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Full text of "Canine pathology : or, a description of the diseases of dogs, with their causes, symptoms, and mode of cure ... : a philosophical and practical treatise on the breeding system in general, and rearing dogs in particular : a copious detail of the rabid malady, preceded by a critical inquiry into the origin of the dog, the varieties he is branched into, and his moral and intellectual qualities"

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DraittH from Twenty Years' extensive Veterinary Practice : 

% ^]^{lo0op]b«al anti practical 




Rearing of Dogs in particular ; 









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^^reface to tfie Seconti lEmtion. 

The Canine Pathology is founded on a small 
work published some years ago, under the title of 
^* A Domestic Treatise on the Diseases of Horses 
and Dogs" In each of the several editions it passed 
through^ I promised that, at a future period, I would 
present the public with a more complete and ex- 
tended work, which should embrace every informa- 
tion connected with the medical treatment of dogs, 
that a long and successful practice thereon had taught 
me. By the publication of the Canine Pathology, 
1 have endeavoured to redeem this pledge : and when 
it is considered that the whole path I have tra- 
velled over has been hitherto unbeaten, and that no 
authority existed from whence the smallest assistance 
could be gained, the task may be considered as a 
laborious one, and that some industry and attention 
have been displayed in its prosecution. 



This Second Edition presents itself with some im- 
portant additions. The introductory chapter on the 
Moral Qualities of the Dog has been preceded by an 
Inquiry into his disputed Origin — a Summary of his 
Natural History-— and an Account of the principal 
Varieties into which he is branched out ; all of which 
will, I hope, prove not uninteresting or unaccept- 
able to the lovers of the animal in question. ^ 

Every member of society owes, both to his 
friends and to the public, either a direct consistency 
of conduct, or some statement of the reasons that 
have occasioned a departure therefrom. Under the 
guidance of this sentiment, in the former edition, I 
entered into a detailed account of- circumstances 
which (for the purpose of.. introducing more import- 
ant matter) I have now condensed into the few fol- 
lowing apologetical facts : — 

As it is pretty, generally understood that I was 
regularly educated to the practice of human medi- 
cine, so some surprise and inquiry have been ex- 
cited relative to the motives that influenced my de- 
parture from the regular track of my profession, to 


stoop, as it is considered, to the medical treatment 
of such inferior branches of the creation as Horses 
and Bogs, In answer to these inquiries, I have to 
alledge, that my first motives were, an inherent and 
powerful attachment to brute animals in general, 
which early prompted me to study their habits, 
and take a warm interest in their welfare. This 
predilection strengthening with my years, engaged 
me, during the prosecution of my medical studies, 
to pay particular attention to compai'ative anatomy, 
which a residence with the ingenious Dr. Haighton 
tended to promote. A knowledge that such were 
my predilections, gained me the notice of the pa- 
trons of the Veterinary College; and I was, by them, 
offered the appointment of Demonstrator and As- 
sistant Anatomical Teacher to the pupils of that 
Establishment. Here my attention was directed to 
the diseases of animals likewise ; and, on my removal 
from the College, I gave a course of public lec- 
tures on the anatomy and physiology of the horse. 
I continued, for a few years afterwards, to endea- 
vour to extend the knowledge of the veterinary art, 
at that time but little known, arid its importance but 
little appreciated ; and I may enumerate, among the 


additions I made to the general stock, an improved 
method of treatment of foundered Feet in Horses, 
and a successfal remedy for the Distemper in Dogs. 

At the pressing solicitation of relations, I how- 
ever relinquished, for a time, the further pursuit 
of animal medicine, and recommenced the practice 
of human surgery ; first, privately, and next in the 
army, where an active scene of service on the Con- 
tinent increased my experience considerably. In- 
terrupted in this career by the bequest of some pro- 
perty, I afterwards passed some years as a country 
gentleman, until an improvident management of my 
resources obliged me, once more, to direct my ener- 
gies to some useful purpose ; but to what, I was 
for some time undetermined. 

The practice of human medicine naturally pre- 
sented itself foremost to my view ; yet it was an un- 
pleasant reflection, that I had lost some years in my 
st^rt, and that my cotemporaries, having the advan- 
tage of early residence, had outstripped me in the 
race, and established themselves in a professional 
practice, that it would probably take me some years 


to form. While thus irresolute, accidental circum- 
stances drew me into extensive correspondencies on 
the diseases of animals, and I became, in conse- 
quence, irresistibly and almost insensibly drawn into 
a popular practice on them. Further consideration 
seemed to point this as a path at once eligible 
and useful, and one which my former predilections 
strengthened me in my determination to pursue. In 
this almost unbeaten track I might hope to reap 
both fame and emolument ; and although the prac- 
tice of brute medicine must always be considered as 
subordinate to that of the human, yet the humanity 
and utility of the pursuit ought ever to gain its pro- 
fessors the meed of honourable distinction. For 
myself, it is not without pride and self-approbation 
that I reflect that I am the first person in this, and, 
perhaps, in any other country, who has reduced to 
systematic and acknowledged principles the medical 
treatment of the diseases of that most useful ani- 
mal, the dog ; a treatment founded on a knowledge 
of his anatomy, animal economy, and long and at- 
tentive observation of his morbid appearances. 

Regarding myself, therefore, as the very father of 


canine medicine, it may be supposed that I could 
not again witness its disuse without extreme regret. 
For, though nearly twenty years of unceasing atten- 
tion to this, and the other branches of brute medi- 
cine, might have claimed the indulgences of future 
ease and repose ; yet they would have been but par- 
tially enjoyed by me, unless I had fortunately met 
with a person fully qualified to continue and extend 
the humane pursuit I was so long occupied upon. 
Mr. W. You ATT (the gentleman alluded to) was con- 
nected with me in the practice of Veterinary Medi- 
cine for some years before I retired ; and I can with 
truth affirm, that his abilities and experience are 
only equalled by his humanity and attachment to 
the cause he is engaged in. To him, therefore, I 
have delegated, with confidence, the further advance- 
ment of this new branch of the healing art ; and to 
his attentions I would earnestly recommend that ap- 
plication may be made, whenever the assistance of 
an able veterinarian is wanted. 








Costiveness - - - 
Cough - - » . 

- 127 

- 128 



- 67 i 

Cropping - a . 

- 130 

Age of Dogs - 


- 74 

Dislocations - - . 

- 132 

Alteratives - 


- 75 

Distemper (The) - 

- 133 

Asthma - - - 


- 78 

Dropsy - - . 

- 153 

Astringents - 


- 82 

Dysentery - _ . 

- 158 



- 83 


- 159 



- 85 

Exercise - . 

- 160 



- ib. 

Eyes (Diseases of) 

- 162 



- 86 

Eyelids, ulcerated 

- 165 

Breeding in Bitches 


- 87 

Breeding and Rearing 

of Pup- 

Fatness, excessive 

- ib. 

pies - - - 


- 92 

Feeding of Dogs - 

- 167 

Bronchocele - 


- 113 

Feet, sore - 

Fever - - - . 

- 174 

- ib. 

Cancer - - - 


- 114 

Fits - - . . 

- ib. 

Canker in the Ear - 


- 116 

Fleas in Dogs 

- 177 

Canker on the Outside of the 


- 178 

Ear - 


- 118 


Tumefied Flap of the Ear 

- 120 

Glandular Swellings 

- 181 

Castration - 


- 121 

Gravel - - _ . 

- ih. 

Claws - 


- 122 



. 123 

Hernia - - - - 

- 182 

Colic - - - 


- 124 

Husk - . . . 

- 183 

Condition - 


- 126 


- ib. 



Inflammation - - - 183 
Inflamed Bladder (Cystitis) - ib. 
Inflamed Bowels (Enteritis) - 184 
Inflamed Liver (Hepatitis) - 190 
Inflamed Lungs (Peripneumo- 
nia) 192 

Inflamed Stomach (Gastritis) 194 


- 195 

Looseness, or Purging (Diar- 
rhoea) - - . . i^^ 


Mange - 



Neck, swelled 

Paralysis, or Palsy 

Physic - - -. 

piles - 


Mineral Poisons 
Vegetable Poisons 
Animal Poisons 


Pulse - - _ 


- 208 

- 209 

- 210 

- 211 

- ib. 

- 213 

- 217 

- 220 

- 221 

- 222 

- ib 

Rabies Canina,. or Madness, 

in Dogs - - - 225-292 

Rheumatism - 
Rickets - 


Scrotum, inflamed 

Setons - - - - 

Sickness, excessive 

Spasm - - - - 


Stone in Dogs 

St. Anthony's Fire - 

St. Vitus's Dance - 

Surfeits _ _ _ 

Testicles, diseased 
Tetanus, or Locked Jaw 
Tumours - - _ 

Ulcerous Affections 
Urine, bloody 

Warts in Dogs 

Washing of Dogs - 


Worms - - - 



- 292 

- 296 


■ 300 












f age 58. 


The Dog has, by all naturalists, been assigned a dis- 
tinguished niche in Nature's scale; and whatever ob- 
scurity may seem to hang around his direct origin, yet, 
were we enabled satisfactorily to trace his history, even 
as a cultivated animal, we should probably be carried 
back to the earliest periods of human association*. 
Such were the superior powers of mind and body dis- 
played in the predatory habits of the whole canine 
genus, that man, in his state of primitive simplicity, 
could not long remain unobservant of them : and it was 
one of the highest efforts of his intelligence that prompt- 
ed him to the selection of this particular member of it ; 
whereby he insured to himself a powerful assistant and 
ally in his meditated conquest over the remainder of the 
animal world. Neither is it, perhaps, too much to assert. 

■ A reverend author fancifully observes, " Tbat the dog- was pro- 
" bably the next object, after woman, that shared the attention or 
" espoused the cause of mankind."— Lascf.lles on Sportiiuj. 



that, without this aid, man would have found it difficult 
either to gain or maintain such conquest. This is ex- 
emplified in the present situation of those countries 
where either the dog is not indigenous, or his uses are 
not known. Here the wretched inhabitants are con- 
tent to search for casual subsistence from the natural 
fruits of the earth, the accidental ensnarings of animals 
less wily than themselves, or the contributions of a re- 
ceding tide ; and even these, wanting the protecting care 
of the dog, they are frequently forced to share with 
the wild beasts that surround them. 

On attempting a sketch of the natural history of any 
animal, our first efforts are necessarily directed to its 
immediate origin ; and in this instance it would be pecu- 
liarly interesting to be enabled to trace the exact gene- 
alogy of one that is now become our constant compa- 
nion and most faithful friend. Nevertheless, we have 
to lament the obscurity of the subject is such, that the 
most distinguished zoologists are totally at variance 
with regard to it. Most of our eminent naturalists, 
justly appreciating the importance of the dog, have 
advocated his claim to a pure originality of formation ; 
others, and those of no mean note, have derived him 
from one or other of the members of the genus to which 
he belongs; while a third class has considered his ori- 
gin as altogether spurious, and the effect of the ac- 
cidental commixture of other nearly allied animals. 
Again, a few of those who allow him all the originality 
of formation his most zealous partizans could wish, 
have yet deemed it impossible that the varied scions 
growing around them can have proceeded from one 
common stock, but altered by the powerful agencies 
of climate, habit, food, and domestication, into the 
vast diversifications of size and form that now distin- 
guish this extensive family. On tlie contrary, they have 


maintained, that the dog was originally formed in such 
correspo7iding varieties as fitted him to inhabit the dij- 
ferent countries wherein he was placed. To the lover 
of the animal in question, it will not prove uninteresting 
if we dedicate a few moments to the examination of this 
subject: and although the weight of conflicting autho- 
rities, and the speciousness of opposed arguments, may 
prevent our arriving at a conclusion altogether satisfac- 
tory, yet the attempt may throw some light on the sub- 
ject, and, at least, it may enable others to draw their 
own inferences. 

In the zoological arrangement of the great naturalist. 
Sir Charles Linne, the Dog (canis familiaris) is the 
first species of a genus which comprehends animals 
whose exterior forms and habits are considerably va- 
ried, but whose generic characters bear a close resem- 
blance to each other. The animals included, are, the 
Wolf (can. lupusj, the Fox (can. vnlpes), the Jackal 
(ca7i. aureusj, and the Hyaena (can. hycenaj . The 
characters of the genus are drawn from the number and 
the incisive formation of the teeth. There are, in front, 
six pointed conical fore teeth above and below; the 
laterals being more lobated and longer than the others. 
The molar or grinding teeth are furnished with pointed 
prominences, and in the intermediate space between 
the incisor and molar teeth (which is considerable, from 
the great length of maxillae, or jaws, in this genus) is 
placed on each side, above and below, what is charac- 
teristically called a canine or dog tooth"". 

^ Why these tusk teeth, common to various orders of quadrupeds, 
and to man also, should be characterized by the generic term canine^ 
appears extraordinary. In man, the monkey, the horse, &c. &c. they 
appear merely formed to preserve that beautiful regularity which is so 
conspicuous throughout the links of Nature's vast chain ; while to 



BuFFON, who warmly espoused the origmality of the 
dog, has endeavoured to prove, that all the varieties 
met with are derived from one common parent, which 
parent he considers to have been the Shepherd's Dog 
(can. domesticiis, Lin.). To confirm such an opi- 
nion, this great but fanciful naturalist should have 
traced this varied and wide-spread tribe to its direct 
origin ; and, having so done, he should have retraced 
it back through the several varieties we now witness it 
under. But, independent of the reasons we have for 
believing that the shepherd's dog himself has different 
origins according to the quarter of the globe he is 
found in, we have more direct proofs that most of the 
larger breeds of European dogs are descended from the 
dog called the great Dane; Buffon's hypothesis, there- 
fore, appears completely without foundation. 

Those celebrated zoologists and comparative anato- 
mists, Blumrnbach and Cuvier (whose systems do 
not essentially differ from each other, but are both 
modifications and improvements on the Linnaean ar- 
rangement), assign the dog a specific and distinct ori- 
gin. The former divides the order fercE into twelve 
compartments, of which the genus canis occupies the 
ninth. The latter divides the fer(B into two lesser 
orders; in one of these (carnivora) he places the 
canine genus. In addition to the incisive formation of 
the teeth, these authors draw a generic character from 
the simplicity and shortness of the canine alimentary 
track. If the limits of the inquiry would allow, to 
these advocates for the originality of the dog might be 

the elephant, the boar, the dog, and some other quadrupeds, they 
are long and pointed, they form an advantageous weapon of defence. 
In these animals they might therefore, with propriety, be called 
pugnaioty teeth. 


added, an innumerable host of other respectable au- 
thorities ; but, contenting myself with these for the pre- 
sent, I sliall now turn to those of a contrary opinion, 
who, though they are less numerous, are yet sufficiently 
important to merit attention. 

Mr. Pennant, a deservedly esteemed naturalist, in 
his British Zoology, derives the dog from the jackal. 
Independently of the recorded fact, that these animals 
had been known to breed together, and produce prolific 
origin, it did not escape this accurate observer that 
the teeth of the jackal more nearly resembled those of 
the dog than those of the wolf or fox ; many of his 
habits also are so nearly allied to those of the dog, as 
strongly incline him to consider the dog as nothing more 
than a reclaimed jackal. 

The opinion of Pallas on this point seems some- 
what wavering. In some of his writings he argues that 
the jackal is unquestionably the source of our dogs ; 
which conclusion he draws from the similitudes of size 
and figure, and also from a close resemblance in man- 
ner and disposition \ In others, on the contrary % he 
seems to give the dog altogether a factitious origin, and 
considers him as not derived from any original stock, 

^ Homini facillimae adsuescit nunquani, iiti lupus et vulpes cicu- 
rati, iiitidi animi sigria edeus, lususve cruentaiis ; canes non fugit 
sed ardentur appetit, cum lisque colludit, ut plane nullum sit dubium 
cum iisdem generaturum si tentetur expeiimentum. Vocem desi- 
derii caninae simillimam habet; homini cauda eodem modo abblandi- 
tur, et in dorsum provolvi atque manibus demulceri amat. Ipse 
quoque uiulatus ejus, cum latratu canura ejulabundo magnum habet 
analogiam. Ergo dubium vix esse puto, hominis speciem, in eadem 
cum lupo aureo climate naturaliter inquilinam, antiquitus hujus catu- 
lis cicuratis domesticos sibi educasse canes, quorum naturalis iustinc- 
tus jam homini, quem feri non multum timent, amicus, et in venatio- 
nem pronus erat. — Spicil. ZooL fasc. xi, p. 1, note. 

* Memoir sur la Variation des AnimAUX,— Acta Acad, Petrop, 1780. 


but from an accidental union of other animals, as the 
wolf, fox, and jackal. 

Gulden STiEDT also attributes the origin of the dog to 
the jackal, whose teeth and caecum he found exactly 
like those of the dog, but less like those of the fox, 
and totally dissimilar to those organs in the wolf and 
hysena. The jackal, he observes, waters sideways 
like the dog ^ ; is easily reclaimed from a wild state to 
own a name, wag his tail, and exhibit a fondness for 
his master. Jackals hunt also in packs, and it is sup- 
posed, from some sounds they utter, that the bark is 
inherent in their voices. From a few coincidences of 
personal similitudes, but more particularly from a gene- 
ralization of recorded facts, relative to the habits and 
manners of the jackal, some other respectable natu- 
ralists have also been led to a similar conclusion with 
those last quoted. 

It may be remarked, that the zoologists of former 
days laboured under a manifest disadvantage in framing 
a satisfactory and systematic arrangement of their sub- 
ject. In the absence of more conclusive evidence, they 
were forced to resort to the aids of such general opera- 
tions of nature as had been recorded by unphilosophic 
travellers, or to a few parallels of exterior resemblance 
drawn from their own observation. Throughout every 
page of Nature's history, harmony and uniformity are 
strikingly apparent : the gradations (of animal life par- 
ticularly), instead of having their boundaries distinctly 
marked, slide into each other with scarcely perceptible 
shades. This uniformity has in itself tended to increase 
the difficulties of zoological arrangement, and to em- 
barrass the labours of naturalists. Fortunately for those 

5 " OrAeiat aiuim alterius; coliaerct copula junctus." — Nov. Com- 
ment. Petrop. vol. XX, p. 450, tab. xi. 


of the present age, a more extensive knowledge of com- 
parative anatomy greatly assists them in methodising 
and arranging their subjects; for that which was for- 
merly referred to exterior form only, or an imperfect 
acquaintance with habits and manners, is now subjected 
to the scrutiny of internal organization, and to the phy- 
siological deductions springing therefrom. Although 
we must still be content to draw many of our conclu- 
sions in the interesting study of natural history from 
analogy and probability, yet we are principally taught 
by our observations on the invariable construction of 
certain parts of the body, of which the bony portions 
are subject to the fewest variations by all the efforts of 
art ^ With these aids, I shall attempt to examine the 
various opinions detailed above ; and I propose to in- 
quire, first, what claim each of the individuals, classed 
with the dog in the canine genus, as the wolf, fox, and 
jackal, has to the rank of being his primogenitor and 
parent. In the next place, I would endeavour to inves- 
tigate whether it is more probable that his origin is al- 
together spurious, and derived from prolific intercourse 
between different members of this genus. 

If we attentively examine the Wolf, we shall find that 
he varies very considerably from the dog, in form, as 
well as in habits and manners. The whole osteology of 
his head presents a more angular mass. The auditory 

6 The bones are not, however, wholly unaffected by a life of art, 
as we witness in the altered form of those composing the head of the 
bull-dog, pug, greyhound, and some others. The coccygal bones 
may also be artificially altered, as is observed in some breeds, par- 
ticularly of sheep dogs, who are, many of them, born without tails, 
or with a very short one only. The teeth, however, as parts of the 
bony structure, may be still impli<;itly relied on ; for these, I believe, 
under every change of circumstance, remain invariably the same, 
and become, therefore, our safest criteria. 


portions of his temporal bones are placed higher, and 
more anteriorly in the skull, than those of the dog. 
The orbitary fossae are much more inclined, and his 
teeth are not only proportionally longer and stronger, 
but they also differ in their general form ^ ; his cubitus 
is longer and more obliquely placed, and his caecum is 
very dissimilar. Exteriorly, his form is unlike that of 
any known breed of dogs : with a tail always pendu- 
lous, and a coat always coarse and shaggy ; under every 
variety of climate, he is still a wolf. In habits he is 
wholly carnivorous and predatory, nor does he ever 
congregate except under the stimulus of excessive hun- 
ger, in the pursuit of prey of stronger powers than his 
own. Always ferocious, every attempt to reduce him 
to perfect obedience has proved unsuccessful ; cruel, 
craft>, and suspicious; a tyrant in power, and a cow- 
ard in jeopardy ; he appears to have no latent or hidden 
tinge of the qualities that so eminently distinguish the 
dog; and if, as is asserted by naturalists, the female 
wolf feels oestrum but once a year, and gestates about 
one hundred days, then the individuality of the dog, as 
far at least as regards the wolf, is established. 

The Fox, attentively viewed, will be found to present 

^ I am aware the domesticated clog can hardly be considered a fair 
subject for this comparison. A life of art has unquestionably ope- 
rated considerable changes on his whole frame ; and it is equally 
true, that such wild dogs as have fallen under the examination of 
comparative anatomists, have all presented a more sharp and pointed 
visage, a more confined torehead, and ears more erect, than are ob- 
servable in any of the cuKivated breeds. To this I have to remark, 
that the comparison above alluded to has been made with specimens 
of such dogs as have never been subjected to a life of art ; or with 
such as, having been only partially so (as the northern breeds), may 
be supposed to present but little variation from the original, parlicH- 
liirl.y in (heir bony structure. 


lines of distinction, if not altogether so strong, yet suf- 
ficiently legible, to separate him specifically from the 
dog. In the anatomical arrangement of his bones, in 
the approximation of his eyes, and the formation of his 
caecum, the same variations occur as in the wolf, but 
they are less strongly marked. The extreme foetid odour 
of his urine is one of his strongest characteristics, and 
accompanies him through all the varieties produced 
(which, as he is an inhabitant of almost every coun- 
try, are sufficiently numerous); and is so peculiarly vul- 
pine, that it is not, I believe, imparted even to his 
bastard progeny ^. Possessing in every country a mark- 
ed outline, he cannot be easily mistaken : he is always 
solitary, never barks, but has a peculiar whine, and, 
in all the modulations of his voice, he is totally unlike 
the dog. 

That the Jackal is the source from whence the dog is 
derived, it has already been stated, attempts have been 
made to prove, by authorities of no mean note ; and 
in candour it must be allowed, that the reasons assigned 
give this opinion much more weight than that which 
has traced his genealogy to the wolf or fox. The 
striking resemblance between the general assemblage of 
the bones of the two animals, and between their teeth in 
particular; the similarity of their caeca, and of the 
whole alimentary canal; are all important and argumen- 
tative facts. — There are still, however, sufficient proofs 

^ If the aiiimal produced between the dog and fox possesses no 
foetor in his urine, which I believe is the case, it is a strong proof that 
nature has drawn an inseparable line between their organs. — It is 
remarkable, that Buffon should have taken so much pains to prove 
that the dog will not breed with the fox. The connexion is, I be- 
lieve, never sought, but it sometimes does occur, and progeny 


that these nearly allied members of the same genus are 
specifically distinct animals. The jackal, although he 
has been found diffused over most parts of the old 
world ^, yet he has never become naturalized to the 
new; and from some attempts to transplant him, it ap- 
pears that he was not formed to live, like the dog, as 
an exotic. It may be further observed, that, among the 
efforts made to reclaim both the Asiatic and African 
breeds, there are not sufficient authorities to prove that 
any have succeeded, except in one small variety called 
the adive, and with him but imperfectly ; and although 
the number and direction of the bones of his skeleton 
are similar to those of the dog, yet there is a very con- 
siderable disproportion between the length of the fore 
and hinder extremities, which gives to his whole exte- 
rior an appearance unlike to that of any race of dogs 
at present known. These considerations would seem 
to disprove the origin of the dog from the jackal; and 
if the account is true (but which I much doubt), that 
the female jackal gestates only four weeks, the subject 
receives a decisive confirmation. 

Between the Hyaena and the dog the lines of distinc- 
tion are so apparent, that no relationship has ever been 
attempted to be proved between them. 

I have yet to examine upon what authority the opi- 
nion rests, that derives the dog from an accidental mix- 
ture of such nearly allied animals, as, by engendering, 
can produce fruitful uff«priug. The zoologists of the 
last century were led to regard, as a criterion of spe- 

^ Copiosissimum in universe oriente animal. — Pallas. It may be 
also observed, that, were the dog a descendant from the jackal, it 
is more than probable mixed breeds would be prevalent ; but this 
is never the case. 


cies, the capability of copulating together, and of pro- 
ducing thereby progeny that, in their turn, should prove 
prolific. Camper, Daubenton, Pallas, Buffon, 
Hunter, and other celebrated naturalists and physio- 
logists of that time, adopted this criterion : but latter 
observations have proved that this rule is by no means 
infallible, and that it is in fact to be but little depended 
on ; for, although hybrid animals for the most part do 
not prove fruitful, yet it is sufficiently notorious that 
instances do occur when even prolific offspring are 
produced between parents of difierent species. The 
mule has been known to cover the mare ; and, in warm 
countries, it is not very uncommon for her to produce, 
by this union, an animal that usually partakes less of 
the mare than of the mule. In the East, the mule itself 
has also been known to fecundate. The he-goat and 
ewe have likewise, by their union, produced prolific 
young ; and, among birds, similar instances are by no 
means uncommon. From these, and numerous other 
facts of a similar tendency, we are able analogically to 
decide, that the capability of the dog to produce fruit- 
ful off'spring, from sexual intercourse with any other 
member of the canine genus, cannot be considered as 
any proof of his being himself derived from such a 

In addition to what has been advanced, it remains to 
be added, that native breeds of wild dogs are still 
found in some parts of the world, all of which present 
one common character, particularly of the head and 
face; and which character differs considerably from 
that of either the wolf, fox, or jackal. Further, it 
may be remarked, that such dogs as had once been re- 
claimed and made tame, but which from circumstances 
had again become wild (however, during their subjuga- 


tion, they might have been altered in size and form), 
had all of them, in their future progeny, been found to 
travel back towards the form, size, and character of 
the original wild breeds ; which facts alone seem con- 
clusive, and prove that the dog has, from the creation, 
existed as a pure, unmixed, and original animal. 

If I could flatter myself that this cursory view of the 
matter had satisfied the lover of the dog of his un- 
doubted claim to perfect originality of formation, I 
might rationally indulge a hope that it would be less 
difficult to prove that the powerful agencies of habit, 
food, climate, and domestication, had been of them- 
selves fully sufficient to produce the endless varieties 
that are met with in this multifarious race ; and that, 
therefore, it was totally unnecessary to resort to the less 
rational opinion, that such varieties had been originally 
formed as were adapted to the spots whereon they have 
been placed. The effects of climate on the animal 
frame have occasioned much controversy amongst na- 
turalists and philosophers, some of whom have admitted 
its powerful controul over the external and even inter- 
nal organization of the inhabitants existing under it ; 
others, on the contrary, have argued, that the animal 
machine is endowed with an inherent capability of main- 
taining itself in its primitive integrity of form and cha- 
racter under every variety of climate. Adverse as these 
opinions may seem, the partizans of each have been 
enabled to bring forward imposing facts in support of 
it ; neither is it difficult, to a certain degree, to recon- 
cile these seeming discrepancies, and to allow to each 
theory a considerable portion of truth. It requires no 
great depth of research, nor any extensive collation of 
facts, to prove, that to every branch of animated na- 
ture there undoubtedly has been imparted an inherent 


power of maintaining itself in its original purity of form 
and character '°, when such animated branch is not sub- 
jected to the various physical and moral agencies re- 
sulting from change of climate, restraint, and artificial 
food. But it admits of as ready proof, and it has long 
been observed by philosophers, that the same agen- 
cies, arbitrarily imposed, possess a considerable modi- 
fying power over the organization of animal bodies. 
Of these agents, climate and domestication are the most 
powerful. Climate, it is well known, has a great influ- 
ence over all the living bodies placed under it : to its 
operations on mankind we are to attribute the two op- 
posite extremes of white and black races ; while extra- 
tropical shades, ranging between these, as they ap- 
proach to or recede from the sun's rays, confirm the 
assumption. Within the tropics, almost all animal mat- 
ter is distinguished by the strength and depth of its ex- 
ternal hues ; whereas a blanching or whitening effect is 
produced, on the same matter, as it approaches the 
poles. The Siberian roe, the varying hare, the varie- 
ties of grous and partridge, even the diminutive mouse, 
and, in fact, almost all the wild animals of high north- 
ern latitudes, become lighter as winter approaches; 

«° Mr. Lawrence, in his scientific Lectures on Comparative Ana- 
tomy (to which I am proud to own many obligations), observes, that 
this inherent tendency to preserve the original form and character 
" is illustrated by the zoological descriptions of Aristotle, which, 
" although composed twenty-two centuries ago, yet apply, in all 
" points, to the individuals of the present time ; and also, by all the 
" works of art handed down to us from antiquity, in the form of 
" statues, paintings, mummies, &c." It may be added, that, in the 
human race, a similar tendency is observed. The Jewish or Cau- 
cassian face has never altered, although spread over the globe ; and 
the same may be remarked of Gipsies, who are generally considered 
as descendants from the Egyptians. 


while others, as the polar bear, arctic fox, snow bunt- 
ing, &c. &c., the inhabitants of still more rigorous re- 
gions, remain always white. Neither is the effect of 
climate confined to an alteration in the colouring only 
of the exterior coverings of its inhabitants; it extends to 
the organization and texture of them also, admirably 
adapting them to the circumstances of exposure under 
which its wearers are placed. In the sterile and inhos- 
pitable regions, where ice and snow hold a stern domi- 
nion, the quadrupeds are furnished with a short fleecy 
covering, which is rendered still warmer by either a long 
and shaggy, or a short and crisp, surtout of strong hair. 
The feathers of alpine water fowl conceal an immense 
mass of the warmest down underneath, while the land 
birds of these regions are feathered down to the very 
claws. To further exemplify the effects of climate, ob- 
serve how difi*erent are the clothings of the thick-fleeced 
dog of Baffin's Bay and the naked dog of Barbary ; the 
dense woolly covering of the European sheep, and the 
thin hair of those inhabiting hot countries. Contrast the 
glossy tunic of the Arabian stallion with the shaggy 
coat of the Shetland poney : and further, it may be ob- 
served, that where, for the purposes of beauty, nature 
has bestowed on the beasts of arid climes a long coat or 
covering, it is commonly observed to be one whose thin 
and silky texture can neither absorb the solar rays nor 
confine the animal heat : this may be seen in the length- 
ened fine hair of the goats, cats, and rabbits of Angora, 
and other eastern countries. Our domesticated animals 
are equally under the influence of climate, and, as win- 
ter advances, they are seen to change their thin fine 
hair for one of longer and thicker texture. Our horses 
in autumn prepare for the coming season, and change 
their fine summer coat for one thicker and longer ; but, 
under an artificial climate produced by hot stables and 


extra clothing, by losing the stimulus of necessity, they 
retain the same appearance throughout the year. Nei- 
ther are the coverings of the body the only parts that 
are subject to the effect of climate ; the form and bulk 
also are equally affected by its operations. By its pow- 
erful agency, varieties, the most disproportionate, are 
produced. Compare the eastern pigmy horse, scarcely 
thirty inches high, and the diminutive ponies of Shet- 
land : compare these with the stately coach and cart 
horses of England. — Place together the gigantic urus 
of Lithuania " ; the monstrous bison of America, with 
his shoulders surmounted by an enormous lump of flesh; 
the mild zebu of Africa ; the musk bull of Arctic re- 
gions ; the European ox, and the dwarf bull of India, 
not higher than a young English calf; having so done, 
the extremes of size and dissimilitudes of form and cha- 
racter will leave us in astonishment at the number and 
variety of Nature's works. — If we carry on the compari- 
son to sheep and swine, we shall find the efiects of climate 
as apparent on them as on the horse and ox. In Africa, 
the sheep are found swift, tall, gaunt, and even bold, with 
a pendulous dewlap. In Turkey, they are seen with a 
fleshy rump entirely disproportioned to the other parts. 
In Persia this disproportion is translated to the tail, 
which is said, in some instances, to weigh fifteen or 
even twenty pounds. In Iceland, sheep are found with 

" Naturalists difl'er with regard to the urus, which is considered 
by the majority of them as the original stock from which our cattle 
are derived. Cuvier, and some other zoologists, seem disposed to 
think that neither the urus or bison of the antients, and the aurochs 
oif the Germans, nor indeed any wild species at present found in 
Asia, can be considered in this light. Cuvier's researches have dis- 
covered, as he supposes, the characters of our oxen in certain fossil 
crania ; and thence he concludes that the primary race has been de- 
stroyed. — Des Animnux Fossiles, \.4: Ruminans Foss. p. 51. 


three or more horns ; in Wallachia, with two only, but 
those are long and spiral; and in Kamschatka they 
have horns of an enormous length, but without being 
spiral'^. In northern countries, the sheep are diminu- 
tive ; but in temperate climates they arrive to a great 
size and weight. In swine, the variations, in size at 
least, are equally disproportionate. In England, the 
hog has attained to the proportions of— length, 3 yards 
8 inches ; height, 4| feet ; weight, 700 lbs. In China, 
on the contrary, he measures from 18 to 20 inches in 
height ; and in some parts of India he is still smaller. 
In Piedmont, swine are black ; in Bavaria, red ; and in 
Normandy, white : and, as a further proof of the effect 
of climate on them, it is observed that the breeds ori- 
ginally removed to Cuba are become twice as large as 
those first taken there. 

With these instances before us, we must, by analogy, 
admit, in its full force, the agency of climate on the dog 
also, in operating many of those extreme disproportions 
in size, and variations in form and character, that we 
meet with or know to exist. 

Domestication is a no less important agent in the 
production of these numerous varieties in the dog. It 
includes not only the restraint imposed on the animal 
by man, but man also chooses his food, directs his 
habits, and even regulates his sexual intercourse. These 
restraints, judiciously employed, are called cultivation ; 
and it is by these that the most important and beneficial 

'* The three-horned sheep (ovis polycerta, Lin.), the spiral-horned 
(ov. strepsicheros, LiN.), and the long-horned (capra aminou, Lin.), are 
supposed by some naturalists to be distinct species ; nor are they 
agreed relative to the origin of our domestic breeds: two or three 
wild kinds have had this honour. Pallas, however, considers the 
arg^ali, found in the great mountains of Asia, as the original parents. 


changes are brought about, not only in the dog, but in 
all our domestic animals also. It has been already 
remarked, that the universal and inherent aptitude to 
retain the original stamp of nature appears to become 
weakened when animals are subjected to confinement 
and a life of art. Numerous deviations in size, form, 
and qualities, seem the necessary consequence of the 
physical and moral agencies which they become ex- 
posed to under these circumstances ; and the range of 
these deviations appears proportioned to the degree of 
confinement and restraint imposed on them. The cat, 
who is still predatory, and dependent, in a great degree, 
on her own exertions for support, differs but little in 
size and form from the original, and presents but few 
varieties. The dog, on the contrary, who is wholly 
subjugated, and whose life may be considered as pure- 
ly artificial, afibrds Variations the most numerous and 
extensive, in size, form, and general character. These 
varieties present themselves to us in dissimilitudes so 
great, in successions so endless, and in combinations 
so extraordinary, as to appear rather a sportive or 
capricious operation of nature, than the consequences of 
fixed and established laws. An original and determi- 
nable form is lost in boundless variety : nothing re- 
mains permanent but the anatomical arrangement of the 
internal organs, which appears always the same. 

With scions so infinitely varied, it is evident that it 
becomes difficult to form, altogether, a conclusive opi- 
nion relative to the size, form, and character, of the 
original root from whence they sprang ; but by the aids 
of analogy and probability, and more particularly by 
an observance of such wild dogs as are still met with, 
and appear never to have been reclaimed, we are 
enabled to approach near the truth. All such native 
wild dogs as have fallen under the notice of travellers 



and naturalists, have, I believe, invariably been ob- 
served to approach a middling size, and to present a 
head more pointed, and ears more erect, than those of 
the domesticated breeds. The fore-quarters are found 
deep, and the hinder extremities long, but muscular. 
That such was the original size and form of the dog, 
when first created, we are further warranted in con- 
cluding, from the important fact before stated, that 
dogs which had accidentally or purposely been left on 
newly discovered countries, and in consequence again 
became wild, predatory, and gregarious, had been 
always observed to degenerate in their progeny towards 
the same size, form, and character, as distinguished the 
native wild breeds. The Asiatic or Indian dog, eaten 
by some sects of the natives, and known in this coun- 
try under the name of the Chinese dog, is, I am dis- 
posed to believe, a very close representative of the 
original wild dog. 

The form and character of the first dogs being lost, in 
a great measure, in an endless succession of diversified 
progeny, man has been enabled thereby to select par- 
ticular varieties, either for use or ornament. Many of 
these are probably the effect of chance ; but by far the 
most important were artificially produced by man him- 
self, who, by regulating the sexual intercourse, and by 
propagating from such duplicates only as approached a 
given form, has been enabled to efibct the greatest 
deviations from the original. In some instances, an 
accidental deformity or variety was seized on and pro- 
pagated by future selections, till it became permanent, 
and then it constituted a distinct breed'K Many at- 

*' See the article Breeding, where this part of the subject is con- 


tempts have been made to classify these varieties or 
breeds ; but many difficulties have prevented, and will 
perhaps long prevent, a complete synopsis of the ca- 
nine race. The obscurity attending the gradual changes 
that have brought about many of these varieties, and 
the undetermined outline of many of the breeds them- 
selves, together with the capability of altering them, or 
of creating new ones, all present obstacles not easily 

BuFFON '"^ has enumerated fourteen varieties of the 
dog; but, however permanent some of these have re- 
mained, the characteristic outlines of others have be- 
come faint and indistinct. New breeds have sprung 
up, or have been brought into notice ; and it would be 
as easy now to enumerate twenty-four, as fourteen va- 

Dr. Caius, an early British writer on natural history, 
has also left us a synopsis of the dogs common in Eng- 
land'^ His divisions are founded on the habits or 
uses of the animal. Some breeds that he also notices 
are now extinct, and their places are supplied by new 

Having thus endeavoured to trace back the genealogy 
of the dog towards its source, I shall now return ; and 
from the first races will endeavour to follow his general 
difi*usion over the world, and to describe the probable 
causes that have operated in producing the remarkable 
alterations from the original, and the innumerable va- 
rieties we daily observe. In those inhospitable climes 
where the herbage is unequal to the support of the 
horse, and where cultivation extends only to satisfy the 
common wants of its inhabitants, it may be supposed 

^ BuFFoN Hist, Nat. torn. v. 

'5 J. Caii t\e Canibns Britannicus, Louth 1729. 



that more than ordinary pains would be taken to select 
and rear a race of dogs whose size, strength, and cou- 
rage, should, in a great measure, make up the deficiency. 
To this source it is probable that we are to look lor the 
breeds inhabiting Newfoundland'^ Karaschatka, Green- 
land, Iceland, Lapland, Siberia, and Pomerania ; all of 
which bear a strong resemblance to each other. These 
breeds had for their origin such eastern dogs'^ as had 
extended themselves northwards; where, being subject- 
ed to the effects of climate and altered habits of life, 
they gradually assumed new characters, and finally 
presented the varieties now become indigenous and 
common in those countries. When this enlarged breed 
had extended itself through the vast wilds of Russia, 
Denmark, Norway, Sweden, and Germany, it became, 
by the united eff'ects of climate and cultivation, trans- 
formed into a gigantic animal, less rough in its external 
covering, greatly increased in its speed, and possessed 
of every requisite for defending its masters from the 
incursions of the wild and predatory animals that de 
voured their children and cattle, and even disputed with 

«6 The Nervfoundland dog, now so common with us, was but little 
known before the middle of the last century. He is hardy, courage- 
ous, faithful, and tractable in the extreme. His fondness for the 
water makes him appear almost amphibious. By his aquatic powers 
he can dive to great depths, and can remain, without injury, many 
hours in the water; and he seems never so pleased as when thus 
employed. This exotic dog, by his great size, superior 'beauty, 
and interesting qualities, has nearly banished the old English mas- 
tiff. A variety of the Newfoundland dog is sometimes imported, 
which is smaller and smooth coated ; but it is, at the same time, 
equally expert as a swimmer, and is said to be even a better diver 
than the rough breed. 

n We can have no hesitation in considering that the first dogs 
weye found in Asia: history, both sacred and profane, agrees in 


them the possession of the soil. This dog has been 
long known by the name of the Large Dane'^ It is 
more than probable that the selection of the shepherd's 
dog fcan. domestiais, LiN.) was cotemporary with the 
cultivation of the Dane. The pasture dog, as he 
extended himself, presented also several varieties or 
distinct breeds'^. Buffon has erroneously (as I have 
already attempted to prove) supposed this the parent 
of most of our dogs; but we have analogy, probability, 
and historical facts, to prove that most of our large 
breeds proceed immediately from the Dane. The 

'8 The Dane is considered as the largest dog known. Marco 
Paolo mentions some he saw as large as asses. They appear to 
have been originally of a light fawn colour ; but they are now seen 
brindled, and sometimes spotted, striped, or pied, with a dingy 
brown on the original ground. The dogs of Epirus, so famed for 
their strength and courage, were of this kind.— Aristotle, lib. iii, 
c. 21. Pliny also notices them in terms of admiration, lib. viii, c.40. 

*^ The shepherd's or drover's dog (le chien de Berger, BUFF.) is pro- 
bably the most generally diffused dog known ; and it is but reason- 
able to suppose he must therefore own different origins. In Africa 
and America, the varieties of pasture dog are so numerous as to in- 
clude every size, form, and colour. In Asia and Europe the vari- 
ations in size and form are also great; but the coat or hair, particu- 
larly in Europe, is almost always long and shaggy. In high northern 
latitudes he is found very tall, robust, and well defended by a coarse 
thick coat of rough hair. In southern Britain, where the breed is 
particularly attended to, the shepherd's dog is rather large, and 
mostly of a black and white colour, with hair either coarse and crisp, 
or more long and shaggy. These dogs have invariably short tails, 
from being tailed soon after they are pupped : such is the force of 
habit, and so long has this been practised, that some breeds are now 
actually pupped without tails. The pasture dog of Scotland is a 
distinct breed from that of England : it is small, but extremely 
active and sagacious. Indeed, so great is the intelligence displayed 
by the whole tribe of sheep dogs, when attending flocks and herds, 
that we cannot observe them without surprise and admiration. 


great Boar Hound of Germany was probably the first 
fruits of successful cultivation practised on the Dane. 
The Northerns, having obtained such an accession 
of power by the assistance of the Danish dog, be- 
came, at length, the aggressors, and in their turn hunted 
the wild beasts, as bears, wolves, &c. from their fast- 
nesses. EtFectually to do this, it was necessary to cul- 
tivate a breed, that, with the size and strength of the 
Dane, should have the hardihood of the rough-coated 
Alpine dog, and a degree of speed beyond either, that 
he might thereby be enabled to overtake the swift re- 
treat of the wolf, boar, and fox^". By the adoption of 
slender specimens to breed from; by subjecting these 
to extraordinary care ; and by continually selecting as 
parents such as shewed the greatest tendency to light- 

*° Specimens of the JBoar Hound are still preserved in Germany ; 
and I have met with a few in Ireland and Scotland also. In Ireland 
Ihey are called Irish Greyhounds (can. (jraius Hihernicus, Ray). 
Those I saw were majestically large, and symmetrically proportioned 
for strength and speed. Their coats were rough, wiry, and of a light 
gray colour, rather inclining to yellow. The few Scottish specimens 
I have seen were rather a strong, coarse, long-haired greyhound, 
than the real wolf-dog ; but it is probable that in the northern parts 
of the highlands more perfect specimens exist than those 1 saw. 
The German boar-hound is commonly described as being of a cin- 
namon or fawn colour, and as remarkably mild, generous, and faith- 
ful, although most formidable to his enemies. The original breeds 
were not all of them long-coated : on the contrary, I believe that 
the greater number were sleek and smooth ; but the hair, though 
short, was strong and thick.— It may be remarked here, that it is not 
easy to conjecture what dog Buffon means by Le Matin. Many 
naturalists, who follow the synopsis of this author, consider it as the 
Dane ; others })lace the boar-hound under this term. His own ac- 
count is, however, at variance with both these : " Le matin trans- 
" porte au nord est devenu grand Danois, et transporte au midi est 
" devenu levrier: les grands levriers vienncnt du Levant." — 
JiUFi ox, lii^i. ISai, torn, v, 'IIU 


ness of form, with length of limbs, the boar-hound was 
gradually cultivated into the greyhound (canis grains, 
LiN.)'S which was at lirst a strong robust animal, with 

•» The Greyhound (BvFFOs's, Levriei) occupies at present a pre- 
eminent rank in the scale of British dogs ; and that it has long done 
so, we have undoubted proofs- As e^rly as the time of King Canute, 
the forest laws directed that no person under the degree of a gentle- 
man should keep a dog of this kind ; and a very old Welch pro- 
verb, still current, reports, " that a gentleman may be known by his 
horse, his hawk, and his greyhound." At the feet of many monu- 
ments, and in the portraits of many distinguished personages, a grey- 
hound is sculptured or pourtrayed as the favoured companion of the 
deceased. The greyhound race is a very generally diifused one ; 
and it is, therefore, probable that the various breeds are not all de- 
scended from one stock. The breeds found in southern countries 
we should suppose are descended from some cultivated Asiatic dogs: 
the northern, we have every reason to believe, are the immediate 
descendants of the boar-hound Like other branches of the canine 
race, the greyhound has accommodated himself to external circum- 
stances ; he, therefore, presents very different appearances under 
different climates. In Turkey, we have the authority of Mr. Dal- 
LAWAY for asserting that the greyhounds are large and white, with 
their legs and tails fantastically stained with red. In Laconia, they 
are, according to Mr. Hobhouse, also large, and their hair long*. 
The long-haired greyhound is by no means confined to northern 
climates ; neither are long external coverings of hair among other 
domestic animals uncommon in the warmest countries, as we see in 
the cats, rabbits, and goats of Angora; but the hair so seen, however 
long, possesses a silky fineness of texture, and does not retain ani- 
mal heat as the thick, coarse, wiry hair of northern animals. Thus, 
many other of the greyhounds of the east, although delicately fine in 
their limbs, have long silk-like coats. The elegant animal called the 
Persian greyhound, to the utmost lightness of form and smoothness 
of body adds the peculiarity of having his ears, legs, and tail, be- 
fringed with very long fine hair, like that of the setter or spaniel. 
In temperate climes, but particularly in England, where the culti- 
vation of the greyhound is carried to the highest perfection, he pre- 

' ■• "I'leatise on Gievhounds, Cd erht. p. f>. 


stout limbs, and generally a long coat. Such breeds 
are still seen in the northern parts of Europe. In some 
parts of Ireland, and in the Highlands of Scotland also, 
(besides a few specimens of real boar-hound) grey- 
hounds of this kind are by no means uncommon. In 
early times, the greyhound (partaking of the qualities of 
the originals from whence he sprang) hunted as well by 
scent as by sight; and with these united qualifications 
he must have been very destructive to the larger kinds 
of game, as deer, antelopes, wild goats, foxes, &c. 
Such a dog was the Gaze-hound, of whose extraordinary 
powers of vision, in selecting and keeping his game in 
view, we have numerous accounts. But, as the exer- 
tions of greyhounds became, by degrees, principally 
confined to the chase of animals of extreme speed, par- 

sents the most symmetric model of an animal formed for speed and 
beauty combined, that it is possible to conceive. Buffon conjec- 
tures that their original colour was cinnamon or fawn-like : *' lis 
sont de couleur fauve-clair pour la plupart.'* The greyhounds of for- 
mer times appear to have been remarkable for their fidelity and the 
warmth of their attachment; and these properties are still apparent 
in the rough coarse kinds : but in our improved breed, every quality 
seems absorbed in the acquisition of extreme speed : so true it is, 
that an extraordinary degree of excellence in one particular com- 
monly proves a hindrance to superiority in others ; by which wise 
provision, a great degree of equality is maintained throughout Na- 
ture's works. 

For a more full account of this important variety of the canine 
race, I would recommend the reader to a Treatise on Greyhounds^ 

attributed to Sir Wm. C , a Baronet of sporting celebrity. In 

this elegant and classic production will be found a fund of interest- 
ing and instructive matter relative to the breeding, rearing, and 
treatment of these dogs. According to the modesty of its author, it 
is besprinkled with " a few classical flowers ;" but the reader will 
find it a gay parterre, where literature and sporting change hands at 
every turn. 


ticularly of the hare, so it became likewise necessary to 
prevent them having recourse to smelling, or scenting 
their game, the very action of which retarded their pro- 
gress; and thus the quality of hunting by scent was 
gradually lost for want of exercising it.— It will now be 
necessary to return to the Dane, the cultivation of whose 
progeny produced other important varieties beside the 
boar-hound and greyhound. One of the first of these 
was the Mastiff rca?fc. molossus, Lin.), which is known to 
be a dog of great antiquity : he was formerly, also, of 
considerable importance among British animals". De- 
scended immediately from the Dane, was the Dalmatian 
or Spotted Coach-dog^^ From all these, there gradual- 

** The Mastiff', or dogue ot Buffon, is unquestionably derived from 
the Dane, probably from the accidental deformity of a stunted or 
rickety specimen, %vhich peculiarity had afterwards been continued 
and cultivated. The breed of mastiffs was, in " olden times," an 
important branch of British commerce. When this island was under 
the Roman yoke, these dogs were in such request, that an officer 
was appointed, under the name of Procurator Synegii, to superintend 
the breeding and transmitting them to the Roman Amphitheatre. 
Strabo tells us that these dogs have been trained to war, and were 
used by the Gauls against their adversaries. The bull-dog un- 
doubtedly owes it origin to the mastiif. A very useful mongrel is 
also derived from it, which is still seen about farm-houses, and is 
known, in the older accounts of dogs, under the name of ban-dog : 
but the mastiff itself is now seldom seen, having given place to the 
more beautiful, but certainly not more trustworthy, breed from New- 

^3 The Dalmatian, or Spotted Coach-dog, is called by Buffon Le 
Braqui^ de Bengal, or Bengal harrier. This application of term ap- 
pears extraordinary, when we consider that this breed is not natu- 
rally given to hunt ; and likewise that no such dog is common in 
India. The Dalmatian is evidently a smaller variety of the Dane, 
which he resembles in form and habits. Having a sleek, smooth, 
milk-white coat, regularly interspersed with black spots, and great 
symmetry of proportion, he forms an elegant appendage to the car- 
riages of the wealthy, and an useful guard to the stable. 


ly were produced, by means of accidental variety or 
purposed selection, the several breeds of Stag-hound, 
Blood-hound, old English Harrier (can, sagax, Lin.), 
Fox-hound, common Harrier, and Beagle ; with numerous 
varieties of the hound kind used in the chase throughout 
Europe and other countries. The selection and culti- 
vation of the Pointer (can. avicularis, Lin.'*) follow^ed 
these ; and about the same time, probably, the Bull-dog 
first appeared, whose origin, it i3 not unlikely, was de- 
rived from particularly small but sturdy specimens of 
the mastiff ^^ 

44 The Pointer, it is supposed, uas first cultivated in Germany and 
Spain : he was originally a strong heavy dog, but of great sagacity. 
The pointer of Russia appears a distinct breed, and betrays, in 
strong characters, his immediate origin from the early northern 
races : neither are his general characters, nor his habits, like the 
southern pointers. The property of stoppint/ in pointers in general, 
as soon as either the sight or scent of those animals (and of those 
only) we call game arrests the attention, is wholly a cultivated qua- 
lity, founded on a natural one inherent in all dogs. Every dog in- 
stinctively crouches, or intently points, towards the object on which 
he meditates an attack. By this means he lessens his bulk to de- 
ceive his adversary or surprise his prey ; or he arrests his attention 
for the same purposes. In this way, it is not unusual to witness two 
complete mongrels making a perfectly steady point at each other. 
As this property is common to all, the introduction of the pointer 
was probably a chance selection from among the early dogs accus- 
tomed to hunt. The Setter is altogether a dog of different origin, 
being only a more highly cultivated spaniel. 

«* I confess myself totally at a loss from whence to derive the ori- 
gin of the Pug Dog. A hasty view might lead one to consider him as 
descended from a dwarf breed of bull-dogs ; but closer inspection 
shews many variations from the bull-dog in the external form. Well- 
formed pugs are seldom under-hung; bull-dogs arc always so : the 
colours also vary considerably ; and, above all, the bull-dog draws 
an essential character from the fine taper of his tail, while the pug 
is no less prized from his tail being of equal thickness throiighont. 
and locked up in a compact curl. 


The Large Rough Terrier, the Barbet, and the 
whole race of Water Spaniels (can. avarius aquaiicus, 
Lin.), owe their origin to such northern dogs as, being 
stationed along the shores of seas, lakes, or rivers, 
possessed, either hereditarily or contracted by climate, 
a thick rough covering of hair, and by habit a great 
aptitude for the water. 

While the Asiatic dog was extending his progeny 
through the northern regions into the varieties we have 
enumerated, the southern climes were also furnishing 
from the same source, but probably by another track. 
Here, likewise, the effect of climate became apparent, 
in the production of an equal number of varieties ; but 
all of them proved less hardy in their nature, and of a 
more delicate frame; and furnished wirh coverings, 
many of which were long and of silk-like texture, others 
were glossy and smooth, while some, like the naked 
dog of Barbary, were seen wholly without hair. From 
these are derived the Eastern Greyhound, most of 
the hounds used in Africa and South America, the 
Southern Pasture Dog, the Land SpanieP% the Set- 

'^ No dog iJieseuts such endless varieties as the Spaniel; all, 
however, admit of two cominon divisions, into land and water spa- 
niels: the latter arc derived from the northern, the former from the 
eastern dogs. Land Spaniels are all characterized by a long silky 
coat; and whether strong and muscular, or slender and diminutive, 
they are equally elegant and interesting. They are proverbially 
faithful ; and to the sportsman they are highly important, from their 
sagacit> and keen scent. King Charles II. has been said to have 
been extr^mely fond of spaniels, two varieties of which are seen in 
his several portraits, or in those of his favourites. One of these was 
small, of a black and white colour, with ears of an extreme length ; 
the other was large and black, but the black was beautifully relieved 
by tan markings, exactly similar to the markings of the black and 
tan terrier: Ihis breed the late Duke of Norfolk preserved Avith 
jealous care. 


ter^% the Smooth Terrier, and innumerable others, cul- 
tivated and kept either for use or ornament. 

Having proceeded thus far in attempting a feeble out- 
line of the natural history of the dog, I propose devot- 
ing a few pages to the more interesting task of describ- 
ing his moral qualities ; to which I am prompted by a 
hope that I may thereby more effectually advocate his 
cause ; and that, by exciting inquiry into his real cha- 
racter and properties, I may aw^aken a due considera- 
tion for him iii the minds of those (of whom there are 
too many) who now regard him with indifference, con- 
tempt, or dislike. To those who are conversant with 
the animal, I need offer no apology for such detail ; 
they will agree, that, in what follows, I have been 
guilty of no exaggeration; on the contrary, I have 
barely done justice to this amiable companion of man- 
kind ; to one that, whether we consider the extent of his 

^7 The setter is undoubtedly derived wholly from the spaniel, and 
not, as has been supposed, from a mixture of spaniel and pointer. 
Robert Dudley, Duke of Northumberland, is recorded as the first 
person who broke (to the net) a setter (i. e. a spaniel), so called from 
its lying down before game until a net was drawn over both dog and 
game. After this aptitude had been displayed, it is natural to sup- 
pose that the breed would be continued, and future cultivations in- 
creased its size and powers. The setter retained the name of spa- 
niel until of late years ; and to this day he is called, in Ireland, the 
English spaniel. Gay calls him the " creeping spaniel;" Thomson, 
also, has 

How, in his mid-career, the spaniel struck 
Sliflf by the tainted gale, with open nose 
Outstretched, &c. 

The old English setter is now scarce, and has given place to a breed 
of less docility and subjection, but of enlarged size and increased 
speed: these are mostly red, and are of Irish origin. The term 
Index, by which the setter has been known, it is evident is not more 
appropriate ; indeed, it is less so than to the pointer. 


intelligence, the admirable qualities he displays, the 
entertainment he aifords, or the valuable services he 
renders us, challenges universal tenderness, attach- 
ment, and protection. It would seem almost invidious 
to attempt a display of the valuable properties of this 
animal, for the professed purpose of enforcing the 
principles and practice of humanity towards him ; yet 
it is but too evident that the relative duties of man 
towards the brute creation in general (but particularly 
towards the dog) are greatly neglected, too often out- 
raged^^ It is probable that these errors spring less 

as Were the principles and practice of humanity made a funda- 
mental part of the education of our children, and were these aided 
by judicious legal enactments, many branches of the brute creation 
would have reason to rejoice. Is it not disgraceful to an enlightened 
people to learn, that infidel nations, as the Turks, have almshouses 
for their animals ? It is an essential part of a Mussulman's creed, 
and it is an express command of Mahomet, to be humane towards 
the brute creation. In India, the Bramins are remarked for their 
tenderness towards all animals. The Banian Hospital is a most re- 
markable instance of this : it contains horses, asses, mules, oxen, 
sheep, and birds;— even noxious animals, as rats and mice, are not 
excluded ; all are treated with the utmost kindness and care, until 
death places them beyond the want of these charities. If we take 
the Scriptures for our guide, we shall find them full of precepts of 
humanity, and exemplified also by numerous examples of it : ''A 
merciful mati is merciful to his beast;'' " Thoushalt not muzzle the ox 
that treadeth out the corn,'' These are, alone, sufficient to establish 
the humane tendency of the antient sacred laws, where it was ex- 
pressly forbidden to " take the dam on her nest." The works of the 
heathens are equally filled with recommendations of tenderness to- 
wards animals. A Grecian magistrate condemned a child to punish- 
ment who had deprived a bird of sight ; and the Athenian court 
called the Areopagite, instituted express laws for the protection of 
brute animals from cruelty. Shall we, as professors of christianitj- 
and all the kinder virtues, shall we alone forget what is due to these 
useful dependants ? 


from the natural impulses of the heart, than from a 
mistaken consideration of the real rank that this com- 
panion of our mortal pilgrimage holds in Nature's scale. 
If it were customary to consider the higher orders of 
brute animals not as mere machines, endowed with fa- 
culties purely instinctive, and just suflScient to preserve 
their existence and extend their species *^ ; but, on the 
contrary, if they wTre universally regarded in their true 
light, as beings highly intellectual, actuated l)y the no- 
blest passions, endued with memory and recollection ^°, 
disposed to imitation, profiting by experience, and 
acquiring skill from discipline and instruction, then we 
might hope to see them regarded in their true light ; to 
witness their importance generally acknowledged ; and, 
consequently, to observe their situation ameliorated. 
These mental properties, in some degree common to all 

»9 " Whatever aftections are displayed by animals, they are ac- 
" counted but the mere eft'ect of mechanic impulse: however they 
** may verge on human wisdom, their actions are said to have only 
" the semblance of sagacity. Enlightened by reason, man considers 
" himself immensely removed from animals, who (as he considers) 
" have only instinct for their guide ; and, born to immortality, he 
" scorns to acknowledge, with brutes that perish, a social bond. 
" Such are the unfeeling dogmas which are early instilled into the 
** mind, and wliich induce a callous insensibility foreign to the na- 
" tive texture of the heart : such are the cruel speculations which 
" prepare us for the practice of that remorseless tyranny, and which 
*• palliate the foul oppression that we exercise over our inferior but 
" fellow creatures."— Oswald. 

3° Philosophers distinguish between remembrance and recollec- 
tion : the former is, according to Aristotle, a passive faculty, acted 
on by antecedent impressions when circumstances have occasionally 
arisen to revive them. Recollection implies mental exertion, and 
the deductions of reason, with a capacity of deriving knowledge 
from experience. Allowing this definition to be just, a correct 
analysis of the brute mind will clearly shew them possessed of this 
faculty, although philosophers have usually denied it them. 


the animals around us, shine in their full lustre in the 
dog; nor am I afraid to hazard an opinion, not only 
that he is endowed with them beyond any other brute 
animal^*, but also that his bodily formation and his 

3' I profess myself here to tread on tender ground ; but this opi- 
nion is the result of long and attentive observation, and of as critical 
and extended inquiry as my humble capacity and limited means would 
allow ; and, although I profess to throw no gauntlet, yet I would court 
examination and inquiry. It appears, from all 1 can collect relative 
to the qualities of the other branches of the canine race, as the wolf, 
fox, and jackal, that predatory habits and ferocity of disposition 
are so inherent in them, and that their thirst for blood is so essen- 
tially interwoven in their very organization, that, although domesti- 
cation might have subjugated them, and cultivation might have ope- 
rated great changes on their qualities and properties, yet they 
would never have totally eradicated those natural propensities, much 
less would they ever have developed the higher mental powers of 
that almost devotional atfachment, fidelity, and unceasing attention 
to the service of mankind, which peculiarly characterize the dog ; 
for, notwithstanding the apparent similarity of his structure to the 
rest of the canine genus, the dog appears, both from history and ob- 
servation, to be, even in a state of nature, omnivorous*; and that, 
unlike them, he by choice mixes his food with vegetable matter, 
voluntarily eats fruit, prefers dead to living flesh, and has no appe- 
tite for blood (which the others appear to have) distinct and separate 
from the animal mass of the bodies he may slaughter. If, also, it is 
true, as there is great reason to believe, that the intellectual phe- 
nomena of animals are in proportion to the extent or quantity of 
brain they possess, then the dog, whose forehead presents a more 
ample space for the reception of the anterior cerebral lobes than 
either the wolf, fox, or jackal, might, a priori, be pronounced, as 
indeed he is found to be, the most intelligent member of the genus. 
These characteristics, if just, eminently distinguish and raise the 
dog above those animals, whose similarity of form and habits might 

• I place great reliance on this characteristic. All animals purely carnivorous 
are savage, ferocious, and extremely difficult to reclaim. When by extreme 
care they have become subjugated, a treacherous watchfulness marks them, and 
they readily resume their former habits. To increase the courage and ferocity of 
the dog, we give him raw flesh. The cat, who is wholly Ciiruivorous, can liardJy 
be said to be reclaimed : it always prefers places to persons. 


mental capacity so fitted him for this pre-eminence, 
that no culture would have produced similar effects in 
any other selection man could have made from the 
beasts around him. Nevertheless we have to regret, 
so erroneous is popular prejudice, that a dog is the 
object, of all others, that excites in some minds the 
greatest contempt. It might not be irrelevant in this 
place to inquire, how much of this unmerited contempt 
we are to attribute to vulgar prejudice, and also to er- 
roneous impressions communicated by means of figura- 
tive language in common use. " You dog!" is a com- 
mon term of reproach used towards those, as well 
as by those, who often have not half the virtues of 
one; yet, in ignorant minds, this metaphoric sarcasm 

otherwise have led to their selection instead of his own, for the im- 
portant post of ally, friend, companion, and assistant to mankind. 
It is presumed, that it is unnecessary to extend the comparison to 
any other of the genera of quadrupeds. The sagacity of the monkey 
and of the elephant will, 1 am aware, gain them many advocates 
among discerning zoologists ; and were 1 reasoning merely on the 
extent of intelligence displayed, and not on the remarkable aptitude 
the dog exhibits for useful and companionable properties, and on the 
higher intellectual qualities of fidelity and personal attachment 
which he so eminently possesses, I should be content to divide the 
palm with them. I should allow to the monkey, cunning, artifice, 
and personal dexterity, to a greater degree than to any other ani- 
mal whatever; but I should still contend, that the generous and 
amiable qualities that mark the dog are neither latent nor apparent, 
to be at all detected in him. With regard to the elephant, it is the 
opinion of many eminent zoologists that he is, by nature, endued 
with more rational power of mind than any other brute, the monkey 
perhaps excepted. In him are also apparent generous and noble 
passions : he is seen to combine, to compare, and to profit by ex- 
perience ; and so convinced are the inhabitants of the countries 
where he dwells of his extraordinary mental capacity, that they ap- 
ply to him, to the monkey, and to man, one common term, oran, 
which signifies intellectual or reasoniiuj. Nevertheless, as a total, 
the quality, if not the quantity, must be yielded to the dog. 


serves to beget contempt, both for the original and the 
portrait. Our oldest writers, with whom every thing 
vile and base is doglike, are full of this imagery. Even 
the sacred writings, abounding in the sublimest precepts 
of humanity, have added their share to this metaphoric 
disparagement. Trifling as this may appear, these figu- 
rative comparisons, however erroneous, sink deep in 
many minds, and beget a traditional contempt and ill- 
will towards one of the most valuable parts of the cre- 
ation. To combat these popular sources of inhuma- 
nity, I have before observed, no means seem so well 
calculated as to place the subject of our inquiry in his 
true light, by raising him from the debasement of a mere 
instinctive machine to the elevation of an intellectual 

There are so many proofs that the dog is a rational 
animal, that it affords matter of surprise that any think- 
ing mind should, for a moment, doubt it. Most of our 
ablest philosophers and metaphysicians have allowed 
him this distinction; but the extent of his reasoning 
powers has occasioned great diversity of opinion 
among them. Much, if not all, of this discordance 
has arisen for want of a precise idea of that inherent 
property we name instinct, under which general term it 
has been too common with writers to hide the pheno- 
mena of reason^"-. It is foreign to my present purpose, 

3* Dr. Fleming states, that this discrepancy and confusion would 
cease, if we confined instinct to the movements of those powers of 
the mind termed active, which are usually considered to consist of 
appetites, desires, and affections. Reason, he argues, should own 
those phenomena that are purely intellectual.— P^zV. of Zool, vol. i, 

p. 241. 

This would appear a just and philosophic definition of the subject, 
were appetites and desires only included : affections are, many of 
them, purely intellectual. 



it* it were within the range of my ability, to enter on an 
abstruse and metaphysical inquiry into the faculty of 
reason '\ It will be sufficient, if I attempt to analyze 

^3 Reason has been descrihed, as the power or faculty by which 
the mind is enabled to deduce one proposition from another, or by 
which it proceeds from premises to consequences. Locke allows to 
brutes " ideas distinct enough/' and that they compare these ideas ; 
but, he thinks, imperfectly. He doubts whether they compound 
their ideas ; and he altogether denies them the power of abstraction, 
or of applying the consciousness of particular objects as a general 
representation of all objects of a similar kind. " For it is evident 
" we observe no footsteps in them of making use of general signs 
" for universal ideas; from which we have reason to imagine that 
" they have not the faculty of abstracting or making general ideas, 
" since they have no use of words, or any other general signs." Is 
Mr. Locke altogether right in this assumption? Have not other 
animals, besides man, an intelligible and a very varied language, 
which is generally understood between each species? Have they 
not also general sounds for universal ideas : one for fear or dread, 
let the object of it be what it may ; another for love ; a distinct one 
for desire? The call to warn their oflspriiig from danger, and that 
used to draw them together for food, are totally different, but are 
each well understood ; and that these calls are not purely instinctive 
we learn from seeing them understood, as well by ducklings fostered 
under a hen, as by the young chicks themselves. This may be car- 
ried still further ; for, if we can believe recorded facts, some birds, 
particularly parrots, have been not only taught speech, but the ap- 
plication of it. The ready and appropriate replies to questions 
asked of the parrot belonging to Captain O'Kelly, must be still 
fresh in the remembrance of a great many persons now living; for it 
was no uncommon tiling for some hundred persons to visit this ex- 
traordinary bird every year. This was, however, even a less re- 
markable bird than that mentioned by Sir AVilliam Temple, in his 
Memoirs of what passed in Christendom from l6r2 to 1679, p. 57^ 
392. I also myself well knew a parrot that was fond of picking 
of bones, in which it was every day indulged. Whenever it had 
picked its bone, it used to whistle two or three times, and then call 
Carlo, Carlo; on which, a dog so named (if within hearing) immedi- 
ately ran towards the parrot. Mho invariably, on his appearance, 


the property of instinct; in prosecuting which, if I 
should be enabled to prove that innumerable actions 
performed by dogs, and other animals, are not at all 

dropped the boiie, and commonly concluded the operation by a 
chuckle of pleasure at this reciprocity of friendship. Was this purely 
an instinctive application of sounds? If the bird, in error, had ap- 
plied the call to any other food, it might have led to such a conclu- 
sion ; but, as the call was never made but when a bone was at hand, 
it certainly warrants the inference I would draw from it. Exactly a 
similar circumstance has been credibly related to me of a cockatoo 
which used to call a cat. Puss, Puss, to receive a bone when she had 
finished picking it. What does a dog mean that stands barking at a 
door where he has been usually admitted, but an intelligible notice 
that he is waiting, and an earnest request to be let in? 

It is reasonable to suppose, that, when Locke denied to brutes 
the use, or rather the application, of speech, or of such general 
sounds as convey universal ideas, he was either unacquainted with 
the history of the preacher monkey (simia Beelzebub, Lin.), or alto- 
gether disbelieved the accounts we have of it. Marcgraave, an 
observant naturalist of the highest authority, and one whose testi- 
mony has been corroborated by others who, like him, have been 
eye-witnesses to the peculiar habits of these extraordinary animals, 
has informed us that droops of these animals assemble in the woods 
of the Brazils regularly every morning and evening. At these times, 
one among the number, placing himself on a branch above the rest, 
seems to command general attention, for all assemble and sit be- 
neath him in profound silence. The superior, or preacher, then com- 
mences a species of chattering in a loud shrill kind of howl ; which 
having continued a certain time, he makes a signal with his hand, 
when the whole assembly join in chorus. This continues until he 
again by a signal commands silence ; the orator then resumes his 
discourse, and finishes his address, and the assembly breaks up. 
Dampier confirms this account, and further adds, that he has fre- 
quently witnessed with astonishment, the attention that members of 
the community have paid to one that has been wounded by a shot : 
they have gathered round the unhappy suff'erer, have endeavoured to 
close the wound, and, when the bleeding has been excessive, they 
have been observed to insert pledgets of vegetables to stop the hae- 

The language of animals, it is evident, is sufficient for all the 

D 2 


re Terrible to this property, I shall have compassed my 
object, and shall have not illogically proved, that, if 
such actions are not instinctive, they must be rational. 

Instinct, in a popular point of view, may be defined 
to be, that property in animals "'^ by which such actions 

purposes of communication, from wliat we observe in the watching 
of sentinel birds, and in the instantaneous change in the flight and 
extraordinary aerial evolutions of many congregated fowls, which 
are performed with such astonishing rapidity and precision, as at 
once to convince us they are effected by a signal of sound, and not of 
sight ; which latter the dense mass of the flock would prevent many 
of them from observing. 

Presuming on the authority of Locke, it has been farther argued, 
that the manifest deficiency in the organs connected with speech in 
brutes, is an additional proof, not only that they have little oral com- 
munication between themselves, but that they are, from this cause, 
essentially inferior in their intellectual importance. Without deny- 
ing their inferiority, it may however be answered, that full or exten- 
sive intonation of voice is not necessary to the existence, or even to 
the individual importance, of an intellectual animal, as we witness 
in the conventional language of the deaf and dumb among the 
human. Neither, in fact, is it essentially necessary that the con- 
ventional language of brutes should be communicated by the mouth. 
In many insects we know it is performed wholly without the oral 
organs ; in some, air is agitated to produce different sounds by 
means of the wings ; in others, by a mechanism not unlike the pipes 
of an organ ; while others, again, either strike on hard substances 
with their antennae, or communicate by crossing these slender and 
flexible organs over the same organs of those with whom they wish 
to communicate. One cannot witness this mode of communication 
without being struck with the similarity between it and the convey- 
ance of sound to the perception of a deaf person, by speaking along 
a plane surface in connection with the inner surface of the mouth. 

34- The instinctive principle is not confined to animals only; it 
pervades and directs the first movements of all organized bodies. 
Plants alter their course to seek the sun, or to imbibe a purer at- 
mosphere. Others produce surprising phenomena in their attempts 
to emerge from darkness into light ; and the roots of trees change 
and rechange their direction in search of earth adapted to their 
wants as often as the occasion requires it. 


are performed, as immediately tend to the preservation 
of themselves and the propagation of their species > It 
is a principle that may be considered as inherent in the 
organization of the body, and therefore (unlike to rea- 
son) it commences with the organization of the body it- 
self; as we know by the motions and other actions of 
animals in uiero. It developes itself (contrary to reason) 
in full perfection as soon as it is wanted. The young 
chick, the moment it is disencumbered of its shell, dex- 
terously picks up its food, and judiciously selects it from 
extraneous matter. The indigent and blind puppy, im- 
mediately on its entry into the world, searches out the 
mammillary processes that yield its nutriment, and adapts 
the surfaces of its little mouth to exhaust the gland, with 
more dexterity than the most acute philosopher aided by 
every mechanical principle could do. The operations 
of instinct being directed to the presrvation of exist- 
ence and the continuance of the species, it was neces- 
sarily given perfect, or these ends would not have been 
answered ; but as its operations seem confined wholly 
to these great ends, so it is very limited in its scale of 
action, and admits of little, if any, improvement. In 
domestic as well as unreclaimed animals, such actions 
as are directed to the essential laws of preservation and 
propagation remain alwaj^s alike : the same general ap- 
titudes, the same dexterity in catering their food, ex- 
cluding their enemies, and fostering their young, were 
as apparent two thousand years ago as at the present 
day. The instinctive principle, as a purely preserva- 
tive one, was originally given to them perfect ; it there- 
fore required no extension, and it has received none. 

If this definition of instinct should be considered cor- 
rect, it will require but little argument to prove, that, 
as innumerable actions are daily performed by animals, 
particularly of the higher and cultivated orders, which 


are totally imconnccteci with either oi" these great and 
fundamental laws of organic life ; so it is self-evident 
that all such actions can only be referred to the higher 
faculty of reason, and on that account they may be 
called extra-instinctive. These extra-instinctive opera- 
tions among animals present themselves in such infinite 
variety, and the impulses whereby they are directed are 
so diversified, that it is difficult to make any appropri- 
ate selections from among them. For the sake of elu- 
cidation, I will, however, instance two or three striking 
examples of what I consider intellectual operations of 
the mind, and such as are totally without the range of 

All enslaved animals have a proneness to deceive and 
to decoy others into the same state of captivity. If this 
disposition occurred in those that are gregarious only, 
it might be argued to be purely instinctive; but it takes 
place equally in such as are by nature solitary, that is, 
that associate in pairs only. This proneness is ob- 
served in caged birds to lure others to the net. The 
decoy duck traverses the pool, and, by a particular cry, 
she engages the attention of the wild fowl flying about 
her; when, having collected a sufficient number, she 
leads them through a narrow tunnel into direct captivity: 
on being herself released, she immediately departs in 
quest of more. Tame elephants are sent out in search 
of wild ones; which, having found, they return with, and 
entice within the enclosures. Each wild elephant so 
taken is then fastened between two tame ones, which 
immediately enter on a regular discipline, more or less 
rigorous, as their captive is more or less refractory. A 
few days' fasting, with occasional blows from the pro- 
bosces of their tutors, are generally sufficient to render 
their pupil mild and tractable. It has been asserted, 
that, much as this system must inconvenience the tame 


elephants themselves, they are, nevertheless, observed 
to enter on it with alacrity, and to conduct it so judi- 
ciously, as to excite sentiments of admiration in those 
who -behold it: surely this may be said to be extra- 
instinctive.— I once possessed a monkey, which, during 
the summer months, was chained to a window-seat over- 
looking a back area passage, to the rails of which the dist- 
ance might be four or five feet. From this window to the 
opposite rails the monkey used to jump every now and 
then for amusement. In one of these leaps he w as sud- 
denly arrested by his chain becoming entangled, and he 
received a severe fall. His memory made him remem- 
ber the pain, and his reflections taught him the cause. 
Benefitting by experience, his judgment determined him, 
before he again took the same leap, to pass the chain 
that confined him entirely through his hands; which 
having done, he took his accustomed spring without 
fear : this caution he observed in every future attempt. 
It is siiigular, and it serves to shew how he combined 
ideas, that it was only when leaping from the window to 
the rails that he examined his chain ; on his return, he 
always jumped fearlessly, because every portion of the 
chain w^as exposed before him, which in the other in- 
stance it was not. I was in possession of another mon- 
key, also, who used to amuse himself by swinging on a 
clothes line hung in a laundry in which he was confined. 
1 was at the time a resident with Dr. Haighton, whose 
servants, not being so partial to pug as I was, resolved 
to play him a trick, and therefore purposely cut the rope, 
leaving only a few threads to preserve appearances and 
deceive the animal. As it may be supposed, the next 
time he attempted his amusement, he got a fall. When 
the line was replaced, he shew ed every inclination to re- 
new his sport, but none whatever to repeat his accident : 


before, therefore, he again attempted to swing, he examin- 
ed his rope most carefully, by tugging at each end. Hav- 
ing satisfied himself, he recommenced his sport ; but at 
every future time of swinging the crafty animal observed 
the same caution. Can these extraordinary instances of 
reflection and forethought be referred to instinct? The 
pain and fright in both instances were remembered^ but the 
effects resulting from the means made use of to avoid a 
repetition of them were recollected. — In a former note I 
have noticed the talking parrots of Prince Maurice 
and Capt. O'Kelly : with regard to the extraordinary 
powers of the latter, and its apparent rational applica- 
tion of speech, there can be no possible doubt, as hun- 
dreds of witnesses, at present living, can testify. 

The late Rev. Robinson, of Cambridge, was a 

great admirer of bees, with which he used to amuse him- 
self much. On visiting them early one morning, he was 
struck with the appearance of a toad, who, by some 
means, had stationed himself on the stand whereon the 
bees were placed. Mr. Robinson's first impulse was 
to remove the toad, but, observing that no bees issued 
from the immediate hive opposite to which the intruder 
had placed himself, he became curious to watch the 
event ; and the more so, as, by an unusual hum among 
the bees, he concluded they were in consultation relative 
to their unexpected visitor. This conjecture proved 
correct, for in a few minutes they unanimously came 
out and attacked the toad, who died in a little time. 
Having done this, they again retired within their hive, 
and again appeared to deliberate, probably on what w as 
next to be done. On reappearing, they, apparently 
with one accord, went in quest of a matter more plastic 
than their common wax, with which in a few hours they 
completely encased the dead toad, and by this means 


effectually prevented any noisome stench from proving 
injurious to them. This account I had from Mr. Ro- 
binson himself, and I make no doubt the curiosity it- 
self still remains in the family. This anecdote, I think, 
infers that these busy wanderers can compare, com- 
bine, and, perhaps, reason abstractedly. It is evident, 
from what occurred, that they can converse ; and their 
conduct throughout proved them under a guidance su- 
perior to that of instinct. For instinct cannot be sup- 
posed to combat against such accidents as result from a 
cultivated or domestic state : on the contrary, the capa- 
bility of so guarding against unnatural and improbable 
contingencies, presupposes reflection and forethought. 
The instinctive principle might have driven the bees to 
destroy the toad, without doubt ; but the prevention of 
the after effects likely to arise from it, and the unani- 
mity in the means pursued for the purpose, bespeak the 
highest efforts of reason. The following pages will pro- 
duce instances of equal, if not of superior, intellectual 
phenomena in the dog. 

Having, as I hope, satisfactorily proved that our 
subject, the dog, has rational powers; it remains to 
inquire how these have been cultivated to produce that 
obedience and utility which now so eminently distin- 
guish him. Had the dog enjoyed the properties of in- 
stinct only, he would have proved but an indifferent 
subject for cultivation. It has already been attempted 
to be proved, that instinct admits of little, if any, im- 
provement ; but, on the contrary, those faculties which 
are purely rational admit of great increase. In wild ani- 
mals, it is this improvement of their reasoning part that 
gives that traditional knowledge so generally observed 
among them, by which they increase their comforts, 
vary their food, and multiply their pleasures : yet these 


accessions are trifling, compared with those which arc 
gained under the fostering hand of* cultivation. Never- 
theless, the highest degree of cultivation practised on an 
individual would operate but little on that individual 
himself. He might be conquered, but he would be un- 
tamed ; his wild nature would still appear under all the 
mask that fear and hunger might cover him with : nei- 
ther is there any doubt but he would escape the first 
moment it was in his power, and instinctively seek his 
native plains. By some extraordinary provision of na- 
ture, the rational faculties of the mind are found to be 
equally capable of hereditary cultivation as the form 
of the body ^^ ; and the powers and energies derived 
from cultivation are handed down from sire to son, and 
receive additional improvement, as discipline and care 
are bestowed to bring the intellectual phenomena into 

This hereditary transit of cultivated qualities, this 
genealogical accumulation of knowledge, has never met 
with sufficient consideration among philosophers and 

^' Precisely to understand how the faculties, under cultivation, 
become capable of being handed down in hereditary descent equally 
with the improved person, would require a knowledge of the mutual 
dependance that mind and body have on each other, and of the ex- 
act nature of the connection between them. That the intellectual 
functions are intimately connected with the organization and physi- 
cal condition of the brain, we are certain ; and although we have 
reason to consider the brain as only the organ by which the intellec- 
tual phenomena are administered, yet it will be evident that any 
increase in either the quantity or quality of the brain will enlarge 
the means whereby such phenomena are produced. That the vo- 
lume of brain is increased in the cultivated dog, every one must 
admit who remarks the difference between the expanded head of the 
domestic, and the more narrow and contracted one of the wild 


naturalists ; and yet most of the phenomena observed in 
our domestic animals calculated to excite wonder, and 
frequently to create doubt, however true, mainly depend 
on it. That the intellectual powers are capable of 
cultivation, in both the animal and his progeny, ap- 
pears from numerous facts we daily witness. The 
fear of man, now so general among animals, is only a 
cultivated quality, if credit is to be given to numerous 
accounts related by travellers. Gmelin informs us, 
that the foxes in Siberia came readily towards him. 
BoUGANviLLE relates the same of the animals in the 
Falkland islands. The first European visiters to Dusky 
Bay, in New Zealand, were surrounded by birds, who 
settled on them, and became an easy prey to the cats 
on board their ships. Among ourselves, in districts 
where game is strictly preserved, the pheasants, par- 
tridges, and hares, feed close around us. The fearless- 
ness of the robin, wren, martin, and swallow, arises 
from a traditional consciousness that they are never in- 
terrupted: our sparrows and rooks, on the contrary, 
learn to avoid man as a constant enemy, and can dis- 
tinguish when he is armed with a gun, almost as soon 
as they are out of the nest. The pointing and setting of 
our sporting dogs is a property common to every kind 
of dog ; but it is improved and cultivated in these im- 
mediate breeds to a particular purpose. This property 
descends with the race, in some instances, so perfectly, 
as to require in the descendants no breaking or train- 
ing. Nature undoubtedly gave to the original dog all 
the ferocity so usually met with in the English mastiff; 
but the determined perseverance in battle, the contempt 
of pain, danger, and death, that characterize the bull- 
dog, is wholly a cultivated qtiality. It is the same in 
our game fowls ; for in the East, from whence they are 
derived, they arc not courageous. From all that has 


preceded, it may be gained that the judicious cultiva- 
tion of the dog has fostered and improved his personal 
and mental qualities to their present state of perfection. 
By the beauty of his form, he becomes a pleasing object 
to our eyes ; but principally is he rendered interesting 
to us by his utility and many amiable qualities ; in which 
last point of view a boundless field opens itself. 

If I might be allowed to draw a comparison between 
the human and brute character, I should hope to be 
able to prove, that whatever is noble, generous, and 
amiable in man, will meet with no mean counterpart in 
the dog. 

Is courage a human attribute universally esteemed ? 
Where can it be found in a more eminent degree than in 
the canine species ? The bull-dog attacks all animals, 
indiscriminately, without fear; and his fortitude is such, 
that, until he conquers his enemy, no suiFerings short 
of extinction can make him forego his purpose. The 
smallest dog, when enraged, heedless of the conse- 
quences, will attack one infinitely larger than himself; 
and, in these instances, we have frequently an oppor- 
tunity of observing bravery in its noblest form, as united 
with mercy ; for it is seldom that a large dog so attack- 
ed will hurt a small one. Mr. Dibdin says, " I had a 
" yard-dog, that had every thing of the wolf but the 
" ferocity. He was gentle as a lamb ; nothing ofi'ered 
" to himself could insult him ; but no roused lion could 
" be more terrible if any of the family, or the other 
** dogs, were insulted." 

Are constancy and fidelity virtues ? The dog is the 
acknowledged emblem of them. His fidelity is wholly 
disinterested, and is not to be corrupted ; nor is any 
bribe, however tempting, sufiicient to make him betray 
a trust reposed in him. In London streets, we every 
day see carts and waggons watched by these faithful 


guardians in the absence of the drivers ; and, among 
the numerous stratagems employed by thieves to draw 
off the attention of the owners or drivers of these 
carriages, we never hear of any such attempt being 
successful while there is a dog at hand. During the 
still hours of night, this vigilant protector refuses sleep, 
and is continually on the watch. Common noises alarm 
him not ; but a whisper, a soft footstep, or any unusual 
sound, he interprets into danger to his master, and he 
employs all his might to prevent the perpetration of the 
threatened evil- In the country, the shepherd trusts his 
sheep to his dog, while he pursues his avocations at a 
distance, well assured that they will be carefully attend- 
ed to. The peasant's cur guards the coat and scanty 
meal of his master in the fields. The butcher, profiting 
by the fidelity of his dog, leaves his meat with no other 
protector ; and though the animal's support is derived 
from the bits and parings that come from this very meat ; 
and though he might, without present danger, satisfy 
his appetite ; yet he honestly refrains, and waits with 
patience for what may be gratuitously bestowed. 

I was once called from dinner in a hurry, to attend to 
something that occurred : unintentionally I left a fa- 
vourite cat in the room, together with a no less favour- 
ite spaniel. When I returned, 1 found the spaniel, who 
was not a small one, extending her whole length along 
the table, by the side of a leg of mutton which I had 
left. On my entrance, she shewed no signs of fear, 
nor did she immediately alter her position ; I was sure, 
therefore, that none but a good motive had placed her 
in this extraordinary situation : nor had I long to con- 
jecture. Puss was skulking in a corner ; and, though 
the mutton was untouched, yet her conscious fears 
clearly evinced that she had been driven from the table 
in the act of attempting a robbery on the meat, to 


which she was too prone, and that her situation liad 
been occupied by this faithful spaniel, to prevent a re- 
petition of the attempts. Here wdiS fidelity united with 
great intellect, and wholly free from the aid of instinct. 
This property of guarding victuals from the cat, or 
from other dogs, was a daily practice of this animal ; 
and, while cooking had been going forward, the floor 
might have ])een strewed with edibles : they would have 
been all safe from her own touch, and as carefully 
guarded from that of others. A similar property is 
common to many dogs, but to spaniels particularly. 

Perhaps the following instance of unwearied con- 
stancy can hardly be equalled : it was related to me, 
many years ago, by an old inhabitant of the parish in 
which it occurred ; and I have so much dependance on 
the probity of the gentleman who told it to me, tliat I 
can venture to answer for its authenticity: — 

In the parish of Saint Olave, Tooley Street, Borough, 
the churchyard is detached from the church, and sur- 
rounded with high buildings, so as to be wholly inac- 
cessible but by one large close gate, and by the windows 
which look into it. A poor tailor, of this parish, dying, 
left a small cur dog inconsolable for his loss. The 
little animal would not leave his dead master, not even 
for food ; and whatever he ate was forced to be placed 
in the same room with the corpse. When the body was 
removed for burial, this faithful attendant followed the 
coffin. After the funeral, he was driven out of the 
churchyard by the sexton, who, the next day, again 
found the animal, who had made his way by some un- 
accountable means (probably through some cellar win- 
dow) into the enclosure, and had dug himself a bed on 
the grave of his master. Once more he was hunted out, 
and again he was found in the same situation the fol- 
lowing day. The minister of the parish hearing of the 


circumstance, had him caught, taken home, and fed, 
and endeavoured by every means to win the animal's 
affections: but they were wedded to his late master; 
and, in consequence, he took the first opportunity to 
escape, and regain his lonely situation. With true be- 
nevolence, the worthy clergyman permitted him to fol- 
low the bent of his inclinations ; and, to soften the rigour 
of his fate, he built him, upon the grave, a small ken- 
nel, which was replenished once a day with food and 
water. Two years did this example oi fidelity and con- 
stancy pass in this manner, when death put an end to 
his griefs; and the extended philanthropy of the good 
clergyman allowed his remains an asylum with his be- 
loved master'^. 

I have seen a poodle dog, the property of the Ma rqu is 
of Worcester; which dog was taken by him from 
the grave of his former owner, a French officer, who, 
having been killed at the battle of Salamanca, had been 
buried on the spot. This dog had remained on the 
grave till he was nearly starved, and even then was re- 

^^ Marie Antoinette avoit au Temple un cliieii qui Tavoit 
constamment suivie. Lorsqu'elle fiit transferree a la Conciergerie, 
le chieii y vient avec elle ; mais on ne la laissa pas entier dans cette 
nouvelle prison. II attendit longtemps au guichet, ou il fut mal- 
traite par les gendarmes, qui lui donncrent des coups de baionettes: 
ces mauvais traitemens n'ebranlerent point sa fidelite : il resta tou- 
jours prt'S de I'endroit ou etoit sa maitresse : et lorsqu'il se sentoit 
presse par la faim, il alloit dans quelques maisons voisines du palais, 
ou il trouvoit a manger. II revenoit ensuite se couclier u la porte 
de la Conciergerie. Lorsque Marie Antoinette eut perdue la vie 
sur Tecliafaud, le chien velloit toujours a la porte de sa prison; il 
continuoit d'aller chereher quelques debris de cuisine chez les trai- 
teurs du voisinage; mais il ne se donnoit a personne, et il revenoit 
toujours au porte ou sa fidelite I'avoit place — il y'etoit encore en 1795, 
et teut le quartier le designoit sous le noni de C/iien de la Rein. 


moved with difficulty ; so faithful was he even to the 
remains of him he had tenderly loved. 

I have known many dogs whose habit has been, as 
soon as left by their owners, to search for something 
belonging immediately to them— generally some article 
of dress. This has been carried by the animal to his 
bed, or into one corner of the room ; and to lie upon, 
or to watch this, without stirring from it till the owner's 
return, has been all his employ, and seemingly his only 

Many dogs have an universal philanthropy, if I may 
so express it — a general attachment to all mankind. 
Others are not indiscriminately friendly to every one ; 
but such, almost invariably, make it up by a more ar- 
dent and a more durable regard for those they do love. 
Perhaps the duration of an attachment in these animals 
heightens our ideas of the intellectual powers, even 
more than the immediate ardency of it; for the con- 
stancy of it combines memory, reflection, and senti- 
ments, that completely soar above instinctive impulses. 
This regard for particular persons is so great, that it 
frequently interferes with, and, now and then, totally 
overcomes their instinctive care for their young. Here 
the moral principle is at war with the instinctive, which 
gives place to the superior powers of pure intellect. 
Dogs forcibly separated from those they love, frequently 
refuse food for many days : some have actually starved 
themselves; and others, taking just enough to support 
nature, have more gradually exhausted themselves, and at 
length have died of grief. The same has occasionally oc- 
curred when they have been separated from each other. 

Two spaniels, mother and son, were self hunting, in 
Mr. Drake's w^oods, near Amersham, Bucks. The 
gamekeeper shot the mother ; the son, frightened, ran 


away for an hour or two, and then returned to look for 
his mother. Having found her dead body, he laid him- 
self down by her, and was discovered in that situation the 
next day by his master, who took him home, together 
with the body of the mother. Six weeks did this affec- 
tionate creature refuse all consolation, and almost all 
nutriment. He became at length universally convuls- 
ed, and died of grief. 

I have also seen several instances of dogs voluntarily 
undertaking the office of nurse to others, who have been 
sick. When we consider the warmth of their feelings, 
and the tenderness of their regard, this is not to be 
wondered at, if it happens among those habituated to one 
another; but I have occasionally observed it amono- 
those who were nearly strangers to each other. One 
very particular case occurs to my recollection, where a 
large dog, of the mastiff breed, hardly full grown, at- 
tached himself to a very small spaniel ill with distem- 
per ; from which the large dog was himself but newly 
recovered. He commenced this attention to the spaniel 
the moment he saw it, and, for several weeks, he con- 
tinued it unremittingly, licking him clean, following him 
every where, and carefully protecting him from harm. 
When the large dog was fed, he has been seen to save 
a portion, and to solicit the little one to eat it; and, in 
one instance, he was observed to select a favourite mor- 
sel, and carry it to the kennel where the sick animal lay. 
When the little dog was, from ilhiess, unable to move, 
the large one used to sit at the door of his kennel, where 
he would remain for hours, guarding him from interrup- 
tion. Here was no instinct, no interest ; it was wholly 
the action of the best qualities of the mind. 

In the human species, gratitude has ever been consi- 
dered as one of the highest virtues. Where shall we 
see it exhibited in a more interesting point of view than 



by these admirable animals ? A benefit is never forgot- 
ten by the majority of them; but for injuries, they have 
the shortest memory of any living creature. Every per- 
son must have been an eye-witness to many facts of 
this kind ; but my opportunities of seeing different dogs 
have presented me with such varied occasions, where 
gratitude has been displayed in its fullest extent, that I 
may be permitted to mention one or two. 

A large setter, ill with the distemper, had been most 
tenderly nursed by a lady for three weeks : at length he 
became so ill as to be placed on a bed, where he re- 
mained three days in a dying situation. After a short 
absence, the lady, on re-entering the room, observed 
him to fix his eyes attentively on her, and make an 
effort to crawl across the bed towards her : this he ac- 
complished, evidently for the sole purpose of licking 
her hands ; which having done, he expired without a 
groan. I am fully convinced that the animal was sen- 
sible of his approaching dissolution, and that this was 
a last forcible effort to express his gratitude for the care 
taken of him. 

The following anecdotes tend to set the sagacity of 
the dog in a favourable point of view ; but the instances 
of strong intellectual capacity are so common, that it is 
probable the experience of every one conversant with 
dogs will furnish many such : — 

A native of Germany, fond of travelling, was pur- 
suing his course through Holland, accompanied by a 
large dog. Walking, one evening, on a high bank 
which formed one side of a dike, or canal, so common 
in that country, his foot slipped, and he was precipi- 
tated into the water; and, being unable to swim, he 
soon became senseless. When he recovered his recol- 
lection, he found himself in a cottage, on the contrary 
side of the dike to that from which he fell, surrounded 


by peasants, who had been using the means so gene- 
rally practised in that country for the recovery of 
drowned persons. The account given by the peasants 
was, that one of them, returning home from his labour, 
observed, at a considerable distance, a large dog in the 
water swimming and dragging, and sometimes pushing, 
something that he seemed to have great difficulty in 
supporting ; but which he, at length, succeeded in get- 
ting into a small creek on the opposite side to that on 
which the men were. 

When the animal had pulled what he had hitherto 
supported as far out of the water as he was able, the 
peasant discovered that it was the body of a man. The 
dog, having shaken himself, began industriously to lick 
the hands and face of his master, while the peasant has- 
tened across ; and, having obtained assistance, the body 
was conveyed to a neighbouring house, where the re- 
suscitating means used soon restored him to sense and 
recollection. Two very considerable bruises, with the 
marks of teeth, appeared, one on his shoulder, the other 
at the root of the poll of the head : from these circum- 
stances his master seemed convinced that the faithful 
beast first seized him by the shoulder, and swam with 
him in this manner some time ; but that his sagacity 
had prompted him to let go this hold, and shift it to the 
nape of the neck, by which he had been enabled to 
support the head out of the water. I should, in justice 
to the gratitude of this gentleman, who related the cir- 
cumstances to me himself, state that, wherever he after- 
wards boarded, he always voluntarily gave half as much 
for the support of his dog as he agreed to give for 
himself, by which extreme liberality he insured the 
greatest care and kindness for his preserver. 

In relating the following, I shall possibly stagger the 
faith of some: I can only remark, that I would not 



willingly trespass the bounds of truth. The facts were 
detailed to me by several persons of veracity, who pro- 
fessed to have been eye-witnesses of them ; and all the 
circumstances appeared to be well known in the neigh- 

A butcher and cattle dealer, who resided about nine 
miles from the town oi Alston, in Cumberland, bought a 
dog of a drover. This butcher was accustomed to pur- 
chase sheep and kine in the vicinity, which, when fat- 
tened, he drove to Alston market, and sold. In these 
excursions he was frequently astonished at the adroit- 
ness of his dog, and at the extreme dexterity with which 
he managed the cattle. At last, so convinced was he 
of his sagacity as well as fidelity, that he wagered he 
would entrust him with a certain number of oxen and 
sheep to drive, wholly unattended, to Alston market. It 
was stipulated that no person should be within sight or 
hearing who had the least controul over the dog ; nor 
was any spectator to interfere, nor be within a given 
distance. On trial, this extraordinary animal proceeded 
with his business in the most steady and dexterous 
manner; and although he had frequently to drive his 
charge through other herds who were grazing, yet he 
never lost one, but, conducting them into the very yard 
to which he was used to drive them when with his 
master, he significantly delivered them up to the person 
appointed to receive them, by barking at his door. 
What more particularly marked the dog's sagacity was, 
that, when the path the herd travelled lay through a spot 
where others were grazing, he would run forward, stop 
his own drove, and then, driving the others away, col- 
lect his scattered charge, and proceed. He was, I 
believe, several times afterwards thus sent alone, for the 
amusement of the curious or the convenience of his 
master, and always acquitted himself in the same 


adroit and intelligent manner. The story reaching the 
ears of a gentleman travelling in that neighbourhood, 
he bought the dog for a considerable sum of money. 
Extraordinary as the circumstances are, I have no 
doubt whatever as to the perfect correctness of the 
statement. I resided for a twelvemonth within a few 
miles of the spot, and, as I before observed, the whole 
appeared fresh in every one's recollection. 

I remember watching a shepherd's boy in Scotland, 
who was sitting on the bank of a wide but shallow 
stream. A sheep had stiayed to a considerable dis- 
tance on the other side of the water ; the boy, calling 
to his dog, ordered him to fetch that sheep back, but to 
do it gently, for she was heavy in lamb. I do not affect 
to say that the dog understood the reason for which he 
was commanded to perform this office in a more gentle 
manner than usual ; but that he did understand he was 
to do it gently was very evident, for he immediately 
marched away through the water, came gently up to the 
side of the sheep, tunied her towards the rest, and then 
both dog and sheep walked quietly side by side back to 
the flock. I was scarcely ever more pleased at a 
trifling incident in rural scenery than at this. 

The natural sagacity of the dog, united with a teach- 
able disposition, was early turned by man to many 
useful purposes. In antient history we have many 
relations of cultivated talents in dogs, as well as many 
anecdotes of extraordinary feats performed by them. 
Some breeds inherit this aptitude more than others, 
though all are sufficiently docile. The barbet, or poodle, 
is a prominent instance : I have seen several of these 
who have performed the ordinary offices of a servant ; 
they would run on errands, shut the door, ring the bell, 
&c. &c. In some instances they have been sent to con- 


siderable distances^ with letters, parcels, &c.— -The 
farce of the Deserter, got up some years ago at AsT- 
ley's, and performed wholly by dogs, exhibited the 
most astonishing proof of their teachable and imitative 
disposition that it is possible to conceive. 

I shall conclude this summary of the moral qualities 
of the dog, by noticing a property in him, which, if it 
has not altogether escaped the observation of philoso- 
phers and naturalists, it has certainly been but very 
cursorily noticed. It is, however, a subject worthy the 
most attentive investigation of the metaphysician and 
zoologist; and when its importance is considered, from 
the extraordinary nature of the phenomena it displays, 
it is only surprising that it has not before received a 
full investigation. This property may be justly called 
a sixth sense^^, although it has no outward organs con- 

37 1 have been told that the late Mr. Harvey Combe sent a New- 
foundland dog: from Andover, in Hampshire, to Hyde Park Corner. 
Mr. Combe had, on passins^ throuo^h the turnpike, purposely placed 
his gloves on the chimney mantel-piece, in presence of the dog. 
When Mr. C. arrived at Andover, he despatched the dog back for 
his gloves, with which the sagacious animal returned in a shorter 
time than was supposed sufficient for the task. 

32 Dr. RoGET, in a lecture delivered at the Koyal Institution, took 
some notice of what he termed a sixth sense that had been observed 
by him in bats, and some other animals, but which sense appears 
totally distinct from the faculty of observing distances. The pro- 
perty Dr. R. notices is that whereby some animals are enabled to 
perceive the situation of external objects without seeing or coming 
in contact with them. Spallanzani had noticed this long before. 

Mr. Jacobson has lately discovered, at the bottom and fore part of 
the nostrils, in some quadrupeds, certain organs, which communicate 
with the mouth, arc amply supplied with nerves and blood-vessels, 
and which seem to him to be the seat of some peculiar faculty ; but 


nectcd with it. All animals, man excepted, have it : it is 
altogether uuallied to any principle of intelligence in 
the human mind; and is totally distinct from the five 
outward senses common to both man and inferior ani- 
mals. Neither is memory at all concerned in it : it is 
purely instinctive, and is therefore seldom found to 
err ; and, being instinctive, it is very universally dis- 
tributed. This sixth sense is that whereby a dog, re- 
moved to a distance, is enabled to return alone, although 
the intervening portions of the distance are utterly un- 
known to him, and that, in such return, it is evident he 
can neither be assisted by seeing, hearing, smelling, or 

whether of the sixth sense noticed by Dr. Roget, or of that of the 
judgment of distances, or of some other, he is not able to decide. 

With regard to the perception of external objects " without vision" 
(I would rather say without apparent light) or contact, there are 
other ways of accounting for this property w ithout the intervention 
of a sixth sense. When we know that a condur (vultur gryphus, 
Lin.) can either see or smell, and perhaps both, a carcass, one or 
tAvo miles distant, we can readily conceive that the eye in nocturnal 
and crepuscular animals may be so exquisitely susceptible, as to be 
stimulated by rays of light infinitely finer than our organs can perceive. 
This perception might also be accounted for by the acuteness of 
smelling, which we know is, in some animals, so great, that the ap- 
proach of many objects is ascertained by it without vision. Another 
mode by which the situation of objects is perceived without seeing 
or coming in contact with them, is by means of the ears: this prin- 
cipally relates to large objects. It is not difficult to accustom one- 
self to walk by the side of a wall or along a dark passage, so as 
neither to touch the wall nor swerve from the centre of the passage. 
The sonorous rays reverberated (even the breathing may efiect this) 
from the objects, and again striking the ear, may enable it to judge 
of the distance by the acuteness of the sound, or the length of its 
return. This perception of large objects, without seeing or contact, 
1 have often witnessed. 


If a man was travelling over an extensive plain, and 
a heavy fall of snow was suddenly to obscure his sight 
of the track, and other surrounding objects that might 
otherwise serve as guides, he would soon become be- 
wildered : all his senses would be useless to him ; and he 
would be, at length, utterly at a loss how to proceed. If 
he should deviate one moment from the straight line, he 
would become immediately involved in inexplicable 
embarrassment, and will be as likely to pursue a totally 
apposite direction, as to follow that which would con- 
duct him to his house. No such thing happens to 
either a dog or a horse ; on the contrary, when all track 
is lost, when no object appears but the falling mass, 
turn either the one or the other round as many times as 
you will, and endeavour even to bewilder him, yet, the 
moment he is left at his liberty, with little or no he- 
sitation he will turn his head towards home, and, if un- 
molested, will arrive there in safety. It is evident that 
neither the dog nor the horse, so situated, can see 
through the falling snow ; it is equally impossible for 
either to smell his way ; for if the distance is one, two, 
or three hundred miles, the faculty is alike active and 
certain. Neither can remembrance operate, for no sur- 
rounding object can become evident to assist. — Camels, 
who travel many hundred miles over sandy desarts, 
never mistake their road. Pigeons, removed under the 
closest covering, to a distance they have never before 
travelled, when set at liberty, immediately return. Lith- 
Gow assures us, that pigeons carry letters from Babylon 
to Aleppo in thirty hours, which require thirty days to 
be carried by a man. Bees, and other insects, readily 
return to any given spot without hesitation. Indeed, 
their whole life is spent in wandering, and without such 
a faculty they could never find their homes. 

A gentleman brought from Newfoundland a dog of 


the true breed for his brother, who resided in the neigh- 
bourhood of Thames Street, but who, having no other 
means of keeping the animal, except in close confine- 
ment, preferred sending him to a friend living in Scot- 
land. The dog, who had originally been disembarked 
at Thames Street, was again re-embarked at the same 
place, on board a Berwick Smack ; by which means, 
during his stay in London, he had never travelled half 
a mile from the spot he first landed at. During the 
short time he remained, he had, however, contracted 
an afiection for his master; and, when he arrived in 
Scotland, his regrets at the separation induced him 
to take the first opportunity of escaping; and, though 
he was certainly unacquainted with eveiy yard of the 
road, yet he found his way back in a very short time to 
his former residence on Fish Street Hill; but in so -ex- 
hausted a state, that he had only time to express his 
joy at seeing his master, and expired within an hour 
after his amval. 

Dogs losing their owners in the most remote and in- 
tricate parts of London, which they have never before 
visited, readily return by the same instinctive principle; 
and instances have occurred where they have found 
their way back from foreign countries even. 

Before I conclude this interesting subject, I would 
remark that dogs, in addition to the capability of tra- 
versing distances aright that are new to them, have also 
the faculty of remarking time, and of informing them- 
selves of the recurrence of determined periods. 

A dog was visited every Sunday by his master, and 
only on that day ; but, although no alteration \^natever 
took place in surrounding appearances, on that day he 
invariably placed himself at the door in silent expecta- 
tion till his master arrived. — '^ A dog trudged two miles 
" every Saturday to market, to cater for himself in the 



" shambles : on that day, and on that day only, did he 
" ever attempt it." — New York Post. Many instances 
of similar observation have been noticed, which prove 
that the passage of time is marked by these animals, as 
well as the direction of situation and judgment of 

Would my reader's patience to read, continue as long 
as mine to write on this subject, we should accompany 
each other through volumes. Innumerable anecdotes, 
tending to display the valuable properties and amiable 
qualities of the dog, crowd on my recollection : but I 
would indulge a hope that enough has been brought 
forward to prove him worthy of the highest estimation ; 
and to create for him such an interest as will insure 
that care and attention which he so eminently deserves. 

■fTT -^ -f^^r-.' 


A WORK of this kind will not admit of an anatomical dis- 
play of the internal organs, nor of a minute inquiry into the 
animal economy of the dog. In the present state of canine 
medicine, it is sufficient to be aware, that the viscera of this 
animal bear so close a resemblance in anatomical structure to 
the same parts in the human subject, that to study the one, is 
tog-ain an acquaintance with the other. 

This resemblance is particularly striking between the or- 
gans concerned in the assimilation of food, and which is not 
to be wondered at, when we consider that both the subjects 
they belong to are omnivorous; and to which cause it is 
probable we must attribute the close affinity that exists be- 
tween their diseases also. This similarity of disease does 
not, however, equally extend to all the domestic animals 
around us. On the contrary, in some of them, the analogy 
wholly fails, and to this it is owing that the medical treat- 
ment of dogs has hitherto made such small progress. The 
human physician thinks the matter beneath his notice, and 
the veterinarian finds it beyond his comprehension. I have 
had innumerable opportunities of witnessing, and lamenting, 
this total want of experience and information on canine medi- 
cine, even among the best veterinarians ; and until it is studied 
as a distinct branch of art, it will remain so. 

Not only do the maladies of the canine race very nearly 
resemble those of the human species, in cause, appearance, 
and effect ; but the similarity is extended to the number and 
variety of them also : as may be seen by a reference to the 
nosological catalogue, where many complaints will be found 


that have no existence among- other domestic animals. These 
affinities will, however, cease to excite wonder when we 
consider that, in addition to the complexity of structure in 
dog's, their complete domestication has subjected them to 
lives wholly artificial, and, in many instances, to habits the 
most unhealthy. 

But although the analogies between the human and canine 
diseases are so striking-, yet circumstances exist that would 
foil the most experienced physician, equally with the most 
able veterinarian, in his attempts at a successful curative prac- 
tice on dogs, without a particular and diligent attention to 
canine pathology, as a distinct branch of the ars medendi. 
In many diseases of the dog, every thing- must depend on 
the experience and acuteness of the practitioner, in detecting- 
the immediate seat of the complaint. Important exceptions 
to the strict analogy I have noticed, likewise occur, which 
would embarrass both the human and veterinary physicians. 
A prominent instance presents itself in the specific canine 
diseases, which are wholly unlike any human malady. Ano- 
ther important deviation arises from the different effects that 
some of the remedies employed have on the two subjects. 

Ten grains of calomel, though a full dose, is by no means 
a destructive one to a human subject, yet I have seen a larg-e 
pointer killed by this quantity, which had been ordered by an 
eminent surgeon ; this would not however always happen. 
On the other hand, three drams of aloes, which would pro- 
bably prove fatal to nine human persons out of ten, mig-ht be 
taken by some large dog-s with impunity. A do^ could take, 
without much derang-ement, a dose of opium which would 
destroy a man ; on the contrary, the quantity of nux vomica, 
or crowfig, that would destroy the larg-est dog-, would fail to 
destroy a man. Between the effects produced by many medi- 
cinal articles on the stomachs of other domestic animals, and 
that of the dog, a still more marked distinction, or, at least, 
a more universal one, exists. It will therefore be evident, 
that neither the human physician, nor the veterinary practi- 
tioner, can be equal to a successful medical practice on dog-s. 


without much experience thereon, and a professed and par- 
ticular attention to the subject. 

When, also, the existing- disease has been ascertained, and 
the appropriate treatment has been determined on, still ano- 
ther difficulty often presents itself; which is, how to admi- 
nister the remedy. Now and then, dogs prove very refrac* 
tory, and no small degree of force is necessary to get any 
medicine down. In general cases, however, a slight degree 
of dexterity will accomplish the purpose. 

The most convenient Mode of Administering 

Place the dog upright on his hind legs, between the knees 
of a seated person, with his back inwards (a very small dog 
may be taken altogether into the lap). Apply a napkin 
round his shoulders, bringing it forwards over the fore legs, 
by which they become secured from resisting. The mouth 
being now forced open by the pressure of the fore finger and 
thumb upon the lips of the upper jaw, the medicine can be 
conveniently introduced with the other hand, and passed 
sufficiently far into the throat to insure its not being returned. 
The mouth should now be closed, and it should be kept so, 
until the matter given has been seen to pass down. When 
the animal is too strong to be managed by one person, ano- 
ther assistant is requisite to hold open the mouth ; which, if 
the subject is very refractory, is best effected by a strong piece 
of tape applied behind the holders or fangs of each jaw. 

The difference between giving liquid and solid medicines is 
not considerable. A ball or bolus should be passed completely 
over the root of the tongue, and dexterously pushed some 
way backwards and downwards. When a liquid remedy is 
given, if the quantity is more than can be swallowed at one 
effort, it should be removed from the mouth between each 
deglutition, or the dog may be strangled. The head should 


also be completely secured, and a little elevated, to prevent 
the liquid remedy from ag^ain running- out. 

Balls of a soft consistence, and those composed of nauseous 
ingredients, should be wrapped in silver or other thin paper, 
and greased, or they may occasion so much disgust as to be 
returned. Medicines wholly without taste, as mercurials, 
antimonials, &c. may be frequently given in the food ; but 
sometimes a considerable inconvenience attends this, which 
is, that, if the deception is discovered by the dog, he will ob- 
stinately refuse his food for some time afterwards. The purg- 
ing salts may also be sometimes given in food, being mistaken 
by the animal for the sapid effect produced by common salt. 

Dogs are not only very susceptible of disease, but, when ill, 
they require great attention and care to insure their recovery. 
It is however too common with many persons to neglect them 
under these circumstances ; and if they are placed in a cold 
room, or an outhouse, with stale or broken victuals and water 
placed before them, it is frequently all the attention they 
experience : unless, perhaps, to all this may be added, some- 
thing of doubtful efficacy as a remedy. But when we con- 
sider how very tender many of these animals are rendered by 
confinement and artificial habits, it will be clear that, un- 
der sickness, they must require peculiar care and attention. 
Warmth seems particularly congenial to the feelings of sick 
dogs, and is often of more consequence to their recovery than 
is imagined. Many of their diseases degenerate into convul- 
sions when the sick are exposed to cold. Cleanliness, and a 
change of their litter or bed, is very grateful to them in many 
cases of putridity, as in distemper, &c. Complaints purely 
inflammatory, it is evident, must be treated by abstinence ; 
but, in all others, the weakness present must be combated by 
nutritious aliment. 

It is not sufficient, as is often imagined, that food, particu- 
larly of the common kind, be merely placed before a sick 
dog. In many sucli cases, the appetite wholly fails ; and, if 
even the animal could eat, the stomach would not at this 


time digest hard meat, or any of the common matters usually 
given to dogs. In these instances, nourishment is best re- 
ceived from strong broths, gravy, jelly, or gruel ; or, perhaps, 
best of all, from thick gruel and a strong animal jelly, mixed • 
for I have always remarked, that no simple liquid will afford 
equal nutriment with one thickened with flour or other 

Sick dogs are also very fanciful, and often require enticino- 
to eat, by the same arts we use towards children. Fresh meat 
of any kind, but very lightly broiled, will sometimes tempt 
them. At others, pork, in particular, is highly relished • 
while, in some cases, raw meat alone will be taken. But in 
almost all cases, if the slightest inclination for food remains 
horse-flesh, lightly dressed, will be found irresistible ; so o-reat 
is their preference for this food. The extreme fickleness of 
their appetite, when sick, makes it necessary that every kind 
of edible should be tried, as that which is voluntarily taken 
will always digest more readily than that which is forcibly 
given. But in all illnesses of long continuance, when food is 
obstinately refused, nourishment should be forced down. In 
cases requiring active cordials, ale may be mixed with gruel 
or gravy. Wine is seldom advisable, from its disposition to 
inflame the bowels. I have, however, now and then used it 
with benefit in highly putrid cases of distemper ; in which 
instances forced meat balls also prove both nutritious and an 
active cordial. 

The intenseness of mental feeling in the dog is at all times 
great, but under disease it appears doubled ; and althouo-h it 
may, to a superficial observer, look like an affectation of ten- 
derness, it is a very necessary caution to observe, that at these 
times ♦heir minds should be soothed by every means in the 
power of those around them. Harshness of manner and un- 
kind treatment, in many instances, very evidently ao-o-ravate 
their complaints. Under some diseases their irritability of 
mind is particularly apparent. Distemper is a very prominent 
example of this. I have several times witnessed an angry 


word spoken to a healthy dog", produce instant convulsions in 
a distempered one who happened to be near ; and the fits that 
come on spontaneously in distemper, almost instantly leave 
the dog- by soothing notice, so open are they to mental im- 
pressions. Joy and surprise will also often prove injurious 
to them when they are very weak. 

Even among- those who conceive themselves minutely ac- 
quainted with dogs (and who probably are so with the sport- 
ing- kinds, and with such as live more natural lives in the open 
air of the country, with the advantages of moderate feeding- 
and due exercise) there will be many who will reg^ard these 
extreme cautions as unnecessary. The number and variety 
of the diseases quoted will also probably excite their surprise ; 
and, unaware of the existence even of many of them, they 
will be apt to consider the diversity of symptomatic appear- 
ances described, the cautions insisted on, and the minuteness 
of detail in the medical treatment, as, in a great degree, su- 
perfluous : but a little further inquiry will satisfy such, that 
no animals can differ more widely than the dog-s they are 
accustomed to, and those that are born, bred, and perhaps 
constantly reside in cities, towns, or other confined situations. 
These instructions are necessarily confined to no one meridian: 
as well as the more healthy country animal, they embrace 
also the pet, and pampered favourite, that is perhaps im- 
mured, twenty-three out of the twenty-four hours, in a hot 
drawing or bed-room, breathing the same confined air, eating 
the same luxurious food, and exercising- in the same easy car- 
riage, with his owner. A life so wholly artificial alters the 
mental and bodily properties to such a deg-ree, of such as are 
subjected to it, that their constitutional tendency to disease 
is nearly as great as that of those they belong to : under dis- 
ease their irritability is nearly equal, the diversities of their 
symptoms nearly as numerous ; and, consequently, that they 
require every portion of that caution and attention I have 
prescribed to insure their recovery. 


The alphabetical arrangement of the former edition has 
been objected to by the professional critic, as not sufficiently 
scholastic for the reputation of a teacher of medicine. It was 
then, as it is now, my anxious wish to make the Canine 
Pathology extensively useful, and a work of general refer- 
ence anions: the diversified classes whose interest, or amuse- 
ment, may connect them with dogs. A nosological arrange- 
ment of diseases, expressed in appropriate terms of art, would 
undoubtedly have given to the whole an appearance of 
greater medical erudition ; and had 1 written solely with a 
view to professional fame, or had I intended the work for 
the exclusive reading of those wiio had been medically edu- 
cated, I should certainly, both in the language and arrange- 
ment of it, have differed from my present mode, although 
the substance would have been still the same. But as the 
professional reader will not find the instructions contained in 
it less efficacious for being divested of medical technicalities, 
and as the unprofessional one will much more readily com- 
prehend them in their present form, so I hope I shall stand 
excused by all parties for having continued in the most plain 
and simple track of alphabetical arrangement; which, al- 
though it precludes systematic display, yet greatly increases 
the facility of reference. For this reason, likewise, I have 
made the Pathology not only a catalogue of diseases, but of 
symptoms also ; by which means those unaccustomed to 
professional reading may ascertain the existing disease by 
the leading feature or symptom of it. In compliance, how- 
ever, with medical taste, I have, in this edition, given the 
prescriptions in the chemical or pharmaceutical terms, sub- 
joining however, as before, the popular and long received 
names of the various medicaments in use. 

I hope that some dependance may be placed on the curative 
plans detailed ; they are the result of twenty years* extensive 
practice, in each year of which I have examined from two to 
three thousand sick dogs. The different ailments, as they 
occurred, were diligently attended to ; the operations of the 
various remedies used were carefully observed ; and the ge- 



neral result was accurately noted. In such cases as termin- 
ated fatally, the morbid appearances were attentively ex- 
amined, by which much light was thrown on future instances 
of a similar description. 

Age of Dogs, 

Dogs do not, like horses and cattle, present any exact cri- 
terion of their ag-e ; nevertheless, attention to the following 
appearances will assist us in determining- the matter. 

At about four years, the front teeth lose their points, and 
each of them presents a flattened surface, which increases as 
the age advances; they likewise lose their whiteness. In 
dogs fed much on bones, and in those who fetch and carry, 
as it is caviled, these teeth suffer very much, and are some- 
times broken out, while the dog is yet young. The holders, 
or tusks, are also blunted by the same causes. At seven or 
eight, the hair about the eyes becomes slightly grey* Gra- 
dually, likewise, a greyish tint extends over the face ; but 
it is not till ten, eleven, or twelve years, that the eyes lose 
their lustre. When they become dim, general decay pro- 
ceeds rapidly, though some last fifteen, sixteen, or seventeen 
years ; and I have seen a mother and son vigorous at twenty 
and twenty-one years old. Such instances as the latter must, 
however, be considered as rare. 

Now and then an extraordinary exception occurs : — I once 
saw a small French dog, which I was assured had reached 
his twenty-fourth year, and which, at the time I saw him, 
was still vigorous and lively. I am not aware that much 
difference exists between the various breeds, as to the age 
they arrive at. Spaniels I, however, think rather long- 
lived ; while terriers, on the contrary, I have seldom ob- 
served very old. The natural life of the dog may be consi- 
dered as ranging between fourteen and fifteen years. Do- 
mestication has tended, in some degree, to curtail the period, 


but not so much as mig-hl be expected *, considering the 
powerful operation of artificial habits. 



There are many states in which, although there appears 
no very serious disease, yet a sufficient remove from health 
exists to make some alteration in the constitution necessary. 
When this is the case, the end may, in general, be attained 
by alteratives. An actual disease may also exist, whose re- 
move can be best effected by a slow gradual alteration to be 
brought about in the constitution by what are, from this cir- 
cumstance, termed alteratives. Hence excessive fatness, 
chronic coughs, fits, glandular swellings, mange, &c. &c. 
are best attacked by these sorts of remedies. 

Various substances are used as alteratives ; as antimonials, 
and the different preparations of mercury, iron, and tin. 
The nitrate of potash (nitre), the supertartrate of potash 
(cream of tartar), aloes, salines, &c. &c. &c., are excel- 
lent alteratives. Tartarized antimony (emetic tartar) often 
proves a very useful alterative in the chronic asthmatic cough 
to which dogs are subject, given as an emetic once or twice 
a week in doses of one grain to three. Antimonial powder, 
or James's Powder, may be also given w^ith benefit as an 
alterative in similar cases. Crude antimony is often found 
useful in diseases of the skin : but it is unfortunately very un- 

• BuFFON calculates the length of life in the dog from the time of his 
growth. " La duree de la vie est dans le chien, corame dans les autres ani- 
*' maux, proportionelle au temps de I'accroissemenf, il est environ deux ans 
« a croitre, ils vit aussi sept fois deux ans."— Buffon, Hist. Nat. torn, v, 223. 

jElian considers fourteen years as the natural period of life in dogs.— 
^LiAN, De Nat Animal. t lib. iv, c. 41. 

Some of the antients have stated that a difference exists in the duration 
of life between the sexes, but experience justifies no such distinction.— Ar- 
aiANUS c?e Venationey c. 32. 

F 2 


certain in its operation : that is, some dogs will bear a con- 
siderable quantity, while others cannot even take a small 
one without violent sickness. The usual dose is from half a 
scruple to half a dram. Nitrate of potash {7iitre) is a very 
useful alterative to dogs for hot itching humours and redness 
of the skin, in doses of four grains to ten. The supertartrate 
of potash {cream of tartar) may be also given as an alter- 
ative with benefit, in larger doses, in the same cases. All 
the preparations of mercury, though excellent alteratives, 
require great caution when frequently repeated, or regularly 
o-iven ; for dogs are easily salivated, and salivation produces 
very hurtful effects on them. 

Dotys, when fully salivated, lose their teeth very early, and 
their breath continues offensive through life. The whole of 
the feline tribe are also easily affected by mercury. I was 
requested to inspect the very large lion that so long graced 
Pidcock's Menagerie. It may be remembered by many, 
that this noble animal's tongue constantly hung without his 
mouth ; which arose from his having been injudiciously sali- 
vated, many years before, by a mercurial preparation ap- 
plied by the keeper for the cure of mange. The submuriate 
of mercury (calomel') is, likewise, very irregular in its action 
on dogs ; 1 have seen eight grains fail to open the bowels of 
even a small one, w^hile, on the contrary, I have been called 
to a pointer fatally poisoned by ten grains. It forms, how- 
ever, a useful auxiliary to purgatives, in doses of three to six 
grains ; and as it not unfrequently acts on the stomach, so it 
may be used with advantage as an emetic in some cases, 
particularly in conjunction with tartarized antimony (tartar 
emetic). When, therefore, a purgative is brought up again, 
in which calomel was a component part, it may be suspected 
to arise from this source, and, if it is necessary to repeat the 
purge, the mercurial should be omitted. 

The various preparations of iron form excellent alteratives 
in some cases of weakness, particularly of the stomach and 
bowels, for which affections they act best when united with 
the aromatic bitters. Sulphur is the alterative remedy in the 


most general use of any ; but its properties in this respect are 
much overrated. It is a very common practice to put a roll 
of brimstone into the pans from whence dogs drink their 
water ; the impregnation of which, by means of the sulphur, 
is expected to keep the animals in health : but so completely 
insoluble in water is brimstone in this state, that a roll of it 
so kept would not lose ten grains of its weight in ten years, 
nor would it become in the least altered in its quality. 

Sulphur in powder, or flour of brimstone, as it is termed, 
is, however, more active ; but even in this form it often passes 
through the bowels nearly unchanged. It proves, in other 
instances, slightly purgative. In one disease, however, it 
seldom fails to do good, even unaccompanied by any thing 
besides, which is the piles, to which complaint many dogs 
are very subject. In conjunction with other alteratives of 
the cooling, cleansing kind, it proves also useful in mangy 
eruptions, canker, &c. ; and I am disposed to think, that 
one part of supertartrate of potash {a^eam of tarta?^), with 
two parts of sulphur, forms the best alterative that can be 
given in these cases. Externally applied, the benefits of 
sulphur are much more apparent, and are too well known to 
need enumeration. 

The cases that require the use of alteratives are numeious : 
when judiciously given, they keep dogs cool, and obviate the 
ill effects of improper feeding and close confinement. In 
sporting dogs they often prove very useful by removing their 
useless fat, assisting their wind, and purifying their juices* ; 
for no dog will hunt well whose secretions are tainted by 
mange or other eruptions. Alteratives prevent the accu- 
mulation of milk, as well as the coagulating or coreing of it 
in the teats of bitches. In short, old mange, cankered ears, 
chronic coughs, swelled glands, and all diseases of long 

* Modern pathology allows no primary vitiation of the blood : but whe- 
ther this theory may not have been carried too far by the partisans of John 
Hunter, may be a matter of doubt. However, I have no alternative, in a 
domestic and popular treatise, but to excite ideas that are generally familiar, 
and to use language in common acceptation. 


standing-, are best treated by alteratives, and all diseases 
that are brought on by confinement and artificial habits are 
best prevented by them. 


Dogs are subject to a diseased alteration in the organs of 
respiration, which, however it may differ from some of the 
varieties of the human complaint of that name, and what- 
ever dissimilitudes are observable in its general origin, pro- 
gress, and termination, yet it so nearly resembles that type 
of the disease called the aerial or dry human asthma, as to 
justly warrant the application of this popular term. The in- 
habitants of country towns and villages can form no just idea 
of the prevalence and destructive nature of this disease in 
cities, and confined neighbourhoods : in such situations it is 
a most common complaint, and shortens the lives of thousands. 
Dogs appear to have no constitutional liability to the disease; 
on the contrary, its origin may be always traced to the ope- 
ration of accidental circumstances ; as, close confinement, 
over feeding, and an extraordinary accumulation of fat ; 
which latter is the inevitable consequence of the former, 
and may be considered as the immediate cause of the com^ 
plaint itself. According to the degree in which these predis- 
posing causes have been applied, the disease appears earlier 
or later in life. In some it comes on at three or four years 
old : in others, rather less improperly managed, it may not 
appear until seven or eight : but, sooner or later, most dogs, 
confined in close situations, deprived of exercise, and fed 
with heating and luxurious food, become subjected to it, and 
as certainly have their lives shortened by it. 

The disease is usually very insidious in its attack, com- 
mencing by a slight cough, which returns at uncertain inter- 
vals, and is therefore hardly noticed. Gradually, however, 
the cough becomes more frequent and troublesonje, and 
assumes its peculiar harsh; dry, and sonorous character : and 


is then often mistaken for a bone in the throat, or for sponge 
having- been designedly given. The cough is now excited 
by every change of temperature, food, or position ; until, at 
length, it is almost incessant, and even sleep is interrupted 
by it. In these latter stages the breathing becomes affected ; 
sometimes it is very laborious and painful. The irritation of 
the cough frequently excites nausea and sickness, but nothing 
is brought up but a little frothy mucus, which does not 
come from the stomach, as is supposed, but from the bronchial 
passages, where its presence forms the source of the irrita- 
tion. When the disease is fully formed, its further progress 
is quicker or slower as the exciting causes are continued or 
discontinued. The modes in which it produces its fatal ter- 
mination are also various. 

In some cases, the irritation of the cough, and the accom- 
panying hectic, emaciates and wears down the animal to a 
skeleton. In others, the congestion within the chest stops 
respiration, and kills by a sudden suffocation ; or the obstruc- 
tion the blood meets with in its passage through the heart 
occasions accumulation in the head, and convulsive fits are 
the precursors of death. Now and then a rupture of the 
heart, or of some large blood-vessel, suddenly destroys : but 
by far the most common termination of the complaint is in 
dropsy, or serous collections within the chest or belly, or 
both, but most frequently of the latter. In these cases, the 
limbs and external parts of the body waste, but the belly 
increases in its size ; the hair stares ; the breathing becomes 
most laborious ; and, in the end, suffocation ensues. 

The morbid appearances, on dissection, are not always the 
same ; but it may be remarked, that some disorganization is 
always apparent. In the majority of cases, the visceral 
marks of disease are very considerable. In some few, a rup- 
ture of the air cells, very similar to what occurs in some 
broken-winded horses, is apparent; in which cases, the air 
extravasating through the parenchymatous substance of the 
lungs, an emphysematous appearance takes place, and they 
slightly crepitate under the touch. In some cases, serum has 


occupied the air cells : in others, a morbid translation of the 
external fat was found to have taken place from without in- 
wards ; by which the diaphragm, large vessels, and the in- 
terstitial membranes of the chest, becoming obstructed and 
overcharged with adipose substance, the respiratory func- 
tions were at length totally suspended. But the most common 
appearance that the lungs have presented, in asthmatic 
subjects, after death, has been that of a total change of their 
natural structure into a hardened granular blueish mass 
throughout the whole substance. 

The cure of the disease is attended with much uncertainty, 
unless it be attempted in the first stages, and before the dis- 
organization of the respiratory organs has become too great 
for reduction ; but when it has been of long standing, al- 
though it may be palliated, it is hardly ever completely re- 
moved. As confinement and over-feeding are very common 
causes of the complaint, so it is evident that an attention to 
these particulars is essentially necessary to the cure. It is 
unfortunate that the accumulation of fat is, in some dogs, so 
much a disease, that even a very small quantity of food will 
still fatten. The food in these cases must, however, be so 
reduced as to produce absorption of the fat, or it will be in 
vain to hope for amendment: means to this effect are de- 
tailed under the head Feeding. An airy place ought to be 
allowed the animal to sleep in ; but, above all, regular and 
judicious exercise must be given ; — not violent, but gentle, 
and long continued. The absorption of the accumulated fat 
will be materially assisted by a regular exhibition of purga- 
tives once or twice a week. Bleeding now and then gives a 
temporary relief, and in the incipient stages, when there is 
active inflammation, it is proper ; but in the advanced stages 
it seldom does much good. 

Among the various plans of treatment I pursued for the cure 
of this complaint, that which proved most efficacious, was a 
continued course of emetics given at regular intervals, as 
twice a week. In the intermediate days alteratives w ere ad- 
ministered, with the occasional use of a purgative; provided 


the dog- was strong-, fat, and plethoric; otherwise this was 
dispensed with. The use of emetics and alteratives should 
be long- continued to ensure permanent benefit. The fol- 
lowing- alterative may be tried with hope of success : the form 
of emetic may be seen by a reference to the article Emetics. 

Submuriate of mercury {calomel) half a grain 

Nitrate of potash {nitre) 5 grains 

Supertartrate of potash (creawz q/far^ar) . 10 grains 
Antimonial powder 2 grains.— Mix. 

This may be g-iven either as a powder, or it may be made into 
a ball with honey ; the dose being- repeated every morning- ; 
and, in very bad cases, every evening also. The quantity of 
the articles may be aug-mented, or diminished, according- to 
the size of the dog; but the above is a medium proportion. 
On the morning that the emetic is given, the alterative should 
be omitted ; and it will also, in cases where the alterative is 
repeated night and morning, be prudent to watch the mouth, 
that salivation may not unexpectedly come on. If this should 
happen, the medicine must be omitted some days. Where 
also the calomel has been found to disagree, I have substi- 
tuted the following alterative with benefit : — 

Nitrate of potash (neYre) 3 grains 

Tartarized antimony (tartar emetic) 1 quarter of a grain 

Powdered foxglove half a grain.— Mix. 

This may be given as the other, and alternated with the 
emetic also. 

In some cases of long standing, where the cough has been 
very harsh, noisy, and distressing, I have added ten, twenty, 
or thirty drops of tincture of opium (laudanum), or the 
eighth part of a grain of opium, to each alterative with 
advantage. In other instances, the cough has been best 
allayed by an evening opiate of double the strength before 

I have, now and then, experienced benefit also from the use 
of the balsamic gums, which may be all tried, therefore, in 
obstinate cases. Relief has been obtained likewise from the 
following, given every morning : — 


Powdered squill halfagrain 

Gum ammoniacum, powdered 5 grains 

Balsam Peru 3 grains 

Benzoic acid 1 grain 

Anisated balsam of sulphur to form a ball. 

Or, the following-: — 

Inspissated white juice of the garden lettuce ... half a dram 

Tincture of balsam of Tolu 1 dram 

Powdered gum arabic and extract of liquorice . 1 ounce eacl) 
Make into balls, and give one night and morning. 

Mr. YouATT has, I believe, found benefit in asthmatic 
cases from the exhibition of the prussic acid : but the power- 
ful nature of this remedy requires professional skill when it is 


Astringents are substances which, from their bracing 
quality, are used to check immoderate secretions or fluxes. 
When used to restrain a flux of blood, they are termed styptics : 
of this kind are alum, dragons blood, &c. A very useful 
domestic styptic is puff" ball ; so are mole's-fur and cobweb. 
All these are considered external astringents, and are prin- 
cipally applicable to wounded blood vessels : but there are 
internal astring-ents also, applicable to various cases. 

For instance, there appears oftentimes in dogs a secretion 
or flow of blood from the penis ; now and then it proceeds 
higher up from the bladder or kidnies. The same also oc- 
curs in bitches, from the womb or the vaginal sheath. In 
these cases, a ball composed of two g-rains of alum, with 
twenty grains of catechu, mixed and given once or twice 
a day, proves a moss excellent astringent. The superacetate 
or sugar of lead, also, I have found sometimes useful in simi- 
lar cases; but I have not ventured to give more than from 
one grain to two, even to a large dog, which has been re- 
peated night and morning. When used as an injection into 
the womb for the same purpose, it often produces violent 


cholic. An infusion of oak or elm bark may, therefore, be 
more properly injected in this way in such cases. 

The astringents used to check diarrhoea, or looseness, are 
various. Rice milk, suet and milk, or boiled starch, are 
either of them proper as an astringent diet. Starch clysters 
may also be used. Opium, by the mouth, is sometimes use- 
ful, in doses of half a grain to a grain, or more. Prepared 
chalk, with gum arabic, and ipecacuanha, united in proper 
proportions, forms, however, the best astringent 1 know of. 
— See Looseness. 


Both the warm and the cold bathings of dogs are attend- 
ed, in many cases, with the happiest effects. Warm bathing 
seems peculiarly useful in many complaints, and it is some- 
times of itself a sovereign remedy. In inflammations, par- 
ticularly of the bowels, it is highly proper. In lumbago 
and other rheumatisms, which are very common to dogs, it 
is attended with the best effects. In obstinate costiveness, it 
will often relax the bowels when every other remedy has failed. 
When internal injuries have been received from accidents, 
it relaxes and prevents inflammation. In pupping, sometimes 
great difficulty is experienced ; in which cases the warm bath 
frequently relaxes the parts, and the young become more 
easily expelled. In convulsions and spasms it is also excel- 
lent. In obstructed urine, from an inflamed state of the neck 
of the bladder, it has proved a most efficacious remedy. 

When a warm hath is used for a dog, the heat should be 
regulated according to the case. In inflammations it should 
be considerable, and in rheumatisms also ; but it must be re- 
membered that, from habit, many human persons can bear, 
without inconvenience, a heat that would be most distressing 
to a dog; consequently, when it is attempted to ascertain 
the heat by the hand alone, this circumstance should be con- 
sidered. 100 to 102 degrees of Fahrenheit's thermometer 


is a very considerable heat to dogs, and is only proper in vi- 
olent inflammations and active rheumatisms. For internal 
bruises, for spasms, or as a relaxant, 96 to 98 deg-rees is 
sufficient. The continuance in water is also to be regulated 
according to circumstances. To relax, as in the labour or 
pupping of bitches, in slight spasms, or in cases v^here the 
animals are very weak, or when the bathing is to be renewed 
daily, ten minutes is a sufficient t.ime to keep them in the 
water. But in suppression of urine, in violent spasms, cos- 
tiveness, inflammations, particularly of the bowels ; fifteen 
or even twenty minutes are not too much. When faintness 
comes on, it will be seen by the dog's panting and distress, 
when he should be removed from the water, particularly if 
it is a case wherein fainting would be prejudicial, as in a 
pupping bitch. The water should come all over the animal, 
except the head ; and when any one particular part is affect- 
ed, that part ought to be rubbed, during the bathing, with 
the hand. When the dog is removed from the water, the 
utmost care should be observed to avoid his taking cold by 
exposure. He should be first rubbed as dry as may be by a 
change of cloths, and then be put into a clothes basket, 
wrapped up in a blanket, and there confined till thoroughly 

Cold bathing is also, in some instances, very useful, parti- 
cularly in the spasmodic twitchings that succeed distemper ; 
and in some other cases of habitual weakness, as rickets, &c. : 
but, for dogs in health, I am convinced that bathing is not so 
salutary as is often supposed. — See the article Washing of 

bladder, in/lamed. 
See Inflamed Bladder. 



Dogs are much benefited by bleeding- in many diseases, 
as inflammations of the lungs, stomach, bowels, &c. In some 
cases of mange, in dry inflammatory coughs, and in fits, bleed- 
ing- is very useful also. 

Dogs may be conveniently bled by the jugular or neck 
vein, with a fleam or common lancet ; but the latter is much 
preferable. A ligature of tape or riband being- put round the 
lower part of the neck, and the head being- held up, the vein 
will swell and protrude itself on each side of the windpipe, 
about one inch from it. It will, however, be necessary pre- 
viously to cut the hair away if it is very thick, after which 
the puncture can be easily made with a common lancet. 
Nothing is necessary in general cases to stop the bleeding, 
but to remove the ligature; nor is any pin, plaster, or band- 
age, requisite for the orifice. When circumstances prevent 
blood being drawn from the neck, the ear may be punctured, 
or an incision may be made withinside of the flap of it, but 
not through its substance. Or the tail may be cut in despe- 
rate cases: but, when this is done, it is better to cut off* a 
small piece than to merely make an incision underneath; for 
I have seen, when this has been injudiciously done, the whole 
tail mortify and drop off*. 

The quantity of blood drawn should be regulated by the 
size of the dog : for a very small dog, one or two ounces are 
sufficient; for a middling sized dog, three or four ounces ; and 
for a large dog, five, six, seven, or eight ounces, according 
to the size and strength of the patient, and the nature of the 
disease he labours under. 


Dogs may lose the sight of one, or of both eyes, by the 
operation of several causes. Distemper will often produce an 


abscess destructive to one or both. Ophthalmia, or simple 
inflammation of this org-an, is another source of blindness. 
Cataract sometimes attacks one or both eyes. Dropsy, also, 
of the humours within the eye now and then occurs, and de- 
stroys vision.— The treatment of these several affections is 
referred to Diseases of the Eyes. 


Blisters are useful in many of the complaints of dogs, 
and, in some instances, they are absolutely necessary. Blis* 
ters do not usually vesicate and detach the skin, as in the 
human subject ; but they irritate and inflame the surface suf- 
ficiently to answer every purpose required. Blistering- sub- 
stances for dogs are various ; but the best is that, in common 
use for the human subject, made of Spanish flies, applied as 
a plaster, and carefully secured by a bandage. When, how- 
ever, it is intended, as in very active inflammations, to raise 
a speedy irritation, blistering* ointment should be made use 
of; and, to render it still more active, it may be thinned with 
oil of turpentine. This should be well rubbed into the skin, 
and a covering carefully secured over the part after. The 
application may be repeated, in urgent ca:es, every three or 
four hours. 

A very quick inflammation may also be raised by common 
table mustard spread over any part. In inflammations of the 
stomach, and particularly of the bowels, an excellent and 
lasting method of irritating the skin may be practised by 
means of a sheep's or any other hide newly stripped off, and 
immediately applied and secured to the part. The skin 
should, however, be first stimulated with hartshorn or tur- 
pentine. It should be kept in mind, that vesicatories irritate 
and render dogs very refractory; they should therefore be very 
closely watched when under their action. 


Blood, flowing. 
See Astringents. 


JBloody Urine. 

See Urine, Bloody. 

'Bowels, constipated. 

See CosTivENEss. 

Boivels, irflamed. 
See Inflamed Bowel 

Boivels^ loose. 
See Looseness. 

Breeding in Bitches. 

The reproduction of the animal form is broug^ht about, in 
do^s, by desires that are not constant, but which, among- 
the wild breeds, recur once a year; and at such a time of it, 
that the offspring" may be produced under the most favour- 
able circumstances to their well being, that is, in the spring. 
But in domesticated dogs, the powerful agencies of cultiva- 
tion and artificial habits have materially altered many of the 
phenomena attending the production of their young ; and as 
shelter and nouriture are found for them at all times of the 
year, so the periods of their oestrum, or heat, return at on- 


certain intervals, as six, seven, or eight months, as confine- 
ment or highly stimulating* food may hasten the sexual excite- 

The heat or cestf'um of bitches is the consequence of a 
sympathetic action between all the organs concerned in ge- 
neration, which, at these times, become more highly sus- 
ceptible and vascular: this shews itself by a swelling of the 
external parts, and a discharge from the vulva. There are 
likewise strong marks of general excitement throughout the 
body ; the plethoric and irritable state of which is such, that 
those bitches that have been before subject to fits, are now 
peculiarly liable to them ; and convulsions often appear at 
this time in those that have not before been affected by them. 
It is evident, therefore, that the precautions of cooling- food, 
judicious exercise, and opening medicines, are necessary at 
these periods, for the young and delicate particularly; and they 
are still more so for such bitches as are intended to be de- 
barred from the dog ; for, in these latter cases, that excite- 
ment remains long in action, which yields easily to the 
satiety of sexual intercourse. It is not, however, prudent, 
for several reasons connected with the health of the animals, 
to prevent females from breeding. Nature almost invariably 
punishes extraordinary deviations from her established laws, 
of which the reproductive system is one of the most import- 
ant. Breeding, therefore, is so much a healthy and necessary 
process, that bitches debarred from it rarely remain unaffected 
by disease, and more especially those whose confined and 
luxurious lives require the various outlets to the superabund- 
ance of the system, that are opened during the processes of 
breeding and rearing of young. In such, barrenness is par- 
ticularly hurtful, and greatly assists in bringing on, sooner 
or later, enormous and diseased collections of fat either uni- 

* It has been attempted to bring on heat in bitches by stimulating injec- 
tions, and it now and then succeeds : but as it is an unnatural process, and 
as the constitutional sympathy cannot be supposed to be so fully excited as to 
produce a general consent of parts, impregnation does not always follow the 
intercourse, and, when it does, the progeny are usually unhealthy. 


Tersal or partial. The partial collections frequently shew 
themselves by a swelling- on each side of the loins, produced 
by a deposit of adipose substance around each ovaria. In 
other cases, particularly where barrenness is occasional, the 
mammae, or milk glands, become affected with small indura- 
tions, which eventually end in confirmed scirrhi or open ulcers. 
— See SciRRHUS. A more immediate evil likewise often 
awaits the preventing- of dogs from breeding, which is, a 
troublesome accumulation of milk in the mammae, or teats ; 
for the various organs of generation have such a sympathetic 
connection with each other, that when females are denied 
the dog, still, when the customary period of gestation or going 
with young has passed, milk will nevertheless appear in the 
lactiferous glands. This sometimes occurs to a very consi- 
derable deo-ree, and occasions much heat and distention. 
it is more particularly observed in such females as have 
already had young ones, and they invariably suifer most in 
the future privation. In such cases, it is proper gently to 
press out the milk daily, which will greatly relieve the ani- 
mal ; the teats should also be frequently bathed with a mixture 
of brandy and vinegar a little weakened with water. Food 
should be given sparingly, and an occasional dose of physic 
will prove useful*. 

* The author of the Treatise on Greyhounds (whose opinion, as an ob- 
servant sportsman and breeder, ought to have due weight), remarks, that 
where breeding has been always prevented, he has never found any injurious 
effects whatever to follow from it. It is undoubtedly true, and it accords 
with my own experience, that the constitution having once been subjected 
to the reproductive process, or, in other words, that bitches once allowed to 
breed ar** more liable to suffer from the future deprivation of it than those in 
whom the constitutional sympathies have never been fully excited through- 
out the generative system. It may also be remarked, in answer to the above 
statement, that sporting and other dogs accustomed to moderate feeding and 
regular exercise (which are evidently those Sir W. C. draws his inferences 
from), will bear this deprivation with much greater impunity than those that 
are more confined and altogether more artificially treated. But as a law in 
the animal economy, and as one applicable to the general state and constitu- 
tion of the dog, the reproduction of the species is a necessary, a natural, 



Bitches in heat are very cunning-, and elude the greatest 
vig-ilance used to confine them from the dog*. When, there- 
fore, it is intended to prevent them from breeding, the great- 
est care is requisite to prevent their escape. For want of 
due caution in this respect, numbers of them are every year 
destroyed ; for a bitch having eluded the attempts to restrain 
her, will naturally unite with the first dog she meets with, 
which, should it happen to be one of a much larger kind 
than herself, will so much influence the size of the progeny, 
that she will be very liable to die in pupping, from the inabi- 
lity to bring forth. When, therefore, a bitch has so escaped, 
it will be prudent immediately to follow her; not only to 
prevent the intercourse altogether, but to guard against the 
brutal folly of boys and others, whoj when it has taken 
place, often throw cold water over the animals, or tear them 
away from each other by violence. I have seen the parts of 
the female actually suffer inversion from this ; other injurious 
consequences have also very frequently followed. To the dog, 
likewise, it is no less hurtful, by fatally rupturing' the blood- 
vessels of the parts *, or by other lacerations. 

Impregnation takes place sometimes at the first copulation, 
in others not until the second, third, or fourth ; and in some 

and, consequently, a healthy process. This is alike reconcileable to fact as 
to theory ; for attentive observation extended to all the varieties of the spe- 
cies, and to the varied circumstances under which they are placed, vrill shew, 
that the suffering of bitches to breed, not only tends to keep them in health, 
but that those which have been allowed to bring up numerous litters, have 
more invariably attained a great age than such as have been debarred the in- 
tercourse. It may be added, that the/^ame is observed in the human, where 
the average of longevity among females is decidedly in favour of the married, 
compared with the single. 

* This retention of the male within the female parts after the act has been 
apparently completed, arises from a peculiarity of structure in both. In the 
male, the corpora cavernosa have two large lateral protuberances, which, when 
distended with blood, effectually retain the penis within the vagina of the 
female, till the venereal orgasm has entirely ceased. The clitoris of the fe- 
male also partakes of a similar structure, and firmly retains the penis in coitUy 
by a distended ring. The same structure is apparent in all the canine con^ 


cases I have known, from decided proofs, that impregnation 
did not ensue until the seventh warding-. Dogs should be 
suffered, therefore, to remain together some days to insure 
prolific intercourse. During- g-estation, dogs do not appear 
to suffer much derangement of system ; some, however, ap- 
pear to be listless, nauseated, and averse to particular foods ; 
and most of them are more thirsty at this than at other times. 
It is not easy to detect whether bitches are in pup until the 
fourth or fifth week after warding: about this time the teats 
enlarge, the flanks fill, and the belly assumes a roundness 
unnatural to it at others. About the seventh week, the 
belly becomes pendulous, and the future increase is not so 
observable as the previous. In the last week of pregnancy, 
the contents of the belly seem to incline backwards, the 
vulva increases in size, and a slimy matter (to soften and lu- 
bricate the parts) often issues. Pupping usually comes on 
the sixty-second, sixty-third, or, at farthest, on the sixty- 
fourth day. A quarter or half an hour, and sometimes a 
longer time, intervenes between each young one. I have 
known a solitary puppy appear on the seventieth day from 
the last intercourse, and that in a case where superfoetation 
was improbable. — See Pupping. 

Dogs are certainly capable of superfoetation ; that is, im- 
pregnation may take place at more than one warding, and 
that by distinct mates. The fact was long ago admitted by 
naturalists and physiologists * ; since which time numerous 
circumstances have fallen under the notice of sportsmen that 
confirm the matter. I have, in several instances, seen whelps 

* In t^e superfcEtation of brutes, is there not reason to suppose that the 
germ is contributed from each ovaria in succession? or do the ova or germs 
present themselves indiscriminately from both ? The interesting experiments 
of Dr. Haighton, related in the Philosophical Transactions, 1797, p. 159; 
and by Mr. Cruickshanks, ib. p. 197, tend to throw light on this curious 

Superfoetation seems extended also to the human ; instances of this are re- 
corded in Blumenbach's Institutions of Physiology , and in White's work on 
the Regular Gradation of the Human Race. 



of the same litter with appearances which bore evident marks 
of distinct origin, and where the future disproportion in size 
and qualities, and all the distinctive marks of varied species, 
clearly evinced that more than one male was concerned in 
the process. Superfoetation is apt to be confounded with, or 
its phenomena are sometimes accounted for, by another pro- 
cess, still more curious and inexplicable, but which is wholly 
dependent on the mother. I allude to the impression made 
on the mind of the female parent, and conveyed by her to 
the foetuses within her, by which antecedent impressions in 
favour of a particular dog- will be stamped in characteristic 
marks on the progeny begotten by another totally different 
from him. This subject will be more fully treated of in the 
next article : it is only necessary to remark here, that in cases 
of superfoetation, the size, form, and qualities of the additional 
progeny all fully betoken their origin. In these instances 
of sympathetic deviation, the form, size, and character, are 
almost wholly the mother's ; but the colour is as certainly 
the favourite's, with, perhaps, a few shades of characteristic 
Mendings intermixed. 

JBreeding arid Rearing of Puppies. 

As gestation has not yet been at all considered as it regards 
the progeny, and as something yet remains to be stated that 
is immediately connected with the mother ; so it will pro- 
bably be more convenient to continue the subject, to its 
completion, here, in preference to removing it (as in the 
former editions) to its alphabetical situation under the head 

The extreme care that is bestowed to perfect some breeds 
of dogs, and to preserve such varieties in their utmost purity, 
is known to every one. To the sportsman it becomes a most 
interesting subject ; and to the breeder of domestic animals 
in general ii is no less important. I propose, therefore, to 
consider it, both philosophically and practically, rather more 


at length in this than in the former editions. To examine 
the subject in all its bearing-s, it will be necessary to begin 
ah ovo*, and to trace the animal from the very germ or ovum 
of the mother, which, being vivified and called into action 
by the sympathetic influence of the seminal fluid of the 
father, bursts into life, and, after a gestatory period of sixty- 
three days, presents (with a fraternity similarly situated) an 
organized being, bearing the characteristic stamp of its spe- 
cies, and usually a close resemblance to its parents. It is, 
however, necessary here to notice a curious exception which 
now and then occurs to this usual consanguineous resem- 
blance, apparently occasioned by some mental impression 
received by the mother. This impression being always pre- 
sent to the imagination, appears to serve as a stamp for 
some, if not for all, of her future progeny. The existence of 
this curious anomaly in the reproductive or breeding system, 
is confirmed by facts of not unfrequent occurrence. 1 had a 
pug bitch whose constant companion was a small and nearly 
white spaniel dog, of Lord Rivers' breed, of which she was 
very fond. When it became necessary to separate her, on 
account of her heat, from this dog, and to confine her with 
one of her own kind, she pined excessively ; and notwith- 
standing her situation, it was some time before she would 
admit of the attentions of the pug dog placed with her. At 
length, however, she did so ; impregnation followed, and at 
the usual period she brought forth five pug puppies, one of 
which was e\egB.nt\y white, and more slender than the others. 
The spaniel was soon afterwards given away, but the impres- 
sion remained ; for at two subsequent litters (which were all 
she had afterwards) she presented me with a white young 
one, which the fanciers know to be a very rare occurrence t. 

* Ex ovo omnia. — Hervey. 

t It is a curious circumstance, that each succeeding white puppy was less 
slender in form than the former, though all were equally white ; which shew- 
ed, as I have before stated, that this mental influence extem's less perfectly 
to the individual form, than to its external characters, particularly of colour 5 
and also that it lessens by time and absence. When, therefore, pups of com- 


The late Dr. Hugh Smith (who was a sportsman of no 
mean celebrity) has related a similar instance of a very fa- 
vourite female setter that followed his carriag-e. Travelling- 
in the country, she became suddenly so enamoured of a 
mong-rel that followed her, that, to separate them, he was 
forced, or rather his anger irritated him, to shoot the mon- 
grel, and he then proceeded on his journey. The image of 

pletely different forms and kinds proceed from one litter, superfcetation has 
occurred, and not mental influence. The Rev. R. Lascelles, in his Letters 
on Sporting, p. 250, relates a case of a greyhound bitch, entrusted to the care 
of a servant, which whelped one perfect greyhound and six complete curs : 
the curs were the likeness of the dog she domesticated with in common ; the 
single one resembled the greyhound she was taken to during her heat. There 
is little reason, therefore, to doubt that the bitch had been previously lined 
by the cur, and the single greyhound pup was the effect of superfcetation. 
I mention this to shew how easy this mistake between two different causes 
may occur, and how they may be distinguished. I was not fortunate enough 
to rear either of my white puppies: the late Lord Kelly offered me fifteen 
guineas for one of them at three months old. 

Lord Morton bred from a male quagga and a chesnut mare. The mare 
was afterwards bred from by a black Arabian horse ; but still the progeny 
exhibited, in colour and mane, a striking resemblance to the quagga. 
D. Giles, Esq. had a sow of the black and white kind, which was bred from 
by a boar of the wild breed, of a deep chesnut colour : the pigs produced by 
this intercourse were duly mixed, the colour of the boar being in some very 
predominant. The sow was afterwards bred from by two of Mr. Western's 
boars, and in both instances chesnut marks were prevalent in the litter, 
which, in other instances, had never presented any appearance of the kind. — 
Phil. Trans. 1821. 

The former cases tend to confirm w^hat I have before remarked, that the 
mental influence excited on these occasions extends less to the internal 
organization than to the external characters of colour and covering. The 
following will, however, shew, that impressions from terror may sink so deep 
as to affect the organization also of the progeny. In the Linnaean Society of 
London is found an account, by Mr. Milne, of a pregnant cat, his own pro- 
perty, the end of whose tail was trodden on with so much violence, as, appa- 
rently, to give the animal intense pain. When she kittened, five young ones 
appeared, perfect in every other respect except the tail, which was, in each 
one of them, distorted near the end, and enlarged into a cartilaginous knob. — 
Lin. Trans., vol. ix, p. 323. 


this sudden favourite still haunted the bitch and for weeks 
after she pined excessively, and obstinately refused inter- 
course with any other doff. At length, I'^^^^^^^'^X 
by a regular setter; but when she whelped the Doctor 
Jas moftified with the sight of young which he percened 
bore evident marks (particularly in colour) of the impression 
received by the cur, and they were accordingly destroyed 
The same occurred in all her future puppings: ^^^^^^^^^jj^ 
breed was tainted by the recollection of her attachment to 

this ill-bred favourite. <,„n-ar 

The practical inferences that may be drawn from a know- 
ledge of this curious anomaly in the '^"^"'^^ ^'^^"""^'^J' 
that in very select breeds too much care cannot be taken to 
render the choice of the male agreeable to the female , and 
also, that where a bitct of a very valuable breed has been 
long habituated to any favourite male companion it is not 
intended she should be allowed to breed by, that it is advisa- 
ble to remove such favourite some time before the <^^t'»'» °^ 
heat of the bitch is likely to come on, which wiU prevent the 
disappointment that might otherwise occur. 

Having received no such mental impressions, and the pro- 
cess of gestation or pregnancy meeting with no other inter- 
ruption the produce of a connection between dogs of a simi- 
lar breed usually exhibits traits of individual resemblance to 
each, united with the characteristic marks common to the 
breed in general. When the parents are of different breeds 
the varying outlines of each are usually softened and blended 
in the progeny, in nearly equal proportionst. But this 

* When dogs of different breeds are brought together, *" P™?^"'';- 

M ,o be a cross Thus, pointers are sometimes crossed foxhounds to 

fncrel the ^ ed and a'rdour. The effect of these crosses is retamed to the 

le^nTh or eighth generation: among turf sportsmen it is supposed to exrst, 


b/hyb^rousanimi. Ho» easUy traced, and yet how "-de 'n« a w o e, 
, e tL characters of the horse and ass, as observed rn the.r ^y^"^^!^^';^ 
Hybrids also completely disprove the opm.on some phys.ologrsts 


sion of parental character is not always equal : it sometimes 
happens that the more notable characteristics of form, size, 
and qualities, are principally derived from the male parent*. 
In others a strong^er similitude to the mother is apparent, and 
it now and then happens that these partialities seem to be 
confined to a part of the prog-eny only, or is divided between 
the parents. This is sometimes observed when a breed is 
made between a pointer and setter, in which case it has not 

formed, that the male parent, in the procreative act, imparts nothing beyond 
the mere stimulus of life to the ovum or germ of the female ; for it must be 
evident that the germ in the mare is naturally of the horse species ; and did 
such germ merely receive the vivifying principle by the sexual intercourse, 
it would be indifferent to the future produce whether the father were a horse 
.or an ass. 

* Some physiologists (and among them Sir E. Home) have supposed that 
the ovum or germ, previous to impregnation, is of no sex, but is so formed 
as to be equally fitted to become a male or female foetus, and that it is the 
process of impregnation that marks the sex, and produces both male and 
female generative organs. However this opinion may seem to be supported 
by facts, and although instances do occur that give reason to suppose that the 
male parent has considerable influence in determining the sex, yet an equal 
number of cases arise that prove the female to be equally concerned in this 
matter. It is true that some dogs, some stallions, and some bulls, are re- 
marked for begetting a greater number of males than females ; while others 
are the parents of more females than males. In the Phil. Trans. 1787, 
p. 344, mention is made of a gentleman who was the youngest of forty sons, 
all produced in succession, from three different wives, by one father, in Ire- 
land. But it is, at the same time, equally notorious, that some bitches, let 
them breed by what dog they will, yet still have a plurality of one sex. The 
same occurs, in a much greater degree, among other domestic animals, Mr. 
Knight remarks on the equal aptitude in the female in determining the sex : 
** In several species of domesticated animals (I believe in all), particular 
" females are found to produce a majority of their offspring of the same sex ; 
** and I have proved repeatedly, that, by dividing a herd of thirty cows into 
*♦ three equal parts, I could calculate with confidence upon a large majority 
" of females from one part, of males from another; and upon nearly an equal 
*' number of males and females from the remainder. I frequently endea- 
** voured to change the habits by changing the male, but without success."— 
Phil. Trans. 1809, p. 397. In King's Langley church are the effigies of 
seven successive daughters boni to a man by his first wife, and of seven sons 
Isorn to him by a second wife, in succession. 


^infrequently happened that a part of the litter has produced 
nearly thorough-bred pointers, while the remainder have 
proved well-bred setters 

Among- the various phenomena that the reproductive pro- 
cess present, breeding back, as it is termed among sports- 
men, is not the least curious, it would appear from these 
cases, as though a family character was originally imprinted 
on the generative organs, or that the ova or germs of the 
future race were formed after one common hereditary mould ; 
for it is often observed not only among dogs, but among 
other domestic animals, and even in man also, that their pro- 
geny bear a greater resemblance to the grand-dam or grand- 
father than to their immediate parents. It is evident that 
this is more likely to happen where a common character has 
been preserved during successive generations, or, in turf 
language, where the blood has been kept pure ; which is 
nothing more than an established variety, being acted on in 
its successive generations by the owner, in the direction of 
the sexual intercourse, the selection of food, discipline of qua- 
lities, and regulation of habits. 

It may, however, be necessary to remark, that, in a philo- 
sophical point of view, we have no such thing as a pure 
breed among any of our domestic animals. Our most boasted 
specimens are either altogether degenerates*, or produced 

* A more close examination of the subject will shew not only that our 
most highly prized animals are degenerates, but that many of them are mon- 
strosities. Degeneracy, among naturalists, is a departure from originality 
and a state of nature ; thus, philosophically, wild animals only can be con- 
sidered as perfect. But man, to gratify his artificial wants, has cultivated 
forms and properties in them which, however they may prove beneficial to 
himself, render the animals subjected to such alterations unfitted for the 
purposes they were originally destined for. What would become of some 
of our cultivated breeds of dogs, were they turned loos*j in a wild country ? 
Could a pack of pugs hunt down the antelope ? The high-bred greyhound's 
speed and vision united would fail in the same circumstances, deprived, as he 
would find himself by cultivation, of the means of following his prey through 
its various windings by scenting his course. The pointer might stand, and 


from congenital varieties: the native and original pure 
breeds are mostly unknown to us. In the natural history of 
the dog, I have already had occasion to notice that these 
varieties or breeds in the canine race have been generated by 
various causes, as climate, peculiarity in food, restraint, and 
domestication. Man, active in promoting his own benefit, 
has watched these gradual alterations, and has improved and 
extended them by aiding the causes that tend to their 
production, and by future care has perpetuated and made 
them permanently his own. 

Many of the varieties among dogs and other domestic 
animals are the effect of monstrosity, and have arisen from 

his partners might hack him, until they all became monuments of perishing 
excellence : their cultivated talent would infallibly starve them. 

As promoters of the ease and comforts of mankind, every one yields the 
well-merited honours that are distributed among our enterprising cattle 
breeders ; but the philosopher, retired from the world, and the naturalist, 
contemplating his subject freed from extraneous bearings, regard the boasted 
excellencies of our domestic animals in general as monstrosities. The ma- 
jestic large breed of heavy carthorses, cultivated to their present stature by 
the luxuriant nature of the herbage in this and some other countries, would 
be ill calculated to save themselves from beasts of prey, by either flight or 
active resistance: their immense weight would sink them in loose soils, that 
their more agile originals would bound over with instinctive celerity ; and 
the scanty herbage in nature's wilds would ill suffice their multiplied wants. 
With the ox and sheep a constitutional obesity is encouraged, until the fat 
and muscular parts are totally disproportioned to the bony mass that is to 
support them, which lessens, according to modern excellence, in an inverse 
proportion to its necessities; and, as though the degeneration was not suffi- 
ciently pursued, in the polled breeds those original marks of distinction and 
safety, the horns, also yield to the sacrifice. 

Even the finest edibles amongst our garden bulbs, as the carrot, parsnip, 
&c. &c. are monstrosities, enlarged at the expense of the stem and other 
parts ; and the disproportionate magnitude of our fruit is attributable to the 
monstrosity of the pericarp. It is not attempted to argue that these are not 
actual advantages to mankind, nor to detract from the merit that has intro- 
duced these acknowledged imjnovements ; it is merely suggested to shew 
that a misconception and mis-appropriation of terms often arise according as 
the subject is viewed by the naturalist or the rural economist. 


some anomaly in the reproductive or breeding- process. 
When these accidental varieties have exhibited a peculiar 
organization or form which could be applied to any useful or 
novel purpose, the objects have been reared and afterwards 
bred from ; and when the singularity has been observed in 
more than one of the same birth, it has been easy to perpe- 
tuate it by breeding again from these congeners, and con- 
fining the future intercourse to them. To these accidental 
variations from general form and character among dogs we 
are to attribute our most diminutive breeds, our pugs, bull 
dogs, wry-legged terriers, and some others'^'. Our general 
breeds are, however, rather the effect of slow cultivation than 
of sudden and extraordinary production. 

It has been before observed, that every variety or breed has 
a tendency to degenerate, or travel backwards to something 
like the original standard : this tendency is greatest in the 
accidental varieties or breeds just hinted at, in which a few 

* Among other domesticated animals, prominent instances present tliem- 
selves of accidental variety. The solidungular breed of swine, with their 
undivided feet, and the ancon or otter breed of sheep, described by Colonel 
HuMFHRiES, in Phil. Trans, for 1813, part i, may be noticed in proof. These 
sheep were derived from the accidental deformity of one American Iamb, born 
with legs most disproportionately short to the rest of his body, which de- 
formity, added to great crookedness of the fore legs, rendered him unable 
either to run or lo break fences. With these qualities it was determined to 
attempt a breed of this kind ; and, by confining the intercourse between 
him and his future offspring, it succeeded, and the ancon or otter breed is 
now established. The pure milk-white breeds which we witness now as 
permanent among ferrets, rabbits, mice, &c. originally sprang from one acci- 
dental variety of each. Man himself is not exempt from this departure from 
established form and character, as we witness in the Albino, who presents the 
same leuccethiopic constitutional characters in the deficiency of colouring 
matter, a similar redness of iris and pupil, and consequently the same into- 
lerance of light, as the other white animals. There have been, and still exist, 
six-fingered families 5 and Mr. Lawrence informs us that the thick lip, yet 
visible in some noble Austrian families, was introduced by the marriage of 
the Emperor Maximilian with Mary of Burgundy. I have myself seen, 
in Sussex, a breed of tailless cats. 


succeeding" generations* is sufficient to destroy all appear* 
ances of variation from the orig-inal ; but in breeds which 
have undergone great cultivation, it requires a much longer 
time wholly to degenerate them. The tendency is, however, 
inherent in all our domestic animals, and in none more than 
the dog ; and it is to counteract this inherent property that 
forms a principal part of the art of successful breeding, as it 
is termed in the language of rural economy. 

Notorious varieties or breeds are, therefore, the conse- 
quence of our attempts at the improvement of such races of 
dogs, or of any other domestic animals, as exhibit a constitu- 
tional tendency to a particular form or character, the proper- 
ties of which are either known or expected to prove useful. 
Or they originate in the adoption of any accidental variety 
that may spring up in the way lately described. Or a breed 
may be established by any determinate form or quality, with- 
in certain limits, being previously fixed on ; after this in- 
dividuals are selected, perhaps not exactly similar, but each 
of which having distinct points of resemblance to the desired 
form, conjointly, the full end may be gained in their own 
union and that of their affinities. In this way the most sur- 
prising alterations in the animal character have been, and 
still may be, brought about ; and forms almost ideal have 
been, and still may be, realized t. A breed or variety being 

* Lord Orford bred between a bull dog and a greyhound : in seven de- 
scents all traces of the cross were lost in form ; but he conjectured that he 
had gained an acquisition of courage and determination. Probably an acci- 
dental deformity might have disappeared sooner. 

t Among the experienced fanciers of the small yellow and white spaniels, 
which much resemble those known by the name of the iV/arZ6oroMorA breed, 
this is particularly exemplified. These elegant animals are very common 
among the Spitalfidds weavers j and to such a perfection have they brought 
the art of breeding them, that it is affirmed they can insure, almost to a 
certainty, the requisite quantity of colour, the length of coat, its texture, 
and its disposition to curl or to remain straight. 

The Herefordshire ox can be bred to a white or a half white face ; and the 
horns of some breeds can be insured to an inch. The colour of the game 
cock is arbitrarily imposed by the handler and feeder j and the experienced 
pigeon-fancier can breed to a feather. 


adopted and established, its permanency must depend on the 
care bestowed not only in selecting- proper individuals to 
propagate from, but also in the adoption of such other cir- 
cumstances as tend to preserve the animals themselves in 
that state the nearest approaching to what has been establish- 
ed as the standard. These circumstances include, choice of 
situation, proper food, due exercise, with judicious restraint 
and discipline. The aids we should lend to perpetuate a di- 
minutive race would be, close confinement, artificial warmth*, 
and sparing- food. Were our attempts directed to the ex- 
ternal covering, artificial warmth would render it thin and 
fine ; while, on the contrary, exposure would thicken and 
probably lengthen it. If great size exists, and we wish to 
continue or increase it, we should allow but one or two 
young to remain in a litter ; we should not only feed the 
mother liberally, but it would be proper early to accustom 
the young to eat of animal food also : adding to all these the 
free access of air, ample room, and opportunity for full 


But, above all, the permanency of a breed must depend on 
the judicious selection of individuals as parents, who, having 
the specified and definite form in the greatest degree, are 
enabled in their progeny to perpetuate the same. This care, 
when long continued, of confining to particular races or 
breeds the means of continuing their species, constitutes what 
is termed purity of blood. Immense importance is attached 
to this purity of blood, or lineal descent, amongst the breed- 
ers of almost every kind of domestic animal t. The scientific 

» The French are said to give their diminutive breeds spirituous li- 
quors when they are young, to stop their growth: if it has this effect, it 
is because artificial warmth produces premature developement of the 
frame, and thus promotes an early puberty. 

t The care taken by the Arabs in preserving the breeds of their 
horses is most remarkable. None but stallions of the finest form and 
purest hlood are allowed access to their mares, which is never done but 
in the presence of a professional witness or public officer, who attests 
thie fact, records the names, and signs the pedigree of each. The 


sportsman acknowledges it, in its fullest degree, in the ge- 
nealogy of his dogs ; and experience teaches him that a cer- 
tain degree of perfection, once gained, can only be continued 
by successive propagation from the blood or breed. 

In our selection of breedei^s, a variety of circumstances 
should necessarily engage our attention ; as, whether we are 
continuing a breed already establiwshed, improving a defective 
one, or altogether forming a new variety. In either case, 
but particularly in the two latter, one or two propagations 
are not sufficient to enable us to judge of the merits or de- 
merits of a breed. Anomalies may occur, monstrosities ap- 
pear, or our dogs may breed back. It should likewise be 
always present to us, that, in despite of all our care, and in 
face of the most favourable opportunities for selection, still 
perfect specimens to breed from are unattainable ; and as, 
therefore, we are necessarily to expect defects, it should be 
our care to well examine that we do not select our male and 
female subjects with each the same faulty form or property; 
for, however psrfect they may be in other respects, they 
are, in such a case, totally unfit to breed from together. We 
may, for instance, suppose an otherwise eligible pair of 
pointers, of the purest blood, but that each, from early and 
constant confinement, had contracted long, weak, spread- 
ing phalanges or toes, instead of a round, cat-like, form of 
foot. By choosing a mate for each of these whose feet 
were particularly good, we might remedy this defect, and 
preserve the breed ; but it would be only propagating de- 

Circassians distinguish the various races of their horses by marks on 
the buttocks. When a noble mark is put on an ignoble breed, the 
forgery is punished with death.— Pallas's Travels in the Southern Pro- 
vinces of the Russian Empire, chap. 14. 

In Persia, almost equal ceremony takes place when a breed is under- 
taken between some of their most highly-prized dogs. In England, 
stallions have been sold for 1,000 guineas, bulls for 300, and rams for 
the same. The celebrated Yorkshire greyhound, called Snowhall, lined 
bitches at three guineas each. Such estimation is purity of blood and 
regularity of descent held in. 


formity to breed from them tog-ether. We can only expect 
to prove successful in rearing- a superior race of any domestic 
animal, when we make our selection of parents with a care- 
ful reference to the merits and defects in each, by balancings 
the one ag-ainst the other, and by thus combining- their dif- 
ferent properties. It is by inattention to these circumstances 
that so many persons, after giving- immense prices for ani- 
mals of particular breeds, have found themselves foiled in 
their attempts at rearing- any thing beyond mediocrity, which 
animals, under the judicious management of a Russell, a 
Coke, or an Ellman among cattle, or an Orford, a Mey- 
NELL, a Rivers, or a Topham among dogs, would have 
produced unrivalled excellencies. 

It is not no less to be understood, that it is not the form 
only that we can alter or bring into the line of descent ; the 
aptitudes and qualities are also to be cultivated ; they de- 
scend in succession equally with the external form. Temper, 
sagacity, and aptness under discipline, are all hereditary, 
and are all equally to be taken into the account by a breeder. 
Some breeds of pointers require little breaking, but the first 
time they come on game they exhibit the required proper- 
ties with nearly the steadiness of an old dog. A common 
fault is often committed by theoretical and inexperienced 
breeders, which consists in cultivating a particular quality, 
or propagating a particular point of form ; but, at the same 
time, losing sight of the general existing integrity, or future 
improvement of the whole. In this way, fox-hounds may be 
bred to run nearly as fast as greyhounds, at the expense of 
their scent, hardihood, and sagacity. For it cannot be too 
strongly inculcated on the mind of every breeder, as an esta- 
blished law in the animal economy, that an extraordinary de- 
gree of excellence on any one particular, either natural or 
acquired, is almost invariably accompanied with a privation 
of the usual quantity of it in some other. This law is fully 
exemplified in those animals where breeding is carried to its 
greatest refinement; or, in other words, where cultivation 
in qualities or form, or both, weakens or destroys the in- 


stinctive habits to such a degree as to make the subjects of 
such cultivation bad breeders, and still worse rearers, of pro- 
geny. If I mistake not, a tendency to this may be observed 
in all our very high bred animals. Among the feathered 
race it is peculiarly remarkable. The higher any animal is 
bred, the more artificially he becomes placed with regard to 
external circumstances, till at length he requires constant 
care to obviate those contingencies that would be unheeded 
by others. 

Among the practical and systematic breeders of all domes- 
tic animals, and among none more than those sportsmen who 
devote themselves to the improvement of the dog, a great 
diversity of opinion has always existed on the subject of con- 
sanguineous breeding, or of that between near relations, 
characterised by the term In and In. The conflicting au- 
thorities on the subject are numerous, and the testimonies 
contradictory ; and it is more than probable that they will 
remain so, until a long course of experiment is undertaken 
by a body or society of scientific and observant breeders, on 
various domestic animals, for the express purpose of arriving 
at the truth in this particular. A few solitary or isolated 
facts can do little to set the subject at rest : theory can only 
assist by philosophically directing the inquiry aright. Truth 
should be the ultimate object of every pursuit, and, from 
whatever source it is obtained, it should be embraced. 1 
profess to have had little experience myself as a practical 
breeder, but I have endeavoured to profit by the experience 
of others. I am by no means wedded to the in and in sys- 
tem of breeding ; and when I hear grave authorities stating 
facts (the only sure guides to truth) against it, I am disposed 
to waver ; but renewed examination produces counter state- 
ments, and 1 retrace my steps and become, as formerly, a 
defender (but, 1 own, not so zealous one) of consanguineous 
breeding. I will, however, endeavour to state the pro's and 
con's fairly, and then leave the matter, where it should be 
left, with the experimentalist. 

The first argument that presents itself on this subject is. 


that the early human and brute races must of necessity have 
been produced from the nearest afl&nities, and it is unreason- 
able to suppose that nature would have set out on a principle 
tending- to the immediate deterioration of her works. This 
has been called the mere argument of necessity, and is said 
to apply only to the precise period when there was no other 
connexion possible. I admit that this is an argument of 
necessity, viewed with reference only to primitive times ; 
but it stands otherwise, when w^e reflect that, for ages after, 
consanguineous marriages were consummated among nations 
of refinement, and, to this day, some savage tribes, particu- 
larly their reigning families and chiefs, confine themselves to 
marriage among lineal kindred*, and that in neither in- 
stance has any degeneration been observed. From a parity 
of reasoning, as we know that an insuperable bar has been 
placed against propagation among the several genera, by an 
instinctive aversion, that the specific forms might not be lost 
in hybridous productions ; so it does not appear to be strain- 
ing analogy too much to suppose that, had ill effects fol- 
lowed from consang-uineous intercourse, something like this 
instinctive aversion would be manifested here also t. Nei- 

* The Egyptians are said to have allowed of the marriages of brothers 
to sisters. The Athenians admitted the betrothing of brothers and sisters 
of the half blood, if related by the father's side. The marriage of Abra- 
ham with his sister assures us that it was practised among the Chal- 
deans ; and it may be remarked, that, when this island was conquered by 
Caesar, a peculiar system of cohabitation prevailed. — Uxores habent 
deni duodenique inter se communes, et maxime fratres cum fratribus, 
parentesque cum liberis ; sed si qui sunt ex his nati, eorum habentur li- 
beri. quo primum virgo quaeque dedvicta est. — Paley's Nat. Phil. 

f It may be argued, that such aversion is manifested in the political 
restrictions relative to consanguineous marriages among enlightened na- 
tions. That such prohibitions were necessary from moral and political 
necessity is evident ; for, by extending the social compact to marriages 
without the family pale, knowledge and the arts were extended, improv- 
ed, and became a common property ; wealth was diflfused, communities 
were enlarged, and social interests joined those who before were in op- 
position to each other; and, above all, the demoralizing and depopu- 



ther does it appear, a prioi^i, easy to substantiate any phy- 
sical or physiological reason why breeding- among lineal 
kindred should of necessity prove deteriorating to the future 
progen}^ The same organization, the same constitutional 
sympathies, the same aptitudes, when not defective, would 
tend, under union, to produce a perfect similitude. But facts 
are infinitely more to our purpose than the most specious ar- 

We are assured, that the Arab horses of high blood are 
bred in and in ; and we know that no people in existence 
pay more attention to the improvement of their horses than 
they do ; and as these horses have m.aintained their high 
character for ages, it forms a strong presumption in favour of 
this system. Mr. Bakewell, whose name will ever rank 
high as a breeder of cattle, reared his valuable stock wholly 
from consanguinity: in fact, his important improvements were 
all founded on this intercourse among lineal kindred, or their 
affinities. Mr. Meynell, who was no less celebrated as a 
sportsman than as a close observer of many subjects connected 
with the rural economy of the animals around him, bred all 
his fox-hounds in this manner ; and those adventurous gentle- 
men who have followed them, can bear testimony to their 
excellence. It might not, perhaps, be an erroneous con- 
clusion to draw, that the prejudices against breeding from 
near relationship in animals, are less the effect of reason or 
experiment than of a received prejudice of very long stand- 
ing, founded originally on philosophical arguments, connect- 
ed, not with brutes, but with the political and moral economy 
of the human subject. 

lating effects of an early departure from chastity, which unreserved fa- 
mily communication led to, was prevented. It is, however, clear, from 
history and from philosophical investigation, that such aversion is nei- 
ther instinctive nor necessary, but an acquired regulation of passion, 
implanted by education, and made general by refinement. 

Sir W. C— N observes that, according to Varro, this aversion has 
really occurred even in animals, — Equns matrem ut saliret adduci non 
posset, De Re Rustica, lib. iii, c. 5 ; but the ingenious Baronet candidly 
acknowledges that subsequent experience has not justified the assertion. 


1 have already stated, that numerous and powerful oppo- 
nents exist to the system of in and in breeding-, whose 
opinions ought to have their due influence when considering- 
the question *. Sir John Sebright, who has been long- 
known as a practical breeder and man of science, is under- 
stood to have been always inimical to consang-uineous breed- 
ing. His opinions on the subject have, of late years, been 
before the public, in a Letter on The Art of Improving the 
Breeds of Domestic Animals ; and as g-reat importance is 
justly attributed to them, 1 shall, in candour, quote so much 
as is necessary to shew the drift of his arguments. — He says, " if 
*' a breed cannot be improved, or even continued in the de- 
" gree of perfection at which it has already arrived, but by 
** breeding from individuals, so selected as to correct each 
" others defects, and by a judicious combination of their dif- 
*' ferent properties (a position that I believe will not be de- 
" nied), it follows that animals must degenerate by being 
" long bred from the same family, without the intermixture of 
" any other blood, or from being what is technically called 
" bred in-and-in." 

Against Mr. Bakewell's authority the ingenious Baronet 
thus reasons : — " No one can deny the ability of Mr. Bake- 
*' well in the art of which he may fairly be said to have 
" been the inventor ; but the mystery with which he is well 
" known to have carried on every part of his business, and 
" the various means which he employed to mislead the public* 
" induce me not to give that w^eight to his assertions, which I 
" should do to his real opinion, could it have been ascer- 
" tained.'' 

To Mr. Meynell's opinion on the subject, he replies — 
" Mr. Meynell's fox-hounds are quoted as an instance of the 

* The principal arguments, in my own mind, against this mode of 
increase is, that hereditary diseases, which in some breeds are con- 
siderable, are by this means perpetuated and probably increased ; and, 
also, that when breeding by relationship is a settled practice, the acci- 
dental defects ar<* too apt to be passed over unobserved. 



" success of this practice (i. e. the in-and-in)'^ but, on speak- 
" ing to that gentleman upon the subject, I found that he did 
*' not attach the meaning that I do to the term in-and-in. 
'' He said, that he frequently bred from the father and the 
" daughter, and the mother and the son. This is not what 
'' I consider as breeding in-and-in ; for the daughter is only 
'' half of the same blood as the father, and will probably 
'' partake, in a great degree, of the properties of the mother." 
This gentleman, also, in another part of his letter, states 
some important facts on the matter in these words :■ — '' I have 
'' tried many experiments by breeding in-and-in upon dogs, 
" fowls, and pigeons: the dogs became, from strong spaniels, 
" weak and diminutive lap-dogs ; the fowls became long in 
" the legs, small in the body, and bad breeders." 

The author of A Treatise on Greyhounds is also, in some 
degree, unfavourable to breeding a-kin. He says, *' If con- 
" tinned for some litters, a manifest inferiority of size, and a 
" deficiency of bone, will soon be visible, as well as a want 
" of courage and bottom; though the beauty of the form, 
*' with the exception of the size, may not be diminished." 

BuFFON argues on the same side : — '^ Ce qu'il y a de singu- 
" lier, c'est qu'il semble que le modele du beau et du bon soit 
" disperse par toute la terre, et que dans chaque ciimat il 
" n'en reside qu'une portion qui degenere toujours, a moins 
*' qu'on ne la r^unisse avec une autre portion prise au loin ; en 
" sort que pour avoir de bon grain, de belles fleurs, &c. &c. 
'' il faut en 6nchanger les grains et de ne jamais semer dans 
" le meme terrein qui les a produits ; et de meme, pour avoir 
" de beaux chevaux, de bons chiens, &c. &c. il faut donner 
*' aux femelles du pays des males etrangers, et reciproquement 
" aux males du pays des femelles etrangeres : sans cela les 
" grains, les fleurs, les animaux deg^nerent, ou plutot pren- 
" nent une si fort teinture du ciimat, que la matiere domine 
'' sur la forme, et semble Tabatardir, I'empreinte reste, mais 
" defiguree par tons les traits, qui ne lui sont pas essentiels. 
" En melant au contraire les races, et surtout en les renouve- 
" lant toujours par ies races etrangeres, la forme semble se 


" perfectionner, et la nature se relever et donner tout ce 
" qu'elle produit de meilleur/'— Buffon Hist. Nat., torn, iv, 
p. 216. 

Mr. Beckford, in his Thoughts on Hunting, has this re- 
mark : — '•' A very famous sportsman has told me, that he fre- 
" quently breeds from brothers and sisters. As I should be 
" very unwilling- to urg-e any thing- in opposition to such au- 
" thority, you had better try it; and if it succeeds in hounds, 
" it is more, I believe, than it usually does in other animals." 

It remains to add, that many practical breeders of inferior 
note are averse to breedings in succession from near relation- 
ship by blood, as brother and sister, father and daug-hter, 
&c. &c. ; but many allow even the benefit of relationship in 
a more remote deg-ree. This is particularly the case with 
some rearers of g-ame fowls, who are favourable to breeding- 
from the third remove, which they call a nick. From all 
which discrepancy of opinion may be g-ained, that the subject 
yet remains problematical ; and, also, that the opposition to 
it, if not altog-ether unfounded, has not yet, in the vastleng-th 
of time the system has been under trial, received such an ac- 
cumulation of striking- and incontrovertible facts as to force 

In kennels, where many dog-s are reared, it is usual to en- 
deavour to breed in the early months, which is a judicious 
practice, as it enables the young- to benefit by the g-enial 
warmth of the summer, and to expand their limbs by exercise 
in the open air more freely. During- the preg-nancy of bitches 
particular care should be taken to observe, and to remove, 
any ?ippearance of mange or other affections of the skin and 
surface : if this be neg-lected, the prog-eny will be brought 
into the world with an hereditary taint that no future endea- 
vours can wholly eradicate. 

Reai'ing of Puppies. — The number of young- that dog-s 
bring- forth varies from one to fifteen : instances have occurred 
where sixteen have been whelped, and I once removed the 
same number from a dead setter. Four, five, six, or seven, 
are common numbers. How many it is proper to rear, must 


depend on circumstances. A very strong- healthy mother, with 
full feeding, may bring- up five : but when the breed is valua- 
ble, and g-reat size and strength are required, four, or even 
three, are more proper. — See Pupping. If a foster mother is 
procured for the supernumerary pups, she should, if possible, be 
one of the same breed with themselves. From the experi- 
ence I have had in this particular, I am strongly inclined to 
believe, that the qualities of the foster parent are, in some 
deirree. transferred with the milk ; and when the breeds are 
distinct, this must be very prejudicial. I am also borne out in 
this opinion by the testimony of other observant sports- 
men* Constitutional diseases may be likewise gained by 
this means t. There is, at times, some difficulty experienced 
in getting a foster parent to receive strange young. In this 
case it is usual to sprinkle them v/ith the milk of the bitch 
they are to be put to. This usually succeeds, upon the same 
principle that shepherds, when a ewe dies, take her lamb, 
and, havins" found a ewe who has lost one, the dead lamb's 
skin is stripped off by them, and sewed around the living 
lamb, who is then received by the foster parent as her own. 
Most animal instincts, connected with the reproductive sys- 
tem, are conducted by means of. smelling. 

Puppies are born blind, and remain so for many days ; 
their ears are also impervious. Eye-sight and hearing would 
have been useless to animals born so indigent, and which, in a 
state of nature, were intended to remain buried the first 

* The learned author of A Treatise on Greyhounds introduces some 
quotations to shew that this effect had not escaped the attention of the 
antients. Columella, lib. vii, c. 12, has the following remarks onit:— - 
'* Nee nunquam eos quorum generosam volumus indolem conservare, 
" patiemur alienae nutricis uberibus educari, quoniam semper lac et spi- 
« ritus maternus longe magis ingenii atque incrementa corporis augent." 
Similar observations occur in Xenophon. de Venat. 987 ; Oppian. Venat. i, 
442 ; Cynosophium, &.c. 

f I am acquainted with a very fine child with diseased eyelids, who is 
the only one thus affected out of several children j she was likewise the 
only child put out to nurse. The woman who suckled her has a large 
family, and most of her children have the same affection. 


weeks of their existence in holes and dark caverns. These 
org-ans only develope themselves when their owners begin 
to be sensible of their wants. At this early age, the whole 
skin presents a beautiful pink tinge, but which gradually dis- 
appears, and gives place to a clear white in most parts of the 
body ; while the retemucosum of such parts as are intended 
to exhibit a dark hue, as the roof of the mouth, paws, nose, 
&c., at the same time assumes its intended colour. The up- 
per milk or temporary teeth, both cutting and grinding, 
appear first, and are tolerably complete at a month old ; the 
others appear later, by which arrangement the teats of 
the mother do not suffer : the milk teeth give place to the 
permanent set at six or seven months. The testes do not 
descend into the scrotum till the third, fourth, or fifth week, 
but they may be felt a week previously within the abdomen, 
on each side of the penis. Dogs are often born with super- 
numerary claws, among sportsmen called dew claws : some 
of these have a corresponding metacarpal or metatarsal bone, 
others are appendant only to the integuments. In either 
case they should be taken off early. — See Claws and Crop- 

When many young of a litter are preserved, they should 
be early accustomed to lap : milk which has been boiled and 
slightly sweetened is proper ; when given raw it is apt to purge, 
and sweetening it makes it more nearly resemble the mother's 
milk. Meat, also, cut fine may be early given, as it will mate- 
rially save the mother, and benefit the progeny also. Clean 
litter, free access of air, and room for exercise, are essentials to 
their well doing. Young dogs should be early accustomed to 
restraint, with a chain and collar ; otherwise, when they are 
accidentally tied up, it is apt to occasion great alarm : I have 
seen fits follow this. Confinement, however, under any cir- 
cumstance, should be only occasional, and never long conti- 
nued : thousands are rendered weak, ricketty, and have their 
feet spread out into thin narrow phalanges, by close and early 

Young dogs are liable to several diseases that are peculiar 


to this stage of their existence. One of the most fatal of these 
seems almost peculiar to some breeds, particularly to terriers, 
pugs, the smaller kinds of spaniels, and, indeed, to most of 
the diminutive races ; and more especially to such as live 
luxurious and artificial lives. Among these, certain indivi- 
duals always bring forth their young, either already diseased, 
or with such a tendency to it, that the complaint alluded to 
soon makes its appearance, and with greater certainty when 
they have to combat with bad air or confined situation. 
This disease closely resembles tabes mesentericus, to which 
the human infant and monkies also are liable. It seems also 
to originate from the similar causes of constitutional predis- 
position, gained from the mother before birth, or from the 
want of nutrition in her milk from bad living afterwards. 
It appears also under the similar features of a large belly 
with stinted growth, an unthrifty state of the hair, and a 
countenance of peculiar sharpness and sagacity. The com- 
plaint commonly ends fatally by the animal's becoming tabid : 
neither is medical treatment of any service, unless very 
early resorted to ; in v/hich case, liberal feeding, free air, 
with mild purgatives and alteratives, will sometimes arrest 
its progress. When there is reason to suspect an unhealthy 
state of milk in the mother, a change should be made from 
it, by means, either of a foster parent, or by mares or cows' 
milk given by hand. 

Now and then the affection originates in worms ; in which 
cases, the hair stares more than usually, and, in addition, the 
animal rubs his hind parts on the ground, and his stools ap- 
pear irregular in consistence and colour. These cases of 
tabes are more manageable than the others, and, if treated as 
directed under the head Worms, may be generally relieved. 
Worms are very common in young dogs, perhaps few are 
without them ; whenever, therefore, puppies have fits, irre- 
gular bowels, violent and unnatural appetite, and a gene- 
ral unhealthy appearance, worms may be suspected as the 

Rickets destroy many puppies also, particularly among the 


breeds that are closely confined, as in cities and large manu- 
facturing towns. This disease shews itself by a large head 
united To a peculiar mixture of care and intelligence in the 
countenance ; the joints are distorted-those of the elbows 
turn outwards, and the whole appearance is unthrifty. Among 
terriers the deformity has been cultivated into a breed, called 
the wry-legged, which is much used in vermin-hunting. 
Rickets may be remedied by pure air, free exercise, cleanli- 
ness, and nutritious food. 

Young dogs are also liable to a peculiar spasmodic affec- 
tion of the bowels. I have seen it epidemic. A most pain- 
ful cramp seizes on the bowels ; the animal cries violently 
during the attack, which lasts a longer or shorter period, 
and then remits until it again seizes him. It is not very ma- 
nageable, but often proves fatal ; it, however, sometimes 
gives way to active mercurial purging. 


BRONCHOCELE is a steatomatous swelling of the glands of 
the throat, apparently of the thyroid, and is a very common 
complaint among dogs. Pugs, barbets, and French pointers, 
are peculiarly liable to it. In the human species, this disease 
is most common to the inhabitants of mountainous countries. 
But in do-s, it does not appear endemial, and is more con- 
fined to some particular breeds. Other dogs, as terriers, 
spaniels &c., sometimes, however, have it; but it is not 
frequent in these, and in the larger tribes it is very seldom 
se-n The swelling comes on generally while very young, 
and continues to enlarge to a certain size; after vvhich it 
usually remains stationary, seldom increasing to such a de- 
gree as to prove fatal. It is, however, troublesome, and 
in some measure hurtful, from the pressure it occasions on the 

surrounding parts. 
The treatment is not difficult, nor usually unsuccessful. 

114 CANCER. 

when early adopted. One of the following- balls should be 
g-iven every day ; in bad cases, twice a day : — 

Burnt sponge 1 dram 

Nitrated potash (wifre) half a dram. 

Make into six, nine, or twelve balls, according* to size, &c. 

Mild mercurial ointment half an ounce 

Blistering ointment half an ounce. 

Mix, and rub the swellings once a day with a portion equal 
to a hazel nut, or a walnut, according- to the size of the dog' ; 
first clipping- away the hair, and, after the application, wrap- 
ping- up the neck with a bandage, to prevent the ointment from 
being" rubbed off. During- the use of this application, the 
mouth should be examined now and then, to g-uard against 
the sudden attack of salivation. Should this treatment fail 
to remove the tumour, recourse may be had to the new re- 
medy Iodine, which has proved very successful in the human 
goitre. Internally given, it has occasioned the most serious 
symptoms, and, externally applied, it requires to be atten- 
tively watched ; consequently it ought to be resorted to only 
under judicious medical superintendance. 



Dogs are subject to tumours, principally of the glandular 
parts, which exhibit the true schirrous character, being first 
observed hard and circumscribed ; but, in their gradual in- 
crease, the skin becomes shining, distended, and discoloured, 
when ulceration soon follows : and, although the subsequent 
progress is seldom marked with the virulence of the human 
carcinomatous ulcerations, yet the resemblance is too striking 
not to warrant the same common term of cancer to both 
these morbid affections. The canine cancer not only pro- 
ceeds more slowly, but it likewise seldom deranges the gene- 
ral health, is seldom if ever translated to the lungs, and 
does not appear to occasion those lancinating pains felt by 

CANCER. 115 

the human victim. Now and then, however, a more viru- 
lent character marks its progpress. 1 have seen the ulcer- 
ous affection, called canker in the ear, when of long- stand- 
ing-, take on the true carcinomatous character, and extend 
rapidly over the muscles of the face, till, having destroyed 
one eye, and commenced its attack on the throat and tong-ue, 
the animal was destroyed. I have also seen cancer in its 
most malig-nant form in cats ; first attacking- the mammae or 
teats, and then spreading- over the abdominal muscles and 
surrounding- parts. Any part may become the seat of scir- 
rhus, and consequently of cancer. Dog-s occasionally have 
their testicles affected by scirrhus, rarely by cancer, but it 
is much more common in the mammae, the uterus, and the 
vag-inae, of bitches. 

Cancers of the vagince and uterus are by no means un- 
common, and are sometimes occasioned by the foolish practice 
of exciting- premature oestrum by stimulating- injections, but 
more frequently by a brutality often exercised towards dogs, 
of dashing them with cold water, or of forcibly sepa- 
rating them during copulation. Cancer sometimes attacks 
the labiae, at others the inner surface of the vulvae, and 
sometimes extends to the uterus ; but, in either case, it pre- 
sents a fungous excrescence either of a deep red or a more 
livid colour, with ulcerated uneven edges. A bloody ichor 
constantly distils from the surface. In the very few cases 
where I have seen animals suffered to live to the extent of 
the complaint, the fatal termination has been slow but cer- 
tain : gradually, the morbid secretion of the part united with 
the irritation ; but, principally, the former has worn down 
the animal. 

When cancerous ulcerations have taken place in these or in 
other parts, I have seldom succeeded in restoring a healthy 
action, or of promoting a cure, otherwise than by excision. 
Now and then, however, I have experienced benefit from 
the use of the bruised leaves of the hemlock, as a poultice, 
daily ; with balls composed of one, two, or three grains of 
extract of hemlock (according to the size and strength of the 


dog), and ten, fifteen, or twenty grains of, burnt sponge, io 
each ; repeated once or twice a day, as the health would bear 
them. Extirpation is however the most eligible remedy, 
and may be, in most cases, practised with safety by an expe- 
rienced surgeon or veterinarian. When cancer is purely 
glandular, from its circumscribed form, no difficulty will be 
found in detaching the whole morbid substance ; but when it 
has attacked the muscular, cellular, or superficial parts, as 
the face, parieties of the abdomen, scrotum, vulvae, or ute- 
rus, then the utmost caution is requisite to remove every dis- 
eased portion. It must also be taken into the account, that 
although, in the canine cancer, ulceration does not often re- 
appear in the immediate part, when the operation has been 
judiciously performed, yet, when the constitution has long 
been affected with this ulcerative action, it is very apt to 
appear in some neighbouring part soon after. This subject 
will be continued, and dilated on, when treating of Scir- 
rhous Tumours. 

Canker in the Ear, 

From confinement and luxurious living, dogs become sub- 
jected to various complaints, that evidently arise from the 
formation of too great a quantity of blood, and other juices; 
which, not being spent in the support of the body, find them- 
selves other outlets. Canker in the ear is evidently pro- 
duced by this disposition in the constitution to throw off the 
superfluity accumulated within. In these cases, the dog is 
first observed to scratch his ear frequently ; on looking with- 
in which, a red granular or scabby appearance is seen, from 
extravasated blood become dry. If the complaint is not 
stopped in this state, it proceeds to ulceration, when the in- 
ternal part of the ear, instead of being filled with dry blood 
as before, will be found always moist with matter. The dog 
now continually shakes his head from the intolerable itching; 
and, if the root of the ear is pressed, the matter within 


crackles, and tenderness is expressed. When canker has re- 
mained long, the internal ear becomes closed, and the hear- 
ing- lost: now and then the ulceration penetrates inwards, 
and destroys the dog". I have also known instances where 
the ulceration has assumed a cancerous appearance, and ex- 
tended itself over the face. 

This complaint appears to have also another source besides 
over-feeding, heat, and confinement ; which is, the action of 
water within the ears. It is remarkable that all dogs, who 
frequent the water much, are more particularly disposed to 
canker than others. Any kind of dog may contract it thus, 
particularly when aided by artificial habits; hut Newfound- 
land dogs, poodles, and water spaniels, are liable to it when 
not so artificially treated. Perhaps the length of hair around 
their ears, not only keeps these parts hot, but also retains 
the water within, and thus encourages an afflux of fluids or 
humours, as they are termed, to them. That the water has 
this tendency is certain, for I have frequently seen it re- 
moved, by merely keeping such dogs from the water ; that 
is, in those cases where the feeding and exercise were pro- 
portionate, and the fatness has not been inordinate. 

The cure, it is rational to conclude, must be either simple, 
. or more complicated, according to the cause producing the 
disease. Whenever there is much fatness and fulness of habit, 
or when the dog has been subjected to much confinement in 
a hot close situation, these circumstances must be immediately 
rectified. Abstinence and purgatives will reduce the fat ; a 
cooler situation must be chosen, open and unrestrained ; full 
exercise must be allowed to assist also in giving another di- 
rection to the fluids. In those cases where there are symp- 
toms of a constitutional foulness, which shew themselves by a 
red itching skin, stinking coat, and mangy eruptions; in such, 
in addition to exercise, a vegetable diet, cleansing alter- 
atives, and occasional purges, should be given. See Alter- 
atives. — In very bad cases, a seton may be properly intro- 
duced in the neck, and suffered to remain there, until the 


benefit derived from it is very apparent. When the cankered 
dog- is very fat, occasional bleeding- is also beneficial. 

External applications are likewise essential to the cure, and 
in some mild cases are all that are necessary, particularly where 
it may be supposed that swimming- much, or too frequent 
washing-, may have principally tended to produce the com- 
plaint. In the early stag-es a wash, composed of half a dram 
of acetate (^sugar) of lead, dissolved in four ounces of rose or 
rain water, is often all that is necessary. A small tea-spoon- 
ful may be introduced (previously warmed to a blood heat, to 
prevent surprise) nig-ht and morning-, rubbing- the root of the 
ear at the same time, to promote the entrance of the wash 
into the cavities. In more obstinate cases, it is prudent to 
add fifteen or twenty grains of vitriolated zinc {white vitriol) 
to the wash ; and if, instead of water, a decoction of oak 
bark is made use of to form the wash, it will g-reatly promote 
the end desired. In some cases, acetate of copper (^verdi- 
gris'), mixed with oil, has proved beneficial when introduced 
in the same manner. In others, submuriate of quicksilver 
(calomel) and oil have produced amendment in the same way. 
A very weak injection of the oxymuriate of quicksilver (^co7'- 
rosive sublimate) has succeeded when every other applica- 
tion has failed. 

Canker on the Outside of the Ear, 

Although this complaint bears the same name with the 
former, in appearance it is very different. It consists of an 
ill-disposed ulcer, which is usually situated on the lower edge 
of the flap or pendulous part of one or both ears, dividing it 
into a kind of slit. It seems to itch intolerably, and is 
therefore kept in a continual state of aggravation by the 
shaking of the dog's head. It is not a little remarkable, that 
whereas long-haired dogs (as Newfoundlands , setters, and 
water-spaniels) are more subject to internal canker of the 


ear; so smooth-coated dog-s (as pointers and hounds) are 
the only ones, in general, affected with this outer canker. 
Pointers and hounds who have been rounded, by having: the 
flap shortened, are less liable to it than those who have their 
ears of the natural length. From this circumstance it is 
common to round them after the disease has appeared ; but 
it frequently fails to cure, unless the part taken off extends 
considerably beyond the surface of the ulcerated slit. It is 
common also to burn out the ulcer either with the actual 
cautery, or with some caustic substance ; but this also proves 
an uncertain remedy. 

In full habits, and where over-feeding and confinement may 
be supposed to have had any share in the production of the 
disease, the same rules must be attended to, with regard to 
the constitution generally, as are detailed for the internal 
canker. But in other cases an external application is usually 
found sufficient. An unguent, made with equal parts of oint- 
ment of nitrated quicksilver and calamine cerate, may be ap- 
plied once a day, carefully securing the ear from the injury 
occasioned by the shaking of the head, by a sort of head 
dress, during its use. Or the following may be tried :— 

Oxymuriate of quicksilver (corrosive suhli- \ q grains 

ynate) very finely powdered -' 

Cerate of calamine (Twrner'^ cerate) 1 dram 

Sublimated or milk of sulphur 1 scruple. 

In some cases, the oxymuriate of quicksilver has proved 
more efficacious in a wash, six grains being dissolved in four 
ounces of water. Strong astringent washes are sometimes 
useful, as alum, dissolved in a decoction of oak bark. When 
the disease proves very obstinate, excision must be resorted 
to, taking care that the whole, not only of the immediate 
cracked part, but also of its tumefied edges, are included in 
the operation. 


Tumefied Flap of the Ear. 

From a similar repletion of habit, and from the same at- 
tempts in the constitution to find an outlet to the superfluous 
humours, or fluids ; the flap, or pendulous part of the ear, be- 
comes not unfrequently the subject of another complaint, 
which shews itself by a tumour, whose prominent part is 
always on the inner side. It sometimes swells to an enor- 
mous size, and occupies the whole of the inner surface of the 
flap, which then presents a shining tumid mass so painfully 
tender and weighty as to prove very distressing- to the ani- 
mal. It is most frequently met with in those dogs whose ex- 
ternal ears are long-, as setters, pointers, hounds, poodles, 
and spaniels. 

Attempts at dispersing- these tumours always fail, for the 
collections are, from the first, less phlegmonous than serous ; 
the only mode of relief is therefore to evacuate the contents : 
but it is too common merely to make a small opening- for this 
purpose, which is almost certain to heal immediately, and a 
fresh accumulation takes place of the same bloody serum. 
The tumour ought either to be opened its full length, and a 
pledget of lint introduced to prevent too hasty a union of 
the outer edges of the sac ; or a seton should be introduced 
the whole length of the swelling, which should be suffered 
to remain for a week or ten days. By this means, instead of 
a discharge of serum, healthy matter will form in a little time, 
the sides will granulate and unite, and, on the removal of 
the seton, the external lips of the wound will close firmly and 
healthily. It is, however, a necessary caution to observe, 
that it is not prudent to open the tumour until it exhibits its 
characteristic shining appearance with evident fluctuation. 
The future recurrence of the complaint must be prevented, 
by attending to the constitution as before directed. It is 
also proper to remark, that all the affections of the flap of 
the ear are greatly aggravated by the force with which they 
are wrapped against the head by shaking it ; the pendulous 


part should, therefore, always be secured in a kind of cap 
during the medical treatment. 


It now and then becomes necessary to perform this opera- 
tion, from disease of the spermatic chord, or from scirrhous 
swellings in the testicles themselves. Whenever such a ne- 
cessity occurs, although castration is not a dangerous opera- 
tion on the brute subject, yet it requires the assistance of a 
veterinary, or a human surgeon. Each testicle should be 
taken out of the scrotum separately, by an opening suffici- 
ently large, when a ligature should be applied, moderately 
tight only, around the spermatic chord, about an inch and 
an half beyond its insertion into the testicle ; the separa- 
tion should then be effected by the scalpel or knife between 
the ligature and testis. It is sometimes performed with- 
out the ligature, by making the division of the chord with 
a red-hot knife, but the other is the neatest and safest 

In performing this operation on cats, nothing more is requi- 
site than to make a slight opening on each side the scrotum, 
to slip out the two testicles, and draw them away with the 
fingers. The rupture alone of the spermatic chord prevents 
hgemorrhage in them, and no future inconvenience is felt. It 
is often found difficult to secure a cat for this operation ; but 
it may be easily managed in two ways. One is, by putting 
the head and fore-quarters of the animal into a boot; the 
other is effected by rolling her whole body lengthways in 
several yards of towelling. 

See Blindness. 

122 CLAWS. 


Puppies are frequently born with dew claws ; sometimes 
they are double. The dew claws are those small additamen- 
tary ones situated on the inner side, one to each foot, distinct 
from, and much above, the claws of the toes. They are fre- 
quently unattached to any corresponding- metacarpal or meta- 
tarsal bone, having only a ligamentary union ; but whether 
there is any bony attachment or not, it is always prudent to 
cut them off in a few days after birth, otherwise they become 
very troublesome as the dog* g-rows up ; for the nail attached 
to the end of it frequently turns in and wounds the flesh ; or, 
by its hook-like shape, it catches into every thing- the dog- 
treads on. 

The horny claws are also subject, when dogs have not suf- 
ficient exercise, to become preternaturally long, and, by turn- 
ing in, to wound the toe, and lame the dog. The claws, 
when become too long-, are often cut off with scissars ; but 
unless the scissars used are very short and strong, they are 
apt to split the claws. It is better, therefore^ to saw them 
off with a very fine and hard cockspur saw, and then to file 
them smooth. 

The toes are also subject to a peculiar disease, in which 
one of them will appear very highly inflamed, swollen, and 
somewhat ulcerated, around the claw. In such a case the dog 
employs himself in continually lickino- it, and which, instead 
of doing good, as is supposed, always makes it worse. This 
complaint is commonly mistaken for some accidental injury, 
and the owner is surprised to find, that neither the dog's lick- 
ing, nor his own attempts to make the toe sound, succeed. 
The fact is, that this is simply a mang'y affection, and may be 
readily cured by applying the sixth ointment directed for the 
cure of mange, if it should, however, prove very obstinate, 
the first ointment directed for Canker on the Outside of the 
Ear may be then tried with confidence. In either case, the 
foot must be sewed up in leather, to prevent the dog getting 
at it ; taking particular care not to bind it up too tight : but 


the securing- of the diseased part from being- licked is essen- 
tially necessary to the cure. 


Clysters are of the utmost importance in many cases of 
sickness in dogs. They become a most powerful stimulant to 
the bowels in obstinate obstructions, and in many instances of 
this kind they alone can be depended upon for the purpose : 
for, when the obstruction arises from an accumulation of 
hardened excrement, situated far back in the coecum or rec- 
tum, purging- physic by the mouth loses all its efficacy, and, 
in fact, increases the evil. In inflammations of the bowels, 
bladder, kidnies, or womb, clysters have the additional ad- 
vantage of acting as a fomentation. Cases wherein they may 
be beneficially used as nutriment likewise, occur very fre- 
quently : as when there exists so obstinate a sickness, that 
nothing will remain on the stomach ; or when food cannot be 
passed by the mouth, as in locked jaw, in fractures, or in 
wounds of the mouth, face, or throat. In all such cases, clys- 
ters of broth, gravy, or gruel, will afford a very considerable 
quantity of nourishment: a small proportion of opium, as 
twenty drops of laudanum, may be given in each, to assist in 
retaining it within the bowels. Astringent clysters, as starch, 
rice water, alumine whey, infusion of red roses, or of oak 
bark, are useful in violent loosenesses. Purging clysters may 
be made of veal or mutton broth, with a portion of salt or 
moist sugar in them : the effect may be quickened by adding 
castor oil or Epsom salts. 

Clysters are very easily administered to dogs, and no appa- 
ratus is so convenient for the purpose as the common pipe and 
bladder. The liquid should be warm, but not hot ; the quan- 
tity from three ounces, to six or eight, according to the size 
of the dog, &c. : the pipe should be greased previously to 
its introduction, and the tail held down a minute or two after 
its removal. 

I -2 

124 COLIC. 


Colicky pains may be the effect oi Inflammation, or of 
Constipation, or they may be occasioned by a Bilious colic. 
All these are treated of under Inflamed Bowels. The most 
violent pains may be occasioned within the bowels by Poisons, 
which see. 

Spasmodic colic will be further noticed under Rheumatism, 
which is by much the most fertile source of colic in dog-s. But 
besides this, there is a spasmodic constriction of the bowels 
that not unfrequently occurs, most distressing in its symptoms, 
obstinate in its character, and very often fatal in its termina- 
tion. I formerly attributed all these cases to worms, and I 
am still inclined to think that these animals, particularly the 
tape worm, will now and then occasion similar symptoms ; 
but the generality of cases may be considered as arising- from 
a disease sui generis. A person, not very conversant with 
the diseases of dogs/ might also conclude that the head, in 
these cases, was the sole seat of the complaint ; but innu- 
merable instances have convinced me, that the bowels are 
primarily and principally the seat of the disease, which is 
of a peculiar spasmodic nature, and is commonly attended with 
a slight degree of inflammation. 

The symptoms are dulness, loss of appetite; the nose is hot, 
but the forehead particularly so ; with some panting, and much 
restlessness. In some cases, there are appearances of acute 
occasional pain ; in others, there appears but little ; but in 
all there is a particular stupor, and a very remarkable inclina- 
tion to run round in a circle, and that always in the same di- 
rection. The sight seems affected, and sometimes the senses 
are wholly lost ; at others, although the stupor is consider- 
able, yet the faculties are not totally obscured. In some 
cases paralysis comes on, and the head becomes dra-wn to one 
side ; and I have always observed it to incline to the same side 
that, while capable of moving, the dog turned upon. The 
limbs also participate in these extreme cases, and become con- 
tracted likewise. 

COLIC. 125 

The duration of the complaint is various. It sometimes 
destroys in a few days, while some cases linger two or even 
three weeks ; but eventually five out of every six attacked 
with it, die. On dissection, only slig-ht marks of inflamma- 
tion usually appear, and now and then intussusception is met 
with; but in all, constringed and lessened parts of the bowels 
are met with, while other portions again seem larger than 
natural, and are flabby and unnaturally relaxed, as though they 
had lost all their tone by the disease. The most attentive 
dissection of the head, in these cases, has never detected any 
morbid appearances there, except, in one or two instances, a 
slight increase of vascularity. The affection of it, therefore, 
during the progress of the complaint, must be considered as 
purely symptomatic, and as not at all referrible to any specific 
affection of thesensorium itself; and, although the head feels 
hot during the disease, the eyes are flushed, and great 
pain appears in it, from the pressure that is always made by 
the animal against the hand, when it is held to it ; and the 
sense of pleasure that is manifested when the forehead is 
rubbed ; yet direct medical applications to the head, as fomen- 
tations, blisters, and leeches, have always failed to give any re- 
lief; while the remedies that have succeeded have been such 
as were applied immediately to the bowels. 

The treatment I have found most successful consisted in 
early and active evacuations, combined with repeated warm 
bathing, and camphorated embrocations to the bowels. 
Strong anodyne clysters should be frequently administered; 
while large doses of aether, laudanum, and camphor, as pre- 
scribed under Spasm, are the proper internal remedies. In 
one instance strong shocks of electricity did good, and, in an- 
other, repeated affusions of cold water relieved ; but in some 
others this latter method seemed to aggravate the symptoms. A 
complaint somewhat similar occurs in puppies also, but is then 
not attended with stupor, or the disposition to turn round. 
In a very few cases I thought I could trace the affection to 
the action of lead, but, in others, there were no reasonable 
grounds for referring it to any such origin. 




The term condition, as applied to dog's, is correspondent 
with the same term as used among horses ; and is intended to 
characterise a healthy external appearance, united with a ca- 
pability, from full wind and perfect vigour, to go through all 
the exercises required of them. It is, therefore, evident, that 
condition is of material consequence to sportsmen : indeed, it 
is of infinitely more importance than is generally imagined. 
What would be thought of the sporting character, who should 
enter his horse for racing without any previous training? 
And how much chance would he be presumed to have, even 
to save his distance, without this precaution? Is it not equally 
reasonable to suppose that pointers, setters, spaniels, and, more 
than all, greyhounds, require training ; or, in other words, 
to be in full condition also ? It is notorious, that pointers, 
setters, and spaniels, if they are what is termed /ow/ in their 
coats, never have their scent in perfection. It must be equally 
evident that, unless they are in wind, they cannot range with 
speed and durability ; and, without some previous training, it 
is impossible they should be in full wind. Those persons, 
therefore, who expect superior exertion from their dogs in the 
field, would do well to prepare them by a previous atten- 
tion to their condition. In greyhounds, intended either for 
matches, or simple coursing, it is evident that this is abso- 
lutely necessary to insure success. In simple or mere cours- 
ing, they are pitted against an animal very nearly equal in 
speed to themselves, and which animal is always in condition 
by its habits. If, therefore, a dog of acknowledged goodness 
is beaten by a hare, especially at the beginning of the season 
it is ten to one but the condition of the dog is at fault. It is 
self evident that a perfect condition must be more than equally 
important in coursing matches. 

The manner of getting dogs into condition is very simple, 
and either consists in reducing the animal from too full and 
soft a state, to one of firmness and less bulk; or it consists in 


raising: a lean and reduced dog to lustiness, hardness, and 
vig-Qur. Some sportsmen prefer the one state, and some the 
other, to beg'in upon. If a dog* is fat, his treatment must be 
immediately begun upon by physic and exercise, but not by 
a privation of food : and it must be particularly observed, 
that his doses of physic be mild, and often repeated. The 
exercise should be at first gradual and slow, but long conti- 
nued ; and at last it should be increased to nearly what he 
will be accustomed to when hunting. If there is the least 
foulness {i. e. if the secretions of the skin are impure) appa- 
rent in the habit, besides physic and exercise, alteratives 
should be given also. — >See Alteratives. — Some sportsmen 
regularly dress their dogs, before the hunting season, with 
sulphur, even though no breaking out appears, and I by no 
means think the practice a bad one. Others curry or brush 
their dogs, whether any skin affection appears or not; and, 
to greyhounds, it is a very proper means of keeping up the 
equilibrium of the circulation, and of promoting muscular 

When a lean dog is to be got into condition, less physic is 
necessary •, but good flesh feeding, plenty of exercise, and a 
due administration of alteratives, are principally to be resorted 
to: nevertheless, one or two doses of very mild physic will 
here also promote the condition, and even assist the accumu- 
lation of flesh. — -See Fep:ding and Exercise. 

-■»■**■*■ »^- 


All carnivorous animals have naturally a dry constipated 
habit. Dogs are of a mixed nature, and can live indiscrimi- 
nately on vegetable or animal substances, although they pre- 
fer the latter, which, as it is more congenial with their habit 
of hunting, is not to be wondered at. Dogs have, therefore, 
very frequently a tendency to a costive habit ; which tendency 
is increased or lessened according as they are supported, wholly 

128 COUGH. 

or in part, on animal matter. The dog's that are kept as fa- 
vourites about the person, are too apt to have their inclina- 
tion for animal food indulged, which, added to their confine- 
ment, and the heat in which they live, greatly aggravate this 
tendency to costiveness in them. 

Costi'veness is productive of numerous evils ; it increases 
the disposition to mange and other diseased secretions. It 
also produces indigestion, encourages worms, makes the 
breath foetid, and blackens the teeth : but it is principally to 
be avoided from the danger, that the contents of the bowels 
may accumulate and bring on inflammation. — See Inflamed 
Bowels. — Whenever a dog has been costive three days, and 
one or two moderate aperients have failed of opening the 
bowels, it is not prudent to push the means of relief farther 
by more violent purgatives ; for this vv^ould be apt to hurry 
the contents of the intestinal canal into one mass, whose re- 
sistance being too great for the bowels to overcome, inflam- 
mation follows. Mild aperients may be continued, but clys- 
ters are principally to be depended upon. — See Clysters. — 
In such cases, the introduction of the clyster pipe will often 
detect a hardened mass of excrement. If the action of the 
pipe, or the operation of the liquid, should not break this 
down ; it is absolutely necessary to introduce the finger, or, in 
a very small dog, a lesser apparatus, and mechanically to di- 
vide the mass and bring it away. 

The recurrence of costiveness is best prevented by vegetable 
food, and exercise : but when vegetable food disagrees, or is 
obstinately refused, boiled liver often proves a good means of 
counteracting the complaint. — See Feeding. 


Dogs and horses are both very subject to coughs; but, 
while the latter have only an acute and a chronic kind to 
contend with, dogs are troubled with several kinds ; and, as 

COUGH. 129 

these arise from very different causes, call for varied treat- 
ments, and have very different terminations ; so they require 
particularizing". One of the most common coug-hs to which 
dog's are liable is that which usually accompanies distemper. 
This, in general, is short and dry, producing- an effort to bring- 
up a little frothy mucus. This cou^h usually appears when 
a dog is just attaining- his full grow^th, at some time be- 
tween four and twelve months. When, therefore, a young- 
dog coughs much, shivers, is dull, and wastes in flesh, though 
he may eat as usual, it is more than probable that such dog 
has the cough of distemper ; which must be treated bj- the 
means recommended under that head. 

Sometimes a young full grown dog has a short occasional 
cough, that may likewise produce nausea, with the accompa- 
niments of staring hair, and foetor of the breath. This kind 
arises usually from worms, and is to be cured by the means 
recommended under the article Worms. 

Dogs are also liable to cough from a common cold taken. 
This kind of cough may be distinguished from any other, by 
its particular shortness, by its distressing frequency, and by 
the fulness and redness of the eyes ; the ears and paws will 
also generally be found cold. — >S'ee Inflamed Lungs. 

Another frequent cough in dogs is the asthmatic one, which 
usually comes on slowly; gradually becoming hollow and so- 
norous. It is at first less frequent than either of the former 
coughs, until the complaint has attained its full height, when 
it is most urgent and constant. The cough of asthma may 
be readily distinguished from the others, by attending to the 
subject Asthma. 

See S p A « M. 




This barbarous custom is one that would be more honour- 
ed in the breach than in the observance of it. Nature gave 
nothing in vain; some parts being intended for use, and 
some for beauty. That must, therefore, be a false taste, 
which has taught us to prefer a curtailed shape to a perfect 
one, without gaining any convenience by the operation. Ab 
the custom, however, is now fixed, directions are proper for 
its performance. 

Young dogs should not be cropped before the fourth or 
fifth week of their age : when the ears are cut earlier, they 
sprout again, and the form of the crop cannot be so well di- 
rected as when the ear is more developed. It is a barbarous 
custom to twist them off by swinging the dog round, and 
the crop never succeeds so well as when made by scissars, 
which should be large and sharp.— In cropping terriers, be- 
gin at the hinder root of the ear, close to the head ; and, 
when this cut is carried through, one other cross cut from 
the root at the front of the head, if managed with dexterity, 
will be sufficient, and will make an excellent fox crop, with- 
out torturing the animal with numerous trimmings. The less 
oblique the second cut is carried, the more sharp and foxy 
will the crop prove. A rounded crop may be made at one 
cut. The cropping of pug puppies is the most painful of any : 
the cuts must, in general, be repeated, and carried close to 
the root of the ear ; as upon the total absence of external 
ears (which gives an appearance of roundness to the head) 
is the beauty of the animal supposed to consist *. It is best 
to crop puppies in the absence of the bitch ; for it is erroneous 
to suppose that her licking the wounded edges does them 

* It is not a little surprising that this cruel custom should be so 
invariably practised on pug dogs, whose ears are particularly hand- 
some, and hang very gracefully. It is hardly to be conceived how the 
pug's head, which is naturally none of the handsomest, is improved by 
suflfering his cars to remain. 


Ifood ; on the contrary, it only increases pain, and deprives 
the young animals of the be&t balsam, which is the blood. 

Bounding, which is a species of cropping, is also per- 
formed on pointers and hounds, both as a prevention and cure 
of the canker ; but in rounding- only a portion of the flap is 
taken off. When rounding- becomes absolutely necessary for 
the cure of canker, all other means having* failed {see 
Canker), care should be taken that the cutting may go be- 
yond the root of the canker, or the disease will return. 
When rounding is performed on a number of dogs, it is, in 
general, done with a rounding iron. 

Tailing. — When a dog is cropped, it is usual also to cut 
off a portion of the tail. Dog fanciers, as they are termed, 
commonly bite it off; but it were to be wished that a larger 
portion was added to both their knowledge and humanity^ 
The tail does not grow materially after cutting, therefore the 
length may be previously determined on with sufficient accu- 
racy, and cut off with a pair of sharp scissars. If the ears 
and tail are cut off at the same time, it is prudent to tie a 
ligature about the tail to prevent the effusion of blood, as 
sometimes the bleeding, from both ears and tail together, 
will weaken the animal too much ; but, when the tail alone 
is cut, no ligature is necessary. When a ligature is used, 
neither tie it too tight, nor suffer it to remain more than 
twelve hours. 


See Inflamed Bladder. 

See Looseness. 



The joints most liable to this injury ure the shoulder and 
knee before,, and the stifle and hip behind. It is not easy for 
any person to effect the reduction of a dislocation, but one 
habituated to the practice of surgery, and acquainted with 
the anatomy of the animal. As circumstances, however, ne- 
cessary to observe in all cases, it may be remarked that, when 
a dislocation has happened, particular care should be taken 
to examine whether there is a fracture also, which is fre- 
quently the case. Under these circumstances the treatment 
is rendered more complex, from the diiuculty of reducing- the 
dislocation, without using too much violence to the limb. — 
See Fracture. — The mode of detecting- a fracture in these 
cases is not difficult. On moving the joint, in case there is 
fracture, there will be an evident roughness and grating of 
the bones, which will be sensibly felt by the hand. 

When it is attempted to reduce a simple dislocation, it is 
evident that the direction in which the dislocated bone is 
parted from its socket should be first taken into consideration 
in the means used for reducing it. A moderately firm exten- 
sion should then be made by two persons; one holding the 
body and one part of the joint, and the other supporting the 
immediate dislocated limb, at the same time giving the lux- 
ated end a direction towards its socket. If this extension is 
sufficiently and properly made, the dislocated bone will slip 
into its place, and render the limb perfect. When the shoul- 
der is dislocated from the arm, which is a rare occurrence, 
the dislocation may be forwards or backwards: it occurs 
generally forwards. The elbow may be dislocated either 
inwards or outwards ; but it happens more frequently inwards, 
and is ^seldom dislocated without a fracture also. 

The hip joint is oftener dislocated than either of the for- 
mer, and it is most common for the head of the thigh bone to 
be carried upwards and backwards, which makes the hip of 
that side sensibly higher and more backward than the other. 


and renders it easily detected. The muscles of the loins are 
so strong-, that reduction of the thigh is always difficult ; 
however, a firm and judicious extension will effect it. The 
hind knee, or stifle joint, which is that next the hip, is also 
subject to dislocation. This more frequently occurs inward 
than outward ; and, from the strength of the surrounding- 
muscles, is also often found difficult to reduce. It is bu°t 
seldom, likewise, that the elbow is dislocated without a frac- 
ture also. 

When a dislocation has been reduced, a pitch or other 
adhesive piaster should be applied around the joint to keep 
it in its place, which may be further assisted by a proper 
bandage. It may be useful to remark, that the inexperienced 
practitioner can no way detect the presence of either a dislo- 
cation or a fracture, so well as by comparing the sound limb 
or joint attentively with the unsound one. 

The Distemper, 

This scourge to the canine race, now so general and com- 
mon, does not appear to have been known a century ago ; 
and even yet, throughout the European continent, it is "de- 
scribed rather as an occasional epidemic which visits the dif- 
ferent countries every three or four years, than as a fixed 
complaint, like the measles or hooping cough in the human*. 

* In the Grand Encyclopidie Methodique the disease is thus described • 
<' II c'estjette,ily aquelqueannees, une maladie epidemique sur les 
- chiens dans toute PEurope ; il en est mort une grand partie sans one 

1 on put trouver de remade au ma.V>~-Livraison LIX Chasses. 

In the Venerie Normande, by Monsieur Be La Conterie, the Distemper 
IS also described as a disease but lately observed: "Depuis vingt ans 

es chiens courants plus que tons les autres ont ete afflig^s d'une ma- 
J ladle que se communique aussi facilement que le galle ou la petite 
*^' verole, et que maintenant est comme sous le nomme simple de la ma- 
^Madie C'est une sort de peste parfaitement resemblante a la gourme 

des chevaux. Si on me demande quel remade il faut employer centre 


Our continental neig-hbours appear to have transmitted it to 
England, where also it seems first to have appeared in the 
form of an epidemic, but now exists as a permanent disease, 
to which every individual of the canine race has a strong 
constitutional liability. That we imported it, is evident from 
the circumstance that the earliest notices we have of it in 
sporting- works* are subsequent to its announcement in the 

«<cette maladie, jereponds qu'apr^s en avoir fait cent pour un, je me 
" suis convain^u qu'il n'y est aucun d'efficace, quand elle gagne un cer- 
" tain degre."— P. 497, 500, 8vo, Rotten, 1760. 

In opposition to this late appearance of the distemper, it has been 
conjectured that it was not unknown to the antients, and was by them 
called the Angina, being one of three diseases to which dogs, according 
to them, were liable ; Madness and Podagra forming the other two. 
But an attentive examinati<m of the symptoms, as detailed by Aristotle, 
jElian, and such other antient authors as have left us their observations 
on the canine race, will clearly show that the distemper, as it is known 
among us, was unknown to them. Their angina appears to have been 
an accidental epidemic, which confined its attacks almost wholly to the 
throat, producing faucial imposthumes, like strangles in horses, or quinsy 
in the human J but the grand characteristic, of primary and continued 
discharge from the nasal mucous membranes, is wholly unnoticed. — 
See ^LiAN de Nat. Animal, lib. iv, c. 40 ; Aristotle Hist. Animal, lib. viii, 
c. 22, &c. &c. 

* Of late years, the prevalence of this complaint has engaged the 
attention of many distinguished characters. In every treatise of sport- 
ing, in some agricultural works, and in one or two veterinary publica- 
tions, it has been treated of. A few eminent medical men have also 
noticed it; among whom Drs. Jenner and Darwin stand foremost. The 
former ever to be revered character, whose philanthropy and general 
worth have reared him an imperishable monument, has drawn a portrait 
of the disease in the first volume of the Medical and Chirurgical Tracts, 
which is sufficiently perspicuous and characteristic for the general pur- 
poses of description, but infinitely too contracted to make it a practical 
reference in this eternally varying malady. Dr. Jenner was induced 
to turn his attention to the subject from an impression on his mind, that 
vaccination would prove a preventive to distemper as well as to human 
small-pox. Unfortunately both for the human and the brute, he was 
partially mistaken in the one, and there is too much reason to fear 
wholly so in the other. Vaccination, as far as my experience goes, 
neither rxempts the caninr rare from the atlack of distemper, nor docs 


pag^es of similar continental publications ; and aUo from our 
having designated it by a translation of the popular term it 
was first known by in France, La Maladie. But although 
the distemper may be now considered as a constitutional 
disease, like measles or hooping-cough, it nevertheless still 
puts on, occasionally, not only its epidemial, but also an 
endemial appearance, and ravages the dogs of a particular 
district more than of others; and, now and then, when it 
attacks with epidemic fury and peculiarity the dogs of London 
or other large cities, it is scarcely observed among those in 
the country. In an epidemic form the disease presents many 
varieties. I have seen it accompanied with marked biliary af- 
fection in every dog attacked that season: many of the cases of 
that period had also a pustular eruption. I have seen it also 
make its appearance in a few cases, and during one particular 
season, by a phlegmonous tumour of some part of the body, 
but principally of the head. In the summer of 1805, many 
of the distempered subjects had a peculiar affection of the 

it appear at all to mitigate the severity of the complaint. I am aware 
that the point is yet at issue, and that the practice of vaccination is still 
continued among dogs ; hut I have seen such palpable and repeated 
instances of failure, when operated on in the most careful manner ; and 
I have, in the alleged instances of its success, been enabled to trace the 
matter so clearly to the operation of accidental circumstances, or the 
report to exaggerated statements ; that I have no hesitation in pro- 
nouncing it wholly inefficacious as regards dogs. 

With Dr. £)ARWiN the distemper is a debilitating catarrh, which is best 
treated by free access to the open air, which, as it passes over the ul- 
cerated surfaces of the nasal membranes, will tend to heal them. Dis- 
tempered dogs should also be allowed to drink water from a running 
str'^am, that the contagious mucus of the nostrils, having escaped one 
passage, may not again enter another, and thus re-poison the dog. 
Such is the theory and treatment of this disease, according to this fan- 
ciful author ; and equally unsatisfactory appear all the various de- 
scriptions and directions relative to it, scattered about in sporting and 
other works. Neither can it be otherwise, when in most instances the 
disease has been described from the appearances as they presented 
themselves in one kennel ; often as it appeared in one litter ; or even 
from a single individual. 


bowels, in addition to the other symptoms. It commenced 
suddenly, like spasmodic cholic, appeared to give great pain, 
but neither constipated nor relaxed the bowels. It usually 
continued acute two or three days, and then terminated fa- 
tally. In such cases as did recover, active purgatives of 
calomel and aloes appeared beneficial. It may be remarked, 
that, whenever distemper rages as an epidemic, it commonly 
assumes some characteristic type. One year shall be remark- 
able for the harassing and obstinate diarrhaea that appears ; 
another from the more than usual tendency to convulsive fits ; 
while in a third, a malignant putrid type will sweep off 
many. I have likewise noticed, that convulsions are most 
prevalent in winter, and purging in summer. As a general 
rule, this, however, like others, is subject to variation. 

The distemper has now become so naturalized among our 
dogs, that very few escape the disease altogether. A con- 
stitutional liability to it is inherent in every individual of the 
canine race*, which predisposition is usually acted upon by 
some occasional cause. The predisposition itself, in some 
breeds, seems sufficient to produce it, and such have it fre- 
quently very soon after birth t ; but the predisposition is 
more frequently acted on by some occasional cause, of which 
there are many. Contagion may be regarded as the princi- 
pal of these : few dogs who have not passed through the 
disease escape it when exposed to either the effluvia, or to 
the contact of the morbid secretions received on a mucous or 
an ulcerated surface^ ; yet inoculation with distemper virus 

* I am not aware whether the other members of the canine genus, the 
wolf, fox, and jackal, are subject to the distemper : I believe no proof 
exists that either of them are so ; and, as I should suppose the disease to 
be of factitious origin, so I would consider them as exempt. 

t This appears particularly in the diminutive breeds, as pugs, fancy 
spaniels, pigmy terriers, Italian greyhounds, and other varieties arti- 
ficially reared and treated. 

I The general transpiration or effluvia from the surface of the body is 
of a particular kind in distemper : to those acquainted with the disease, 
it is impossible to mistake the peculiar odour occasioned by it. This 


frequently fails to produce it, and the disposition to receive 
the contagion is, likewise, not always in equal force, but it 
appears stronger or weaker at various periods in the same 
animal, and is perhaps under the controul of the accidental 
changes in health, fulness of habit, &c. &c. Cold applied in 
any noxious manner to the system is a very common origin 
of the complaint: throwing into water, washing, and not 
afterwards drying the animal; unusual exposure during a 
night, &c., are frequent causes of distemper in young and 
tender dogs. I have seen it produced by violent haemorrhage, 
by a sudden change from a full to a low diet*, and, in fact, 
any great or sudden derangement in the system is sufficient 
to call the predisposition into action. 

The usual period of its attack is that of puberty, or when 
the dog attains his full growth : in some it is protracted to 
two, three, or even many years old ; and a very few escape 
it altogether. The having once passed through the disease 
is not a certain preventive to a future attack. It occasionally 
appears a second time ; and an instance fell under my notice 
of a third recurrence, with the intervention of two years be- 
tween each attack. 

Dogs in confined situations certainly have the disease with 

effluvia, I have reason to believe, is alone sufficient to occasion the dis- 
temper in another dog : that the miasma arising from the morbid secre- 
tions of the ej^es and nose will do it, I have numerous proofs ; but I 
doubt whether the morbid matter itself, received into the stomach, in- 
dependent of the other contagious agents, will generate the complaint : 
some experiments tend to prove that in this mode the matter is inno- 
cuous. In general cases, both the effluvia and the contact of the morbid 
matter received on a mucous surface, as the nose, lips, &c. are so highly 
contagious, that a very short exposure to the one, and a momentary ap- 
plication of the other, are sufficient for the production. 

* I have constantly found that full feeding, so as to produce fatness, 
is the best preventive against a premature attack of the distemper, 
which is to be dreaded from the constitution not having gained strength 
sufficient to enable it to withstand the debilitating effects of the disease. 
In puppies that are fat and full fed, not only is the complaint protract- 
ed, but, when it does make its attack, such dogs always fare best 
under it. 



greater severity than those in the country; nevertheless 
there is by no means that extreme disproportion in the se- 
verity which is observed in many other instances. Some 
breeds have it much worse than others ; and while all the lit- 
ters of one bitch will be found to possess it with constant and 
fatal severity, those of another will as usually pass through it 
favourably. Particular varieties have it also with different 
degrees of malignity. To greyhounds and pugs it is pecu- 
liarly fatal : terriers have it worse than spaniels ; and setters, 
I think, fare worse under it than pointers. It may likewise 
be regarded as a general rule, that the younger the dog the 
greater will be the severity of the disease : very young dogs 
seldom live with it. 

The distemper commences its attack in various ways ; its 
symptoms throughout are marked with more variety than 
appears in any other complaint; and, whether we consider 
its first attack, its progress, duration, or termination, all 
are alike variable. Some symptoms are, however, common 
to most cases, and some appearances are usually found in all. 
Of these I will first endeavour, for the sake of perspicuity, to 
give an outline ; and afterwards notice the numerous varia- 
tions that occur. 

Among the early symptoms of distemper, a short, dry, husky 
cough may be reckoned as one of the most common. In some 
cases, this cough is never severe throughout the complaint ; in 
others, it increases until it becomes constant and distressing, 
producing, by its irritation of the fauces, ineffectual efforts to 
vomit ; but a little frothy mucus only is produced by the joint 
act of the stomach and lungs. A few escape with little or 
no cough at all. A watery secretion moistens the eyes and 
nose in the early stages of almost every distempered case. 
Sometimes, this appearance precedes the cough ; at others, 
it succeeds it; and sometimes they appear together. This 
flow from the eyes and nose (which is nothing more than the 
natural mucus of the parts thinned and increased by inflamma- 
tion) in a little time takes on another appearance, and, as par- 
tial or total ulceration follows, so the secretion takes on a thick- 


ened mucous or purulent form, and pus, or matter, flows from 
the eves and nose, and, now and then, from the ears also. 
When the secretion has become thick and pus-like, the dog-, 
when first seen in the morning-, presents himself with his eyes 
and nose stopped or glued up with the viscid matter which 
exuded during- the night. During the day, the irritation pro- 
duces frequent sneezing, and a disposition to rub the nose 
and eyes violently to relieve them. In many cases, a lessen- 
ed appetite, dulness, and emaciation, precede all other ap- 
pearances ; and when they are not the precursors to the com- 
plaint, they are certain to follow in the train. As a neces- 
sary consequence of the fever attendant on the disease, a 
quickened pulse, hurried respiration, shivering, disinclination 
to exercise, impatience of cold, and anxiety for warmth, are 
also present in every well marked case. Diarrhoea, or loose- 
ness, is now and then a very early symptom also ; in others, it 
does not appear so early ; but, in all, it is too apt to make 
its appearance at some period of the complaint. A general 
prostration of strength marks every bad case of distemper : 
in some it comes on very early, in others it is more protract- 
ed ; but in all it proves, sooner or later, a certain accompa- 
niment to the complaint. It is not uncommon, whether the 
general weakness is trifling or considerable, for a peculiar pa- 
ralytic debility to appear also, which is more frequently con- 
fined to the loins and hinder extremities ; in which cases, 
although the fore parts may remain tolerably strong, the 
hinder ones will appear very and sometimes totally paralyzed. 
Now and then this paralytic tendency extends to all the 
limbs, and to the head also, when the animal is seen to 
reel as though drunk, or to become aff'ected with spasmodic 

From this summary of symptomatic appearances, it may be 
fair to characterise the distemper as a specific contagious ca- 
tarrh, that commences its attack on the mucous membranes 
of the head, on those of the bronchial passages, or on the 
membranes of both at the same time; and, according as the 
one or the other, or both, are the immediate and primary 




subjects of attack, so do the symptoms vary. When the 
membranes of the head, particularly those of the eyes and 
nose, are the parts first attacked and principally affected, 
the animal exhibits all the symptoms common with a human 
person labonring- under what is called a cold in the head ; as 
weight and heat in the forehead, sneezing-, moisture from the 
eyes and nose, first thin and watery, then thicker and mattery, 
or pus-like : with shivering-, listlessnes, lessened appetite, 
and impatience of lig-ht often. But when the bronchial pas- 
sag-es are the first objects of attack *, a short dry coug-h 
usually precedes these symptoms ; and if the lungs themselves 
become affected with a symptomatic peripneumony, a quick- 
ened respiration is observed, with an increased severity of 
the other symptoms; but, as the specific seat of the disease 
is in the pituitary or nasal membrane, so it is seldom that 
the foregoing- symptoms are wanting, for, if they do not ap- 
pear before the cough, they very soon follow. In the early 
stage above described, the disease is sometimes successfully 
combated by easy methods, sometimes without any assist- 
ance at all ; it continues for a week or two to affect the ani- 
mal mildly, and then gradually disappears. However, in 
many, indeed in most cases, particularly among high bred 
and artificially treated dogs, the disease does not continue to 
confine its attack wholly to the nasal or bronchial mem- 
branes, but either through the medium of continuity, conti- 
guity, or of sympathy, it proceeds to affect other parts ; 
when other symptoms and appearances become superadded 
to those already noticed. From the nasal membranes, the 
affection appears often transmitted (probably through the 
medium of the frontal sinuses) to the cerebral coverings, 

* I think I have observed, that when pneumonic symptoms are the 
first marks of the complaint, or, in other words, when cough, wasting 
of flesh, dulness, and loss of appetite, precede the running from the nose 
and eyes, the case may be commonly traced to a cold taken. When the 
disease is derived from another dog, by contagion or infection, the eyes 
and nose usually evince a primary affection of the head more than of the 
chest. I, however, by no means consider this as a fixed rule. 


perhaps to the brain itself; where its effects produce, in 
some cases, that paralysis of the loins and hinder extremi- 
ties before noticed; and in others, spasmodic movements, 
or tvritching's, over the muscles of a part or of the whole 
body, which, when they are violent, give the sufferers a 
grotesque and ridiculous appearance. Both the paralysis and 
these spasms remain, in some cases, for months after the 
other symptoms have disappeared, and, sometimes, even 
through hfe. When the cerebral affection is more acute, 
a symptomatic epilepsy appears in the form of those convul- 
sive fits so common and so fatal to distemper. These fits are 
generally, at first, trifling, and are often confined to the 
muscles of the jav^s, which appear to champ, as though irri- 
tated by an unpleasant substance put into the mouth ; a little 
foam is usually produced by the champing, and in two or 
three minutes the affection ceases. Cold water thrown in 
the face, or even a little encouragement by fondling, will 
frequently immediately remove these attacks : but it is very 
seldom that these convulsive appearances, however triflmg, 
having once occurred during the progress of distemper, but 
that they are followed up by others, at uncertain intervals of 
a few minutes to a few hours, each succeeding fit increasing 
in violence until the whole frame is contorted by the effect of 
the convulsion: the animal cries, rolls, runs round, or is 
drawn first to one side and then to the other. The fits are 
attended sometimes with a total, sometimes with a partial 
mental ahenation. When it is total, the dog is most violent; 
he waters and dungs unconsciously, he tears up the ground, 
bites every thing around him, and not unfrequently himself 
also. When the fit is over, he shakes himself, and looks and 
acts as usual, unless the attacks are very violent and long 
continued, when they leave him greatly exhausted and dis- 
pirited. The second, third, or fourth day from the first ap- 
pearance of these epileptic attacks commonly closes the scene, 
the animal being worn down by the additional strength and 
increased frequency of each succeeding recurrence. 

The attack of convulsions may be often foretold for some 


days even previous to its appearance. When, during- great 
emaciation and loss of appetite, a distempered dog suddenly 
appears more cheerful, eats heartily, and shews more bright- 
ness and briskness of the eyes than before, it may be ex- 
pected that he is going to be attacked with fits. If the 
appetite becomes at once not only considerable but greedy, 
and the eyes look very bright and sparkling, the event may 
be considered as certain. In some instances, the sudden 
stopping of the looseness is likewise the forerunner, perhaps 
the occasion of fits: but it is remarkable, that, when the 
diarrhoea is overcome by medicine, such an event rarely oc- 
curs. A cessation of the secretion from the head will some- 
times likewise occur before the epileptic attack, and it is by 
no means difficult to conceive how so sudden an alteration in 
the action of the contiguous surfaces may materially affect 
the brain. Dissection of subjects who have died from this 
sympathetic epilepsy does not throw much light on the na- 
ture of it ; sometimes there is sanguineous effusion over the 
brain, and an increased vascularity of its membranes ; in 
other instances, the cerebral substance has appeared to be 
slightly softened, and now and then an undue secretion has 
appeared within the ventricles. — See Fits, 

Instances occur where, from the bronchial passages, the 
affection proceeds to the substance of the lungs, and pro- 
duces all the appearances of peripneumony (which see). 
Now and then, so much congestion takes place within the 
chest, as to carry the dog off" in a few days ; but more fre- 
quently the pneumonic attack is less violent, and continues to 
harass him with a distressing cough, and every mark of inflam- 
matory fever. From the lungs, the specific inflammation ex- 
tends to the liver, oftentimes ; in which cases the emaciation 
and debility become more peculiarly apparent; a pustular erup- 
tion often appears ; the inside of the mouth, the whites of the 
eyes, and every part where the skin is naked, looks yellow; 
the urine is of a very deep yellow colour from the bile in- 
fused, and pain is expressed on pressing the belly. On the 
dissection of cases that have died in this way, I have fancied 


I could distinguish some difference between the morbid ap- 
pearances that the thoracic and abdominal viscera have pre- 
sented from those apparent when the subjects have died 
from peripneumony, or hepatitis, unconnected with distem- 
per. The parts subjected to the specific inflammation were 
more than usually pale, flaccid, and relaxed, and exhibited 
less vascularity than is usually apparent when the inflamma- 
tion has been pure and unspecific. 

After the distempered attack has been made on the head 
or bronchial passages, or both, it is not uncommon for the 
further violence of the affection to appear directed to the 
alimentary canal principally, in which cases a diarrhoea or 
purging commences, that often proves so obstinate as to 
frustrate every attempt to stop it; and it either proceeds to 
destroy the animal by emaciation (without, perhaps, any 
great apparent severity in the other symptoms), or, by its 
debilitating nature, it paves the way for an attack of the 
convulsions. Now and then, however, the diarrhoea pre- 
cedes the other symptoms, but this is less common : it some- 
times, also, precedes a declining appetite, but, in every 
instance, a total disinclination to food ensues when the loose- 
ness has extended beyond two or three days *. 

* It would not be uninteresting to inquire how far the diarrhoea, so 
prevalent in distemper, may be considered as a primary morbid attack 
on the bowels themselves ; or how far it is purely symptomatic, and de- 
pendent on a diseased state of other parts. We know that a relaxation 
of bowels is common in many human complaints, as phthisis pulmonalis, 
&c. &c., and which is more the result of a sympathetic influence than of 
a direct miasma applied to the organs themselves. We also know that 
a secondary miasma may be generated by the altered secretions of mor- 
bid parts. Are we to attribute the diarrhoea of distemper to these mias- 
mata generated in the head, and then transmitted along the alimentary 
canal, orothewise absorbed from the lungs, and carried by means of the 
circulation into the same track, where they produce their irritating in- 
fluence, as we witness in cynanche maligna, and other putrid diseases ? 
The early appearance of diarrhoea, in some cases, would lead to a con- 
clusion that the former mode may operate ^ while the increased fre- 



Another, and most fatal type of the disease, is that of a 
malignant putrid fever into which the distemper not unfre- 
quently runs, either from its catarrhal, pneumonic, or he- 
patic states ; that is, however it commences, it does in many 
cases degenerate into this malignant state, particularly in very 
hot weather, or when an epidemic tendency to this type of 
disease is prevalent. These cases are characterised by an 
extreme debility, rapid emaciation, and total loss of appetite, 
accompanied with an enormous purulent discharge from the 
eyes and nose, but particularly from the latter, and some- 
times from the ears also. As the disease proceeds, the pitu- 
itary discharge becomes extreme, of a most foetid odour, and 
often bloody; sometimes a considerable nasal haemorrhage 
will occur. The eyes likewise, and sometimes the ears also, 
pour out putrid pus; the gums bleed, and the tongue is 
either furred with a dark crust, or presents marks of ulcera- 
tion. . Within the nose deep ulcers appear, the secretion from 
which is so acrid in r,Tany instances, as to produce a spe- 
cies of coryza, which excoriates the lips, cheeks, and every 
part it touches. Not only are the exhalations from the nose, 
eyes, and mouth, most foetid, but the whole body emits a 
cadaverous stench also. Diarrhoea is often present likewise, 
and tends greatly to aggravate the other symptoms, especi- 
ally when the stools are bloody, which is very commonly the 
case. The duration of this malignant form of the disease va- 
ries according to its severity, the strength of the patient, or 
the means made use of to counteract it. I have seen it carry 
off a dog in three or four days, and I have not unfrequently 
witnessed its protraction to as many weeks ; but, in all, its 
fatal tendency renders it extremely difficult to combat. On 
dissection of such as die of it, not only the mucous membranes 
of the head and chest present ulceration, but the whole ali- 
mentary canal affords proof of its virulence, by livid spots 

quency with which purging appears later in the complaint, would 
strengthen an opinion that the latter was the agent. 


or ulcerated excoriations ; and the whole animal mass, solids 
as well as fluids, seem involved in one common putrid solu- 

Treatment of Distemper.-- Accordrng to the mode m which 
the disease attacks a dog-, so must the treatment be conduct- 
ed. It is to the numerous varieties in the complaint that we 
are led to attribute that endless number of remedies continu- 
ally prescribed for it; every one of which, from being- occa- 
sionally beneficial, becomes, in the mind of the person using 
it, infallible. Distemper is, therefore, seldom spoken of 
among- a number of sportsmen, but each of them is ac- 
quainted with a certain cure, one that has never failed with 
him. Whenever I could gain a knowledge of the composi- 
tion, I have always given these nostrums, or private recipes, 
a fair trial : but I never yet found that any one of them an- 
swered the account given of it. In fact, the varieties in the 
complaint are so numerous, that hardly any two cases can be 
treated exactly alike ; consequently no one remedy can be 
equally applicable to all : for, however efficacious it may prove 
in a certain number of instances, in others it will produce but 
equivocal benefit. 

Perhaps two out of every three cases of distemper com- 
mence by dulness, inclination to sleep, wasting, shivering, 
a husky cough, with a flow of moisture from the eyes and 
nose. In these instances, the proper course is to commence 
with an emetic— -See Emetics.— Should there be any dispo- 
sition to costiveness, provided the dog is strong and fat, give 
also a mild purge ; but if he is weakly, or the least inclined 
to looseness of bowels, abstain from the purge. After the 
emetic, or purge, has ceased to operate some hours, give 
one, two, or three grains of antimonial powder every morn- 
ing, or every evening, or both, according as the symptoms 
are more or less urgent*. But, in cases where the cough is 

* Where a prejudice in favour of Dr. James's Powder exists, that may 
be givfen in similar doses ; but the antimonial powder, so called, is, to 
all intents and purposes, the same preparation. 


frequent and distressing-, the following- powders will be pre- 
ferable : — 

Antimouial powder 12 grains 

Powdered foxglove 8 grains 

Nitre, in powder half a dram. 

Mix, and divide into ten doses if the dog- is small, into seven 
if of a middling size, and into five if he is large ; and give 
one of them every night and morning. Continue this plan 
for two or three days ; after which, if the dog remains strong, 
give another emetic, and, when it is worked off, recommence 
the fever remedies. Should diarrhoea or purging come on, 
discontinue these medicines, and have recourse to those de- 
tailed under the head Looseness of Bowels. 

Should the bowels not be relaxed, as goon as the inflam- 
matory symptoms have somewhat abated, and when, instead 
of a watery moisture, the eyes and nose exude pus, or matter, 
then the fever remedies, above described, may very properly 
give place to others. 

It is at this period of the disease I have experienced the 
happiest effects from the popular Distemper Remedy, dis- 
covered by me. This medicine has stood the test of nearly 
thirty years* trial ; and although the varied appearances in 
the complaint render other auxiliaries absolutely necessary, 
yet no case of distemper can occur (that only excepted in 
which the purging continues without intermission) in which 
this Powder may not be given with great benefit in some 
stasre of the disease. 

Whenever, therefore, this Remedy is within reach, 1 would 
strongly recommend that it may be tried at this period of the 
complaint, according to the directions given with it. It should 
also be repeated as long as the benefit resulting from it is 
striking and marked. But as cases will occur where the de- 
bility which is apt to follow the purulent state becomes ex- 
cessive, so it will be, in such cases, prudent to join with this 
Remedy the tonic remedy detailed below. Likewise, when the 
Distemper Powders are not at hand, or when they have been 
tried without evident benefit, it will be prudent, after the 


directions already detailed have been complied with, to pro- 
ceed with the following- tonic plan of treatment alone ; of 
which it is not too much to say, that it will prove nearly as 
universal in its application, and as salutary in its effect, as 
even the specific above alluded to : — 

Gum myrrh 1 dram 

Gum benjamin 2scruples 

Balsam of Peru 1 dram 

Camomile flowers, powdered 2 drams 

Camphor 1 scruple. 

Mix with honey, conserve of roses, or other adhesive matter, 
into twelve, nine, or six balls, according* to the size of the 
dog, and give one of them every nig-ht and morning-. 

If the weakness^becomes extreme, if the matter from the 
eyes and nose flows rapidly, and is very fcetid, add two drams 
of cascarilla bark, and a grain of opium, to the mass of balls. 
In such cases also, strong- gravies, or gruel made as caudle 
with ale in it, should be given or forced down two or three 
times a-day. Meat balls may be also forced down, if the dog 
will not eat voluntarily. 

During every stage of distemper, and under every variety, 
except the very inflammatory state which occurs in the com- 
mencement, it is proper to feed liberally ; and, as soon as the 
animal refuses his food, it is equally proper that nutriment 
should he forced down. — See the subject oi feeding the sick 
at the commencement of the work *. 

But, from what has been remarked, it will be evident that 
the foregoing type is not the only one by which distemper 
makes its attack ; on the contrary, it sometimes commences 
bydiarrhcea or looseness, and which, instead of being hurtful, 
is unfortunately often supposed useful : in which cases, from a 
fear of the consequences of checking it, the dog is very fre- 

♦ When food is voluntarily taken, it is infinitely to be preferred to 
forcing ; every enticement should therefore be used to encourage this : 
but when /orcin^i becomes absolutely necessary, the stomach should not 
be overloaded, or the animal may bring what is given up again, which, 
if once done, is very apt to be repeated after each forcing. 


quently brong-lit so low as to be past recovery. But it can- 
not be too strong-ly insisted on, that even in the very first 
stao-es of the complaint, and when even artificial purgatives 
seem to be indicated by the symptoms, this voluntary 
purging should always be considered as a morbid one, and 
promptly checked, if not entirely stopped. At all other pe- 
riods of the complaint, it should be entirely and immediately 
stopped. At whatever period likewise it occurs, during the 
progress of the complaint, when other remedies are admi- 
nistring, it is proper that they should be suspended, and 
astrijigents only used, until the diarrhoea has entirely ceased, 
when the former remedies may be again had recourse to. — See 

When the distemper appears with symptoms of great affec- 
tion of the chest, as described among its varieties, bleed by 
the neck, blister the chest, and treat (as long as peripneu- 
monic symptoms prevail) as directed under inflamed lungs ; 
taking care to carry the depleting system on further than is 
absolutely necessary. 

Sometimes, though not very frequently, the distemper com- 
mences its attack by a convulsive fit; in which instance 
also it is proper to begin the treatment by an emetic, and to 
follow it up by a purgative *. And at whatever period of the 
complaint this symptomatic epilepsy makes its appearance, 
immediately that the dog comes out of the first fit, give 
a very strong emetic, as the most effective means of all others 
to prevent a second attack. Should, however, other fits 
succeed after the eihetic, the following medicine should be 
actively persevered in : — 

£ther 1 dram 

Tincture of opium (iawdawMm) halfadram 

Camphor 10 graius 

Spirit of hartshorn 1 dram. 

* I have observed that one, or even two, violent fits appearing thus 
early in the complaint, are not always followed by others, nor by any 
greater severity of symptoms than usual. Is such a fit at all similar to 
what sometimes precedes eruptive human complaints ? 


Mix, and give forty, sixty, or eighty drops, according- to size, 
every hour or two, in a spoonful of ale, increasing the dose 
after each fit. Use a very warm bath, and keep the animal 
both warm and moist some hours afterwards, by means of 
wrapping- in flannel and keeping- before a fire : avoid irrita- 
tion, force nourishment, and endeavour to shorten every fit, 
by sprinkling- cold water in the face, and likewise by sooth- 
ing language and manner, which have often the happiest 
effect in lessening the force and duration of the convulsion. 
If these means should fortunately succeed, continue to keep 
the animal quiet, and particularly refrain from giving much 
exercise, which is very apt to bring on a recurrence of the 


The importance of the subject renders it not improper 
again to repeat, that, of all the symptoms that appear, the 
epileptic convulsions are the most fatal. It is, therefore, of 
the utmost consequence to prevent their occurrence ; for, 
when once they have made their attack, art is too apt to fail 
in attempting their removal. The best preventive means 
that I know of, are to avoid or to remove all circumstances 
tending to produce debility, as looseness, low poor diet, too 
much exercise, exposure to cold, extreme evacuation from 
the nose, and, no less, the operation of mental irritation, 
from fear, surprise, or regret ; all of which, I must again 
repeat, are very common causes of fits in distemper *. 

* The extreme fatality attending these fits prevents me from embody- 
ing in the substance of the treatment more means for their removal ; but 
it may not be improper here to notice, that, in addition to the remedies 
detailed, I have occasionally administered cajeput oil, castor, musk, 
oil of amber internally and externally, belladonna, and nitrate of silver ; 
but all with equivocal success only. Blisters to the head, and stimu- 
lating applications to the nostrils, I have also tried, with some alleviation 
of the violence and longer periods between the recurrence, but not with 
sufficient benefit to enable me to recommend them very strongly. A li- 
gature round the neck, not tight enough to impede respiration, but suf- 
ficiently so to prevent a free passage of blood to and from the head, I 
have also tried, but I cannot say with any marked benefit; I feel how- 


It yet remains to point out the proper treatment of such 
cases of distemper as degenerate into a malignant putrid 
type, either epidemic or occasional. The symptoms of this 
variety of the disease have been already detailed, and from 
them it will be evident that our curative endeavours should 
be principally directed to prevent the septic or putrid ten- 
dency that exists. As an internal medicine, either of the 
following mixtures may be tried ; beginning with the first, 
and changing it for the second if it should produce purging, 
or not sit easy on the stomach, or if benefit does not follow 
its administration. Under either of these circumstances, the 
second may also be afterwards changed for the third : — 

Acetated water of ammonia {Mindererus's ^ ^ ounces 

spirit) S 

Peruvian bark, in powder 2 drams 

Tincture of opium 40 drops: 


Yeast 2 ounces 

Decoction of bark 2 ounces : 


Spirit of nitrous asther half an ounce 

Camphor half a dram 

Aromatic confection 2 drams 

Camomile infusion 4 ounces. 

Give of either, one, two, three, or four table spoonsful, accord- 
ing to the size, every three or four hours. If diarrhoea should 
prove a bar to the administration, increase the opiate to twenty 
drops with each dose, or alternate these remedies with those 
detailed under the head Looseness ; but in every case of this 
nature, diarrhoea is so much to be dreaded, that the attempts 
to restrain it must give place to every other, when, from its vi- 
olence, the antiseptic and astringent plans cannot be carried 

ever inclined to recommend a further trial of this experiment. Whatever 
means are resorted to, they should be prompt and active ; for as these 
cases may be considered as otherwise hopeless, so very powerful meant, 
may be applied, and very active medicines employed with propriety. 


on together. Food of the most nutritious quality, as already 
insisted on, should, in these cases particularly, be unsparingly 
administered. Free access of air is indispensible, and a con- 
stant change of litter and the removal of every thing likely to 
harbour the putrid exhalations, is most desirable. The foetor 
may be very properly corrected by sprinkling the place the 
animal is placed in with vinegar. I have, sometimes, used 
equal parts of vinegar and water as a daily wash to the body 
of the dog himself with benefit ; and in very bad cases, 
when the running from the nose is extreme in quantity, 
bloody, and very offensive, and when ulcers are apparent 
within either the nose or mouth, or both, I would recom- 
mend both nose and mouth to be syringed or washed with 
the following, by means of a small piece of sponge tied to a 
skewer : — 

Cayenne pepper half a dram 

Vinegar 2 ounces 

Decoction of either peruvian, oak, or elml^ 

j" 4 ounces. 

The malignant distemper is sometimes accompanied with a 
gathering of matter within a tumour which is usually situated 
near the commissure of the jaws. When the suppurative 
process is complete, and the tumour bursts, a malignant 
spreading ulcer succeeds, which, in all the cases 1 witness- 
ed, the most active means proved insufficient to arrest. 

It will, perhaps, excite some surprise, that 1 have so long 
omitted to mention that very popular remedy for distemper, 
a seton in the neck. In truth, I think setons very seldom de- 
serve the commendation bestowed on them ; on the contrary, 
I believe they sometimes do more harm than good. In the 
latter stages of the complaint, I am certain they weaken the 
patient, and prove very hurtful. In one state in which dis- 
temper sometimes commences, however, I think them highly 
advisable ; and this is where there is evidently much active 
inflammation going on in the head : that is, when at the very 
outset of the complaint there is such an impatience of light. 


that the dog cannot face it, but blinks, closes his eyes, and 
hides himself as much as possible from it. The state I allude 
to, is not when the eyes are closed with matter, but it is at 
an earlier period of the complaint, and when, in general 
cases, the eyes are affected with a watery moisture only, which 
in these instances is also present, but with a more than usual 
increase of irritability in these organs, rendering them unable 
to bear the light without pain. On looking into the e\es in 
such cases, the substance of the globe appears inflamed and 
bloodshot, and the pupil red and fiery. When these symptoms 
are present, I would recommend the use of setons in the neck, 
as the best means of causing a counter action. In such cases, 
also, warm steamings to the head, or even fomentations of 
vinegar and w^ater, may be very properly tried. For, it may 
be regarded as a rule subject to few exceptions, that these 
appearances prognosticate that the animal will have the com- 
plaint badly ; these cases, in general, becoming soon affected 
with convulsions. If a dog thus attacked is moderately 
strong, and in tolerable condition, bleeding and purging are 
also proper : but even here the lowering' system must not be 
pursued too far, or it will hasten the attack of fits. 

In the advanced stage of distemper, should the eyes be- 
come ulcerated, which is a very common occurrence, treat 
them as directed under Diseases of the Eyes : and it may 
not be improper to remark here, that those ophthalmic ulcers 
arising from distemper, though they may appear to have ac- 
tually destroyed the eye, will yet often gradually heal, the 
parts will reinstate themselves, and the sight will return un- 
injured. This regeneration is, however, peculiar to the 
ophthalmia of distemper. 

Finally, as a guide to the inexperienced, it may not be 
improper to recapitulate the general treatment under the 
usual circumstances of the complaint; for this end, the fol- 
lowing rules may be regarded as a summary: — Feed libe- 
rally ; carefully remedy a continued looseness of bowels ; give 
exercise very sparingly ; keep warm in every stage but the pu- 
trid ; carefully avoid irritation ; and ever keep in mind, that the 

DROPSY. 153 

distemper is a disease, more than any other, liable to a re- 
currence : therefore do not discontinue the care or the me- 
dical treatment for at least three weeks after the recovery 
has appeared complete. And as a recurrence of the com- 
plaint frequently appears by one of those fits which have 
been described as so fatal, from their being" so usually followed 
up by others, with increased strength and frequency, so this 
secondary attack should be carefully guarded against, by a 
continuance of the medical treatment of the first, for a con- 
siderable time after all the symptoms have disappeared ; and 
until the health, strength, and acquisition of flesh, have be- 
come complete. But in the event of a return of the disease, 
should a fit be the first symptom of it, immediately give a 
strong emetic, and proceed as directed before. Should the 
recurrence be marked by returning dulness, and disinclination 
to food, or, as is the case sometimes, by a return of the 
looseness, so recourse should again be had to the former 
treatment directed as proper for these states ; but principally 
the tonic or strengthening plan is proper in these secondary 
attacks, and which should again be continued even a more 
considerable length of time after all symptoms have ceased 
than before. 


Is by no means uncommon in canine pathology. Dogs 
are most subject to ascites, or dropsy of the belly. In the 
next degree of frequency they have dropsy of the chest ; 
less frequently they have encysted dropsy ; and, least of all, 
are they subject to anasarca, or dropsy of the skin, unless 
when accompanied by ascites. 

Ascites, or dropsy of the belly, as I have before remarked, 
is not an uncommon disease, and a prodigious quantity of 
water is sometimes accumulated within the abdomen. The 
causes of the disease are various. Among the most common 
are long-continued asthma, and a diseased liver. Mange, 


154 DROPSY. 

also, of long- standing and wholly neglected, very frequently 
degenerates into dropsy. The accumulation of water is some- 
times slow, at others very rapid; and the symptoms that 
precede the attack are, of course, as various as the causes 
that produce it. In some cases the forerunner is a harsh 
cough ; in other instances nothing is observed but a ravenous 
appetite * ; and the dog, although he may eat an additional 
quantity, yet he will waste in flesh. Gradually, however, his 
belly begins to swell, and grows round, hard, and shining. 
The breathing becomes quick and laborious, and he lies down 
with difficulty ; he drinks much : and, though in the early 
stages he may eat heartily, yet, as the disease advances, his 
appetite fails, and, sooner or later, he becomes suffocated 
from the impediment to the free action of the lungs. 

Dropsy of the belly may be distinguished from fat, by the 
particular tumour that the belly forms, which, in dropsy, 
hangs pendulous, while, at the same time, the back bone 
sticks up, and the hips appear prominent through the skin : 
the hair stares also, and the feel of the coat is peculiarly 
harsh. It may be distinguished from pregnancy, or being 
in pup, by the teats, which always enlarge as the belly en- 
larges in pregnancy. The impregnated belly, however full, 
has not that tight tense feel nor shining appearance observed 
in dropsy. There may be also foetal inequalities distinguished 
in it, and, when pregnancy is at all advanced, the young may 
be felt to move. The most unequivocal mode, however, of 
detecting the presence of water is by the touch. If the right 
hand is laid on one side of the belly, and with the left hand 
the other side is at the same time tapped, an undulating mo- 
tion will be perceived, exactly similar to what w^ould be felt 
by placing one hand on a bladder of water, and striking it 
with the other. 

* In these cases it is more than probable that the mesenteric glands 
have taken on disease : when dropsy is the consequence of diseased liver, 
the appetite is not usually so ravenous. 

DROPSY. 155 

Treatment of Ascites, or Dropsy of the Belly.^The medi- 
cal treatment, in these cases, is seldom attended with suc- 
cess, because the complaint itself is seldom primary, but the 
consequence of some other destructive chronic affection, as 
asthma, diseased liver, or inverted mang-e, which may have 
already committed fatal ravages on the constitution. Now 
and then, however, I have seen attacks of ascites apparently 
not preceded by either of these affections ; and in these I 
have sometimes succeeded in obtaining- an evacuation of the 
water, and in preventing- a recurrence of it also. But such 
instances are so inferior in point of number to the others, that, 
in g-eneral terms, ventral dropsy may be described as a most 
fatal disease. 

I have repeatedly tapped dogs ; from some of whom I have 
drawn off many quarts of fluid, sometimes of a gelatinous 
consistence^ at others simply serous and thin. In some in- 
stances I have repeated the operation two or three times, 
which has tended to prolong life ; but eventually the same 
fate awaited all. The operation of tapping a dog does not 
differ in any respect from the same process in the human. A 
trochar is the most proper instrument for the purpose, but the 
operation may be performed by a lancet, and the puncture 
may be made in any part of the tumour not immediately bor- 
dering on the navel, or on the central line of the belly, 
taking care to examine that no considerable branch of artery, 
particularly the epigastric, is directly under the line of punc- 
ture, which may be readily known by careful examination with 
the fingers. The evacuation of all the water may be pro- 
ceeded on at once without fear ; the animal will express no 
uneasiness, nor faintness ; but will conduct himself as though 
nothing had happened. A bandage moderately tight should 
be applied around the belly, and retained there many days, 
or even weeks, to assist the absorbents by its pressure. 

I have also tried various other means for the evacuation of 
the water, but it is seldom they have afforded any permanent 
benefit. In a very few instances only diuretics have produced a 
salutary and durable effect : of the numerous articles of which 


156 DROPSY. 

class 1 have found the digitalis, or foxglove, the very best. 
Now and then, however, other medicaments of this kind 
have succeeded when this has failed. I shall, therefore, de- 
tail such recipes as appear best suited to the case, observing- 
that, with regard to the foxglove, it is most certain in its 
effect as a diuretic, as well in the canine as the human spe- 
cies, when it neither occasions sickness nor purging. The 
dose should, therefore, be always so regulated as to avoid 
these effects : — 

No. 1.— Powdered foxglove 12 grains 

Antimonial powder 15 grains 

Nitrated potash (mfre) 1 dram. 

Mix, and divide into nine, twelve, or fifteen parcels, one of 
which give night and morning. 

No. *2. — Powdered foxglove 9 grains 

Powdered squiUs 12 grains 

Supertartrate of potash {cream of tartar) . 2 drams 

Mix, divide, and give, as No. 1. 

No. 3. — Oxymel of squills 1 ounce 

Infusion of tobacco (asunder) half an ounce 

Spirit of nitrous aether {sweet spirit of nitre) half an ounce 

Tincture of opium half a dram 

Infusion of camomile 2 ounces. 

Mix, and give from two tea-spoonfuls, to a large table spoon- 
ful, night and morning. The tobacco infusion may be made 
by pouring two ounces of boiling water on a dram of tobacco. 
1 have, in some cases, combined calomel with the other re- 
medies to the amount of half a grain, or a grain, night and 
morning ; and this apparently with benefit. 1 have also tried 
the effect of strong mercurial purges twice a week, in cases 
where diuretic medicines failed of relieving. Friction and 
the warm bath have been also used, but without apparent 
advantao^e *. In the few cases wherein diuretics succeeded. 


* In one case, one part of oil of turpentine, with two parts of olive 
oil, rubbed into the belly night and morning, appeared to excite absorp- 
tion ; but it must be noticed, that the turpentine was also given at the 
same time internally-J to the amount of forty drops twice a day. 

DROPSY. 157 

active stomachic tonics followed their use : in some instances 
they accompanied them. Nor should these be omitted where 
tapping- is employed, as the only means likely to prevent the 
belly from again filling. 

Hydrothorax, or Dropsy of the Chest, is, likewise, 
not a very unfrequent complaint in dogs, and may be either 
chronic or acute ; that is, the aqueous accumulation may be 
slow or rapid. When it is the former, it is usually the conse- 
quence of some other chronic affection, as asthma or neglected 
mange : although the latter most frequently produces dropsy 
of the belly. The rapid accumulation commonly succeeds 
to active inflammation of the lungs ; in which cases, about 
the third day from the pneumonic attack, the water begins 
to be formed within the cavity of the chest, and increases so 
as to suffocate the animal in a few hours. — See Inflamed 

Dropsy of the chest may be known to exist by the extreme 
uneasiness the dog shews when he lies down, and by his at- 
tempts, under such circumstances, to elevate his head. The 
chest will also appear full and swollen, and the water within 
may be generally heard on motion. The beating of the 
heart will likewise afford a decided characteristic of the com- 
plaint ; for the hand, placed on one side of the chest, will 
be affected with a kind of thrill, very different from the usual 
sensation produced by the beating- of the heart of a healthy 

The cu7'e may be attempted by the means recommended for 
ventral dropsy ; but I have hitherto found the disease fatal in 
every instance *. 

Anasarca. — As before observed, this complaint very sel- 
dom occurs, unless as an accompaniment of ascites. I have. 

* I never succeeded in restoring health, although I have frequently 
evacuated the water by means of a lancet cautiously entered between 
the ribs. Neither haemorrhage nor other immediately ill effects ensued 
from the operation itself j but every case still terminated fatally, either 
by gangrene within the chest, or by a fresh accumulation of fluid. 


however, now and then seen it, and, in most of the cases, it 
was m old dogs who had laboured under some previous debi- 
lity. In such instances, when any remaining- stamina affords 
a chance for recovery, the treatment recommended for dropsy 
of the belly may be resorted to : very small punctures may 
also be made in the distended skin. 

Encysted Dropsy.—Ah accumulation either of serum, or 
of a fatty or g-elatinous matter, within a particular sac, is thus 
called. The dropsy of the ovaria is by much the most fre- 
quent of this kind, and, to a certain extent, is very common 
in bitches ; but it is in these g-eneral cases mor^ an accumu- 
lation of fat than serosity. I have, however, seen instances of 
true ovarial dropsy of the hydatid kind, which all terminated 
fatally, although they proved very slow in their prog-ress. 

These encysted cases of dropsy are detected by the swell- 
ing- being- less universally diffused over the belly, and by the 
undulation being- more obscure. The swellings likewise, in 
these instances, may be often traced to have commenced on 
one particular side, and to have first appeared high in the 
loins, not descending until carried down by their weight. 

The treatment proper to pursue in no wise differs from that 
directed in ascites; but I never witnessed more than one case 
which terminated favourably, and in that I discharged the 
fluid contents by a trochar effectually : in others this mode 

Hydatids, independent of the ovaries, likewise now and 
then, but very rarely, form a species of dropsy in other parts. 
I have seen them in the liver, the lungs, the spleen, and the 


As an idiopathic affection of the bowels, I have not ob- 
served dysentery among dogs ; but, in the malignant dis- 
temper, it IS not uncommon for the diarrhoea that usually 
accompanies it, by inflaming the mucous surface of the intes- 


tines, to put on a dysenteric appearance, occasioning a dis- 
eased increase and separation of their mucous secretion, which 
appears in every stool in considerable quantities. 

Ears, sore. 
See Canker. 


Vomiting appears almost a natural act in dogs ; at least it 
is one that they voluntarily excite, by eating emetic vegeta- 
bles, as the long wild grass, so hurtful to pastures. Dogs, in 
common with all quadrupeds who eat animal matter, are 
subject to irregular digestion and a train of sensations that 
we denominate bilious. In the canine species these are par- 
ticularly prevalent ; and dogs appear to be instinctively taught 
to relieve themselves from them by an emetic, which they 
take more frequently, when they can procure it, than we are 
aware of. It is evident, therefore, that such as are much 
confined, and those who inhabit large cities, must suffer in 
their health from the want of this usual evacuation. To re- 
medy this, when circumstances wholly prevent their reaching 
the grass, or other emetic vegetables, some of the dog grass 
might be brought to them, either gathered, or the roots of 
it might be placed in pots for their use. It may be obtained 
by the Londoners in Covent Garden. In default of this, a 
mild occasional vomit, or tartarised antimony, emetic tartar, 
common salt, or other emetic substance, may be very pro- 
perly substituted, and which I have frequently recommended, 
to the great benefit of the animals who have used them. 

In various diseases, the benefit resulting from the use of 
emetics is still more striking ; and, throughout the work, di- 
rections for their employment will be found frequent. A 


good domestic vomit is common salt, in quantity from half a 
tea-spoonful to a desert-spoonful ; but it is sometimes violent 
in its operations, and, therefore, not to be chosen for delicate 
constitutions. Calomel often proves an emetic to dog's: see 
Alteratives. Turpith mineral, and crude antimony, are 
given as emetics by sportsmen ; but the former is extremely 
violent, and the latter uncertain. Tartar emetic forms the 
most convenient article for this purpose, and is at once safe 
and easy to give. From one grain to three or four, according 
to the size of the dog, may be given in a pill, or in a piece 
of meat, or it may be dissolved in milk or water. 


See Inflamed Bowels, 

See Fits. 


The want of due exercise is the cause of nearly one half 
of the diseases of dogs ; and the ill effects of this deprivation 
are very often heightened by inordinate feeding also. It 
should be remembered, that a dog is an animal of prey, des- 
tined, in a natural state, to hunt for his food, and to sacrifice 
to his appetite lesser and weaker animals, whose exertions to 
escape must keep him in a continual habit of most active ex- 
ercise. In this life of nature, dogs probably do not get a 
regular and full meal twice in a week. How great, therefore, 
must be the difference, when they are either shut up in a 


warm room twenty-two out of twenty-four hours ; or are, 
perhaps, fastened by the necks for many months together, 
without any other exercise than what the length of their 
chain allows them ! In such cases, if they have plenty of 
air, and are moderately fed, the want of exercise shews it- 
self by mange or canker. If the repletion does not escape 
by this outlet, then the effects become apparent by an enor- 
mous increase of fat, which usually ends in asthma and dropsy. 

Nothing affords a stronger conviction of the necessity of 
exercise to animals than their natural love of play, which 
was given as a principal means of preserving health. In ci- 
ties and great towns it is a very excellent plan to teach pup- 
pies to play with a ball ; by which means they will exercise 
themselves very well in wet weather, or when they cannot 
be taken out; and, when early taught it, will continue 
throu2-h life attached to the exertion. Those who will not 
amuse themselves in this way, yet may all be taught to fetch 
and carry. A very mistaken opinion prevails, that, because 
a dog is turned into a yard or court an hour, or half an hour, 
that he exercises himself; on the contrary, in general he re- 
gards this as a punishment, and sits shivering at the door the 
whole time. 

Dogs are more disposed to take exercise in company than 
alone : emulation induces them to run and frolic with each 
other; it is prudent, therefore, to allow every favourite a 
companion. For sporting dogs, constant exercise is also essen- 
tially necessary. When they are laid by for the season, if 
they are close kennelled, it is very common, when they 
are again wanted, to find them fat, with little wind, and 
easily fatigued ; for not only are they out of the habit of exer- 
tion, but the muscles of the body have actually become 
lessened, and hence weakened by inactivity. Exercise im- 
proves the wind, by taking up the surrounding fat from the 
heart and chest; thus allowing the lungs to expand more 
freely. But, whenever circumstances absolutely preclude 
exercise altogether, then greater circumspection should be 


used in the feeding-: it should be very moderate, and, as much 
as maybe, composed of veg-e tables. — Sec Feeding. 

Fits in dogs are a very common consequence of confine- 
ment ; and it is very usual for a dog, particularly a sporting 
one, who has been closely and long confined, on gaining his 
liberty, to experience a violent fit. 1 have observed the same 
occur in dogs after long voyages. 

Exercise should, therefore, be allowed to every dog ; and, 
as this should be done in proportion to his other habits, to 
lay down any general rule on this head is nearly impossible. 
The exercise of fat ones should not be violent, but it should 
be long continued : when it is too violent, it is apt to pro- 
duce fits or cough, and thus, in the end, may prove the pa- 
rent of asthma. Sporting dogs require gallops, to fit them 
for their work, and to give them wind ; and, for this pur- 
pose, they should be taught to follow a horse. Lesser dogs, 
and all who are at other times confined, require at least two 
hours' exercise every day. 


Ei/eSj Diseases of. 

The eyes of dogs are subject to several kinds of disease. 
The most common of these is an ulceration of the cornea, or 
transparent part of the globe of the eye, from a symptomatic 
ophthalmia occasioned by distemper. This affection of the eyes 
usually commences by a blueness, or sometimes by a perfect 
opacity of the transparent portion ; in the centre of which a 
speck may be frequently seen, which gradually accumulates 
to a small abscess, and bursts, leaving an ulcer. This ulcer 
sometimes remains stationary till the distemper amends : in 
others it extends, and involves the whole pupil in an ul- 
cerative process. In some cases a fungus forms, and pro- 
trudes outwards. One circumstance is peculiarly worthy of 
remark in this affection, which is, that the eye can become 


more deranged in this disease, and yet recover again, than in 
any other; for, after an extensive ulceration has formed, and 
excluded nearly all vision ; when the distemper leaves the 
animal, the eye gradually clears itself, and no vestige of the 
disease remains behind. 

The proper treatment, therefore, in such cases is, to attend 
principally to the distemper ; for, as before observed, when 
that amends, the eye will do the same. However, it will be 
prudent to check the devastation from proceeding, by a seton 
in the neck, by fomentations of poppy heads, when the eye 
is very much irritated and inflamed : or by the use of the 
lead wash prescribed below, in the beginning ; and by the 
sulphuric ones that follow, as the disease advances. 

Another spurious kind of ophthalmia (the effect of distem- 
per also), but altogether distinct from the one already de- 
scribed, is not uncommon. This bastard ophthalmia occurs 
very early in the complaint. The eyes look red, the con- 
junctive membrane is more than usually vascular, but the 
transparent not very opaque, and there is invariably present 
an impatience of light. — See Distemper. 

In the idiopathic or true ophthalmia, the eyes become 
suddenly weak, water much, and, if viewed in the light, 
look red at the bottom, and within the eyelids also. There 
is usually at the first not much opacity of the cornea ; but it 
soon comes on, and extends over the whole surface, seldom, 
however, proceeding to ulceration. There are always marks 
of pain, irritation, and impatience of light. 

The treatment should be begun by bleeding. Afterwards 
insert a seton in the neck, and give, every third day, a pur- 
gative. As long as the irritation is extreme, foment the eyes 
with a poppy head fomentation ; use also the following as a 
wash frequently : — 

Superacetate of lead (su^ar o/i<?ad) half a dram 

Rose water 6 ounces. 

When the inflammation is somewhat moderated, use the 
following : — 


Sulphate of zinc a scruple 

A weak infusion of elm bark 6 ounces 

Brandy I tea-spoonful. 

Sometimes the following- has moderated the irritation when 
other applications have failed: — 

Tincture of opium half a dram 

Infusion of green tea 4 ounces. 

All exposure to strong light, or other sources of irritation, 
as over-exercise, should be avoided. In very bad cases, I 
have sometimes scarified the insides of the eyelids, and even 
the white part of the eye itself, by means of the point of a 
fine lancet, with very great benefit. 

In violent injuries of the eyes, such as blows, punctures of 
thorns, or scratches from cats, a similar treatment should be 
pursued, till the active inflammation has abated: after which, 
should any opacity of the cornea remain, that is, should a 
blueish dijuness be left over the pupil, a small pinch of a 
powder may be sprinkled into the eye once or twice a day, 
composed of one scruple of sugar of lead, and one dram of 

Cataract is another disease to which the eyes of dogs are 
liable. In the aged, cataracts are very common, from a 
breaking up of the strength of the parts : nor are they very 
uncommon in younger dogs, being sometimes the result of 
some outward injury, or apparent cause : at others the com- 
plaint is observed to come on gradually, as a slow chronic 
affection of the organ : but there is this difference between 
the disease in the old and the young, that, in the former, 
both the eyes ,commonly become affected ; whereas, in the 
latter, it is usually confined to one only. In all these cases 
the before-described powder may be blown into the eye ; 
but it is very seldom that any treatment arrests the final ter- 
mination in blindness. 

A dropsy of the eyeball now and then also occurs ; in which 
case there is an extreme enlargement of the globe of the eye, 
and an imperfect contraction of the iris. I once punctured 
the scleiotic coat, and evacuated the water ; but great in- 


flammation followed, and the eye gradually wasted away. 
In other cases I have blown calomel into the eye, but with- 
out apparent benefit, except in one instance, where the owner 
g-rew tired of the trouble, and destroyed the dog before the 
precise eflfect could be ascertained. I have also tried electri- 
city, setons, and blisters, but with no better success. 

Eyelids, ulcerated. 

There is now and then met with a mangy affection, con- 
fined to the eyelids, which is attended with ulceration, and a 
loss of hair. It may be generally removed by an ointment of 
the following kind : — 

Ointment of nitrated quicksilver 1 dram 

Superacetate of lead {sugar of lead) 20 grains 

Spermaceti ointment 3 drams. 

Anoint the parts, night and morning, lightly with this, 
watching the dog afterwards that he does not rub it into 
his eyes. Internal medicines will also assist the cure. — See 

Fatness, excessive. 

This is a most common complaint among dogs. A proper 
plumpness of appearance denotes health ; but when the ani- 
mal oil, called fat, becomes inordinately disproportionate to 
the rest of the parts of the body, it proves a source of nu- 
merous diseases. The natural tendency of dogs to obesity is 
considerable ; for any dog may be made fat by excessive feed- 
ing and little exercise. Provided the accumulation has been 
quick, the dog may be reduced to his former state without 
prejudice ; but, when a dog gradually accumulates much fat 
from over-feeding and indulgence, then the obesity becomes 
so completely a disease, that even exercise and abstinence 


will not always wholly reduce him ; for the formation of the 
adipose substance is so habitual a work of the constitution, 
that, however little food the animal takes, short of starvation, 
that little is secreted into fat. That this is true may be known 
by the notorious fact, that many fat dog-s eat but little. 

There are two sources of fatness; one is, over-feeding-; the 
other is, want of exercise : and when, as is very frequently 
the case, both causes happen to meet in the same subject, 
then the accumulation is certain. When dogs are over-fed, 
whatever is taken into the body, more than the g-eneral se- 
cretions require, is either converted into fat, or forms some 
other unusual secretion ; as matter in the ears, in canker ; or 
scabs on the skin, in mange. 

Exercise increases all the usual secretions ; hence, under 
strong- exercise, more nutriment is required: and thus, in such 
cases, full feeding- does not produce fat; but, even in full 
exercise, provided some of the usual secretions are stopped, 
though the others may be in full force ; yet an over-accumu- 
lation of animal oil is apt to take place : thus spayed bitches 
and castrated dogs usually become fat, however they may 
work, because in them the sexual secretions are inert. 

Fat more readily accumulates in middle aged and old dogs, 
than in the young ; and the fat of old dogs is more hurtful to 
them than that of the young ; the reason of which appears 
to be, that all aged animals have their fat placed more in- 
wardly, while the younger ones have it placed more upon the 
surface of the body. A state of excessive fatness is an almost 
certain forerunner of asthma. It is also the parent of mange, 
canker, and other eruptive diseases ; and not unfrequently it 
occasions fits, from the pressure it produces on the vessels of 
the head and chest. I have also seen an excessive accumu- 
lation of fat within the chest, particularly around the heart 
and large vessels, which has terminated by a rupture of one 
or the other of them. 


Feeding of Dogs. 

This is an important subject, as upon the judicious feeding- 
of these animals much of their health and comfort depends ; 
and, by injudicious feeding-, very many of their complaints 
are broug-ht on. It is a curious fact, that the want of food, 
and the excess of it, should both produce the same disease. 
It is very seldom that a dog- is badly fed for a considerable 
leng-th of time, but that he contracts mang-e; and it is also as 
seldom that a dog- is long- permitted to eat to excess, but that 
he also becomes mang-y. However, if the same cleanliness 
and care were to be observed in both cases, the lean dog 
would have the least mange, and his would also prove much 
more easy of cure. 

To feed judiciously, the physiolog-y of digestion should be 
understood. All the juices of the body, and indeed all the 
solids likewise, are furnished from the blood. These juices 
are in a continual state of waste, and the solids are in a con- 
tinual state of wear ; both of which {i. e. the waste and the 
wear) take place in proportion to the exertion used. There 
must, therefore, exist some means of recruiting this waste of 
the fluids, and some means of repairing this wear of the 
solids. Nature has intended that these ends should be 
brought about by food, consisting of solid and fluid sub- 
stances taken into the mouth, which are there masticated and 
broken down into small masses by the teeth, and mixed into 
a paste with the saliva, by which it is rendered fit to be acted 
upon, after it has passed from the mouth into the stomach by 
the act of swallowing, 

Being received into the stomach, it there meets with a 
strong solvent agent, called gastric juice ; by mixing with 
which it becomes animalized, and, in fact, wholly altered. 
In a complete pultaceous mass, called chyme, it is passed into 
the bowels, where there are little vessels that strain and suck 
up such fluid parts as are fitted for nourishing the body, and 
pass it forwards in very minute streams into glands, called 


mesenteric. These g-lands empty their contents, then called 
chyle, into one common receptacle, from whence the chylous 
fluid is poured into the heart to form blood. The blood, 
therefore, is constantly recruited from this source ; and from 
this description it will naturally suggest itself, that, when 
food is withheld, the blood must waste ; and when this is the 
case, the fluids of the body must naturally decrease, and the 
solids must wear fast. On the contrary, when food is taken 
in too great quantities, the blood will, in that case, become 
too rich, and be generated in too large quantities ; and, as 
the solids are limited in their growth, so some, or all the 
fluids of the body, will be formed from the superabundant 
blood in too large proportions. The moisture that goes to 
the skin will probably become acrid, and form a disease called 
mange : the sebaceous glands of the ear, instead of forming 
wax, will pour out blood or matter, then called canker ; or 
the unnecessary quantity will flow to the teats, where, if it 
is not the time of pregnancy, it will form a spurious secre- 
tion and induration. When these evils do not immediately 
succeed, the superabundant blood expends itself in secreting 
an inordinate quantity of the oily fluid called fat. 

It next becomes a question. What kind of food is the best 
for dogs ? On observing this animal, either as a naturalist or 
as a physiologist, one is not at a moment's loss in determining 
that he is neither wholly carnivorous, nor wholly herbivorous, 
but of a mixed kind ; intended to take in both foods, and 
formed to receive nourishment from either. He is furnished 
with sharp cutting teeth for tearing flesh, and he has also 
tolerably broad surfaces on other of his teeth, capable of 
grinding farinaceous substances. His stomach and intestines 
likewise hold a middle place between those of the carnivo- 
rous and herbivorous tribes. At the same time, the anato- 
mical conformation of his teeth, and indeed of the whole of 
his digestive organs, appears rather more intended for flesh 
than herbage ; his habits and partialities likewise tend that 
way. He is evidently a beast of prey, intended to live on 
other animals : the stronger he hunts in troops, the weaker 


he conquers singly. Yet still it is clear that his organs fit 
him for receiving nutriment from vegetable matter also, and 
we see that he voluntarily seeks it. 

It is not, therefore, difficult to determine that a mixture of 
both animal and vegetable substances is the most proper ge- 
neral food for dogs ; but the proportions of each are best de- 
termined by the exertions of the body. For, as animal food 
affords most nutriment, so, when the bodily exertions are 
great, as in sporting dogs, then flesh is the best food. On 
the contrary, when bulk without much nutriment is required, 
as in dogs who are confined, then vegetable matter is best 
adapted to their wants. This subject appears to be one of 
very general interest ; for no questions have been more fre- 
quently asked the author of these pages, than — What kind 
of food is the best for dogs, and what quantity of it ? It is 
difficult to prescribe generally a precise quantity — some dogs 
require even naturally more than others ; and, for the same 
reasons, it is not easy to give general directions with regard 
to the quality and kind also. If, however, the rationale of 
nutrition be attended to, and if the above reasoning on it be 
correct, there will be no difficulty in deciding when one or 
the other kind is proper, or when a mixture of animal and 
vegetable matter is to be preferred. 

The inhabitants of cities and great towns often find it ex- 
tremely inconvenient to obtain food for large dogs, particularly 
when there are many to feed. The following plan is peculiarly 
adapted for such situations ; and, by this means, a wholesome, 
nutritious, and cheap food may be conveniently obtained. It 
consists of the tripe or paunches of sheep, which, being 
thoroughly cleaned, are to be boiled half an hour, or forty 
minutes, in a moderate quantity of water. When taken from 
the water, they should be hung up to cool, and the boiling 
liquor they came out of should be poured on bread raspings ; 
those of French bread are the best. The quantity of raspings 
should be so regulated, that, when they are soaked and cold, 
the mess may be of the consistence of an ordinary pudding 
before boiling. The paunches being also cold, but not be- 



fore, should be cut into fine pieces, and mixed with the 
soaked rasping-s. When rasping-s cannot be procured, meal 
or biscuit may be substituted. The mixture, it is evident, 
may be made to contain more or less animal matter, by in- 
creasing" OT lessening the proportion of paunch, or other 
kinds of meat may be substituted ; but the author is disposed 
to think that tripe is, of all animal substances, the purest 
food, and tends least of all to make a dog- foul and gross. 
When likewise it is intended, or wished, to make the mix- 
ture either more nutritious or more enticing, the offal or in- 
testines of chickens and other fowl may be procured from the 
poulterers, and boiled with the tripe. Of all substances in 
g-eneral use, except horse flesh, the entrails of chickens is that 
most eagerly sought after by dog-s ; and it is one which 
fattens them faster than any other. For the convenience of 
persons resident in London, it should be noticed, that the 
venders of ready dressed sheep heads sell the trimmings as 
dogs' food, and they form an excellent one. 

Sportsmen in the country use various mixtures for food, 
and it is very often, in retired situations, a difficult matter to 
find proper substances for this purpose. In some kennels 
meal and milk are used, and dogs will thrive on them during 
the season they do not hunt ; but, when they are strongly 
exercised, this food is not sufficiently nutritious. All the 
meals of wheat, barley, oats, and rye, are used for this pur- 
pose ; but it is no difficult matter at once to decide, that 
wheat meal, when it can be procured, is to be preferred ; for 
it is much less likely to produce mange and a heated skin than 
the others. 

Barleymeal and oatmeal are most frequently given, and are 
each sufficiently nutritious when mixed with either milk or 
broth; but they have certainly some tendency to produce a 
red itching skin when constantly used ; for which reason a 
portion of potatoes should be mixed with them. Potatoes, 
even without meal, will be found to form a good food for 
dogs who are not wanted for very active exertion : they are 
cooling, and, when mixed with milk or buttermilk, are suffi- 


ciently nutritious for all common purposes, and form, in this 
way, an economical and wholesome food. 

When circumstances render it absolutely necessary to feed 
principally on either barley or oatmeal, the heating effects 
may be also greatly obviated by mixing it with buttermilk. 
In all cases likewise of foulness, as mange, canker, &c., but- 
termilk will be found an excellent cleanser. When also it is 
necessary or convenient to feed upon potatoes, if they should 
not be relished, a small proportion of greaves or other fatty 
matter may be added, which will commonly render them suf- 
ficiently attractive. 

In the feeding of favourites much error is frequently com- 
mitted ; for, their tastes being consulted, they are too apt to 
be wholly fed on flesh, and this in great quantities too. In 
such cases, although the evil is acknowledged, yet it is alleged 
that the animals will not eat any other food. But it will be 
always in the power of those who feed them, to bring their 
dogs to live on vegetables entirely even: this however can 
only be effected, in some cases, by great determination and per- 
severance. If the usual quantity of meat a dog eats, be minced 
extremely fine, and a small portion of mashed potatoes be 
mixed with it, it is not possible for the dog to separate the ani- 
mal from the vegetable portion : when presented to him, if he 
will not eat the mixture, let it remain until hunger obliges 
him to do it. At each meal, a very small additional quantity 
of potatoes may be added, and this practice, if persisted in, 
will bring the animal at last to live almost wholly on pota- 
toes, or any other vegetable that may be selected. In a me- 
dical point of view, a vegetable diet is often very important. 
In many cases a complete change of food forms the very best 
alterative ; and, in others, it is a most excellent auxiliary to 
the medical treatment. The cases that require a change from 
an animal to a vegetable diet are frequent : all eruptive dis- 
eases, or other affections arising from too fall living; coughs 
likewise, and various inflammatory complaints, render this 
change essentiallv necessary to the health of the dog. 



Carrots, parsnips, cabbag-es, and, indeed, all vegetable 
matter, will feed dogs sufficiently well for the purposes of 
existence. Damag-ed ship biscuit is often bought for the pur- 
pose of food, and it makes a very good one when soaked in 
broth or milk. It is, however, prudent here to introduce one 
very necessary caution, which is, — that the broth or liquor in 
which salted meat has been boiled should never be used for 
this purpose. Most dogs, who have been confined on ship 
board during a long voyage, contract an obstinate species of 
mange, wholly owing to their being fed on salt pot-liquor. 
This is not sufficiently attended to among sportsmen, and 
their servants are very apt to give the liquor in which salt 
pork and bacon have been boiled, with other brine, to the 
great injury of the animals. 

Greaves are also, with many persons, a favourite, because 
they are a convenient food ; and, when mixed wnth a suffici- 
ent quantity of vegetable matter, they form a hearty meal for 
large dogs, or such as live without doors, and are subjected 
to much exercise. I should, however, never make use of 
them myself, when any of the before-mentioned articles could 
be procured. 

Many opinions prevail on the subject of horse flesh as food, 
its qualities being as strenuously supported by some, as they 
are condemned by others. The proper mode of considering 
the matter is to regard it as a strong and actively nutritious 
food, very fit for dogs who undergo great exercise ; to such 
it never proves hurtful : but, where it is given to those who 
have little exercise, it proves too nutritious, and is apt to pro- 
duce a foul stinking coat and itching skin. Much diversity of 
opinion prevails also as to whether it is better to be given 
raw or dressed. In a state of nature, it is evident that dogs 
live on raw meat, and there is no doubt that this best fits 
them for very active exercise, and enables them to perform 
all their functions with the most vigour and durability. Raw 
flesh of every kind appears particularly to increase the cou- 
rage and ferocity; and where these qualities are requisite, 


this mode of feeding will undoubtedly tend to increase them: 
such food is therefore proper for sporting dogs, for grey- 
hounds, foxhounds, and harriers. When, therefore, raw 
meat, as horse flesh, can be procured sweet and fresh, it not 
only increases the animal ardour, but it will go the farthest 
of any in point of economy, by nourishing most. When it is 
at all putrid, dressing considerably restores it. 

At what periods dogs ought to be fed is frequently likewise 
a matter of consideration, but which is easily and satisfacto- 
rily concluded upon, when considered in a similar point of 
view with the foregoing subjects. In a state of nature, even 
a daily meal among dogs must be very precarious: for, in 
some situations, vegetable food cannot be obtained, and then 
the hunting down of other animals, or the meeting with the 
offal or refuse of what may have been hunted by others, must 
be the principal support. For this reason. Nature has kindly 
and wisely fitted a dog with a stomach that digests his food, 
particularly of the animal kind, very slowly *, so that a full 
meal of flesh is not digested in less than twenty-four hours. 
Those, therefore, who feed their dogs on animal matter never 
need feed them more than once a day ; nor do dogs require 
to be fed oftener if meal be given, when fully fed on it. 
But it must be remembered that, under a life of confinement 
and art, where all the functions are weakened, as they must 
of necessity be in those dogs who are petted and indulged, 
it is better to feed them in smaller quantities twice a day. If 
fed once only, they become heavy and sleepy, and lose much 
of their vivacity. This may elicit an observation, that 
hard-worked dogs, as soon as fed, should be shut up, to en- 
courage sleep. Digestion goes on better sleeping than 
waking; and more nutriment is obtained from the food in 
this way, than when an animal is suffered to run about after 

It may be also not improper to notice the unnecessary fear 
that many persons encourage relative to the giving of bones 
to dogs. Except by those of fish, or of the legs and wings 
of poultry, which, as being hollow, break into splinters, I 


never remember having- seen a dog injured by a bone ; but I 
have great reason to think that the stomachs of these animals 
vjrould be often benefited by the action of the bones : and also, 
that although the teeth are thought to be broken by them, 
and now and then (though but seldom) may be, yet that the 
evil is more than counterbalanced by the mechanical action 
of the bones cleaning away the tartar that otherwise accumu- 
lates around them. 


Feet, sore. 

When the feet of dogs become sore by travelling, it is com- 
mon to wash them with brine ; but this is not altogether a good 
practice. It is better to bathe them with greasy pot-liquor, 
milk, or buttermilk, and afterwards to defend them from 
stones and dirt, by wrapping them up. When the feet be- 
come sore from any diseased affection of the claws, the pro- 
per treatment may be seen under that head. 


Simple fever seldom, if ever, exists in dogs. Inflamma- 
tions of the principal organs of the body, as of the lungs, 
intestines, kidnies, bladder, &c., are very common: but pure 
fever does not occur, except of the specific kind, as the fever 
of distemper, and the fever of rabies, &c. &c. 


The fits that usually appear in dogs, though not very dif- 
ferent in appearance from each other, arise from very differ- 
ent causes, and, therefore, require very different treatment. 

FITS. 175 

The epileptic fits that attack dog-s of all ag^es, otherwise ap- 
parently healthy, may be idiopathic, or they may arise from 
distemper, costiveness, or worms, &c. In countries where 
there are lead mines, do^s have often violent epileptic fits, 
from the effects of the lead on the water. The oxen, sheep, 
goats, and horses, of such situations, also participate. Mer- 
cury appears to form the best antidote for these contractions, 
either rubbed externally or g-iven internally. 

In the treatment of epilepsy, it is evident that the cause 
producing- the attacks must be attended to, to effect a cure. 
The immediate fit itself may be removed at once usually, by 
plunging- the dog into cold water ; or sprinkling it in his face 
even, is sufficient in many cases. Whenever a fit has hap- 
pened to a healthy dog, he should immediately have a brisk 
purge given him, for fits are very frequently brought on by 
simple costiveness: and even if such were not the case pre- 
vious to the fit, this treatment would be the most proper. 
Should it be at all suspected that the affection arose from 
worms, treat as directed under that head. Some dogs are so 
irritable, that whatever raises any strong passion in their 
minds produces an epileptic attack: hence dogs much con- 
fined, on being suffered to run out, frequently have a fit. It 
is this irritability in the mind, likewise, that produces fits in 
pointers and setters when hunting; for they are observed 
more frequent in the high-bred and eager, than in the cool 
coarse dog. As a general rule, in these cases, regular exer- 
cise must be given; and, in sporting dogs of high breed or 
delicate forms, the constitution of body should as much as 
possible be strengthened, by good food, pure air, and free- 
dom from confinement ; for fits are here the effect of too 
much energy of the mind, beyond the powers of the body : 
and in all such cases they are, probably, the effect of a pe- 
culiar debility. The irritability of the mind itself should afso 
be attempted to be moderated : in sporting dogs, it is best 
done by habituating them to the sight of much game, which 
greatly lessens their eagerness. For a very valuable dog, 
belonging to a gentleman in Kent, affected with epilepsy 

176 FITS. 

whenever he hunted, 1 recommended a removal into a 
country more plentifully supplied with game than his neigh- 
bourhood afforded ; the consequence of which was, that 
though, for a few days after his removal, he had fits more 
frequently than ever, yet they gradually lessened, and at 
length wholly left him. Some dogs however, and particu- 
larly fat ones who exercise much, have fits merely from the 
repletion of the vessels of the head : in these cases, bleeding", 
an occasional purgative, and a seton worn some time in the 
neck, prove useful. It may be added, that whenever fits have 
become habitual, a seton should be made at the back of the 
neck, and kept open some months. Fear in irritable dogs 
produces fits, of which I have seen innumerable instances, 
and have already noticed some of them. 

A very distressing and dangerous kind of epileptic fits 
sometimes attacks bitches while suckling. In these cases it 
arises from the owners being anxious to rear too many pup- 
pies, by which they burthen the mother beyond her powers : 
the consequence is an attack of convulsions, which fre- 
quently destroys the animal. — See Pupping. — Teething in 
puppies will sometimes produce fits; but some sportsmen, 
aware of this, fall into another extreme, and consider all the 
fits of young dogs to originate from this cause ; when by far 
the greater number of these attacks are the effect of worms, 
or the precursors of distemper. 

The fits that are the consequence of distemper, may be 
usually discovered by the other attendant symptoms ; some- 
times, however, a fit is the very first symptom, in which case 
it is remarkable, that it often augurs nothing unfavourable : 
but when a fit comes on some time after distemper has made 
its appearance, the animal seldom recovers. The convulsions 
accompanying distemper are more frequent in winter than in 
summer, which shews that warmth is one of the best preven- 
tives against these attacks. This species of epilepsy usually 
commences its attack on the head, beginning with the 
muscles of the face and jaws, producing a quick champing of 
the mouth, with a shaking of the head, a distortion of the 


countenance, and a flow of frothy saliva from the jaws ; each 
succeeding- fit becoming- stronger and more violent. Another 
form in which these fits make their appearance in distem- 
per, is, by a continual running round, commonly to one 
side only, with other violent contortions of the whole body. 
In other instances, there is present universal and continued 
spasm of the whole of the external muscles, very much re- 
sembling St. Vitus's dance. All these varieties are sometimes 
blended, or they occasionally degenerate into each other. 

The idiopathic epilepsy, or those fits which appear habitual, 
and not dependent on any temporary cause, as costiveness, 
worms, distemper, &c., are, in general, very difficult of cure. 
In dogs of very full habit, bleeding, emetics, and an occa- 
sional purge, should all be premised. In others, the follow- 
ing medicines may be at once proceeded on : — 

Submuriate of quicksilver (caZoineZ) ..,.,.. 12 grains 

Powdered foxglove 12 grains 

Powdered misletoe 2 drams. 

Mix, and divide into nine, twelve, or fifteen parcels, accord- 
ing to the size of the dog, and give one every morning. 
After these have been fully tried, in case the attacks do not 
relax, try the following : — 

Nitrate of silver {lunar caustic), &ne\y powdered 2 grains 

Spiders' web, called cobweb 5 grains 

Conserve of roses 

sufficient to make nine, twelve, or fifteen bales, according to 
the size of the dog ; of which give one every morning. 

Fleas in Dogs, 

Among the numerous inconveniences to which the canine 
race are liable, I hardly know one more troublesome to them- 
selves, or vexatious to their owners, than this common one 
of fleas. It becomes, therefore, a very frequent inquiry — How 
they can be destroyed, or how they can be prevented from 


accumulating? — Washing the body well with soap-suds, and 
directly afterwards carefully combing it with a small-toothed 
comb, are the most ready means of dislodging these nimble 
gentry. But it must be remembered, that the previous wash- 
ing is only to enable the comb more readily to overtake them : 
the water does not destroy them ; for dogs, who swim every 
day, are still found to have fleas. These insects are very tena- 
cious of life, and soon recover this temporary drowning ; the 
comb, therefore, is principally to be depended on for their 
caption before they recover. But as w^ashing is not, in many 
instances, a salutary practice, and as, in many others, it is a 
very inconvenient one, so it becomes a matter worthy of con- 
sideration how to be enabled to destroy them without these 

Sopping the skin with tobacco water has been recommend- 
ed ; but it has only a momentary effect, and it not unfrequently 
poisons the dog. — See Mange. — Innumerable other means I 
have tried to drive away fleas, but the only tolerable certain 
one I have discovered, is to make dogs sleep on fresh yellow 
deal shavings. These shavings may be made so fine as to be 
as soft as a feather bed ; and, if changed every week or 
fortnight, they make the most cleanly and wholesome one 
that a dog can sleep on. But, where this is absolutely im- 
practicable, it will be found useful to rub or dredge the dog's 
hide, once or twice a week, with very finely powdered 
rosin ; if simply rubbed in, add some bran. Fleas are not 
only troublesome, but, by the irritation they occasion, they 
produce a tendency to mange. 


The limbs of dogs are very liable to become fractured ; 
but the irritability of the constitution is so much less in these 
animals than in ourselves, that they suffer comparatively but 
little on these occasions ; and the parts soon reinstate them- 
selves, even without assistance, though in such cases the 


limb in general remains crooked. The thigh is a very com- 
mon subject of fracture ; and though it appears a most seri- 
ous bone to break, yet it is one that, with a little assistance, 
commonly unites straight, and forms a good limb. When a 
fracture has happened to the thigh, in case the violence has 
injured the fleshy parts also, so as to produce tension, heat, 
and inflammation, foment with vinegar and water till the 
swelling is reduced. When this is eflfected, apply a plaster 
of pitch or other adhesive matter, spread on moderately firm 
leather, sufficiently large to cover the outside of the thigh, 
and to double a little over the inside of it also. Then attach 
a long splent upon this, which, if it reach from the toes to 
an inch or two above the back, will be found to steady 
the limb very much. This splent must be kept in its situation 
by a long bandage carefully wound round the limb, begin- 
ning at the toes, and continuing it up the thigh ; when it 
must be crossed over the back, continued down around the 
other thigh, and then fastened. This would, however, slip 
over the tail, without other assistance ; for which reason it 
must be kept in its place by means of another slip passed 
round the neck and along the back. 

Fractures of the shoulder should be treated in a similar 

In fractures of the fore and hind legs, very great care is 
necessary to insure a straight union. As soon as the inflam- 
mation and swelling will admit of it (sometimes there is httle 
or none from the first), apply an adhesive plaster neatly and 
firmly around the part ; then fill up the inequalities by tow 
or lint, so that the limb shall appear of one size throuo-hout, 
otherwise the points of the joints will be irritated and made 
sore by the pressure of the splents. After this has been done, 
apply two, three, or four splents of thin pliable wood before, 
behind, and on each side of the limb, and secure them in their 
places by a flannel bandage. In all fractures, great caution 
must be observed not to tighten the part, by either the plaster 
or bandage, so as to bring on swelling ; for, when this has 
been done, mortification has followed. In fractures of the 


fore leg-s, a supporting bandage, with side splents, should be 
kept on a longer time than is necessary for fractures of the 
hinder ones. If this precaution be not observed, the leg is 
apt to become gradually crooked, after the apparatus is re- 

In cases of compound fracture, that is, where there is an 
open wound, which penetrates to the divided bones ; the same 
means must be pursued as are practised in the human subject. 
Irritating pointed portions must be sawed off; the loose ones 
should be removed ; and every means must be used to close 
the wound as early as possible: during which process, the 
bones should be kept in contact with each other, and sup- 
ported by soft bandages ; until the cicatrization of the wound 
will allow of proper splents and tighter bandaging. 

It likewise not unfrequently happens, that a compound frac- 
ture, or even a simple one, when neglected, becomes united by 
a soft union ; that is, instead of the callus interposed between 
the divided ends being bony, it proves cartilaginous only. 
In such a case the fractured limb never becomes firm ; but, 
on the contrary, when examined, an obscure motion may be 
felt, like an imperfect joint, which utterly precludes any 
strength in the limb. I have frequently been consulted on 
these cases, all of which have originated in the neglect of a 
proper treatment at first. 

As a remedy for the evil, one of two practices must be 
pursued. We should either open the skin opposite the frac- 
ture, and, laying bare the bone, we should remove the soft 
portion interposed^ with a fine saw, treating the case after- 
wards as a compound fracture. Or we should insert a seton 
exactly through the soft cartilaginous portion, and keep it 
open ten days or a fortnight. After this time it may be re- 
moved, the wound closed, and the part treated as a simple 
fracture. Either of these plans will usually prove successful, 
and firmly consolidate the limb : but, when there is no lapping 
over of the ends of the bones, the latter is the most mild and 
convenient, and equally certain of success. 


See Inflamed Stomach. 


Glandular Sivellino;s 


Dogs are very liable to glandular swellings of various parts 
of the body. The glands, however, most subject to become 
affected, are those of the neck and belly. The former com- 
plaint is treated of under the head Bronchocele. The 
glands of the belly are very frequently tumefied in bitches. — 
See ScHiRRUs. — Puppies, now and then, have their mesen- 
teric glands enlarged and diseased ; in which cases they pine 
and waste away, till complete emaciation carries them off. — 
See Puppies. — The pancreas and spleen also are liable, occa- 
sionally, to become diseased. 

There is sometimes an enlargement of the whole of the 
substance of the neck that is apt to be confounded with 
glandular swelling, but which it is wholly different from : 
depending entirely on a spasmodic and rheumatic affection. — 
See Rheumatism. 


Dogs have stone it is certain ; that they therefore have 
gravel also, it is natural to suppose, though it is not always 
easy to detect it. I have, however, seen the complaint suffi- 
ciently well marked. From ten to twenty drops of oil of tur- 
pentine, or twice the quantity of spirits of nitrous aether {sjii- 
rit of nitre^, twice a day, with a few drops of laudanum 
added to either in case of much pain, will form the best means 
of relief.— See the article Stone. 

182 HERNIA. 

Heemorrhage, or Blood -Jloiving, 
See Astringents. 

See Piles. 

Head, swelled. 
See Mange, acute. 

Heat in Bitches, 
See Breeding. 

See Inflamed Liver. 


Dogs now and then have hernia: very fat dogs are more 
liable than others to a protrusion of the omentum through 
either the abdominal ring-, the umbilicus, or through an acci- 
dental opening between the abdominal parieties; but as these 
hernias are usually irreducible, and seldom become strangu- 
lated, so no rules are necessary for their treatment. 


This is the popular term, in some countries, for distemper ; 
It IS also in some others the common name for any cough a 
dog- may have. In Ireland it commonly implies distemper. 


As dog-s never refuse water when rabid, or mad, as it is 
called, or ever shew the least aversion to it ; but, on the 
contrary, are even eager to lap it, from the feverish thirst 
they feel; so it is evident that this term is a complete mis- 
nomer with regard to the rabid malady. The reader is, 
therefore, referred to the article Rabies for a description of 
the complaint. 


General inflammation, as simple fever, it has been stated, 
does not often appear in dogs; but topical inflammation of the 
various organs of the body is of very frequent occurrence. 

Inflamed Bladder (Cystitis), 

This is not a very common complaint among dogs, never- 
theless it now and then occurs: in the year 1810 there was 
an epidemic prevalent, in which the bladder was in every in- 
stance very much inflamed; and in many of the cashes which 
occurred it was exclusively so. Cystitis, or inflammation of 
the bladder, shews itself by a very frequent pulse, great 
restlessness, and panting : in some instances the urine is eva- 
cuated by frequent drops, tinged with blood ; in others there 


is a total stoppag-e of it. The belly appears hot, swelled, 
and is very tender to the touch, particularly between the 
hind leg's. 

The animal affected should be liberally bled, and have 
opening" medicines ; clysters and the warm bath are also to 
be resorted to, and frequently repeated. Diuretics are im- 
proper, but antimonials, as antimonial or James's Powder, 
or small repeated doses of emetic tartar, are by no means to 
be neglected. Where the warm bath is not convenient, warm 
fomentations may be properly substituted. Leeches may also 
be applied. 

Inflamed Bowels (Enteritis). 

The intestines of dogs are very irritable, and extremely 
subject to inflammation ; and the inflammations affecting them 
are of various kinds, according to the operating cause. Dis- 
temper occasions a species of inflammation, that shews itself 
by a continued diarrhoea. Dogs are very liable to rheuma- 
tism ; but it is no less true than curious, that a dog never has 
acute, and seldom chronic rheumatism either, that is not ac- 
companied more or less with inflammation of his bowels : 
this connection is, however, peculiar to the dog alone. In 
many cases the bowels are the immediate and principal seat 
of the rheumatism, which is productive of a peculiar inflam- 
mation, easily distinguished by those conversant with the 
diseases of dogs ; and further noticed below. Poisons pro- 
duce a most fatal inflammation in the bowels of dogs ; the 
effects of which are treated on under the head Poisons. 

Among the various inflammatory affections, four kinds are 
peculiarly common to the intestines of dogs. 

The first is that which is brought on by rheumatism, as 
already explained. — See Rheumatism. 

Inflamed Bowels, from Costiveness, forms the second 
kind, and is a very common occurrence. Dogs will bear cos- 
tiveness for m^tny days before inflammation comes on ; but, 


when it has commenced, it is not easily removed. This 
kind is known by the gradual manner in which it attacks, 
and by its being at first unaccompanied by any very active 
symptoms. . The dog* appears dull, dislikes to move, and 
hides himself ; his belly is hot, and sore also. The costiveness 
is sometimes so complete, that nothing at all comes from him ; 
at others a few drops of foeces are strained out at every effort, 
which is apt to make the observer suppose that the dog is not 
bound, but, on the contrary, purged; he is, therefore, led to 
neglect the principal means of relief. 

In the inflammation arising from costiveness, the sickness of 
stomach is not at first so distressing ; nor is the dog so ex- 
tremely anxious for water, as he is when it arises from a cold 
taken, or when it comes on spontaneously. The obstruction 
that exists, is commonly situated far back in the larger bowels, 
so that, by introducing the finger into the fundament, a quan- 
tity of hardened excrement may frequently be felt. This oc- 
curs so often, that, whenever costiveness is even suspected, 
the dog should be examined, by passing the fore finger up 
the anus. 

Obstructions may, however, exist in any portion of the in- 
testinal track. I have in my possession an obstructed jeju- 
num ; in the centre of which intestine is a cork, that had been 
brutally forced down the throat. Needles and pins form fatal 
obstructions sometimes, by getting across the bowels. I have 
also known a splinter of a chicken bone imbed itself in the 
substance of one of the intestines, and form an insurmount- 
able obstruction. Intussusception also now and then occurs, 
in which one portion of bowel gets folded within another 
from spasm, and thus forms a complete stoppage to the pas- 
sage of the foeces. 

Whenever we can ascertain, by the anus, that the obstruc- 
tion consists of a simple accumulation of hardened excrement 
within the rectum, it is evident that purging medicines by the 
mouth can do little good, but may do a great deal of harm, 
by forcing the obstructed contents into a more solid mass. 



The hardened matter should be carefully broken and sepa- 
rated by the finger, or by a forceps, or handle of a spoon ; 
and it may then be brought away piecemeal. If this cannot 
be effected, or the obstruction be situated completely without 
the reach, clysters should be constantly kept up the intes- 
tines ; that is, as soon as one comes away another ought to 
be thrown up. The dog- should also be put into a warm 
bath frequently, which often proves the most effectual means 
of removing obstinate costiveness. Medicines by the mouth 
are not to be neglected, particularly where the obstruction 
does not exist within the reach of the finger ; on the con- 
trary, a large dose of castor oil may be first tried, which, if 
it fails to open the bowels, should give place to stronger 
means. From three to six or eight grains of calomel may be 
mixed with from half a dram to one or two drams of aloes, 
according to the size and strength of the dog. If the sto- 
mach should reject the first dose, add a quarter of a grain of 
opium to the second : or, a dose of Epsom salts, dissolved in 
broth, may be tried. Fortunately for medicine, we have now 
a purgative so subtle and minute, that even a drop put on 
the tongue acts as a powerful laxative. The croton oil, I 
am informed, by Mr. Youatt, acts as powerfully on dogs as 
on the human subject, and therefore in these cases should 
be tried. Repeat the purge, whatever it may be, every three 
or four hours, until it operates. 

In the third inflammation (Enteritis), or that which comes 
on spontaneously from irritation or from the effect of cold, 
the early symptoms are more acute ; great heat, thirst, pant- 
ing, and restlessness, are apparent even from the first attack. 
The stomach is incessantly sick, and throws off all its con- 
tents, mixed oftentimes with biliary matter, and all food is 
refused, but water is sometimes sought for with anxiety. 
The belly is extremely hot, and painful to the touch ; the 
eyes are red, and the mouth and nose are alternately hot and 
cold. The animal frequently lies on his stomach, expresses 
great anxiety in his countenance, and the pulse is extremely 


quick but small. Enteritis may be distinguished from spas- 
modic colic by the extreme tenderness and heat in the 
bowels, which are not so apparent in the inflammatory. 

Under these circumstances, the dog- should be early and 
freely bled. From three to six or eight ounces may be taken 
away, according to the size and strength of the patient. A 
laxative of castor oil, or of Epsom salts, should be adminis- 
tered ; but unless the bowels are obstinately bound, and 
have been so for several days, nothing drastic should be 
given by the mouth, as it would only heighten the inflamma- 
tory symptoms. The animal should be bathed in warm water 
every three or four hours: when that is found too troublesome, 
from his size or other circumstances, the belly may be rubbed 
with hot water, or fomented with hot flannels; but one or the 
other must by no means be omitted. Clysters of castor oil, 
with mutton broth, should be frequently thrown up, till eva- 
cuation is procured ; and, when the case is desperate, the 
belly may also be rubbed with oil of turpentine between the 
bathings, or covered with a blister ; or a mustard poultice may 
be applied. No food should be given, and cold water should 
be removed ; but the dog may be drenched with mutton 
broth. In case the vomiting continues obstinate, with every 
dose of cas^tor oil, and with every drench of mutton broth, 
give from ten to twenty drops of laudanum. In these cases, 
when the animal becomes paralytic in his lower extremities, 
when the sickness proves incessant, and the mouth and ears 
become cold and pale, mortification is at hand. This kind 
of inflammation is not always accompanied with costiveness ; 
in some there is very little ; and in a few cases the bowels 
are even lax. But, in the greater number of instances, cos- 
tiveness to a certain degree is present; for, even when it does 
not exist previous to the attack, it is pretty sure to be brought 
on by it. An effectual laxative is, therefore, premised early in 
the complaint. If the dog is very delicate, this primary laxative 
may be castor oil; but when that is not at hand, or fails in its 
operation, I have used mild doses of Epsom salts with ad van-. 

N 2 


tag-e ; and, in some instances, these have remained on the 
stomach, when castor oil has been rejected. — See Costive- 


Bilious Inflammation of the Bowels forms the fourth kind 
of these intestinal affections before noticed. I have already 
remarked, that dog-s, in common with all animals that live 
indiscriminately on animal and vegetable matters, are subject 
to a disordered state of the liver, and to a vitiated secretion 
of its biliary fluid. 

This bilious inflammation of the bowels, 1 suspect, origin- 
ates primarily from some affection of the liver, which alters 
its secreting" qualities, and makes it, instead of engendering- a 
healthy bile, secrete one of a black noxious kind ; which, as 
soon as it passes into the bowels, irritates and inflames them 
most highly. This species of intestinal inflammation may be 
disting-uished from the other kinds, by the early vomiting of 
a black or yellow foetid matter, and likewise by the bilious 
matters evident in the purgings. Poisonous substances will, 
however, sometimes produce similar appearances in the stools; 
great caution is therefore requisite in deciding- between the 
two, as the treatment for the one, and that for the other (^see 
Poisons), should be very different. In the inflammations 
arising- from mineral poisons, the vomitings are incessant, and 
usually frothy and streaked with blood; the mouth swells, 
and emits an offensive odour ; and the stools are more bloody 
and less tinged with dark bile. This inflammation may be 
distinguished from the bilious -by the thirst, which is insati- 
able under the action of poison. 

Bilious inflammation is not a very untractable complaint, 
when judiciously managed. When the purgings are already 
considerable, nothing stronger than castor oil should be g-iven ; 
but this should never be neglected, unless the evacuations are 
extremely frequent, profuse, and bloody. When the evacua- 
tions by the bowels are very trifling-, a mild mercurial purge 
even should not be neg-lected, which I have sometimes found 
of the greatest service ; as, 


Submunate of quicksilver {calomel) 10 grains 

Aloes 3 drams 

Opium*..'. quarter of a grain. 

Make into four, six, or eight balls, according to the size of 
the dog-, and give one every four or five hours till relief is 
obtained. It will be prudent to give clysters of mutton broth ; 
broth may also be forced down the throat: and when the 
sickness is very obstinate, add ten drops of laudanum. The 
warm bath, or fomentations, should be likewise made use of, 
in case the belly feels hot and tense. 

It will, however, frequently happen that the evacuations 
from the bowels are, from the irritating quality of the bile, 
profuse before the disease is at all attended to ; and in addi- 
tion to the quantity evacuated, the stools, in some of these 
cases, are found to be tinged with blood. Here no laxatives 
should be used, but, on the contrary, the following should 
be given: — 

Powdered Colombo 1 "^^^^ 

Powdered chalk 1 ^^^"^ 

Powdered gum arable ^ ^^^^ 

Powdered opium ^ gram. 

Mix, and divide into three, five, or seven balls, according to 
the size of the dog, and give one every three or four hours. 
In addition to this, a starch clyster may also be given, if the 
case is desperate. The distressing sickness that sometmies 
accomoanies these aggravated cases, and the bloody evacua- 
tions, Ukewise render it very difficult to distinguish them from 
those that occur from the administration of mineral poisons, 
without a minute attention to circumstances already detailed. 
The sickness is, however, best relieved in all of them by the 
powder of Colombo, given in moderate but frequent doses, 
as from ten to fifteen grains. 

— .***^**- 

190 Inflamed livek. 

Inflamed Liver (Hepatitis). 

The hepatic organ in dogs is subject to two inflammations 5 
One rapid and acute, the other slow and chronic. 

Acute Inflammation of the Liver is not a very frequent 
disease, but I have several times met with it. It may be 
brought on by cold, and shews itself by dulness, restlessness, 
panting, and unusual inclination to drink. There is also 
present, in some cases, frequent sickness ; but which is sel- 
dom of that distressing kind which accompanies inflammation 
of the stomach or bowels. Hepatitis may be distinguished 
from peripneumony, or inflamed lungs, by the absence of an 
intense coldness of the nose and mouth ; neither is there a 
watery exudation from them, as in pneumonia; nor is the 
head held up to facilitate breathing. From inflamed bowels 
it may be distinguished, by the general symptoms being, al- 
though not dissimilar, yet less severe, v/ith less prostration 
of strength ; neither is the region of the belly so hot and 
tense, although I have observed the right side considerably 
enlarged and tender to the touch in some cases. On the se- 
cond day of the inflammation, the urine becomes of a deep 
yellow: the skin becomes likewise universally tinged, but 
the coverings of the eyes and mouth particularly so. 

This disease is sometimes attended with purging, but much 
oftener with constipation. When active purging is presents 
the complaint usually degenerates into the bilious, ov fourth 
kind of inflammation of the bowels.^>S^e Inflamed Bowels. 
Hepatitis, or inflamed liver, is commonly fatal, unless attend- 
ed to sufficiently early. When the sickness becomes fre- 
quent, when the limbs appear paralytic, and the mouth is 
pale as well as cold, a fatal termination may be expected. 

The proper treatment of the complaint consists in early 
and plentiful bleeding. A stimulating or blistering applica- 
tion should be applied to the belly, particularly towards the 
right side. A moderate purge should also be administered ; 
and, if circumstances should prevent the application of any 


stimulant to the region of the liver, the dog- should be put 
into warm water twice or thrice during the day. After the 
purge has operated, give the following every three or four 
hours : — 

Powdered foxglove 8 grains 

Antiraonial powder 16 grains 

Nitrated potash (^nitre) in powder 1 dram. 

Mix, and divide into seven, nine, or twelve powders; or make 
into as many balls, according to the size of the dog. If 
amendment does not become apparent, repeat the bleeding, 
and stimulate the skin more actively. 

Ch?'onic Inflammation of the Liver arises sometimes spon- 
taneously, and is idiopathic. In other cases it is brought on 
by the agency of other aifections. Long continued or in- 
verted mange will tend to produce disease in the liver. In 
some cases of distemper, also, a dull inflammatory action of 
the liver occurs, and which is almost always accompanied 
with a pustular eruption over the belly. The skin is also 
commonly tinged with a biliary suJQTusion, but the urine is in- 
variably impregnated with a very large quantity of bile. 

This complaint produces dulness, wasting, a staring coat, 
and very often a tumour may be felt in the right side of the 
belly. From the unhealthy appearance of the hair, it is often 
mistaken for worms ; but it may be distinguished from that 
complaint by the want of the voracity of appetite which cha- 
racterises worms, and also by the general and constant dul- 
ness of manner. 

The treatment of this disease should be commenced by a 
mercurial purge, after which give, night and morning, one 
of the following balls : — 

Submuriate of quicksilver {calomel)., ,.^ 20 grains 

Antimonial powder 30 grains 

Powdered myrrh 2 drams 

Powdered gentian 2 drams 

Aloes 2 drams. 

Mix with any adhesive matter, and divide into fifteen, twenty, 
or twenty-five balls, according to the size of the dog. 


Mercurial ointment 1 ounce 

Blistering ointment 2 drams 

Ointment of yellow wax 1 ounce. 

Rub into the region of the liver a small portion of this oint- 
ment (the size of a nutmeg-) once every day. Pursue this 
treatment some time, carefully watching- the mouth, to g-uard 
against sudden and violent salivation. A moderate soreness 
of the mouth is, however, to be encouraged and kept up : 
nor have I ever succeeded in removing the complaint v/ithout 

Injiamed Lu7igs (Peripnemnonia). 

Pneumonia is not an unfrequent complaint among dogs. 
In some years it is remarkable that it rages in an epidemic 
form, and destroys vast numbers. In general cases it may, 
however, be directly traced to the action of cold on the body. 
I have seen it brought on, in a great number of instances, 
by the cruel practice of clipping or shearing rough dogs in 
cold weather. Throwing dogs into the water, and after- 
wards neglecting to dry them, is also not an uncommon cause 
of it. In fact, any unusual exposure to cold may occasion it. 
In some instances it is brought on by distemper. 

The complaint is commonly rapid, and usually fatal ; its 
fatal tendency being much increased by the circumstance, that 
in most instances it arrives at such a height, before it attracts 
sufficient notice, as to baffle all attempts at reducing the in- 
flammation. During one of the periods in which it raged in 
an epidemic form (a w^arm mild spring), hardly any dog sur- 
vived beyond the third day ; about which time most of the 
affected were suffocated by the quantity of water formed 
within the chest. A serous effusion, although a frequent, 
is not an invariable termination of the complaint. I have 
seen it destroy by a congestion of blood within the lungs. 


It now and then, when attended to very early, terminates 
likewise by resolution and returning- health. 

Inflammation of the lungs shews itself by a very quick la- 
borious breathing- ; the heart beats in a very rapid but op- 
pressed manner. The head is held up to enable the dog to 
breathe more freely, and which peculiar posture very strongly 
characterises the complaint. In almost every instance also 
considerable moisture distils from the nose ; which, together 
with the ears and paws, are in general extremely and unna- 
turally cold. A short quick cough is often present, but this 
is not invariably the case. 

The cure should be begun by bleeding, and that very 
largely ; but it must be particularly remembered that bleed- 
ing ought only to be attempted early in the complaint : if it 
is performed after the second day, the dog commonly dies 
under the operation. This circumstance should never be for- 
gotten by a practitioner who may happen to be called in, the 
recollection of which may save him much mortification and 
disgrace. The first bleeding, if early attempted, may save, 
provided it is a full and copious one. For every pound a dog 
weighs, as far as eight pounds, he may lose half an ounce of 
blood. From that weight upwards, he may lose a quarter of 
an ounce for every pound, unless it should be a very large 
heavy dog, when the proportion must be moderated. The 
whole chest should likewise be immediately blistered between 
the fore legs, and behind the elbows, by removing the hair, 
and afterwards rubbing in a blistering ointment, and then 
covering the parts with a cloth carefully secured. If blister- 
ing ointment is not at hand, oil of turpentine, well rubbed 
in, and repeated at intervals of two or three hours, will do 
nearly as well. A clyster should also be given, and no time 
should be lost in administering the following by the mouth 
likewise : — 

Powdered foxglove 12 grains 

Tartar emetic 3 grains 

Nitre 1 dram. 


Mix, and divide into six, nine, or twelve powders, or form 
into balls, and give one every two or three hours. But if 
there should be much cough present, then substitute the fol- 
lowing- : — 

Tincture of foxglove 1 dram 

Tartarised antimony (tartar emetic) 3 grains 

Nitrated potash (nitre) 1 dram 

Oxymel 2 ounces. 

Give from a tea to a dessert-spoonful of this mixture every two 
or three hours. If either of these medicines acts as a vomit 
on the dog", moderate the dose. 

In this complaint it is peculiarly requisite to keep the dog* 
in a cool temperature. Provided his skin is screened from the 
access of cold, it is no matter how cool the air he breathes. If 
amendment should not be apparent in four hours, the bleed- 
ing* may be repeated, and the blistering- Ukewise. But if, 
in spite of these renewed applications, the nose and mouth 
continue intensely cold, and the head remains held as hig-h, 
or even hig-her, than before, a fatal termination may be ex- 
pected *. 


Inflamed Stomach (Gastritis). 

The stomach is less frequently affected with idiopathic in- 
flammation than the bowels ; it is, however, now and then 
the seat of primary inflammation, and it often becomes in- 
flammatorily affected when the bowels are so. When the 
stomach is primarily inflamed, the sickness is incessant and 
most distressing-; the thirst is unquenchable, and whatever is 
taken in, is immediately thrown up again. There is also very 

* I would submit to the veterinarian the propriety of performing, in 
particular pneumonic cases, the operation for empyema as a last re- 
source. The evacuation of the serum, which is commonly thrown into 
the chest, might arrest the fatal termination : at least, the experiment 
would be worth the trial. \ 


great distress in the countenance, but the dog evinces less 
disposition to hide himself than in simple bowel affection. 
The mouth slavers, and is hot and cold by turns. 

Gastritis, when violent, is seldom relieved, even by any 
treatment. When it does admit of cure, it is done by bleed- 
ing early and largely, both by the neck, and by leeches to 
the region of the stomach. The warm bath should be used, 
and injections should be repeatedly administered. The chest 
should be blistered also, but nothing ought to be given by 
the mouth. 

The stomach is also liable to become inflamed from poi- 
sonous substances. The medical treatment of such cases is 
detailed under the head Poisons. 


Dogs now and then become affected with hepatic absorp- 
tion, in distemper and acute inflammations of the abdominal 
viscera ; but that icteric obstruction to the flow of bile pro- 
ducing human jaundice I have not met with in them. 


Looseness, or Purging (Diarrhoea). 

Dogs are very subject, under various circumstances, to 
diarrhoea. It is seldom that they are affected with the Dis- 
temper without having a morbid alvine flux also, and which, 
wiien obstinate and violent, is one of the most fatal accom- 
paniments the disease can have. In the distemper, the colour 
and consistence of the loose stools vary much ; sometimes the 
motions are glairy or mucus-like, often frothy and pale ; at 
others totally black : but, when the purging has lasted some 
time, they invariably become yellow. Another common 
cause of purging among dogs arises from worms ; in which 


cases, the stools are less liquid, but more glairy and frothy : 
the state of the bowels varies also from day to day, being at 
one time loose, and at another costive. 

When diarrhoea continues for many days, the rectum be- 
comes inflamed and slightly ulcerated within the fundament, 
by which a constant irritation and tenesmus are kept up ; and 
the poor animal, feeling as though he wanted to evacuate, is 
continually trying to bring something avs^ay. On observing 
this, persons are frequently led into error ; for, under a sup- 
position that there exists actual costiveness at the time, they 
give purging medicines, which greatly aggravate the com- 
plaint, and frequently destroy the dog. When the diarrhoea 
is considerable, there is always violent thirst, and cold w^ter 
is sought after with great eagerness ; but which increases the 
evil, and, therefore, should be removed, and broth or rice- 
water should be substituted in its room. When diarrhoea 
has continued many days, particularly in the malignant dis- 
temper, it often takes on something of a dysenteric appear- 
ance, from the mucous surface of the intestines becoming in- 
flamed, and throwing off their mucous secretion in great quan- 
tities with every motion. 

The cure of diarrhoea must depend on the light in which 
we are led to consider it ; whether as a disease of itself, or 
as merely the symptom of some other existing disease. For 
instance, a bilious purging, which comes on suddenly with 
violent vomiting, is best removed by evacuants to carry off 
the vitiated bile from the bowels. In the looseness occasion- 
ed by worms also, purgatives or other vermifuges should be 
made use of to remove the cause, and not astringents, which 
would merely apply to the effect. But when diarrhoea ap- 
pears an idiopathic affection, that is, as a diseased action of 
the bowels themselves, and also when it is produced by dis- 
temper, it should in either case be immediately checked, or 
it may produce such weakness and emaciation as will destroy 
the dog. In the distemper it is particularly necessary to 
check the looseness very early ; for when it is continued be- 
yond the third or fourth day, its invariable effect is to destroy 


[Jirtf!; ^"^■- ^'''<=''' °f <=««^«. the weakness increases 
in a double degree. 

The remedies employed, when diarrhoea is a primary com- 
Plamt, are g-enerally either of an absorbent or an astringent 
nature: but a long experience enables me to state that the 
loosenesses or scourings of dogs are best combated by a pro- 
per mixture of both these. In the purging which accompa- 
nies distemper, however, the disease frequently proves very 
obstinate, and even baffles every endeavour to remove it. 
feuet, boiled m milk, has been long a favourite domestic re- 
medy, and m slight cases is equal to the cure. Alum-whey 
has also proved useful, but more frequently as an injection, 
than by the mouth. Great benefit has also been experienced 
from an infusion of the inner rind of the barberry, particularly 
when the evacuations have been glairy and mucus-like. In 
cases where there has been an appearance of much bile in 
the stools, and the dog has been strong, I have found it pru- 
dent sometimes to premise an emetic of ipecacuanha, after 
which either of the following recipes may be used with ad- 
vantage. In point of efficacy they are to be ranked, according 
to my experience, in the order in which they stand. 

No. 1.— Catechu, powderfid '. 1 dram 

Gum arable, powdered 1 dram 

Prepared chalk ";;";;; ^ ^^^^^^ 

Make into balls, with conserve of roses, and give, from the 
size of a hazelnut to that of a small walnut, two or three 
times a day, according to the urgency of the symptoms, &c. &c. 

No. 2.-Powdered rhubarb half a dram 

Powdered ipecacuanha 1 scruple 

Powdered opium .* 3 ^.^^^^ 

Prepared chalk 2 drams. 

Mix, prepare, and give, as above. 

No. 3.-Magnesia 2 drams 

Powdered alum.. j scruple 

Powdered Colombo I dram. 

Mix, with six ounces of boiled starch, and give a dessert or a 


table-spoonful every four, six, or eight hours. In very ob- 
stinate cases try the following-: — 

No.4.— Powdered ipecacuanha 1 dram 

Powdered opium 4grains 

Powdered starch 2 drams 

Conserve of roses 

sufficient to form into four, six, or eig-ht balls, according- to 
the size of the dog, of which give one every two or three 
hours. In such cases, also, powdered resin has now and 
then done good, giving half a dram every three or four hours 
in broth. 

It is necessary to be aware that the action of astringents 
is varied and uncertain. In one case one remedy only will 
prove successful, and in another a very different one will 
alone do good. But in the looseness that accompanies dis- 
temper, it may be observed as a general rule, that absorbent 
astringents succeed best. In some very desperate cases of 
diarrhoea, when all other means have failed, I have derived 
great benefit from astringent clysters ; and this so frequently, 
that 1 would, in all such cases, strongly recommend their 
adoption. From the benefit that is frequently experienced 
from their use ; and from the tenesmus, and appearance of 
the stools, in which a drop or two of blood is squeezed out 
at last, I am strongly inclined to think that the rectum, 
or sometimes the colon, is, in many cases, the principal 
seat of the complaint. 

Astringent clysters may be composed of alum whey, which 
is nothing more than milk curdled with alum. Suet, boiled 
in milk, is also an excellent clyster for the purpose. Boiled 
starch is likewise a valuable astringent clyster, and, perhaps, 
is the very best that can be used, if the powder No. 1 be 
added to it. In diarrhoea, it is of the greatest consequence 
that the strength should be supported by liberal but judicious 
feeding ; and it must not be forgotten that, when the appe- 
tite ceases, starch, with gravy, should be forced down in 
small quantities, but often. The animals affected with this 
complaint should be kept very quiet and warm, both which 


parts of the treatment must be carefully attended to. In 
some instances I have witnessed the g-ood effects of a daily 
warm bath. I have also observed, where the diarrhcEa of 
distemper has existed in a dog who had been before closely 
confined, that removing* him into a more free and pure atmo- 
sphere has tended greatly to check the disease. 

See Rheumatism. 

Lungs, inflamed. 
See Inflamed Lungs. 


The rahid malady among dogs is so commonly called 
madness, that I was induced, in the last edition, to detail it 
under this popular but erroneous appellation : it is also not 
unfrequently called by the still more erroneous name of hy- 
drophobia. To prove the misapplication of these terms, it is 
here only necessary to remark, that, as rabid dogs never ex- 
press any dread of water, so hydrophobia cannot apply to 
this specific ailment in them. And as there is very seldom a 
perfect alienation of mind, but on the contrary, in by far the 
g-reater number of caseS;, there is perfect recollection, a clear 
discrimination relative to objects and persons, and but little 
interruption to any of the faculties of the mind ; so madness 
is almost equally a misnomer with hydrophobia. As a more 
erudite, though equally objectionable term, it is now gene- 
rally named rabies,- under which head it is detailed. 



This cutaneous aifection is very common among* dog-s of 
every kind. It has been compared to itch in the human, and 
not without justice; as, if I am not greatly mistaken, the 
canine mang-e is capable of producing- the human itch : but, 
whether the human itch can be given to dog-s, is a point 
which my experience does not enable me to determine. 

The canine mang-e is a chronic inflammation of the skin, 
dependent, in some instances, on a morbid action of the con- 
stitution : in others, it is the effect of infectious communica- 
tion. It is not, however, so infectious as is supposed ; for, I 
have known dog-s to sleep with others troubled with it for 
some time, without becoming- mang-y ; but, in other instances, 
the predisposition to it is such, that almost simple and momen- 
tary contact will produce it. The mange, which is the effect 
of infection, is more readily given to another than that which 
is generated. 

Mange is also hereditary. A bitch, lined by a mangy dog, 
is very liable to produce mangy puppies ; but the progeny of 
a mangy bitch is certain to become affected sooner or later. 
I have seen puppies covered with it when a few days old. 
The morbid constitutional action, by which mange is gene- 
rated, is excited in various ways, and by various causes. 
When a number of dogs are confined together, the acrid 
effluvia of their transpiration and urine soon begets a most 
virulent mange, very difficult to be removed. The same hap- 
pens when they are principally fed on salt provisions : thus 
dogs, who have come from distant countries, on ship-board, 
are generally affected with mange. Poor living, united with 
a cold and filthy mode of lying, will often produce it ; but 
-too full feeding, with a close and heated situation, are still 
more certainly productive of the complaint. In both these 
apparent contrarieties, the balance between the skin and in- 
ternal circulation is not preserved, and the disease follows as 
a necessary consequence. 

MANGE. 201 

The mange has some permanent and fixed varieties; it lias 
also some anomalies. One of the most common forms under 
which it appears is by a scabby eruption, which breaks out 
on various parts of the body ; sometimes confined to the 
back : in other cases extending to the arms, thighs, and joints. 
These eruptions are first pustular ; but in some cases they are 
simple cracks of the skin, exuding a serous discharge, which 
concretes into scabs. 

Another form of the complaint is called the red mange, 
from a redness of both skin and hair in the parts affected. 
In this variety there is less pustular eruption, but nearly the 
whole skin of the body, particularly in white-haired dogs, is 
in a state of active inflammation : it is also hot to the feel, 
and itches intolerably. In the red mange, the hair itself be- 
comes morbidly affected, and alters in its colour, particu- 
larly about the extremities. It also falls off, and leaves the 
body almost bare when the disease has continued long. The 
strong coarse kind of hair, called wired, is more peculiarly 
liable to suffer this discolouration. 

Another form of mange, but one much less frequent than 
either of the former, appears to be a peculiar affection of the 
sebaceous glands, by which they become internally ulcer- 
ated, and have their sebaceous outlet preternaturally enlarged. 
The affection seldom shews itself universally, but partially, 
as over the face, around the joints, and in solitary patches 
over the rest of the body. The affected parts are tumid, 
shining, and look spongy ; from the little openings of which, 
a moisture, between mucus and pus, issues. I have never 
seen this affection but in the larger breeds of dogs ; and usu- 
ally, I think, in pointers and setters. 

A fourth appearance that mange frequently assumes is call- 
ed, by sportsmen, a surfeit. It appears, in many cases, the 
consequence of some active inflammatory state of the consti- 
tution, generally of some local internal inflammation in par- 
ticular. In these cases it puts on something of an acute form. 
Thus bitches after pupping, and dogs newly recovered from 
distemper, are often attacked with it. Other sources of fe- 


202 MANGE, 

bril© irritation may also produce it: thus when a dog- travels 
during' a «Teal part of a very hot day, and becomes after- 
wards exposed to cold, a surfeit is sometimes the consequence. 
Likewise, after other inflammatory attacks, an eruption sud- 
denly appears, accompanied with great heat and redness. It 
is usually seen in the form of blotches, and it is but seldom 
that it extends universally over the body. In some cases 
there is little appearance of raised scab, but large rough 
patches shew themselves, from which the hair falls, and leaves 
the skin bare and even, except the elevation occasioned by a 
branny scaly eruption, which itches with more or less vio- 
lence. Some sportsmen think a surfeit occasioned by giv- 
ing the dog' his victuals when too hot. Salt provisions, it is 
certain, will occasion it ; and longf-continued feeding on oat 
or barleymeal will also bring it on in some instances. 
" The Anomalies of mange are several. Canker within the 
ear, and that without also, are affections whose origins are 
mangy. Inflamed scrotum and ulcerated claws are of this 
class, as well as ulcerated eyelids also. The general treat- 
ment of all these must be the same ; the immediate applica- 
tions proper, are detailed under the several heads. 

An acute mange also now and then appears. In these 
cases a violent febrile affection attacks the animal ; he pants, 
and is very restless. Some part of the body (usually the 
head) soon begins to swell, which, the second or third day, 
gives place to ulceration of the nose, eyelids, lips, and ears. 
This ulceration proves superficial, but extensive ; and con- 
tinues a longer or a shorter period, as the treatment is more 
or less judicious. Bleeding, aperients, and febrifuges, form 
the constitutional remedies. The topical ones are tepid fo- 
mentations the first two days ; and, when the tumefaction 
has given place to ulceration, the apphcation of a coohng 
unguent of superacetate or sugar of lead, with spermaceti 
ointment, will be proper. What remains of the affection, in 
a week or ten days' time, may be treated as common mange. 

Mange is universally considered as troublesome and loath- 
some, but it is not generallv considered as otherwise hurtful- 

MANGE. 203 

U will, perhaps, excite some surprise therefore, wlien I affirm, 
that it is not only hurtful, but not unfrcquently fatal also! 
When long continued, it is very apt to end in dropsy. In 
some cases it diseases the mesenteries, and the animals die 
tabid ; and in no instance can it be neglected with impunity. 
In sporting dogs, its existence greatly unfits them for their 
various uses. It vitiates their scent, and lessens their wind 
and strength ; and, as before hinted at, I do not think dogs 
healthy companions for their owners, when much affected 
with this complaint. 

Treatment of Mange.— Whsitevev similarity may exist be- 
tween this complaint and the human itch in other respects, a 
very great difference is observed between the obstinacy of 
the one, and the ease with which the other is cured. Medi- 
cal practitioners among the human, consider the itch as local • 
but veterinarians, to their vexation, will find mange consti- 
tutional: too often very deeply rooted also. Like the human 
itch, it is best cured by remedies that excite absorption ; and 
the grand remedy of the one is also the general application 
for the other, which is sulphur: but, as mange exhibits 
greater varieties, and is altogether more difficult of cure, it 
is seldom that we can trust to this alone for that end. The 
following formulae are adapted for the Jirst described form of 
mange : — 

No. 1.— Powdered sulphur, yellow or black 4 ounces 

Muriate of ammonia (sal am7noniac,'\ , ,^ 

7 V J , ' } halt an ounce 
crude) powdered J 

Aloes, powdered l dram 

Venice turpentine half an ounce 

Lard, or other fatty matter 6 ounces.- Mix. 


No. 2.— Tobacco in powder half an ounce 

White hellebore in powder half an ounce 

Sulphur in powder 4 ounces 

Aloes in powder 2 drams 

Lard, or other fatty matter Bounces. 


204 MANGE. 


No. 3.--Powdered charcoal 2 ounces 

Sulphur, powdered 4 ounces 

Potash 1 dram 

Lard, &c 6 ounces 

Venice turpentine half an ounce. ' 


No. 4. — Sulphuric acid {oil of vitriol) 1 dram 

Lard Bounces 

Tar 2 ounces 

Powdered lime. 1 ounce. 


No. 5. — Decoction of tobacco ; 3 ounces 

Decoction of white hellebore Bounces 

Oxymuriate of quicksilver {corrosive "» ^ trains 
sublimate) / 

Dissolve the corrosive sublimate in the decoctions, which 
should be of a moderate strength : when dissolved, add two 
drams of powdered aloes, to render the mixture nauseous, 
and prevent its being* licked off, which ought to be very 
carefully guarded against. 

The formulae for red mange are as follow : — 

No. 6.— Of either of the ointments already pre- "» g ounces 

scribed, 1, 2, or 3 J 

Mercurial ointment, mild 1 ounce. — Mix. 


No. 7, — Powdered charcoal 1 ounce 

Prepared chalk 1 ounce 

Superacetate, or sugar of lead 1 dram 

White precipitate of quicksilver 2 drams 

Sulphur 2 ounces 

Lard 5 ounces.— Mix. 

In some cases, the mange ointment. No. 4, alternated with 
No. 6, one being used one day, and the other the next, will 
be found beneficial. In others, benefit has been derived from 
the wash. No. 5, united with lime water. In slight cases of 

MANGE. 205 

red mang-e, the following- has been found sing-ularly success- 
ful :— 

No. 8. — Oxymuriate of quicksilver {corrosive ) g „ : 

sublimate) powdered y 

Sulphuretted potash (Zivero/suZp^wr) half an ounce 

Lime water 6 ounces. — Mix. 

The third variety requires a considerable difference in the 
treatment. When the little spong-y openings, piercing- the 
cellular tissue, will admit of it, they should be injected by 
means of a very minute syring-e, with the wash No. 8. The 
general surface should also be anointed with the following: — 

No. 9. — Oiutmeut of nitrated quicksilver 2 drams 

Superacetate of lead 1 scruple 

Washed flowers of sulphur half an ounce 

Lard I ounce. — Mix. 

The fourth kind of mange, called surfeit, requires little 
variety in the treatment, except that bleeding, purging, with 
every other part of a depleting treatment, are here more par- 
ticularly necessary. With regard to the external applications, 
it should be remembered both in this, and all the other kinds 
of the disease, that, when the sores are very irritable, and 
much inflamed, it will be frequently essentially necessary to 
allay the heat and inflammatory irritation in them before they 
will bear any of the regular mange applications. The best 
means of doing this will be by anointing them with the fol- 
lowing for a few days : — 

Superacetate, called sugar of lead 1 dram 

Spermaceti ointment 2 ounces. 

When the irritation is allayed, proceed with the ointment 
No. 3, or alternate this with No. 6. 

Besides the fixed varieties, before described, mange puts on 
different appearances in diff'erent subjects ; but they may be 
all referred eventually to one or other of these heads. Nu- 
merous domestic remedies are in use ; but, I believe, no one 
article acts so favourably as several united. It may, perhaps, 
not be too much to say, that the recipes already given will 

206 MANGE. 

meet every variety. They are proved by long" experience, 
and a successful practice. Tobacco water is often used for the 
cure of this complaint, and, in very sh'ght cases, it frequently 
does some g-ood ; but, unless used with extreme caution, it is 
a most dang-erous remedy, from the tendency all dogs have to- 
lick themselves ; and when they do this with tobacco, the 
effects are often fatal. I have myself seen several poisoned 
by these means. Great caution is also requisite, for the same 
reasons, with all kinds of washes in which there is any thing- 
active, as mercurials, &c. It is also a common practice to 
dip mang^y dog's in the tanners' pits: but it is a very filthy, 
and not often an efficacious, one, except in very slight cases: 
in such instances, an infusion of oak bark, with a little alum, 
would of course do as well. 

Having detailed the outward applications, it becomes ne- 
cessary to mention the internal ones that are required. 
When mange is generated, the constitution must be at fault 
to produce it ; and, when it is taken, it will itself affect the 
constitution : so that in all, except very slight cases indeed, 
some internal remedies are requisite. In very full habits, and 
particularly in red mange, bleeding is very proper *. I have 
also, in some instances, experienced benefit from a seton 
placed in the neck as a counter drain, particularly when the 
head has been much affected. It is also very requisite to at- 
tend particularly to the food : whatever has been injudicious, 
both as to quantity and quality, should be altered. Fre- 
quently a total change in the manner and matter of feeding- 
assists the cure very materially.— See the subject o/Feeding. 

Purges, when regularly administered, often prove very use- 
ful ; for which purpose Epsom salts may be given, two or 
three times a week, in mild doses. But the most effectual 
internal remedy is a judicious use of alteratives. Red mange 

* In the Philosophical Transactions, No. xxv, p. 451, is detailed a 
case of a mangy dog- successfully treated by transfusing into liim the 
Vlood from a healthy dog. How far a similar result would follow i» 
other cases is doubtful. 

MANGE. 207 

requires the aid of mercurial alteratives. Indeed, they assi:»t 
in every variety of it, but this one can hardly be cured with- 
out. The following formula is a g-ood one: — 

Black sulphuret of quicksilver {Mthiops \ , 

mineral) J 

Supertartrate of potash {cream of tartar) 1 ounce 
Nitrated potash {nitre) 2 drams. 

Divide into sixteen, twenty, or twenty-four doses, according- 
to the size of the dog-, and g-ive one every morning- or even- 
ing-. Any of the other medicines of this class, mentioned 
under the head Alteratives, may be also used on these oc- 

In desperate cases the following- may be tried, after the 
others have proved unequal to the cure : — 

Sulphuric acid {oil of vitriol) 10 drops 

Conserve of roses 1 ounce 

Flour of sulphur half an ounce. 

Divide into eig-ht, twelve, or fifteen balls, according- to the 
size of the dog-, and g-ive one every day. 
Or the following- : — 

Oxymuriate of quicksilver 3 grains 

Spring water 3 ounces. 

Dissolve, and make twelve or fifteen doses of it, according- to 
size, and give one every night and morning. 

With regard to external applications, they should, particu- 
larly when liquid, be used every day. The mercurial ones re- 
quire some caution, both to prevent the dog from licking them, 
and also to watch that salivation may not be occasioned by their 
use. When mercurial preparations are licked by dogs, they 
are apt to occasion violent and dangerous diarrhoea. Not 
only, therefore, should the licking be very carefully guarded 
against ; but, when any danger of this kind has occurred, a 
dose of castor oil should be immediately given ; after which, 
astringents, with a small proportion of washed sulphur in 
them, will prove useful. 

In the use of ointments, it is necessary to remark, that they 
are too apt to be smeared over the hair, without being ap- 


plied at all to the skin itself. It requires, at least, two hours 
to dress a dog- thoroug-hly. The hair should be parted al- 
most hair by hair, and a small quantity of ointment should be 
rubbed actually on the skin, between the parted hairs, by 
means of the end of the fing-er. After every part is done, the 
hair may be smoothed down, and the dog- will appear, when 
the operation has been neatly managed, as thoug-h nothing 
had been applied. After three or four dressings in this way, 
the dog may be washed with soft soap and water, and the 
ointment again applied till the cure is complete. In old and 
bad cases of mange, it will be frequently requisite to conti- 
nue the treatment a very considerable time, to ensure a per- 
fect removal of the complaint. I once dressed a very favour- 
ite setter, who had had virulent mange five years, every day, 
or every other day, for twelve months, before I could com- 
pletely conquer the disease: but this determined perseverance 
effected a permanent cure. 

Neck, sivelled. 

Young dogs are very liable to have a glandular swelling 
at the front of the neck, or throat, immediately before the 
windpipe. This is treated on as Bronchocele. Another 
cause of swelling in the neck arises from cold, and is rheu- 
matic ; in which case the animal appears with his neck 
swelled; the parts are very stiff, and the head is often held 
to one side. There are likewise great pain and soreness, and 
the doo^ cries on being moved. — See Rheumatism. 

CEstrmUy ov Heat^ in Mitches, 
See Breeding. 


OR PALSY. 209 

Paralysis J or Palsy. 

A TOTAL or partial loss of the motive power of the limbs 
is very common to dogs from a number of causes. Either 
partial or universal palsy is very usual in rabies. The loins 
and hinder extremities are the parts in g-eneral affected ; 
sometimes the muscles of the throat principally suffer, and 
now and then the paralytic affection is universal. In distem- 
per it is very common for a dog- to become palsied in his 
loins and hinder extremities : sometimes it affects the muscles 
of the head also, and those of the fore extremities. Now 
and then this paralysis continues through life. In very bad 
cases of distemper palsy, all the external muscles become first 
affected with a spasmodic irritation, similar to St. Vitus's 
dance in the human; and which often degenerates into com- 
plete paralysis. Accidents may also occasion paralysis, as 
blows, crushing-s from carriage wheels, &c. But as frequent a 
cause as any of canine paralysis, is rheumatism ; — which see. 
It is evident that the treatment must vary according to the 
cause producing the affection. General warmth, with stimu- 
lating applications to the immediate parts, forms the outline 
of the treatment proper for most cases. Sometimes the cold 
bath, however, proves most efficacious ; but still, during the 
intervening time, the body should be kept warm. As a ge- 
neral remedy, an extensive pitch plaster is a very good one. 
Blisters and electricity are sometimes useful. For local inju- 
ries, a seton opposite the injured part is proper. 

See Inflamed Lungs. 

210 PHYSIC. 


On many occasions, purg-in^ medicines are very proper 
and useful to dogs. In sickness, by purging we frequently 
restore health ; and, in health, by the same means we often 
ensure its continuance. Costiveness is very prevalent among 
dogs, particularly among such as have little exercise, and are 
fed wholly on flesh. A costive state of body, if not attended 
to, frequently degenerates into absolute and obstinate con- 
stipation ; and many dogs are destroyed by it. In such cases, 
a proper purgative, given in time, would prevent these con- 
sequences. Fits frequently arise from a costive habit, and the 
want of proper physic. Worms are also frequent!}' removed 
by purgatives. Without physic, dogs cannot so readily be 
got into hunting* condition : but aperients, when judiciously 
managed, increase their wind, vigour, and durability. 

Many things may be given as physic to dogs. For small 
weakly ones, the safest purgative is castor oil; but some- 
times the stomach refuses to retain it. Another liquid pur- 
gative is syrup of buckthorn, which agrees with many dogs 
very well. Jalap is not a bad purgative to some dogs; on 
others it operates but little. Senna I have no experience of. 
Gamboge is too violent. Calomel is an excellent auxiliary to 
other purgatives ; but alone, it frequently proves more emetic 
than purgative ; and a dose sufficient to purge, when given 
alone, will sometimes either inflame the stomach and bowels, 
or it will salivate. Aloes, therefore, prove the most unex- 
ceptionable and convenient means for purging of dogs; but 
an infinitely greater quantity is necessary for this purpose 
than is required by a human person. Half a dram of aloes 
may be considered as a dose for a small dog ; a large dog 
will take from two to three drams. To quicken its action, or 
in cases of worms, or as a cleanser, from two to six grains of 
calomel may be added. 

■**■»-»■ s^- 



Dogs are very subject to piles, but the symptoms, by 
which the complaint shews itself, are by no means known as 
such, although they are not very dissimilar to the human 
haemorrhoids. Piles are broug-ht on by confinement, heat, and 
heating- food ; and shew themselves by a sore red protruded 
anus, which the dog- aggravates by dragging it on the floor. 
Piles are likewise frequently the effect of costiveness. The 
tenesmus occasioned by diarrhoea may readily be mistaken 
for piles, from the anus appearing red and sore. In such a 
case, to effect a cure the looseness must be restrained, and 
the sore anus may be anointed with the ointment directed be- 
low, omitting the tar. 

The habitual piles will be greatly relieved by the use of the 
following ointment : — 

Sugar of lead 6 grains 

Tar half a dram 

Elder ointment, or fine lard 3 drams. 

Mix, and anoint the fundament with it two or three times 
a-day. To correct the habit towards the disease, feed mo- 
derately on cooling food, exercise sufficiently, and, as long 
as the disposition to it is considerable, give daily one of the 
following powders : — 

Nitrated potash (nifre), powdered half a dram 

Milk of sulphur 3 drams. 

Divide into nine, twelve, or fifteen doses. 

■ *^*-r »^ - 


The popular and generally understood term Poison is yet, 
in some respects, a vague and indefinite one ; as substances 
that are most noxious and destructive to one class of ani- 


mals prove perfectly harmless to others. Henbane (hyoscy- 
amus niger, Linn.), which is eaten with impunity by horses, 
oxen, g-oats, and swine, proves most baneful to the canine 
genus. Opium, on the contrary, may be taken in consider- 
able quantities, by dog-s, without serious injury; but it 
rarely fails to prove fatal to the human subject. The phel- 
landrium aquaticum kills horses, while oxen devour it with- 
out harm. Poisons have, therefore, been divided into rela- 
tive and common, or such as are hurtful only to particular 
classes of animals ; and those which prove destructive to all, 
as the several oxides of mercury, arsenic, and copper; the 
concentrated acids, &c. &c. 

Dogs are not unfrequently poisoned either by accident or 
design ; and as the circumstance is sometimes discovered in 
time for relief to be afforded, so a knowledge of counter poi- 
sons, and of the general treatment proper on such occasions, 
form material branches of canine pathology; and as also, 
when no relief can be obtained, it is still very desirable for 
the ends of justice (when wilful poisoning is suspected) to 
be enabled to establish the fact of administering, and of the 
nature of the subject administered; so an acquaintance with 
the various substances commonly employed for this purpose, 
the symptoms produced by them, and the appearances that 
the parts acted on present after death, are necessary parts of 
the canine medical practice. 

The limits of the present work will necessarily confine me 
to noticing such articles only, as, by their popularity, are most 
likely to be made use of purposely to destroy, and such as 
chance may, with some probability, throw in the way of the 
animals themselves. Those who wish for further information 
relative to the effects produced on dogs by various poisonous 
agents, may consult Abbe Fontana, Orfila, Mr. Brodie, 
&c. &c., who have sacrificed more dogs in their rage for ex- 
periment than humanity dares to think of. 

Poisons are usually divided into mineral, vegetable, and 
animal ; in which order I shatl notice them. 



Co7^rosive sublimate, or oxymuriate of quicksilver, is a 
most deadly and unmanageable poison to dogs, in doses as 
small even as five or six grains. Its effects are observed 
soon after it is taken, by the distress of the animal, by his 
frequent retchings, insatiable thirst, panting, and anxiety 
for a cool situation. The mouth becomes swollen — when 
the dose has been large, it appears ulcerated, and emits a 
very foetid odour, which circumstance forms a very strong 
characteristic both with regard to the animal's having been 
poisoned, and also to the article employed for the purpose. 
As the symptoms advance, the retchings are tinged with 
blood ; the stools become liquid and bloody also ; the pulse 
is small and quick, the extremities become cold ; violent 
trembhngs, paralysis, or convulsions follow, and death re- 
lieves the sufferer. On examination of the body afterw^ards, 
the whole alimentary canal, beginning at the mouth and 
proceeding backwards, exhibits marks of the corrosive na- 
ture of the matter taken. The stomach, on being opened, 
will appear covered with highly inflamed patches, and the 
villous folds of its inner and rugose surface will present gan- 
grenous and ulcerated spots, and a ready separation of the 
mucous from the muscular coat, with blood often suffused 
between them, which circumstances only take place when a 
most acrid poison has been swallowed. The intestines also 
shew appearances of great inflammation, particularly of their 
inner surface, which will be found sprinkled with gangrenous 
specks, and, moreover, frequently filled with a thick bloody 
mucui. Such are the usual morbid appearances : but, satis- 
factorily to detect the presence of a poison, and the immedi- 
ate nature of it, some of the Uquid contents of the stomach 
and bowels, both before and after death, should be saved, 
and undergo a rigid chemical analysis. In general cases, the 
addition of potash to some of these liquid contents will occa- 
sion a light yellow precipitate when corrosive sublimate has 


been the poisonous agent*; but a practical chemist will em- 
ploy many other tests. 

The medical treatment to be pursued in these cases con- 
sists in either endeavouring- to envelope or to neutralize the 
acrid matter : the former may be attempted by means of a 
glairy fluid, for which purpose the whites of eggs have proved 
the most effectual means, beaten into a liquid, given in large 
quantities, and repeated as often as they have been ejected. 
When these are not immediately at hand, milk may be sub- 
stituted. Mild clysters should also be thrown up. When the 
stomach is somewhat appeased, give an opiate and castor oil. 
Large doses of soap, dissolved in water, have been recom- 
mended as a counter poison to corrosive minerals, or their 
preparations, and, in the absence of eggs, should be tried. 

Arsenic. — This powerful oxide is often given to dogs, and 
they not unfrequently find it for themselves in a state of mix- 
ture with other matters placed to poison rats. The effects 
produced by it resemble those occasioned by corrosive subli- 
mate, except that, although they prove equally fatal, they 
are not apparently so intense. The mouth, likewise, is not 
usually affected, in an equal degree, with this poison as with 
the other. Dissection, also, detects similar morbid appear- 
ances to those above detailed ; but, unless a very large dose 
has been taken, there is not such complete lesion of the coats 
of the stomach and intestines ; but the gangrenous spots and 
the excess of inflammation are fully sufficient to detect the 
disorganizing action of a mineral poison. Instead of sub- 
jecting the liquid contents of the stomach and bowels to the 
action of potash, as directed when corrosive sublimate is 
looked for, it is usual to detect arsenic by applying the blue 
ammoniacal sulphate of copper, which will produce a lively 
green if arsenic is present. A red hot iron will also occasion 

* A ready, altho\igh not a very humane, mode of detecting the pre- 
sence of poisonous matter, is to give to fowls, birds, or any small ani- 
mal, some of the early ejected contents of the stomach of the dog to 
wliioh poison has been supposed to be given. 


these contents to g-ive out a garlic-like smell under similar 

The treatment proper, in cases of arsenical poisonin"*, is 
to give sugar dissolved in milk, in considerable quantities, 
until it may be supposed that all the poison is evacuated from 
the stomach, when a similar treatment is to be pursued to that 
before recommended. 

Verdigris. — The rust of copper is often taken by dogs, 
from the careless practice of leaving acidulous remains of 
food in copper vessels. The effects produced are not unlike 
those already detailed, but less violent; neither are the ap- 
pearances after death dissimilar, except that the ulceration 
and gangrenous spots are less strongly marked. The pre- 
sence of copper may be detected by the prussiate of potash, 
which occasions a reddish precipitate in the liquid contents of 
the stomach and bowels when added thereto. 

The treatment in no wise differs from that detailed in mer- 
curial poisonings. 

Lead. — I have frequently seen dogs fatally poisoned by 
drinking water from leaden vessels, or by lapping the water 
left in the hollows of the lead coverings of areas, &c. The 
same occurs likewise from the licking of paint, which they 
may have accidentally smeared themselves with ; and it is to 
be observed, that a smaller quantity of lead in this way is 
sufficient to prove fatal, than would be supposed. The 
symptoms produced are vertigo, violent griping pains, vo- 
miting, with purging stools in some cases, and costiveness 
in others : towards the close of fatal cases, paralysis and 
spasmodic twitchings take place. On dissection of these 
cases, there is seldom observed any lesion of the coats of 
either the stomach or bowels ; but the inflammation is in- 
tense, and appears usually in patches. I have also not unfre- 
quently met with intussusception. 

The treatment (when lead may be suspected to have been 
taken) is to be commenced by an active purgative, as sul- 
phate of magnesia (Epsom salts). Should this be rejected, 
a ball with calomel and aloes may be substituted, and may be 


repeated until the bowels are perfectly cleared out. The 
body should be afterwards kept soluble by castor oil ; for I 
have always observed a costive habit from paralytic torpor of 
the bowels remain some time after the action of lead. 

Quicksilver. — When mercurial ointment is rubbed on dogs, 
without muzzling- or covering- them, it is very common for 
them to lick themselves, and to become, by this means, fa- 
tally poisoned. In such cases the stomach is usually but 
slightly affected, but a diarrhoea of great violence follows, 
attended with bloody stools from ulceration in the bowels. 
In these cases, commence the ti'eatment by giving a mixture 
of castor oil and whites of eggs, in equal parts, sufficient to 
remove the offending matter ; proceed next to wash off all 
the remaining ointment, and then give opiates and astrin- 
gents. — See Looseness. 

From this detail of appearances produced by the more active 
mineral poisons, both before and after death (which are all 
drawn from numerous and well defined cases that too fre- 
quently came under my notice), it will be apparent, that it 
is not difficult to discriminate between the inflammation 
brought on by their agency, particularly when full doses 
have been given, from those inflammations occasioned by 
cold or other causes. When caustic mineral salts or acids 
have been taken, the symptoms are more urgent, the pro- 
gress more rapid, and the pain and distress greater than 
when inflammation has proceeded from other sources. The 
foetor from the mouth, and the bloody vomitings and stools, 
are also strong living characteristics of poison. The dead 
ones may be gained from the extreme inflammation and gan- 
grenous state of tlie alimentary canal, but more particularly 
from the ulcerated state of the stomach * and bowels, and 

* It is not very unvisual for the solvent power of the gastric juice to 
erode through the coats of the stomach ; but, in such case, the opening 
is one simple and determinate one only, and always situate at that part 
where the gravity of the gastric fluid has placed it particularly in con- 
tact with the stomach, and in no other. 


from the early tendency in the whole body to become putrid 
and decomposed. The foetor that comes from the diseased 
parts is likewise peculiar in these cases, being- more than 
usually pung-ent and lasting ; so much so, that 1 have distin- 
guished it three months afterwards from the instruments 
dress, and other articles used during the examination of the 


Opium. — In the former edition of the Canine Pathology, 
I stated that, as far as my experience went, opium was not 
deleterious to dogs when received into the stomach; for that 
very large doses of the solid mass were invariably returned 
from the stomach, and that smaller, though considerable 
quantities, produced but little derangement of the system. 
Orfila, however, whose experience has been purchased by 
the sacrifice of whole hecatombs of dogs, asserts that it will 
kill, although he acknowledges (and which corroborates my 
former remarks on it) it is so variable in its effects, that he has 
often given very considerable doses without at all injuring 
the animal. When it does prove fatally deleterious, the symp- 
toms detailed by him are convulsive efforts of all the muscu- 
lar parts, succeeded by dejection and universal paralysis. On 
dissection, little appearance of inflammation is visible in the di- 
gestive organs, but more of it in the lungs. Orfila likewise 
observes (which fully agrees with my experience), that the 
narcotic effect of opium is not apparent in the dog by any 
dose taken into the stomach; but it is a curious fact, that 
introduced either into the blood vessels by injection, or into 
the intestines per ano, it exerts its narcotic influence fully. 

Vomic nut, or crow fig (^Sttychnos nux vomica, Linn.) — 
This berry, or rather seed of a berry, is a native of the East 
Indies, and is a violent narcotic poison to many animals: to 
others it proves not equally noxious ; but it does not appear 
wholly innocent to any. It possesses great power, but is 
very unequal in its action, not only on different animals, but 
also on the same animal at different times, and under dififer- 



ent circumstances. It is a comm©n but a very erroneous 
prejudice, that it proves poisonous to such animals only as 
are born blind. It is a deadly agent, not only to the vrhole 
of the canine and feline g-enera, but it destroys hares, rab- 
bits, horses, asses, and most birds. It is irregularly delete- 
rious to man, fifteen grains having proved fatal to one, and 
a whole nut or seed has failed to injure another. Leuriero 
relates, that a horse died in four hours from a dram only. 
Five or six grains are sufficient to kill a rabbit or hare. I 
destroyed a very large rabid Newfoundland dog in five mi- 
nutes and a half by a dram of it, which was given in butter. 
Half a dram was given to another, of middling size, which 
destroyed him in twenty-eight minutes ; and twelve grains 
proved fatal to a smaller one in twenty-five minutes. \ 
watery extract is more quick, as well as more certain, in its 
a&tion, a few grains of which seldom fail to kill in a few 
minutes, if given in solution: it acts less speedily when givert 
in the form of pills. But as it is, under all circumstances, 
not uniform in its action, so I cannot, as formerly, recommend 
it as a safe agent to depend on for the destruction of a dog. 
When it is actually necessary to destroy one of these valuable 
animals, humanity dictates that it should be done speedily, 
and in a way to prolong the sufferings as little as possible- 
In a note added to the next article, a better method will be 
stated. It is, however, sufficiently deleterious to make it 
very commonly resorted to on such occasions by malicious 
persons, particularly as it can be easily procured, under pre- 
tence of destroying vermin of various kinds. Like opium, the 
nux vomica fails to produce any of its narcotic effects on dogs, 
when introduced into the stomach ; but it occasions violent 
tetanic convulsions, laborious respirations, and general torpor, 
and it thus destroys by robbing the nervous system of its 
energy ; and that so speedily, that its presence is not easily 
detected by any morbid appearances occasioned : neither are 
any means, unless immediately resorted to, sufficient to re- 
strain its consequences. An emetic should be given within a 
minute or two after the exhibition of the poison ; and this 


should be followed by a large teaspoonful of mustard, to give 
a reasonable chance of success. 

Angustura pseudo ferruginaa.—P^ false species of angus- 
tura has entered into the shops of many druggists, and has 
occasioned considerable mischief. Some years ago, I unfor- 
tunately destroyed a very favourite dog by giving him, as a 
tonic remedy, this spurious article, which had been furnished 
me by my druggist, as the genuine angustura bark. This 
deleterious article, although it is decided by Humboldt to be 
nowise related to the angustura tribe, has yet been very ge- 
nerally diffused, and used as a substitute for the true bark *. 

Prussic acid.— In its highly concentrated state, this acid 
(which, it is fortunate, is extremely difficult to obtain, and 
still more so to preserve) is so active, that one, or, at the 
most, two drops applied within the eye, nose, or on the 
tongue, are sufficient to destroy life in a minute or two. It 
is to the presence of this acid that many vegetable sub- 
stances, particularly all bitter kernels, ow^e their deleterious 
properties. The lauro cerasus, or cherry laurel, used in 
cooking for the kernel-like flavour it gives, under distillation 
yields a water that proves poisonous to dogs. The essential 
oil of the cherry laurel, as well as that of bitter almonds, 
are both so strongly impregnated with prussic acid, that a 
very few drops given to the largest dog, prove immediately 
fatal t. An extract also, made from either of these articles. 

* L. A. Planch, a French apothecary, has accurately described the 
article in a memoir, entitled Notice Chimiqiie sur les Angustnres dea 

Commerce. . 

f It is not unfrequently a subject of inquiry, how it may be possible 
to destroy a dog with least pain to himself, and least shock to the feel- 
ings of his owner. Although shooting and hanging are not, in them- 
selves, painful deaths, yet the violence necessarily committed is revolt- 
ing to one's feelings. It is both selfish and imprudent to familiarize the 
minds of servants to these acts. Whenever, therefore, cases arise (and 
many such do occur) where it would be infinitely more humane to destroy 
an animal than to prolong a miserable existence; and when the more 
usual modes are objected to on account of the violence and force necep- 




is speedily fatal in a small dose. The effects produced by all 
these are nearly similar. Taken into the stomach, they de- 
stroy by at once paralyzing- the sensorium. Introduced im- 
mediately into the blood vessels, most of them exert a 
narcotic influence, but are no less certainly fatal. An eme- 
tic immediately administered, and followed up by active 
spicy stimulants, as mustard, pepper, &c., mixed with vine- 
gar, afford the best chances of arresting" the fatal effects of 
these potent articles. 

The Woorara, Lamas, Ticunas, Faha sancti ignatii, Upas 
antia?\ and Upas tieute, are veg-etable poisons, indigenous to 
southern and eastern climes, and by far more potent and deadly 
than our most noxious articles. Prepared with much art 
and care, these extracts retain their poisonous qualities a 
g-reat length of time ; and the smallest puncture made with 
the finest instrument, as a sharp dart or arrow, embued with 
a solution of either of these poisons, proves fatal, in some 
instances, within a minute. Mr. Brodie has detailed some 
experiments made by him with these poisons on dogs, which 
shew their dreadful activity. Mons. de la Condamine's ex- 
periments at Paris are still more frightful pictures of their 


The rabid virus is the most deadly among our animal 
poisons, and thousands of dogs are every year destroyed by 
it. The effects of the rabid bite are detailed under the arti- 
cle Rabies. 

Viper bite. — In every quarter of the globe but Europe, 
dogs are exposed to the venomous attacks of snakes, whose 
bite is instantly mortal. The viper is the only animal of this 
kind in Britain capable of inflicting a wound attended with 
serious consequences, and to which dogs become exposed 
when hunting. In these cases, the bitten part swells enor- 

sary, either of these essential oils dropped on the tongue, or a very 
small ball made from the extract, will extinguish life almost instantane- 
ously, and without pain. 


mously, and the animal expresses great distress and suffering-: 
at length he becomes affected with torpor, or, in some cases, 
with convulsions, when death commonly ensues. But it is 
not often that these bites are fatal, particularly when proper 
means are resorted to to obviate the effects. These means con- 
sist in freely rubbing the bitten part with volatile alkali, or 
with the spirit of hartshorn mixed with oil ; giving also five, 
six, or eight drops of the volatile alkali, or twenty drops 
of the spirit of hartshorn, in a teaspoonful or two of sweet oil, 
every hour, until the amendment is evident. 

The venomous stings of Hornets, Wasps, and Bees, may be 
relieved by applying the vegetable blue used to colour linen. 
Laudanum also, or vinegar or brandy, will, either of them , 
often remove the pain and inflammation speedily. 


Now and then an excrescence is found protruding itself 
from some cavity, of an indeterminate form, but usually pen- 
dulous and nipple shaped. 1 have seen them in the nose, 
within the uterus and the sheath of the penis, as well as from 
other parts also ; but by much the most usual situation in 
which polypi are found, is within the sheath or vagina of the 

When the pedicle of the polypus can be reached up to its 
origin, it may be taken off by excision : when this cannot be 
conveniently done, still a ligature may commonly be intro- 
duced around its base, and suffered to remain till the whole 
drops off. 1 have frequently removed polypi by both these 
methods, without future inconvenience or reproduction. 



From the greater irritability of lesser animals compared 
with the larger, and the extreme quickness of their circula- 
tion, the motions of the heart and arteries do not present such 
exact criteria of health and disease as they do in the horse and 
other larg-e animals. Nevertheless, the action of the heart, and 
the pulsations of the larger arteries, maybe felt with propriety 
in many cases, and will serve as some guide to ascertain the 
degree of disease. The pulsations will not only be increased 
in quickness, but they will present a vibratory feel in violent 
inflammatory affections. In inflammations of the lungs they 
will be very quick and small, but will increase in fulness as 
the blood flows during bleeding. Something like the same 
will occur, but not in an equal degree, in inflammations of the 
stomach and bowels also. As the pulsatory motions, there- 
fore, are not so distinct in the dog as they are in larger ani- 
mals ; so, in general, the state of the breathing, which, in 
most cases, is regulated by the circulation, may be principally 
attended to as a mark of greater or less inflammatory action. 
When a dog, therefore, pants violently, his circulation, or in 
other words his pulse, may be considered as quickened. 


Great numbers of dogs die every year in bringing forth 
their young. A life of art has brought the human curse upon 
them, and they seem, in common with their female owners, to 
be doomed to bring forth in sorrow and pain. 

When bitches are at heat, care should be taken to prevent 
their intercourse with dogs much larger than themselves; 
otherwise the size of the father influencing the size of the 
progeny, they become disproportionate to the parts of the 
mother, and she cannot bring them into the world.— /See 


Spaying. — Thus cats, being- all of them of neaHy one size, 
seldom die in kittening-. All dogs, who are much domesti- 
cated and confined, appear particularly subject to difficulty in 
bringing forth, consequently during pregnancy much exercise 
should be given. Sometimes the constitution is not equal to 
the exertion ; and sometimes false presentation increases the 
obstruction. Whenever a difficulty in pupping occurs, which 
has existed more than four or five hours, the bitch should be 
examined by the parts of generation; and, if any portion of 
a pup should be found to present itself, so as to be within 
reach of the finger, a skain of worsted ought, if possible, to be 
fastened around it ; and, during the throes of the animal, it 
should be gently drawn away. If it cannot be reached in 
this way, a little longer time may be allowed ; but if, after 
all, it proceeds no farther, a pair of forceps may be used to 
lay hold of it with. It is a good practice to give a mild 
purgative as soon as any symptoms of pupping appear ; and, 
when delivery seems much delayed, it will be prudent, in 
all cases, to bathe in warm water, and to give nutritious mat- 
ter, as gravies or broths, with occasional doses of laudanum 
united with sether if any convulsive appearances come on. 
The patience of bitches in labour is extreme, and their dis- 
tress, if not relieved, is most striking and affecting-. Tjieir 
look is, at such times, particularly impressive. 

A wish to relieve them has very frequently engaged me in 
performing- the Csesarean operation ; but I never succeeded 
in any one instance. I attribute this failure, however, prin- 
cipally to the delay in the time, which humanity suggests ; 
and not to the nature of the operation altog-ether, which is, 
however, sufficiently dangerous. Whenever pupping is pro- 
tracted considerably, the puppies surely die ; and in those 
cases where the young are already dead from the effect of 
accident, they become the sure occasions of a protracted la- 
bour. Dead puppies come away piecemeal, sometimes many 
days after the natural time, and occasion a foetid discharge 
until the parts have reinstated themselves. 

From a wish to rear too many young ones, persons are in- 



duced, after a bitch has pupped, to overload the mother ; and 
thereby they often lose both parent and progeny. Such a 
bitch will go on very well perhaps for one, two, or even three 
weeks ; suddenly, however, she will be seized with convul- 
sions, which will follow each other with rapidity, and carry 
her oif. The cause is seldom suspected, but it always arises 
from debility thus brought on. A bitch should always, there- 
fore, be allowed to suckle as many puppies only as her con- 
stitutional powers are equal to. To specify a precise number 
is totally impossible, as some mothers can bring up five or six 
with more ease than others can rear three. Strong healthy 
bitches, that have before brought up young, may rear four 
or five : delicate ones are sufficiently burthened with three ; 
many can only bear two. 

When a bitch, therefore, who suckles has had a fit, imme- 
diately remove the puppies: one or two may be put to her 
for half an hour, morning and evening; or, if she is dis- 
tressed at their loss, and has much milk left, one may be 
left with her ; but, unless the majority are taken away, she 
cannot be saved. As an internal remedy, employ the follow- 

Sulphuric aether 1 dram 

Tincture of opium {Imidanum) 1 dram 

Strong ale 2 ounces.— Mix. 

Give from a dessert to two table-spoonfuls of this mixture, 
according to the size and strength of the patient, repeating 
the dose every two or three hours. Force down also some 
nutritious matter, solid or liquid, as diet; and, as soon as the 
animal will eat, let the food be of the very best kind, and in 
sufficient quantities. In such cases the warm bath is often 
very useful likewise. 


Rahies Canina, or Madness, in Dogs, 

The popular and long-received nanie oi madness has now 
given place to the more classical term rabies*. The rabid 
malady is, unquestionably, one of great antiquity ; for we 

* Rabies, however, it is hardly necessary to remark, is so far from 
a new term, that it is a much older one than that of madness, as applied 
to this immediate disease in dogs. We have rabidus canis, in Pliny, and 
canis rahiosa, in Horace, as well as in many other authors. But if mad- 
ness is an improper term for the complaint in question, because wild 
delirium, rage, and ferocity, are so far from constant attendants on it, 
that they are seldom present j so it is evident that the Latin term rabies, 
which signifies rage and fierceness (Iracunde 6r rabiose facerc aliquidy 
Cicero), must be equally so. Hydrophobia also, by which it has been 
occasionally called, is completely a misnomer, because in brutes there is 
never the slightest dread of water, either outwardly or inwardly applied. 
Dr. Parry on this subject says, " To avoid the confusion attendant on the 
" use of an abstract term, which includes many varieties of phenomena, 
«' arising from as many diff"erent causes, it might be proper altogether 
" to annul the term Hydrophobia" (both in man and beast), " as the ex- 
" pression of a genus, and to call the disease Rabies. Since, also, this 
" malady is neither peculiar to dogs, nor communicable only by them, 
" some objection may be justly made to the use of the adjunct, Canina. 
« For these reasons I proposed, nearly forty years ago, in a treatise 
" now deservedly forgotten, to designate the disease by the appellation 
" of Rabies Contagiosa ; thus preserving the old generic term, and adding 
" another expressive of its mode of production."— (Parry on the Rabies 
Contagiosa, p. 119.)— To this it may be replied, that the mournful his- 
tory of every hydrophobous case will shew that rabies is equally in the 
human a palpable misnomer : a mild delirium may occasionally confuse 
the regular order of ideas in both man and beast: but how seldom in 
eit>>er,°particularly in the former, do we witness rage or fierceness ? and 
whether contagious can be more justly applied to a disease that, al- 
though received, cannot, as we believe, be again communicated by, 
admits of doubt. We have yet, therefore, to seek for a correct term 
for this anomalous malady. The French occasionally characterize the 
rabid disease by the term Cynolisson or Cynolysson; and wo have met- 
^ith Cynohj'ssa as an English name bearing the same import, as well as 
Cynode'ctos (ituv«W<rToO, for one bitten by a mad dog ; but if yCcrcra may 
be rendered, as it has sometimes been, torment, from the bite of any 


have authentic accounts of it for more than 2000 years. It is 
described with some accuracy both by Aristotle and Dias- 
CORJDES. Other of the antients likewise notice it*. — History 
has continued to furnish us with numerous traces of it, par- 
ticularly in Europe, where it seems sometimes to have raged 
with epidemic fury, and at others to have been but little 
knownt. In 1500, Spain was ravaged by it. In 1604 it was 
very common in Paris J ; and 100 years after this, Germany 
became the theatre of this dreadful scourg-e among its wolves 
as well as dogs. Naturalists, historians, and physicians, of 
every age, have left short but frightful records of its dread- 
ful visitations ; and periodical notices have shewn that it has 
never been wholly lost sight of. Some works of magnitude 
have also marked its ravages, written by the authors of 
Spain, Italy, Germany, and France ; but their accounts were 
so blended with received errors, as to convey little informa- 
tion. The illustrious Boerhaave may, perhaps, be consider- 
ed among the first who, by attentive observation, threw 
light on the rabid malady in dogs ||. In England, little had 
appeared worthy of notice until the account presented by Mr. 
Meynell. This celebrated sportsman published his memoir 
in the 10th volume of the Medical Commentaries ; and if his 

venomous animal, then it would appear that Cynoly'ssa is a more critical 
term than any in common use. " La classification de la rage a quelque 
chose de defectueux dans toutes les nosologies."— TroZ?ief sur la Bage, 
p. 575. 

* Some doubt seems to be entertained, whether Hippocrates, in his 
CoaccB PrcBnotiones, intended to describe the rabid malady, when he 
says " Phrenetici parum bibentes, strepitum valde percipientes, tremuli 
aut convulsi." 

f Not that I believe the rabid malady ever arises spontaneously ; but 
that sometimes the inoculation of it takes place under circumstances 
particularly favourable to its rise aud future propagation, as will be 
hereafter explained. 

'\. Journal de Henri IV, tome iii, p. 221. 

jl Aphorism 1 135, where, although some error is apparent, yet much 
truth also appears. 


account of the rabid malady does not exactly coincide with 
future representations drawn from a wider field of observation, 
it nevertheless characterises the disease with considerable pre- 
cision, and, at the time it was written, was calculated to do 
infinite good, by banishing some dangerous and erroneous 
opinions relative to it. 

In 1806, rabies in dogs became very common in England, 
and extended to the vicinity of London, in which, during the 
next year, it increased to such a degree, that a day seldom 
passed without my being consulted on one or more of these 
cases: sometimes 1 have seen three, four, or five a day, for 
several days in succession. In the two following years it 
raged with nearly equal fury ; and it is remarkable, that from 
that time to the present (1823), it has never disappeared in 
London : within the last two years its frequency has been 
rather increasing than diminishing. In the country, about 
the same proportion of cases have occurred for the last seven 
years. Towards the close of 1807, I gave to the public, in 
A Domestic Treatise on Horses and Dogs, the substance of 
the following remarks on the rabid malady ; and very soon 
after, I presented a more condensed memoir on the subject, 
which (with much other accredited* matter on the diseases 
of dogs) was inserted in Rees's Cyclopiedia ; and I believe 
I may, without fear of contradiction, and 1 hope without the 
reproach of improper vanity, assert, that, among the nume- 
rous publications which the prevalence of rabies and hydro- 
phobia afterwards occasioned, there is scarcely one which has 
not borrowed something from one or other of these sources ; 
indeed the plumes of some are principally gathered from 
them. Of this number a few have had the candour to ac- 
knowledge the obligation : others, less generous, have con- 

* I have said accredited, because the ingenious collator, Dr. Rees, not 
content with what I had furnished, chose to add the vulgar errors and 
traditionary nonsense of huntsmen and grooms, which could only be 
accredited when error and prejudice held sovereign sway. 


tented themselves with adopting*, and giving-, as their own, 
as much as suited their purpose*. One or two individuals, 
still more ung-enerously to favour their own views of the 
subject, have endeavoured to throw a shade over the 
whole, by affecting- to dispute the correctness of my state- 
ments, or the force of the inferences drawn therefromt. 

* I believe no one who reads the Prize Dissertation of Mr. Oilman 
will doubt that, on the subject of the rabid malady in dogs, he was prin- 
cipally indebted to what had been made public by me. If it at all 
assisted the great cause of humanity, he is most welcome to all he 
obtained ; and, had he been candid enough to have acknowledged the 
source from whence he derived his information, it would not, I hope, 
have discredited his cause. On this subject Dr. Parry says, " Since 
*' writing the preceding remarks, I have perused the Dissertation of 
" Mr. Gilman on the Bite of a Rabid A7iimal. In that part of this work 
** which respects the symptoms of rabies in dogs— evidently taken 
" from the article Dog in Rees^s Cyclopedia, or at least from the same 
" source." — Rabies Contagiosa, p. 170-1. 

+ I hope it would as little accord with my inclination as it would en- 
hance my character, to attempt to sully any merited honours that shine 
around the grave of departed genius ; but common justice to myself, 
and above all the great cause of truth, force me to the notice of what is 
well known to the medical world in general, and openly acknowledged 
by many of its most distinguished members, — that Dr. Parry, of Bath, 
in his well-known work on the Hydrophobia, had by his severity, butstill 
more by the unfairness of his criticisms on these remarks, subjected 
himself to a suspicion that candid examination was less his object, than, 
invidious intolerance towards whatever differed from himself. Were 
my personal vanity alone concerned, I should probably best consult it 
by silence ; for I have little reason to doubt, that, long after the theoretic 
views and dogmatic assertions which form the ground-work of Dr. P.'s 
publication are consigned to oblivion, these statements of undoubted 
facts, and these remarks drawn from long and attentive observation, will 
form a faithful portrait of the rabid malady, which will be resorted to 
by every one seeking information relative to it. The research and 
ingenuity displayed in this celebrated work are, unfortunately for the 
posthumous reputation of its author, tarnished by the artful attempts to 
make whatever has appeared from others either bend to the angle of 
view under which he has placed his subject, or by endeavours still more 
unfair to throw discredit on such portions as prove themselves too 
.stubborn for his purpose. In this way Dr. P., on the authority of three 


The following- account of the rabid malady in dogs is the 
result of many years' diligent attention to the subject, com- 
bined with opportunities for observation so numerous and 

hydrophobous cases in the human, and only one or two rabid ones in 
the brute, endeavours to disprove almost the whole of the vast mass of 
information collected and published by the most distinguished members 
of the profession during the last forty years • and, at the same time to 
prove, that the disease, in both the human and brute subject, has been 
hitherto entirely mistaken in cause, appearance, and effect. 

But as the notoriety attendant on my extended experience in the 
rabid malady, and that of my late coadjutor and present worthy friend, 
Mr. YouATT, with the weight of authority derived therefrom, might be 
supposed to militate more against the Doctor's new view of the matter 
than that of most others, so it was more particularly necessary, to fur- 
ther his cause, that a disparaging shade should be thrown over our pub- 
lic statements* ; and we, therefore, were treated with even less candour 
and fairness than was observed towards the numerous other objects of 
his castigation. In his examination of our writings, Dr. Parry has prac- 
tised a conduct the most disingenuous. To produce an appearance of 
discordance and opposition between the several parts, he has selected 
detached and remote passages, and placed them continuously, purpose- 
ly to give them the appearance of a contradictory whole • in which way 
It is evident that the most perspicuous writer that ever put pen to paper 
might be betrayed into the most glaring seeming inconsistencies. 

I can with truth affirm, that this attack on me as an individual influ- 
ences me less in this notice than the more dangerous one made on truth 
in general by his dogmatic denial of notorious facts, that he might there- 
by, with some appearance of consistency, establish his favourite theory, 
that the human and brute malady are wholly the same in cause, appear- 
ance, and effect. " Laryngeal Spasm" is, with Dr. P., the foundation of 
both diseases ; and as the hydrophobic symptom is one resulting from this 
spasm in the human subject, hydrophobia must necessarily be present 
in the dog also. To establish which exploded and even dangerous error, 
he denies testimonies the most credible and established, and, without 

♦Several cases of rabies, from the pen of Mr. Youalt, have appeared in tl.e 
Medical and PhyncalJournal, and in the London Medical Repository, which we.e 
all drawn with the perspicuity and accuracy that mark his literary perform- 
ances. That they were faithful portraits of the disease, his extensive opportn- 
mties and habits of observation will vouch; yet Dr. P. denies the existence of 
everyone of these as a true case of rabies: on the contrary, so well versed 
does he think himself in canine pathology, that, by the mere statement of symp. 
toras, he takes on himself to pronounce some of them Bronchitis, some Pneumo- 
nia, and others pure Inflammation of tlie Fauces ! ! ! 


extensive as perhaps never fell to the lot of any other person. 
These opportunities arising- from some hundreds of distinct 
cases were none of them lost: the importance of the subject, 
and the popular attention directed towards the disease during" 
the years of its prevalence, impressed my mind with more 
than ordinary interest. The subjects that daily fell under 
my notice were, therefore, sedulously watched while living", 
and the several varieties that occurred carefully noted down. 
Every popular remedy was tried, with many others, that, by 

one solitary fact to support his satements, he goes so far as to pro- 
nounce every case in which there is not a manifest dread of water to be 
spurious, and, in fact, any thing but rabies. In the total absence of facts, 
arguments must necessarily be resorted to ; and of what nature Dr. P.'s 
are, may be gained from the following specimen, which does not stand 
alone in futility. " How, if no dread of liquids exists in mad dogs, came 
"the disease to be called, in all ages, hydrophobia?"— i2a&. Contag. 
p. 145. — Can any question be more easily and satisfactorily answered ? 
Have we not innvimerable instances of names borrowed from the human 
towards the brute, and from the brute towards the human, from a fan- 
cied or partial resemblance, when the designation in essentials was as 
intrinsically a misnomer as in this instance ? But it is not necessary to 
rely on this well-known circumstance to disprove this non-reasoning; 
for the fact is, that rabies has not been so called, either universally or 
individually, when specifically noticed *. It has only been so called 
cursorily, and in vernacular language, by persons not pretending to 
scientific discrimination in general, or conversance with the complaint in 
particular. Throughout the whole of Dr. Parry's treatise, a laboured at- 
tempt is manifest to force the human and brute malady into one parallel, 
and to assimilate their discordant features into one likeness. But, that 
this view of the subject is completely at variance with truth, an atten- 
tion to the symptoms of the complaint in both subjects, during life, 
and an examination of the morbid appearances after death, will fully 
evince ; and how dangerous a re-establishment of errors and preju- 
dices, which it has been the endeavour of late observant writers to re- 
move, may be gained, it is presumed, by an attention to the detail which 
I am about to enter upon. 

* Et s'il etiut possible de soulever le voile dont le temps a convert la science 
dcs medecins grecs, nous verrions probablement qu'ils n'ont point confondu I'liy- 
dropliobie simple avec la rage, pnisqu'ils les designoient par deux expressions 
tres-exactes, hydrophobia^ horreur de I'lau ; et cynolysson, rage du ch'ien.—Trait, 
lie la Berge, par Mons. TrnlUet, p. 267. 


analogy, seemed applicable to the case; and, when death 
took place, a careful examination of the morbid appearances 
was made in every instance which at all bid fair to throw 
light on the subject. 

The necessity of a precise and clear knowledge of this 
direful malady cannot but be evident, when we consider its 
present prevalence, and how totally it has hitherto been mis- 
understood and misrepresented. Although, for ages, even 
the plague has hardly been more dreaded, yet in this, as well 
as in other countries*, perhaps, no popular subject presents 

* Among our continental neiglibours, where the ravages from rabid 
wolves, in addition to those of dogs, operating on a campaign country, 
might be supposed more constant and universal than with us, the want 
of correct information on the subject has been at least equal to our own. 
Such notices as have been within my reach from Germany, Spain, and 
Italj', present nothing at all satisfactory and precise as regards the 
brute malady. Neither in France is it better understood ; for in a volu- 
minous work of great research and ingenuity, written expressly on the 
rabid malady in general (and professing to contain whatever is known 
or could be obtained on the subject, by Mons. Trolliet, Professor of 
Medicine in the Hotel Dieu, in Lyons), a meagre account, comprised in 
a single page, forms the whole characteristics of canine madness that 
his own observation, and the innumerable publications on the matter 
diflused over the Continent, furnished him with. Mons. T. even owns, 
** Quoique nous ne connoissions pas de signe certain de la rage dans le 
" chien, toutefois on doit soup^ouner que cette maladie existe lorsque 
'* I'animal devient triste," &c. &c. &c., p. 274. " Le degre de certitude 
" de I'existence de la rage saccroit, si le chien qui presente ces carac- 
" teres a ete mordu en meme temps qu'une personne en un animal qui 
" ait succombe a cette maladie," Nauveau Traite de la Rage, p. 275. On 
a comparison between the account of the rabid malady, as described in 
the report of Messrs. Enaux and Chaussier, and the above by Mons. 
TrollxEt, it is evident that both emanated from one source; indeed, 
one is a literal transcript of the other, and both are equally vague and 
indefinite. This appears the more extraordinary, when it is considered 
this joint work of Messrs. Enaux and Chaussier was a demi-official 
publication, directed at the immediate instance of Government to give to 
the French public the most correct information on the rabid malady. 
As a proof how qualified these gentlemen were to fulfil thtir instruc- 
tions, we find that, by them, " A mad dog avoids water, which redoubles 


such a complete tissue of error as this. I have before had 
occasion to remark, that the very term of madness, by w^hich 
the disease has been so long and universally knovv^n, conveys 
an idea of it in most instances remote from the truth. By 
the term mad, persons naturally suppose that a dog-, affected 
Wiih the rabid malady, must necessarily be wild and furious ; 
and in every written description it is so made out : but so far 
is this from being- the case, that in hardly any instance in an 
adult dog" have I observed a total alienation of the mind ; on 
the contrary, in the g-reater number, the mental faculties 
have even been but little disturbed ; the unhappy subjects of 
the complaint commonly know the voice of their master, and 
are obedient to it, and that frequently to the very last mo- 
ments of their existence. 

In other animals, however, it must be allowed, there is 
more propriety in the term. Wolves seem to be ferocious 
and wild, but not senseless. Pig-s labour under delirium : 
even the peaceable sheep becomes not only delirious but fe- 
rocious in this malady. In the rabid horse, the sig-ht is most 
terrific ; I have seen one, during- his delirium, clear a six-stall 
stable of racks, mang-ers, standing-s, and posts : every thing, 
but the bare walls, was levelled into ruins around him. 

But if madness can thus be proved an incorrect term, that 
of hydrophobia, by which the brute rabies is sometimes 
called, is still more remote from any thing like critical ac- 
curacy, and, in fact^ is as inapplicable to it as the human 
measles or small pox *. 

"his distress." — " He dies at the end of thirty or thirty -six hours, 
" in convulsions."—" The dead body yields a most m/ecfiowsodovir:" — 
and, " the person who touches his body should wash himself well with 
" vinegar." Orfila, likewise, who is the French oracle as regards 
poisons, says, "That men, horses, oxen, and pigs, become rabid with- 
" out being bitten by a rabid animal." Every medical tyro knows the 
contrary here. 

* This simple misnomer is, however, the least part of the mischief; 
for, unfortunately, a dread of water has been considered, by many 
persons, as the universal and grand characteristic of the complaint, as 


Another popular prejudice equally absurd, though some- 
what less dangerous than the preceding-, likewise generally 

well in the brute as the human subject, and as one by which it may be 
infallibly known j but this opinion is so utterly at variance with the 
truth, that rabid dogs, instead of shewing any dread of water, in most 
instances seek it with avidity, and lap it incessantly. It is incalculable 
the mischief that this universal prejudice has produced ; it has rendered 
thousands of persons miserable for months and years even, while others 
it has lulled into a fatal security. Should a dog, from an affection of 
any kind soever, be prevented from swallowing, he is immediately 
pronounced mad, and is unreluctantly destroyed ^ while horror after- 
wards pervades the mind of every one who has been within his reach. 
Nor are the unfortunate persons, who have been bitten by this same 
dog for months or years even before, exempt from the panic ^ for, among 
other common errors that are current, it is believed that, if a dog be- 
comes mad, any person, who may have been formerly bitten by the ani- 
mal when in perfect health, is equally in danger, as though it had hap- 
pened when the animal was really affected. 

On the other hand, if a dog, under any complaint, can drink, he is 
pronounced free from all danger of madness ; and so universal has this 
opinion been, that Dr. H., an eminent physician now in very extensive 
practice in the western part of London, who was consulted by a person 
bitten, immediately inquired whether the dog by which he had been 
wounded could drink ; and, on being informed that he could, he pe- 
remptorily pronounced that there was no danger of madness, and ac- 
tually recommended that no precautions whatever might be made use of. 
This gentleman was guilty of a piece of professional presumption and 
ignorance unworthy his rank and situation ; and his advice, had it been 
followed, might have caused the death of three persons. Fortunately 
for them, his opinion was not attended to, and I dissected the wounded 
parts ovit of each of them. In five weeks, an unfortunate spaniel, who 
had been bitten by this same dog, became rabid ; and in six weeks a 
horse, bitten by him, became so likewise. 

Whi'e these sheets were preparing for the press, a similar instance of 
error in this particular occurred in the practice of Mr. Youatt, to whom 
a dog unquestionably rabid was brought by a poor woman, whose 
hands were excoriated by a breaking out, and had been licked by the 
dog. On Mr. Y.'s intimation that it was necessary she should use some 
precaution, she applied to a medical gentleman, who assured her, that 
if the dog attempted to drink he was not mad, and no precautions were 
necessary. This opinion was likewise confirmed by another person who 
pretends to some veterinary knowledge. 



received, is, that the removal of a supposed worm from under 
the tongue, during- the dog's youth, will either prevent his 
becoming- rabid at any future time, or otherwise will totally 
incapacitate him from biting- in case he should become so (see 
Worming in Dogs). I have also known serious mistakes 
arise from a very g-eneral notion entertained, that a mad dog- 
is instinctively avoided by another. Nothing can be more 
untrue : I have repeatedly seen rabid dog-s living- with others, 
who have not appeared to feel the smallest apprehension -, 
nor do healthy dog-s ever shew any appearance of dread in 
their encounters with those that are rabid, or avoid them 
when thev meet: neither is the blood or flesh of a mad dog-, 
when dead, capable of inspiring- horror in a healthy one. 

In a history of the rabid malady, it is worth inquiring- into 
the mode of its origin ; in what animals it may be supposed to 
have been first generated, and what other animals are known 
to be capable of receiving it from them. That the disease 
was spontaneously generated we are certain : the human 
contagions of syphilis, small pox, measles, &c. &c., were 
likewise first generated in this manner: but as these are now 
very generally considered never to arise spontaneously, are 
we warranted, from analogy only, to conclude that the rabid 
malady must now, in every instance, ow^e its origin to con- 
tagion ? The opinions on this subject are various : and as the 
weight of authority is considerable on both sides, it might 
be prudent to hold our judgm.ent in suspense, and not to de- 
cide too hastily, nor without due grounds. As far as my 
own experience goes, and as far as close observation and at- 
tentive consideration have enabled me to judge, i have no 
hesitation to give it, as my opinion, that the disease is 
never now of spontaneous origin. Among my almost un- 
limited opportunities of remarking- the subject, I never met 
with one instance of rabies in a dog- whoilv secluded from 
the access of others. Such instances 1 know are on record '^; 

* Two cases that present themselves to my recollection elucidate the 
caution requisite in forming an opinion on circumstances in themselves 


but I have so frequently witnessed the ease with which we 
may be deceived in this particular, and the great mass of 
evidence directly contrary to spontaneous origin, that 1 am 

apparently conclusive. I was requested by a gentleman, residing in 
Wimpole Street, to examine a dog, which I at once pronounced rabid ; 
on which this gentleman informed me, that if the dog was so, he cer- 
tainl}^ must have become so without infection (which he knew was in di- 
rect opposition to my opinion); for that this dog, which was a very great 
favourite, had never, for many months, been out of doors alone, nor, 
indeed, at anj^ time, out of the sight of either himself or his valet, 
who was also attached to the dog, and had the express care of him 
when his master was absent. As, therefore, neither of them had ever 
seen him bitten, they were positive on the subject. Anxious to arrive 
at the truth where so important a matter was concerned, I commenced a 
close examination of the other servants, and it was, at length, remem- 
bered by the footman, that one morning, when the master's bell rang 
(during the valet's absence to answer it), this dog accompanied him 
to the street door, and, while engaged in receiving a message brought, 
he recollected that the dog went for an instant beyond the door, and was 
suddenly attacked by a dog that passed seemingly without an owner. 
Here was an explanation of the apparent difficulty : this dog, there is 
little reason to doubt, was rabid, and pursuing the usual march of mis- 

The other case was tliat of a Newfoundland dog, which was constantly 
chained to his kennel during the day, and suffered to be at large only 
during the night within an inclosed yard. This dog became rabid, and, 
as no dog was known to have had access to the yard, it seemed to be an 
established certainty in the mind of his owner, that he generated the 
disease spontaneously. This case I also sifted with great perseverance, 
to elicit the truth. At length I gained, from the gardener to the family, 
that he remembered, one night in bed, hearing an unusual noise, as 
though the Newfoundland dog was quarrelling with another, but which, 
from the dog's confined situation, made him believe was impossible, and 
he therefore took no notice of the subject. He also recollected^ that, 
about this time, marks of a dog appeared in his garden, whirh*»on ac- 
count of the height of the wall, surprised him ; and he further remem- 
bered, that remains of hair were discovered on the wall which separated 
the garden from the yard where the dog was confined, but which cir- 
cumstances, until strict inquiry was made, had excited no attention. 
About the same time, the neighbourhood, it appeared, had been alarmed 
by the absence of a large dog belonging to one of the inhabitants, which 
had escaped from confinement during the night, evidently under symp- 
toms of disea:<e. Here, also, a readv solution of the difficulty occurred ; 

Q 2 


disposed to attribute the impression made on the relators to 
want of due inquiry, or to the erroneous information gained 
from those around. Mr. Youatt, whose means of observa- 
tions have been but little inferior to my own. 1 believe, is 
decidedly of a similar opinion, as are also many of our most 
eminent medical characters * ; and, although it cannot be 
denied that there are those who maintain a different view of 
the matter, yet, without questioning the ingenuity of the argu- 
ments on which their opinions mainly rest, it will be found 
that palpable facts, or well-conducted experiments, have not 
been the means whereon such opinions have rested t. The 

and Mr. Oilman's case, on which he founds his opinion of spontaneous 
rabies, is, without doubt, referrible to a similar want of correct inform- 
ation on the confinement of the animal. 

* Among these may be mentioned, Drs. 'Vaughan, Hunter, and Houi- 
STON. Dr. Bards LEY, also, who has examined the subject attentively, 
in his Reports, states his full conviction that rabies never, in the present 
day, owes its origin to spontaneous generation, nor to the operation of 
climate, putrid aliment, excess or deprivation of food or water, want 
of perspiration, worm under the tongue, or to any other agency save 
that of infection. 

f Much of this discrepancy of opinion originates in our defective no- 
sological distinctions. Spontaneous rabies, in the minds of its warmest 
advocates, is often confounded with an affection certainly spontaneous, 
and certainly of a wild and often furious character. This spontaneous 
animal rabies of some authors, and the spontaneous human hydrophobia 
of Sauvages, may arise from the local irritation of wounds, worms, colics, 
particularly from lead, &c., or from the general irritations of tetanus, 
epilepsy, &c., or the excitements of phrenitis, hysteria, gastritis, &c. 
A disease of this nature may be produced also by the bite of an infu- 
riated animal not affected with the specific malady ; for it has been long 
observed, that all animals inflicting a wound by their teeth, when under 
great mental excitement, are apt to produce local and general symp- 
toms of a peculiar nature, characterised by their severity, probably 
arising from some morbid change taking place in the salivary juices. 
Many experiments confirming this have been published by various au- 
thors, but those detailed by M. Rossin, in the Mem. de VAcaddmie 
de Turiny tom. 6, are very conclusive on this head. These affections 
(which confine their effects to the immediate objects) ought to be distin- 
guished from the specific and communicable rabid malady. 

It must, however, be allowed, there are authorities who (distinctly se- 


favourers of spontaneous rabies have also described the pro- 
bable remote or primary causes which operate in its produc- 
tion ; among- which, heat has long- been considered as one of 
the most powerful : but this opinion is not tenable, when it is 

parating the spurious from the true^ still maintain the spontaneous ori- 
gin of the present rabid malady. Without noticing the ridiculous sur- 
mises of the antients as to the probable origin of the disease, it may be 
stated, that Sauvages, among the more modern authors, favours the opi- 
nion of a constitutional generation of the contagious rabies. Even the 
illustrious BoERHAAVE seems to incline to that opinion: — "Oritur Fere 
" semper ab aliis animalibus prius rabiosis suscepta contagio ; tamen 
" et sponte quibusdam orta legitur et observatur." — Aphorism 1130, 

Orfila is an advocate for spontaneous rabies, not only in dogs, but in 
many other animals also. 

Among our most elaborate writers on this interesting subject, may be 
reckoned Dr. Hamilton, who is a decided favourer of spontaneous ori- 
gin. Not, as he argues, from any specific virus remaining long con- 
cealed, but from a new poisonous compound, generated from putrid 
sordes surrounding the animal when the body is in a particular condition 
or situation. But, in answer to this, I allege, that I have not unfre- 
quently seen dogs shut up in the midst of every variety of putrid and 
acrid matter, and in the most confined situation, yet I never saw a case 
of spontaneous rabies among them. Were this the case, how often must 
it break out among the dogs of the lower class of dog-dealers and fan- 
ciers in London, where hundreds of birds, rabbits, guinea pigs, &c., 
with every variety of dog, are confined in one small close room, or 
cellar.? Mr. Oilman, as before noticed, embraces this opinion apparently 
on the authority of a single case, the correctness of which, as I have al- 
ready shewn, may be reasonably doubted. 

The favourers of spontaneous origin to rabies have inquired, How can 
the irregularity of its prevalence be accounted for otherwise ? This may 
be answered, by inquiring how it is that small-pox often rages in a 
district, and is then, as it were, lost for a time. But accurate inquiry will 
shew that it never wholly dies ; solitary cases occur one after the other, 
and, at last, accidental circumstances call it into full action. It is thus 
that rabies, although it may occasionally take on an endemial or epi- 
demial appearance, yet may always be traced to infection ; and by 
the same means it is extended and perpetuated. I have often been at 
the pains, when travelling through various parts of England, to inquire 
when a mad dog had been seen or heard of, and I never remember to 
have had it peremptorily stated that one had not been seen or heard of 
within six months. 


known that many countries under the torrid zone are entirely 
free from canine madness; neither does it appear to gain 
any accession to its frequency or morbid character in these 
countries*. We have Burrows' authority for stating, that 
it is almost, if not entirely, unknown over the vast continent 
of South America*. In many of the western isles it is a 
strangert ; and, in Egypt, Volney says he never heard of 
it. Larrey, Brown, and others, inform us, that it has never 
visited the burning clime of Syria. Neither is it more preva- 
lent in cold climates ; and although it sometimes visits northern 
latitudes, it shews no preference for them, and, in Green- 
land, is said to be altogether unknown. In temperate ch- 
mates, on the contrary, it is most prevalent, not perhaps 
owing any thing to an extra-tropical situation, but merely 
because in such latitudes the most populous countries are 
usually situated, and in such matters of interest are more 
likely to be noticed. In the United States of America it is 
sufficiently frequent J, and throughout Europe we are but too 
well acquainted with it. 

Seasons have also been alleged as the probable cause of 
madness among dogs ; and though it is wholly a vulgar error, 
yet the dog-days are supposed by many to ov;e their name to 
the prevalence of this malady during the heats of a summer 
solstice. But a more extended experience and more exten- 
sive examination have now rendered it sufficiently notorious 
that rabies is not more prevalent at one season than at an- 
other §. 

* It cannot, however, be denied, that heat accelerates the individual 
attack, particularly when conjoined with great bodily excitement. In 
this way, a dog that has been bitten, but in which the disease might not 
appear probably for weeks, by taking long and severe exercise in very 
hot weather, is almost certain to be attacked with it the next da}'. This 
I have witnessed in several instances, but in no dog that I could not 
distinctly trace to have been bitten. 

f Bibliotheqne Raisonne'e, 422, i^vril, Mai, Juin, 1750. 

X Med. Trans. Philadelph., \o\.i.— Med. Inrjuir. Philadelph., 1798. 

§ II n'est point vrai que cettr maladie soit plus conimuur pendant Ic-^ 


It has been argued, that peculiarities of aliment, either in m 
quantity or quality, may occasion it* In dogs which have 
been accidentally subjected to c^ deprivation of food bor- 
dering upon starvation, no rabid symptoms have ever oc- 
curred. Repletion has never occasioned it, although it has 
proved the parent of many other inflammatory affections. 
Putrid food is not likely to occasion it in predatory animals, 
whose stomachs must;, by nature, be formed to subsist on 
matter in various stages of decomposition. In Constanti- 
nople, and other eastern cities, dogs are the only scavengers; 
and, at the Cape of Good Hope, Barrow informs us, the 

froids rigoureux de I'hiver, ou les chaleurs excessives de I'ete, qu'au 
printemps et en automne. — Trolliet, 575. 

The following table, extracted from the Memoirs of the Royal Society 
of Paris, shewing the proportions of rabid cases during the several 
parts of a year, in France, will clearly evince how little season has to 
do with the prevalence of the disease: — 


January 1 

February 4 

March 6 

April 6 


June 2 

July 2 

August 1 

September 1 



December 3 







1 « 





1 8 

1 ....,- 14 





26 9 114 

Tt is not a little remarkable that, notwithstanding the opportunities 
aftbrded in every country for observing the contrary, the prevalence 
of rabies in summer should be universally received. Thus Somervile 

When Sirius reigns, and tlie Sun's parching beams 
Bake the dry gaping surface, visit thou 
Each ev'n and morn, with quick observant eye, 
The panting pack. If in dark sullen mood, Sec. &c. 


Caffres feed their dog-s wholly on putrid flesh, and no such 
disease is seen among- them. Abstinence from water is an old 
and popular supposed cause of madness ; but, in India, where, 
from the drying- of the water-tanks, many brutes perish, mad- 
ness is not observed to be occasioned by it. In fact, in the 
rage for experiment dog-s have been purposely subjected to 
all these supposed causes, but without having- once produced 
the disease*. It is unnecessary to combat the opinion of 
Dr. Mead, and others, that an acrid state of blood, from the 
want of perspiration in the dog-, is a remote cause of mad- 
ness. Neither have we more reason to suppose that any 
state or peculiarity of atmosphere can give rise to it, although 
it may favour the extension and activity of the contagion. 

But if none of these causes engender the rabid malady, can 
we yet attribute the extreme variations in its prevalence at 
one time in preference to another; its visitation of one districts 
and its almost total absence from those around it ? Can we 
account for these on the simple principle of contagionf ? I 
readily answer yes, for I think there is little reason to doubt, 
that, in certain situations, or during certain seasons, circum- 
stances more peculiarly favourable to the germination of the 
rabid virus occur. In this way, one hundred dogs may be 
inoculated at one time, and the poison infect only a few of 
them, while, at another time, a great majority of the num- 
ber might become rabid. The same circumstances, also, may 
occasion a more early developement of the disease (as I have 
already proved with regard to heat and excitement), and in 
this way increase its prevalence. It may be brought about, 
likewise, by an occasional or peculiar idiosyncrasy in the ani- 

* Dissertation sur la Rage, par M. Bleynier, Paris. 

f If the Great Author of Nature had not, in his mercy, put some 
bounds to the production and reproduction of morbid compounds, sick- 
ness and misery would have been endless. The scourges of rabies, 
syphilis, small-pox, and many other diseases, are, therefore, although 
first generated within the animal body, now confined to contagion ; and 
thus we are enabled to avoid their evils by vigilance and care. 


mal bodies themselves, all which is in strict analogy with 
what is daily seen in other contagious diseases. 

If, therefore, the disease owes its first origin to sponta- 
neous generation, but the further continuance of it is not 
effected by this means, what are the immediate animals in 
wiiich it may be supposed to have thus spontaneously origin- 
ated ? An accumulation of the experience of all ages testifies 
that the disease more particularly belongs to the members of 
the genera canis and felis, but whether to all the species of 
each genus we are not at present aware. That the wolf*, 
the doo-, and the fox t, become affected, and can communi- 
cate the disease, we have sufficient proofs ; but whether any 
other member of the feline genus, except the cat %, takes on 
the communicable rabies, we are not aware. Neither have 
we anything more than conjecture to satisfy us, whether, in 
the first instance, the disease originated in one of these spe- 
cies and was communicated to the rest, or whether all were 
oris-inallv liable to and suffered under a spontaneous origin of 

* Fortunately, the ravages of the rabid wolf are unknown among- us ; 
but in France, Spain, and Germany, they are but too common. His 
savage nature makes him, under the excitement of this inflammatory 
disease, highly ferocious, and he seeks objects of every kind wherein to 
propagate his own sufferings j and as his size enables him to reach it, so 
he commonly inflicts his wounds on the face, and thus more certainly in- 
sures a fatal issue. The extent of some of these ravages may be gained by 
reference to Astruc Mem. Montpellier, 1819; d'ARLUc Recueil Perio- 
dique,tom. 4; Baudot Mem. de laSoc. Roy. de Med. ; Gazette de Sante 
du 11 Sep. 1813 ; Journal de Med., torn. 39 ; Histoire des Ravages causes 
par Louve enragee, dans le departement de I'Isere en 1817 ; Trolliet. 

f Although we have sufficient proof that the fox becomes occasionally 
rabid, yet, ^either his inherent aptitude to receive it is less than that of 
the dog, or his solitary habits exclude him from the attack : certain it 
is, that vulpine rabies is very rare. 

X That a considerable inaptitude exists in the cat to receive the dis- 
ease, is also certain, from the fact that dogs, under rabies, seek these 
animals with an instinctive aversion, and great numbers must by these 
means become bitten; yet a rabid cat is comparatively a rare .occur- 
rence. When rabies makes its appearance in the cat, it shews itself 
with much of its mischievous character. 


the complaint*. As these animals, already particularised, 
are those only in which the inherent aptitude to a spontane- 
ous origin of rabies is appropriate, so it appears, from the 
concurrent testimony of experiment and observation, that 
they only are capable of communicating the disease. In all 
others, the inherent aptitude for spontaneous g-eneration of 
it, as well as the power of reproducing- it, are wanting-, and 
confined to a capability of ?'eceiving it by inoculation t. Our 

* A priori, the rabid malady would appeal' most likely to be gene- 
rated within the carnivorous constitution, and, also, that its specific 
character of communicable quality should be confined there. The mor- 
bid compound is there chemically elaborated, and readily finds a nidus 
for its germination. A septic tendency in animals who live on flesh, 
we are fully aware, gives rise to peculiar diseased combinations at first 
highly inflammatory, and, next, assuming a putrid and infectious cha- 

f Opinions, however, vary on this point, and discordant facts are 
qxioted that tend to increase the difficulty of arriving at the truth; and, 
although my own opinion decidedly leans to an incapability of commu- 
nicating rabies by any animals except the members of the canine and 
feline genera, yet candour requires that every thing should be stated 
that has weight on either side of the question. It was long a popular 
bugbear, that the bite of a human person, or the application of the 
saliva of one labouring under rabid hydrophobia, to an abraded sur- 
face, was capable of producing the disease in another**. Analogy and 
more extended experience gradually taught us to think otherwise. The 
Drs. Vauchan and Babington submitted the matter to a course of rigid 
experiment; but, although they inoculated dogs and other animals, I 
believe, with every caution to render the experiments complete, yet 
they both wholly failed in producing it. A similar result has followed 
similar experiments by Dr. Zinke, and others, who extended the trial 
to horses, asses, kine, sheep, and pigs, but which all escaped unhurt. 
However, if we are to credit the testimony of Messrs. Magendie and 
Brasslet, as detailed in the London Med. Repos., vol. iv, p. 35, there is 
a possibility of reprodvicing this disease in the quadruped by inocula- 
tion with virus secreted in the hviman system. The following account of 

** It is I'uled, bj more lliar. one uiulior, UuiL a iiiolhev lias coiitiMiied to kis, 
a hydrophobic child iiicesbunlly, without hurt ; and as we know tliat the saliva, 
Ml such cases, is ejected with lorce, surely djc could not escape u JllKiiU bciiiii 
subjected to some dan;icr, weie the human saliva iufeclious. 



next object is, therefore, to inquire what animals are tlius 
capable of receft-mg the rabid malady by communication. Our 
own experience and authenticated written accounts teach us 
that man, the horse, the mule, the ass, neat cattle, the 
sheep, the goat, swine, the bear, the remaining- members of 
the feline genus, hares and rabits, are all of them liable to 
it. Occasional mention has also been made of other animals, 
and, from analogy, we are not warranted in concluding the 
accounts untrue *. The feathered tribe have been long sup- 

the experiment is extracted from another source : — " A I'Hotel-Dieu de 
" Paris, le 19 Juillet, 1813, MM. Magendie et Breschet, prirent de 
<' la salive avant la mort du nomme Sarlu (dans les veines M. Du- 
" PUYTREN injecta d'abord deux grains d^opium, puis quatre, ensuite 
" huit grains dissous dans I'eau distillee) ; ils transporterent cette salive 
'* a vingt pas de sonlet, h Taide d'un morceaux de linge, et en inocul^- 
" rent a deux chiens biens portans. L'un d'eux devint enrage le 17 
" Juillet, et en mordit deux autres, dont l'un etoit en plein rage, le 26 
«' Aout j ce qui porte a croire,que I'homme pent transuiettre cette terri- 
"ble nialadie." {Dissertation de M. Ch. Busnovt, Paris, 1814, p. 27). 
But, when it is considered that this experiment is in direct contradiction 
to so many others, conducted with equal care, its evidence can only be 
viewed in a doubtful light. 

With regard to a capability in other animals to communicate rabies, 
still less weight is attached to the supposition, although this also has its 
advocates. Were we to give credence to the vague accounts handed 
down to us by persons who took no pains to examine into the truth, we 
might believe M. Baccils, who mentions a gardener who died hydro- 
phobous from the bite of a rabid cock, or M. Duplanil's account of a si- 
milar event occasioned by a rabid horse **. It is also on record, that 
the otter has communicated the disease ; but it is more than proba- 
ble that these, and similar statements, are all of them founded in 
error, and we are enabled to oppose to them the authority of the cele- 
brated HuzARD, who has been at great pains to arrive at truth with 
regard to this subject. He asserts, that herbivorous animals do not 
communicate the disease, but the carnivorous only ; and that all the 
experiments made by himself, or gained from others, had failed in pro- 

ducins it. i i-i . 

* Boerhaave describes it as occurring in the monkey (Aphorism 1 1 J2). 

•• :^ir. Stevenson, oi No'uich, ua. hUtrn by ;irab..l horse, but M.ncred no ,„■ 
cowvcnicncii.—l'arri/, p. 187- 


posed to be capable of receiving it, and some late experi- 
ments seem to confirm this opinion*. 

Having- endeavoured to satisfy ourselves what animals are 
capable of communicating the rabid malady, and what are 
able to receive it only, we will proceed to inquire the mode 
by which this morbid communication is effected between 
them. We have abundant evidence that this disease is pro- 
duced by the insertion of a poison diffused through the salivaf 
of certain animals when labouring- under rabies, and which 
insertion is usually effected by means of a bite J. That the 

* Dr. ZiNKE, of Jena, prodviced rabies in a cock by inoculation with 
the saliva of a mad dog. — Valentin, Lettre sur la Rage, Journ. de Med. 

vol. XXX. 

f In a voluminovis work before mentioned, written by a Mons. Troi.- 
LiET, it is attempted to prove, that the rabid virus is not generated 
within the salivary glands, neither is the saliva the vehicle of the con- 
tagion. On the contrary, the frothy slime or slaver (have ecumeuse), 
furnished by the bronchial surfaces, alone contains it : but as this is a 
new view of the subject, and propagated by an author of respectability 
and talent, I shall present his aphorismal summary of it: 

Propositions Aphoristiques : 1. " Lasalive n'est point le vehicule du virus 
*' de la rage. 2. Les gland salivaires ne presentent ni douleur dans le 
** cours de la maladie, ne traces d'alteration apres la mort. 3. La have 
" equemeuse est etrangere a la salive ; elle vient des vois aeriennes. 
** 4. La membrane muqueuse des bronches est le siege d'un inflamma- 
" tion specifique; elle produit le virus de la rage, comme la membrane 
" muqvieuse de I'urethre inflammce prodviit le virus de la blenorrhagie 
'* syphilitique." — Nouveau Traiti de la Rage, p. 673. 

X This idea of the origin of the rabid malady is as old as the disease 
itself. In antient times, particular families or ti'ibes (the Marii and 
PsiLii, Africans, who practised at Rome, were of this kind) enjoyed 
the privilege of drawing out the poison in these cases by suction with the 
mouth. — (Plin. Hist. Nat. lib. vii.) ^lianus, Hist. Animal, lib. i, chap. 
51 ; LucAiN Pharsal. lib. ix, v. 891. 

It was also an opinion entertained by many among the antients, that 
the salivary secretion alone contained the seeds of the disease. Among 
the moderns, Salius Diversus, Ponteau, Duchoisel, Baudot, Bonnet, 
iVloRGAGNii, Lieutaud, are neighbouring authors who have signalized 
themselves by their researches in this interesting subject, and they all 
maintain the same, and cite numerous facts to prove, that neitlier by 


saliva is the only secretion capable of producing this effect we 
have reason to believe, not only from an immense mass of 
analog-ical testimony afforded by our own observation and that 
of others, but also by the more conclusive evidence of innu- 
merable experiments made in this and other countries with 
the other fluids of the body, all of which failed to produce 
the disease ; neither have we any reason to suppose that the 
solids become more afiected with the materia morbi than the 

the solids, or by any of the ftuids, save the saliva alone, ran the conta- 
gious rabies be generated. 

This opinion I consider materially strengthened by the circumstance 
of having several times scratched or cut myself accidentally with my 
scalpel, while examining the dead bodies of rabid dogs, and from which 
no ill consequences resulted, although I never did more (and not always 
that) than wash the wound with a little spirit. M. Devalay, of Verdun, 
wounded himself under similar circumstances, and, without any precau- 
tions being taken, he experienced no ill effects from it. A similar 
instance is also related in the Transactions of the Royal Society of 
Paris 1783. As a further proof, also, that the whole of the fluids, as 
well Is the solids, of the trunk of the body are wholly incapable of 
disseminating the disease by the closest intermixture, the Memoirs of 
the Roval Society of Medicine of Paris for 1783, p. 333, may be quoted, 
which contain an authentic account of an infant extracted from the 
womb of a hydrophobous woman in the eighth month of her pregnancy, 
which child lived, and was reared. 

As a proof of the inherent capability of the morbid salivary secre- 
tion to produce rabies, the experiments of Dr. Zinke, of Jeua, afford 
conclusive evidence. A dog, inoculated in the fore legs with rabid sali- 
vary virus, and to which belladonna was daily given, died on the eighth 
day. Another, who was inoculated with morbid saliva, mixed with a 
strong solution of arsenic, wholly escaped; while a cat inoculated 
with the same saliva, diluted with a tincture of canthandes, became 
rabid nine days after. A rabbit was inoculated with a mixture of rabid 
saliva and volatile alkali ; it died on the eleventh day. Another, ino- 
culated with virus and human saliva, escaped disease. A dog, inoculated 
with the same morbid saliva, mixed with a diluted solution of phospho- 
rus, although he became sick on the fifth day, nevertheless escaped in- 
fection. A cock, inoculated with the same saliva, mixed with some of 
the gastric juice of a cat, died on the fourteenth day. 


fluids *. We are, nevertheless, constrained to admit that 
there are respectable authorities who, on the contrary, main- 
tain an opinion that various other ag-encies besides the mere sa- 
liva may operate in producing the diseaset; among- whom, Drs. 
Hamilton and Bardsley stand conspicuous : these gentle- 
men entertain a notion that the infection may be received in a 
state of vapour either through tije pores of the skin, or by 
inhalation, or by both J. Others conceive it possible that it 

* La chair, le sang-, le lait et les humeurs de I'animal enrage, ne 
conimuniquent point la rage. — Trolliet, p. 576. 

t Among the antients who ranged under this head, the names of Di- 
ASCORIDES, Galen, and Matkiolus, appear : while, among those of later 
date, we find the respectable authorities of Boerhaave, Van Swieten, 
Hoffman, and Sauvages ; and were we to believe the accounts that cre- 
dulity and ignorance have handed down, we might indeed extend the 
infectious process to an interminable end. Fern el, with great gravity, 
relates, that some hunters, having killed a mad wolf, were imprudent 
enough to eat a, part of him, and were all attacked with rahies, although 
he owns that some of them recovered.— (Dt' ahd. rer. cans.) Sauvages, 
on the aiithority of one Schenkius, speaks of an aubergiste, who, serving 
some of his guests with pork of a rabid swine, occasioned hydrophobia 
in them all : it seems the infection was so subtil, that it did not wait until 
their departure, but they were immediately attacked. — Tliis is wholesale 
dealing ! 

I Elaborate as is the work of Dr. Hamilton, its hypotheses are chiefly 
founded on argument and theory. The Reports of Dr. Bardsley are 
drawn with care and ingenuity ; and, in support of his opinions, he de- 
tails some facts which give colour to his arguments, but, unless these 
facts should be followed by many others of the same nature, and un- 
questionably authentic, they will avail little towards overturning the 
contrary opinions above stated, which are supported by still longer ex- 
perience, more extensive observation, and a wider range of experiment. 
The immediate fact on which Dr. Bardsley grounds his opinion relative 
to the capability of receiving rabies by means of infected vapour, was 
gained from Mr, Trevalyan's experiments. This gentleman, after losing 
almost a pack of hoimds by madness, was led to suspect that contagion 
might lurk in the surrounding materials of his kennel. The litter was 
carefully destroyed, the benches were scalded, the joints, crevices, &c. 
were painted, and the walls white-washed ; the pavement was also 


may make its way into the constitutioii thior.oli the niediimi 
of an epithelium, or mucous siirlace, as that of the nostrils, 
lips, or eyelids*; and with still less probability or fact to sup- 
port their theory, some suppose that the surface of tiie skin 
throng-hont is capable of being- penetrated with the poison by 
the simple application of it to the unabraded surface. A very 
few only have been led into an opinion that it was possible 
for the rabid virus to enter the circulation throug-h the me- 
dium of matters taken into the stomach t. But, however 

scalded : nevertheless the rabies again appeared. Mr. Trevalyan was 
now more than ever convinced that some subtle conta,2,ion lodged con- 
cealed within the apertures of the benches or pavement ; the whole was 
therefore removed, and the edifice was again white-washed and painted, 
after which no rabies appeared. Puzzling as this appears to one who 
argues that no contagion can lurk thus unseen, and be generated by 
inhalation, it may yet be satisfactorily accounted for by another state- 
ment, equally true, that fell imder my own immediate cognizance. I 
was requested, in 1821, by Mr. Yates, of Tring Parli, to examine two 
servants, a huntsman and whipper-in, who had been bitten by a hound' 
evidently rabid. I cauterised the wounds many days after the accident, 
and neither of them felt any future inconvenience from the accident. 
Three or four of the hounds had already become rabid in succession, 
and it was proposed to destroy the remainder; to which I objected, and 
recommended that a minute examination should be made of them indi- 
vidually every day. -Every now and then, however, for months after- 
wards, an individual was attacked with madness, and, at length, the 
whole were destroyed, and Mr. Y. procured a new paclt, which have 
never become affected, although living in the same kennel, without any 
precautions having been made use of to prevent latent contagion. 

* On tfie authority of Dr. Perceval, Dr. Bardsley tells us of a man, 
who, daring his sleep on the ground, was licked about the mouth (but 
not bitten) by an infected dog. He was seized with hydropliobia, and 
die ' of the disease : but this case, it should be remembered, was always 
considered questionable. 

f Palmerius states, that he was an eye witness to the death of several 
horses and cows which had eaten the litter on which some rabid swine 
had lain. But we need not wonder at so gross an error having been 
transmitted to us by former authorities, when we find Dr. Parry (who 
appears particularly in the character of a critical arbiter between what 
is erroneous and true on the subject of rabies, as well symptomatic as 


cog-en t may be the arguments made use of to support these 
theories, and however specious may be the appearances of a 
few isolated facts in their favour, when weighed against the 
vast body of evidence and the numerous experiments col- 
lected from authorities the most imposing, they operate little 
or nothing against the conviction, that the saliva of a rabid 
animal^ and the saliva onl}^ is capable of exciting hydropho- 
bia in man, or madness, as it is called, in other animals. 

Having thus traced the rabid poison from its rise and ori- 
gin to its insertion into the animal body, let us now proceed 
to inquire, what are the chances that it will prove baneful • 
what time usually intervenes between its insertion and active 
operations ; and, when so acting, what are the symptoms it 
produces, and what its supposed modus operandi? 

It is fortunate, that, out of the numbers bitten by a rabid 
animal, many escape without infection. A variety of circum- 
stances may tend to this favourable issue, among which 
may be reckoned the intervention of substances between the 
biter and the bitten ; as the wool of sheep, and the thick 
hair of some dogs *. Another cause occasionally operates, in 

specific) perpetuating an account like the following:—" A farmer, in my 
" neighbourhood, lost a cow by the black water and yellows, that is, a 
** disease with jaundice. This cow he gave to be eaten by his pigs, 
" consisting of a sow, and three pigs ten months old, and five of two 
" months. Within two or three weeks afterwards, one, which was ten 
" months old, and the master pig, and nJiich had therefore eaten more 
" than either of the rest, became furiously mad," &c. What became of 
the mistress pig ? One would suppose that the old lady would have had 
her share. Of what weak materials even great men often build their 
theories ! 

* In the human subject, there is reason to suppose that the interposed 
dress wipes the saliva from the teeth, and saves many who would be 
otherwise fatally inoculated. But, independent of this, there appears 
to be much less constitutional liability in the human subject to receive 
the rabid contagion than exists in the brute. Out of twenty persons, 
bitten by one dog, Mr. Hunter informs us (although no prophylactics 
were employed), one only became hydrophobous. Dr. Vaughan relates, 
that between twenty and thirty persons were bitten by another dog, out 
of which number also one only was infected. If it were, however, pos- 


my opinion, very powerfully to prevent the contag-ion from 
being received, which is a peculiar inaptitude in the animal 
body to receive the rabid poison at some times more than 
at others, dependant probably on a constitutional idiosyn- 
crasy generated within, or gathered from, the operation of 
external circumstances, as peculiarity of situation, variations 
in temperature, qualities in aliment, &c. &c. Not only do 
facts coincide with this opinion, but it is impossible otherwise 
to account for the epidemial as well as endemial character 
which the rabid malady sometimes assumes. 

The intervening time between the inoculation by the rabid 
bite and the appearance of the consequent disease, is very 
variable. In the majority of instances, the effects appear 
between the third and seventh week. Cases, hovever, do 
now and then occur, where they have been protracted to 
three, four, or even a greater number of munths. Although, 
therefore, caution should not be lost sight of, even after 
eight weeks have elapsed, yet the danger may be considered 
as inconsiderable after that time. A week is the shortest 
period I have met with between the bite and rabid appear- 
ances *. 

sible to credit the accounts of the ravages of wolves, we might te led 
to believe that a superior degree of certainty attended the contagion 
when received from them. Mons. Trolliet relates that, of twenty-three 
persons bitten by a wolf, thirteen were infected with the disease. In 
the Mem. de la Soc. Roy. de Med. p. 122, mention is made of two human 
persons, with many horses and cows, being bitten by a rabid wolf, in 
September 1772, and that every one of these became affected. Baudot, 
also, gives an account of no less than forty oxen, cows, horses, dogs, 
&c., bitten by a mad wolf, in the month of June 1765, the majority of 
which died. I might multiply these instances handed down to us by the 
industry of collators, but the authorities are, in general, so dixbious, 
that they should be received cum grano salis. It, however, may be ad- 
mitted, that as the wolf usually attacks the face, which is not only un- 
covered, but, it is probable, is more certainly and more quickly acted 
on than other parts of the body, so, in this way, greater danger may 
arise from the rabid wolf than the rabid dog. 

* In the human subject, if an average can be taken in so variable a 
matter, we may consider, that from thirty to fifty days between the bite 


^50 R A ii i E S C A N I N A , 

1 am fully persuaded, that accidental circumstances also 
have some influence in determining- the time of the attack, 
from repeatedly seeing- it follow directly after any great ex- 
citement, as that of travelling-, particularly in hot and dry 
weather. The oestrum of bitches favours the approach ; and, 
in fact, whatever tends greatly to accelerate the circulation 
appears to produce a more early developement of the disease. 
The certainty of the attack is also, 1 have reason to believe, 
greatly increased, as well as hastened, according to the part 
bitten. 1 have very seldom known any animal escape which 
was bitten in the head or face; and I have, in almost every 
instance, observed less time to intervene in these cases than 
in others bitten elsewhere. This circumstance is further 
confirmed by the experience of other French and English 

Symptoms of Rabies. — 1 shall now proceed to describe 
the jnithognomimick and occasional appearances of the rabid 
malady, premising- that the varieties in both, but particularly 
in the latter, are so numerous, that hardly any two cases pre- 
sent themselves under a directly similar aspect. It is how- 
ever certain, that, by the aid of the pathognomonick symptoms, 
the disease may be always detected without fear of mistake. 
The extent of the former, and the necessity for a distinct 

and hydrophobic symptoms will include the greatest number of cases. 
Instances, however, occur, where the period is extended much beyond 
this average. One of Dr. Parry's cases was seven months ; Dr. Meau 
met with one of eleven months. Galen has informed us of one of twelve 
months. In the Phil. Trans, of Paris, No. 445, a case is detailed, by 
M. NoLTRSE, occurring after fifteen months. Neither is there any reason 
to doubt the authenticity of any of these statements ; but what are we 
to think of the case related by C^elius Aurelianus, which took place 
after seven years; of Salmuth's, after eighteen years; and of that 
met with in the Ephemerides des Curieux de la Nature, " I'histoire 
" d'une femme qui devint hydrophobe que vingt ans apres ?" which are, 
however, all outdone by Dodon.^us, who, in Obs. Med., chap, xii, speaks 
of hydrophobia occurring thirty years after the bite. To these we may 
reply — wedile vuli ! 


notice of all the varieties of the latter, render a perspicuous 
account of tiie disease extremely difficult, and necessarily 
extend it beyond the limits of a summary. 

Rabies, or Madness, commonly commences with some 
peculiarity of manner, some departure from the ordinary ha- 
bits, or by the introduction of new ones. In many instances, 
but more particularly in the smaller and closely domesticated 
kinds of dog-s, this peculiarity consists in a disposition to pick 
up straws, thread, paper, or other small objects * In 
others, the first symptom noticed, is an eager and unceasing- 
attempt to lick the anus or parts of generation of another 
dogt. The lapping of their own urine is a common and early 
symptom of madness, and one that should be particularly in- 
quired for, and, when it is found to exist, I know of none that 
should be regarded as more strongly characteristic of rabies, 
and of no other complaint. Some dogs shew an early dispo- 
,sition to lick every thing cold about them, as iron, stone, &c. 
These, and other peculiarities, often appear in dogs under 
immediate observation, one, two, or even three days, before 
the more decisive and active symptoms. The eyes, in this 
early stage, are, in some cases, rather more bright, lively, 
and red than usual ; but, on the contrary in others, and 
more particularly when the disease is to assume the mild 
form, called dumb madness, they often present a dull aspect, 
and a purulent discharge. In the wild or raging madness, 
both the eyes and nose, sometimes, also discharge a purulent 
moisture, which has occasioned these cases to be sometimes 
mistaken for distemper. Much stress is laid on a sullen man- 
ner and disposition to hide or retreat from observation, as 

=^ I have repeatedly seen dogs, which, before they became at all sus- 
pected of madness, had for a day or two industriously employed them- 
selves in this way, so that not the smallest loose object of any kind re- 
mained on the floor, to the no small surprise of the owners. 

f In one instance, I foretold the approach of the disease by the un- 
common attachment of a pug puppy to a kitten, which he was conti- 
nually lickine, as well as the cold nose of another pug that was with 




early characteristics of madness ; and these appearances are 
certainly not unusual in hounds and kennelled dogs, but they 
are less frequently observed in the smaller kinds, or in such 
as "live witTiin doors, and are more immediately about our 
persons*. Costiveness is not uncommon in the incipient 
stag-e ; in the latter it is still more frequent. An early sick- 
ness and vomiting- often appear, but although ineffectual 
retchings may continue, actual vomiting does not often ac- 
company the complaint through its progress; the peculiarity 
of the inflammation in the stomach rather tends to retain the 
ingesta within it. Indeed, this circumstance forms one of the 
strongest criteria of the existence of the disease, as will be 
hereafter noticed. 

It is not unusual for one of the first symptoms to be that of 
continually licking, or violently scratching, some particular 
part of the body. A close examination of such part will fre- 
quently detect a scnr, or the remains of the wound by which 

* I have great reason to think that much of the discrepancy we meet 
with in the various accounts that appear relative to rabies, arises from the 
confined field of observation from whence they are drawn. One gives 
a detail of rabies as it has appeared in one or two individual cases that 
accidentally fell under his notice ; another describes it as it is found to 
xist among hounds, pointers, or other large dogs only ; and a third draws 
a portrait of it as it shewed itself among the smaller and confined dogs 
in close domestication; and yet each (not considering that original cha- 
racter and habit stamp a still further variety on a disease already suf- 
ficiently variable) expects all future cases exactly to coincide with his 
own statement, or that they should fully bear him out in his own views 
of the subject. In the larger breeds of dogs, and particularly in ken- 
nelled ones, as hounds, &c., where close domestication has not wholly 
reclaimed their native ferocity, rabies may, and indeed does, shew itself 
with much of that wildness and mischievous character that has gained 
it the name oi madness. The rabies of the wolf and fox, although close 
congeners of the dog, and that likewise of the half-reclaimed cat, is 
always stamped with a ferocity and malignance of character that is 
foreign to what usually occurs in the smaller and more domesticated 
breeds, in which cultivation has wrought such an entire change of their 
nature, that even their symptomatic appearances under disease are, in 
a great degree, altered by it. 


the poison was received : and when the former wound can- 
not be found in this way, if a true history of the case can be 
g"ained, it will always be found that the inoculation was re- 
ceived on the part so scratched or licked ; and 1 have reason 
to believe that this morbid sympathy in the bitten part ex- 
ists more or less in every case *. The appetite is by no means 
always affected in either early or continued rabies ; on the 
contrary, food is not only eaten, but dig'ested also, during 
the first stag-es ; and some will eat almost to the last, but 
with them the food is seldom dig-ested. That no disincli- 
nation to liquids exists, will be readily acknowledged by 
all who observe the disease with only common attention: 
from the first to the last, no aversion to water is ever ob- 
served. In the early stages, liquids are taken as usual, and 
some continue to take them so throughout the complaint ; 
others cannot, from a swelling and paralysis of the parts of 
deglutition, readily swallow them in the advanced stages, 
but, in such, no spasm is occasioned by the attempt, nor does 
it occasion pain or dread; on the contrary, from the heat and 
thirst occasioned by the fever, water is sought for, and, in 
most cases, an extreme eagerness is expressed t for it. The 

* I have seen a dog which had been known to have been bitten in the 
foot, some weeks afterwards begin to lick the part, at first gently, then 
violently, incessantly whining over it, as though distressed with the sen- 
sation produced, until, at last, he has proceeded actually to gnaw it. 
I have witnessed the same thing happening to other parts, as the lips 
and ears, which have been rubbed or scratched with anxious perse- 
verance from the beginning to the end of the complaint, when the rabid 
bites have been received there. 

f :"erhaps a greater instance of pertinacity is not on record than 
that which marks Dr. Parry's treatment of the various testimonies to this 
fact. Although these testimonies are given by authorities equal to his 
own, and by those whose opportunities for observation, and habits of im- 
proving them, rendered them worthy of implicit confidence ; yet to 
establish a visionary and short-lived theory, and notoriously without one 
authentic fact to support him, he has, in the most unfair and illiberal 
manner, endeavoured to weaken the credibility of them, and, by argu- 
ments the most weak and futile, has attempted to prove, thai, of necessity, 


experience of more than twenty years, I again repeat, has 
never produced one instance where any thing- like spasm was 
present in the throat, and where a consequent dread of swal- 
lowing-, or pain from the attempts to do it, appeared in the 
slightest degree. 

An early and marked alteration of temper usually presents 
itself, and this so generally as to form adisting-uishing- feature 

dogs must also be hydrophobous, because the human subject is so. His 
dictum on this matter he considers sufficient to overturn all the collected 
facts which go to prove the direct contrary ; and the whole of this other- 
wise ingenious production is a lamentable proof to what even great 
minds will stoop when a favourite point is to be established. 

Mr. Meynell expressly says, mad dogs have no abhorrence or dread 
of water, and that they will eagerly lap it even the day before their 
death. He also notices the paralysis that often renders their attempts to 
drink abortive. 

Dr. John Hunter, who was not accustomed to state facts without ex- 
amination, says, that " mad dogs can swallow solids and liquids through 
♦' the whole disease."— Tra?is. of a Soc. for the Imjjrovcment of Medical 
Knowledge, p. 296. 

Dr. Hamilton also says, " A rabid dog never avoids water, and laps 
" whatever liquid food is set before him, long after the poison can be 
" communicated by his bite." — Rernarks on Hydroyhohia, vol. i, p. 12- 

In a case of rabies, related by Mr. Youatt, he says, " On the fourth 
** day, he not only eagerly lajyped milk and water, but readily swallowed: 
"it." — 3Ied. and Phys. Jonrnal, vol. xxxi, p. 231. — In another case, he 
observes, *' On the third day, though his thirst was excessive, and he 
"plunged his whole face in water, yet he could not swallow : but he 
**was not prevented by spasm j the cause was purely mechanical." 
A third case states, that " the dog ate and drank heartily before his 
" death." — See London Medical Journal, and London Repository, Cases 2, 
3, and 5. 

" Cette chienne, avoit vu et mange apres avoir mordu." — Journal de 
Medccine, vol. xxxix. 

" Le loup mangeoit tranquillement une chevre, et celui de Frejus 
*' traversa plusieurs fois de grandes rivieres a la nage." — Voy. d'Arluc, 
Recueil Periodiquc, vol. iv. 

" II est done dangereux de coucleur de ce qu'un animal voitet mange 
" et traverse une riviere qu'il n'est point atteint de la rage." — Trolliet^ 
Nov. Trait, dc la Rage, p. 27<S. 


of the complaint. Some instances certainly occur iii the la})- 
dog- breeds, where no alteration of temper whatever appears, 
but these cases usually belong- to that variety of the disease 
called dumb madness. In all others, a marked difference in 
temper may be usually observed early in the complaint, which, 
at first, consists rather of a pettish irritability than any settled 
mischievous tendency ; and with few exceptions, a peculiar 
impatience of restraint is manifested. The first offensive symp- 
toms are often directed towards cats, while dogs remain unmo- 
lested. Next, however, dog-s, particularly strang-e ones, are 
attacked, but those they are acquainted with are still safe ; and 
as the complaint g-ains ground, even these are not spared. 

As the disease advances beyond the immediate attack of 
these precursory symptoms, it assumes a more marked cha- 
racter. It either, by its immediate communication with or 
direct attack on the sensorium and organs of respiration, pro- 
duces increased excitement of manner, quickness, and irrita- 
bility ; or otherwise, by confining- its specific inflammation 
mor^ particularly to the bowels, it appears under a milder 
character of diminished energy and of more patient suffering. 
These two leading varieties in the complaint have given rise 
to the distinctions known among sportsmen, of 7Y(ging and 
dumb madness. But attention to the following description 
will shew that the symptoms that might be supposed pecu- 
liar to one are so often blended with the other, that it is 
impossible to separate them with nosological accuracy; for as 
the distinctions that really belong to the disease are the 
effects of the difference of parts principally attacked by the 
morbid inflammation, or, in other words, as the specific at- 
tack may be more immediately confined to the cerebral, tho- 
racic, or abdominal viscera; and as it is not uncommon for all 
these parts to partake of the affection, sometimes in equal, 
and, at others, in unequal degrees; so we can easily under- 
stand how the principal symptoms which characterise tliese 
two varieties may be blended in the same subject. For the 
convenience, however, of noting- such features as are in many 
cases companions, 1 will proceed with each variety scp.i- 


rately, but not without ag-ain observing that the distinction 
is one of convenience rather than of fact, inasmuch as that 
no one character which is observed to appear in one of the 
varieties but is occasionally seen in the other also. 

Raging Madness*, as it is called, is that state of increas- 
ed excitement and irritability which often begins to shew it- 
self immediately after the precursory symptoms. Sometimes 
these precursors are passed over unnoticed, and it is therefore 
supposed that the animal is at once attacked with the appear- 
ances that follow. It is, however, very seldom that these 
present themselves in any considerable degree at once. 
Those already described usually appear as monitory ones, 
and therefore greatly lessen the danger that arises from mad 
dogs. This variety of rabies, called the raging, shews itself 
by a general quickness of manner, sudden starlings, great 
watchfulness, and a disposition to be acted on by sudden 
impressions, as sudden noises, the appearance of a stranger, 
&c. This watchfulness, however, often yields to a momen- 
tary stupor, and inclination to doze. The dog breathes quick, 
sometimes the panting is excessive, and where the pulse can 
be examined it is invariably found hard and very quick. The 
irritability in these cases is marked by great impatience of 
controul; and even when no aptitude to attack or act offen- 
sively towards those around may appear, yet a disposition to 
resist any offence offered commonly shews itself. A stick 
held to such a dog f is sure to excite his anger, even from 

* It is a curious fact, but it is no less true than curious, that the ra- 
bies of very young dogs is always of this kind. I never saw a rabid 
P^PPy that did not exhibit marks of considerable delirium and much 
mischievous tendency towards every living being indiscriminately. 
That affection of the throat, and paralysis of the parts of deglutition, 
producing dumb madness, I never met with in any but an adult dog. 

f This disposition to become irritated on the slightest shew of offence, 
is, I think, a very strong and almost invariable character of the com- 
plaint, and it accompanies not only this but the dumb or milder variety 
in most instances also. I cannot say I have never seen cases without it ; 
occasionally, the pavalysi?, stupor, and weaknes? so benumbs the facul- 


those he is most fond of, and he will sieze and shake it with 
violence : the same will happen if the foot is held out. Be- 
sides this resistance displayed, a peculiarly treacherous dispo- 
sition, already hinted at, is a common feature of this vari- 
ety of the complaint, and is often present in the other also. 
Without any warning", and often in the midst of caresses ap- 
parently received with pleasure, he will at once turn and 
snap at those noticing- him ; or he will readily come when he 
is called, and with every mark of tractability will wag- his 
tail and seem pleased, but, on a sudden, he will seem to re- 
ceive a counter impression, and hastily bite the person who 
called him. This stage is also marked, particularly in larger 
dogs, with an utter fearlessness of danger and contempt 
of every menace. Every restraint is most unwillingly sub- 
mitted to ; he shakes his chain with extreme violence, 
and, when confined without one, he attempts to gnaw his 
way out. The vessels that are placed before him he over- 
turns or breaks. 

Every variety of rabies begets a disposition to rove, but 
as, in the dumb kinds, the paralysis, stupor, and prostration 
of strength are hindrances to it, so it is more particularly ap- 
parent in the raging variety. This disposition shews itself 
by no attempt to escape altogether, neither does it appear a 
delirious affection •, on the contrary, much method is display- 
ed in it, which makes it rather seem an instinctive disposition 
common to all to propagate the disease. In its early stages, 
before the strength is much impaired, dogs will travel im- 
mense distances under this impulse. Such a dog trots along, 
and industriously looks out for every other within his reach 
or sight. Whenever he discovers one, little or large, he first 
goes up and smells to him, in the usual way of dogs, 

ties, that even this shew of resistance is wanting : but these instances 
are comparatively so rare to those wherein it is otherwise, that I cannot 
impress it too strongly on the notice of those concerned, that, when a 
dog, otherwise mild and inoffensive, immediately flies at a stick held 
towards him, particularly by those he is acquainted with, such a dog 
may, without hesitation, be pronounced rabid. 


and then immediately falls on him, g-eneraliy g"iving him one 
shake only; after which, he commonly trots off ag-ain in 
search of another object. The quickness with which this at- 
tack is made very frequently surprises the bitten dog* so much, 
as to prevent his immediately resenting- it: but nothing is 
more erroneous than the supposition, that a healthy dog- in- 
stinctively knows a rabid or mad one. I have watched these 
attacks in numerous cases, and I have seen the mad dog- 
tumbled over and over, without the least hesitation, by 
others that he had attacked. 

During- this march of mischief, rabid dog-s very seldom, 
however, turn out of the way to bite human passeng-ers. 
Neither do they often attack horses, or any other animals but 
their own species. Sometimes they will not g-o out of their 
line of march to attack these even ; but, trotting- leisurely 
along-, w41l bite only those which fall immediately in their 
way. In other cases, however, where the natural habit is 
irritable and ferocious, and where dog-s may have been used 
to worry other animals, as bull dogs, farmers' dog-s, terriers, 
&c., a disposition to g-eneral attack is sometimes apparent ; 
and by such, horses, cows, sheep, pig-s, and even human 
persons, are all indiscriminately bitten. 

When a rabid dog- has roved about for an indeterminate pe- 
riod, as ten or even twenty liours, he will return home qui- 
etly, if not discovered and destroyed in his prog-ress ; which, 
in cities and larg-e towns, he seldom is. But in the country 
it is different, and, therefore, this peculiarity has not an op- 
portunity to shew itself; for there the unfortunate animal is 
soon detected by the peculiarities of his manner, and is imme- 
diately hunted. If not overtaken, he is too much alarmed to 
return soon ; and, before he has time to recover his frig-ht, he 
is discovered in some other situation, and falls a sacrifice to 
the anger of his pursuers. The very hunting will, of course, 
do to him what it would to any other dog ; it will beget fury : 
otherwise there would very seldom be much ferocity apparent^ 
and, in most instances, such a dog would return home when 
thoroughly tired. 


The voice, also, in every variety of rabies, usually forms a 
strong- characteristic of the complaint. In the irritable vari- 
ety, the alteration is tirst observed by a more quick and hasty 
method of barking, with some difference also in the usual 
tones of the bark ; by degrees, an occasional howl either 
mixes with the bark, or takes place of it altogether *. This 
howl, which is common to both varieties of the complaint, is 
of so peculiar a kind, that it may be said never to be heard 
under any other circumstance than from a rabid dog. It usu- 
ally consists of a single hovvi, repeated at uncertain intervals 
with the head held up t. 

Dumb Madness forms the other and most frequent vari- 
ety in adult dogs, and which cases appear dependent on 
a less degree of sensorial excitement, but with more mor- 
bid affection of the bov^els. The symptoms are, a dull, 
heavy, and distressed countenance ; and as the disease ad- 
vances, the mouth presents an appearance of inability to keep 
it closed. As the whole of the pharynx and larynx become tu- 
mefied, the muscles at the base of the tongue, and those of 
the lower jaw, become to a certain degree paralyzed, by 
which the jaw drops and the tongue hangs pendulous with- 
out the mouth, and an actual inability to close the jaws 
takes place. A congestion of blood is the necessary conse- 
quence of the tumefaction of the parts, and the tongue from 
this cause appears commonly, in these cases, livid or almost 

* It is evident, that it is not easy to form a written description of any 
peculiarity of voice, but the rabid howl may not unaptly be resembled 
to the tones produced by what is called, among sportsmen, the gwing 
tongue of the old heavy southern harrier. It appears composed of 
something between a bark and a howl, being made up of tones longer 
than the one and shorter than the other. It is, however, so peculiar, 
that, when once heard, it can never be forgotten, and so characteristic, 
that it may be almost implicitly relied on. I have, in several instances 
been attracted to houses where dogs have been confined by the sound 
alone, in time to warn the inhabitants of their danger. 

t BoERHAAVE seems to have this howl in view, when he says, " miiti 
*< quoad latratura, raurmurantes tamen." 


black, particularly towards its apex or point: sometimes a 
black line extends throug-h its whole leng-th. The paralytic 
aifection of the muscles extending- to the cesophag-us, occa- 
sions a difficulty and sometimes a total inability even to 
swallow either liquids or solids. In g-eneral, however, the 
inability does not extend so far, but is principally confined to 
liquids, which are, in such instances, returned as fast as they 
are lapped, from the incapacity of the pharynx to retain 
them ; but in no instance do the attempts to swallow appear 
to excite apprehension or g-ive pain. The mouth itself is 
sometimes parched and dry, at others it is moist, and a 
viscid saliva continually flows from it. The tumefaction of 
the pharynx occasions a deep choaking- kind of noise, which 
sound seems to issue from the bottom of the glottis. In this 
dumb or milder variety, a spasmodic and paralytic aifection 
often extends also to other parts: in some cases, the whole 
body becomes affected with it. Others have it only in the 
loins and hinder extremities. When the morbid affection 
acts very strongly on the bowels, it often occasions the hinder 
parts to be drawn forward by a species of tetanic spasm to- 
ward the fore parts, so as to bend the poor sufferer into a 
circle ; sometimes it fixes the animal on his rump, upright. 
In other cases, convulsive twitches, like St. Vitus's dance, 
are not unfrequently observed. 

A symptom common to this variety, and not uncommon in 
the other also, is a disposition to carry straw, or whatever 
litter the dog can get, about in the mouth, which he ap- 
pears to make a bed of, frequently altering it, pulling it to 
pieces and again removing it. It is also very common to ob- 
serve them scratch their litter under them with their fore 
feet, not as they do when making their beds, but it is evi- 
dently done to press the straw or litter to the belly. This 
peculiarity appears to arise from some particular sympathy 
with the intestines, which, in these cases, are alwa^^s after 
death observed to be very highly inflamed. These cases are 
also remarkable for a disposition to pick up and to swallow, 
when not prevented by the affection of the throat, indigest- 


ibie and unnatural substances, selected from whatever is 
around them, and which the costiveness usually present tends 
to retain within the body. It appears to be this impulse, 
likewise, that leads rabid dogs to g-naw boards, or what- 
ever is within their reach; and this aptitude may be consi- 
dered as common to every variety of the complaint, except 
where the tumefaction and paralysis of the throat are so ex- 
treme as altogether to prevent it. 

The irritability attendant on dumb madness is even subject 
to more variation than in that called the raging-. It is some- 
times extreme, and occasionally exhibits all the treachery 
and mischievous disposition that marks the other ; but when 
the dumb character is strongly marked, there is then seldom 
much irritability or delirium apparent ; on the contrary, in 
many instances, a most peaceable disposition is manifest, and 
which does not appear dependent on the inability to bite, 
but really from a total want of inclination to it. Indeed, in 
many cases of this kind, the tractability of character and 
mildness of disposition have appeared to be even increased 
by the disease, and that to a degree that will not permit 
strangers to suppose it possible for rabies to be present. It 
would sensibly affect any one, to witness the earnest im- 
ploring look 1 have often seen from the unhappy sufferers 
under this dreadful malady. The strongest attachment has 
been manifested to those around during their utmost suffer- 
ings ; and the parched tongue, as I have before noticed, has 
been carried over the hands and feet of those who noticed 
them, with more than usual fondness. This disposition has 
continued to the last moment of life, in many cases, without 
one manifestation of any inclination to bite, or do the small- 
est harm. I have observed this particularly in pugs, as well 
as in other lap dogs *. 

* It may be supposed, that I have dwelt on the subject of the temper 
in madness more minutely than is requisite j but I have been induced to 
do so, to reconcile the seeming contradictions implied, to guard the un- 
wary against surprise, and to ease the unhappy from unnecessary dread 


The termination of the complaint is invariably fatal, but 
the time it takes to produce this issue is variable : few die 
sooner than the third day, and very few survive long-er than 
the seventh. The averag-e number die on the fourth and 
fifth days. In other rabid quadrupeds the existence is pro- 
tracted to a similar period *. 

The morbid Anatomy of the rabid Dog forms a most im- 
portant feature in a portrait of the malady, but one, that, till 
of late, has been most unaccountably neg-lectedt. It by no 
means unfreqr.ently happens, that it is not until after a dog- 
is dead that he is suspected of having- been rabid, althoug"h 
he may have bitten one or more persons. Under such cir- 
cumstances, it is evident that it is of the utmost importance 
to be able to decide, from an inspection of the dead body 
alone, whether the disease did or did not exist. Fortunately 
to those conversant with the morbid appearances peculiar to 
these cases, this is not difficult. From the great number of 

and fear. I am by no means disposed to throw any one off his guard, 
or to encourage an unwarrantable security, with regard to the peaceable- 
ness of the temper in rabies. I would, on the contrary, strongly impress 
on the minds of my readers, that there is a constant necessity for cau- 
tion in these cases, from the irritability present , and likewise from a 
peculiar treacherous disposition which very often exists, and cannot be 
too much guarded against. These cautions I would as strongly incvil- 
cate for the security of the public, as I have already endeavoured to 
combat the prejudices relative to the existence of a wild ferocious man- 
ner, so strongly characterised by the name of madness j to which both 
the irritability and treachery are unlike in by far the majority of instances. 
The treachery and irritability displayed, from whence alone arise what 
danger exists, it is my particular wish to prove, are not dependent on 
perfect alienation of mind, but are the effects of either a momentary 
impiilse of anger, or of the instinctive wish to propagate the disease. 

* Mr. Meynell gives ten days as the frequent duration of rabies ; but 
for one dog which lives ten days, one hundred do not reach the eighth. 

f In a celebrated Trench work, apparently wi'itten for the express 
purpose of collating all that was known in France on the rabid disease, 
so late as 1822, no description whatever is attempted of the morbid ana- 
tomy, audit is even mentioned as a somewhat extraordinary effort of ob- 
servation that M. PoRTAT. had opened a rabid dog. — Trolhet, p. 108. 


cases which I have examined, the distinctive marks of the 
e.xistence of the disease are become so familiar, that I would 
seldom seek or wish any other aids to guide my decision *. 

On a careful examination of the head, the brain and its 
membranes will be found to have suffered more or less from 
the attack. Sometimes its vascularity is only slightly in- 
creased, but, at others, the vessels will be found distended 
w ith blood, particularly those of the pia mater. 1 have never 
observed the membranes thickened, as in idiopathic phrenitis. 
Inflammatory appearances within the cerebral cavity are usu- 
ally less considerable in those cases called dumb madness t. 
Throug-hout the cavity of the mouth, much of the tumefac- 
tion which existed during life disappears after death, except 
the base of the tongue, which often remains greatly enlarged. 
Inflammatory m.arks from altered colour are, however, al- 
ways present: sometimes this inflammatory hue pervades the 
whole. It is, however, more usual to find distinct inflam- 
matory blotches throughout the pharynx, and often cxtend- 

* Had Dr. Parry made himself acquainted with the morbid anatomy 
of the rabid dog, even his pertinacity, in endeavouring to support a 
strict analogy between the human and canine rabies, must have yielded 
to the evidences before him. In the human subject, very few morbid 
appearances present themselves, sometimes none at all, but always 
trifling. In the dog, on the contrary, and his congeners, the most 
striking ravages present themselves, enveloping in one specifip inflam- 
mation, parts that under no other disease are aflFected together. Dr. 
Parry expressly says, " There cannot be a greater mistake than to sup- 
" pose either that the fever of hydrophobia is of an inflammatory kind, 
«' or that its peculiar symptom arises from local inflammation of the 
« fauces, cardia. See. &c.»— Treaf. on Ht/droph., p. 89. Now, if it is not 
clear, from the morbid anatomy, that the rabies of dogs is altogether an 
inflammatory affection (but a specific one), all our pathognomonicks of 
inflammation hitherto received and admitted are totally false. Neither 
is it less clear, that all the rabid symptoms in dogs are immediately re- 
ferrible to the state of the inflamed organs. 

t In the pig, the sheep, and the horse, I have also found evident 
marks of visceral inflammation, and of considerable congestion within 
tlie head ; but the cavities within the mouth and throat were not affertcd 
in any of those subjects which fell under my observation. 


ing" to the tonsils, fauces, and g-lottis ; but a distinct inflamma- 
tory patch about the ang-le of the larynx, at the back of the 
rima glottis, is so invariably present, as to deserve the charac- 
ter of one of the distinguishing criteria of the disease. The 
epiglottis and rima glottis are commonly enveloped with an 
inflammatory tinge, which, now and then, extends a little way 
within the trachea, but less frequently is the oesophagus 
affected with it. Proceeding onwards, we invariably meet 
with an extension of the morbid inflammation to the thoracic 
and abdominal viscera ; but by no means are these cavities 
always affected in an equal degree ; on the contrary, in those 
instances where there has been a greater tendency to the 
raging variety, the thoracic viscera are usually more inflamed 
than the bowels or stomach. Not only are the lungs them- 
selves, in these cases, found highly inflamed, and often gan- 
grenous, but the costal pleura and diaphragm are affected 
also. Sometimes one thoracic cavity is found more highly 
inflamed than the other, and, now and then, the mediastinum 
pericardium, and even the heart itself, in cases of great rabid 
intensity, are found inflamed *. 

When the abdominal viscera are examined, they almost in- 
variably present marks of a full share of the morbid affection. 
If the dog has been destroyed early in the disease, these may 
not be very considerable, and an occasional case may occur 
where the appearances are not very strong, even when the 
animal is suffered to remain until the complaint kills him, but 
such instances are extremely rare. The degree of inflamma- 
tion in the stomach and bowels, particularly of the latter, will 

* It is, however, proper to remark, that the degree of inflammatory 
appearances in either the pharynx, the lungs, stomach, or bowels, is 
not always in exact proportion to the intensity of affection exhibit- 
ed in the symptoms during life. It is also equally necessary to no- 
tice, that the same variety in the morbid appearances occurs as in the 
symptoms. Nothing can be asserted as invariable and certain. It must 
also be evident, that, when a dog is destroyed early in the complaint, the 
morbid appearances will not be the same as when he is suffered to die 
by the force of the disease. 


usually be found in proportion as the character of dumb mad- 
ness was more or less well defined, but some considerable 
deg-ree of morbid alteration in the stomach is common to 
every variety of the disease, and is almost invariably pre- 

When our attention is directed to the stomach, we are 
first struck with its appearance of distention, and on openings 
into it, the cause is seen to arise from an accumulation of a 
considerable, oftentimes of an immense, mass of indigestible 
substances, as hay, straw, wood, coals, cinders, matting-, or, 
in fact, any surrounding- substance which proved small enough 
for deglutition. This disposition to take in unusual ingesta 
exists in every variety of the complaint; and as sickness and 
vomiling, though common in its early stages, are but seldom 
present during the latter periods of it, so the substances 
taken in, being of an indigestible nature, necessarily remain 
within the stomach until death. There is little reason to 
doubt that a morbid sympathy in this organ is the occasion of 
this peculiarity, and that the presence of these hard bodies 
gives some relief probably by the distention they occasion. 
Certain it is, that the appearance of this indigestible and in- 
congruous matter within the stomach is so common, that it be- 
comes a pathognomonick sign of the utmost importance, and 
it should be searched for in every case Vv^here doubt exists*. 

* In describing the criteria of the disease, I have purposely omitted 
before enlarging on this particular, that I might here do it more fully, 
and that I might at once describe both the cause and effect : I must now 
therefore remark, that, of all the characteristic marks of the complaint, 1 
consider this as the most genuine, and as the one liable to the least vari- 
ation. I will not say that I never saw a rabid stomach, after death, 
without this crude indigestible mass; but, during the examination of more 
than two hundred cases, I do not recollect to have met with more than 
two or three without it j and in those, the non-appearance was, perhaps, 
to be attributed to an accidental fit of nausea. This genuine character- 
istic cannot, therefore, be too strongly kept in mind, because it is one 
that may be sought for by one person as well as another ; by the most 
uninformed ; and bv the amateur as well as the professional man. It is 



When the stomach is emptied, it usually presents marks of 
very intense inHanimation, If the dog- has been destroyed 
very early in the complaint, the inflammatory appearances 
may not be very considerable, but, in every such instance 
even, which has fallen under my notice, in some degree or 
otrier, they have still been present ; while, in those cases 
where the animals had been suffered to die of the disease, 
I never remember one instance in which the morbid appear- 
ances were not considerable. The inner surface or rug-ous 
cortt of the stomach is often livid, and not unfrequently 
sprinkled over with pustular prominences: it is not unusual, 
likewise, for it to present sphacelated ulcerous patches. I 
have even seen an opening through its coats into the cavity 
of the abdomen by the mortification present. The outer sur- 
face is seldom free from inflammation either, and which is usu- 
ally particularly evident along- the great curvature. The ve- 
nal vessels are commonly turgid with dark blood, v,i;ich is, 
sometimes, by the intensity of the inflammatory' action, extra- 
vasated between the membranous and muscular coats. There 
are seldom many fluid contents present,— the mass of ing'esta 
usually absorbs what may be there ; but when this is not the 
case, and fluid contents are found, they invariably consist of 
a dark coloured liquor not unlike coffee grounds. 

The intestinal tube is ritiually found with marks of disease 

also more important, because it may be found long- after death, when 
the other marks have become blended in the universal decomposition 
and decay of the body. I cannot exemplify this better, than by relating 
a circumstance of my being sent for, to a considerable distance in the 
country, to examine a suspected dog, who had been already buried three 
weeks, but was now dug up for my inspection. All other marks to be 
gained from the morbid anatomy had, of course, disappeared ; and I 
must have been left in doubt (for the dog had come some distance, had 
bitten a child who was caressing him, and had been in consequence killed 
on the spot J nothing, therefoi-e, of his history was known), had it not 
.been for this unfailing criterion, which I found to exist, in this instance, 
in its full force, and from which I was led, without fear of error, to de- 
cide that the dog had been rabid. 


very similar to those of the stomach. The inflammation is, 
in g-eneral, diffused and extensive, seldom however conti- 
nuous, but nither in contig-uous patches, principally affecting- 
sometimes one and sometimes another of the intestines. The 
villous surface is frequently g-angrenous, and the outer or 
peritoneal portion, from the coag-ulable lymph thrown out, 
is often found adhering- to other portions. Sometimes intussus- 
ception exists, but constrictions and twisting-s are still more fre- 
quently present. Occasionally, the tube is altog-ether empty, 
but it is more frequently found partially distended with hard- 
ened fseces. The degree of inflammation between the stomach 
and intestines is not always correspondent ; on the contrary, 
when the one has been very hig"hly inflamed, it has not been 
unusual to find the other less so, but the variations in the ap- 
pearance of the stomach are less frequent than those in the 
bowels. 1 have always found, that when the intensity of 
morbid inflammation has been present in the bowels particu- 
larly, that such cases, during- life, had exhibited torpor, 
distress of countenance, affection of the parts of deglutition, 
great scratching- of straw to the belly, paralysis, and all those 
characteristics more immediately appertaining- to what is 
called, by sportsmen, dumb madness. On the contrary, when 
the intestines have been but little inflamed, and the stomach 
likewise not intensely affected neither, but the lungs ex- 
tremely so ; such cases, during- life, have been characterised 
by g-reat irritability, a desire to rove, and those appearances 
common to rag-ing- madness *. 

The remaining abdominal viscera often participate in tHe 
affection. The mesentery is sometimes found clotted with 
grumous spots, and adhesions are formed between the parts 
from the coagulable lymph thrown out. The liver, pancreas, 
spleen, and omentum, but particularly the former, are often 

* The thoracic viscera of the horse, cow, pig, and sheep, as far as 
my experience goes, appear more highly inflamed, under rabies, than 
either tke stomach or intestines. 



inflamed. The kidneys usually escape, neither is the bladder 
in general attacked, but the urine contained is often deeply 
ting-ed with bile from the hepatic affection. 

The bodies of those dogs, who die of this disease, soon be- 
come putrid ; but there is no peculiarity of smell attending 
them : neither are they so offensive as I have often witnessed 
them in other cases of inflamed bow^els, particularly of that 
kind produced by mineral poisons. 1 have frequently offered 
to a healthy dog various parts of the body of rabid dogs, but 
I could never distinguish any marks of dread or disgust. I 
am, therefore, convinced that, living or dead, there is nothing 
in the smell that characterises rabies from one to the other, 
as has been so often alledged, among the other vulgar errors 
held forth. 

Having thus described the symptoms and morbid anatomy 
of rabies, it may be worth inquiring whether any other dis- 
eases present appearances at all similar to these ? What such 
diseases are, and how we can best distinguish between them ? 
It is certainly possible, that those not at all acquainted with 
canine pathology, might mistake the distemper, tetanus, or 
even the lead colic, for rabies : but under any other circum- 
stances it is not probable that such mistakes could arise. In 
some cases of distemper, the epileptic attack will remain for a 
long time, during which the delirium and wildness occasioned 
thereby may be mistaken for madness *. But, even in these 
cases, the duration of the fit is still determinate, and the dog 
returns as soon as it is over to his former peaceable habit, un- 
less, indeed, he should be destroyed at once by its violence, 
in which case even no difficulty can arise but what may be 

* If the distemper is ever mistaken for rabies, authors, by their confus- 
ed and overcliarged descriptions of it, have led to the error. Dr. Jenner's 
account of the disease, instead of deserving the praise his great name 
has drawn down on it, is entirely calculated to mislead ; and it might be 
supposed, by his readers, that he was purposely describing rabies and not 
distemper.— See Medico-Chirurg. Trans, vol. i, p. 263. I could produce 
many similar instances in pther authors. 


readily overcome by an examination of the body, joined to 
other circumstances gathered relative to the disease. During- 
all other periods of distemper, except this, no irritability, nor 
change of habit or manner, so common to rabies, is ever 
present. The spasmodic twitchings, and the discharge from 
the eyes, in rabies, can hardly ever, it is supposed, be con- 
founded with distemper, even by the most unobservant, be- 
cause, as this latter disease is an attendant on young dogs, 
so, in them, rabies is always characterised by extreme quick- 
ness of manner, constant irritability, and a restless, unceasing 
disposition to escape, which appearances are none of them 
usually present in distemper. The slow attack, the previous 
emaciation, and the constant hard dry cough, will also serve 
to distinguish distemper from rabies. The extreme rarity of 
tetanus in dogs, renders it not very likely to be confounded 
with madness ; and when it does attack, no mental irritability 
is present, neither is there any tumefaction of throat, or pa- 
ralysis of the jaw: the tetanic spasm returns also at uncer- 
tain intervals. Tetanus, when it does occur, can commonly 
be traced to some local injury received; and when it cannot, 
as soon as death relieves the sufferer, an inspection of the 
body at once discovers the difference. Colic, from the action 
of lead, produces excruciating pain, unknown to rabies; 
the pain returns also at uncertain intervals, and, although 
plaintive moans are often heard, barking or howling is 
always absent ; the temper is never affected, but the animal 
is more than usually passive, neither are the jaws paralysed. 
Active purging also relieves this, but is totally inert in the 

Having already endeavoured to shew that the rabid poison 
is only received into the system by the actual insertion of it 
by means of an abraded surface, it will now be our endea- 
vour to inquire its modus operandi when received there. 
This subject has occasioned a diversity of opinions, but the 
most popular view of it is, that the rabid virus is at once 
mixed with the blood by the absorption of the lymphatic vessels, 
and that it afterwards exerts its morbid agency principally on 


the nervous system and on other parts sympathetically. A 
less popular opinion, but one which is g-aining- ground every 
day, is that which considers the infection as remaining- sta 
tionary within the wounded part until it is excited into action 
by some irritation in such part, from whence it is carried 
along- the sensible and irritable fibre to exert a particular 
morbid action on certain organs. 

The opinion which I have long entertained on this subject 
in some respects differs from both these, but is much more 
consonant with the latter. The rabid poison, I conceive, 
enters the circulation very soon, probably immediately, as it 
is received, exactly in the same manner with the poisons of 
venomous reptiles and other morbillse. Some sympathy, 
however, seems to be kept up with the bitten part, without 
the agency of which the virus can never germinate into fatal 
action. The wound, therefore, wi;en first received, not be- 
ing under the immediate action of the morbid matter, heals 
as other common wounds, but, after an uncertain period, a 
secondary and lymphatic inflammation arises within the 
part, a new morbid compound is formed, and all the symp- 
tomatic appearances which follow are derived from the ab- 
sorption of this newly generated poison. 

This opinion appears to be borne out as well by analogy 
as fact. The action of this virus exactly coincides with the 
action of some other animal poisons * ; and the circumstance 
now incontrovertibly established, that the excision of the 
bitten part, long after the wound has healed, indeed at any 
time previous to this secondary inflammation taking place, is 
a certain preventive to the consequences, greatly strengthens 
the opinion t. 

* Fontana's experiments on the poison of the viper go to prove, that 
the excision of the wounded part weakens, or wholly prevents, the future 
ill effects. 

t I am fully aware, that this theory must principally rest on the 
certainty that a secondary inflammation, or, at least, a morbid altera- 
tion, does, in every instance, take place in the bitten part, and that be- 


The medical treatment of brute rabies lias iHlhcrto, in 
every instance, proved unavailing-, nor lias that of the human 
hydrophobia been more success. ul. The few cases of fortu- 

fore other symptoms have made their appearance. I am also aware, 
that this is confidently denied by auth jrities of great weight. Yet it is 
remarkable, that in nine out of every ten well recorded cases of hydro- 
phobia in the human subject, this circumstance has been distinctly no- 
ticed: and I think we are by analogy led to conclude, that it was pre- 
sent in the tenth also, but that accidental circumstances prevented its 
being attended to. It is not necessary that an inflammation, to be 
active, should be very painful. An erysipelatous inflammation of ex- 
treme violence will come on during sleep, and remain for hours without 
notice. The tumefaction of the face, after the tooth-adie, instead of 
being painful, is the signal for ease. I have also seen human anthrax 
proceed almost to gangrene before it has been much attended to. Have 
we not innumerable proofs that, although the external surface of a deep 
wound may renftiin nearly unaltered, much mischief may be going on 
Avithin ? Dr. Parry, who proved one of the strongest opponents of this 
secondary inflammation, says, and that immediately after having denied 
its existence — " It is however c'ei'tain, that some pain, if not in the 
" part itself, at least in the course of the nerves supplying it, has 
" usually attended the commencement, and a considerable part of the 
" course of the constitutional malady." It is further remarkable, that 
this morbid affection of the bitten part was present in two out of the 
three cases whereon Dr. P. grounds his theory, and that the third case 
was altogether involved in obscurity, it not being known whether the 
sufferer was ever bitten, or how he became affected. It is true, that, in 
many of the rabid dogs I have met with, no clear marks of this second- 
ary inflammation have appeared ; but the incapability of the animal to 
tell all his feelings, the smallness of the puncture from a solitary tooth, 
and the consequent difficulty of finding it, readily account for the ab- 
sence of the distinctive character in these instances. In many others, 
it has been most clear and well marked ; indeed, in some, the morbid sym- 
pathy in the bitten part has been by far the most painful symptom, 
which shows that there are degrees in the intensity of this sympathy 
with the wound, and, if so, it is no less existent because, in some in- 
stances, its outward activity is not so observable. This secondary in- 
flammation is still more strikingly apparent in horses, cows, sheep, and 
pigs, who are almost invariably observed to rub and tear their bitten 
parts with great violence from the commencemVut of the coinphunt. if, 


nate issue on record have a veil of obscurity thrown over them 
that damps our confidence, and v^^e have only hope remain- 
ing- that time may yet aiford us a remedy * for this dreadful 
scourg-e. The extent to which this inquiry has already been 
carried, will prevent a circumstantial detail of the various 
medicinal agents which have been used in rabies. I shall only 
cursorily notice them, and reserve myself for those that, for- 
tunately for man and brute, are found efficacious as fi^eveni- 
ives against such attack. 

The most antient remedy on record for the rabid malady, 
after it had actually appeared, was cold bathing, and which 
it was usual to apply to the extent of a temporary drown- 
ing ; but, although it is handed down that it occasionally 

therefore, a sympathy with the bitten part, or a secondary inflamma- 
tion, is found so generally in the majority of human and brute rabid 
cases, are we not warranted, by analogy, in concluding it an insepara- 
ble pathognomonick symptom common to all ? Likewise, from its usually 
preceding all other symptoms many hours, and even days, are we not 
warranted in considering the bitten part as the source from whence the 
future constitutional disease is derived ? 

" Homo optime sanus contagio hoc infectus post varium tempus inci- 
*' pit hoc ordine fere a^grotare : dolet locus, cui impressa contagii labes pri- 
^' ma fecit. '^ — Boerhaave, Aphorism 1138. Van Swieten's Commentary 
has, also, " Plurima observationes confirmant primum signum venani 
" actuosi redditi observari in ipse loco demorso, et prcecipue in cicatrice 
" vulneris jam consolidati." In another part, Van Swieten has also, 
*' Omnia hsec observata docent aliquam mutationem in loco demorso 
*' imprimis in cicatricibus vulneris praecedere solere ilium statvim, ubi 
" latius hactenus contagium incipit actuosum fieri. Unde videtur ad- 
" modum probabile illud venenum susceptum in loco demorso haesisse 
"tamdiu." — Comment, torn, iii, p. 551. An observant author of repute 
says, " The bitten part, after some time, begins to be painful j the ci- 
" catrix becomes hard and elevated, a peculiar tingling sensation is felt 
'' in the part, and pains begin to shoot from it towards the throat." — 
Thomas' Pract. p. 358. 

* " Nee desperandum tamen ob exempla jam in aliis venenis constan- 
" tia, de inveniendo hujus singularis veneni antidoto singiilari." — Boer- 
haave, Aphorism 1146. 


proved successful, these accounts are not now relied on*. 
I tried it on two rabid dog-s to the extinction of life almost, 
and it certainly suspended the progress of the complaint for 
some hours ; which I attribute not to any specific virtue in 
the bathing- itself, but to the violence done to the constitu- 
tion : for it is remarkable, that any great violence offered, 
from accidental causes t, during the progress of the disease, 
particularly in its early stages, in every instance appears to 
beget a new action, which, for a time, arrests the progress 
of the rabid one, and suspends its more active symptoms for 
a longer or shorter period, usually in proportion to the vi- 
olence done. The morbid poison, however, soon resumes 
its ascendancy, and the fatal issue is only protracted, but 
never removed. 

Warm bathings have been also fully tried, both in antient 
and modern times, with no better success. Bleeding largely 
w^as an antient remedy, whicii has been revived by the mo- 
derns ; and on the authority of some reputedly successful 
cases, but now discredited, I was induced to try it to its 
fullest extent (ad deliquium) on two or three rabid dogs. 
Mr. YouATT has also, I believe, done the same J, but with- 
out permanent benefit; although in these instances, as in all 
others where much violence had been committed on the con- 

* Celsus recommends it, and gives instances of its successful appli- 
cation. Euripides is one who was said to have been cured by it. 

f During the rovings of a rabid dog it is to be expected that he will 
meet with severe beatings from other dogs, and, not unfrequently, he 
will be subject to violent attacks from human persons, from whom he 
may, however, eventually escape, although half killed. I have had 
many opportunities of observing dogs, after their return, which have 
been so treated, and I have invariably found that an absence of the more 
active appearances of disease have followed for two or three days, and 
that, in some cases, to such a degree as to deceive those around, and 
make them consider the recovery of the animal as certain, but gradually 
the complaint has returned with all its violence. 

X M. GossiER, Professor of the Veterinary School of Lyons, also em- 
ployed bleeding on three dogs to deliquium, without success. 


stitution, the morbid action has been suspended. Of electri- 
city and g-alvanism, as applied for the cure of rabies, I have 
no experience : it has been fully tried in the human subject 
without success. Vineg-ar, which, 'in Germany, was said to 
have arrested the human disease, has failed in dogs in every 
instance in which it has been made use of. Mercury I have 
also tried to its fullest extent, and in most of its popular 
forms, without benefit. Camphor and opium, both by the 
mouth and per ana, have proved equally inert in these 
cases *. With the belladonna I succeeded no better ; and 
the alisma plantago, or water plantain, has proved equally 
unsuccessful with Mr. Youatt. The internal and external 
exhibition of the volatile alkali has not been more fortunate, 
although the analogy of its beneficial effects, in cases of poi- 
soning by the bite of the cobra de capello, had raised hopes 
of its proving useful here alsot. Cauterizings, scarifyings, 
blisterings, &c., have been applied to the bitten part in the 
human subject after the attack, but without avail. From the 
known property of arsenic in lessening the spasm of epilepsy, 
something was hoped from it in the hydrophobic spasm of 
the human, but it has not ansvi^ered the expectations formed. 
On rabid dogs 1 have frequently tried it, and, from its de- 
cided capability, evinced on each trial, of suspending the com- 
plaint, I was once also led to hope much from it, but repeat- 
ed experience has proved that its beneSts are not permanent^, 
but act only like other violent means. Chlorine has been 

* Professor Dupuytren injected opium in solution into the veins of 
two rabid dogs, but without any alleviation of the symptoms.— jDisserf. 
de Ch. Busnout, Paris, 1814. 

f TissoT strongly recommends the Eau de Luce, and says, " II calma 
" I'agitation, occasion tin seur abondant etfit disparoitre les symptoms." 
— Avis au Penjde, tom. i, p. 179, 8vo, Paris. 

+ I have given it, in these cases, in very large doses, as five, six, and 
even a greater number of grains, and have been surprised how little 
eiFect it appeared to have, probably from the stomach being already 
affected with a specific inflammation, by which it was rendered less likely 
to be acted upon by occasional causes. 


said to remove the bydrophobic symptoms, but late trials 
have shewn the fallacy of the assertion. The same has hap- 
pened to sulphuric acid, with which a Dr. Skuderi pretends 
to have effected several cures of hydrophobia, by its internal 
and external administration. There is, therefore, reason to 
believe that we have no authenticated case of the rabid ma- 
lady having- yielded to any treatment, either in man or 
beast, after it had actually made its attack. 

The preventive treatment.— Here, fortunately for man- 
kind, we stand on vantage ground, as we can, in almost 
every instance, insure the prevention of any hurtful conse- 
quences from the rabid bite. The prophylacticks that both 
interest and ignorance have extolled and brought into use, 
are innumerable. Very few of tl.em, however, have de- 
served the smallest confidence : on the contrary, they have 
lulled into a fatal security those who have relied on them *. 

The oldest prophylactick with wliich we are acquainted, is 
suction. We have very^ntient records of its employment, 
and, if we can believe these legends, a particular family en- 
joyed the privilege, or devoted themselves to this process of 
drawing, by the application of the mouth to the wound, 
poisons inserted by venomous animals t. 

* BoERHAAVE complaiiis of these impositions. " Nee ^schrionis apud 
« Galenum et Oribasium arcano de cancris combustis ; nee Scnbonii 
« Laro-i famigerata opiata ad rabiem Siculuram ; nee Peregrin! consilio 
"de pelle hysnae ; nee ^tii, Rufi, Possidonii, cinere cancrorum cum 
" theriaca- nee jactata Palmario medela ; vel nimis laudato May erne, 
"Grew et venatoribus stanno cum Mithridatio ; nee in somnns sacns 
« revelata radice cynorrhodonis; aliisve in coelum elato cichone cmereo 
" terrestri pimpinella, jecore rabiosi canes exusto, et similibus excep- 

" tis '' 

+ Celsus strongly recommends this practice, and brings forward the 
family of PsvELLES to prove how free it is from danger: " Non gustu 
- sed vulnere nocent."-" Ergo quisquis exemplum Psvlli secutus, .d 
"vulnusexsuxerit, et ipse tutus erit, et tutum hominem praestab.t. - 
De Medicin.\ih. v,chap. ii,sect. 12.-Fothekgill, Heistep and \ auchan 
have spoken favourably of suction as a preventive, and there .reason 
to suppose that it might be employed in some cases P-ba .h y of 
IsuccLfuUssue: should danger be apprehended from the ep.thehum 


Cold-bathing, but particularly sea-bathing, as a preven- 
tive, is a practice also of great antiquity, and, even yet, the 
uninformed classes place implicit reliance on it. Its incapa- 
bility of insuring" safety was, however, early noted, and Pal- 
MERius, Ambrose Parey, Desault, and others, were at 
much pains to discredit the practice. Both hot and cold 
bathing-, however, long* retained some powerful advocates. 
Celsus informs us, that it was the practice of his day to im- 
merse those who had been wounded by a rabid animal in a 
hot bath *, to promote perspiration, and, on their leaving- it, 
to g-ive them larg-e quantities of wine to drink. Hoffman 
preferred tepid to hot bathing-, and Boerhaave and Mead 
appear to have done the same ; but it seemed indifferent, in 
Boerhaave's opinion, whether the water was fresh or salt. 
However respectable the authorities in its favour, the la- 
mentable experience of many who have trusted to its effi- 
cacy, even when performed, as Van Swieten has it, ad 
sufficationem usque, but too well proves. Among the well- 
informed, therefore, no rehance is now placed on it. 

Mercu7'y has, for a very long- period, been employed as a 
prophylactick. In 1732, we find Dessatjlt urging- the use 
of mercurial frictions f. Sauvages was very favourable to 

of the lips not offering a sufficient resistance to the person, or what may 
be really necessary to guard against any small vessels being ruptured 
in the act of sucking, a piece of thin bladder might be interposed, or 
the suction might be still more safely made with the bowl of a tobacco 
pipe. When it can be procured, a cupping glass can be substituted for 
the mouth with the utmost propriety. 

* " Protinus in balneum amittunt, cumque ibi desudare, dum vires 
" corporis sinant, vulnere aperto quo magis ex es quoque virus distil- 
" let." — De Medicina, lib. v, c. 47. 

TuLPius is also no less warm in his commendation of sea bathing: 
" Neque vidi hactenus quemquam (licet viderim plurimos) cui tempestiv^ 
" in mare projecto quidquam sinistre postmodum evenerit, sed salutari 
" hoc remedio vel flocci facto, veltarde actimide adhibito, dedere multi 
" irreparabiles supinae suae incuriae pcenas." — Obs. Med. lib. vii, c. 20. 

f " Tous ceux en qui je I'ai employe, dit cet auteur, ont ete preserves 
" de la rage." — {Journal de Med. ) 


them *. Darluc, Baudot, and Ti«sot, are equally warm 
in their commendations of this method of treatment. The 
internal use of mercury as a preventive has had even a 
greater number of partisans. Sir G. Cobb's famous Tonquin 
remedy, so hig-hly extolled by Claude Duchoisee, in In- 
diat, was prepared from the native and factitious cinnabars, 
with musk. Tarbith mineral, which is a sub-sulphate of 
this metal, was highly extolled by TissotJ, and has been 
very g-enerally used among the dogs of this country. Many 
other authorities of note, as Dr. Thomas Reid, Dr. James, 
&c. &c., miglk be quoted, who have extolled the preven- 
tive efficafcy of mercury; some preferring one preparation 
and some another: but all have used them to a state bor- 
dering on salivation, reasoning on the analogy of its pre- 
ventive and curative efficacy in syphilis. The long conti- 
nued use of it, and the weight of the authorities that have 
been favourable to its use, would lead us to suppose that it 
certainly has some preventive efficacy §; but as instances are 
not wanting of its entire failure in man and beast, under 
every advantage of administration, so it has ceased to be 
relied on as solely sufficient to guard the constitution Ij. 

Arsenic. — This powerful mineral possesses many medicinal 

* " J'ignore que ce remede ait encore manque." — Ch. d'CEav. p. 148. 
Nosologia, torn. ii. 

f *' Hommes, femmes, enfans, Indians, Portugais, Francois, &c. &c. 
" plus de trois cents personnes, sans qu'un seul, a ete afflige du plus 
" petit symptom de rage. — Nouv. Meth. pour le Trait, de Rage, 21. 

+ Avis au Peuple, torn, i, p. 156. A celebrated sportsman says, 
" During twenty-one years that I kept hounds, I never knew it fail." 
—Treatise on Greyhoimds, 2d edit. p. 88.— It was also Mr. Beckford's 
favourite remedy. So many instances of its failure have, however, 
since occurred, that it has fallen into disrepute. 

§ Dr. MosELEY appears to be one of the last advocates for the use of 
mercury extended to a slight salivation : but even he recommends the 
use of caustic to the wounded part in conjunction with it. 

II Leroux, Oudot, Raymond, Lafond, Majault, Enaux, Chaussier, and 
MoRVEAU, are neighbouring authors who have d&nied the efficacy of mer- 
cury in this case J and, among ourselves, Drs. Fothergill and Valuhan 
have followed the same course. 


virtues, and its known tendency to check the spasmodic con- 
traction of epilepsy raised hopes that it might act favour.- 
ably in the violent contractions of rabies ; but, al though it 
has not hitherto stemmed the fatal torrent, yet, from its ob- 
vious action on the disease, and from its alledged properties 
of counteracting the bites of other venomous animals, the 
propriety of a full trial of it, as a prophylactick, appears evi- 
dent. A favourable account of its virtues, when internally 
administered, may be gained from Mr. Ireland's Memoir, 
Med. Chirurg. Trans., p. 393, and likewise from a quota- 
tion given in the Lond. Med. Rev., March and April 1/93. 
Of its external employment I shall have occasion to speak 

Dr. Mead's jjulvis antilyssus has wholly lost its reputa- 
tion, although, during his practice, he expressed a wish that 
he knew, as certain, a remedy for any other disease *. 

The Ormskirk Remedy is a striking proof how easily a 
reputation may be gained, and how undeservedly. Palpable 
instances of its failure are multiplied upon us, and yet, until 
of late, it enjoyed a very general share of confidence ; and 
even yet, in the vicinity of its preparation, it is occasionally 
trusted to t 

Dr. Previtali, in the Giornale des Fisicr?, has published 
an extended account of the virtues of chlorine, not only as 
a direct cure for the actual hydrophobia, but as a preventive 
also. It is not, however, supposed that these accounts are to 
be depended on. 

* This powder was composed of the ash-coloured liverwort {lichen 
cinereus) and black pepper. 

f There is every reason to believe, that Mr. Hill's Ormskirk Medi- 
cine is nothing more than powdered chalk. Neither need we wonder 
that articles so inert should gain celebrity, when we consider that not 
more than one in twenty human persons, who are bitten, become affect- 
ed ; and that, perhaps, many of those who take this or other popular 
remedies have never been bitten at all. When these are added to 
others, who, having been bitten by a dog who was only mad in the fears 
of those around him, it lessens the number of those really inoculated 
down to a very few, and these few, it is unfortunately too well known, 
fall a sacriiice to this ill-plared confidence. 

on MADNKSS. '279 

The ivaier plantain (alisma plantago) has also proved one 
of those unfortunate articles oifered to notice, which only 
served to raise hopes it was doomed never to reahse. As it 
came recommended by a Russian counsellor of state, M. Ja- 
LowsKY, at the express direction of his government, it met 
with a cordial reception, and a full trial in England and else- 
where, but, I believe, every where it proved fallacious. It 
should, however, be stated, that, in the trials of it made by 
Mr. YouAT T on rabid dogs, it certainly appeared to arrest the 
progress of the disease for a time, in the same manner with 
some other plans of treatment, but, as under those, so, under 
the use of the plantain, the fatal termination was the same. 

To enumerate all the other articles, particularly of the 
vegetable world, that at some period or other have been 
deemed prophylacticks, would be endless. Among the most 
popular we may mention the eglantine, or wild rose (^ros;a, 
sijlvestris, Linn.)*, pimpernel {anagallis)^, deadly night- 
shade (atropa belladonna) J, rue (ruta) §, garlic (allium 
sativum), sage (salvia), daisy (bellis), vervain (subena), 

* The wild rose seems to have been a remedy of mvich repute in its 
day CBaldot, Mem. de la Soc. Roy. 1783). In a communication to the 
Royal Society of Medicine of Paris, M. Provost details the virtues of its 
inner bark. And, among the Sicilians, its spongy excrescences {hede- 
guar) are considered a powerful antidote to the rabid poison {3Iuseo di 
piante rare du P. Boconi). According to Pliny, its virtues were revealed 
by an oracle ; from whence we may learn, that a preventive efficacy was 
long ago attributed to it. 

f An account of its supposed anti-rabid virtues may be seen by con- 
sulting Hist, de la Med., Sprengel, torn, ii, p. 48 ^ CEwi'. de Bourgelat, 
Reflex, sur la Rage Voy. Journ. d'Aricult. p. 109. 

t As long as the time of Pliny, the belladonna has been used as a re- 
medy against rabies. Apilei also notices it ; and, in later times, Mcnch 
also, Hist de la Soc. Roy. de Med., 1783, 2d part. At tlie present, no 
dependance is placed on it. 

§ Rue was a very antient favourite prophylactick, and it still enters 
into many of the country nostrums and drinks against madness. It 
formed also an ingredient in the celebrated powder of Palmeuiis.— See 
Andry's account of celebrated remedies. 


fern {poly podium) , wormwood {artemisia arhorescens), 
mug-wort {artemisia vulgaris), betony {betonica), tree box 
{buxus)*. My opinions on the efficacy of this plant, as a 

* The tree-box is one of the oldest internal preventives made use of. 
Mention appears to be made of it in the writings of Hippocrates ; Galen 
and Celsus likewise speak of it. It has continued to be used from that 
time to the present, and it forms the active principle in the celebrated 
Hertfordshire, or Webb's drink. The rue which enters into it, in equal 
proportions, I have not the same dependance on. The luxus, or box, 
has long been known in India, and vised as a preventive of rabies ; but it 
is the dwarf box that is there used, and it is usually mixed with a decoc- 
tion of the horns of the rhinoceros. 

For some years I had been informed that there lived, near Watford, 
a cottager of the name of Webb, who dispensed what is commonly called 
a drink, as a remedy against rabies generally. The many testimonies I 
had received from gentlemen, relative to its efficacy, supported by facts 
apparently authentic and conclusive, gave me reason to suppose that it 
really possessed some preventive properties : but, till the year 1807, I 
had not embraced any opportunity of putting its qualities to the test of 
experiment. About that time madness proving very prevalent, and the 
public curiosity becoming very much excited on the subject, my atten- 
tion was awakened to the advantage of such a preventive. 

To endeavour, therefore, to ascertain the grounds on which the repu- 
tation of this remedy stood, I went to Watford, and prosecuted my in- 
quiries with such success, that, from one of the two brothers who had 
dispensed it, I gained the original recipe, which had been before verified 
on oath before a magistrate. I immediately presented the public with 
the composition, with all I had learned relative to it, through the me- 
dium of the Medical Review for December 1807, where the original re- 
cipe, and mode of preparation, may be seen at length. The following 
method of preparing it is an improvement on the original formula : — 

Take of the fresh leaves of the tree box 2 ounces 

Of the fresh leaves of rue 2 ounces 

Of sage half an ounce. 

Chop these finely, and, after boiling them in a pint of water to half a 
pint, strain and press out the liquor. Beat them in a mortar, or other- 
wise bruise them thoroughly, and boil them again, in a pint of new milk, 
to half a pint, which press out as before. After this, mix both the boiled 
liquors, which will make three doses for a human subject. Double this 
quantity will form three doses for a horse or cow ; two-thirds of it is suf- 
ficient for a large dog, calf, sheep, or hog j half of the quantity is re- 


preventive, are already before the public; and, although I 
would on no account recommend its being- trusted to when 
other means, as the destruction of the bitten part, can 

quired for a middling sized dog ; and one-third for a small one. These 
three doses are said to be sufficient, and one of them is directed to be 
given every morning fasting. Both human and brute subjects are treat- 
ed in the same manner, according to the proportions specified. 

In the human subject I have never found this remedy produce any 
effects whatever, except a momentary nausea from disgust. To prevent 
this disgust operating disadvantageously, the old recipe directs it to 
be taken by any human person two or three hours before rising, by 
which method it will be less likely to be brought up again, as otherwise 
so large and unpleasant a dose might be**. Neither in any animal, ex- 
cept the dog, have I ever witnessed any violent effects from the exhibi- 
tion of this remedy. In dogs, however, I have frequently seen it pro- 
duce extreme nausea, panting, and distress ; in two or three instances 
it has even proved fatal : but, as it is probable that it is more likely to 
be efficacious when its effects on the constitution are evident, and as, 
at the same time, it is proper to guard against these effects becoming too 
violent; so it is prudent always to begin with a smaller dose than the 
one prescribed, and to increase each succeeding dose till it shows its ac- 
tivity, by sickness of the stomach, panting, and evident uneasiness. 
Under such a plan, perhaps, five doses are not too much. 

Between the years 1807 and 1817, this preparation of box and rue 
was administered, under my direction, to nearly three hundred ani- 
mals of different kinds, as horses, cows, sheep, hogs, and dogsff; 

** It is unfortunate that this remedy Jhould be so bulky, and so nauseous. Its 
bulk often renders it difficult to give to a dog, particularly without waste; its nau- 
seous taste also makes it very liable to be brought up again : either of which cir- 
cumstances must, of course, render its efficacy doubtful. To obviate these incoii- 
veniences, I have endeavoured to condense the dose, by making an ej«r<7c< of 
the box, in which plant I believe the efficacy principally, if not wholly, exists. 
But I have every reason to believe, that its preventive quality is lessened, if not 
altoget^^er destroyed, by these means. Nor have I succeeded in any other at- 
tempts at lessening the dose. These inconveniences must, therefore, be put up 
with, and the animal must be made to swallow the whole, after which he should 
be attentively watched to observe whether it is retained on the stomach. If such 
should not be the case, tlie dose must be repeated until it remains. 

+t I have administered, in the course of my praciice, this remedy to nearly 
fifty human persons also ; but as most of those joined with tliis treatment the ex- 
cision or cauterization of the wounded part, and as, in others, the rabid virus 
would not probably have taken effect, so I lay little stress on these proofs of its 



be effected^ yet if, as I believe, it will be found that it pos- 
sesses some considerable preventive virtues, its importance 
will be evident; for circumstances often arise which render 
the resorting" to the external means of excision or cauteriza- 
tion impracticable, from the difficulty of detecting* the wound- 
ed part in animals covered with hair. I have searched a dog" 
over most carefully for an hour without discovering any 
wound, but which dog has afterwards become rabid ; and 
when one or two bites are detected, others may remain. I 
have found this happen so frequently, that a preventive re- 
medy, with only a moderate degree of efficacy, is of the ut- 
most importance to the welfare of the brute creation. Nei- 
ther would the benefits of such a prophylactick remedy be lost 
on the human subject, where, from extensive laceration, the 
complete extirpation of the bitten part is rendered doubtful, 
or where the dread of the operation, or the peculiar situation 
of the patient, or of the wounded part itself, renders the ex- 

the latter in by far the greater proportion. It may naturally be 
presumed, that ungrounded fear operated in some instances, and that it 
was given to animals who were suspected only to have been in danger- 
Some of the remainder, it may also be supposed, would have remained 
safe, had nothing been done for them. In others, washings, cauteriza- 
tions, &c., had been added to the box remedy j yet, still a very consi- 
derable number, after all these admissions, must have remained ex- 
posed to the preventive power of this preparation alone, out of which 
number only nine or ten cases of its failure occurred. In a few of these 
it is reasonable to suppose that the medicine was not all got down, 
or otherwise was returned • but five or six of them were palpable and 
fair instances of failure, the medicine having been all given and retain- 
ed. It is remarkable, that, of these palpable failures, the majority 
were wounded in the head— one of these was a horse, bitten in the lip ; 
which further agrees with what I have already remarked, that the ino- 
culation more certainly takes effect, and the disease makes its attack 
earlier, when received in the head than elsewhere. 

efficacy, a'though three or four of these persons, at their own express desire, 
trusted solely to it. Its real efficacy appears unequivocally proved by the nu- 
jiierous instances of canine safety which foUowcd from its use. 


tirpation iinadvisable. Enough is stated below to render the 
matter worthy of further investig-ation. Fourteen or fifteen 
years' experience have only served to increase the conviction 
in my mind, that the qualities of the tree box, as a preven- 
tive of rabies, merit g-reat public attention. 

Not only the mineral and vegetable world have yielded 
prophylacticks of ephemeral popularity, the animal kingdom 
also has been ransacked by interest, ig-norance, or credulity. 
The scarabei, or beetle tribe, particularly the cockchaffer, or 
may-bug (^scarabceus melolontha, Linn.)*, the blister fly t 
(jneloe vesicatorius), and various testacea;}:, are of this kind. 
The liver of the animal by which a person has been bitten is 
a remedy as old as the time of Pliny, who speaks himself of 
its efficacy. We have it also recorded, that Palmerius 
forced his patients, who had been bitten by a rabid wolf, to 
lake the dried blood of the animal. 

But as the destruction of the bitten part, judiciously eflPect- 
ed, has been found, in every instance, to prevent the further 
developement of the disease, so this practice has nearly su- 
perseded all other preventives: but by what immediate 
process the wounded surfaces are to be removed, has occa- 
sioned much difference of opinion. That which has been 
g-enerally practised, is either the actual cautery or burning-, 
the potential cautery by escharotics or caustics, or the exci- 
sion of the part by the knife. 

The actual cautery was employed by the antients, who 

* Weikard, Thesaurus Pharmaceuticus Galeno-chemicus, 1626. If we 
credit other accounts handed to us, these insects were no less famous in 
Spain- Germany, and Prussia, than in France. — (Andry, p. 271.) 

f AvicENNA and Matthiolus wrote expressly on the virtues of this 
meloe, as an infallible remedy for the rabid malady. Werthof and 
Andry als o notice it. 

X As the testacea, particularly calcined crabs, were used so lonp: ago 
as the time of Galen, and were recommended by Sennert, it would seem 
that an early confidence was placed in absorbents. It was this confi- 
dence, probably, that begot the Ormskirk medicine, which appears to 
be only the earthy absorbents coloured. 

T 2 


burned the parts with heated iron, sometimes with brass, sil- 
ver, or gold *. Some of the moderns have also favoured its 
use ; and as it is a remedy immediately at hand, it is not an 
ineligible one, particularly where the unnecessary dread of 
after consequences, from immediate absorption, is iBxed in the 
mind, and also where other assistance is not at hand. When, 
likewise, the wound is of a determinate form, and superficial 
in extent, the actual cautery, or heated iron, is, from the quick- 
ness of the operation, a very convenient method, particularly 
with regard to horses, cows, and other large animals, who 
are not easily restrained. In such cases, a budding iron, so 
called among' farriers, is a convenient instrument, or even a 
kitchen poker, or any other iron whose surface may be 
adapted to the form of the wound, when heated red hot, 
may be applied; observing due caution in the application, 
that the part is sufficiently burned without injuring the sur- 
rounding parts too deeply. 

Caustics, or the potenticd cautery, may be applied under 
many forms. The caustic potass, or potash, formed into a 
solid body, and then called lapis infernalis, is a very power- 
ful escharotic, and, when an extensive surface not in the 
neighbourhood of very important parts is to be destroyed, it 
is an excellent preparation ; but it should be remembered, 
that it liquefies speedily, and, therefore, when great nicety 
is required, and a slow destruction is advisable, as about the 
head, or in the vicinity of important vessels and nerves, it 
is less eligible. The nitrate of silver, usually called lunar 
caustic, liquefies less speedily, and is equally powerful, pro- 
vided a longer time is allow'ed for its operation. In some 
cases it is recommended to be powdered and sprinkled over 

^ Portal informs us, that Galen, Diascorides, Celsus, jElius, Rufus, 
and all the Greek physicians, considered the actual cavitery to the bitten 
part as the most powerful means of prevention against the rabid ma- 
lady. And, according to Matthiolus, during his time, it was debated 
whether gold or silver would not form a better cautery than iron. In 
Van Helmont's time, brass was proposed. 


a surface, or to be inserted within a deeper wound, mixed 
with an equal part of other matter to lessen its potency, and 
an adhesive plaster then applied over to confine its eifects. 
This method, in animals, can only be advisable when a very 
extensive laceration with numerous jagged edges and smuo- 
sities exists, particularly in the neighbourhood of such mi- 
portant parts that the knife cannot be wholly depended on : 
in all others, this plan would occasion so much pain and re- 
sistance on the part of the animal, as to defeat its intention, 
by being rubbed or torn off. I have, through a very long 
practice, adhered to the use of this form of caustic, as the 
most manageable and eifective of all the escharotics. It may 
be cut or scraped to any shape, and long habit has enabled 
me to make the eschar thick or thin, deep or superficial, at 
pleasure. In a word, it is slow but certain. Muriate of an- 
timony, called butter of antimony, is a very favourite escha- 
rotic application with some practitioners, particularly with 
the French*: it is applied by means of a piece of linen or 
lint fastened to a probe, skewer, or other matter of that 
form ; the surface of the wound being then smeared over 
with it. As its action begins immediately, and, after a few 
minutes, is confined to the parts it is applied to only, so it is 
evident that it is a more eligible application for extensive 
lacerations, and wounds of uncertain depth and extent in 
animals, than the powdered nitrate of silver. Potass and 
lime are sometimes also used as escharotics. The mineral 
acids, likewise mercurial preparations, as the oxymuriate and 
red nitrate of quicksilver, are now and then also employed in 
this way. 

The use of caustics has been objected to as not carrying 
the destruction of parts far enough, the formation of the 
eschar preventing the further progress of the caustic agent. 

* " Le beurre d'antimoine (hydrochlorate d'antimoine) est pr^fdrre i 
" tous les caustiques que nous avons cites, par Leroux, qui I'a propose 
' par Sabatier, par Portal, et par Enaux et Chaussier, parceque son 
" action est prompt."— Trolliet, p. 341. 


but this 1 am convinced is not a cog-ent objection. If the 
nitrate of silver is formed into a point, and a moderate fric- 
tion is kept up by it over the eschar, the decomposed por- 
tions are removed by the rubbing-, and the cauterization goes 
on to any depth or extent required. In penetrating- wounds, 
made by the canine teeth, the probe having detected the 
course of the wound, the knife may be properly employed ta 
dilate it, and render it accessible to the approach of the 
caustic ; in which case equal certainty is gained by one as by 
the other, with less loss of substance. It has also been ob- 
jected to caustics, that they may dilute the virus, and carry 
it farther within the wound ; but, if previous friction and ab- 
lution of the wound take place, it may be supposed no virus 
will remain beyond what the absorbents have already taken 
up. It is likewise said, that they cannot be conveniently ap- 
plied to the bottom of a deep wound, in which case the knife 
can be best employed in dissecting out the whole cavity, with 
all its surrounding parts. A still more imaginary objection 
has been urged to the use of caustics, particularly to those 
formed of the caustic alkalies, which is, that in their ac- 
tion they unite themselves with the morbid saliva, and 
with the decomposed animal matter, forming, together, a sa- 
ponaceous mass or eschar, which may retain the virus, and 
keep it ready to be acted upon by a new absorption. That 
such a fear is entirely groundless, will appear, when it is 
considered that the agent employed, be it what it may, which 
is equal to the destruction of the animal solids, must also of 
necessity be more than sufficient to decompose the animal 
fluids also, and totally deprive them of any morbid activity ; 
and this we find to be actually the case with rabid virus mixed 
with even diluted caustic matter, as has been exemplified in 
the experiments of HuzARD, Dr. Zinke, and others, where 
such matter entirely failed to excite rabies. 

Excision of the part, after the rabid bite, is practised by 
many of our most eminent surgeons of the present day, in 
preference to cauterization ; but as each of these modes of 
operating contain some advantages over the other, so each 


also owns some disadvantages. A skilful surgeon, therefore, 
will bind himself to neither, but will use the one or the other 
as occasion suits, or will often unite them in the same opera- 
tion. The partizans for the use of the knife argue, that the 
operation of excision is quicker, and can be applied more ex- 
tensively. It is certainly, where much is to be done, more 
quickly performed ; but when it is so done, unless perfect 
ablution has removed all surrounding virus, may not the 
very instrument which is to insure life be sowing the seeds 
of death, by making a fresh morbid inoculation at every 
section? To prevent this, therefore, when excision is ab- 
solutely necessary, it is prudent, after every stroke of the 
knife, to wipe the blade carefully. Towards animals, parti- 
cularly of the larger kinds, where despatch is requisite, and 
where deformity and a destruction of parts are not of so much 
consequence, excision may be considered preferable. In the 
neighbourhood of large blood-vessels, nerves, &c., it is evi- 
dent that the knife must be used with extreme caution, 
whereas the caustic may be applied freely with much less 
fear, as the eschar which starts up protects the parts under- 
neath, and enables them to reinstate themselves previously to 
sloughing, if they should be slightly injured. 

The flow of blood, during excision, is very apt to obstruct 
a proper and clear view of the extent of the injury, and a 
consequence follows which I have frequently witnessed among 
surgeons in operations on the human subject *, which is the 

* I cannot help thinking, that surgeons, from fear of the after con- 
sequences, perhaps to themselves, as well as their patients, commit an 
unnecessary waste of parts often. I have seen a hite of the end of the 
finger, and graze of the skin of the knuckle of the same finger, treated 
not only by an excision of the whole phalange, but also of the meta- 
carpal bone it adhered to. I was present, also, when an eminent sur- 
geon, for a moderate puncture of the lip from one tooth only, took out 
the whole surrounding portions completely through, as in the operation 
for hare lip. A similar deformity and stricture of lip was thereby oc- 
casioned through life. I have likewise had many other occasions to re- 
gret this over caution and free use of the knife. 


removal of a much larg-er portion than is absolutely neces- 
sary. With the caustic nothing- of this kind happens : pro- 
ceeding" dehberately, every portion of wounded surface is 
taken in succession, until the whole is passed over. 

Process of Operation for the Rabid Bite. — When a dog-, 
or any other animal, has been attacked by one that is rabid, 
it is evident that a difficulty presents itself which does not 
exist in the human subject under similar circumstances. The 
incapability of pointing out the wounds that may have been 
received, and which the hair may prevent from being ob- 
served, renders it necessary that a very minute examination 
of every part of the body should take place, by turning the 
whole hair deliberately back * ; after which, to remove any 
rabid saliva that may adhere to the hair, the animal should 
be washed all over, first with simple warm water, and, next, 
with w^er in which a sufiicient quantity of either potash or 
soda is dissolved, to render it a moderate ley, in doing which 
the eyes must be carefully guarded. During this latter 
washing, the wounds should be pressed to excite a fresh 
flow of blood. Having finished this operation, which will 
render the dog, or other animal, secure from accidental virus 
hanging about, it would increase the safety of the operation, 
if the wounds were to be bathed with an arsenical solution 
made by dissolving a dram of white arsenic in four ounces of 
water. In many instances, this ablution of the wounds with 
an arsenical solution of double or treble the strength here 
noted, is trusted to solely as a preventive ; and apparently, 
from the experiments that have been made, it has been attend- 
ed with uniform success. After these precautions have been 
attended to, proceed to the actual removal of the bitten part 
by either of the modes already described. I have before 

* It is extremely difficult to detect all the minute bites dogs may 
meet with, which venders the washing them all over with some active 
wash indispensibly necessary: perhaps the very best that could be 
used, would be an arsenical solution of moderate strength, as one dram 
of arsenic to a quart of water. 


stated, that, in my own practice, I have principally made 
use of caustic applications for such removal, occasionally 
using- the knife to enlarge an opening, to remove ragged 
edges, or entirely to excise protruded parts ; but, under 
either process, particularly that of the caustic, when a lace- 
rated wound has been made, or one of considerable depth, 
it is prudent, on the removal of the slough, again to touch 
the surfaces. The keeping a discharge from the sores, for 
some time, by means of stimulating applications, is, in the 
animal at least, unnecessary ; neither does it appear at all to 
insure the success of the operation, when properly performed 
in the human. 

Although as regularly educated to the practice of human 
medicine as any of the eminent characters around me, yet 
it is probable I shall be considered as travelling out of the 
7-ecord, by introducing in this work any matter directly 
treating on that variety of the rabid disease which belongs 
immediately to mankind, characteristically called hydropho- 
bia; and were I not impelled by strong motives, I would, 
for the sake of consistency, altogether avoid it ; but the sup- 
position that I may, by this irregularity, be enabled at all to 
lighten any of the terrors, real or imaginary, with which I 
know many persons suffer themselves to be overwhelmed, 
outweighs every other consideration. During the years of 
the extreme prevalence of the rabid malady, it is natural 
to suppose that some notoriety must have attached itself to 
the extent of my opportunities of observing it, and the 
known attention 1 had paid to it. The confidence begot by 
this, occasioned it frequently to happen, that, from being 
first consulted on the rabid dog, I was next consulted, also, 
on the person wounded by it, which connection of circum- 
stances drew under my immediate observations a greater 
number of bitten persons than has fallen to the lot of almost 
any individual. It has so happened, that particular circum- 
stances have occasioned a considerable number of the cases 
in the practice of other surgeons to be also submitted to my 
consideration. Of those persons who, at their own desire. 


chose to trust themselves to my sole direction, I operated oo 
upwards of fifty, every one of whom I have the satisfaction 
of knowing- has remained unaffected. The benefit of this 
experience, added to a warm interest in, and close attention 
to, the subject, has enabled me to satisfy myself relative to 
some disputed points of immense moment to both the safety 
and the peace of mind of those who may be hereafter endan- 

It is very generally considered, that the destruction of the 
bitten part is the most certain preventive of hydrophobia ; 
but it is little credited, that it is of no consequence that the 
excision, or the cauterization, of the wounded part should 
be immediately effected. Nevertheless, I firmly believe, 
and I am borne out by innumerable facts and well-directed 
experiments, that the operation may be performed, with 
equal certainty of success, at any time previous to the se- 
condary inflammation of the part bitten, as though it had 
been done the first moment after the accident. However, as 
it is always uncertain at what time this secondary inflamma- 
tion may take place, so it is prudent to perform the excision, 
or cauterization, as soon as is convenient: but it is frequently 
a matter of great importance to the peace of those, unfor- 
tunately wounded in this manner, to know that, when any 
accidental cause has delayed the operation, it may be as 
safely done at the end of one, two, or three weeks as at the 
first moment of its happening. I have frequently removed 
the bitten parts many days after the original wound has been 
perfectly healed up, and the operation has always proved 
completely successful. I ground this opinion on a full con- 
viction that the safety of the operation does not consist in 
preventi7ig immediate absorption; on the contrary, I am 
firmly persuaded that the r-abid poison is absorbed directly, 
or very soon after, the wound is inflicted, and is immediately 
from thence carried forward into the circulation. I am, how- 
ever, persuaded that, in this primary state of its circulation, 
the virus can never produce rabies in brutes, or hydrophobia 
in man. It is, on the contrary, absolutely necessary, before 


it fully exerts its baneful influence, that it should undergo 
some further change. It must return to the part it was 
originally received by, and it must there occasion a new and 
specific inflammation, the consequence of which is the pro- 
duction of some neio morbid compound generated by this 
secondary inflammation ; and it is the absorption of this 
compound that is alone capable of producing rabies or hy- 
drophobia. Consequently, when the part, that was origi- 
nally bitten, has been removed, either by cauterization or 
excision, no secondary inflammation can take place. The 
first received virus remains inert, for it is incapable of acting 
on any other than the original wound. 

This fact being fully established, will tend, I hope, to ba- 
nish much misery and apprehension relative to any time which 
may intervene between the bite and the removal of the bitten 
part. It matters not, I again repeat, at what time this 
is effected, or how long soever it may be after the bite has 
been received, provided it be done before any secondary in- 
flammation of the part or uneasy sensation is felt in it. 

I cannot help manifesting an extreme anxiety to impress 
this important fact on the public mind, solely with a view to 
remove those false impressions which have embittered months 
and years of the existence of many valuable members of so- 
ciety. I have entered more into a general detail on this in- 
teresting subject of the rabid malady than on any other, 
from a conviction of its importance to the welfare of the 
brute race, and to both the welfare and peace of mankind in 
general. Not only are the lives of thousands of human per- 
sons rendered miserable by the false impressions entertained 
relative to it, but the whole race of dogs is, by many, feared 
and hated solely on this account. Others, again, though na- 
turally fond of dogs, yet dare not indulge in the pleasure of 
their association, from the dread that, at some future time, 
these groundless fears may be realized ; for surely it is not 
too much to call these fears groundless, when it is known 
that no dog can become mad from fright, anger, pain, or 
illness. Nothing but the actual bite of certain animals in a 


rabid state can produce the disease ; and even should a dog 
become so bitten unknown to his owner, or when it is 
known that he has actually been endangered, still there is 
no real necessity for dread or for any thing more than com- 
mon caution. So little danger is there from the first stage of 
the complaint, that I should entertain no fear while living in 
the same room with half a dozen dogs, all duly inoculated 
with rabid virus. The slightest degree of attention will al- 
ways detect some peculiarity in the affected dog's manner — 
some departure from his usual habits : and this may be ob- 
served one day at least, cammonly two days, before the more 
active symptoms commence, or before the most mischievous 
cases show themselves in a dangerous point of view. But, 
in a great number of the cases that occur, no mischievous 
disposition at all appears towards human persons through the 
whole complaint, except it is called forth by opposition and 
violence ; which consideration tends to reduce the danger 
still more materially. It ought, likewise, in no small degree 
to lessen the dread and fear of this malady, that, even when 
the worst has happened, and a human person has been un- 
fortunately bitten by a rabid animal ; still that a ready, sim- 
ple, and efficacious remedy is at hand, the application of 
which is attended with little inconvenience, while the con- 
sequences are certainly productive of all the safety that can 
be wished for. 


There is no disease, except distemper and mange, to which 
dogs are so liable, as to a rheumatic affection of some part or 
other of the body. 

Rheumatism presents almost as many varieties in dogs as it 
does in man ; and it has some peculiarities that are observed 
in the dog only. One very extraordinary one is, that rheu- 
matism never exists in a dog without its affecting the bowels ; 


that is, whatever part of the body becomes rheumatic, either 
an active rheumatic inflammation will be found to exist in the 
bowels also, or they will be attacked with a painful torpor : 
and, in either case, costiveness will be commonly present. 
The most usual form of this complaint is one which is very 
similar to the human lumbago. In this case a dog- is, in ge- 
neral, seized with a partial or total loss of the use of his 
hind leg-s ; his back, particularly about the loins, appears 
tender and painful to the touch. He screams on being 
moved ; his belly is hot to the touch ; his bowels are costive, 
and appear tender and painful. The nose is hot also, the 
mouth dry, and the pulse considerably increased in frequency. 
Sometimes the paralysis is not confined wholly to the hinder 
legs, but the fore legs are partly, or completely, paralysed, 
and helpless also. It seldom attacks the smaller joints, but 
confines itself to the trunk and upper portions of the extre- 
mities : neither does it wander, as the human rheumatism, 
from place to place, but usually remains where it first at- 

A certain prognostic of the termiination of this acute type of 
the complaint is very difficult to form ; for, in some cases, the 
limbs recover themselves very speedily, in others more 
slowly: while, in other instances, the paralysis remains 
through life, and, when confined to the hinder extremities, 
the animal drags them after him as long as he lives, or gets 
the habit of carrying them completely from the ground by 
the strength of his fore quarters. When the paralysis is 
universal, the chance of perfect recovery is less than when it 
is partial ; though, from this also, dogs do now and then re- 
cover by active and judicious medical treatment. It is to be 
remaiked, however, that after the recovery appears in other 
respects complete, a considerable weakness sometimes re- 
mains in the loins and extremities; but more particularly it 
may be regarded as a rule from which there are few devia- 
tions, that, when a dog has once had rheumatism, he will be 
pecuharly liable to it again on the access of cold. 

There is another variety of rheumatism that seems to be com- 


bined with a spasmodic affection, and which peculiarly affects 
the neck, occasioning- swelling-, stiffness, and extreme ten- 
derness of the part. Sometimes also it affects, at the same 
time, one or both fore legs; but even here the attack on such 
distant parts appears to be more symptomatic than idiopa- 
thic, for the bowels are always affected, and it happens inva- 
riably, that, when they are relieved, the violence of the com- 
plaint is always mitig-ated in the limbs or neck. I have not 
found any one kind of dog- to be naturally more prone to 
rheumatic affections than another ; all seem alike subject to 
them: but those become most so that live most artificially, 
and such as are usually kept warm, but become accidentally 
exposed to wet or cold. The spring- produces more instances 
of this disease than any other time of the year, probably from 
the prevalence of easterly winds at that season *. 

The treatment of canine rheumatism should be as follows : 
— In every instance the bowels must be particularly and 
promptly attended to ; and in no way does this indication 
seem better effected than by first placing- the animal in warm 
water, and keeping- him there for a quarter of an hour, at 
the same time rubbing- him well over the affected parts. 
When taken out, wipe him dry; wrap him well up in a 
blanket, and place him within the warmth of a fire: first, 
however, giving- him the following- : — 

Tincture of opium 20 drops 

Vitriolic sther 30 drops 

Castor oil 1 ounce. 

This quantity is proper for a middling sized dog, and may 
be increased or diminished in strength at pleasure. Should 
it not be found to operate as a laxative, a clyster should be 

* Dogs, particularly such as are closely domesticated, become pecu- 
liarly open to atmospheric impressions. Any sudden change of weather, 
especially from a dry to a moist state, may be seen in the depressed 
countenance and listless manner of many of them. Many others can- 
not be exposed to an easterly wind for a quarter of an hour even, with- 
out becoming affected with rheumatism. 


likewise administered ; and, in default of that acting- also, 
give the following ball, increasing or diminishing its size and 
strength according to circumstances: — 

Submuriate of mercury (calomel) 4 grains 

Powdered opium quarter of a grain 

Oil of peppermint 1 drop 

Aloes 1 dram. 

Make into a ball with lard or butter, which give ; and, if 
necessary, repeat every four hours till the bowels are per- 
fectly open ; and keep them gently so by mild aperients for 
several days after, or until amendment takes place. The 
affected parts should also be embrocated two or three times 
a-day with either of the following : — 

Oil of turpentine 2 ounces 

Liquid carbonate of ammonia (spirit ^ ^ ounces 

of hartshorn) S 

Tincture of opium (laudanum) 2 drams 

Olive oil 2 ounces: 


Cajeput oil one part 

Soap liniment (opodeldoc) two parts. — Mix. 

The warm bath should be repeated at intervals of one or 
two days, according to the quickness or slowness of the amend- 
ment; moderate feeding only should be allowed. Sometimes 
food is altogether refused ; more frequently the animal is as 
willing to eat as at other times ; and it is not uncommon, in 
some of these cases, from a morbid sympathy of the stomach 
and bowels, for him to be more than usually voracious. 

When the paralysis, occasioned by rheumatism, continues 
to deprive the limbs of their mobility, 1 have experienced 
some good effect from electricity, in others from mercurial 
frictions, and in some cases from blisters along the spine. 
When the hinder limbs only are paralytic, a very large pitch 
plaster, applied over the whole loins, reaching to the tail, 
and covering the upper parts of the thighs, should continue 
to be worn for two months, or even longer. In a few cases 
1 have experienced benefit from the cold bath ; but the warm 
bath, though the most admirable remedy during the rheuma- 


tic attack, I have never found to give any relief to the future 


A LIFE of art appears to subject many of the smaller races 
of dogs to the same deficiency of earthy matter in their bones 
as is witnessed in the human infant, and puppies are often 
born ricketty, or become so as soon as they begin to walk. 
Pugs, and the smaller terriers, are very liable to it. There 
is likewise a breed of larger terriers, in which the deformity 
is hereditary, and is cultivated ; these are called wry legged, 
and are used for hunting rabbits, &c. &c. The affection at- 
tacks all the joints of the extremities, which it enlarges, 
probably from a sympathy in the constitution to make up, by 
bulk, what the bones want in ponderosity, but which is not 
effected; for, deprived of their earth, they yield to the su- 
perincumbent weight, and the cyHndrical ones particularly 
become crooked. Cleanliness, good air, free exercise, and 
wholesome food, will commonly prevent it in the future 
breeds of such dogs as have shewn a disposition to it. As a 
cure, an invigorating diet added to these, with the occasional 
use of tonic bitters if the appetite fails, or the digestion should 
appear defective, will answer the intention. 


In the human subject this is considered as the primary 
stage of cancer ; but dogs, though very subject to scirrhus, 
are but little liable to cancer. It is true these scirrhous tu- 
mours very frequently ulcerate, and such ulceration proves 
obstinate, and spreads; but it reaches only through the ex- 
tent of the gland, and very seldom attacks the surrounding 


parts, or puts on the true carcinomatous character. — See 
Cancer. — On the contrary, it may be reg-arded as mild in its 
character, little painful, and not attended with any particular 
foetor in the discharges made therefrom. It is also worthy of 
remark, that an examination of the scirrhous tumours of the 
dog" presents a different appearance from those of the human 
subject. In the former, instead of exhibiting- various strata of 
morbid matter, the innermost of which is the most condensed, 
there are seen, in the canine tumours of this kind, appearances 
more resembling- a collection of glands, or of firm hydatids ; 
each of which exhibits, on a section of it, a distinct diseased 

Sch^rhous indurations appear to be principally occasioned 
by the same causes that tend to the production of mange ; 
namely, vitiated or superabundant secretions of some parts, 
the effect of a general fulness of habit striving to relieve it- 
self. These tumours are, therefore, most frequent among 
dogs who are hotly kept, suffer much confinement, and are 

Scirrhous Teats of Bitches. — The mammary glands are 
very usually the seat of scirrhous tumours, particularly among 
those bitches who have not been allowed to breed. They 
are also common to those of gross plethoric habits, and to 
such as live a confined life, and are too full fed. The origin 
of these tumours may be very frequently dated from an in- 
flammation in the mammae, from retained milk when the 
pups have died ; or from the coagulating of that milk which 
forms, by sympathy, about the period a bitch would have 
pupped, provided she had been allowed to breed. A small 
nucleus, or kernel, not larger often than a pea, is first felt 
within the gland, which increases fast ; at others 
it enlarges very slowly, appearing to give little uneasiness, 
until its weight makes it prove troublesome. If the tumour 
is not dispersed in this state, sooner or later, it proceeds to 
ulceration ; immediately previous to which, one or two small 
shining vesicles form on its surface, which break, and ooze 
out an ichor or glairy fluid, but which seldom, in this stage, 




produce a healthy matter. The first opening often heals up, 
but others follow; and, in the end, two or three, or more, 
appear at the same time, which, breaking- in different parts, 
aiVB soon licked into one sore by the animal; and althoug-h 
the ulceration does not spread rapidly, or put on the virulence 
of human carcinomatous ulcerations, it seldom heals after- 
wards, but, at length, wears down the animal by the con- 
tinued discharge. 

While the tumour is externally whole, and is throughout 
indurated, without hydatid-like vesicles, it may be, now and 
then, dispersed by the frequent application of active discu- 
tients, as 

Muriate of ammonia {crude sal ammoniac) one ounce 
Acetic acid (vinegar) four ounces. 

Bathe with this three or four times a-day. Brandy and wa- 
ter, or vinegar, or common salt and water, are also good dis- 

In some cases, the repeated application of leeches forms, 
of ail others, tba best mode of treatment. In others, the 
means recommended for the cure of bronchocele prove use- 
ful, with the addition of sarsaparilla. During the attempts 
at discussing these tumours, a repetition of the causes pro- 
ducing them should be carefully avoided, such as a sympa- 
thetic repletion of the teats from coagulated milk, and the 
obstruction to its passing off, by depriving them too early of 
their young; but particularly by avoiding whatever tends to 
produce repletion, as confinement, over-feeding, &c. &c. 

As, however, all means at dispersing these tumours are 
very apt to fail, and ulceration almost invariably occurs, it 
follows that extirpation, or the cutting of them out, is the 
remedy usually necessary to be resorted to for their complete 
removal. This operation may be safely performed, in every 
instance, with only common precautions : out of innumerable 
cases, on which I have operated, I never lost one. it is, 
however, in general, prudent to let the tumour increase, till; 
by its weight, it becomes f)endulous, and detached from the 


abdominal muscles, when it may be dissected out without any 
danger of opening' the peritoneum, or of wounding- large ar- 
terial branches. In dividing the integuments, care should be 
taken to destroy but little of their surface, except such as may 
be actually diseased ; for, by detaching the tumoui: neatly 
from the integuments by a careful dissection, and by not re- 
movinsr intes'uments and all, the wound much sooner closes, 
and the cicatrix which follows is necessarily smaller, and less 
corrugated. As the excision proceeds, the blood vessels 
should be taken up ; and, when the tumour is removed, two 
or three stitches should be introduced into the opposite edges 
of the skin to bring them together ; by which the cure will 
be considerably expedited. These stitches, however, ulcerate 
out in three or four days ; but they usually have, by this 
time, performed their office, and the remaining wound will 
require only common dressing, with the addition of bandages 
sufficient to prevent the dog from interrupting the healing by 
his nose and tongue. 

Wens and Scirrhous Tumours are not confined to the 
teats only ; nor are dogs without them, as well as bitches. 
There is scarcely a part of the body but what I have seen 
these wen-like enlargements on ; the treatment of which in 
nowise differs from the plans already laid down. 

The Testicles in dogs are sometimes also the seat of scir- 
rhous induration. In such cases, one or both of these glands 
become hard, painful, and rather tender, with a shining ful- 
ness of the scrotum. If the tumour does not readily give 
way to the application of the active discutients that are re- 
commended for the mammary scirrhi of bitches, try the effect 
of a regular administration of burnt sponge, as recommended 
under bronchocele. In some cases, mercurial frictions have 
succeeded ; but, in default of these, proceed, without delay, 
to castrate, to prevent the disease from extending up the 
spermatic chord.— *See Castration. 

U 2 


Scrotum, inflamed. 

An acute inflammatory affection, not unlike human erysi- 
pelas, often falls into the scrotum, or hag, of dog-s, which is, 
in fact, a species of acute mang-e. It proves very distressing- 
and painful to the animal, from the extreme irritation, heat, 
and swelling that always accompany it. It sometimes pro- 
ceeds to superficial ulceration, becomes raw, and produces 
pus : at others, it remains red and tumefied. Although it is 
a mangy affection, yet, like that which attacks the head, it 
njust be deprived of its irritable and highly inflamed state 
before any of the specific applications detailed for the cure 
of mange can be borne. The cure, therefore, should be be- 
gun by bleeding, purging, and cooling- alteratives, with 
sparing food. The parts themselves may be dressed with the 
following, taking- care to prevent the dog from licking them, 
which only aggravates the complaint, robs the parts of their 
remedy, and may injure the health by the lead being received 
into the stomach : — 

Superacetate of lead (sugar of lead) 10 grains 

Spermat^eti ointment 1 ounce. — Mix. 

After the scrotum has been deprived of its more irritable 
state, proceed as directed under mange. 

Setons. • 

Setons are artificial drains to the constitution, either to 
lower it generally, or to draw a deposit or a secretion of 
matter from one part to another. Country farriers and 
grooms make setons by piercing the skin through with a red 
hot iron ; but this is barbarous, unattended with any superior 
advantage, and leaves a large scar. The proper mode of 
performing the operation is by means of a seton needle, 
which is a well-known instrument, not unlike a packing 


needle, but three times as broad. This, being armed with 
a skain of thread, or a piece of tape, about six or eight 
inches long, is passed through about two inches of the skin, 
commonly of the neck, though any other part may very pro- 
perly have a seton placed in it if requisite. The needle is 
then removed, and the tape suffered to remain, either tied 
end to end, or a knot may be made at each end to prevent 
the tape from coming out. 

Setons may be beneficially used in a variety of cases, as 
canker, mange, diseased eyes, fits, &c. &c.; but their most 
general application is in distemper, in which they are very 
commonly used, but not, I think, in many instances with the 
benefit expected from them. 

Sickness, excessive. 

The stomach sometimes takes on a disposition to reject 
every thing taken into it. Various causes may produce this ; 
such as too strong an emetic, which will sometimes occasion 
incessant vomiting for two or three days after it has been 
taken. In such a case, give every now and then, or after 
each vomiting, a few drops of laudanum in a little gravy, 
gruel, or rice water. In instances of frequent sickness, 
arising from a weakened stomach, boiled milk will some- 
times remain when every thing beside is rejected. In such 
cases, the bitter stomachics should also be tried, as Colombo, 
camomile, and gentian, with the addition of very small doses 
of opium. 

A foul stomach, as it is called, shews itself also by frequent 
sickness. Indigestion, or worms, or more frequently bile, 
entering the stomach by inverted peristaltic motion, may be 
the origin of such nausea. In cases of indigestion, an emetic 
should be first given ; and then stomachics may properly fol- 
low. The sickness arising from worms may also be treated in 
the same way, concluding with a course of worm remedies. 

302 SPASM. 

Bilious vomitings may be known from the bile appearing- with 
the matter brought up. When this kind of sickness is not 
accompanied with inflammation, give an emetic also, and 
then a mercurial purgative: but, when the sickness is inces- 
sant and distressing, it shews there is bilious inflammation : — 
which see. The most urgent aud continued vomitings arise 
from the action of poisons, and from idiopathic inflammation 
of the stomach. — See these heads. 



By spasm is understood an irregular motion in the muscular 
fibre, occasioned usually by some excitement on the senso- 
rium. It may be partial or general. When general, it is 
usually called convulsion. Dogs are very subject to spasm 
from a variety of occasional causes. Spasm is also the usual 
accompaniment of several idiopathic diseases. Rheumatism 
produces spasmodic alTections of the bowels, and often like- 
wise of the neck, fore extremities, &c. Distemper is also a 
very fertile source of spasm, sometimes in the form of univer- 
sal or partial twitthings, like St. Vitus's dance in the human: 
sometimes in bowel aflections, and sometimes in general 
convulsion. In rabies, spasmodic contractions are very com- 
mon. Spasmodic colic is not unfrequent in dogs ; it also 
affects the bowels of puppies in a very particular manner 
sometimes. — See Colic. 

Cramp, which is the familiar term among sportsmen for 
spasm, occasionally seizes the limbs suddenly, attacking first 
one and then the other. Tetanus, or locked jaw, is also a 
spasmodic affection. 

The best external antispasmodics are the warm bath, with 
close confinement in flannel afterwards. In some cases, an 
extraordinary degree of warmth has proved useful, with vo- 
latile embrocations applied to the pained parts. Internally^ 
the following may be given: — 


^,, 20 to GOdiops 

JEther „« , 

Tincture of opium {laudanum) 20 to bO drops 

Camphor « ^ ^« ^ S-ins. , 

Mix these together, and give, in a table-spoonful of ale, or 
of wine and water, according to the urgency of the symp- 
toms. No fear need be apprehended from an over-dose of 
opium; in these cases the analogy between the human and 
brute does not hold good in this instance : a dog will bear 
five times the quantity of opium that a human person could. 
When spasm affects the bowels, sometimes much benefit 
arises from clysters with a dram of laudanum in e^ch.-See 
Colic, spasmodic- Warm bathing, as before noticed, should 
never be omitted as a remedy in general spasm ; but, in 
some cases of long-continued spasmodic affection, more 
purely paralytic, as in the twitchings arising from distemper; 
tonic remedies, with cold bathing, are more proper. Exten- 
^[\e bleedino- has relieved some occasional spasms ; and other 
cases have been benefitted by the treatment detailed under 
the head Epilepsy. 


This is a cruel and commonly an unnecessary operation, 
which is frequently practised to prevent inconvenience to the 
owners : but humanity should forbid its being resorted to, ex- 
cept in cases where the omission of it would endanger the 
life, as when some peculiarity occurs that would prevent a 
bitch pupping with ease and safety; or when she has been 
connected with, and is found to be breeding by, a dog much 
larger than herself. In this case, as she would probably die 
in labour, it is not improper to remove the puppies, at three 
or four weeks advance of pregnancy. The operation is per- 
formed by making an opening in the Hank of one side, when 
the ovaria, being enlarged by pregnancy, are readily distin- 
guishable, and may be drawn out and cut ofi', first ooie and 


then the other, securing- the ends by a lig-ature lightly ap- 
plied to each surface, leaving the threads without the wound. 
Farriers often apply no ligature, but content themselves with 
simply sewing up the wound, and no ill consequence seems 
to ensue. Bitches, after they have been spayed, become fat, 
bloated, and spiritless ; and commonly prove short lived. Na- 
ture usually punishes any considerable deviations from her 
common laws ; and it is observed, particularly among ani- 
mals, that when the great work of propagation is artificially 
stopped, particularly in the female, she ceases to feel Na- 
ture's protection, and becomes diseased. 

Stomach, inflamed. 
See Inflamed Stomach. 

The Stone in Dogs, 

This, though an uncommon complaint, sometimes how- 
ever does occur. I have not less than forty or fifty cal- 
culi by me which I took from a Newfoundland dog, after his 
death, occasioned by the obstruction to the passage of the 
urine by means of these stones. Death had already happened 
before I was called in, or probably relief might have been 
aflbrded by an operation. I have likewise witnessed a few 
similar instances of calcular concretions within both kidneys 
and bladder. When a small calculus obstructs the urethra, 
and can be felt, it may be cut down upon and removed with 
safety; or a catheter, firm bougie, or sound, may be introduc- 
ed, and the stone pushed again into the bladder. 

But it must be remembered, that the urethra of the dog, in 
passing from the bladder, proceeds nearly in a direct line 
backwards ; and then, making an acute angle, it passes again 
forwards to the bladder. It must be, therefore, evident that. 

ST. Anthony's vitus's dance. 305 

when it becomes necessary to pass a catheter, sound, or 
boug-ie, into the bladder, it must first be passed up the penis 
to the extremity of this angle : the point of the instrume ^i 
must then be cut down upon, and, from this opening-, the in- 
strument can be readily passed forwards into the bladder. 

*S'^. Anthony's Fire. 

Dogs are subject to two inflammatory affections, not unlike 
to human erysipelas. The one attacks the head, and is de- 
scribed with Mange, and with Tumours also. The other 
affects the scrotum, and may be seen under Inflamed Scro- 
tum. Until the diseases of dog-s are more clearly defined, 
these may both of them be considered as an acute state of 
mang-e, or integ-umental inflammation. They both depend 
on plethora or repletion, and are both removed by such 
means as deplete the system and lessen arterial action. 


SL Vitus's Dance, 

An irregular action of the muscular fibre now and then oc- 
curs, that very much resembles choi^ea sancti viti. That 
twitching which remains after distemper sometimes, resem- 
bles it very intimately. Other causes will also produce a si- 
milar appearance ; all of which are detailed under Spasm. 

See Astringents. 



What is known by the name of a surfeit, is nothing" more 
than a more irritable variety of mang-e. Thus, when a sud- 
den inflammatory eruption appears over the integuments of 
the body, with the usual accompaniments of great heat and 
redness, it is termed a surfeit. When, also, a number of 
dry bare blotches present themselves, without much heat 
or redness, they are called the same. These inflamma- 
tory states of the skin are very commonly the effect of some 
sudden excitement in the habit ; thus bitches, after pupping, 
frequently break out into extensive eruptive spots or inflamed 
patches ; sometimes accompanied with ulceration also. Si- 
milar appearances occur often to dogs after distemper, or 
from a removal from a spare to a very full diet without pre- 
paration. The proper treatment is detailed under Mange. 

See T u m o u r s . 

Tailing of Puppies. 
See Cropping, 


Teats, swelled. 

See Breeding, Scirrhds, Glandular Swellings, and 



Testicles y diseased. 

Sometimes dogs are attacked with a redness and swelling 
of the scrotum or bag, which is nothing more than a variety 
of acute mange, and is treated of under that complaint, and 
also under Scrotum, inflamed. But, sometimes, the tes- 
ticles themselves may become enlarged and indurated, which 
is a much more serious disease. — See Castration and Scir- 


Tetanus, or Locked Jaw. 

It is remarkable, that although dogs are very subject to 
various spasmodic affections, yet to that called tetanus, or 
locked -jaw, they are so little so, that 1 never met with more 
than three cases of it among many thousands of diseased 
dogs. These are, however, sufficient to establish the suscep- 
tibility of the dog to the complaint. Two of these cases 
were idiopathic, one being apparently occasioned by expo- 
sure to cold air all night: in the other, the cause was obscure. 
The third was of that kind called symptomatic, and arose 
from external injury done to one of the feet. In each of 
these cases the convulsive spasm was extreme, and the ri- 
gidity universal but not intense. In one case the jaw was 
only partially locked. 

Both warm and cold bathings were tried ; large doses of 
opium and camphor were thrown up in clysters ; and, in one 
case, these articles were poured down the throat also. The 
spine of one was blistered. Stimulating frictions were ap- 
plied to all, but in neither case with any salutary effect. 

In the hog and sheep, tetanus is very apt to follow wounds 
of the head ; but it is, I believe, invariably fatal in both, 
and it is remarkable, that, in these animals, the tetanic at- 
tacks are periodical and not constant. 


Throat, swelled. 
See Neck, swelled ; and Bronchocele. 


Dogs are subject to a variety of swellings or tumours. If 
we commence our account with the head, we shall find that 
it is the subject of a peculiar tumefaction, not very unlike 
human erysipelas. In dogs of a gross, full habit, from natu- 
ral plethora, or from over-feeding, the head will sometimes 
become suddenly enlarged, hot, tender, and painful, accom- 
panied with thirst, quickened pulse, and every mark of fever. 
In a day or two a general breaking out takes place, which 
proves to be a kind of acute mange. — See Mange. — In dis- 
temper also, a tumour sometimes forms upon some pari of the 
face, generally about the lower jaw, which soon breaks into 
an open and bad ulcer. — See Distemper. — The flap of the 
ear is also subject to a very considerable tumour, containing 
serum.— See Tumefied Flap of the Ear. 

The neck is likewise subject to tumefactions. The princi- 
pal of these cases arises from an enlargement of the glands 
on each side of the windpipe, and is called Bronchocele ; 
lohich see. The neck will sometimes also become swollen 
from rheumatism, — See Rheumatism. 

On the body, glandular tumours, or wens, will likewise 
form in various parts: there is hardly any situation in which 
I have not seen them, and extracted them from. — See Can- 
cer and Glandular Swellings. — But the most frequent 
glandular tumours, are those that form in the teats of bitches. 
— jSee SciRRHUs. — In old bitches, particularly in spayed ones, 
there often appears a tumour, or enlargement, on each side 
the back about the loins ; which, though it elevates the skin 
externally, yet is evidently more deeply situated. These 
swellings arise from large accumulations of fat about the 


ovaria, and are best kept down by exercise, moderate feed- 
ins", and alteratives. 

Ulcerous Affections. 

Dogs are subject to ulceration of various parts of the body, 
dependent on very different causes. Cancer, which is the 
worst ulcer we are acquainted with, is but little common in 
the dog-. Those cases, however, in canine patholog-y, that do 
approach its character, are noticed under the head Cancer. 
A very malig-nant ulcer sometimes breaks out in the lips, 
face, or neck, in distemper, and is there noticed. In virulent 
canker, the internal, and sometimes the external ear also, 
become attacked with extensive ulceration. 1 have seen it 
proceed so far, in these cases, as to destroy the dog-. The 
eyes become very commonly ulcerated in distemper ; and 
as commonly, when the distemper is cured, they reinstate 
themselves, although the ulcerative process was very consi- 

Glandular parts in dogs are very liable to ulceration ; the 
most common among which are the teats in bitches. — See 
SciRRHUs. — The vagina, sheath, or bearing, and sometimes 
the womb also, are found to be affected with a morbid ulcer- 
ous state, which is very usually accompanied with a fungous 
excrescence, from which blood exudes, or a bloody ichor. 
This disease participates more of the nature of cancer than 
any other to which dogs are generally liable. — See Cancer. 

The penis is likewise the subject of an ulcerous affection, 
which is also commonly accompanied with a spongy fungous 
excrescence, exuding a bloody ichor : but it does not erode 
the neighbouring parts, and appears to partake more of the 
nature of a vascular warty substance, than that of cancer. 

This fungous excrescence on the penis is often mistaken for 
a disease of the kidneys or bladder. A few drops of bloody 
fluid appear now and then to come from the dog; and, as in 


the act of making- water, the last effort squeezes the fungus, 
and forces a drop or two at that time, so it is concluded, that 
either the urethra, or the kidneys, or bladder, is affected. But, 
in these cases, if the dog is held, and the prepuce stripped 
all the way down, so as to expose the penis throughout its 
whole length, there will generally be found one or more large 
fungous knobs, from which this bloody secretion proceeds. 

The cwre consists in removing every one of these excres- 
cences, carefully and completely, with the knife, leaving no 
part of the base or pedicle of each. Having done this, 
sprinkle the excised part vvith a little alum in fine powder ; 
and, unless the excrescence has been very considerable (when 
it will be necessary to remove the prepuce every day to pre- 
vent an union of it to the penis), the rest may be left to 
nature. In very slight cases, where these fungi have ap- 
peared as warts only, which is not uncommon, I have re- 
moved them by merely sprinkling them daily with powdered 
savine three parts, crude sal ammoniac two parts. Other ul- 
cerous affections are noticed under the head Wounds. 


Urine, bloody. 

Bitches seldom have any disease of the bladder or kidneys. 
When, therefore, there is any bloody issue from the parts of 
generation in them, it commonly proceeds from some affection 
of either the vagina, or womb. Such appearances may be 
the effect of a polypus; — which see. Or they may arise, 
which is also more probable, from a cancerous affection. — See 
Cancer, and Astringents. 

In dogs, also, bloody urine is not uncommon. In them, the 
neck of the bladder becomes sometimes injured, or a part of 
the urethra ruptured, from brutal persons forcing- them from 
bitches in the copulative act. In such cases, during the active 
state of inflammation, bleed at the neck, and foment the 


part. When that has subsided, the following balls will com- 
monly effect the restoration of the parts : — 

Catechu, cMed japan earth 2 drams 

Gum arable, powdered 3 drams 

Gum myrrh half a dram 

Gum benjamin half a dram 

Balsam Peru half a dram. 

Mix with honey, into twelve, fifteen, or twenty balls, accord- 
ing- to the size of the dog- ; and give one night and morning. 
A more frequent, but, to persons unacquainted with the 
diseases of dogs, a more obscure source of bloody urine, 
arises from fungous excrescences on the ipenis.—See Ulcer- 
ous Affections, and Astringents. 


Vaccination of Dogs. 
See p. 134. 

Venomous Sites. 

See Poisons. 


See p. 177. 

Warts in Dogs. 

It is not uncommon for dogs to be troubled with warts on 

some parts of the body ; the most frequent of which are the 

lips the penis, and the prepuce. These excrescences may 

be either cut off, or, when they exist in clusters, they may 


be sprinkled with equal parts of crude sal ammoniac and 
powdered savine ; which commonly effects their removal. 


Washing of Dogs, 

This becomes, under some circumstances, a very necessary 
practice, and, when judiciously manag-ed, is salutary: but, 
when otherwise, it is productive of more mischief than per- 
sons are aware of. There is not a more fertile source of dis- 
ease to dog-s, than suffering* their coats to remain wet after 
washing- or bathing*. In the first place, it subjects those who 
are unused to it to colds, which end frequently in distem- 
per, inflammations, or asthma ; and in those to whom the 
practice is common, it is scarcely less pernicious ; for, thoug-h 
it may not occasion immediate illness, it nevertheless, in the 
end, frequently produces canker or mange. It may be ob- 
served, as a proof of this, that dog-s who often go into the 
water are seldom without some affection of this kind. Can- 
ker, particularly, is almost confined to dogs who swim much, 
or who are washed often, without being properly dried after- 
wards : it should, therefore, be most attentively observed, 
when dogs are washed, that they are also carefully dried 
after it. Very small dogs, for this purpose, may be wrapped 
up in a blanket : large dogs, after being well rubbed, may 
be permitted to run into a stable among clean straw, which 
is a very excellent means of drying them, and, from its 
warmth, a very safe one. 

It should be remembered that, in ascertaining the proper 
warmth of the water for the washing of dogs, the heat, 
which appears trifling to the hand of a servant always used 
to dabbling in suds, will scald an animal unused to any thing 
but cold water. Washing should not be repeated oftener 
than once a week, even with the best care ; for it certainly 
promotes mange and canker. Rubbing the skin with a flan- 
nel and dry bran is better. In slight rednesses of the skin. 


washing with common gin will often remoTe them. In simi- 
lar cases, yellow soap well rubbed in, and then washed clean 
off, is also a good practice. 

But, however hurtful a too frequent system of water wash- 
ing may be to healthy dogs ; to diseased ones, both hot and 
cold bathing are of the greatest service. — See Bathing. 


See SciRRHUs, 


The antients were fertile in errors with regard to the ani- 
mal economy ; gradually, however, these mistakes gave way to 
the lights of reason and science. Some few are, nevertheless, 
still cherished, with a religious veneration, and, what is more 
remarkable, by the judicious and well-informed likewise. A 
prominent instance of this appears in the subject before us, 
that of a supposed worm existing within the under surface 
of the dog's tongue. Long before the time of Pliny, such 
an animal was supposed so to exist, and which erroneous no- 
tion appears to have been originally derived from observing 
that canine madness produced a swelling of the mouth and 
tongue, which naturally led to an examination of these 
parts ; when the discovery of a prominent ligamentous sub- 
stance was readily converted into a worm, which they named 
lytta *, and which they as readily conjectured to be the true 

* " Est vermiculus in lingua canum, qui vocatur lytta, quo excepto, 
" infantibus catulis, nee rabidi firent, nee fastidium sentiunt."— Plinii, 
Hist. Nat. lib. xxix, c. 32. Paris, 4to, 1685. In 



cause of the disease. It may be remarked here, that it is 
only an offset of this error that attributes another origin of 
madness to the tooth-ache, occasioned by supposed maggots 
within the teeth. 

I feel almost ashamed to contend this point gravely; but 
when it is considered that elegant and learned writers still 
advocate, if not the existence of a worm under the dog's 
tong-ue, at least, the presence of a something, the removal 
of which certainly, in their opinions, proves a prophylac- 
tick, and either altog-ether prevents the animal at any time 
going mad, or otherwise renders him wholly incapable of 
mischief in case he should become so, it appears necessary. 

Anatomy has demonstrated, that many pendulous organs 
have doublings of the surrounding skin, which doublings are 
often st'rengthened by interposed ligamentous substances pur- 
posely placed there still further to strengthen the duplica- 
ture. In this way is the tongue of man, and most animals, 
secured in its situation from being forced down the throat by 
accident or convulsion. This fr^num,or bridle, immediately 
appears prominent on opening a dog's month, and elevating his 
tongue, where it may be seen extending from the root almost 
to the apex. On the slightest inspection, its use as a bridle 
and support to the lengthened organ must be apparent ; and 
it must be torturing conjecture to devise any other purpose 
for which it can be placed there. In the operation called 
worming, the projecting skin is divided with a lancet, which 

In the Latin Poets on the Chase, we also meet with the same idea : — 
" Plurima per catulos rabies, insutaque tardis 
" Praecipitat cetale malum : sic tertius ergo 
" Anteire auxiliis, et primus vincere cavisas 
" Namque subit, nodis qui lingua tenacibus haeret 
" (Vermiculum dixere) mala atque incondita pestis." 

Grat. Talisci Cynegeticov, 383. 
Gesner informs us, however, that the Greek medical writers were better 
informed, and doubted whether this ligamentous substance was a worm 
or not. 


exposes the interposed ligamentous matter, called a ivorm ; 
on the extraction of which (by slitting- its cnticular envelope 
behind it, from one end to the other), whole and unbroken, 
depends the virtue of the operation. One end of the liga- 
mentous substance being raised, it sometimes is, at a fortu- 
nate or dextrous extraction, at once stripped off to the other 
end; the violence made use of in doing which, puts the sub- 
stance on the stretch, so that, when removed from the mouth, 
it necessarily recoils by means of its elasticity, and which na- 
tural occurrence is even still adduced as a proof, with some 
of the credulous, that it is itself a vermicular animal. 

Few well-informed persons, however, now believe so truly 
ridiculous a matter as that this is or can be any thing of 
the worm kind, or that it can possess any independent 
life ; but many w^ell-informed sportsmen still believe that the 
extraction of this substance, by the operation just described, 
called worming, will render the dog perfectly harmless in 
case he should become rabid, or go mad, in future. 

In the rabid variety called dumb madness, I have had oc- 
casion to show that the disease appears to consist of a speci- 
fic attack on the bowels principally, and that, conjoined with 
this, and apparently as a consequence of it, there is usually 
present such a tumefaction of the parts around the after 
mouth, and roots of the tongue, as frequently wholly inca- 
pacitates the dog so affected from biting. When this takes 
place in a dog which has been wormed, his harmless dispo- 
sition is erroneously attributed to the previous worming; but 
nothing is said or thought of the innumerable instances 
which occur of dogs otherwise affected and proving mis- 
chievous which have been duly operated on by worming. 
Instances of this description fell under my notice continually, 
during the prevalence of rabies. The incapability of the dog 
to bite, and his having been wormed, are circumstances that 
must often happen in the same animal, seeing that dumb 
madness is a very usual form of the complaint, and worming 
a very common practice among sportsmen : but such circum- 
stances are wholly independent of each other, and they can- 



not necessarily be otherwise. The removal of a portion 
of skin from a dog's mouth can no more influence him in 
this particular than the removal of a portion of his tail : 
neither can it act mechanically, as has been supposed, by 
taking off the restraint from the tong-ue ; for the affection 
that renders the dog harmless consists in a tumefaction, of 
a specific kind, around the base of the tongue, extending 
far beyond its fraenum or bridle. Worming, therefore, I do 
not hesitate to state, is a custom founded on ignorance and 
misapprehension, when performed as a preventive of the 
consequences of madness. 

Worming is also practised to prevent gnawing, which young 
dogs are very prone to do, first from a playful habit, and 
next to favour the removal of the present and the growth of 
the future teeth. In human infants, also, the same habit is 
observed, and from the same cause. In this case, also, worm- 
ing only prevents gnawing, by making the mouth sore ; for, 
as soon as the wounded part is well, the dog' recurs to the 
practice again. 


Dogs are subject to four intestinal animals, three of which 
belong to the vermes, or worms, and the fourth, I am dis- 
posed to think, is the larva or grub of one of the musca, or 
fly race, perhaps of a species of oestrus. In size, figure, 
and colour, it resembles a small larva, maggot, or gentil of 
the common flesh fly, having a dark head, between the palpi 
of which its mouth is situated. I am totally unaware to what 
chrvsalis it afterwards changes, neither am I better informed 
by what means it enters the animal. Were it like the larva 
musca carnaria, intended to live on animal fibre, it would, 
by its ravages, destroy the body it entered, and, as a chance 
visitor, the high temperature of the animal body would soon 
destroy it. If it belongs to the oestrus, it is remarkable that 

WORMS. 317 

its attack should so long- have escaped the observation of 
naturalists. It is not, 1 believe, very hurtful, nor is it very 
common in dogs. 

Of those worms which live and breed within the dog-, and 
may be considered indig-enous to him, the Tcenia, or tape- 
worm, is the most prejudicial, and the most difficult to re- 
move *. I have known four or five hundred joints (each a 
distinct animal) passed by a dog, whose united length would 
encircle his body many times. Sometimes they become 
coiled up into a ball, which thus forms an impenetrable ob- 
struction within the intestines, and destroys the dog. 

The Teres, or long cylindrical worms, resembling earth- 
worms in figure, but of a whitish colour, are the most common 
to dogs, and, when existing in great numbers, particularly in 
puppies and young dogs, often prove fatal by the convulsion? 
they occasion. Their natural situation is within the intestines, 
but they sometimes crawl from them into the stomach, and 
are then brought up by the sickness they occasion. 

The Ascarides, or small thread-worms, likewise occasi- 
onally infest dogs, residing principally within the rectum. 
They produce an intolerable itching in the parts behind, to 
relieve which, dogs troubled with them are seen continually 
drawing the fundament along the ground. Except by the 
irritation occasioned, which, when excessive, may weaken, 
they do not appear to do much internal injury. 

The constitution of some dogs appears particularly favour- 
able to the generation of worms ; for, destroy them as often 
as you will, they soon return again. Puppies, during every 
stage of their growth, are very liable to them. In many, 
the increase of the body appears checked by their ravages. 
The presence of worms, when they exist in considerable 
numbers, is easily detected ; for such a dog has usually a 

* It is remarkable how universal is the attack of this parasitic ani- 
mal: when roach and dace are observed to swim near the surface of the 
water exhausted, and incapable of descending long together, if they 
become the subject of examination, they will be found, in most instances, 
affected with this singular worm. 

318 WORMS. 

slig-ht coijg^h, liis coat stares, he eats voraciously, yet seldom 
fattens : his evacuations prove also a most unequivocal symp- 
tom ; for they are, in such cases, peculiarly irregular, being- 
at one time loose and slimy, and at another more hard and 
dry than natural. The belly likewise is often tense and en- 
larged. When very young dogs have worms, the first that 
pass are seldom noticed, for they seem to affect the health but 
little ; but gradually, as they increase, purging becomes more 
frequent; and the animal, tiiough lively, wastes, and his hip 
bones may be plainly felt. The growth likewise appears 
stationary, and in this way it is very common for him to con- 
tinue, till a fit or two carries him off, or he dies tabid. In 
adult dogs, worms are less fatal, though, from the obstruc- 
tions they form, they sometimes kill them likewise ; and they 
always occasion a rough unhealthy coat, with a hot nose and 
foetid breath ; and in both the young and the full grown, 
they very commonly produce epileptic fits. It does not fol- 
low, because no worms are seen to pass away, that a dog, 
who exhibits the other symptoms of them, has none : neither, 
when they are not seen, does it follow even that none pass ; 
for, if they remain long in the intestines after they are dead^ 
they become digested like other animal matter. 

The treatment of worm cases in dogs has been like that of 
the human, and the remedies employed have been intended 
either to destroy the worms within the body, or otherwise to 
drive them mechanically, as it were, out of the bowels by 
active purgatives : but, as these latter means were violent 
(for, without the very mucus of the bowels, as well as the 
fceces, were expelled, no benefit was derived from them), so 
the remedy, in many instances, became worse than the disease. 
Many substances have, therefore, been tried, in hopes of de- 
stroying these animals within the body ; and it is evident, that 
any thing that could certainly do this would be most import- 
ant, as it would obviate the necessity of having recourse to 
the violent purgatives means heretofore employed. 

For this purpose, substances which present small spiculi, 
or points, liave been found the best adapted, effectually de- 

WOUNDS. 319 

stroying- the worms by abrading- their external or internal 
surfaces, without, in the slig-htest degree, injuring- the pa- 
tient. Either of the following- recipes embrace these pro- 
perties, particularly the latter, which I cannot too highly re- 
commend : — 

Cowhage (dolichos pruriens, Linn.) half a dram 

Tin filings, made with a very fine file 2 drams 


Iron filings, very fine 2 drams 

A distemper powder, No. 1 (p. 146.) 

Form either of these into four, six, or eig-ht balls, and give 
one every morning- ; after which, a mercurial purgative will 
be proper. 1 have occasionally succeeded, in very obstinate 
worm cases, by moderate daily doses of Epsom salts*. Asca- 
rides are best destroyed by terebinthinated or aloetic clysters. 
The tape-worm is not unfrequently removed by mercurial 
purg-es ; but a still more certain remedy for this noxious g-uest 
is considerable doses of oil of turpentine, as two, three, or 
four drams, according- to the size, age, and strength of the 
dog, given night and morning, mixed v/ith the yolk of an 
egg, for a few days. 


Dogs are liable to become wounded in various ways, and 
their wounds, however bad, are not, generally, much attended 
to, from an opinion that the animal's tongue is the best 

* The obstinate disposition to generate worms, which some dogs 
possess, may be, in some instances, checked by the daily administration 
of common salt in their food : the use of which, however, should bu 
persisted in no longer than is absolutely necessary, to avoid the ten- 
dency it might have to produce mange, unless this tendency is checked 
at the time by the administration of alteratives with the salt. 

320 WOUNDS. 

dressing". This is very questionable: in some instances, 1 am 
certain, no application can be worse to a wounded dog- than 
his own tongue. Whenever dogs are at all inclined to foul- 
ness, as it is called, a sore, so licked, is sure to become 
mangy, and to be aggravated by the licking". 

In all extensive and lacerated wounds, a stitch or two 
should be made with a large needle and thread, as it will 
reduce the wound ; but, as such stitches soon ulcerate out in 
the dog-, so the edg-es should be still further secured by slips 
of sticking- plaister. A recent wound should be cleansed from 
the dirt, and then covered up : when it begins to suppurate, 
dress with any mild ointment. In thorn wounds, or others 
made with splinters, carefully examine that nothing- is left 
within them ; otherwise no attempts to produce healing- will 
prove successful. The most common wounds in dogs arisQ 
from the bites of other dogs. Under such circumstances, 
should any suspicion arise that the dog was mad by whom 
the wounded one was bitten, proceed as directed under 
rabies. The wounds, arising from common bites, in general 
soon heal of themselves : if, however, they are very exten- 
sive, wash them with Friar's balsam, to prevent their be- 
coming gangrenous. 

Fistulous wounds, in glandular parts, often prove very ob- 
stinate. In such cases, means must be taken to get at the 
bottom of the sinus, and to raise a more healthy inflammation 
therein. This may be done either by injecting something 
stimulant into it, as a vitriolic wash, or by passing a seton 
through it. Some fistulous wounds, such as those in the feet 
and about the joints, will often not heal ; because either the 
bones, or the capsular ligaments, are diseased. In these 
cases, the wound, in general, requires to be laid open to the 
bottom, and to be stimulated with oil of turpentine, or with 
tincture of Spanish flies, daily, till the foul diseased bone or 
ligament is thrown oif, when a healing process will imme- 
diately commence. 


Abscess oi the eyes, 162...very 
frequent in distemper, 152.. .not 
unusual in madness also, 251 

Adder, bite of, 220 

Age of the dog, how ascertained, 

Aloes, the best purgative for dogs, 

Alteratives for dogs, their nature, 
properties, and doses, 75 

Anasarca, 157 

Animal poisons, 220 

Aperients, 210 

Ascites, 153. ..often brought on by 
asthma, 79 

-4sf/i7fta, 78. ..causes, symptoms and 
consequences, 79... morbid ana- 
tomy, 80. ..treatment of it, 81 

Astringents in general described, 
82.. .particularly useful in loose- 
ness, 198... Astringent injections, 
320.. .Astringent clysters, 123, 


Bag, or scrotum, swelled and in- 
flamed, 300,.. internally tumefied 
from scirrhous testicles, 299,307 

Balls, how to give them, 69 

Bathing of dogs described, 83... 
mode of it, and cases when re- 
quisite, 84.. .Washing not so sa- 
lutary to healthy dogs as is sup- 
posed, 117, 313 

Belli' swelled, how to distinguish 
between pregnancy and dropsy, 

Bilious inflammation, 188. ..Bilious 
colic, i6.... Bilious vomiting, 301 

Bifes venomous, 311. ..of a viper, 
220. ..of a rabid dog, 199. ..of 
wasps and bees, 221 

Bitches, heat of, 88, 182 ...preg- 
nancy of, 90.. .how distinguished 
from dropsy,154,..bringing forth, 

223. ..when suckling, subject to 
a very fatal kind of fits, 176, 
224. ..their teats liable to be- 
come inflamed, 89. ..often afl?"ect- 
ed by scirrhus, 297. ..injuries to 
their parts of generation, 90 

Bladder, inflamed, 183 

Bleeding, mode of it described, 85 
...cautions relative to it, 193 

Blindness, various causes of it, 85 

Blistering of dogs, mode of, and 
when required, 86 

Blood, among sportsmen, what, 101 

Bloody stools brought on by vari- 
ous causes, as distemper, 144... 
bilious colic, 188. ..mineral poi- 
sons, 213... and sometimes from 
mercurial applications licked off 
the body in cure of mange, 207 

Bloody urine, 310 

Boar hound, natural history of, 29 

Bones, fractures of, 179, 132... addi- 
tional hints how to detect them, 

Bones proper to be given to dogs, 
173. ..exceptions to this, ib. 

Bon-els, various aflections of them, 
184 ... Inflammation from rheu- 
matism, ib. 292. ..from obstruc- 
tion, 185. ..from cold taken, 186 
...from bile, 188.. .from madness, 
267 ... Spasmodic aff"ections of 
them, 124. ..a particular kind 
common to puppies, 113. ..liable 
to be greatly disturbed by mer- 
cury, 207... and other poisons, 

Breeding among bitches, 87. a 
healthy process, the omission of 
it is therefore hurtful, 88. ..cau- 
tions and directions relative to 
it, 89...superfcetation not uncom- 
mon, 91. ..sympathies displayed, 
95.. .perfection of the English 
system of breeding animals, 102- 



\0A.,. in-and-in system of breed- 
ing, 107 ... how various breeds 
have originated, 98 

Bronchocele, 113 

Bull dog, natural history of, 34 

Calcular concretions, 304 

Calomel an excellent alterative, 7G 
...a good emetic in particular 
cases, 160... a useful application 
for diseases of the eyes, 160 

Cancer in general, 114. ..of the 
sheath and parts of generation 
in bitches, llo...scirrhus much 
more common than cancer, 114, 

Canine madness, 225 

Canker ox the esLTy internal, 116... 
treatment, 117. .External canker, 
1 18... Cankered tumour on tlie 
flap of the ear, 120 

Castration, liow performed, and 
when proper, 121. ..of cats, and 
how performed, ib. 

Catarrh, 129... of distemper, 138 

Clans of dogs, 122 

Clysters, 123... cases in which they 
are beneficial, 124... a convenient 
medium for nourishment, ib..,. 
mode of giving them, ib. 

Colic in general, 124.. .spasmodic, 
i6.... Bilious colic, 188... a kind 
peculiar to rheumatism, 293 

Condition of dogs, 126. ..very ne- 
cessary for sporting dogs, ib — 
mode of getting them into con- 
dition, 127 

ConvulsiGns, 302 

Costiceness, its consequences, 127, 
128... mode of removing it, 185 
...inflammation from it, ib. 

Conyhs, various kinds, 129. ..causes, 
ettects,3ndtveatment,r&.... Cough 
of distemper, 138. ..of asthma, 79 

Cow pox, 131, 311 

Cramp, 129 

Cropping, how performed, 130 

Cross among dogs, what, 95 

('ro'ivfig, a deadly poison to dogs, 

Cystitis, 131 


Dahnalidii dog, 33 

Dane <iog, natural historv of, 29 

Destruction of dogs, when necea- 

sary, how best effected, 219 
Dew claws, 122 

Diarrluea, or looseness, 131,195... 
treatment of it, 196... a common 
accompaniment of distemper, 
144. ..a bad kind occasioned by 
the use of mercurials, 207, 216 
Dislocations, 132.. .often united with 
fracture, i&. ...treatment of them, 
Distemper, detail of it, 133, 138... 
symptoms of it, 139- 144.. .treat- 
ment of it, 145, ..abscess in the 
eyes from it, 162.. .popular dis- 
temper powder, 146 
Diuretics, useful in dropsy, 156 
Dog, natural history of, 7, 10. ..not 
derived from the wolf, 15. ..nor 
from the fox, 16. ..nor from the 
jackall, 17. ..proved to be an ori- 
ginal, and not a spurious, forni- 
ation, 20... origin of his varieties, 
ib. ... Newfoundland dog, 28 ... 
Dane, or boar-hound, 29 ... th(; 
shepherd's dog, i&....gre5jhound, 
31. ..mastiff, 33... Dalmatian, or 
spotted coach-dog, i6. ... stag- 
hound, 34. ..blood-hound, ib.... 
fox-hound, i/>. ...harrier, i6.,. .bea- 
gle, i6. ...pointer, i6.... bull-dog, 
i6....pug dog, i&.... terrier, ib. . . 
barbet, t&.... spaniel, 35. ..setter, 
Dog, his moral qualities, 38. ..pos- 
sesses intellect beyond any other 
brute, 38. ..his sagacity is rati- 
onal and not instinctive, 46.. .his 
courage, 52. ..his fidelity, ib.... 
his tractability, 60.. .Dogs pos- 
sess a sixth sense, 63 
Dogs, their qualities, 1-66. ana- 
tomical structure they resemble 
the human, 67. ..their diseases 
also bear a great analogy, 68... 
this analogy not so striking in 
the operation of various medi- 
cinal articles, i&....mode of giv- 
ing medicities to dogs, 69. 
sickness they require great care, 
70. ..nutriment proper for sick 
dogs, i6.... their irritability very 
great, 71. ..their age, how ascer- 
tained, 74...1icking their wounds 
erroneously supposed salutarj', 
320... condition particularly ne- 



cessary for sporting dogs, 126... 
naturally subject to a costive 
habit, 127. ..very subject to asth- 
ma, 78. ..exercise essentially ne- 
cessary for their health, 160... 
how to teach them to exercise 
themselves, 161. ..destruction of, 
when necessary, how bestefifect- 
ed, 219 

Dogs^ their breeding, 87 to 109... 
capable of superfoetation, 91... 
opinions on breeding from con- 
sanguinity, 107. ..pupping, 223 
...rearing of puppies, 109-113 

Do^-grass, the natural emetic for 
dogs, 160 

Dressings for mange, 203-207— how 
performed, 208 

Dropsij, 153. ..of the belly, 154...of 
the chest, 157. ..of the skin, ib.... 
encysted, 158. ..hydatids, ib.,.. 
Dropsy of the eyeball, 164 

Dysentery, 158 

Ears, cropping of them, 130... 
rounding them, ife....Ears can- 
kered, 116. ..the flap swelled, 120 
Emetics generally, 159... excellent 
in asthma, 81... useful in distem- 
per, 145. the most na- 
tural one, 160 
Empyema, 194 
Enteritis, 184 

Epidemics, distemper sometimes so, 
135. ..inflamed bladder proved 
so in 1810, 183"-inflamed lungs 
also sometimes epidemic, 193 
Epilepsy, 174, 141 
Eruptions, 200 

Exercise of dogs, 160... great use of 
it, 161 ... particularly useful in 
preventing an undue accumula- 
tion of far, 166 
Eyes, diseases of, 162.. .ulcer in, ib. 
...spurious ophthalmia, ib.... 
very common in distemper, 163 
...true ophthalmia, i6.. ..cataract, 
Eyelids, ulcerated, 165 

Fatness, excessive, 165. ..its conse- 
quences, and how to prevent it, 
166...a common cause of asthma, 


Feeding of dogs, 167. ..physiology 
of digestion, it.. ..excessive feed- 
ing productive of disease, 168... 
various kinds of food, ib. 169... 
food proper in sickness, 71... 
mode of administering it, 70-71 
... clysters often a convenient 
medium of conveying nutriment 
in sickness,132,.. nutritious feed- 
ing particularly necessary in 
distemper, 147. ..feeding and ex- 
ercise should be regulated in re- 
lation to each other according 
to circumstances, 173 

Feet, sore, 174 

Fever, ib. 

Fits in dogs, their various kinds, 
174...cauS;S of them, i6....very 
common in distemper, 141-149 
...often arise in otherwise healthy 
dogs, particularly in pointers, 
setters, and spaniels, from an ex- 
cess of irritability, 175.. .a very 
fatal kind brought on in bitches 
who suckle, 176, 224... common 
to puppies, 113, 318... worms a 
frequent occasion of fits, 318 

Flap of the ear, swelled, 120 

Fleas in dogs, how destroyed, 177 

Fractures of the bones, with the 
mode of reducing them, 179.., 
how detected, 132. ..often united 
with dislocation, i&... .compound 
fractures, 180 

Fungous excrescences, 309 


Gastritis, 181 

Gestation, or going with young, 91 

Glandular swellings, 181 

Gravel, ib. 

GreyJiounds, natural history of, 31 
...condition particularly neces- 
sary for, 293. ..distemper parti- 
cularly fatal to them, 138 


Hcsmorrhage, 182 

Hemorrhoids, ib. 

Hair, wire-haired dogs very liable 
to be affected with mange, and 
such hair soonest becomes dis- 
coloured, 201 

Head, swelled, 182 

Heal in bitches, 87 

Hepatitis, 182 

Hernia, ib. 



i/o«ntis, various, origin and natural 

history of, 34 
Husk, 183 
Hydatids, 158 
Hydrophobia, 183... a misnomer for 

rabies in the dog, ih. 
Hydrothorax, 157 

I and J 

Impregnation, phenomena of it, 95 

Inflammation, 183 

Inflamed bladder, ib. 

Inflamed bowels, 184... from rheu- 
matism, ib. 184, 292.. .from ob- 
structien, 185. ..from cold, 186... 
from vitiated bile, 188. ..specific 
kind of inflammation in rabies, 
267... inflamed from poisons, 213 

Inflamed liver, acute, 190.. .chro- 
nic, 191 

Inflamed lungs, 192 

Inflamed stomach, 194.. .from poi- 
sons, 213. ..specific kind in ra- 
bies, 267 

Intussusception, 185 

Irritability of dogs great in sick- 
ness, 71. ..often productive of fits 
in healthy dogs, 175 

Jaundice common to chronic in- 
flammation of the liver, 195... 
and to distemper, 135 

Jawj locked, 307 

Liver, acute inflammation of, 190... 
chronic inflammation of, 191... 
a particular kind present in dis- 
temper, 135 

Looseness, or diarrhoea, 131, 195... 
very common in distemper, 144 
...a bad kind brought on by mer- 
curials, 207, 216 

Locked jav,' , 307 

Ltimbayo, 199 

Lungs, inflamed, ib. 

Madness, 199. ..raging, 2.56... dumb 

madness, 259 
Mange, 200...its varieties, 201. ..its 

anomalies, i&.... treatment of it, 

203. ..frequently ends in dropsy, 

154. ..acute mange, ib. 
Mastiff, 33 

Medicines, mode of giving, 69 
Mercurials, easily raise salivation 

in dogs, 76.. .are apt to produce 

violent diarrhoea, or looseness, 

207, 216 
Milk in bitches, when not drawn 

off", apt to occasion scirrhus, 89 
Mineral poisons, 213 

Neck, swelled, 208 
Newfoundland dog, natural history 

of, 28 
Nux vomica, unequal in its action, 

but usually a deadly poison to 

dogs, 219 


Obstructions in the bowels, how to 
overcome them, 185 ... clysters 
very useful for this purpose, 124 

CEslrum, or heat, in bitches, 208 

Opium, not always a poison to dogs, excellent remedy in asth- 
ma, 81 

Ophthalmia, 162.. .common in dis- 
temper, 163 

Ovaria, diseased, 158 

Paint, dogs often poisoned by the 
lead in it, 215 

Palsy, or paralysis, 209 

Paralysis, or palsy, 209.. .a common 
accompaniment to many com- 
plaints, 124, 139, 295 
't^enis liable to be aff'ected with 
fungous excrescences, or proud 
flesh, 309 

Peripneumonia f 192 

Physic for dogs, 210 

Piles, 211 

Pneumonia, 192 

Pointer, his natural history, 34... 
pointing natural to all dogs, ib. 
...a cultivated quality in the 
pointer and setter, i6.... pointers 
and setters liable to fits in hunt- 
ing, 175 

Poisons, vegetable, 217 ... animal, 
220. ..mineral, 211. ..when neces- 
sary to destroy life, the best, 219 
...opium an vmcertain poison to 
the dog, 217. ..mode of detecting 
poison, 213, 2l4,216...treatment 
of poisoned cases, t&.... tobacco 
a frequent accidental poison, 



Pregnaiicy, 91. distinguished 
from dropsy, 154 

Preventive against rabies, 280 

Pulse in dogs, 222. detected 
by the breathing, ib. 

Puppies, breeding and rearing of, 
92.. .diseases of, 112, 113.. .their 
claws, 122.,.. when too numer- 
ous, produce fits in the mother, 
224... have a spasmodic colic, 
113, 1 1 1 ...mode of cropping and 
tailing them, 130... are injured 
by much confinement. 111 

Pupping, 223... when assistance re- 
quisite, ib Ca^sarean opera- 
tion, ib bitches killed from 

rearing too many pups, 224 

Purging medicines, 210. treat- 
ed, when a disease, 131. ..very 
common in distemper, 144... a 

• very dangerous kind brought on 
by mercury, 207, 216 

Rabies, 225. ..origin of the term,i6. 
...history of it, 22.5-228. ..erro- 
neous notions relative to it, 231- 
234. ..worming no preventive, 
ib. first of spontaneous 
origin, 234....subsequently not 
so, i&....heat not the origin of it, 
237. ..nor season, 238. ..nor ab- 
stinence, 240 .... what animals 
have it, 241. ..what animals are 
capable of communicating it, 
242.. .in what part of the body 
does the poison originally exist, 
244. the salivary glands, 248 
...time between the bite and ap- 
pearance of the disease, 249... 
symptoms of the disease, 250... 
early symptoms, ib. to 253. 
termediate symptoms, 255. ..rag- 
ing madness, 256 dumb mad- 
ness, 259. ..morbid anatomy of ra- 
bid subjects, 262... .what diseases 
may be mistaken for rabies, 268 
...modus operandi of the rabid 
poison, 269.. .remedies employed 
during rabies, 272-275. ..prophy- 
lacticks, or preventive remedies, 
275 ...preventive qualities of the 
tree box, 280, ..destruction of the 
bitten part the most certain, 283 
...process of the operation, ib.... 
considered as regards the human 

subject, 289. ..unnecessary dread 
of rabid dogs, 2<)1 

Rheumatism, 292. ..its varieties, ib. 
...causes of it. 294. an 
eftect on it, ifc.... treatment of it, 

Rickets common to puppies, 296... 
in the wry-legged breed of ter- 
riers this deformity is propa- 
gated, ib. 

Rounding, among hounds, 131 

Runiting round, a symptom of 
spasm in the bowels, 124 

St. Anthony's fire, 305 

St. Vitus's dance, 305 

Salivcdion easily excited in dogs, 76 
...very hurtful to them, r6. 

Salt forms a good domestic eme- 
tic, 160... a vermifuge also, 319 

Scirrhous tumours, 297 .... morbid 
appearance of these tumours, ib. 
...scirrhous teats in bitches, 297 
...scirrhous testicles, 299 

Scouring in dogs, 131, 144, 195, 
207, 210 

Scrot}im, inflamed, 300 

Setons, 300. ..not so beneficial as 
supposed in distemper, 151 

Setters and pointers, their natural 
history, 36, 34.. .their condition 
necessary to be attended to, 126 
...setters m st liable to internal 
canker, and pointers most to ex- 
ternal canker, 118 

Shepherd's dog, natural history of, 

Sickness, excessive, 301 

Spaniel, his natural history, .35... 
long lived, 74. ..subject to fits in 
hunting, 175 

Spasm, varieties and treatment of, 
302. ..spasmodic colic, 124.. .the 
same in puppies, 113 

Spaying, 303 

Stings of wasps and bees, 221 

Stomach, inflammation of, 181... 
from poisons, 220. ..specific kind 
in rabies, 267. ..stomach, foul, 
1 10. .when full of an indigestible 
mass, strongly characteristic of 
rabies, 265 

Stone in dogs, 304 

Sulphur, overrated as an altera- 
tive, 7? 


Surfeit, 206, f)\ 
Swellings, 306 


Tailing of puppies, 130 

Tapping of dogs for dropsy, 155 

Tartar emetic, the best general 
emetic, 159 

Teats, scirrhous swellings of them 
in bitches, 297. ..mode of pre- 
venting them, 89 

Tenesmus, treatment of it, 121.... 
common in diarrhcea, 193. ..of- 
ten mistaken for piles, 211 

Terrier, natural history of, 35... 
short lived, 74...a wry-legged 
breed, 296 

Testicles, diseased, 299, 307. ..mode 
of castration, 121 

Tetanus, or locked jaw, 307 

Throat, swelled, 308 

Tobacco, a frequent poison to dogs, 

Toes, affections of, 122...sore from 
travelling, 174 

Tumotirs, in general, described, 


Ulcerous affections in general, 309 

...of the eye, 162 
Urethra in dogs, how placed, 304 
Urine, bloody, 310, 82.. .in bitches 
often a sign of cancered womb, 
115. ..when evacuated by drops, 

a sign of inflamed bladder, 
Uterus of bitches, diseased, 115 

Vaccination, 311, 134 

Vegetable poisons, 217 

Venomous bites, 311 

Vermin, ib. 

Vertigo, or turning round, often 
dependent on a particular affec- 
tion of the bowels, 124 

Vittis, St. his dance, 305 

Vomiting, excessive, 301 ...bilious, 
302.. .when the effect of poisons, 
213. ..from inflamed stomach, 1 81 


Warts, 311 

Washing of dogs, 312 

Water in the belly, how distin- 
guished, 154. the chest, 157 

Weather an effect on dogs, 294 

Wens, 299, 3\S 

Worming, 313 no preventive 

against madness, ib. 234 

Worms, 317. ..remedies for, 319... 
occasion a particular colic, 124... 
are very common to puppies, 

Wounds'in dogs, how treated,319 

Yard of the dog often affected with 
fungous excrescences, 309. 

J. Compton, Printer, Middle Street, 
Cloth Fair. Londou. 

TO^-^ 202 Main Library 



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RENEWALS: CALL (415) 642-3406 


APR 1 6 1991 

ADD 1 f* ^f^r\r\ 

ArK 1 1990 


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FORM NO. DD6, 60m, 1/83 BERKELEY CA 94720