at the Big Hole National 
Battlefield, in areas that were burned, would 



> 



45 

be useful in assessing the response of the 
species to fire. 

4. Publicity sensitivity: Low. 

5. Other recommendations: None. 

B. Monitoring activities and research needs: Three 

demographic monitoring transects were established in 
1989: two in the French Creek population (009) and 
one at Badger Pass North (019) (Shelly 1990b) . 
These transects are based on methods outlined by 
Lesica (1987). They should be reread annually for 
five years, and periodically thereafter at a 
frequency to be determined based on the initial 
results. Personnel from the MTNHP and the U.S. 
Forest Service should conduct these studies. In 
addition, periodic checks of other substantial 
populations, especially those in which declines have 
been noted, should be conducted. 

Studies of pollination ecology, in both large and 
small populations, could reveal relative success 
rates in each situation. Comparisons of rates of 
pollinator visitation in geographically restricted 
and widespread species of Astragalus showed the 
latter to be visited significantly more often than 
the former (Karron 1987) . Studies of small versus 
large, and isolated versus clustered, populations of 
P. lemhiensis may reveal significant pollination 
patterns within the range of the species. 

16. Interested parties: 

U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service 
ATTN: Dr. James Miller 
Office of Endangered Species 
P.O. Box 25486 
Denver Federal Center 
Denver, CO 80225 

U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service 
ATTN: Mr. Scott Jackson 
Federal Building, 301 S. Park 
P.O. Box 10023 
Helena, MT 59626 

U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service 
ATTN: Dr. John Fay 
Office of Endangered Species 
Washington, D.C. 20240 



-'\ 



46 



> 



U.S. Forest Service, Region One 
ATTN: Dr. Angela Evenden 
Federal Building 
P.O. Box 7669 
Missoula, MT 59807 

U.S. D.I. Bureau of Land Management 
Montana State Office 
ATTN: Mr. Donald Heinze 
P.O. Box 36800 
Billings, MT 59107 

The Nature Conservancy 
ATTN: Dr. Larry Morse 
1815 North Lynn Street 
Arlington, VA 22209 

The Nature Conservancy 

ATTN: Dr. Joan Bird and Mr. Bernie Hall 

Montana Field Office 

P.O. Box 258 

Helena, MT 59624 

Montana Natural Heritage Program 
State Library Building 
1515 E. 6th Ave. 
| Helena, MT 59620 

Idaho Natural Heritage Program 
Department of Game and Fish 
600 S. Walnut, Box 25 
Boise, ID 83707 

III. INFORMATION SOURCES 

17. Sources of information. 

A. Publications. 

1. References cited in report: See Literature 
Cited (p. 49). 

2. Other publications/sources: 

Shelly, S. 1990. Profile: Montana's rare and 
endangered plants - Lemhi beardtongue. Kelseya 
(Newsletter of the Montana Native Plant 
Society) 3 (2) : 1. 

B. Museum collections: Specimens from Montana were 
examined at MONTU, MONT, MRC, and RM. 

| Voucher specimens collected in Montana during field 



47 

work for this status report are cited in the 
COMMENTS field of the element occurrence print-outs 
(pp. 53-89) , and are deposited at MONTU. Previously 
collected specimens from Montana are cited in the 
COMMENTS or BESTSOURCE fields of these print-outs. 

C. Fieldwork. 

1. Surveys conducted (Montana): 

J.S. Shelly (MTNHP) : 18-22 June 1986; 16-19 June 
1987. Surveys in Beaverhead County; field notes, 
population surveys, photographs, and herbarium 
specimens. 

J.S. Shelly (MTNHP) and A.M. Kratz (U.S. Forest 
Service): 26-29 June 1989. Surveys in Ravalli 
County; field notes, population surveys, 
photographs, and herbarium specimens. 

L.A. Schassberger (MTNHP): 26-30 June 1989. 
Surveys in Beaverhead County; field notes, 
population monitoring and surveys, photographs, and 
herbarium specimens. 

J.S. Shelly (MTNHP): 26-28 July 1989. 
Establishment of demographic monitoring transects, 
Beaverhead County. 

D. Knowledgeable individuals: 

Peter Lesica 

Division of Biological Sciences 
University of Montana 
Missoula, MT 59812 

John Pierce 

U.S. Forest Service, Region 1 

P.O. Box 7669 

Missoula, MT 59807 

Jennifer Ramstetter 
Department of Botany 
University of Massachusetts 
Amherst, MA 01003 

Lisa Ann Schassberger 

Montana Natural Heritage Program 

State Library Building 

1515 E. 6th Avenue 

Helena, MT 59620 



48 

E. Other information sources: Additional information 
is on file at the Montana Natural Heritage Program 
office, Helena, Montana. 

18. Summary of materials on file: All exact population 

locations are outlined on topographic maps on file at the 
Montana Natural Heritage Program. All field survey 
forms, field maps, and photographs from additional 
populations in Montana are also housed there. The MTNHP 
element file contains copies of most of the references 
cited herein, including Ramstetter (1983) . 

IV. AUTHORSHIP 



V. 



19. Initial authorship: J. Stephen Shelly 

Montana Natural Heritage Program 
State Library Building 
1515 E. 6th Avenue 
Helena, MT 59620 
(406) 444-3009 

20. Maintenance of status report: The respective Natural 
Heritage Programs (Montana and Idaho) will maintain 
current information, and update the status reports as 
needed. Should the species be listed by the U.S. Fish 
and Wildlife Service, the respective USFWS offices should 
maintain the primary information files, encourage others 
to provide new information, and distribute new findings 
to the interested parties. 

NEW INFORMATION 

21. Record of revisions: Not currently applicable. 



49 
Literature Cited 



Alden, W.C. 1953. Physiography and glacial geology of western 
Montana and adjacent areas. Geological Survey Professional 
Paper 231. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 
2 00 pp. , map. 

Bailey, R.G. 1976. Ecoregions of the United States. Department 
of Agriculture, U.S. Forest Service, Ogden, Utah. One map. 

Clark, D.V. 1971. Speciation in Penstemon (Scrophulariaceae) . 

Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Montana, Missoula. 195 pp. 

Cronquist, A., A.H. Holmgren, N.H. Holmgren, J.L. Reveal, and P.K. 
Holmgren. 1984. Intermountain Flora, Volume Four. New York 
Botanical Garden, Bronx. 573 pp. 

Dorn, R.D. 1984. Vascular Plants of Montana. Mountain West 
Publishing, Cheyenne, Wyoming. 276 pp. 

Essig, E.O. 1958. Insects and Mites of Western North America. 
The Macmillan Company, New York. 1,050 pp. 

Henderson, D.M. 1981. Penstemon lemhiensis. Page 32 in: Rare 

and Endangered Plants Technical Committee, Idaho Natural Areas 
Council. Vascular Plant Species of Concern in Idaho. 
University of Idaho: Forest, Wildlife and Range Experiment 
Station, Bulletin No. 34. Moscow, Idaho. 161 pp. 

Hitchcock, C.L., A. Cronquist, M. Ownbey, and J.W. Thompson. 1959. 
Vascular Plants of the Pacific Northwest, Part Four. 
University of Washington Press, Seattle. 510 pp. 

Hunt, C.B. 1974. Natural Regions of the United States and Canada. 
W.H. Freeman and Co., San Francisco, California. 725 pp. 

Karron, J.D. 1987. The pollination ecology of co-occurring 

geographically restricted and widespread species of Astragalus 
(Fabaceae) . Biol. Cons. 39: 179-193. 

Keck, D.D. 1940. Studies in Penstemon VII. The subsections 
Gairdneriani, Deusti, and Arenarii of the Graciles, and 
miscellaneous new species. Amer. Midi. Nat. 23: 594-616. 

Keck, D.D., and A. Cronquist. 1957. Studies in Penstemon IX. 

Notes on northwestern American species. Brittonia 8: 247- 
250. 

Lesica, P., G. Moore, K.M. Peterson, and J.H. Rumely. 1984. 

Vascular Plants of Limited Distribution in Montana. Monograph 
No. 2, Montana Academy of Sciences, Supplement to the 
Proceedings, Vol. 43. 61 pp. 



> 



50 

Lesica, P. 1987. A technique for monitoring nonrhizomatous, 

perennial plant species in permanent belt transects. Natural 
Areas J. 7: 65-68. 

Lesica, P. 1988. Germination requirements and seedling biology of 
Spalding's catchfly (Silene spaldinqii ) . Unpublished report 
to The Nature Conservancy, Helena, Montana. 2 pp. 

Moseley, R. , and C. Groves. 1990. Rare, threatened and endangered 
plants and animals of Idaho. Natural Heritage Section, 
Nongame and Endangered Wildlife Program, Idaho Department of 
Fish and Game, Boise, Idaho. 33 pp. 

Perry, E.S. 1962. Montana in the Geologic Past. Montana Bureau 

of Mines and Geology, Bulletin 26. Montana College of Mineral 
Science and Technology, Butte, Montana. 78 pp. 

Ramstetter, J. 1983. An ecological study of the regional endemic 
Penstemon lemhiensis (Keck) Keck & Cronq. (Scrophulariaceae) . 
M.A. Thesis, University of Montana, Missoula. 116 pp. 

Reel, S., L. Schassberger, and W. Ruediger. 1989. Caring for Our 
Natural Community: Region 1 - Threatened, Endangered and 
Sensitive Species Program. U.S. Department of Agriculture, 
Forest Service, Wildlife and Fisheries, Missoula, Montana. 
309 pp., appendices. 

Ross, R.L. , and H.E. Hunter. 1976. Climax Vegetation of Montana, 
Based on Soils and Climate. U.S.D.A. Soil Conservation 
Service, Bozeman, Montana. 64 pp. 

Shelly, J.S. 1990a. Plant species of special concern. Montana 
Natural Heritage Program, Helena. 21 pp. (mimeo.). 

Shelly, J.S. 1990b. Status review update and establishment of 
demographic monitoring studies: Penstemon lemhiensis . 
Unpublished report to U.S.D.A. Forest Service, Region 1, 
Beaverhead and Bitterroot National Forests. Montana Natural 
Heritage Program, Helena. 61 pp. 

U.S. Department of Agriculture. 1988. Sensitive Plant Field 
Guide, Region 1. U.S. Forest Service, Northern Region: 
Range, Air, Watershed, and Ecology Unit, Missoula, Montana. 

U.S. Department of Commerce. 1982. Monthly Normals of 

Temperature, Precipitation, and Heating and Cooling Degree 
Days 1951-80. National Oceanic and Atmospheric 
Administration, Climatography of the United States No. 81. 2 3 
pp. 



> 



51 

U.S. Department of Interior. 1975. Threatened or endangered fauna 
or flora; Review of status of vascular plants and 
determination of "critical habitat." Fed. Reg. 40(127): 
27824-27924. 

U.S. Department of Interior. 1980. Endangered and threatened 
wildlife and plants: Review of plant taxa for listing as 
endangered or threatened species. Fed. Reg. 45(242): 82480- 
82569. 

U.S. Department of Interior. 1983. Endangered and threatened 

wildlife and plants: Supplement to review of plant taxa for 
listing; proposed rule. Fed. Reg. 48(229): 53640-53670. 

U.S. Department of Interior. 1985. Endangered and threatened 
wildlife and plants; review of plant taxa for listing as 
endangered or threatened species; notice of review. Fed. Reg. 
50(188): 39525-39584. 

U.S. Department of Interior. 1990. Endangered and threatened 
wildlife and plants; review of plant taxa for listing as 
endangered or threatened species; notice of review. Fed. Reg. 
55(35): 6183-6229. 

U.S. Geological Survey. 1980. Stream Evaluation Map, State of 
Montana. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 
Two sheets. 

Visher, S.S. 1954. Climatic Atlas of the United States. Harvard 
University Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts. 403 pp. 

Watson, Jr., T.J. 1976. An evaluation of putatively threatened or 
endangered species from the Montana flora. Unpublished report 
to U.S. Forest Service, Region 1, Missoula, Montana. 31 pp. 



52 



Appendix A (Element occurrence print-outs, Montana) 



53 



PENSTEMON LEMHIENSIS 
LEMHI BEARDTONGUE 

Global rank: G3 Forest Service status: SENSITIVE LIST 
State rank: S2 Federal Status: C2 

Element occurrence code: PDSCR1L3N0.001 

Survey site name: ARGENTA 

EO rank: B 
EO rank comments: LARGE POPULATION, OCCURS PARTIALLY ON 

DISTURBED ROADBANK. 

County: BEAVERHEAD 

USGS quadrangle: ERMONT 

Township-range: 006S011W Section: 15 
Township-range comments: SE4 ;22 ,NE4 ;23 ,NW4NW4 

Survey date: 1986-06-20 Elevation: 6700 
First observation: 1976 Slope/aspect: 

Last observation: 1988 Size (acres) : 10 

Location: 

S. PIONEER MOUNTAINS, N. SIDE OF BLACK MOUNTAIN ROAD 
(BEAVERHEAD N.F. RD. 2400), 0.2 MI. W. OF RATTLESNAKE CR. 
ROAD (N.F. RD. 192), CA. 4 AIR MI. WNW. OF ARGENTA. 

Element occurrence data: 

206 PLANTS COUNTED IN 1986 (204 ON PRIVATE INHOLDING, 2 ON 
U.S.F.S. LAND); 100 PLANTS COUNTED IN 1988 (K. SCOW); A FEW 
PLANTS OCCUR ON ROADBANKS ; LOW LEVEL OF GRAZING; WEED 
INVASION ALONG THE ROAD. 

General site description: 

MODERATELY STEEP, SE. TO SW.- FACING SLOPES; MOST FREQUENT 
IN SPARSELY VEGETATED, ROCKY AREAS; ARTEMISIA TRIDENTATA/ 
FESTUCA IDAHOENSIS/AGROPYRON SPICATUM, WITH BROMUS, SENECIO. 

Land owner/manager: 

BEAVERHEAD NATIONAL FOREST, DILLON RANGER DISTRICT 
PRIVATELY OWNED LAND (INDIVIDUAL OR CORPORATE) 

Comments : 

VOUCHERS -WATSON, T.J. (1277), 1976, MONTU (SEC. 23); SHELLY, 
J.S. (1140) & G.V. KING, 1986, MONTU; ELOFSON, S.N., MONTU. 

Information source: 

SHELLY, J.S. 1986. FIELD SURVEYS IN BEAVERHEAD COUNTY OF 
18-22 JUNE. 



Element Occurrence Record - Montana Natural Heritage Program 



54 



PENSTEMON LEMHIENSIS 
LEMHI BEARDTONGUE 

Global rank: G3 Forest Service status: SENSITIVE LIST 
State rank: S2 Federal Status: C2 

Element occurrence code: PDSCR1L3N0.002 

Survey site name: TRAIL CREEK 

EO rank: D 
EO rank comments: SMALL SUBPOPULATIONS ALONG ROAD. 

County: BEAVERHEAD 

USGS quadrangle: EVERSON CREEK 

LEMHI PASS 

Township-range: 010S014W Section: 18 

Township-range comments: S2, 17SW4 , 19NW4 ;T10SR15W: 24NE4 

Survey date: 1986-06-22 Elevation: 6520 
First observation: 1970 Slope/aspect: 

Last observation: 1989-06-29 Size (acres) : 13 

Location: 

TRAIL CREEK, ALONG ROAD TO LEMHI PASS (BEAVERHEAD N.F. RD. 
3909.2), CA. 3.5-4.5 AIR MI. ESE. OF LEMHI PASS. 

Element occurrence data: 

70-100 PLANTS, 6 SUBPOPULATIONS; IN FULL FLOWER; MOST PLANTS 
OCCUR ALONG ROADSIDE. 

General site description: 

SANDY TO GRAVELLY LOAM SOILS, ON ALLUVIAL FAN AND ALONG 
ROAD; ARTEMISIA TRIDENTATA/POA SECUNDA, WITH BROMUS 
TECTORUM, SITANION HYSTRIX, CHRYSOTHAMNUS NAUSEOSUS AND 
ERIOGONUM OVALIFOLIUM VAR NEVADENSE. 

Land owner/manager: 

PRIVATELY OWNED LAND (INDIVIDUAL OR CORPORATE) 

Comments: 

VOUCHERS-WATSON, T.J. (1279), 1976, MONTU; STICKNEY, P.F. 
(2107), 1970, MONT; SCHASSBERGER, L.A. (299), 1989. 

Information source: 

SHELLY, J.S. 1986. FIELD SURVEYS IN BEAVERHEAD COUNTY OF 
18-22 JUNE; SCHASSBERGER, L.A. 1989. FIELD SURVEY OF 
SOUTHWEST MONTANA, 26-30 JUNE. 



Element Occurrence Record - Hontana Natural Heritage Program 



55 



PENSTEMON LEMHIENSIS 
LEMHI BEARDTONGUE 

Global rank: G3 Forest Service status: SENSITIVE LIST 
State rank: S2 Federal Status: C2 

Element occurrence code: PDSCR1L3N0.003 

Survey site name: LEMHI PASS 

EO rank: C 
EO rank comments: MODERATE-SIZED POPULATIONS, IN NATIVE 

HABITAT & ALONG ROAD. 

County: BEAVERHEAD 

USGS quadrangle: LEMHI PASS 

Township-range: 010S015W Section: 15 
Township-range comments: SE4NW4 ,NE4SE4 , 14SW4 

Survey date: 1986-06-22 Elevation: 6960 
First observation: 1983 Slope/aspect: 

Last observation: 1989-06-29 Size (acres) : 15 

Location: 

NORTH SIDE OF LEMHI PASS ROAD (BEAVERHEAD N.F. RD. 3909.2), 
1.0-1.6 AIR MILES SE. OF LEMHI PASS, CA. 1.4-2.0 MILES WEST 
OF SELWAY RANCH. 

Element occurrence data: 

164 PLANTS COUNTED, 3 SUBPOPULATIONS ; CA. 90% OF THE PLANTS 
OCCUR ON NATIVE SAGEBRUSH SLOPES ABOVE THE ROAD; SPECIES 
OCCURS IN MORE OPEN, GRAVELLY AREAS. 

General site description: 

GRAVELLY LOAM SOILS, ON SW. TO SE. -FACING SLOPES; ARTEMISIA 
TRIDENTATA/FESTUCA IDAHOENSIS, WITH PHACELIA HETEROPHYLLA, 
BROMUS TECTORUM, LUPINUS, PHLOX, POA, ACHILLEA, ROSA, 
MAHONIA REPENS, GERANIUM VISCOSISSIMUM, HELIANTHELLA 
UNIFLORA, ERIOGONUM UMBELLATUM VAR INTECTUM AND VAR 
SUBALPINUM. 

Land owner/manager: 

PRIVATELY OWNED LAND (INDIVIDUAL OR CORPORATE) 

Comments: 

VOUCHER-SHELLY, J.S. (1155) AND G.V. KING, 1986, MONTU; 
SCHASSBERGER, L.A. (302), 1989. 

Information source: 

SCHASSBERGER, L.A. 1989. FIELD SURVEYS OF SOUTHWEST MONTANA, 
26-30 JUNE (PENSTEMON LEMHIENSIS) . 



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PENSTEMON LEMHIENSIS 
LEMHI BEARDTONGUE 

Global rank: G3 Forest Service status: SENSITIVE LIST 
State rank: S2 Federal Status: C2 

Element occurrence code: PDSCR1L3N0. 004 

Survey site name: NORTH FORK RYE CREEK 

EO rank: C 
EO rank comments: FAIRLY SMALL POPULATION, IN WEEDY 

HABITAT. 

County: RAVALLI 

USGS quadrangle: ROBBINS GULCH 

Township-range: 003N020W Section: 25 
Township-range comments: NW4SW4 ,SW4NW4 

Survey date: 1989-06-26 Elevation: 4320 
First observation: 1952 Slope/aspect: 35% / WEST 

Last observation: 1989-06-26 Size (acres) : 3 

Location: 

WESTERN FOOTHILLS OF THE SAPPHIRE MOUNTAINS, NORTH FORK RYE 
CREEK DRAINAGE, EAST SIDE OF BITTERROOT N.F. RD. #321, 0.2 
AND 0.35 MILES NORTH OF RYE CREEK RD. (#75), CA. 7.5 AIR 
MILES ESE OF DARBY. 

Element occurrence data: 

TWO SUBPOPULATIONS ; 72 PLANTS (SOUTH), WITH 65 ON SLOPE 
ABOVE ROADCUT; 11 PLANTS (NORTH), ALL ON ROADCUT; HABITAT 
HEAVILY INFESTED WITH WEEDS; LARGEST POPULATION KNOWN IN 
RAVALLI COUNTY. 

General site description: 

SANDY TO GRAVELLY GRANITIC SOILS, ON STEEP WEST-FACING 
SLOPES; PINUS PONDEROSA/PURSHIA TRIDENTATA HABITAT, WITH 
AGROPYRON SPICATUM, KOELERIA CRISTATA, PENSTEMON ALBERTINUS, 
BALSAMORHIZA SAGITTATA, PHACELIA LINEARIS, GERANIUM 
VISCOSISSIMUM, CENTAUREA MACULOSA, BROMUS TECTORUM, 
LITHOSPERMUM RUDERALE, MELILOTUS OFFICINALIS. 

Land owner/manager: 

PRIVATELY OWNED LAND (INDIVIDUAL OR CORPORATE) 

Comments : 

VOUCHER - SHELLY, J.S. (1565) AND A. KRATZ, 1989; PROBABLE 
RELOCATION OF HISTORICAL RECORD: WRIGHT, J.C. (S.N.), 1952, 
MONT: "10 MILES E. OF DARBY, SAPPHIRE MTS . FOOTHILLS, SANDY 
GRANITIC SOIL, PONDEROSA PINE ZONE." 

Information source: 

SHELLY, J.S. 1989. FIELD SURVEYS IN RAVALLI COUNTY, 26-29 JUNE, 

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57 



PENSTEMON LEMHIENSIS 
LEMHI BEARDTONGUE 

Global rank: G3 Forest Service status: SENSITIVE LIST 
State rank: S2 Federal Status: C2 

Element occurrence code: PDSCR1L3N0. 005 

Survey site name: BADGER PASS 

EO rank: B 
EO rank comments: LARGE POPULATION, MOSTLY NATIVE HABITAT, 

FENCE EXCLOSURE. 

County: BEAVERHEAD 

USGS quadrangle: BANNACK 

Township-range: 007S011W Section: 22 
Township-range comments: N2NW4 

Survey date: 1986-06-20 Elevation: 7260 
First observation: 1972 Slope/aspect: 

Last observation: 1989-06-14 Size (acres) : 10 

Location: 

1.4 5 AIR MILES SSE. OF BADGER PASS, ADJACENT TO MICROWAVE 
TOWER ON GRAVEL ROAD 1.3 AIR MI. S. OF BIG HOLE ROAD (ST. 
HWY. 278), CA. 4.5 AIR MI. NNE. OF BANNACK. 

Element occurrence data: 

1986: 190 PLANTS COUNTED; CA. 75 PLANTS ARE WITHIN A FENCE 
EXCLOSURE, WHICH WAS CONSTRUCTED TO PROTECT PART OF THE 
POPULATION. 1989: VERY FEW PLANTS OBSERVED, AND NONE FOUND 
INSIDE EXCLOSURE. 

General site description: 

GRAVELLY LOAM SOILS, E. TO NE. ASPECT; ARTEMISIA TRIDENTATA/ 
PSEUDOTSUGA MENZIESII/FESTUCA IDAHOENSIS/AGROPYRON SPICATUM, 
LUPINUS LEUCOPHYLLUS , ANTENNARIA MICROPHYLLA, GEUM, SEDUM. 

Land owner/manager: 

BLM: DILLON RESOURCE AREA, BUTTE DISTRICT 

Comments : 

VOUCHERS-SHELLY, J.S. (1147) AND G.V. KING, 1986, MONTU; 
KOVALCHICK, B.L., 1972, MONTU. 

Information source: 

SHELLY, J.S. 1986. FIELD SURVEYS IN BEAVERHEAD COUNTY OF 
18-22 JUNE. 



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58 



PENSTEMON LEMHIENSIS 
LEMHI BEARDTONGUE 

Global rank: G3 Forest Service status: SENSITIVE LIST 
State rank: S2 Federal Status: C2 

Element occurrence code: PDSCR1L3N0. 006 

Survey site name: BIG HOLE NATIONAL BATTLEFIELD 

EO rank: B 
EO rank comments: LARGE POPULATION; PORTION OF HABITAT 

RECENTLY BURNED. 

County: BEAVERHEAD 

USGS quadrangle: BIG HOLE BATTLEFIELD 

Township-range: 002S017W Section: 24 
Township-range comments: W2SE4 , 13SW4 , 23SE4 

Survey date: 1983-07-26 Elevation: 6320 
First observation: 1976 Slope/aspect: 

Last observation: 1986-07-08 Size (acres) : 50 

Location: 

BIG HOLE NATIONAL BATTLEFIELD, 9 MILES WEST OF WISDOM ON ST. 
HWY. 43. 

Element occurrence data: 

THREE SUBPOPULATIONS , WITH 447 PLANTS (S. OF "SIEGE AREA" & 
ROADCUT ALONG SLOPE), "HUNDREDS" (N. OF "SIEGE AREA"), AND 
CA. 40 BELOW VISITOR'S CENTER; NO PLANTS FOUND OUTSIDE 
BATTLEFIELD BOUNDARIES. 

General site description: 

SAGEBRUSH STEPPE PORTION OF SE. FACE OF BATTLE MTN. , AND ON 
NW. -FACING BENCHLAND BELOW VISITOR'S CENTER; ARTEMISIA 
TRIDENTATA/AGROPYRON SPICATUM/FESTUCA IDAHOENSIS. 

Land owner/manager: 

BIG HOLE NATIONAL BATTLEFIELD 

Comments : 

VOUCHERS: HITCHCOCK (19189), NO DATE, WTU; WATSON, T. J . ( 1271) , 
1976, MONTU (093357); PIERCE, J. (798), 1980, MONTU (86884). 

Information source: 

PIERCE, JOHN. 737 LOCUST STREET, MISSOULA, MT 59802. 



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PENSTEMON LEMHI ENS IS 
LEMHI BEARDTONGUE 

Global rank: G3 Forest Service status: SENSITIVE LIST 
State rank: S2 Federal Status: C2 

■ 

Element occurrence code: PDSCR1L3N0. 007 

Survey site name: MEDICINE TREE CREEK 

EO rank: D 
EO rank comments: VERY SMALL POPULATION, MOSTLY ON 

ROADSIDE, WEEDY AREA. 

County: RAVALLI 

USGS quadrangle: ROBBINS GULCH 

Township-range: 002N020W Section: 21 
Township-range comments: NE4SE4,SW4NE4 

Survey date: 1989-06-29 Elevation: 4150 
First observation: 1950 Slope/aspect: 8-35% / S,SW 

Last observation: 1989-06-29 Size (acres) : 2 

Location: 

EAST FORK BITTERROOT RIVER DRAINAGE, NORTH SIDE OF U.S. HWY. 
93, 0.1 MI. WEST OF MEDICINE TREE CREEK, AND 0.3 AIR MI. 
NORTHWEST OF HWY. BRIDGE OVER CREEK, CA. 2.5 MILES SOUTHEAST 
OF CONNER. 

Element occurrence data: 

10 PLANTS OBSERVED, 7 ON ROADCUT, 3 ON SLOPES ABOVE. 

General site description: 

GRANITIC, GRAVELLY TO SANDY LOAM SOILS, ON ROADCUT AND WEEDY 
SLOPES; PINUS PONDEROSA/PURSHIA TRIDENTATA HABITAT, WITH 
CENTAUREA MACULOSA, BROMUS TECTORUM, KOELERIA CRISTATA, 
BALSAMORHIZA SAGITTATA, PHACELIA LINEARIS, P. HETEROPHYLLA, 
PHYSARIA GEYERI, ALYSSUM ALYSSOIDES, AGROPYRON SPICATUM, 
VERBASCUM THAPSUS, ARABIS HOLBOELLII. 

Land owner/manager: 

PRIVATELY OWNED LAND (INDIVIDUAL OR CORPORATE) 

Comments : 

VOUCHER - SHELLY, J.S. (1568) AND A. KRATZ , 1989; POSSIBLE 
RELOCATION OF HISTORICAL RECORD: MCCALL, T.G. & V.C. (352), 
1950, MONTU (49394): "BETWEEN CONNER AND SULA, ON ROCKY 
HILLSIDE ABOVE RIVER." 

Information source: 

SHELLY, J.S. 1989. FIELD SURVEYS IN RAVALLI COUNTY, 26-29 
JUNE. 



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60 



PENSTEMON LEMHIENSIS 
LEMHI BEARDTONGUE 

Global rank: G3 Forest Service status: SENSITIVE LIST 
State rank: S2 Federal Status: C2 

Element occurrence code: PDSCR1L3N0.008 

Survey site name: JOHNSON GULCH 

EO rank: 
EO rank comments: 

County: BEAVERHEAD 

USGS quadrangle: DEER CANYON 

Township-range: 011S011W Section: 18 
Township-range comments: SE4 

Survey date: 1984-07-06 Elevation: 6500 
First observation: 1984 Slope/aspect: 

Last observation: 1984-07-06 Size (acres) : 

Location: 

NORTH SIDE OF JOHNSON GULCH, ALONG THE ROAD CA. 10 MI. SE, 
OF GRANT. 

Element occurrence data: 

ONE PLANT (SPECIMEN IS ONE TOPSNATCHED STEM) . 

General site description: 

SILTY SOIL OF A BENCH; WITH ARTEMISIA TRIDENTATA AND 
AGROPYRON SPICATUM. 

Land owner/manager: 

BLM: DILLON RESOURCE AREA, BUTTE DISTRICT 

Comments: 

VOUCHER- LES I CA, P. (3110), 1984, MONTU (06215). 

Information source: 

LESICA, P. DIVISION OF BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES, UNIV. OF 
MONTANA, MISSOULA, MT. 



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61 



PENSTEMON LEMHIENSIS 
LEMHI BEARDTONGUE 

Global rank: G3 Forest Service status: SENSITIVE LIST 
State rank: S2 Federal Status: C2 

Element occurrence code: PDSCR1L3N0. 009 

Survey site name: FRENCH CREEK 

EO rank: B 
EO rank comments: LARGE POPULATION; NATIVE HABITAT, BUT 

NEAR ROAD AND MINES. 

County: BEAVERHEAD 

USGS quadrangle: ERMONT 

Township-range: 006S011W Section: 11 
Township-range comments: E2, 14NE4NW4, 2SE4SE4 , 1W2SW4 

Survey date: 1986-06-19 Elevation: 7000 
First observation: 1986 Slope/aspect: 

Last observation: 1989-07-27 Size (acres) : 40 

Location: 

PIONEER MOUNTAINS, SLOPES ALONG WEST SIDE OF FRENCH CREEK, 
ALONG THE FRENCH CREEK-THIEF CREEK ROAD (BEAVERHEAD N.F. RD. 
#606) 4 AIR MILES NW. OF ARGENTA; ALSO, MOUTH OF RED GULCH. 

Element occurrence data: 

138 PLANTS COUNTED (CA. 150 TOTAL) IN MAIN POPULATION, WITH 
22 PLANTS COUNTED IN SUBPOPULATION AT THE MOUTH OF RED GULCH 
(1986); 1845 PLANTS, IN 13 SUBPOPULATIONS , COUNTED IN 1988 
(K. SCOW); AREA SUBJECT TO MINING DISTURBANCE; TWO 
MONITORING TRANSECTS ESTABLISHED IN 1989. 

General site description: 

STEEP, E. & SE. -FACING SLOPES, IN GRAVELLY LOAM SOILS; 
ARTEMISIA TRIDENTATA/FESTUCA IDAHOENSIS/AGROPYRON SPICATUM, 
WITH JUNIPERUS SCOPULORUM, PSEUDOTSUGA MENZIESII, ARTEMISIA 
FRIGIDA. 

Land owner/manager: 

BEAVERHEAD NATIONAL FOREST, DILLON RANGER DISTRICT 

Comments : 

VOUCHER-SHELLY, J.S. (1130) AND G.V. KING, 1986, MONTU. 

Information source: 

SHELLY, J.S. 1986. FIELD SURVEYS IN BEAVERHEAD COUNTY OF 
18-22 JUNE. 



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62 



PENSTEMON LEMHIENSIS 
LEMHI BEARDTONGUE 

Global rank: G3 Forest Service status: SENSITIVE LIST 
State rank: S2 Federal Status: C2 

Element occurrence code: PDSCR1L3N0.010 

Survey site name: QUARTZ HILL GULCH 

EO rank: B 
EO rank comments: GOOD POPULATION, MOSTLY IN NATIVE 

HABITAT; SOME ALONG ROAD. 

County: BEAVERHEAD 

USGS quadrangle: VIPOND PARK 

Township-range: 001S011W Section: 26 
Township-range comments: E2SE4 

Survey date: 1986-07-08 Elevation: 8000 
First observation: 1986 Slope/aspect: 

Last observation: 1986-07-08 Size (acres) : 15 

Location: 

HEAD OF QUARTZ HILL GULCH, ALONG BEAVERHEAD N.F. RD. 187; 
0.7 AIR MILES ENE. OF GRAY JOCKEY PEAK, CA. 5 AIR MI. SSE. 
OF WISE RIVER, PIONEER MOUNTAINS. 

Element occurrence data: 

203 PLANTS COUNTED, IN FLOWER; NEARBY AREAS SUBJECT TO 
MINING DISTURBANCE. 

General site description: 

EAST-FACING SLOPE, ON CLAY LOAM SOILS; OPENINGS IN PINUS 
CONTORTA/PSEUDOTSUGA MENZIESII FOREST, WITH JUNIPERUS 
COMMUNIS, TOWNSENDIA PARRYI, PEDICULARIS CONTORTA. 

Land owner/manager: 

BEAVERHEAD NATIONAL FOREST, WISE RIVER RANGER DISTRICT 

Comments : 

VOUCHER-SHELLY, J.S. (1192), 1986, MONTU. 

Information source: 

SHELLY, J.S. 1986. FIELD SURVEYS IN BEAVERHEAD COUNTY OF 8-9 
JULY. 



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63 



PENSTEMON LEMHIENSIS 
LEMHI BEARDTONGUE 

Global rank: G3 Forest Service status: SENSITIVE LIST 
State rank: S2 Federal Status: C2 

Element occurrence code: PDSCR1L3N0. Oil 

Survey site name: ECHO GULCH 

EO rank: AB 
EO rank comments: LARGE POPULATION, MOSTLY IN UNDISTURBED 

HABITAT . 

County: BEAVERHEAD 

USGS quadrangle: VIPOND PARK 

Township-range: 001S011W Section: 36 
Township-range comments: W2,35E2SE4 

Survey date: 1986-07-08 Elevation: 8100 
First observation: 1986 Slope/aspect: 

Last observation: 1986-07-08 Size (acres) : 45 

Location: 

NEAR HEAD OF ECHO GULCH, SLOPES 0-0.5 AIR MI. N. OF VIPOND 
PARK, ALONG BEAVERHEAD N.F. RD. 187; 0.5-0.75 AIR MI. W. AND 
SW. OF QUARTZ HILL, PIONEER MOUNTAINS. 

Element occurrence data: 

252 PLANTS COUNTED IN SOUTH SUBPOPULATION, 100-150 PLANTS IN 
NORTH SUBPOPULATION; IN FLOWER; MINING TEST PITS OBSERVED 
NEAR NORTH SUBPOPULATION. 

General site description: 

SOUTH AND EAST-FACING SLOPES, ON GRAVELLY SILT LOAM SOILS; 
PINUS CONTORTA/GRASSLAND, WITH PEDICULARIS CONTORTA, TOWN- 
SENDIA PARRYI, ANTENNARIA MICROPHYLLA, FESTUCA IDAHOENSIS. 

Land owner/manager: 

BEAVERHEAD NATIONAL FOREST, WISE RIVER RANGER DISTRICT 

Comments : 

VOUCHER-SHELLY, J.S. (1199), 1986, MONTU ; AREA NEEDS 
ADDITIONAL SURVEY. 

Information source: 

SHELLY, J.S. 1986. FIELD SURVEYS IN BEAVERHEAD COUNTY OF 8-9 

JULY. 



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64 



PENSTEMON LEMHIENSIS 
LEMHI BEARDTONGUE 

Global rank: G3 Forest Service status: SENSITIVE LIST 
State rank: S2 Federal Status: C2 

Element occurrence code: PDSCR1L3N0. 012 

Survey site name: RED BUTTE 

EO rank: B 
EO rank comments: MODERATE-SIZED POPULATION; HABITAT IN 

GOOD CONDITION. 

County : BEAVERHEAD 

USGS quadrangle: ERMONT 

Township-range: 006S011W Section: 15 
Township-range comments: NE4,10S2 

Survey date: 1986-06-19 Elevation: 6800 
First observation: 1986 Slope/aspect: 

Last observation: 1989-07-27 Size (acres) : 20 

Location: 

CA. 4.5 AIR MI. NW. OF ARGENTA, CENTERED 0.5 AIR MI. ESE. OF 
RED BUTTE, RATTLESNAKE CREEK DRAINAGE CA. 1 MI . SE. OF KELLY 
RESERVOIR, PIONEER MOUNTAINS. 

Element occurrence data: 

142 PLANTS COUNTED IN MAIN SUBPOPULATION (CENTRUM) , 169 
TOTAL, 3 SUBPOPULATIONS (1986); NO PLANTS OBSERVED IN MAIN 
SUBPOPULATION IN 1988 (K. SCOW) , AND ONLY CA. 12 IN 1989 
(SHELLY) ; MAIN POPULATION NEAR, BUT NOT RIGHT ALONG, A 
LIGHTLY-USED GRAVEL ROAD. 

General site description: 

S. AND SW. -FACING SLOPES, LOAMY SOILS; ARTEMISIA TRIDENTATA/ 

FESTUCA IDAHOENSIS/AGROPYRON SPICATUM, WITH SENECIO CANUS , 

PHACELIA LINEARIS, KOELERIA MACRANTHA, PSME . 

Land owner/manager: 

BEAVERHEAD NATIONAL FOREST, DILLON RANGER DISTRICT 

Comments : 

VOUCHER-SHELLY, J.S. (1133) AND G.V. KING, 1986, MONTU. 

Information source: 

SHELLY, J.S. 1986. FIELD SURVEYS IN BEAVERHEAD COUNTY OF 
18-22 JUNE. 



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PENSTEMON LEMHIENSIS 
LEMHI BEARDTONGUE 

Global rank: G3 Forest Service status: SENSITIVE LIST 
State rank: S2 Federal Status: C2 

Element occurrence code: PDSCR1L3N0. 013 

Survey site name: BLACK MOUNTAIN ROAD 

EO rank: C 
EO rank comments: SMALLER POPULATION, MANY PLANTS ON 

ROADSIDE. 

County: BEAVERHEAD 

USGS quadrangle: ERMONT 

Township-range: 006S011W Section: 21 
Township-range comments: W2SE4NE4, 20SE4SE4 

Survey date: 1986-06-20 Elevation: 7200 
First observation: 1986 Slope/aspect: 

Last observation: 1986-06-20 Size (acres) : 20 

Location: 

CA. 5 AIR MI WNW. OF ARGENTA, ALONG BLACK MOUNTAIN ROAD 
(BEAVERHEAD N.F. RD. #2400) CA. 3 AIR MI. SSE. OF BLACK 
MOUNTAIN, PIONEER MOUNTAINS. 

Element occurrence data: 

CA. 100-125 PLANTS TOTAL, MAINLY IN TWO SUBPOPULATIONS AND 
SCATTERED ALONG ROADSIDE; IN FLOWER. 

General site description: 

EAST AND SE. -FACING SLOPES, RED-COLORED LOAM SOILS; 
ARTEMISIA TRIDENTATA/FESTUCA IDAHOENSIS, WITH PHACELIA 
LINEARIS, ERIOGONUM, ASTER, BERBERIS. 

Land owner/manager: 

BEAVERHEAD NATIONAL FOREST, DILLON RANGER DISTRICT 

Comments : 

VOUCHER-SHELLY, J.S. (1142) AND G.V. KING, 1986, MONTU. 

Information source: 

SHELLY, J.S. 1986. FIELD SURVEYS IN BEAVERHEAD COUNTY OF 
18-22 JUNE. 



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66 



PENSTEMON LEMHIENSIS 
LEMHI BEARDTONGUE 

Global rank: G3 Forest Service status: SENSITIVE LIST 
State rank: S2 Federal Status: C2 

Element occurrence code: PDSCR1L3N0. 014 

Survey site name: ERMONT GULCH 

EO rank: C 
EO rank comments: SMALL POPULATION, NATIVE HABITAT 

IMPACTED BY GRAZING. 

County: BEAVERHEAD 

USGS quadrangle: ERMONT 

Township-range: 006S011W Section: 33 
Township-range comments: NE4SE4,34W2 

Survey date: 1986-06-20 Elevation: 6740 
First observation: 1986 Slope/aspect: 

Last observation: 1989-07-27 Size (acres) : 5 

Location: 

CA 4.3 AIR MI. WSW. OF ARGENTA, ALONG BEAVERHEAD N.F. RD. 
#7467 AT HEAD OF ERMONT GULCH, CA. 2.2 AIR MI. N. OF BADGER 
PASS, PIONEER MOUNTAINS. 

Element occurrence data: 

76 PLANTS COUNTED (1986); ONLY ONE PLANT SEEN IN 1989; AREA 
SUBJECT TO MODERATE TO HEAVY GRAZING. 

General site description: 

SE. -FACING SLOPE, LOAM SOILS; ARTEMISIA TRIDENTATA/FESTUCA 
IDAHOENSIS, ANTENNARIA MICROPHYLLA, KOELERIA MACRANTHA, 
COMANDRA UMBELLATA, ERIOGONUM. 

Land owner/manager: 

BEAVERHEAD NATIONAL FOREST, DILLON RANGER DISTRICT 
BLM: DILLON RESOURCE AREA, BUTTE DISTRICT 

Comments : 

VOUCHER-SHELLY, J.S. (114 6) AND G.V. KING, 1986, MONTU 

Information source: 

SHELLY, J.S. 1986. FIELD SURVEYS IN BEAVERHEAD COUNTY OF OF 
18-22 JUNE. 



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PENSTEMON LEMHIENSIS 
LEMHI BEARDTONGUE 

Global rank: G3 Forest Service status: SENSITIVE LIST 
State rank: S2 Federal Status: C2 

Element occurrence code: PDSCR1L3N0.015 

Survey site name: ROBERTS GULCH 

EO rank: B 
EO rank comments: SMALL POPULATION, NATIVE HABITAT IN GOOD 

CONDITION. 

County: BEAVERHEAD 

USGS quadrangle: COYOTE CREEK 

Township-range: 009S014W Section: 33 
Township-range comments: N2SE4 

Survey date: 1986-06-22 Elevation: 6520 
First observation: 1986 Slope/aspect: 

Last observation: 1986-06-22 Size (acres) : 5 

Location: 

MOUTH OF ROBERTS GULCH, CA. 1 AIR MI. NW. OF BLOODY DICK 
CREEK, CA. 12.5 AIR MI. WEST OF GRANT AND 6.5 AIR MI. ENE, 
OF LEMHI PASS. 

Element occurrence data: 

54 PLANTS COUNTED; IN FLOWER; HABITAT RELATIVELY 
UNDISTURBED, SOME GRAZING USE. 

General site description: 

EAST-FACING SLOPE ALONG SMALL DRAINAGE, LOAM SOILS; 
ARTEMISIA TRIDENTATA/AGROPYRON SPICATUM, CHRYSOTHAMNUS 
VISCIDIFLORUS, ARTEMISIA FRIGIDA, LUPINUS, ANTENNARIA. 

Land owner/manager: 

BLM: DILLON RESOURCE AREA, BUTTE DISTRICT 

Comments : 

VOUCHER- SHELLY, J.S. (1156) AND G.V. KING, 1986, MONTU. 

Information source: 

SHELLY, J.S. 1986. FIELD SURVEYS IN BEAVERHEAD COUNTY OF 
18-22 JUNE. 



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PENSTEMON LEMHIENSIS 
LEMHI BEARDTONGUE 

Global rank: G3 Forest Service status: SENSITIVE LIST 
State rank: S2 Federal Status: C2 

Element occurrence code: PDSCR1L3N0. 016 

Survey site name: TRAPPER CREEK 

EO rank: D 
EO rank comments: SMALL, VULNERABLE ROADSIDE POPULATION. 

County: BEAVERHEAD 

USGS quadrangle: CATTLE GULCH 

Township-range: 002S010W Section: 20 
Township-range comments: W2SE4 

Survey date: 1987-06-16 Elevation: 6800 
First observation: 1987 Slope/aspect: 

Last observation: 1987-06-16 Size (acres) : 1 

Location: 

PIONEER MOUNTAINS, TRAPPER CREEK DRAINAGE, ALONG BEAVERHEAD 
N.F. RD. #188; ABOUT 10 MILES WEST OF MELROSE; ABOUT 1 AIR 
MILE SSE. OF ORE CAMP HILL. 

Element occurrence data: 

18 PLANTS COUNTED; FLOWERING; POPULATION OCCURS RIGHT ALONG 
ROADSIDE. 

General site description: 

GRAVELLY LOAM SOILS, ON ROADSIDE; ARTEMISIA TRIDENTATA/ 
AGROPYRON SPICATUM/FESTUCA IDAHOENSIS, GERANIUM 
VISCOSISSIMUM, ERIOGONUM UMBELLATUM. 

Land owner/manager: 

BEAVERHEAD NATIONAL FOREST, WISE RIVER RANGER DISTRICT 

Comments: 

VOUCHER-SHELLY, J.S. (1335), 1987, MONTU. 

Information source: 

SHELLY, J.S. 1987. FIELD SURVEYS IN BEAVERHEAD COUNTY OF 
16-19 JUNE. 



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PENSTEMON LEMHIENSIS 
LEMHI BEARDTONGUE 

Global rank: G3 Forest Service status: SENSITIVE LIST 
State rank: S2 Federal Status: C2 

Element occurrence code: PDSCR1L3N0. 017 

Survey site name: BROWNES LAKE 

EO rank: D 
EO rank comments: SMALL POPULATION; PARTIALLY ALONG 

ROADSIDE. 

County: BEAVERHEAD 

USGS quadrangle: STORM PEAK 

Township-range: 003S010W Section: 34 
Township-range comments: S2SW4 

Survey date: 1987-06-17 Elevation: 6650 
First observation: 1987 Slope/aspect: 

Last observation: 1987-06-17 Size (acres) : 1 

Location: 

PIONEER MOUNTAINS, ROCK CREEK DRAINAGE, ALONG ROCK CREEK 
ROAD ABOUT 6 MILES WEST OF 1-15, NEAR WEST END OF BROWNES 
LAKE. 

Element occurrence data: 

ONLY 4 PLANTS SEEN, 2 ON ROADSIDE AND 2 ON NATURAL SLOPE 
ABOVE ROAD. 

General site description: 

GRAVELLY LOAM SOILS, ON ROADSIDE AND SLOPE ABOVE ROAD; 
PSEUDOTSUGA MENZIESII/AGROPYRON SPICATUM, WITH CERCOCARPUS 
MONTANUS, SENECIO CANUS, PENSTEMON ARIDUS. 

Land owner/manager: 

BEAVERHEAD NATIONAL FOREST, DILLON RANGER DISTRICT 
PRIVATELY OWNED LAND (INDIVIDUAL OR CORPORATE) 

Comments : 

VOUCHER-SHELLY, J.S. (1339), 1987, MONTU. 

Information source: 

SHELLY, J.S. 1987. FIELD SURVEYS IN BEAVERHEAD COUNTY OF 
16-19 JUNE. 



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70 



PENSTEMON LEMHIENSIS 
LEMHI BEARDTONGUE 

Global rank: G3 Forest Service status: SENSITIVE LIST 
State rank: S2 Federal Status: C2 

Element occurrence code: PDSCR1L3N0. 018 

Survey site name: KEARNS CREEK 

EO rank: C 
EO rank comments: SMALLER POPULATION; SOME MINING AND 

GRAZING NEARBY. 

County: BEAVERHEAD 

USGS quadrangle: ERMONT 

Township-range: 006S011W Section: 16 
Township-range comments: NE4 , 15N2SW4 ,S2NW4 

Survey date: 1987-06-17 Elevation: 6900 
First observation: 1987 Slope/aspect: 

Last observation: 1988 Size (acres) : 5 

Location: 

PIONEER MOUNTAINS, KEARNS CREEK, ADJACENT TO SILVER RULE 
MINE; ABOUT 0.5 AIR MILE SOUTHWEST OF RED BUTTE; ABOUT 0.75 
AIR MILE WEST OF RATTLESNAKE CREEK. 

Element occurrence data: 

52 PLANTS COUNTED, 4 SUBPOPULATIONS (1987); MOST ABUNDANT ON 
EAST-FACING SLOPE ALONG CREEK, ON GRAVELLY OPEN SLOPE; SOME 
GRAZING AND MINING ACTIVITY IN THE AREA; FIFTH 
SUBPOPULATION, CONTAINING 40 PLANTS, LOCATED IN 1988 BY K. 
SCOW. 

General site description: 

GRAVELLY LOAM SOILS; ARTEMISIA TRIDENTATA/FESTUCA 
IDAHOENSIS, WITH SENECIO CANUS, BALSAMORHIZA SAGITTATA, 
HELIANTHELLA QUINQUENERVIS, LUPINUS SERICEUS, PSEUDOTSUGA 
MENZIESII, PINUS CONTORTA. 

Land owner/manager: 

BEAVERHEAD NATIONAL FOREST, DILLON RANGER DISTRICT 
PRIVATELY OWNED LAND (INDIVIDUAL OR CORPORATE) 

Comments: 

VOUCHER-SHELLY, J.S. (1342), 1987, MONTU. 

Information source: 

SHELLY, J.S. 1987. FIELD SURVEYS IN BEAVERHEAD COUNTY OF 
16-19 JUNE. 



Element Occurrence Record - Montana Natural Heritage Program 



71 



PENSTEMON LEMHIENSIS 
LEMHI BEARDTONGUE 

Global rank: G3 Forest Service status: SENSITIVE LIST 
State rank: S2 Federal Status: C2 

Element occurrence code: PDSCR1L3N0.019 

Survey site name: BADGER PASS NORTH 

EO rank: B 
EO rank comments: MODERATE-SIZED POPULATION; FAIR TO GOOD 

CONDITION RANGELAND. 

County : BEAVERHEAD 

USGS quadrangle: BANNACK 

Township-range: 007S011W Section: 09 
Township-range comments : NE4NE4 , 10NW4 , 3SW4 

Survey date: 1987-06-18 Elevation: 6980 
First observation: 1987 Slope/aspect: 

Last observation: 1989-07-28 Size (acres) : 4 

Location: 

SOUTHERN PIONEER MOUNTAINS, 0.7-1.2 AIR MILES NNE. OF BADGER 
PASS; ABOUT 15 AIR MILES WEST OF DILLON. 

Element occurrence data: 

ABOUT 200 PLANTS COUNTED, POPULATION = EST. 300+ PLANTS, 3 
SUBPOPULATIONS OBSERVED; FLOWERING; NUMEROUS PLANTS GROWING 
THROUGH BRANCHES OF SAGEBRUSH SHRUBS; AREA IS LIGHTLY TO 
MODERATELY GRAZED; PERMANENT MONITORING TRANSECT ESTABLISHED 
IN 1989. 

General site description: 

BROWN LOAM SOILS; ARTEMISIA TRIDENTATA/FESTUCA IDAHOENSIS, 
WITH PSEUDOTSUGA MENZIESII, BALSAMORHIZA SAGITTATA, LUPINUS 
SERICEUS, ANTENNARIA MICRO PHYLLA, ASTER STENOMERES. 

Land owner/manager: 

BEAVERHEAD NATIONAL FOREST, DILLON RANGER DISTRICT 

Comments : 

VOUCHER-SHELLY, J.S. (1343), 1987, MONTU. 

Information source: 

SHELLY, J.S. 1987. FIELD SURVEYS IN BEAVERHEAD COUNTY OF 
16-19 JUNE. 



Element Occurrence Record - Montana Natural Heritage Program 



72 



PENSTEMON LEMHIENSIS 
LEMHI BEARDTONGUE 

Global rank: G3 Forest Service status: SENSITIVE LIST 
State rank: S2 Federal Status: C2 

Element occurrence code: PDSCR1L3N0. 02 

Survey site name: SELWAY CREEK 

EO rank: D 
EO rank comments: VERY SMALL POPULATION; NATIVE HABITAT, 

SOME GRAZING IMPACTS. 

County : BEAVERHEAD 

USGS quadrangle: KITTY CREEK 

Township-range: 008S015W Section: 27 
Township-range comments: SW4NE4 

Survey date: 1989-06-29 Elevation: 7200 
First observation: 1987 Slope/aspect: 20-30% / EAST 

Last observation: 1989-06-29 Size (acres) : 1 

Location: 

BLOODY DICK CREEK DRAINAGE, SLOPES ABOVE SELWAY CREEK, ABOUT 
2 MILES SOUTHEAST OF RESERVOIR LAKE; ABOUT 4 MILES EAST OF 
MONTANA-IDAHO STATE LINE. 

Element occurrence data: 

SIX PLANTS OBSERVED, IN 2 CLUMPS (19 JUNE 1987); FLOWERING; 
PLANTS ASSOCIATED WITH STEEP ROCK OUTCROP AREAS, AND NOT 
OBSERVED IN DENSER SURROUNDING VEGETATION. 10 PLANTS 
OBSERVED IN 1989. 

General site description: 

ROCK OUTCROPS; ARTEMISIA TRIDENT AT A/ FESTUCA IDAHOENSIS, WITH 
ERIOGONUM UMBELLATUM, PHACELIA FRANKLINII, SEDUM 
LANCEOLATUM, LUPINUS SERICEUS, PSEUDOTSUGA MENZIESII, PICO. 

Land owner/manager: 

BEAVERHEAD NATIONAL FOREST, DILLON RANGER DISTRICT 

Comments : 

VOUCHER-SHELLY, J.S. (1344), 1987, MONTU. SHELLY, J.S. 1987. 
FIELD SURVEYS OF BEAVERHEAD COUNTY OF 16-19 JUNE. 

Information source: 

SCHASSBERGER, L.A. 1989. FIELD SURVEYS OF SOUTHWEST MONTANA 
26-30 JUNE (Penstemon lemhiensis) . 



Element Occurrence Record - Montana Natural Heritaae Proaram 



73 



PENSTEMON LEMHIENSIS 
LEMHI BEARDTONGUE 

Global rank: G3 Forest Service status: SENSITIVE LIST 
State rank: S2 Federal Status: C2 

Element occurrence code: PDSCR1L3N0. 021 

Survey site name: WEST OF BIG HOLE BATTLEFIELD 

EO rank: 
EO rank comments: 

County: BEAVERHEAD 

USGS quadrangle: UNMAPPABLE 

Township-range: Section: 
Township-range comments: 

Survey date: 1947-07-23 Elevation: 5000 
First observation: 1947 Slope/aspect: 

Last observation: 1947-07-23 Size (acres) : 

Location: 

WEST OF BIG HOLE BATTLEFIELD (HISTORICAL COLLECTION) . 

Element occurrence data: 

UNKNOWN; MAY POSSIBLY HAVE BEEN FROM JUST OUTSIDE WESTERN 
BOUNDARY OF BIG HOLE BATTLEFIELD, IN AREA THAT IS NOW 
DISTURBED BY GRAZING (1986); ELEVATION GIVEN IS LOWER THAN 
PRESENT IN AREA. 

General site description: 
SAGEBRUSH AREA. 

Land owner/manager: 



Comments : 

SPECIMEN DETERMINED BY D. KECK; FIRST MONTANA RECORD. 

Information source: 

ROSE, FRANK H. (3502). 1947. SPECIMEN #092520 UM. 



Element Occurrence Record - Montana Natural Heritage Program 



74 



PENSTEMON LEMHIENSIS 
LEMHI BEARDTONGUE 

Global rank: G3 Forest Service status: SENSITIVE LIST 
State rank: S2 Federal Status: C2 

Element occurrence code: PDSCR1L3N0. 022 

Survey site name: MEDICINE LODGE CREEK 

EO rank: 
EO rank comments: 

County: BEAVERHEAD 

USGS quadrangle: TEPEE MOUNTAIN 

Township-range: 013S012W Section: 03 
Township-range comments: SE4NE4 ,NE4SE4 

Survey date: 1987- - Elevation: 6970 
First observation: 1987 Slope/aspect: 

Last observation: 1987- - Size (acres) : 20 

Location: 

MEDICINE LODGE CREEK DRAINAGE, 0.15 AIR MILES WNW OF 
CONFLUENCE OF MEDICINE LODGE AND HILDRETH CREEKS, CA. 19 AIR 
MILES SOUTH OF GRANT. 

Element occurrence data: 

UNKNOWN; POPULATION REPORTED TO BE LARGE BY J. CHRISTENSEN. 

General site description: 

UNKNOWN; SPECIES OFTEN OCCURS IN SAGEBRUSH/BUNCHGRASS 
HABITATS AT HIGHER ELEVATIONS. 

Land owner/manager: 

PRIVATELY OWNED LAND (INDIVIDUAL OR CORPORATE) 

Comments : 

SITE REPORTED BY J. CHRISTENSEN, BEAVERHEAD NATIONAL FOREST; 
STATUS UNCERTAIN - DURING SURVEYS IN 1989, THIS SITE WAS 
INACCESSIBLE OWING TO PRESENCE OF POSTED PRIVATE LAND (L. 
SCHASSBERGER) . 

Information source: 

CHRISTENSEN, JIM. BEAVERHEAD NATIONAL FOREST, DILLON RANGER 
DISTRICT, 610 N. MONTANA ST., DILLON, MT 59725. 



Element Occurrence Record - Montana Natural Heritage Program 



75 



PENSTEMON LEMHI ENS IS 
LEMHI BEARDTONGUE 

Global rank: G3 Forest Service status: SENSITIVE LIST 
State rank: S2 Federal Status: C2 

Element occurrence code: PDSCR1L3N0. 023 

Survey site name: MINER CREEK 

EO rank: C 
EO rank comments: HEAVILY GRAZED, INVASIVE WEEDS. 

County: BEAVERHEAD 

USGS quadrangle: MINER LAKE 

Township-range: 006S016W Section: 02 
Township-range comments: SE4 

Survey date: 1989-06-30 Elevation: 7080 
First observation: 1989 Slope/aspect: 3-15% / ESE 

Last observation: 1989-06-30 Size (acres) : 10 

Location: 

BIGHOLE VALLEY, CA. 6 MILES SOUTHWEST OF JACKSON, NORTH OF 
F.S. ROAD 182. 

Element occurrence data: 

UNCOMMON, 17 PLANTS IN 1989. 

General site description: 

SAGEBRUSH GRASSLAND WITH SPERGULA ARVENSIS, ERIOGONUM 
UMBELLATUM, CAREX FILIFOLIA, LUPINUS SERICEUS. 

Land owner/manager: 

BEAVERHEAD NATIONAL FOREST, WISDOM RANGER DISTRICT 

Comments: 

VOUCHER - SCHASSBERGER, L.S. (311), 1989, (MONTU) . 

Information source: 

SCHASSBERGER, L.S. 1989. FIELD SURVEYS IN SOUTHWEST MONTANA 
OF 26-30 JUNE. 



Element Occurrence Record - Montana Natural Heritage Program 



76 



PENSTEMON LEMHIENSIS 
LEMHI BEARDTONGUE 

Global rank: G3 Forest Service status: SENSITIVE LIST 
State rank: S2 Federal Status: C2 

Element occurrence code: PDSCR1L3N0. 024 

Survey site name: FROG CREEK 

EO rank: C 
EO rank comments: SMALL POPULATION. 

County: BEAVERHEAD 

USGS quadrangle: COYOTE CREEK 

Township-range: 009S014W Section: 21 
Township-range comments: SW4 

Survey date: 1989-06-29 Elevation: 7280 
First observation: 1989 Slope/aspect: 8-15% / EAST 

Last observation: 1989-06-29 Size (acres) : 1 

Location: 

HORSE PRAIRIE, CA. 1 MILE NORTHWEST OF HORSE PRAIRIE GUARD 
STATION. 

Element occurrence data: 
26 PLANTS IN 1989. 

General site description: 

ON ROADSIDE EMBANKMENT WITH BALSAMORHIZA SAGITTATA, 
ARTEMISIA TRIDENTATA, CASTILLEJA PALLESCENS, FESTUCA 
IDAHOENSIS AND FRAGARIA VESCA. 

Land owner/manager: 

PRIVATELY OWNED LAND (INDIVIDUAL OR CORPORATE) 
BLM: DILLON RESOURCE AREA, BUTTE DISTRICT 

Comments : 

POPULATION COULD BE ELIMINATED THROUGH ROAD MAINTENANCE. 

Information source: 

SCHASSBERGER, L.A. 1989. FIELD SURVEYS OF SOUTHWEST MONTANA, 
26-30 JUNE (PENSTEMON LEMHIENSIS) . 



Element Occurrence Record - Montana Natural Heritage Program 



77 



PENSTEMON LEMHIENSIS 
LEMHI BEARDTONGUE 

Global rank: G3 Forest Service status: SENSITIVE LIST 
State rank: S2 Federal Status: C2 

Element occurrence code: PDSCR1L3N0.025 

Survey site name: BRISTON LANE 

EO rank: A 
EO rank comments: LARGE POPULATION. 

County: BEAVERHEAD 

USGS quadrangle: HIGHLAND RANCH 

Township-range: 003S016W Section: 35 
Township-range comments: NE4,S2 

Survey date: 1989-06-30 Elevation: 6260 
First observation: 1989 Slope/aspect: 8-15% / EAST 

Last observation: 1989-06-30 Size (acres) : 10 

Location: 

CA. 5.5 MILES SSW OF WISDOM. CA. 3.5 MILES ALONG BRISTON 
LANE, JUST WEST OF THE ROAD. 

Element occurrence data: 
110 PLANTS IN 1989. 

General site description: 

SITE WAS BURNED (SAGEBRUSH GONE) AND IS GRAZED. ASSOCIATED 
SPECIES INCLUDE AGROPYRON SPICATUM, STIPA COMATA, ERIOGONUM 
UMBELLATUM VAR SUBALPINUM, SEDUM LANCEOLATUM, GERANIUM 
VISCOSISSIMUM AND SPERGULA ARVENSIS. 

Land owner/manager: 

PRIVATELY OWNED LAND (INDIVIDUAL OR CORPORATE) 

Comments : 

BURNING AND GRAZING APPEARS TO HAVE IMPROVED THE HABITAT FOR 
P. LEMHIENSIS. 

Information source: 

SCHASSBERGER, L.A. 1989. FIELD SURVEYS OF SOUTHWEST MONTANA, 
26-3 JUNE. 



Element Occurrence Record - Montana Natural Heritage Program 



78 



PENSTEMON LEMHIENSIS 
LEMHI BEARDTONGUE 

Global rank: G3 Forest Service status: SENSITIVE LIST 
State rank: S2 Federal Status: C2 

Element occurrence code: PDSCR1L3N0.026 

Survey site name: SWAMP CREEK 

EO rank: D 
EO rank comments: AROUND CATTLE SALT LICK. 

County: BEAVERHEAD 

USGS quadrangle: HIGHLAND RANCH 

Township-range: 003S016W Section: 04 
Township-range comments: E2 

Survey date: 1989-06-30 Elevation: 6260 
First observation: 1989 Slope/aspect: 0-3% / SE 

Last observation: 1989-06-30 Size (acres) : 3 

Location: 

BIGHOLE VALLEY, CA. 5.2 MILES WEST OF WISDOM, ALONG SWAMP 
CREEK RD., SOUTH OF ROAD. 

Element occurrence data: 
23 PLANTS IN 1989. 

General site description: 

IN OPEN ROCKY GROUND, WITH ARTEMISIA TRIDENTATA, SEDUM 
LANCEOLATUM, ASTRAGALUS MISER, TARAXACUM OFFICINALE, STIPA 
COMATA AND POA SECUNDA. 

Land owner/manager: 

PRIVATELY OWNED LAND (INDIVIDUAL OR CORPORATE) 

Comments : 

CATTLE DISTURBANCE AROUND SALT LICK APPEARS TO HAVE ENHANCED 
HABITAT FOR THIS SPECIES. 

Information source: 

SCHASSBERGER, L.A. 1989. FIELD SURVEYS IN SOUTHWESTERN 
MONTANA OF 26-3 JUNE. 



Element Occurrence Record - Montana Natural Heritage Program 



79 



PENSTEMON LEMHIENSIS 
LEMHI BEARDTONGUE 

Global rank: G3 Forest Service status: SENSITIVE LIST 
State rank: S2 Federal Status: C2 

Element occurrence code: PDSCR1L3N0. 027 

Survey site name: HORSE PRAIRIE GUARD STATION 

EO rank: D 
EO rank comments: VERY SMALL POPULATION. 

County: BEAVERHEAD 

USGS quadrangle: COYOTE CREEK 

Township-range: 009S014W Section: 27 
Township-range comments: NW4SW4 

Survey date: 1989-06-29 Elevation: 6690 
First observation: 1989 Slope/aspect: 3-8% / SOUTH 

Last observation: 1989-06-29 Size (acres) : l 

Location: 

HORSE PRAIRIE, CA. 0.5 MILES SE OF HORSE PRAIRIE GUARD 
STATION . 

Element occurrence data: 

ONLY 3 PLANTS, ON A ROADCUT. 

General site description: 

ON ROADSIDE, WITH ARTEMISIA TRIDENTATA, BALSAMORHIZA 
SAGITTATA, CASTILLEJA PALLESCENS, FESTUCA IDAHOENSIS, AND 

FRAGARIA VESCA. 

» 

Land owner/manager: 

BLM: DILLON RESOURCE AREA, BUTTE DISTRICT 

Comments : 
NONE. 

Information source: 

SCHASSBERGER, L.A. 1989. FIELD SURVEY OF SOUTHWEST MONTANA, 
26-30 JUNE. 



Element Occurrence Record - Montana Natural Heritage Program 



80 



PENSTEMON LEMHIENSIS 
LEMHI BEARDTONGUE 

Global rank: G3 Forest Service status: SENSITIVE LIST 
State rank: S2 Federal Status: C2 

Element occurrence code: PDSCR1L3N0. 028 

Survey site name: BLOODY DICK CREEK I 

EO rank: C 
EO rank comments: ROADCUT POPULATION. 

County : BEAVERHEAD 

USGS quadrangle: COYOTE CREEK 

Township-range: 009S014W Section: 31 
Township-range comments: W2 ,SE4 ;T10SR14W: 5NW4 

Survey date: 1989-06-29 Elevation: 6600 
First observation: 1989 Slope/aspect: 0-3% / SW 

Last observation: 1989-06-29 Size (acres) : 2 

Location: 

HORSE PRAIRIE, ALONG BLOODY DICK CREEK, CA. 7.1 MILES WEST 
OF RED BUTTE. 

Element occurrence data: 

34 PLANTS, FOUR SMALL SUBPOPULATIONS (1989). 

General site description: 

PLANTS ALONG ROADSIDE, WITH ARTEMISIA TRIPARTITA, FESTUCA 
IDAHOENSIS, AGROPYRON SPICATUM AND CASTILLEJA PALLESCENS. 

Land owner/manager: 

PRIVATELY OWNED LAND (INDIVIDUAL OR CORPORATE) 
BLM: DILLON RESOURCE AREA, BUTTE DISTRICT 

Comments: 

AREAS WHICH HAD FEW OR NO PLANTS IN 1988, HAD AS MANY AS 
10-15 PLANTS IN 1989. 

Information source: 

SCHASSBERGER, L.A. 1989. FIELD SURVEY OF SOUTHWEST MONTANA, 
26-30 JUNE. 



Element Occurrence Record - Montana Natural Heritage Program 



81 



PENSTEMON LEMHIENSIS 
LEMHI BEARDTONGUE 

Global rank: G3 Forest Service status: SENSITIVE LIST 
State rank: S2 Federal Status: C2 

Element occurrence code: PDSCR1L3N0.029 

Survey site name: BLOODY DICK CREEK 2 

EO rank: C 
EO rank comments: SMALL POPULATION, CLOSE TO ROADWAY. 

County: BEAVERHEAD 

USGS quadrangle: EVERSON CREEK 

Township-range: 010S014W Section: 05 
Township-range comments: NW4;4N2 

Survey date: 1989-06-29 Elevation: 4440 
First observation: 1989 Slope/aspect: 0-8% / SW 

Last observation: 1989-06-29 Size (acres) : 2 

Location: 

HORSE PRAIRIE, CA. 5.1 MILES WEST OF RED BUTTE, ALONG BLOODY 
DICK CREEK ROAD. 

Element occurrence data: 

22 PLANTS, FOUR SMALL SUBPOPULATIONS (1989). 

General site description: 

WITH ARTEMISIA TRIDENTATA, CASTILLEJA PALLESCENS , 
ORTHOCARPUS LUTEUS AND AGROPYRON SPICATUM. 

Land owner/manager: 

PRIVATELY OWNED LAND (INDIVIDUAL OR CORPORATE) 
BLM: DILLON RESOURCE AREA, BUTTE DISTRICT 

Comments : 
NONE. 

Information source: 

SCHASSBERGER, L.A. 1989. FIELD SURVEYS OF SOUTHWEST MONTANA, 
26-30 JUNE. 



Element Occurrence Record - Montana Natural Heritage Program 



82 



PENSTEMON LEMHIENSIS 
LEMHI BEARDTONGUE 

Global rank: G3 Forest Service status: SENSITIVE LIST 
State rank: S2 Federal Status: C2 

Element occurrence code: PDSCR1L3N0.03 

Survey site name: SPRING GULCH 

EO rank: D 
EO rank comments: VERY SMALL POPULATION, WEEDY HABITAT. 

County: RAVALLI 

USGS quadrangle: ROBBINS GULCH 

Township-range: 003N020W Section: 24 
Township-range comments: SE4SE4 

Survey date: 1989-06-27 Elevation: 5200 
First observation: 1989 Slope/aspect: 35%+ / SE 

Last observation: 1989-06-27 Size (acres) : 1 

Location: 

WESTERN FOOTHILLS OF SAPPHIRE MOUNTAINS, RYE CREEK DRAINAGE, 
SPRING GULCH, 1.15 AIR MILES NORTHEAST OF CONFLUENCE OF RYE 
CREEK AND NORTH FORK RYE CREEK, CA. 8 AIR MILES ESE OF 
DARBY. 

Element occurrence data: 

FOUR PLANTS OBSERVED; ONE FLOWERING, 3 STERILE ROSETTES; 
HABITAT SERIOUSLY IMPACTED BY KNAPWEED INVASION. 

General site description: 

GRANITIC GRAVELLY LOAM SOILS; PURSHIA TRIDENTATA/AGROPYRON 
SPICATUM HABITAT, WITH CENTAUREA MACULOSA, BALSAMORHIZA 
SAGITTATA, BROMUS TECTORUM, KOELERIA CRISTATA, POA SECUNDA, 
ACHILLEA MILLEFOLIUM, DESCURAINIA RICHARDSONII , PHACELIA 
LINEARIS, LOMATIUM DISSECTUM, TRAGOPOGON DUBIUS. 

Land owner/manager: 

BITTERROOT NATIONAL FOREST, DARBY RANGER DISTRICT 

Comments: 

SIGHT RECORD, NO VOUCHER SPECIMEN COLLECTED; SITE SURVEYED 
WITH A. KRATZ, BITTERROOT / LOLO N.F.S. 

Information source: 

SHELLY, J.S. 1989. FIELD SURVEYS IN RAVALLI COUNTY, 26-29 
JUNE. 



F I Pfiw*nt Orrtirrwir* P^rnrH - Mont Arm Natural H^n'tAQA PrnorAm 



83 



PENSTEMON LEMHIENSIS 
LEMHI BEARDTONGUE 

Global rank: G3 Forest Service status: SENSITIVE LIST 
State rank: S2 Federal Status: C2 

Element occurrence code: PDSCR1L3N0.031 

Survey site name: ROBBINS GULCH 

EO rank: D 
EO rank comments: SMALL POPULATION, IN FAIRLY WEEDY AREA. 

County: RAVALLI 

USGS quadrangle: ROBBINS GULCH 

Township-range: 002N020W Section: 16 
Township-range comments: N2NW4,9SE4SW4 

Survey date: 1989-06-29 Elevation: 4500 
First observation: 1989 Slope/aspect: 8-35%. / SE 

Last observation: 1989-06-29 Size (acres) : 5 

Location: 

WESTERN FOOTHILLS OF SAPPHIRE MOUNTAINS, EAST FORK 
BITTERROOT RIVER DRAINAGE, ROBBINS GULCH, NORTH OF 
BITTERROOT N.F. RD. #446, CA. 1 MILE NORTHEAST OF U.S. HWY. 
93. 

Element occurrence data: 

14 PLANTS OBSERVED, IN 5 SMALL COLONIES; 8 FLOWERING, 6 
ROSETTES, ONE PLANT ON ROADSIDE. 

General site description: 

GRANITIC, SANDY TO GRAVELLY LOAM SOILS; PINUS 
PONDEROSA/PURSHIA TRIDENTATA HABITAT, WITH KOELERIA 
CRISTATA, CENTAUREA MACULOSA, AGROPYRON SPICATUM, 
BALSAMORHIZA SAGITTATA, PHACELIA LINEARIS, POA SECUNDA, 
ALYSSUM ALYSSOIDES, LITHOSPERMUM RUDERALE, PENSTEMON 
ALBERTINUS . 

Land owner/manager: 

PRIVATELY OWNED LAND (INDIVIDUAL OR CORPORATE) 
BITTERROOT NATIONAL FOREST, DARBY RANGER DISTRICT 

Comments : 

VOUCHER - SHELLY, J.S. (1569) AND A. KRATZ, 1989. 

Information source: 

SHELLY, J.S. 1989. FIELD SURVEYS IN RAVALLI COUNTY, 2 6-29 
JUNE. 



Element Occurrence Record - Montana Natural Heritage Program 



84 



PENSTEMON LEMHI ENS IS 
LEMHI BEARDTONGUE 

Global rank: G3 Forest Service status: SENSITIVE LIST 
State rank: S2 Federal Status: C2 

Element occurrence code: PDSCR1L3N0. 032 

Survey site name: POLARIS 

EO rank: 
EO rank comments: 

County: BEAVERHEAD 

USGS quadrangle: POLARIS - 15' 

Township-range: 005S012W Section: 30 
Township-range comments: NE4NE4 ; 19SE4SE4 

Survey date: Elevation: 6400 

First observation: 1989 Slope/aspect: 35% / EAST 

Last observation: 1989-06-28 Size (acres) : 

Location: 

GRASSHOPPER CREEK RD. , CA. 0.5 MILES NORTH OF POLARIS, CA. 
0.1 MILE NORTH OF GRASSHOPPER CREEK CROSSING, IMMEDIATELY 
NORTH OF GRAVEL PIT. 

Element occurrence data: 

POPULATION OF 50+ PLANTS IN 1989. 

General site description: 

GROWING ON EAST-FACING ROADCUT IN ALLUVIUM WITH 50 PERCENT 
COARSE FRAGMENTS, WITH ARTEMISIA TRIDENTATA, CHRYSOTHAMNUS 
NAUSEOSUS, AGROPYRON SPICATUM, AND BROMUS TECTORUM. 

Land owner/manager: 

PRIVATELY OWNED LAND (INDIVIDUAL OR CORPORATE) 

Comments: 

PLANTENBERG - "THE SITE WILL EVENTUALLY BE LOST TO KNAPWEED 
CONTROL - ACTIVE ROADCUT." 

Information source: 

PLANTENBERG, PATRICK L. DEPT. OF STATE LANDS, HARD ROCK 
BUREAU, RECLAMATION DIVISION, 1625 11TH AVE., HELENA, MT 
59620. 



85 



PENSTEMON LEMHIENSIS 
LEMHI BEARDTONGUE 

Global rank: G3 Forest Service status: SENSITIVE LIST 
State rank: S2 Federal Status: C2 

Element occurrence code: PDSCR1L3N0. 03 3 

Survey site name: SHALE CREEK 

EO rank: 
EO rank comments: 

County: BEAVERHEAD 

USGS quadrangle: POLARIS - 15' 

Township-range: 005S012W Section: 08 
Township-range comments: SW4SW4 

Survey date: Elevation: 6560 

First observation: 1989 Slope/aspect: 3 5% / EAST 

Last observation: 1989-06-28 Size (acres) : 

Location: 

GRASSHOPPER CREEK RD. , CA. 2.5 MILES NORTH OF POLARIS, ON 
CREST OF HILL. 

Element occurrence data: 

POPULATION OF 2 PLANTS IN 1989. 

General site description: 

ON EAST FACING ROADCUT. IN DEEP LOAMY SOIL, WITH LESS THAN 
5% COARSE FRAGMENTS, WITH ARTEMISIA TRIDENTATA, GUTIERREZIA 
SAROTHRAE, AGROPYRON SPICATUM, AND BROMUS TECTORUM. 

Land owner/manager: 

PRIVATELY OWNED LAND (INDIVIDUAL OR CORPORATE) 

Comments : 

PLANTENBERG - "SITE WILL EVENTUALLY BE ELIMINATED BY 
KNAPWEED CONTROL - ACTIVE ROADCUT." 

Information source: 

PLANTENBERG, PATRICK L. DEPT. OF STATE LANDS, HARD ROCK 
BUREAU, RECLAMATION DIVISION, 1625 11TH AVE., HELENA, MT 
59620. 



Element Occurrence Record - Montana Natural Heritage Program 



86 



PENSTEMON LEMHIENSIS 
LEMHI BEARDTONGUE 

Global rank: G3 Forest Service status: SENSITIVE LIST 
State rank: S2 Federal Status: C2 

Element occurrence code: PDSCR1L3N0. 034 

Survey site name: BLOODY DICK CREEK III 

EO rank: B 
EO rank comments: CLOSE TO ROADWAYS, BUT LARGE 

POPULATIONS . 

County: BEAVERHEAD 

USGS quadrangle: KITTY CREEK 

Township-range: 009S015W Section: 25 
Township-range comments: SW4 

Survey date: 1989-06-29 Elevation: 6600 
First observation: 1989 Slope/aspect: 0-30% / SW 

Last observation: 1989-06-29 Size (acres) : 15 

Location: 

BLOODY DICK CREEK RD. , CA. 0.75 MILE SOUTH OF EAST PETERSON 
CK. 

Element occurrence data: 

74 PLANTS IN 3 SUBPOPULATIONS IN 1989. 

General site description: 

SOUTHWEST SLOPE, WITH ARTEMISIA TRIPARTITA, FESTUCA 
IDAHOENSIS, AGROPYRON SPICATUM, AND CASTILLEJA PALLESCENS. 

Land owner/manager: 

PRIVATELY OWNED LAND (INDIVIDUAL OR CORPORATE) 

Comments : 

VOUCHER - SCHASSBERGER, L.A. (303), 1989. 

Information source: 

SCHASSBERGER, L.A. 1989, FIELD SURVEY OF SOUTHWEST MONTANA, 
26-30 JUNE. 



Element Occurrence Record - Montana Natural Heritage Program 



87 



PENSTEMON LEMHIENSIS 
LEMHI BEARDTONGUE 

Global rank: G3 Forest Service status: SENSITIVE LIST 
State rank: S2 Federal Status: C2 

Element occurrence code: PDSCR1L3N0. 035 

Survey site name: DUTCH CREEK 

EO rank: C 
EO rank comments: SMALL ROADSIDE POPULATION. 

County: BEAVERHEAD 

USGS quadrangle: KITTY CREEK 

* 

Township-range: 009S015W Section: 14 
Township-range comments: SW4,23NE4 

Survey date: 1989-06-29 Elevation: 6760 
First observation: 1989 Slope/aspect: 0-35% / SW 

Last observation: 1989-06-29 Size (acres) : 12 

Location: 

BLOODY DICK CREEK RD. , CA. 0.25 MILE NORTH AND 0.3 MILE 
SOUTH OF DUTCH CREEK. 

Element occurrence data: 

CA. 30 PLANTS IN 2 SUBPOPULATIONS IN 1989. 

General site description: 

ROADSIDE POPULATIONS IN ROCKY LOAM SOILS, WITH ARTEMISIA 
TRIDENTATA AND FESTUCA IDAHOENSIS. 

Land owner/manager: 

BEAVERHEAD NATIONAL FOREST, DILLON RANGER DISTRICT 
BLM: DILLON RESOURCE AREA, BUTTE DISTRICT 

Comments: 

VOUCHER - SCHASSBERGER, L.A. (302), 1989. 

Information source: 

SCHASSBERGER, L.A. 1989. FIELD SURVEY OF SOUTHWEST MONTANA, 
26-30 JUNE. 



Element Occurrence Record - Montana Natural Heritage Program 



88 



PENSTEMON LEMHIENSIS 
LEMHI BEARDTONGUE 

Global rank: G3 Forest Service status: SENSITIVE LIST 
State rank: S2 Federal Status: C2 

Element occurrence code: PDSCR1L3N0. 03 6 

Survey site name: BLANCHARD POND 

EO rank: D 
EO rank comments: POPULATION IN ROADCUT. 

County: BEAVERHEAD 

USGS quadrangle: JACKSON 

Township-range: 006S015W Section: 33 
Township-range comments: NE4SE4 

Survey date: 1989-06-30 Elevation: 6880 
First observation: 1989 Slope/aspect: 3-8% / EAST 

Last observation: 1989-06-30 Size (acres) : 1 

Location: 

BIG HOLE RIVER DRAINAGE, SKINNER MEADOWS RD. , CA. 6.5 MILES 
SSW OF JACKSON. 

Element occurrence data: 
61 PLANTS COUNTED. 

General site description: 

ON (ALLUVIAL) ROAD EMBANKMENT, WITH ARTEMISIA TRIDENTATA, 
ERIOGONUM • UMBELLATUM VARIETIES SUBALPINUM AND INTECTUM, AND 
ERIOPHYLLUM LANATUM. 

Land owner/manager: 

PRIVATELY OWNED LAND (INDIVIDUAL OR CORPORATE) 

Comments: 

VOUCHER - SCHASSBERGER, L.A. (309), 1989. POPULATION MAY BE 
DESTROYED THROUGH ROAD MAINTENANCE ACTIVITIES. 

Information source: 

SCHASSBERGER, L.A. 1989. FIELD SURVEY OF SOUTHWEST MONTANA, 
26-30 JUNE. 



Element Occurrence Record - Montana Natural Heritage Program 



89 



PENSTEMON LEMHIENSIS 
LEMHI BEARDTONGUE 

Global rank: G3 Forest Service status: SENSITIVE LIST 
State rank: S2 Federal Status: C2 

Element occurrence code: PDSCR1L3N0.037 

Survey site name: WOODS CREEK 

EO rank: 
EO rank comments: 

County: RAVALLI 

USGS quadrangle: PAINTED ROCKS LAKE (15') 

Township-range: 003S022W Section: 20 
Township-range comments: 19,21 

Survey date: Elevation: 54 4 

First observation: 1989 Slope/aspect: - / SOUTH? 

Last observation: 1989- Size (acres) : 

Location: 

WOODS CREEK, PAST PAINTED ROCKS RESERVOIR. 

Element occurrence data: 
7 PLANTS COUNTED. 

General site description: 
ROADBANK. 

Land owner/manager: 

BITTERROOT NATIONAL FOREST, WEST FORK RANGER DISTRICT 

Comments : 

EXACT LOCATION UNKNOWN; SPECIES MAY OCCUR FARTHER UP WOODS 
CREEK DRAINAGE. 

Information source: 

ALBERT, W. (INFORMATION FORWARDED BY K. McBRIDE, BITTERROOT 
NATIONAL FOREST) . 



Element Occurrence Record - Montana Natural Heritage Program 



MONTANA 




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