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Among the greatest events of this eventful century few are of 
more surpassing interest than the American civil war, and among the 
greatest actors in that momentous drama, none, we think, exceeds in 
nobility of character the Confederate General, Robert Edward Lee. 

The names of Grant, Sheridan, Longstreet, will be discussed all 
the world round by many a fireside for many generations to come, 
and above and beyond them will tower the heroic memory of 
Stonewall Jackson. The gaunt figure of Abe Lincoln, President 
of the Union, in the agonized crisis of its fate, will long lead the 
imagination captive and the nation whose unity and imperial 
splendour he preserved intact amid the most crushing assaults will 
ever remember the homely wisdom of his life and the dramatic 
circumstances of his sudden death. But amid even this cluster 
of great men the star of General Lee shines with unclouded 

Into the merits of the stupendous struggle we do not propose 
to enter. It was once held that the North fought for freedom, and 
the South for slavery, but history will probably record its decision that 
slavery was but a collateral issue ; that the real contest was between 
federal rights and states rights ; unity and centralization against 
local government and home rule, between the profound convictions 
dominating either side as to the measure of authority of the central 
executive when in collision with the chartered privileges of individual 
states. Be this as it may, we find it hard to do otherwise than 
rejoice at the result of the struggle, for slavery perished in the 
encounter, and the disruption was averted of the greatest republic 
that has yet been seen among men. 

R. E. Lee, born in Virginia in 1807, was the descendant of an 
ancient English family, whose knightly achievements can be traced 
in mediaeval history. A Lee accompanied Richard Cceur de Lion 
to the third Crusades, and for distinguished service there acquired the 
property of Ditchley, as immortalized by Walter Scott. Under the 
Edwards, Henrys, and Elizabeth, the Lees were equally conspicuous. 

Richard Lee, younger brother to a Lee of Ditchley, became 
Vol XVII.— September, 1878. k 

130 'I he Modern Bayard. 

Secretary to the colony of Vriginia in the reign of Charles I. His 
grandson, Thomas Lee, was Governor of Virginia, and the latter's 
three sons and a nephew all played a striking part in the War of 
Independence. The nephew, Henry Lee, became a general officer, 
the friend of Washington, and ultimately, like his uncle before him, 
Governor of Virginia. From him sprung the subject of our memoir, 
the last and most illustrious of a noble line, a man whose name is a 
household word in two worlds, and who may justly be described as 
the Sidney and Bayard of America. 

R. E. Lee, like all his race, was a born commander of men. The 
Mexican War of 1847 found him a Captain of Engineers, but left 
him ere its close Major, and subsequently Lieut. -Colonel of his regi- 
ment. His talents were recognized in the official despatches of 
General Scott, together with those of a younger man whose name 
and fame were destined to be brilliantly associated with his own : 
we allude to Lieut. Beauregard. 

In 1856, Colonel Lee commanded the crack cavalry regiment in 
the United States service. Already were heard the first faint mut- 
terings of that awful storm which was so soon to break upon the new 
world. The following quotation from one of Lee's letters to his 
wife, written about this time, tends to show the writer's sympathy 
with the abolitionist party provided they respected "states rights : " — 

"There are, I believe, few — he says— in this enlightened age who will 
not acknowledge that slavery, as an institution, is a moral and political 
evil in any countrv. I think it a greater evil to the white than to the 

In 1859 occurred the strange menacing outbreak of John Brown, 
who pillaged the Federal Arsenal at Harper's Ferry, proclaimed a 
servile war and threw the country into convulsions, but the revolt 
was crushed by Lee in a masterly manner and with but slight 
effusion of blood. In 1861, the election of President Lincoln and 
the overwelming success of his party, created intense excitement in 
the States. The bond of union, then well nigh a century old, 
snapped asunder like thread, and in place of the Republic one and 
indivisible, two mighty confederations confronted one another in 
arms. The shock was terrific. Old associations and ties, however 
close, succumbed to the strain. Brother rose against brother, father 
against son, and the world's greatest civil war came like a cruel blow 
full in the face of startled humanity. The right of the Central 
Government to coerce seceding States was fiercely claimed on the 
one side, the right of secession on the other, and both sides appealed 
to the God of battles. Colonel Lee, who, as his father had long ago 
remarked, was " always good," was profoundly moved, but his deci- 
sion was at once taken. His ancestors had ever been the foremost 
citizens of his native state, his life had been spent there, and there 
was his home. Much as he loved America he loved Virginia more, 
and he whose guiding star in life was duty, thought — wrongly as we 

7 be Modern Bayard. 131 

think — that his first duty was to his native State. Long afterwards, 
when under examination on this point by the committee of recon- 
struction, he stated his view to be " that the act of Virginia, in 
withdrawing herself from the United States, carried me along as a 
citizen of Virginia, and that her laws and acts were binding on me." 
A conscientious man, holding this opinion, could not hesitate. Re- 
signing his command in the United States army, and an offer of the 
virtual command in chief of her whole forces, Lee left, never to 
return, his beautiful residence, Arlington House. Once, and only 
once, when his victorious army carried him to the very gates of the 
capital, he is said to have caught a distant view of his home, but 
though the land of promise lay before him, he, like the man of God, 
was not permitted to enter in. 

On his arrival at Richmond, Lee was offered, and accepted, the 
command of the Virginian forces, and shortly afterwards of the 
whole Confederacy. His immense responsibilities, so soon to 
whiten that noble head, could not altogether divert his thoughts from 
his wife and children. The following quotation is from a striking 
letter he wrote about this time to one of his sons on the subject of 
duty : — 

" In regard to duty, let me, in conclusion of this hasty letter, inform 
you that, nearly a hundred years ago, there was a day of remarkable 
gloom and darkness — still known as 'the dark day' — a day when the 
light of the sun was slowly extinguished, as if by an eclipse. The 
Legislature of Connecticut was in session, and as its members saw the 
unexpected and unaccountable darkness coming on, they shared in the 
general awe. It was supposed by many that the last day had come. 
Some one, in the consternation of the hour, moved an adjournment. 
Then there arose an old Puritan, Davenport of Stamford, and said that if 
the last day had come, he desired to be found at his post, doing his duty ; 
and therefore moved that candles be brought in so that the house could 

proceed with its duty Duty is the sublimest word in 

our language. Do your duty in all things, like the old Puritan. You 
cannot do more ; you should never wish to do less." 

We may judge perhaps from this extract what manner of man it 
was who now proceeded to lead the Confederate forces. 

The relative position of the combatants was, roughly speaking, 
as follows. The northern white population, united almost to a man, 
exceeded twenty-two millions, and on their side lay everything 
which had previously been the common heritage of the whole nation, 
the army, the navy, the stores, the machinery of taxation, in short 
Government and the seat of Government, ancient prestige, a vast 
preponderance of material resources, and the absolute command of 
the sea and the navigable rivers. 

Against this compact and formidable foe, the South mustered a 
population of 8,700,000, of whom 3,700,000 were negroes, and about 
1,000,000 were border whites, whose sympathies were chilled by the 
fact that their lives and properties lay all along at the mercy of the 

i?2 'I he Modern Bayard. 

North. Four millions remained to contend with 22,000,000 for the 
sovereignty. The North put forth its gigantic strength slowly and 
with hesitation, but with ever accumulating pressure. No less than 
two and a half millions of men ranged themselves during the struggle 
under the Federal standard, and for a time President Lincoln had 
more than 1,000,000 men under arms at once, exclusive of 125,000 
tailors and marines serving in the 671 ships of war launched by the 
great Republic. 

The resources of the South were glaringly inferior. Their total 
levies from first to last only reached 700,000 men, and their average 
number under arms never exceeded 165,000. 

Yet with these inadequate forces they won nearly every pitched 
battle of the war, and at last surrendered from pure exhaustion, after 
inflicting on their antagonist a loss of 300,000 men. The efforts of 
Lee were truly heroic, and over and over again the ragged regiments 
of the South, unclothed unfed, unpaid, broke like an avalanche on 
the immense armies of the North, and shattered them into fragments. 

Under the homely soubriquet of uncle George, Lee was adored by 
his troops, who worked miracles at his word of command. It was 
one of their foes — himself an accomplished military critic — who ex- 
claimed with enthusiastic pride, "Who, that once looked upon it, can 
ever forget that array of tattered uniforms and bright muskets — that 
body of imcomparable infantry, the army of Virginia." 

Lees' extreme simplicity of character endeared him to his men. 
He never during a campaign would leave his humble tent for the shelter 
of a house. All luxuries and dainties anonymously received from 
admiring countrymen were at once handed over to the sick and 
wounded, and the better to set an example of how to endure priva- 
tions Lee became a total abstainer and non-smoker. His guiding 
principle was not to fare better than the private soldier. Their wel- 
fare in camp was his constant study, and their heroic conduct in the 
field was his reward. That he was idolized by the men he led to 
victory is hardly matter for surprise. It is recorded that once, worn 
out and exhausted during a toilsome march, he fell down by the 
roadside and slept the sleep of the weary. The word was passed 
along the ranks, and 15,000 men with light tread and bated breath, 
marched past their great commander without disturbing his slumbers. 

The religious feelings of Lee were profound though unobtrusive, 
and he repeatedly took stringent measures to preserve the sanctity of 
the Sabbath. Some of his men, like the Puritans of old, fell on their 
knees to pray before entering into battle, and it was his custom when 
meeting such a group to dismount and uncover, all his staff doing 
the same. His power of inspiring even great men with affection and 
confidence was truly marvellous. The illustrious Stonewall Jackson 
repeatedly declared that Lee was the one man living whom he would 
follow blindfold. When Jackson fell on the held ot Chanccllorsville, 
the grief of his chief was terrible. On first hearing the news of the 
accident, he exclaimed with assumed composure, " Jackson has lost 

The Modem Bayard. 133 

his left arm, but in him I lose my right." Afterwards when the 
fatal result of the wound was apparent, he — to use the words of an 
eye-witness--" prayed for him as he never prayed for himself." 

It is not our purpose, nor would it be possible within the limits of 
this article, to trace the brilliant rise but eventual fall of the Con- 
federate cause. The great civil war with its Titanic struggles and 
dramatic close, belongs to history, and our object is rather briefly to 
record the achievements of a noble life. But it may be convenient 
here rapidly to summarise the campaigns of the war. 

In 1861 the Federals opened the war by invading Virginia on four 
sides. The scheme was not ill planned, but on July 21, at the first 
battle of Manassas, better known as Bull's Run, the hopes of the 
North were humbled in the dust, for 55,000 of their men under 
MacDowell, supported by nine regiments of cavalry, were totally 
routed by 31,000 Confederates led by Johnston and Beauregard, who 
thereupon encamped within sight of Washington. In other quarters 
the Federals met with more success, and the year closed without de- 
cisive gain or loss to either side. 1862 was a memorable year for 
the young Confederacy. The South was handled by Lee as if it had 
been one man, and success after success rewarded his genius ; of four 
pitched battles against overwhelming odds he won three, and the 
fourth was drawn. The campaign again opened with an offensive 
movement on the Northern side. General MacClellan advanced 
into the Peninsula to attack Richmond, but was checked at Seven 
Pines, and then almost crushed in a sanguinary seven days encounter 
on the Chickahominy, lasting from the 26th June to 1st July. 
The result was a disastrous retreat, and MacClellan was dismissed 
from his command. His successor, General Pope, again advanced into 
Virginia, but only to meet the same fate. Foiled by Jackson at Cedar 
Run, he was then attacked by Lee at the second battle of Manassas 
and utterly overthrown, losing 30,000 men in eight days and 
being driven to take refuge within the lines of Washington. For a 
time the North was prostrate, and Lee was not a man to let an oppor- 
tunity slip. Assuming the offensive, he invaded Maryland early in 
September, capturing Harper's Ferry with 11,000 prisoners. At 
Sharpsbury with only 33,000 men, he met the Northern army 87,000 
strong. After a fierce encounter the battle was drawn, and Lee with- 
drew to Winchester to rest his forces. In October, he started 
General Stuart on that extraordinary cavalry raid into Pennsylvania 
which, to this day, is almost unparalleled in the annals of war. In 
five days his corps of 1,800 men swept like a meteor through north- 
ern territory, under the eyes of immense hostile armies, and returned 
laden with valuable plunder and still more valuable information, with 
the loss of only five men. Irritated by this insult, President Lincoln 
ordered MacClellan again to advance, but superseded him by Burnside 
before the two armies met. On the 13th December, the latter, with 
120,000 men, crossed swords with Lee, whose troops, actually 
engaged, did not exceed 25,000 men. The odds were overwhelming, 

134 7be Modern Bayard. 

but the invincible infantry of the South again proved their pre- 
eminence, and Burnside was utterly routed, with a loss of over 
12,000 men. So closed the year 1862, in a blaze of glory. 

In January, 1863, Burnside pushed on by the wild cry for 
vengeance, now rising stern and high in the North behind him, 
attempted to cross the Rappahannock and continue the struggle, but 
met with immediate and bloody repulse. In April, his successor, 
General Hooker, was more successful, and crossed both that river and 
the Rapidan, with 132,000 men, but only to find his way barred 
at Chancellorsville by Lee, with 40,000 men. A three days' 
struggle ensued, rendered memorable by the death of Stonewall 
Jackson, shot by the mistake of one of his own sentries. But again 
the genius of the great commander rose superior to the most adverse 
circumstances, and, as he had served MacClellan, and Pope, and 
Burnside, so he now served Hooker, who was disastrously routed 
with the lossof 17,000 men. 

Meanwhile in other states, and under other and inferior leaders, 
the South was losing heavily, and her numerical weakness was 
becoming more and more apparent. To create a diversion, President 
Davis induced Lee against his will to make a second attempt to 
invade the North. Raising his army by almost superhuman 
exertions to 80,000 men, the Southern commander again carried the 
tide of war into Maryland. 

Hooker resigned in despair, and was suceeded by Meade. The 
two armies met at Gettysburg in Pennsylvania on 1st July, 1863, and 
for three days the combat lasted, and fortune wavered to and fro. 
The losses were about equal on each side, and 40,000 men in all 
were placed bars de combat. Lee at length withdrew unpursued and 
in good order, but the North was saved. 

Early in 1864, the North raised immense levies and replaced 
Meade by Grant. The latter, as generalissimo of their forces, 
found himself with 1,000,000 effective troops. But the South had 
lonp: been bleeding at every pore ; her poverty and numerical in- 
feriority, and the stringent blockade of her coasts, told upon her with 
overwhelming effect. Ultimate success had become an impossibility, 
and a victory was almost as bad as a defeat. But still Lee fought 
on, and on 6th and 7th May, Grant, like all his predecessors, was 
routed with immense loss in " the Wilderness." Day after day, 
until 4th June, the conflict continued until Grant, utterly regardless of 
human life, had sacrificed 60,000 men " in feeling his way to 

From this date to March, 1865, Lee, exhausted by the mere pro- 
longation of the struggle, and with forces ever decreasing, barred the 
way of the victorious Northerners. Grant hammered away, as he 
called it, and was quite content to lose man for man, or more, know- 
ing that the Southern army, destitute of reinforcements, was wasting 
from attrition. The beginning of the end was now visible. On 
c,th April, 1865, Lee with 5,000 bayonets, attacked and drove the 

The Modem Bayard. 135 

Federals before him until the pursuit brought him into the presence 
of 80,000 men. The absolutely desperate nature of the contest then 
led to an honourable capitulation, and from that moment the chances 
of Southern independence vanished for ever. When Lee returned 
heart-broken from Grant's head-quarter=, his few remaining veterans, 
breaking their ranks, fell on their knees before him, and with 
indescribable emotion called God to bless and protect " Uncle Robert." 

All being lost save honour, General Lee retired at once into private 
life. On 1st October, 1865, he became President of Washington 
College, Lexington, in his native state. When a conditional 
amnesty was proclaimed, he brought his great soul to the humiliation of 
requesting pardon, not for his own sake, for he admitted no fault in 
following the fortune of his state, but because he felt the importance 
of his example to the thousands of his humbler fellow-citizens whose 
civil rights were forfeited by law until they sought and obtained 

History will record with shame that the pardon Lee stooped to 
procure was denied him ; but he pursued, unmoved, the even tenor 
of his way, thoroughly accepting the verdict of the war, and on 
every occasion inculcating submission to the restored union. Once 
he recoiled with horror from a lady who brought her two sons to 
hear him curse the North. 

" Madam," he exclaimed, " we are but one country now ; make 
your sons Americans." 

On another occasion he was discovered relieving the necessities 
of an old soldier. 

" That was one of our veterans," he explained ; adding in a 
whisper, " he was on the other side, but it doesn't signify now." 

In the simple performance of civil duties, and in almost cloistral 
seclusion, far from the pomp and circumstance of war, and with 
none around him of those brilliant officers whom he had trained and 
led to victory, General Lee breathed his last on the 12th October, 
1870. A fortnight earlier he had been struck by paralysis, and 
sensibility had never returned ; but the last thoughts of the dying 
warrior were unquestionably hovering over the battle-fields, where 
his genius had shone with so bright a lustre, for his only articulate 
words during those last sad days were pregnant with martial 
meaning : 

" Strike my tent. Send for Hill." 

His death plunged the South into profound grief. The bells 
tolled and the State-flags were lowered over half the Continent. 
The Legislature of Virginia adjourned, and a public funeral was 
decreed, but respectfully declined. 

In accordance with the General's expressed wish, he was buried 
in the vaults of his College Chapel, with the sublime ritual of the 
Church of England. 

His death occurred at a time of perfect peace over the whole of 
America ; but across the Atlantic the death grapple of France and 

136 Nellie Goodivin. 

Germany was approaching its extreme intensity, and Europe was 
convulsed by the rise and fall of Empires. But great as were the 
achievements of the eminent men engaged in directing the destinies 
or those states, they pale before the consummate genius for war, the 
daring strategy, and the sleepless vigilance of the Confederate General, 
The self-inflicted wounds of civil strife are not to be healed in a 
generation, and on the merits of the great American struggle history 
has yet to record its final judgment ; but the new world has already 
pronounced, with no faltering voice, that among the greatest and 
noblest of her sons few, if any, can bear comparison with the 
immortal name of Robert Edward Lee. 

L. L. M. 

|lc((ic 6.0 obtain ; 


In her quiet, sunny, little parlour at SummerviUe, Nellie sat sewing 
near the window, waiting the return of Grace from the Post Office. 
It was a couple of days after the ball, but Nellie was still entertain- 
ing Mrs. Goodwin with little incidents, only stopping now and then 
to lament the loss of her ring, and wonder where it was. She rose 
at length, and stood at the window watching for Grace. 

" Surely, Nellie, you don't expect her back yet ; she has only 
been gone ten minutes, and it is a longdistance to the Post Office ?" 

" But, Mamma, I am sure I shall get a letter to-day ; it is so long 
since I heard. Arthur deserves a scolding for keeping me so long 
waiting, and perhaps," she continued, kneeling suddenly by her 
mother's side, " he may tell me he is coming for me at once, and 
you will have to let me go, mother dear. I am so glad you are well 
again, and don't want me so much ;" and she laid her cheek caress- 
ingly against Mis. Goodwin's hand. 

" It will always be hard to part with you, dear," answered the 
mother with a slight tremble in her voice, " but, as you say, I am 
well now, and Grace is nearly able to be of real use to me." 

In more loving talk, the minutes flew so fast that Nellie jumped 
up in surprise, with a burning spot on each cheek, when Grace 
came in, and gave her her letter. She seized it eagerly, and went 
and stood at the window to read it. Mrs. Goodwin opened a paper, 
and looked up and down the columns listlessly, for her mind was 
with Nellie ; and when in a moment or two, a low startled cry met 
her ear, she was by her side immediately. 

Nellie Goodwin. 137 

" What is it, my child ; tell me, do ? " she entreated, for Nellie 
stood immovable, with a white stony face, and fingers tightly clasped 
over her letter. At the renewed entreaty, the girl turned, and 
meeting her mother's pitying glance, suddenly threw her arms round 
her, and hid her face on her shoulder. 

" Oh, Mamma, Mamma," she sobbed, " take me away, anywhere, 
only let me hide myself; it is all so dark, so dark ; and I don't care 
what happens now." 

" Is Arthur ill? " enquired her mother, never divining the real 

"No, worse than that. I can't tell you !" she said passionately. 
" Read the letter ; but, first, take me away." 

Mrs. Goodwin asked no more questions, but led her gently to her 
own room, where Nellie threw herself on her bed, begged it might 
be made quite dark, and she might be left alone. Her wishes were 
obeyed, and thinking she might be better so, her mother left her and 
went to read the letter. She saw at once how it had all come about, 
and blamed herself much for not having foreseen it, and been more 
careful. But the mischief was done now, and there was nothing for 
it but to submit quietly, and trust to time to soothe Nellie's grief, 
for neither she nor her daughter would stoop to plead her innocence 
to any one but Arthur himself, and that only in person, and she 
knew by the tone of his letter that he would never come to seek her 
again. In her distress and trouble, Nellie almost hated Mr. Gilbert 
as the cause of it all, and one of the hardest parts of it was the 
thought of how he and his family would rejoice at her freedom to 
marry anyone else now. For many days after she pleaded 
illness, which was only too real, as a reason for seeing no one but 
her mother and sister. Wearily the days and nights dragged on, 
bringing with them no glimmer of hope, but only a dull sense of 
desolation and misery, till she hated the bright sunshine, and the 
merry songs of the birds, that only seemed to mock her by their 

Soon after her recovery, she was standing in the little garden early 
one morning, with a bitter smile on her lip, and a cold dull look in 
her usually bright eyes, angry with herself and all around her, and 
feeling as though she had lost her way, and her very faith was 
slipping from her. " What had she done ? " was the angry thought, 
" that she should be punished so. She had tried to do her duty, 
and this was her reward. What was the good of trying ?" Poor 
Nellie, she was mad to rebel ; but she had nursed the angry, bitter 
thoughts, till they made her wretched, and she could neither pray 
nor think aright. Clear and sharp through the fresh morning air 
came the sound of the church bell ringing for morning prayers, and 
the sound struck reproachfully on her ear, for she had been a con- 
stant attendant till within the last week. Grace came out with her 
hat on, ready to set out, and seeing Nellie, she turned with a plead- 
ing face, saying gently, 

138 Nellie Goodwin,. 

" Come with me, Nellie, dear. So few people go now, and it is 
nice and quiet in the church. You will, won't you ?" she continued, 
as she still received no answer. " I will go and fetch your hat and 
gloves for you." 

In a few minutes Grace returned, and finding Nellie quite passive 
in her hands, she put on her things for her, and drew her out of the 
garden. No words passed between the sisters as they walked along 
the quiet street, with the fresh air blowing about their cheeks, for 
both were busy with their own thoughts. Nellie's head was bent 
down, for she feared to meet the gaze of passers-by, fancying they 
could read her secret in her face. The church was very dark at that 
early hour, only round the chancel rays of sunlight streamed in 
through the coloured panes, like rays of hope, Nellie thought at first ; 
but as a cloud passed, they faded too, and she took it as an ill omen. 
Still the old familiar words soothed and comforted her, and some of 
her usual trust came back. When the scanty congregation passed 
out, and the clergyman was gone, she still sat on, bidding the 
astonished Grace leave her too ; and then, all alone in her Father's 
house, she poured out the whole tide of her love and sorrow at His 
feet, till her aching heart received comfort, and she knew she was 
not utterly desolate- 

On her return, she found Mrs. Goodwin looking very anxious, for 
she had been absent a couple of hours, but she kissed her gently, 
saying in a low patient voice, 

" I am better now, Mamma, and can bear whatever comes ; only 
give me plenty to do, please." 

And from that day she strove to bear her cross patiently, taking 
up all her usual duties and letting no impatient words escape 

The look of triumph on the faces of both Maggie and her brother 
was unmistakeable when they met Nellie again, though they tried 
to conceal it ; but she held her head up proudly and bravely, and 
the flash that came into her eyes at their first attempts at pitying 
her, made them abandon the idea for ever. 

Meanwhile Arthur, utterly unconscious of the pain he had given, 
and thinking he alone suffered for it, was following his party far into 
the interior, entering into all the sport with a kind of feverish eager- 
ness, that was far from finding any pleasure in it. It was a refuge 
from thought, and that was enough for him just then. Utterly 
reckless, he was foremost in every danger, and seemed to set no 
value whatever on his life, till even his companions, who knew but 
little of the real danger of elephant and buffalo hunting, begged him 
to be more careful. Ernest Wilmot alone possessed the slightest 
influence over him, and often the boy's voice would make him pause 
when he was in his most reckless moods. Over their camp fire, when 
the rest were buried in slumber, he would sit up watching, and tell his 
young friend long stories of his former life in the forest. Once 
when they had been sitting quiet a long while, and Ernest had 

Nellie Goodwin. 139 

almost dropped asleep, he was roused by Arthur's voice, saying in a 
low whisper, 

" If anything happens to me, will you do me a great favour, 
Wilmot ?" 

" What should happen to you more than to any of the rest of 
us ? " asked Wilmot, almost fiercely, for he hated hearing Arthur 
speak in the desponding tone he used at times. 

" I don't say anything will happen, but something might. You 
all care to preserve your lives, and I have no interest in mine ; so I 
don't take care of it." 

As he spoke, he heaped up another log on the fire, and sent the 
flames leaping up, disclosing the motionless figures around, and 
lighting up his own pale face with a lurid glow. 

" I will do anything you wish, R.oss ; but I do hate to hear you 
speak in that way." 

" If I don't return with you, will you take this locket I always 
wear, and give it to the person whose address you will find in this 
envelope, which I will give you now. It will give you some trouble, 
and take you out of your way ; still, I ask you, as the only one I 
can trust now, to do this for me. Will you ? " 

" Certainly, I will promise ; but hope most sincerely it may never 
have to be performed." 

Arthur was playing with the locket as he spoke, and obeying a 
sudden impulse, showed the boy the beautiful girl-face it contained, 
then snapped it together again, and let it fall to its place without a 
word. After a long pause, Ernest tried to change the subject, by 

" How is your ancle that you sprained to-day ? Does it pain you 
much ? " 

" Very much ; it seems to be getting worse. I don't think I could 
stand on it." 

" I am sorry for that. We had determined to find that old bull- 
elephant we have been on the trail of so long, and I expect it will 
be rather an exciting chase.'' 

" I may be all right to-morrow ; and now, do go to sleep, 
Wilmot, or you will be fit for nothing yourself." 

The boy obeyed willingly, and soon Arthur was the only one 
awake in the silent night, the deep silence broken only by the occa- 
sional hooting of an owl, or the hideous roar of some wild beast. 

On the morrow he appeared better, and assisted them in preparing 
their ammunition, and discussing their breakfast and plans for the 
day. Still a gloom seemed to hang over him, which he tried vainly 
to shake off - , and at the last moment when they were ready to start, 
declared his inability to accompany them, and begged of them to 
proceed without him. There was a general demur at first ; but, on 
his protesting how little he minded being left behind, and how useless 
he would be in his crippled state, they consented, agreeing to return 
to the spot and rejoin him in the evening. Wilmot entreated him 

140 Nellie Goodwin, 

to let him remain, for he saw that he was suffering more than he 
showed, from his foot; hut Arthur rejected his proposal so roughly, 
that the boy turned away hurt and indignant, and rode after the 
rest. As they disappeared in the jungle, he turned for a last look, 
and saw Arthur leaning against a tree, still watching him, and his 
last action was to take off his hat and wave it to the lad in farewell. 
That last look haunted the boy for a long while, it was so sad and 
despairing, and yet the smile that was forced to cheer him was sweet 
as ever. But the excitement of the hunt soon drove everything else 
out of his head. They had the satisfaction of shooting their 
elephant, but too late in the day to return to Arthur ; so they 
determined to encamp where they were for the night, and rejoin him 
in the morning. 

At dawn on the following day, Wilmot roused his companions, 
and while they lingered on their way, shooting a bird here and there 
for a specimen, and turning off for the slightest thing, he hurried on, 
impelled by a strange, vague fear he could in nowise account for, and 
soon reached the spot, but no living being was visible. The fire was 
cold, and no signs appeared of its having been lit that morning. The 
boy stood still, alarmed and anxious, and soon the name of Ross 
woke the echoes far and wide ; but no answer came to his call. 
There was a heap of brushwood that he had gathered for the fire, 
and a pannikin of water, and close by, the blanket whereon he had 
slept, but nothing else. Turning his eager eyes in that direction, 
Ernest saw what made him shiver, and turn sick and faint with 
horror ; and he hid his face and cowered on the ground, unable to 
move or speak until the others came up. They found his blanket 
and the ground around it stained with blood, and large fragments of 
his clothes lay about, as though torn by some wild beast ; while two 
or three tufts of the grey and black mane of a lion left no doubt of 
what the brute was. There was a trail of blood into the forest, and 
marks on the grass where some heavy body had been dragged along, 
and after diligent search, they found a pistol that he always carried 
in his breast-pocket, in a tuft of long grass close by. Two of the 
barrels were discharged. Arthur had evidently made a struggle for 
his life, and in the scuffle the pistol had fallen there. It was an 
awful death, and his companions were terribly shocked and grieved. 
All pleasure in their expedition was at an end, and Wilmot was 
heart-broken, bitterly lamenting that he had not persisted in 
remaining with him. They searched the dense jungle in all direc- 
tions for the body, but the lion had evidently made an end of that, 
or else hidden it in the deep recesses of his den, so they were very 
reluctantly obliged to abandon the search, and return with sad hearts 
on their journey homeward. 

By means of their guide and interpreter, enquiries were made at 
some of the Kafir locations in the neighbourhood, but with no 
result whatever, so they made their way hastily back to more 
civilized parts of the Colony, in order to apprise his relatives of the 

Wanted, a JVifc. 14 1 

sad occurrence. No one but Wilmot seemed to know much about 
him, so he left his companions to fulfil his mission to the young lady 
at Summerville, though the locket he was to have conveyed to her 
was not to be found. He left his companions to find their way to the 
nearest seaport, where they would await his coming, and pressed on 
to that village. 

[To be continued.) 

Mantcu, a SStife." 


"Bertie," said my friend Mrs. Gay, "here is a chance for the 
young ladies in the Transvaal, and for vourself in particular." 

It was a scorching hot afternoon in midsummer ; so hot that 
though large trees shaded the verandah, and Venetian blinds guarded 
the windows, Ida and I had found conversation too fatiguing to be 
continued, and silence had reigned supreme for the last half hour. 
She dozed on a sofa, I in an arm chair ; but the rustle of a newspaper 
that was in her hand had commenced the work of arousing me which 
her speech completed. 

" What is the matter ? " I queried drowsily, unwilling to open 
my eyes, " it is quite too hot even to think of anything to my 

" It is nothing less than a proposal of marriage, my dear ; are you 
too far gone to listen to that ? " 

" My dear Ida, did you say that to-day "s paper contains a proposal 
of marriage addressed to Miss Bertha Allen ? " 

I opened my eyes this time and sat upright, but only to fall back 
again as she replied — 

" Well, I can't in truth say that your name is to be seen, but is 
not this meant for you as well as for anyone else ? " and she read — 


" ' A Gentleman of good means and of prepossessing appearance, is 
anxious to meet with a lady who would undertake the charge of his 
household, and become his companion for life. — Please address 
X.Y.Z., office of this paper, or Royal Hotel, Potchefstroom.' " 

" Being only a fresh arrival here," I commented, settling myself 
to go to sleep again, " I have still to find out which of these good 
burghers are sane and which are not." 

" No, but Bertie," said Ida, laughing, " don't go to sleep ; who 
can it be that has advertised .? " And she began telling off on her 
fingers the eligible unmarried men in the town. " No,"' she finished, 
" I cannot think of anyone." 

142 Wanted, a JP'ife. 

" Perhaps it is a stranger," I suggested. " Mr. Gay said, this morn- 
ing, that there were some staying at the Royal.'' 

" As if strangers would come here to look for a wife ! No, it is 
one of the residents, and the question is, which one ? " 

" Very likely the baker round the corner," I said soothingly ; " he 
is a mooi man, as I heard Rachael say this morning." 

" Oh, Bertie, how tiresome you are, and 1 do so want to know." 

" Mrs. Gay," I exclaimed, with more gravity than grammar, " you 
ought to be ashamed of yourself ; what do you, a young married 
woman, want, troubling yourself about other people's matrimonial 
affairs ? " 

She laughed as she answered, tc All on your account, my dear ; all 
on your account ; but really Bertie, are you ready for a bit of fun ?'' 

" When it gets cooler," I sighed, wishing most fervently that she 
had not seen this unlucky advertisement till the sun had set. 

" By all means ; but let us talk it over now, and Harry shall help 
us and so make all straight." 

I said, " Poor Harry !" and resigned myself to the inevitable, 

" Suppose we answer that advertisement, and so find out by whom 
it was inserted." 

I looked dubious. " My dear Ida, it would be good fun, and I am 
sure we are in want of some ; but there is more than a slight risk. 
Suppose it is traced to us, the letter wiil be shown all over town, and 
it strikes me the fun will be on the other side." 

" I should think so," said my lively little friend, who was thus 
leading me astray, " but we must provide against such a turn of the 
tide; of course the man must not know who sent it. You must 
write the letter, I copy it, and Harry shall post it. And now for what 
to say." 

We discussed the subject with much merriment till Mr. Gay came 
in for his five o'clock tea, quite in the dark regarding a certain little 
plot in which he was to be an accomplice. 


It was five o'clock on another such an afternoon as that mentioned 
in the last chapter, and I was staying with another friend. We had 
grumbled about the weather till we were tired, when I suddenly 
thought of a certain letter which was still unwritten. 

" Alice," I said, " I should like a piece of paper and a pen, if you 

" On condition that you let me see to whom you are going to 
write," she replied, placing the writing materials before me. 

Oh, horrors ! 

" Very likely," I answered gaily, " my love letters are not fof 
inquisitive young ladies to read. 1 ' 

"Well, don't be too long about it," she laughed, going back to 
her book in the window, " remember we are to be at the Kent's for 
croquet in an hour's time." 

IF anted, a Wife. 143 

Remember, of course I did ; but in the meanwhile this letter had 
to be written. Mr. Gay had promised to aid and abet us in our 
scheme, so I came to the conclusion that if they were right I could 
not be far wrong. 

I nibbled the end of my pen, but finding it anything but palatable, 
brought it to bear upon the paper, and began — 


" Dear Sir, — I have seen your advertisement of the 10th inst., 
and am sure that our union would be conducive to the happiness 
of both. On Wednesday afternoon, at five o'clock, I shall take a 
walk to the Waterfall near Ricker's Mill, where we can meet. Until 
then I remain, 

" Yours, &c, 

"An Enigma. 


I looked at my letter, and thought I saw the word " hoax " 
written across it, as well I might. The letter I enclosed to Mrs. 
Gay, with the injunction, " for goodness sake don't let us be found 

" Your letter has not taken you very long,*' said Alice, as I stood 
up and announced my work done. 

" My letters never do," I answered gravely. " I always begin by 
asking after my friend's health, and by describing the state of the 
weather, and then remain theirs affectionately and in haste." 

" And in the middle you tell them what a dull place this is ! " she 

" Of course as a rule, my dear, but in this I have said that Mrs. 
Gay talks about our taking'tea at the Waterfall, near Ricker's Mill, 
on Wednesday afternoon. What do you think of the idea ? " 

" Charming," she replied, " we want something to liven us up." 

Half an hour afterwards Alice Grant and I were crossing the 
grassy square on our way to croquet. Most of the players were 
assembled as we entered the ground. 

u Late as usual ! " said Dorothy Kent. " Why, Bertie, child," she 
continued, holding my hand in hens as she surveyed my pink cheeks 
and bright eyes, " what mischief have you been up to ? " 

" Why should you always suppose that I have been doing what I 
ought not ? " I asked, blushing still more. 

" Because you always look like it," she answered. " Here Alice, 
what has Bertie been up to ? " 

*■* Writing love letters," said Alice coolly, picking out her special 

" Oh ! that accounts ! " and Dorothy let me go. 

" Writing what ? " asked a masculine voice from behind, and then 
Stephen Grant drew his lazy length to where we stood. 

" Love letters," reiterated Alice. 

" Miss Allen," said Stephen, pretending to be very serious, " I 

144 Wanted, a Wife. 

am sorry to tell you that such an offence is considered capital in our 
household, and punished accordingly.'' 

" I am very sorry," I murmured penitently, looking down. 

11 With that new ' Dolly Varden ' shading your face 'tis very easy 
to make such an assertion ; I should like to see a little of your regret." 

I replied by one swift glance from under the objectionable hat, and 
then went off to my game with a light laugh. 

In uewy sunlight we wended our way homeward, a large and merry 
party, with evening breeze wafting around us the delicious perfumes 
of orange and acacia trees. 


The light tea over, we adjourned to the stoep. 

The full moon tipped the trees with silver, and the faint perfumes 
from invisible flowers filled the air. : Twas truly the " witching hour 
of night." 

Stephen Grant evidently thought so, for he threw himself at full 
length at our feet, and remained silent from pure enjoyment. 

When a rather desultory chat with Alice was concluded, I turned 
to find him studying my moonlit face. 

Alice turned also, and exclaimed, as she touched him with her foot, 

" What a lazy creature you are to be sure, Stephen. I am certain 
Miss Allen would rather you stretched yourself somewhere else, you 
keep all the fresh air from her." 

He settled himself more comfortably before he answered, 

"My dear sister, the majority of your sex like to be admired, and 
I do not suppose Miss Allen is an exception to the rule/' 

" How rude you are ! " I exclaimed indignantly. 

" Am I, Bertie ? "■ — he added mv name under his breath — " I was 
just thinking how like a bride you look to-night in that white 
muslin, and with the mandevillia in your hair." 

" Rather a soiled bridal robe," I answered, laughing a little 
nervously, as I drew the syringa stained folds through my fingers, 
and wishing, just for half a minute, that I had not written that note. 

It seemed as if every one already knew something about the joke, 
for at that moment old Mr Grant joined us, saying gaily, 

" Have you young people seen the late advertisement for a wife — 
speaking of brides reminded me of it — who do you suppose put it in ? " 

" We cannot suppose at all, Mr. Grant," answered Dorothy Kent, 
who with her brother and sister were spending the evening with us. 
"We arc all most anxious to know, especially myself, for if he is 
really eligible I think I shall answer the advertisement; I am getting 
quite an old maid." 

" Quite so," echoed her brother; " I should strongly advise you 
to take old Jones, the butcher, for I heat the advertisement comes 
from him." 

"Do you call him eligible?" asked Alice, when the laugh al 
Dorothy's expense had subsided. 

IV anted, a Wife. 145 

" Of course I should, if I were Dore's age." 

"Well, I don't then," said that young lady ; " I heard he was a 
stranger, tall and fair, staying at the c Royal/ Where did you hear 
your story, Willie ? " 

" Don't be inquisitive," he answered. 

"I also heard something about a stranger," I interpolated. 

"And so did I, but that he had gone to Kimberley," said Alice. 

" Well, you all heard wrong then," came quietly from Stephen ; 
" I have seen the man, and spoken to him." 

" Oh ! Stephen," we all cried at once, " who is he ? what is he ? " 

" One question at a time," he conditioned. 

" Is he young, Stephen ? " 

" Quite young." 

" Rich ?'" 

" Very." 

" Does he live here ? " 

« Yes." 

" Is he of a ' prepossessing appearance ' ? " 

He hesitated a moment before answering me, and then said slowly, 
with the mischievous twinkling in his eye which I had observed 

" Well you see, beauty is quite a matter of taste, and I don't know 
your style." 

" Oh ! Stephen, do leave off chaffing, and tell us who it is ? " 

"Julius Block, Esquire, who keeps the ' Negotie WinkeF down 

" Nonsense," we cried in a rage ; but he laughed so heartily him- 
self that the contagion soon spread. 

" How do you know ? " his father asked. 

" Why, my dear sir, somebody tackled him with it and he laughed ; 
you know he is anxious for a wife." 

" But he has one already," objected Mr. Grant. 

" Well she isn't living here, and he supposes he can commit 
bigamy," answered his son. 

" Oh ! Mr. Grant," I asked, bending down, feeling as much 
inclined to cry as to laugh, " it isn't true, is it ? " 

" Fact, I assure you," he rejoined, in evident amusement. 

" Snuffy old creature," said Alice ; " who does he suppose will have 
him ? " 

" Dorothy, of course, 5 ' promptly answered Willie ; " and I will do 
groomsman, Alice, and you bridesmaid." 

" I don't believe it is old Mr. Block ; Mr. Grant has been caught 
romancing several times lately," I said, glancing at him. 

A short silence ensued, which was broken by Alice remarking, 

" Stephen, Mrs. Gay talks of going to the Waterfall on Wednes- 
day for five o'clock tea ; won't it be fun ? " 

" The very thought," he assented, " tea for you ladies, and a cigar 
for us under the trees, with * the river gliding by.' I only wonder 
Vol. XVII. l 

146 IV anted, a IVife. 

this sort of thing has not been thought oi' before. Who started the 
idea ? " 

" I did, so thank me duly." 

"I do." 

Alice and Willie moved away, and then I found that the others 
had left us also, for at that moment came Dorothy's sweet voice from 
the piano, 

" Love me once again, 
Meet me once a Jnin ; 
Old love is awaking, 
Shall it wake in vain ? " 

That song was finished and another commenced, and we still 
listened in silence. 

"Bertie," said Stephen, softly. 

Alice and Willie, in their slow promenade, had reached their limit 
and were retracing their steps. 

" Bertie," he repeated ; " what did I hear Alice say to-day ? " 

" What about ? " I asked as carelessly as I could, wishing that the 
moonlight would not shine so full upon my face, which was getting 

M About a certain letter." 

" Yes, well ? " 

" She said it was a love letter." 

"Did she?" 

" You know she did ; was it, Bertie ? " 

« Perhaps so." 

" To whom was it ? " he asked, with a pretence at carelessness. 

" I deny your right to ask me such a question, but I will answer 
it. I don't know." 

" That is rather a strange answer, is it not ? " 

" You are better able to judge than I, Mr. Grant." 

" I understand," he said stiffly. 

" I don't think you do," I answered quietly, and then to Jiide a 
foolish trembling lip I bent my head to speak again. 

" Hark ! do you hear ? " Through the open window came the 
words of the song, " What will to-morrow bring ; who can tell ? " 

" On some to-morrow I will tell you to whom I wrote to-day." 

" I look for to-morrow," he quoted, as we rose to join the others- 

I asked my heart : ".Is it Julius Block, Esquire ?" 


Wednesday dawned fair and promising, and at the hour of five, 
that hour which has proved so fatal in this veracious little history, a 
merry, happy party set out for Ricker's Mill. 

It was a muddy walk, but there were attentive cavaliers to help us 
on our way, from stone to stepping-stone. 

How pleasant it was, the sun's rays tempered by a wooing breeze; 

Wanted, a Wife. 1 47 

and when our party gathered on the short green grass, the willows 
drooped their plumy branches into " the rivers shoddon depths 

In the foreground stood the old red brick mill, with its now silent 
ponderous wheel, so picturesque, so quiet. 

Of course there was tea-making, but I did not assist, and preferred 
sitting by the water with my idle hands in it, listening to the desul- 
tory conversation which was carried on around me. 

" Who will sing? " suggested Stephen. 

'' Suppose you do, Mr. Laziness," said I. 

" Very well, what shall it be \ 'I choose to be a daisy ? ' " 

" Exactly so," said Dorothy ; " but if you could possibly turn into 
a flower I should expect to see a ' big sunflower.'" 

" For shame, you mean a delicate spray of stephanotis." 

" Mr. Grant, we don't laugh at such atrocious jokes." 

" No, but really, do somebody sing. Miss Allen, will you favour 
us ? " 

I sang the most appropriate song I could think of, " The Mill 
Wheel," and the words lingered on the air, 

Afar there flows a river, 
Beside my childhood's home ; 
A mill wheel there for ever 
Resounds thro" shining foam. 

I was thanked, and the request passed round again. This time 
Dorothy answered it, by singing her favourite " Once again." 

" The first line of the refrain ought to be altered to suit different 
circumstances," said Stephen. " First love is awaking, shall it wake 
in vain ? " 

" Or rather last love, when a man sings it," I suggested mis- 

Cries of " Oh, how severe !" and " Quite too bad !" sounded all 
around ; and, laughing gaily, we were going to argue the point, when 
Stephen said quietly, 

"That old gentleman is coming to see what the row is about." 

We all turned, and my heart beat fast. I looked hastily around 
for my accomplice, but she was nowhere to be seen. If ever guilt 
was written upon a human face surely it was on mine. I waited for 
the figure to come nearer and say, pointing a lean finger at me, " I 
advertised for a wife, and that young lady answered the advertise- 
ment ; will some one kindly tell me her name ? " 

It was an odd figure, in a brown coat of obsolete cut, and buttoned 
to the chin; and it was an odd face that topped the figure, a 
wrinkled sunburnt face, with a fringe of yellow grey hair framing it, 
and sly grey eyes like a cat's. He came close this "old man of the 
sea," but instead of the dreaded expose, he merely eyed us and said, 
" Good afternoon ladies ; " and we answered, " Good afternoon." 

" Who is he ? " I whispered to Stephen, when he was passed. And 

L 2 

148 Wanted, a Wife. 

slowly, and with that old mischievous twinkle in his brown eyes, he 
answered, " Julius Block, Esquire." 

Everyone had some remark to make, but I sat silent, thinking, 
asking myself what somebody would say if he knew what brought 
the old man to Ricker's Mill that day ; but I had no time to answer 
the question for our host and his wife now came up. 

Ida met my look with a face that was an enigma to me ; it con- 
tained a mixture of relief and intense amusement. In a minute I 
slipped away and she followed. 

Once out of hearing I began, " Oh, Ida, I have seen him, and he 
is the ugli — — . Why what is the matter ? " I might well ask, for 
Mrs. Gay had seated herself on the grass, and for excess of merriment 
certainly outstripped anyone I had ever seen. 

The noise of the falling waters was deafening, but I could see 
when her laughter had abated, and began again, 

" It is Mr. Julius Block ; and he is the ugliest old man I have 
ever ." 

No, j positively could not go on ; there was ] Ida laughing 
again till the tears actually stood in her eyes, but she gradually re- 
covered and astonished me. 

" Bertie, it has been a hoax in a hoax, diamond cut diamond. 
We were going to sell some one and have been sold ourselves instead." 

" How, when, where ? " I interrogated breathlessly. " What 
does it all mean ? " 

" Why it all means that Harry never sent that letter at all," she 
answered. " He says he never meant to send it, but thought we 
might as well have our pic-nic ; and the knowledge of wrong-doing 
to pay us out for our trick. He told me this a little while ago, and 
when I saw old Mr. Block go round your way I knew what you 
would think, and have very nearly killed myself with laughing ever 

This information was too much for me to take in all at once, but 
I understood enough to give a big sigh of relief, and register a 
mental vow that my first love letter (J) should be my lasc. 

Mr. Gay now joined us, and laughing forgivenesses passing round 
we retraced our steps. 

" Wi' lightsome heart " I finished this pleasant afternoon, and 
felt thoroughly happy when in the glowing moonlight we went our 
way home. 

Under the shadow of the leafy trees Stephen stayed me for a 
moment, as bending his tall height, he whispered softly, 

" Was that the first or last love letter, my darling ? " 

And in my new tremulous happiness I answered him truly and 

Bumble Bee. 


Sutlers an giwhhuy. 

VI. — On Current Accounts and Securities held against 
Overdrafts. — Part I. 

My purpose is to make this title the subject of two letters. In 
the present one I propose to speak of that side of current accounts 
which forms a liability of a bank ; and in the next, of the other 
side which is ranked amongst the assets. 

In this letter I intend to give a brief sketch of the nature of 
liabilities, of securities, and of the mechanism of a current account ; 
and at the same time to indicate, in a general way, the system upon 
which they are managed. 

That for which a banker becomes indebted is the liability of 
a bank, it comprehends the permanent capital of the bank : capital 
lodged on deposit, notes in circulation, and letters of credit in 

The capital on hand, and that which has been received in 
exchange for capital paid away constitute the assets of a bank : loans, 
oills discounted, investments in stock, and bank property are 
comprised in the assets. 

A banker's liabilities, apart from the permanent capital of the 
bank, represents capital which has been acquired on the strength of 
his credit. The banker's credit was accepted in exchange for- 
capital by different individuals under a variety of circumstances, but 
on conditions exactly similar. Each individual ceded his property, 
or ownership in the money, whenever he deposited it with the banker, 
and retained only a simple right of demanding repayment. A 
banker is bound at any time to meet a customer's demand for 
repayment of a sum deposited ; but in the event of his failing to do 
so, the customer is without recourse against the banker. He can 
only share in the assets of the bank along with the other creditors. 
The banker has therefore absolute control over the capital on which 
his liabilities are founded, as far as regards the manner of employing 
it, from the very moment in which the liability is created, until it is 
again paid off. There can be no breach of faith between the 
banker and his customer concerning the use to which the money is 
put, as the banker has full liberty to apply whatever capital may 
come into his possession in the ordinary course of banking business, 
in the way he thinks best suited to advance his own interest. 

Deposits, notes, and the various kinds of letters of credit form 
the currents by which money is conveyed to the banker, and the 
main channel through which it is again distributed is the current 
accounts. By the former means he borrows money, and through 
the latter medium he lends it. The striking peculiarity in this 
operation of borrowing and lending by a banker, is that the capital 
which he borrows must be again repaid on demand, whilst that 

1^0 Letters on Banking. 

which he lends returns to the bank only at certain fixed intervals. 
To bring back to the bank a sufficient portion of the capital on 
loan in time to meet demands by customers is a matter which requires 
careful arrangement. The banker must retain sufficient power over 
the capital which he lends either to recall it at pleasure, or in cases 
where the circumstances do not admit of a prompt return, by 
a certain fixed date. Having this object in view it is therefore 
advisable always to grant credits for short periods only, and to have 
particular regard to the character of the instrument of security upon 
which the banker's lien, or authority to recall the debt, is founded. 

The term security refers to such instruments as personal bonds, 
deeds of mortgage, ordinary trade bills, shares in railways, or in any 
public company, and others of a similar nature, which a banker holds 
as collateral security for the repayment of a loan, or an advance, or it 
may be against a discount. The following is a definition of a 
banker's lien upon a security as given in " Smith's Law of Banking" 
pp. 29 and 30. " Banker's have," say Mr. Smith, " by the law 
merchant, what is called a general lien on securities, such as bills, 
notes, &c, put into their hands by their customers to be dealt 
with in the ordinary way of banking, and not merely for safe cus- 
tody. A right of general lien, as distinguishable from a right of 
particular lien, is a right to hold, and when the case admits of it, to 
realize, such securities as come into his hands from his customer, or 
on his customer's account, to obtain payment of a general balance 
due to him from such customer, either at the time when the security 
was deposited, or at any time while it lawfully remains in the 
banker's hands. 

" When you send your coat to your tailor to be mended, he has 
a particular lien for the mending only, and not for the price of the 
trowsers which he has just sent home. If he had by law, or by 
your agreement, a right to keep the coat till you paid the whole of 
his bill, he would have a general lien, which is what the banker has." 
Although a credit may assume various titles according to the form 
in which it is granted, there arc in the abstract only two methods of 
obtained credit in currency from the bank, and these are either by a 
loan against security, or by discounting a bill. It will be observed 
that an ordinary trade bill may be used in cither way. Now a 
glance at the value of an ordinary trade bill in the banker's hands as 
security for the repayment of a loan, as compared with a similar bill 
under discount, will sufficiently indicate the point of difference 
between the two systems. 

In the first place the conditions of a simple loan^can"only have a 
binding force between two individuals : if you lend an individual a 
sum of money, you can only have recourse against the same individual 
for repayment. But when a banker discounts a bill he has not 
only a legal claim for repayment from his own customer who gets 
the money, but also on the other endorsers of the bill, as well as on 
the acceptor, who is first called upon to pay. 

Letters on Banking. 151 

Take now an instance of a bill being deposited with a banker by 
his customer as security for the payment of an existing debt, or a 
debt which is about to be contracted, and examine the value of the 
bill. In such a case the banker would have to give back the bill to 
his customer, whenever the debt was paid ; he would have no pro- 
perty in the bill. All the banker's interest in such a bill would be 
his right of lien on the security for payment of a particular debt ; and 
in the event of the bankruptcy of the debtor, the banker would be 
bound to hand over the bill to the assignees of the bankrupt estate 
after the debt against which he holds the bill has been paid. The 
case is altogether different with a bill under discount. When once 
a bill is discounted it become the property of the banker, and is 
ranked amongst the assets of the bank : in other words, the 
banker has acquired all right and interest in the bill by purchase, 
and as the law fully recognizes the property of the banker in such 
bills, he therefore, in a legal sense, buys the debt of the trader when he 
discounts his bill. 

Although, as a rule, it is not of much consequence to the indivi- 
dual contracting a debt, whether the credit he obtains is derived from 
the pledging of his bill as a security, or from the discounting of the 
bill — (the former course may be a trifle cheaper), it is of great import- 
ance that the banker should observe the distinction in granting the 
credit. By adopting the former course the banker deprives himself of 
the right to use the bill ; it lies idle in the bank, and it would be a 
dereliction of duty to sell it, or to pay it away ; but by discounting 
it the banker acquires an absolute right to use the bill in any 
wav he pleases. 

It is always preferable to grant a credit by discounting legitimate 
trade bills, rather than by lending on any other form of security. 
The reason of this is obvious. A bill is itself a negotiable instrument 
when discounted, which the banker can sell at any time, and thereby 
obtain a return of the money which he gave for it ; it matures on a 
specified date, when he can reckon upon payment, if he does not 
require to realize it by sale beforehand ; and in addition to his right 
of lien upon it, as against his own customer, he has a legal right to 
recover against the acceptor and the various endorsers. 

Look now for a little at the connection between a bill under 
discount and a current account, which is, as already stated, the main 
channel through which the public receives credit from the banker. 
The balance standing at the credit of a customer of the bank in a 
drawing or current account, is the result of payments made from 
time to time to the banker, in coin, in various descriptions of orders 
payable on demand, and the proceeds of bills discounted. The 
demand orders are converted into cash in the course of a few days, 
as they are simply debts which the customer hands to his banker to 
collect for him ; and if we leave the bills out of the account, the 
balance thereafter represents cash which the banker has actually 
received. In order to observe the peculiarities of the bills, recall 
the example already used in a former letter, of an individual taking 

152 Letters on Banking. 

a bill for £100 to obtain a discount from the banker. It will be 
remembered that the proceeds derived from the discounting of this 
bill were placed to the credit of the individual who received the 
money, in his current account, and that he could draw from time to 
time upon the balance thus formed until it was exhausted. Now, 
although a new credit is hereby formed, it must be observed that the 
capital which went to form it was first taken from the banker's own 
till. There was no accession of fresh capital to the bank by the 
transaction. On the contrary, the banker contracted this new 
liability on his own capital, and whenever the amount standing 
at the credit of the individual is withdrawn from the bank, the 
banker's working capital will be £100 less than it was before the 
transaction. This sum again returns to the bank at the maturity of 
the bill. 

A banker's balance sheet generally presents the balances standing 
at the credit of current accounts amongst the liabilities on deposits. 
It must, however, be kept in mind that where this is done, the 
amount of deposits will represent more capital than that which 
is available from deposits to be employed by the banker, as a portion 
of the amount is derived from the proceeds of bills discounted, and 
is therefore the result of a credit for which the banker has not 
received any capital. It is an equivalent of notes in his hands, 
issued on the credit of the trader at a discount. The bills from 
which the credit originated will be found on the other side of 
the balance sheet ranked as assets of the bank. These bills are 
always treated by the banker as assets of the bank ; and although in 
a certain sense they bear the character of securities, it would lead to 
confusion to speak of em as such, as the assets of a bank constitute 
the property of the banker, while the securities are the property of 
his customers. 

In order to ascertain the principle of advancing, or lending on a 
current account, turn now to that side of the account which forms a 
portion of the assets of a bank, and, in the first place, let us 
endeavour to trace a bare outline of the general effect which lending 
on current accounts may have on the sound financial position of 
a bank. When a banker honours his customer's cheque for a larger 
amount than that which is standing at the credit of his account in 
the bank, the amount which is paid in excess of the credit is termed 
an overdraft. The right of overdrawing an account is a matter 
of special arrangement between the banker and his customer. The 
arrangement is generally efFected on the basis of the securities 
tendered by the customer. It is a common mistake to suppose that 
the banker is guided solely by a certainty of receiving back his 
money, or the reverse, in making an arrangement of this nature. 
There can be no doubt but that he would be largely influenced by 
having full confidence in his customer ; but on the other hand, 
it is quite possible that all his customers may be of the most upright 
character, and possessed of means more than sufficient to meet 
all their engagements, and still the bank to be placed in a perilous 

Acrostic Sonnet. 153 

position by an excess of overdrafts. The safety of the bank must 
therefore be subject to consideration in allowing an overdraft, as 
well as the safely of the customer. Perhaps the greatest disad- 
vantage attending overdrafts is that they cannot be called up at the 
precise time when the money may be required by the banker. If 
the capital advanced on overdrafts were employed in discounting 
bills, the banker would have the bills to fall back upon in the event 
of any commercial crisis causing a run upon the bank. The bills 
might be re-discounted, and the capital which was advanced upon 
them thereby recalled to the bank. But assuming that it has been 
advanced on current accounts, the banker would have to trust to his 
securities (which are not negotiable) to call up the overdrafts on the 
accounts. Before this could be accomplished it would be necessary 
to realize a large portion of those securities in the market. The 
misunderstandings and difficulties which would arise out of such 
a course are apparent. The banker would suddenly find himself, to 
his cost, involved in a share of most of the commercial transactions 
of the district, in addition to his own business. A careful banker, 
therefore, endeavours always to keep the amount of overdrafts on 
current accounts at a comparatively low figure, by employing only 
in this manner that portion of his capital which he cannot profitably 
use in other ways. 

As a very large proportion of the losses sustained by bankers 
arises from overdrafts on current accounts, it will perhaps be as well 
to devote the subsequent portion of this letter to a consideration 
of that species of credit by itself. 

John K. Guthrie, 

S tatesman well tried ! but never wanting found ; 

I n Africa or India's distant land, 

R uling with mildness firmly, judgment sound ; 

B enevolent and courteous, genial, bland ; 

A ssuaging human woe with head, heart, hand ; 

R esolved — aye, ready — to resist the wrong, — 

T hrough love of God, right, mercy, render'd strong — 

L arge-hearted, able, worthy to command ! 

E steem, respect, securing everywhere* 

F riend of all races ! whose life's noble aim, 

R esolve, — to make man's happiness thy care — ■ 

E ver increase with deserved fame ; 

R uler beloved ! fain would we keep thee here, 

E v'ntill thy dear life's term be o'er, — Sir Bartle Frere. 

S. W. D. 
July 30th, 1878, 


(The ihfir $fa anb its Wessons : 


No. II. 

These ever-recurring wars, who shall estimate the influence which 
they have had, prejudicial in every way to the natives, and if to the 
natives how much more to the colonist? we were on this 
occasion engaged in actual hostilities, we had cherished the hope that 
we had seen the last of native outbreaks. Every additional year of 
peace maintained we valued as a guarantee ever increasing in value 
that peace would be maintained. Our disappointment that it has 
not is very positive. It is not alone the present mischief wrought 
that is to be deplored. The natives have got again familiarized with 
actual war. Is this to be the first of a new series of such outbursts 
of violence ? 

Those interested in the publication of serial literature make it 
very prominent what the venture is made of, reviving a defunct maga- 
zine, or carrying it forward into a new series, they tell of improve- 
ments, and of increased attention and vigour to be put in requisition. 
Is it to be so with these wars ? Are the natives to turn to profitable 
account their experience, their better acquaintance and larger practice 
with the new arm now in their possession, and come up again, after 
a short interval of so-called peace, to renew the struggle, reproduce 
the violence and robbery, under more favourable conditions and 
greater probabilities of success ? Then the prosperity of the Colony 
is at an end. 

There must be such a dealing with the native question now as will 
make future wars impossible. This as much for the natives' own 
sake as for that of the colonist. The one must have confidence that 
peaceful relations will be maintained, the other must have all grounds 
of hope taken from him that it will ever be in his power to again 
disturb such relations. 

The possession of arms must not be allnued.— On the part of the 
natives their wishing to have arms can be only with one object : that 
of attacking us. Use for arms, or reason why they should possess 
them, they have none ; therefore, let them be kept from having them. 
It must be declared unlawful for them to have weapons of war. In 
this, then, no occasion for bluster or sentimental whining cither. 
Infringement of liberty there is not in this. ,»Itisa first duty of 
every man, and of every community of men, as well to devise or 
adopt whatever means are requisite fur personal safety, the protection 
of property; the preserving of public order, in short. No civilized 
community can otherwise exist. There is no pretext under which 
it can be shown that arms arc necessary to any of the natives ; it is 

Ihc Kafir War and its Lessons. 155 

very easy to see how the possession of them keeps thoughts of mis- 
chief before them. We will not suffer them to use arms against 
each other, and we must not suffer them to have them to use against 

The very possibility of doing so must be taken away from them, 
even as a thing to think about. The spade and the ploughshare, the 
sheep shears and the wagon whip, the crowbar and the wheel-barrow, 
will bring them gold into their hands ; and, what is better still, will 
form in them habits of industry, transform their character. This is 
the school to which they must first go, this is the education which 
they most need. 

Prolonged peace a security of permanent peace. — Peace soundly 
established is a guarantee valuable just as it is prolonged for the 
continuance of peace. The war habit dies out, the art of war is 
forgotten, and the disposition to provoke t^ or engage in war becomes 
weakened : is les'j fondly cherished. The native, by long-continued 
peace, becomes less expert in the practice of war. 

No one who knows or remembers what the past native wars were, 
can fail to see that the present outbreak of violence is quite a different 
thing from the wars of the past. The men who were the fiercest 
combatants twenty-six years ago were schooled in war, true veteran 
soldiers many of them. Such of them as are still alive are too old 
now for actual warfare, and with their past experience far less dis- 
posed thereto, being less hopeful of success. The young bloods now 
in the front want experience, their quality is that of raw recruits. 
With the weapons of precision now in their hands, and with the 
fierce temper and spirit and previous training of 1852, they would have 
proved them a foe greatly more dangerous than we have yet on this 
occasion found them. The firearms in their hands are far from being 
of that deadly service which they had hoped, and which we had 
feared. Confident in the possession of the white man's weapon they 
seem to have discarded that which they once knew better how to use, 
so that neither with gun nor assegai have they fought as they did on 
former occasions. Let us make sure that they shall not have further 
opportunity of improving upon present failures, or of learning better 
how to use their more deadly weapon. 

The Kafir has in him the making of a good soldier. — With the Kafir's 
natural capacity for the use of arms under review, we rate his soldierly 
qualities high. He has singular power of endurance ; he has courage ; 
the recognition of authority is a life principle in him, and for physical 
symmetry and adaptation where is his equal to be found ? Would 
that the Imperial Government were induced to consider and take 
advantage of this. For service in India two or three as fine regi- 
ments as are under the Crown might be raised, composed of picked 
young men who might be disposed to enter the service. Away from 
their own people there would be no reason to suspect their loyalty. 
They would be less expensive, and would be better adapted to a warm 
climate than the British soldier. The Kafir is greatly more worthy 

156 The Kafir IVar and its Lessons. 

of confidence than is the Sepoy. And an excellent civilizing school 
would this service be. Would that some of our military officers with 
genius for the task, and enthusiasm, were induced to take this matter 
up. Deserving well of their country, we would write against their 

The demoralizing influence of war. — Loss of property, disturbed 
relations, apprehension of danger, these are not all the evils springing 
out of or connected with a state of war. Its tendency is to de- 
moralize all within range of its influence. The war panic of five 
months ago, all throughout the eastern divisions of the Colony, has 
disappeared. Even with the rebels advanced much farther into the 
Colony there is much less excitement and outcry and alarm. Why 
is this ? One reason undoubtedly is, that people are better prepared 
for defending their lives and their property. They have more confi- 
dence in themselves, and instead of running away when danger was 
yet a good way off they have now resolution to maintain their posi- 
tion and protect their property against heavy odds of the rebels and 
spoliators. This is not demoralization, it is just the reverse. If it 
be not genuine patriotism it is a very serviceable substitute for that 

There is, however, another reason for the now state of things so 
different from what it was a few months ago. There is quite a 
crowd of men in receipt of public money now who were making 
nothing of the war before. That has tended to hush not a few 
voices. This has no reference to the burghers who, in the hour of 
threatening danger, turned out so loyally. To but few of them can 
the allowance which they receive be a very strong temptation. And 
the heartiness was worthy of admiration with which so many volun- 
teered their services at first, to whom the compensation offered could 
be no inducement at all to take the field. Only a sense of duty it 
can have been with them, and a desire speedily to conquer a satisfac- 
tory peace. 

That so little was made of this patriotic and praiseworthy dis- 
position, and those services made so little use of by Government at 
the time, was quite inexplicable. It is better understood now. 
There was such a disposition then which, had it been encouraged and 
turned to account, any number of men that Government required 
would have readily gone to the front. They needed no burgher 
law, no penalties of a defence bill, to compel them to come out. A 
few weeks' experience, however, had a wonderful effect upon those 
who did go. They soon became convinced that their services com- 
manded very small thanks, and were turned to as little use as possible. 

When under the urgency of the crisis that soon gathered to a 
head, ministers woke up somewhat. It was " a kingdom for a horse " 
with them then. The most desirable service was not, however, to 
be procured now. The colonists felt as if they had been befooled, 
and had no liking to be so again. But men must be had. The 
ever-spreading rebellion must be watched, if nothing more. Men 

The Kafir IV ar and its Lessons. 157 

were got. Native levies, Fingoes, Kafirs, and others — anybody — 
were raised. Men who had before sat still, shown no disposition to 
go to the front, now got appointed to be officers in these levies. 
The Kafir did not turn out to be such a terrible fellow to fight with 
after all ; the danger to life or limb was not very threatening, and the 
pay was now enough to be an object of consideration. 

The Fingoes engaged to protect their own locations, Government 
supplying them with arms. Soon after getting such arms they made 
other conditions of service, they too must have pay. At every fresh 
alarm additional levies were raised, till there are locations where 
sufficient herds for the cattle are not left, and idle men enough can 
no longer be got to make officers of. These, all these, have an 
interest in the prolongation of the war. They have little to do 
beyond cooking their food and eating it. They are everywhere to 
be met with, slouching about with a gun over their shoulders, wasting 
ammunition to a fearful extent, and receiving a greatly higher pay 
than the regular British soldier. To these men, and there are many 
of them, it would be certain satisfaction were they assured that the 
war would be drawn out for months to come. This is demoraliza- 
tion. When men have got to feel that they have a beneficial 
interest in a public calamity there is surely demoralization. 

Ihe disposal of the forfeited lands. — When the only authority is 
that of the colonial magistrate, and all the native tribes have been 
deprived of the means of either bringing trouble upon themselves or 
of alarming us by threatening danger; when it has been declared 
unlawful for them to possess arms, for which they have no use, has 
all been done to secure the future peace and prosperity of the Colony 
that requires to be done ? How is the land vacated or forfeited to 
be disposed of ? A matter scarcely less important this than the 
disposing of the people. Unoccupied the land must not remain. 
That would only be an occasion of trouble and mischief, and a public 
loss as well. 

The natural result of the war, combined with the scarcity of food, 
will be a very extensive distribution of the native population among 
the colonial employers of labour, farmers, and others. This seems 
the only way of preventing the infatuated people from dying of 
starvation. Providence gave the like opportunity before, when, 
through the famine brought on by their own wickedness in destroying 
their corn and slaughtering their cattle, the mass of the population 
must have perished, had not the colonists come to the rescue. 
Thousands of families on that occasion were brought out in a state 
of starvation, food and employment found for them, and in a few 
months they were useful to their preservers, and in the enjoyment of 
comfort and security which few of them had before known. Then 
we failed to read the lesson aright, let not the mistake be repeated. 
There was continued employment for all who had come into the 
Colony, but when they had well recovered from the sad effects of 
famine, service was no longer a necessity for them ; they were tired cf 

158 The Kafir IVar and its Lessons. 

ir, and wc, little less foolish than they, afforded every encouragement 
and facility for their return to barbarism and idleness. 

Industrial population the want of the Colony. — Every addition to 
our industrial population is an additional security against the inroads 
of neighbouring barbarism. Even if we succeed at last in converting 
those into honest and industrious citizens, the process will be a slow 
one. We want population of the right sort even to do this. In our 
towns and villages that conversion which we would gladly see become 
universal is perceptible, it has made a beginning. The reason, civiliza- 
tion there has numbers to give it momentum, force to make an 
impression. The natives are all under the control of the civilized 
inhabitants, who can thus insist that decent apparel shali be worn, 
cleanliness practised, and respectful manners observed. This cannot 
be done where barbarism outnumbers civilization as twenty or more 
to one, and the one has no direct control over the other. In such a 
case civilization is itself in no small danger of losing tone, suffering 

It is in every way our interest to largely increase our population 
by immigration. Every other colonial dependency of the empire 
regards the industrious immigrant from old Fatherland as the most 
valuable import which is set down upon its shores. He brings wealth 
and he makes wealth. Strange enough, we have regarded increase 
to our population by such means with painful jealousy. We are 
desirous, always desirous, to get men to work, only to work. That 
they should ever become masters and compete with us as employers 
of labour, is a thought of the matter that we utterly dislike. 

In this there is very short-sighted selfishness. We are over 
covetous of land, and would begrudge to the industrious immigrant 
the grant of an acre of it. We cry, Give us more, though we are not 
using and cannot use profitably one-fourth of what we possess. This 
is a source of weakness to us as against our uncivilized neighbours, 
and it is a positive hindrance, obstruction to our own rising in the 
scale of civilization, of cultivated intelligence, and social comfort. 

Sparseness of population a serious drawback. — Union is strength ; 
most admit that. But with farm homesteads, the only abodes of 
civilization, miles apart, how can there be union or the benefits of 
union enjoyed ? With our large farms sub-divided and let to indus- 
trious cultivators, a really reliable population might be indefinitely 
increased. This would in every way be advantageous. It would 
afford facilities for the education of our children which we do not 
now enjoy. This is a matter of the very highest importance. At 
present we must either each family engage a private teacher or our 
children must be sent from home to a boarding-school. Either of 
these modes entails an expense beyond what many families can 
justly and honestly provide for. Hence the schooling which the 
children get is of such a stinted measure as to make it well nigh 
valueless to them. But were ten families where one now is, all duly 
appreciating education, then the support of a teacher being spread 

the Kafir War and its Lessons. 159 

over so many shoulders, would make the thing no hurden to any of 
them ; a man more fit for the position and its duties would be 
secured, and the children would get their educational term lengthened 
out, so that it might have much more to do in framing and moulding 
their characters. 

This, though one of the most important, is not the only benefit 
that would result from a greatly increased industrial population. For 
every good object there would be strength added and facilities pre- 
sented which cannot be now. " Iron sharpeneth iron ; so a man 
sharpeneth the countenance of his friend." But where men are not, 
there cannot be this profitable, mutually stimulating intercourse, 
Politically and socially we suffer much for lack of it. 

Develop the resources of the country. — Can we do so ? Not with 
our present population most certainly. Have the natives done any- 
thing towards this ? Is there anyone who really knows them, or 
who has read their history of the last fifty years, that expects they 
ever will do anything of the kind ? Where they themselves are to 
have the chief benefit it might surely be expected that they, sensible 
of the interest which the thing is of to them, would be forward to 
adopt whatever is suggested in the way of improvement, and eager 
to put the thing in practice. All that we do see, however, is just 
the reverse. 

Do not ask them to make a water-furrow to irrigate their lands. 
Make it tor them, and hand it over for their use and benefit ; they 
will not keep it clean and in repair. We can give actual cases illus- 
trative of this as a fact. Cases where the people are now enduring 
the pinchings of hunger resulting from the drought of the season, and 
during all that drought had water all unused rolling along the side of 
their lands under crop ; and, what is more, with a furrow constructed 
by the white man which once led the water over those lands, but it 
has been suffered to get filled up by sand washing into it, hence is 
useless. Such a furrow is worth more than were sand to yield gold 
to the searcher ; and a few hours' work occasionally, with willing 
arms and a serviceable shovel, was all that was required to keep it in 
repair. But this was too much, and hundreds of people will rather 
struggle with dire hunger than exert themselves ever so little to 
provide against or prevent it. What can be done with such a people ? 

Oba and his people, about whose destitution and starvation such 
outcry has been made, were in this position. It suited their disposi- 
tion, however, much better to live by plundering the farmers around 
than to lead the waters of the river over their dry lands and thus 
convert them into fields as fruitful as any in the Colony. In the 
same neighbourhood are other cases of a like nature. Under the 
knowledge of such facts, only the word Hopeless can be written. 

The scanty population other than native races, which is so thinly 
scattered over the Colony, can do but little for the development of 
our natural resources. Many more hands, and heads as well, are 
wanted. Industry and intelligence combined are required for the 

160 Adele. 

work. And when these are well applied we are confident that the 
reward will not be a stingy one. It will be found out when too late 
that to have expended so much upon the construction of railways has 
been a mistake, unless there be a large increase of industrious popu- 
lation in order to produce something for these railways to carry. We 
have throughout spoken and thought of these as re-productive works ; 
there must be producers of what requires the service of transport far 
more than are now to make these works what we have called them, 

%Wt ; 



By Bonne Esperance. 


" All my fond love thus I do blow to heaven. 
'Tis gone. 

Arise, black vengeance, from the hollow hell ! 
Yield up, O ! love,, thy crown, and hearted throne, 
To tyrannous hate ! Swell, bosom, with thy fraught, 
For 'tis of aspicks' tongues ! " 


On the morrow after the events related in the last chapter, the 
Field-cornet lay tossing on his bed, feverish and restless. As the 
day advanced he grew worse ; before the sun set he was delirious, 
and for days he lay in a most critical state, unconscious of everything 
around him, while a solitary figure, who appeared equally ready to 
administer medicines from a small chest and texts from an open 
Bible on the table, moved solemnly about the room, now closely 
examining the pale face of the prostrate Field-cornet and mournfully 
shaking his head, and then softly retiring to the voorhuis and 
whispering instructions to the slaves about always having a little 
morsel ready for him in case he required it to strengthen himself, 
that he shouldn't fail under the arduous duties required of him in 
the sick chamber. 

When at last, after more than a week's illness, the Field-cornet 
recovered consciousness and looked around him, he was greatly sur- 
prised to see Oom Hans the only occupant of his room, comfortably 
ensconced in a chair by his bedside, his nightcap well drawn over his 
solemn visage, while on a table by his side stood a dish containing 
the savoury side of a sheep just roasted, some biscuits, and a basin 
of coffee. 

Adele. 161 

Once himself again, Herman gradually recalled the events that 
had taken place previous to his illness, and soon his whole mind 
became concentrated upon the one subject all important to himself. 
Pale and agitated he leaned forward towards Oom Hans, and 
anxiously enquired the date of the month. 

Oom Hans started violently at the sound of Stallenberg's* voice 
speaking coherently, and hurriedly threw down the well-polished 
bone he held in his hand. Rising slowly he stared at his patient for 
some minutes in uncertainty ; the latter's scared look and repeated 
enquiry for the date of the month puzzled the old man exceedingly, 
for he felt convinced, after a moment's hesitation, that his patient 
was in full possession of his senses, and unaware of Herman's 
antecedents, he concluded that the latter's great anxiety about the 
date of the month related to farming affairs only ; this he considered 
illtimed and worldly, and accordingly felt greatly shocked and 

" My son," said Oom Hans, solemnly approaching the bedside, 
" Despise not thou the chastening of the Lord." 

Herman interrupted him with a groan, and closed his eyes. 
" This is unendurable," thought he. 

" Ha ! " sighed Oom Hans, as he turned towards the medicine 
chest, " My timely admonition has struck home like a nail in a 
sure place ; he groaneth in the spirit, and will do well.'' 

" Stop that cant," cried Herman, impatiently, "and be good enough 
to answer my question ;" and he looked fiercely towards the old man. 

Oom Hans nearly dropped the vial he was holding up to the 
light, and stared for a second time ; then without further delay he 
satisfied his patient. The day specified for the restitution of the 
kidnapped cattle was passed. 

Pale and faint, Herman fell back on his pillow greatly agitated. 
He could not hope to rise for days, and he felt but too surely that 
if the conditions of the treaty were not fulfilled, the consequences 
to himself and MeerhofF would be disastrous. He might summon 
the burgher to his bedside, but, in spite of his fairest promises, he 
was not to be depended upon. 

" I can be sure of nothing," said he, to himself, as he tossed 
impatiently about, " until I can see the cattle restored with my 
own eyes." 

Oom Hans, quite unable to guess the cause of Herman's agita- 
tion, came to the conclusion at last that a change for the worse 
had set in, and that the Field-cornet was beginning to rave again. 
Sympathetically he turned towards the bed and held up a vial, 

" A little roede poeder now, my son, will calm you ; allow me to 
give you some." 

Herman waved him ofF impatiently, and with his mind still run- 
ning on the all engrossing subject, he enquired after Jeptha, and 
when told that he was safe, ordered that Selina should be set at 
liberty and brought to him at once. 

Vol. XVII. M 

1 62 Jdele. 

At the latter request Oom Hans opened his eyes and stared in 
astonishment. '• My son," said he, gravely, " set your affections 
on things above." 

"Confound you with yqur texts and medicines," replied Herman, 
fairly out of temper ; then glancing towards the old man, who stood 
appalled at his profanity, he thanked him for his past services, and 
prayed him not to delay his departure any longer. 

Oom Hans, feeling that he had done his duty, and finding the 
sick chamber extremely irksome with the Field-cornet in his senses, 
gladly availed himself of the opportunity to be freed from all 

Without further remonstrance he shut up his medicine-chest and 
closed the Bible. Then approaching the bedside, he, with much 
solemnity, took a lengthy farewell of the Field-cornet, and con- 
cluded his good wishes by saying in a slow and impressive tone, 
" That the workman was worthy of his hire." 

Stallenberg, anxious to be rid of him at any price, begged him to 
select from his stores anything he wanted ; whereupon Oom Hans 
left the chamber with a light heart and elastic step, cast his pious 
eyes to the rafters of the voorhuis, took down some of the finest 
biltongs suspended from them, then visited the kraals, took out the 
fattest of the lambs and kids, and departed well pleased and well 
laden, adding to the slave who assisted him into the wagon " That 
it was more blessed to give than to receive." 

Herman was still congratulating himself in having so speedily got 
rid of Oom Hans, his medicines and texts, when a slow hesitating 
step attracted his attention, and in looking up he saw Selina advance 
with downcast eyes and sorely chafed wrists. She was sadly altered, 
and looked thin and worn, a shadow of the plump, handsome 
mulatto of but a week ago. The fire had left her eye, and her 
step lagged as she approached his bedside. Her first fit of fury and 
jealousy over, she fell into deep melancholy, and cherished no 
longer any design against his life, but her own. He, tossing about 
anxious and impatient, chafing against the illness that held him 
bound to his bed, turned towards her with an irritable look and 
gesture as she stopped, but the instant after a pang of remorse shot 
through him on seeing her so sadly changed in face and 
mien, so silent and wobegone. He glanced a moment at her 
poor bleeding wrists, then up into her face so unnaturally calm 
and still. 

M Selina," said he, feelingly. The tears started to her eyes and 
her lips quivered, for at the sound of his voice, tender and sympa- 
thetic, her whole being responded, and she lifted a sorrowful, peni- 
tent, and pleading face to him. 

But Herman's feverish anxiety about Hancunqua and his cattle, 
swallowing up every other consideration, soon erased his temporary 
remorse, and left no room for either sentiment or compassion. Her 
tears irritated him, and he exclaimed impatiently, 

Mete. 163 

" Stop all this, Selina, it worries me ; I have sent for you, not to 
add to my discomfort, but to use your skill as of old, and to restore 
me to health as soon as possible. I must be well shortly, 5 ' he said, 
falling back on his pillows, " or the consequences may prove most 
fatal to us all." 

A sudden flash seemed to scorch up her recent tears ; she looked 
fixedly before her, her despairing soul growing darker every moment 
2s she thought of his words, " He must be well shortly ; and she 
must restore him to health ! " Her tongue appeared unable to form 
an answer to his appeal. He saw her frenzy, guessed the cause, 
and saw his own danger. Anger would not avail him now ; on the 
contrary, might prove his ruin. He must exert his influence over 
her. Little did he dream how powerful that influence was. 

Softly laying his hand on hers, he looked pleadingly into her face 
as he said, " Selina, you will not desert me now, nor leave me to 
die here, will you ? " 

" Never," she replied, his loving touch and gentle words firing 
her poor broken heart anew, and in a moment scattering every 
thought of vengeance against him. " No, I never will." 

"Now you speak like the faithful slave that I have always 
believed you to be." And he threw himself back and became 
silent and thoughtful, his mind anxiously and unceasingly dwelling 
on the chief and his cattle ; while she busied herself about the 
room, happy and contented to be near him, one moment binding 
up his wounds and the next smoothing his pillow, ever faithfully 
watching and tending him, and cheering herself with the fond hope, 
poor creature, that he was once more reconciled to her. 

With such care, skill, and success did she nurse him, that in a 
few days he was able to sit up. 

It was while leaning back in his arm chair reflecting, that he 
looked up sharply as if a sudden and important thought struck him, 
and called to her. 

" Selina, come here," said he, " and listen to me. You know I 
have alwajs trusted you." 

"And I hope have never found me wanting in fidelity," she 
replied, looking reproachfully at him. 

" Never," he answered, earnestly. " I am going to show you now 
how fully I confide in you, by committing to your charge, while I 
am gone, the prisoner I brought with me. Go this moment and 
see that he is well secured, and I charge you, let him not escape. 
When I return I will set him at liberty, not before." 

She made no reply, but instantly left the room, and walked slowly 
towards Jeptha's prison. 

" He has no thought for me, she said bitterly to herself} "his 
gentleness has deceived me. His every thought is for her. Every 
word he utters betrays his anxiety to be off and to be with her. 
To be married to her. My love and care are alike wasted upon 
him. " Ah ! " sighed Selina, as she laid her hand on her heart, as 

m 2 

164 yfdeie. 

if to case the aching void there that seemed so unendurable. 
" Ah ! what shall comfort this breaking heart ? " 

She stopped a moment before the prison to recover herself, for she 
was deeply wounded in her most sacred and tender affections ; then 
slowly unlocking the door, she flung it open. 

u Jeptha," she cried, her voice trembling with emotion. " Where 
are you ? Look up, you are not the onlv one groaning under this 
man's tyranny." 

Perplexed and astonished, Jeptha lifted his head and answered, 
" Here I am." Then a momentary ray of hope brightening his 
poor emaciated face, he enquired what had brought her to his 
prison. " For," said he dejectedly, " I have not seen the light of 
day, nor heard a human voice since I was placed here. Through 
that little hole there, they put a small piece of bread and a little- 
water for me daily." 

She seated herself opposite him, but scarcely heeded him or his 
words ; her eyes looked across into vacancy, and he noticed a stony 
fixedness in them that frightened him. She was silent so long that 
he repeated his question. 

" You ask what brings me here ! " she replied at last ; " it is to see 
that you are well secured. He has committed you to my charge 
while he is gone." 

" Gone, where ? " inquired Jeptha, anxiously. 

"To Cape Town, to be married to Adele." 

Jeptha started, and pulled impatiently at the thongs that confined 
his bleeding wrists until he could bear the pain no longer, when he 
leaned forward and moaned. 

" Ah ! " sighed Selina, " they are bad, so are mine, look at 
them ! " And she held out her hands towards him. " But what 
cares he for a poor slave's sufferings or feelings. We are 
bought and sold like sheep and cattle, and they have come to 
look upon us as in no way better than, or above, the dumb animals 
around us. And yet I'll be bound that in my heathen breast beats 
a heart as passionate and as true to him as in the Christian bosom of 
the fine lady he has chosen to wed." 

Jeptha looked up energetically. "What!" exclaimed he scorn- 
fully, " she love him. Nay ! woman, I tell you, she hates him." 

Selina jumped to her feet and clasped her hands fervently 
together, a new interest lighting up her whole being, and sparkling 
in her dark eye. 

" Hates him ! '' she exclaimed, speaking to herself rather than 
to Jeptha, and dwelling on the word as if it brought comfort 
to her soul. " Hates him. Ah ! cruel-hearted man ; then have 
you too felt the pangs of unrequited affection ! And for her 
sake," said Selina, after some moments" hesitation, "you fling away 
a heart devoted to you, and spurn from you one who would give 
her life for you. So be it, then ; she will be a viper in your 

Adtle. 165 

" But," she said, after a moment's thought, and turning sharply 
round to Jeptha, " what authority have you for saying this ? If she 
hates him, why, then, does she marry him ? " 

" She is compelled to do so by her step-father," replied Jeptha, 
" who is under an obligation to the Field-cornet. I know all about 
it, and I can tell you, woman, that she would give her life to escape 
from him." 

" Ay, would she indeed " replied Selina excitedly, "and I would 
give mine, Jeptha, could I assist her. Yea, I would peril everything 
to baulk that cruel man, and rob him of this his dearest desire." 

" You have it in your power to procure her escape, without sacri- 
ficing your life or aught else." 

" Do you mock me, Hottentot r " said Selina, gravely. u How ? 
I pray you, how ? Speak." 

" Simply by setting me free," Jeptha answered. 

Selina smiled. " It won't do, Jeptha. I am not so easily deceived. 
You have guessed my secret, and have cunningly invented this story 
to procure your freedom. Isn't that the case ? But it won't 
succeed, for I don't see how your liberty can affect the girl he is 
going to marry.'' 

" Why does he confine me here, do you think ? " asked Jeptha. 
" I have done nothing that deserves imprisonment." 

" How should I know," she answered. 

" Come here then, and I will tell you," replied Jeptha." 

Eagerly she bent forward, and listened patiently while Jeptha 
related to her everything. Then with burning cheeks and a heaving 
bosom she started erect and gasped rather than spoke. Jeptha, as 
he watched her, thought he had never seen anyone so insane with 

" Oh ! cruel fate," she exclaimed bitterly, " that has robbed me 
of every past memory my great love fed upon. All these years, all 
these long years, has he loved another and striven so hard to possess 
her. And I suffered patiently and endured all things because I 
loved him, and believed that in spite of his cruelty his heart was 
wedded to the poor slave. But all is gone now, gone for ever ! " 

She stood motionless for some moments ; at last she turned. 

" Jeptha," she said earnestly, " it will cost me my life ; but had I 
a thousand lives I would sacrifice them now to take from him this 
woman he has set his heart upon. Here, I remove these thongs 
from your wrists and ankles, and to-night, when I knock at that 
window, unbolt it from the inside, and I will set you at liberty." 
Then she secured the door again and returned home. 

In mixing Stallenberg's brandy and water for him she added a 
soporific, quietly handed it to him, and seated herself some distance 
off. Patiently she waited until his heavy breathing assured her that 
the dose had been successful, and then eagerly she left the room. 

Soon after there was a soft tap at Jeptha's prison window. The 
poor Hottentot had been anxiously listening for the warning knock 

1 66 jfdele. 

that was once more to set him at liberty, and now eagerly hastened 
towards the window, but no sooner had he drawn the sash back than 
he started aside aghast and cried out for mercy, for the figure of the 
Field-cornet stood before him. But before he had retreated many 
steps a strong arm caught him and dragged him back. 

" Come out, Jeptha," said Selina, quietly, " don't be afraid ! I 
was obliged to put on this disguise in order to pass the slaves at the 
kraals unobserved. Had they seen me coming to your prison so late 
they would have sounded an alarm, and we should have been dis- 

" Thank God ! " exclaimed Jeptha fervently, as he alighted safely 
on the outside of the window. 

" Here Jeptha," said she, " is a gourd of milk, and in this bag I 
have put a piece of meat and a little bread ; hurry away, lose no 

" And vou ? " inquired Jeptha, sympathetically, " I can't leave 
you here. Come with me," he pleaded, " I will take you to my 
father Chotona, where no one shall dare to hurt one hair of your 

" / go with you and look on Adele's fair face. Nay, Jeptha, 
nay ; speed on yourself, but leave me here, for I have work to do that 
vou know not of, and I must go back to the house at once." 

He looked pleadingly into her face, so deadly pale and so un- 
naturally calm. For one moment she laid a cold trembling hand in 
his, and bid him begone ; the next, she was speeding back to the house. 

Softly she stepped into Stallenberg's chamber and seated herself at 
a little table where the candle burned low, filling the room with a 
dim uncertain light, and giving a ghostlike appearance to everything 
around. But Selina heeded nothing external, her whole soul was 
concentrated on the intense bitterness of her thoughts. There she 
sat silent and moody, her spirit crushed, her heart broken, every- 
thing her passionate soul cared for in life gone — bitter thought — yet 
was there one considerably more painful to her mind, — it never had 
been hers. She had been deceived from the beginning, deceived all 
along. This latter thought maddened her, and in a moment turned 
her love into the intensest hatred. Wildly at last she snatched the 
candle from the table and approached the bedside. Oh, for one kind 
Christian hand at this crisis to stay the poor heathen in her mad 
career, and turn her from her dread course. As she stopped before 
his bed, the unconscious Stallenberg moaned in his sleep and moved 
restlessly about. Her eyes flashed, and her hand stole hurriedly 
down to the hilt of the gleaming dagger by her side ; one moment 
more and she flung it aloft and held it quivering in the air above ; but 
she hesitates, for he murmurs in his sleep and holds out his hand 
beseechingly. " Ha ! " thought she, her eyes dilating, " he is dream- 
ing of her. Does he whisper again ? Her name ? Whose name ? " 

« Selina." 

Her hand dropped powerless by her side ; the woman's heart 

Adelc. 167 

conquered the passionate heathen soul in a moment, and Stallenberg 
was safe. A revulsion of feeling took place on the instant, and as 
she looked at his unconscious face, her own name whispered softly 
by him still ringing in her ears, she forgave everything and thought 
only of her great love for him. Softly she drew nearer, and long and 
bitterly she wept over him ; then stooping low, she kissed him 

" It is the last time, : ' she whispered plaintively, " the very last 
time ! : ' 

Starting erect, she flung the candle to one end of the room, where 
it sparkled and died out slowly, leaving her and her fell purpose in 
total darkness. Gradually a calm stole over her, and but one agoniz- 
ing sigh escaped her, as for a moment she folded her hands across 
her broken heart and lifted her despairing eyes to heaven. Then 
unhesitatingly she raised the dagger on high for the second time ; it 
descended unerringly, and with a groan that startled even Stallen- 
berg in his sleep, Selina fell to the earth, never to rise again ! 
* . ***** 

The sun was low in the heavens, the day after the events just 
related, when the Field-cornet awoke for the first time and started up 
in his bed, trembling violently. He had had a fearful dream, and 
he looked wildly about him. 

" Selina," he cried ; " Selina, where are you ? " 

No answer was returned, and the stillness and gloom of the 
chamber seemed to increase his terror, for a moment after he bounded 
out of bed, and by so doing nearly placed his two feet on the lifeless 
form of the unfortunate woman, whose deadly pale face and fixed 
lustreless eyes sent a shudder through him and made him start back 
in amazement. 

" Good God ! " he exclaimed, as his eye for the first time fell on 
the dagger in her hand that had done the cruel deed. " She is 

He paced uneasily up and down once or twice, then stopped. 

u Poor creature ! " said he, deeply affected, " your love was greater 
than I believed." 

Then he seated himself, and a flood of remorse rushed over him 
as he thought of her. How devoted and faithful she had always 
been. How patiently she had borne with him. How many services 
she had rendered to him all for love, while he, ever a worshipper at 
the altar of self, had never given her in return one kind look or word 
of encouragement. For the first time now a feeling towards her 
akin to love stirred in his breast, but it was soon dissipated and turned 
into the bitterest hatred by a slave who entered hurriedly, and in a 
state of great trepidation announced that Jeptha had escaped during 
the night. 

Stallenberg's face grew livid as he thought of the consequences to 
himself should Jeptha succeed in reaching Adele and Hancunqua's 
camp before him. 

1 68 Mile. 

With an oath he rose, and cursed the poor creature before him. 

" This is your work," he said fiercely. " Wretch, your vengeance 
has undone that which I have laboured and suffered for for years and 
perilled my very life to possess. Drag her out of my sight," he cried 
to the slave, " and cast her forth." 

The slave obeyed instantly, but dropped the body outside the 
door, as his master's angry voice loudly called him back. 

" Saddle my horse and bring it to the door this instant," he 
thundered. And soon after, feeling better and stronger after his long 
and peaceful sleep, he mounted and rode away, not deigning one 
look at the poor lifeless form by the doorway. 

Fast and furiously he rode across the country, in hopes that he 
might still prevent Jeptha from seeing Adele and reaching Hancun- 
qua's camp before him. 

As he approached MeerhofPs farm, anxious and agitated, he was 
struck with the peculiar appearance of the clouds on the horizon. 
Just as blocd-red had they appeared to him in his dream, and he 
almost fancied that he saw in the clouds, as he had seen in his dream, 
(i J gigantic up/if ted bandy 


I still am with thee, nor my fate would give, 

For all thy soul-felt charms dear liberty ; 
My only object, thought, hope, wish, to live 

With him I love ; with him at last to die. 

Jeptha, after parting from Selina, proceeded on his way but slowly. 
His weak state of health, and the pain in his sorely chafed ankles, 
unfitted him for the fatigues of a journey on foot. He walked with 
difficulty, and had frequently to rest. Still he persevered bravely all 
through the night, and hoped to reach Langkloof Valley before the 
daylight revealed his whereabouts. But, alas ! poor Jeptha, when in 
the morning the grey dawn enabled him to view the country around, 
he beheld "in the far distance the dim outline of the Langkloof 
mountains, and found to his amazement that he had wandered away 
in an opposite direction. 

Weary, footsore, and parched with thirst, he sat down in despair 
and covered his face. What was to be done next ? They would 
surely follow him, and must overtake him before he could reach a 
place of safety. His doom appeared inevitable, and for a time his 
misfortunes seemed completely to overwhelm him, until, recalled by 
the bark of a dog close by, he looked up and saw the sun high in the 
heavens and a shepherd leading out his flock. 

" Something must be done," he said, in a state of feverish anxiety. 
Fruitless lamentation and inaction will not solve the difficulty ; he 
must up, take his chance, and for Adele's sake hurry back as fast as 
possible. The thought of her unhappiness and utter helplessness 

Adele. 169 

inspired him with fresh courage and vigour ; he jumped to his feet, 
begged a little water of the shepherd, and with all possible speed 
limped back in the direction of Langkloof, anxiously peering about 
him as he went, and listening for the faintest sound that might prove 
a warning of approaching danger. But he laboured on patiently all 
day, and nothing occurred to alarm him or to rouse his suspicions 
until, at sundown, as he approached Meerhoff's farm, when, thoroughly 
worn out and ill, he glanced back suddenly, scarcely knowing why, 
and saw, to his consternation, two dark figures on the summit of the 
hill, who showed clearly against the horizon for one moment, and 
the next descended rapidly towards him. 

At the same time £.tallenberg rode up to Meerhoff's front door and 
dismounted. On entering the voorhuis, he anxiously surveyed it 
with one lightning glance, and was relieved to see Adele quietly 
sewing by her mother's side. But, as he looked at her pensive 
bowed figure, he felt compunctious to see how haggard and woe- 
begone she looked. Eagerly he came up to greet her ; she carelessly 
extended her hand, without looking up. 

With an angry flush he retired and seated himself beside Meerhoff. 

" What is the matter ? " inquired the latter, as he observed Stallen- 
berg's arm in a sling. " Have you had an accident ? " 

" A slight one ; I have been in the wars, and have a few scratches 
to remind me of my share in the conflict." 

" In the wars ! " exclaimed the burgher, eyeing him suspiciously. 
" What induced you to go to war ? " 

" Necessity," replied Stallenberg with decision. " I had intima- 
tion that the convict Du Plessis was hiding at Namana's. As an 
officer of the Government it was my duty to apprehend him." 

" Of course," interrupted Meerhoffi, 

" I saw no means of doing so except by leading Hancunqua's men 
against Namana," replied Stallenberg. 

" The devil ! " exclaimed Meerhoff, his eyes sparkling. " I sup- 
pose now the avaricious rascal has his kraals well filled with the spoil. 
That is the game he likes, for the rest he spends his time in kid- 
napping his neighbours' cattle and fabricating lies against unoffending- 

" In this instance," answered the Field-cornet," he did not °-et a 
single head." 

" How was that ? Namana licked him, I'll be sworn ; serve the 
coward right. I hope he lost all his cattle, or rather those he lifted 
from his neighbours." 

" It is no question of cattle," replied Stallenberg sternly ; u and I 
can assure you that Hancunqua acted no coward's part." 

" Then I don't understand it," said Meerhoff ruminatinp-ly, and 
he took out his pipe and tobacco pouch. 

Stallenberg glanced across at the pale trembling little figure opposite, 
whose large terror-stricken eyes were fixed upon him in speechless 
anxiety, and hesitated in his answer. A heart of stone would have 

I ;o Adik. 

bled for her at that moment. Their eyes met ; for a second they 
looked steadily at each other, then a look of triumph beamed in his. 
She winced as if struck, dropped her eyes, and soon felt her sight 
going and a faintness stealing over her, for she heard, though indis- 
tinctly, his voice and his cruel words. 

" I told you," said he to MeerhofF, " that my sole purpose for 
leading Hancunqua against Namana was to apprehend the convict. 
Unfortunately he was killed in a scuffle before the fight was con- 
cluded. I therefore considered it my duty to declare the skirmish at 
an end, and consequently ordered Hancunqua and his men back." 

An agonizing cry rang through the voorhuis, startling everyone 
present, and poor Adele fell heavily forward. - 

MeerhofF rose, stamped his foot, and hurriedly disappeared through 
the open door. 

Mrs. MeerhofF rose too, and in her quiet way softly approached 
her daughter and tenderly took her hand. 

" Rise, Adele," she said gently ; but the poor girl was quite un- 

Then she looked beseechingly towards the Field-cornet, who was 
completely lost in his own unpleasant reflections. He felt quite 
satisfied now that Adele had not seen Jeptha, and therefore concluded 
that the Hottentot must have returned straight to Hancunqua's 
camp. Fear seized him, and terror blanched and distorted his face 
as he thought of the terrible consequences to himself and Meerhoff 
should the ill-used Hottentot, by relating his wrongs, add fuel to the 
flame and compel Hancunqua to take immediate vengeance. The 
enraged chief might be at their very door for aught he knew ; he 
must seek MeerhofF at once and speak to him. As he lifted his 
eyes they fell on Adele, and he became aware for the first time that 
Mrs. MeerhofF was asking for assistance. With an angry gesture he 
rose, lifted her unconscious figure in his arms, and carried her into 
her chamber. 

Patiently Mrs. MeerhofF laboured to restore consciousness, and 
after awhile was partly rewarded, for Adele opened her eyes ; but 
there was a stony vacant look in them that frightened her mother. 
Wisely she took her daughter's hand in hers, and began to speak of 
Francois in a tender and pathetic strain, her tears falling fast the 
while. It had the desired effect ; her presence of mind saved her 
daughter. For Adele, gradually subdued, was at last completely 
overcome ; with one plaintive cry she threw her arms round her 
mother's neck and sobbed bitterly. 

" Oh ! mother, mother, would that I might die too. What is 
life without Francois ? " 

" And would you deprive me of the only solace I have ? " said 
her mother reproachfully. 

" Dear mother, forgive me," she cried affectionately. " He was 
my sole protector against this wicked man. Who shall save me 
from him now?" 

Mete. i-i 

" God," answered her mother earnestly. " Put your trust in 
Him, Adele." 

She rose and walked about, her agitation too great to admit of her 
remaining quiet. Suddenly she fell on her knees before her mother, 
and laid her head against her parent's gentle bosom. 

" It is too hard," she sobbed, " dear mother. It is too hard. 
Oh ! to lose him for ever, and all because of his love for me. I 
cannot outlive it.'' 

Long she remained in the kneeling attitude, her mother gently 
stroking her bright hair and talking soothingly to her. At last she 
rose, and hurriedly prepared to leave the room. 
" Where are you going, Adele ? '' 

" To the garden, mother, to the thorn trees ; that alone can speak 
to me of my Francois." 

This spot was very sacred in her eyes ; how powerfully it reminded 
her of Francois as she seated herself under the old familiar thorn tree, 
and indulged in tender reminiscences of the past. 

Past ! gone for ever. Oh ! bitter thought, that he whom she 
loved so passionately was dead. Gone ! she would never see his face 
ao-ain, never hear his voice again. Completely overwhelmed with 
2;rief, she sank to the earth and groaned aloud, disconnected and in- 
coherent sentences escaping her at times as her poor broken heart 
cried out in its misery. Suddenly she paused and lifted her head : 
the stealthy approach of a footstep in the reeds attracted her attention 
and set her heart beating violently for a moment. With an effort 
she calmed herself, and sighed heavily as she laid her hand gently on 
her palpitating bosom, as if to stay the beating there. For the only 
footstep that could bring joy to her bereaved heart was silenced for 
ever, thought she bitterly, and then suddenly started to her feet, for 
the rushes before her parted, and Jeptha, trembling and footsore, 
stood before her. 

" Spare me," she cried wildly, " spare me ; I know the worst ; I 
know all." 

" Not <?//," replied Jeptha. 

" What more can you tell me that could add to the bitterness of 
my cup ? Is he not dead, my noble Francois ? " 
" No," answered Jeptha firmly ; " he lives." 

" Do you mock me ? " cried Adele, deadly pale, and taking hold of 
Jeptha by both hands. " Oh ! can it be true ? " 

" He fives," said Jeptha again earnestly, " as surely as you and I 

" Oh God ! " exclaimed Adele fervently, as she leaned against the 
nearest tree for support. " How shall I find words to express my 
thankfulness to Thee ? It is enough, my Francois lives and I 

She stood perfectly motionless for a while, wrapped up in her own 
reflections ; then with flashing eyes she came forward and spoke 

1-2 Mile. 

" Jeptha, if what you say is true, how dared Stallenberg, how 
dared he, deceive me so ? " 

u He told a lie," replied Jeptha unceremoniously. 

"At first we all believed him dead, but before the Field-cornet left 
the truth had been discovered, and the chief informed him of it." 

• l Are you quite sure? " inquired Adele. 

" Certain," replied Jeptha unhesitatingly. " I heard what the 
chief said, and I heard the Field-cornet's reply : ' If that is the case,' 
said Stallenberg, ' you must deliver him up to me at once/ "' 

" ' Not I," answered the chief boldly. " ' How about all my cattle 
that MeerhofF has kidnapped ? The day that you restore them to 
me, that day I deliver up Du Plessis to you ; not before/ " 

" Has he restored the cattle ? " inquired Adele anxiously. 

" Not that I am aware of, but I shall know soon, for I am going 
to Hancunqua's camp at once to see Baasie Francois, and to tell the 
chief how shamefully Stallenberg used me while a prisoner at his farm.'' 

" Stop a moment," exclaimed Adele anxiously. 

" What is that rustling ? " 

" Heaven knows," answered Jeptha aghast. " Doubtless the 
Field-cornet's men in search of me." 

More than one step was distinctly heard cautiously approaching, 
but it was too dark to distinguish an object far ahead. Adele's quick 
perception warned her in an instant that there was no time for 
Jeptha, in his present infirm state, to escape. 

" Lie down," she whispered softly. 

He obeyed instantly. She had just succeeded in throwing her 
skirt over him when the reeds behind her parted, and she was roughly 
seized by the shoulder. 

" We have got you at last, Hottentot." 

" What do you mean, slaves ? " demanded Adele indignantly. 

The men started, and scrutinized her figure carefully. 

" We ask your pardon, nonnie," they replied. " We are alter a 
Hottentot who escaped from our master's farm, and we believed that 
we had caught him." 

'* And why do you seek him here ? " 

" A shepherd told us that he took the road to Langekloof. We 
followed his footprints, and an hour ago saw him enter the reeds here." 

" You had better trace his footprints further on then," said Adele 

They went back into the rushes and brought out their flambeaux, 
but in vain they examined the spot ; the footprints led no further. 

"Will nonnie rise for a moment ? " asked one of them. 

" Certainly not," replied Adele firmly. 

" Then we must remain here until nonnie docs ; for if we do not 
bring the Hottentot we shall be punished severely by our master." 

"If it is your master you fear, he is up at the house. Go and 
tell him Jeptha is here, and let him come with men and torches and 
sec if he can find him." 

Adele. 1 7 

The slaves went. 

" Quick," said Adele to Jeptha ; " come and let us run round to 
the other side of the bridge." 

Once there she ordered him to step into the furrow and break the 
rushes on either side. 

" Come back now," she cried, " for I hear them coming ; put on 
my shoes and carry me round to the trees. Quick, they are 
approaching fast." 

Poor Jeptha limped on as fast as he could with his heavy burden, 
and just succeeded in clearing the rush hedge leading to the thorn 
trees, when the first torch-bearer appeared at the entrance of the garden. 
" Hurry, Jeptha," cried Adele in a fever of excitement, for they 
were still some distance off the reeds, and she distinctly heard the 
Field-cornet's angry voice urging on his men. 
" Hurry," she cried again. 

Jeptna leaped rather than walked, for already they saw the 
reflection of the torches ; one more stride, then another, and Adele 
bounded out of his arms into the reed bank, and whispered in quick 

" Step on my dress. Take off my shoes. Jump into the water. 
Away, and God speed you." 

Then instantly she withdrew under the thorn trees, not a moment 
too soon. Before she had resumed her seat, she saw the Field-cornet 
turn the rush hedge and come straight towards her. He appeared 
highly indignant, and spoke to her almost fiercely. 
" Will you rise a moment ? " 
" Certainly, if you wish it ! " replied she, rising. 
He peered eagerly at the spot and all around, but in vain. Jeptha 
was gone. 

" You know where the fellow is hiding," said he angrily. " Will 
you have the goodness to tell us ? The consequences to you and 
yours may be ruinous if you allow the fellow to escape." 

" Indeed ! " exclaimed Adele, " I am not afraid of any evil conse- 
quences to myself. Frankly, I don't believe he is hiding in any 
particular spot at this moment." 

" And Herman," said Adele, drawing herself up and looking 
significantly at him, " to keep his whereabouts i.oncealed is a small 
kindness I do him compared with the priceless boon he has bestowed 
upon me this evening." 

He winced a little, looked searchingly at her for a moment, then 
turned impatiently and ordered the slaves to trace the spoor. 

The latter began to follow the footprints to the reeds on the 
opposite side of the bridge. The Field-cornet looked suspicious. 
" Is there no spoor leading back ? " inquired he. " Search well." 
" None," answered the slaves. "There is only nonnie's returning." 
" See whether the spoor lead? into the water," cried Herman. 
" Yes," replied the slaves ; " and the rushes are broken on either 
side as he took hold of them." 

i ;4 Adele. 

"Jump in and follow the vagabond, 1 ' said Herman, himself con- 
vinced that he had been baffled by Adele, but anxious to disguise the 
fact from his slaves. 

Adele, when left alone, returned to her mother, threw her arms 
round her gentle parent's neck, and kissed her affectionately as she 
whispered, " Mother dear, my Francois lives, and I live." 

When S fallen berg took his scat at the supper table that evening 
he saw Adele sitting oppo.-ite to him looking radiant. Then he 
re?lized the full bitterness of the slavewoman's revenge, and cursed 
the latter inwardly ; as he thought, " She knows all. I am undone ; 
the Hottentot will escape me now ; the vagabond convict will elude 
me, and Heaven alone knows what the consequences may be." 

He pushed his plate aside and declined to touch anything, saying — 
as Meerhoff, with an astonished look, inquired what the matter 
was, for he himself had never lost his appetite upon any occasion, as 
far as he could remember— that he was far from well, and much 
fatigued with his journey. He sat silent and moody, and imme- 
diately after supper retired. 

For hours he lay tossing on his bed, vainly endeavouring to sleep. 
His mind was troubled and anxious, his heart racked and wounded. 
And, as the silent hours of the night drew on, his conscience would 
make itself heard. Not to him did it speak in the still small voice 
that brings balm to a penitent soul, but rather in the whirlwind of 
remorse, in which he neither saw nor heard God. Unable any 
longer to endure the loneliness and darkness of his chamber, he rose 
and went into the open air. For a time the cool night breeze 
seemed to soothe him, and he felt better, but soon an unaccountable 
presentiment of evil returned and clung to him so closely that he 
could not shake it off. He looked carefully around him, and paused 
a moment as his eye fell on a column of smoke rising from a valley 
not far off. 

" Does that mean mischief? " thought he, as for a moment he cast 
his eyes to the starry vault above; then feeling strangely uneasy he 
looked again, the smoke was still there, and certainly it came from 
the direction in which Hancunqua's camp was situated. " But after 
all it may mean nothing," he said to himself. " Hottentots and 
Bushmen were out at all hours of the night, and invariably surrounded 
themselves with fires, to roast their tortoises and keep wild beasts off." 

But argue the matter as he would, he could not disguise from 
himself the fact that they were all in imminent peril. The injured 
Chief, whose wrath against iMecrhoff had been smouldering for 
months past, would certainly not allow this opportunity to escape 
for revenging himself. He shuddered as he thought that the smoke 
he saw in the distance might be hanging over the very camp of these 
savage? already on their way to destroy them. Then with bitter 
hatred his thoughts reverted to Adele, who, through her mail indis- 
cretion in allowing Jeptha to escape, had taken from him the last 
chance he had of bringing the Chief to a reasonable understanding. 

Adele. t?S 

" I am undone now," he said bitterly, my last chance is gone, for 
Chotona's son, in reaching Hancunqua's camp before me, and pouring 
his tale into the Chiefs ears, will fan the smouldering ashes into 
flame, and bring the savages upon us before I have time to make 
arrangements for diverting the evil. And all this is to come upon 
us through the madness of an obstinate French girl. 

lC Oh ! Adele, Adele," he exclaimed vehemently, as he stopped for 
a moment opposite her window ; " my love for you has been the 
reality of my life, the one passionate feeling that would not perish, spite 
of my every effort to crush it out. I lived but to please you. I peril- 
led my life and stained my very hands with crime to possess you, and 
for your sake sacrificed the only being who everlovedme. And now, 
oh ! unrelenting woman, yours is the cruel hand that frustrates all in a 
moment, and dashes to earth the cup already halfway to my lips. : ' 

Herman paused ; he had never given way like this before. He 
must be sadly unstrung. Weak, ill, sick at heart, and unac- 
countably depressed, he continued his pacing, vainly trying to 
analyze his feeling towards Adele, vainly endeavouring to solve the 
mystery of his ill-fated love for her, that, instead of bringing joy 
and comfort to him, had ever been the lash that scourged him. 

" Poor Selina,'' said he aloud, as he mentally contrasted the unfor- 
tunate slave's fidelity and devotion with Adele's coldness and cruelty. 
" Poor Selina ! " And her image rose vividly before him, not as he had 
seen her in happier days, but as he had last looked upon her. In 
spite of his cruel, callous, and selfish nature, he could not forget her, 
her pale face and lustreler.s eyes haunted him night and day. He 
seated himself with a sigh. " Ah ! strange fate," he exclaimed 
dejectedly. " Is my ruin about to be accomplished by the only 
woman who ever loved me and the one I adore." Never did his 
utter loneliness strike him so forcibly as upon this night. " Patient, 
loving Selina was gone for ever," he said with compunction. 
" Adele ! she was naught to him," he thought and believed in this 
dark moment of his life. He felt therefore that he had nothing to 
live for here, nothing to hope for hereafter. He had lived in vain. 
The true and great lesson of life he had never studied — losing him- 
self in self-denial. On the contrary self had been his god. He had 
ever lived for and striven to satisfy self. At this shrine he had 
sacrificed everything noble and true in his nature, and he discovered 
now, too late, alas ! that the image was tottering and ready to drop 
to pieces at the mere touch of a hand mysterious, invisible, yet 

Up and down, backwards and forwards, he paced restless 
and superstitious ; a presentiment of evil was hanging over 
him that he could not shake ofF. Suddenly he started and appeared 
rooted to the e.irth. A female figure draped in white advanced 
stealthily from the garden and crept up to the stoep, up to Adele's 
window. Herman was aghast, and believed that he was in the 
presence of a ghost. The female knelt down under Adele's window, 
wrung her hands, moaned and sobbed, and called affectionately on 


Measurement of Heights. 

" Adele — oh ! my poor Nonnie, my good kind Nonnie." " What 
does it mean ? " thought Herman, his hair standing on end. It is not 
Selina's voice. Noiselessly the female raised herself, glanced 
anxiously towards the reeds, where a distinct rustling was heard 
drawing nearer, then gently she tapped at the window. Before she 
could repeat the knock, two dark figures rushed out from the reeds, 
seized hold of her and dragged her back. Herman felt somewhat 
relieved, but still greatly puzzled. " It is not a ghost, then, but a 
living woman and one, who is distressed and anxious to see Adele. 
Still there is something mysterious about her stealthy midnight visit. 
I'll just step to the house and mention it to Meerhoff; daylight can't 
be far off ! " 

On arriving there he found the burgher, as was his custom, up, 
and seated in his chair, smoking his pipe. But the latter, after 
hearing the Field-cornetcy's story, laughed at his fears. 

" Doubtless, some of our slaves," said he, " the worse for liquor." 
I dare say they have been ill-using the woman and she has run to 
Adele for protection.'' 

This appeared to Herman a very probable solution of the mystery. 
Tired, worn out, and half ashamed of himself, he retired to his cham- 
ber, and this time obtained a few hours oblivion for his troubled mind. 

!t\'c;isuwment of g eights. 


Aneroid set at sea-level off- Port Elizabeth , Barometer — 30. 


Graham's Town 


Middclburg ... 

... 1,700 

... 2,500 

... 3,000 

... 4,200 

... 4,700 


Bethulie 4,400 

Phillipolis 4,600 

Fauresmith 4,800 

Bethany 4,600 

Bloemfontein 4>"50 

Fountain Valley (near 

Bloemfontein.) ... 4,770 
ThabaNchu 5,250 


Kimberlcy 4 3 4 00 

Pokwane (Gasibonestown) 4,200 



Witwater Rand 

Colenso ... 
Howick ... 
The Plains 




4,3 00 

3>3 20 



(lets*. &<_ Cc^Wv£*6*v«*^ t*H&Cf JIZL ~~^ 

Sparks farm w jfca&r Jnbil. 


Once upon a time there was a village with many women in it. All 

the women had children at the same time except the wife of a chief. S J/£&e() 

The children grew, and again all the women gave birth to others. Only 

the wife of the chief had no child. Then the people said, " Let us kill 

an ox, perhaps the wife of the chief will then bear a child." While they 

were killing the ox, that woman heard a voice saying, " Bear me, mother, 

before the meat of my father is all finished." 

The woman did not pay any attention to that, thinking it was a 
ringing in her ears. The voice said again, " Bear me, mother, before the 
meat of my father is all finished." The woman took a small piece of ^ 
wood and cleaned her cars. She heard that voice again. Then she 
became excited. She said, " There is something in my ears; I would «, 
like to know what it is. I have just now cleaned my ears." The voice j 
said again, " Make haste and bear me, mother, before the meat of my * 
father is all finished." The woman said, " What is this ? there was «J% 
never a child that could speak before it was born." The voice said again, V 
" Bear me, mother, as all my father's cattle are being finished, and I have q 
not yet eaten anything of them." Then the woman gave birth to that / 
child. W* 

When she saw that to which she had given birth, she was very much 
astonished. It was a boy, but in size very little, and with a face that 
looked like that of an old person. He said to his mother, " Mother, 
give me a skin robe." His mother gave him a robe. Then he went 
at once to the kraal where the ox was being killed. 

He asked for some meat, saying, " Father, father, give me a piece of ^ 
meat." The chief was astonished to hear this child calling him father. J 
He said, " Oh men, what thing is this that calls me father ?" So he con- ** 
tinued with the skinning of the ox. But Hlakanyana continued also in 5 
asking meat from him. The chief became very angry, and pushed him, J£ 
and said, " Get away from this place." Hlakanyana answered, " I am i 
your child, give me meat." The chief took a little stick and said, " If «3& 
you trouble me again, I will strike you with this." Hlakanyana replied, C . (/} 
" Give me meat first, and I will go away ;" but the chief would not 
answer, because he was very angrv. 

Hlakanyana continued asking. Then the chief threw him outside the 
kraal, and went on with his work. After just a little time, the child 
returned, still asking. So the chief said to the men that were with him, 

Vol. XVII. n j fr^ 

178 Sparks from a Kafir Anvil. 

" What strange thing is this ?" The men replied, " Wc don't know him at 
'all." The chief asked of them also advice, saying, *' What shall I do ?" 
The men replied, " Give him a piece of meat." So the chief cut off a 
piece of meat and gave it to him. Hlakanyana ran to his mother and 
gave the meat to her to be cooked. Then he returned to his father, and 
said again, " Father, give me some meat." The chief just took him and 
trampled upon him, and threw him outside of the kraal, thinking that he 
was dead. But he rose again and returned to his father, still saying, 
" Father, give me some meat." Then the chief thought to get rid of him by 
giving him meat again. The chief gave him a piece of liver. Hlakanyana 
just threw it away. Fat was then given to him. He put it down on 
one side. Flesh was then given to him, and a bone with much 
marrow in it. Hlakanyana said, '• I am a man to-day." He said, " This 
is the beginning of my father's cattle." 

At this time the men were saying to each other, " Who will carry the 
meat to our huts ?" Hlakanyana answered, " I will do it." They said, 
" How can such a thing as you are carry meat ?" Hlakanyana replied 
"lam stronger than you; just see if you can lift this piece of meat.' 
The men tried, but could not lift it. Then Hlakanyana just took that 
piece of meat and carried it out of the kraal. The men said, "That 
will do now, carry our meat for us." 

Hlakanyana took the meat and carried it to the house of his mother. 
He took blood and put it on the eating mats at the houses of the men. 
The men went to their houses, and said, " Where is our meat ?" They 
called Hlakanyana, and asked him what he had done with the meat. He 
replied, " Surely I put it here where the blood is. It must have been 
taken by the dogs. Surely the dogs have eaten it." Then those men 
beat the women and children because they did not watch that the dogs 
did not take the meat. As for Hlakanyana, he only delighted in this 
trick of hs. He was more cunning than any of the old men. 

Hlakanyana said to his mother, that she must put the meat in the pot 
to cook, but that it must not be eaten before the next morning. It was 
done. In the night this cunning little fellow rose and went to the pot. 
His mother heard something at the pot, and struck with a stick. 
Hlakanyana cried like a dog. His mother said, " Surely a dog is eating the 
meat." Hlakanyana returned afterward and left nothing but bones in the 
pot. In the m irning he asked his mother for meat. His mother went 
to the pot, and found nothing but bones. The cunning little 
fellow pretended to be astonished. He said, " Where is the meat, 
mother ?" His mother replied, " It has been eaten by a dog." 
Hlakanyana said, " As that is so, give me the bones, for you who arc the 
wife of the chief will uot cat from the same pot with a dog." His 
another gave him the bojics. 

Sparks from a Kafir Anvil. 179 

Hlakanvana went to sleep in the same house with the boys. The 
boys were unwilling to let him sleep with them. They laughed at him. 
They said, "Who arc you? You arc just a child of a few days." 
Hlakanyana answered, " I am older than you." He slept there that night. 
When the boys were asleep, he got up and went to the cattle kraal. He 
killed two cows rnd ate all their insides. He took blood and smeared it 
on one of the boys who v\ as sleeping. In the morning the men found 
those two dead cows. They said, " Who has done this tiling ?" They 
found the boy with blood upon him, and killed him, because hey 
thought he was the robber. Hlakanyana said within himself, " I told 
them that I was older than they are ; to-day it is seen who is a child and 
who is a man," 

Another day the father of Hlakanyana killed an ox. The head was put 
in a pot to be cooked. Then Hlakanyana considered in his mind, how he 
could get that meat. So he drove all the cattle of the village into a 
forest, a very thick forest, and tied them by their talis to the trees. 
After that he cut his arms, and legs, and breast with a sharp stone, 
and stood on a hill, and cried out with a loud voice "The enemy has 
taken our cattle ; the cattle are being driven away. Come up, come up, 
there is an army going away with the cattle." The men ran quickly to him. 
He said to them, " why are you eating meat while the enemy is going 
away with the cattle ? I was fighting with them ; just look at my body." 
They saw he was covered with blood, and they believed it was as he said. 
So the men took their assegais and ran after the cattle, but they took the 
wrong way. 

Only one old man and Hlakanyana were left behind. Then Hlakan- 
yana said to the old man, " I am very tired with fighting, just go the 
river, grandfather, and get some water." The old man went, and as 
soon as he was alone Hlakanyana ate the meat which was in the pot. 
When the old man returned with the water I12 was very tired, for the 
river was far for an old man to go, therefore, he fell asleep. When he 
was sleeping Hlakanyana took a bone and put it beside the old man. 
He also took some fat and put it on the mouth of the old man. Then 
he ran to the forest and loosened the cattle that were tied by the 

At this time the men were returning from seeking the enemy. Hlakan- 
yana was coming also from the other side with the cattle. He shouted, 
" I have conquered the enemy " He also said, "the meat must be eaten 
now." When they opened the pot they found no meat. They found 
only dung, for Hlakanyana had filled the pot with dung. Then the men 
said, " Who has done this :" Hlakanyana answered, " It must be the old 
man who is sleeping there." They looked, and saw the bone by the side 
of the old man, and the fat on his mouth. Then they said, " This is the 
thief." They were intending to kill that old man because he had stolen 
the meat of the chief. 

When the children saw that the old man was to be killed, they said 
that he did not eat the meat of the chief. The men said, " We saw fat 
on his mouth and a bone beside him." The children replied, " He did 
not do it." The men said, " Tell us who did it." The children answered, 
" Hlakanyana ate the meat and put dung in the pot. We were concealed, 
and we saw him do it." Hlakanyana denied. He said, " Let me go and 
ask the women ; perhaps they saw who ate the meat of the chief." The 

N 2 

180 Sparks from a Kafir Anvil. 

men sent a young man with him to the women, but when they were just 
a short distance away, Hlakanyana escaped. 

The chief sent an army after him. The army pursued and saw 
Hlakanyana sitting by a bush. They ran to catch him. When they 
came to the bush only an old woman was sitting there. They said to 
her, "Where is Hlakanyana ?" The old woman replied, " He just went 
across that river. See, you must make haste to follow him, for the river 
is rising." The army passed over the river quickly. Then that old 
woman turned into Hlakanyana again. He said in himself, " I will now 
go on a journey, for I am wiser than the councillors of my father, I being 
older that they." 

That little cunning fellow went to a village, where he saw an old 
woman sitting beside her house. He said to her, " Would you like to be 
made young, grandmother r" The old woman replied, " Yes my grand- 
child ; if you could make me young I would be very glad." Hlakanyana 
said, "Take that pot, grandmother, and go for some water." The old 
woman replied, " I cannot walk." Hlakanyana said, "Just try, grand- 
mother ; the river is close by, and perhaps you will be able to reach it.'* 
The old woman limped along and got the water. 

Then Hlakanyana took a large pot and set it on the fire and poured 
the water into it. He said to the old woman, " You must cook me a little 
first, and then I will cook you a little." The old woman agreed to that. 
Hlakanyana was the first to be put in the pot. When the water began 
to get hot, he said, " Take me out, grandmother, I am in long enough." 
The old woman took him out and went in the pot for her turn. Soon 
she said, " Take me out now, my grandchild, I am in long enough." 
Hlakanyana replied, " Not yet, grandmother, it is not yet time." So 
the old woman died in the pot. 

Hlakanyana took all the bones of the old woman and threw them 
away. He left only the toes and the fingers. Then he took the clothing 
of the old woman and put it on. The two sons of this old woman came 
from hunting. They went into the hut, and said, " Whose meat is this 
in the pot ?" Hlakanyana was lying down. He said in a voice like that 
of their mother, " It is yours, my sons." While they were eating, the 
younger one said, " Look at this, it is like the toe of mother." The elder 
one said, " How can you say such a thing ? did not mother give us this 
meat to eat ?" Again the younger one said, "Look at this, it is like the 
finger of mother." Hlakanyana said, " You arc speaking evil of me, my 
son." Hlakanyana said in himself, " I shall be discovered ; it is time for 
me to flee." So he slipped quietly out of the house and went on his way. 
When he got a little way oft, he called out, " You arc eating your mother. 
Did anyone ever sec people eating their mother before r" The two 
young men took their assegais and ran after him with their dogs. They 
came to the river ; it was full. The cunning little fellow changed him- 
self into a little round stone. One of the young men picked up this 
stone, saying, " If I could sec him I would just throw this stone at him." 
The young man threw the stone over the river, and it turned into 
Hlakanyana again. He just laughed at those young men. Hlakanyana 
went on his way. He was singing this song : — 

Ndahlangana Nonothloya 1 met with Nonothloya. 

Sapekapekana Wc cooked each other, 

Nadagwanya I was half cooked, 

Wapekwa wada wavutwa She was well cooked. 

Sparks from a Kafir Anvil. 1 8 1 

Hlakanyana met a boy fending some goats. The boy had a digging- 
stick with him. Hlakanyana proposed that they should pursue after 
birds, and the boy agreed. They pursued birds the whole day. In the 
evening when the sun set, Hlakanyana said, "It is time now to roast our 
birds." The place was on the bank of a river. Hlakanyana said, " We 
must go under the water and sec who will come out last. They went 
under the water and Hlakanyana came out last. The cunning fellow 
said, " Let us try again." The boy agreed to that. They went under 
the water. Hlakanyana came out quickly and ate all the birds. He left 
the heads only. Then he went under the water again. The boy came 
out while he was still under the water. When Hlakanyana came out he 
said, " Let us go now and eat our birds." They found all the birds 
eaten. Hlakanyana said, " You have eaten them, because you came out 
of the water first, and you have left me the heads only." The boy 
denied having done so, but Hlakanyana said, "You must pay for my 
birds with that digging-stick." The boy gave the digging-stick, and 
Hlakanyana went on his way. 

He saw some people making pots of clay. He said to them, " Whv 
do you not ask me to lend you this digging-stick, instead of digging with 
your hands ?" They said, " Lend it to us." Hlakanyana lent them that 
digging-stick. Just the first time they stuck it in the clay it broke. He 
said, " You have broken my digging-stick, the digging-stick that I 
received from my companion, my companion who ate my birds and left 
me with the heads." They gave him a pot. 

Hlakanyana carried that pot till he came to some boys who were herd- 
ing goats. He said to them, " You foolish boys, you only suck the goats, 
you don't milk them in any vessel ; why don't you ask me to lend you 
this pot ?" The boys said, " Lend it to us." Hlakanyana lent them the 
pot. While the boys were milking, the pot broke. Hlakanyana said, 
"You have broken my pot, the pot that I received from the people who 
make pots, the people who broke my digging-stick, the digging-stick that 
I received from my companion, my companion who ate my birds and left 
me with the heads." The bovs gave him a goat. 

Hlakanyana came to the keepers of calves. He said to them, " You 
foolish fellows, you only sit here and eat nothing. Why don't you ask 
me to let you suck this goat?" The keepers of calves said, "Allow us 
to suck this goat." Hlakanyana gave the goat into their hands. While 
they were sucking, the goat died. Hlakanyana said, " You have killed 
my goat, the goat that I received from the boys that were tending goats, 
the boys that broke my pot, the pot that I received from the people who 
make pots, the people who broke my digging-stick, the digging-stick that 
I received from my companion, my companion who ate my birds and left 
me with the heads." They gave him a calf. 

Hlakanyana came to the keepers of cows. He said to them, " You 
only suck the cows without letting the calf suck first. Why don't you 
ask me to lend you this calf, that the cows may be induced to give their 
milk freely ?" They said, "Lend us the calf." Hlakanyana permitted 
them to take the calf. While the calf was in their hands it died. 
Hlakanyana said, " You have killed my calf, the calf that I received from 
the keepers of calves, the keepers of calves that killed my goat, the goat 
that I received from the boys that were tending goats, the boys that 
broke my pot, the pot that I received from the people who make pots, 

i 82 Sparks from a Kafir Anvil. 

the people who broke my digging-stick, the digging-stick that 1 received 
from my companion, my companion who ate my birds and left me with 
the heads/' They gave him a cow. 

Hlakanyana continued on his journey. He saw a young man going the 
same way. He said, " Let us be companions and travel together." The 
young man agreed to that. They came to a forest. Hlakanyana said, 
" This is the place for picking up kceries." They picked up keeries 
there. Then they reached another place, and Hlakamana said, "This 
is the place for throwing away kcrrics." They threw the keeries away. 

Again they came to another place, and Hlakanyana said, " This is the 
place for throwing away spoons." The companion of Hlakanyana threw 
his spoon away, but the cunning little fellow only pretended to throw his 
away. In fact, he concealed his spoon. They went on. They came 
to another place, and Hlakanyana said, "This is the place for throwing 
knives away." It happened again as with the spoons. Hlakanyana just 
concealed his knife, when his companion threw his away. 

They came to a certain place, and Hlakanyana said, "This is the place 
for throwing away isilanda" (awls used to make holes in skins when thcy 
are sewed together, and also for taking thorns out of the bare feet and 
legs of pedestrians). His companion threw his isilanda away, but 
Hlakanyana kept his. They went on and reached a place where they 
had to walk on thorns." Afterwards they looked at their feet and saw 
many thorns in them. Hlakanyana said, "Let us sit down and take out 
the thorns." His companion replied, " 1 cannot do so, because I have 
no isilanda." Then Hlakanyana took the thorns out of his feet, and the 
other was obliged to walk lame. They came to a village. The people 
said to them, " Tell us the news." Hlakanyana replied, "Just give us 
something to cat first ; look at our stomachs and behold the pinchings of 
hunger." The people of that village brought meat. Hlakanyana said 
to his companion, " Now let us eat." The companion of Hlakanyana 
answered, l \ I have no knife." Hlakanyana said, " You arc just a child ; 
I shall not lend you my knife." The people of that village brought 
Kafir corn and put before them. Hlakanyana said to his companion, 
" Why do you not cat ? " He answered, " I have no spoon." Hlakanyana 
said, " You arc just a child ; I shall not lend you my spoon." So 
Hlakanyana had all that meat and that Kafir corn just to himself. 

Hlakanyana met a girl herding some goats. He said, " Where are the 
boys of your village that the goats arc herded by a girl?" The girl 
answered, " There arc no boys in the village." He went to the father 
of that girl and said, " You must give me your daughter to be my con- 
cubine, and I will herd the goats." The father of the girl agreed to 
that. Then Hlakanyana went with the goats, and every day he killed 
one and ate it till all were done. He scratched his body with thorns. 
The father of the girl said, " Where arc all the goats?" Hlakanyana 
replied, " Can you not sec how I have been fighting with the wild dogs ? 
The wild dugs have eaten the goats. As for mc, I will stay here no 
longer ;" so he went on his way. 

As he was going on he saw a trap for catching birds. There were 
some birds in it. Hlakanyana took the birds out and ate them. The 
owners of the trap were cannibals. Thej saw the footprints of Hlakanyana 
and said, " This is a little boy that is stealing our birds." They watched 
for him. Hlakanyana came again to the trap and saw a bird caught in 

Sparks from a Kafir Anvil. 183 

it. He was just going to take the bird out when the cannibals caught 
him. They made a big fire and put a pot on for the purpose of cooking 
him. Hlakanyana saw two oxen. One was white, the other was red. 
He said to the cannibals, " You can take which one of these oxen you 
like instead of me." The cannibals said, "We will take the white one 
because it is white inside also." Then Hlakanyana went away with the 
red ox. The cannibals ate the white ex, and then pursued after Hlakan- 
yana. They came up to him by a big stone. He jumped on the stone, 
and sang this song — 

Ndahamba ndnyakuva indaba I went to hear the news, 

Zemvula ku mankazana. About rain from the girls. 

The cannibals began to dance when they heard him sing. Then he 
ran away, and the stone continued to sing that song. 

As he was journeying, Hlakanyana came to a place where some baboons 
were feasting. He asked them for some food. The baboons replied, 
"If you will go for some water for us we will give you food." He 
agreed to that. When he returned with the water the baboons refused 
to give him food. Then Hlakanyana shouted loudly and said, "At my 
viilage there is a marriage of baboons to-day." When the baboons heard 
that they fled, old and young. So Hlakanyana remained there, and ate all 
the food. 

As he was going along he saw a hyena building a house, having cooked 
some meat. Hlakanyana asked the hvena to give him some. The hyena 
said, " No, I will not give you any, it is too little even for me." Hla- 
kanyana said, "Will you not have me to assist in building?" The 
hyena replied, " I would have you without delay if you are intending to 
help me." While they were fastening the thatch Hlakanyana sewed the 
hair of the tail of the hyena fast. Then he took the pot and sat down. 
The hyena said, "Let that pot alone, Hlakanyana." He replied, "I am 
going to eat now." The hyena wanted to come down, but he found his 
tail was fast. Hlakanyana ate all the meat and threw the bones at the 
hyena. The hyena tried to frighten him by saying there were many 
hyenas coming quickly to devour h'm. He just answered, "That is 
false ; " and continued eating till the meat was finished. Then he went 
on his way. 

Hlakanyana came to a river. He saw an iguana that was playing on 
an ugwa'i (a simple musical instrument). Hlakanyana said to the iguana, 
"Lend me your ugwali for a little, please." The iguana said, "No, 
you will run away with my ugwali." Hlakanyana replied, " How can 
I run away with a thing that is not mine ?" So the iguana lent him the 
ugwali. When Hlakanyana saw that he could play upon that instru- 
ment nicely, he ran away with it. The iguana pursued him. Then 
Hlakanyana changed himself into a rush. The iguana took that rush 
and threw it across the river, saying, "If I could only see him I would 
throw him like this." Then the rush turned to be Hlakanyana again, 
and he went on his way playing on the ugwali of the iguana. 

Hlakanyana came to the house of a leopardess. He proposed to take 
care of her children while the leopardess went to hunt animals. The 
leopardess agreed to that. There were four cubs. After the leopardess 
had gone to hunt, Hlakanyana took one of the cubs and ate it. At the 

1&4 Sparks from a Kafir Anvil. 

time for giving food, the leopardess came back and said, " Give me my 
children that I may suckle them." Hlakanyana gave one. The mother 
said, " Give all at once." Hlakanyana replied, "It is better that one 
should drink and then another." The leopardess agreed to that. After 
three had drunk he gave the first one back the second time. Then the 
leopardess went to hunt again. 

Hlakanyana took another of the cubs and ate it. He also made the 
door of the house very small so that the mother of the cubs could not 
come in, and then he made a little hole in the ground at rhe back so that 
he could go out. The next day the leopardess came to give her children 
suck. There were only two left now. Hlakanyana gave them both back 
the second time. After that the leopardess went away as before. 

Hlakanyana ate another of the cubs, so that only one was left. When 
the mother came he gave this one four times. When he gave it the last 
time the leopardess said, " Why does my child not drink to-day ?," It 
was already full, and did not want to drink more. Hlakanyana replied, 
" I think this one is sick." The mother said, " You must take good care 
of it." Hlakanyana promised to do so, but when the leopardess was gone 
he ate that one also. 

The next day when the leopardess came there was no cub left to give 
her. She tried to get in the house, but the door was too small. She 
just sat down in front to watch. Then Hlakanyana went out through 
that hole he had made in the ground behind. The leopardess saw him 
and ran after him. He went under a big rock, and cried out loudly for 
help, saying the reck was falling. The leopardess said, " What is that 
you are saying ?" Hlakanyana replied, " Do you not see that this rock is 
falling ? Just hold it up while I get a prop and put under it." The 
leopardess went to hold the rock up, and Halkanyana did not return. He 
just ran away from that place. 

Hlakanyana came to the village of the animals. The animals had trees 
that bore fruit. There was one tree that belonged to the chief of the 
animals only. This tree was a very good one, bearing much fruit on it. 
One day when all the animals were assembled, Hlakanyana asked them 
the name of the tree of the chief. They did not know the name of that 
tree. Then Hlakanyana sent a monkey to the chief to ask the name of 
the tree. The chief told the monkey. As the monkey was returning, 
he struck his foot against a stone and fell down, which caused him to for- 
get the name of the tree. 

In the night when all were sleeping Hlakanyana went up the tree of 
the chief and ate all the fruit of it. He took a branch of the tree, and 
fastened it to one of the monkeys. In the morning when the animals 
awoke and found that the tree of the chief was finished in the night, 
they asked each other, "What became of the fruit of the chief's tree ? 
what became of the fruit of the tree of the chief? " Hlakanyana looked 
at the monkey with the branch on him, and said, " It is eaten by the 
monkey, it is eaten by the monkey, look at the branch on him." The 
monkey denied, and said, "I don't know anything about it. I never ate 
the fruit of the tree of the chief." 

Hlakanyana said, " Let us make a plan to find out who ate the fruit of 
the tree of the chief." All the animals agreed to this. Hlakanyana said, 
" Let us put a rope from one rock to another, and let all go over it. He 
that has eaten the fruit of the tree will fall down from that rope." One 

A Ramble through Italy. 185 

of" the monkeys Went over first. The next was Hlakanyana himself. 
He went over carefully and avoided falling. It came to the turn of 
that monkey with the branch on. He tried to go, but when he was just 
in the middle he fell down. Hlakanyana said therefore, " I have told 
you that it is this monkey." After that he went on his way. 

Hlakanyana came to the house of a jackal. He asked for food, but the 
jackal said there was none. Then he made a plan. He said to the 
jackal, " You must climb up on the house and cry out with a loud voice, 
' We are going to be fat to-day because Hlakanyana is dead.' " The jackal 
did so. All the animals came running to hear that news. They went 
inside the house, because the door was open. Then Hlakanyana shut 
the door, and the animals were caught. After that Hlakanyana killed the 
animals and ate. 

Hlakanyana returned to the home of his father again. He was told that 
his sister was gone away for some red clay. When she was returning he 
shouted, " Let all the black cattle which have white teeth be killed. The 
daughter of my father is coming who has white teeth." The chief said, 
" What is the matter with you, Hlakanyana ? " He just repeated the 
same thing. The chief said, " Let a black ox be killed, but you must not 
break any of its bones because it belongs to the daughter of a chief." 
So Hlakanyana got fat meat to eat that day. 

Hlakanyana went one day to tend the calves of his father. He met a 
tortoise. He said, "Where are you going to, tortoise ?" The tortoise 
answered, " To that big stone." Hlakanyana said, "Are you not tired ? " 
The tortoise replied, "No, I am not tired." Hlakanyana took it and put 
it on his back. Then he went to the house of his mother. His mother 
said, " What have you got there, my son ? " Hlakanyana answered, "Just 
take it off my back, mother." The tortoise held fast to Hlakanyana, and 
would not be pulled off. His mother then heated some fat and poured 
on the tortoise. The tortoise let go quickly, and the fat fell on Hlakan- 
yana and burnt him, so that he died. That is the end of this cunning 
little fellow. 

% JjutmMc through $tuhr. 

" A land 

Which was the mightiest in its old command, 
And is the loveliest, and must ever be 

The Master-mould of Nature's heavenly hand ; 
Wherein were cast the heroic and the free, 
The beautiful, the brave, the lords of land and sea." 

There is no land which for so many ages has excited a greater 
amount of interest among all classes of men than Italy. While 
Palestine and Greece have a more glorious history in the remote 
past, Italy^ after more than two thousand centuries, still continues to 
exercise a world-wide influence. No poet is satisfied until he has 

1 86 A Ramble through Italy. 

visited the land of Virgil, Horace, and Dante ; no sculptor or artist 
of any kind looks upon his education as complete before he has 
visited Italy and been inspired by the master-pieces of Praxitelles, 
Raphael, Michael Angelo, and a hundred others. In short, it would 
be difficult to meet any person of even a moderate education who 
will not look upon a visit to Italy as a thing devoutly to be desired. 
When some time ago \ went on a first trip to Europe, I could not 
for a moment think of returning before I had seen Italy and Rome ; 
and my enthusiasm was great when on a line morning towards the 
end of August I found myself at Modane, a small station on the 
boundary between France and Italy, and the seat of the respective 
custom-house authorities who examine passenger s luggage. As a 
rule, however, the officials are very kind and the worst they do is 
sometimes to turn one's portmanteau inside out before marking it 
with the necessary white cross as a sign for the doorkeeper to let you 
pass. This is often very unpleasant, as there always is a great rush out 
of the custom-house to secure the best seats in the railway carriages. 
On the morning in question I was fortunate enough to get a good 
seat in a carriage that was not at all crowded — a very rare thing 
on these railways. The first thing I noticed on taking my seat was 
the announcement in beautiful characters, " Fumare e vietato" which 
I understood to mean that it was forbidden to smoke. I mention 
this because I found that all along the line the Italians take pains 
even in their railway notices to show their love for the artistic and 
the beautiful. Also because I found that on the Continent the 
majority of carriages are smoking carriages, and this is especially 
necessary in Italy where it is not at all uncommon tosee ladies smoking, 
to say nothing of the other sex. On leaving Modane the train 
takes a wide curve almost quite round the village, going slower than 
usual, as if to prepare one for entering the famous Mont Cenis tunnel. 
After passing through two short tunnels, the train suddenly enters 
with a loud whistle the great tunnel itself. I cannot desciibe my 
feelings when I found myself all at once in the dark, with some 
four thousand feet of solid rock overhead. But I was soon at 
perfect ease. The tunnel is twenty-six feet wide and nineteen feet 
high, and almost entirely lined with solid masonry. It is lighted by 
lanterns, placed at equal distances, and is well ventilated. In fact, it is 
perhaps the pleasantest as well as the largest tunnel in the world. I 
sat all the way with my head out of the window looking at the 
weird sight, and counting the marks set up like milestones on a 
public highway. The length of the tunnel is nearly eight miles, and 
the train took twenty-seven minutes to pass through. Much as I 
liked it I was glad to see daylight again, on the Italian side of the 
Alps. It is sad to think that both engineers who planned this great 
work, which took thirteen years in construction, died long before its 

The first view of Italy is indeed charming. It seemed to me 
that I was suddenly transported into a kind of fairy land. Behind 

A Ramble through Italy. 187 

and towards the right, the Alps tower higher into the regions of 
eternal snow; the slopes and valleys are covered with beautiful woods ; 
while in every kloof there rushes down a torrent of sparkling water. 
To the left a beautiful river meanders along the line ; its banks 
studded with large clusters of chestnut trees with rich foliage. In 
the words of Byron, " A sea of glory streams along the Alpine 
heights." The first town that comes in sight is the ancient Susa, 
where there is a noble arch of Augustus built in the year eight after 
Christ. From the tunnel to Turin the distance is about sixty 
miles. Italian trains go rather slowly, but all along I could not for a 
moment keep my eyes off the ever changing views. Only two 
days before I had left Geneva which, "like an eastern queen sleeps 
above the banks of her lovely lake, her head reposing on the base 
of Mont Saleve, her feet kissed by each advancing wave." On 
passing through the grand gorge of the Jura, with the Rhone flowing 
through it, sparkling like a mirror in the light of a full moon, I 
thought I would never see anything so lovely again. " La belle 
France " had disappointed me, and I had made up my mind that it 
would be the same with "fair Italy." But I was mistaken. It 
may be that I was particularly fortunate in getting a first view under 
unusually favourable circumstances, or it may be that my joy 
at finding the dream of so many years fulfilled at last was so great 
that I was no impartial judge ; but for once my expectation did not 
come short of the reality, and I was more than charmed. It was 
late in the afternoon when the train reached Turin, and I felt so tired 
that I was glad when the omnibus from the station stopped at the 
hotel De la Ligurie. This hotel was formerly a palace belonging to 
some Italian nobleman, and has lately been renovated and enlarged. 
With its marble staircases, mosaic floors, and statues, it may truly 
be said to be one of the " finest houses in Europe." But every- 
where in fact on the Continent one is struck with the magnificence 
of the hotels. An English officer told me at Vienna that he and 
his wife were staying in a room at the Victoria containing thirty- 
eight pieces of furniture, exclusive of bedsteads and mirrors. And 
yet strange to say the charges are very moderate. In Turin, for 
instance, I paid only 8s. 6d. per day, with a room all to myself, 
breakfast and dinner at the table de hote. No wonder that travelling 
in South Africa often makes me miserable. 

Turin (or Toreno, as the Italians call it) is situated in a beautiful 
plain on the Po. Although of such ancient origin as to have been 
destroyed in the third century before Christ by Hannibal, it now has 
a more modern look than any other Italian town I saw. It is laid 
out on a plan as regular almost as a chess-board, and there is no 
danger of any one losing his way, as in most other places. All round 
the town there are broad roads and boulevards planted with trees. 
The population is about 200,000. And yet there are more than a 
hundred churches, nearly all remarkable tor the splendour of their 
ornaments, as indeed all Italian churches are. What pleased me 

188 A Ramble through Italy. 

more than anything was a fine new church of the Waldenses, whose 
famous valleys, where for a thousand years they resisted all the power 
of papal Rome, are in the neighbourhood of Turin. The University of 
Turin is now the most flourishing in Italy, with a staff of eighty-five 
professors, attended by 1,500 students. How many priests there 
are I cannot tell, but one meets them everywhere in twos and threes, 
and in sixes and sevens. And no wonder : Italy has 265 bishopriclcs, 
or nearly one-half as many as there are in the whole of Europe, and 
the number of priests and monks is over thirty thousand. Turin to 
the modern Italian is particularly interesting, as having been until 
recently the capital of Sardinia and the residence of the lamented 
Victor Emanuel. It is also the birthplace of Count Cavour, justly 
regarded as one of the greatest statesmen of the age. In one of the 
principal streets a modest inscription, at the corner of a large three 
storey house, marks the place of his birth. To him more than to 
any other man, not even excepting Garibaldi, Italy owes its liberation 
from Austrian tyranny, and its union under one king. The unifica- 
tion and regeneration of Italy is perhaps the most remarkable page 
in the political history of Europe of the last fifty years. It was in 
i860, when Italy was still, in the famous words of Prince Metternich, 
only a " geographical expression,'' that Cavour spoke to the Chamber 
of Deputies of Turin as follows: — "During the last twelve years 
the fixed star of King Victor Emanuel was the aspiration after national 
independence. What will be this star as regards Rome ? Our star 
I openly declare to you is to do in such manner as, that the eternal 
city on which twenty-five centuries have accumulated every kind of 
"lory, should become the splendid capital of the kingdom of Italy." 
At that time Cavour's words seemed visionary enough, but they have 
been literally fulfilled. A few more years of hopes and fears, of 
patient waiting and sacrifices of every kind sufficed to realize the 
ardent longings and the dream of many centuries. Italy now is no 
lonoer despised, but stands in the front rank of the great po.vers of 
Europe. But Cavour was not to see this day. Cut oft" in the prime 
of manhood, he died like another Moses, within sight of the Promised 
Land. But like Moses he will live, and does live, in the hearts of a 
grateful country. In Turin, as in every other city ofltaly, splendid 
monuments are erected to his memory, and Cavour is as much a 
household word in Italy as in a few years hence the name of Glad- 
stone will be in England, spite of London clubs and Hyde Park 
demonstrations. Cavour, as is well known, was the first statesman 
who tried to carry out the famous formula of a " free Church in a 
free State." 

On leaving Turin, the train passes over the famous battlefield of 
Marengo, where Napoleon lost one of his bravest Generals— 

'• Who turned the scale, 
Leaving his life-blocxi in that famous field." 

The country all along to Genoa is fertile and beautiful. Asti, 

A Ramhie through Italy. 189 

famous for its wines, and as the birthplace of Alfieri, the great 
dramatist, is passed. Almost every town or even village in France 
and Italy has some great name connected with its history. Novi, 
another famous name in the annals of war, is also passed. For some 
distance the line runs through ravines and tunnels where the scenery 
is strikingly beautiful. At a station a few miles from Genoa my 
pleasant musings on Italian loveliness were sadly disturbed, however, 
by two peasant girls redolent of garlic, and smeared all over with oil, 
entering the carriage. It reminded me of some African experiences 
across the Kei. As a rule this class of people never enter a 
second class carriage, but on the day in question the train was 

Genoa is called by the Italians " la Superba " on account of its 
commanding situation on the Mediterranean and its historical renown 
in the middle ages. But I was disappointed with the place. The 
houses are very high and the streets narrow and crooked. It is all 
up and down and very gloomy. As seen from the sea, however, and 
at a distance, Genoa must indeed show to great advantage. The 
harbour is a noble one and usually crowded with shipping. Genoa 
also lays claim to the title of " city of palaces," which to a stranger 
is especially misleading, for however beautiful these palaces are on 
the inside, and filled with famous pictures and statues, externally 
most of them have but a mean appearance. The churches are not 
very remarkable either. The Annunziata, said to be the richest in 
Genoa, has no architectural merit, and it was merely by chance I 
went inside. All the greater, therefore, was my surprise on finding 
the interior decked out in such profusion of wealth and ornament as 
to be almost bewildering. The dome is richly gilded and supported 
by twelve columns of red marble. In fact, were it not for pictures 
and crosses, with people kneeling before them, one would fancy one- 
self in some gorgeous theatre rather than in a church. As in all 
Romish churches, however, the poor, ragged, barefoot beggar can 
enter at any time he likes and kneel down by the side perhaps of 
some rich merchant or nobleman without let or hindrance. In 
leaving the church I passed through the Via Nuova, a street lined 
with palaces on both sides throughout its whole length, but I doubt 
whether I would have known this if the guide book did not state it. 
Genoa is the chief commercial town of Italy and is strongly fortified. 
Near the railway station there is a beautiful marble monument, con- 
sisting of a large statue of Columbus (born somewhere in the neigh- 
bourhood of Genoa), surrounded by several allegorical figures. Not 
far from this stands the noble Doria Palace, presented to him early 
in the sixteenth century by a grateful people. All this looks grand 
enough, but no sooner does one enter further into the town but he 
finds himself lost in a labyrinth of narrow, crooked lanes, with high 
gloomy houses which almost seem to meet at the top. I fairly lost 
my way, when a young Italian kindly went with me for about a 
mile up to the door of the hotel I was staying at, and where thev 

go J Ramble through Italy. 

had given me a room so high up that I got giddy looking down into 
the street. There is a Tuscan proverb which says that Genoa has 
"a sea without fish and mountain without trees, men without 
honour and women without modesty." As far as my experience 
goes, I can only testify to the truth of the second of these items, but 
I have no doubt all the rest is a malicious libel. Still, with all its 
peculiar attractions, Genoa cannot be a very pleasant place to live in, 
and I believe it is not entirely accidental that George Eliot, in rhe 
last work, makes it the scene of one of the most painful tragedies in 
modern fiction. 

On leaving Genoa the train passes through a long narrow tunnel 
right under the town, and through a hill behind. Unfortunately 
I had entered a smoking carriage full of passengers, who were 
smoking away as if for their lives. But I soon forgot all this in the 
glorious views all along the way. From Genoa to Pisa, a distance 
of over a hundred miles, the railway nearly all along runs within 
sight of the blue classic Mediterranean, sometimes so near as almost 
to touch the waves. There aie ninety-seven tunnels and cuttings to 
pass through in this hundred miles, but most of them are very short, 
and only add to the romance of this wonderful railway. Numerous 
towns and villages at the foot of hills covered over with vineyards 
and orchards follow one and an other in rapid succession, and I doubt 
if anywhere in the world there can be a day's railway travelling to rival 
this. La Spezia, famous for its magnificent harbour, and charmingly 
situated, lies about half way, but I had no time to linger here. 
Fortunately it was a slow train, stopping at every station, so that 
I had ample time to look and drink in the exquisite loveliness of the 
scenery. Further, on when the country became less interesting and 
tame, I almost felt relieved. At one place the white Carrara marble 
quarries came into sight, and at the station tremendous square blocks 
of marble were lying waiting for transportation. These famous 
mines were discovered in the time of Augustus, and still employ 
some six thousand workmen. Pisa, so famous in the middle ages, 
is now a gloomy dull place with a population of 50,000. It 
has four great sights, all situated in one piazza or square ; the 
Cathedral, the Babtistery, the Leaning Tower, and the Campo Santo. 
The cathedral, built entirely of white marble, ij in the Tuscan style, 
and more unlike any other cathedral I have seen. Inside hangs the 
bronze lamp, the swaying of which is said first to have suggested to 
Galileo the idea of the pendulum. The Babtistery, also of marble, is 
a circular building of the 12th century, more noted I believe for its 
peculiar shape and ingenuity of design than for beauty. It contains 
a beautiful pulpit, however, said to be the finest in the world — by the 
Pisans, of course. The Leaning Marble Tower, 179 feet high and 
13 feet out of the perpendicular, is too well known to be here described. 
The Campo Santo, or burial-ground, was founded in the nth century 
by an archbishop who had fifty shiploads of earth conveyed from 
Mount Calvary at Jerusalem for good Catholics at Pisa to sleep in. 

Cape Supreme Court Reports. 19 1 

It contains many chaste marble monuments, sculptures and paintings. 
Castelar, in his book on " Old Rome and new Italy " goes into 
raptures about it, but as I am no poet or orator, I must own that I 
was not much impressed, except that it seemed to me an appropriate 
resting place for the dead, only too cheerless. 

From Pisa to Rome, a long day's journey by rail, the scenery is 
tame and monotonous, and reminded me a good deal of the Koeberg 
district late in summer. The stations are small and insignificant, 
and there are no beautiful towns or villages along the line as 
everywhere else in Italy. In fact it was the dreariest day of railway 
travelling I ever had in my life, and I sadly longed for an English 
express to whirl us along at sixty miles an hour. A young gentleman 
in the same carriage tried hard to make me speak Italian, but I 
declined as civilly as I could. At last we were nearing Rome, but it was 
long after dark before the train stopped at the magnificent station of 
the Eternal City. I was too tired to look at anything and got cheated 
as a matter of course by the cab-driver. All the enthusiasm of many 
years seemed to have evaporated, and I felt as melancholy as if I was 
entering some dismal sepulchre of the dead with Byron's words 
ringing in my ears : 

'• Oh Rome, my country ! city of the soul, 

The orphans of the heart must turn to thee, 
Lone mother of dead empires, and control 
In their shut hearts their petty misery." 

H. T. K. 

€up .Supreme Court ^leparfs. 

A valuable legal work has recently appeared, which is deserving of 
more notice and commendation than it has yet received, probably on 
account of its more or less thoroughly professional and legal nature. 
To the practitioner, throughout the land, it has already become, as 
indeed it could not fail to be, a daily vade mecum for reference, but to 
what may be called the "outside public," it is not so well known, 
because there is no need of their consulting it so directly. 

If the existence of learned and competent courts is a necessity to 
all classes of the community, their refuge when rights and liberties are 
threatened or injured, it is of secondary importance only that their 
proceedings should be carefully, conscientiously, learnedly, reported 
and preserved. Similar cases to previous ones constantly recur. 

* Buchanan's " Digest of Cases decided in the Supreme Court of the Cape of Good 
Hope." J. C. Juta. 1877. 

192 Cape Supreme Court Reports. 

Questions of importance often hurriedly crop up, and an easy reference; 
to precedents is thus of the highest need. 

This was forcibly felt by the late Mr. Justice Menzies, that 
luminary of the Cape bench. He reported a large number of 
cases. Next to him came Mr. Justice Watermeyer, whom, but to 
name, is still to honour, but circumstances prevented the issue of 
many parts by him. The next to issue these reports was then Mr. 
Advocate (now Mr. Justice) James Buchanan, who for several 
years, while practising at the Cape bar, reported the leading cases of 
the day, and also revised and edited the unpublished cases of Mr. 
Justice Menzies. On his promotion to the Attorney-Generalship 
of the Transvaal, the prosecution of this important work devolved 
upon Mr. Advocate E.J. Buchanan, by whom it now yet conducted. 

The reported cases gradually assumed considerable dimensions, 
scattered over many volumes, and a " Digest " or Synopsis became 
necessary, some single work for ready reference. One was accord- 
ingly compiled, as the work before us states, " by Mr. Justice 
Buchanan, senior puisne judge of the High Court of the Free State, 
at the time he was practising at the bar of the Supreme Court of 
this Colony. At his request, these pages are now published to meet 
a want frequently expressed. 

The book is an octavo of about 250 pages, published by that 
enterprising publisher, Mr. J. C. Juta, and very well printed in 
London. Within its covers will be found a synopsis of seven or 
eight hundred decided cases on every conceivable branch of law. 

We do not know any work which is more calculated to be of 
more immediate and valuable service to the legal practitioners of the 
Colony, of every grade and class ; and through them to the com- 
mercial and other classes of the community, who often depend on 
the readiness and research of the lawyers as a class. 

One improvement, however, our, perhaps, unlawyer-like eye would 
suggest, the compression of the three indexes of cases and the three 
books of synopsis into one. A lawyer referring in the hurry of the 
moment, perhaps in the pressure of court practice, to " Bill of 
Exchange," for instance, has to make three references to three 
headings of that name before he can satisfy himself or the court. 
This should be, and easily could be, rectified in a future edition, 
which will be needed from time to time. All reported cases to date 
should then be added to make this " Digest " really perfect. In 
other respects there is nothing to criticise and everything to com- 





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NO. 82. VOL. XIV. 

FEBRUARY, i877. 




J. C. J U T A. 




— . ■■■ — dfr 



Colonist . . •• •• •• •• •• •• •• "5 

TO SOUTH AFRICA .. .. .. • • •• «• .. 7* 



STRAY THOUGHTS .. .. .. •• •• •• .. 85 

A PERILOUS RIDE FOR A WIFE. A Colonist's Story .. .. .. 86 

A NATAL ODE.. .. •• •• •• •• •• •• 1°° 

SONG .. •• •• •• •• •• •• ..108 


LIFE "* 



NOTES OF THE MONTH. New Books ; Map or South Africa ; A Plagiarism; 
Oscillation of Rotary Axis of the Earth ; Rain-fall in Victoria West ; 

Origin of the name Huguenots .. .. •• •• .. i»2 

METEOROLOGY .. .. .. •• •• •• •• "7 


enters upon its Fourteenth Volume of the New Series ; 
and the long period of twenty years has passed since it 
was first issued in 2,857., Its aim throughout has been 
to evoke and foster literary tastes and talents among 
our South African population generally ; to afibrd the 
means of collecting and publishing information respect- 
ing the history, traditions, and manners of the people of 
the Colony and the surrounding States; and to be an 
organ of communication on subjects of scientific, agri- 
cultural, commercial, or social interest. By the generous 
labour and co« operation of Editors and Contributors, 
the undertaking has achieved a most gratifying measure 
of success ; it has been steadily growing in public favour 
from year to year, and is now established with an 
extensive circulation throughout all South Africa, as* 
well as many supporters in Europe. 
Although the circulation is sufficiently large to defray 
! the heavy expenses connected with the undertaking, it is 
| not yet, however, such as to enable the Publisher 
J adequately to reward the literary workers whose con- 
! tributions enrich the Magazine.. But the Publisher is 
! sanguine that with a more liberal and extended support 
I on the part of readers and the Public, he will be enabled 
| to accomplish this most desirable object, which would 
! establish the CAPE MONTHLY on a permanent basis, 
1 and still further enhance its attractiveness and utility as 
\ a Colonial Literary Periodical. 

The rate of Subscription is Twelve Shillings per 
! annum, and One Shilling additional for Postage to the 

Advertisements for insertion in the Magazine will be 
received at reasonable rates. 

Bound copies of Vols. X- to XXXE. may be obtained, 

thus enabling Subscribers to complete the whole Series. 

All communications to the Editor, books for review, 

and contributions to the Magazine should be addressed 

to the C ARE of the Publisher. 

X, C. JUTA, Bookseller, 

"Wale Street, Cape Town. 

The Inarch Number of the CAPE MONTHLY will 
:t Notes of a Journey hi the North," by His 
Excellency Lieut.- General Sir A. Cunynghame, 
R.CS. 5 " South African Ghost Stories ; " "A Frontier 
9 Lay Sermon " (No. IX.) 5 " Charl Cilliers, the 
Old Voortrekker 5 " " The Biary cf an Idle Hottentot ; " 
"Cowperand Oiney;" "Notes on the Colonial Veteri- 
nary Surgeon's Import on B.ed "Water," Charades, &,c. 





.1/1 m ; '.n M? 

toil iU 




enters upon its Fourteenth Volume of the New Series ; 

and the long period of twenty years has passed since i1 

was first issued in 2.857. Its aim throughout has beerj 

to evoke a 

our South 

means of ct 

ing the hist 

the Colony 

organ of cc 

cultural, co: 

labour and 

the underta 

of success ; 

from year 

extensive c , 

well as mar j 

Although / 

the heavy e 
not yet, hj 
tributions e 
sanguine th: 
on the part 
to accompli 
establish the 
and still ftu 
a Colonial 2 

Tlie rate 
annum, and 

Advertise ; 

received at 

Bound cc j 

thus enablir * 

All come *'* 

and contrib ><* 

to the CAB J 

The SSarc 

I.; "S 

Colonist's Z. 

"Cowperand Olney;" " Motes on the Colonial Veteri- 
nary burgeon's ZHeport on Sled "Water," Charades, &c. 





^^i Ot&k cv^j 


^*Zik £^VW? 


oOuth African Folk- Loke.— The existence 
the aboriginal nations of South Africa of a very 
extensive traditionary literature is a well-known fact 
Not a few stories forming part of this literature have been 
written down, and as in some of them terms occur which 
no longer appear to be used in colloquial language and the 
meanings of which are in many instances not fully 
indarstood, there is uo doubt that we meet in them with 
iterary productions of great antiquity, handed down to 
he present generation in a somewhat similar manner to 
hat in which the Homeric poems reached the age of 
usistratus. But European civilization is gaining ground 
mong the natives, and within a few years the onportuni- 
les for collecting South African folk-lore wiit Le if not 
together lost, at least far less frequent than they ,-n 
Vw. Ihis would he a great loss to " the science of Man " 
■ticularly as there is much which is exceptionally 
native in the languages and ideas of the South African 
-riginal races. There are not a few missionaries and 
er Europeans in South Africa tImj have ample oppor- 
uities for collecting South African foik-lo-e. Some of 
ese, however, are not aware of the importance of such 
Elections, and those who are would be gr.atly encou- 
aged in the task of making them if a channel for their 
ipeedy publication existed. In the hope of contributing 
■di the collection of South African traditionary 
iterature, a folk-lore sooiety is in course of formation at 
ape Tojvn which already includes members in distant 
arts of South Africa. The publication of a small 
srlodlcal every second month is also proposed by the 
•ciety. The annual subscription to this periodical will 
3 4s., exclusive of postage. Folk-lore intended for pui> 
cation in i| should be accurately written down in the 
manage and words of the narrator, and a translation into 
nglish or some other well-known European language 
Med Further information regarding facts illustrative 
f native life or native literature will also, whenever 
ract.cable be published. The secretary of the South 
frican Folk-lore Society is Miss L.O.Lloyd.Cape Town 




^ ^ 





enters upon its Fourteenth Volume of the New Series ; 

and the long period of twenty years has passed since it 

was first issued in 2SS7 D Its aim throughout has been 

to evoke a 

our South 

means of c« 

ing the hist 

the Colony 

organ of cc 

cultural, cor 

labour and x 

the underta 

of sue ■■ 



well ; 

the h 
on th 
to ac 
and e 
a Col 




to tfc 

eacti, and to De provided witii engines 01 8/u-norse 
the armament of these ships is not yet definitely fixed 
contract for their construction has been given tc 
Thames Shipbuilding Company, at Elackwall. 
vessels will be of very light draught, about 9ft. ; 
length will be 165ft., with a breadth of beam of Wfi. 
other vessels building at the various Government 
and- by private firms, some of which are in a forward) 
aro two double screw iron armour-plated turret-shi 
8,492 tons, designed to carry four guns each, and t 
furnished with engines of 6,000-horse power. They : 
be christened Agamemnon and Ajax, and are being 
6tr acted at < hathani Dockyard and Pembroke Docl 
respectively. A screw corvette, steel and iron cased 
wood, of 2,383 tons, to be supplied with engines of i 
horse power, to be armed with 14 guns (sister ship ti 
Carysfort, Comus, Cleopatra, Champion, Conquest, 
cently launched, and Curacao) building at Chatham ] 
yard, and to be named the Constance. Four comj 
screw sloops, each of 1,124 tons, for engines of 900- 
power, ro carry six guns each, the Doterel, Miranda, 
Phoenix being built at Devonport, and the Kingfisln 
Sheerness. A double screw armour-plated turret 
building at Pembroke, to be named the Majestic, 
-.sailing brigs, with a displacement of 501 tons, to 
oight guns each, to bo named the Nautilus and I 
building at Pembroke. A double-screw iron armour-p 
corvette, of 4,720 tons and 3,900 horse power engi 
signed to carry four guns, to be christened O 
rapidly approaching completion at Poplar. A 
Iron armour-plated torpedo ram, with a displace 
of 2,640 tons, to be propelled by engines of 5 
horse power, building at Chatham Dockyard, 


The "\£arc 

— " 


• 5 "S 

list's Z> 

tre. 7 .vucoij 

"Cowperand OJney;" "Notes on the Colonial Veteri- 
nary Surgeon's Report on Red Water," Charades, &»c. 


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%\\tx $tattf Wis. 


There was a man whose wife had no children, so that he was 
much dissatisfied. At last he went to a wise woman {Igqirakazi) 
and asked her to help him in this matter. She said, " You must 
bring me a fat calf that I may get its tallow to use with my medi- 
cine (or charms — the Kafir word is Imifizi)." The man went home 
and selected a calf without horns or tail, which he took to the wise 
woman. She said, " Your wife will have a son who will have no 
arms and no legs, as this calf has no horns and no tail." She told him 
further that he was not to inform anyone of this. 

The man returned to his home and told his friends what was to 
happen. Not long after this his wife bore a child, but it was a 
daughter and had arms and legs. The man would not own that 
child, he said it was not his. He beat his wife, and commanded her 
to take the child away and leave it to perish. Then he went to the 
wise woman and told her what had taken place. The wise woman 
said, " It was because you did not obey my command about keeping 
this matter to yourself, but your wife will yet have a son without 
arms and without legs/' 

It was so. His wife bore another child, which was a boy without 
arms and without legs, therefore, he was called Simbukumbukwana. 
He began to speak on the day of his birth. During this time the 
girl that was first born was growing up in the valley where her 
mother left her ; she lived in a hole in an antheap and ate honer 
and " nongwes," and gum. 

One day the mother of Simbukumbukwana went to work in her 
garden and left the boy at home with the door fastened. While 
she was away the girl came ; she stood at a distance and said, 
" Where are the people ? " There came a voice from inside which 
said, "Here am I." She said, "Who are you?" The voice 
replied, " I am Simbukumbukwana." She said, " Open for me/' 
He answered, " How can I open ? I have no legs and no arms." 
She said, " My mother's Simbukumbukwana, have legs and arms " 
(Simbukumbukwana sikama, yiba nemilenze nemikono). Then 
legs and arms came on the boy, and he arose and opened for his 
sister. She went in and swept the floor ; then she took millet and 
ground it and made bread. She told her brother when his parents 
asked him who did these things to say that he did them himself, and if 
they should ask him to do them again to reply, "I have done it 
already." Then she said, " My mother's Simbukumbukwana, sink 
legs and sink arms." [Simbukumbukwana sikama, tsbona milenze 
tsbona ?nikono). Then his legs and arms shrunk up, and his sister 
went away. After a time his father and his mother came home ; 
they went in and saw the clean floor and bread ready for eating. 

58 Kafir Nursery Tales. 

They put fat in the kraal the fifth time, and appointed the por- 
cupine [tncanda) to be the keeper of the gate. The animals went 
away, and the inkalimeva came as before. It said to the porcupine, 
" Let us run a race against each other." It let the porcupine beat 
in this race. Then it said, '' I did not think you could run so fast, 
but let us try again." They ran again, and it allowed the porcu- 
pine to beat the second time. They ran till the porcupine was so 
tired that he said, " Let us rest now." They sat down to rest, and 
the porcupine went to sleep. Then the inkalimeva rose up and ate 
all the fat. When it had finished eating it threw a stone at the 
porcupine, which caused him to jump up. He called out with a 
loud voice, " The fat belonging to all the animals has been eaten by 
the inkalimeva." Then the animals came running up, and put the 
porcupine to death. 

They put fat in the kraal the sixth time, and selected the hare 
(umvundla) to be the keeper of the gate. At first the hare would 
not consent. He said, " The coney is dead, and the muishond is 
dead, and the duiker is dead, and the bluebuck is dead, and the 
porcupine is dead, and you will kill me also." They promised him 
that they would not kill him, and after a good deal of persuasion he 
at last agreed to keep the gate. When the animals were gone he 
laid himself down, but he only pretended to be asleep. In a short 
time the inkalimeva went in, and was just going to take the fat 
when the hare cried out, " Let the fat alone." The inkalimeva said, 
"Please let me have this little bit only." The hare answered, 
mocking, " Please let me have this little bit only." After that they 
became companions. The hare proposed that they should fasten 
each other's tail, and the inkalimeva agreed. The inkalimeva 
fastened the tail of the hare first. The hare said, " Don't tie my 
tail so tight." Then the hare fastened the tail of the inkalimeva. 
The inkalimeva said, " Don't tie my tail so tight," but the hare 
made no answer. After tying the tail of the inkalimeva very fast, 
the hare took his club and killed it. The hare took the tail of the 
inkalimeva and ate it, all except a little piece which he hid in the 
fence. Then he called out, " The fat belonging to all the animals 
has been eaten by the inkalimeva." The animals came running 
back, and when they saw that the inkalimeva was dead they rejoiced 
greatly. They asked the hare for the tail, which should be kept for 
the chief. The hare replied, " The one I killed had no tail." 
They said, " How can an inkalimeva be without a tail ? " They 
began to search, and at length they found a piece of the tail in the 
fence. They told the chief that the hare had eaten the tail. He 
said, " Bring him to me." All the animals ran after the hare, but 
he fled, and they could not catch him. The hare ran into a hole, 
at the mouth of which the animals set a snare, and then went away. 
The hare remained in the hole for many days, but at length he 
managed to get out without being caught. He went to a place 
where he found a bushbuck (imhabala) building a hut. There was 

Damaraland and Great 

a pot with meat in it on the fire. He said to the bushbuck, " Can 
I take this little piece of meat ? " The bushbuck answered, " You 
must not do it." But he took the meat and ate it all. Afterwards 
he whistled in a particular manner, and there fell a storm of hail 
which killed the bushbuck. Then he took the skin of the bushbuck, 
and made for himself a mantle. 

After this the hare went into the forest to procure some weapons 
to fight with. While he was cutting a stick the monkeys threw 
leaves upon him. He called to them to come down and beat him. 
They came down, but he killed them all with his weapons. 

[This story terminates so abruptly that I have little doubt about 
its being merely a fragment. The version here given is only one of 
several that are commonly told. There is a story very similar to 
this, in which a pool of water is guarded by different animals in turn, 
all of which are deceived by the jackal ; but I have not yet suc- 
ceeded in getting two versions of it exactly the same.] 


Victoria East. 

famaptattd and Sipat Itoaqimland,* 


In round numbers it may be stated that Damaraland has an area of 
100,000 square miles. Of these 20,000 may be struck out as 
useless or unknown, coast desert, and other barren tracts ; 35,000 
square miles are taken up for commonage, and of the remaining 
45,000 square miles, one-third should be set aside for the occupation 
of Berg-Damaras and Bushmen, and those Namaquas, who at the 
present time, are recognized inhabitants of the country. 

In the 30,000 square miles remaining all those who know the 
country agree that farms for at least four hundred families might be 
found, and some of them with sufficient water to be sites for villages. 
My own observation leads me to the same estimate, although I am 
by no means certain that permanent waters could be found for so 
many "places." I think, even for stock-farms, and few could be 
made anything else of, one-half of them would require to have dams 

Suitable pasture is everywhere abundant for oxen, and although 
the northern part of the country is considered too richly grassed for 

* These notes are taken from the very valuable and interesting report of Mr. Palgrave, 
who at the request of the Cape Government proceeded last year to the country north of 
the Orange River, both above and below Walwich Bay, visiting the various principal Chiefs 
and tribes desirous of coming under Colonial rule. The report has just been presented 
to Parliament, accompanied by a large volume of photographs, illustrative of the features 
and character of the territory visited and its various products. A copy of the volume of 
photographs, we are given to understand, has also been presented to the South African 

60 Damaraland and Great Namaqualand, 

sheep and goats, there are considerable tracts of " veldt" like* the 
Karroo, in the Colony, where the Cape sheep is known to thrive 
admirably, in which it is already in contemplation to place the 

Western and North-western Damaraland, or the Kaoko, is, how- 
ever, essentially a cattle-breeding countrv, and when its waste 
pastures are utilized, should be able to supply four or five thousand 
oxen annually to the colonial market. 

For many years it was held in the highest estimation by the 
Damaras, and I am at a loss to understand how they came to abandon 
its healthy, bracing highlands for the plains they now occupy, and 
desire to retain for their exclusive use. 

Mr. Francis Galton, who travelled in Damaraland more than 
twenty-five years ago, met with natives old enough to remember 
the time when the Kaoko was full of Damara cattle posts. He 
writes : — "It appears undoubted that seventy years ago not a single 
Damara existed in the parts where I had been travelling, but that 
they all lived in the Kaoko, while tribes of Bushmen and Ghou- 
damap possessed the entire country between the Orange River and 
the Ovambo, excepting only the Kaoko on the north-west, and the 
central Kalahari desert on the east." 

And I have already pointed out that the Damaras lived in the 
northern part of the Kaoko till quite recently, when they sought a 
refuge from the predatory attacks of members of their own nation 
bv crossing the Cunene, and settling amongst the tribes subject to 
the Portuguese. 

Much of the country is still unexplored by Europeans. The few 
who have attempted to find in it less distant hunting grounds than 
those to the north-east have invariably returned disappointed. 

They report a well pastured country, such as I have described, 
mountainous and full of fountains, with no other inhabitants than 
here and there a few unusually wretched Berg-Damaras and Bush- 
men. The mountain ranges lie nearly north and south. In the 
coast desert tract they are all primary rocks. In that next adjoining, 
these are covered with a series of sandstones in nearlv horizontal 
strata, which further eastward are capped with limestones. Each 
tract has its peculiar vegetation. The gigantic, weird-looking aloe 
and euphorbia of the coast desert tract is succeeded by the dwarf 
bush and scrub so characteristic of the Karroo, whilst further east 
dense patches of mimosas, almost hidden in the rich profusion of 
rank grass, alternate with open glades and forests of thorn-trees. 
The highest altitude is reached between the 1 6th and 17th degrees 
of east longitude when mountain ranges cease, and the country east- 
ward slopes gradually towards the great central basin. 

Indications of copper abound all through the country, and the 
Ovambo, who are the workers in this metal, point to several 
localities in the Kaoko whence, tradition states, in former times, the 
ore was brought from which the pure metal was smelted. At 



I T n i versify Calendar 

FOR 1877. 

Price 4s. 6d. ; by Book-post, 5s. 









Price 10s. 6 d. ; by Book-post, lis. 



Of the Cape Colony. 

THIS Map, 22 by 30 inches, well Printed and 
Coloured, has been compiled from the 
best available information in the Surveyor- 
General'a Office, and can, therefore, he said to 
be the most correct Map of those parts of the 

Price 7s. 6d. ; by Book-post, 8s. 

J. C. JUTA, 


fessors of the Veterinary art, and what not. Others, again, look 
Vol. XIV. --February, 1877. f 

ore was brought from which the pure metal was smelted. At 



dhc Subjection of gwgiiciiUuite. 

A Lay Sermon by a Frontier Colonist. 

The part of Cassandra in social or political matters is one that is 
generally tabooed ; its occasional utility, however, must be admitted, 
and in all probability its utility would not be so very occasional were 
there not a very great difficulty, when the part is taken, in using 
people and things as though you loved them. In the following 
remarks, therefore, Cassandra shall be all but dumb, although to us 
at this moment there seems to be, in matters agricultural, a depres- 
sion sufficient to excite the very gravest alarm, and a sickness " that 
doth infect the very life-blood of our enterprise." For in a country 
such as this, in which manufacturing industries are conspicuous by 
their absence, and which affords to the generality of its people few 
possibilities of enrichment by commerce, whatever touches agricul- 
ture carries with it damaging influences that penetrate to the very 
depths of society. 

It seems unnecessary to bring forward any evidence in support 
of the statement that our agriculture has been so touched. From 
the extreme west, where efforts are being made to improve 
wine-farming by the formation of companies with capital, to the 
extreme east where a Cattle Diseases Commission has been for 
some months pursuing its labours, the statement seems tacitly 
admitted. Indeed, it is so generally admitted that, though there 
are a few who, like ostriches in the fabulous tales of travellers, 
cover up their heads as if afraid to look things in the face, the talk 
in connection with these matters most frequently turns upon the 
means best adapted to stay further depression, and to promote 
recovery. Some believing that the case of agriculture is beyond 
recovery, have abandoned it and have gone to dig for diamonds or 
for gold, or have turned their ploughshares and their pruning hooks 
into canteen-glasses or yard-measures. Some, more hopeful, seek 
for salvation in the direction or Excise privileges here and elsewhere, 
or in Fencing and Scab Acts, in Ministers of Agriculture and in pro- 
fessors of the Veterinary art, and what not. Others, again, look 
Vol. XIV. —February, 1877. f 

6b The Subjection of Agriculture. 

eastwards for help from the nerveless coolie, or demand it from our 
own Legislature in the form of a compulsory Labour Act, or of 
some other kind of class legislation. While, lately, a member of the 
Legislature itself has made the suggestion that a deus ex macbina^ 
in the shape of an already over-worked Executive, should usher into 
being a leviathan Agricultural Society, whose heart should pulsate in 
Cape Town, whose covering fins should spread out over the length 
and breadth of the land, and whose tail should lash into activity the 
dreamy occupiers of the " morgen " and payers of quitrent. 

There are exceptions to every rule of course. Here and there we 
find farmers who have held their own amidst difficulties neither few 
nor insignificant ; just as we find a still more limited number that 
has prospered. But as a rule our agriculturists do not prosper ; 
and, what is worse, large numbers of them have lost heart. Many 
are known to the writer who, say a dozen years ago, were cheerful, 
industrious, fairly prosperous men, living on unmortgaged farms, 
having comfortable homesteads, trim gardens, a mill perhaps, and 
well-kept and well-filled folds ; but who are now dispirited, falling 
behind with their payments, having mortgages pressing upon them 
like nightmares, their dwelling-houses, mills and folds in a tumble- 
down condition, their gardens and lands choked with weeds, and 
their stock small in number and miserable in appearance. Others, 
again, are merely farmers in name ; owners nominally of a large 
tract of land ; they use it for growing a few cart-loads of vegetables 
for the market of the neighbouring village, or they use it as grazing 
for a few spans of oxen, with which they ride transport; or, doing 
neither of these, they have come to the last resource of cutting down 
the trees to sell as firewood. While, with reference to the few transfers 
of land that have been given lately by Europeans to natives, 
nothing further need be said than that these Europeans found that 
they could make more by placing the proceeds out at interest in a 
bank than by cultivating the ground, and that the land so parted 
with had a higher price offered for it by natives than by Euro- 
peans, for the evident reasons that the former had more money to 
offer and attached more value to the investment. 

On the other hand, people following trades or professions mainly 
supported by farmers, have continued to do fairly well, although 
not so well as formerly. Plough importers, plough-wrights and cart- 
wrights still find no difficulty to speak of in earning something 
more than a living. Places of worship —from such ambitious and 
almost cloud-capped piles as those of Cradock, to the unpretending 
but servicablc meeting-houses that dot our hill-sides — have been 
built and paid for out of farmers' money ; the pulpits are filled by 
men who live in comparative comfort from a similar source ; 
doctors have placed their hundreds with their bankers ; agents have 
placed their thousands, and wool-buyers their tens of thousands. 
The farmers alone have been growing poorer, have been losing then- 
capital, and are at least in as bad a condition as ever they were. 

The Subjection of Agriculture. 67 

Meanwhile the hopes of many well-meaning men and of would- 
be benefactors of their species have been rudely shattered. Respon- 
sible Government was soon to educate the peasant in the way he 
should go politically ; still, however, talk about a change of ministers 
is as unintelligible as Greek, or sounds like treason in their hearing. 
Multiplied churches were to be the means of bringing the consoling 
and stimulating influences of religion and of culture within easier 
reach, but worthy members have found that thereby duties have 
devolved upon them in connection with the spiritual flock in too 
many cases incompatible with the well-being and the well-doing of 
the other flock. Doctors being placed as thick as blackberries, the 
sick were to be speedily healed, or those in pain as speedily relieved, 
the aggregate comfort of the community being thereby to be largely 
increased ; but farmers have found that for every pain cured by the 
doctors, a dozen have come in its place, and, worst pain of all, more 
money has had to be made to pay the fees. By the founding of 
new villages and the subdivision of large into smaller districts, 
dispensers of justice were to be made more accessible to long- 
suffering masters ; but instead of these magistrates having become a 
terror to evil-doers, evil-doers have become a terror to them, while 
if justice has been brought to every door, this has not been un- 
attended by the escape of bread through the window. Schools were 
everywhere hailed as the means of bringing the one thing needful to 
the farmers' children, who were thus sure of becoming comforts and 
blessings to their parents ; but somehow or another, along with much 
reading and grammar, the boys did not acquire a knack of rearing 
lambs successfully or an adroitness in the management of brancl- 
zekte ; while the girls, for the flimsy accomplishments of pianoforte 
playing or flower painting, have bartered a knowledge of the vulgar 
arts of butter or soap making — boys and girls thus leaving their father 
and his old-fashioned mate to cope unaided and unsympathised with 
in their troubles. And, last of all, a plenteous crop of country 
shops, by supplying his necessities in an economical and convenient 
way, was to spare the farmer much tear and wear of carts and 
harness in trips to the still distant town, and was to keep his 
domestics out of the way of such irresistible temptations as un- 
measured bags of sugar and coffee ; but little wants kept growing 
upon the household, and when the wool was taken down to pay for 
them, the balance to credit was easily carried home ; while, by 
the same means, the opportunities of having a little refreshment, a 
gossip and a pipe with neighbours, were so facilitated, that in too 
many cases shopping at the country store soon became the serious 
business of life. 

Meanwhile, also farmers' congresses and cognate bodies, 
impressed with the conviction that the subjection of agricul- 
ture is caused by political evils, are exercised with the needed 
political reforms. Now if farmers have any special disabilities 
traceable to errors in our political system, it is in the highest degree 

f 2 

68 The Subjection of Agriculture. 

expedient that these should be discussed with a view to their 
being rectified ; and we are free to confess that our political system 
is not so perfect but what some of the troubles of farmers may be 
justly attributable to such a cause. But in such discussions there 
has been a tendency to attribute to such imperfect adjustments a 
significance which to thoughtful men in other classes has appeared 
exaggerated and illegitimate, and which has too often diverted men's 
minds from truer sources of calamity. We remember, for instance, 
some weeks ago listening to a farmer at a farmers' meeting speaking 
to a motion that a Minister of Agriculture ought to exist in this 
country. In the opinion of the speaker, almost every ill, past, 
present, or prospective, that agriculturists had suffered or were likely 
to suffer from in this Colony, from bad grass up to locusts and the 
dreaded Colorado beetle, could have been, and was indeed still to be 
removed or prevented by the appointment of such a minister. " But 
what is the use " said the speaker, " of my making known our 
grievances or our wants ? We suffer from one overwhelming mis- 
fortune in this Colony, and that misfortune is that we are whites. 
If we farmers were only black— not painted black, for we are that, 
but born black — Government would soon take an interest in us ; 
but as we are naughty whites, we are nobody's children, and there- 
fore uncared for." And in addition to this, when they have met 
together as members or as representatives of a class, presumably 
therefore to deal with questions affecting them as such, farmers have 
shown some tendency to discuss questions which do not so affect 
them exclusively, but which concern them only in common with 
all the other members of the body politic. In this way they have 
incurred blame as meddlers and busybodies ; they have forgotten 
that the agricultural interest, large and important though it be, is 
not co-extensive with the State. 

In all probability imuch of the present depression is to be explained 
by the fact that agriculture in this country is in a transition epoch. 
This epoch is marked on the one hand by the passing of that period 
in which produce could be raised or stock profitably kept by the 
observance of a rude, simple and primitive method in which rule of 
thumb practice was sufficient to ensure success ; and on the other 
hand by the near prospect of another period the characteristics of 
which arc increasing difficulties in the way of maintaining production 
at its proper level, and the necessity of larger supplies of labour, 
capital, and intelligence to make such production profitable. The 
problem for solution therefore seems to be of this nature, to maintain 
and even to increase production, with a gradually diminishing area 
suitable for our one industry of depasturing sheep, with a diminished 
capital in the coffers of those who follow that industry, their average 
intelligence being at the same time not higher than it was when the 
simple and easier method was all-sufficient. And if this is the 
problem, it must at once appear that our situation is a very grave 
one. No adequate solution of the problem is here professed to be 

Tbi Subjection of Agriculture. 69 

offered, for rightly to handle it, there is need of a much greater 
ability than belongs to the writer. He will be content to throw out 
a few remarks, in the hope that others may be induced to reflect 
upon the question, and thus draw to the subject the interest and 
attention which it deserves. Into the merits of such suggested 
restoratives as Fencing Acts, stringent Scab Acts, and Masters and 
Servants' Acts, &c, it is not proposed to enter. Readers of our 
Parliamentary debates are already familiar with all that can be said 
about them. We believe that such measures, if not likely to be 
altogether barren of result in the present juncture, at all events have 
had their value over-rated ; but we leave our reasons for saying so to 
be inferred rather than directly put. Nevertheless it will not do to 
stand still with our arms folded and to allow things to take their 
course. The time may have come also when it is necessary that 
some views which have long been accepted should be reconsidered. 

Is it sound policy, for instance, that so many of our farmers, and 
especially those who have but a small capital, should be the real or 
nominal owners of large tracts of country ? Doubtless those who 
have command of a fair amount of capital may be justified in work- 
ing as large a concern as they can possibly acquire ; but whatever 
opinion we may entertain on the expediency of large as opposed to 
small holdings, it can scarcely be sound that men with small capital 
should invest that in land which has to be mortgaged, at rates which 
are certainly high when we consider the value of the produce, in 
order to obtain money for the purchase of implements and stock. 
Such a system cannot be remunerative unless prices should be much 
more favourable to producers than they have been. And there can 
be but little doubt that this system has been very disastrous cf late, 
more especially in some parts of the Frontier. Many, for instance, 
have in these parts lost all their sheep by disease, and, with them 
have lost what may be called their working capital. Then, before 
any endeavour was made to find out the cause of the mortality, 
these have been replaced by others, or perhaps with ostriches or 
goats, and by means of money raised on mortgage. The new stock 
has again been carried off by similar disease, and the farmers have been 
ruined; they have been victimised because they did not knowwhattodo. 

Granting that no one could have foreseen these disasters, 
which is questionable, with the experience we have now 
had, would it not be better for those who hereafter meet with such 
losses, at once to have their land divided into small holdings and 
sold, one such holding with a suitable grazing patch being retained, 
which, with the capital thus raised, could be worked to the best 
advantage until a season of prosperity set in again ? There are 
hundreds, and perhaps thousands of natives who would gladly buy 
and who can pay for such small holdings ; while, if there was an 
invincible dislike to selling, the holdings could for a time be let to 
tenants of the same class, and if we could but rid ourselves of some 
of our prejudices and suspicions, we should in all probability find 

yo The Subjection of Agriculture. 

that such an arrangement would be to the common advantage, for 
the Kafir in his own country is not a bad agriculturist, and by 
mixing more with his betters he would improve more quickly and 
would also all the sooner acquire tastes which would make him a 
more profitable member of the State. 

Further, the cry is for increased population and for white 
immigrants, but what sort of white immigrants will be tempted 
to our shores if we have no land to offer them ? One 
difficulty in the way of increasing the Frontier Armed and 
Mounted Police is that when their time is up, there are no lands 
on which they can be located, and that there is therefore the 
danger of the time-expired men swelling the ranks of the loafers. 
Is it utterly impracticable and visionary — for that is the favourite 
word with the immovable routinists — for the Orphan' t Chamber, for 
instance, or for some large and well-organised land company, or even 
for the State, to select such holdings and to offer them to immigrants 
on easy terms ? 

Must we go on for ever living in a feverish dread of what old 
women of both sexes call organic change, and which they 
label "the way to madness?" The reply generally made is that 
there is no market for the produce. But has this country ever 
suffered from over production ? Would there be more or less com- 
fort in the land if the prices of food were just a trifle lower all 
round ? Besides, railways are costing us millions, and surely we 
ought to be able to do something more with them than to run a few 
bales of wool down to port and to bring back a few more notions. 
But how are we to produce in any abundance when landowners 
retain four or five times more land than they can manage, when 
white agricultural labourers refuse to leave their own country unless 
they can by so doing cease to be labourers, and when our natives 
are indifferent about hiring themselves for service ? Along the 
routes of projected railways no signs are visible of preparations for 
taking advantage of them. Further still, we hear it constantly said 
that the number of sheep-runs no longer fit to maintain sheep, is on 
the increase ; yet their owners continue to work on in the old 

If we cannot change with the times, we shall certainly 
suffer the fiite of all organisms that are too rigid and unyielding. 
Nature, like fire, is a good servant but a bad master ; and if she 
shows signs of becoming dominant under one system, then that 
system must be changed, and more intelligence must be imported 
to cope with her blind and apparently purposeless agencies. 

{To be continued.) 

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Land of the three oceans, England's coming Eden, 

Earth's long duty-bounden daughter, Heaven's long-decreed on, 

Holy Union stalkcth hither, thee at length to lead on ; 

Thee at length looks at and loves, 

Thee at length inspires and moves, 
Breaketh up at length the rock of rage around thy heart, 
Poureth oil in whilom wounds and sorrow in the smart, 
And bindeth up thy charms in bonds too brave for common death 
to part. 

Land of the vine and fig-tree, thou art all awearied ; 
Waiter and watcher thou thereunder, what time ne'er appeared 
Over the sea a gleam for thee of love from thine endeared ; 
She, thy mother, she, thine other, 
Thought and bought for son and brother; 
Thou, their daughter, was the cast-off, caricatured, accurst, 
Thou, the unconsidered, never wast by mother nursed; 
A wonder thou art to thyself that God had saved thee from His 

Land of the late rejoicing, hope of the new ages, 
Bury and set seal upon thy death and sorrow pages, 
See at the last how great a good thine equal soul engages ; 
Comes apace thy bridal hour, 
Thou, the beautiful by dower, 
Never hast lost the charm which now shall never know remove; 
I see thee lift thy jewel-eyes unto thy Sun ; unglove 
And give thy finger, maiden, — thou, the, bridegroom — Empire's 
latest love. 

Graham's Town. 

7 2 

$ajh[ $u W! Stales. 


There was once a man and a woman who had two children, a 
son and a daughter. These children lived with their grandfather. 
Their mother was a cannibal, but not their father. One day they 
said to their grandfather, " we have been long with you, we would 
like very much to go and see our parents." Their grandfather said, 
" Ho ! will you be able to come back ? Don't you know your 
mother is a cannibal ?" After a time he consented. He said, " You 
must leave at such a time that you may arrive there in the evening, 
so that your mother may not see you, only your father." 

The boy's name was Hinazinci. He said, " Let us go now, my 
sister." They started when the sun was set. When they arrived 
at their father's house, they listened outside to find out if their mother 
was there. They heard the voice of their father only, so they called 
to him. He came out, and when he saw them he was sorry and 
said, " Why did you come here, my dear children, don't you know 
your mother is a cannibal ?" 

Just then they heard a noise like thunder. It was the coming of 
their mother. Their father took them inside and put them in a dark 
corner, where he covered them with skins. Their mother came in 
with an animal and the body of a man. She stood and said, "there's 
something here, what a nice smell it has !" She said to her husband, 
" Sohinazinci, what have you to tell me about this nice smell that is 
in my house ? You must tell me whether my children are here." 
Her husband answered, u what are you dreaming about ? They are 
not here." 

She went to the corner where they were, and took the skins away. 
When she saw them, she said, " my children, I am very sorry that 
you are here, because I must eat people." She cooked for them and 
their father the animal she had brought home, and the dead man for 
herself. After they had eaten, she went out. 

Then their father said to them, " When we lie down to sleep you 
must be watchful. You will hear a dancing of people, a roaring of 
wild beasts, and a barking of dogs in your mother's stomach. You 
will know by that she is sleeping, and you must then rise at once and 
get away." 

They lay down, but the man and the children only pretended to 
go to sleep. They were listening for those sounds. After a while 
they heard a dancing of people, a roaring of wild beasts, and a barking 
of dogs. Then their father shook them, and said they must go while 
their mother was sleeping. 'J hey bade their father farewell and crept 
out quietly, that their mother might not hear them. 

At midnight the woman woke up, and when she found the children 
were 'gone she took her axe and went after them. They were 

Kafir Nursery Talcs. 73 

already a long way on their journey when they saw her following 
them. They were so tired that they could not run. When she 
was near them, the boy said to the girl, " My sister, sing your 
melodious song ; perhaps when she hears it she will be sorry, and go 
home without'hurting us." The girl replied, " She will not listen to 
anything now, because she is in want of meat." Hinazinci said, " Try 
my sister, it may not be in vain." 

So she sang her song, and when the cannibal heard it, she ran 
backwards to her own house. There she fell upon her husband and 
wanted to cut him with the axe. Her husband caught hold of her 
arm and said, " Ho ! if you put me to death who will be your hus- 
band ?" Then she left him, and ran after the children again. 

They were near their grandfather's village, and were very weak 
when their mother overtook them. The girl fell down, and the 
cannibal caught her and swallowed her. She then ran after the boy. 
He fell just at the entrance of his grandfather's house, and she picked 
him up and swallowed him also. She found only the old people and 
the children of the village at home, all the others being at work in 
the gardens. She ate all the people that were at home and also all 
the cattle that were there. 

Towards evening she left to go to her own home. There was a 
deep valley in the way, and when she came to it she saw a very 
beautiful bird. As she approached it, the bird got bigger and bigger, 
until at last when she was very near it, it was as big as a house, 
(i.e., a native hut). 

Then the bird began to sing its song The woman looked at it, 
and said to herself, u I shall take this bird home to my husband." 
The bird continued its song, and sang, " I am a pretty bird of the 
valley, you come to make a disturbance at my place." The bird 
went slowly towards her, still singing its song. When they met, the 
bird took the axe from the woman, and still sang the same sono-. 

The cannibal began to be afraid. She said to the bird, " Give me 
my axe, I do not wish for your flesh now." The bird tore one of 
her arms. She said, " I am going away now ; give me what is 
mine." The bird would not listen to her, but continued its song. 
She said again, w Give me my axe and let me go. My husband at 
home is very hungry, I want to go and cook food for him." The 
bird sang more loudly than before, and tore one of her legs. 

She fell down and cried out, " My master, I am in a hurry to go 
home. I don't want anything that is yours." She saw that she was 
in danger. She said to the bird again, " You don't know how to sing 
your song nicely, let me go and I will sing it for you." The bird 
opened its wings wide, and tore open her stomach. Many people 
came forth, most of them alive, but some were dead. As they came 
forth, she caught them and swallowed them again. The two children 
were alive, and they ran away. At last the woman died. 

There was great rejoicing in that country. The children returned 
to their grandfather, and the people came there and made them rulers 

74 Kafir Nursery la la. 

of the country, because it was through them the cannibal was brought 
to death. The girl was afterwards married to a son of the great 
chief, and Hinazinci had for his wife the daughter of that great one. 

[I first heard the above story from a Tembu child, and concluded 
that it was nothing* more than a Tembu version of the common 
Kaffir story published in one of the numbers of the Cape Monthly 
Magazine for 1875, under the title of " The Runaway Children, or 
the Wonderful Feather." But I have since been led to doubt that 
such is the case, though there are several strong points of resemblance 
between the two. The actors are the same, viz., a cannibal woman, 
a boy, a girl and a bird. The axe (or cutting instrument of the 
natives which has been replaced by the axe) enters into both stories. 
But the narrative differs in every way, and as both these stories are 
sometimes told by the same person, we may conclude that they are 
distinct from each other. The story here given is not one of the 
best known among the frontier clans. Among fifty or sixty children, 
drawn together from different parts of the country, to whom I re- 
peated it, only two had heard it before at their own homes. The 
one which follows is pretty generally known, and is decidedly one of 
the best told to little folks.] 


There was once a great famine in a certain country, and the people 
were obliged to eat wild plants to keep themselves alive. Their 
principal food during this time was nougwes (Hypoxis, page 385, 
"Harvey's Gen. S.A. Plants"), which they dug out of the ground. 
There was living at that place a man called Kenkebe, and one day 
his wife said to him, " My husband, go to my father and ask him to 
give us some corn." The man said, " Yes, I will go." 

So he rose up early in the morning, and went on till he arrived 
at his father-in-law's village, where he was received with 
every mark of kindness. A very large ox was killed for his 
entertainment. It was so large that it was six days before it was all 
eaten. His father-in-law asked of him the news. He said, " there 
is no news to tell to friends. All the news is this, that at my home 
there is not a grain to be eaten. Famine is over our heads. Will 
you give us some corn, for we are dying ?" 

His father-in-law gave him seven bags, /.<-., skins of animals dressed 
entire, full of millet, and his wife's sisters went with him to carry 
them. When they came to a valley close by his home, he told his 
sisters-in-law that they could now go back to their father. They 
said, " how will you be able to carry all these bags alone?" He 
replied, " I will be able to carry them all now, because we are not 
far from my home." So those girls went back to their father. 

Then he carried the bags one by one, and hid them in a cave 
under a great rock that was there. Afterwards he took some of the 
millet and ground it. When it was ground very fine he made it into 

Kafir Nursery Tales. 75 

calces just like nougwes. Then he dug some nougwes out of the 
ground, and went home to his wife. He said to her, " there is a 
great famine at your father's also. I found the people there eating 

He told his wife to make a fire. Then he pretended to cut a 
piece of meat from his thigh, and said, "so are they doing at your 
father's village. Now, my wife, let us do the same.''' His wife cut 
a piece from her leg and roasted it. The piece that Kenkebe put 
on the fire was some that he had brought home with him. 

The little boy of Kenkebe said, "Why does my father's meat smell 
nice in roasting, and my mother's meat does not smell nice ?" 
Kenkebe answered, " It is because it is taken from the leg of a man." 
After this he gave to his wife some nougwes to roast. He took for 
himself some of those he had made of corn. The little boy said, 
"Why do my father's nougwes smell nice in roasting, and my 
mother's do not smell nice?" Kenkebe said, " It is because they 
were dug by a man." After eating, he went outside, but he had 
dropped one of his nougwes by the fire. When he went out, the 
boy found the nougwe. He broke it in two and gave half to his 
mother. He said, " there is a difference between our nougwes and 
those of my father.'' His mother said, " Yes, my child, this one is 
made of corn." 

The next morning, just at the first beginning of dawn, Kenkebe 
got up and went away with a pot in his hand. The boy was awake 
and saw his father go out. So he called to his mother, and said 
" Mother, mother, wake, my father is going away with the pot in 
his hand." So she got up, and they followed after Kenkebe. They 
saw him go to the cave, where he took some corn out of one of the 
bags and began to grind it. Then they went on top of the rock 
and rolled a big stone over. 

When Kenkebe saw the stone coming he ran away but it 
followed close behind him. He ran down the valley, the stone kept 
running too. He jumped into a deep hole in the river, down went 
the stone too. He ran up the hill, up went the stone also. He ran 
over the plain, but whenever he turned to look, the stone was 
there just behind him. So it continued all that day. At night he 
reached his own house, and then the stone stopped. His wife had 
already gone home, and had taken with her one of the baa;s of 

Kenkebe came in crying. His wife said to him, " Why do you 
cry as if you were a child ?" He said, " Because I am very tired and 
very hungry." She said, " Where are your clothes and your bao-?" 
He replied, " I was crossing a river, and I fell down. The stream 
took my mantle, and my bag, and my kerries, and everything that 
was mine, away with it." Then his wife gave him his mantle 
which she had picked up when he was running away, and she said' 
to him, " You are foolish to do such things. There is no food for 
you to-night." 

7 6 Kafir Nursery Tales. 

The next morning Kenkebe rose early and went out to hunt with 
his two dogs. The name of the one was Tumtumse, and the name 
of the other was Mbambozozele. He found an eland with a young 
calf, which he drove to his place. He cut an ear off the calf and 
roasted it in the fire. It was fat, and he liked it so much that he cut 
the other ear ofF and cooked it also. Then he wished to kill the calf, 
but he said to himself, " If I kill this calf I shall not be able to get 
miik from the eland." 

So he called his two dogs, and said to the one, " Tumtumse, my 
dog, if I kill this calf, will you imitate it and suck the eland for me ?" 
The dog said, " No, I will bark like a dog." Kenkebe said, " Get 
out of my sight and never come near me again, you ugly, useless 
animal " He said to the other, " Mbambozozele, my dog, if I kill 
this calf, will you imitate it and suck the eland for me ?" The dog 
said, " I will do so." 

Then he killed the calf and ate it. He took the skin and put it 
upon Mbambozozele, so that the eland thought it was her calf that 
sucked before Kenkebe milked her. But one day the dog was 
sucking too long, and Kenkebe wanted him to leave off. He tried 
to drink just a few drops more, when his master got angry and struck 
him with a stick. Thereupon the dog began to houl, and the eland 
saw how she had been deceived. At once she ran after Kenkebe 
and tried to stick him with her horns. He ran ore way and the eland 
ran after him, then he ran another way, and still the eland chased 
him. His wife came out and saw him running. She cried out to him, 
"jump up quickly on the big stone.'' He did so, and the eland ran 
with such fury against that stone that it broke its head and fell down 

They then cut the eland up and wanted to cook it, but there 
was no fire. Kenkebe said to his son, " Go to the village of 
the cannibals that is on that hill over the valley, and ask for some 
fire ; but do not take any meat with you, that they may not smell 
it " The boy went, but he hid a piece of meat and took it with 
him. When he got to the first house he asked for fire, but they sent 
him to the next. At the next they sent him further, and so he had 
to go to the house that was furthest away. An old woman lived 
there. The boy gave her a little piece of meat, and said, "do not 
cook it till I am far away with the fire." But as soon as the boy 
was gone, she put it on the coals. The smell came to the noses of 
the cannibals, and they ran to the place and swallowed the old 
woman, and the meat, and the fire, and even the ashes. 

Then they ran after the boy. When he approached his own 
house, he cried out, " Hide yourselves you that are at home " His 
father said, " my son is saying we must gather wood that will make 
coals. 1 ' His mother said, " No, he is saying we must hide ourselves." 
The boy cried again, " Hide yourselves." Then his mother hid 
herself in a bush ; an old woman that was there covered herself with 
ashes, and Kenkebe climbed up into a tree, with the breast of the 

The Land Tenure of the Colony. 77 

eland in his hand. The boy slipped into a hole that was by the side 
of the path. < . , >-r. n 

The cannibals came to the place. I irst they ate the eland 1 hen 
one of them said, « Search under the ashes." There they found the 
old woman, and they ate her. Then he said, « search in the tree 
There they found Kenkebe. He cried very much, but they would 
not spare him. They ate him and the breast of the eland 1 hen 
the wise one said, « look in the bush." They looked there and 
found the wife of Kenkebe. They said, « we will eat her another 
time," and so they took her home with them. They did not look 
for the boy. , 

The woman made a plan to escape. She made beer _ for the 
cannibals, and they all came to drink. They sat together in a big 

house, and drank very much beer. Then she said, "can I go ou :i 
They said, " you can go, but come back quickly." She said, shall 
I close the entrance ?" They said, « close it." Then she took fire 
and put on the house, and all those cannibals were burned to death. 
So the wnmnn craned. W afterwards lived happily her son. 

Stories of the Amaxosa. t. 

AMONG the native races on our eastern 
border there is a vast amount of Folklore, 

which it seems desirable should be collected and 

preserved. The changes that are taking placa 

in the condition of these people are of such a - 

nature that unless this is done without delay, r-^hC ClOlOttl). 

large portion of what is most interesting and t» 

useful in their ta'es will probably be lost.^s^ . , ^ , r . T i« 

Already many of them have been so modified C e h Y the Dutch LaSt ln . dia 

by people who have grown up on Mission r^ f land to European settlers 

Stations as to make them useless as guides to ^ f ar - a s Salt River and the 

original Native ideas. ' >. R Table Bav from False 

It a number or subscribers, large enough to ^ & ,' c ..i„„ 

warrant the undertaking can be obtained, it i> ^ exact number of settlers 
the intention of the undersigned to send to press, i, se being paid servants ot 
about the 1st of August next, a collection of ^ freemen), six married 
Stories of the Amaxosa, such as are known by r a f ew convicts and slaves. 
almost all the old people, and can be ensilyV r i •.„.:„«, «.u Q „~ B Af,A 
i -a , mi -ii i • • ,i • • i 3S >rder to raise the needtui 

be verified. They will be given in the original £ 1UC1 , , 

language, with literal English translations and ~ ;hers were placed on the 
explanatory English notes. Stories will be^ h were granted to them in 
excluded which contain expressions that might ;et tne v were, for a few 
re e ad C e°r nSideied objectionable hy any English "el taxes ; but subsequently 

The' assistance of several educated natives has^j mpany exacting a tenth of 
been promised in revising and arranging these*. . as that all their produce or 
tales, so that while their originality will be pre- 7 as the Company considered 
served, repetitions will be avoided, and much that 
is redundant in some of them will be rejected. . . , , , ., 

The size of the volume will depend upon the or cultivated lands, there 
number of subscribers. It will he neatly printed , as an addition, on loan 
at the Lovedale Institution Press. At least fiv« which Still remained the 

hundred subscribers will be needed, at six 
shillings per copy, to cover the expense of. 
printing and binding a volume of three hundred 
pages octavo. 

Persons who feel disposed to aid in this matter 
are requested to address 

Lovedale Missionary Institution, 

Victoria East. 


Kafir Nursery Tales. 

The next morning Kenkebe rose early and went out to hunt with 
his two dogs. The name of the one was Tumtumse, and the name 
of the other was Mbambozozele. He found an eland with a young 
calf, which he drove to his place. He cut an ear off the calf and 
roasted it in the fire. It was fat, and he liked it so much that he cut 
the other ear off" and cooked it also. Then he wished to kill the calf, 
but he said to himself, " If I kill this calf I shall not be able to get 
milk from the eland." 

So he called his two dogs, and said to the one, " Tumtumse, my 
dog, if I kill this calf, will you imitate it and suck the eland for me ?" 
The dog said, " No, I will bark like a dog." Kenkebe said, " Get 
out of my sight and never come near me again, you ugly, useless 
animal " He said to the other, " Mbambozozele, my dog, if I kill 
this calf, will you imitate it and suck the eland for me ?" The dog 
said, " I will do so." 

Then he killed the calf and ate it. He took the skin and put it 
upon Mbambozozele, so that the eland thought it was her calf that 
sucked before Kenkebe milked 
sucking too long, and Kenkebe v 
to drink just a few drops more, v 
him with a stick. Thereupon tl 
saw how she had been deceived, 
and tried to stick him with her he 
ran after him, then he ran anoth 
him. His wife came out and sa 
"jump up quickly on the big st 
with such fury against that ston 

They then cut the eland 
was no fire. Kenkebe said 
the cannibals that is on that hill 
fire ; but do not take any mea 
it " The boy went, but he hi( 
him. When he got to the first 
him to the next. At the next 
to go to the house that was fu 
there. The boy gave her a lit 
cook it till I am far away with 
was gone, she put it on the co£ 
the cannibals, and they ran 
woman, and the meat, and the 

Then they ran after the r. 
house, he cried out, " Hide yo 
father said, " my son is saying 
coals. 1 ' His mother said, " N 
The boy cried again, " Hide 
herself in a bush ; an old worn 
ashes, and Kenkebe climbed u 

*— Florence, CKHB1 TJ382 tons,, ,/ u aM I 

Natal and intermediate ports, to this port 
geneial. Anderson & Mnrison, acenta. 

'-'—Catherine Mane, Dan sch "(94 tons), I 
From Moasel Bay June ->:', to this port. Cargo 
Poppe «fc Co, agents. 

Table Bat { — Departures. 
June 30— Cupido, sch, to Monte Video. 

SO— Sea Bird, sch, to Sandwich Harbou 
July 1— Melrose, CRMSt, to Algoa Bay. 

1— Hilaion, bk, to Mauritius. 

1— Juliaue, sch, to Algoa Bay. 



Cambay, bk, 795, J Bees, cleared, Rangoo 

Anderson it Co 
< 'all. nine Marie, Dan sch, 94. L Cornet, dia t 

Poppe it Co 
European, BMSt 2,273, Robt Ker, RNR, rec 

Algoa Bay— Union Steamship Co 
Royal Alexandra, eh, 1,333, W H Humphrey ■ 

Calcutta— Jaa Flower & Sons 

of Richmond, sch, 291, J Gordon, repi 
i 'adiz— Thomson. Watson & Co 
Idima, bk, 342, Colpitts, cleared, Mauritius 

Flower & Son 
Julia A Brown, Am 3-mBt sch, 343, Nickerso: 

car-.,, Sydney— Philip BrOB 

1 Fr bk, 443, Aubiy, rec cargo. Mossel ] 
Ja i Searight & Co 

Maggie, seh, 266, C li Times, rec cargo, Algoa 1 
Jos Grady & Co ° 


Courland, CMSfc, 1,241, Ed Griffin, RNR, dis c 
Algoa Day— Anderson & Mnrison 

Edinburgh Da tie, OBMSt, 2,678, E Jones, RNR 
cargo, London— Anderson * Murlson 

Florence, CRMSt, 882, J Harrison, RNR, dis c; 
Nai a I— Anderson & Minis., n 

WEST yl'AY. 

Win Begget, repari 


Amh.i ador, bk, 26! 

—'I'h a Watson & Co 

Charlotte Croom, sh, 1,664, Anld, dia cargo— Capta 
Edward All,-,,, bk, 894, Reimer cleared, New Yci 

Boston— Job Grady A Co 
' Hendovey, bk, 889, Williams, dis cargo— J M Brow 

1,054, A Donaldson, dis cargo- 

Gre m J ac ] e( 

7 be Land Tenure of the Colony. f] 

eland in his hand. The boy slipped into a hole that was by the side 
of the path. 

The cannibals came to the place. First they ate the eland. Then 
one of them said, " Search under the ashes." There they found the 
i old woman, and they ate her. Then he said, "search in the tree." 
I There they found Kenkebe. He cried very much, but they would 
not spare him. They ate him and the breast of the eland. Then 
the wise one said, " look in the bush." They looked there and 
found the wife of Kenkebe. They said, " we will eat her another 
time,'' and so they took her home with them. They did not look 
for the boy. 

The woman made a plan to escape. She made beer for the 
cannibals, and they all came to drink. They sat together in a big 
house, and drank very much beer. Then she said, " can I go out ?" 
They said, "you can go, but come back quickly." She said, " shall 
I close the entrance?" They said, " close it." Then she took fire 
and put on the house, and all those cannibals were burned to death. 
. So the woman escaped, and afterwards lived happily with her son. 


Victoria East, December, 1876. 

@hq Sand tenure o)j the (Holottn. 

Five years after the occupation of the Cape by the Dutch East India 
Company, in 1652, the first distribution of land to European settlers 
took place. The peninsula, extending as far as Salt River and the 
sandy waste forming the isthmus separating Table Bay from False 
Bay, comprised the whole Colony. The exact number of settlers 
at that time was 144 — one hundred of these being paid servants of 
the Company, ten burghers (citizens or freemen), six married 
women, twelve children and the remainder a few convicts and slaves. 
For the advancement of agriculture, in order to raise the needful 
supplies for the Company's ships, the burghers were placed on the 
grounds skirting Table Mountain which were granted to them in 
freehold, or " full property." At the outset they were, for a tew 
years, exempted from the payment of all taxes ; but subsequently 
they were liable to an assessment, the Company exacting a tenth of 
what they raised from their lands, as well as that all their produce or 
stock should be disposed of at such prices as the Company considered 
" fair and reasonable." 

Adjacent to these freehold properties, or cultivated lands, there 
were patches of ground which were given, as an addition, on loan 
for pasturing stock or other purposes, but which still remained the 
property o c he Company. 

7 8 The Land Tenure of the Colony. 

As the settlement extended, larger places were granted for grazing 
purposes, subject generally to a small annual payment or " rccognitie." 
These "loan-leases " or " request places ' : were usually issued upon 
the description of the applicant, without previous inquiry by the 
authorities ; but all contained a condition that the lands should not 
be " too near " to the Company's farm close to Cape Town, 
although the situation of some of them was beyond the Gouritz 
River, more than a hundred miles away ! 

How the European population thus spread, without plan or order, 
during the past century may be inferred from the remarks of 
Governor Janssens in 1804. Writing to his friend, the Baron van 
Hogendorp (who had consulted him on a scheme of introducing 
emigrants from Holland), Janssens drew the following picture of the 
irregular manner in which the country was colonised : — 

" Anyone desiring a loan farm, selects the spot he deems suitable, 
plants his mark, and puts down his name for it, for a while to make 
trial of it, or to see whether anyone has ground for objection, if not, 
he gets it on loan, on an annual permission. The rights thus 
possessed, extend a half-hour in all directions round his mark. From 
these circumstances, from the sterility of the dry ground, and the 
nakedness of the hills it results — that a population of about 20,000 
(Hottentots and slaves not included) have almost occupied the whole 
country. It is evident that each person wishing to establish himself, 
sought for a place where there was an abundant supply of water. 
Few of these were to be had, that had not been secured in the first 

instance In later days spots were taken with avidity 

where there was water for only a part of the year. . . . Many 
persons have three, four, five or more farms. From this mode of 
allowing farms to be selected it arises that much ground re?nains^ and 
?nust remain undisposed of. For instance, a mark stands an hour-and- 
a-half from the next. The intermediate space is too small for a 
farm, and though anyone should be content with it, it would be 
unfit for the purpose, as, almost to a certainty, the water will be 
found within the bounds of the adjoining farms. The want of farms 
is already so great, that hardly a rill of water issues from a hill, 
provided it runs constantly, but a farm is taken there on loan. On 
my journey many hundred applications were made to me for lands as 
well beyond the boundaries, as in places within them, where corn 
could be sown, or cattle kept for a part of the year. Of those 
remaining within the limits very few could be granted without 
' injury to the neighbours.' Here you have a brief sketch of the 
character of the country. Were there disposable land in the interior 
a few people might derive from it an indolent subsistence, but it 
would return nothing to the absent proprietor. . . . Of all the 
articles that can be produced here, there is nothing, in my opinion, 
more likely to answer than the introduction of Spanish sheep. The 
wool that has been grown is of superior quality, and capable of 
becoming our best export." 

The Land Tenure of the Colony. 79 

Besides the grant of freeholds and the occupation of the loan-places 
before-mentioned, another tenure also existed during the Dutch 
Company's administration of the Colony. This was a system of 
quitrent leases, limited to fifteen years, at the termination of which 
period (unless the lease was renewed) the lands reverted back to the 
Company, the out-going tenant, however, receiving a proper valuation 
for any buildings or plantations. 

When the British Goverment took over the country, one of the 
early Governors, Sir John Cradock, considered that the loan tenure 
was injurious to the public interest, inasmuch as it maintained an 
uncertainty with regard to proprietorship which prevented the holders 
from applying their means to such improvement and cultivation of 
their land as they would do in case they had no right of re-assumption 
to apprehend. It was then resolved in 1813 to grant to the occupiers 
of all lands on loan, who chose to apply for the same, their places or 
holdings on " perpetual quitrent " — an annual payment, dependent 
on the value and circumstances of the land — which is the essential 
feature of the present land laws of the Colony. 

Such, in brief, is a re-capitulation of the different tenures of landed 
property at the Cape from the earliest period to the present time. 

Our attention has been directed to this subject by a very interesting 
report contained in the Blue-book recently issued by the Surveyor- 
General, Mr. A. de Smidt. It contains a fac simile and copy of the 
different forms of grants issued at various times, and also a valuable 
memorandum prepared by Mr. L. Marquard, Examiner of Diagrams, 
giving the substance of the correspondence between Governor 
Cradock and Sir John Truter on the origin and rights of loan-places 
and quitrent grants. 

The first title to land on the freehold tenure, it appears, was issued 
in 1657, Dut no re g' str y) survey or deed of conveyance was made 
until 1685, when our admirable Colonial Deeds Registry was 
commenced. "These freehold grants," says Mr. de Smidt, ''were 
upon no fixed principle as regards payment. In some cases payment 
was demanded ; in many cases they were made in consideration of 
services rendered to the Government, and in some cases gratuitously, 
so far as the title-deeds themselves show. The conditions attached to 
these grants were in most cases very stringent. For instance, the 
grantee was obliged to deliver into the Company's magazines the 
tenth of the harvest of grain; to allow thoroughfare, in the majority 
of cases without compensation ; he was compelled to cultivate to 
the full extent of the capability of the land, to plant trees, and 
prohibited from cutting the latter unless he planted other trees in 
their stead. For breach of any of these conditions the land was 
forfeited. There are very few instances of grants in absolute fee 
simple ; the words " vollen en vryen eigendom " (full and free pro- 
perty) are indeed used, but the tenure was burthened with what 
must have been, even in those days of patient submission to rigid 
paternal rule, irritating and difficult conditions," 

b'o 7/v Land Tenure of the Colony. 

The following is a translation of the " Earliest Property Title": — 

" By the Commander and Council of the Castle of Good Hope, at the 
Cape of Good Hope, has been granted and allowed, as by this is granted, 
allowed, and given to Jacob Cloctcn, of Cologne, free burger at this 
place, at his request, in full property, certain piece of land situated in the 
great field on the pass between Table Bav and False Bay, behind the 
Table, and eastwards of the Bush Mountains on the other or east side of 
the fresh river called Liesbcek, bounded on the north bv the uncultivated 
lands between Steven Jansz and this Jacob Cloetcn, to the south bv 
Harmcn Remaijcnne, to the west by the said Liesbeek, and to the east 
by the sandy and waste land, with the view to the above and the mountains 
of Africa on the other side, straight east, to the north and west to the 
south on the south side (broad, one hundred and ninety-five roods), and 
on the north side, almost of the same extent, but becoming a little narrow 
on account of the river (broad, one hundred and seventy-seven roods), on 
the cast end, south-south west, and north-north cast (eighty roods), and 
also on the west side of the said river south to the west and north to the 
cast (fifty-seven roods), thus making altogether twelve thousand square 
roods, or twenty morgen of land, as is shown by the pertinent drawings 
made of it in the above figure, No. 9, by Picter Potter, the Company's 
surveyor ; with authorisation, by virtue of this, to sow on the said piece 
of land, wheat, rye, barley, oats, peas, beans, rice, and other grain, and to 
take full possession of it and keep it ; and this without the least taxes, for 
a period of twelve years, expect the little corners and nooks of land 
situated along the river-side, which he shall, in addition, have in loan, 
and shall remain the property of the Hon. Company ; but, like other free 
men, he shall be at liberty to use the same for gardening, &c., and also 
for building his house and barns on, after the survey, to be made by the 
said Company's surveyor ; provided that he shall not be allowed to sell, 
let, or allicnate any part of it, nor any uncultivated land in his possession, 
and that also with the knowledge and with communication of the Hon. 
Commander and Council aforesaid in the place of a bond of hypotheca- 
tion ; and, also, that he, like other free men, further, after the expiration 
of the aforesaid twelve years, shall remain subject to pay such impositions 
and duties ; also, that he shall allow all such public roads, as by the 
authorities here, with the approval of our Lords principal, may be made 
on the same, or hereafter still may be planned or ordained to be con- 
structed for the service of the Hon. Company and the common good ; he 
remaining bound to keep and watch all such redoubts and watch houses 
as have already been made by the Hon. Company for the protection of 
the lands of the free men, and may still be made ; everything subject to 
the approval and pleasure of our Lords and Masters aforesaid." 

Below stood : Given in the Castle Good Hope, adj., 10th October, 
1657, and was signed J. van Ricbcek, and on the margin was the seal of 
the Company in red scaling wax, under which stood : By order of the 
above-mentioned Masters by me, and was signed Abraham Gablena, 


(Signed) J. C. DE Grevenbroek, Secretary. 

The Land Tenure oj the Colony. 8 1 

Adr. Moodie records that Jacob Cloctcn, to whom the above grant 
was made, was very favourably noticed by Van Riebcek. He was 
one of the most respectable colonists of the time ; none other culti- 
vated so much land. In 1664, he was illegally fined, without being 
even named in the indictment, for an offence confessedly committed 
by others (perhaps in his employ), but who cculd not pay like him. 
In 1668, again, he, in common with others, was convicted of the 
heinous offence of " buying cattle from the natives at five times the 
rate paid by the company." He was then not only fined in the 
large sum of 50 rix dollars, but also sentenced to the " infamous 
punishment " of flogging, although the lash was remitted, at the 
intercession of good friends. 

In the year 1732 the tenure of quit-rent was introduced under 
authority of a notice or placaat issued by " Our Lords and A-lasters," 
the Company. The main principle of this tenure was that " de 
Heer behoudt zyn recht,'' which means that the Sovereign remained 
the rightful lord of the soil so long as no part of it was granted in 
absolute freehold. The term oi' the quitrent leases was fifteen 
years, and the rent varied according to capability ; but the ordinary 
rate was from four to six: skillings (2^ pence) per morgen. With 
respect to this tenure, Fiscal Truter states in his letter to Deputy 
Colonial Secretary Bird, dated Ilth February, 1812, " Ouitrcnt is 
not resumable annually, but expires at the end of fifteen years, after 
which the Government has the right to resume the land without 
paying anything more to the tenant than the value of the buildings 
and plantations/' The leases were made renewable for the same 
term by two successive Regulations, dated respectively 4th April, 
174.7, and nth May, 1762. There was not the same systematic 
registry of these leases as became the practice in the beginning of 
the present century. From the 1st January, 1808, during "the 
government of the Earl of Caledon, the lands on this tenure were 
surveyed and a lease, with a diagram annexed, formed the record 
(exactly as in the case of the Freehold Tenure), a duplicate of which 
was issued to the lessee. In 1821 there were two hundred and 
seven holdings of this description, but since the operation of the law 
for the conversion of all revertible tenures no renewals have been 
allowed ; but the tenures were converted, in a few cases, into free- 
hold, and in the great majority of cases into perpetual quitrent, on 
the same terms as were prescribed with regard to loan places in the 
Proclamation of 6th August, 1813. 

The system of "Loan Freeholds" or "Perpetual Loans" 
(Leenings elgendom) was authorised by instructions issued by 
Governor-General ImhofF in 1743. In terms of this tenure the 
area formerly held on loan within a circumference of three hours' 
walking, and which was by the Proclamation of 1813 defined as 
equivalent to three thousand morgen, was reduced to sixtv moreen 
with a reserve of the same annual rent as a recognition of the 
supreme rights of the Sovereign ; and it mav be easily conceived that 
Vol/XIV. ' G 

82 The Land Tenure of the Colony. 

the grantees, habituated to the use of the larger extent, in almost 
every case continued such occupation, and in many cases 
claimed the right to do so. They averred, with some show of 
reason, that the greatly reduced extent was accepted on the under- 
standing that pasturage for the cattle required to comply with the 
obligation to cultivate the land to the full extent of its capability 
could not be found within the measured limits, as the local circum- 
stances were not favourable to the making of artificial meadows. 
The following is a copy of the grant of a perpetual loan-place : — 

Hendrik Swellengrebel, Councillor Extraordinary of Netherlands, 
India, and also Governor on account of the United Netherlands' 
East India Company at the Cape of Good Hope, Sec, and this 
Council make known : — 

That, according to the qualification granted us thereto by His Honour 
Governor-General Gustaaf Willem Baron van Imhoff, and the subsequent 
approval of their Honours the Chamber of seventeen, have granted, ceded, 
and given, at her request to Maria van Alewijk, widow of Pieter Jurgcn 
van der Heijdi, certain cattle farm, according to a resolution of the 1 6th 
February of this year, and we grant, cede, and give in full property by 
this the said farm, measuring sixty morgen and three hundred and twenty 
square roods, extending E.S.E. towards Hartebeest Kraal, W.N.W. 
towards the farm of Andries Jonker, N.N.E. towards the Woeste Moun- 
tains, and S.S.W. towards Zoetemelks River, with power and authority 
to sow, plant, and build on the said farms, and also afterwards, being 
disposed to do so, to sell, let, or alienate it by communication with the 
authorities here, provided she be bound, besides her corn or other land, 
to allow for her own benefit, as well as that of the inhabitants, the use 
of a common wagon road, as also a thoroughfare at least three roods wide ; 
and, also, instead of the chopped wood, always to plant again in the 
ground young oak trees or any other wood ; and besides, on this condition, 
that she shall not only for this grant pay an annual recognition of twenty- 
four rix-dollars, but also, as an acknowledgment of the receipt of the 
property to the Government or the Hon. Company for the proprietorship 
of the farm, a sum of three hundred guilders Indian valuation, or two 
hundred and forty Caroly guilders ; and she has further to contribute the 
tenth-part of the grain she shall reap, on forfeiture of the land granted, if 
she be found to have transgressed this order ; or if she shall not cultivate 
the land in accordance with the edicts, in which case the authorities shall 
be at liberty to take away the said land from her again and give it to any 
other person — the Hon. Company still reserving to themselves the right 
and power, if they consider the said farm to be necessary for their use 
and service, to take it back to them at any time or against a proper 
valuation, she being further subject to such taxes and duties, and obliged 
to allow such public roads as are fixed by the authorities here, or might 
hereafter be fixed for the Service of the Hon. Company and for the 
common good. 

Thus granted and given in the Castle Good Hope, this 14th of Marcn, 

(Signed) H, Swellengrebel. 

The Land Tenure of the Colony, 83 

Notwithstanding the uncertain and precarious character of the 
" loan " tenure, the tenants seem to have felt themselves tolerably 
secure in their possession, and employed their industry and pecuniary 
resources in the building of homesteads and other improvements. 
The buildings were called the " Opstal," and the sale or bequest of 
the Opstal was indirectly allowed by the Government by the im- 
position of a transfer duty of 7.\ per cent. ; but though the buyer of 
the Opstal was permitted to take over the lease, he obtained no legal 
right to the land, which continued to be held on the same tenure, 
resumable for public purposes, and with no obligation on the part of 
the Government to compensate the tenant for his improvements, or 
even to recoup him in his outlay in the purchase of the Opstal. 
" It was never allowed to any man possessing a loan-place to sell or 
transfer it, but only the premises or Opstal. The grant of a renewed 
lease was, however, never refused to a purchaser or legatee. The 
confidence of the loan-tenant did not consist in the certainty of any 
actual right, but only in the hope of meeting with the indulgence of 
that Government which as yet did not deem it necessary to make 
use of such right for the public good." This clearly indicates the 
relation between the Government and the loan-holder. " In point 
of fact" (says Mr. De Smidt), " there are several instances of 
resumption of loan places on record. Some of these were on the 
ground of public necessity or convenience, and others on the ground 
of breach of condition of loan. When it was decided to establish 
' Drostdyen,' /'.*., Landdrosts' residences, at Tulbagh, Uitenhage, 
GraafF-Reinet, and Jan Dissel's Vley (now Clanwilliam), the loan- 
leases of these places were revoked on indemnification to the holders 
for their improvements. Also on the ground of breach of contract 
I find a case of resumption noted by Fiscal van Ryneveld, viz., the 
loan-place ' Onder Kluitjeslcraal,' in Tulbagh, forfeited for neglect 
to pay the rent." 

When the great measure of granting land in perpetuity was 
introduced in 1813, Sir John Cradock declared in his Proclamation : 
— " I feel the highest gratification in giving effect to these benefi- 
cent and paternal designs of His Majesty's Government, and 
persuade myself that the gratitude of the inhabitants of this Colony 
will be equal to the value of the inestimable gift extended to them 
on the part of the Crown, which by graciously offering for their 
acceptance a perfect title to lands that enables them to provide for 
their children and descendants, and dispose of them as they please, 
grants to them, in fact, possession of an estate, and the high 
character and station of ' a real landholder.' " 

The following is a copy of the earliest grant of this nature : — 

I do hereby grant on Perpetual Ouitrent unto Joseph Davy, a piece 
of two morgen and thirty-six square roods of land, situated near the 
Uitspan-place, at the Liesbeek's River. Extending north-west towards 
the land of Mr. Truter, south towards the land of Mr. Blankenberg, 

G 2 

84 The Land Tenure of the Colony. 

south-cast towards that of Mr. Dirk van Rcncn, and cast north-cast 
Cowards the buildings of Mr. Shcnckc, as will further appear by the 
above diagram, framed by the Surveyor, on condition that the road 
between this land and the place of Mr. H. Truter shall remain free and 
open of his punctually paying, or causing to be paid, at the expiration 
of every twelfth month, from the date of these presents, unto the 
Receiver-General of Land Revenues, the sum of two rix-dollars for each 
morgen of the land thus ceded to him, and be bound (according to the 
existing laws of this settlement) to have the boundaries properly traced 
out and the land brought into such a state of cultivation as it is capable 
of, within the first three years, previous to the expiration of which 
period this lease will not be transferable ; the land thus granted being 
further subject to all such duties and regulations as either already or 
shall in future be established respecting lands granted under similar 

Given under my Hand and Seal, in the Castle of Good Hope, this 
First day of June, One Thousand Eight Hundred and Twelve. 

(Signed) J. F. Cradock. 

This title corresponds exactly with those of a later date, and is to 
a great extent a modification of the former system, much of the 
phraseology usual in property grants, from the earliest times, being 
retained, and no special reference to the Proclamation of J 8 13 being 
made in them ; but a general proviso occurs in all quitrent grants 
and in every deed of grant of whatever tenure, as follows : — " The 
land thus granted being further subject to all such duties and regu- 
lations as either are already or shall in future be established respect- 
ing lands granted under similar tenure/' 

The meaning and effect of this clause have given rise to much dis- 
cussion. It has until lately been considered in the case of perpetual 
quitrent grants to render the land subject to the Proclamation of 
1 81 3, that is, to confer on the grantee all the privileges and render 
him liable to all the reservations contained in that proclamation. 
The chief of these reservations consists in the right expressed in the 
fourth clause on the part of the Government to make roads and to 
take material for that purpose without compensation. This right 
was freely exercised in the construction of public roads and railways, 
and submitted to without opposition by the owners, until the question 
was raised in the Supreme Court in the suit between De Villiers and 
the Cape Divisional Council to recover damages for an alleged tres- 
pass on the plaintiff's quitrent land, situated in the Cape Division, 
and removing gravel. 

The majority of the court (Judges Denyssen and Fitzpatrick) 
held that the burthens imposed by the Proclamation of 18 13 did not 
apply to original quitrent properties, such as the land in question, 
but only to " loan-places " converted into "perpetual quitrent;" 
while, on the other side, the Chief Justice was of opinion that the 
duties mentioned in the grant were intended by the grantee to in- 

Stray Thoughts. 85 

elude the right of the Government to take gravel from the land for 
road purposes. The Surveyor- General remarks that the effect of 
the Court's decision, if not reversed in the appeal to the Privy 
Council, will be to augment enormously the cost of railway construc- 
tion in this colony in the payment of compensation for ground and 
materials taken on quitrent lands — that is to say, lands granted 
originally on quitrent. 

§> tran ©Itoiujhts. 

We shrink at bec or nettle's sting, 

And nerveless quake 

At shadows on a moon-lit lake ; 
A look will make us sigh or sing. 

And all is changed at seeming chance, 

For what are we 

But atoms on the boundless sea 
Of time and circumstance, 

Tossed by the current of the hour, 

Passion or pain, 

Yet with the heaving motion gain 
The knowledge of resistless power 

Within for good or ill — the leaf 

In crimson falls, 

The emerald moss on mouldring walls, 
Or massy cave and sea-beat reef, 

To one is all it seems, no more, 

Another's eye 

Hath landscapes vast whose outlines lie 
Like shadows on a distant shore. 

A sweet-scent bud, the dawn-bird's wail, 

A lightning flash, 

A surging ocean's frenzy crash, 
And writhing 'neath life's scourging flail, 

Again vibrates the soul — or bright 
Eves glisten; gleams 
Of faces only seen in dreams 

Flash like a meteor through the night. 

We are and seem not; noblest lives 

Are masked ; the lid 

Was burnished, yet Pandora hid 
Beneath it all that soothes or strives. 


Jl |)«i[iIous $i&t for a $Btf)[e. 

In the year 1836 I was a gay and somewhat thoughtless stripling in 
the employ of the firm of Wilmer & Co., in Cape Town, having 
shortly before bade adieu to Old England for a season, to hunt for the 
fickle favours of Dame Fortune in South Africa. At that time the 
Cape was very different in many respects from what it is now, for it 
was the half-way station between England and India, as the Suez 
Canal was then not dreamt of. 

Although of gentle birth and good education, I was not born with 
a silver spoon in my month, and as the youngest son of an officer's 
widow with a large family, I had no prospect of much pecuniary aid 
from the family estate. The crush of competition among the starv- 
ing thousands of the " genteel " professions was even then beginning 
to make itself felt in England. I accordingly resolved to try my luck 
in a sphere where there was more room. Having bid adieu to my 
widowed mother, who dismissed me with tearful eyes, a good outfit, 
£50, and her blessing— all she had to give me, poor soul — I left Lon- 
don one foggy day in November, in the good ship " Flying Squirrel," 
bound for the Cape. Never did a ship more belie her name, for 
after a voyage of eighty-one days, during which I suffered incon- 
ceivable horrors from sea-sickness, we at last anchored in Table Bay. 
I went ashore as soon as possible, and being furnished with excellent 
testimonials to a cousin of my mother, I was warmly received by 
him, and introduced without delay to the senior partner in the firm 
of Wilmer & Co., at that time the principal merchants in the city. 

Mr. Wilmer was a ruddy-faced portly gentleman of the old school. 
He gave me a seat in his office as assistant bookkeeper, at a salary of 
£8 per month, which was at that time a very fair remuneration for such 
services, promising me, if I discharged my duties faithfully, to increase 
it to £10 at the end of six months. With that courtesy which always 
characterized his dealings, he invited me to dine with him on the first 
Sunday after I entered his service. He lived in affluence and com- 
fort in a fine old roomy house, in what was then the best part of the 
town — in the Heerengracht. I went and was much charmed with 
the cordiality of my reception The old gentleman seemed to take a 
fancy to me, for after that I was a constant guest at his table. So 
things went on for about twelve months ; my salary had been in- 
creased and I was in very comfortable circumstances. 

Almost from the time of my first visit I had been greatly struck 
with the affability, gentleness, and beauty of Christina, the only 
daughter of my employer ; and she on her part was by no means want- 
ing in a hearty reception of me whenever I was invited to her father's 
house. It will not, therefore, surprise my readers to know that 
within a very few months I was desperately in love with the kind 
and gentle girl who had always shown herself my friend since my 
introduction to her. Aware that she was a reputed heiress, and that 

A Perilous Ride for a Wife. 87 

she had long been sought in marriage by the colonel of one of the 
regiments then stationed in Cape Town, a man of good family, with 
a private fortune, and greatly esteemed, I felt from the first that it 
was a piece of sheer madness on my part to cherish a hope of ever 
making her my wife ; for how could I expect that I, only a humble 
cleric in her father's warehouse, could succeed in ousting such a 
formidable rival. Still, like the moth that flutters round the flame 
until by an unguarded swoop it is pulverized in a moment by the 
scorching of the lambent light, I could not tear myself away from 
the house of my beloved, although the colonel, who, I am certain, 
never guessed the real state of my feelings, was visiting there three 
or four times a week. I fell into a most unamiable frame of mind. 
Two ideas incessantly possessed me : the one that without Chris- 
tina's love, no matter to what future position I might attain, my 
heart would feel a dreary void, the incurable pang of isolation from 
the object of my love ; the other the apparent impossibility of my 
ever leading Christina to the altar. 

But " there is a tide in the affairs of men which, taken at the 
flood, leads on to fortune," and one day when I was sitting at my 
desk more miserable than usual, for the next day was a public holi- 
day and I dreaded the torture of its weary hours in my solitary 
chamber, Mr. Wilmer entered the room in a state of excitement 
bordering on frenzy. His face was haggard beyond description, he 
trembled violently, and could hardly speak. Scarcely aware of what 
I was doing I seized him by the arm, and pushed rather than drew 
him into his private office, forcing him into a chair The first thing 
I did was to administer a glass of the strongest brandy at hand, 
which brought the colour back to his blanched cheeks, and appeared 
to restore his self-control. 

" Arthur," he said, speaking very low and rapidly, " I fear I am 
a ruined man. That rascal Smerensky, our shipping clerk, has 
bolted, and I believe broke open the safe last night and took with 
him the cash-box and bank-notes and the letters of credit which I 
had to send to England in a month's time to take up Smith & Co.'s 

" How much has he taken altogether ? " I inquired. 

" At least ^20,000, which it is impossible for me to replace, and 
even if I could do so I fear I should not be able to get the money in 
time enough to prevent the ruin of my credit." 

" Are you sure," I asked, " that Smerensky went off yesterday ? " 

Mr. Wilmer was unable to answer this ; but, on inquiring at 
Smerensky's lodgings, we found that he had not been home for three 
days, and that therefore, probably, he had four days' start of us. 
This arose from the fact that Mr. Wilmer had been nearly five days 
absent from the office on a visit to his son in the country, and the 
safe being kept in the old gentleman's private office the audacious 
robber had effected an entrance through the skylight, and had from 
the Saturday night till the Monday morning in which to accomplish, 

88 A Perilous Ride for a Wife. 

his purpose undisturbed, for Mr. Wilmer always carried the key of 
his private room in his pocket, and there was no one resident on the 
premises. The Cape Town police were not then so numerous or 
so active as they are now, and I knew that to place any reliance upon 
their discovery of the criminal or which way he had gone, would be as 
useless as looking for clover in a field of barley. There was no doubt 
that Smerensky had forced the safe, for close by it Mr. Wilmer 
found a very curious antique seal, which the Pole wore upon his 
watch-chain, and always refused to part with, saying that it was 
an amulet given to him by his mother. 

Mr. Wilmer covered his face with his hands and groaned aloud. 
I had, however, the courage of despair, and a thought flashed across 
my mind, which, with the sanguine ardour natural to youth, I imme- 
diately turned to a practical account. 

"Mr. Wilmer," I said, u I know no more of this affair than you 
do ; but why not follow Smerensky and recover your stolen pro- 
perty ? " 

" Would it were possible ! No one knows where the scoundrel 
has o;one, and who could find him ? " 
"1 will." 

l * You, Arthur? ' responded the old man, with trembling but eager 
voice. " Why, if you do this and succeed, vou can ask me for 
anything ? " 

" Might I ask you for leave to pay my addresses to Miss Wilmer ? " 
A curious light shone in Mr. Wilmer's eyes, and a smile, in spite 
of his agitation, overspread his featuies as he answered slowly : " With 
all my heart, you shall have my leave ; and if you can place in my 
hands within a month what the rascal has run away with you shall 
be my partner also; but it seems to me impossible that you can 
succeed in so doubtful and perilous an undertaking." 

" By no means " I replied, " but you must supply me with funds 
— the expenses will be very heavy.'' 

" You shall have all you want," said my employer, " though I 
fear it is a waste of money. When do vou start \ " 

" To-night, I hope, for I think I shall be able to find out in a few 
hours which way Smerensky has gone." 

Indeed this was a matter of no great difficulty, for Capo Town 
was then very small and the facilities for getting away from it, 
except in the direction of the sea, few and far between. The 
arrangements were thereupon concluded ; Mr. Wilmer, at my special 
request, undertaking to give Miss Wilmer a full account of my aim 
and object, under promise of secresy of course I shook the old 
man warmly by the hand, and having been supplied with the re- 
quisite funds, partly in cash and partly in drafts on our up-country 
agents, I started for home, which was not far from my office. 

A few minutes sufficed tocollectthe few articles I actually required 
for my journey, and I sallied off to a part of the town where I knew I 
could find tlie men for my purpose. Jn a icw words 1 explained to 

A Perilous Rule for a Wife. 89 

them that I would give ,£50 to the first who brought me informa- 
tion as to when Smerensky had last been seen leaving the city. 
A description of him was unnecessary, for he had been some years in 
Cape Town, and his hook-nose, beetle brows, and shuffling gait were 
as well-known as the South-easters. 1 had often wondered why 
such a sinister-looking foreigner had been kept so long in the employ 
of such a keen man of business as Mr. Wilmer, but the Pole had no 
indoor work, or at all events very little, to do, and his knowledge of 
all the languages of maritime Europe was invaluable at a period when 
linguistic acquirements were rare at the Cape. 

It was about five p.m when I left Mr. Wilmer, and by ten o'clock that 
night I received positive information that Smerensky had sailed from 
Cape Town to Port Elizabeth in a small but swift coaster, and 
would probably reach Algoa Bay before I could by any means over- 
take him. By eleven o'clock I was in the saddle, armed with a pair 
(if loaded "pistols, a powder horn and bullet pouch, and a piece of 
catgut. The latter article may seem to have been unnecessary, but 
its use I will explain hereafter. I also slung a rifle over my shoulder, 
and stuffed my pocket with rifle cartridges. In my top-boots, 
long over-coat, and leathern cap, I could defy the weather, and I had 
bought the best horse procurable in town, which I had to give a 
11 fancy " price for, on account of his great speed and endurance. I 
had not neglected to get the necessary powers to travel armed and to 
arrest the thief, and I was nerved to the utmost exertion, for I felt 
that on the result of this enterprise depended the whole future of my 
life. I was young, strong, and active, and I knew that, if I failed, 
no other man in the Colony could catch Smerensky. A brilliant 
moonlight shone on the road as my horse's hoofs clattered along the 
streets, and a fev/ minutes took me out of the municipal boundary. 
How fervently I prayed for the success of my quest it is hardly 
necessary to chronicle, or how earnestly I longed for a contrary wind 
to detain the " Susan Jane " along the coast, so that I could forestall 
her at Port Elizabeth. 

You wonder, perhaps, wood reader, why I did not put the authori- 
ties on the track of my quarry. It was because I knew that nobody 
but myself was sufficiently acquainted with Smerensky to be able to 
detect the man under the disguise or disguises he was sure to assume 
as soon as he got fairly away from Cape Town. He spoke both 
Dutch and German so perfectly that his Polish nationality would 
have never been detected from his accent, while his knowledge of 
English was so great as to enable him easily to impose himself upon 
the country people as a stranger from England. But I was well 
acquainted with him, and especially with the wonderful trick he had 
of disguising his voice, for he had considerable power in that direc- 
tion and was an expert ventriloquist. 

The road to the Interior in those days was not what it is now. 
The only pass in the mountain-range was the Franschhoek Kloof, 
which was made during the administration of Lord Charles Somerset, 

90 A Perilous Ride for a JVife. 

and named the Cape Sitnplon. Not a single river along the route 
was bridged ; and frequently the so-called main road was furrowed 
with ruts, or rather chasms. The perils of travelling would seem 
incredible without the testimony of one's own eyes as to its dangers. 
Riding very hard across the tedious and heavy Flats, J reached 
Field-cornet Hugo's under the Franschhoelc Kloef the first evening, 
and there got explicit directions as to the path before me. Traversing 
the Pass next morning I pushed on and entered the Swellendam dis- 
trict, which then included Caledon, Robertson, and Riversdale. 
The inhabitants of the farms everywhere gave me a hospitable 
reception, forage for my horse, and food for myself, for which they 
refused to receive any pecuniary acknowledgment, but they were 
evidently as displeased as they were astonished at my haste and 
anxiety to push on from stage to stage. " Een van de Gouvernments 
menschen " was the conclusion they came to respecting me, and 
which I encouraged, when these good fellows gave me a parting shake 
of the hand, and in their hearty way wished me a " plezierig rij." No 
adventure worth speaking of happened until the evening of the third 
or fourth day. I was told I could reach the Gouritz River by 
night ; but a heavy rain was falling, and darkness set in so early that 
I feared I had lost my way. At length, the distant noise of rushing 
waters assured me I was on the right road ; and as I gained the 
heights overlooking the river I could discover the broad and powerful 
stream before me. Some lights, as from a dwelling, or an outspan 
fire, now and again glimmered, apparently from the opposite side of 
the river ; and I fired off* my rifle at intervals with the view of 
calling the attention of anyone who might be within hearing, for I 
had been warned of the danger of crossing in the dark, more especially 
when the water was in any height and force. All my attempts to 
direct notice to my position seemed fruitless, and I determined to 
take my chance of crossing on horseback Scarce had my plucky 
steed plunged in than I found him rapidly carried away by the 
powerful current ; the trunk of a tree floating past, caught against 
my leg, brusing and cutting it, and nearly dragging me off my seat ; 
but my gallant horse plunged himself free, and after a while I was 
able to land him on the sandy banks, close to where the lights I had 
seen were burning. As I led my poor exhausted nag up to the 
spot, I felt that I had experienced the most narrow escape I ever had 
in my life ; and the occupier of the dwelling, who had been a resident 
there for many years, assured me that never had he known of an 
instance of any man or horse escaping with their lives from the 
river In such a state of flood as it was then. 

The long and hurried ride, and the exhaustion of crossing the 
river had told upon my horse ; he was no longer the mettled charger 
that had trotted with me out of Cape Town ; and I had to leave 
him with a farmer, the worthy Eckiel Miillcr, who willingly gave 
me in exchange a hardy-looking animal, which he guaranteed in 
his expressive way as a canniet doodnie, and right well-pleased was I 

A Perilous Ride for a Wife. 9 1 

with him. He kept along at an untiring though not very speedy 
gallop day and night, with only short intervals of off-saddling ; and 
four days afterwards, — the seventh from my starting, — I reached 
Uitenhage, and on the following morning was at the " Baai," as 
the Boers named Port Elizabeth. 

Port Elizabeth was a very different place then from the Cape 
Liverpool of to-day. A few straggling houses playing at hide and 
seek in a wilderness of sand, and hardly a blade of grass to be seen, 
constituted the now famous seaport. Although I had performed my 
journey with the utmost speed, the little coaster had outstripped my 
horses, and on arriving at Algoa Bay I had the mortification of find- 
ing myself nearly two days behind the schooner. A casual inquiry 
or two resulted in my finding that a person answering in height to 
Smerensky, but not in general appearance, had purchased a cart and 
four fleet horses, and engaged the services of a well-known Hottentot 
whip to drive him up country at a certain sum per day, no 
mention being made of where the journey was to end, or for how 
many days the man would be required. I learnt also, beyond all 
doubt, that the two men had with them a small but very heavy 
parcel, and that they were travelling armed to the teeth. However, 
I had no time to lose, for if my game got into the preserves of the 
native tribes before me, a judicious expenditure of ready money in 
Dribes would secure their safe concealment for any length of time, or, 
more likely still, pay their fare along some underground railroad to 
Natal or even further into the Interior. 

It was a part of my plan that no one but myself should have any 
hand in the capture of the stolen property, for I had risked everything 
that I held most dear. With one man I could easily deal, but how to 
manage two was the difficulty, as I might be shot down by one while 
the other was driving the horses. My only chance was to follow the 
spoor as rapidly as possible, and to come up with Smerensky and his 
associate unheard and un perceived by them. To do this was more 
difficult than overcoming any of the numerous obstacles which I had 
already vanquished, and I had not an hour to spare. At last my plans 
were laid. I slipped round to the store and purchased a box of black- 
ing, a Kafir blanket, a hammer, some nails, and a piece of felt. Then 
I returned to the house where I had just dined, and with great 
difficulty persuaded a farmer, who had come down to the port with 
his wagon, to give me a lift for a few miles to a farm-house where I 
was informed I could buy a fresh horse. At nine o'clock that nioht 
we started, reaching the farm-house at breakfast-time next day/ I 
had cashed a draft at our agents at Port Elizabeth, which gave me 
sufficient cash for all my purposes. When we arrived at the farm 
I soon made a bargain for an animal that his owner declared he would 
not have sold to anyone else for £100. It took me some time to 
find out the reason of this, for a more awkward-looking animated 
bone-bag I have never seen. At a little distance off you could 
hardly distinguish him from a camel. His giraffe-Jike neck, his round 

Q2 A Peri hits Ride for a JVife. 

back, which had a decided hump on the spine, his spider legs and huge 
feet, combined with his fearful stride when in motion, all impressed 
one with the conviction that animals of his pattern could belong to 
nothing but a species of disorganized dromedary. The hair was 
completely worn off on several parts of his body, the small amount of 
tail which he occasionally wriggled to show that he was not deprived, 
as the spectator might think, of the rudimentary portion of a caudal 
appendage, was reduced to almost a hairless stump, and to crown all 
there was one peculiarity about him which nobody could ever account 
for, a peculiarity which filled a white man with surprise and wonder 
not unmixed with merriment — it was a severe strabismus. It was 
the uncontestable fact that he squinted. But he was docile, sure- 
footed, and hardy, and when once in motion was said to be able to 
run down an ostrich. I found he was rather hard-mouthed, and as he 
had a jaw as tough as a rib of whalebone, I would not venture to 
ride him until I had fixed a very strong curb to his bit. He could 
jump like a springbok, swim like a dog, and run like a camel, but I 
venture to say that seldom, if ever, in the history of horseflesh has such 
an extraordinary nondescript distuibed the brain of any Alderman 
Gobblin after a hearty banquet. The squint, which was at once his 
greatest peculiarity and most comical singularity, was also an irremov- 
able mark of his identity, which, in a country where horsestealing was 
pursued by the natives as rather a pleasant pastime than anything 
else, was not altogether to be objected to : besides, this squinting 
horse was looked upon by the superstitious natives as " betoovered " 
or bewitched, and they would none of them have him at any price : 
as to stealing him they could never get near enough to him for that; 
for another of his eccentricities was his unconquerable aversion to 
black or coloured people, caused no doubt by his keenness of scent, 
as he had a nose like a rat and strong odours always made him restive 
and uneasy. His colour was yellowish grey and his height about six- 
teen hands. I have been very particular about describing this horse, 
for I had him for many years after this and a better servant no man 
ever possessed, although till his dying day, when the lids closed for 
ever upon the weird, squinting eyes, I could never look at his face 
without a laugh. To his speed, endurance, and pluck, and his indomit- 
able courage, I owe all that is most dear to me in this world. 

Having saddled up 1 started again in pursuit. When about ten 
miles distant from the farm I dismounted and found that the saddle 
was galling my horse's back, so I placed my spare blanket underneath 
it and iodc on. It is needless to relate all the obstacles I had to en- 
counter; sufficcittosay that my extraordinary horsecontinued on mile 
after mile, at a pace which could not have been less than seven miles 
per hour, over a heavy and broken country. Rivers he swam like an 
otter, and his great weight and strength of barrel enabled him to 
obtain a sure footing in scrambling up and down the banks of rivers 
which a first inspection of his queer lanky legs went hard to disprove. 
They looked mere like sticks of sealing wax than anything else 

A Peri lou s Ride for a Wife. qj 

But on close examination it was seen that the muscles and sinews 
were incredibly hard and compact, which accounted for the great 
length of his stride, or, more properly speaking, hops over the 
ground ; his gigantic strength in the hind quarters enabled him 
to jump more than a yard further than any horse lever knew 
could. On the evening of the third day occurred what I, 

adopting; the language of Oliver Cromwell with regard to one of his 
great battles against the Royalists, have always called mv crowning 
mercy. The most terrible hail storm that had ever visited the district, 
swept over the country v/ith unexampled fury. For many years after 
the farmers used to relate how hail stones as large as eggs destroyed vast 
numbers ofsheep and cattle, and killed many native servants on the 
open veld. During this storm, myself and my horse were provi- 
dentially under the shelter of a cave in the mountain side, but 
Smcrenksy and his companion were overtaken by it in the open 
plains, and two of their horses killed. 

Inquiring as I went on among na'ive wayfarers, I found out the 
precise direction taken by the fugitives, and I started ofFon their track. 

On the evening of the fourth day from that of the storm, I came in 
sight of a cart drawn by two horses, and containing two men, one of 
whom was lashing the horses at intervals. I immediately saw that 
by taking a short cut and crossing a river I could overtake them just 
as they were entering on a very rocky piece of country. This 
manoeuvre would give me the additional advantage of not being seen 
by the runaways, as the ground fell very considerably between the 
route they were taking and that which I saw was best for me. I was 
now sure of coming up with my quarry at the utmost in a few hours, 
for both myself and my horse had been refreshed by a long sleep that 
afternoon, which I judged indispensable for both of us I dismounted 
and after a great deal of trouble succeeded in shoeing my horse's feet 
with the felt which I had bought for that purpose. This was a 
wrinkle I had got when I was a boy from the " adventures of a famous 
highwayman," who by this means was enabled to approach his victims 
noiselessly. Having accomplished this task by throwing my horse 
by main force on a soft hillock of sand, and tying his feet together to 
prevent his kicking my brains out, and then nailing on the felt, I re- 
sumed my journey, but before doing so put fresh powder to my pistol 
pans and examined my rifle. My horse v/as now trotting briskly 
and without the slightest noise over a stony country, and in two hours, 
as I judged, I should come up with the cart. 

Having gone a few miles further I dismounted, blacked my hands 
and face and slipped my head through a hole which I had cut in the 
blanket. The conspicuous colour of my horse I could not help, but as 
the moon was up it did not so much signify since that part of the coun- 
try was full of stones of yellowish colour. My horse was rapidly cutting 
down the distance between us, and in a few minutes I should be along- 
side of the cart. My heart jumped audibly in my bosom, and I was 
quivering from head to foot with excitement and anxiety. A tew 

94 A Perilous Ride for a JVife. 

moments more would in all probability terminate the existence of one 
of us three men. Nearer and nearer my horse drew to them, 
when with one plunging bound he cannoned against the near side 
horse, causing him to fall on his knees and stop the cart. Instantly, 
quick as thought, one of the men drew a pistol and fired at me point 
blank. The ball grazed my shoulder, carrying away a piece of the blanket. 
Ere the man could fire again I had returned his shot, which took effect 
on the unfortunate Hottentot, the ball entering at his mouth and pass- 
ing out at the back of his neck. With a yell like that of an exorcised 
demon he fell back dead in the cart, tumbling over his companion. 
The horses were kicking and plunging fearfully, but I placed them 
hors de combat by shooting one though the head and hitting the other 
with the butt end of my rifle. Meanwhile Smerensky, for I could 
plainly distinguish his features, had freed himself from the weight of 
the dead man, and had sprung from the cart and confronted me. 
With a roar like that of a wounded tiger he sprang towards me, level- 
ling a second pistol at my head, at the same time a blow from the 
butt end of my rifle knocked the pistol from his hand and discharged 
it in the air. " Stand and deliver, Smerensky," I cried, "or the pres- 
sure of my finger this moment sends your guilty soul to judgment." 

" Are you man or devil ?" he roared in German. 

" I arrest you," I cried, " for burglary in Cape Town when and 
where you know. I am fullv prepared for any resistance you may 
make, and if you offer to raise your hand or to stir from that spot, I 
will shoot you down like a dog. I have shot your companion and 
killed your horses and will kill you next. You know me. I am 
Arthur Jermyn, and have pursued you from Cape Town, riding day 
and night on your track. I want you to come back with me, and I 
want what you have robbed your employer of." " Never ! " he 
roared, and rushed again at me. I fired and broke his jaw, but he 
thrust savagely at me with his long knire, cutting my right leg and 
slightly wounding my horse. I did not dare dismount, for I knew 
that if I did, he, an ex-Polish lancer and a most accomplished eques- 
trian, would be on my horse in a moment and vanish instantly. I did 
not want to kill him but to take him alive, so again struck him with 
my rifle butt, this time on the head, and stunned him. I then im- 
mediately dismounted and tied his thumbs together behind his back 
with the piece of catgut I had brought, in such away that he could not 
possibly get loose or away from the small but mighty bond, without 
tearing his thumbs from their sockets. Then binding up his face I 
put him into the cart from which I had removed the dead Hottentot, 
and sat down to reflect. 

What was I to do ? By hard riding I might yet be in time to save 
Mr. Wilmer from ruin, for I had found all the securities inside the 
parcel in the cart. I wanted two horses to harness to the vehicle. My 
steed would not carry two persons, and was already showing signs of 
exhaustion. If I placed Smerensky on my horse and led him, going 
on foot myself, I should never reach my journey's end in time* For- 

A Perilous Ride for a Wife. 95 

tunately, the horse I had knocked on the head had recovered from his 
fright and was again available. I removed the harness from the 
dead horse and managed to attach my own, together with the other. 
Smerensky was senseless for some hums, and lay bound hand and 
foot at the bottom of the vehicle. I had loaded my pistols again, and 
let him see that I wore them so in my breast. He could not escape, 
and his hands and feet were too securely bound for him to do any mis- 

It would be useless for me to attempt to describe the astonishment 
of the inhabitants as we returned. A few words at each house ex- 
plained all. 

On arriving at the first magistrate's place I procured a guard of two 
white men, who escorted the villainous Pole to Algoa Bay by easy 
stages, for his broken jaw could not be touched and gave him incon- 
ceivable pain. I was told that several times on the journey down he 
attempted to commit suicide, in different ways, and would have suc- 
ceeded had he not been carefully watched day and night by his escort. 
I pushed on at once to Algoa Bay, and was so lucky as to find a ves- 
sel just starting for Cape Town. An offer of £50 to the captain 
prevailed upon him to wait twenty-four. hours until my prisoner ar- 
rived and was put on board, together with the recovered securities, 
which the captain took charge of. He was a very worthy Scotchman, 
well known to Mr. Wilmer, and was thunderstruck when he heard 
my story. We had a quick run down to Table Bay, but were 
obliged to keep Smerensky in the hold, and ironed, as he tried to jump 
overboard. Anxiety and the fearful strain on my body and mind 
had quite prostrated me, and I did not lift my head from my bunk un- 
til we reached Cape Town. 

On the very day the mail left for England we anchored in Table 
Bay, only two hours before it started. Old Wilmer had seen our spe- 
cial signals, for we were agents for the Isabella, and rushing down to 
the landing place almost flew towards me, as I held out to him the 
parcel I had brought. 

"What have you done ?" he almost gasped. 

" All is here." I replied, " You have not a moment to lose. Quick ! 
quick ! the mail will leave almost directly." 

Then he turned deadly pale, but recovered himself, and turning to one 
of the clerks who had accompanied him, he bade him attend to me, and 
having wrung my hand disappeared up Heerengracht with the parcel. 
He was so beside himself with excitement and surprise that he never 
even asked what had become of Smerensky. Without loss of time 
I dispatched a messenger to the authorities, and two trusty guardians 
of the municipal peace soon came down with orders to look after my 
Polish acquaintance, and to introduce him to the Tronk without 
delay. That worthy had to be conveyed to the shore at the bottom of 
a boat, for he was so frantic that he would have thrown himself into the 
sea, and must soon have sunk, because I knew he could not swim a 
stroke. Despite his ravings and smugglings, he was conveyed ashore, 

<)6 A Per lions Ride for a ll'ife. 

cursing, .and blaspheming fearfully'; and as he would not walk but 
tried to kick his escort, he was considerately put into a cart, and carried 
into durance vile to await his trial. 

Leaning on the arm of the clerk referred to, I crawled rather than 
walked to our office, and found Mr. Wilmer gone to the postmaster 
to get him to send a parcel for him as a favour, because the mail at 
the Post office was closed. After waiting about an hour, during 
which I suffered all the pangs of suspense, Mr. Wilmer returned. 
He was in a state of great commotion, alternately laughing and cry- 
ing like a hysterical woman. Then he would get up and dance 
around me, wringing my hands, calling me all the endearing names 
he could think of. At last, to my utter surprise he finished —yes he 
really did — by grasping me to his breast and hugging me as I should im- 
agine an old American grizzly bear would embrace a foe. Then for 
some time he would be unable to utter a word, and it was not until 
we had disposed of two or three bottles of champagne (then a very 
expensive and rare wine in the colony), that he found control over 
his voice. 

" Tell me all about it !' ; he cried. " Tell me all about it ! How did 
you manage it ? Where did vou catch him ? and what have you done 
to yourself? for you look more like a ghost than a human being. 1 ' 

I replied faintly, that I would tell him all about it by and by. 
The excitement, however, had been too much for me, and when I 
saw how overjoyed my old friend was, and heard him ejaculate, 
" Thank God, I am saved !" I could hear no more and sank back 
Jainting on my chair. 

Then came a long, dreary blank, and when I woke, I found my- 
self in a bed. A sweet low voice said, " He's better now, papa" 
Something moved me to put my hand to my head ; it was wrapped in 
a wet cloth, and altogether I felt very ill. A confused, dizzy feeling 
overpowered me, but I was revived by a strong cordial which a friendly 
hand poured down my throat. 

" We shall soon be all right again," said a grave but not stern 

voice, which I fancied I recognized as that of Dr. B of Cape 

Town, U but we mustn't move and we mustn't talk : we must lie 
quiet and do as we are told. We are still very weak from the fever. " 

Languidly turning my head, I caught the eye of Dr. B fixed 

upon me. With a great effort I said, "Where am I, and what is the 
matter with me ?" 

" You are in our house, Arthur," replied the cheery voice of Mrs. 

" And you have had brain fever, and we were afraid you would 
die !" said the same sweet low voice that first addressed me. 

Turning round I saw che beloved of my heart at the bedside. She 
<rave me her hand, which I raised to my lips. 

' If you promise not to talk," said Mrs. Wilmer, " Christina will 
stay with you for a bit, while I go and look after your jelly." 

Mv eves said " yes, "and in a moment I was alone with Miss Wil- 

A Perilous Ride for a Wife. 97 

mer. For a long time neither of us spoke. Then gradually, and 
like the remembrance of a long-forgotten dream, the mist seemed to 
clear away from my brain : I tried to collect my scattered senses, and 
made an effor to sit up. Gently, but firmly, Christina's soft white 
hand was laid upon my own. 

" You must not move !" she said, "If you do I shall go away. 
Besides, you promised to be a good boy and yet you begin by dis- 
obeying me and breaking your promise. Lie still now. In a few 
days I hope you will be well enough to get up." 

" But my head ?" I asked. 

" Yes, I know," she laughed. " We had to get it shaved, and 
keep wet towels on it. Your hair will soon grow again now that you 
are better." I winced at this, for I was very proud of my curly 
black hair. 

" But you must take your medicine now," said Miss Wilmer, and 
the next moment she had poured a very nasty mixture down my 
throat, and laughed heartily at the wry face I made over it. Then 
she sat down and read to me from the local paper (there was but one 
in those days) an account of my exploits, rather overdrawn, perhaps, 
and coloured very highly in some parts of it ; but news was a scarce 
commodity at the Cape then, and the editor was glad to make the 
most of such a godsend to our dull town as my adventure was to 

As I listened, every detail came back to me ; and long before she 
had finished, I had turned round in the bed towards the reader, when 
I saw for the first time that her eyes were red with weeping, and that 
she was pale as a lilv. I noticed also that she tried, but in vain, to 
conceal the tremour in her voice, and that she frequently turned 
aside her head that I might not see her emotion. I essayed to speak to 
her, but her agitation unmanned me, and at the end of the story of 
my exploits she, as she suddenly lifted her eyes to mine, saw the 
tears trickling down my cheeks, for I did not try to hide them. 

" Arthur," she said very softly, "you are naughty again. If you 
don't stop crying I shall go. You'll make yourself ill again." 

I tried to raise the ghost of a smile, but could not. But there we 
sat, hand in hand, both silent, although our eyes were talking. Then 
Mrs. Wilmer came in and insisted on feeding me with the jelly, 
I did not want any, but took some to please her. 

About five o'clock in the afternoon old Wilmer and his two sons 
came in. George, the eldest, came straight up to the bed. "Arthur," 
said he, as he grasped my hand in his broad palm, " I can't tell you 
how much I thank you !" 

" And I," said Frank, as he came to the other side of the bed, 
" can't thank you as much as I would. I must leave that to 
Chrissy !" 

She blushed like the dawn of a summer's morning, and playfully 
pinched Frank's arm, but she looked rather pleased, I thought. 

"Arthur," said the old gentleman, "you know I can't tell 
Vol. XIV. h 

98 A Perilous Ride for a J Fife. 

you a quarter of what I feel about the service you have done me and 
mine. I can never repay it. But we will talk of that when you are bet- 
ter, and if my old eyes don't deceive me very much, I think the same 
day that saved my fortune will make yours, and accomplish the dear- 
est wish of your heart and now, I must say, also of mine !' r Then 
he turned to Miss Wilmer, and said, " Don't let him talk and don't 
talk too much to him. People who have had brain fever must be 
kept quiet." 

I need not tell you that it took many weeks before I was thoroughly 
well again. Strong as I naturally was, the pursuit and capture of 
Smerensky, combined with the exposure I had undergone, had brought 
on an attack of the most virulent brain fever, which must have carried 
me off, had it not been for the unwearied attention and kindness I 
received from Mr. Wilmer and his family. At last I was fairly re- 
covered, and able once more to attend to office duties. 

Ah ! strange human nature ! Strange heart of mine! During all 
this time I had never once talked of love to Christina. We were 
constantly together. The colonel had nearly ceased his visits, and 
I knew that I was loved almost as much as I loved. My darling 
and I talked about every subject imaginable except our loves. Even 
the tender passion, as it afflicted our friends and acquaintances, we 
conversed upon freely ; but with regard to the affection which each 
knew that the other reciprocated, we maintained an obstinate silence, 
I was too timid to confess it, and she was too shy to mention it. 
But the old proverb says " Murder will out," and so it had to be in 
my case. I shall never forget it I had taken up my abode per- 
manently with the Wilmers, which they had compelled me to do 
by the simple process of transporting, while I was ill, all my personal 
effects from my lodgings to the room — Christina's room as I after- 
wards found out — which I was occupying as an invalid in their house. 
It was at the dear girl's own suggestion that this room had been given 
up to me, as it opened upon a verandah at the back of the house, and 
was cheerful and airy. 

Well, one evening we were sitting in this verandah, just after din- 
ner. The family had gone out to visit a neighbour, and Christina 
had stayed at home to keep me company, as I pleaded that I had 
letters to write — an ingenious but transparent excuse for securing her 
society that evening, as I told her she would not be at all in the way, 
and that I hated to be alone. 

The evening shadows had deepened into darkness, and still we sat 
talking. Christina had her guitar on her knee and was playing that 
beautiful and plaintive air, u La dove prende." The music of the 
divine Mozart seemed to give me courage. I asked her if she knew 
the duet " La ci darem la mano, " from the same opera. She im- 
mediately began to play it and I to sing. When it came to the 
second part I asked her to join in, but she could not. Then occurred 
one of those awkward silences which happen occasionally in the best 
regulated families. How long it would have continued I do not 

A Perilous Ride for a Wife* 99 

know, if a large black rat had not dropped upon her foot from the 
verandah overhead. She jumped up with a scream, and in a moment 
I had set my foot on the more free than welcome visitor and crushed 
the life out of him. 

Christina was trembling all over. I had caught her in my arms, and 
her beautiful head, with its ample dower 'of lustrous black curls, had 
sunk, quite naturally as I thought, upon my shoulder. The ice was 
broken now, and a fev/ words sufficed to relieve my pent-up feelings 
of the wild torrent of words of ardent love which had been hang- 
ing on the tip of my tongue for so many weeks past unable to find 

Then I heard from the lips of her I loved more than anything else 
in the world, what I had long known was the true state of her feel- 
ings towards me. She told me that she had always loved me, that 
since she had become acquainted with me she had steadily discouraged 
the colonel's advances, in which she had been backed up by her 
mother with whom I had been always a special favourite. In a few 
words she told me of the intense pain she had felt during our separa- 
tion, from the thought that I might fall by the hand of the desperate 
Pole who, she was certain, would make every effort to get clear off 
with his ill-gotten booty. She told me also how she alone, of all her 
family and friends, had believed I should successfully accomplish the 
capture of Smerensky. She told me of the frightful sufferings she 
endured during the ten days that I was tossing about in the wild de- 
lirium of brain fever, and how her spirits revived when at last I was 
pronounced out of danger. She told me how I lay babbling of the 
sunny plains of India, where indeed I was born, of the green fields 
of England, and of the games and studies of the dear old school at 
Harrow where I passed my youth. She told me of the delight with 
which she had, day by day, seen health returning to my cheeks and 
strength to my limbs. She reproached me tenderly for having so 
long concealed from her the passionate love she knew I felt towards 
her, and wondered, in the innocent simplicity of her heart, as many of 
her sex have often done, how it was that a man who did not scruple to 
face the pistols of a desperado and to swim rapid and swollen rivers, 
should not have courage enough to woo a harmless girl whose only 
feelings towards me had ever been those of the deepest affection. 
There in the glorious moonlight of our Southern Hemisphere we stood 
and plighted our troth and exchanged certain confidences which do 
not concern anybody but the giver and receiver. We stood there so 
long that we did not observe ourselves to be the cynosure of the ad- 
miring eyes of the whole family, who had returned and, wisely con- 
sidering that, under the circumstances, more than two would not be 
company on the verandah, kindly refrained from interrupting us. 

The rest of my story is soon told. Within a week from that date 

I was admitted a partner in the firm of Wilmer & Co., and within 

two months Christina became my wife ; and as I stood beside her at 

the altar, I knew that her heart was brighter and purer than even 

h 2 

100 A Natal Ode. 

the sunlight which illumined her eyes, or the rich lace veil in which 
her noble features were enveloped. There was but one drop of bit- 
terness in my cup that day — that my dear mother was not present 
at the ceremony. But I had written in ample time beforehand to 
apprise her of the coming happy event and knew that at the moment 
when the priest joined our hands in that most happy and sacred of 
unions where "both hearts and hands combine," my beloved mother in 
the silence of her chamber, was lifting up her heart to God in prayer 
that His choicest blessings might descend upon her darling son and his 
angel wife. 

Smerensky was never brought to trial : disappointment, rage and 
despair, had all thrown him into a high fever, under which he sank so 
rapidly that all efforts to save him were useless. The articles which I 
had abandoned with the body of the dead Hottentot when I caught 
Smerensky, I afterwards heard had been found by the Field-cornet of 
the district, who had buried the body of the Hottentot near the 
place where the things were found. 

My adventure was a nine days' wonder, but my conjugal happiness 
has been permanent. 

I am an old man now, with children and grandchildren about me, 
and although time has silvered the locks of my dear helpmate, and I 
am as grey as a badger, I have never once, thank God, had reason to 
regret the way in which, forty years ago, I undertook the perilous ride 
which gained me my wife. 

% gatal <t)de. 

' Jamquedies, nisi fallor, aJest quern sember aceibum, 
Semper honoratum — sic di voluistis — rabebo." 

Virgil m TEneid " V., 4.9. 

" The very source and fount of Day 

Is dashed with wandering isles of night" 

Tennyson — "In Memoriam," xxiv. 

Once more comes round that favour'd hour, 

Which gave you birth ; 
Which saw your pure young soul alight, 

Like snowflake on this earth. 

Comes round that honour'd day, which, each 

Succeeding year, 
Beholds your sweet expanding life 

Towards its fulfilment near. 

When last it came, rejoiced was I 

To mark the day ; 
For new-born Hope within my breast 

Shed its reviving ray. 

A Natal Ode. 

But now, alas ! it brings but gloom, 

An aching chill ; 
The good I dreamed has disappeared, 

And left a vague, dread ill. 

'Tis said the mariner of yore 

Would find an isle 
In some new clime, where azure skies 

And verdant scenes e'er smile ; 

Would note the little paradise 

Upon his chart, 
To guide him in his future course 

To busy port or mart. 

But when he traversed next those seas, 

No longer there, 
Its absence weird would awe his soul 

And plunge it in despair. 

In place, perchance, some rock unseen 

Would sink his bark ; 
A victim to the floating isle, 

Unknown his fate and dark. 

So live I, like this mariner 

(My landmark gone), 
In this sad weary voyage of life, 

No hope to steer upon. 

I strike against the stern hard rock 

Of cynic mood ; 
And sink amidst relentless waves 

Incredulous of good. 

But, oh ! Latona's son, who rul'st 

Nine muses o'er, 
Who first didst see thy native light 

On Delos' errant shore 

Oh ! grant that these few feeble lines 

Such power may hold, 
That my dear maid may be to me 
Just what she was of old. 

9th October, 1876. 

<Dn thread and Sfaj^-uionns in Sftitty. 

By W. Bisset Berry, M.D. 

I have recently been furnished with two samples of thread-worms 
from sheep. One sample was supplied by a farmer residing on 
Bontebok Flats, who obtained them from the manyphis of a sheep, 
which showed signs of disease and vras slaughtered for examination. 
The farmer informed me that these thread-worms were lying on the 
folds of the manyphis so thickly as almost to cover the surfaces of 
the folds. The worms were literally in thousands. They were 
preserved for me, by my suggestion, in glycerine. The other 
sample was handed to me by Mr. Hellier, of Oueen's Town, who 
obtained them from a distance preserved in spirit. The worms in 
both bottles proved to be identical in species. Most of them were 
about three-quarters of an inch long, tapering to a point at both ends 
from about the middle of the body, where they were about as stout 
as a good sized pin. To the naked eye they looked exactly like the 
small thread-worms, well known to parents as tormentors of 
children, and not unknown to the physician as sometimes met 
with in the human adult. Examined with magnifying power, 
thread-worms from the sheep present some differences from those 
seen in mankind, differences, however, which are perhaps more inter- 
esting to the helminthologist than important to the agriculturist. 
They present the generic characters of the Oxyurida, which belong to 
the Nematode group of internal parasites. Oxyuris is a bisexual 
worm, which may be found in any or every part of the intestinal 
canal, and which produces innumerable minute eggs which do not 
appear to develop in the host, but are carried out with the dung. 
Though these worms have been known to men of science for more 
than two thousand years, the history of the development of their eggs 
after expulsion from the host, and the manner of their re-introduc- 
tion are still unknown ; but analogy would lead to the belief that 
the eggs, for months after expulsion, undergo changes, and are again 
brought back, though still in an immature state, with the water or 
food. The presence of thread-worms in the intestines does not 
appear to have the same grave significance as the presence of fluke 
in the liver has ; still, when they are present in large numbers, and 
particularly when they occupy in myriads such an important part of 
the economy as the manyphis, they seem to cause, as they did in the 
case of the sheep slaughtered on Bontebok Flats, a very similar con- 
dition : dropsical swellings appearing, the wool deteriorating, the 
flesh looking flabby, and death not infrequently supervening. 

When thread-worms are known or suspected to be present in the 
stomachs of the sheep, the solution of salt is recommended by veteri- 
narians as a cure. Great difficulty and not a little risk to sheep life 
seems to attend the administration of this solution. Several farmers 

On Thread and Tape-ivorms in Sheep. 103 

have told me that all the sheep to which they had given the salt 
solution had died almost immediately ; while the process of pouring 
the solution down the throats of the animals is always a very trou- 
blesome one. I would be glad to see the following method of giving 
the solution tried : — A gag made of hard wood, about six inches long 
and half an inch thick at the ends, rounded and smooth or covered 
with leather, and having a rounded opening in the middle about half 
an inch in diameter, should be placed in the sheep's mouth. The 
ends of the gag should project on either side between the jaws, the 
rounded opening should be in the middle of the mouth above the 
tongue, and in a line with the gullet. It should be retained there by 
the operator and an assistant. Then an elastic tube, like a catheter, 
should be passed through the rounded opening into the guUet, and, 
being guided by the fingers of the left hand from entering the wind- 
pipe, should be gently pushed down as far as it will easily go. To 
the end still projecting out of the mouth a Higginson's syringe should 
be attached already freed from air by being charged with a portion of 
the solution to be administered, when the proper quantity of salt 
solution should then be slowly and gently injected. In some such 
way as this the salt solution can be safely and speedily carried to the 
stomachs, and the temptation to administer it, for expedition's sake, 
in too concentrated and irritating a form, avoided. Little good can 
be done by giving strong solutions of salt ; and half an ounce dis- 
solved in twelve ounces, or a small beer bottleful, of tepid water, 
should answer every requirement. 

Neither is this occasional use of the salt solution to supersede on 
any account the daily use of salt as an indispensable article of diet and 
as a valuable Oxyu^ides or thread-worm killer, 

And, in my opinion, salt is not to be trusted to entirely. In addi- 
tion, though perhaps subordinately, to this article, flockmasters 
should devote attention to the cultivation of aromatic herbs such as 
sheep will eat, and such as are known to have a generally stimulating 
and even a worm-killing effect within the whole digesting apparatus. 
The lethal power of the drug called Pantonine over thread-worms in 
the human species, which is one of the few generally admitted facts 
in therapeutics, affords a hint which may be of some value. This 
drug is obtained from nearly all the species of a genus of plants, 
Artemisia, and notably from the A. Santonica, which grows abun- 
dantly in Russia. In this Colony this genus is well represented by the 
A. Afra, the African wormwood, which must be well known, for I 
often find it used as a domestic remedy in various disorders. Dr. 
Pappe, formerly Colonial Botanist, in his " Enumeration of South 
African Medicinal Plants," says " the whole of the wormwood has a 
strong, balmy smell, and a bitter, aromatic but nauseous taste, owing 

to a green essential oil which it contains Its efficacy 

as a vermifuge is generally admitted." Belonging to the same 
natural order of plants, and having similar properties, is the common 
tansy of Britain, long favourably known and, where not indigenous, 

104 On Thread and Tape-worms in Sheep. 

often cultivated on account of its worm-killing virtues. There is 
another species of this genus (Tanacetum multiflorum) growing in 
many parts of this colony, the worm-kruid of colonists, which is 
equally efficacious, and concerning which Dr. Pappe says, " It grows 
very abundantly in sandy soil, close to the sea shore." I have been 
told that sheep will eat the wormwood (Artemisia) readily, but I 
have never heard that they will eat the worm-kruid or tansy. Flock- 
masters can easily find out whether sheep eat these plants or not ; and 
if they do, the propriety of cultivating these herbs extensively and of 
allowing sheep to eat of them periodically will be apparent. But if 
sheep will not eat these plants, the farmer may still cultivate 
them for occasional medicinal use, when salt, instead of being dis- 
solved in plain water, as already recommended for injection into the 
stomach, may be dissolved in an infusion of one or other of these 
herbs, For such a purpose, a suitable infusion may be prepared by 
pou:ing a gallon of boiling water upon one pound of the recently 
dried herbs, letting it stand for an hour. Twelve ounces of this 
infusion may be used as a solvent for the salt. In his work on 
Entozoa, Cobbold mentions an Indian plant, the Keera-mer, as an 
excellent thread-worm killer. This is a plant of the Birthwort 
genus (known amongst botanists as Aristolochea bracteata). It is 
given in the form of infusion, but, as the plant seems to lose much 
of its virtue by being kept, perhaps it may be worth while cultivating 
it in this country. If the qualities ascribed to this genus of plants 
by the ancients really belong to it, some discretion would have to be 
shown in administering it in the case of ewes and lambs. I give 
prominence to these few details because I am convinced that there is 
now no royal road to health in stock. On the contrary sheep-farm- 
ing has become an industry which can be made remunerative only 
by an intelligent, careful, and persistent attention to the laws of life. 
Tape-worm is too familiarly known to need any description. It 
is now of very common occurrence in sheep of all ages in this 
country. I am not aware that salt, in anything like possible doses, 
has any power as a tape-killer. The male fern, especially in the 
form of a liquid extract, which can be bought of any respectable 
druggist, is one of the most approved tape-killers. The utility of 
this preparation, however, is seriously impaired by its costliness ; for 
about twenty shillings worth of this extract would be needed to dose 
a hundred sheep. By those who do not consider this cost too high, 
a fair trial should be given to the liquid extract of male fern. The 
animals to be experimented upon may advantageously be shut up in 
an enclosure and fed on pumpkin pips for one day before the drug is 
given. For use, take a drachm and a half of the liquid extract and 
shake it up in a small vial with two ounces of a newly made solution 
of gum. The gum of the mimosa will do. Or take the same 
quantity of the extract and shake it up with the yolk of an egg and 
afterwards add a little milk. Pour the draught so prepared slowly 
down the throat. A cheaper and valuable remedy is the bark of the 

On Thread and Tape-worms in Sheep. 10$ 

fresh root of the pomegranate. Half a pound of this root-bark 
should be boiled in a gallon of water to one half; and two wineglass- 
fuls of this decoction would be a dose. In all probability this medi- 
cine will have to be given two or three times in twenty-four hours 
to be successful. Pumpkin pips are known to be such a valuable 
tape-killer that no farmer should throw away the inside of a single 
pumpkin. I have treated tape-worm in man with these pips suc- 
cessfully. They are all the better for being bruised before being 
given : and, as recommended with the extract of male fern, so 
should they be given as food while the pomegranate decoction is 
being used. Ostriches affected with tape-worm should be confined 
for a few days and fed with pumpkin pips. For tape-worm in these 
animals I have tried the extract of fern, Kousso and Kamela, in 
large doses without any effect. In an American medical journal 
there lately appeared a notice of the successful treatment of tape- 
worm in a man by carbolic acid, after failures with extract of male 
fern and pumpkin pips, singly and combined. Five drops of the 
pure acid were given three times a day in a little water. The treat- 
ment was kept up for some days. A like quantity of the acid, or 
even rather more, could be given to an ostrich. 

I would remark that when stock are infested with parasites, far- 
mers cannot be too particular in causing all dung to be thoroughly 
destroyed by fire. The carcases of all animals dying from any 
variety of worm disease, and the offal of all such as may be slaugh- 
tered for use, should be buried or cremated. On no account should 
such centres of propagation be left unattended to. 

For some years the periodical burning of grass has been going out 
of fashion. Certainly grass fires are neither so general nor extensive 
as they used to be : and we sometimes see people charged criminally 
for this alleged offence. In my own mind, I cannot help attachino- 
some significance to the circumstance that the decadence of this 
practice of grass-burning, and the alarming spread of parasitic 
disease have occurred together. Something more than a mere coin- 
cidence may be here. The evils of grass-burning are serious and 
many, consequently the practice of it is not to be lightly encouraged. 
But the sudden, widespread, and almost unique success in the 
struggle for life achieved by the various forms of parasites in this 
country, points unmistakably to an equally sudden and widespread 
change of environment, by means of which, at some period or 
another of their unascertained metamorphosis, these parasites have 
escaped agencies which formerly acted as adequate checks upon their 
disastrous increase. That the neglect of grass-burning has been the 
single cause of the worm plague is not to be believed ; that it has 
been an important factor in the production of the evil, and that an 
opposite line of action may be found essentia] to its eradication or 
diminution, there may, however, be some grounds for asserting. 

Queen's Town, 2ist December, 1876. 

io6 On Thread and Tape-worms in Sheep. 

P.S. — Two days after posting the foregoing note to the Editor of 
the Cape Monthly, I had an opportunity afforded me of verifying an 
opinion I have long held, to the effect that the mutton of this coun- 
try contains a " measle," or Cysticercus, which, when incautiously 
eaten by man will communicate to him the common tape-worm of 
South Africa, viz., the Taenia mediocanellata. Some years ago I 
was called upon to report upon some pork which was exposed for 
sale on the public market here, and which I had to condemn as 
measled. This pork had been fed by a farmer who was widely and 
favourably known as a careful, scrupulous and energetic producer. 
He had never seen measled pork before, and was naturally very 
much annoyed by my report, telling me that he did not believe me 
when I explained that pork so measled would produce tapeworm in 
the consumer. However, he did not stop here, but, with true 
Baconian instinct, took the pork home and gave it to some dogs that 
he knew to be free from tapeworm, and which he carefully guarded 
from all sources of infection until a sufficient time elapsed, when, 
fortunately for science, he saw enough in his post-mortem examina- 
tions to remove his scepticism. From that time anything connected 
with tape-worms had plenty of interest for him. I renewed my 
acquaintance with him some months ago when he was mentally 
exercised as to the sudden and, in several instances fatal, occurrence 
of tape-worm in young calves from thoroughbred and imported 
stock. Drinking as these calves did from the little river which flows 
past this town and carries down with it much that is objectionable, 
he attributed the appearance of the tape-worms to this cause. I 
could hardly coincide in this opinion, but asked him to bring to me 
any specimen of tape-worm he should thereafter meet with in any of 
his young stock. Accordingly, on the day before Christmas, he 
turned up with about a pint of tape-worms which he had just 
removed from the intestines of a four-months' old lamb which he had 
slaughtered for the morrow's dinner. He had begun to think that 
the doctor's ideas about the development of tape-worm from measled 
pork were in need of correction, inasmuch as calves and lambs are in 
the matter of that favourite food, as guileless as any Israelite. 

Now I had long known for certain that even very young lambs 
were often affected with tape-worm. I had examined several, but, 
for the reason apparently that the worms had been roughly removed 
from the living host, I had always failed to find the head of one j 
and, unless that part has been under his microscope, it is almost im- 
possible for any one not a specialist, to make out the species in a 
trustworthy manner. I was of opinion that the species of tape-worm 
so infecting lambs was the Taenia mediocanellata ; but I hesitated to 
express such an opinion, inasmuch as the authorities were against it. 
For instance, Dr. Cobbold, at page 238 of his Entozoa, after stating 
his own opinion that the measle (cysticercus) of the T. mediocanel- 
lata is to be found only in veal and beef, thus proceeds : — " In all 
probability, other animals are not liable to harbour the cysticercus of 

On Thread and Tape-worms in Sheep. 107 

the T. mediocanellata ; for Leuckart also tried to infect a sheep (to 
which he administered about sixty proglottides), but on examining 
the flesh after the lapse of eight weeks, he failed to detect the pre- 
sence of a single cysticercus vesicle. Again at page 75 (Appendix) 
of his smaller work "Human Entozoa," Cobbold says: — "I 
think all candid investigators will in future admit that the human 
body is the exclusive home and the legitimate territory of at least 
two species of entozoa — one of these forms being procured, as is 
generally allowed, by our eating pork, the other, as is not generally 
known, by our eating beef," — that is to say, the Taenia solium and 
T. mediocanellata. While in the same work, a little further on, 
the same writer, with perhaps an unconscious bias, says he believes 
that an armed cysticercus, taken from the interior of a mutton chop 
and sent to him by a friend for examination, represents a distinct 
form of tape-worm, either his own T. lophosoma, or a species altogether 
new to helminthologists. But my doubts on this interesting point 
were now dissipated ; for in the mass of tape- worms brought to 
me from the slaughtered lamb, I was fortunate enough to find four 
perfect heads, all of which with a linear magnifying power of 100, 
I found to be the bookless, proboscis-wanting heads of Taenia 

But how comes T. mediocanellata in the bowel of the lamb ? 
The commonly received opinion, as already indicated, is that the 
measle is swallowed while still viable, along with the veal or beef in 
which it is located, and, finding its proper nidus in the intestine, 
develops there into the perfect tape-worm. This may be truth, 
but it is not the whole truth. It can scarcely be supposed that in 
its still earlier and embryonic, or pre-measle stage, the parasite 
comes into the intestine of the lamb along with the water it drinks 
or the grass it eats, and that, once there, the measle-stage is quickly 
passed, the perfect tape-worm being the result. For not only would 
this supposition be in direct contradition to the ascertained history 
of its metamorphoses, but, if I am correctly informed, segments of 
sexually mature tape-worms are shed by lambs too soon after their 
birth to admit of these metamorphoses having taken place in the 
interim. There being no escape from the opinion that there must 
be an intermediate host for the measle, nor from the fact that the 
lamb does not eat any portion of that host, I incline to the belief, 
which I shall hold until a better one appears, that the embryo of 
Taenia mediocanellata passes into the stomarch of the sheep, that 
the juvenile parasite, being there freed of its envelope by the solvent 
powers of the gastric juice, bores its erratic way into the tissues, or 
into a blood vessel by whose stream it may be carried to the 
remotest parts, there to be developed into the measle ; that in the 
case of ewes in lambs these vagrants find their way into the gravid 
womb where they meet in the first instance with a structure which 
permits of the perfection of the measle stage, but which structure 
becoming in the ordinary course of intra-uterine development the 

io8 So>ig. 

intestine of the foetus, thereby allows the final passage of the 
parasite from the measle-stage into the tape-worm even while the 
lamb is unborn. In some such way as this is the occurrence of tape- 
worms in the intestines of recently born lambs to be accounted for ; 
while in the case of such as do not show them until the fourth 
month or later, their presence in all probability is to be accounted 
for by the passage of the vagrant parasite, either by boring, or along 
with a blood current into the udder, from which, after a time, the 
measle is dislodged and swallowed by the sucking lamb, thus again 
reaching the intestine, where, in due course, the perfect tape-worm 
will be found. 

From these marks two useful hints may be obtained ; the one 
consolatory to the breeder, the other cautionary to the eater of 
mutton. Consolatory is the probability that it is the hookless and not 
the hooked tape-worm that infests the lambs, inasmuch as the former 
is much more easily dislodged from its lair than the latter. Caution- 
ary is the very strong probability that the measle of Taenia medio- 
canellata lurks in our table mutton ; wherefore such as would gladly 
escape such unwelcome guests, will do well to see to it that their 
chops are rather over than under-done ; for the viability of cysti- 
cercus ovis resists not efficient grilling. W. B, B. 


Gay voices rose in melody, 

As up and down the wave-lashed strand 
We paced, a gay and youthful band, 

And gazed upon the moonlit sea ; 
I saw three letters on a wall — 
Three pencill'd letters — that was all — 

But, ah ! It was enough for me. 

The beating waves fell mournfully, 

The stars looked dim, the moon grew pale ; 

The song subsided to a wail, 
Or so it seemed to me, 

A sweet wan face, pale — pale — and fair — 

All haloed round with golden hair — 
Was all that I could sec. 

I tread the paths she trod before ; 

The paths her childhood loved to roam — 
How thick the rushing mem'ries come 

Of hopes whose date is o'er. 

And from the card her features start, 
Her eyes seem gazing on the heart 

Which mourns her evermore. 



I suppose we may take it for a fact that every nation and people 
have some distinctive characteristics or local habits which become 
an universal feature. Even the countenance is not unfrequently a 
safe indication of latitude. Englishmen, it is alleged, have a par- 
tiality for beef-eating, while sour kraut sounds purely of Saxon 
dietry. The dandified Frenchman can be distinguished by his 
tout ensemble ; and the Yankee can be picked out of a crowd, not 
only from the assimilation of his beard with that of the goat, but 
also from the nasal twang which seems inseparable from his talk. 
Our Republican friends north of the Orange River, if they do not 
boast of some particularly-defined type of features or national 
vagaries, rejoice, at least, in some peculiarities distinguishable from 
that of more advanced communities. 

Courtship in the Trans-Gariep territory is reduced to zero, as far 
as regards the poetical or romantic sentiment affecting the mass. 
No troubadour ever touched guitar to his lady-love in Boerdom. 
To serenade under the lattice of the hallowed bedroom where his 
Saraha or Rachel lay would be to qualify the eccentric swain for a 
residence on Robben Island, at least in the eyes of the simple- 
minded burghers of the Free States. The nativity of the muses is as 
far from them as are the two poles. An elopement would be looked 
upon as a presage of the end of time, and a Gretna Green held in 
as much dread as is that historical region which is said to be warmer 
than the Cape. The amorous youth who becomes a candidate for 
hymeneal honours hides all display of the tender passion under a 
calm, undemonstrative surface. No quick pulsation of the heart — 
no flurried mien, no nervous anxiety betrays his hopes or fears — no 
artistical arrangement of the moustache, no adjustment of his scarf; 
but there he will sit, inquring from herself how many sheep or 
goats his unimpassioned Saraha possesses If he has just arrived, 
his horse will be led up and down in front of the house, to show the 
fringe and tasselled drapery of his saddle, for in this respect he is as 
vain as a Spanish Don ; and scarcely will he have overcome his 
unemotional greeting, and quietly seated himself on a veld stool or 
hard-bottomed chair, when he whips out a small comb from his 
jacket pocket, and begins his toilet in the voerbuis. The history o f 
almost all nations point to — through the worship of the Golden Calf — 
the mating of youth to old age. However suicidal the sacrifice is, 
the Free State can record her instances of this power of Mam- 

Not many years ago, in a small township of the Republic, thtf 
writer witnessed the union of a summer blossom and a winter leaf. 
It is true the bride could not be called a Venus, nor could the 
bridegroom justly be dubbed a Bluebeard, though tv/ice he had 
draped his hat, and tried to mourn the loss of departed spouses ; and 

110 Trans-Gariep Courtships. 

from his apparent indifference in wooing a third, he seemed equal to 
the occasion of adding to the number of those who had gone ; and 
yet Richard was himself again — not the slightest index of feeling 
was manifested in his stoical face. The many inflictions of Job, 
converged into one great calamity, would seemingly hardly have 
exacted a sigh from this withered bridegroom. Equally unmoved 
by the merry laughter of youth, or the smile of beauty, his life had 
become dull and Boerish. As to her, it was merely a bartering of 
youth and freedom to share in the herds and flocks of her patriarchal 
husband. A similar instance was that of old Klaas, who had well 
nigh reached his seventieth summer. Klaas was one of those thick- 
set semi-Doppers, whose ablutions were about as seldom performed 
as that of a Palestine Jew, and whose unkempt hair would have 
taxed the ingenuity of Mr. Penfold to have defined a parting. 
Klaas was rich after the manner of the ancient Hebrews, for on his 
broad acres grazed vast herds of cattle. His inamorata was a tall, 
somewhat stately widow of about half his age, a toiling, thrifty 
woman, possessing a rare amount of shrewdness, which merged 
itself into low cunning. During the life of her first husband, she 
rather despised old Klaas as an odd specimen of the genus homo, but 
now she laid siege to this antique flockmaster. The advances on 
both sides for a time were of a passive nature, for old Klaas was 
constitutionally nervous ; but Meetje kept her speculative organ on 
the land and the lambs, bowed herself to the force of circumstances, 
and did sacrifice unto Klaas. The courtship was devoid of a single 
spark of sentiment. On an old fashioned rustbank the two would sit 
bolt upright, with one palm overlapping the other, in the most listless, 
apathetic manner; not a word would escape from either of them for 
considerable intervals, and their speechless, rigid attitude might have 
been taken for models of phlegmatic indifference. At length the 
colossal bulk of Meetje would edge nearer to old Klaas — for she might- 
have answered to the description of fair, fat, and forty — which the old 
fellow would recognise by heaving a deep-drawn sigh, but whether it 
was in anticipating coming joy, or in apprehension of some pending 
danger, it was difficult to construe ; a subdued glance over the left 
from old Klaas towards the bride elect was about the only external 
sign of reciprocity, and thus hours and days passed, till Mammon 
secured its victim. 

A similar sameness characterises the match-making of the beard- 
less striplings of our northern Republics, who take a wife with as 
little ceremony in the wooing as many have in the purchase of a 
horse. Scholastic acquirements do not burden the brain in Bocrdom, 
and writing, as an art, is but little practised. Until recently z billet- 
doux was about as great a stranger in the house of a Free State rustic as 
a costly fan or fine painting would be. To master the mysteries of the 
vraagbockjc was about the maximum attainment aspired to, hence the 
young ladies grew up in bucolic innocence of sensational novels, and 
the emotional acting portrayed of some favourite hero or 

Trans Gareip Courtships. 1 1 1 

heroine was as little known to them as the histories of the first 
Napoleon or Mary Stuart. There may be bliss in this primitive 
ignorance, but if Byron's Phoebe be taken as a not unexceptional 
representative, he would be a bold philosopher who would assert that 
acquaintance with the highly-wrought passions of dramatic writing 
would but mark the folly of wisdom. The blank, aimless, monotony 
of such lives are spent in one dull round of eating and sleeping. To 
them time has as little value as it had to Robinson Crusoe in his 
solitary island, and marked by about as few episodes. The age 
of puberty is barely reached, when some neighbour's son, 
whose teeth are longer than his beard, considers his Eden requires an 
Eve, and in the most simple off-handed manner intimates the fact, 
and suggests to his future bride the amalgamation of their stock in 
a joint proprietorship. No formal trammel of civilisation pervades 
the atmosphere there ; no interchange of presents, no premature 
development of poetical genius displays itself in the dedication of 
sentimental twaddle to relieve the surcharged feelings ; and even 
that almost universal symbol — -the wedding ring — is dispensed with 
in the majority of cases. Ante-nuptial contracts and marriage settle- 
ments are considered as unnecessary in such engagements as winning 
the affections, and making provisions for the future, A tent or out- 
side room is apportioned as a residence, and with ioo sheep and a few 
cows the young couple start life, whilst the boy-husband, relying on 
his hardy pony and trusty rifle, keeps his larder in a similar state to 
that of the widow's cruise of oil. 

Not many years ago, the writer had pointed out to him a married 
pair in the Free State whose united ages amounted to twenty-nine. 
The young wife was a young mother, and her age was but fourteen. 
As to her capabilities of house management, and taking upon herself 
the early cares of paternity, I will leave the fair portion of my readers 
to criticise the first, and question the propriety of the second. 
This may be an exceptional case as to youth, but fifteen and 
sixteen years are by no means singular ages for Free State girls 
to get married at, for then they are often grown into big, buxom 
women, while their chosen lords are generally but a very few years 
their seniors. 

It would be easy to assign a cause for such an effect. Isolated, 
exclusive habits are forced ingredients of farm life, all the more 
vitally apparent in a country where the profession of the land 
surveyor is supplanted by the brisk trot of a company of Boers in 
the allotment of a farm. Miles upon miles intervene between the 
farmstead, visits of neighbours are periodical undertakings, and 
the arrival of a stranger is held as an advent of importance. Thrown 
back on their own untutored resources of amusement, made com- 
panions of and fellow-workers with the parents from infancy, the 
mushroom-like qualities of the girls bloom into womanhood with 
tropic fertility, and the first adventurous candidate for the Benedictine 
order finds that nature and local circumstances have predisposed this 

112 Life. 

prairie flower to a change of name, without much change of social 

It would be useless to mourn with the poet — 

" That the saddest sight of all was a gay and girlish thing, 
Cast aside her maiden gladness for a name and for a ring," 

for this overgrown child, of a semi-civilized state, knows naught of 
gaiety — the romping, laughing, girlish days of European maidenhood 
have no counterpart, or even equivalent here. The metamorphosis 
is sudden — the days that should have been devoted to decorating the 
handiwork of the German artisan have scarcely dawned, when they 
are cast aside for the matronly duties of attending to the first-born. 
The hypothesis that these early marriages have caused deterioration 
in the present colonist I will leave for the biologist to decide. 
Climatic influences, doubtless, plays its part with the youthful 
Dopper and others, who embrace wedlock in our neighbouring 
Republics ; and, recognizing the prevalence of the fact, the natural 
deduction is an effeminating tendency of the race, M. 

Toiling always, reaping naught, 
Never finding what is sought, 
Life with all unrest is fraught. 
Pain with joy walks hand in hand, 
Casting shadows o'er the land, 
A mysterious, mocking band. 
Love draws but a fitful breath : 
Hate soon steals her rosy wreath. 
Life springs forth from ghastly Death. 
How to part the tangled thread, 
Which before me now is spread, 
I cannot tell. In pious dread 
At the footstool of my King 
I will leave all questioning, 
All my vain unravelling. 



Ijiriurcsque ?ijottaatd. * 

A recent writer In one of the leading newspapers of Cape Town 
in attempting to describe Holland said : — " It is known that Holland 
produces every year prodigious quantities of cheese, butter, and 
herrings, with something considerable in the way of cattle, and out 
of the profits of such commercial undertakings, Mynheer continues 
to cut more dykes and build more dams, to erect quaint summer- 
houses on the banks of his canals with 'Lust en Rust,' written 
over the door, to smoke innumerable pipes and to drink copious 
potations of schiedam." 

If there were any doubt of the writer's utter ignorance of the 
Dutch and their habits, it would be removed by the last words of 
the passage quoted. For the fact is that, with exception of the 
lowest classes, the Dutchman never smokes pipes and never drinks 
schiedam. The Dutchman smokes cigars, and if young England 
and young Africa were to appear in the streets of Holland with their 
pipes in their mouths, they would attract as much attention as a 
Dog Rib Indian in his native costume. Gin and water, \.he favourite 
beverage in so many other countries, is an unheard of liquor in Hol- 
land. The respectable Dutchman takes no gin except in the shape 
of bitters before dinner. I still vividly recollect how completely a 
Cape gentleman knocked the breath out of the body of a hotelkeeper 
in Holland, when he ordered him to bring in gin and water for some 
friends who called on him in the evening. That Cape gentleman, on 
that occasion discovered, what the writer just quoted has not yet found 
out, that the Dutch esteem gin and water rather less highly than the 
English our Cape wines ; and that we must not judge a nation by 
the witty stories circulated about it. Visiting a country, forming 
personal acquaintance with its people, afford a safer means of 
arriving at correct conclusions. 

And this is what Mr. Henry Havard, the author of " Picturesque 
Holland " has done. He did not go for the purpose of verifying 
stories about Dutch pipe-smoking and gin-drinking, but he undertook 
the journey because he found a most extraordinary statement about 
the Netherlands in a German Handbook of Geography. In that 
handbook he found the Netherlands described as forming part of Ger- 
many, a doctrine which to him sounded so strange, that he determined 
to see before he believed. He went and the above mentioned book 
is the result. It is a thoroughly French book. It does not appear 
whether it was originally written in English or whether it is a trans- 
lation, but in either case, the language and style are French. Here 
and there a little less enthusiasm and exaggeration would perhaps 
have been desirable. Those who have seen the towns of Hindelopen 
and Enkhuizen will agree with me when I say that one must be 

* "Picturesque Holland." Ev Henry Havard: London.R. Bentlev & Son, 1876. 

Vol. XIV. 1 

114 Picturesque Holland, 

gifted with a rather lively imagination, if he calls those towns "royal 
cities;" this we find on page 10, and if we read, on the very next 
page, of " cows, buried up to their middle in herbage," we involun- 
tarily think of the granum sails. 

The Dutch words and names occurring in the book are somewhat 
better spelt than in other English works, but there is still room for great 
improvement in this respect. If the author had asked his Dutch 
fellow traveller Baron de Constant Rebecque to revise the proof sheets 
we would not find " Jabriek schoof" (page 247) for Fabriekschol, 
and a score of similar mistakes or misprints. The greatest fault of 
the book is that it says too little of the manners, customs, and mode 
of life of the people, and contains too minute descriptions of old 
buildings, fortifications, and especially churches. Lovers of antiquity 
may find all this interesting enough, but ordinary readers do not care 
to have the description of every village church and every cathedral to 
be seen in the provinces of Friesland, Groningen, Drenthe, Overyssel, 
and Gelderland. These church descriptions become so tedious and 
tiresome that the reader is brought to regard lines as the following as 
an oasis in a desert ; (page 149) "The Lords of Heiden in the good 
old times enjoyed a curious privilege. Each newly-married peasant 
who became a father before the regular time — that is to say, whose 
wife increased the population in less than nine months after the 
nuptial benediction — had to work for the Counts of Heiden for as 
long a time as they were in advance of the prescribed period. As 
these things, it appears, happened pretty frequently, the Lords of 
Laarwoud had always a numerous company at work on their estates. 
It was certainly very hard upon the poor husbands thus to render 
them responsible for the caprices of nature." 

To attain his object, namely that of ascertaining the relationship 
between the Dutch and the Germans, Mr. Havard had to direct his 
steps in the first place to the Dutch provinces bordering on Germany, 
and this is one reason why his book is not so interesting as it other- 
wise might have been Of the Holland kcit r£oxv>', of the heart of 
Holland, he says nothing The provinces of North and South Hol- 
land and Utrecht, which contain the most populous cities, and the 
most remarkable institutions, are not noticed. Yet he finds even in 
the most northern and border districts enough to admire and to 
praise. In an out-of-the-way village in the province of Groningen ho 
finds a school so admirably conducted that he cannot forbear saying : 
" It would be well if French villages were thus happily provided." 

(l™g c 133)- 

Latei on (page 16 j), he tells us of his visit to the penitentiary or 
Vcinhuizcn, an agricultural colony, where persons convicted of mendi- 
cancy are detained. It is situated in a desert, but 100,000 acres of the 
desert have been reclaimed, and arc now under high cultivation. 
Vagabondage is thus put an end to. Those guilty of it are converted 
into useful citizens, and the country profits by their labours. One 
cannot help thinking why in every country in the world something 

Picturesque Holland. 1 15 

similar is not established, and why steps should not be taken to make 
the loafers and beggars of Cape Town cultivate the Cape Flats. 
By such a course they would be rescued from degradation, and 
the Colony would be benefited. 

AtGroningen he notices the Deaf and Dumb Institute, which ranks 
there in importance to similar establishments in Europe (page 103). 
It is only excelled by those in Paris and St. Petersburg. Along and 
interesting description is given (page 238 to 399) of an institution 
near Zutphen, called " Nederlandsch Mettray." Its inmates are 
children who have committed offences for which they are not re- 
sponsible, owing to their tender age, and also orphans, Here 
also the principle is " to improve the earth by man, and man by 
means of the earth." The children are chiefly taught gardening 
and useful trades. At the Cape juvenile offenders are cast in prison, 
brought into daily contact with hardened criminals, and naturally, 
at the expiration of their sentence, they are worse than they were 
on the day when they received their sentence ; and most of them 
are ruined for life by the teaching and example of their fellow pri- 
soners. A similar establishment for older lads convicted of more 
serious crimes is noticed by the author (page 260). It is the 
Krui'sberg near Doetinchem, and a little further on (page 263) 
he mentions the Kolonial Militair Invalidenhuis, near Arnhem, 
which seems to be a little paradise for the old invalids, where they 
enjoy a well merited rest after the fatigues and perils of the battle-field 
and of the East and West Indian Colonies. 

As was stated before, the origin of the book was Mr. Havard's 
desire to become acquainted with the feelings entertained in the 
Dutch border districts towards the neighbouring Germans ; and to 
find out whether the language, the customs, the pursuits, and the 
sentiments of the Dutch were such as to justify the assertion that 
they are not a different nationality, and that they virtually do form 
part, or ought to form part of the German Empire. That a French- 
man of to-day should be elated at discovering that the Dutch claim 
entire independence of Germany, and object very strongly against 
being annexed and swallowed up, is easily understood. The instances 
he gives of the want of cordiality between the two nations, are not 
always very striking and not always very appropriate and well chosen. 
But the fact will not be denied by any one acquainted with Holland 
and the Dutch. The spirit of independence is still as strong as ever 
it was. And I do not hesitate for a moment to say, that if matters 
came to such a pass that annexation of Holland became unavoidable, 
if it were left for the Dutch to choose they would infi litely rather be 
annexed to France than to Germany, — to Germany, which is but 
another name for Prussia. It is not exaggeration to say that the 
Dutchman hates Prussia — hates Bismarck. Bismarck is to the 
Dutchman the personification of despotism, and in Holland despotism 
never found favour. On page 134, Mr. Havard tells us that at 
Nieuw Schans he was informed by a Dutchman that formerly 

1 2 

1 1 6 Picturesque Holland. 

Germans used to cress the frontier and work on the Dutch farms. 
But since j 866 it no longer happens. The German labourers are 
no longer civilly received, and the relationships between the borderers 
are altogether broken. " All is now Prussian," and this wrought 
the change. 

On page 250 he says that the manufacturers of Almelo formerly were 
in the habit of paying their workmen in German coin. Some years 
ago the workmen refused to receive German thalers any longer, and 
struck. " Their patriotism," says Havard, " was stronger than 
their personal interests." On page 274 he speaks of a splendid estate, 
theBiljoen, near Arnhem, which was sold some years ago and bought 
by a German. " A foreigner arrived on the scene, a German, de- 
void of any love of art, of country and of nature The precious 
treasures were dispersed to the four winds. Trees, a century old, were 
cut down, and the old manor converted into a common dwelling, and 
the forest became a desert. ' Only one of them came into the 
country, and yet you see everything is destroyed,' remarked M. 

van T , ' imagine what would happen if our poor Gelderland 

were invaded by a number of them ! '" On page 291 he says: ''Water 
is not much drunk in Arnhem. ' I taste that water ! ' said one to 
me ; ' when I think that, may be, Germans have bathed in its 
coolness,— ponah — it makes me sick ! ' " 

The proofs Mr. Havard gives of the antipathy existing between 
Holland and Prussia, may be thought to have a touch of the trivial 
and the ridiculous about them, but the fact of its existence is, for all 
that, indisputable. The Holland of to-day may seem shorn of its 
pristine glory and power, it may indeed possess " very little current 
history," it may seem an easy thing and a charitable act to annex it 
to some great power, but when the attempt is made to blot out that 
nation, to rob it of its liberty, it will be seen that the motto of the 
town of Nynegen, is still the motto of the United Netherlands: 
" Melius est beUlco-a tibertas quam -pacifica servitas." Though it 
was in an after-dinner toast, Mr. Havard did not overdraw when he 
said : " The old Batavian blood is in full flow on your blessed soil, 
and the good heart of this country beats in unison with those of all 
her children ! And yet the individuality of this heroic corner of the 
world is disputed. Men have said that it was part of a great whole, 
without reflecting that it was itself complete, an indivisible unity 
twice conquered by your ancestors, first from the elements and then 
from foreign domination. And where would justice be if a capri- 
cious stroke of the pen, wielded by a fanatic savant, or if an unscru- 
pulous political reign could extinguish the sacrifices and the holy 
immolations of ages ? " 


%emmhmm of tfo i834S2tor.* 

The following morning, Major Gregory started for Graham's Town 
with the greater part of the patrol, while the rest, who were nearly all 
of them Lower Albany men, were left at Bathurst with the double 
object of protecting the village from being destroyed, and to guard 
the cattle. 

This duty, as the larger portion of the cattle belonged to our 
family, we, as in duty bound, willingly undertook, though we longed 
to be in a more stirring and active position, for I must say the 
unprovoked inroad made upon the colonists by the Kafirs had 
aroused a feeling within us to pay them back again for their cruelty 
and destruction of the lives and property of the settlers in such a 
manner as they would not forget in a hurry. To stay at Bathurst 
therefore, and turn cattle-herds d?.y and night for weeks, was to us 
very dull work, when preparation was being made to invade Kafir- 
land and fighting was going on in many parts of the country ; and 
what made things more tiresome was we had no men to spare to 
ride expresses, and our communications with Graham's Town were 
few and far between. 

One day when we were all anxious for news, as we had been evry 
quiet, and we had heard nothing for some time, we were startled 
with the booming of cannon in the direction of the Fish River, near 
Trompetter's Drift. Shot after shot kept echoing over the hills 
during a good part of the day, letting us know that a fight of some 
kind was going on, but with what result we could only guess, though 
we never for a moment fancied that our troops and burghers were 
doing otherwise than giving the Kafirs a licking. 

It was some days before we heard the news that the Kafirs had 
been attacked in the Fish River bush by the troops and burghers, 
who had killed a number of Kafirs, though not without some loss 
of life on our side ; that a number of cattle had been taken by our 
poeple, and that one of the officers fresh from England, who had 
never before seen so many cattle in one lot, exclaimed " Surely 
there were enough cattle in that lot to pay all the colonists' losses. ' 

About this time we got a reinforcement from town to our little 
band at Bathurst. A Captain Forbes and his company were sent 
down, and some of the Lower Albany people taking advantage of 
the military escort, came back from town. 

Not many days after, the Kafirs made a real attack upon the 
cattle kraal, and by creeping up quietly had succeeded in removing 
some of the posts of the enclosure, when they were discovered and 
fired upon by one of the sentries. As only one shot was fired they 
called to each other to rush in and drive out the cattle, and were 
rushing in through the opening they had made for the purpose, when 

* Continued from the Cap: Minthlj, Dzzzm^zc, 1S76. 

n8 Reminiscences of the 1834 JVar. 

the other men on guard came up and gave them a volley knocking 
over some of them. At this there was a great cry of u koka " which 
is a pretty sure sign that some one is hurt, as it is only when a Kafir 
is wounded that from a sort of inherent or natural propensity for 
falsehood, he tries to make you believe by singing out "koka" that 
he is all right. No sooner did the Kafirs find out that they would 
have to fight for the cattle, which it seems they hardly expected, 
than they at once ran away, taking their wounded with them. The 
cattle, with the noise of the Kafirs and the flashing and reports of the 
guns rushed down toward the house so thick that there was some 
difficulty in getting through them, the guard-house being in the cattle 
enclosure, so that by the time the rest of the guard got through the 
cattle the Kafirs were out of sight. The next morning we found 
by the blood about the opening that they had made in the kraal and 
also upon their spoor in running away, that some of them were 
seriously damaged. One dead Kafir was afterwards found in the 
direction they fled. Whether more than this one was killed we 
never heard except that some time afterwards the body of a Kafir 
was discovered in the bush with some dry meat that appeared to 
have been roasted lying near him, also a tin containing water, show- 
ing he had been unable to follow his companions, and they had left 
him to his fate after providing for him as I have stated. It was 
supposed by those who found him that he had not been able to help 
himself to either the food or water kindly provided by his friends. 
How long he may have lived all alone in this helpless condition is 
one of the things that remains untold. It was, however, one of the 
sad effects of war even in a mild form, such as we had it at Bathurst; 
and such almost unknown suffering must have frequently been the 
case in the wooded and rugged kloofs of the frontier, where small 
fights, as I have said, in detail, were of almost daily occurrence. 

After the Kafirs had failed in their attempt on the cattle kraal 
they gave up annoying us and things were much more quiet than 
we liked, for the people bagan to grow careless, and often wandered 
away from the village to their houses and gardens to look for 
vegetables. Some of the houses had not been burnt by the Kafirs, 
though they sometimes slept in them. They did not care to set 
them on fire as it would have betrayed their movements and shown 
us where they were, — a thing they took particular care not to let 
us know if possible. The cattle were always guarded by a party of 
mounted men, and a part of these men frequently went some dis- 
tance from the cattle to seek for Kafir " spoors " which we 
used to find at times, but seldom more than two or three —just a 
few Kafirs lurking about in the hopes of getting hold of a few 
stray cattle or a horse or two ; but we took good care they never 
got any stray cattle, and these Kafirs must often have had 
a hungry time of it poking about in the bush. Finding the 
people were daily getting less careful in their visits to the gar- 
dens, we were under the necessity of going in for a hoax or 

Reminiscences of the 1834 War. 119 

false alarm to frighten them, as we felt sure some of them would 
get killed ; so we devised a plan which we carried out in a most 
successful manner. The house and enclosure where the guard 
stayed with the cattle at night was about two hundred yards from 
the church, and the plan of alarm was as follows : -Haifa dozen of 
our men unknown to the sentries on cattle-guard were sent round 
to a ditch and bank about fifty yards from the cattle kraal. The spot 
was selected the day before. The bank faced the kraal with the ditch 
beyond. These men on taking up their position began firing over the 
kraal and the bullets went whizzing from them over the church. The 
sentries in the kraal returned the fire, not knowing but what it was 
Kafirs attacking them. Our men, of course, kept behind the bank, 
putting up the muzzles of their guns, and fired over the kraal. 
This firing was kept up by the sentries until the rest of us came up, 
when a regular volly was fired, of course, in the air; in the mean 
time Captain Forbes and his company turned up to help, Forbes 
crying out " Where are the rascals ? " He was soon made aware 
of their whereabouts, as some more shots were fired from the bank, 
and the shots went whizzing over our heads high in the air, Forbes 
remarking " the fellows had got the wrong range." He then called 
out to us to charge. This we were quite ready for and all those up to 
the secret charged the bank and ditch, and as agreed upon as soon as we 
got there our men joined us and we fired a few shots across the field 
beyond, and then returned and reported the Kafirs had fled from the 
trench without waiting for us to come upon them, and that we 
supposed from the position they had taken behind the bank, none 
of them had been killed that we could see. This was not very 
satisfactory to Captain Forbes, who wished some of the rascals 
had been killed. Forbes and the men from the church then 
went back, though before he went back the sentries were ordered 
to be doubled. This we promised to attend to. The next day an 
express was sent to town with an account of the affair, and the 
Graham's Town papers had quite an exciting description of the 
brilliant affair at Bathurst. The next day Kafir "spoors" were 
seen in all directions, and there was no more going to the gardens to 
forage for potatoes or other vegetables, so the attack had the desired 
effect, and people shouldered their guns and buckled on their 
bandoliers and pistols and looked as fierce as though they intended 
doing something desperate. 

A few days after, we received the news that the Governor Sir B. 
D'Urban, and Colonel Smith, were almost ready to enter Kafirland 
with the troops and burghers. This quite upset all the Bathurst 
arrangements, as the greater part of the young men there at once said 
they would go as volunteers to Kafirland. Not caring to prevent 
this move in any way, as we had resolved to volunteer ourselves, we. 
sent our cattle back to the farm with some of the brothers and a few 
Basutos we had in our service, and who stuck to us manfully all 
through the war and did good service. The rest of us (four) stayed 

120 Reminiscences of the 1S34 War. 

to join the "Bathurst Volunteers," as they styled themselves. After 
seeing the cattle sent away, we bid adieu to Bathurst for a time, and 
under the orders of my brother William, who was made captain 
without pay or commission, we started for Graham's Town, which 
we found barricaded and guarded as though in a state of siege. We 
took up our quarters in the town for a short time and provded 
ourselves with such things as we required for our use in the field. 
While in town, we almost lost our Captain in a strange way. 
Going along Bathurst-street one night to where our parents were 
staying, he was challenged by a man on guard, who called out " Who 
goes there ?" he replied " A friend," and walked on, "Who goes 
there?" was repeated again in double quick time. He then replied in 
a loud voice " A friend," at the same time he heard the man cock his 
gun. He then said " Are you mad, or what is the matter with you ? " to 
which the sentry replied " Law ! I nearly shot you." " It was just 
as well you did not try, or I would certainly have shot you; but could 
you not hear me say I was a friend in plain English ? " " I didn't 
hear you, sir ; I'm deaf." After this we came to the conclusion we 
would be safer in Kafirland, and shortly after this we started to join 
the invading force who were encamped near Fort Wiltshire. From 
here as the slaughter cattle were getting short, a large patrol under 
Colonel Smith crossed the Keiskamma in the night, and at day-light 
the next morning we came upon a lot of Kafirs, and cattle 
Shooting a few Kafirs, and taking about three hundred head of' 
cattle, we returned to the camp the same evening with them, 
which quite set up our Commissariat Department with beef, many 
of the cattle being in fine condition for killing. One of my brothers 
was taken ill with fever and had to be taken to the hospital at Fort 
Wiltshire, and another brother had to stay as nurse, there 
being no regular hospital there at the time ; so William and I were 
all of the brothers left to go with the volunteers, or, as we were now 
called, the " Corp of Guides " Soon after this the invading force 
broke up their camp in the night and proceeded towards Kafirland. 
On passing by Fort Wiltshire, my brother and I left the rest of our 
party and went to say " good bye " to the two brothers we were 
leaving at the fort. We obtained admission and said good bye, and 
were just going out of the gateway in the grey dawn of the morning 

when up came Colonel Smith, " Hollo, you d confounded 

rascals, what are you doing here? Come to sec your poor brother, 
I suppose. How is he ? God bless him." To this we replied 
we thought he was somewhat better. " That's all right, now 
go and join the rest of the men of your corp, you will find 
them with Sir Benjamin Durban." So away we went and soon 
joined the " Corp of Guides." This corp being composed of Kafir 
traders or young farmers, knew as much about riding in military 
'order as a lot of Kafirs, and we often rode in anything but an orderly 
manner. On the line of march as we were going quietly along the 
road, up came Colonel Smith. " Halt ! Stop ! for I do not think 

Reminiscences of the 1834 IVar. 121 

you know what ' halt ' means. Fall in three and three." So we 
at once got into threes as well as we could, and rode on, but sometimes 
a bush or more than one threw us out of order, so we were not very 
successful in keeping up a proper military form. ", There you go 
again, all in a heap like a lot of sheep or bucks ; well, if you ride 
like that the Kafirs will shoot or assegai you all in a heap some fine 
day; but I'll learn you how to ride before we get back, see if I 
don't." I have left out some portions of the speech as not neces- 
sary to the sense. After this, to please the Colonel, where the ground 
admitted of our doing so, we used to ride as directed, and he used to 
swear at us sometimes, and say " We were good fellows and were 
beginning to see the value of order and regularity." The army 
halted for a few days at what is now called Fort White, near the 
Debe Neck. That night a Kafir creeping up to have a look at us 
was shot by one of the Corp of Guides. From here part of the invad- 
ing force entered the Keiskamma Hoek, expecting to have a brush 
with the Kafirs there, but the Kafirs, though we passed a number or 
kraals, were nowhere to be seen except an odd one here and there 
who called out from the hills above, asking us " What we came there 
for? " Did we not know that the country and cattle belonged to 
them, and why were we all come there to be killed ; and such like 
questions. Finding no cattle or Kafirs we began our return back 
down the Keiskamma toward the mission station of " Burn's Hill." 
On the way down we saw a small lot of cattle on a ridge beyond the 
river and Colonel Smith called out, u Now, Bowker, your men are the 
fellows for cattle, go and take that lot and as many more as you can 
find. : ' So Bowker with about ten others crossed the Keiskamma, and 
took the cattle on the ridge. When looking over towards the bush we 
saw a considerable number of cattle just below us. The footpaths 
we found trodden quite soft with Kafir "spoor;"' so we concluded 
that these cattle were a trap set for us. Brother William said to me, 
" Shall we go down, and get that lot ?'' I, who had just come on all 
the Kafir spoor showed them to him, arid said, " If you wish never 
to get back again we can go." To this he replied he had not quite 
made up his mind to do that, but regretted all the men had not 
come, though he said in excuse he supposed they thought we were 
quite enough to take such a smail lot of cattle. So we turned back 
with the first lot we had taken to the troops, and we had hardly 
turned round when we heard quite a yell of disappointment from the 
Kafirs in the Hoek below. When we got back Colonel Smith 
wanted to know if those were all the cattle we could find. We said 
no, we had seen a large lot in the Hoek beyond us, and " Why did 
you not bring them ? " To this my brother replied" We did not 
care to leave ourselves there, or we might have tried." While the 
colonel was speaking, some Kafirs came out on the ridge where we 
took the cattle from, and asked us " Why we had not come and 
taken the other lot below us ? " We answered we were not blind, 
but would come for them another dav. As we went down the 

122 Notes of the Month. 

river the Kafirs fired at us, and were very impertinent ; said we 
were going away with only a few cattle, and if we did not take great 
care of them they would have them back before we got to the camp. 
Shortly after passing Burn's Hill the Kafirs shot a young man of the 
name of Llovd by firing from the bush. He was not killed on the 
spot, but was mortally wounded, and died a few days after from 
the wound as the ball which had injured the back-bo ne could notbe 

_ B. 

gates 4 % ponth. 


Among the new books issued, the Life of Charles Kingsley, Rector of Eversley ( 
and Canon of Chester Cathedral, will be heartily welcomed by the public. His bio 
grapher is Mrs. Kingsley, who allows him to explain his motives and tell the story 
of his life by his own admirable letters, which have much of the charm and 
vivacity of his writings. 

Kingsley was a West countryman, bred and born. Speaking to Mr. 
Francis Galton in reference to his book on " Hereditary Genius," in 
which the Kingsley family are spoken of, he said, l ' We are the disjecta 
membra of a most remarkable pair of parents. Our talent, such as it is, 
is altogether hereditary. My father was a magnificent man in body and 
mind, and had every talent except that of using his talents. My mother, on the 
contrary, had a quiet, extraordinary, practical, and administrative power.'" He was 
born of these parents at Holne Vicarage, under the brow of Dartmoor, on the 12th 
June, 18 1 9. As a child he was delicate and precocious, and began to preach 
sermons and write poems (examples of both of which are published) between the 
the ages of four and five. His parents left Dartmoor when he was eleven, and 
removed for a time to the Fens of Lincolnshire, then in something of their 
primaeval state. From thence they went to the lovely village of Clovelly, in 
Cornwall, where the family remained till they removed to the rectory of St. 
Luke's, Chelsea, in 1836. The influence of the fen scenery can be seen in his 
works, and of Cornwall he himself said to his wife, " Now you have seen Clovelly, 
you know what was the inspiration of my life before I met you/' 

Having studied at Cambridge and taken holy orders, he was offered the Curacy 
of Eversley, and went there in 1842. He was twenty-three when he settled down 
among the country people, and he soon won great power over them. " He could 
swing a flail with the threshers in the barn, turn his swathe with the mowers in 
the meadow, pitch hay with the haymakers in the pasture. From knowing every 
fox-earth on the moor, the reedy hover of the pike, the still hole where the chub 
lay, he had always a word of sympathy for the huntsman or the old poacher." He 
lived in a small thatched cottage in the roughest fashion, meanwhile going through 
much inward struggle in which he fought his doubts an. I gathered strength. His 
marriage to Miss Grenfell and his appointment to the Rectory of Eversley came 
nearly together, and soon after — in 1846- his life of St. Elizabeth, begun in prose- 
in 1842, was finished and published as "The Saint's Tragedy." This poem at 
once gave him a literary position. Bunsen regarded it and " Hypatia " as the 
most important and perfect ot his works. In the same year of gloom and 
distress in public affairs " Yeast " appeared in Frazer's Magazine. His contribu- 

Notes of the Month. 123 

tions to " Politics for the People," his letters signed " Parson Lot, 1 ' and the active 
sympathy they showed with the popular discontent, exposed him to much misap- 
prehension even from friends. His health became affected by the anxiety caused 
by remonstrances from well meaning people on one hand, and on the other his 
profound feeling for the agricultural poor in that time of general distress. He- 
made, however, many friends about this period, among them Bishop Stanley, 
Archdeacon Hare, Sir Arthur Helps, Mr. Hullah, Mr. Froude, Mr. J. M. Lud 
low, and Mr. T. Hughes. A little earlier than this he had come under the 
influence of the Rev. F. D. Maurice, whom he speaks or as his " master. 1 ' 
Another very strong influence on Kingsley's mind was that of Mr. Carlyle, 
whose works laid the foundation to which Coleridge's " Aids " and Maurice's 
writings were the superstructure. His personal communications with Mr. Carlyle 
seem to have begun about the time of the publication of " Alton Locke," res- 
pecting which work the following characteristic letter was written by the sage of 
Chelsea, in acknowledgment of a copy sent as soon as it was out : — 

Chelsea, October, 31, 1850. 
It is now a great many weeks that I have been your debtor for a book which 
in various senses was very welcome to me. " Alton Locke " arrived in Annan- 
dale, by post from my wife, early in September, and was swiftly read by me, under 
the bright sunshine, by the sound of rushing brooks and other rural accompani- 
ments. I believe the book is still doing duty in these parts ; for I had to leave 
it behind me on loan, to satisfy the public demand. Forgive me, that I have not, 
even by a word, thanked you for this favour. Continual shifting and moving ever 
since, not under the best omens, has hindered me from wr'ting almost on any 
subject or to any person. 

Apart from the treatment of my own poor self (on which subject let me not 
venture to speak at all), I found plenty to like and be grateful for in the book : 
abundance, nay exuberance of generous zeal ; headlong impetuosity of determina- 
tion towards the manful side on all manner of questions ; snatches of excellent 
poetic description, occasional sunbursts of noble insight ; everywhere a certain 
wild intensity, which holds the reader fast as by a spell : these surely are good 
qualities, and pregnant omens in a man of your seniority in the regiment ! At 
the same time, I am bound to say, the book is definable as crude ; by no manner 
of means the best we expect of you — if you will resolutely temper your fire. But 
to make the malt sweet, the fire should and must be slow : so says the proverb, 
and now, as before, I include all duties for you under that one! "'Saunders 
Mackaye," my invaluable countryman in this book, is nearly perfect ; indeed, I 
greatly wonder how you did contrive to manage him — his very dialect is as if a 
native had done it, and the whole existence of the rugged old hero is a wonder- 
fully splendid and coherent piece of Scotch bravura. In both of your women, too, 
I find some grand poetic features ; but neither of them is worked out into the 
" Daughter of the Sun " she might have been; indeed, nothing is worked out 
anywhere in comparison with " Saunders ;" and the impression is of a fervid crea- 
tion still left half chaotic. That is my literary verdict, both the black of it and 
the white. 

Of the grand social and moral questions we will say nothing whatever at pre- 
sent : any time within the next two centuries, it is like, there will be enoup-h to 
say about them ! On the whole, you will have to persist ; like a cannon-ball that 
is shot, you will have to go to your mark, whatever that be. I stipulate farther 
that you come and see me when you are at Chelsea ; and that you pay no attention 
at all to the foolish clamour of reviewers, whether laudatory or condemnatory. 
Yours with true wishes, 

T. Carlyle. 
This criticism seems to have had its effect. In later works Mr. Kingsley did 
resolutely temper his fire, and did better, if not the best that was expected of 
him. The controversies which were provoked by " Yeast " raged even more 
fiercely over " Alton Locke," and Mr. Kingsley found refuge from them in 
parochial duties, in the vast private correspondence his books brought, and in 

124 Notes of the Month. 

further literary effoit. " Hypatia" was published in 1853, and was followed by 
" Alexandria and her Schools.'' All this time multitudes of strangers came to 
the village church to hear him, and he was constantly called on for all kinds or 
public work His wife says of these public appearances that he seldom returned 
from them without showing that so much life had gone out of him, " not only 
from the strain of brain and heart, but from the painful sense of antagonism which 
his startling mode of stating things called out among his hearers, and of which he 
was keenly conscious at the time." He was one of those men who must express 
what he felt. 

Mrs. Kingsley, in these volumes, supplies us with an intermediate verse which 
her husband wrote with the two well-known verses beginning " My fairest child." 
The lines were written in 1856, and addressed to his niece, but the second verse 
has not been published until now : — 

My fairest child I have 110 song to give you ; 

No lark could pipe to skies so dull and gray, 
Yet, ere we part, one lesson I can leave you 

For every day. 
I'll tell you how to sing a clearer carol 

Than lark who hails the dawn on breezy down ; 
To earn yourself a purer poet's laurel 
Than Shakspeare's crown. 

Be good, sweet maid, and let <who ivill be clever ; 

Do nohle things, not dream them all day long ; 
And so make life, death, and the -vast for ever 
One grand siucet song. 

The Cape Colonist (Miss Byrne), who made her debut as an authoress, last year; 
in the two volume novel, " Ingram Place, " published by Messrs. Longman Sc Co 1 
has now completed another work, entitled, " Power's Partner," in three volumes* 
We have not yet seen a copy of the work in the Colony ; but it is thus 
reviewed by the Academy : — " The style lacks calmness and strength, yet 
there is much feeling, and an almost unlimited supply of words. The hero is 
an old clerk in an office, who is wrongfully accused of stealing, and sent to prison 
for the fault of another. When he is set free he goes to the Diamond- 
fields, and really becomes dishonest and cheats his partner by keeping a pro- 
digiously large diamond to himself. With his ill-gotten gains he becomes a 
millionaire in five years, and gives fashionable parties in Dublin, to which his 
former partner comes, accompanied by the man who has wronged him in bygone 
times. The passion for wealth, produced by an undue and morbid susceptibility 
to the deprivations of poverty, is as strong in Miriam Dwyer, the daughter, as in 
her father, the convict clerk, and very nearly wrecks her life ; but she rises 
superior to it at length, and does tardy justice to the man whom her father has 
cheated. The story is a dreary one, and, we think, chiefly so on account of the 
morbid way in which poverty is regarded in it. Poverty need not be the degrada- 
tion which this writer makes it appear ; it may have its hardships, but they need 
not necessarily debase the nature, and it will only be an unmitigated evil as long 
as those who have to bear it regard it as such. If the style of this writer was 
pruned and restrained, she has talent enough to produce a much stronger story 
than " Power's Partner." 


OUR respected contributor H. W. P., sends us the following note : — 

For a long time past I have had a feeling, rather than a conviction, that, in 
order to account for some of the geological phenomena of the earth's surfaiv, a 
translation or oscillation of the lotary axis could alone be satisfactory. And 
recently I have observed that amongst European geologists there is a growing 
tendency in the same direction. 

Notes of the Month. J 25 

The discovery of fossil remains of animals, far removed from the zones in 
which, when living, such animals could have existed, has in a great measure given 
birth to this idea; and the fact that large deposits of coal exist in regions far 
removed from the latitude in which vegetation is sufficiently luxuriant to supply 
the materials from which coal is understood to be derived, naturally suggests 
that the localities in which they are now found must at one time or other have 
been under the influence of a tropical climate, and, if so, the reasonable inference 
must be that these localities have been removed from their original position by 
oscillations of the rotary axis. 

To my mind there appears to be nothing unreasonable in such a hypothesis, 
for if we go back in imagination to the assumed origin of the world, there can 
be no difficulty in conceiving such occurrences. The earth, it is supposed, is 
formed from a condensation of gaseous vapours by precipitation or congelation. 
The ponderous matter thus derived gradually accumulating to form a globe 
comprising air, earth, and water, each separated from the other by their various 
densities, under the action of axial rotation (throwing ofF force) and the force of 
gravity to the centre. The solid material would naturally, as it accumulated, 
take the form of a spheroid having its greatest diameter at the equator, where 
at last would be formed an elevated belt of dry land rising above the water, and 
sloping off to lower levels towards the north and south. This natural, or, so to 
call, primitive form, I imagine was afterwards broken up into irregular surfaces 
by oscillation of the rotary poles ; by which means the original equatorial belt of 
dry land was placed in a position of resistance or antagonism to the force of 
rotation, and the force and direction of the tidal currents producing in con- 
sequence that irregularity and unequal distribution of land and water which 
now exists. 

Another fact that would seem to favour this supposition is, the position of the 
magnetic axis, which is divergent from that of rotation. That the true north and 
south poles should not be also the magnetic poles is inexplicable, unless the 
oscillation of the axis of rotation be admitted. 

The view I take of it is doubtless very theoretical, and may be wide 
of the truth ; but there is something in it very like inductive reasoning. 
For instance, I cannot conce've it possible that the earth can turn on 
its axis with such velocity as it does, without external friction, si'ch as 
to induce electricity in it and its atmosphere, much in the same manner as 
electricity is generated by a cylindrical electric machine, the fluid from 
which conducted round certain dense bodies, induces in them various effects of 
magnetism By analogy, therefore, I imagine that the electricity caused by 
the friction of rotation, circling round the dense nucleus of the earth must induce 
magnetism in it. the poles being co-incident with those of the rotary axis. Now 
if this idea be admitted and that magnetism was induced in the earth during the 
period of its original consolidation, it is obvious that a divergence of anything 
less than 90 from its original position would not deprive the axis of its 
magnetic character, although it might modify it. Slaty cleavage and the 
divisional planes in crystalline rocks appear to me more explicable under these 
views than any other. They appear to have some subordination to magnetism and 
yet must have taken effect urder the influence as well of the great forces of gravity 
and rotation. Of course I imagine many oscillations, whether gradual or sudden, 
to account for the upheaval and derangement of the stratified deposits, now 
forming mountain ranges and valleys, with lakes, livers, and estuaries, &c , as 
well as for the otherwise unaccountable position of many coal deposits and fossils. 
H. W. P. 


We have been favoured with a copy of the map which is to accompany the 
late Mr. Thomas Baines' book on the Gold-fields of Southern Africa. This is 
incomparably the best geographical work on South Africa that has as yet been 
published. It is compiled from the late traveller's own observations, assisted by 

126 Notes of the Month. 

Messrs. J. Chapman, Henry Hartley, Captain Elton, St. Vincent Erskine, E. 
Mohr, R.Jewell, A. Bellville, R.J. Miller, and other friends, and lias been issued 
under the supervision of Henry Hall, Esq., from the excellent establishment of Mr. 
Stanford, Charing Cross. The whole of the territories from the Cape to the 
Zambezi are represented with a fulness of topographical detail which gives 
a thoroughly complete idea of the country ; and the various localities in which 
gold has been found are marked in colour,— extending from Zululand through 
the Transvaal, and the Kingdoms of Lobcngula and Umzila, to the auriforous 
districts of the Zambezi— the Monomatopa of mediaeval geographers. 


Several correspondents have directed our attention to a gross case of plagiarism 
committed by the contributor of the verses " A Scene in the Desert.' : which 
appeared in the last pages of the January number of the Magazine. The composi- 
tion, which was handed to us as original, we now find has been made up (with 
a few verbal alterations) of J. C. Mangans' translation of Freligrath's " Gericht 
des Reisenden," and Dr. A. Baskerville's translation of Freligrath's " Lowenritt;" 
the first three stanzas from the former and the remaining stanzas (not including 
the fourth) from the latter. It would be improper to withhold from our 
contributor the discreditable notoriety which is his due. His card bears the 
address, — A. H. Nellmapius, Royal Portuguese Vice-Consul, Pilgrim's Rest, 


The origin of this name is curious ; it is not from the German Eidegenossen, 
as has been supposed. Reguier de la Planche accounts for it as follows : — " The 
name huguenand was given to those of the religion during the affair of Amboyse, 
and they have retained it ever since. I'll say a word about it to settle 
the doubts of those who have strayed in seeking its origin. The superstition of 
our ancestors, to within twenty or thirty years thereabouts, was such that in 
almost all the towns in the kingdom they had a notion that certain spirits under- 
went their Purgatory in this world after death, and that they went about the 
town during the night, striking and outraging many people whom they found in 
the streets. But the light of the Gospel has made them vanish, and teaches us 
that these spirits were street-strollers and ruffians. At Paris the spirit was 
called le moine bourre '; at Orleans, le mulet odet ; at Blois, le hup garon ; at Tours, 
le Roy Huguet ; and so on in other places. Now, it happens that those whom 
they called Lutherans were at that time so narrowly watched during the day that 
they were forced to wait till night to assemble, for the purpose of praying to 
God, for preaching and receiving the Holy Sacrament ; so that although they 
d : d not frighten nor hurt anybody, the priests, through mockery, made them the 
successors of those spirits which roamed the night; and thus that name being 
quite common in the mouth of the populace, to designate the evangelical 
hugucnands in the country of Tourraine and Amboyse, it became in vogue after 
that enterprise."-— Be /' Estat de France. An. 1560 (Pauth Litt.) S. F. 


Mr. S.Jackson, in forwarding a legister of the rain-fall in the Victoria West 
district, sends the following note : — 

Below, I beg to h-nd you a report of the rainfall at Brakfontein, Victoria West, 
for the last four years. You may perhaps deem the report worthy of a corner in 
the Cape Monthly, since upon the rain-fall depend both the prosperity of the 

farmers and merchants 
and Port Elizabeth : — 

Meteorology. 127 

in these parts, and the price of mutton in Cape Town 







I - IO 




8-i 9 

February ... 

















2 31 




1 "55 


















• 1 3 
















2 - 05 















* 5 " 9 * 

Total of four yeirs... 


Average of four years 


It will be at once perceived that the summer is our rainy season, as the winter 
is yours. But when it rains in the upper country — and so long as it rains there — 
it very seldom rains here. It follows, of course, that when your rainy season is 
prolonged beyond its usual time, we invariably suffer from drought. 

Again, winter rains in Cape Town are often simultaneous with high north- 
west wind in this quarter ; and our summer rains rarely set in until the Cape 
south-easters have begun to blow. 

From the above figures, it also appears that, as regards the quantity of rain, 
the months stand in the following order, viz., November, February, January, 
March, December, May, April, October, September, June, July, August. 
January, however, would not show so high an average but for an exceptionally 
heavy fall last year of four inches in the short space of two hours. 
I have, &c, 

Sidney Jackson. 

Brakfontein, 3rd January, 1877. 





Iff 8 

S §1 


Sept. . . 

inches. ° 
30-119 56- 8 
30-049 61 -4 



yo'9 70-3 20th.. .. 43-4 

SJ'8 , Hi-7 | 24th.. .. 45-1 


17th.. .. 

13th.. .. 

I-8 7 I 
I -121 







= - 












I s 










51-6 , 88-0 ' 29th.. .. 


i;!h.. .. 

1 -075 




Sept. .. 








74-0 5th and 6th 5°'° 
85-0 i6th.. .. 50-0 

29th . . 

inches. ; 
0-630 | 4 
1 '900 | 3 






Sept. .. 


58-6 64-1 
63-1 71 -s 

54' 3 


2ISt .. .. 
29th . . 


49 - 5 

17th.. .. 
1st ,. .. 

l -300 









51-9 66-8 35-6 



67-9 43*4 
76-0 45.9 



Sept. .. 






6th, roth nth 
20th & 22nd 

41 -o 

17th.. .. 










28th.. .. 


13th.. .. 





inches. 1 

Sept. .. 


57-2 ' 69-9 
63-7 80-0 



2ISt . . 
29th. . 

.. 1 37-0 


17th.. .. 
13th.. .. 

3-350 6 
0-400 j 1 



1 st . 
19th . 

29-0 4th, 13th, 

I 19th & 30th 

30-0 24th.. .. 

32-0 1st .. .. 

0-420 3 












13th & 30th 

0-400 3 


Sept. . . 





list . . 


17th, 24th, 
and 19th 

1 -930 | 10 








29th Sc 30th 


18th.. .. 

0-280 3 



inches. ° 


July .. 

25-238 38-5 

61 -4 



31st . . .. 


7th & 8th 





25-14! 1 47-7 




23rd.. .. 


4th . . 




Sept. . . 

25-082 56-4 




21st.. .. 


17th.. .. 

I- 120 




25-o8s 59-6 




30th.. .. 


18th.. .. 








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§*$t itatflg ftBeppp. 

JUNE, i877 




Part II. .. •• ■■ •• " *• " 3 * 5 


NATURE .. •• •• •• •• •' " "344 





By Lieut.-Gen. Sir A. Cunynghami, K.C.B. .. .. •• 359 



OURSELVES AS OTHERS SEE US.— Mr. Froudi's South African Journal. 380 


METEOROLOGY .. •• •• • ■ 3*7 


J. C. J U T A. 




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Cape Town, June, 1877. 



•Oitjlilanctfi and Smulaiuts of Sajirlaiul. 

By Geo. St. V. Cripps. 

From our camp on the slope of the Dralcensberg, we followed the 
road by which we had descended from the range, and in doing so 
rode along the right bank of the Mabele River, which is a small 
tributary of the Kneika, Adam Kok's boundary river. It is a great 
treat to be able to break into a trot or canter on these long plains 
varied by crossing a river occasionally. They are covered with high 
rank grass, and extend for miles and miles unvaried by any object 
on which the eye can rest, and are treeless. On our left was 
the range we had crossed, looking like an unfinished embankment, 
diminishing in height as we gradually receded from it in descending 
to the coast. At our halting place for the purpose of breakfasting, 
which was near a swamp, we were for the first time, and quite 
unexpectedly, attacked by the most voracious mosquitos one would 
ever wish to meet. These large grey fellows rose and settled like 
herons, their legs dangling under them as if too cumbrous to be 
carried in any other manner. Our stay at this place was not longer 
than it was possible for us to do with. Before leaving it we were 
joined by Adam Kok's people, who had been sent by him to assist 
us through the country. 

This is the first glimpse we got of these quaint folks, of 
whom we shall speak more fully further on. The group 
before us is composed of an active small race with complexions 
and features of Chinamen. Adam Kok's Generalissimo is a 
singularly cool-looking individual, barring his face, remarkably like 
the atoms of grooms one has seen standing about Tattersall's Yard. 
All these people wore the usual dress of the wilds ; a slouched 
wide-awake with yellow corduroy coat and trousers, and some 
gaudy handkerchief or scarf tied either round the wide-awake or 
around the head. Ostrich feathers of the most miserable kind, and 
covered with dust and dirt, were worn on the hats of some. With 
Vol. XIV.— June, 1877. y 

326 Highlands and Lowlands of Kafirland. 

our new associates, we passed rapidly over the country having 
mounted fast tripplers sent very kindly for our use. Our traps 
having been transferred to a wagon enabled the police with us to 
increase their pace also. Our cook even trotted gaily along, having 
deposited his hatterie de cuisine in the wagon, and his horse, 
particularly chosen on account of his docile disposition, showed more 
energy and activity than was ever suspected he possessed. The said 
cook in whose keeping were our inner men, was one of those beings 
who under the most trying circumstances never lost his temper. 
We have known him go through a long day's ride, cook during a 
storm at the end of the day, sit up in his waterproofs all night with 
buckets of rain falling on him, and the following morning with the 
cold so severe that one could only creep about, appear at one's tent 
with a hot cup of coffee and with a smile ask if it was made to one's 

The country is unvaried until we reach the Kneika River 
where a few ridges show themselves, and for the second time animal 
life presents itself in the shape of some paauw. Before this we had 
only seen a few red-wing partridges immediately after descending 
from the range. The paauw were naturally the cause of some excite- 
ment amongst our party, and our rifles were soon heard in all directions 
until the birds took themselves off" untouched, when we again subsided 
into the noise of our voices and the clatter of the horses' hoofs. 
Later on two birds were seen which were said to be paauws, but one 
having been shot V/ith a bullet from a rifle, it turned out to be 
a beautiful ash-gray crane. As we had no way of preserving this 
creature as a specimen, it was handed over to a Kafir who was first 
in at the death, who was much pleased with the present, and at our 
next halt we found him strutting about with the bird's tail-feathers 
stuck in his head. The feathers of this particular kind of crane arc 
an emblem of victory, it appears. 

The Kneika River we found about thirty feet broad and about three 
feet deep at the drift. Crossing it was therefore only a pleasant cooling 
process to our horses. It joins the St. John's, at no great distance to 
the south-east of our position. Our next halt was at Matatiel, which 
name is given to this locality on account of its being almost sur- 
rounded by small rocky hillocks. The word is identical with our 
word semi-circle, apparently. At this place we fell in with the first 
kraals since crossing the Quahlamba. They belong to the chief 
Maquai and his people, who after a better resistance than was offered 
to the Boers by other Basutos, abandoned their country and took 
refuge here. We remained here for the night. As darkness 
advanced, we heard our friends the Griquas, who had pitched their 
tents at some from us, fortunately, going in for bacchanalian 
orgies — their great weakness. The most of the night was passed in 
this manner bv them, and it was, of course, not easy to rouse them 
early the following morning. 

Sir Walter Curric, who accompanied us, was greatly surprised at 

Highlands and Lowlands of Kafirland. 327 

the scarcity of game in this locality, and said it was overrun by 
troops of antelopes of all kinds when he visited it, not many years 
since, to point out Adam Kolc's beacons to him. At that time he 
said lions gave his party much trouble by disturbing the horses at 
night, being compelled to halt near water, and every reedy patch in 
those days being the retreat of two or more of these monarchs of the 

From Matatiel we moved off in an easterly direction, riding through 
a dense mist which overhung the swampy lands we were in, and 
crossing the St. John's River, halted on its left bank. The St. 
John's is the same size as the Kneika. Both these rivers strongly 
resemble canals, their banks being perfectly regular and unbroken. 
The St. John's flows in a south-easterly direction and at no great 
distance forces itself through very broken country. 

Our road now took us slightly south of east until we gained Eland's 
Berg or Jacob's Ladder, a small mountain standing alone and 
forming one of Adam Kok's beacons. From here we rode east, having 
in the distance Mount Fifty or Currie, as it is variously termed, 
under which is Griqua Town, or Adam Kok's Laager. Up to this 
time we had been very fortunate as to weather. Nothing could have 
been finer ; the mornings and evenings cold, and the middays, 
though hotter than one wished, were by no means unbearable or 
sultry. The sky was always an intense blue unbroken by clouds. 
After our last halt, however, the sky became dotted by innumerable 
round, solid-looking clouds, certain precursors of a thunder storm in 
these regions. Storms so rapidly follow on the gathering of clouds 
that little time is to be lost in seeking shelter. To avoid a drenching 
our Griqua friends with their wagon hurried on to a farm on the 
Drievah River, to be joined by us later in the day. Fortunately for 
us the storm held off until sunset, when it broke over us with all its fury. 
When this took place, we were eating our dinner in waterproof suits. 
The rumbling noise of thunder in the distance increased as it 
neared us. The rain which had fallen in solitary large drops, soon 
fell in columns of water, each column carried past by a gust of wind 
that made our little tents sway about in the most alarming manner. 
Every now and then a flash of lightning lighted up the whole scene 
and assisted us in making ourselves more snug. Loud peals of 
thunder now told us that the storm was near and immediately over- 
head. The peals were soon exchanged for sharp and sudden crashes 
right over us, at intervals of a few seconds, which sounded like the 
crash of broken crockery and died off into that of an exploded rocket. 
Our dinner and the storm went on together, and with the exception 
of oar soup being rather weaker than usual and the bread a little 
soddened, we had little to complain of. 

The following morning, we were wending our way to Adam Kok's 
Laager through the morning air, which was intensely cold after the 
late heavy rain. The road was so slippery that it was avoided 
wherever it was possible to do so. There is no occasion probably 

y 2 

328 Highlands and Lowlands oj Kafiriand. 

when a rider and his horse are so dependent on each other, but so 
little able to render each other any assistance, as when they are on a 
road in this condition. After passing the Drievah, or sorrowful 
river — a small stream whose name is in memoriam of a piece of 
atrocity perpetrated on its banks in years past, — we rode into a less 
level country and before long ascended on to an extensive grass- 
covered plain which we cantered over. The Griqua Chief had now 
joined us. He is styled Captain, by the by, and not Chief. He is a 
quiet, sensible-looking man, more like a Boer than a Griqua in 
appearance. He had a motley group of followers, inquiries into 
whose parentage would please a Darwin. Surrounded by these 
people we jogged on over undulations, and finally reached the laager, 
which is on the slope of a hill. On our way we captured a little 
landrail which was secured in a small bush. Our young friend who 
was beautifully marked in the colours of a quail with a body and 
neck longer and more graceful, having been scrutinized by all was 
released, and care was taken that no sticks or stones accompanied 
him on his departure. The Laager, as this village is called, is in the 
form of a square, and composed of wattle-and-daub thatched cottages 
with roads intersecting it at right angles to each other. In the 
centre is a mud embankment enclosing a compound into which 
the villagers can retreat in case of attack. The position of the 
village is by no means convenient, being too much above the river to 
admit of its being led through it. There are two or three fairly-built 
houses in this place, the principal one of which is occupied bv Adam 
Kok, and forms at the same time his court-house. At the upper end 
of the compound is the arsenal having in it two well-finished 
field-guns, nine-pounders, having on them a cock as the crest of the 
owner. These guns were kept bright, and in good order. They 
were given by Sir George Grey. The other munitions of war 
would prove more dangerous to the individuals using them than to 
the enemy. The cottages in the village are singularly neat and 
clean and are arranged on either side of the roads. They are in 
little gardens which are protected by small palisades. This 
picturesque place is severed from Mount Fifty or Currie, which rises 
to some 2,000 feet on the opposite side of it, by the river Umzim- 
clava, which has its source in the mountain. The name Fifty is 
after the year 1850, and Currie after our companion, Sir Walter, 
who visited these people in that year in their present country, which 
from the fact of its being unoccupied was christened No-man's-land. 
The costume of the ladies here consists of a large black or red 
handkerchief over their heads, concealing what may be regarded as a 
prodigious chignon, and with the exception that the present European 
fashions are compulsory with them the dreys differs but slightly from 
the usual neat frock one meets with everywhere. These people are 
small in stature with yellowish-brown complexions and in features 
somewhat resemble the Chinese. The cheek bones are conspicuously 
high and angular, whilst the eves are on a slant across the face and 

Highlands and Lowlands of Kafirland. 32") 

deeply imbedded in it. Their limbs are sinewy and small, the 
women and men possessing extremely small hands and feet. The 
women when young are pretty, cheerful, and very winning in their 
manner. The men are active and excellent horsemen, but as a rule 
give way to drunkenness at an early age. The Griquas or Bastards 
from the account of a missionary who lived amongst them for a 
considerable time, were first formed into a clan by a liberated slave 
named Kolc : the great grandfather of the present Adam Kok, who 
had emigrated into the country north-west of the Orange River from 
the Cape Colony, and in the early days of their formation adopted 
the name of Cherigriquas from a small tribe of that name near them, 
from whom their numbers were augmented. In this country they 
suffered many hardships from the barrenness of the land and constant 
attacks of neighbours. With the object of improving their position 
they moved eastwards and occupied the country now under 
Waterboer on each side of the Vaal, and down to Philippolis near 
Colesberg. Fate, however, seems to have decreed that this people 
was not to enjoy quiet in their new position, for before long disagree- 
ments among themselves led Adam Kok, with those who adhered to 
him, to separate and seek a new abode across the Ouahlamba in a 
tract of country allotted to him by the High Commissioner Sir 
George Grey. The exodus of these people is spoken of as having 
been attended with much suffering and loss of property and life. 

During our sojourn here v. r e were joined by a fresh detachment of 
police under Sub-Inspector Nesbitt, which had skirted along the 
Eastern slopes of the Drakensberg from Queen's Town. Those who 
had accompanied us thus far were to return to Basutoland, and it was 
Inspector Bowker's intention to find a nearer route through the 
mountains in returning and try and strike into Basutoland near 
Thaba Telle. This would entail much hard work as both the 
Drakensberg and the Malutis would have to be crossed. In our 
route we rounded the latter. 

After remaining for some three days in the Griqua village, during 
which time we were favoured by a succession of thunderstorms 
which cooled the air so that we now were complaining of the cold, 
we rode off in a southerly direction to the St. John's River. Adam 
Kok, as on our approach, lent us the best mule wagon in the village. 
The first drift we came to tested the strength of the Griqua harness, 
and from this place until we were stopped by the wagon upsetting the 
men were incessantly mending the harness that was constantly break- 
ing : indeed at the time the catastrophe took place, there was little 
of the original harness left. Having ridden on to the place we were 
to halt at, the first intimation one got of the mishap was seeing our 
people approaching carrying saddles, watermelons, pack-saddles, &c. 
Owing to the accident we were detained for a longer time than we 
intended devoting to this halt. Not far from us were the first kraals 
of the Amaklasabi under Jo Jo, the occupants of which showed no 
inclination to make our acquaintance, feeling somewhat uncertain as 

330 Highlands and Lowlands of Kafirland. 

to the intention of those by whom we were accompanied. All these 
tribes are constantly at war with each other and the trust reposed by 
members of each in the other is very limited. The warfare chiefly 
consists of cattle-lifting, which is indulged in by all whenever a 
favourable opportunity presents itself. 

We now wended our way over the Intiswe range which 
is low, having on each side an easy slope. From it we descended 
into thickly populated valleys, and our approach was carefully 
watched and information as to our numbers, whether we were 
armed or not, was conveyed by voice from boys occupying 
elevated positions herding cattle. The information was evidently 
soothing as the cattle were undisturbed and we were allowed 
to approach the kraals without the occupants deserting them. If 
alarmed, no doubt a very different scene would be before us ; cattle 
would be driven off" into the ravines, the kraals would be deserted, 
and one might expect to travel at less ease. Every stage brought us 
into country more beautiful than that we had passed, and more 
wooded and broken. Our next halt was on the outskirts of a thick, 
though small wood, through which issued a stream sufficient for our 
wants : we had descended to this place from a narrow ridge and were 
now hemmed in by hills on all sides. During our dinner we were 
joined by some Kafir men and women both scantily clad. The 
men had thin ochre-coloured blankets thrown over their shoulders, 
and the women wore a short leather kilt studded with beads and brass 
buttons with a fringe of leather strips. We were amused at the 
value placed on the various things which attracted their attention. 
As money we knew would be useless we had brought with us a small 
collection of clasp-knives, beads, brass wire, and handkerchiefs for 
the purpose of exchanging for milk, fire-wood, or Indian corn. The 
greatest value was attached to small black and white beads, brass 
wire and black or red handkerchiefs. From these people we obtained 
some honey which proved to be an intolerable nuisance as some of 
it had been upset on the grass and not being easily seen as day was 
now fast giving way to night, it was repeatedly trodden on and 
transferred from place to place until all the grass about us was dotted 
with it to an inconvenient extent. As all our halts received a name 
tor reference sake, this was called Honey Hill. 

The following morning we crossed the Umzimclavana, or little 
Umzimclava, twice, immediately after leaving our camp, and after 
the second time began the ascent of a hill which was covered with 
the longest grass we had as yet ridden through. As our horses were 
only of the average height, fourteen hands, they were pretty nearly 
concealed and many of us looked as if we were unsupported. "When 
we gained the highest part of this hill to our great joy we saw in the 
distance, lying beneath us, the Fundcsweni Mission Station, verifying 
our calculations as to our being in the right direction. The two or 
three houses and chapel at this place were almost concealed in trees of 
an intense glossy green, which on nearer approach proved to be walnut 

Highlands and Lowlands of Kafir land. 331 

trees. We rode up to the collection of people who had turned out 
on our approach, and were welcomed by Mrs. Jenkins, to whom the 
property on which the station is erected belongs. She is an active, 
elderly lady, who never ceased to busy herself in every possible way 
to make our short stay as agreeable as possible. This place appears 
to be on one of the numerous plateaux by which we were to descend 
to the sea. It is covered with beautiful grass which about the buildings 
is kept in order, and a tidy lawn is in front of the principal house 
extending to the low mud walls of the kitchen garden, which being 
low and fringed with thorny bushes to keep out bipeds and quad- 
rupeds, admit of the fruit-trees being seen above them, thus 
diminishing their formality. In this garden there were peaches, 
apricots, apples, plantains, guavas, and strawberries, which suffered 
according to their ripeness by our visit. Immediately around the 
buildings were chestnuts, walnuts, oaks, and, thank goodness, only a 
kw Australian gum-trees. The more remote lands were studded by 
mimosas, giving them a park-like appearance. About a quarter of a 
mile from the houses was a large collection of native huts in which no 
doubt the Kafirs of the station lived. Looking in a south-easterly 
direction one sees the softy peaks of the beacons of the county of 
Alfredia in Natal. Fundesweni was given by the late chief Faku to 
Mr. Jenkins, a Wesleyan missionary, who took up his abode in this 
country and acquired in course of time the full confidence of the 
chief and the respect of the people. The widow now lives here, and 
from the courageous manner in which she has taken the part of those 
amongst whom she has cast her lot, she is called the Ponda Oueen. 
Before we left this place we saw a war-dance, which was a represen- 
tation of how the Pondas treat their enemies. The men advanced in 
column followed by rows of women and attacked the imaginary 
enemy. The attack was directed by the spirit moving any one of the 
gallant throng to rush forward and stab a foe. The individual thus 
influenced sprang out of the column, and with extraordinary antics 
stabbed, in this instance, the air, while his comrades chanted a dirge 
sounding like "ah hum ha J ' in a monotonous voice. Each 
thrust of the assegai was accompanied by " che ! chai ! " from the 
lookers-on. When the assailant's valour was satiated he strutted back 
to the column piercing the air with his assagai, each stab indicating 
an enemy slain. After the men had done their work they made way 
for the women, who rushed forward yelling in the most fiendish and 
piercing manner, with hoes and sticks in their hands, and soon put 
an end to the sufferings of the enemy's wounded. This place being 
situated on the confines of the Ponda country, feuds between them 
and their neighbours the Amaklasabi are frequent. The latter is a 
small tribe under the chief Jo Jo, whose independence is ignored by 
the Amapondas. This chief and his people being regarded as rene- 
gades from the latter tribe. The Amaklasabi are from all accounts 
more warlike and well able to hold their own against their more 
numerous neighbours. It may be stated here that the prefix " Ama " 

332 Highlands and Lowlands of Kafir land. 

to these names is generally dropped for convenience sake. It is the 
plural and denotes the whole nation. 

Having now left the station we soon crossed the Umzimclavana 
for the third time, and then gradually ascended a ridge along which 
our path took us, and from which we were careful not to descend 
unnecessarily, as it fell away on either side into deep valleys. The 
country became more broken and split up by valleys as we advanced 
towards the St. John's. The ravines were filled with forest-trees, and 
solitary mountains were seen protruding their apexes out of forests like 
so many bald heads. A cold wind and a drizzling rain now set 
in, and we followed each other in a mournful manner, each guarding 
against cold and rain as best he could. We halted again at a small 
wood, in which one of our party asserted a sufficient quantity of water 
existed to supply our wants. It afterwards turned out that those who 
could collect sufficient by making a small hole and awaiting for some 
time were fortunate. The burrs in this wood took the place of the 
honey at the last wood we stopped at, and gave us considerable 
trouble as they adhered tenaciously to our woollen garments and a 
coat or flannel shirt covered with them became insufferable. Every 
effort to free oneself from them was useless. You took off your 
coat, brushed it, combed it, nay even scraped it with your hunting 
knife, only to find that the burrs transferred themselves from your 
coat to your flannel shirt, from the latter they betook themselves 
to your blankets, so that a moment's rest was not enjoyed during the 
day or night we sojourned at this inhospitable wood, and it was 
consequently named Burrwood. 

In passing through this country with its numerous streams and 
forests we were disappointed at the total absence of game of any 
description whatever. The presence of the Kafir probably accounts 
for this, with his propensity for periodically burning the grass. 
Shortly after leaving Adam Kok's we started two orabi, and the 
presence of a solitary paauw led us to expect some sport, but our 
wishes were not gratified. We still kept a south-easterly course, and 
ultimately passed over the Zalo hills before arriving at the Palmerton 
Mission Station. On approaching this place we were startled by the 
peculiar cry of some ibis that arose before us : the first we had fallen 
in with. The Palmerton Station is prettily situated, being on the 
left bank of a fine river, but considerably above it, having many 
trees about it and underwood, through which paths lead down steep 
banks to the water's edge. It has a good garden, and many houses 
are scattered about without any attempt at regularity. The majority 
are of wattle-and-daub, but do not appear occupied. The station 
has evidently been of a considerable size at one time. It was erected 
by the late Mr. Jenkins, to whom allusion has already been made, 
and has sufficent evidence still left of his energy and industry. At 
this place we were most kindly treated — a boon nowhere more 
appreciated than by those who pass this way. Here a palaver took 
place with the Amaponda chief Umtogela, a young man upon 

Highlands and Lowlands of Kafirland. 333 

whom the honour of being paramount chief of the tribe had recently 
fallen in consequence of the death of Falcu. As our time at this 
place was limited the chief was asked to come over without delay. 
He however appeared to be alarmed at our arrival, and one excuse 
after another was received until he was definitely informed that we 
had no idea of delaying our departure, and towards the close of the 
day his bongo, soothsayer, or herald, was heard making a fiendish 
noise by way of lauding his august master. Looking in the direction 
of this noise the chief's party was seen approaching, all of course on 
horseback. They appeared in no hurry to reach us, and their horses 
were not urged out of a walk, a pace intolerable to Kafirs. On 
arrival the whole party dismounted, and the horses having been led 
away by the inferiors, the superiors formed in a group under the 
verandah of the mission-house. The chief, who was attended by 
some few councillors, was a tall stout-built heavy-looking man, with 
a large round face, and bore a strong resemblance to other members 
of this family we had met before. The conversation was carried 
on by the councillors, the chief only occasionally interrupting it. 
The usual topics were discussed, namely, the thefts committed by 
neighbouring tribes and the necessity for more land. At these 
palavers the missionary invariably endorses statements made of the 
pitiable degradation of other tribes. Our experience is, however, 
that all are pretty much alike as to the matter of stealing, and those 
who steal least are deterred from indulging in their favourite pastime 
from fear of their stronger neighbours. 

The limits of the Amapondo country are a matter of some uncer- 
tainty. They may be taken generally to be Natal on the north-east, 
the sea on the east, the Umtata River on the south, and inland or 
west by the upper wagon road. The latter is an ill-selected line of 
demarcation, as roads in this country are aptto be peripatetic, — wagons 
frequently making a detour where the old road, owing to recent rains 
and other causes, is unfit for use, and only returning to it at a drift. 
The late chief Faku had, it appears, exaggerated ideas as to the extent 
of his country, and considered all Kafirland under him as paramount 
chief. Without entering here into the merits of his claim to assume 
such authority, or whether it was acknowledged by others, it is suffi- 
cient for our purpose to state that all Pondoland was under his supreme 
authority, as it now is under that of his son. The country is subdi- 
vided by the Umzimvoobo or St. John's River, into two parts, and 
Damas, Umtogela's uncle, rules over the tract between the St. 
John's and the Umtata Rivers. 

Owing to our proximity to Natal, we saw Zulu customs 
in vogue. The men wore their hair worked up into cones 
with a black polished ring of matted and polished hair at the 
apex, looking like ebony. Within these cones are deposited small 
articles in dady use, such as a snuff-box, &c. Into the cone itself 
is usually thrust a two-pronged fork of bone with a spoon as a handle. 

334 Highlands and Lowlands of Kafirland. 

This pliant instrument answers the double purpose of a handkerchief 
and snuff-spoon. The women smear their bodies with red ochre 
and fat, and work their crimp hair into short red strings with the 
same compound, which gives the head the appearance of a red mop. 
They are very fond of ornamenting themselves with brass wire, and 
it is not unusual to see a woman wearing such massive brass arm 
and anclets as to render her power of progression extremely feeble. 
They also wear beads, which are generally very tastefully arranged, 
black and white being more appreciated than coloured ones. A lady's 
dress consists of a leather kilt which is bordered by a fringe of strings, 
it is also studded with brass-nail heads — such as one sees on green 
baize doors, and innumerable beads. The slightest movement on 
the part of the wearer of such a garment gives rise to a strange 
rustling noise. Whether it is the absence of household worries, or 
the quaintness of the clothed in the eyes of the unclothed, 
it is not easy to say, but these people always appear 
to be enjoying a hearty laugh. Young ladies in the matrimonial 
market are valued according to their size, and a stout young lady 
more readily secures a wealthy husband than her slighter sister. All 
are well formed, and upright as darts from their earliest infancy. 
Their limbs, though less fine than those of the Griquas, owing 
to the admixture of Hottentot blood, are by no means coarse 
or out of proportion to their greater height. They for some unac- 
countable reason possess most beautiful and regular teeth. This 
may be attributed to their taking less animal food than we do ; to 
the habit of rinsing the mouth with water before and after meals, 
and to the absence of physic in infancy. In maturer years, and since 
their intercourse with us, the Kafir will indulge in violent emetics or 
purgatives. They hail with joy the arrival of a missionary who is 
known to dabble in medicine or who is a bit of a dentist. We 
recollect a missionary having found the extracting of a molar from 
the jaws of a Kafir sufficient work for one day and declining earnest 
intreaties to attend to other patients. 

The Pondos make neat snuff-boxes of a gluey preparation of the 
scrapings of hoofs or horns of cattle. Some of these boxes resemble 
an ox with the legs of an elephant, others are in the form of a gourd. 
The latter is generally covered with black and white beads. This 
particular tribe indulges in snuff-taking to a far greater extent than its 
neighbours. The pungency of ammonia is highly appreciated by 
them, and they have been known to add ground chillies to snuff to 
increase its irritating effect. The women are not exempt from par- 
taking in such luxuries. The neighbouring tribes seem to prefer 
their pipes to taking tobacco in any other form. Leaving details 
of manners and customs to those who have dwelt amongst these 
people for years, we will return to our own doings. 

From Palmcrton we hurried on to the St, John's mouth, crossing 
shortly after leaving the station the river on which it stands. After 

Highlands and Lowlands of Kafirland. 335 

an hour we recrossed it, and gradually rode on to a ridge on which we 
kept until we descended to the Umfuna and halted. We crossed the 
river as it is always doubtful whether when you awake in the 
morning your passage may not be barred by a torrent. The presence 
of mimosas and forests varied the appearance of the country. It was 
more thickly populated and kraals now surrounded us, each containing 
its collection of huts which in some cases were enclosed by thorny 
bushes. Our route was now slightly changed, and we travelled parallel 
with the coast-line in a south-westerly direction and before long 
obtained our first glimpse of the sea. The country became more 
broken and split up by mountain ranges as we neared the great river. 
We now rode through lanes in dense underwood, composed chiefly 
of mimosas matted together by an endless variety of creepers, amongst 
which the Traveller's Joy made its presence known by the perfume 
thrown off by its blossoms. The sombre colours of these jungles were 
lighted up every here and there by a mass of gaudy geraniums. 
Over our heads were the flowers of the convolvulus and the scarlet 
fruit of a creeper which swayed about at every puff of wind. Emerging 
from these paths we rode on to open spaces, and saw mountains, 
valleys, and streams on all sides of us. Every shade of green is seen, 
broken here and there by deep, grey-green shadows, graduated into 
intense blue in the distance, crossed at intervals by a column of white 
smoke rising lazily from some hut, and, Kafir-like, disregarding time 
and not allowing rapidity to enter into its nature. 

Our next exit revealed to us the gates of the St. John's. These 
irregular masses of red rock between which the river passes appeared 
to be at its mouth, owing to their great height concealing the country 
beyond them. Our eyes now for the first time rested on the river itself 
and probably one of the grandest scenes of its kind in Africa. Bein°- at 
a considerable height we had lost all that intercepted our view. Its 
twists and turns could not be equalled by a worm in its writhino-s., 
Many an island could be formed by a few stabs with a spade which 
would connect what is so close together. Our descent to its shores 
took but a short time, and in doing so we rode over burning patches 
of grass and at short intervals met with kraals, others being indicated 
by wreaths of smoke rising from them though concealed by jungle. 
Before reaching the drift we passed a number of castor oil trees, which 
were higher than ourselves, seated as we were on horseback. At the 
drift we found the trader, Mr. Hume, with a boat as . pre-arranged, 
and by it everything was transferred across the river, a distance of" 
about 300 yards. After this had been done, came the operation of 
crossing the horses, which gave rise to some merriment. They were 
not easily induced to take to the water, and it was not before they 
were yelled at and whips cracked that they did so. They were at 
last fairly under way : one moment all together, at another all 
scattered. Those that turned down the stream were objects of 
particular attention, and they were forced into joining their com- 
panions by showers of stones and shouts. The first horse by this 

336 Highlands and Lowlands of Kafrland. 

time was trying to mount the opposite bank, but failed and fell over 
into the water, making a great splash. He was soon joined by several 
others and ultimately one succeeded in getting on terra firma after 
going through most ludicrous antics and appeared to be wondering at 
what had happened to him during the past half- hour or so. He was 
soon laid hold of by his owner and rubbed down with wisps of grass. 
The boat took four of our party to the trader's station. Our 
sail was unfurled and our craft glided noiselessly into mid-stream 
whilst we lay back enjoying the beauty of the scenery around us. 
We voyaged thus until the rounding of a point deprived us of the 
wind, and the oars splashed the waters. On either side long rank 
grass receded to the flashing blades of Indian corn, the sur- 
roundings of native abodes. We soon arrived at our destination, 
and on landing found a very snug house with an extensive garden. 
It was on the right bank and close to the water's edge. A ferry is 
established here and the natives conveyed across pay in kind such as 
fowls, eggs, corn, &c. At this place the river narrows and is said 
to be upwards of forty feet in depth, as ascertained by naval officers 
who have surveyed it near the coast. The opposite bank is thickly 
populated by natives. The side on which we were was almost deserted 
by them and covered with high rank grass which gave us some 
trouble in finding our horses subsequently. Both banks rise abruptly 
from the water and are of a black soft soil. We took advantage of 
this excellent bathing-place to have a swim before going to dine at 
Mr. Hume's house. A Kafir boy who rowed in our boat bore the 
somewhat startling name of Lord John. Why he had been thus 
named remained a mystery. He was a merry, light-hearted fellow, 
of not more than twenty, unencumbered by anything except a cotton 
shirt. Dinner having been announced, we repaired to Mr. Hume's 
house, and it was not long before he found us equal to the occasion. 
The guests by far outnumbered the chairs in the room, so barrels, 
boxes and make-shifts of all kinds were used. At the commence- 
ment, probably the want of some acceptable topic made the sound of 
knives and forks take the place of conversation. This gave way 
gradually, and out of the abundance of — not the heart in this instance 
— the mouth spoke. As an erroneous idea may be entertained by some 
that our friend Lord John waited upon us, it may be as well to state 
that his lordship retired early in the evening, ferrying himself across 
the river, as was his habit, and was probably by this time seated by 
the fire-side surrounded by Lady John and the Honourable Johns, 
of whom he had some few y wc were told. Our host apologized for 
being unable to give us anything but tea, coffee, and water. We 
had long since taken nothing else at our meals and were sometimes 
without milk. He found that if he had any spirits or beer his life 
was made a burthen to him until he had parted with them to the 
natives. After night had thrown her sombre veil over all, we issued 
from the house and had our smoke. Sitting up late is followed by 
rising late, in which we could not indulge, and after a icw whifs, we 

Highlands and Lowlands of Kafir land. 337 

were again in our tents. Amongst those who journeyed with us was 
a corporal of the Frontier Police whose conversational powers were 
at times rather a nuisance. We were now encamped in long grass 
and in not an unlikely locality to meet with snakes. The corporal 
took advantage of the occasion to recount the most startling anecdotes 
he could recollect of reptiles. The subject was not conducive to 
sleep and we were thankful when fatigue at last closed the corporal's 
mouth and eyes. 

After an early breakfast the following morning Lord John and his 
companions were awaiting us with the boat ready for our trip to the 
mouth of the river. Having made our arrangements we shoved off, 
assisted by a light breeze, and sailed away, occasionally using our oars 
to penetrate into nooks and corners where either the sail could not be 
used or where the wind failed. As we advanced the river widened, and 
we shortly glided into the shadow of the heights on our left, then we 
passed into sunlight again. Before reaching the gates, the banks were 
partially concealed by patches of reed growing in the stream and large 
trees were seen close to the water's edge, throwing their gigantic branches 
far out, affording us a pleasant retreat from the sun. We passed a narrow 
creek on our right and a miniature bay which had a creek running 
into it on our left. Then rising up in front of us were the severed 
portions of the range through which the river had found its way at 
some remote period. The jagged summit of each was exposed and 
their base was lost in dense forest which reached to the water's edge. 
The bleached and torn trunks of trees' pointed out the track of storms 
through these forests. On nearing the banks we observed a variety 
of wild fruits hanging chiefly from creepers which had entwined 
themselves around branches of trees. Our boat glided under clusters 
of wild grapes and a deep orange fruit of an insipid taste. We 
presently passed a black rock in the middle of the river which 
protruded its slippery surface but a little above the water which 
lapped it, and was unceasingly thrown oft" into innumerable ripples, 
widening as they died off towards the banks. This solitary rock was 
not without its legend. It is said that one of a party of hippopotamus 
hunters took refuge on it, and its slipperincss saved him from the 
enraged hippopotamus which had capsized the boat. In passing on we 
disturbed ibis that startled one by their child-like cry, and wild 
fowl that plashed the water with their wings as they rose and fled 
away in long lines, not, however, before their ranks were somewhat 
thinned by the fire from the boat which had intruded on their 
retreat. Our guns were brought on account of master " hippo," but 
time and man had driven him into less frequented places. The 
natives immediately attack any that may venture within their reach 
and it is rarely that one is seen in this part of the river. Alligators 
do not appear to be found in the rivers south of Natal. Large 
iguanas are frequently seen gliding off rocks into the water, flying 
from the presence of man. They make one hesitate before taking 
a dip in one of these streams, as they strongly resemble alligators. 

338 Highlands and Lowlands of Kafirland. 

Wc now pulled into a creek in the right bank, and landed in a 
sheltered nook which, if it had been expressly made for the purpose 
could not be better adapted for pic-nic purposes. The main stream 
hurries on past it, and at some distance is seen combating with the 
waves of the sea on the bar at its mouth. Our boat having been 
moored, we remained here for the rest of the afternoon. During our 
sojourn some strolled off with their guns after wild ducks, whilst 
others made their way through a matingola jungle to the sea-beach. 
The fruit of this bush was our dessert, and we devoured it in large 
quantities, its acidity being most acceptable to us. There appears to 
be little or no rest enjoyed by vegetation in this region and blossom 
and fruit appear to succeed each other uninterrupted by a season of 
rest. On quitting the jungle in which our clothes had suffered 
somewhat from thorns, we walked over numerous sand dunes, which 
were covered with a runner bearing a scented flower resembling in 
colour and form a sweet pea ; and another which is a convolvulus. 
These intertwine each other and form a net-work which prevents 
the sand from advancing. The number and variety of butterflies at 
this place surprised us. They were not easily followed, the coarse 
net-work of creepers preventing one from running. One remarkably 
handsome one we named the St. John's Glory. Its wings were of 
a deep rich mahogany colour graduated into white. We roamed 
about on the beach and went over to its southern extremity to an 
oyster bed, which, owing to the tide being out, we were able to break 
oysters off as we pleased, and a more intimate acquaintance with them 
proved their excellence. This river, like all others on this coast, has 
a bar at its mouth, and if it were not for this impediment probably 
by this time the commencement of a village would be found here 
notwithstanding the opposition of the natives. The sun descending 
to the distant horizon warned us that we must retrace our steps, and 
before long all were again in the boat, which had to be forced against 
the stream, which sorely tried Lord John's temper. The setting sun 
now lighted up the whole scene before us. The sky was of a pale 
green, streaked with red, the distant mountains of an intense 
blue making an abrupt outline against the sky. On our right were 
heights rising to no less than 300 feet, and clothed almost to the 
summit with forest, and their deep shadows descended into the water 
and flickered in ripples against the blaze of light shining like a sheet 
of brass. The rockwork of the broken mountain spur on our left 
was a rich copper-colour, fading in the distance into hues of rose and 
purple, whilst the vegetation was of a yellow-green with unlighted 
portions of it in deep blue shade. All was still, except the oars whose 
steady plash was answered by a feeble echo from the shore. The 
tranquillity and softness of the scene was most enjoyable. Before 
night took possession of day, we were again at the trader's station, 
having spent one of the most enjoyable of all the days on this 

On leaving this locality, wc followed a Kafir path, ascending as we 

Highlands and Lowlands of Kafirland. 339 

went on and seeing our late camping ground and the trading station 
far beneath us. In rising thus on to the range of hills on the right 
bank of the river we were compelled to describe innumerable semi- 
circles in accordance with the windings of the river, of which we got 
occasional glimpses, and were now compelled to cut our way 
through dense thorny jungle, which necessitated our leading out- 
horses after us. Our next halt was on the grassy slopes of the 
Umgazi — a shallow pebbly stream, where, under the shade of large 
trees, we discussed the good things we had brought with us from the 
St. John's. The appearance of the country on this side of the river, 
is as yet unchanged, and identical with that we passed through on 
approaching it. 

An hour-and-a-half's ride brought us to the Umgazana or little 
Umgazi. On the left of its drift is a trader's station. Half-an- 
hour more and our horses' feet were again plashing its waters. 
A few minutes more, and we again fell in with it. This gives some 
idea of the tortuous course of these rivers. Our day's work now 
became very trying to the horses, as we were compelled to descend 
and cross wide stretching valleys and ascend again. Kafir kraals were 
seen sparely dotted about. The natives here are under Damas' 
jurisdiction. After a time we had to force our horses up the face of 
a bare, stony hill, and with some difficulty got on to high land again, 
with the sea about ten miles from us at first and closing in to about 
four miles, after which we lost sight of it altogether by descending to 
a lower level. Having left all the broken country behind us we rode 
over long stretches of grass-covered, undulating country, only 
occasionally seeing in the distance a wooded ravine. In following 
a westerly course we passed the old mission station of Buntingville, 
almost concealed by large trees and apparently unoccupied. Our next 
halt was on the Umtakeikei, at which river one of our men became 
ill, attacked by fever, and one of our horses followed suit. Our 
talkative corporal, whom we named after this river, had to take the 
horse to a neighbouring kraal, and when he was sufficiently recovered 
bring him on by easy stages. On being catechised as to his know- 
ledge of Kafir by his companions, he stated that he never found any 
difficulty in obtaining all he required by adopting the following 
simple plan : On arrival at a kraal all the natives will " give 
tongue," as he expressed it. When this takes place sit with your 
fore fingers in your ears, and they will shortly desist, then avail 
yourself of the opportunity before they walk off to point to your 
open mouth, and your wants will be supplied, and all will pass off 

We now crossed a small tributary of the Umtata or Sneezewood 
river, and towards the end of the afternoon, crossed and pitched our 
tents on the right bank of the latter. The piece of country we 
selected was the fighting ground of the Tambookies and Pondos, and 
was unoccupied. It belongs, however, to the former. Durino- our 
sojourn here and towards dawn some five Kafirs, armed with assagais. 

34-0 Highlands and Lowlands of Kafirland. 

tried to take our horses, but our horse-guards were too sharp for 
them and secured all five, fortunately without any arms being used, 
although one of the Kafirs confessed afterwards that he did not stab 
the man who seized him because he heard his u boots creak," — 
probably the noise was the cocking of the hammer of his revolver. 
These men had prearranged evidently that in the event of being 
taken only one was to answer questions, for nothing could induce 
any other than the spokesman to reply. These five Kafirs were 
deprived of their assagais and blankets, and after a few cuts from a 
stirrup-leather had been administered, were placed across the river. 
One made a bolt of it, but unfortunatly for him the swiftest runner 
in the police happened to be with us, and soon brought back the 
runaway, who got somewhat roughly handled as he resisted being 

In the distance inland was the Matuana range. With the 
exception of this slight change, the country was unvaried. Towards 
the close of the day we were overtaken by a cold drizzle which 
forced us into halting as the road became too slippery to follow, 
and in the rain we sat down to our dinner, which had been cooked 
with difficulty as the fire could only be kept alight by great per- 
severance. Our little tents could hardly be erected owing to the 
violent puffs of wind. The ground around us was coated with a 
layer of black slime, and the grass saturated with moisture, and when 
to these is added a keen wind, our position, it may be imagined, was 
not an enviable one. To make ourselves comfortable under such 
circumstances required more ingenuity than we possessed. The 
following bright morning, however, compensated us somewhat for the 
miseries of the preceding night, and we jogged along drying our 
things on our horses, who for a time played the part of clothes-horses. 

Before arriving at the Bashee River we were joined by Queya, the 
Tambookie chief, who is now called Gangelizwe, or " as big as the 
country." He is a remarkably fine-looking fellow of about five and 
twenty, whose appearance is not enhanced by his wearing European 
clothes. At our breakfast on the right bank of the river, the chief 
engaged in an animated discussion through one of his councillors, a 
deformed man, as to a certain tract of land being included within 
his boundaries. The conversation, however, was abruptly terminated, 
as he objected to our Fingo interpreter, deferring therefore what he 
had to say until he could speak through his own interpreter. After 
resting for a time on the banks of the river, washing and drying our 
things, we rode away for a couple of hours, and then pitched our tents 
for the night. Not many minutes after doing so, we were overtaken 
by Gangelizwe, who was accompanied by his interpreter. The 
latter turned out to be a Colcnso Zulu, as he was pleased to call 
himself; a native better acquainted with our language could not be 
found probably. 

From this place we made our way through a dense 
fog the following morning, to Captain Cobbe's in the Fingo 

Central Jfrica. 341 

country. We found he had built himself a cool, suitable house, 
partaking of the character of an Indian bungalow, having a garden 
falling away from it arranged in terraces. The success of the 
location of the Fingoes in this place is now an established fact, and 
they promise at no distant period to be amongst the foremost of our 
natives in Southern Africa. 

On our road from the location we had to cross the 
T'Somo, which was by no means a pleasant task. The stones 
of the drift were so slippery that great care in crossing it was 
necessary. The horses had a worse time of it than we had, as 
the spaces between the stones were deep and angular. As we 
approached the confines of the old colony of British Kaffraria, the rivers 
were imbedded in deep gorges, whose sides rose to some 250 feet in 
places, covered with trees and underwood. We next crossed the 
Umgwali by descending a steep hill. The country is very 
picturesque, broken as it is by broad valleys and low ranges. One 
more night under our little abodes, and we hurried on to join our 
wagons, which were awaiting us near Frankfort. Our last halt was 
in a tract of country occupied by Sandilli's people, by whom we were 
visited and stared at. The following day's ride was through the park- 
like country of British Kaffraria, and towards the close of the afternoon 
we saw nestled together, at about a couple of miles below us, our 
wagons and large tents. Our men were as delighted to see us as we 
were to see them. 

Late the succeeding day we rode into King William's Town, 
and the next two days were devoted to the journey between 
the latter place and Graham's Town, where we parted with 
our horses, — having completed a ride of fifteen hundred miles, — 
and drove to Port Elizabeth ; making our approach known by sending 
clouds of dust into the sky, whilst the Racoon was steaming into the 
roadstead, to await our arrival, and take us back to Table Bay. 

(Antral Africa. 


Central Africa has always been of peculiar interest to the people 
of the Cape. The unwearied efforts of the noble-hearted man, who 
so recently fell a victim to his zeal in the cause of philanthropy and 
science, are still fresh in our memories, and Livingstone's name 
will always be held in honour among African colonists, as that of 
the great pioneer of civilization, and friend of the slave, in the 
hitherto almost unknown regions to the north. 

During the past few years, the British nation has been stirred 
up to interest and action by fresh accessions to the gallant band of 
African explorers, in the persons of Stanley and Cameron : the 

Vol. XIV. 7 . 

342 Central Africa. 

daring exploit of the latter — a march across the continent to the 
sources of the Congo — stamping him as a worthy successor to the 
lamented Livingstone. The religious world of the mother-country is 
responding nobly to the call of suffering humanity in Central Africa, 
by sending out bands of devoted Christian men to carry the truths 
of the Gospel and the blessings of civilization to the strongholds 
of slavery and darkness in the interior. 

The first to move were the Scottish Presbyterians, who decided 
on selecting the southernmost of the three great equatorial lakes as 
their field of operations ; and who, under the able guidance of 
Lieut. Young and Dr. Stewart, have established themselves at 
tc Livingstonia," on Lake Nyassa. Next in the field were the 
Church A4issionary Society of England, who are directing their 
efforts to open up the Kingdom of Uganda, on the North-West 
side of Lake Victoria Nyanza, — KinK Mtesa, the paramount 
Chief, whose acquaintance Stanley made, having expressed his 
willingness to receive and protect the " white men." The centre 
lake is now to be taken up ; the London Missionary Society having 
determined to fix their base of operations at Ujiji, the Great Arab 
Market on Lake Tanganyika, where Livingstone was found by 
Stanley. A few words on this last-named mission may interest the 
readers of the Cape Monthly. 

Mr. Arthington, of Leeds, having generously placed ^5,000 at 
the disposal of the London Missionary Society for a mission to 
Ujiji, they selected the Rev. Roger Price, then connected with 
their Bamanguato Mission in South-Central Africa, and sent him 
out to Zanzibar in the spring of last year to make preliminary 
inquiries and arrangements as to the best route, mode of transport, 
&c. Mr. Price, after about five weeks' stay at Zanzibar, determined on 
choosing Saadani on the mainland, as the best starting point for the 
700 miles journey to Ujiji ; and set out on the 10th of June with 
thirty men, four oxen with a light cart, and a donkey. He pene- 
trated as far as Mpwapwa, 200 miles inland, reaching that place in 
twenty-six days, and found that thj remainder of the journey would 
present few difficulties of any magnitude, the road being over a 
vast plateau about 4,000 feet above the sea level ; one of the worst 
places being Ugogo, where water is very scarce. He accordingly 
returned to England to report to the Directors. He considered the 
difficulties to be overcome are comparatively small to resolute men, 
and believes he has proved the absence of the much dreaded Tsetse- 
fly on that route, having brought his oxen safely back to Zanzibar. 
He has, of course, to report the usual catalogue of annoyances 
which have to be borne with by all African explorers : the 
difficulty of procuring good porters ; the exasperating " custom " of 
staying at certain villages, quite regardless of the fact that the day's 
journey may have been only six miles, and that another village 
equally suitable in every respect, may be within the same easy 
distance; of the incessant demands on a traveller's patience, temper, 

Central Africa. 343 

and sagacity by refractory carriers ; of the continual drain on one's 
stock of goods for " hongo," or tribute to every petty chieftain on 
the way ; of devious paths, and at times of squabbles with the 
natives through the imprudence or worthlessness of his followers, 
and of the risk of fevers ; but all these the missionary regards as 
minor trials. Mr. Price considers Scotch carts drawn by oxen 
preferable to the usual mode of transport by carriers ; but for this 
the present road must be widened and improved, and in parts a new 
one cut. No pleasant remembrances of Macadam meet a traveller 
on the so-called road. In some places the dense grass grows to an 
enormous height, necessitating the cutting of a path, which it is 
hoped future traffic will keep open. At intervals forests are met 
with, calling into play a vigorous use of the axe ; ravines and 
gullies have to be levelled or bridged over, rivers to be crossed and 
mountains climbed, with a little wading through marshes by way of 
variety. But all these he considers may be comparatively easily 
dealt with, and, once open, the Arabs and natives will doubtless 
make use of the " white man's " road, and thus keep up communica- 
tion with Zanzibar; besides which he hopes to be able to establish 
intermediate stations at suitable places on the route. 

On Mr. Price's return to England, the Directors, after careful 
consideration, decided on adopting his recommendations, and pre- 
parations were at once made for equipping and sending off a mission 
party. Wagons were specially built in Yorkshire, and a set of 
carts such as are used in the hill country of the Deccan, were 
procured from the Church Missionary Institute at Nassick, in the 
Bombay Presidency. It was decided to purchase bullocks at Natal, 
and, if possible, to induce six or eight steady men, European or 
colonial, to accompany the party as drivers and general assistants. 

Mr. Price and Mr. Dodgshun arrived here by R.M.S. Teuton, 
and, after a few days' stay, proceeded to Natal to complete arrange- 
ments ; thence they go to Zanzibar where they expect to meet the 
rest of their party, the Rev. J. B. Thomson (from the Matabele 
Mission) and the Rev. E. C. Hore, who come out via Suez. 

The Mission party hope to leave Zanzibar about the end of June 
or beginning of July, and to reach their destination some time in 
October or November. The funds already collected nearly defray 
the cost of the expedition, but an increased demand of some ^2,000, 
or ^3,000, a yeru' will have to be provided for by the Society. It is 
hoped that in time a small steamer may be placed on Lake Tan- 
ganyka, like those in use by the sister missions of the neighbouring 

Ujiji seems particularly suited for a base of operations. A great 
emporium of Arab trade with the interior, it is in constant com- 
munication by caravans with Zanzibar. The natives are in a better 
position than most of the Central African tribes. Constant inter- 
course with the Arabs has made them bold, as they have managed to 
get a good many guns into their possession, and are now too powerful 

7. 2 



to be captured and sold as slaves. The country is very fertile and 
more densely populated than is usual in Africa, and the paramount 
Chief Rumanika, who is lord over an immense territory, is described 
by Speke as a humane, kind-hearted man, willing to receive mis- 

Ujiji is the storehouse for many large Arab firms, some of them 
respectable, but others very much the reverse, as Livingstone found 
to his cost. From there the Arabs make their raids on tribes still 
further inland to capture slaves and ivory. 

The Sultan of Zanzibar having expressed his interest in the new 
Mission and his readiness to assist if necessary, there is little 
cause of apprehension from ill-disposed traders ; while the increased 
security to life and property which invariably springs up beneath the 
shelter of our world-famed Flag, and the Christian example and 
labours of the devoted band who are starting on their worthy 
errand, will give a great impetus to legitimate trade and a heavy 
blow to the inhuman traffic in slaves, which has been the curse of 
the country for many long years. 


As a fond mother, when the day is o'er, 

Leads by the hand her little child to bed 

Half willing, half reluctant to be led, 
And leave his broken playthings on the floor, 
Still gazing at them through the open door, 

Nor wholly reassured and comforted 

By promises of others in their stead, 
Which, though more splendid, may not please him more ; 
So Nature deals with us, and takes away 

Our playthings one by one, and by the hand 

Leads us to Rest so gently, that we go 
Scarce knowing if we wish to go or stay, 

Being too full of sleep to understand, 

How far the unknown transcends the what we know. 

• —From " A Rosary of Sonnets," by H. W. Longfellow, in the Atlantic Monthly for 
March, 1877. 


No. V. — The Story of Tangalimlibo. 

There was once a man who had two wives, one of whom had no 
children. She grieved much about that, till one day a bird came 
to her and gave her some little pellets. The bird said she must eat 
of these always before she partook of food, and then she would bear 
a child. She was very glad, and offered the bird some millet. But 
the bird said, " No, I do not want millet." The woman then offered 
an isldanga (an ornamental breast band which women wear), but the 
bird said it had no use for that. Then she got some very fine 
gravel and placed before the bird, which it received at her hands. 

After this the woman had a daughter. Her husband knew 
nothing of what had happened, because he never went to her house. 
He did not love her at all, for the reason that she bore no children. 
So she said, " I will keep my daughter in the house till my husband 
comes, he will surely love me when he sees I have such a beautiful 
child." The name given to the girl was Tangalimlibo. 

The man went always to the house of the other wife, and so it 
happened that Tangalimlibo was grown to be a young woman when 
her father first saw her. He was very much pleased, and said, "My 
dear wife, you should have told me of this before." The girl had 
never been out of the house in the daytime. Only in the night- 
time she had gone out, when people could not see her. 

The man said to his wife, " You must make much beer, and 
invite many people to come and rejoice with me over this that has 
happened." The woman did so. There was a big tree in front of 
the kraal, and the mats were spread under it. It was a fine sunny 
day, and very many men came. Among them was the son of a 
certain chief, who fell in love with Tangalimlibo as soon as he saw 

When the young chief went home he sent a message to the 
father of that girl that he must send her to him to be married. The 
man told all his friends about that. He told them also to be ready 
at a certain time to conduct his daughter to the chief. So they came 
and took her, and the marriage feast was very great. The oxen 
were many which were killed that day. Tangalimlibo had a large 
and beautiful ox given to her by her father. That ox was called by 
her own name. She took off a piece of her clothing and gave it to 
the ox, which ate it. 

After she had been married some time, this woman had a son. 
She was loved very much by her husband, because she was pretty 
and industrious ; only this thing was observed of her that she never 
went out in the daytime. Therefore she received the name of 
Sihamba Ngenyanga (the walker by moonlight). 

One day her husband went to a distant place to hunt with 

346 Kafir Nursery Tales. 

other men. There vrere left at his home with this woman only hei 
father-in-law, her mother-in-law, and a girl who nursed the little 
child. The father-in-law said, " why dots she not work durino; the 
day ?" He pretended to become thirsty, and sent the girl to Tan-I 
gaiimlibo to ask for water, saying, " I die with thirst." The woman 
sent water to her father-in-law, but he threw it on the ground, 
saying, " It is warm. 1 ' Then she sent milk for him to drink, but he 
poured it on the ground also, saying, "It is water from the river I 
desire.'' She said, " I never go to the river in the dayrime." He 
continued to ask, saying again " I die with thirst." 

Then she took a milk basket and a calabash ladle, and went 
weeping to the river. She dipped the ladle in the water, and it was 
drawn out of her hand. She dipped the milk-basket in the water, 
and it was drawn away from her. Then she tried to take some 
water in her mantle, and she was drawn under the surface. After a ! 
little time the girl was sent to look for her, but she came back 
saying, " I found her not who is accustomed to draw water only in 
the night." 

Her father-in-law drove oxen quickly to the river. He took 
the big ox that was called by her name and killed it. He put all 
the flesh and everything else that was of that ox into the river, saying, 
"Let this be instead of my child." A voice was heard saying, " Go 
to my father and my mother and say to them that I am taken by 
the river." 

That evening the little child of Tangalimlibo was crying very 
bitterly. Its father was not yet home. Its grandmother tried by 
every means to keep it from crying, but in vain. Then she gave 
it to the nurse, who fastened it on her back. Still the child con- 
tinued to cry. In the middle of the night the nurse went down to 
the river with the child, singing this song, " It is crying, it is crying, 
the child of Sihamba Ngenyanga, it is crying, it will not be pacified." 
Then the mother of the child came out of the river, and wailed this 
song : — 

Uyalila, uyalila, umta ka Sihamba ngenyanga. 

Wenziwe ngabomu. Sihamba ngenyanga, 

Ngabantu abantloni. Sihamba ngenyanga. 

Bamtuma amanzi eminL Sihamba ngenyanga. 

Waba kuka ngetunga, laza latshona. Sihamba ngenyanga. 

Waba kuka ngomcepe, waza watshona. Sihamba ngenyanga. 

Waba kuka ngexakato, laza latshona. Sihamba ngenyanga. 

(It is crying, it is crying, the child of the walker by moonlight. 
It was done intentionally by people whose names are unmentionable. 
They sent her for water during the day. She tried to dip with her 
milk-basket, and then it sank. Tried to dip with the ladle, and then 
it sank. Tried to dip with the mantle, and then it sank. With the 
name as a chorus at the end of each line). 

Then she took her child and put it to her breast to suck. 

Kafir Nursery Tales. 34.7 

When the child had finished sucking she gave it back to the nurse 
telling her to take it home. She commanded the nurse never to say 
to any one that she came out of the water, and told her that when 
people asked where the child got food she must say she gave it berries 
to eat. This continued for some days. Every night the nurse took 
the child to the river, when its mother came out and suckled it. She 
always looked round to see that no one was present, and always put 
the same command on the girl. 

After a time the father of the child returned from hunting. 
They told him of Tangalimlibo's going to the river and not returning. 
Then the nurse brought the child to him. He inquired what it ate, 
and was told that berries were given to it. He said, " That cannot 
be so, go and get some berries and let me see my child eat them." 
The girl went and brought some berries, but they were not eaten by 
the child. Then the father of the child beat the girl until she told 
the truth. She said she went at night to the river, when the mother 
came out and caressed her child and gave it of her milk. 

Then they made a plan that the husband of Tangalimlibo 
should hide himself in the reeds and try and catch his wife when she 
came out of the water. He took the skin of an ox and cut it into a 
long riem, one end of which he fastened round his waist. The other 
end he gave to the men of that village, telling them to hold it fast 
and to pull hard when they felt it being drawn from them. 

At night the man hid himself in the reeds. Tangalimlibo came 
out of the water and looked all round while she was singing her song. 
She asked the girl if any one was there, and when the girl replied 
that there was no one she took her child. Then her husband sprang 
upon her, clasping her very tight. She tried to pull back, but the 
men at the village drew upon the riem. She was drawn away, but 
the river followed her, and its waters turned into blood. When it 
came close to the village, the men who were pulling at the riem saw 
it and became frightened. They let the riem go, when the river at 
once went back, taking Tangalimlibo with it. 

After that her husband was told of the voice which came from 
the water, saying, " Go to my father and my mother and tell them 
I am taken by the river." He called his racing ox, and said, "-Will 
you, my ox, take this message to the father and mother of Tanga- 
limlibo?" The ox only bellowed. He called his .dog, and said, 
" Will you, my dog, take this message to the father and mother of 
Tangalimlibo ? : ' The dog only barked. 

Last of all he called the cock. He said, " Will you, my cock, 
take this message to the father and mother of Tangalimlibo ?" The 
cock answered, " I will do so, my master."' He said, " Let me hear 
what you will say. ; ' The cock answered, " I will sing 

Ndiyi nkuku nje ndingebulawe. Kukulu ku-u-u. 
Ndize kubika u-Tangalimlibo. Kukulu ku-u-u. 
U-Tangalimlibo utile. Kukulu ku-u-u. 

348 Kafir Nursery Tales. 

Ukelele umntu ntloni amanzi. Kukulu ku-u-u. 
Ibe kutunywa inkomo, yakonya. Kukulu ku-u-u. 
Yaba kutunywa inja, yakonkota. Kukulu ku-u-u. 

(As I am a cock I ought not to be killed. I have come to 
intimate about Tangalimlibo. Tangalimlibo is dead. She dipped 
water for a person that cannot be named. It was tried to send an 
ox, it bellowed. It was tried to send a dog, it barked. With an 
imitation of a cock crowing at the end of each line). 

The chief said, " That is good, my cock, go now," 

As the cock was going on his way, some boys who were tending 
calves saw him. One of them said to the others, " Come here, come 
here, boys, there is a cock for us to kill." Then the cock stood up, 
and sang his song " Ndiyi nkuku, &c." The boys said, " Sing 
again, we did not hear you plainly." So he sang again, " Ndiyi 
nkuku, &c." Then the boys let him go on his way. 

He travelled far from that place and came to a village, where the 
men were sitting in the kraal. He flew up on the back of the kraal 
to rest himself, and the men saw him. They said, " Where does 
this cock come from ? We thought all the cocks here were killed. 
Make haste, boys, and kill him." The cock began to sing his song. 
Then the men said, "Wait, boys, we wish to hear what he says." 
They said to him, " Begin again, we did not hear you." The cock 
said, " Give me some food, for I am very hungry." The men sent a 
boy for some millet, and gave it to him. When he had eaten, he 
sang his song, " Ndiyi nkuku, &c." The men said, ' Let him go," 
and he went on his way. 

Then he came to the village of the father of Tangalimlibo, to 
the house of those he was seeking. He told the message he was 
sent to carry. The mother of Tangalimlibo was a woman skilful in 
the use of medicines. She said to her husband, " Get a fat ox to go' 
with us." They arrived at the river, and killed the ox. Then that 
woman worked with her medicines while they put the meat in the 
water. There was a great shaking and a rising up of the river, and 
Tangalimlibo came out. There was great joy among those people 
when they took her home to her husband. 

This is a ' favourite story, and is therefore very widely known. 
Sometimes it happens that native girls are employed as nurses by 
Europeans, and that little children are taught by them to sing, or 
rather chant the song of the cock, so that this story may even be 
like " an old acquaintance with a cheerful face " to many a one of 
our own race who has grown up on the frontier. It is well worthy 
of careful perusal as illustrative of Kafir ideas and customs, to some 
of which it may not be deemed amiss if I draw attention. 

Among these people a childless woman finds little or no favour. 
In nearly every case she would be treated by her husband in exactly 
the manner here described. By becoming a mother she might say 

Kafir Nursery Tales. 349 

from the bottom of her heart with Elizabeth of old that " her reproach 
was taken away from among men." 

It will be observed that the woman speaks of those whose names 
are unmentionable. According to Kafir custom no woman may- 
pronounce the names of any of her husband's male relatives in the 
ascending line. She is bound to show them the greatest respect and 
implicity to obey their commands. She may not sit in the house 
where her father-in-law is seated, she may not even pronouce any 
word in which the principal syllable of his name occurs. Thus, a 
woman who sang the song of Tangalimlibo for me used the word 
angoca instead of amanzi for water, because this last contained the 
syllable «z/, which she would not on any account pronounce. She 
had therefore manufactured another word, the meaning of which had 
to be judged of by the context, as standing alone it is meaningless. 

The beer-drinking company on the mats under a tree, the escort 
of the bride to her husband, and the wedding feast are true to the life. 

The idea of the Kafir with regard to drowning is also shown 
very distinctly in this tale. He believes that a spirit pulls the person 
under water, and that this spirit is willing sometimes to accept an ox 
as a ransom for the human victim. How this belief works practically 
may be illustrated by facts which have come under my own cogni- 

Sometime in 1875, a party of Kafir girls went to bathe in a 
little stream not far from this. There was a deep hole in the stream, 
into which one of them got, and she was drowned. The others ran 
away home as fast as they could, and there told a story how their 
companion had been lured away from their side by the spirit calling 
her. She was with them, thev said, in a shallow part, when suddenly 
she stood upright and said, " It is calling." She then walked straight 
into the deep place, and would not allow any of them to touch her. 
One of them heard her saying, " Go and tell my father and my 
mother that it took me." Upon this, the father collected his cattle 
as quickly as possible, and set off for the stream. The animals were 
driven into the water, while the man stood on the bank imploring 
the spirit to take the choicest of them and restore his daughter. The 
failure to get the exchange effected is still attributed by the relatives 
of the drowned girl to the absence of one skilful to work with 

On another occasion, a Kafir was trying to cross one of the 
fords of a river when it was in flood. He was carried away by the 
current, but succeeded in getting safely to land some quarter of a 
mile or so further down. Eight or ten lusty fellows saw him carried 
off his feet, but not one made the slightest effort to help him. On 
the contrary, they all rushed away frantically, shouting out to the 
herd boys on the hill sides to drive down the cattle. As might be 
supposed, the escape of the man from being drowned was then 
attributed to his being in possession of a powerful charm. 

Victoria East, May, 1877. T » 


Stfre %xft gttyx&t in gtouth Sfric;t; : " 

Among the regiments of the British army who were engaged in our 
by-gone Frontier wars, the Rifle Brigade may still be well remem- 
bered. The " green jackets " as they were termed, proved most 
intrepid and untiring bush-fighters, rendering excellent service in 
defending the hearths and homes of our border settlers, as well as in 
worrying the Kafirs out of their hiding-places; and, as Sir Harry 
Smith characteristically said of them in general orders, " they were 
always as distinguished for their good fellowship as they were 
formidable to their foes." 

A history of the Brigade and its achievements has recently been 
published ; and that portion of it in which reference is made to 
South Africa will have a special interest for many colonists. Sir W. 
Cope, Bart., the author of the work, states in the preface that he is 
indebted for much of his information to the official records of the 
several battalions, and the journals, diaries, and recollections of the 
officers and men of the regiment. Among the latter he specially 
mentions Major-General Leicester Smyth, Sergeant-Major Bond, 
and Corporal Scott, who were engaged with the ist Battalion in 
Kafirland and across the Orange River. 

The regiment was first formed in 1800, as a corps (V elite, consisting 
of detachments from the different regiments of the line, who were 
set apart to be specially trained in the use of arms of precision. Under 
its commander, General Cook Mannigham, and his second, 
Lieutenant-Colonel Stewart, the corps was brought to a high state 
of discipline and military reputation, and was always a favourite 
with the volunteers from the Line and the Militia. Its war-services 
were as varied and distinguished as any on record. The Riflemen 
accompanied Nelson in his engagement at Copenhagen ; they were 
at the attack on Montevideo and Buenos Ayres ; in the Peninsular 
campaign, at the battle of Barossa, and the siege and storming of 
Badajos, and numerous other operations ; while in 18 15, they were 
engaged at Ouatrc Bras and Waterloo under the eye of the Duke 
of Wellington. Then came times of peace until the outbreak of the 
Kafir war of 1846 called for their services at the Cape. Following 
the close of our last war in 1852, the brigade was actively employed 
in the Crimea ; afterwards in India, in the suppression of the Sepoy 
Mutiny ; and latterly in the recent Ashantcc Campaign. In the four 
quarters of the globe, wherever fighting was to be done, the " green 
jackets" were always to be found. 

Throughout such extended military service, it may be well under- 
stood, the annals of the Brigade furnish much varied and interesting 
leading. The storming of Badajos itself is as stirring a narrative as 
is to be met with : and one of the incidents which followed upon 

* " History of she Rifle Brigade (The Prince Consort's Own), formerly the 95th." By 
Sir William Con Bart. London) Chatto and Windus, Cape town : Juta. 

The Rifle Brigade in South Africa. 351 

that event is quite as romantic as any novelist could imagine. The 
facts will be familiar to many of our readers, who have pleasant 
recollections of Sir Harry and Lady Smith ; but this is the first time 
we have met with a reference to them in print : — 

" On the day after the assault, two officers of the 1st Battalion 
were talking over the events of the past night at the door of a tent, 
when two ladies approached from Badajos and claimed their protec- 
tion. They were evidently, from their appearance and manner, of 
the upper classes of Spanish society. Both were handsome ; and the 
younger, then about fourteen, very beautiful. The elder, although 
still young, addressed the Riflemen, and said that she was the wife 
of an officer in the Spanish service, who was in a distant part of 
Spain ; that the young lady with her was her sister, who, having just 
completed her education in a convent, had been placed under her 
charge ; that yesterday she had a comfortable house and home ; that 
now it was in the possession of an infuriated and insane soldiery ; 
that they had already suffered violence, as their bleeding ears, from 
which the ear-rings had been rudely torn, bore witness ; and that to 
escape grater violence and dishonour worse than death, they had 
fled ; and had resolved (however strange the step might seem) to 
throw themselves upon the honour and the protection of the first 
English officers they might meet. It need not be told that it was 
freely given, and chivalrously observed, and that they were conveyed 
to a place of safety. Nor will it seem strange to add that the 
acquaintance begun in so romantic a manner ripened into a warmer 
feeling; and that within two years, the younger of them Donna 
Juana Maria de los Dolores de Leon, became the wife of him who 
had saved her, Harry Smith, then a Captain in the regiment, and 
was long known in English society as Lady Smith, the honoured 
wife of the conqueror of Aliwal." 

The service of the Rifle Brigade at the Cape commenced towards 
the close of 1846. The 1st Battalion arrived in Algoa Bay, in 
November of that year ; and immediately after landing began its 
march, under a burning sun, for Kafirland. The. companies formed 
part of the division commanded by Sir Peregrine Maitland in his 
expedition to the Kei River. There they had their first experiences 
of the hardship of the campaign. On reaching Butterw^rth, they 
found the missionary's house and the church in ruins, havino- been 
burnt down ; but every wall and corner which remained was occupied 
by the weary soldiers, glad of even such insufficient shelter — for 
scarcely had the outlying picquets been posted when heavy and 
continuous rain came on. Some of the men were o-atherino- 
stones on which to lie, to keep them oft" the streaming oround, and 
even these were sometimes washed away by the rills, forming paths 
and tracks. Five days' rations of biscuit, reduced to six ounces a 
day, were served out ; but, says the narrator, " hunger takes no 
account of commissariat measurement, and long before the expiration 
of the five days the Riflemen were picking gum off the trees, and 
eating it to assuage their need. : ' 

352 The Rife Brigade in South Africa. 

It was shortly after this that the disaster at Mount Misery occurred 
when Captain Gibson and his companions in arms lost their lives. 

" This Officer (Captain Gibson) and Assistant-Surgeon Howell, 
had accompanied the party of weakly and disabled men which had 
marched from this place on the 8th. While the party were halted 
on January nth, near the ford of the Kei, waiting for the fall of the 
river to enable them to cross, some cattle were observed grazing on 
the hills about three miles off. Captain Fraser, of the 6th foot, who 
was in command of these invalids, directed all the men who were 
able to march to proceed under Captain Gibson, to endeavour to 
capture these cattle, which were beyond the bank which reached 
from the river half-way up the hills. After the party, which was 
accompanied by Assistant-Surgeon Howell, and by Lieutenant the 
Honourable W. J. G. Chetwynd, of the 73rd regiment, had marched 
about an hour by a rather wide path through the bank, they arrived 
at a bend in the path. Unhappily the officers, unsuspicious of any 
attack, were marching ahead of their men, between seventy and one 
hundred yards from the leading files. When therefore they took the 
bend in the road, they were entirely hidden from them. At this 
moment the Kafir chief Pato, observing their defenceless positon, 
rushed upon them with about two hundred of his followers, and 
before the detachment could come up, killed all three officers. The 
little detachment under a sergeant of the 6th Foot, made good its 
retreat, gradually retiring, and whenever the Kafirs attacked, turning 
round and firing a volley. The patrol sent out to recover the 
remains of these officers, after marching about three hours through 
thick bush, came upon their bodies, which they brought into the 
bivouac at Spring-Flats, where they arrived about nine in the 
evening. They were interred by the officers and men of the 
battalion on the next day at a place called Shawsfontein ; bushes 
being burnt over the graves, to prevent the Kafirs discovering the 
place of their interment, and exhuming and desecrating their 

The battalion subsequently moved into the Keiskamma basin, 
where it was constantly engaged in active persuit of the Kafirs, who 
were hunted from place to place until Sandilla, the Gaika chief, 
surrendered himself, with ten of his principal men, to Colonel Buller. 

The Kafir war soon afterwards terminated, but in 1848, the Rifle- 
men were again called into action, in consequence of the rebellion 
of Pretorius and the Boers in the Sovereignty. The measures 
adopted by Governor Sir H. Smith, and the engagement at Boom- 
plaats, have already been described in previous numbers of this 
Magazine, but the following official account is worth preserving : — 

" A force consisting of two companies, Captains Murray's and 
Harding's of the 1st Battalion, two of the 45th, two of the 91st, and 
two squadrons of the Cape Mounted Rifles, with two six-pounders, 
was ordered to proceed at once to Colesberg. Colonel Buller was 
in command of the whole force and Major Beckwith of the Infantry. 

Jhe Rifle Brigade in South Africa. 353 

The two companies of Riflemen were made up to a strength of 
eighty rank and file each ; each man carried sixty rounds of ammuni- 
tion, and all were in light marching order, carrying their great coats 
or blankets, but not their knapsacks. On August 4-th the Riflemen 
marched and, though delayed by the state of the river Buffalo, which 
was swollen by the rains, and which they passed by India-rubber 
pontoons, arrived on the 21st at Colesberg, within about twenty-one 
miles of the Orange River. On the next morning they continued 
their march and halted on the high ground on the left bank of the 
Orange River, there between 250 and 300 yards broad, and then 
unfordable. Several attempts were made unsuccessfully to construct 
a raft ; but, at last, a hawser was thrown across and fastened to a 
tree on the opposite bank and then a lighter rope was passed over, by 
which the india-rubber pontoon, which had been brought up by the 
Riflemen from King William's Town, was worked backwards and 
forwards. On the 23rd Captain Murray's company was carried over. 
And on the three following days the remainder and the baggage 
were taken across ; not without difficulty on account of the steepness 
of the banks leading to the place of embarcation, and the rapidity of 
the current. The embarcation was superintended by Colonel Buller ; 
the disembarcation by Major Beckwith. However, by sunset on the 
26th the whole force was conveyed across, and encamped on the right 
bank of the river. 

" On the 27th, the troops marched at daylight, the Riflemen 
leading the Infantry (the Cape Corps being in advance), and 
after a march of about twenty miles, encamped on the plains 
near Phillipolis at Benlois Hoek. On the 28th marching at daybreak, 
the Riflemen encountered swarms of gray locusts which actually ob- 
scured the light of the sun. They proceeded past Phillipolis, a village 
of the Griqua Kafirs, and after a march of about twenty miles 
encamped for the night. On the 29th they continued their march 
at dawn, and after proceeding about ten miles, halted at some 
deserted farm-houses to breakfast. These were situated on the slope 
of a hill overlooking an extensive plain, called the Boomplaats, 
which, extending about twelve miles, was terminated by a rano-e of 
low rocky hills, rising one above another in height. Those on the 
right projected into the plain. Through these hills the road or track 
wound, and on them the Boers, estimated at about 2,500 or 3,000 
in number, had taken up their position, adding to its natural strength 
a kind of breastwork of piled stones. Had it been defended by dis- 
ciplined troops, under a competent leader, it would have been, if not 
impregnable, at least not to be forced without most serious loss. 
While the Riflemen were at breakfast the tidings reached them that 
they were soon to meet their enemy ; and when breakfast was over 
rifles were looked to, and packets of cartridges loosened. As soon as 
they fell in, Sir Harry Smith addressed them. No one could do so 
on such an occasion, with more authority and experience ; for he 
had fought in their ranks (or, while on the staff at their side) from 

354 b? Rifle Brigade in South Africa. 

Monte Video to Waterloo, in the Peninsula, in America, in Holland 
in Belgium. He reminded them of the glorious deeds there done, 
ending an inspiriting address by declaring that he would drive the 
arch-rebel Pretorius and his followers like rats from those hills. He 
was answered by such a cheer as Riflemen can give to an old Rifle- 
man who leads them into the fight. 

" Resuming their advance about eleven o'clock, they arrived at 
the foot of the hills between one and two p.m. Colonel Duller 
then ordered the Cape Corps to advance and to endeavour to 
turn the position in front and bv both its flanks. But the 
Boers receiving them with a heavy fire, and some mistake having 
occurred in executing the order, they retired, and cleared the front 
for the Riflemen, who in extended order advanced and drove the 
enemy at the point of the sword from the first, and through the 
second range oi heights ; and kept up a galling fire on them, as they 
retreated to the third and highest crest. Here they rallied their 
whole force, and delivered a telling fire, under which men and 
officers fell fast. But nothing could stand the dash of the Riflemen ; 
this last position was carried ; and at the end of two hours' hard 
fighting, the Boers fled after a short attempt at resistance behind the 
walls of a kraal. Then the troops were formed at quarter distance 
behind the guns, which opened with grape and shrapnel on the 
flying enemy ; delivering their fire, limbering up and advancing to 
the front j then firing again. Thus the pursuit was continued for 
about eleven miles ; until from sheer inability to proceed further the 
troops halted at Culverfontein for the night. 

"The loss of the Riflemen in this action was severe. Colonel Buller 
was severely wounded and his horse was killed under him. Captain 
Murray and six rank and file were killed or died of their wounds; Cap- 
tain Hardinge and eight rank and file were wounded, and Lieutenant 
and Adjutant Julius Glyn had his horse killed under him. Murray was 
leading his company when he was hit in the shoulder and his arm was 
shattered. Glyn, who was near him, ordered some men to take him 
to the rear; but before he could dismount another shot struck him, 
which passed through the body and injured the spine. He lived till 
about midnight, and was buried under a peach-tree at Boomplaats. 
Sir Harry Smith in communicating his death to his father, Major- 
General the Honourable Sir Henry Murray, says that ' he proved 
himself a most gallant officer; his loss deeply regretted by the men 
of his company.' In this letter Sir Harry Smith observes that 'this 
outburst of rebels has cost as smart an affair as I ever witnessed.' 
Yet he had witnessed many ; and some of them very smart affairs. 
'Your son,' he continues, ' led an attack as bold as it was successful, 
under a storm of fire in a difficult position, but fell an honour to his 
father and to his country.' 

" The wounded were left at Boomplaats, except Colonel Buller, 
who was conveyed with the troops. About ten o'clock at night 
the tents arrived and the battalion encamped. It had marched 

The Rifle Brigade in South Africa. 355 

more than twenty-six miles ; had fought a sharp action ; and 
followed the enemy with a most active pursuit. But they were 
not long to rest. They paraded at one o'clock on the morning 
of the 30th and by two o'clock leaving blankets, tents, and 
all- that could impede rapidity of march behind them, were again 
following the Boers. Both the companies of Riflemen were now 
commanded by 2nd Lieutenants the Honourable Henry Clifford and 
W. W. Knight, and they led the column as an advance guard. 
About daylight they arrived at a place called Wei man's Pass, where 
it was thought that the enemy might make a stand. Accordingly, 
the Riflemen were extended, and skirmished over the hills on each 
side, which commanded the defile. However, nothing was seen of 
the Boers, who were in fact utterly disorganized and demoralized by 
their defeat at Boomplaats, and who never attempted to rally. 

In the expedition thus concluded, the Riflemen had marched 
between 1,100 and 1,200 miles ; had crossed several difficult rivers 
with insufficient means of transit, had worn their clothing to shreds 
and their shoes off their feet. General orders highly laudatory of the 
conduct of the officers and men were issued by Sir Harry Smith, 
both on August 30th, immediately after the fight at Boomplaats, 
and also on his leaving the troops at Bloemfontein on September 15th. 
Colonel Buller was appointed Companion of the Bath, and Major 
Beckwith received the brevet rank of Lieutenant-Colonel," 

In 1850, the battalion was ordered home ; but before its departure 
from the Colony, free discharges were offered to such of the men 
as desired to settle in South Africa, and 165 non-commissioned 
officers and men availed themselves of them. Scarcely, however, 
had the regiment been a year in England, when tidings of the out- 
break of the war and rebellion of 185 1, and of the disastrous fight 
in which Colonel Fordyce of the 74th, was killed, reached them ; 
and the Riflemen, hurriedly dispatched in H.M.S. Megaera^ were 
soon once again on our frontier. Under command of Col. Buller, 
they were marched to the neighbourhood of Fort Beaufort, to 
dislodge the Kafirs from the fastnesses of the Waterkloof ; and, as 
a specimen of their operations there, we read : — " On April 29th, 
Captain Somerset's, Lord Alexander Russel's, and Woodford's Com- 
panies (with some Fingoes and Cape Corps) fell in at four in the 
morning, and were ordered to move forward in perfect silence. 
Somerset with a six-pounder went round by a road, while the 
remaining two companies advanced over most rough and broken 
ground to the edge of the Waterkloof, which, in consequence of its 
being perfectly dark, rendered the march extremely difficult. Day- 
light was just appearing when they caught sight of some Kafir fires. 
Colonel Buller passed the word to extend, and the two companies 
advanced. The Kafir 'whoop' was soon heard, and firing com- 
menced when they were about 200 yards from the first kraal. 
From this the Kafirs fled to the bush and the rocks, taking cover 
behind the rocks as the Riflemen came on. They set fire" to the 

356 The Rife Brigade in South Africa. 

huts, and still advancing and searching every bush and hiding-place 
emerged on the plain beyond. Somerset's Company with the gun 
now joined them on the left. They soon came in sight of another 
kraal, and the gun was unlimbered and a shell thrown into it. The 
Riflemen still advanced ; and the Kafirs kept up a brisk fire from 
the bush and from a hill just beyond. Here the three companies 
made a halt ; and eventually returned to camp, as the force was not 
strong enough to attempt the hill, where the Kafirs greatly out- 
numbered them. In this patrol, Lieutenant Godfrey and three men 
were wounded. The place was called Mundel's Krantz, and was in 
fact the place where Colonel Fordyce had been killed." This sort 
of patrolling was continued for weeks, the troops in sultry and rainy 
weather, scouring the hills and ravines, lying on the ground when 
they left off" at night, and renewing operations at daybreak the 
following morning, until Macomo with the remnant of his force 
was obliged to fly. 

When Sir G. Cathcart, at the close of the war, determined to 
proceed across the Orange River with a force to demand satisfaction 
from or punish Moshesh, chief of the Basutos, a company of the 
Riflemen formed his body-guard. The command of it devolved on 
Lieutenant the Honourable Leicester Curzon (now Major-General 
the Honourable Leicester Smyth, C.B.,) who has assisted Sir W. 
Cope with the following account of the battle of the Berea : — 

" General Cathcart named, as his ulti?natu?n^ that Moshesh should 
deliver 10,000 head of cattle within three days, reckoning from the 
1 6th, as a compensation for the depredations he had committed. On 
the 1 6th the General reviewed the whole force at six o'clock in the 
morning, which, after marching past, was put through various 
evolutions ; no doubt as a demonstration to overawe Moshesh. 

" On the afternoon of the 19th, the last of the three days, a 
herd of cattle were brought into camp by an escort of Basuto horse- 
men, under the command of one of Moshesh's sons. On their 
being counted and found to number only 3,500, this Prince was 
desired by General Cathcart to inform his father that unless the 
remainder were delivered the next morning he would come and 
seize them. No more cattle appearing, Cathcart, to show that he 
was in earnest, ordered Eyre with the cavalry, two guns, and a 
brigade of infantry, with the Riflemen, to move forward on the 19th 
and form a flying camp on the Caledon River. This demonstration 
being unheeded, Eyre received orders to advance at dawn, to find 
his way across the mountain of Berea, and having swept the 
plateau at the top, to join Cathcart, who with some other troops 
proceeded round the base of the mountain by its southern and 
western sides. About three, therefore, on the morning of the 20th, 
Eyre advanced, sending forward the light company of the 73rd and 
the Riflemen. When they had marched about four miles they saw 
a great number of Kafirs on the mountain on their right. This 
hill stands up isolated in a plain, and its sides are steep and craggy. 

The Rife Brigade' in South Africa. 357 

Eyre ordered the light company of the 73rd, under Lieut. Gawler, 
to mount the hill, and halted the Riflemen. Then, after a brief 
interval, he ordered Curzon to lead them on, to get to the top, bring 
his right shoulders forward, and take the cattle. Thus the Riflemen 
were in echelon on the left of the Company of the 73rd. The 
ascent was desperately steep, and in parts almost impracticable ; but 
the Riflemen pushed on. They had not advanced far when the 
Kafirs gave them a volley, which the Riflemen avoided by lying down 
flat on the ground. Again they pushed on, seeking cover among 
the rocks which dotted the side of the mountain. While in this 
cover, one of them armed with the Lancaster rifle brought down a 
Kafir as he was taking deliberate aim at some of the Riflemen 
who were blown and could not climb up the steep mountain side as 
fast as their comrades. Three more Kafirs were brought down 
before the top was gained without one Rifleman being hit. On 
reaching the summit, a table-land of two or three square miles, 
they found the 73rd company on their right, and on their advancing 
together the Kafirs bolted, a number of them being killed by the fire 
of the Riflemen, as they crossed their front at about sixty yards. 
But as Curzon and Gawler found themselves separated from the 
main body, they moved forward in search of it, keeping together for 
mutual support ; for they were surrounded by hordes of mounted 
Basutos, who hovered near, appearing and disappearing and watching 
for any straggling or irregularity in their formation which might give 
them a chance to charge. These were well mounted, organized, 
and armed with assegais and elephant guns ; and after attempting 
to terrify the little band they almost encompassed, with yells and 
pretended charges, they dismounted and fought on foot. They were 
repulsed, however, and driven off the plateau, and Curzon and his 
Riflemen joined the main body in the afternoon, to their great 
relief and satisfaction ; a satisfaction much enhanced when Eyre came 
up to them and told them that they had done their work well. But 
they had scarcely joined the rest of Eyre's division when he was 
obliged to descend the further side of the mountain with his whole 
force (abandoning 30,000 head of cattle which he had driven into a 
corner whence they could not escape) in order to assist General 
Cathcart, who had gravely compromised himself. The junction 
with Cathcart's force was effected about five in the afternoon ; and 
the weary Riflemen thought they were now to halt for the night, 
for they had been fighting and without food for twelve hours. 
Far from it, they were charged with great fury by about 7,000 
mounted Basutos ; they had to fight retreating, and were in a 
critical position till between eight and nine at night, when a round 
of canister at point-blank range from two guns under Captain 
Stapylton Robinson, Royal Artillery, effectually checked the Basutos 
who were pressing on them, and who left the field. The Riflemen 
bivouacked on the ground where they then halted, Eyre telling 
them that, if attacked they must fight to the death there, as he 
Vol. XIV. 2 a 

358 To a Fair Musician. 

neither could nor would retreat further. However, they were left 
to their repose, much needed and well earned after being under 
arms about eighteen hours and fighting during most of them. 

" In this affair the Rifle company which numbered ninety, lost 
three men : Privates Boffin and Case, who were killed, and Acting- 
Corporal Howard who died of his wounds on the next day. Lieut. 
H. G. Lindsay behaved with great gallantry ; and three 
Riflemen particularly distinguished themselves : Acting-Corporal 
Bateman, and Privates Ricketts and W. Hayward."' 

The above account, it must be remembered, relates chiefly to the 
doings of the company of the Rifle Brigade. The gallant deeds of 
the other regiments, and notably the 73rd who acted with them, are 
to be found in General Orders and the Cathcart Correspondence. 

f a ^air itekian. 

Not yet for my soul's mistress, sovereign music can I trace, 
But even as, when I dream, the dawn breaks on me from your face, 
So now your skill these ivories wakes to their harmonious themes, 
My being bows to you again, and is dissolved in dreams. 

With this your skill you mould my will, and teach me tune and time, 
That lead me forth, I know not how, towards the sweet sublime ; 
But when your fingers cease to call mix'd melodies to come, 
Then do I throb with thrilling thought; but wherefore am I dumb? 

Is there a soul in music, left to silence to proclaim ? 
Is there a longing language, that no syllables can name ? 
Is there a speech so golden-good that there are only two 
Can tell it e'en without a word, the nightingale and you ? 

Then here I miss the nightingale, who mourneth not for me ; 
And where is she shall speak my heart with harmonies but thee ? 
Say what your music will to me, I will but this to you, 
Speak to my heart not once too oft, but always speak it true. 

March, 1877. Alter Ego. 


% lourncn U tin gorily — IJMmit, $\m)t\x, m JfrRlwta 


His Excellency Lieut.-Gen. Sir A. Cunynghame, K.C.B. 


The day after our arrival at Oleabourg, we found was one devoted 
to great festivities. A public entertainment was given to the Governor 
on the occasion of his departure from the Province to that of Helsino-- 
fors. To this we were invited, and received with great distinction and 
hospitality. There was the usual amount of speech-making; many 
were fairly acquainted with the English language, and nothing 
seemed to please the citizens better, than allusions to the good 
feelings we bore towards their country. After the entertainment, 
we paraded under the old colours of the City and the banners of 
Gustavus III., of Sweden, and marching down to the quays, we 
embarked in steam gondolas. A band, which had been purposely 
brought from Stockholm, accompanying the procession, we twice 
paraded round the shipping in the Sound, and on our return marched 
in the same order to the Town Hall. Punch in profusion then 
followed, and we were glad at a late hour to escape to our rooms. 

At Oleabourg and its neighbourhood there is, strictly speaking, 
no independent class of gentry, every person is more or less in trade, 
but an exchange in goods rather than money may be looked upon 
as the general rule of commerce. 

From the Governor we received a great deal of interesting inforj 
mation. He told us that the present fertile appearances of 
the surrounding country were sadly reversed in winter, and 
that frost frequently fell upon them at a very early date. 
For six consecutive years from 1862 they had severe frosts in the 
month of August. Just as the corn was commencing to ripen, 
every blade in the country was withered and 8,000,000 marks 
worth in barley was lost — a terrible infliction on the people. He 
stated that education in a primary way was common amongst 
the peasantry ; that no one was permitted to marry unless they 
could read or write. This is the more surprising in a country where 
the inhabitants are generally so distant from schools ; but by law 
every father or head of a family is bound to give instruction to his 

A system of betrothal in marriage exists which by custom gives 
all its privileges, but if any objection is subsequently made to a leo-al 
fulfilment of the ceremonies then, by law, no marriage with another 
party can take place except by mutual sanction. 

Every man is compelled to be possessed of what is called a "Priest's 
Card." It is a record or register of the delinquencies of the pos- 

2 A 2 

360 A Journey to the North. — Norway, Sweden ^ and Finland. 

sessor. On seeking employment it is always requisite to produce the 
" Priest's Card," which speaks as to his former conduct in life. In 
cases of disagreement or accusation the magistrate can compel any 
person to show his " Priest's Card." Evidence of a servant in 
favour of his employer is not good in law, but his evidence against 
his master will be accepted. The law is generally lenient though 
sometimes exercised rather absurdly. A young Englishman was 
lately arrested for having bored some holes in a copper piece of 
money. He was accused of defacing the coin, and had some difficulty 
in convincing them that he was not contravening any of their laws, 
but assisting his fishing tackle. 

The general honesty of this people is proverbial. The laws of 
property are very severe. If on leaving a room the door is locked 
and the key hung up in sight, it is a felony for an unauthorized 
person to unlock it. 

These, and many other curious customs were told us. Their 
institutions generally favour the poor rather than the rich. The 
character of the judges and magistrates in Finland, unlike those of 
Russia, stand very high ; a bribe to mask justice would on no 
account be accepted. 

I was happy to see that female talents were in great requisition. 
In the Government Surveying Office, ladies were employed in mak- 
ing maps, and their execution was certainly equal to that of the men. 

Although these Northern Finlanders may be considered very 
primitive, yet I was told that they were very cunning and somewhat 
unscrupulous in their manner of gaining copecks ; one of their 
customs being that of detaining the return of clothing sent to the 
wash, in order that they might let them out in the town, receiving 
for each time they are used a certain number of copecks. 

On PViday, the 8th August, we left Oleabourg. We were 
greatly assisted on our journey into the interior through the kind- 
ness of Mr. Barry. Mr. Songer, his partner, placed at our disposal 
a gig upon springs. It was arranged that we should take this 
carriage as far as Milranda, at the rapids near Lake Olea, where, 
they said, we should find a steamer. They gave us a supply of 
smoked salmon and a provision of English biscuits, which latter no 
money could procure in the town ; not only this, but they attached 
to us, for a portion of our journey, a Finnish assistant in their office 
— Mr. Remburg. He spoke English well, and was the means of 
accelerating and smoothing our difficulties through this almost un- 
known country, and wc looked upon a successful start as a matter of 
the highest consideration. 

We left Oleabourg at about one o'clock in the afternoon, for 
although the distance to Milranda was only about ninety versts, we 
felt that with the detentions we should meet with in procuring 
horses, &c., it would be fortunate, even by travelling all night, if we 
arrived there before the steamer left in the morning. The 
country immediately round the town was forest, but when we 

A ^Journey to the North. — Norway, Sweden, and Finland. 361 

again met the river at Fasuys there was some little cultivation. At 
Alaitala there is a handsome church with a detached belfry, resem- 
bling those which we had so often seen in Sweden. The River 
Olea is here wide and deep. The country bears all the appearance of 
being very good for game ; when, indeed, we occasionally walked 
short distances from the road we put up both ptarmigan and black- 
cock, and occasionally one of the largest of this species, the caper- 
cailzie. Nice thick undercover amongst low birch trees and plenty 
of feeding from the wild berries, must encourage game ; indeed, the 
whole country clearlv showed that excellent sport could be met with 

Little or no game is destroyed by the peasants, as few possess 
guns, and the expense of powder and shot, costing at least three 
times as much as it does in England, and at the same time no sale 
whatever existing for the game that they would shoot, causes them 
not to enter at all into this pursuit. 

Mr. Barry said that near his iron works game was most plentiful. 
Capercailzie, ptarmigan, black-cock, duck, and snipe innumerable are 
to be found but singularly enough no woodcock. 

The peasants generally were well clothed in a warm coat, a shirt 
worn as a blouse, stout trousers, and Lapland boots. These last are 
universal. They are worn both summer and winter, and I was led to 
believe that the peasants generally slept in them. They are made of 
soft leather well greased ; they are pointed at the toe ; they reach 
above the knees, and are said to be quite waterproof, resisting even 
the snow water. 

Some of the peasants wear coats entirely made of leather, proving 
a great protection to them in the winter, and which from their 
durability cause them to be a very economical vestment. 

In consequence of the universal skill which the peasants possess 
with the axe, as well as the endless supply of timber, their houses 
are well built, very comfortable, and strong. In cleanliness they far 
surpass those of the Russians, and we found the post stations com- 
paratively free from insect life. 

In their persons the people are cleanly. To every house, however 
humble looking, is attached a bath-house, and as in this country 
fuel is almost valueless, so these baths, both in summer and winter, 
are in constant requisition. As, however, they differ so materially 
in their construction from our own, it is as well shortly to describe 

The bath-house is built of roughly-hewn timber logs ; the inter- 
stices, however, are most carefully filled up with a compound of 
mud and hemp, so as perfectly to prevent the entry of all air from 
without and also to impede the escape of steam from within. 
In the centre of each building a rude oven is constructed, over 
which are piled large granite stones. The oven being lit these 
stones become red-hot, in which state buckets of cold water are 
thrown upon them, the whole family then rapidly enter and seat 

362 A 'Journey to the North. — Noiway, Sweden^ and Finland. 

themselves upon the benches round the room, carefully shutting 
close the door. Volumes of steam mixed with smoke now fill the 
stifling air until it is almost impossible to breathe when, to relieve 
them, a small quantity of moss is taken from the wall and thus 
they revive. In winter it is said that on leaving the bath-room they 
plunge at once into the snow, which is then four or five feet deep 
around the building and thus a healthy glow pervades their otherwise 
exhausted bodies. It is asserted that this practice keeps off all sorts 
of maladies, and dangerous as the process may appear to us, perhaps 
in the end it is not more so than allowing the body to 
remain for months begrimed with dirt, which is a habit not un- 
frequent in some more southern countries. 

The appearance of the families whom we saw coming from these 
steaming houses, certainly showed an elasticity and healthy vigour 
of body which bid us believe that the effects of this vapour bath 
were not so exhausting as might have been expected. 

These peasants seldom or never eat meat, but content themselves 
with black bread, milk, butter, cheese, and salt fish. They con- 
stantly drink coffee, which is imported into Finland in large 
quantities. Unlike the Russians they never use tea. Such an 
article as a tea-pot is not even to be found amongst the better 

After some difficulty in obtaining horses at the various stages, we 
reached the rapids of Amma, or The Old Woman, near Milranda, at 
four o'clock in the morning. We sent in our letter of introduction 
to Mr. Achebloom, who is in charge of the works. He immediately 
sent to us delicious coffee, which was followed at a later hour by an 
excellent breakfast of salmon cutlets, &c, the drive of the 
previous night in this clear northern climate having sharpened our 
appetites amazingly. The view of the rapids from the window of 
his immense house was very fine, but they certainly appeared very 
dangerous to descend in boats. 

The salmon-fishing was represented to be very good, but it 
appears that although Milranda is so high up the River Olea, the 
fish are not very keen for the fly ; they are generally taken with a 
silver spoon bait shining brightly and revolving above a gaudy fly ; 
fish as large as 40 lb. weight being by no means uncommon. Trout 
of a very large size are also said to be caught, and these latter in 
great quantities. Unfortunately we had not even an hour to try a 
cast with the rod and line, which was the more tantalizing as there 
was no difficulty in procuring boats with experienced fishermen, and 
the day moreover looked favourable. It is really surprising that the 
facilities of obtaining excellent sport, and such requisites as boats and 
assistance bo easily procurable, with all the rough comforts which a 
spoitsman could require within his command, should be so little 
known at home. Within the last five years, it was told me, that no 
person excepting those employed at the mills had even visited 

A "Journey to the North. — Norway, Sweden., and Finland. 363 


The smaii lake steamer Amma, or The Old Woman, was getting 
up steam at the neighbouring wharf of Paaso, and the captain said 
he would start about seven o'clock. Probably no other vessel would 
go down the lake for four or five days, The alternative was 
that we should either remain at Milranda, or drive ninety or 100 
versts through the forests, with a certainty of having continual 
detentions in obtaining horses, perhaps, indeed, for hours at each 
station on this unfrequented road. We felt ourselves, therefore, 
compelled to decline the further hospitalities of Mr. Archebloom, 
which he proffered to us. 

We now relinquished the spring gig which Mr. Barry 
had so kindly lent us, and took ourselves and traps on board the lake 
steamer. This vessel would certainly bear no comparison in point 
of comfort or elegance with H.M.'s Yacht Enchantress, which we 
had so lately seen at Trondhjem. She was the roughest little vessel 
I had ever been on board, about forty tons measurement, and her 
power possibly that of a dozen Arab donkeys, yet, she was com- 
pelled to drag behind her two enormous timber scows, each nearly 
treble her own size. 

The only shelter which we had from a biting wind was in a small 
fore-cabin, redolent of all sorts of odours, amongst which salt fish 
and decayed cheese decidedly predominated, and this room 
warmed by the neighbouring boiler was thus rendered ten-fold more 

Lake Olea is in parts sixty miles broad and eighty or ninety 
long, and as a brisk gale of wind blew a-beam a very heavy sea in 
this large lake resulted. The poor little ship rolled and surged in the 
waves, but all her struggles were inoperative in causing a more 
rapid progress than four miles an hour, retarded and drawn back as 
she was by the large cargo-boats which were attached to her. There 
was one other passenger on this voyage, a Finlander who had seen 
distant lands, having been sent by the Russian Government round 
Cape Horn to report upon the mines in Russian America before 
that country had been sold to the United States. 

The account of his voyage was very interesting. He stated that 
he had clearly discovered that although coal-mines existed on that 
coast and could be worked, yet nothing but brown coal was to be 
met with, which would not repay the outlay, and consequently he 
reported that it was far better to relinquish this distant land to the 
United States, and thus save all future trouble and expense of its 

This gentleman was now on a tour in the employment of Govern- 
ment, upon a visit to the mines in Finland. His description of this 
little-known country was most interesting, and having spent a con- 
siderable time in Germany, England, and Belgium, the languages of 
which countries he was well acquainted with, his society in no small 

364 A Journey to the North. — Norway, Sweden, and Finland. 

degree helped to obliterate the discomforts of an otherwise exceed- 
ingly tedious voyage. He described many of the mines, especially 
those on the confines of Russia, near to the Lake Ladoga, as being 
very rich in iron ore, so much so that one workman, assisted by 
his wife could easily scoup up from the bottom of the shallow lakes 
one ton of stuff per diem, which was so rich in iron that after wash- 
ing it would realize from half to three-quarters of a ton of good ore. 
The most remunerative works, he said, existed in the South of Fin- 
land, especially that of Archbroke near Abo, but as there the ore 
was smelted with English coal, the iron produced from it was by no 
means equal in quality to that which was smelted in the interior of 
Finland by charcoal. 

After a run down the lake of about sixty miles, as far as we could 
see inland being one enormous forest, we entered the Nuas River 
proceeding from the Nuas Lake, and shortly afterwards we arrived 
at Kaijanas. 1 may mention that we were charged but four shillings 
each for this voyage of fourteen hours, proving incontestably that 
extravagant charges, which follow in the wake of civilization, had 
not yet penetrated into the interior of Finland. 

The strength of constitution of the Finlanders is marvellous. 
Although the rain may beat and the wind may blow, they will lie 
upon the open deck with perfect contentment without cloak or any 
other shelter, whereas in the houses they smother themselves with 
hot stoves, and closed doors and windows : neither heat nor cold 
appears to distress them. And yet as a rule these country people are 
very poorly fed. It is even said that they draw on the forest for 
their food, sawdust from the birch trees being boiled into a thick 
paste which, when dry, is reduced into powder being heated in an 
oven and ground, it is then made into a bread resembling oatmeal 
cakes, which is said to be nutritious and wholesome. 

The name of the town Kaijanas, is stated to be derived from 
that of a giant who, traditionally, floated down the rapids of the 
Nuas River on a large pine log. 

In the centre of the stream, on an island, are the remains of an 
old castle or fort, in which it is said that for a series of years the 
Swedes held the Russian army in check on their invasion of this 
country. It is situated in a commanding position over the river, 
and is exceedingly picturesque. The town is placed immediately 
above, and the rapids rush past under two bridges leading from the 
old castle on the island to either bank. A lock with sluice gates 
has been formed, through which to pass the tar-boats, the rapids 
being too dangerous to allow them otherwise to descend. 

I failed in purchasing a photograph of the old castle, but im- 
mediately the chief magistrate was informed of my wish he sent 
me an engraving of it. We had some difficulty in obtaining lodg- 
ings as there was a ball about to be given in the hotel, and all the 
bed-rooms were converted into supper-rooms, ante-rooms, and card- 
rooms. We lodged, however, at the post station, where we had a 

A Journey to the North. — Norway, Sweden, and Finland. 365 

good supper, the whole charge including beer and tea, being just 
one franc each. I mention the price to show how little this country 
is visited by strangers and how totally unknown here is the rapacity 
so common amongst central European hotel-keepers. 

The captain of the Jmma very kindly assisted to procure the 
means for our further progress ; it was a spring gig, which we hired 
from a Mr. Inkerman, and for which, for a distance of ninety versts to 
Idem Salmi, including the expenses of its return, we paid him four 
shillings. At Idem Salmi the lake system again commences, and 
from thence we were informed it was probable we should find 
small steamers continuously to Wybourg. 

A glance at the map will show how wonderfully the whole of the 
interior of Finland is intersected with lakes ; some of these are 
connected by continuous and natural links of water, while betwixt 
others a few hundred yards of land alone intervene to impede the 
continuous navigation of the country. The Government have 
already done much to perfect and utilize this natural high road by 
joining the lakes by canals where necessary, and is daily doing more. 
Facilities now exist of travelling by steam during the open season 
through a very large portion of this beautiful country, but of which 
European travellers are entirely ignorant, although a traveller would 
be well repaid, more especially a fisherman or a sportsman. It is the 
least expensive in Europe, and in point of beautiful scenery few 
countries surpass and many by no means equal it. Luxuries are not 
to be expected. 

A journey in Finland is by no means difficult, and to travellers of 
a more adventurous character interesting excursions may be made 
from Kuopio, the centre of the country, even to the White Sea. For 
such a journey, however, a small tent, some provision, and tea 
would be required, but these could be transported without difficulty 
and at small expense, due arrangements being made before starting. 
Having crossed the frontier of Finland into Russia, a system of 
rivers and lakes would be met with leading to Kem on the White 
Sea and by Ob Kutuas and the Ount Kutuas Lakes and the River 
Kem, which are nearly united, small intervals which alone it would 
be obligatory to walk intervening. Boats and rowers for traversing 
both lakes and rivers would be easily procurable. 

After descending the River Kem to the sea the distance to Sala- 
watz, or Holy Island, in Weiper See, is little more than thirty 
versts. Probably there is no more interesting spot in Russia than 
the Convent in Salawatz, which has been so ably described by 
Dixon in his book entitled " Free Russia," from which interesting 
spot a steamer, the property of the holy brotherhood and com- 
manded by one of their number, plies frequently to Archangel. 
The best time for such an expedition would be to leave Oleabourg 
about the middle of July, thus entering the upper forest countrv 
by the beginning of August, when the mosquitos, in consequence 
of the early August frost, would be less tormenting and at which 

366 A "Journey to the North. — Norway, Sweden, and Finland, 

time of year such a journey as I have described would be by no 
means difficult. The easiest mode of reaching Oleabourg, is that 
by steamer from Stockholm to Helsingfors, from whence there are 
steamers continually running up the coast of Finland touching at all 
the principal towns. 

On the 10th of August we left Kaijanas for Idem Salmi, passing 
continually through a forest country, new roads being made with 
much pertinacity through a boggy soil. From the Black Mountain 
above Kaijanas, we had a fine view of the vast and continuous forests 
over which the eye in every direction rests. 

At Sukevan, we came upon whole forests of pine, stripped solely 
for their bark, looking like naked giants in the dim twilight. 

At Ryhalanmaki, also at Hinjaroi, and at many other places 
we met with a small quantity of tobacco culture, though I should 
doubt the heat ever being sufficient to mature it ; we also met with 
hops, which the natives said was used for making their beer ; but I 
may add that Finnish beer in taste and in poverty, surpasses the most 
washy brews in Europe. 

We arrived at Idem Salmi at about 9*30 p.m., having easily 
completed our journey of ninety versts in the day, although the rain 
was descending heavily for many hours. In addition to the small 
gig, drawn by a pair of stout ponies, and driven by my son, a small 
cart containing our baggage with two more ponies, followed us with 
a native driver. We thus posted, changing ponies about every ten 
miles, at the rate of about seven to eight miles per hour, — the 
expense for which two conveyances, including the driver, did not 
exceed threepence per mile. 

At Idem Salmi we found a comfortable station-house, where we 
rested for the night. On the following morning, having made ar- 
rangements to send back the gig that had been so kindly lent us, we 
embarked in a small steamer called the Tipper, even more un- 
comfortable than the Annua, the Old JVoman in which we had 
crossed Lake Nuas. The Tipper was covered with a corrugated 
iron roof; but as both ends were open and there was no cabin, the 
draft from the gale of wind that was blowing, was perfectly 
excruciating, and we were forcibly reminded that we were in a 
country where travelling was, as yet, rude and unrefined. This 
vessel was, however, very fast, and by ten o'clock we arrived at the 
commencement of a canal at Akkiolax, at the end of the lake Origi. 
The workmanship of this canal appeared excellent, large blocks of 
granite beautifully worked and fitted were being prepared for the 
locks. As it was incomplete, we were compelled to disembark into 
a marsh, in which we waded for some distance above our ankles in 
mud, our baggage being carried on the backs of sturdy Finlanders. 
On reaching the dry ground we fortunately found a cart, in which 
we rumbled along to the lake Kalivcssie, on which after some delay, 
we embarked upon a small steamer for Kuopio, and which, in torrents 
of rain and a thunderstorm, we reached about five in the afternoon. 

A Journey to the North.- — Norway ', Sweden, and Finland. 367 

The discomforts and difficulties incidental to our progress through 
Finland might be said now to have terminated, and these, in my opi- 
nion, were well repaid by the interests of the journey. These discom- 
forts mainly consisted in day and night travelling in small carts and 
rather indifferent food, relieved, however, by the stores which we 
had prudently brought with us. The keen northern air, the 
exercise and the exertion had certainly given to both of us an 
increase in elasticity and health. 

At Kuopio we preferred the station-house to the hotel, as we 
knew that at the former we should be less intruded on by the curious 
of the community, for, as we were the only tourists who had visited 
this town for many years, purely for the love of travelling, so we 
were looked upon by everyone as originals, and excited some 

The town of Kuopio — the most central in Finland — is 
beautifully situated on Lake Kala. The town itself is very 
pretty, but its position can with difficulty be surpassed. A fine 
esplanade exists in the middle of the town, above which is a large 
church, and clean streets extend for a considerable distance around. 
Close to the town and on a peninsula are some well laid out 
public gardens, where there are large bath-houses, refreshment 
saloons, and a theatre. These gardens are beautifully kept, and the 
views of the various branches of the lake through the trees are very 

The entertainment that was going on at the time of our visit 
was both curious and interesting. A dozen Cossacks of the Don 
were singing and chanting a sort of long monotonous dirge, which 
they relieved occasionally by a sort of Highland fling or Irish jig, 
the music to which was played by one of their number upon a small 
brass pipe. To the best of my ability I made myself understood 
by them, and their delight was unmeasured when they found that I 
had visited many of their distant towns on the Don, Tageurog, &c. 
Kuopio is a long distance from the homes of these poor fellows. The 
climate in which they perform this military service is extremely 
cold, and surrounded as they are by people whose language and 
customs are strange to them, their duties must be very irksome. It 
reminded me very much of the colonial service which is imposed 
upon our own army, where each officer and soldier in turn, is chilled 
by the snows of Canada, or broiled under the tropical heat of China 
cr India. It would appear that the Cossacks who are stationed in 
Finland are treated with much kindness and consideration, and that 
both they and their little horses, who had accompanied them these 
thousands of versts, from the banks of the Don and the Volga, 
were well nourished and well housed. 

These irregular troops are allowed to improve their position, and 
supplement their slender allowances by performing many small 
services to the townspeople, such as removing furniture, &o, for 
which they ate generally compensated by dinners of cucumber and 

368 A Jonrney 10 the North. — Norway , Sweden., and Finland. 

fish, and small recompenses in money, and, on the whole, do not lead 
an unhappy existence. Although in the middle of summer, these 
men were clothed in their long thick grey coats and high boots, 
their rifle slung on their back, and their Circassian sword at their 
side, they looked as dingy but as service-like as, on many a day, I 
had seen them on picquet at the outposts at Kertch and at Sebastapol 
ill the Crimea, rough and ready for war and to meet privation in 
heat or cold, either near the tropics or within the Arctic Circle. 

About a couple of miles distant from Kuopio is a hill called Pon- 
joobascken. It is very easy of ascent. The small Russian drotskies 
which ply in the town are able to go to its summit, on which a lofty 
wooden tower is erected, and from which a lovely view on all sides 
is laid before you. Lakes and wooded islands with rocky scenery, 
and splendid pines in countless numbers met the eye on all sides. 
The view from Moisebaecken at Stockholm is justly renowned, but 
that from Ponjoobrecken, near Kuopio, is far superior in all respects, 
except that it does not command an array of palaces and a city, 
but trusts to nature in its solitary grandeur. We were compelled 
to remain at Kuopio for some days, as steam communication between 
Viborg and St. Petersburg was only occasional ; this, however, we 
did not so much regret as we obtained a thorough rest after our 
fatiguing journey, and an opportunity of recruiting ourselves for 
the long tour which we had in contemplation, that of crossing 
Russia into Siberia. 

Towards the upper part of Lake Kala there is a very fine water- 
fall. There is a daily steamer which plies to the neighbourhood of 
this fall, which is about forty miles distant ; it is called Korkia 
Koshi. In summer there is not much water in it, but the beauty 
of the surrounding scenery as well as the facilities in approaching it 
make it well worthy of a visit. 

In passing through the Town of Kuopio it was satisfactory to 
see that more than half the articles sold in the shops were of 
English manufacture, and not the less so, when we were informed 
that these articles were better and cheaper than such as could be 
procured of Russian manufacture. I am inclined to put very little 
faith upon the arguments which are advanced, that Russian manu- 
factures ^re likely to drive us out of any market in the world. We 
left Kuopio with regret but with pleasing recollections. 

On the i^th August we resumed our journey in Finland. We 
embarked in a steamer called the Siama, named after the largest of 
the lakes. She was a most comfortable little vessel, exceedingly 
clean and well arranged ; the meals were excellent. We had 
hitherto been crossing an unfrequented forest country, but every 
step which we now took towards the south and the larger 
cities, comforts, if not luxuries, were again presented within our 

The scenery through which we were passing was quite enchanting, 
lake succeeding lake, linked to each other by short canals. Here 

A Journey to the North, — Norway ^ Sweden, and Finland. 369 

again, were handsomely-built locks of grey granite ; the whole kept 
in perfect order, even to the sidewalks. 

On leaving the Kala Vessee, we passed by the Kounux Canal 
into the Kounux Vessee, on which was situated the very pretty 
Town of Leppanvista. Next we threaded the Unukha Vessee, the 
Taipora Canal connecting this lake with the Ainus Vessee, next the 
Haapa Vessee, then the Hanki Vessee, on the shores of which latter 
there is the large and exceedingly pretty town of Nyslott. It 
possesses a very fine old castle, said to have been built in the 
thirteenth century, which has stood many a siege from the 
Russians. It is now not in nearly so ruined a state as might have 
been expected from its age. It is placed in a very picturesque 
position on the lake. There is here again a look-out tower, 
from which is presented a beautiful view of the surrounding 
country. Near this town is a very singular road along the ridge of 
a mountain at Punjaharjaie. The road is fourteen miles long, but so 
narrow is the ridge, that for the whole distance the width of the 
hill itself is no greater than that of the road. On leaving the 
harbour we steamed past a beautiful island from the Hanki Vessee 
into the Pihlaja Vessee, and from thence into the Haapa Vessee, 
touching at the Town of Pumala, from thence into the Grosen 
Siama Vessee, the largest lake in Finland, at the southern end of 
which stands the town of Whilhelmstadt. 

From Whilhelmstadt a large canal with twenty-eight locks of 
superior workmanship connects the Siama Lake with the city of 
Viborg. The distance thus traversed from Kuopio to Viborg being 
315 versts, which is accomplished in about two days. Lake Siama 
is a very large sheet of water — quite a sea — and were it not for the 
many islands which exist in it, the passage through it in strong 
winds would occasionally be most disagreeable if not dangerous. 
The lake scenery is very beautiful. It may be said to lack the high 
mountains with which the Swiss lakes are almost universally sur- 
rounded, but the endless forest scenery and the succession of the 
inner lakes make up for any deficiency in the commanding nature 
of their shores. 

I do not know when I have been more interested than in this 
tour to the inner waters of Finland, so utterly unknown to the 
entire mass of my travelling countrymen, whom I strongly 
recommend to visit this country as one which will repay their 
time and trouble. Towards the southern end of the Lake Siama 
we left the steamer at Lauritzsala, with the object of goino across 
country to Imatra, sending our luggage direct to Viborg, intending 
to claim it there on the following afternoon. 

At Lauritzsala we succeeded in procuring a cart and pair of 
ponies, and after a drive of about two hours, or thirty-three versts 
through Jurtsenoon, we reached the falls of Imatra, where we stopped 
at a Russian Hotel. In a very large saloon we found a 
numerous party at breakfast, whom we at once recognized as our 

370 A Journey to the North. — Norway, Sweden, and Fin/ana. 

countrymen, and subsequently discovered that they were some of 
the principal members of His Excellency the English Ambassador's 
Staffat St. Petersburg, whose society for the remainder of the day added 
in no small degree to the interest of our visit to the falls. The re- 
nowned falls at Imatra may more properly be called rapids, being a con- 
tinuous cataract of water descending about 120 feet in the distance 
of half a mile, wildly rushing over a rocky bed between high cliffs ; 
and as the breadth of the stream nowhere is more than sixty feet, and 
the volume of water is very considerable, the magnificent effect of this 
cataract can be readily imagined. The fishing in the river itself, as 
well as in a neighbouring lake, was represented as being very good. 
Two rods, the morning of our arrival, had killed thirty-six trout, 
averaging from three to twelve pounds each, the latter being the 
heaviest that had been killed that day, but it was said that trout of 
twenty and twenty-five pounds were not unfrequently taken. 

In the afternoon we were provided with a good posting-cart and 
easily drove through Kumanpotus, Witikan and Jappin, the fifty- 
six versts in five hours into Viborg, The country through which 
we passed gradually improved as to cultivation, and the bath-houses, 
one of which was attached to every house, appeared to be more 
carefully built than in the more inland portions of Finland. The 
heating process seemed to be more carefully arranged, and the ovens 
were built of fine brick ; but in addition a large amount of damp 
straw was placed around the eaves of the building to induce a 
greater degree of humidity in the armosphere within. I may 
mention that this country is the highest north in which fruits exist. 
Beyond this point not even apples are to be found. 

At Viborg we quitted Finland after a most interesting journey 
through the heart of that country, having travelled from one end to 
the other, a distance of 815 versts, or 550 miles, and having just 
spent ten days in the country. The town of Viborg is well 
situated. The old castle is interesting, bearing evident marks of war 
and sieges, which latter it continually bore until it fell into the 
hands of Russia. There appeared to be considerable mercantile 
industry, but from the appearance of the city and its inhabitants, it 
was evident that we were approaching a new country, distinct in 
every way from Scandinavia. 

{To be concluded in our next). 


Jit t\u tap mitt liictoi'jus, 


On the 28th November, 1838, I reached the commando, of the Emigrants 
at the small Togala spruit. The chief commandant, A. W. J. Pretorius, 
had already proceeded, and we went on to the other side of the 
great Togala, in the entrance under the rising ground. The 
camp was then pitched, and enclosed by the wagons, fifty-seven 
in number, and when all preparations had been made, the sun 
was setting. Here my attention waa drawn to the first commencement 
of the government of the chief commandant ; for he ordered that the 
camp should be properly enclosed, and the gates well secured after the 
cattle should be within the same, and that the night patroles should be 
properly set out ; all of which was executed with the greatest activity 
and readiness. After all this had been arranged, the officers met in the 
tent of the chief commandant ; which officers were Carel Pieter Landman 
(2nd commandant), Pieter Daniel Jacobs (2nd member of the court- 
martial), Jacobus Potgieter (successor of the 2nd commandant), and also 
the other commandants, Johannes de Lange, and Stephanus Erasmus 
with their field-cornets. They held an amicable conversation, for the 
purpose of agreeing on the measures of the commando. The chief com- 
mandant then requested Mr. Cilliers to perform evening divine service, 
and the old evening hymn was sung, which Mr. Cilliers concluded with 
a most fervent prayer. The chief commandant further ordered com- 
mandant Erasmus to go out with a patrol in the night to spy the kraals 
of Tobe, as he intended to make the first attack on these. This was 
done. Now the weather was rainy, and it rained by showers. 

The next day we rose, and every one was glad. After we had enjoyed 
some refreshments, the chief commandant requested me to assist him in 
writing. He gave me to write a strict order or regulation for the com- 
mando, which he had framed in a few words. After I had done this the 
commandants were assembled, and their approbation thereof asked, which 
they gave. I then made copies of that order for each commandant. In 
the meantime, the patrol of commandant Erasmus returned, but had not 
traced anything, on account of the unfavourable weather, and had seen 
nothing but smoke here and there from the kraals. 

On the 4th December, we continued our journey from the Togala, 
proceeding through a plain open field (the field is rather sour but may be 
useful), as far as the Klip River which we passed. About a quarter of 
an hour on the other side thereof, the field begins to look most beautiful, 
dressed with sweet grass, presenting a youthful verdure and varegated 
with mimosa-trees. Having proceeded a little further on we encamped, 
and here we had a beautiful sight of the field, but there was no running 
water. The camp having been pitched, the chief commandant gave me 
to write an Ordinance for the prevention of improperly attacking or in- 
* From the Journal of J, G. Bantjes. 

372 In the Camp with Pre tori us. 

terfcring with the free persons of colour, which I finished, and then after 
the evening divine service had been performed, I retired to sleep. 

The following day being 5th December, all was still in good order. 
Everyone looked out and was anxious for the return of the spies who 
were sent out, as we were to remain here waiting for their report or 
return. In the meantime, the chief commandant, after having assembled 
all his officers and their men, began in the first place to read to them, for 
their encouragement and admonition, a letter of a brother and friend, Mr. 
Christian Hatting, which was addressed to all his emigrant brethren, and 
this letter was well worth the attention of the audience. The chief 
commandant then addressed himself to those under his command, which 
greatly roused the spirits of many, whilst he himself speaking with great 
feeling was much moved in his heart. He then read another letter 
addressed to him by the Rev. Mr. Van der Lingen. This was also most 
worthy of being read, and every one felt grateful towards God for 
receiving so consolatory messages in such a barren wilderness. The chief 
commandant also performed the utmost of his duty by impressing this 
circumstance on the minds of his men. He also communicated to them 
his answer thereon, which every one lauded. He then further admonished 
them all to begin this most important task which they had undertaken 
(and which must be blessed by the Most High if it is be successful) with 
supplications and prayers to the throne of God, for to remain steadfast to 
the end, and to show obedience to their superiors, as otherwise we can 
expect no blessing and our ruin to the great rejoicing of our persecutors 
and enemies will have been occasioned by ourselves. He then proceeded 
to read the instructions framed for himself, by the Representative 
Assembly, and to point out the great responsibility with which he was 
charged thereby. He then read the strict order framed by him for the 
commandants, and also the last mentioned Ordinance. He then called 
towards him all the inferior officers, according to rank ; the assisting 
commandants, the field-cornets down to the corporals, exhorting them to 
behave with courage and prudence, if necessary; reminded them how any 
design undertaken without God is frustrated ; how everyone was to act 
when engaged with the enemy ; that we, as reasonable creatures, born 
under the light of the Gospel, should not be equal to them in destroying 
women and children ; and that we may pray of God everything which 
is not contrary to His great righteousness. He admonished them further 
to press on the minds of the men under them, to submit every morning 
and evening their duties and their doings to the Lord in prayers ; and to 
spend the Holy Sabbath to the honour of God, and not use that great 
name in vain, nor calumniate the Most High. He further expressed his 
great joy in experiencing that peace, reasonableness, and internal love 
was still reigning amongst so many thousand souls, living together as in 
one and the same house — and that this was more than he had expected — 
that he had, however, to admonish every one to join their hands together, 
to remove everything that may tend to give rise to disunion, so that we, 
as one body, may with the assistance of God accomplish our intended 
work; and finally repeatedly remind us that "unity crcateth power." 
Amongst others he strictly prohibited any one to interfere with the Kafir 
children or women during the conflict, nor to take them prisoners. The 
successor of the chief commandant also mounted the carriage of the 
cannon and said that every one should notice that which the chief com- 

In the Camp with Prctorius. 373 

mandant had communicated to us ; that we ought to be most grateful to 
God for such valuable admonitions ; that in all our doings we should give 
the honour to God ; how it was now our time all to kneel down and 
humble ourselves before God, for that our enemies like wolves were 
watching our destruction, that in particular we must be grateful to God 
that he has provided us with such a chief, who is wise in all his doings 
and who even shows himself careful as well for our spiritual as well as 
bodily welfare. The chief commandant again resumed, and dwelt upon 
everything which he considered might be ruinous to us, and that we 
might well acknowledge the truth of what has been stated by his 
successor, &c. He then requested everyone to unite in prayer, requesting 
Mr. S. Cilliers to conclude this momentous meeting with a solemn prayer. 
Mr. C. first addressed the chief commandant, and in very appropriate 
language exhorted him to his duty and so on all the officers according to 
their ranks and all the men, and then after concluded with a solemn 
prayer. Thus was this moment properly spent ; everyone was affected 
and general silence and calmness prevailed.' 

We proceeded on the 8th of the month, on our undertaking, 
marching on through an open level field, until we arrived at the Zondags 
River. We had, in the meantime, also passed two rivers of the same 
kind, which by the road had no running water, but according to the 
statement of the patrols, had running fountains near their origin. The 
fields along the Zondags River are splendid and beautiful, overgrown on 
both sides with valley shrubs of every description, and as far as we went 
the grass was quite sweet. We thus proceeded on and crossed another 
valley, which, along the road contained stagnant waters. Wc went 
further on between two flat heights, through a sandy passage ; a horrible 
bad road, large rocks, and then several deep ditches, some very muddy ; 
having passed all this we got to an extensive valley which offered a 
beautiful view. We went through it and continued until we came to a 
river with running water, named by the former commando the " Bly 
River," situate under a flat mountain ; here we encamped. 

The next day, the 9th, all was well, and we remained over to celebrate 
the Sabbath ; while the previous Saturday evening had been spent in the 
tent of the chief commandant, with the singing of some appropriate 
hymns, and a fervent prayer delivered by Mr. Cilliers. 

On Sunday morning, before Divine service commenced, the chief 
commandant called together all those who were to perform that service 
and requested them to propose to the congregation " that they should all 
fervently in spirit and in truth pray to God for his relief and assistance 
in their struggle with the enemy ; that he wished to make a vow to God 
Almighty (if they all were willing), that should the Lord be pleased to 
grant us the victory, we would raise a house to the memory of His great 
name, wherever it should please Him," and that they should also supplicate 
the aid and assistance of God, to enable him to fulfil their vow, and that 
we will note the day of the victory in a book, to make it known even to our 
latest posterity, in order that it may be celebrated to the honour of God. 
Messrs. Cilliers, Landman and Joubcrt were glad in their minds to hear 
it. They spoke to their congregations on the subject, and obtained their 
general concurrence. When after this divine service commenced, — Mr. 
Cilliers performed that which took place in the tent of the chief com- 
mandant — he commenced by singing from Psalm xxxviii, 12-16, 
Vol. XIV. 2 b 

374 ^ n the Camp ivitb Pretorius. 

then delivered a pravcr, and preached about the first twenty-four verses of 
the 6th chapter of Judges, and thereafter delivered the prayer in which 
the before-mentioned vow to God was made, with a fervent supplication 
for the Lord's aid and assistance for the fulfilment thereof. The 12th 
and 2 1 st verses of the said 38th Psalm was again sung and the service was 
concluded with singing the 1 34th Psalm. In the afternoon the congrega- 
tions met again, and several appropriate verses were sung ; Mr. Cilliers 
again made a speech and delivered prayers solemnly, and in the same 
manner the evening was also spent. 

The following day, the 10th, we again proceeded, crossed the river, 
and were much impeded by the grass being very high in the road and 
dangerous to ride through. We were obliged to set fire to it, and having 
done this, we passed several ditches and ascended the mountain which 
was very steep and covered with large rocks. A short distance from this 
we came to an extensive valley, presenting a beautiful sight, overgrown 
with grass and herbs of every description. 

On the 13th December, we proceeded on along the river, which runs 
eastward, and reports reached us from commandant De Lange of Kafirs 
approaching. A camp was formed and secured. The commandant 
resolved, as it was about evening and several men were out on patrol in 
several directions and also as the Sabbath was at hand to postpone any 
attack until the next Monday. He ordered the barriers and gates to be 
properly secured, and that all men should be up about two hours before 
daylight. Everything was complied with. At the appointed time all men 
were roused, and we held ourselves in readiness. 

Sunday the 16th was a day as if ordained for us. The sky was open, 
the weather clear and bright. Scarcely was the dawn of day perceivable, 
when the guards who were still on their posts, and could scarcely see, per- 
ceived that the Zulus were approaching. Now the patrols were altogether 
in the camp, having been called in the day previous by alarm signals of 
the cannon. The enemy then approached at full speed, and in a moment 
they had surrounded the camp on all sides. In the meantime, the day began 
to dawn so that they might be seen approaching, while their advanced 
lines had already been repulsed by the firing from the camp. Their 
approach, although frightful on account of the great number, yet pre- 
sented a beautiful appearance. They approached in regiments, each 
captain with his men following him. In the same way the patrols had 
seen them come up the previous day, until they had all surrounded us. 
I could not count them, but it is said that a Kafir prisoner had given the 
number of thirty-six regiments, which regiments may be calculated at 
from nine to ten thousand men. The battle now commenced, and the 
cannons were discharged from every gate of the camp ; the battle then 
became violent, even the firing from our muskets from our side as well as 
theirs. After this had been kept up for full two hours by the watch, the 
chief commandant (as the enemy was continually bestorming the camp, 
and he was afraid we would run short of ammunition) ordered that all the 
gates in the camp should be opened, and the fighting with the Kafirs 
should take place on horseback. This was done, and to our regret they 
took flight so hastily that we were obliged to hunt after them. Few 
remained in the camp, and the chief commandant in person, after having 
given the necessary directions also followed them. His shooting horses 
had been taken by others, and he himself was obliged to mount a wild horse. 

In the Camp with Pretorius. 375 

He pursued a large party, and, riding in full speed, he got upon them. 
One of the Zulus rushed upon him ; he however discharged one of the 
barrels of his gun to kill the Kafir, but the horse whereon he was mounted 
was so frightened that he missed, and wishing to discharge the other shot, 
did not know that the stopper of his lock had been closed, so that he 
could not cock his gun. Now no time was to be lost : he jumped from 
his horse, the Kafir at once rushes upon him, stabs at him with his assegai, 
which he parried off twice with his gun ; but the third time unable to do 
otherwise he parried it off with his left hand, in which the Kafir then 
stuck his assegai. He now falls upon the Kafir, lays hold of him and 
throws him upon the ground and holds him fast, though he struggled 
fearfully, until P. RoedelofF came to his assistance ; he then forced the 
assegai out of his hand and stabs the Kafir under him so that he died. 
He then returned to the camp to have the wound dressed, which was 
done. He, however, said that he hoped no one would be terrified that 
this wound could do him no harm, and that he was glad of having been 
the only man in such a serious conflict who had been slightly wounded. 
The wound, however, was bad. We also ascertained with great regret 
that Gerrit Raath had met with the same accident in the same manner 
as the chief commandant, but he was dangerously wounded in his side ; 
as also Philip Fourie who had been dangerously wounded with an assegai 
during the battle in the camp. G. Raath remained in the field, and was 
fetched away and brought to the camp on a stretcher. Thus the Zulu 
commando was pursued for more than three hours, and we returned, as 
we were all short of ammunition. The chief commandant ordered the 
cleaning of the guns and that every man should provide himself with 
ammunition. This was complied with, and balls were also cast. Prayers 
and thanksgiving were offered to God, and after divine service had been 
performed the chief commandant again sent a strong party to pursue the 
Zulus as far as they could, but they returned in the evening, not being 
able to came up with them. The next day we counted the number of 
the slain, those who had been killed about and near the camp, together 
with those who had been overtaken and killed. They amounted to more 
than three thousand, besides the wounded. 

We proceeded on our journey and encamped near to Dingaan's town 
on the 19th, at a distance of about a quarter of an hour. No sooner had 
the camp been formed, but a commando was ordered towards the town. 
We went with about nine hundred men and found it deserted, and the 
palace of the king burnt down, together with the whole upper part of the 
town. The chief commandant ordered all that was found to be brought 
together, and whatever was in the fire, such as iron and copper, to be 
taken out and 'taken care of. We went back again, and next dav being 
the 2 1 st, we fixed our camp just on the very hill where the unfortunate 
Mr. Retief and company had been butchered. The sight of the cruel 
martyring, whereof the dead bones still gave proof, was indeed horrible to 
be looked at, while the raw straps with which they had been tied were 
still fastened to the bones of several of them ; and the sticks and spokes 
with which they had been beaten were found by thousands and in pieces 
along the road which they had been dragged. Of these sticks some 
were those with which they danced, and some were poles whereon they 
build their houses, or wherewith they plant their fortifications. While 
other skeletons or dead bones laid there, these were recognized by us by 

2 B 2 

376 The South African Fine Arts Association. 

their skulls which were all broken, and by the heap of stones lying by 
each of their corpses, wherewith they had received their last sufferings. 
O horrible martyrdom ! The late worthy Mr. Retief we recognized 
by his clothes, of which small pieces were still attached to his bones, added 
to which there were other tokens, such as his portmanteau containing 
several papers. Some were damaged and rained to pieces, but others were 
in as perfect a state as if they had never been exposed to the air. 
Amongst them was the contract between him and Dingaan respecting 
the cession of the land, in a wonderful state of preservation, also some 
clean sheets of paper upon which the chief commandant wrote to Mr. 
Boshof next day. The bones were gathered together and buried. The 
Kafir prisoner was then questioned. He pretended to have been but a 
spectator of the martyrdom, being sick at the time, but he related the 
circumstances just in the same manner as the appearance of the bones 
vouched to be correct, with this addition, that the king after the treaty 
had been concluded, had invited Retief and his company to come to his 
town that his people might dance in honour of them ; and while dancing 
he caused them to be attacked and though the farmers were unarmed 
they defended themselves with their pocket-knives in such a manner that 
when they had fought their way through one regiment another had to 
resume it. One man, he said, of a tall stature could run very fast and 
escaped after fighting hard from the town to the other side of the river, 
which, I believe, is about 2,500 paces ; but by their great numbers they 
outran him from all sides, and overtook him before he got as far as where 
his horses were ; he then defended himself with stones until he could no 
longer. He further states that twenty of them had died from severe cuts 
which they had received by the pocket-knives, and several were wounded. 
Several articles were also found which had been buried underground ; on 
the following day they were sold by public auction and the proceeds 
distributed among the commando. 

31t4 f outh gtfrijran Jfinc %\h gssomtion. 

It is always a pleasure to visit the exhibitions of this Association, and 
chiefly because we may note with great satisfaction the steady 
progress made in the formation of a permanent Art Gallery. From 
a small and insignificant beginning the collection has attained to very 
respectable dimensions, and contains some works of real merit. Of 
the 120 oil paintings now on view, it is not too much to say that 
the most valuable and attractive will be found among the forty- 
three exhibited as the property of the Association, and in 
passing on to the gallery of water-colours and the room set 
apart for engravings, we may with equal truth say the same of 
the fifty works the Association exhibits there. In addition to this 
collection it possesses several portfolios of unframed engravings 
and photographs, and, has established the nucleus of an art library 
which already contains about forty valuable works of reference. The 
building also in which the exhibitions are held belongs to the 

The South African Fine Arts Association. 377 

Institution — a sum of about £300 only being all that is required 
to pay off the liabilities. Such is the statement made by the 
committee at the annual meeting, and on this is founded the 
claim of the Association to substantial aid and support from the 
Government. There can be no doubt that this is such an Institution 
as was alluded to by Sir Bartle Frere in his admirably-suggestive 
address at the Public Library. It is an institution of national 
interest. It has accumulated property of considerable value which 
now forms part of our national riches : and it does seem to be the 
duty of Government to see that this property of the public is properly 
cared for and preserved. The experience of last year has proved 
that it will not be safe to depend exclusively on the uncertain income 
obtained from voluntary subscriptions for the amount annually 
required to keep the buildings and works of art in a proper state of 
preservation. The revenue of the Association barely suffices to do 
this, and is quite inadequate to any further demand upon it for the 
necessary alterations in the galleries and the purchase of new works. 
If the Association were relieved of the cost of preserving this public 
property, it would be enabled to extend its operations considerably, 
were it only by making use of the money raised by annual subscrip- 
tions to make additions to the gallery, and thus to increase its 
value year by year. 

The first object of the Association should be the formation of a 
national collection. Its gallery should be a place in which every 
colonist ought always to find sufficient to repay a visit, one which 
would be a credit to the Colony, and by means of which important 
assistance might be rendered to the art students throughout the 
Colony. The collection of pictures already made contains several 
works of more than average merit — but, after all, these are not very 
numerous, and unless the committee can afford to be particular as to 
their purchases and as to the class of work they accept on behalf of the 
public, their exhibitions will serve no useful purpose in art, and even 
to point out their deficiencies will serve no useful purpose in 
criticism. But in order that they may carry out worthily the 
duties they have to perform they should be relieved of all anxiety as 
to the maintenance of what they have already won. They should be 
put in a position to increase their collection, and in doing so they need 
not confine themselves to pictures — they ought to be able to obtain 
objects illustrative of industrial art in all its branches. Every day 
we see the taste for objects of art becoming more and more universal. 
There is an ever-growing demand for its wider application in every 
department of production. But at the Cape we are in this respect far 
behind the rest of the world. We are so habituated to ugliness that 
we are perfectly unconscious of the absence of beauty. Our state of 
contentment " 'mongst horrid shapes, and shrieks, and sights unholy," 
is most exasperating. And here a well-arranged gallery ought to do 
much good. The public will gradually be led to the appreciation of 
superior work if care is taken perpetually to place good examples 
before its eyes. Perhaps the most extraordinary objection raised to 

378 The South African Fine Arts Association. 

rendering any assistance to the Association in its efforts to do some- 
thing in the way of improving the art education of the people is that 
the people are utterly ignorant of art and care nothing about it. A 
stronger argument for supporting the Association could not be given. 
The committee appear by their report to have experienced more 
difficulty than usual in getting together for their Fourth Exhibition 
a sufficient number of pictures not previously exhibited, and believing 
that they have pretty well exhausted the private collections they seem 
to contemplate giving up these loan exhibitions for a time. This, 
undoubtedly, will have an unfavourable effect upon the receipts, and 
it would almost appear preferable to curtail the dimensions of their 
exhibitions, and instead of four rooms to give two. The public 
would not complain of this, and, the hanging space being limited, 
greater strictness in accepting pictures might be observed, thus having 
the effect of raising the tone of the exhibition by the exclusion of all 
works not reaching average merit. Taking for granted that the 
committee are right in thinking that they have nearly exhausted the 
private collections, it may be interesting to glance over the catalogues 
of the four exhibitions already held to ascertain from them what is 
the character of the works of art belonging to private individuals 
in this part of the Colony. From these catalogues it appears 
that the Association has exhibited upwards of eleven hundred 
pictures. Of course, in all such collections there must be many 
indifferent performances and even utter failures mixed up with 
more excellent and admirable works, but the question is in what 
proportion do the inferior works stand to those of greater merit ? 
Upon the whole the result is favourable. There have been a 
fair proportion of really good pictures, though on the other 
hand it must be confessed that these are the property of a few 
individuals only. The Press has already given notices more or less 
detailed of the works exhibited, so that it will be sufficient simply 
to indicate their character by running over the names of the best 
known artists whose pictures have found a home in South Africa. 
In doing so we shall allude only to those the authenticity of whose 
works is undoubted, for we find from the catalogues that the names 
given by exhibitors appear to have been accepted without question, 
the committee considering themselves relieved from all trouble by the 
insertion of a foot-note stating that they do not hold themselves 
responsible for the correctness of these names. How far they are 
right in doing this is a fair question. Probably they are mindful of 
the story told of a well-known collector who used most 
generously to invite his guests to pass the freest criticism 
on his collection, but first assured them that every work was 
genuine and that he would knock any man down who denied it. , 
Of celebrated artists, whose works have been exhibited, there areJ 
specimens among portrait painters of the works of ZuccheroJ 
Bassano (Leandro da Ponte), Sir Peter Lely, Sir Godfrey Knellcr, 
Hoppncr, Jackson, Sir Thomas Lawrence, Sir J. Watson Gordon, 
Sir F. Grant, and Sir Martin Shee. Among landscape painters we 

The South African Fine Arts Association. 379 

find P. Nasmyth, F. R. Lee, J. Wilson, Sam Bough, Pettitt, 
Koekkook, and a number of others of greater or less reputation. In 
cattle pieces, fruit, interiors, genre painting, we have Van Bergen, 
Ostade, Kidd, George Lance, C. Lees, J. C. Jose, and many more. 
In the water-colour galleries were to be found drawings by 
Constable, Copley Fielding, Varley, C. Taylor, Sidney Cooper, 
Cattermole, Cruikshanks, Buckley, Chambers, Read, Dunant. Now 
without alluding to other artists and other works of ability, it is 
sufficient to glance over the names thus given to show that the 
average standard of merit of these exhibitions could not have been 
very low, and that in enabling the public to study the works of such 
artists, the Association must have conferred some benefit. But 
it is asked how an institution such as this can be considered as 
entitled to share in the general expenditure of the Colony ; is 
it not an institution more local than national ? Without entering into 
the question as to the necessity of a good national gallery, which 
must be situated somewhere, we maintain that there is no 
reason why this institution, being liberally supported, should 
not be thoroughly national in its character. Let it be a museum 
of industrial art in every form. Let a system be adopted by 
which oil paintings and water-colours, of a character, which it 
is not likely that schools can afford to obtain for their own use, 
may be lent to the various towns and schools throughout the Colony. 
Let a series of objects suitable for forming groups of still life be also 
lent for certain periods. And, further, not only might the schools 
be assisted, but also those interested in getting up local exhibitions ; 
and for this purpose a " travelling collection " might be formed ; or 
should this be considered impracticable, works of art may be lent to 
local museums and libraries, changeable periodically. In this 
manner, and by ever keeping in view and aiming at the formation 
of a central gallery of a high character, the institution would become 
" national " in every sense of the word, and would be of very great 
assistance to those engaged in promoting education and raising the 
standard of colonial thought. 

The plan thus sketched out is merely a copy of what is reported 
as being successfully carried out at the present moment by the South 
Kensington Museum. The committee have already taken one 
step towards increasing the usefulness of the Association by commis- 
sioning Capt. Grenfell, who was one of their number, to purchase 
casts, &c, during his visit to England, so that 'in a short time art 
students will have the advantage of having valuable models to draw 
from. It is to be hoped that these students will not be confined to 
the class who find in drawing and painting a pleasant and agree] 
able pastime only, but that ourartizans will understand that to them 
especially this collection ought to be of value, for there is not a busy 
town in England now which does not possess its art school, and 
there is not an artizan whose study of art has not raised the value of 
his labour and the character of his country's productions. It is a 
pity that the Association is not prepared to go a step further. If it 

380 Ourselves as others see us. 

were possible to obtain some competent teacher to explain the first 
elementary principles on which art is based, and to impart the prepa- 
ratory technical knowledge required, a boon indeed would be conferred. 
One other point in which the Association might be useful would be 
by affording facilities for the sale and purchase of works of art. In 
the admission to their walls of such works the committee ought to 
3e more rigidly exclusive in their favours than in any other case. 
The public should be able to feel satisfied that whatever might be 
the comparative merits of the different pictures exhibited for sale, the 
committee have not accepted one which has not come up to a certain 
standard. This implied guarantee would be a benefit to both seller 
and purchaser. There is evidently much to be done before the 
Association can become such an institution as we hope one day to 
see it. It has gone on steadily in spite of many troubles such as 
more or less beset the commencement of all important undertakings ; 
but it is only the beginning, and a very small beginning. It is a 
mistake to say that it is now firmly rooted ; on the contrary, ic has 
only proved that it possesses sufficient vitality to entitle it to a share 
of the attention and care of the public. It promises to be a 
vigorous plant ; but neglect at the present time would soon 
prove fatal to its growth. The unaided efforts of individuals will 
not succeed in establishing and maintaining an Art Gallery worthy 
of the Colony, any more than private patronage alone will be able 
to secure the introduction of works of the highest merit. It seems 
but reasonable to look for some assistance from the Colonial Treasury, 
were it only sufficient to cover the expenses to which the Association 
is put for the proper custody of the public property entrusted to their 

©uitsrtws as otlmts u$ us. 

Mr. Froude's South African Journal. 

The expectation entertained by many persons that the distinguished 
members of the Guild of Literature who visited South Africa a year 
or two ago would ere long give to the world their impressions of our 
colonial society and scenery has now been amply fulfilled. Major 
Butler's papers in Good IVords, Lady Barker's letters in Evening 
Hours, and Lippincotfs Magazine, and lastly Mr. Froude's " Leaves 
from his Journal," have each presented likenesses of us in different 
colourings, to the great English-reading public. Upon the whole it 
must be admitted our prominent features are pourtrayed in a kindly 
manner ; and if here and there our visitors have indulged in observa- 
tions which may disturb our vanity and self-complacency we may 
console ourselves with the reflection that, according to the Poet, 
there are some benefits to be derived even from such criticism : — 

O wad some powtr the giftie gie us, 

To see oursels as others see us ! 

It wad frae monie a blunder free us, 
And foolish notion. 

Ourselves as others see us. 381 

Mr. Froude's impressions of South Africa find a place in a new 
(third) series of his " Short Studies on Great Subjects." * They are 
there introduced as a relief to the more serious matters with which 
the volume is chiefly occupied — chapters on the theology of Paganism 
and the revival of Romanism, the degeneracy of English Protest- 
antism, and the hollowness of modern Liberalism, the Uses of a 
Landed Gentry, and the difficulties with which Party Government is 

The change from London life, and the confined atmosphere of a 
library, to a comfortable steamer of the Donald-Currie-line seems, to 
have given an unusual freshness and exhilaration to the brilliant 
historian — which is sensibly conveyed to the reader. In his " Sea 
Studies " we are at once on board-ship, enjoying " the ever-blowing 
breeze on the open deck, above our heads the arch of the sky, around 
us the ocean, and our spirits catch the contagion from the elements." 

The tranquil water and genial temperature on the ocean highway 
to the Cape are highly appreciated and extolled, more especially as he 
gains the " delicious latitudes of the trades, where the water is sapphire 
blue, where soft airs breathe lightly on the surface, and the sharp 
jerk of the angry wave is never felt ; where the flying fish spring 
from under the bows on either side of the ship like lines of spreading 
foam, where you sleep with your door and windows wide open, a 
sheet the heaviest covering which you can bear, and the air is sweet 
and balmy as in that far distant land where Menelaus dwells because 
he was the son-in-law of Zeus : 

Where never falls or rain, or hail, or snow, 
And ever off the sea the cooling breezes blow." 

The journal only refers to the incidents of Mr. Froude's first visit 
to the Cape in 1874. He was then a passenger by the Walmer 
Castle, with Captain Webster. His fellow-voyagers did not impress 
him very favourably. " The talk of the colonists on board ranges 
between wool, ostrich feathers, and ten per cent, on freightage. 
Colonial politics they regard as avowedly nothing but a scramble for 
the plunder of office. They bet every day on the number of the 
miles which the ship will have run at noon in the past twenty-four 
hours, and are as eager about it as Yankees." He remembers 
" where your treasure is there will your heart be." His own 
occupations, however, were somewhat different. He writes : — 

I have been feeding hitherto on Greek plays ; this morning I took 
Homer instead, and the change is from a hot-house to the open air. The 
Greek dramatists, even ^Eschylus himself, are burdened with a painful 
consciousness of the problem of human life, with perplexed theories or 
Fate and Providence. Homer is fresh, free, and salt as the ocean. 
Ulysses and Agamemhon are once more living and breathing men ; 
religion is simple and unconscious ; and the gods, rough and question- 
able as they may be, are without the malignity of later centuries. 

* Longman & Co., London : Cape Town, Jura, 

382 Ourselves as others see us, 

Achilles, when he sacrifices the Trojan youths at the tomb of Patrocles, 
is rather censured for his cruelty than praised for his devotion. The 
notion of human sacrifice as a means af propitiating the anger of the gods 
must have been imported from Phoenicia, — perhaps with the Phoenician 
alphabet, progress, and the march of intellect. 

Approaching the Cape of Good Hope, he notices the stars are 
changed. The Pole Star is under the horizon, and fresh stars come 
into sight every night. " Already a new heaven ; in a few days 
there will be a new earth." 

His stay at Cape Town was limited ; but what he saw " was 
extremely interesting, and opened his eyes to much which he did 
not anticipate " : — 

The town itself, which was built by the Dutch, is a curious old- 
fashioned place, with a modern skin imperfectly stretched over it. You 
see great old mansions in bad repair, with stiff gardens overrun with 
weeds, and old gateways flanked by couching lions, The Dutch, 
among their many merits, introduced pine and oak here. The pine 
forests now cover the sides of the mountain. The oak grows rapidly 
to an enormous size, being in leaf nine months in the year. Everywhere 
you see the marks of the stiff", stubborn, Calvanistic Holland. The hotel 
in which I stayed was once the house of some wealthy citizen. The 
floors upstairs are of stone, the walls are pannelled, the ceilings carved ; 
,the sash windows are huge, heavy, and close-fitting ; the dining-room is 
so stiff of aspect that the pert modern waiter seems subdued by the 
atmosphere of it into old-fashioned politeness. Cape Town has twice had its 
day of splendour. Once under the Dutch Government, and again when 
it was the sanatorium of Bombay and Bengal, and the East Indian 
magnates used to come there to recruit their livers. Now — even now — 
it was a pleasant thing to see the English flag flying over a spot which, 
whatever might be its fortunes, was still the most important naval 
station in the world. 

With a friend, he 

Drove through the Constantia country, among pine and oak 
forests, opening into exquisite vineyards about the slopes of the 
great mountain. Leaving the forests, we struck across the natural 
plains, clothed with silver trees and sugar bushes, and carpeted 
with wild heather and wild geraniums ; the sea in the distance soft 
and beautiful as the Mediterranean. The peninsular of Table 
Mountain, cut off from the rest of Africa, would certainly make 
one of the most precious ["possessions in the world. It could be made 
impregnable at a moderate experjse. It is about the size of Madcria, and 
of infinite fertility. It contains the only harbour available for ships of 
war either on the east or west coast for many thousand miles. Whoever 
holds this peninsula commands the ocean commerce round the Cape. 
The peninsula commands South Africa, for it commands its harbours. 
Were England wise in her generation, a line of forts from Table Bay to 
False Bay would be the northern limit of her imperial responsibilities. 
Continuing his voyage along the coast, Mr. Froude finds : — 

Port Elizabeth is a handsome modern town, the chief port of the 
Eastern Provinces, lying on an open hill-side as Brighton docs There is 

Ourselves as others see us. 383 

no harbour, but the roadstead is sheltered on the dangerous quarter, and 
is crowded with vessels of all sizes. The loading and discharging is by 
lighters, and managed as expeditiously as if the ship was in dock. The 
beech is flat, the available extent of it has been much reduced by an 
attempted basin, enclosed by wooden piers, which was no sooner made 
than it filled in with sand. The bales and boxes are landed through the 
surf on the backs of natives ; splendid fellows, with the shape of an 
Autinous, stark-naked, and shining from the water as if they were oiled. 
The black skin, which is of the texture of hippopotamus hide, seems to 
answer the purposes of modesty. These fellows earn six shillings a day ; 
they live on one, save the rest, and when they have enough, they go 
inland, buy cattle, and two or three wives to work for them, and do 
nothing the rest of their lives. They all have the franchise. I asked 
one of the members for the town how they managed at election times. 
"Oh," he said, "we send a few barrels of brandy into the native 

Of East London, Mr. Froude does not speak so well. The 
steamer had to lay there a whole day, in a fearful rolling sea, dis- 
charging cargo ; and although he was told that that was to be the 
finest port in the Colony when the improvements now in progress are 
completed, he remarks that he would have been more sanguine of 
the result if the engineer had been less enthusiastic in his anticipations. 

Onwards to Natal, however, he is pleasantly impressed with the 
appearance of the coast, as he writes : — 

We are now off Kreli's country — independent Kafirland — a strip two 
hundred miles long, which divides Natal from the Colony, We pass 
within half a mile of the shore to avoid the current which set outside 
steadily to the west. From the sea it seems as if Kreli was king of 
Paradise itself. A series of exquisite English parks succeed one after the 
other ; undulating grassy lawns, interspersed with woods and divided 
every four or five miles by rivers, the course of which we trace by the 
projecting crags and the rich verdure of the ravines. Each of these 
streams is unhappily blocked by sand as East London is. The surf roars 
at their mouth with monotonous thunder, never resting, never perhaps to 
rest while the globe continues to revolve. The people of the nation to 
come, who will by-and-by fill this beautiful country, will never sail in 
either ship or boat on the water which they will see so near them. The 
steamers will go by their windows almost within haling distance, but the 
passengers must be carried on for a hundred miles before they can set 
foot on shore. The skilfullest crew that ever launched a life-boat would 
be dashed in pieces in a moment in those tremendous rollers. 

Natal occupies several pages of the journal. The affair of Langali- 
balele, the condition of the natives, and the difficulties of the labour 
question are all topics introduced. The description of the Port and 
the approach to the town of Durban is admirable : — 

A high wooded ridge or bluff", curved and narrow, juts out from the 
coast-line, stretches parallel to it for two miles towards the east, and then 
bends round and terminates, forming a natural breakwater. A long 
point runs out to meet it, and thus inside is formed a land-locked basin 

384 Ourselves as others see us. 

ten or twelve miles in circumference, the sea entering through a single 
narrow passage, and the scour from so large a body of water being thus 
considerable. Even here there is a bar which the engineers in their 
attempts at improvement have made rather worse ; but in moderate 
weather vessels of 1,000 tons can enter without much difficulty. The 
scene as we run in is singularly beautiful. The sky is cloudless, — the 
sun, just risen, is faintly veiled by a soft Italian haze ; the ships in the 
bay are dressed out in flags, white puffs of smoke break from a battery as 
the guns are fired in honour of the arrival of the steamer. We bring up 
in a deep channel close under the bluff, in the shade of tropical trees, 
among which the monkeys skip to and fro, and from which occasionally 
a too-curious python makes his way along the cable by which ships arc 
moored to the shore. We land at the Custom-house among a group of 
Natalians who have hurried down to meet their friends. I am struck, as 
at Port Elizabeth, with the florid, fleshy look of the settlers. The 
climate of the Cape suits well the lymphatic Teuton. The Dutch, who 
have been there for two centuries, have expanded into the dimensions of 
Patagonians. I walked with one of the latter along the sands to the 
town. We had to cross a stream, and a Kafir undertook to carry us over. 
He staggered under the Dutchman, and had nearly fallen with him ; 
with me he trotted away as if I had been a child. But I had as nearly 
dropped from him from another cause. It was my first experience of the 
smell in such close proximity. 

The climate of Natal is exquisite. The days are brilliant, and not 
overpoweringly hot. The nights are cool and fragrant with orange 
blossom. The stars shine with a steady lustre. The fire-flies gleam. 
The moth-hawk hunts his fluttering prey. The Indian Ocean moans on 
the shore, and will moan on till the day which Tintoret has painted, when 
the ships shall drift deserted on the waves, and the inhabitants of the 
earth shall have passed away from it for ever. 

I leave Natal with unhopeful feelings. The settlers themselves are not 
to blame. In the presence of a vast and increasing native population, encour- 
aged in idleness by the indulgence of those detestable systems of polygamy 
and female slavery, it is impossible to expect white men to exert themselves 
for the genuine improvement of the Colony. But the fact remains, that 
a country which seems to have been made by nature to be covered with 
thriving homesteads and a happy and prosperous people, is given over to 
barrenness and desolation. Before there can be a change, some authority 
must be introduced there which will control both blacks and whites, and 
bring the relations between them into a more natural condition. The 
sole remedy thought of here is more freedom, and what they call a 
"'sponsible ministry." They look to America, and they fancy the 
colonics have only to be free to grow as the United States have grown. 
America was colonized before the Aloe had blossomed. The grain of the old 
oak is in New England. The English in South Africa are pulpy 
endogens. They may make a nation some day, but they have a long 
journey to travel first. 

Our space will not permit us to follow Mr.-) Froude throughout 
his journey — which for a gentleman of his age was a long and arduous 
one, travelling as he did over 1,500 miJes, on rough roads, and 
amidst thunder-storms, and hard living, and nights without rest. 

Notes upon the Junci, or Rushes of the Cape Colony. 385 

But it is pleasant to note that among the border settlers in the 
Transvaal, whose manners and domestic arrangements are often held 
up to ridicule, he experienced genuine South African hospitality : — 
My old Boer host on this occasion (Oberholster) is a patriarch of sixty. 
His farm is large, well planted, and well cultivated, and inside his house 
and outside there is an appearance of rude abundance. On his hall table 
stands a huge clamped Bible of 1750, with a register of the family for 120 
years. His sons and daughters are married, and live with their wives and 
husbands in cottages on the estate at no great distance. With each new 
family another hundred acres have been fenced in and brought under the 
plough. Children and grandchildren dropped in for the evening meal 
at the common table. Young giants, handsome, grave, and ponderous, 
and bright-eyed girls dashing through the doors out of the storm, and 
flinging off their dripping hoods. Our supper consisted of cold venison, 
eggs, bread and Indian corn, with — here at any rate — fresh milk. The 
old man said a long grace before and after. I glanced at the youths. 
There was not a sign of weariness about them. Their manners were 
perfectlv simple and reverent. My bed was rough but clean, and I was 
not disturbed by intruders. In the morning I was awoke by a psalm, 
with which the day's work always begins on a Boer's farm. The break- 
fast was like the supper overnight. The old lady and two young ones, 
who alone appeared of the party of the evening before, looked as stiff and 
prim as if they had walked out of one of Van Eyck's pictures. 

The portraits given of the public men of the Cape Colony, Natah 
and the Republics, are not very happily executed ; the most interest- 
ing, however, is that of the ex-Lieutenant-Governor of Griqualand 
West, whom Mr. Froude compliments on being now returned to the 
Cape Parliament, where he hopes he will once more render valuable 
service to the country. — A hope which is heartily re-echoed by the 

gote upon the JJuttri, or gushes of the <£age oolong. 

By Professor MacOwan. 

Dr. Fraxz Buchenau, in the proceedings of the Natural History 
Society of Bremen (Bd. iv. Heft. 4) has published a monograph of 
the Juncacecs of the Cape. It is characterized by the laborious 
accuracy and thoroughness which belongs to got .1 modern botanical 
work, and is certainly one of the most valuable c >ntributions to Cape 
Botany which have appeared during the last dec de. 

The following passage occurs on page 418: — "The form of 
l Juncus glaucus Ehrh. here described is the only plant belonging to 
the group Genuini which is yet known from the Cape. The absence 
of all the other species, particulary of Juncus effusus L. which other- 
wise is wanting in scarce any large floral region of the temperate 
zone, is an especially noteworthy fact, pointing anew to the long 
period during which the Cape Flora must have been isolated from 
that of Europe, Asia and North Africa." 

Attention is drawn to this sta tement because 'Juncus effusus L. 

386 Note upon the Junci^ or Rushes of the Cape Colony, 

though not in Ecklen and Zeyher's collections, nor as far as I know 
in those of Drege and Dr. Burchell, is actually a Cape plant, and 
was distributed by me in 1872, three years before the date of Dr. 
Buchenau's memoir. Will amateurs who are interested in plants 
look out for this common European rush, and send specimens dried 
without much pressure to the Museum here, in order that its distribu- 
tion in the Colony may be made out and recorded ? It is not un- 
frequent near the Boschberg, and in all probability its commonness 
in almost every temperate country has caused our collectors to pass 
it by, and thus conspicuous by its absence from exsiccate it is 
erroneously recorded as denied to the Cape. 

It may be added that the distribution of the smaller septate 
Rushes, easily recognizable, especially when dried, by the transverse 
partitions in the substance of the leaves, is very imperfectly known. 
With the exception of J. punctoni L.f. and 'J. oxy carpus E.M., 
they would seem to be confined to narrow areas. Possibly they are 
tolerably wide-spread, but have been overlooked, like J, effusus L. 
A little attention would soon settle the question definitively. 

With regard to the evidence adducible respecting the isolation of 
the Cape Flora during a long cycle of ages, every fact which bears 
upon the question should most certainly be recorded. Dr. Buchenau 
aptly remarks that when we are better acquainted with the flora of 
the Abyssinian plateau, and similar highlands of Middle Africa, we 
shall probably find many connecting links between the vegetation of 
the Cape land and that of the great continental masses of the 
Northern hemisphere. To this I venture to add that the case 
of the European Juncus effusus Z., appearing unexpectedly to form 
a new link, is not a solitary one, In 1870 I distributed, with many 
misgivings, two nearly allied plants from the Boschberg, No. 1,616 
and No. 1,866, labelled " Schcenoxiphium? or Carex, cf. C. Dregeana 
Ktb." Herr Otto Bockeler, now engaged in an elaborate 
monograph of the Cyperacece of the Berlin Herbarium, pronounces 
both plants to be forms of Carex Wahlenberg'iana Boott. Similarly 
No. 1,608, " Carex affinis C. pendules Huds." receives the following 
notice : — " Est planta ipsissima, squamis foemincis longioribus Nova 
cives capitis Bonce Spci." Friends at a distance who have received these 
will please to take notice, especially if they are interested in the 
geography of plants ; and for their information an additional note is 
subjoined from Dr. Buchenau about four species of Rush which sadly 
puzzled myself and others. 

No. 188 Bolus Est Juncus exscrtus Behn. 

No. 188* „ „ Juncus diaphanus Behn. 

No. 2,019 Mac Ow. ) Juncus capensis Thunb. sub-species^V. geni- 
No. 2,020 „ J culatus Behn. 

No. 1,953 ,, Juncus Dregeanus Kth. exparte. 

No. 1,683 was correctly referred to J. macrocarpus Nees, there- 
fore the appended note of interrogation may be erased from the label, 

Gill College Museum, May 8th, 1877. 



(from returns furnished by the colonial meteorological 


n . 





























inches. ; ° 



Nov. . 

30*001 i 64" 3 



88-o j 16th.. .. 


10th.. .. 


1 -193 


Dec. . 

19-996 64-9 



80-9 | 24th.. .. 



15th.. .. 




inches. ° 

Nov. .. 

49-741 65-5 




Dec. .. 

49-749 1 64.4 




S-o 1st, 10th, 

and nth 

5-5 ! 15th.. .. 

1*470 9 




Nov. .. 
Dec. .. 




61 - 9 


88 -o 

18th.. .. 
nth.. .. 



10th.. .. 
4nd . . . . 


1 -6oo 




J inches. 


Nov. .. | 30-075 
Dec. .. , 29-990 


6 S'l 

7i-6 57-5 
73-4 59'' 


17th.. .. 
19th.. .. 


nth.. .. 
8th.. .. 









Nov. .. 






40th.. .. 


1st .. .. 




Dec. .. 






24th . . . . 


15th.. .. 


3-9 J 5 




inches, i ° 


inches. J 

Nov. .. 
Dec. .. 

49-483 I 63-7 
49-405 67-8 





49th . . . . 
18th.. .. 

43 -°1 

13th.. .. 
nth.. .. 


0-400 1 
0-800 3 



Nov. .. 
Dec. .. 







4ISt.. .. 
14th.. .. 


nth.. .. 



4-430 16 
1-340 11 

3 88 





£ = 





















t — 















■ K i 


Nov. .. 






21st.. .. 




2-440 ; 


Dec. .. 





9 2 °°" 

14th.. .. 



• 1 V- 

0-370 | 





Nov. .. 
Dec. .. 

25- 6 jo 






30th.. .. 
26th & 31st 


nth.. .. 
6th and 8th 







inches . 

Nov. .. 






9th & 21st 


2nd .. .. 




Dec. .. 




54' 3 


25th.. .. 


6th .. .. 








53 - 4 


30th.. .. 


13th.. .. 




Nov. .. 




102- 1 

20th . . . . 


nth.. .. 


Dec. .. 




100- 1 

23rd.. .. 


14th.. .. 













45 '! 

86-o 31st.. .. 


30th . . . . 






8o-o 30th.. .. 








102-0 , 1st .. .. 





75 '4 


95-0' 3rd.. .. 


Dec. . . 





83-0 1 20th &27th 


17th & 18th 











23rd.. .. 


1 3th.. 

. ' 68 



Sept. .. 







35 - 5 

29th . . 





26- 127 





5th & 30th 


1st . . 




Nov. .. 



7') '5 






■ 67 



Dec. .. 



93 '4 



14th.. .. 



• , 5i 

i- 080 


The Barometer readings are reduced to the Temperature 32 Farhcinheit; but no correction has been 
applied for height above sea level, except for Port Elizabeth, to which a correction of o- 180 has been 
applied throughout. 

The Observations at Port Nolloth arc very incomplete. 


Several contributions to hand will receive attention in the forthcoming volume oj 
the Magazine. 

Poetry : — 

Nature 344 

To a Fair Musician .. .. .. .. .. .. .. •• •• 35^ 

Reminiscences of the 1834 War 117,230 

Rhinoceros, My First . . . . . . . . . . . . . . • • *49 

Red Water, Notes on, by Dr. W. B. Berry 182 

Rifle Brigade in South Africa 35° 

Stray Thoughts 85 

Song .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. •• 108 

" South-Eastern Africa," Baine's 190 

South African Ghost Stories 240 

The Cape University and its Work — The Vice-Chancellor's Address 51 

The Subjection of Agriculture — A Lay Sermon, by a Frontier Colonist .. 65, 141 

To South Africa Jl 

The Land Tenure of the Colony 77 

Thread and Tape- Worms in Sheep, by Dr. W. B. Berry 102 

Transgariep Courtships .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 109 

The Pulpit und the Press 193 

The Squaw's Leap — An Acadian Tale .. .. .. .. .. .. 153 

The Quarterly Re-view on English Policy in South Africa . . . . . . . . 253 

The Civilization or Africa 261 

The Olden Time 3°5 

The Rifle Brigade in South Africa 35° 

The South African Fine Arts' Association .. .. .. .. .. .. 376 

Venice, A Glimpse at 299 


<SapF|lBonIf Ig |IBagH?inF* 





J. C. JUT A. 






Albert The Good i 

A Greeting from Afar .... .. 23 

Agriculture - The Subjection of, — a Lay Sermon, by a Frontier Colonist. . 65, 141 

APerilous Ride for a Wife — A Colonist's Story 86 

A Natal Ode .. •• l°o 

A Tourney to the North — Norway, Sweden, and Finland, by H.E. Lieut.-Gen. 

Sir A. Cunynghame, K.C.B 129,198,271,359 

An Acadian Tale— The Squaw's Leap 153 

A Story of Native Wars, by an Aged Fingo 240 

Africa —The Civilization of 261 

Acrostic Sonnet — Sir Bartle Frere 284 

A Dark Day 288 

A Glimpse at Venice 299 

Absent 3°4- 

Art-Fair, Our 3*9 

Baine's " South-Eastern Africa " 190 

Berg-Damaras, Damaraland and the. . .. .. .. .. .. 218, 289 

Cape University and its Work, The — The Vice-Chancellor's Address .. .. 51 

Charades, by Mrs. Barber •• .. ..55,192,324 

Colony, The Land Tenure of the 77 

Courtships, Transgariep 109 

Cowper and Olney — A Reminiscence 166 

Chaarl Cilliers-The Old Voor-Trekker 178 

Civilization of Africa, The 261 

Cove Rock 270 

Cloud-Land 3 22 

Central Africa— Mission to Ujiji 341 

Desert, A Scene in the .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 63 

Diary of an Idle Hottentot, by Adonis Jager .. .. .. .. .. 159 

Death, by Leinad .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 209 

Damaraland and the Berg-Damaras 218, 289 

Day, A Dark 28S 

E Pluribus Unum .. .. •• •• .. .. . . .. •• 140 

English Policy in South Africa, — The Quarterly Review .. .. .. .. 253 

Fortune, In Search of a— In New Zealand 39 

Frere, Sir Bartle — An Acrostic Sonnet . . . . . . . . . . . . 284 

Greeting from Afar, A . . • • . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 

George Linton — Mr. Robinson's Novel .. .. .. .. .. .. 211 

Ghost Stories, South African .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 240 

Heine, From the German of. . ■ . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148 

" Harvests were Gathered in" .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 247 

Highlands and Lowlands of Kafirland, by G. St. V. Cripps .. .. 310, 325 

Hidden .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 3 1 S 

In Search of a Fortune — In New Zealand . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 

In the Camp with Pretorius. . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 371 

Jan Van As — Recollections of a Country Agent .. .. .. .. .. 12 

Kafir Nursery Tales 7^ 345 

Kafirland, Highlands and Lowlands of, by G. St. V. Ctipps .. .. 310, 32? 

Liberty, Equality, and Fraternity, by H. Lardner Burke, Esq. . . . . . . 24 

Le Roi est Mort — Vive Le Roi 38 

Land Tenure of the Colony, The 77 

Life 112, 189 

Lux 3°3 

Meteorology 64, 127,387 

My First Rhinoceros .. .. .. .. .. .. .... .. 149 

Nursery Tales, Kafir.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 72 

Natal Ode, A 100 

Norway, Sweden, and Finland, by H.E. Lieut. -Gen. Sir A. Cunynghame, 

K.C.B 129,198,271,359 

Notes on Red Water, by Dr. W. Bisset Berry 182 

Night 238 

Native Wars, A Story of, by an Aged Fingo . . . . . . . . . . 248 

Notes upon the Junci, or Rushes of the Cape Colony, by Professor Mac Owan . . 385 
Notes of the Month — 

Ostriches and Ostrich Farming 57 ; Hofstede's History of the Free State 5S ; 
Silver & Co.'s " South Africa" 61 ; Rev. J. O'Haire's Recollections 62 ; 
New Books 122 ; Map of South Africa 125 ; A Plagiarism 126 ; Oscilla- 
tion of the Rotary Axis of the Earth 124 ; Rain Fall in Victoria West 
126 ; Origin of the Name Huguenots, 126 ; Geological Discovery 259 } 
Map of South African Republics 59 ; Transvaal Book Almanac 259 ; 
Theal's South African Geography and History 260 ; Tennant's "Notary's 
Manual " 260 ; S. A. Botany 324. 

On Thread and Tape- Worms in Sheep, by Dr. W. B. Berry 102 

Oscillation of the Rotary Axis of the Earth 124,285 

Our Art-Fair 319 

Ourselves as others see us— Mr. Froude's South African Journal 380 

Perilous Ride for a Wife, A 86 

Picturesque Holland .. .. .. .. ., ,. .. ., ,. 113 

Pulpit and the Press, The 193 

Poetry — 

A Greeting from Afar ,. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 23 

"Lines," by J 23 

Le Roi est Mort — Vive Le Roi .. .. .. .. .. . . 38 

Woman .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 48 

Charades .. I 55, 192, 324 

A Scene in the Desert .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 63 

To South Africa 71 

Stray Thoughts 85 

A Natal Ode 100 

Song .. »• .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 108 

Life 112 

E Pluribus Unum .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 140 

From the German of Heine .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 148 

Life 189 

Death .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 209 

Night 238 

" Harvests were Gathered in " . . . . . , . . . . . . . . 247 

A Sunrise Thought at "Cove Rock ". . .. .. .. .. .. 270 

Acrostic Sonnet .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 284 

A Dark Day 28S 

Praise . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 297 

Lux .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 303 

Absent .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 304 

Hidden 318 





A Dictionary op Christian Biography, Literature, Sects, and Doc- 
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Various Writers. Edited by Wm. Smith, D.C.L., aad Professor Wace, M.A. 
Vol. 1. £1 lis. 6d. This work ia designed to give a comprehensive 
account of the Personal, the Literary, the Dogmatic, and the Ecclesiastical 
Life of the Church during the first eight centuries of Christianity, and in 
combination with the Dictionary of Christian Antiquities, it will afford, it 
is believed, the most complete collection of materials for the Church History 
of that period which has yet been published, either in England or abroad. 
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