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Full text of "Cape of Good Hope journals of two visitations : in 1848 and 1850"



'I Hi 



iiiiS 




The following Works may be had at the Depositories of the 
SOCIKTY/oj- PROMOTING CHllISTIAN KNOWLEDGE, 

77, GllliAT aUEEN STREET, ASD 4, ROYAL EXCIIAKGE. 

Cfje Cljurclj in tfte Colonies. pnce. 

No. Publi^hcd. Diocese. Part. ». d. 

I. 1843, Dec. . . TORONTO 6 

II. 1844, Fel). . . QUEBEC 1 8 

III. 1844, March . . NOVA SCOTIA 8 

IV. 1844, Aug. . . NEW ZEALAND . 1 10 

V. 1845, Feb. . . AUSTRALIA ... 1 04 

VI. 1845, March . . AUSTRALIA ... II. ... 6 
vn. 1845, AUR. . . NEW ZEALAND . . II. ...00 

VIII. 1845, Sept. . . NEW ZEALAND . . III. ... 4 

JX. 1845, Oct. . . aUEliEC II. ... 6 

X. 1846, Jan. . . NEWFOUNDLAND 3 

Xr. 1846, Feb. . . FRKDERICTON 3 

XII. 1846, April . . NEW ZEALAND . . IV. ... 4 

XIII. 1S46, July . . NOVA SCOTIA . . II. ... 6 

XIV. 1846, Oct. . . AUSTRALIA . . . III. ... 6 

XV. 1846, Nov. . . NEWFOUNDLAND . II. ... 2 

XVI. 1846, Dec. . . FREDERICTON . . II. ... 3 
XVII. 1847, Feb. . . NOVA SCOTIA . . III. ... 3 

XVIII. 1847, March . . QUEREC III. ... 1 

XIX. 1848, Dec. . . NEWFOUNDLAND . III. ... 4 

XX. 1849, March . . NEW ZEALAND . . V. ... 1 

XXI. 1849, April . . NEWFOUNDLAND . IV. . .10 

XXII. 1849, Oct. . . . CAPETOWN ... I. ... 1 

XXIII. 1850, March . . TASMANIA 4 

XXIV. 1850, June . . MELBOURNE in 

XXV. 1850, July . . NEWFOUNDLAND .V. ... 1 

XXVr. 1851, Feb. . . NEWFOUNDLAND 3 

XXVII. 1851, Sept. . . CAPETOWN ... li. ... 1 6 
Nos. I. to XXII. in four volumes, cloth lettered . . 12s. Gd. 

The MISSIONS IN TINNEVELLY; with a Map (1845) ... 3 
HISTORICAL NOTICES of the MISSIONS of the CHURCH of 

ENGLAND, in the North American Colonies 9 

ANNALS of the COLONIAL CHURCH: Fredericton, U.; New 

Zealand, Zs.; Toronto, 'is. ■id.; Quebec, Zs.&d. 

ii-lisstoiis to t()c fitjcatftrn. Priee. 

N.). Pnl>li<hed. Mission. Diocese. Part. i. li. 

1. 1844. Aug. . SAWYERPOORAM . Madras .1. .03 

II. 1844, Dec. . EDEYENKOODY .Madras .1. .02 

III. 1815, Jan. . SAWYERPOORAM . Madras . II. . 2 

IV. 1845, Feb. . CAWNPORE . . . Calcutta ... I 
V. 1845, March. NAZARETH . . . Madras ... I 

VI. 1845, June . LAKE HURON . .Toronto .1. .03 

VII. 1845, Aug. . SAWYERPOORAM . Madras . III. . 2 
VIII. 1845, Dec. . SAWYERPOORAM . Madras . IV. . 1 

IX. 1846, Jan. . VISITATION TOUR. Madras ... 4 

X. 1846, March. EDEYENKOODY .Madras . II. . 2 

XI. 18i6, Mav . GUZERAT . . . .Bombay .1. .03 
XII. 1846, June . SAWYERPOORAM . Madras .V. .03 

XIII. 1846, Au-. . LAKE HURON . .Toronto . II. . 3 

XIV. 1846, Sept. .NAZARETH . . .Madras . II. . I 
XV. 1847, May .BARRIPUR. . . . Calcitta . ..04 

XVI. 1847, June . SAWYERPOORAM . Madras . VI. . 1 

XVII. 1847, Aug. .COLOMBO . . . .Colombo .1. ,00 
XVIil. 1847, Sept. .COLOMBO . . . .Colombo .11. . C 

XIX. 1S47, Nov. . EDEYENKOODY . Madras . III. . o 1 
XX. 1849, Jan. . TANJORE, &c. . .Madras. ...01 

XXI. 1849, April . MADRAS .... Madras .... I 

XXII. 1849, Dec. . MADRAS .... Madras .... 2 

XXIII. 1850, Nov. .TINNEVELLY . .Madras ....10 
Nos, I. to XlX. ill lui. wliiines, cloth lettered . . . As. 1\<I. 



CAPE OF GOOD HOPE. 



JOURNALS 



TWO VISITATIONS 



m 1848 AND 1850. 



RIGHT EEV. ROBEPtT GRAY, D.D. 

LORD BISHOP OF CAPETOWN. 

WITH MAPS. . 



ITINERARY OF THE BISHOPS VISITATION 
IN 184S. 



. Time. Place. PaV 

August 24 Sandileet 1 

. ,, 25 Somerset ^ 

Cole's Pass ^ 

,, 26 Caledon 3 

,, 30 Genadendal *^ 

,, 31 Zonder-Ende ' 

Sept. 1 — 4 Swellendam ^ 

„ 5 Riversdale '•' 

6 Goaritz River 1"* 

,, 7 Mossel Bay 1"^ 

„ 8—10 George 1'* 

„ 11 Pakalsdorp •** 

,, 12 Belvidere !■' 

„ 13 Portlands 21 

,,14—17 MelvUle 21 

,, 15 Plettenberg Bay 22 

,, 18 Avonteuer 24 

,,19—20 Lange Kloof 26 

,, 21 Eschenbosch 28 

Moulinans 28 

Human 28 

,. 22 St. Francis Bay 28 

,,23—26 Uitenhage 29 

„ 27 Bethelsdorp 31 

2s— Oct. 1 Port Elizabeth 31 

2 Sunday River 34 

3 Sidbury 34 

,, 5 Graham's Town 36 

., 6—8 King AVilliam's Town 37 

9 Back to Graham's Town, by Fort Peddle 46 

., 10—17 Graham's Town (Second Visit) 48 

18 Bathurst 52 

,, 20 Cuyleville 54 

,, 21 Southwell 5.') 

22 Graham's Town (Third Visit) 56 

23 Fort Brown 57 

,, 24 Fort Beaufort 57 

25 Ely 5!) 

Fort Hare 59 

26 Woburn •>" 

, Auckland ''" 



VI ITIXKR.VRY OF THE BISHOP S VISITATIONS. 

Time. Place. Page 

Oct. 2li Chumie lil 

., , Balfour, Kat River 01 

,. ii7 Post Relief (a.'icendcd VVinterberg Range) CI 

,. 28 Mancazana Post (12 

,, 30 Visit to Sir A. Stockenstrom CG 

."51 Great Fish River ri7 

Nov. 1 Somerset (through Squaggas Hoek) 68 

,. 2 & 3 Cradock !(through a Karroo country, by the Great 69 

Fish River) 

,, 7 Macaster Fontein 72 

„ 8 Colesberg 73 

,,13—16 Travelling 76 

„ 16—20 Graaff Reinet 77 

,,21—23 Travelling 79 

Sneeuwberg 80 

Buffalo River 80 

24 Beaufort 81 

27 — Dec. 1 Travelling (desolate Karroo country) 84 

Zunyberg Mountains 85 

Olifant's River 87 

Dec. 2 — 5 George (Second Visit) 87 

,, C— 8 Great Braak River 89 

Goaritz River 89 

Riversdale (Second Visit) 89 

Port Beaufort 89 

,, 9 Swellendam (Second Visit) 90 

,, 12 Worcester 91 

,, 15 Mitchell's Pass 94 

,, 16 Wellington 95 

ThePaarl 95 

,,17—18 Stellenbosch 96 

,, 19—20 ThePaarl 97 

Malmesbury 97 

21 D'Urban 99 

Table Mountain 'js 

Protea (the Bishop's House) 99 



ITINERARY IN 1850. 

April 1 Stellenbosch ' 

2 Paarl -' 

., 3 Bain's Kloof 2 

„ 4 Tulbagh 3 

,, 5 Worcester •' 

„ 8 Mitchel's Pass * 

9 The Patata River * 

,, 10 Zoute Kloof 5 

„ 11 Bluid Rivier '• 

12 Bitter Water River G 

„ 13 Beaufort 6 



ITINERARY OF THE BISHOP S VISITATIONS. VU 

Time. Place. Page 

April 17 Rhinoster Kop 8 

IS Camdeboo 9 

,, 19 Graaf Reinet .. 9 

,, 24 Richmond 11 

27 Colesberg 15 

30 Philipolis l(j 

May 2 Bethany 19 

,, 3 Bloem-fontein 21 

7 Thaba-Umchu 24 

S Makquatlin 28 

9 Merimotzo, Winburg 30, 33 

10 Vaal River 34 

,, 12 Isaak's House 34 

13 Wilge River 35 

,, 14 Drakenberg 36 

,, 17 Mooi River 39 

18 Maritzburg 40 

28 Botha's 47 

29 D'Urban SO 

June 4 Mr. Lindley's Station 52 

,, 5 Mr. Lewis Grout's Station 54 

,. () Mr. Alden Grout's Station 54 

,, 7 Cotton Company's Lands 57 

8 D'Urban 58 

., 10 Dr. Adams' Station 59 

11 D'Urban 60 

13 Botha's 62 

,, 14 Maritzburg 62 

19 Indaleni 62 

„ 20 Maritzburg 64 

26 Mr. Davis' Station 68 

July 2 Indaleni 80 

,, 5 Umzumkulu River 83 

,, 6 Ibesi River 84 

., 13 Palmerston 95 

,, 15 Umzumvoobo * !)f) 

,. 17 Buntingville lOO 

18 Morley Station 101 

,, 19 Beecham Wood 102 

20 Butterworth 104 

,, 23 Hangman's Bush 107 

,, 24 King William's Town 107 

,, 29 East London 108 

31 King William's Town 109 

August 1 Fort Waterloo 110 

,, 2 King William's Town 115 

„ 3 Fort Peddle 118 

,, 5 Graham's Town 119 

,, 17 Balhurst )25 

„ 20 Southwell 127 

,, 21 Salem 128 

22 Olifant's Hock 129 

,) 23 Commando Kraal 129 

„ 24 Port Elizabeth 129 

Sept. 5 Commando Kraal 138 

,, 6 Sidbury 1,38 

,, 9 Graham's Town 139 

>, 25 Koonap River 141 

,, 26 Fort Hare 144 



VIU ITIXKRAliV *)i- THE BISHOP S VISITATIONS. 

Time. Place. Paye 

Sept. 28 Fort Beaufort 147 

Oct. 1 Mancazana 149 

4 Retief 151 

7 Shiloh 15.-5 

,, 8 Kama's Town 1.5(> 

,, 11 Burghersdorp 158 

14 Aliwal Horth IGl 

„ 15 Burghersdorp 163 

„ 18 Cradock 164 

„ 23 Mr. Liesching's 167 

28 Graaff Reinet 168 

Nov. 2 Somerset. 171 

,. 6 Zuurberg 174 

,, 7 Commando Kraal, Sunday's River 175 

,, 8 Uitenhage 176 

12 Port Elizabeth 177 

,,^^■•-^8 Gamtoo's River 178 

19 Mr. Macintosh's 179 

•20 Dr. Buchan's 180 

r, 22 Van Roy's 181 

„ 23 Sclioonberg 182 

„ 25 Belvedere 183 

26 Melville 184 

27 Plettenburg Bay 184 

Dec. 1 Belvedere 188 

2 George 188 

„ 10 Riversdale 196 

13 Swellendara 197 

„ 18 Riversdale 198 

19 Caledon 199 

23 Eerste Rivier 200 

„ 24 Protea 201 



NOTE . JJi^. Unc moj^ci c.ot 

the Bi.ihops -route 



QTI^urct m tlj£ Colonics. 

No. XXII. 
DIOCESE OF CAPETOWN.— PART L 



A JOURNAL 

OF 

THE BISHOP'S YISITATION TOUR 

THROl'GH 

THE CAPE COLONY, IN 1848, 



WITH AN ACCOUNT Or HIS 



VISIT TO THE ISLAND OF ST. HELENA, IN 1849, 



LONDON: 

PRIATED FOR 
THE SOCIETY FOR THE PROPAGATION OF THE GOSPEL; 

SOCIETY FOR PROMOTING CHRISTIAN KNOWLEDGE, 

GRKAT QUEEN STREET, LINCOLN'S INN FIELDS, 

AND 4, ROYAL EXCHANGE ; 

RIVINGXONS; HATCHAR1>S; AND ALL BOOKSELLERS. 

1849. 

Ocluber. 



LONDON : 
K. OLAV, VRINTEK, BREAD STREET HILL. 



NOTICE. 



It is due to the Bishop of Capetown to 
state that the following Journal of his primary 
Visitation through his Diocese is published 
without any direct sanction from his Lordship. 
The family of the Bishop have, however, kindly 
granted to the Society for the Propagation of 
the Gospel, permission to print what, although 
written as a private journal, contains so much 
matter of public importance, and conveys such 
interesting details of the Bishop's valuable 
labours in the Church's cause. Extracts from 
the Bishop's correspondence are added, nar- 
rating his visitation at St. Helena in March 
and April, 1849. 

The accompanying Map, furnished through 
the liberality of Mr. J. Arrowsmith, has been 
adapted to the Journal. 



1304264 



JOURNAL 

OF A 

VISITATION THROUGH THE CAPE COLONY, 

In 1848. 



Thursday, Aug. 24, 1848.— This day I com- 
menced my first Visitation of the Diocese, intending 
to go through the Colony, and to remain out till the 
early part of December ; after which I am informed, 
that the extreme heat of the weather will compel me 
to return. May God grant that this Visitation may 
tend to the promotion of His glory, and to the ex- 
tension of the kingdom of His dear Son in this deso- 
late and long-neglected portion of the vineyard. 

I start far from well, and in some fear of a recur- 
rence of my late severe illness : my medical man, 
however, hopes that the journey may benefit my 
health. My mode of travelling is in a good plain 
English wagon, drawn by eight horses ; we carry 
with us abundant provisions for the way, in case we 
should either be stopped by rivers, or not able to find 
accommodation ; my wagon too is so arranged that I 
can by letting down the back of my seat make a 
tolerable bed for myself. * * 

B 



2 SANDILEET. COLe's PASS. 

I slept the first niglit at INIr. Cloete's, Sandileet, 
•where I was entertained very hospitably. He is 
anxious to build a Church near his house. The 
plan he had procured was not a very correct one. I 
furnished him with another, and promised him 25/. 
from my fund, and 101. as my private subscription. I 
also urged liim to apply to Government for assist- 
ance, both towards the Church, and support of a 
Clergyman. 

Friday, All (J. 2o. — Started at six o'clock in the 
morning. I do not find wagon travelling so un- 
pleasant as I expected. It is rather rough work, 
but I have managed to read. We breakfasted at the 
foot of Sir Lowry Cole's Pass, just beyond the vil- 
lage of Somerset, where there is a Dutch Church 
and a Wesleyan Chapel, with two Missionaries for 
the coloured people. * * * 

I hope to form the villages of Erste River, Stellen- 
bosch, and Worcester, into a parish. After break- 
fast I walked in advance of the wagon over Sir 
L. Cole's Pass. The views were very fine, but the 
day, though a brilliant one, was not so clear for dis- 
tant views as I could have wished. Slept at Bot 
River. Our whole journey lay amongst the moun- 
tains. The views could scarcely be called magni- 
ficent, yet they were interesting. We passed very 
few houses in which I did not find English labourers. 
There are very few patches of cultivated ground 
all the way. I saw for the first time a man riding 
an ox. 

Saturday, Aug. 26. — Started a little after six 



CALEDON. 3 

o'clock, after a good night's rest. Our route to-daj 
still lay through the mountains which, as we reached 
Caledon, dwindled down to hills. The country is 
very bare. Here and there only there are a few 
cultivated patches. The general features, however, 
are like our English moors. There is scarce a tree 
to be seen. As I approached Caledon, I met a ser- 
vant whom Captain Mackay, the resident Magistrate, 
had sent to watch for me. We drove to his house, 
where he had kindly prepared breakfast for me, there 
being no inn in the place. After breakfast I walked 
round the village, to look for a site for the proposed 
Church. The Municipality offer land, also Captain 
Mackay. I fixed upon sites, and requested them to 
have the consent of the Municipality given formally, 
in time for our Meeting on Tuesday. There are 
many English in this neighbourhood, and it is an 
important post for a Church and Clergyman. In 
the afternoon I drove on (four hours) to Captain 
Ranier's, where I am to have my head quarters for a 
day or two, while visiting the District. The country 
is still open, and moorish, with mountains in the 
distance. The season is much later here than about 
Cape Town. Here is scarce a flower in blossom. I 
find my men pass me off on the road as a very great 
man. To-day they drew up near some boors, who 
were outspanning, and waited for some time as I did 
not look out of my wagon ; Ludwig came to tell 
me they wanted to look at me. * * * 

Sunday, Aug. 27. — I find Captain Kanier and his 
family good Christian people. We have been dis- 



4 CALEDON. 

cussing plans for providing for the spiritual wants 
of the District, and I hope we shall be able to get 
two Churches and a Clergyman. We had Divine 
service this morning in Captain Ranier's dining 
room and hall ; there were 70 persons present, and 
several from the neighbourhood could not attend. I 
baptized two children after the second Lesson ; there 
were fifteen communicants, several were deeply 
affected. We had again a full service in the even- 
ing, and a very good congregation. Captain Ranier 
leading the singing ; there were many coloured 
people present ; Captain Ranier reads prayers and a 
sermon every Sunday morning and evening, and he 
has good congregations. The nearest Church and 
Clergyman are at Capetown, three days' journey 
from this place. We have already 700/. for our two 
Churches, and hope to raise 1,000/., which will be 
the least amount for which they can be built. 

Monday, Aug. 28. — This morning brought a 

most unexpected letter from Mr. , saying 

that he purposed leaving this part of the Colony, and 
therefore must withdraw his subscription of 100/., 
and his grants of land. Though discouraged, we are 
resolved not to be cast down, but to make the greater 
exertions. Went to Colonel Dulton's, where we 
dined and slept. He takes up the Caledon Church 
very warmly. 

Ihiesday, Aug. 29. — Went in early to Caledon ; 
found a good number, chiefly of the middle classes, 
come in for our Meeting. We had, I think, more 
than 50 persons present ; nearly 120/ was raised in 



CALEDON. 5 

the room for a Church. It was decided to adopt 
one of the designs I had with me, likely to cost 600/., 
and calculated to hold 200 souls ; many promised to 
collect in the District, and to write home to friends 
in England to assist ; several pledged themselves 
also to increase their subscriptions, if needed ; 
others offered timber, reeds, &c. ; others, again, pro- 
mised to draw materials : we also addressed a stronc: 
memorial to Government, praying for help : an ex- 
cellent spirit prevailed throughout the Meeting, 
and all seemed thankful there was a pi'ospect of 
having their spiritual wants supplied. Several per- 
sons, after the Meeting, spoke to me with much feel- 
ing of their wretched state in the entire absence 
of all means of grace, and contrasted their condition 
with what it had been in this respect in our own 
dear mother land, and in the bosom of our mother 
Church. One man brought two of his daughters 
twenty-five miles, and entreated me to confirm them. 
He had taken them down to Capetown to be con- 
firmed, and they had been for some time under 
Mr. Lamb's instruction, who wrote to me in their 
favour ; my lengthened illness compelled them to 
return : after some conversation with, and examina- 
tion of them, I confirmed them. I also baptized tv/o 
children of English emigrants. Captain Mackay, 
the resident Magistrate, gave us luncheon after the 
Meeting ; and in the evening I returned with Captain 
Ranier to Nethercourt, thankful for the result of the 
day, and in good hope that we shall shortly see 



6 GENADENDAL. 

the two Churches springing up, so as to become a 
blessing to this desolate land. I received a note to 
say tliat Mr. Green had arrived by the Oriental, 
emigrant ship, and would follow me to act as 
chaplain. 

Wednesday, Aurj. 30. — Breakfasted this morning 
with Mr. Bayley, at the Oaks. Rode on afterwards 
about eighteen miles to the Moravian Institution, at 
Genadendal. The brethren and sisters received me 
very kindly. We arrived about twelve o'clock. As it 
was their dinner hour we sat down with them ; they 
invited me to say grace, and sit at the head of the table: 
but I requested them not to regard my presence ; they 
therefore sung their grace as usual, very beautifully. 
They gave me the chickens, and Captain Ranier the 
ham to carve, I believe, as a mark of respect. After 
dinner we went over the establishment, church, 
schools, workshop, &c. There are nearly 3,000 souls 
altogether in the place, and more than 600 children 
in the schools. There are nine young men from 
different tribes being educated as teachers, and with 
these I was pleased, though the amount of their in- 
formation did not seem great. "NVe heard, also, the 
boys and girls read and sing, and stayed some time in 
the infant school. There are eight brethren, with 
their wives and children ; with several of these I 
was much pleased, and the more so because they did 
not appear to wish to exaggerate the amount of good 
.done, or deny the defects of the Institution. Many 
of the Dutch, and some of the English find fault 



GENADENDAL. 7 

with the system as injurious to the farmers. They 
complain that they cannot get labourers to remain 
with thera more than a month or two. To this I 
tliink it must be replied, that, when treated with 
kindness and consideration by their masters, they 
will be found as willing to live with them as at Ge- 
nadendal. Captain Ranier, who lets his people see 
that he cares for them, making them comfortable, 
and looking after their moral and religious training, 
reading the Scriptures to them every morning before 
he goes to work, finds no difficulty, and several of 
these people are coming to reside on his flirm. The 
Missionaries at Genadendal told me that there was 
but one genuine Hottentot in the Institution, so 
greatly has the race decreased. I was much sur- 
prised to find so miserable a library for the brethren's 
own use. There were scarcely any valuable books in 
it. Would to God the Church in this Colony could 
point to a work of equal importance with this, as the 
result of her own labours in the cause of Christ 
among the Heathen. The Institution is situated in 
a broad valley just under the mountains. The Mis- 
sionaries are endeavouring to improve the place by 
planting. It is a peaceful, quiet spot. I bade fare- 
well to it with regret, and promised to visit it again. 
The little children ran after our horses some way, 
crying out, " Dag our!" " Dag Mynheer!" (Good day, 
uncle ; Good day, Sir.) * * We returned to 
dinner at Mr. Bayley's, and came home in the dark. 
Thursday, Aug. 31. — Rode off in the morning 
to the mountains, to see the forests, and to fix upon 



8 ZONDEK-ENDE. 

a site for the Zonder-Ende Cliurclj. "We had some 
fine views from the hills ; ordered some wood to be 
cut down for the Church, and paid several visits, 
both to the Dutch farmers and English labourers. 
All seemed rejoiced at the prospect of a Church, and 
promised to contribute to it. We fixed upon a spot 
on Linders Farm, where there are 150 coloured 
people, and, at no great distance, about the same 
number of English people. 

Friday, Sept. 1. — Started at half-past six this 
morning, in Captain Ranier's carriage, having sent 
my wagon on last evening to Mr. Vine's, where we 
breakfasted this morning : he has a large family, and 
several English labourers ; and all are living without 
the public means of grace ; they will, however, be 
only six miles from our new Church. After break- 
fast we journeyed on, passing through a country in 
all respects similar to that we had left ; an open 
hilly country, covered with heath and bushes, capa- 
ble of sustaining a much larger population than at 
present occupies it. A great portion of this land 
might be brought under the plough, and the remain- 
der would support a great deal more stock than there 
is at present upon it. In the distance, the mountains 
may be seen stretching all the way to Swellendam. 
There are scarcely any trees, but a succession of 
slopes and hills. We outspanned at another English 
farmer's, Mr, Twentyman, who has also several 
Enirlish families, and no Church or Clergyman of 
their own within 100 miles. In one of the cottages 
we found a poor English child of, we were told, 



SWELLENDAM. 9 

about twelve years of age, lying in bed, apparently 
dying. She did not pray, and said she could not ; 
she knew not what prayer was, nor could she i-ead. 
We spoke seriously to the parents upon their neglect, 
and, poor child ! we all knelt down, and prayed for 
her. Pier parents seemed much affected. We were 
detained here for some time, Avaiting for some chil- 
dren whom their parents anxiously desired us to 
baptize. This made us rather late. On the road we 
met the post, and received a very kind note from 
Dr. Robertson, the zealous Dutch Minister of Svvel- 
lendam, inviting me to take up my quarters at his 
house during my stay there. He had previously 
placed his Church at my disposal, for afternoon service 
on Sunday. Tlie only opportunity our people here 
have of attending public worship is an afternoon 
service, established by Dr. R. especially for the 
English people. They have no Church or Clergy- 
man of their own within 150 miles. God grant 
that my visit there may lead to a change in these 
things. Several of our people have joined the Dutch 
communion ; but some are, I understand, still anxious 
to remain in the bosom of their mother Church, and 
have declined to forsake her, even though she seems 
to have forsaken them. About ten miles from Swel- 
leiidam, and just as it was beginning to grow dusk, we 
met Dr. Robertson, who had most kindly driven out 
to meet me. We got into his light carriage, and 
arrived at his house about eight o'clock, where he had 
provided dinner for us, and invited some of the 
leading English to meet us. I had a good deal of 



10 SWELLENDAM. 

conversation with him. He is evidently a very intel- 
ligent, earnest, active man, and is most deservedly 
respected by every one. Indeed bis cbaracter stands 
as bigh as any Dutcb Minister in the Colony. I feel 
the great delicacy both of my position, and of the state 
of things here in general May God give me grace so 
to act and speak, as not in any way to compromise 
His truth, nor yet give oifence to those who differ; 
and may He dispose the hearts of His people here to 
make efforts for the erection of the House of God, 
and the support of a fixed IMinistry. 

Saturday, Sept. 2. — We held our Meeting 
to-day in the vestry of tlie Dutch Reformed Church. 
It was not well attended, many of the members of 
the Church holding back as I was given to under- 
stand, lest their presence should be considered as a 
slight upon Dr. Robertson. There was a long discus- 
sion as to what was to be done. The circumstances 
of this place are very peculiar. The Church peo- 
ple have been left entirely to themselves. They 
know not how to procure a pastor ; one gentleman 
did engage a Clergyman as tutor to his children, but 
he did not give satisfaction, or undertake any 
pastoral work. A separation soon took place, and 
Dr. R. took pupils. He has been the friend, the 
adviser, and the minister of our people. There is, 
therefore, naturally no sanguine feeling about our 
Church people, and they feel timid, and afraid to 
act, and w'ish, before committing themselves, to see 
how a Clergyman will act. They however formed a 
Committee for raising funds, both for Clergyman 



SWELLENDAM. 1 1 

and Churcli. Upwards of 60/. a-year for five years 
was subscribed in the room, and the parties under- 
take to raise lOOZ., in the hope that Government 
will give another 100/. a-year. At present the 
Government School-i'oom will be used for Divine 
service. Considerable confidence was expressed that, 
if the Clergyman gave satisfaction, a church would 
speedily be raised for him ; and I have no doubt 
that such would be the case. They fixed on a 
plan for the Church. Whoever comes here will 
have a very important and difficult post ; he will 
need a truly Christian spirit, much judgment and 
discretion, activity, zeal, patience, temper — and a 
disposition to conciliate, without compromise. Seve- 
ral persons applied for confirmation. Dr. Robertson 
spoke of them as highly respectable people, and 
religiously disposed ; both Mr. Green and myself 
therefore undertook to prepare them as well as we 
could during the day, and I resolved to hold a con- 
firmation to-morrow. 

Sunday, Sept. 3. — Dr. Robertson this morning 
accepted in a most Christian spirit my excuses for 
not attending his services. At twelve o'clock, imme- 
diately after the Dutch morning service, we held our 
first service ; as we were to hold a second service, of 
which only notice had been given at three o'clock, I 
was unable to have the full morning service ; I 
therefore commenced with the Litany, and after that 
confirmed the candidates. We had a table brought 
out in front of the pulpit, which served as our 
Altar. There was a very respectable congregation, 



12 SWELLENDAM. 

and they were very attentive. At three o'clock our 
service began, of which previous notice had been 
given. The Church was full ; we had evening prayer, 
and Holy Communion ; I preached ; thirteen com- 
municants presented themselves ; most, or all of 
those who, having no Minister of their own, are in 
the habit of communicating with the Dutch Church, 
did not present themselves. Instead of being sur- 
prised at this, I am more surprised at the hold 
which the Church still has upon the minds of so many 
of her children, whom she has utterly abandoned. 
I am surprised, I own, to find them under these 
circumstances raising 100/. a-year for five years for 
a Clergyman, readily and cheerfully. May God in 
His mercy raise up a faithful zealous pastor for this 
long-neglected portion of the vineyard. My visit 
here has been a most interesting — most painfully 
interesting one. 

Monday, Sept. 4. — I trust there is some chance 
of our getting two Clergymen here— one for tliis 
place, and one for Port Beaufort, to educate Mr. 
Barry's children, and others ; and to minister to 
the people there, and at Riversdale. I have also 
engaged to furnish the plans for a small Church 
there. We started this morning in Mr. Barry's cart, 
having sent our wagon on, and breakfasted with 
Captain Buchanan, who has a very pretty place, 
just facing the mountains. '" * * * 

Tuesday, Sept. 5. — Started at six in the morning ; 
outspanned at nine, lighted a fire on the grass, 
and had breakfast. I enjoyed our primitive mode 



RIVERSDALE. 13 

of living very much. Arrived at Riversdale about 
one o'clock. The village is prettily situated, and 
is increasing rapidly ; our whole route to-day lay 
through the same kind of country as before ; but 
the hills are more beautiful, rising one above another 
with a fine mountainous background. I observe the 
heaths are beginning to blow. The acting Magis- 
trate, Mr. Hudson, rode out, with an English gentle- 
man, about three miles to meet us, and we found 
comfortable quarters at Villiers. There were only 
three persons at our Meeting, these three gentlemen 
having resolved themselves into a Committee for the 
erection of a Church and supply of a Clergyman ; 
but it was determined in the first instance to raise a 
sufficient sum to entitle them to have service once a 
month from the Clergyman of Port Beaufort and 
Swellendara, and they thought they could raise 60/. 
a-year. After the Meeting we went into the village 
to call upon the English people, and made out that 
there were about 100. Some of them seemed very 
respectable people, and most anxious for a Clergy- 
man. We also inspected the Government School, 
where there were ten children. The coloured chil- 
dren are not allowed to come till three o'clock, when 
the white are dismissed ; were this not done, the 
Dutch would withdraw their children. We called 
on the Dutch Clergyman, who seemed a respectable 
man. I was unwilling to quit this village without 
some religious service, our people having no Church 
of their own within 200 miles. I therefore sent 
Mr. Green after dinner to ask for the use of the 



14 GOARITZ RIVER. 

magistrate's office., and we let the English people 
know that there would be evening prayer and 
sermon at half-past seven. We had a full room ; Mr. 
Green read the prayers, and I preached to them 
extempore for half-an-hour ; they were very at- 
tentive. 

Wednesday, Sept. 6. — Left Riversdale at six 
o'clock this morning ; breakfasted at a Dutch farm, 
La Grange (two hours) ; outspanned at Tiger Fon- 
tein (two hours) ; slept at Gronge's Stink River 
(four hours). The country, in its general features, 
was very similar to what we had passed through. 
In some parts, however, as at the Goaritz River, 
(which really is a river,) it is more beautiful, though 
there is a great want of trees. The natural roads 
are for the most part excellent, though in many places 
very rough. At the Goai-itz River we all had to 
keep the wagon from rolling over, by pulling it 
straight with a rope. We are very fortunate in the 
beautiful weather we have had ; one day's rain would 
probably have kept us several days on the banks of 
this river. We cannot, therefore, be too thankful for 
the lovely weather we have enjoyed. I have now 
been out a fortnight, and every day has been fine. 
We have passed very few houses : the land, however, 
is clearly capable of bearing a much larger popula- 
tion, and all that is wanting is capital and industry. 

Thursday, Sept. 7. — Passed a sleepless and excited 
night. I had hoped air and exercise, and fatigue, 
were restoring my nerves, but I find I am not so well 
as I imagined. Started at nine for Mossel Bay, 



MOSSEL BAT. lo 

where we arrived at half-past twelve o'clock. About 
seven miles from the bay we were met by Mr. Marsh, 
the resident mngistrate, Mr. Van Reynen, the Dutch 

Minister, and Mr. . No one else came to meet 

us, Mr. Marsh having invited all the principal resi- 
dents to a sumptuous tiffin. He told me most of the 
English were, he thought, Dissenters ; but falling in 
with a Mr. Elliot before dinner, who I understood 
was a Churchman, I soon found from him that there 
were many people who were anxious for a Church and 
Minister. He told me he would guarantee 100/. 
a-year to a Clergyman, provided he would take 
pupils. I encouraged him to form a committee, to 
raise the means for Church and Pastor ; the committee 
to correspond with me, and memorialize Government 
for 100/. a-year. I doubt not I shall soon hear from 
him on the subject. We left at four, and arrived 
about half-past five at Class Neegers Hartenbosch. 
The situation of INIossel Bay is very beautiful. 
The bay itself is a fine one ; and the mountains 
which surround it, and lie at the back of George, are 
bold and commanding. Upon leaving the bay, the 
valley and river of Hartenbosch opened out very 
beautifully ; and as the sun was just setting, and 
there was a little rain, we had before us a scene very 
like one of Claude's. After taking a lesson in Dutch, 
by reading the Testament with some of the family 
here, we retired early to prepare for our journey on 
the morrow. 

Friday, Sept. 8. — We had a magnificent view of 
the mountains, with the early sun upon them, this 



16 GEOKGE. 

morning, during the first part of our day to the Great 
Braack lliver, where we outspanncd, and lighted our 
fire for a country breakfast, the freedom and inde- 
pendence of which we greatly enjoyed. Afterwards 
we ascended the hills before us by a near road, 
through a fine part of the valley. The roads in this 
part of the country are being fast improved. What 
is most wanting is the bridging of the rivers; many 
of those we have passed would, with a little rain, be 
so swollen as to detain travellers for daysj'even as it 
is our horses were on several occasions nearly com- 
pelled to swim. The road from these hills to George 
lies over a flat uncultivated country. I was disap- 
pointed in the appearance of George, which is a long 
straggling village, containing about 2,000 souls. There 
is a large ugly unfinished Dutch church, to which Go- 
vernment has just given 1,000/., a Romish chapel, 
and at least one other of no definite sect. Mr. Scott the 
English Clergyman, Mr. Aspinel the Civil Commi.s- 
sioner, and several other gentlemen were waiting to 
receive us. We had very comfortable quarters at a 
lodging-house ; a good many people called, and as we 
had an hour or two to spare, and I knew not when 
we .should have another, I went to return their calls, 
to look into the schools, and to see some of the 
members of the English Church, Mr. Scott accom- 
panying us. He afterwards dined with us, and we 
took tea at his house : on returning to our lodgings 
I found Mr. Dulhie had arrived from the Knysna, 
accompanied by Mr. Bull, the Catechist of the place, 
to conduct me to his house. 



GEORGE. 17 

Saturday, Sept. 9. — A sleepless night, notwith- 
standing a strong opiate, from the excitement of 
yestei-day, consequently I felt very stupid all day. 
At eleven o'clock, we held our Confirmation in the 
])utcli Church ; 35 were confirmed. I was pleased 
with their reverent and devout manner ; some seemed 
much affected. After service was over we held a 
meeting in the Court-house about our new Cliurch. 
It was well attended, and a plan for the Church 
was adopted, though the funds as yet contributed 
are not sufiicient for its erection. I also brought 
under the notice of the meeting the Church 
Society we have just formed, and distributed copies 
of the rules. We cannot, however, expect many 
contributions to general purposes while local efforts 
are so greatly required ; but I trust that, when 
our Churches are built, we shall be able to raise 
funds for Missions, Churches, Schools, &c. Being 
unable to cross in the afternoon, owing to the rain, to 
see the Montagu Pass, I spent my time in writing, 

and in visiting a few more of our Church people. 

* * * * 

I grieve to see the heart-burnings and strife which 
exist between the English and Dutch communion in 
this place. 

Sunday, Sept. 10. — Preached this morning iu 
the Dutch Church to an excellent congregation ; 
administered the Holy Communion to about twenty- 
five persons : spoke plainly, but affectionately to 
them upon their own want of love, and earnestly 
entreated them to cultivate a spirit of charity. In 
c 



18 GEORGE. PAKALSDORP. 

the afternoon I examined Mr. Scott's Sunday School, 
and in tlie evening preached again to about two 
hundred Dutch and English. The people seemed 
very attentive, and most of the Dutch understand the 
English language. 

Monday, Se])t.l\. — * * * * 

After breakfast, I went to examine the Government 
School, but had not time to go through it. I thought 
their religious knowledge very imperfect. My wagon 
being pronounced too weak for the Knysna roads, 
I was obliged to hire another, which was taken out 
by oxen, which were kindly furnished by several 
gentlemen. We started on horseback about eleven, 
accompanied by several gentlemen, who wished to 
ride part of the way with us. We went a little way 
out of our road to visit the Missionary Institution of 
Pakalsdorp. There are about 750 souls here, living 
as usual in mud or wattle huts ; from 150 to 200 
of these have been baptized, the remainder are still 
Heathen, though many of them attend the public 
services Avhich the Missionaries hold. I here found 
the most Church-like looking edifice I have seen in 
the Colony. It has a tower of very respectable pro- 
portions, and is built entirely of stone, and without 
a covering of plaster, which disfigures every other 
Church I have yet seen. There is an old Missionary 
here with his daughter, and a younger Missionary ; 
the old man is 80, and past working. The universal 
opinion in this neighbourhood is, that the time has 
come for giving up these institutions, and allowing 
them to merge into the parochial system ; but I am 



BELVIDERE. KNYSNA. 19 

inclined to think that a few years must first elapse, 
allowing for a considerable increase of Clergymen 
during that period. There are two schools here, 
but the children had gone to their dinners. The 
Institution is built on Government land, a consider- 
able tract of which they are allowed the use of. 
The London Missionary Society also, whose agents 
they are, possesses, adjoining to the Institution, a farm 
of about 10,000 acres of land. After leaving this, 
we rode over hill and dale, and tlirough some tine 
wooded valleys and rivers, to Mr. Dumbleton's, u 
distance of about 20 miles : much of the country 
put me in mind of our Yorkshire coast, but we have 
not in England the fine range of mountains which 
accompanied us all the way on our left. After 
arriving at Mr. D.'s, I walked out with him for a 
mile or two to look at some lakes, formed partly 
by the sea, and partly by rivers : the scenery was 
picturesque, but they are by no means equal to our 
English lakes. 

Tuesday, Sept. 12. — Left Mr. D.'s after break- 
fast, and rode through a beautiful country, thirty 
miles to Mr. Duthie's, at Belvidere, on the banks 
of the Knysna : our route lay at first along the 
borders of the chain of lakes which I saw yesterday. 
We had some very beautiful views of them up and 
down from several points. After leaving them we 
travelled through a sandy valley, covered with heatii, 
geranium, and a variety of flowers not yet fully blown, 
till we arrived at a forest. Here I found liner tim- 
ber than I had yet seen in the Colony. The yellow 



20 ISELVIDERE. KXYSXA. 

tree, a most useful wood fur building purposes, grows 
to a large size, and is a very picturesque tree ; it is 
usually covered witli a kind of pendant moss, which 
improves its appearance. Here also we found the 
wild vine growing over forest trees, and spreading 
its arms like the vine when cultivated. It is, how- 
ever, a different plant, and produces a sour kind of 
fruit, which is preserved like the cherry in brandy, 
and is used instead of currant jelly. The forest too 
was covered with a kind of sapling which shoots from 
the ground, and lays hold on the branches of great 
trees. It has the appearance of a thick rope fasten- 
ing the trees to the ground, and is called the monkey 
ladder. The forest abounds with monkeys and 
baboons, but we did not see any. The Castor-oil 
plant grows here in great abundance ; I observed 
several new flowers, none of them however of any 
great beauty. We crossed several rivers, some of 
which were deep, their banks are high and rocky, 
and well wooded. In one my horse was nearly driven 
to swim, tlie Avater pouring over the tops of my horse- 
guard boots. We arrived about sunset at Belvidere, 
and had a beautiful view of the Knysna : here there 
is a fine sheet of water, which forms the basin of a 
harbour, but the beauty of the scene is somewhat 
spoiled by the low land which rises up in several 
places, giving the lake the appearance of being 
marshy. The harbour would I believe be a fine 
one, were it not for the entrance which is very 
narrow, and lies between high rocks. I like, how- 
ever, what I have seen of this neighbourhood very 



PORTLANDS. 21 

much ; it is a fine country, and has great capabilities ; 
it is better wooded too than any part of the Colony I 
have yet seen. Mr. Duthie's house borders on the 
lake, and has a beautiful prospect before it. Mr. 
Bull (catechist) who is also tutor to Mr. D.'s chil- 
dren, is happily situated in this excellent family, and 
is esteemed by all for his zeal and earnestness. 

Wednesdatf, Sept. 13. — After breakfast this morn- 
ing we rode in a heavy rain to Portlands, ten miles, 
where Mr. Bull had fixed for me to hold a service ; 
and vv^here he had some candidates for baptism. The 
place is one of his monthly stations. Mr. Duthie 
dressed me out in a very long Mackintosh, and I 
exchanged my hat for an oil-skin jockey cap, which 
had no very episcopal appearance. Notwithstanding 
all, however, I soon got wet. The country we passed 
tlirough Avas very beautiful, and we had some good 
views of the water, as the weather partially cleared 
up. There were about thirty persons present, most 
of them coloured, to whom I preached extempore, 
as simply as I could, from Ephes. ii. 1 — 5 : we 
returned to Belvidere by four o'clock, and we had 
another service in the evening, when I again 
preached : we had also an adult heathen prepared 
for baptism by Mr. Bull, whom I baptized. 

Thursday/ Sept. 14. — After breakfast walked out 
with Mr. Duthie, to determine upon the site of the 
Belvidere Church. We fixed upon a beautiful spot, 
commanding a very fine viev/ of the lake. Mr. 
Duthie also gives land for a parsonage. We de- 
cided upon one of Butterfield's plans for the Church, 



22 PLETTENBERG DAT, 

which is to hold 100 ; but is capable of enlargement. 
At one o'clock, four gentlemen came over from tlie 
other side, dressed in their Jerseys, and with flags 
flying, to row me over the lake. As we arrived at 
Melville various flags were hoisted. After calling 
upon several of the inhabitants we rode out, a tolera- 
bly large party, to Mr. Rex, and thence to Mr. 
Sutherland's, to dine and sleep. 

Friday, Sept. 15. — We started early this morning 
for Plettenberg Bay, where I am to hold two ser- 
vices, and fix upon the site of the Church. The 
morning service, when I preached, was held in Mr. 
Newdigate's house : no notice had been given, but 
we had about twenty persons present. After service 
we rode to Captain Sinclair's at the bay, fur after- 
noon service ; but as no notice had been given here, 
it Avas found impossible to collect the people, and 
we walked on to Capt. Ilarker's, at the Residency, 
where I was to dine and sleep. The country be- 
tween the Knysiia and Plettenberg Bay is well 
wooded and very hilly, and I think as fine a part of 
the Colony as any that I have yet seen. I observed 
here the India-rubber tree growing in one or two 
gardens. 'Mr. Newdigate's farm is situated in a lovely 
valley. 

Saturday, Sept. 16. — Walked out early with Capt. 
Harker, over the Residency farm. The house has a 
famous hall which as a church would hold 200 
people. After breakfast we mounted our horses, to 
return to Melville, where I had appointed the public 
meeting to be held. We had a very warm ride of 



MELVILLE. 23 

twenty miles ; our meeting, which was well attended, 
passed off most satisfactorily. We shall, I trust, ere 
long have three churches in this parish, one at Bel- 
videre, one at Melville, and one at Ivnysna. The 
Melville Church, for which I have furnished the 
plans, is to be begun immediately, and a further 
subscription is to be raised for the support of the 
Clergyman. It already amounts to about 50/. Mr. 
Sutherland, who has built a school here, has applied 
to me for a teacher. I trust I may soon be able 
to send both Clergyman and Schoobnaster to this 
district. In the evening we returned to Mr. Suther- 
land's, who had invited a large party of the neigh- 
bouring gentlemen to meet us. 

Sunday, Sept. 17. — A sleepless night — feverish 
from the extreme heat of yesterday. This day was 
also extremely warm. After breakfast, I walked 
to the school which Mr. Sutherland has just built, 
and where our services are held for the present, a 
distance of about three miles. The school-room was 
decked out with flowers, and was soon filled to over- 
flowing with a devout congregation. I observed no 
less than nine wagons, several of the Dutch families 
having come in for our services. I confirmed 27 
persons, chiefly adults, who had been very carefully 
prepared by Mr. Bull ; many both males and females 
were deeply aflfected, and all, I believe, felt that the 
services were exceedingly interesting; certainly a 
very solemn feeling pervaded our assembly. I could 
not help expressing my gratitude to God for the 
sight before me. A congregation of 130 souls, 



24 avoxtkdp:r. lange kloof. 

30 communicants, 27 candidates for confirmation, 
where only a few months before there were no pub- 
lic means of grace, no Clergyman within 150 miles, 
no Church within 350. In the afternoon, we had 
another full congregation. I jireached and bap- 
tized several children after the second lesson. 

Blondaji, Sept. 18. — Rose at five o'clock this 
morning, intending, if possible, to reach Mr. Son- 
tag's farm at Avonteuer in the Lange Kloof by even- 
ing, but doubtful whether we could accomplish it. 
We started a party of about twelve, several gentle- 
men being anxious to accompany us part of the way, 
and ]\Ir. George Rex and Mr. Sutherland intending 
to proceed the whole way with us. After about an 
hour's journey we arrived at the Queen's forest, 
through which we were to pass by a road or path 
recently cut out by the road commissioners, under 
the direction of IMr. Sutherland. Here most of the 
gentlemen took leave of us. I could not part from 
them without thanking them, warmly and sincerely, 
for their kind attentions and hospitality during my 
short visit amongst them. From the time that I 
arrived at George till the hour I reached Avonteuer, 
I have never moved without being attended by one 
or more of these gentlemen : others have sent their 
oxen for my wagon, and I have not been permitted 
to be at any expense while amongst them. After 
parting from our kind friends, we dived into the 
forest, which extends a distance of many miles. 
Where we crossed it, it Avas eleven miles broad. 
The timber in this forest is very fine, and has for the 



queen's fouest, 25 

most part probably never been touched since the 
creation. Here and there we saw huge trees lying 
about and perfectly rotten ; others still standing 
were of a very large girth. The chief kind of wood 
were the Assegai iron tree, stink wood, yellow 
wood, ash, white elm. The stink Avood is, when cut 
into, perfectly black. The yellow wood is by far 
the largest tree, and is of immense size. We saw 
no wild animals, though the forest abounds in ele- 
phants, buffaloes, leopards, hyenas, wild boars, &c. 
We saw the spoor of the elephant, and his tracks, 
and we met a farmer Avho had seen three on Friday, 
and Sir. Sutherland saw five on his return a day or 
two after in the forest. A thunderstorm came on, 
and the lightning was very vivid ; one flash came 
close to us, and this, with the instantaneous clap of 
thunder, so frightened our horses that they bounded 
under us and ran away, Mr. Green's horse throwing 
him. After emerging from the forest, the weather 
cleared up, and we found ourselves in an open 
country, amidst heath bush ten or twelve feet high, 
with magnificent views all around us. The picture, 
indeed, was very striking, the clouds hanging round 
the mountains showed them to the best advantage, 
and the effect of light and shade was very beautiful. 
After riding about five hours we came to a farm, 
where fresh horses had been provided for us : we 
tlien proceeded over a totally different country from 
that which we had just left. For the x-est of the day 
we scarce saw a tree, but passed over several distinct 
ranges of mountains. Here the scenery was very 



26 AVONTEDEU. 

wild and magnificent, and put me more in mind of 
some parts of vSwitzerland, than any other portion of 
the Colony I have yet seen. Night overtook us in 
the mountains, and we did not arrive at Avon- 
teuer till eight o'clock in the evening, and then 
found that our wagon, which had left for Avonteuer 
on Friday, had not yet arrived. Here we learnt 
that we had a second mercy to be thankful for, on 

this day. Mr. had set three spring guns on 

the very path by which we reached his house, to 
shoot a tiger which has of late been destroying his 
flocks. This has been to me one of the most in- 
teresting days I have passed in the Colony. Let me 
feel thankful to Almighty God, that I am able to 
endure so much fatigue as I have done in this long 
day's journey, without suffering from it. 

Tuesday/, Sept. 19. — Rose early this morning to 
visit the Missionary Institution at Avonteuer, be- 
longing to the London Society. The Missionary's 
name is Mr. Hood, who is at the same time school- 
master, doctor, and farmer. He seems an intelligent 
and right-minded man. There are about 500 people 
of all ages connected with the establishment, which 
is conducted on somewhat different principles from 
any that I have yet seen. The people have an allot- 
ment of about three acres of garden or arable land, 
which is leased to them for twenty years, with a 
right of renewal, at a rent of thirty shillings a year. 
Upon this they build their own houses ; they have 
in addition a right of pasturage over the farm, and 
others pay ten shillings a year for a smaller allot- 



LANGE KLOOF. 27 

ment. This Institution, like all the rest, is very 
unpopular with the farmers, chiefly on the score of 
their inability to get labourers from them. The 
right is retained by the Institution of dismissing im- 
proper characters, who are however entitled to com- 
pensation for improvements. I find I shall not be 
able to visit either the London IMissionary Society's 
Institution at Hankey, or the Moravian at Clarkson, 
as they both lie out of my way, and I am anxious to 
be at Uitenhage on Saturday. We drove through 
the Lange Kloof, which is a valley between mountains, 
through abominable roads to Rademeger, at Lond- 
water, where we slept. Here I found a schoolmas- 
ter who, as is frequently the case in country parts in 
the Colony, v/as engaged in teaching several Dutch 
farmers' families. Mr. Scott, of George, wrote to 
me some time since about receiving him into the 
Church. He was brought up a Roman Catholic, but 
partly through reading the Scriptures, partly the 
Prayer Book, and partly Blunt's Lectures on the 
Articles, became convinced of the errors of the 
Church of Rome. He had been most anxious to be 
confirmed by me at George, but v/as taken ill upon 
the road ; I therefore confirmed him this evening, 
and gave him some Prayer Books, out of which he 
has been in the habit of teaching his Dutch pupils, 
and whicli he uses in performing service on Sun- 
days ; wliicli he has been in the habit of doing. The 
poor man seemed very thankful, and very earnest 
about himself, and is a striking instance of the 
way in which God makes up by extraordinary 



28 LAXGi: KLOOF. ST. FRANCIS V.XY. 

methods the grace that cannot be supplied by orili- 
nary means. Mr. Scott spoke very well of him, as 
did Mr. George Rex, who knew him well. 

Wednesday, Sept. 20. — An early start at six 
o'clock. Our road still lay through the Lange Kloof, 
and was, if possible, worse than our yesterday's 
route. The only object of interest to-day w^as the 
sight of some Kaffir cranes, which are elegant and 
beautiful birds. About themidille of the davAve passed 
from the Lange Kloof to the Kronime River, and 
at the same time from the George to the Uitenhage 
district. We passed several farms, with a scattered 
population. The general features of the country are 
like yesterday's — a valley lying between high and 
bare hills. 

Thursday, Sept. 21. — Rose at five ; out.spanned 
for breakfast at ten o'clock at E-chenbosch. Roads 
still very bad ; country somewhat tarae. Outspanned 
again at two at Moulinans, and arrived at six at 
Human, where we slept. The weather is still beau- 
tiful, and our roads have greatly improved, the 
country not having been torn up by the rains. 

Friday, Sept. 22. — Breakfasted this morning at 
Captain Boys', St. Francis Bay. He and his sister 
Mrs, Macintosh, with their families, are separated 
from the public means of grace by a distance of fifty 
miles. Captain Boys reads on Sundays the service 
of the Church. They seemed anxious about a Clergy- 
man, and the education of their children. I baptized 
their youngest child. Captain Boys rode on with us 
to Mr. Barnard's, where we had luncheon. The 



UITEXHAGE. 29 

country this day has been flat and uninteresting, till 
we passed the Kamtoos river, when we entered 
upon a hilly and well wooded country ; we crossed 
the Kamtoos by a ferry ; the wind blowing strong, 
and the tide rolling in, Ave had a somewhat rough 
passage ; we slept at Field-Cornet Newkirk's. 

Saturday, Sept. 23. — The first part of this day's 
journey was performed with oxen, the road being 
very difficult and precipitous ; the views, however, 
were very beautiful, especially in passing the Kloof 
Bosch river. After passing through a well wooded 
and mountainous country for two hours, we arrived 
at an extensive plain, on which we outspanned for 
breakfast, near a muddy stream, which supplied us 
with water for our tea. This plain continued till 
^ve arrived near Uitenhage, which lies very prettily 
just under the hills. We reached our very comfort- 
able quarters at about half-past one, accompanied by 
the civil commissioners, Mr. Bennett and Mr. Cope- 
man, who had ridden out to meet us. We w^alked 
in the afternoon about the village, to fix upon a site 
for the Church ; and my evening was spent in re- 
plying to the large packet of lettei'S which I found 
awaiting my arrival. 

Sunday, Sept. 24. — Our service in the morning 
was held as usual in the Court House, where aboutlOO 
Avere present. I preached from Luke xiv. 27. " And 
whosoever doth not bear his cross, and come after 
me, cannot be my disciple." In the evening Ave held 
service in the Dutch Church, which I Avas informed 
would be lent if Avished. I preached again to a large 



30 CITENHAGE. 

and attentive congregation. My motive in using 
tlie Dutch Church was the hope that it might lead 
to a kindlier state of feeling than, unhappily, exists 
in this place. 

Monduy, Sept. 25. — We held our Confirmation 
this morning at 12 o'clock in the Dutch Church. There 
■were fourteen candidates, a very small number consi- 
dering the amount of the English population here. The 
Church was quite full, and many of the poor coloured 
people were standing round the door. I grieve that 
the prejudices which exist so strongly in other parts 
of the Colony, with respect to the coloured people, 
should be found here also, and that they should not 
be admitted to worship together witli their white 
brethren, and to partake of all Christian ordinances 
Avith them. The feeling which keeps them at a dis- 
tance is utterly unchristian, and those who indulge 
in it cannot look for God's blessing. At two o'clock 
I attended the Meeting of the parishioners, of Avhich 
I had given notice in the Town Hall. I brought 
before them the sulyect of their Church, Clergyman's 
stipend, Churchyard, Church Society, &c. * * * 
Dined in the evening at Mr. Tennant's, civil com- 
missioner, who had invited a party of gentlemen to 
meet me. 

Tuesday, Sept. 26.— -^^ * * * 

At four o'clock I hehl a Jleeting of the Church 
Building Committee, when I laid before them my 
suggestions as to the course to be immediately 
])ursu(.'d with reference to the Church, and their 
Minister's stipend ; and also with relation to some 



BETHELSDORF. PORT ELIZABETH. 31 

Other points. These were unanimously adopted, 
and will, I trust, be shortly acted upon. Dined 
in the evening with the Judge, who came into 
the village this morning on circuit, and called to 
invite me. 

Wednesday, Sept. 27. — Wrote letters very early. 
After breakfast I Avent with Mr. Copeman to 
examine the Dutch School, and the Government 
School. Paid a short visit to the Court ; then made 
some calls ; and started at one o'clock for Port 
Elizabeth. In our way visited the Missionary In- 
stitution at Bethelsdorf. The Society here (London) 
have about 24,000 acres of land. The village con- 
sists of about 300 people, who have no other employ- 
ment than attending to their cattle, there being 
seai-cely any land fit to be cultivated on the farm. 
People seem to be dissatisfied with it. * * * 
We arrived at Port Elizabeth before six, and met 
Mr. M'Cleland, Mr. Ilerries, Mr. Frere, &c., who 
were waiting to receive us. Port Elizabeth has 
more of the appearance of an English place than any 
we have seen since we left Capetown ; it reminds 
me forcibly of some of the new settlements spring- 
ing up in so many places in our mother land, and is 
evidently rapidly rising in importance. I felt quite 
cheered at seeing anything so English ; but my 
spirits were soon cast down by hearing that Church 
matters were not in a comfortable state. 

Thursday, Sept. 28.— Early part of day spent in 
receiving visitors, surveying the town, with a view 
to the selection of sites for future Church, Schools, 



32 PORT ELIZABETH. 

parsonage, <fc:c. At four o'clock attended a Meeting of 
the vestry ; decided that I could not, under present 
circumstances, consecrate either Church or church- 
yard. 

Friday, Sept. 29. — Day spent in receiving the 
members of the Church, and calling upon them ; 
also endeavouring to settle some unfortunate diflfer- 
ences which exist here, in which I trust I have been 
in some measure successful. Laus Deo. Dined 
with Mr. M'Cleland. 

Saturday, Sept. 30. — This morning made some 
few more calls; at twelve o'clock held a Confirmation; 
fifty-two candidates presented themselves. There 
were fifty-three, but one at the last moment was 
unable to utter the solemn words " I do." I was 
glad to find that conscience withheld him, and trust 
it may please God to bring him to confess Christ 
before men at some future day. Our Confirmation 
here, as evei'ywhere, is, I trust, likely to prove 
a blessing. Some Dissenters had issued a very 
bitter tract against the Church in general, and the 
holy service in particular, which had been distri- 
buted from house to house during my stay here. 
This probably drew a larger congregation, for our 
Church was full ; and I b(ilieve all felt the reality 
and solemnity of the sacred ceremony, so that we 
have no cause to regret the attack made upon us. 
After the Confirmation, I held a meeting of the 
members of the Church in the Town Hall, and sub- 
mitted to them my views of their wants, and the 
method of supplying them. These related to the 



PORT ELIZABETH. 33 

erection of a school, and another cliurch, and the 
supply of an additional Clergyman ; I trust in due 
time all these things may be secured ; I also drew 
their attention to the Church Society ; and assigned 
to them my reasons for not being able to consecrate 
either church or churchyard during this Visitation. 
I trust that before I come again the church and 
churchyard will be duly conveyed to the See, and a 
wall built round the latter. 

Sunday, Oct. 1. — We had a crowded church this 
morning ; I preached from Matt. xxvi. 41. There 
were about seventy-five communicants ; many of 
them were deeply affected, and shed tears. In the 
afternoon I attended the Sunday School. The 
children of this school have long been in the habit 
of contributing to pious objects. They made offer- 
ings for the lepers, while the institution was in their 
neighbourhood. Afterwards they supported a blind 
man. They were at a loss to know what next to 
contribute to. About six months since, when my 
pastoral letter came out, ordering collections for the 
Missions to the Heathen, the children then all re- 
solved that they would support the Bishop's Missions, 
and to-day they brought me their offerings, amounting 
to \l. 14s. I addressed the children on the subject 
of missions, and affectionately urged them, while 
endeavouring to bring the Heathen to Christ, them- 
selves to live as His true disciples. Afterwards I 
examined them in the Catechism, and was pleased 
with their answers ; and then I spoke to the Sunday 
Schoolteacher. In the evening we had again a very 

D 



34 SUNDAY RIVER. 

full Church, when I preached to them from 2 Cor. iv. 
3, 4 : " But if our Gospel be hid, it is hid to them that 
are lost : in whom the God of this world hath blinded 
the minds of them which believe not, lest the light 
of the glorious gospel of Christ, who is the image 
of God, should shine unto them." The old and zea- 
lous clerk said the church had never been so full 
before, nor had there been so many communicants. 
May God bless the services of the day to the good 
of the souls of this people. 

Monday, Oct. 2. — I put off my hour of departure 
this morning from six to eight o'clock, as several 
gentlemen kindly expressed a wish to accompany me 
on horseback a short distance from the town. Ac- 
cordingly, at our hour of departure, the Civil Com- 
missioner, Commander of Troops, Collector of Cus- 
toms, Hon. Mr. Herries, and several other gentlemen 
appeared to escort us ; and some others, who were 
unable to do so, came to Mr. Herries, who has most 
hospitably entertained me, to bid me farewell. I 
leave Port Elizabeth with a lighter heart than I 
entered it with, and not without hope that I may, 
ere long, see a new cliurch, and a second Clergyman 
there. We slept at a very comfortable English inn 
at the Sunday River, about thirty-five miles distant 
from the Bay. I brought Mr. M'Cleland with me 
in my wagon, for our meeting at Graham's Town. 

Tuesday, Oct. 'd. — This is my birth-day. I have 
now completed my thirty-ninth year. I\Iay I not 
forget how rapidly time is passing, and eternity 
approaching. May I live daily as one who is shortly 



SUNDAY PaVER. 35 

to give up his account to God ! I daily feel more 
keenly my own insufficiency for the great charge 
entrusted to me. God give me wisdom, faith- 
fulness, zeal, meekness, humility, love, patience, 
firmness, that I may be able to exercise my high 
office aright ! I often think that when the rough 
work shall be over, and there may be a call for one 
possessing higher qualifications than myself, I shall 
be laid aside, and another better qualified to exercise 
the higher and more important functions of the epis- 
copate be raised up. I pray of God to dispose of me 
in any way (whether by life or by death), that may 
best serve for the promotion of His glory, the exten- 
sion of the kingdom of my ever-blessed Redeemer, 
and the salvation of the souls for whom He died. I 
wish to live not a day longer than I can serve Him. 
This morning, at dawn of day, a little past five, 
had my first bath in Afi'ican water, taking a swim 
with Green in the Sunday River. I found no harm 
result to my head from it. We drove through a 
bushy country, in which the Kaffirs have, during 
their inroads, frequently concealed themselves for a 
considerable time. While outspanning for breakfast, 
Mr. M'Cleland fell in with a poor Hottentot in 
great distress : for three days the oxen of his wagon 
had strayed ; his master had gone in search of them, 
and had been out two nights ; he had just found him 
ravins; with delirium on the bank of a hill about an 
hour off. An English farmer and some Hottentots 
had refused to assist him ; and he was without pro- 
visions, with a wagon full of gunpowder, and fast 



36 SIDDURY, 

giving way to despair. We went with him to look 
for his master, and found him, as he described him, 
■with his wooden leg, at some distance. With diffi- 
culty we got him to his wagon ; I gave him some 
medicine, and afterwards some breakfast ; and he fell 
asleep under a bush. We told the poor Hottentot, 
who cried with excitement and gratitude, not to let 
him move till we sent oxen, to fetch them, from the 
first farm. At Quagga flat we fell in with an Eng- 
lish shopkeeper who undertook to see to them, and 
we hired some oxen for them. Mr. Thorpe came to 
meet us at the Bushman river. We dined with the 
Judge at Sidbury. The church here is neat, though 
not correct in point of architecture. It has never 
been finished, and has, I believe, not been cleaned 
since it was used as a fort, in the Kaffir war. AVe 
sent some people to clean the church, Avhom ^Mr. 
Green assisted. 

Wednesduy, Oct. 4. — I confirmed four coloured 
children this morning. At one o'clock I held a meet- 
ing of the parishioners. « * * 

TJnimthiy, Oct. 5. — * * * Intimated my 
intention of making alterations in the boundary of the 
parish, which is hereafter to include Assegai Bush, 
Quagga flat, and Elephant's Iloek, where there are 
250 English. At half-past ten recommenced our 
journey. Our route lay over a hilly, uninteresting 
country, devoid of wood, and with little bush till we 
came to Howison's Poort, which is a pretty valley. 
We arrived in Graham's Town about five o'clock. I 
like the appearance of the town, which is situated in a 



Graham's toavn. 37 

basin. I took a little walk round it before dinner. 
Cliurch well situated, but miserable in point of archi- 
tecture. The Kaffir boom abounds in the towns ; the 
tree is a very beautiful one, nearly as large as the 
oak, and covered with a rich red flower. I soon heard 
here that Sir H. Smith was to meet the Kaffir chiefs 
on Saturday. I determined, if possible, to be there 
too. The distance is eighty-five miles from Graham's 
Town, and some thought it impossible I should 
reach the place in time ; but I remembered Sir H. 
Smith had, in this colony, ridden 100 miles a day 
for a week, and determined not to give it up. After 
dinner Mr. Heavyside and myself went to call upon 
Captain Somerset, Brigade Major, Avho kindly pro- 
mised to furnish us with hoi'ses, and give us an order 
for relays upon the road. We then went to the 
Judge, to excuse ourselves from dining with him, 
which we had engaged to do. * * 

Friday, Oct. 6.- — Rose at four this morning, 
and ready for a start at five ; our horses, however, 
were not quite punctual ; my dress was anything but 
episcopal : white hat, leathers, and jack-boots, but 
it is impossible to be punctilious in these matters, on 
occasions like the present. Capt. Somerset accom- 
panied us a few miles : our first stage was to Trum- 
peter's Drift, where there is an officer with twenty 
men ; distance 33 miles : we arrived at ten o'clock, 
and had a cup of tea, and some bread and butter. 
Plere we got fresh horses, and arrived at Fort 
Peddle about one, distance 14 miles. After leaving 
Trumpeter's Drift, our horses had to swim the Great 



38 FORT PEDDIE. 

Fish River, and we found ourselves amongst the 
hills in a very bushy country, tlie scene of several 
contests between our troops and the Kaffirs. In one 
place we saw the scorched rocks where several of our 
wagons were burnt by the Kaffirs,when they took forty- 
three of them. The officer in command at Trumpe- 
ter's Drift, pointed out this, and several other spots 
interesting to us on similar accounts. Among the 
hills we found the wild jasmine, a larger flower than 
the English, and equally sweet-scented ; Strelitzia 
Regina, and several other beautiful flowers ; also 
the wild asparagus, preferred by many to the culti- 
vated plant. After ascending the hills we had an 
excellent road over the plains, and performed the 
greater part of our remaining journey at a hand 
gallop, which, notwithstanding the day was rather 
warm, I felt very exhilarating. At Fort Peddie we 
got some luncheon with Mr. Walters, son of Mr. 
"Walters of Newcastle. The resident magistrate called 
upon me, and I had some conversation about a church 
and Clergyman ; two individuals oflfered 201. each 
towards a church ; I requested him to have a list of 
contributors prepared for me on my return on Mon- 
day ; also a plan of the village and country, that I 
might get a grant of land from the Governor : I 
arranged to hold a service at ten o'clock on Monday 
morning in the barrack-room, used also by the 
Methodists as a Chapel. At two o'clock we started 
again on fresh horses in full gallop, ]\Ir. Walters ac- 
companying us ; we stopped for a few minutes at the 
Kaffir police station. There were 30 men here with 



KING -William's tottn. 39 

their wives (some of them have two or tliree) and 
children. They were a very fine well-proportioned 
set of men, and are employed to recover cattle stolen 
by their countrymen. While in our pay they are 
very faithful ; there are altogether more than 200 
of them on the frontier, who with their families must 
exceed 1,000 souls. Nothing is done for their reli- 
gious improvement or the education of their children, 
except by occasional visits from the Wesleyan Mis- 
sionary. They were smoking and laughing, and 
seemed much amused with our visit to them. We 
arrived about half-past three o'clock at Line Drift, 
where we obtained fresh horses. This station is 
close by the Keiskamma river, which was low to-day, 
but exhibited manifest proofs of being at times 
swollen to a great height. We passed during the day 
by several Fingoe villages ; their huts are like pikes 
of hay, rather rotten. The Keiskamma divides the 
Colony from Ivaffraria : the Kraal of the Kaffir, 
several of which we passed, is very similar to the 
village of the Fingoe. We arrived in King William's 
Town at seven o'clock in the evening, and found the 
place illuminated by bonfires : we reported ourselves 
immediately to Col. Mackinnon, who kindly ofFei'ed 
me a bed, but we accepted a similar offer from Capt. 
Bissen, who could accommodate us both. I soon 
dressed, and after taking tea, went to see the Gover- 
nor, whom I was rejoiced to find well. I am very 
thankful that I came here. The officers have presented 
a memorial to the Governor about a Church ; he has 
promised them 201. The Wesleyans ax-e making 



40 KING William's town. 

great efforts ; tliey, too, presented a memori;il to liis 
Excellency. I understand two out of the three who 
presented it said they were Churchmen, until they 
despaired of anything being done by the Church. I 
had a good deal of conversation with the officers 
about the Church, and some grants of land for which 
I shall apply ; I encouraged them in their good 
work, with promises of assistance. I do not feel in 
the least tired with my day's work, but poor Mr. 
H. seems very much fatigued. 

Saturday, Oct. 7.— The meeting of the Kaffir 
chieftains was fixed for twelve o'clock this day, but 
from an early hour in the morning they came pour- 
ing in with their trains of followers, some on horse- 
back, others on foot, through the various roads which, 
from different parts of the country, meet at King 
AVilliam's Town. Their appearance, dressed in their 
dirty blankets, and with long sticks or wands in 
their hands, brass armlets on their arms, and huge 
strings of beads or bone around their necks, was 
highly picturesque. Long before twelve the whole 
tow^n Avas in a state of great bustle and excitement ; 
and groups of these fine looking savages were formed 
in every direction. The first chief I met was John 
Chatzo, the man whom Ur. Pliillips took to England 
with him, but who afterwards was one of the fore- 
most in the late war with us, for which the Governor 
at the meeting gave him a severe rebuke. He was 
dressed in a suit like that of our London police. 
He told me that he was a Ciiristian ; and that he 
preached himself, but had very small congregations. 



KING William's town. 41 

At about half-past eleven I went again to the Gover- 
nor's lodgings, with whom I had previously break- 
fasted, and met there the Chief Umhala, with whom 
he was conversing. He explained to him who I 
was, and tried to impress upon him what a very 
great man a Bishop is, and how much liiglier his 
office is than that of other ministers of religion ; 
which he illusti-ated by a long and short stick. At 
twelve o'clock we walked in procession to the place 
of meeting, I on the Governor's right hand. Colonel 
Mackinnon, the Chief Commissioner, on his left. 
As we approached, the band struck up " God save 
the Queen," and the chieftains hurraed. We found 
them sitting in a kind of semicircle, beyond which 
there was another large semicircle of their swarthy 
followers. There were about thirty chiefs present, 
and three females. The chiefs were dressed in all 
kinds of odd dresses ; one was in a richly embroi- 
dered military surtout ; another in a military jacket, 
a third in a shooting jacket of velvet. Sandilli, the 
paramount chief, was in a plaid shooting jacket ; 
others were in old and cast-ofF clothes : one only 
wore a blanket, but none of the followers in the 
rear had any other vestment. The Governor, as 
soon as silence was restored, made a long speech to 
them, which was ably and energetically interpreted 
by Mr. Shepstone. He addressed them as chieftains 
or children ; he told them there Avould be no change 
in ttieir condition — (for they had got an idea that 
tliere would be an alteration,) and stuck into the 
ground a great stick of office, for which they have 



42 KING AVILLIASl's TOWN'. 

a great respect, to show that the law would not be 
changed. lie pointed out to them the evils of the 
late wiiv, and the blessing of peace — scolded tliem for 
one thing, praised them for another, and addressed 
them at one time in a tone of great authority and 
sternness, and then changed his manner, using ex- 
pressions of kindness. During his speech he called 
upon the various Commissioners and the tribes to 
say how the Kaffirs had conducted themselves — they 
all expressed their entire satisfaction. Afterwards 
the Governor returned the wand of office to Colonel 
Mackinnon, an officer of very high character, and 
who has given entire satisfaction, I believe, to all 
who are under his government. He then called 
upon the chiefs to speak, if they had anything to 
say. Sandilli, Macomo, Umhala, made short speeches, 
expressive of their delight at seeing Sir Harry 
amongst his children, and regretting the absence of 
Kreli. When they had done, tlie Governor told 
them that the Great Father of the Christians — ^^the 
Lord Bishop — the chief INIinister, in this land, of 
the Church and religion of our Queen, who was ap- 
pointed to teach him and aU in tliis land the way to 
H(iaven, and to whom all the Christians looked up as 
their great chief (Iiikosi Inkulu) in religion, had 
ridden ninety miles yesterday from Graham's Town, 
to be present at this meeting — that he had come to 
ask them how he could do them good, and especially 
to see if he could establish schools amongst them, or 
send ministers to them, and that they must talk the 
matter over amongst themselves, and promise to help 



KING William's town. 43 

to support tlieir teachers, by giving a calf or some- 
thing else to feed them — and let him and me know 
in what way we could serve them. After this I 
addressed them to the same effect, assuring them of 
my earnest desire to see them become Christians, 
and of my readiness, in the name of the Church of 
England, to send them ministers of God to teach 
them the way to Heaven. A female chieftain and 
Umhala both replied, saying, that they never had so 
great a man of God come before amongst them, and 
they knew not what to reply ; but they wished for 
schools, and to be taught to know God. We then 
returned to Sir Harry's lodgings, and the chiefs came 
about us ; we had a long talk with them. He kept 
them some time, laughing and joking with them, 
and I served out water to them, as they were very 
thirsty. One chief, Boteman, begged hard for a 
blanket, Avhen Sir Harry told him he was an idle 
beggar ; he made signs to me in a most ludicrous 
way to beg for linen, supposing, after all he had 
heard the Governor say of me, that I must have 
great influence with him. To get rid of him, I pro- 
mised him a blanket, and Mr. Heavyside took him 
off to buy one ; but finding he would have none but 
the best and most expensive, left him at the store 
without any. He soon, however, found me out 
again at Capt. Bissett's, and I was obliged to send 
for the best blanket. Afterwards, Sandilli came in, 
and he begged for a fine tiger skin on the sofa. 
Both asked for spirits. In the afternoon I prepared 
some ladies for confirmation, then went to baptize a 



44 KixG William's town". 

child. Dined with the officers of the Rifle Brigade, 
who gave a dinnei* to Sir Harry. There was much 
speaking, from which I did not escape. 

Siaidcuj, Oct. 8. — We were to have had a ser- 
vice on parade this morning at nine o'clock, when I 
was to have addressed the soldiers ; hut the morn- 
ing heing wet, we w-ere obliged to give up that 
service, and content ourselves with one in the band- 
room, when I preached and administered the Holy 
Communion. "We had a congregation of about 200, 
and fifteen communicants ; our offertory collection 
for a Church exceeding 120/. At two o'clock I 
formed a Sunday School. There were upwards of 
twenty children ; some officers with their ladies un- 
dertook tlie management of it. In the afternoon we 
had. Divine service again, and I confirmed seven can- 
didates ; in the evening I had a long conversation 
Tvith Kreli, the paramount chief, Mr. Shepstone 
kindly interpreting. Umhala, the ablest of the 
Kaffir chiefs, was present, but he said but little, 
being very sleepy. 

Another chief, of not very good character, and 
two of Kreli's counsellors, were of the party. Kreli 
sat in the arm-chair, Umhala on a chair, the rest 
squatted on the ground ; none wore anything but a 
blanket. Kreli is a tall man, with rather a good 
countenance and a fine eye ; but he is not regarded 
as a man of any ability : he has just given cattle to 
the amount of 300/., to repay the loss sustained by 
the IMissionaries, in the destruction of their property 
durins; the late war. I asked Kreli if he were a 



KING William's town. 45 

Christian ? He replied, No, If any of his people 
were ? Yes. (He has 60,000 under him, and there 
are 70,000 in British KaiFraria, of which Sandilli is 
the paramount chief, having 25,000 under him. The 
two great tribes in British Kaffraria, are the Slambi 
and Gaika.) — Why he was not a Christian ? He was 
not good enough. — I thought he showed signs of being 
a good man, in giving cattle to pay for the missing 
property Avhich his people had destroyed ; he seemed 
pleased. — I hoped it would not be long before he be- 
came a Christian ? He did not know what he was to 
do to become a Christian. — Repent of sin, and believe 
in Christ. What was sin ? — Here we closed the con- 
versation, for I was afraid of giving a false impres- 
sion, having no good interpreter. We conversed 
through the medium of three languages, I speaking 
to Captain Bissettin English, he to his servant girl, 
John Cliritzo's daughter (a petty chief ), and she to 
Kreli in the Kaffir language. We determined to 
Avait for Mr. Sliepstone's arrival, whom we sent for. 
After he came, the conversation was renewed, but I 
did not think that any one of them had much know- 
ledge of the Christian religion, or cared about it. 
Kreli did not appear to believe in a future state, or 
in fact in anything. After talking with him for 
some time on religion, I found he was getting tired 
of it, so I dropped the subject. He then asked me 
about England, &c. I offered to take him there ; 
he said he was afraid of the sea. I then offered 
to educate his boy, and said he should come and live 
with me. He replied, " If so, I must take father and 



46 FORT TEDDIE. 

mother too ;" I said, " Very well, come and pay me a 
visit." He asked how far it was to Capetown, and 
said it was too far. I told him, that perhaps next 
year I should pay him a visit, for I thought of riding 
up to Natal, tlirough his country ; we separated 
about ten o'clock. The Governor had left before 
Kreli arrived ; Kreli rode after him, and the Gover- 
nor gave him a saddle and a fine horse, and one of 
his coats ; he told me afterwards he was delighted 
with his conversation with him. 

Monday, Oct. 9. — Started this morning at five 
o'clock on our return to Graham's Town, Captain 
and ]\Irs. Bissett accompanying us for the first few 
miles. AYe travelled, as before, at a gallop, and ac- 
complished nearly forty miles before half-past nine, 
when we arrived at Fort Peddle, where I found the 
Governor, and had a short conversation with him. I 
fixed upon the site of Church, school and parsonage, 
wliich Sir H. ordered to be immediately surveyed. 
At eleven o'clock I held service in a barrack-room, 
used by the Wesleyans for their service. It was 
quite full, and there could not have been less than 
100 souls, including the troops. I was told that all 
the whites in the place, except a Romanist and Pres- 
byterian, were there. After the service Mr. II. 
baptized several children. I afterwards endeavoured 
to form a committee for the erection of a church, 
towards which I was offered on the spot 50/. At one 
we started again, and arrived before three at Trum- 
peter's Drift ; leaving which at four o'clock, we 
reached Graham's Town about eight in the evening ; 



Graham's town. 47 

thankful for God's merciful protection of us during;; 
our very interesting expedition, and neither of us in 
the least degree fatigued. I am very glad that I made 
this journey, for I believe it will be for the further- 
ance of the Gospel. In all probability I should never 
have had such another opportunity of being intro- 
duced, under favourable circumstances, to these 
chiefs. Now I trust the way is paved for future 
missions of the Church of England, should we be 
able to enter upon the work. In point of fact I 
have opened a communication in one case, which ap- 
pears not unlikely to aiford a pi'omising field. But 
where are the men for this work, and where the 
means for their support ? Another reason why I am 
thankful to have gone at this particular moment to 
King William's Town is, because it was a critical 
moment for our Church, Here, as in ev^ry other 
place in this Colony, we were on the eve of losing 
our people through neglect. Churchmen, despairing 
about their own Church, were raising funds for a 
Wesleyan chapel. Out of thi-ee who waited upon the 
Governor on this account, two were churchmen. 
My visit has, I trust, roused and encouraged the 
minds of our people. Several have undertaken to 
raise, funds, both in the Colony, and amongst friends 
in England ; and a church to hold 400 has been de- 
cided upon. God grant we may soon have a faith- 
ful Minister there. It is a very rising place, and a 
most important station for us to occupy. Here must 
be the centre of our future missionary operations. 
May we, at no distant day, see a band of zealous 



48 Graham's town. 

men penetrating, from this point, into some of these 
strongholds of Satan, and rescuing from the snare of 
the Evil One, the poor Heathen who are now led 
captive by him at his will ! 

Tuesday, Oct. 10. — TVe have prayers at half-past 
seven every morning, and prayers and sermon every 
evening, during this week. I have appointed the 
Clergy to preach in turns before me. After 
breakfast I spent some time in replying to letters. 
The remainder of the day was employed in receiving 
visitors, calling with the Judge upon Col. Somerset, 
visiting the Government School, and in Mr. Long's 
examination for Pi-iest's Orders. 

Wednesday, Oct. 11. — Early prayers in the morn- 
ing. Confirmation with Litany at eleven o'clock. 
There were, I believe, 112 candidates. This holy 
service lias excited here, as everywhere else, very 
great interest. The church was crowded, — the 
candidates much affected, — whole rows of them 
weeping and sobbing together. There were many 
dissenters present, and they seemed as much im- 
pressed as our own people. As an evidence, I may 
mention that the churchwardens in the afternoon 
addressed a letter to me, requesting a copy of my 
address to be printed, Mr. G., the editor of the 
Methodist newspaper, " having been generous enough 
to offer to print a number of copies free of expense, 
and to distribute, as well as to supply each of the 
candidates with one." Such a request I could not 
refuse. May God grant it may be of use in the pro- 
motion of Ilis glory, and the good of souls I Mr. 



Graham's town. 49 

Barrow preached this evening, Mr. M'CIeland yes- 
terday, and Mr. Green on Monday. Dined in the 
evening with the Judge. 

Thursday, Oct. 12. — This day I held a Synod of 
the Clergy of the Eastern province. Present, Rev. 
J. Heavyside, Rev. J. M'CIeland, Rev. H. Beaver, 
Rev. J. Barrow, Rev. W. Long, Rev. J. Green, 
Mr. Steabler, and Mr. Wheeler. We discussed the 
same topics as had been pi'eviously debated in the 
Western province — the formation of the Church 
Society, Church Ordinance, Marriage Law, Educa- 
tion Question. I issued the same injunctions, and 
offered the same recommendations. Our delibera- 
tions were conducted in the best spirit ; and I trust 
good may result from them. Mr. Beaver preached 
in the evening. 

Friday, Oct. 13. — Our synodical meeting was 
continued through part of this day. Made arrange- 
ments for my future progi'ess through the Diocese, 
and wrote letters to the various Civil Commissioners, 
&c., to fix the days for my holding service in places 
where there are no Clergymen. Mr. Heavyside 
preached. Dined afterwards at a public dinner 
given by the Governor, at the Court-house, to 
150 people. He had arrived here yesterday, and 
I felt 1 should be wanting in respect if I de- 
clined this invitation. The dinner has, I hope, 
politically, been of use in preserving that harmony 
and unity which seemed fast disappearing in the 
Colony. 

Saturday, Oct. 14. — Conducted Mr. Long's viva 
£ 



50 gr.vuam's towx. 

voce examination in tlie Articles and Greek Testa- 
ment. * * * 

Sundaij, Oct. 15. — The ordination of INIr. Long 
took place during morning prayers. Mr. Heavyside, 
Mr. M'Cleland, and Mr. Green joined in the act. 
I preached ; the congregation was a very large one, 
filling the aisle as well as the peAvs. At the Holy 
Communion there were 150 communicants, nearly 
double the number that ever communicated before 
at one time. The service has, I hope, been useful, 
both in reminding us, who are God's Ministers, of 
our solemn responsibilities ; and the Laity, of the 
nature and dignity of our office, and their relative 
obligations towards us. In the afternoon I attended 
the Sunday School, where there were 120 children, 
and addressed both children and teachers. Fifty of 
the children here have already become subscribers 
to our Church Missions, through the Church Society 
which I am just founding. Afterwards I went to see 
the Governor, who I heard was ill. I found him in 
bed, but much better than he had been ; and greatly 
regretting he could not attend the service of the 
Church. I had a long and interesting conversation 
with him. In the evening I again preached, Luke 
xviii. 8. "Nevertheless, when the Son of man 
cometh, shall he find faith on the earth ?" We 
had again a very full Church. 

Monday, Oct. 16. — Morning spent in receiving 
persons who wished to see me, and came by appoint- 
ment. At twelve o'clock we had a full Church 
meeting at the vestry. The business began by a 



GRAHA3l's TOWN. 5l 

kind address to me from the vestry, in the name of 
the Church at Graham's Town. I then brought 
under their notice the circumstances of their Church 
and churchyard, and my inability to consecrate them. 
It was agreed that they shouki immediately be con- 
veyed to the See. I next stated to them the nature 
of the Archdeacon's office, who shortly would come 
to reside amongst them ; and commended him to them 
as my deputy and representative. Afterwards I 
drew their attention to the question of Education. 
Undertook to obtain as speedily as possible a Clergy- 
man who should have the sole charge of the school, 
and invited them to raise 300/. for the completion of 
the building, to which I promised from my fund 
501. A subscription was immediately entered into, 
and a committee formed for raising the funds, if pos- 
sible, before my return on Saturday next. I urged 
them to raise 100/. a year for a Curate for Mr. 
Heavyside. This they undertook to do through the 
same committee. But this led to a long conver- 
sation, in which some of the parishioners spoke their 
minds freely respecting the present state of the 
Church ; and laid sundry complaints before me, 
which were not of a grave nature ; but which will, 
I hope, as our ministerial body increases, cease to 
exist. Amongst other subjects, they complained of 
the giving up the Psalms in the Prayer Book for a 
compilation of Psalms and Hyn^ns. Lastly, I laid 
before them the Church Society, and invited tlieir 
assistance in carrying it out. I entered at some 
length into the nature of the association, and told 



52 Graham's town. 

them that I thought it best to lay before the Church 
at once all the objects to which, as a Church, I 
thought we ought to contribute — churches, schools, 
pastors, widows and orphans of ditto; Missionaries, 
College Scholarships, training of teachers. Book 
Society. The Meeting expressed their readiness to 
co-operate with me in carrying out all the plans 
which I had proposed to them, and we broke up 
after a long discussion of very interesting topics 
at a little before three o'clock ; at four o'clock I 
dined with the officers of the 91st, who had kindly 
invited me to their mess ; at seven o'clock went to 
a tea-party given to the Governor in the Town Ilall, 
and retired late, wearied with the day. 

Tuesday, Oct. 17. — Early part of the day spent 
in returning the calls of the parishioners ; started at 
two o'clock for Southwell, but a guide who under- 
took to show us the way misled us, and we soon 
found that we were on the Bathurst road ; but it 
•was too late to retrace our steps, as we should have 
been benighted, and the evening turned out wet. 
We were obliged, therefore, after going over a mise- 
rable road, to sleep at a kind of public-house, only 
ten miles from Graham's Town, and twenty from 
Bathurst ; we were, however, nearly three hours in 
performing the ten miles. 

Wcdncsihnj, Oct. 18. — Rose before three ; started 
in the dark at foui; o'clock, hoping to i-each Bathurst 
before eight o'clock, and then ride to Southwell in 
time for the Confirmation. The morning however came 
on veiy wet, and the roads became almost impassable, 



BATHURST. 53 

the wagon sliding in every direction as well as the 
horses. Indeed, if our steed had not been an excel- 
lent one, and very fresh, I do not think vs^e could have 
got on at all. We escaped without an upset, though 
momentarily in danger of one. The country through 
which we passed was very pretty — a succession of 
low hills covered with bush. On every side we saw- 
marks of the late Kaffir devastations. Almost all 
the farm houses seem to have been burnt down. 
We arrived at Mr. Barrow's at half-past eight ; 
when he informed us that, in the present state of the 
country, no horse could pass from thence to South- 
well ; so I was obliged to break my appointmentv 
much to my regret. Bathurst is a pretty village, 
with a neat little Church, not correct indeed in point 
of architecture, but in excellent order. Spent the 
greater part of the day in writing letters home, and 
working at arrears of business. 

TJiur&day, Oct. 19. — At ten o'clock this morning 
went to meet the children of the Sunday School, 
whom I addressed ; at eleven o'clock began the Con- 
secration service. There was a full Church, the 
inhabitants of the parish having come in from a con- 
siderable distance. I preached. At the Holy Com- 
munion there were upwards of twenty present. 
After service went with Mr. Barrow to visit the 
parishioners, for whom he had provided refreshments 
in the schoolroom. At three o'clock the Confirma- 
tion service began. There were thirty candidates — 
two of them mothers, with infants in their arms. 
After service at six o'clock, I held a meeting of the 



54 CUYLEVILLE. 

parishioners in the vestry. Recommended the sliare- 
holders in a loan to the Church to give up their 
shares, making an offering of them to God. Those 
who were present undertook to do so. Brought 
under their notice the Church Society, in which 
they seemed to take an interest. Dined at eight 
o'clock with Ml-. Dydson, the resident magistrate. 

Friday, Oct. 20. — Started early this morning on 
horseback for Cuyleville : a beautiful ride. The 
banks of the Kleen-Mond River are steep, and well 
covered Avith bush. After crcssing this river the 
country was very much like an English park. The 
Mimosa here grows to a great size ; it assumes the 
appearance of a tree. Saw several beautiful flowers, 
the Strelitzia Regina, &c. The Euphorbia too grows 
here to a great size. Arrived at Cuyleville at about 
ten o'clock (fifteen miles) ; at eleven held Divine 
service, Mr. Barrow, Mr. Long, ]Mr. Green, and 
Mr. Wheeler all taking part. We had a full room, 
and began Avith iMorning Prayer. After the Second 
Lesson we had a baptism. There were fourteen can- 
didates for Confirmation, whom T addressed extem- 
pore for half an hour, as several had been present 
at our service yesterday. At tlie Holy Communion 
we had about twenty present. Our collection at the 
Offertory was upwards of SI. The whole service 
was a very interesting one — the people appearing 
very devout. After Divine service I held a meet- 
ing of the members of the Church, and brought 
under their notice the necessity of their contributing 
to the support of their Catechist, who, I am happy to 



SOUTHWELL. 55 

say, appears to be working very earnestly and suc- 
cessfully. The congregations are good ; and at his 
different stations he has not less than fifty children 
under his instruction. A treasurer was appointed 
to collect funds, which are to be paid through the 
Church Society. After service we rode through an 
interesting country (fifteen miles,) to the Honourable 
Mr. Cocks's, at the mouth of the Kowie River. At 
his house we dined and slept. A large party of 
friends followed us in a wagon. 

Saturday, Oct.2\. — Mr. Cocks's son accompanied 
me this morning before six o'clock to view a fine 
reach of the Kowie River. The ride occupied about 
half an hour, and we returned to breakfast at half- 
past six. At seven we started for Southwell. I 
rode with Mr. Cocks and his son, the wagon follow- 
ing. Our route lay through a rich valley, occupied 
by Mr. Cocks's tenantry, and standing thick with 
corn. The crops were in every stage of progress, 
from the early green blade to the ripe ear. We had 
a pleasant ride of fifteen miles to the school, where 
we arrived about ten o'clock. A congregation socn 
gathered, and I held a meeting of the trustees, who 
raised 201. on the spot towards liquidating the debt 
on their building, and I promised to assist them. 
We held Divine service at eleven o'clock. Mr. Bar- 
row, who rode over from Bathurst, read Morning 
Prayers ; Mr. Steabler the Lessons ; Mr. Long the 
Epistle and Offertory ; Mi-. Green the Gospel. We 
had nineteen candidates for Confirmation, whom I ad- 
dressed extempore. Our communicants were about 



56 Graham's town. 

fourteen, and our Offertory collection upwards of 61. 
After service some of the parishioners presented me 
with a memorial, expressive of their gratitude for 
the appointment of a Bishop — their obligations to 
Miss B. Coutts, who, moved by God's Holy Spirit, 
had founded the See — their obligations to me for 
appointing so excellent a Catechist, and their deep 
affection towards Mr. Barrow. I replied to them 
briefly, and expressed a hope that I might find 
things in a still more satisfactory condition, should 
it please God to spare me another visitation. At 
two o'clock we resumed our journey to Graham's 
Town, which lay over a wide plain till we reached 
the foot of the mountain, on the other side of which 
the town lies. Here oxen were waiting to take our 
wagon up a very steep ascent. We Avalked, and 
arrived at Colonel Somerset's, with whom we are to 
stay till Monday morning. At seven o'clock we had 
a few friends to dinner, with whom we spent an 
agreeable evening. 

Sunday, Oct. 22. — Service in Graham's Town 
at eleven o'clock. After the Second Lesson we had 
several baptisms, when I stood sponsor to Mr. Heavy- 
side's little boy ; I preached ; at the Offertory we col- 
lected \%l. for the new school, in addition to 300/. 
raised by the parishioners for the same purpose, 
during my absence in Lower Albany ; after service 
some of the parishioners met me in vestry to inform 
me of the result of their efforts. The members of 
the Cliurch Society are to meet on Thursday to elect 
their committee, and raise 100/. a year fur an addi- 



FORT BEAUFORT. Oi 

tional Clergyman. Arranged with Mr. Wilsliere, 
who has arrived from Capetown during my absence, 
that he is to follow in a few days to Fort Beaufort. 
In the evening Mr. Green preached. 

Monday, Oct. 23. — Started early this morning, 
accompanied by Colonel Somerset, and several gen- 
tlemen from Graham's Town on horseback. Green 
went on in the wagon. We had a lovely day, and a 
very beautiful ride. During the day two very large 
snakes crossed our path. We stopped for half an 
hour at Fort Brown, (sixteen miles) ; here there are 
both troops and civilians, without a teacher of any 
kind. Colonel Somerset was very anxious that I 
should send a Catechist, but I know not how to sup- 
port him. We rode on to Koonap River, (nine miles,) 
where we had an early dinner ; and in the evening 
nine miles further, to a quiet little inn at Seur-fon- 
tein, where we slept. The country is hilly all the 
way, with the mountains in the distance. The views 
are in some parts very extensive ; there is no timber, 
but abundance of bush, and flowers of various kinds, 
especially the jasmine, which is very sweet, and 
several species of geranium, which entwine them- 
selves amongst the bushes, and have a very beautiful 
appearance. 

Tuesday, Oct. 24. — We started again on horse- 
back at six o'clock, and reached Fort Beaufort,(four- 
teen miles,) about nine o'clock. This morning's ride 
was through an interesting country, similar in its 
chief features to that which we passed through yes- 
terday ; it is a famous grazing country, both for 



58 ronx ceaufort. 

cattle and sheep, the bushes affording excellent 
pasture during the dry season, but none of the land 
in this part of the country is fit for the plough. A 
few miles from Beaufort we were met by a large 
party of civilians and military, who came out on 
horseback to welcome us ; and on alighting at the 
inn I had a great number of visitors. Fort Beaufort 
is prettily situated on a plain amidst the hills, and 
is nearly surrounded by the Kat River. I found it 
to be a much more important place than I had sup- 
posed. At eleven o'clock we held Divine service in 
a very large barrack room ; there could not be less 
than between 200 and 300 persons present ; I con- 
firmed eighteen, w^ho had been prepared by Mr. 
Pratt, Government schoolmaster, and administered 
the Holy Communion to about thirty. I addressed 
the candidates chiefly in an extempore way. At 
two o'clock I held a meeting of the parishioners, who 
presented an address to me, congratulating me on my 
arrival, and bringing the spiritual state of the place 
under my notice. They have nearly finished the 
Church here, but have no Minister. This church 
has been built partly by a loan. I urged them to give 
up their shares as an off-^ring, which all the share- 
holders present promised to do. A committee was 
appointed to communicate with all those who were 
absent — to make application to Government for land 
for a parsonage, churchyard, &c., and to take steps 
for the conveyance of the Church, &c. to the See. I 
also brought the Church Society before them, and 
invited them to contribute to Church purposes 



FORT HARE. 59 

tlirougli it. I informed them also, that I would send 
them a Clergyman for one year, free of all expense — 
his stipend to be paid by the Society for the 
Propagation of the Gospel. At the end of the year, 
I informed them, they would have to contribute to 
his support. This meeting lasted till four o'clock, 
when we had evening service, and I preached agnin 
to a congregation which entirely filled the large 
room. After service I walked out of the town to in- 
spect the churchyard, and after this the Church ; I 
then went to visit a dying man, and retired at seven 
o'clock to a late dinner ; spent a quiet evening in 
writing letters. 

Wednesday, Oct. 25. — A sleepless night j remained 
awake till five o'clock ; received a large packet of 
letters bringing painful news ; started at eleven 
o'clock, in a smart shower, for Fort Hare. Major 
Johnstone, Mr. Bovey, and Mr. Pratt accompanied 
us. We stopped for an hour at the military village 
of Ely. The people have made great progress in 
the erection of their houses, and talked of building 
a Church. The crops in their gardens and land 
were abundant. Each man has twelve acres of 
arable land. They are also allowed, for the present, 
rations, and the use of Government wagons. It is 
a pity that so few of the men are married. Those 
who were, were very urgent on me to provide a 
schoolmaster for their children. TVe arrived at three 
o'clock at Fort Hare, meeting Colonel Armstrong 
on the road, he having come out to meet us. At 
four o'clock I held a Confirmation, for which holy 



60 AUCKLAND. 

rite there were but three candidates ; nor did many 
of the troops attend. After service I went to lie 
down for an hour before dinner, being quite knocked 
up for want of rest. We dined with the 45th, who 
are quartered here, and went in the evening to INIr. 
Beaver, the Chaplain. Fort Hare is not a very in- 
teresting-looking place, the houses being all built 
of what is called " wattle and dab." 

Thursday, Oct. 26. — We started at six o'clock this 
morning, on horseback, for another military village, 
(Woburn.) Colonel Armstrong and Mr. Beaver ac- 
companying us. After conversing with the men, 
and inspecting their houses, we rode on to Auckland, 
another military village, situated at the source of 
the Chumie, in a very beautiful spot, just under the 
Amatola Mountains. On the opposite side of this 
stream is British KafFraria, and the whole border- 
line is thickly studded with kraals and cattle, partly, 
I believe, because of the proximity to the Colony, 
and partly because the grass and soil are excellent. 
I was glad to see some Kaffir men digging in the 
gardens — an unusual sight ; for all labour is usually 
assigned to the wives. Auckland is a larger village 
than the others ; but the land does not appear to be 
so good, and the crops are consequently not so pro- 
raising. Mr. Beaver had given no notice of a service ; 
but several of the people drew together with their 
Bibles and Prayer Books, so that I felt it would 
be wrong not to hold a service. I thei-efore read 
Morning Prayer in one of the cottages, and preached 
to them extempore. The people were very earnest 



BALFOUR. 61 

in asking for a catecliist and schoolmaster. I pro- 
mised to do what I could to procure one. After 
leaving this we made our way back to the Missionary 
station of Chumie, belonging to the Glasgow 
Society — the Secession and Relief Scotch Dissenters. 
I was much pleased Avith what I saw here. The 
school seemed to me especially good, and there were 
two very nice mistresses — one, a Kaffir woman, who 
speaks English perfectly, having been educated in 
Scotland. After staying an hour with the Missionary, 
Mr. Cummins, we proceeded on our journey to Bal- 
four, and rode over the mountains, through a very 
beautiful country. Mr. Thompson met us a few 
miles from his house. He has charge of the Kat 
River settlement, consisting entirely of Hottentots, 
who have been located by Government here ; and 
some of them had acquired a good deal of property, 
previously to the breaking out of the last war. Mr. 
Thompson appears to be an intelligent man, as does 
also Mr. Reed, of the London Missionary Society, 
who has a kind of joint charge of the Hottentots 
with Mr. Thompson, who is a Minister of the Dutch 
Church. Mr. Thompson has a large school, con- 
sisting' of the daughters of Missionaries in Kaffir 
Land. We have ridden to-day, altogether, about 
fifty miles, and have had a fatiguing, though an in- 
teresting expedition. 

Friday, Oct. 27. — Started at seven o'clock tliis 
morning, in a cold fog, which was so dense that we 
lost our way. It cleared up, however, about eight, 
and we found ourselves in a rich and beautiful valley 



62 FOKT RETIKF. 

just under the Winterberg Mountain. "VVe soon liad 
to commence the ascent of a part of this range, and 
were compelled to walk our horses, the road being 
very steep. The sua came out here upon us, and it 
was intensely hot. We arrived at about ten at Fort 
Retief, where Mr. Wilson came out to meet us. As 
soon as we were dressed we again mounted our 
horses, and rode about three miles to the school, 
where a large congregation was awaiting us. They 
all came out to meet me on the road, and gave 
me a hearty welcome. The school-house was soon 
filled with an attentive congregation, I confirmed 
fifteen, whom I addressed extempore. After ser- 
vice we went to look at the building which Mr. 
Boon had begun, but was unable to finish, consisting 
of a church, school, and dwelling-house. I held a 
public meeting at two o'clock, at which about thirty 
of the parishioners were present. We formed a 
committee for finishing the Church, leaving the rest 
of the building at present ; also to raise funds for 
the support of a settled ministry; their subscriptions 
to be paid through the Church Society, the nature 
of which I explained to them. There is a day, 
and also a Sunday School here, and I am glad to find 
that Mr. Wilson is zealously and successfully dis- 
charging the duties of a parish Minister in this 
long-neglected field. 

Saturday, Oct. 28. — Spent the early part of 
the morning in writing, but we mounted our horses 
again at ten o'clock, Mr. Wilson accompanying us. 
The day was fine, but very warm. Fort Retief is 



MANCAZANA POST. 63 

situated in a somewhat dreary spot ; but we soon 
got into a country which gradually improved, till we 
reached the Mancazana Post, which is beautifully 
situated in a fruitful valley, surrounded by fine 
mountains. I observed to-day a great variety of 
flowers, some of them very beautiful, just coming 
into bloom. I also was pained to observe many 
symptoms of Kaffir ravages, in farm-houses burnt 
down and not yet rebuilt. In one place, the family 
was living partly in a hut of straw, and partly in a 
wagon. The class of farmers in this district seem 
inferior in point of education, &c. to our English 
gentlemen in the interior and the western province. 
They are perhaps naturally very much embittered 
ajrainst the Kaffirs, and turn a deaf ear to Missions. 
There are more of the coloured population employed 
by them than, I think, in other parts ; and so far as 
food, &c. is concerned, they are, I believe, kind to 
them ; but I fear the instances are very, very rare 
Avhere any attempt is made to raise their characters 
by instruction. It is painful to see the degraded 
condition of these poor creatures — around each farm 
there may be a dozen of their bee-hive huts, made 
of a kind of reed. In each hut there dwells a man, 
his wives, and a considerable family of little naked 
savages, scarce raised in condition above the pigs 
and cows by which they are surrounded, but with 
intelligent countenances, and a fine manly bearing. 
In this day's ride of thirty miles, I saw but one man 
working. It is the usual custom for the male to sit 
smoking at home, while his wives are cultivating 



64 JIAXCAZANA POST. 

the ground. AYe " off-saddled " for an Lour at 
Mr. Bear's, who in the late war of 1835 was entirely 
stripped of all that he possessed. He had built a 
wall round his house, and made a kind of fortifica- 
tion. He was attacked once by the Kaffirs, and 
killed fourteen of them. He had been for sixteen 
years in the Colony before he received a visit from a 
Clergyman of the Church. Additional labourers are 
sadly wanted here, as everywhere. May God, in 
His infinite mercy, dispose the hearts of His people 
at home to provide the means, and the men, for the 
establishment of His Church and kingdom in this 
desolate portion of the earth, for the bringing 
within His fold these poor lost tribes, who are, 
though in the midst of a professedly Christian 
people, sitting in the darkness and shadow of death ! 
1 do not think I have in any part of my destitute 
Diocese been so forcibly struck with the need we 
have to make fresh and more vigorous exertions 
for the establishment of additional clergy, who will 
devote tliemselves to the work for Clirist's sake. 
Much there i.s, and will be, to try God's servants 
and ministers, on entering on the work here ; but 
ample, I am sure, will be the reward, if not in this 
world, yet abundantly in that which is to come. We 
arrived at the Mancazana Post about four o'clock, 
and found Mr. Boon, the catechist of the Colonial 
Church Society, awaiting our arrival, and that our 
wagon had also arrived. Mr. Boon walked with us 
down to his little church, which he had built, and 
which he has fitted up in the interior in a very cor- 



MANCAZANA POST. 65 

rect and devotional spirit. The interior indeed is 
more like a eliurcli or house of prayer than any- 
building I have yet seen in the Colony. The ex- 
terior is poor enough. I have had a long conversa- 
tion with him this evening about the state of religion 
in this neighbourhood, and his account is painful 
indeed. 

Sunday, Oct. 29. — At nine o'clock this morn- 
ing Mr. Boon's school assembled. I examined them, 
and addressed them : at eleven o'clock we held 
Divine Service in his neat little Church, to the west- 
ern entrance of which he had attached a kind of tent, 
by way of ante-chapel. Both Church and tent were 
completely filled with a devout congregation. Mr. 
Green officiated — Mr. Boon reading the Lessons and 
Epistle. I preached. "VVe had eleven communicants, 
one or two of whom were much affected ; the offer- 
tory amounting to between ol. and 6/. After ser- 
vice, several spoke to me of the state of spiritual 
destitution in which they had lived, never having 
seen a minister of their Church. I find that the 
fiimilies of many Churchmen have joined some of 
the various sects, who, while we have neglected 
them, have met and supplied wants which they felt, 
but saw no prospect of having supplied within their 
own communion. We had our Confirmation Service 
at three o'clock, when I confirmed six candidates. 
There was again a full congregation, whom I ad- 
dressed, together with the candidates, on the nature 
of our Christian obligations, extempore. In the 
evening, we had Divine Service again at seven 

r 



68 MANCAZANA POST. 

o'clock. I preached on the text, " "When shall I 
come and appear before God ? " (Psalm xlii. 2.) 

Monday, Oct. 30. — Spent the early part of the 
morning in endeavouring to devise some scheme 
by which poor Mr. Boon may be relieved from the 
responsibilities which his zeal for Cliurch and School 
building have involved him in. I trust I may be 
able to succeed ; but larger funds are required for 
the completion of the undertaking, than can, I fear, 
be raised ; and the tenure of the property upon 
which he has built is so insecure, that I have great 
doubts how far I can give assistance, under existing 
circumstances, and whether we can ever secure it 
for the Church. At ten o'clock I held a meeting of 
the inhabitants. I pressed upon them the raising of 
funds to support an additional Clergyman, whom 
they speak of as greatly wanted ; and also to raise 
the small amount still required to free their Church 
from debt. A committee was formed for carrying 
out these objects, the sums collected to be paid 
through the Church Society, the nature of which I 
explained to them. Six stations w^ere named in the 
district, where it is desirable to hold services. At 
one o'clock we started again in our wagon, and 
drove through an interesting country, but over 
wretched roads, to Mr. J. Nourse's, whose house 
was burnt down last year by the Kaffirs, and is not 
yet rebuilt. After outspanning here for half-an- 
hour, we drove on to Sir A. Stockenstrom's, whose 
house we reached at half-past five, and found dinner 
waitinjr for us. I had an interesting conversation 



SIR A, stockenstrom's. 67 

with him iu the evening, respecting the coloured 
popuhition, of whom there are such numbers in 
these parts. Their existing condition is most melan- 
choly. A little village of Kaffirs or Fingoes sur- 
rounds almost every farm-house. For these people 
nothing is done by the Christian population, whose 
servants they are, and one scarce sees what is to be 
done. Tiiey feel they owe no debt to the white 
man, who has deprived them of their country ; and 
they consequently think him fair prey. Nothing is 
more common, therefore, than for the servant to 
desert his master, carrying off with him some of his 
best oxen or cows ; in fact, Sir A. has just lost five, 
which he is seeking after in vain. What is to be 
done with or for these poor people ? I fear, as 
things at present are, it is only by raising the 
Christian character of the master, and leading him 
to take an interest in the spiritual welfare of the serf 
population, that we can hope to do much good. But 
at present the white people themselves are living, in 
many instances, cut off from the means of grace, and 
thus are themselves deteriorating. I have met with 
one young man to-day, the son of a Clergyman, who 
has a coloured population of 100 souls upon his 
farm ; and to these he gives religious instruction 
eveiy Lord's-day ; and he tells me he reaps the 
benefit of it, in a worldly way, in the improved cha- 
racter and conduct of his people. He has no Clergy- 
man or Church within 100 miles of him. 

Tuesday, Oct. 31. — Started at nine o'clock this 
morning. Drove through a pleasing country, four 



68 SOMERSET. 

hours, to the Great Fish River, where we out- 
spanned, and in which I enjoyed a swim. After- 
wards drove on, three hours, to Somerset, vehich 
is a pretty village, and beautifully situated, with the 
mountains in the back. We took up our quarters at 
Mr. Hudson's, the Civil Commissioner, and found 
that he, with a party of gentlemen, had gone out to 
meet us by a different road from that by which we 
entered. Mr. and Mrs. Long had waited here for 
our arrival. He has been preparing the candidates 
for Confirmation. 

WednescUiij, Nov. 1. — The early part of the day 
spent in writing, chiefly relative to the state of things 
at George. At eleven o'clock we held a Confirmation 
in the Dutch Church : there were fifteen candidates. 
We had also a Baptism after the second Lesson. At 
two o'clock I held a meeting of the parishioners, and 
an excellent spirit prevailed. The amount of sub- 
scription towards the stipend of a Clergyman is 60/. 
a-year, to be paid through the Church Society, the 
nature of which I explained to them. A committee 
of the Society was formed. Two memorials to 
Government were drawn up, and signed, one asking 
for assistance towards the stipend of a Clergyman, 
the other for a site for a Church. We raised 70/. 
in the room towards the erection of a Church. One 
gentleman consulted me about the question of tithes, 
which he said he felt bound in conscience to pay, not 
as an offering, but a debt to God. Our meeting was 
over at four o'clock, afier which I returned a few 
calls. Dinner at five. Church Service again at six 



■ SQUAGGAS HOEK. FISH RIVER. 69 

o'clock, when I preached, and administered the Holy 
Communion to fourteen persons, one of whom had 
been, I think, thirty-nine years in the Colony with- 
out seeing a Clergyman. 

Thursday, Nov. 2. — Rose at four o'clock, and 
started at a little past five on our road to Cradock. 
The route lay for several miles through a rough and 
rocky valley of considerable beauty, called Squaggas 
Hoek. We afterwards emerged into a more open 
country, and arrived at a Dutch farm, just as they 
were sitting down to dinner : they gave us a hearty 
welcome. We then passed through a country 
still hilly, though somewhat barren, till we arrived 
at some farms called Spit Kop, where we were to 
sleep ; but finding there was only one dark hole 
where the family slept, but which th(^y kindly off'ered 
to give up to us, we preferred passing the night in 
the wagon ; where we rested better than we ex- 
pected, with our men snoring on the ground on one 
side of us, and the horses tethered to the wagon on 
the other. Unfortunately for them, poor things, the 
night AViis a cold one. 

Friday, Nov. 3, — Started this morning a little after 
five o'clock : the country through which we passed 
was hilly, and very barren. We had, however, fine 
mountain views. At half-past ten we arrived on the 
banks of the Fish River, where we first bathed, and 
then completed our toilet and shaving, which we had 
no opportunity of doing before. We offered up our 
morning orisons under the shade of the Mimosa. 
Our road from hence lay along a stony desolate 



70 CRADOCK. 

valley, with mountains on either side, until we 
reached Cradock about three o'clock. This is an 
increasing place. I find here a Dutch Church, "Wes- 
leyan and Independent Chapels ; but no English 
Church, or Clergyman. Many of our people have 
already joined other communions — others attend 
their services, until a better day shall dawn. I have 
had a list of about sixty persons presented to me, 
chiefly heads of families, who still call themselves 
English Church-people. I think something may be 
done here. In the afternoon I went to call upon 
several of our people, and upon the Dutch Minister, 
who has kindly placed his Church at our disposal. 
We took up our quarters at Mr. Gilfillan, the Civil 
Commissioner's, who has kindly invited us to his house. 
Saturday, Nov. 4. — The early part of the day I 
employed myself in writing letters, and other official 
business. Mr. Green employed himself in preparing 
candidates for Confirmation. At two o'clock I held 
a meeting of the Church-people. There were but 
few there, owing to some mistake ; but a committee 
of the Church Society was formed — subscriptions 
entered into in support of a Clergyman, and towards 
the erection of a Church, and memorials drawn up 
to Government, for a grant for the only remaining 
erf for a Church and Parsonage, and for assistance 
towards the support of a Clergyman. Again, I had 
to listen to the painful tale I have so often heard, of 
many having joined themselves to other communions, 
after waiting for years in the hope of seeing a Minis- 
ter of their own established amongst them. In the 



CRADOCK. 71 

evening Mr. Gilfillnn had a large party of gentlemen 
to meet us at dinner. 

Sundaij, Nov. 5. — At eight o'clock this morning 
began the work of preparing some additional candi- 
dates for Confirmation, of whose characters I had 
heard a good report, and with whose earnestness 
and seriousness of deportment I was much pleased. 
At half-past eleven we held Morning Service in the 
Dutch Church, after theirs Avas concluded. "We had a 
full Church, and I confirmed thirteen. Several chil- 
dren were baptized after the second Lesson; and one 
lady churched. In the evening we held Divine Ser- 
vice again, when I preached, and administered the 
Holy Communion to nineteen. We deferred the 
Communion till the evening, in order that the newly- 
confirmed might have an opportunity of communi- 
cating. After service I had an anonymous offering 
of 15/. sent in "from one who had lost his all in the 
late Kaffir war, but was again prospering through 
the mercy of God." I cannot but hope that the 
services of this day may be blessed to the good of 
the souls of our people. Several expressed them- 
selves in a very right and proper spirit. May God 
in His infinite mercy speedily raise up for them a 
faithful pastor ! 

Monday, Nov. 6. — Started between five and six 
o'clock. Another most lovely day. I cannot be too 
thankful to God, amongst other things, for the beau- 
tiful weather I have had ever since I left Capetown. 
Had it been otherwise, how much must ray work 



KARROO COUNTRY. 



lia\ e been impeded : delay even for a few hours 
would in almost every case have deranged my whole 
plans. Our route lay through a Karroo country 
with scarcely any house?, and bearing a very deso- 
late appearance. The country was quite flat, but in 
the distance we have had mountains all the way. 
The only inhabitants seem to be spring-boks and the 
buffalo : we saw many of the former. We out- 
spanned by the Great Fish River, and again after- 
wards by the Braak River, in which we enjoyed a 
bath. We slept at Zoet Fontein, Andreis Bester's, a 
very intelligent and amiable Dutch farmer. We 
spent our evening in reading together the Dutch 
and English Prayer-book, of which I gave him a 
copy. 

Tuesday, Nov. 7. — A restless night. I did not fall 
asleep until near three o'clock, and was called at a 
little past four. This was owing, I believe, to the 
voraciousness of the animals that infested the bed. 
I walked on before the wagon in the morning, 
having wearied myself out with reading Southey's 
life of Wesley in the night. About this house we 
found three tame ostriches, also the secretary bird. 
Our journey, as yesterday, lay over a great desert 
plain, with nothing upon it but a kind of bush, 
abounding, however, with the spring-bok, of which 
we must have seen thousands : they kept crossing 
our path incessantly, skipping and bounding very 
beautifully. Around us on all sides were mountains. 
The natural road is for the most part as good as any 



COLESBERa. 73 

road in England. Where we outspanned we found 
the ground for a considerable extent actually covered 
with locusts ; giving us some idea of what the plague 
of locusts must have been. Two men were inces- 
santly employed with leather flags tied to sticks, 
flapping away the locusts from a field of corn which 
was growing near the only water for miles ; but I 
fear all their exertions will not prevent them from 
consuming it. We slept at Peter Zisanopol's farm, 
Macaster Fontein, where the people insisted on 
turning out of their only bed-room to accommodate 
us. I had rather have slept in the wagon, but they 
had made all the arrangements while I had gone to 
batlie in a vlea near the house. The farmer asked 
us to hold a Service in Dutch, saying they were so 
seldom able to hear God's ministers. Though I 

o 

was very doubtful whether they could understand 
my Dutch, I thought it wrong not to comply. We 
began with a Psalm. I then read to them a portion 
of the Word of God, and offered up some of the 
prayers of our Church. They professed to under- 
stand all that I said, but I fear my pronunciation 
must have appeared ridiculous to them. 

Wednesday, Nov. 8. — Off again between five and 
six: features of the country much the same as yes- 
terday. We outspanned for breakfast at Cobus 
Pinars : afterwards again near a vlea, where we 
bathed. We arrived at Colesberg a little after five 
o'clock. Colesberg is situated in a kind of valley, 
between two rows of barren broken rocks. There 



74 COLESBERG. 

is not much space for a large town. The Dutch 
Church is the great proprietor, owning 46,000 acres 
of land, given to them by Sir L. Cole, when Governor. 
I called in the evening upon the Dutch Minister, to 
thank him for the offer of his Church, which he has 
kindly placed at my disposal. AVe took up our quar- 
ters with Dr. and INIrs. Orpen, whom we found well 
and cheerful. 

Thursday, Nov. 9. — Spent the morning in writing 
and receiving visitors. Received a letter from the 
Dutch Minister, wherein he offers, in the name of 
his Church, the only remaining unsold erf, as a site 
for an English Church. Commenced Dr. Orpen's 
examination for Holy Orders. 

Friday, Nov. 10. — Started on horseback a little 
after five, to have a look at the Orange River. We 
arrived there before eight o'clock, and after knee- 
bathing our horses, swam across it : vye returned 
home about twelve o'clock. The distance is about 
thirty miles. In the afternoon proceeded with 
Dr. Orpen's examination, and wrote seme letters. 
Dined in the evening with INIr. Rawstorne, the Civil 
Commissioner. 

Saturday, Nov. 11. — Held a Confirmation this 
morning in the Dutch Church ; twelve were con- 
firmed, several of whom were much affected. At 
two o'clock held a public meeting. Unfortunately 
at this time several of our chief people are absent on 
business. We however commenced subscriptions 
for a Church and a Clergyman. Memorialized 



COLESBERG. 1 3 

Government for assistance. Founded tbe Church 
Society, and passed resolutions thanking the Dutch 
for their gift of a site for a Church. Afterwards 
finished Dr. Orpen's examination. I am very much 
pleased with him, and Mrs. Orpen. They ai-e excel- 
lent, pious people ; and he has evidently already done 
much good here, gaining the respect and regard of 
all in the place, and drawing around him a congre- 
gation much larger than couhl have been expected in 
so short a time. He has the condition of the heathen 
much at heart, and I doubt not, witli God's blessing, 
will, so soon as he can, disclose to them, in their own 
tongue, the wonderful works of God, and seek the 
salvation of their souls. 

Sunday, Nov. 12. — Ordained Dr. Orpen Deacon 
this morning in the Dutch Church ; and had much 
satisfaction and joy in admitting him to the Ministry. 
We had a large congregation on the occasion. At 
the Holy Communion eighteen presented themselves, 
several of whom wept freely. I preached on the 
duties and privileges of the Christian Ministry. In 
the evening we had Divine Service again, the Dutch 
Minister having kindly omitted his evening service 
for the occasion. I preached again with special 
reference to the work in which we are engaged — 
the building of the House of our God. I fear the 
religious condition of the European population is at 
a very low ebb in this neighbourhood. The treatment 
of the coloured heathen is, from all I can learn, any- 
thing but what it should be ; and but little calculated 



7b ELAXDS FONTEIK. 

to win them to the faith of Christ. The Dutch 
population, too, so far as education is concerned, 
appears to be in a very sad condition. The farmers 
are, I understand, wealthy here, but keep nearly all 
they possess stored up in their own houses. I have 
heard that in this way they keep in some instances 
even thousands treasured up. 

Blonday, Nov. 13. — Spent the morning in writing. 
Afterwards called upon several of the inhabitants. 

****** 
The Government is now consulting the field cornet- 
cies as to the best method to be adopted for checking 
thefts of cattle. &c. by the coloured population. Tiie 
farmers have in several instances suggested that they 
should be allowed to administer a " vaderligh tucht," 
fatherly correction ; the tender nature of which may 
be seen in the case of a poor coloured man now in 
jail or tronk at Colesberg ; the soles of whose feet 
were so beaten by a farmer, that he is now obliged 
to crawl about on his hands and knees. We slept 
at Elands Fontein — I in the tent which was furnished 
for me by the Governor. I found my mother Earth 
none of the softest, and had but little sleep. My 
morning toilet was performed at one o'clock by the 
side of a muddy vlea, much to the annoyance of the 
frogs : a vineyard was my oratory. 

Tuesday, Nov. 14. — Slept at Mr. Bark's, an 
Englishman ; the country is much the same as that 
already passed through — large dreary plains inter- 
rupted by rocky koppies, abounding with the spring- 



GUAAFF REINET. , 7 

bok and the gnu. We managed to get a refreshing 
bathe ; and our weather is still beautiful, though 
both warm and dusty. 

Wednesday/, Nov. 15. — A long day's journey 
through a country similar to that we have traversed 
since we left Cradock : the whole of our day we 
encountered successive herds of spring-bok, gnu, 
and occasionally flocks of the beautiful crane of the 
country. 

2^hursday, Nov. 16. — The character of the country 
is somewhat altered to-day. We are again amidst 
the mountains, but everything wears the same 
barren, desolate aspect as before. The spring-boks 
and the gnus have disappeared, and we have scarce 
seen any symptom of life, except that of a few sheep. 
We have found some difficulty even in procuring 
sufficient water for our horses, the streams being, 
many of them, quite dry through the long-continued 
drought. We have felt it, however, quite refreshing 
to have exchanged the wearisome plains for the 
mountains. We ai'rived at Graaff Reinet about six. 
The approach to the town by the banks of the river 
with mountain crags hanging over it is very beau- 
tiful, and the town itself is charmingly situated 
amongst the hills. It contains a population of 
upwards of four thousand, and is laid out in squares 
with streets crossing each other at right angles. 
Almost every house has a garden, abounding with 
the fig-tree, peach, vine, mulberry, pear, pome- 
granates, apricot, &c. The oleander here grows to 
a large tree, and I observed the Kaffir-broom, and 



78 GRAAI F REINET. 

some magnificent weeping willows. Little streams 
of water run through almost every street. The 
Dutch Church, with a very toleral>le tower and spire, 
is well situated in the centre of the town. Having 
arrived a day sooner than was expected, I prevented 
the parishioners from riding out to meet me, as they 
informed me they had intended to do. I found 
a packet of about thirty lettei^s awaiting me, several 
of them from England, containing accounts of the 
falling off of my subscriptions, just as I have been 
pledging myself to near 400/. a-year beyond what 
I had raised in England. But God will provide. He 
will not suffer His work to languish for want of a 
few hundred pounds. 

Friday, Nov. 17. — Reading letters and writing. 
Walked about the town to look at the site of the 
Church and Churchyard. In the afternoon drove 
round the town. Visitors kept dropping in the 
whole day from morning to night. 

Satui'clai/, Nov. IS. — Confirmed forty-eight can- 
didates this morning, many of whom were deeply 
impressed. Afterwards held a meeting of the 
parishioners, when a plan for a Churcli was decided 
upon, a fresh subscription entered into in support of 
their Minister, memorials di'awn up to the Governor 
applying for land for Churchyard and Glebe, Church 
Society explained and founded. Pastoral Letter 
addressed by me to the Clergy, enlarged upon. The 
meeting lasted nearly four hours. I trust the Church 
here will soon be begun, as the money collected or 
promised exceeds 900/. 



GRAAFF REINET. 79 

Sunday, Nov. 19. — Divine Service with Holy 
Communion in the Dutch Church : many of the 
Dutch were present. I preached on the necessity of 
comin"- unto Christ in order to salvation, and the 
way in which men must come. So long have our 
people in this congregation been deprived of the 
Holy Communion, that very many seem not to know 
how the Sacrament is administered in the English 
Cliurch. I have both confirmed here, and adminis- 
tered the Holy Communion to some who were 
brought up in the Dutch Church. I believe that 
there are many of the more educated of that commu- 
nion, who, where they have an oppoi-tunity of judg- 
ing of our Church, prefer it much to their own. I 
preached again in the evening on the spirit in which 
we should enter upon the erection of the House of 
God. Our collection to-day for Holy Vessels 
amounted to upwards of 18/. 

Blondarj, Nov. 20. — AYriting letters in the morn- 
ing. At eleven, went out to return calls ; in which 
occupation I was engaged during the remainder of 
the day. 

Tuesday, Nov. 21. — I leave Graaff Reinet with 
much satisfaction, feeling assured that Mr. Long 
will devote himself, as he has hitherto zealously 
done, to the work of the ministry ; and that God's 
cause will prosper there. I have heard to-day that 
the impression made by the Confirmation has been 
most happy and salutary; and that some, at least, are 
resolved to live as members of Christ, and children 
of God. Some Jews sent a contribution to our 



80 SNEEUWBEUU. 

Church, having heard the afternoon sermon yester- 
day, in which I endeavoured to stir up our people to 
take part in the erection of tlie house of God, as a 
high privilege, by showing the spirit in which God's 
ancient people engaged in the erection of the taber- 
nacle, and the rearing and restoring the temple. 
At six o'clock this morning, we started on horse- 
back, accompanied by Mr. Ilewatli, the churcli- 
warden, who kindly lent us horses, and Mr. 
Southey: they rode with us till ten o'clock. Shortly 
after we passed by a very singular and beautiful 
waterfall, which fell from the edge of our road into 
a very deep valley beneath. Afterwards our route 
lay along a valley, which had no very interesting 
features. The country is much burnt up, and there 
are no trees. Our day's journey was about filty 
miles. We slept at Rhenoster-fontein. 

Wednesday, Nov. 22. — The Sneeuwberg, through 
which we are passing, is a somewhat richer country 
than we have of late seen ; tlie i'arms exhibit signs 
of wealth, and here and there, where there is a 
" fontein," there are patches of arable land covered 
with luxuriant crops. If only there were more 
rain, or rivers which continually flowed, or if 
there were greater eflforts made to preserve what 
water does fall, the greater part of the valleys wliich 
we passed through might undoubtedly be brought 
under the plough. The general features of the 
country, however, present but a barren appearance. 
We passed the night on the edge of the Buffalo 
River, whose broad basin, however, was nearly dry. 



BEAUFORT. 81 

My tent, which was pitched in the sand, was so 
loosened from its holdings by the wind, that it kept 
flapping all night, and the sand drifted into my bed, 
so that I scarce got any rest. We enjoyed, how- 
ever, the freedom of our mode of life, and lay 
gazing on our magnificent canopy of stars. 

Thursday, Nov. 23. — Being ready before the 
wagon, I had an enjoyable walk of two hours in 
advance. During the day we saw a great number 
of ostriches. We were quite rejoiced again to see 
the Mimosa, of wiiich a fortnight since we were 
quite weary. Anything green is pleasing, after the 
dreary waste of dry and withered buslies, by wliicli 
we have been of late surrounded. We halted at 
night at a f^irm about four hours distant from 
Beaufort, and slept in tent and wagon. 

Friday, Nov. 24, — Arrived in Beaufort about ten 
o'clock, our horses appearing somewhat fagged. I 
find the Civil Commissioner has never received 
my letter, and that I was, consequently, not ex- 
pected. He however soon engaged lodgings for us, 
and we got some breakfast before twelve o'clock. It 
is very unfortunate that no notice could be given of 
my visit, for most of the English population reside 
in the country, there being, I am told, not less than 
forty farmers in the neighbourhood. I have, how- 
ever, notified my desire to meet the inhabitants to- 
morrow, and to hold service in the Dutch Church. 
I found another packet of English letters here, and 

one from , announcing the arrival of the 

Archdeacon, and seven Clergy and Catechists. 



82 BKAUFORT. 

Spent the day in writing letters, and calling upon 
and conversing with the English inhabitants. 

Saturday, Nov. 25. — Morning spent in receiving 
visits, inspecting and examining the heathen school, 
and calling upon some of the English people. I 
found one lady, who said she had been thirty-eight 
years in the Colony, without seeing any Minister of 
her own Church. Several more, having quite 
despaired of ever having a Clergyman near them, 
have joined the Dutch Church. There is, however, 
a little congregation here of members of the En- 
glish Church, who meet together every Lord's-day, 
to read the Church Service. Mr. Eraser, the Dutch 
Minister, received us very kindly, and assured me 
he should give up the English service which he now 
holds, as soon as an English Clergyman is appointed. 
Examined the Government school. There appears 
to be an excellent teacher here. I held a meeting of 
the English inhabitants at three o'clock, in the 
Court-house, in order that we might take steps for 
the erection of a Church, and the raising of a 
stipend for a Minister. It was very well attended, 
though the notice was so short, — but none of the 
country people could be present. Nearly 200/. was 
raised in the room for a Church ; and this, it is 
expected, will be greatly increased : nearly 50/. 
a-year for five years pledged for a Clergyman, and 
this also will be much increased. Memorials were 
drawn up and signed, requesting the Governor to 
give a site for a Church, &c., and to meet their sub- 
scription by grants both towards Cliurch and Pastor. 



BEAUFORT. 83 

I was not able to promise them much assistance, 
being pledged already to an extent beyond the funds 
placed at my disposal. After the meeting, in the 
evening, several persons came to see me, on cases of 
conscience. They spoke in affecting terms of their 
spiritual destitution, and of the awful condition 
into which many English settlers have sunk, from 
vrant of the means of grace ; and expressed their 
joy at the prospect of a change. One gentleman 
declared, though his family had, from lack of means 
in their own ChurcJi, joined another communion, yet 
that in their hearts they were with their ancient 
mother ; and that they should return to her fold 
as soon as they had the opportunity : at my next 
Visitation, he and his three sons would present 
themselves for Confirmation, and would have done so 
now, had there been sufficient time to prepare for it. 
Sunday, Nov.2Q. — We held service this morning 
in the Dutch Church. There was a large congrega- 
tion of Dutch and English. There were but few 
communicants. Several wished to have approached 
the Lord's Table, but were deterred from want of 
preparation, the notice having been so short ; and 
possibly, also, from having, in this their spiritual 
wilderness, thought but little of it. The Evening 
Service was at five o'clock, Mr. Eraser omitting his 
usual English service. There was a good congrega- 
tion. I preached on both occasions. In the after- 
noon, at Mr. Eraser's request, I addressed both the 
coloured and Dutch Sunday-school, who were 
brought into the church for that purpose. His clerk 



84 KARROO COUNTRY. 

interpreted for me. The coloured school consisted 
chiefly of adult heathens. Poor things, they seemed 
very attentive. In the evening, many of the inha- 
bitants came to bid us good-bye, and to wish us a 
prosperous journey; and some of them sent us 
cakes, honey, and milk, for provision by the way. 

3Ionday, Nov. 27. — Rose at three o'clock, but 
was delayed some time, waiting for the horses I had 
engaged. I thought it prudent to send on my own 
horses a day in advance, lest they should be quite 
knocked up on our long journey to George, over a 
road but little known, but known to be a bad one. 
Our route to-day has been along a dreary, barren, 
desolate Karroo. We have performed, however, 
nearly seventy miles, over a rough road. Our 
horses stuck for some time in the dry bed of a 
river, and I thought we should have to remain there 
till the next thunder-storm washed us all away. 
After whipping the poor jaded horses for some time, 
our men suggested that Green and myself should 
put our shoulders to the wheel, which we accordingly 
did, and at length got out. "We outspanned for the 
nigl\t near a little muddy pool in the bed of the 
river ; and here again we were obliged, as it was 
growing dark, to become hewers of wood for our 
fire, and drawers of water; while our men were 
pitching the tent, lighting the fire, cooking our 
supper, and feeding the horses. 

Tuesday, Nov. 28. — We rose again between three 
and four. I walked on, and the wagon did not over- 
take me till I reached Swanapools, where our horses 



ZUNYBERG MOUNTAINS. 85 

were waiting for us. I had a pleasant walk for two 
liours. We started immediately with our ov/n 
horses, and ti'avelled as usual, till we arrived at the 
top of the Zunyberg Mountains, over which we had 
to pass, where one of our wheels gave way with a 
great crash. By my calculation of distances, I con- 
sidered that we could not be more than half-an-hour 
from a farm ; and therefore I started on foot, with 
Ludwig, to get assistance, leaving Green in charge 
of the wagon. We walked on till near nine o'clock 
before we reached a house, and found ourselves 
twelve miles beyond the place where I was told 
there was a house, but where we found there was 
none. I was very tired before we reached the place, 
and was thankful, on arriving at a pool of water, to 
kneel down like the cattle and drink ; but would 
have gladly given up my place to our poor parched 
horses, who had no water within several miles of 
them. We found it was too late to send a wagon that 
night, the oxen not being in the kraal ; I therefore 
asked if I could sleep at the farm. The good people 
readily assented, but alarmed me by covering the 
floor of my room with beds for the whole family, 
which, however, from a hint from Ludwig, they 
moved into another room, to my great consolation. 
I did not sleep well, having still a superabundance of 
unpleasant bedfellows. 

Wednesday, Nov. 29. — Early in the morning I 
despatched Ludwig with an ox-wagon, and a cask of 
water for the horses, while I walked on to see a 
wheelmaker, who happened to live near, about 



86 KARROO COUNTRY. 

making us a new wheel. I found him engaged 
in repairing another wagon that had broken 
down, but he promised despatch. I feel somewhat 
crippled with my walk of twenty-five miles yester- 
day, under a hot sun. Having no books, nor any 
writing materials, my day was but a dull one. I 
spent the greater part of it under the shade of some 
mimosa bushes, reviewing my work, meditating upon 
various subjects, and looking out anxiously for the 
wagon. Our wheelwright, in spite of his promises, 
went to bed before I did. The wagon did not return 
till nearly nine o'clock. They were once upset, 
Avhich did not improve the condition either of the 
vehicle or its contents. 

Tliursdaij, Nov. 30. — We find the benefit of carry- 
ing provision with us, as we are nearly reduced to 
living on our own stores. Christian produced an 
ostricli's egg, which he had got from a coloured 
woman during his journey yesterday, and it satisfied 
the hunger of our whole party. I do not much 
admire the flavour ; it is too rich. Our men all set 
to work upon the wheel, and I fear it will not be 
finished to-night. We spent our day chiefly in 
reading, and writing letters. Walking up a small 
valley, we came to a waterfall, and a very deep pool 
under rocks, perhaps 600 feet high. Here we en- 
joyed a very cold bath. I swam under the fall, 
which was not a very great one. 

Friday, Dec. 1. — Our repairs were finished early 
this morning, and we got otf at nine o'clock. AVe 
were thankful to get quite out of the Karroo country, 



LANGE KLOOF. 87 

whicli is essentially " a barren and dry land where 
no water is." The country here is in some respects 
interesting. The mountains are bold and rugged, 
but still want trees. There is scarce any green thing 
except the mimosa. We had hardly crossed the 
Olifants River before we met Mr. Sutherland, from 
the Knysna, who had ridden at least 100 miles to 
meet us. Shortly after we were met by Mr. Walter, 
of George, who had ridden as great a distance, and 
had been waiting for us more than a day. He most 
kindly came out to see that the horses, which were 
gratuitously furnished to us by the different farmers 
along the road for the last eighty miles, at the re- 
quest of their Minister and the Civil Commissioner, 
Avere in readiness. Had it not been for this act of 
kindness, it would have been very difficult for us to 
reach George by Saturday evening. We slept at 
Mr. Commr. Van Rooyen's, who entertained us most 
hospitably, and would take no remuneration. 

Saturday, Dec. 2. — We had oxen to take us over 
the mountains. I was very glad to find myself in 
the Lange Kloof. It seemed quite like an old fi'iend, 
and made us feel we were again approaching home. 
We travelled at a rapid pace with fresh horses, 
breakfasting at Mr. Ignatius Van Rooyen's, and 
dining with Mr. Richardson, who has a very large 
establishment of seventy souls on his farm. His 
buildings are the best of any that I have seen in the 
Colony ; and I was very glad to find that he had 
erected very comfortable houses for his coloured ser- 
vants. I understand he finds no difficulty in pi'O- 



88 MONTAGU PASS. GEORGE. 

curing servants, for he lets them see he takes an 
interest in them — attending to their spiritual as well 
as their temporal wants ; holding Divine Service for 
them on Sunday : and I am persuaded if more of the 
farmers would follow his example, they would be 
equally successful, and find the benefit of their 
efforts, even in a temporal point of view, I was 
very much struck with the Montagu Pass. Tiie 
scenery is really very fine ; the mountains grand and 
picturesque, and very Alpine. The road is an 
excellent one, and well engineered. We arrived at 
George about seven o'clock, and found a large party 
of gentlemen awaiting us. We took up our quarters 
at the house of Mr. Garcia, who was kind enough to 
invite us, and where we had soon a numerous party 
of visitors. I found many of our old friends from 
the Knysna, who had come up to meet us. David- 
son met us at Mr. Richardson's, and I had a good 
deal of conversation with him. 

Sunday, Dec. 3. — We had Divine Service twice 
to-day. I preached, in the morning, on the prepara- 
tion of heart required for a due commemoration of 
Christ's first coming into the world ; and in the 
evening, upon his second coming. 

Monday, Dec. 4. — Wrote all the morning, chiefly 
letters of business. In the afternoon, returned some 
calls. In the evening, we had a dinner party. 

Tuesday, Dec. 5. — Day spent in writing, making 
arrangements with the Churchwardens, calling on 
various people. In the evening dined with the Civil 
Commissioner. 



GOARITZ RIVER. PORT BEAUFORT. 89 

Wednesday, Dec. 6. — Started at five o'clock this 
morning. Outspanned and breakfasted at the Great 
Braak River, at the same spot as we did more than 
three months ago. Puslied on in tlie evening till it 
became dark, when we could find no water ; and 
therefore travelled on till we reached the Goaritz 
River after ten o'clock. We did not get to sleep 
till near midnight, as the tent took some time to 
pitch. 

Thursday, Dec. 7. — Up again before four o'clock 
this morning. We forded the Goaritz River, taking 
off our shoes and stockings at a drift where it is some- 
times 150 feet deep. Suspecting our horses might 
fail at this which is a steep, sandy drift, I watched 
for the wagon from the height of the opposite hill. 
Unfortunately my suspicion proved but too true. 
For the first time in a journey of two thousand miles 
they were beaten, greatly to the vexation of our 
driver. Here we had to remain several hours, 
waiting for a span of oxen. At length our patience 
being wearied out, we emptied our wagon, carrying 
its contents to the top of the hill. The horses then 
took it up with ease. We slept at a f;irm about two 
hours distant from Riversdale. 

Friday, Dec. 8. — Breakftisted with Mr. Hudson 
at Riversdale. Major Shaw, the Magistrate, spoke 
to me very earnestly about a Clergyman, and thought 
that 50/. or 60/. a-year might easily be raised. He 
is to communicate with me on the subject. We 
determined to go a little out of our way to Port 
Beaufort, which I missed when last here, to see 



90 SWELLENDAM. 

Mr. Barry, and the foundation of his Church, 
according to plans furnished by me which are already 
laid : we slept at his house, and walked to see the 
mouth of the Breede River. The want of good 
water -will probably prevent this becoming ever 
a considerable port. 

Saturdaij, Dec. 9. — Sent on my wagon early, and 
followed myself later in Mr. Barry's wagon, with 
some of his family who were going up to Swellendam 
for the Sunday Service. The distance is thirty-six 
miles, and tlie country has a very dreary appearance, 
being much burnt up, and entirely without trees. 

Sunday, Dec. 10. — "We held Divine Service in 
the Dutch Church, morning and evening, I preached 
in the morning on our Lord's second advent. Green 
in the evening. After morning service I confirmed 
a lady who had been most anxious for Confirmation 
wdien I was last here, but had had no notice of it, 
and determined to go to Capetown to partake of 
the ordinance, though in a bad state of health. 

Monday, Dec. 1 1 . — Rose at three o'clock ; started 
about four on my route to "Worcester. The weather 
is getting very Avarm, and the country very dry and 
burnt up. At Swellendam upwards of lOOZ. a-year 
has been raised since I was here, in support of 
a Clergyman. I trust I may be able to send one 
shortly. The village is one of the neatest and most 
cheerful looking in the Colony. Our route lay 
through a pleasing valley, lying between mountains, 
and capable I should think of being cultivated to 
a great extent ; and of bearing a large population. 



WORCESTER. 91 

We slept at Mr. Van Tyler's, a Dutch farmer of some 
intelligence. 

Tuesday, Dec. 12. — Amved at Worcester about 
five o'clock. The distance from Svvellendham is, 
I think, about ninety miles. The day was intensely 
hot, and we enjoyed much a bathe in the river. 
Worcester is very beautifully situated at the foot of 
the mountains. It was apparently intended, when 
laid out, for a large town ; but at present contains, 
including the coloured people, not more than three 
thousand souls. The houses are at a gi-eat distance 
from each other, and surrounded by fields or gardens. 
The soil seems rich, and is well watei'ed. We took 
up our abode at the Drosdy House, having been 
kindly invited to do so by Mr. Truter, the Civil 
Commissioner, a most agreeable and gentlemanly 
person. This house was built as a shooting box by 
Lord C. Somerset, when Governor; and is one of the 
best in the Colony. The gardens about it are excel- 
lent. The premises, which are too large for any 
private person, would make admirable buildings for 
a College. 

Wednesday, Dec. 13. — Went before breakfast 
with Mr. Truter, to visit the gaol. The only prisoner 
is a Dutch farmex", who recently beat his wife to 
death because she remonstrated with him for pre- 
tending to celebrate the Lord's Supper when in 
a state of intoxication. He has for the last few days 
become at times insane, apparently from remorse 
and despair. I spoke a few words to him respecting 
repentance and pardon, but it was too much for 



92 AVOKCESTER. 

him. He became convulsed, and I was obliged to 
leave him. Crimes like his are very rare in this 
Colony ; but, as in the mother country, in most cases 
they have their origin in drink, to which there are 
but too many temptations. After breakfast I exa- 
mined the government school. I found the teacher 
here, as elsewhere, cramming the children with 
natural philosophy, and all kinds of hard words, the 
meaning of which they did not understand, instead 
of giving them a plain useful education, suited to 
their circumstances. I was pleased, however, with 
the knowledge which two or three children exhibited 
of the history of the Old Testament. At eleven 
o'clock I held a meeting of the English inhabitants 
in the vestry of the Dutch Church. There were not 
many present, nor indeed are, there many in the 
place, and these are chiefly poor. Several offered 
themselves as candidates for Confirmation ; and one 
or two seemed very anxious to have a Clergyman 
placed amongst them ; but I fear I shall scarcely be 
able to effect this at present. One man pleaded very 
earnestly with me, and spoke with great feeling of 
his own condition, cut off as he is from the means of 
grace, and utterly unable to comprehend the Dutch 
Service. There are some Rhenish Missionaries here, 
who seem to be respectable men ; though they do 
not appear to be doing any great good. After our 
meeting I called on Mr. Sutherland, the Dutch 
^Minister ; he has usually only one service on 
the Sunday, but once a month he holds an Eng- 
lish service. In the afternoon wrote letters, &c. 



■WORCESTER. 93 

There were several gentlemen to dinner in the 
evening. 

Thursday, Dec. 14. — Had interviews this morning 
with several persons who wished to see me on re- 
ligious matters. One English farmer who had come 
30 hours, (180 miles,) wished to be confirmed. He 
had not seen an English Clergyman for many years. 
I found him well instructed in religion, but on in- 
quiry discovered he had been living fifteen years with 
a coloured woman. He was anxious to be married 
to her, but she had not been baptized ; and upon 
examination we found her not sufliciently instructed. 
The nearest Dutch Church to him is 24 hours dis- 
tant (150 miles). What can we hope for or expect in 
such a state of things ! He is during the next four 
months to instruct her whom he calls his wife, more 
perfectly in the Christian faith, and afterwards to 
bring her to Capetown for more full instruction, 
and for baptism : after which I have promised they 
shall be married and confirmed. At ten o'clock con- 
firmed five candidates, whom G. had prepared yes- 
terday. There was a tolerably full Church. After 
service some members of our Church spoke to me, 
with tears in their eyes, about the comfort they had 
had in once more hearing their own Ministers, and 
their own Liturgy ; and earnestly entreated me to 
send a Clergyman to them. I promised to do what 
I could towards providing them with a Service once 
a month. We left Worcester at two o'clock, much 
gratified with our visit at the house of Mr. Truter. 
Our route to the Convict Station lay through a fine 



94 Mitchell's pass, tulbagii. 

and fertile valley, where the farms are closer to each 
other than in any other part of the country that I 
have seen. We arrived at Musteed's Hocks about 
eight o'clock, Mr. Bain, the intelligent superinten- 
dent of the convicts and engineer of the roads, hav- 
ing ridden out with some other gentlemen to meet 
us. Had it not been for their courtesy, we should 
have had some difficulty in finding our way in the 
dark, through several very difficult fords of the 
Breede River. ^Ye slept the night at Mr. Bain's. 

Friday, Dec. 15. — At six o'clock this morning 
we started on horseback to ride up the new road, 
now called Mitchell's Pass ; and to inspect the Con- 
vict Station. The establishment appears to be 
admirably conducted, and the discipline is excellent. 
I had the greater number of the convicts (of whom 
there are 250) assembled in the Chapel, and addressed 
them, their teacher interpreting for me. I had after- 
wards an interesting conversation with some Eng- 
lish convicts. The Pass is a very beautiful one, the 
road excellent, and well engineered. I love to see 
these great works going on in the Colony, opening 
out, as they do, vast tracts of land, and developing 
the resources of the country. After breakfast we 
proceeded to Tulbagh, (three hours.) This is a small 
but pretty village, with very few English. We 
had tiffin with Mr. Shand, the Dutch Minister. 
There is in this place the only congregation I know 
of that has avowedly separated from the Dutch 
Ciuirch. At three o'clock we started again, and 
arrived at eight o'clock at Maland's Farm. AVe had 



WELLINGTON. THE PAARL. 95 

by the way a very pleasant bathe in the Waterfjill 
River. 

Saturday, Dec. 16. — Outspanned for breakfast 
near Wellington, a new village rising up near Bain's 
Kloof, and likely to be much increased, in conse- 
quence of the new road about to be made over the 
Pass. Having got careless as to our " pat-cop" as we 
approached home, we fared but badly, and finished 
our meal by a draught of not the clearest water in 
the world. "VVe walked over the village — called 
upon the Dutch Minister, and an English gentleman, 
and found there were a few members of our Church 
here, and several more English, who, for want of 
the ministrations of their own Church, have joined 
the Dutch. About ten o'clock we proceeded on to the 
Paarl, which is distant from Wellington about an 
hour and-a-half. The Paarl is beautifully situated, 
and has a considerable population. The farms here 
are much smaller than usual, and the farmers in and 
around the village are chiefly employed in cultivating 
the vine. Indeed this is one of the best vine-errowin"- 
parts of the Colony. The irregularity of the houses 
here, the fine oak trees, and the beauty and fertility 
of the gardens make this one of the most interesting 
villages in the Colony. There is, as usual, a want 
of water, though we found it of sufficient depth in 
the river not far distant from the village to enjoy a 
good swim. The Dutch Minister here is one of the 
most learned of their body. The London Missionary 
Society has a station and a chapel, and I believe 
a respectable congregation of the coloured classes. 



96 STELLKNIiOSCII. 

About one o'clock we proceeded on our route, after 
having made arrangements with Mr. Inglis, the 
teacher in tlie Government School, who held a ser- 
vice every Sunday, respecting the services for Tues- 
day, when I am to hold my Visitation here. Long 
before we arrived at Stellenbosch, we caught glimpses 
of the Table Mountain ; and the eye could trace the 
range up to the point under which Protea lies. I 
felt thankful to have even this distant view of home, 
and regretted that my arrangements compelled me 
to retrace my steps even for a few days. The Civil 
Commissioner not being able to receive us at his 
house, in consequence of his wife's illness, we took 
up our quarters at the hotel. I had scarce opened 
my packet of letters before I saw my carriage drive 
past the door. In an instant I was again, by God's 
great mercy, permitted to see my dearest wife, from 
whom I had been separated nearly four montlis. AVe 
had the Civil Commissioner and several visitors in 
the evening. Stellenbosch is, like so many other 
places in this Colony, beautifully situated at the foot 
of the mountain ; but in no place that I have seen 
are the streets so completely overshadowed by full 
grown oak trees. In the summer this is a great 
luxury. In the winter it probably leads to some 
degree of damp. 

Sunday, Dec. 17. — We held Divine service this 
morning, in the Dutch Church, after their service 
was concluded. There was a large congregation. 
We administered the Holy Communion to about six 
people. In the evening we held service again, 



STELLENBOSCH. THE PAARL. 97 

when there was an equally good congregation. Some- 
thing must be done for this place. There is no 
English service of any kind here. Besides the 
Dutch Church, there are two Rhenish Missionaries 
with a large coloured congregation, and a Wesleyan 
Missionary. The population of the place is, I be- 
lieve, little short of four thousand, 

Monday, Dec. 18. — At ten o'clock this morning 
I held a Confirmation in the Dutch Church, when 
six were confirmed, whom Green had been pre- 
paring while here. At twelve o'clock, I held a 
meeting of the English in the Court-house, when a 
memorial was addressed to Government, praying for 
a "rant of 100/. a-year towards the stipend of an 
English Clergyman, and grants of land for Church 
and parsonage. A subscription was also opened for 
a stipend for a Clergyman. There was an English 
Clergyman settled in this place a few years since, 
who, when he went away, left an English congrega- 
tion of ninety, who have had no minister since. 
After returning one or two visits, and seeing my 
wife off, we started again in our wagon for the 
Paarl, where we arrived about seven o'clock. 

Tuesday, Dec. 19. — We held Divine service this 
morning, in the Government School-room, at ten 
o'clock: there was a full congregation, chiefly of 
Dutch. There were six baptisms, and as many 
candidates for Confirmation, whom Mr. Inglis the 
teacher (formerly a catechist of the Colonial Church 
Society) had prepared. I both preached and ad- 
dressed the candidates, who all seemed to feel 

H 



98 MALMESBURY. 

deeply. Mr. Inglis, after service, applied to me to 
ordain him, offering to officiate as Minister at the 
Paarl without a stipend. At one o'clock, we again 
started en rmite for Malmesbury, where we arrived 
at about half-past seven in the evening. The Civil 
Commissioner being unable to receive us himself 
into his house, committed us to the hospitality of a 
Dutch lady, who received us very courteously. 
There is not much in the external appearance of 
Malmesbury to interest one. The situation is bleak 
and dreary. There are a few trees, and a deficiency 
of water which prevents the inhabitants from culti- 
vating gardens to any extent. There is, however, 
a sulphureous warm spring, and a miserable public 
bath. The bath is, I believe, beneficial in rheumatic 
cases, but does not seem to be much used. There is 
a Dutch Church here, but no INIissionary station. 
The Moravian Institution, however, at Green Kloof, 
is only a few hours distant. There are not many 
English here ; but I find there are a good many 
about Saldanha and St. Helena Bays, who do not 
bear the most respectable character. We spent one 
evening in preparing some very interesting candi- 
dates for Baptism and Confirmation, and in con- 
versing with several gentlemen who had been invited 
to meet us. 

Wednesday, Dec. 20. — Walked about the village 
before breakfast. At nine o'clock went to the Govern- 
ment vSchool, where a public examination was going 
on. The children answered very satisfactorily the 
questions put to them on religious subjects. At ten 



d'tjrban. protea. 99 

o'clock we held Divine Service in the Dutch Church, 
and baptized three adults, who had been prepared by- 
Mr. Inglis, and an infant. I confirmed one of the 
party whom I baptized. At about two o'clock we 
started again, and drove over a sandy road through 
a country well cultivated, and bearing large crops of 
wheat and oats, to the farm of Mr. Procter, an 
English gentleman. He, like every one else, com- 
plains sadly of the want of labourers ; he says that 
he is offering three shillings a day, together with two 
pounds of meat, two pounds of bread, and two bottles 
of wine during harvest time, and cannot get labour- 
ers. He says he could employ 100 additional handS; 
if he could procure them. One man, whom he 
brought out a few years since as labourer without a 
shilling, has now realized 500Z. Another, who came 
out eleven years since, has now a well-stocked farm 
of 3,000 acres ; but he too complains sadly of the want 
of labourers, and the difficulty of obtaining education 
for his children. 

Thursday, Dec. 21. — Drove three hours to 
D'Urban, to breakfast. This is a small and uninte- 
resting village, built upon a sandy soil, and without 
trees. It has nothing attractive about it. There is 
a Dutch Church, and also a resident Clergyman, whom 
we called upon. At half-past eleven we started 
again for Protea, at which place we arrived at a 
quarter past three. My dearest wife rode out to 
meet us. I was right glad to see Capetown and 
Table Mountain once more, as we approached our 
home. 



100 CONCLUSION. 

And now let me record my deep gratitude to 
Almighty God for having brought me safely back to 
my home and family, after a journey of nearly 3,000 
miles, througli a strange land, and an absence of four 
months. I cannot be too thankful for the many 
mercies which have attended me throughout. I left 
home enfeebled and worn : I return in strength and 
health. I have been enabled to keep every engage- 
ment I have made, and in almost eveiy case to the 
day. I have never been prevented from officiating 
on any occasion, either through sickness or accident. 
I have seen our people, though long and grievously 
neglected, still clinging to their mother Church, and 
ready to make great personal exertions and sacrifice 
to share in her ministrations. I have seen very 
remarkable effects resulting from the mere celebra- 
tion of our holy services, especially Confirmation 
and Holy Communion ; sufficient, were there no 
other evidence, to prove them to be of God, and 
apparently showing that God has been pleased to 
bless the first administration of the Church s Ordi- 
nances in this desolate and with a double measure 
of His gracious presence. I have seen with my own 
eyes the condition of the greater portion of the 
Diocese, and liave been convinced that our day of 
grace as a Churcli has not passed away ; but that 
God has still a great work for us to do in Southern 
Africa, if we have but the heart and the faith to 
enter upon it. I have been enabled, I trust, to pave 
the way for the erection of Churches, and the sup- 
port of ministers, in almost all our towns and large 



CONCLUSION, 101 

villages. I have been able to confirm, altogether, in 
this Visitation, nearly 900 candidates, and I return 
home to meet a little band of faithful and devoted 
men, whom God has been pleased to raise up for the 
support of our feeble Church in this land. May 
God give me grace to be thankful for these things, 
and to be more earnest and devoted to His cause. 
May He supply all that is wanting in this land, for 
the promotion of the glory of His own great name — 
the extension of the kingdom of His dear Son — and 
the salvation of men's souls ! 



103 



VISITATION AT ST. HELENA, IN 1849. 



St. Helena, April 10th, Easter Tuesday, 1849. 

Mt Dear , 

You will be glad, I am sure, to receive my report 
of the state of Eeligion in this Island, together with 
some account of my Visitation of it. I left Simons 
Town on the 22d of February, in H. M. steamer. 
Geyser, and had a most agreeable voyage, receiving 
every attention from Captain Brown and the offi- 
cers of the ship. We had prayers morning and 
evening, at which the whole of the officers, and such 
of the men as could be spared, regularly attended. 
I need scarcely add that we had Divine Service 
twice every Sunday. A more orderly and attentive 
congregation I have seldom seen. 

We arrived here on the morning of the 7th of 
March. Captain Knipe, A. D. C. to his Excellency 
Sir Patrick Ross, the Governor, came on board im- 
mediately upon our anchoring, to convey me to 
Plantation House, the rain preventing Sir P. Ross 
from coming to receive me. He had ordered a 
salute, which however I declined. On th6 Friday 
after my arrival, His Excellency appointed a Levee 



104 ST. HELENA. 

at the Castle, at wliich about fifty gentlemen of the 
island, civil and military, were present and intro- 
duced. From that time to the present I have been 
busily employed every day in visiting the parish- 
ioners — assisting the clergy in preparing candidates 
for confirmation — in confirming, in consecrating the 
church and various churchyards, examination of 
schools, in preaching, and in business arising out of 
the Visitation — such as the repeal of local ordinances 
which interfered with the Bishop's oflSce, in the con- 
veyance of the churches and burial grounds, (all of 
which were still in the hands of Government,) to the 
See — in remodelling, and placing upon a sounder and 
more extended footing the Church Society, — and I 
trust also another very important ecclesiastical asso- 
ciation, called the Benevolent Society. 

The island itself is in many respects very inter- 
esting. Plantation House reminds me much of 
many of our more favoured English country resi- 
dences. The house is beautifully situated amidst 
woods, about three , miles from the town, with a fine 
green valley in front sloping towards the sea, above 
which, however, it lies full 2,000 feet. The ride to 
Sandy Bay is striking, but the view of the Bay itself 
singularly beautiful and remarkable. I shall not 
attempt a description of it, but it is unique. I have of 
course visited Longwood and Napoleon's grave, but 
I shall not weary you with an account of them, as 
there is nothing striking about either. "We use the 
billiard room in the new house, built for him, as a 
chapel, and there is an excellent congregation there. 



ST. HELENA. 105 

The situation of James's Town is picturesque, jamnaed 
up in a narrow valley, between huge barren moun- 
tains, which seem as if they would overwhelm it. 
The church, though not by any means perfect in 
point of architecture, is nevertheless a pleasing 
building, wit-h a neat, well-proportioned tower and 
spire, and is in excellent order. It faces the sea, and 
is the most striking object as you approach the an- 
chorage. The country church is an inferior building, 
and not in good repair ; but the inhabitants have 
just determined upon erecting a new building, for 
which Mr. Ferry has been kind enough to furnish 
plans. The cost is to be 2,500^., and the site is one 
of the most lovely I have seen, commanding a most 
glorious view of the mighty ocean, with a foreground 
of wood and broken mountain scenery, which here 
and there intersect the sea views, and cause a most 
pleasing variety. 

There are four clergymen now belonging to the 
island : — Mr. Kempthorne, the senior Colonial Chap- 
lain, whom I have appointed Commissary, Rural Dean, 
and Surrogate ; Mr. Helps, Military Chaplain ; and 
Mr. Bousfield, whom I sent out as Assistant Chap- 
lain. Mr. Helps is absent on leave in England. 
Mr. K. and Mr. B. are both excellent and devoted 
men, and labouring assiduously in their sacred call- 
ing. The fourth is Mr. Frey, whom I had much 
satisfaction in ordaining, during my visitation, to 
the holy office of Deacon, being strongly recommended 
to me by the clergy and several of the laity. He 
was formerly a German Missionary in India, which 



106 ST. HELENA. 

country he left several years ago in impaired health. 
He is now master of the country Government school. 
He will strictly confine himself to the duties which 
properly belong to the Diaconate, continuing in his 
office of teacher, and devoting his days, after two 
o'clock, to visiting the poor, many of whom, espe- 
cially of those who were slaves, are very ignorant, 
and have been recently led into schism by a person 
who came to this island a short time since, and began 
by exhorting people to go to church, but, as soon as 
he had ingratiated himself with some simple people, 
avowed himself a strenuous advocate of the Ana- 
baptist heresy. The island still greatly needs an- 
other clergyman, who should devote much of his 
time to visiting the poor from house to house. The 
rugged and mountainous nature of the country, 
coupled with the very great heat of the climate, 
render it impossible for a clergyman to do as much 
parochial work here as in England. Could I but see 
my way clearly to the appointment of another 
clergyman, I should leave this ioland with great com- 
fort, leeling assured that, notwithstanding division 
has, for the first time during a period of loO years, 
been introduced into the community, God's good 
work would prosper under the faithful ministry of 
his servants. Indeed good has already been brought 
out of evil ; for many of those who until now have 
rested in the faith which they have received without 
inquiiy, have been led to examine into tlie founda- 
tion upon which it rests, and to hold, with a firmer 
grasp and a clearer conviction, truths which until now 



ST. HELENA, 107 

they Iiad held only implicitly. Both the clergy and 
myself also have felt constrained to speak more plainly 
upon Church subjects and principles than we other- 
wise might have done, and the result has been that 
no inconsiderable number have become more devoted, 
loving, obedient children of their mother Church 
than they otherwise might have been. 

I should add that, in addition to the country 
church, small chapels, capable of holding from one 
hundred to two hundred souls, are greatly needed 
at Sandy Bay, Longwood, and the upper part of 
James's Town, at each of which places there are ex- 
cellent congregations. The people of this island are 
far too poor to undertake these works at present, 
having the country church to build. Unless, there- 
fore, they are greatly aided by the mother Church, 
they must, I fear, remain without these blessings for 
many years to come. 

The state of education in the island is not all that 
could be wished, chiefly through the incompetency 
of several of the teachers. There are eight schools. 
Government and the Benevolent Society both con- 
tribute liberally to this good work. I should be 
very thankful if I could invite one or two teachers 
from our Training Colleges, but at present I fear 
very little can be done. 

You are aware that this is a great depot for Afri- 
cans captured from slavers. About 3,000 of these 
poor creatures are landed on this island every year. 
Of these nearly one half suffer in health from the 
hardships they endure from their inhuman tyrants ; 



108 ST. HELENA. 

and about one-fourth are very heavily afflicted, I 
accompanied his Excellency a few days ago in a visit 
to their village or establishment in Rupert's Valley. 
If anything were needed to fill the soul with burning 
indisnation asrainst that master work of Satan, the 
Slave-trade, it would be a visit to this institution. 
There Avere less than 600 poor souls in it at the 
period of my visit ; of these more than 300 were in 
hospital ; some afflicted with dreadful ophthalmia ; 
others with severe rheumatism ; others with dysen- 
tery ; the number of deaths in the week being 
twenty-one. I think I have seldom beheld a more 
deplorable spectacle. 

I was pained to find that no effort is made to 
instruct these poor things during the time they are 
in the island ; and the more so, because the Super- 
intendent informed me that they show a great apti- 
tude for instruction, and have a strong desire for it. 
The lack of employment too for tlieir minds has a 
bad effect upon their health and spirits ; so that when 
sickness overtakes them, they sink at once into a 
settled melancholy ; and some commit suicide, partly 
from lowness of spirits, partly because, poor souls, 
they imagine that after death they will return to 
their much loved home and fatherland. The least 
thought must convince any one that the healthy 
exercise of the mind would be of great service to 
them in every way ; and it is sad to think that our 
Government should spend 10,000Z. a-year on this 
Institution, and between 300,000/. and 400,000/. in 
support of the squadron, and yet not allow the trifling 



ST. HELENA. 109 

sura which would be needful to supply them with a 
teacher. Mr. Frey, whom I have just ordained, did 
at one time undertake the work, and with some suc- 
cess, but Government would not sanction the appro- 
priation of a stipend. 

A day or two after I had visited Rupert's Valley, 
a slave ship was brought in, captured by one of our 
cruisers. She was a schooner of about 100 tons, 
and had 560 slaves on board. I went to see them, 
that I might more fully realize their condition. The 
cargo was a pai'ticularly healthy one, the number of 
deaths being only about one a-day. Two were lying 
dead upon the deck, and one had the day before 
jumped overboard. Everything was done by the 
officers and crew in charge to keep the ship clean ; 
but you can conceive better than I can describe 
what tlie condition of such a mass of human beings 
must be in so small a space. The deck was entirely 
covered with them. They had a worn look, and 
wasted appearance, and were moved into the boats 
like bales of goods, apparently without any will of 
their own. I crept down between decks to the place 
where they are usually stowed away. It might be 
between three and four feet high, and the atmo- 
sphere was most offensive, although not occupied by 
one-third of the usual number. The condition, 
however, of a slave-ship has been too often described 
to make it necessary for me to enlarge upon it. I 
shall only say, I never beheld a more piteous sight 
— never looked upon a more affecting scene — never 
before felt so powerful a call to be a Missionary. I 



110 ST. HELENA. 

did not quit that ship without having resolved more 
firmly than ever that I would, with the grace and 
help of God, commence as speedily as possible direct 
Mission work in Southern Africa, and that I would 
never cease entreating of the mother Church the 
needful supply of men and means, tiiat the reproach 
may be wiped off wliich, alas I still attaches to us, of 
being almost the only body of Christians in this 
great Diocese which is not engaged in the work of 
the conversion of the Heathen. 

I have only now to add, that I have been during 
the five weeks that I have been here the guest of the 
Governor, who has been to me most kind and hos- 
pitable, and who, with his excellent family, takes a 
deep interest in the spiritual as well as the moral and 
social condition of the island under his government. 
I have held two Confirmations ; at the first of which 
upwards of 100 communicants presented themselves, 
and at the latter we had between 300 and 400, alto- 
gether nearly 500, — that is, about a tenth of the whole 
population of the island. I have also consecrated 
the Church at James's Town, together with the five 
burial-grounds in the island ; held a Visitation, with 
a special view to the reformation of some points in 
which the Church was defective, and the restoration 
of Church discipline ; and summoned a public meet- 
ing of the inhabitants, with a view to interest them 
more generally in tlie work of the Church through 
means of the Church Society. The meeting, at 
which his Excellency the Governor presided, was 
well attended, and will, I trust, lead to a larger 



ST. HELENA. Ill 

measure of support towards the several objects 
which the Society embraces ; — the maintenance of 
the Ministry— the erection of Churches — Missions, and 
a fund for Bibles, Prayer-books, and other religious 
works approved by the Bishop, and the foundation 
of a scholarship or scholarships, in connexion with 
our Collegiate School at the Cape. 
Believe me, ever. 

Dear , 

Yours very faithfully, 

R. Capetown. 

From a Letter dated at Sea, April 23, 1849. 

I HAD an affecting parting from many at St. Helena. 
The circumstances of the island, together with its 
being a first Visitation, compelled me to speak upon 
subjects I would gladly have been silent on: I mean, 
the nature and constitution of the Church — the 
office and authority of a Bishop in the Church of 
God — the succession of the Ministry — schism, &c. 
I do not mean that these were exclusive subjects, 
(God forbid.) but I was compelled to speak out on 
these points more plainly than I had ever done 
before, and I really believe much to the furtherance 
of Christ's cause. The people there are certainly 
prepared to take a deep interest in religious matters, 
and some good has, I trust, been done. Tliey fol- 
lowed me in crowds, and expressed much affection. 
I was to have embarked on Sunday night after 
Church, instead of returning to Plantation House 
in the country, but several of the laity expressed a 



112 ST. HELENA. 

hope that I would not leave them in the dark, but 
let them accompany me to the shore; so I waited till 
Monday morning, and then had a large attendance 
of authorities, &c. I shall never forget the kind- 
ness of the Governor and his excellent family : they 
received me as a brother. 



The Clergy also accompanied the Bishop on board 
the Geyi>er, and presented him with the following 
address : — 

'' My Lord, — We, the Clergy of St. Helena, beg 
permission, at your Lordship's departure, to offer 
our farewell tribute of most sincere veneration and 
attachment. More than six years have now elapsed 
since the necessity of Episcopal superintendence 
over the Church in this Colony was officially repre- 
sented by a memorial transmitted through Her 
Majesty's Government. That necessity has now 
been supplied in the person of your Lordship ; and 
while reviewing the firmness and delicacy with which 
the high and sacred functions of a Bishop have been 
introduced amongst a peo^ile to whom they were 
before unknown, we cannot but most heartily record 
our gratitude to the great Head of the Church, for 
directing the choice of our rulers to one endowed 
with such (qualities of mind and heart — qualities 
which lend a peculiar grace to every act of authority, 
and render obedience on our part only a privilege. 
Our gratitude for the many marks of your Lord- 



ST. HELENA. 113 

ship's personal kindness and regard will be best 
evinced by following up with our flock that vigour 
and earnestness in the service of our common Lord 
which has been so singularly exemplified throughout 
the whole period of your Lordship's Visitation. We 
heartily pray that the Almighty Giver of all good 
things may grant to your Lordship length of days 
and every good gift for the continued exercise of 
your high office ; and with all affectionate reverence 
we would say, Father, farewell i" 



R. CLAY, PRINTER, BREAD STREET IIILL. 
I 



©i^urct in t^e ©olonits. 

No, XXVII. 



1 t 



DIOCESE OF CAPETOWN.— PART 11. 



A JOURNAL 



BISHOP'S VISITATION TOUE 



THROUGH 



THE CAPE COLONr, IN 1850. 



WITH A MAP. 



LONDON : 

PRINTED POa 

THE SOCIETT FOR THE PROPAGATION OF THE GOSPEL; 

AND SOLD BV THE 

SOCIETT FOR PROMOTING CHRISTIAN KNOWLEDGE, 

GREAT QUEEN STBEET, LINCOLN'S INN FIELDS J 

4, ROYAL exchange; & 16, HANOVER STREET, HANOVER SQUARE ; 

RIVINGTONS, BELL, HATCHARDS, AND ALL BOOKSELLERS. 

1851. 



lOSDON : 
B. CLAY. PBINTER, DREAD STREET HILL. 



ADVERTISEMENT. 



The Journal will be found to possess more than 
usual interest for the general reader, as containing 
geographical information not to be met with else- 
where. In the course of this extensive Visitation, 
which occupied the Bishop from Easter to Christ- 
mas, his Lordship travelled on foot, or in his 
wagon, through large tracts in which no vehicle 
had been seen before, and of which no description 
has been published. Many places in the accom- 
panying Map (for which the Society is again, as on 
former occasions, indebted to Mr. J. Arrowsmith) 
were necessarily laid down solely on the authority 
of the Bishop's Journal. As an ecclesiastical 
document it is invaluable, containing an enduring 
record of self-denial and exertions on the part of 
Clergy and Laity, to an extent which has not been 
surpassed in the infancy of any of our colonial 
Churches. 



JOUliNAL 

DURING VISITATION, 1850. 



On Easter Monday, April 1st, 1850, I commenced my 
Fourth Visitation, intending, if God permit, to pass 
through the Kari'oo to Colesberg, visiting the several 
towns and villages in my way ; then to cross the Orange 
River, and travel through the country called the Sove- 
reignty, inhabited by the native tribes, and the rebel 
Eoers, who are again in a state of commotion, to Natal. 
In this Dependency I hope to remain some weeks, and 
return to the Colony through Faku's territory and 
British Kaffraria. I then purpose visiting the whole of 
the Eastern Province, and returning home by the sea- 
coast. 

This visitation, if it please God to spare me to com- 
plete it, will probably occupy nearly nine months ; but 
I trust I may be enabled to reach Capetown before 
Christmas. It would be presumptuous to reckon on 
.1 safe return after so long a journey, and I do not. I 
feel, however, that I am in the hands of a gracious 
Father. Let Him do with His servant as seemeth good 
unto Him. Only let this visitation tend to the further- 
ance of His glory, and the advancement of His king- 
dom ; I shall then be perfectly satisfied, whatever befals 
myself. 

I started on horseback with . The Rev. H. Douglas 

and Mr. Davidson accompanied me a little way. The 

Rev. H. M. White and the Rev. H. Badnall were in the 

B 



2 IJISUOP OF CAPETOWN S 

cart. We rode across the flats to SteIlcn1)oscli. We bad 
service there in the evening, and an excellent congrega- 
tion. The Rev. F. Carlyon seems happy here, and I 
trust his work is prospering. 

Easter Tuesday. — A wet day. It cleared up, however, 
a little, and we started again on horseback, after a meet- 
ing with the Civil Commissioner and some members of 
the municipality, about a site for a Church. We rode 
through the bcautil'ul IJan-Hoek Pass and Drakenstein 
to Pnarl, and got thoroughly wet. In our way we 
passed by a new missionary institution of a Mr. Stegman, 
of which the people in the neighbourhood did not speak 
well. At Paarl we held service again in the evening. 
I preached, and administered the Lord's Supper. The 
evening was very wet, and we had but a small congre- 
gation. The Rev, J. Inglis, whom I ordained Deacon 
a short time since, is, I trust, doing good. The English 
population is small, but Mr. Inglis is already talking 
abovit a Church. At present he officiates in the Govern- 
ment School-room. 

April '3d. — Rode, after breakfast, through Wellington 
to Mr. Bain's, who has the charge of the new road 
which is being made through the mountain pass, called, 
after him, liain's Kloof, — and of the convict gang who 
are employed in the woi-k. He is a highly intelligent 
man, and takes a great interest in Geology. He has 
a considerable collection of fossils, &c. from difi'erent 
parts of the Colony. 

April '{III. — Rode up the pass, the scenery of uhich is 
beautiful, and the views very extensive. The road, which 
is nearly completed on one side, promises to be an e.\- 
cellent one. In one part of it there is a tunnel of about 
.'336 yards, the first that has been made in South Africa. 
The whole of the work is done by convicts, of whom 
there arc about 250. The Colony is indebted to Mr. 
Montagu for the admirable system adopted for the 
management of the convicts, and for the great public 



VISITATION JOURNAL, 1850, 3 

works ivliich they have ah-eady executed. There being 
no navigable rivers in the country, it is dependent 
altogether upon the formation of good roads for the 
opening out of its resources. Mr. Montagu has already 
succeeded in carrying roads over some of the most diffi- 
cult and important passes. The present road, Avhich is 
nearly opposite to the Mitchel's Pass, opened last year, 
will, I believe, shorten the route to the interior by at 
least fifty miles. 

At the top of the pass I parted with , who, with 

Mr. Bain and his family, had accompanied us so far. 
Mr. White and I rode on to Tulbagh, w here we arrived at 
seven o'clock, after a ride of nine hours. We took up 
our quarters at Mr. Shand's, the minister of the Dutch 
Church, who had kindly invited us to stay with him. 
We arranged that Mr. White should, upon his return, 
hold service on Monday next for the few English in 
the place. 

April 5th. — Left Tulbagh at nine o'clock this morning ; 
reached Worcester after dark. Mr. Le Sueur, the Civil 
Commissioner, has been good enough to invite me to 
remain with him during my visit to this place. My 
time here has been spent in seeing the people, writing 
letters, and holding Divine Service. Our congregations 
have been very good, and many express their earnest 
desire to have an English Clergyman settled in Worces- 
ter. This I could not promise them, as my funds are 
entirely exhausted ; but I assured them of my earnest 
desire to do so, if only I could obtain sufficient means- 
for his support. Since I w"as last here the inhabitants 
have themselves raised a subscription of 30/. a-year for 
this purpose. May God speedily enable me to provide 
for their wants ! We had eight communicants ; and. 
I confirmed a young man— a convert from the Church of 
Rome — whom I was not able to confirm at my late visit 

Monday, April 8tk. — We left Mr. Le Sueur's hospitable 
mansion at dawn of day this morning. I now travel 



4 BISHOP OF CAPETOWN'S 

with six horses, having been obliged to purchase tuo 
more. At Mitchel's Pass Mr. Piers, magistrate of Tui- 
bagh, met me to show me the site of the proposed new 
village of Ceres, and to fix upon sites for church, &:c. 
At the foot of the pass Mr. White left me, and returned 
to Tulbagh with Dr. French, who had kindly come out in 
his cart for him. He is to hold service at Tulbagh this 
evening. I arrived somewhat late at Adrian Van Wyk's, 
a deacon of Mr. Shand's church. I found here an English 
couple who were very anxious to have their child bap- 
tized. After talking to them a little, they themselves 
proposed that I should have prayers. I consequently 
read and explained a portion of Scripture, and united 
with them in prayer. The man, who has a party of 
English labourers under him, employed in road-making, 
undertook to read some portion of the Morning Prayer 
and the Lessons every Sunday to the labourers. 

Tuesday, April 9th. — Before starting this morning, 
offered prayei's with Mr. Bird, who seemed thankful. 
Met the labourers on the road. All approved of my 
proposition about prayers on Sundays, and said they 
w ould attend. They were all members of the Church. 
I undertook to get Bibles and Prayer-books sent up to 
them. They live in tents, and are shortly about to move 
into the very heart of the Karroo, to make Mr. Mon- 
tagu's new road across these desolate plains to Beaufort. 
We spent the night by the Patata river. During the 
day one of my horses appeared unwell. I gave him 
a dose of Battley's opium (intended for me in case of tic 
in my head) mixed with some wine, that Mr. Le Sueur 
had been kind enough to put up for me. I slept but 
little, partly from the uncomfortableness of my bed, and 
partly from anxiety for my poor sick horse, who was 
tethered at my feet to the cart. 

IVednesday, IQth. — Outspanned at a miserable farm of 
an intelligent Dutchman (De Villiers) who speaks 
English tluentlv. His wife is a sister of one of the Dutch 



VISITATION JOURNAL, 18.';0. 5 

ministers ; and his little boy (the only instance I have 
met -R-ith) has set his heart upon becoming a " predi- 
kant." Our poor horse appeared better, so as to en- 
courage us to proceed ; but before we could arrive at 
V. ater where Ave could outspan, he became so ill that 
Ave took him out of the cart. He then appeared evi- 
dently suffering from inflammation. I gave him more 
laudanum, but to no purpose : we staid by him till he 
died. I felt more on the occasion than I could have 
conceived, for when one has no other companions, 
a man soon becomes attached to his horses. While mo- 
ralizing on the carcases of oxen that are strewed along 
the whole length of the road, I little thought that my 
poor horse would so soon be added to the number. 
However, his lot may be better than that of his com- 
panions, who have some months' hard work before 
them, and some thousands of miles to travel before they 
return home. I gave 201. for him only a few days ago. 
"We saw to-day a poor ox lying helpless by himself, left 
by his owner to die in the desert, being able to go no 
farther. It was quite dark before we quitted our horse. 
As Ludwig could not see the road, I had to run before 
the cart for a mile or two, and point it out and warn 
him of stones, rocks, and gullies. We arrived at 
a wretched hovel at Zoute Kloof, where an uncouth 
farmer, with his family, suffered us to outspan. I slept 
in my cart, and would have gladly cooked my own 
supper, as I have been lately doing, from my own pro- 
visions ; but I thought it might give offence, so I par- 
took of a very uncomfortable meal with them. 

Thursday, Wth. — We see fewer spring-boks than in 
the Colesberg and Graaf Reinet Karroo, and no gnus 
or ostriches, though we observed traces of the latter. 
The country too is more hilly, and the Karroo narro^ver. 
Hitherto our route has been bounded hv a low range 
of hills; they can scarcely be called mountains. To-day, 
hoAvever, we came in sight of the Zwart Mountains. 



6 BISHOP OF CAPETOWN S 

Though there has evidently been much rain of late, as 
is proved by a spring of green grass here and there, the 
country is very dry, and it requires a sharp eye to find 
out the almost imperceptible streams or puddles which 
are denominated rivers. Outspanned at the Ghielbeck 
River, where we breakfasted, or rather dined off' our 
stores, and where I was able to wash and shave : out- 
spanned again at Groote Rivier. We slept at Bluid 
Rivicr in the bed of a torrent. While settling myself 
here I remembered Judge Musgrave's warning never to 
do this. A thunder-storm fifty miles to the north might 
have the effect of changing the dry bed, covered with 
di'ift wood, into a foaming torrent, and wash us all away 
■vvithovit more than a few minutes' notice. The night 
appeared very fine, and we could no where else get shel- 
ter for our horses from the wind, so we outspanned in 
a soft sandy place. 

As an instance of the value of land in the Karroo, I 
may mention that a farmer told me that he rented 5,000 
morgen (10,000 acres) of government for II. a-year. 

Friday, \2th. — A dreary day's journey over barren, 
stony hills. There having been rain lately, we found 
water in most of the rivers. We passed the night at 
the Bitter-water River. On remarking upon the more 
than usual muddiness of the water, Ludwig observed, 
" It is just like milk." 

Saturdini, \?>th. — Still the same barren dreary route, 
over stony hills. I was happy to get a bathe in a 
muddy pool in the Gamha River, caused by the late rains, 
which have evidently preceded us. We arrived at Beau- 
fort at seven o'clock in the dark. I found Mr. Welby 
had reached that place about an hour before me. He 
had been out nearly the whole week, and both he and 
his horses were knocked up by the ride. 

Sunday, l-ith. — We held divine service in the govern- 
ment school-room. The congregation was about seventy 
both in the mornins and eveninsr. I confirmed five can- 



VISITATION JOURNAL, 1850. 7 

didates, and we had four communicants. The numbers 
were small, but Mr. Maynard has only been a few weeks 
here, and these are the first-fruits of his ministry. I 
am thankful to hear all the parishioners speak very 
highh' of him. He has made a most favourable impres- 
sion. God grant His blessing to the work. I grieve to 
see symptoms of jealousy here, as elsewhere, and that 
attempts are made to prejudice the minds of some 
against the Church. This perhaps was only to have 
been expected, but it is painful. Mr. Welby preached 
in the morning. I addressed the candidates and preached 
in the evening. 

Manclmj, \5th. — Writing before breakfast. Great part 
of this day was spent in receiving and paying visits. I 
met also the Church committee, and we settled finally 
the sites of the church, parsonage, and burial-ground, 
concerning which there had been some liltle difference 
of opinion. I was particularly interested in one visit 
which I paid to an aged widow lady, whom I remem- 
bered to have conversed with on my former visitation, 
when she and her brother Avere the only communicants. 
She is a " widow indeed." Her Bible and her Prayer-book 
are her chief companions, and she is full of faith, and 
humilit}', and zeal. When last I was here she besought 
me more earnestly than any one else to send a clergy- 
man, telling me she had been thirty-six years in the 
colony without seeing the face of a minister of her 
Church. Her earnest prayer has been daily offered xip 
for a faithful pastor, and GoD has in mercy heard her 
prayer. She seemed full of gratitude and love, and sor- 
row that she could not do more for her Lord. It 
refreshed my spirit greatly to converse with her, and to 
see how God had, apart from outward means, thus 
trained and perfected a soul. Her great desire now is 
to see all her children, Avho, almost from necessity, have 
joined another communion, return to the bosom of their 
mother-church before she dies. Some have already 



8 BrsHOP OF Capetown's 

done this/ One I am to confirm (nitli a few others) 
before I leave; and others are hesitating:, and will, I 
trust, by God's mercy, be led ere long to seek re-com- 
munion with the Church which has not until now been 
a mother to them. We had divine service in the evening. 
Congregation about seventy, Mr. Maynard preached, 
'i'wo or three of the parishioners afterwards came to 
tea. 

Tuesday, I6//1. — After breakfast attended a puljlic exa- 
mination of the government school, Avhich I thought in 
a satisfactory state. Afterwards called on several of 
the parishioners. At two o'clock a vestry was held for 
the election of churchwardens. To this succeeded a 
meeting to take steps for the immediate erection of a 
church. A good spirit prevailed, and I trust that ere 
long it will be commenced. The meeting lasted some 
time, and I entered upon the subjects of missions, — 
schools, — and the supportof the ministry, with reference 
to my pastoral letter. In the evening Ave held divine 
service again, when I preached. There aa ere three more 
candidates for confirmation, whom I addressed extem- 
pore. The day was ended with a party of the parish- 
ioners to tea. 

Wednesday, \~th. — Started this morning a little after 
light. I rode with Mr. Welby, and his servant went in 
the cart. I leave this place with much comfort, and a 
good hope that the Church will take root there. Mr. 
Maynard has already impi'cssed his parishioners very 
favourably, and he has an active assistant in his wife. 
Difficulties there doubtless are in his path, and jealousies 
exist there as in most other places ; but amidst it all, 
the work is prospering, and, if we prove faithful, it will 
prosper. Vv'e outspanncd at Rhinoster Kop, and slept 
at the farm of an Englishman, .Mr. Martine, who received 
us very kindly. 

2'/iursday, ISl/i. — .\ long day's journey through the 
Karroo. We were eleven hours in the saddle. I find 



VISITATION JOURNAL, 1850. 9 

that K.afirs and Fingos begin to appear Lere as labour- 
ing servants at the farms. One farmer to-day had just 
engaged a Kafir as herd. He had 100 head of oxen, 
and 200 sheep, and these were to be maintained on the 
farm in heu of wages. There was a party of seven 
Kafirs on a neighbouring farm who also had a large 
stock. In fact, they are a kind of itinerating farmers. 
We passed the night at Camdeboo, at the foot of a very 
fine mountain. It was late before we arrived at a farm, 
which the farmers in this country do not like. They 
had had their supper. Nothing, however, could be 
kinder than they were. They soon prepared food for 
us, and gave up their beds to us. But neither of us 
slept the whole night, for very sufficient causes. We 
were off again about half-past four o'clock by starlight, 
and had a very long day to Graaf Reinet, — not less than 
twelve hours. Our horses, however, seemed quite fresh. 
It is wonderful how these animals travel. We cannot 
have passed over less than sixty miles of very bad road 
to-day. We outspanned three times. Once only did we 
get a bundle of forage for each of them. At the other 
places they picked up what grass they could find. Luckily 
for them there had been very heavy rains lately. The 
ride to-day has been a very beautiful one. The forms of 
the mountains are very striking. We found Mr. and Mrs. 
Long quite well, but not expecting us till to-mon'ow. 
They were, however, on the look out for the Archdeacon, 
who is coming up to meet me with his Kafir and English 
servants, and a horse carrying a tent. We walked out 
after tea to look at the new church by moonlight. It is 
a very correct Early English biiilding, though they have 
not been able to carry out exactly the plans which I sent 
them. It nevertheless is exceedingly well-built, and is, 
I think, at present, the best cluu'ch in the diocese. 

Saturday, 20ih. — A great portion of the day spent in 
receiving and paying visits. Long conversation Avith 
the churchwardens. The archdeacon not making his 



10 BISHOP OF CAPETOWN'S 

appearance, we walked out in tlie afternoon to look for 
him. We met liini at some distance, coming on alone, 
with a hag over his shoulders, a handle under his arm, 
and his staff in his hand. He had been delayed a day 
from the loss of his horse, which had either strayed or 
been stolen in the night. lie therefore deposited his 
tent in a Kafir hut, sent his English servant home, and 
walked on -with his Kafir man, who, as usual, had sore 
feet, and, being knocked up, was lagging behind. We 
returned in time for evening service, when we had a 
very good congregation. Mr. Welby preached ; the 
archdeacon and I sat up till very late in conversation. 

Sunday, 2\st. — This day I held a confirmation. There 
were fourteen candidates, amongst them the archdeacon's 
man Wilhelm, who is the first Kafir who has been thus 
received into the Church. He was very devout and 
attentive. May he be the first-fruits of an abundant 
harvest. There were about thirty communicants. The 
offerings were for the new church. The archdeacon 
preached. I addressed the candidates. The school- 
room was quite full. In the evening it was again 
crowded, when I preached. I had much conversation 
to-day uith the archdeacon respecting the foundation of 
our mission in Kaffraria. I must endeavour, if I can, 
to take Graaf lleinet again, on my return from Kaffraria, 
and consecrate the church. 

Mondaji, 22(1. — We had at least thirty at morning 
prayers, and a large congregation in the evening, when 
Mr. Well)y preached. The day was spent chiefly in 
conversation upon subjects relating to the church, and 
in returning visits. We dined vith Mr. Heugh, the 
churchwarden. Within the last few months a Romish 
priest, accompanied by three nuns, has arrived here 
These latter have devoted themselves to the work of 
education, with, at present, but little success. The 
priest appears an indiscreet man. to say the least. He 
is a Belgian, and is full of the subject of modern Romish 



VISITATION JOURNAL, 1850. 11 

miracles, upon wLicli lie enlarges in the society of those 
■who have no faith in them. In his sermons he is very 
vehement in his denunciations of Luther and Calvin. I 
have been much pleased with my visit to Graaf Reinet. 
Great interest seems to be taken in the work of the 
Church. The congregations have been excellent. Here, 
as everywhere, in spite of government schools, main- 
tained at great expense, people are looking to us to 
supply them with education. Having been consulted 
about bringing out a teacher, I have expressed a readi- 
ness to provide a deacon-schoolmaster upon the guaran- 
tee of an income of 100/. a-year. The schoolmaster will 
be curate to the minister of the parish, and assist him 
in his duties. In course of time I trust, with the aid of 
schoolmasters, to be able to supply the outlying districts 
with at least occasional services. It is almost impossible 
for farmers, living at a distance of twenty or thirty miles 
from church, to come in frequently for the Sunday ser- 
vices. The inability to leave their farms for any length 
of time without servants upon whom they can depend 
(for the coloured servants cannot be relied on), together 
with the expense, prevents many families from attend- 
ing. One gentleman in this parish is very anxious to 
erect a small oratory for his own and the neighbouring 
farms. I shall be glad to see these springing up in 
different parts of the country, and trust that by combining 
education with the ministry of the Church, Ave may ere 
long be able to do more than we can at present for the 
country districts. 

Wednesday, 2ith. — My journey to Richmond has oc- 
cupied two days. The first day's journey lay through 
the Sneewberg, on the road to Beaufort, which I travelled 
in my last visitation. The weather has become quite 
cold, but we are on very high ground. On arriving at 
the village, I found an empty house prepared for my 
reception. Many of the Dutch farmers have built small 
houses for themselves, which they occupy during the 



12 BISHOP OF CAPETOWN'S 

" nacht-maal" (communion), and occasionally when they 
come in on a Sunday. They have in foct their town- 
house and their country-house, just as our forefivthers 
had in the county towns in England. Upon my arrival, 
Mr. Hope, the Civil Commissioner, came to call upon 
lue, and very hospitably entertained me during my stay. 
I went Avith him to call upon Mr. Beranger, the Dutch 
minister, -vvho kindly placed his church at my disposal, 
and gave orders to have it lighted for evening service. 

I had scarcely time to take a look round the village, 
and partake of Mr. Hope's dinner before church time. 
There was a very good congregation. I understood 
that all the English, and many of the Dutch inhabitants 
were there. It was the first time that the prayers of 
the Church of England had ever been offered in the vil- 
lage — the first time that a minister of that Church had 
ever set foot in it. Moreover, there is not now, nor 
has there ever been, T believe, a religious teacher of any 
English sect in the place. I was pained to find how 
little acquaintance the English seemed to have Avith the 
Liturgy. Jvone knelt, — none even stood, — all sat mo- 
tionless even while singing the 100th Psalm. One or 
two voices indeed were raised up to repeat the re- 
sponses, but even they did it irregularly, and not at all 
during the reading of the Psalms. I must do the poor 
people the justice to say that they felt and lamented 
this, and pressed me earnestly to send them some 
Prayer-books. I preached to them partly extempore, 
and invited all who desired my counsel and advice to 
visit me at my lodging in the morning. Several came, 
—one, brought up an Unitarian, Avhose family had 
turned Romanists, desired to be confirmed in the Eng- 
lish Church, and, if needful, to be baptized. He was an 
educated man, and I promised to send him some books, 
and to make arrangements for his reception into the 
Church. Others came to state their conviction that 
thcv were falling away from God, and their sorrow for 



VISITATION JOURNAL, 1S50, 13 

it, — others to express their desire to live nearer to God, 
and their inability to do so, and to complain of their 
destitute spiritual condition. One undertook to call the 
English together, and endeavour to make arrangements 
for the erection of a Church-school. I told him that I 
^vould give 20/. towards it, if a suitable building Avere 
erected, and made over to the Church. I also promised 
to endeavour to get a teacher who should hold divine 
service in the schoolroom ; but told him it was very un- 
certain whether I should be able to afford to send one, 
as my means were at present quite exhausted. This is 
just the place for a steady, earnest deacon-schoolmaster. 
I must endeavour, if possible, to obtain one. May the 
Lord provide ! I fear that many of the English, circum- 
stanced as these poor people are, very rapidly fall away. 
The absence of a minister of the Church, and of almost 
every restraint to w hich at home they vvere accustomed, 
is generally too much for them. 

The high wages and the cheap wine and brandy lead 
to much intoxication. One man, who told me he 
Avas in the receipt of 2/. a-week, actually came to beg 
of me. I left the place with very painful and melan- 
choly feelings. At the next circuit court at Graaf 
Reinet, seven Africanders resident in this village are to 
be tried for forcibly carrying off from the custody of 
the magistrate some Kafirs who had offended them, 
and for othei" deeds of violence. A Kafir in a state of 
intoxication tumbled, as I understand, against a child. 
A scuffle ensued between the Africanders and the Kafir 
and his companions. The Kafirs were taken into 
custody, and committed to prison for ten days. The 
Africanders did not think the punishment sufficiently 
heavy : they therefore seized the prisoners in defiance 
of the law, carried them away, and beat them. They 
afterwards Avent in a body, and armed, to the Kafir 
location, and drove them all away, shooting at several 
of them as they ran off, but killing none. None of 



14 BISHOP OF Capetown's 

these men have since returned. It seems very doubtful 
whether a jury can be found which will return, be the 
evidence ever so clear, a verdict of guilty on such an 
occasion.^ I left Richmond for Colesberg at one o'clock, 
having employed my whole morning in conversing with 
the people who came to see me. We slept at a Mr. 
Ackerman's, who has a property of 60,000 acres in the 
Karroo. I could not induce him to accept of any pay- 
ment either for myself or my horses. One occasionally 
meets with genuine hospitality of this kind, though in 
only one other instance has a farmer refused to be paid. 
On no one occasion, while travelling through the colony, 
have I ever been refused admittance into the Boer's 
houses. At most places they expect only to be paid 
for the forage, and are not imfrequently surprised at 
receiving payment for board and lodging. I should 
always, however, if it were not for my horses and man, 
prefer the open veldt to a fiirm-house. One is more 
independent, one can sit down to write, (a matter of 
great importance to me, followed as I am from place to 
place with large packets of letters.) The necessity of 
talking to the people without ha\dng anything but 
a smattering of the language is very wearisome. If 
my dear friend the archdeacon, while performing his 
pedestrian visitations, is sometimes shown to the door, 
and refused a morsel of meat, and told as a favour he 
may lie in an out-house, it is, I believe, in consequence 
of their suspicions of him, and not from any desire to 
be inhospitable. They cannot believe that a predikant 
would walk. They never knew or heard of such a thing, 
and take him for an impostor — a discharged soldier 
— a convict. It is in vain to tell them that our Lord 
and Master and His holy apostles walked. It may have 
been so. But they know that predikants don't walk. 

Our second night was passed near a mud house about 
three hours from Colesberg. The building not looking 
(1) The parties were all acquitted. 



VISITATION JOURNAL, 1S50. 15 

very tempting, I passed the night in the cart. The 
country from Richmond to Colesberg is like the rest of 
the Karroo, dreary, dry, and monotonous. Up till to- 
day, we have seen very little game. This afternoon, 
however, we came across immense herds of spi-ing-bok, 
and several quaggas, and wilde-beestes. The country 
■was as Avell stocked as an English gentleman's park. 
We still continue to ascend, and have been coming up 
bill ever since leaving Worcester. We arrived in Coles- 
berg a little after ten o'clock. After getting thoroughly 
■washed, and having partaken of some breakfast, I went 
to look at the church, which is about breast-high. The 
plan which I gave has been followed more accurately 
than I could have expected, and the building will be 
respectable. I could have wished, indeed, that it had 
been all of stone, instead of brick plastered, but the 
great expense of working stone, and the scanty means 
of the small English community, precluded the idea. 
Soon after my arrival, one of the deacons of the Dutch 
church came to inform me that some of the elders of 
that church, farmers in the country, objected to my 
using the Dutch church for service to-morrow, and to 
consult me as to what was to be done. It had been 
offered by the minister and accepted by Dr. Orpen ; 
some few of the parishioners, however, found fault with 
their minister for lending it, though the great majority 
were, I believe, quite willing. Of course, I declined 
■using it, and regretted exceedingly that my visit to the 
place should in any way be a source of discord between 
the minister and his people. I afterwards called on 
Mr. Reed to thank him for his kindness, and to say that 
I would officiate in the court-house. I believe their 
objections arose partly from the bad spirit which is 
afloat with regard to the English, in consequence of the 
anti-convict agitation, partly from the close connexion 
of many of these farmers with the rebel Boers over the 
Orange River, whose spirit they have in some measure 



16 BISHOP OF CAPETOWX'S 

imbibed, and partly from their confounding our Church 
with the Roman communion, in consequence of its 
episcopacy. The Dutch generally throughout the 
colony entertain strong feelings of antipathy against 
the Romanists, and have a great dread of them. They 
for the most part know nothing of the Romish faith, 
and are themselves so credulous and ignorant, that they 
would fall easy victims to that Church's teaching, were 
it not for their wholesome fear of it. The recent arrival 
of several Romish priests has added to their alarm. 
The Romish Bishop is, I understand, to be here next 
Sunday. 

We held our service in the court-house, where Dr. 
Orpen officiates until the church shall be built. The 
congregation was about seventy in the morning, and 
quite filled the room ; the communicants were twenty. 
Eight candidates presented themselves for confirmation. 
The collections at the offertory were devoted to the 
new church. In the evening I preached again, on love, 
— charity, — thinking it a suitable subject under present 
circumstances. 

Motiday, 2\)th. — Called on some of the parishioners. 
Attended a meeting of the Church committee. Had 
much conversation with Dr. Orpen respecting the work 
of the ministry in the parish. In the evening again we 
held divine service, Avhen I preached. The court-house 
was quite full. 

30//*. — Left Colesberg this morning at 8 o'clock for 
Bloem-fontcin. The first house in the sovereignty 
belongs to an English farmer, where we out-spanned. 
Slept at Phihpolis, the capital of Adam Kok's territory. 
Mr. and Mrs. Van der Scholk (of the London Missionary 
Society) received me very kindly. In the evening I 
called upon Captain Adam Kok, who is the chief of 
a portion of the Griquas. He is a very common-place 
looking man, — a Christian, and, I believe, a sincere one. 
He does not appear to have much authority over his 



VISITATION JOURNAL, 1850. 17 

people. His country forms part of the Sovereignty, 
but he governs it under British protection. Any Euro- 
peans, however, that may be living in his territory are 
under British rule, and he has no authority over thera. 
At this present time I understand that he and other 
chiefs are much dissatisfied with the government regula- 
tions respecting land. Several Dutch Boers hold farms 
under him upon lease, the payment, I imagine, being 
nearly nominal. At the expiration of the leases, govern- 
ment requires the Griquas to pay the tenants for the 
improvements made upon the iiivms by the erection of 
buildings, &c., or to lose the land altogether. This 
they feel ro be oppressive, and assert, with I know not 
what truth, that nothing was said about such payment 
in the original agreements. Philipolis is a tolerable- 
sized village, and has its chapel and school. The Mis- 
sionary speaks with much interest of his work, and 
says, that very many of the people are sincere Chris- 
tians. He has received upwards of 100/. from them 
this year, as their contribution towards the London 
Missionary Society. He thinks also that the Griquas 
are advancing in civilization and industry. Some with 
whom I conversed on the subject at Colesberg think 
differently. The country is fertile, with abundance of 
springs. The farms (if you may call them so) appear 
very poor and miserable. I did not see a single patch 
of ground under cultivation, though I am told there is 
a good deal. Adam Kok has a pension of 300/. a-year 
from the British Government. There is a rumour 
here to-day that Moshesh's brother has attacked the 
Boers. 

May \st. — Started by daylight. The road from here to 
Bloem-fontein is as good generally as a road in England, 
though the hand of man has not been employed upon 
it. The country throughout consists of large plains 
bounded by low mountains or rocky koppies. There is 
abundance of game — the gnu, b!eiS-bok, and spring- 
C 



18 BISHOP OF CAPETOWN'S 

bok. There are also a great many of the beautiful 
cranes of the country, and some fine eagles. We found 
no forage at any of the places we stopped at, but there 
is abundance of grass. We staid for a short time at 
Mr. Wright's farm at Boom-plaats, and I surveyed the 
field of Sir II. Smith's late battle with the Boers. The 
rebels were posted behind some strong koppies ; but 
retreated speedily from one to the other, till their retreat 
became a rout. I visited the graves of our brave 
officers and soldiers, who are buried in a walled en- 
closure in the middle of Mr. Wright's garden. Hearing 
that they had been buried without any religious service, 
I read our office for the burial of the dead over their 
remains. I did so because it was a satisfaction to my- 
self to do it, and because I thought that it might be 
some consolation to surviving friends and relatives. I 
should have remained here for the niglit if I could have 
obtained forage, but hearing that there was some at the 
next farm, we pushed on, but did not arrive till after it 
was dark. Our reception %vas at first not very cordial ; 
and I mention the circumstance because it illustrates 
both the bad and the good side of the Dutch Boer's 
character, and is perhaps indicative of the state of 
feeling of these enterprising but self-outlawed men to- 
wards the English government and people. We asked 
if we might outspan for the night. The farmer replied, 
" Yes, but that 1 must sleep in my cart, for he had no 
room." I then asked if he had forage. " No, he had 
none." "Was there mucli grass?" "No, the locusts 
had eaten it, and there was scarce any." " Would he 
sell half a bushel of wheat, for the horses were very 
hungry, and even a little would prevent them from 
straying during tlie night?'' "No, he had scarce 
enough for himself." I went in with him to his house, 
and sat down and talked. After a little while bis heart 
began to soften, and when he saw that I was still 
an.vious about the horses, he ordered his son to fetch 



VISITATION JOURNAL, 1850. 19 

a sack of oats, and measured out nearly a muid, so that 
our poor animals had abundance. He made me how- 
ever pay, as I was quite willing to do, an exorbitant price. 
Afterwards we went in to supper, and were very friendly, 
and in the morning he helped us to inspan, and gave us 
our cup of coffee. I should have mentioned that at 
first he tried hard to induce us to go on to the next 
farm, where he said there was forage. This however 
was impossible. It was so dark that I had been obliged 
for some time to go before the horses to point out the 
path, and it was beginning to thunder and lighten 
around us in every direction. Seeing the night was 
likely to turn out a bad one, they invited Ludwig to 
sleep in the house. After a very good night in my cart, 
we proceeded on our way, and arrived at Bethany about 
half-past nine. This is a station of the Berlin Missionary 
Society for the Coranna people, who, I believe, are the 
same race as the Hottentot. The Missionaries received 
me not only very kindly, but with evident respect for 
my office. The Mission at present is only just reco- 
vering from the effects of the late war. During the 
disturbances of the Boers, the whole of the people under 
instruction were dispersed. Many have never returned. 
The present number of inhabitants in the village is about 
500. These consist of several tribes, Corannas, Bechu- 
anas, Bastards, and Bushmen. The school consists of 
about 100. There were not more than fifty present 
to-day. It had been intended to be a holiday, the 
teacher having gone out with the Government Surveyor, 
to mark the boundaries of the land belonging to the 
Mission, upon which the farmers were encroaching (the 
extent of which they told me was, according to Adam 
Kok's original grant, an hour's ride in every direction 
from the Mission premises). The children repeated the 
Lord's Prayer in Dutch, and sang very prettily. They 
did not appear to know much, or to show great intel- 
ligence. But what is to be expected from a mixed race 



20 BISHOP OF CAPETOWN'S 

SO drawn top:cthcr, after little more than a year's train- 
ing? The Missionaries of the Eerlin Society are, I be- 
lieve, all strict Lutherans. They adhere to the Augsburg 
Confession, and to the Luthcrnn views of the sacra- 
ments. They complained to me of the very unsound 
views generally taught by English dissenting missionaries, 
■vvith reference to the sacrament of Baptism, "which," 
they said, "being spoken of generally as only a sign or 
mark, the coloured people confovmded it with the signs 
or marks made upon their cattle, and did not esteem it 
in any higher light than this." They spoke also of the 
evils already resulting, and likely to do so to a much 
greater extent, as the coloured people become more 
educated, from the variety of sects and societies which 
exist in Southei-n Africa. This is a subject which it is 
impossible for any thoughtful mind to ponder, without 
many anxious forebodings. Christianity is, 1 believe, 
presented to South Africa under twenty distinct forms 
and associations. What, fifty years hence, will be the 
result ? 

We passed the night near a half-ruined farm, where 
I found an Englishman with liis wife and family. I was 
happy to have the opportunity of uniting with them, in 
this spiritual desert, in prayer. They w ere members of 
the Church of England, and seemed respectable people, 
lie had lost all his savings, first, by the Kafir war, and 
then again, a second time, by the Boers, who, upon the 
Ijrcaking out of the late rebellion, had robbed him, as 
an Englishman, of everything, even of his Bible and 
Prayer-book. There are a great many lions and wolves 
in tills ncighbourliood. One of the latter came prowling 
about us very early in the morning. We started before 
daylight, and after outspanning at a very kind and 
obliging Dutch farmer's, arrived at Bloem-fontein about 
eleven o'clock. A party of gentlemen rode or drove out 
to meet me. My morning was spent in receiving 
^isit i: s. At three o'clock a deputation from the mili- 



VISITATION JOURNAL, 1850, 21 

tary and civilians waited on me, and presented an 
address expressive of their satisfaction at my arrival 
amongst them, and their hope that it might lead to the 
establishment of a church and clergyman in this village. 
They placed also in my hands a list of subscriptions 
towards a church, amounting to 200^. and stated that 
they expected to raise 300/. We had some interesting 
conversation. I informed them that hearing of their 
zeal and exertions while at Colesberg, I had written 
from that place to my Commissary, requesting him to 
send out a Clergyman especially for them, fur that T 
regarded the efl'iirt they were making as a Providential 
opening, and did not feel at liberty to hold back, while 
God seemed to be beckoning on. I told them, however, 
that all my funds were exhausted, and that I had no 
means of supporting an additional Minister; that I had 
applied without success to the High Commissioner for 
a stipend towards a Clergyman, and that therefore if 
one were to be permanently maintained here, it must 
be chiefly through their own offerings. I did not press 
them to enter into any engagements at the present 
time ; but I m ished the members of the Church at the 
very outset clearly to understand how I was circum- 
stanced. After this interview I walked over the village 
with Major WarJeu, the British resident, who had 
kindly inviled me to stay at his house during my visit. 
About five I met the Church Building Committee, and 
we decided upon sites for Church, Burial-ground, Par- 
sonage, School, and upon the erection of a church to 
hold 200, for which I undertook to furnish plans. 
Major Warden promised to bring the subject under the 
notice of the High Commissioner, with a view to 
obtain from him the like assistance which has been 
grauted towards the erection of the Dutch Church. 
I own I feel that an equal measure of favour has not 
hitherto been shown to our Church. There are two 
Dutch ministers already appointed, each with a salary 



22 BISHOP OF Capetown's 

of 250/. Could more ministers be found, tliey would, 
I understand, receive similar appointments. In the 
capital and only villa;jje in the Sovereignty, the popu- 
lation is nearly exclusively English. 1,400/. has already 
been paid to Government for erven ; — nine-tenths of 
this, Major W.arden informs me, are from Englishmen. 
Out of this sum 500/. has been given to the church and 
school, the church (Dutch) receiving 3'20/., the school 
180/. The whole amount of subscriptions to the Dutch 
church is 3,000 doHars (225/.) Hitherto ^ve have got 
nothing for our church, and I have been refused 100/. 
a-year towards a Clergyman's stipend, although there 
are 250 of our troops here besides the civilians. At 
Smithficld, I understand, the whole fund arising from 
the sale of erven is promised to the Dutch Church ; at 
Harrismith, one-half; at Winburg, I believe, two-thirds. 
The great bulk of the population in these villages will 
probably be English. Bloem-fontein is rapidly rising in 
importance. A press is coming up, and a newspaper is 
about to be started. The Romish bishop is soon to 
visit it, with a view, I understand, to fix a priest there, 
and the Methodists have decided upon planting a station 
in the village. Everything is of course in a very rough 
state. There is nothing remarkable in the situation of 
tlie village ; it is defended by a rude fort, mounted with 
four guns. In the evening I met Dr. Frazer and Mr. 
Murray, the zealous young Dutch minister, at dinner. 
He was placed here, I believe, when little more than 
twenty-one years of age, and has had a very difficult 
post to fill, which he has done with great zeal and dis- 
cretion. 

Saturday, May \th. — The greater part of this day has 
been occupied in preparing candidates for Confirmation, 
and in other spiritual works. Several of the officers 
and the Civil Commissioners dined with M.ijor Warden 
in tlie evening. 

Sunday, btli. — I began this day's services with a mar- 



VISITATION JOURNAL, 1850. 23 

riage. At ten o'clock ■we had morning prayers and a 
sermon for the troops in an open shed. Some of the 
civilians attended, and there was an excellent congre- 
gation. Immediately after this, I consecrated the mili- 
tary burial-ground, Avhich has been very neatly walled 
in, and which already contains forty bodies. At half- 
past one, we had afternoon service in the school-house. 
The room was crowded, and the congregation consisted 
nearly exclusively of English. Three children were 
baptized after the second lesson ; four candidates were 
confirmed, whom I addressed at some length ; ten com- 
municated ; our collection at the offertory was for the 
new church, and amounted to 151. As I preached again, 
the service lasted nearly three hours, and we encroached 
upon the time appointed for the Dutch service. There 
was not room in the building for many of the Dutch 
people, but they crowded round the doors and windows 
throughout the whole time. It happens to be the 
Sunday appointed for their " aanneming," or confirma- 
tion, which is without imposition of hands. I counted 
nearly fifty wagons in the outskirts of the village. 

Monday 6l/i. — A busy morning. Employed in writing 
letters on business, &c. I shall probably have no 
opportunity of writing again for a month. Afterwards 
called upon the members of the Church residing in the 
village. Dined with the officers. 

Tuesday, 7f/i. — Started this morning on horseback for 
Thaba-Umchu, the kraal, or rather town, of the chief 
Marokko, accompanied by two Cape Corps orderlies, who 
are to be my guides through the country in my visits 
to one or two Missionary stations. Mr. Murray, the 
Minister of the Dutch church, rode with me part of the 
way, and several English came out for about a mile on 
the road to take leave. I had also the honour of a 
salute from the guns of the fort on my departure, 
though when I heard of this compliment being about to 
be paid, I begged to decline it. After a ride of forty-five 



24 BISHOP OF Capetown's 

miles we arrived at Thaba-Umclui, which is a sinjular- 
lookiiig native town of considerable size. There are, 
I believe, about 2,000 houses, and the populntion is 
about 8,000. Each house is surrounded by a low stone 
wall, making a kind of court. The houses are round, 
built of clay, and thatched. I went into one which had 
a sort of inner room, in which in cold Mcather the 
inmates sleep. The inhabitants are Bechuanas of the 
Barolong tribe. They are very rich in cattle : some 
private individuals have, I understand, 1,000 head of 
cattle, and 100 horses. Indeed the whole country for 
some miles round seemed covered with cattle. There 
are not more than 1.50 Christians. The school has about 
60 scholars. The chapel is a very poor one ; another 
is about to be built. This tribe practices circumcision. 
Polygamy is very common. The men sew, and make 
carosses; the women do all the hard work, build the 
houses, cultivate the ground, &c. The chief is not a 
Christian, but is much under the influence of the Mis- 
sionary, Mr. Cameron, of the Wesleyan Society, with 
whom I took up my quarters, and who was very hospi- 
table. The Heathen are always glad, for political 
reasons, to have a Missionary residing at their kraal. 
I went to see the chief Marokko : he was silting with 
his counsellors over a lire, in their council chamber, 
which was a mere open court surrounded by a fence. 
They were discussing the subject of tlie meeting to be 
held in a day or two, with some other chiefs and the 
British Resident, lie seemed glad to see me, and shook 
hands very heartily. Every petty chief who can get 
together a party of followers is entitled to be of tiie 
Council. There are a great many of these in this large 
town. Each of them appears to have from ten to fifteen 
huts about him. I sat up till late with Mr. Cameron, 
talking over Missions, the Church, and Wesleyanism, 
and afterwards passed an excellent night on his sofa. 
I fear Marokko's people have not yet advaced far in 



VISITATION JOURNAL, 1S50. 25 

rivilizntion. The greater number of tliem still wear 
nothing hut the carosse. They appear very indolent. 
How these 8,000 people employ themselves is marvel- 
lous. Some of them indeed are engaged in tending 
their flocks. A small proportion cultivate patches of 
ground in which Kafir corn is sown ; but the great 
majority seem to have nothing to do, and to do nothing. 
I understand they purchase a great part of the grain 
which they consume from other tribes, giving cattle in 
exchange. There seems an abundance of land capable 
of growing wheat. I did not see a single garden, except 
the Missionary's, in the whole place. One native Chris- 
tian has built a stone house, in imitation of the English. 
These people, in personal appearance, manner, and 
bearing, are far inferior to the Kafirs. The country has 
a very bare appearance, having no trees, and scarce 
a single bush. It is covered with a close grass, which 
is well cropped by the numerous herds. 

Wednesday, 8t/i. — I put down here, while I have a little 
leisure, — (not often the case,) — during which my horses 
are browsing midway between Thaba-Umchu and Mac- 
quatlin, (Molitzani's kraal,) some few circumstances re- 
lating to this distant country. The Vaal Rjver is now 
the boundary which separates the Sovereignty from the 
Boers who refuse to recognise British authority. These 
men have formed themselves into a Republic, and have 
their "Raad" (Council): the exact constitution, how- 
ever, of their government they have not fixed, though 
they have had many meetings. I understand that they 
are about 10,000 in number. Their feelings are very 
bitter against the English Government. Some regard 
that Government as Antichrist; some the Queen in per- 
son. They took Dr. Frayer of Bloem-fontein a prisoner 
not long since, for presuming to cross the Vaal River 
while hunting, having no permission from them to enter 
into their territory. It appears quite clear, I think, 
that they have amongst them at least a modified form 



26 BISHOP OF Capetown's 

of slavery. Several people in 'Blocm-fontein, including, 
I think, both the Resident and Civil Commissioner, 
informed me that it ivas not uncommon for them to 
jiurchase a cliild for a heifer. Yowng Mr. Murray ad- 
mitted that tliiswas occasionally the case. The greater 
number of these people are very anxious for a predikant 
and a church, and they have pledged themselves to a 
sum of, I believe, 270/. a-year. They are desirous of 
giving a call to Mr. Murray, who, on his part, would be 
cpiite willing to go, if he could see a prospect of his 
place at Bloem-fontein being supplied ; but the Dutch 
Church seems quite incapable of providing a sufficient 
body of Ministers for its own increasing wants, although 
there is no difficulty about stipend. I understand that 
at this moment there are not less than twelve vacant 
parishes. 

To return, however, to the Boers : some few of these 
refuse to receive Mr. Murray's ministrations, in conse- 
quence of his connexion with the British (Jovernment. 
They will not (on religious grounds and scruples) allow 
him to baptize or marry, although of course great evils 
are daily arising from their inability to partake of these 
ordinances, from any other quarter. There is a party 
also of Boers who think they are on their way to Jeru- 
salem, and that they are not very far distant from it. 
They are deceived by the apparent nearness of Kgypt 
in some of the maps in their old Bibles. There are 
some symptoms of a growing fanaticism amongst these 
poor people. The Dutch Boer, wherever he may be, 
and under whatever circumstances, never casts off his 
respect for religion. There is nothing sceptical in his 
mind. Perhaps he lacks the energy and mental activity 
which generally lead to infidelity where the means of 
grace are wanting. His religion, however, is tradi- 
tionary. It exercises no very great influence over him. 
He is very superstitions, and would offer just a field for 
the Romanist to exercise his ministry upon, were it not 



VISITATION JOURNAL, 1850. 27 

for tbe extreme dread, terror, and dislike, with wbicb 
he regards Popery.' 

(1) The following extract from a recent paper (The Friend of the Sove- 
reignty) will help to exhibit the present position of these people: — " We 
are credibly informed that not only has Potgieter dpslroyed the chiefs 
mentioned in a former issue, but that he has killed many of the people of 
those chiefs, taking captive about 300 of their children, who are declared, 
on authority that we cannot reasonably doubt, to have heen sold as slaves 
to the Portuguese Government at Delagoa Bay . . . Pretoriiis disap- 
proved of the conduct of Potgieter, and even threatened the Governor of 
Delagoa that if such proceedings were repeated, he would chastise him 
severely by force of arms. This threat the Boers are well able to put in 
force, the garrison at Delagoa consisting only of about 100 natives, and 
a few Portuguese officers and soldiers. With regard to the three 
18-pounders that they procured from Delagoa Bay, they first offered to 
purchase them, but the Governor refusing to sell, for fear of annoying 
the English Government, they then took them by force. When the 
guns were brought to Pretorius he again otfered to pay the Governor of 
Delagoa for them, but he replied that all he required of them was the 
safe return of the guns. They have now three guns at Mooi River, and 
three at Magaliesberg. Tliey have made a return of all the men capable 
of bearing arms within the Republic, between tbe ages of sixteen and 
sixty years, and the total number is 3,600. This includes all parties, the 
' travellers to Jerusalem,' the followers of Potgieter, Pretorius, Slanders, 
and Burman. Previous to the last election of Commandant, General 
Burman, the Hollander, sent round lists, and had actually got 2,000 
persons to sign in his favour; but at the sitting of the Raad, Pretorius' 
party refused to admit him into the Council, a complete uproar ensued, 
and, after hearing a long speech from Pretorius, they finally turned him 
out. After this they were not at all unanimous, but after much noise 
and confusion, Pretorius at length got the day. 

" The Boers, in council assembled, al>o came to the determination of 
drawing up a protest to the American and French consuls, and also to 
the Governor of the Colony, demanding the surrender to them of the 
Sovereignty and Natal. This protest was seen by our informant, iiume- 
rously signed, but by far the greatest portion of the names he was not 
able to decipher. He also states that they are in correspondence with 
influential persons in the Colony. They have from 3,000 to -1,000 lbs. of 
powder in the magazine at Mooi River dorp. He states that the Boers 
are becoming very poor ; that the best farms are neglected, and that 
hnnting and talking of politics are their only occupations. He had been 
in many of their houses, and often found that all the eatables they could 
produce were a little wilde-beest flesh. 

" He also states tliat 800 of them are opposed to any law or government 
whatever, and only a few of the latest trekkers have a friendly feeling 
towards the English Government, and these dare not express their 
views." 



28 BISHOP OF CAPETOWN'S 

Wc rode to-day a distance of about forty nules tlirougli 
a fine 2;rassy country to Makqiiatlin, the village of the 
chief Molitzani. There were neither bushes nor trees 
to be seen tlie whole day; l)iit the hills became higher 
and more picturesque, as we approached the village. 
We saw one village of Marokko's people at a distance, 
and met with a great many cattle. There was scarce 
any game to be seen. Makquatlin is beautifully situ- 
ated at the foot of a semicircular mountain. The 
appearance of it was very pleasing as we approached. 
The sun was setting full upon it, and everything looked 
cheerful. The houses indeed of the natives, wlio are of 
the Basuto tribes and the Bechuana race, are inferior to 
Marokko's. They are built entirely of reed or grass, 
like the Kafirs' and Fingoes', but they have a very small 
court of reed, generally in front. Altogether they do 
not look nearly so comfortable as Marokko's houses. 
The village is much sniallcr than Thaba-Umchu, and 
contains perhaps about 1,200 souls. There appeared, 
however, a much larger tract of country under cultiva- 
tion than at that place, which, considering the dispro- 
portion of the population, is very striking, and speaks 
much for the industry of these people. Indeed, I am 
told, that they grow more grain (which is always Indian, 
or Kafir corn) than is required for their own consump- 
tion, and that Marokko's people purchase of them. 
'I'he chapel here is a neat brick building erected by the 
natives, who have also just finished a school. The 
Mission-house has an excellent garden in front of it. 
Mr. andMrs. Daumas (of the Paris Missionary Society) 
received me very kindly. The hearing them converse in 
French with their little family brought hoaie (ibr Europe 
seems like home) vividly before me. I had much interest- 
ing conversation with him during the co\irse of the even- 
in?. His converts are about 100. His school consists of 
about 100. In their natural state these Heathen beUeve 
in the existence of gods; they regard their ancestors as 



VISITATION JOURNAL, 1850. 29 

p:ocls, and sacrifice to tliem occasionally a goat or an ox. 
They believe in the immortality of the soul. He told me 
of some facts vvliich induce him to think that some of 
the tribes believe in the transmigration of soids. In the 
evening, after tea, I walked out with Mr. Daumas into 
the village. He took me to see some of the native 
Christian houses. These are built after the European 
i'ashion, and there is an effort at neatness. Several of 
them have nice gardens, walled in, and abounding in 
fruit-trees, walnut, plum, lemon, and orange, whicli 
Mr. Daumas has introduced. They are beginning^also 
to plant trees before their houses. I conversed with 
some of the Christians. As far as I am able to judge, 
they appear to be sincere. I went to call upon Molit- 
zani, but met him vuth one or two companions walking 
through the village wrapped in his carosse. I told him 
" I \^ould not pass through his country without calling 
npon him, for he was one of the powers that be, which 
we Christians believe are ordained of God." I had some 
little conversation witli him about Christianity. He 
has just been suffering greatly from war with the neigh- 
bouring chief, Sinkoneyalla, who burnt down, a few 
months since, the village in which he lived, distant about 
a mile from the present one. The effect of this war has 
been very unfavourable to the Mission work. It has 
unsettled the minds even of the best of the people. It 
has brutalized many, and has stopped all improvement. 
The Missionary and his wife spoke with great pain of 
his. One striking thing occurred during the war. Mc- 
litzani with his warriors was compelled to fly from his 
village and country. '1 he Missionary remained. Molit- 
zani and his people sent their wi^ es and children, pro- 
perty, &c., to the Mission station, fully assured they 
would be safe there. The chapel and the house were, 
upon Sinkoneyalla's approach, filled with aged women, 
and children. Sinkoneyalla respected the sanctuary, 
lie sent word to the Missionary that he knew he was 



30 BlSflOP OF CAPETOWN'S 

a servant of God, and that he wished for peace and not 
war. Not a thing or person was tonchcd, although the 
village about a mile off was burnt to the ground. i 

On my ride next morning to Merimitzo, at which 
place Major Warden had appointed to meet the Chiefs 
Marokko, Molitzani, and Sinkoneyalla, to settle disputes 
arising out of the war, I passed through a country 
which a few months ago was full of life, but is now a 
desert. We passed, I think, not less than half-a-dozen 
deserted kraals, and did not see a single living being, 
or a single head of cattle, or, indeed, any game. All 
was desolate. The inhabitants, through fear of Sinkon- 
eyalla, had forsaken their country, and had not yet 
dared to return. We witnessed on a small scale the 
fearful ravages of war. Mr. Daumas pointed out to me 
one kraal, the head man of which was an aged brother 
of Molitzani's. When the people under him fled, he 
chose to remain, because the Corannas under the chief 
Gert Taibosch had assured him. that, being an old man, 
he would not be interfered with. Sinkoneyalla, how- 
ever, murdered hini in cold blood. He showed me 
another spot near which we passed, where a son of 
Molitzani's was killed with a few followers. It appears 
that though Molitzani had every reason to expect 
an attack from Sinkoneyalla, he made no preparation 
against it. Consequently, w hen news was brought that 
the enemy was approaching, all were in bed. Their 

(1) Since writing the above, nearly eight months ago, Molitzani, having 
attacked a neighbouring Mission station, was called to account for it hjr 
the British Resident. As he refused to give satisfaction and to pay the 
line imposed, a body of troops from Bloem-fontein was marched against 
him, and Marokko invited to join tlieni in chastising him. He was 
attacked and defeated, and a large number of cattle taken from him, 
a portion of which were given to Marokko. Soon after Marokko's return 
home he was attacked by Moshesh, the most powerful chitf in the Sove- 
reignty, and 4,00J head of cattle were taken from him We have insisted 
on Moshesh restoring these and giving satisfaction. Up to this time he 
has not done so: and. at this stage of affairs, war has broken out with 
the Kafirs. Any attempt now to punish Moshesh would add greatly to 
the dangers to which the Colony is exposed. 



VISITATION JOURNAL, 1850. 31 

horses had to be caught, and their arms prepared. Mo- 
litzani's son put himself at the head of about eighteen 
followers, and, against the entreaties of his father, went 
out to meet 800 horsemen. Not one of his party, I be- 
lieve, returned to the village. On this occasion, the 
Corannas under Gert Taibosch joined with Sinkoneyalla 
as allies. The war being at an end, they, in their turn, 
being but a small tribe of about 300 men, have fled out 
of the country, fearing the revenge of Molitzani. They 
have trekked beyond the Boers to Jan Bhjem's country, 
who is also a Coranna chief; but many of his cattle, 
probably stolen from Molitzani, having died, Major 
Warden hears he wishes to come back again and resume 
his territory. The Corannas are said to be a remnant 
of the old Hottentots, and they say that their forefathers 
lived near the Cape. Having been long accustomed to 
the use of fire-arms, which the other tribes in the neigh- 
bourhood are as yet novices in, they are formidable 
enemies. When we arrived at Gert Taibosch's village of 
Merimitzo, I was surprised to find such sliglit remains 
of a tribe having dwelt there. There were only the ruins 
of one or two huts. There was a Wesleyan Mission to 
this tribe. The premises were still standing, though 
somewhat ruined. All the windows of the dwelling- 
house, in which a table and a bedstead still remained, 
were broken. The out-buildings were in a state of dila- 
pidation. The same room was used here both for school 
and chapel — a very unfortunate and improper arrange- 
ment, I think; for surely, if we come to teach the heathen 
that there is a GoD, and that they must reverence and 
worship Him, we should be careful to distinguish God's 
house, and make them feel the sacredness thereof Mr. 
Daumas spoke to me of this, and of the importance of 
attending to these things. In the present case, the 
chapel was the most shabby building on the station, and 
its broken and defaced pulpit, with the whole scene 
around, filled me with mehmcholy reflections. We 



32 BISHOP OF Capetown's 

arrived nearly an hour before Major Warden, Shortly 
after he joined iis, Molitzani, nith a considerable number 
of followers, came up. He had exchanged his dirty, 
though picturesque, carosse, in which 1 had seen him the 
night before, for a white hat, a long drab coat su( h as 
our farmers wear, and corduroy trow.sers. Many of his 
followers had imitated him ; others were still in their 
ordinary dn-sses ; they all looked very common-place. 
After waiting some time in hopes that Marokko and 
Sinkoneyalla would appear, I was obliged to take my 
leave, as I was anxious to join my cart, which was 
distant about two hours from the place of meeting, mean- 
ing, if possible, to push on a few miles on my road before 
night-fall. Major Warden accordingly ordered two of 
the Cape Corps to accompany me as guides, one of whom 
said he knew the way, and Molitzani called one of his 
]>eople out the crow d, who was said to be acquainted with 
the country. After receiving full instructions we started, 
and rode hard for between three and four hours, when 
we came to a road, and all admitted they knew not 
which way to go. After directing the man to off saddle, 
I mounted the highest hill in the neighbourhood to take 
a view of the country. Nothing was to be seen but one 
dreary waste. I found, however, on the top of the 
mountain a very extensive deserted stone kraal or village, 
whicli had evidently been lixed upon that exposed spot 
lor purposes of defence. I could not learn to whom it 
belonged. At present Sinkoneyalla is ihe only chief 
who avails himself of the natural resources of the coun- 
try for purposes of deience. lie lives, I understand, 
upon the top of a mountain to which there is but one 
approach, liy the time I liad descended, it was getting 
dark. As our horses were knocked up, I thought ic 
better to spend the night in the kraal, which would prove 
some shelter to us. Happily, the soldiers did not ap- 
prove of my counsel. We started, therefore, on foot, one 
of the orderlies being so still" that he could not mount 



VISITATION JOURNAL, 1850. 33 

his horse. He soon, however, gi-ew weary of walking, 
and, with my help, managed to get into his saddle. I 
Avalked on alone. At one time, being somewhat in ad- 
vance of the others, I was tracked by some wild animal, 
which, however, did not venture to interfere with me. 
Several more were howling round about. In about an 
hour and a half's time one of the soldiers descried a light 
in the distance, and another half-hour brought us to a farm 
close by Winburg, where the owner received us kindlj% 

In such a country as this, where you may travel for 
days without seeing a house or meeting a person, it is 
a serious matter to lose one's way, especially if un- 
provided, as I was, with food. I did not, however, feel 
the least uneasy, knowing that I was in the hands of a 
gracious Father, who had brought me through greater 
difficulties than the present. It was while I was ill the 
act of offering up the Lord's Prayer, under a very strong 
sense of the presence of God, that the man cried out he 
saw a light. We got some supper here, and forage jbr 
our horses, and I passed a very tolerable night in a 
wagon, standing by the house. My men also found 
shelter, and well it was they did, for it rained nearly the 
whole night. A farmer's house in this part of the 
country seldom has more than one room, and that with- 
out door or window-frame. In this room the whole fa- 
mily, and frequently strangers, sleep. This Avould be 
still more inconvenient and objectionable than it is, were 
it the custom to undress at night ; but this is not the case. 
I understand it is thought sufiicieut to do this once a- 
week. 

Next morning we started in the rain for Geldenhuis 
farm, where my cart was, and reached it about eight 
o'clock, having gone about 25 miles out of our way. 
After washing and dressing, I started in ray cart, right 
glad to find myself once more in it. x\fter travelling 
about two hours, we came precisely to the same spot, 
where I discovered that we had lost our way, just twenty 
D 



34 BISHOP OF CAPETOWN'S 

hours before. This day's journey was through a fine 
grass country, abounding in game. There were no trees 
nor bushes, but low mountains of a picturesque appear- 
ance, chiefly on our right hand. We arived at night at 
an encampment of Boers, who were trekking over the 
Vaal River with their flocks and hci'ds, near to which was 
the wretched hovel of a farmer, who spoke very bitterly 
against the British Government. They gave us, how- 
ever, some spring-bok for supper. The night was so 
cold that I could scarce sleep at all. We were ofi" early 
again, our poor horses, which have had nothing but the 
dry grass of the country for the last two days, looking 
very disconsolate. This evening we were to have ar- 
rived at Mr. Bester's, a Dutch farmer, who was impli- 
cated in the late rebellion, but whom the Governor, 
wishing to conciliate the Boers, appointed magistrate of 
Harrisraith. We were, however, unable to reach his 
house, and therefore outspanned in the veldt. Being a 
cold night, and somewhat fearing lest our horses should 
be attacked by lions, which abound in this part of the 
country, we set fire to the grass, both for warmth and to 
frighten away wild beasts. I had intended to spend 
the next day, being Sunday, quietly at Mr. Bester's ; 
but I was compelled to proceed on my journey, there 
being no water for the horses where we were. Mr. 
Bester's house lying out of the road, we missed it, and 
arrived about eleven o'clock at a Hottentot's house, 
whose name is Old Isaak. Here I determined to spend 
the Sunday. I found one or two English traders there, 
as well as several Dutch farmers. After enjoying the 
luxury of a thorough washing, and having had some 
breakfast, I collected together the few people that were 
about the place, and held divine service, preaching to 
them extempore. I had scarcely finished, and was yet talk- 
ing to the people, when my dear friend and companion in 
my former visitation, the Rev. J. Green of Maritzburg, 
Natal, stood before me. He had ridden six days to meet 



VISITATION JOURNAL, 1S50. 35 

me, accompanied by a son of Mr. Moodie, Secretary to 
Government at Natal. His intention was to have waited 
for me at Harrismith ; but he passed it in the dusk on Sa- 
turday, and, finding himself late last night half-way to this 
place, came on here. I was delighted to meet him again, 
and we had, of course, much interesting conversation. 
Neither of us had much rest that night. There was a 
party of coloured people who spent most of the night in 
playing the fiddle and dancing. The dogs — the ducks — 
the horses — the oxen, kept running about, uttering their 
various and discordant cries throughout the night. We 
were off by day-light the next morning. The nature of 
the country was still the same, but the features of it 
more striking. As we approached Harrismith, we caught 
views of some fine-shaped mountains. We out-spanned 
for the night by the Wilge (or Willow) River, which, like 
the Elands, had the appearance of a real, though small 
river, which is not the case with most of the so-called 
rivers in South Africa, Mr. Green rode on with Mr. 
Moodie to Harrismith, intending to spend the night there, 
and recover a horse, which, beingknocked up, he had sent 
there. Shortly after he had left us, I discovered that 
either he or I was in the wrong road. Believing that he 
was in the road to Maritzburg, instead of to Harrismith, 
I became very uneasy about him, and sent Ludwig out 
to fire signal guns. Some time after his return from a 
fruitless effort to recall him, I went out and fired also, 
and hallooed for some time, but could hear nothing of 
him. I returned therefore to my cart, feeling assured that 
he must spend the night, which was dark, cold, and wet, 
in the veldt. I had scarce, however, made ready my 
hammock, and wrapped myself up in my carosse, before 
Ludwig heard the horses' tramp, and in a few minutes I 
welcomed them back with joy. After giving them some 
cold ham and biscuits, we endeavoured to sleep, being 
very weary, and passed a better night than could have 
been expected, sitting up in the cart. We were three 



36 BISHOP OF CAPETOWN'S 

above, and two below. Curtains being fixed round the 
bottom of the cart, and meeting one another, my men 
have always a dry and warm bed, be the weather what 
it may. 

Next morning Green rode to Harrismith to fetch his 
horse. I commissioned him at the same time to endea- 
vour, if possible, to fix upon sites for the future church, 
parsonage, and school, before all the erven are sold. 
At present there are not more than two or three houses 
in the village ; bv\t, if the Sovereignty is continued as 
part of the British possessions, and peace is maintained 
for a few years, it probably will become an important 
village or town. The country is more pleasing than 
that which I have lately passed through ; the mountains 
are fine, but there is no timber. The soil appears to be 
good, and I should think it is well watered. The grass 
grows to a very great height, but it is now either 
withered or burnt, and the horses appear to dislike it 
very much. 

As evening came on, we began the descent of the 
Drakenberg. It was so very precipitous, that the pole 
cracked in several places, even though we unloaded the 
cart, and carried all the luggage ourselves for a distance 
of upwards of half a mile. Night surprised us during 
this operation. We therefore outspanned at the bottom 
of the steepest declivity. I never knew my driver 
baffled with a difficulty before. As the pole had cracked 
before we reached the worst part of the road, he said he 
did not dare to "reim" (lock) the wheel; and that if we 
went down with it unlocked, all would roll into the 
precipice below. He said we nnist turn back, we could 
not attempt the descent. As this, however, was impos- 
sible, we did attempt it, and arrived safe at the bottom, 
though through many dangers. I understand a cart 
has never been down before. The wagons of the 
country can, if they please, lock all the wheels. We 
spent the night again very uncomfortably, and with 



VISITATION JOURNAL, 1850. 37 

little sleep, sitting or reclining as well as we could in 
the cart. 

When day dawned and we proceeded in our descent, 
(which I did on foot, considerably in advance of the 
cart,) a glorious view presented itself. All the kloofs 
in the mountains around us and above us were covered 
Avith wood, to which our eyes of late had been but 
little accustomed. Before us was a vast range of country 
of an undulating character, an apparently interminable 
succession of hill and dale. The grass, which on the 
other side of the mountain was dry and Avithered, was 
here, especially in the kloofs, green and verdant, and 
several sorts of flowers were still in blossom. I know 
not whether the change of scene affected me at all, but 
I have seldom enjoyed a two hours' walk more. During 
the whole of tlie time I was enabled to maintain almost 
uninterrupted communion Avith God. The cart had 
scarcely overtaken me, before we reached a deep ravine, 
near to the first house Avhich we have seen for nearly 
four days. In descending this, the pole snapped in 
sunder, and at one time I thought my driver Avould 
have been killed, and the cart dashed to pieces. Happily, 
however, the horses, perhaps through fatigue, behaved 
very well, and the cart reached the bed of the river with 
little additional damage. A kind farmer in the neigh- 
bourhood brought his wagon and Kafirs, with wood 
and forage, and we were enabled to splice our pole, and 
proceed on our journey after two or three hours' delay. 

We again slept in the veldt. On the following day 
we passed through a pleasing country without further 
serious accident, though the front board of the cart 
gave way altogether, — our swingle broke, — the iron 
ring which fastened the harness of the four front horses 
to the pole snapped in two, and we had several similar 
trifling misfortunes. The soil of the country seems 
very fertile. Much of the grass is as high as full-grown 
wheat in England. A great portion, however, has been 



38 BISHOP OF capeto\vn's 

burnt by the farmers, as is usual in this country during 
autumn, there not being sufficient stock to consume all 
that nature supplies. This custom destroys the trees 
along with the grass, which causes the country to appear 
somewhat bare, though in several parts the mimosa 
appears. We passed one fine river, the Tugela, in 
Avhich I bathed, as I have been enabled to do also for 
the last three days, — much to my refreshment ; for 
having so little sleep, and not being able to lie down, 
I am getting somewhat fatigued. A life like that I am 
now leading, makes a man feel that he is a wayfarer, 
— that he is a stranger and a pilgrim upon earth, — that 
this is not his home or rest. God grant that it may lead 
me more and more, day by day, to prepare, as I trust it 
is in some measure doing, to enter into that rest that 
"^remaineth for the people of God.'' 

We passed the night by the banks of a little stream. 
Our horses having strayed to some distance during the 
night, we were long in finding them, and therefore did 
not start very earlj\ I had been three hours on foot 
before the cart overtook me. There are a great many 
ancient Kafir kraals all along the road, which evidently 
were raised by the former inhabitants of the country, 
who have now passed away ; for I understand that there 
are not more than two petty chiefs of the ancient tribes 
remaining in the whole dependency. The 100,000 
coloured people who now dwell in the country, and have 
had considerable tracts of land assigned to them, are 
chiefly refugees from the tyranny of Panda find other 
chiefs. Two of these came up to us while we were 
cooking our supper last night in the veldt. Wc did not 
see them for some time, it being very dark. They were 
thankful for some food and tea which we gave them, 
and expressed their gratitude in a superabundance of 
complimentary epithets at their departure. 

We breakfasted at the Bushman's Drift, a military 
post upon a fine river — at least fine for South Africa. 



VISITATION JOURNAL, 1850. ' 39 

It has been placed there to check the depredations of 
the Bvishmen who dwell in the Drakenberg mountains, 
which are their strongholds. These men are the great 
cattle-stealers of this colony, and the Sovereignty. I am 
told that if they are followed w^hen stealing cattle, and 
are closely pressed, they will kill their spoil, in order 
that at least it may not fall alive into the hands of its 
owner. The Bushmen appear to be the most lost and 
degraded of all the tribes of South Africa. They are 
very bold and daring. Quite lately thirteen of them 
committed an atrocious murder in the Sovereignty 
under peculiar circumstances. Some of them were in 
the employ of a Dutch farmer. He had been in the 
habit of giving them tobacco. On one occasion when 
they asked for it, he either had none to give, or would 
give none. His Bushman servant said he would be 
revenged. In about a week after the refusal he came 
by night Avith a party of thirteen of his tribe, and 
attacked the farmer's house. When he appeared at his 
door they shot him with their poisoned arrows, and then 
entered his house, and killed his wife and all his children 
in cold blood, battering in their skulls with Knob Keries. 
Troops were sent out to apprehend them when the 
murder was discovered. They made a determined resist- 
ance, occupying a kraal for defence. Six were killed 
before the party would surrender. The remainder 
were brought to Bloem-fonteiu, tried, condemned, and 
hanged. 

The officers at the Post did me the favour to call upon 
me where I was outspanning, and supplied all our 
wants. From thence we went over a very hilly country 
with wretched roads, to the Mooi River, where we had 
some supper in an Englishman's hut, and pushed on by 
moonlight a little further, being anxious to make sure 
of reaching Maritzburg the next night. We outspanned, 
as usual, in the veldt. This is the ninth night that 
I have been unable to undress, or go to bed, while I 



40 BISHOP OF CAPETOWN'S 

have been taking long walks every day. I am surprised 
that I am not more fatigued than I find myself to be. 
The next morning we arrived at the Umgeni River to 
breakfast, after a drive of four hours over a hilly country. 
Here there is a very beautiful fall. The river rushes 
over a perpendicular rock into a valley which is about 
three hundred feet below. The valley itself is wooded 
and picturesque. I do not know that I have seen 
a finer fall in any part of the world. Before we left this 
spot, a party rode up from Maritzburg. Having under- 
stood from them that His Honour the Governor, Avho 
had kindly invited me before I left Capetown to pay 
him a visit, was expecting nie at his house, I resolved to 
drive there at once. 

We arrived at Maritzburg about four o'clock. The 
first view I caught of it was from the top of the moun- 
tain at whose feet it lay. The descent to it is long and 
steep. We were rejoiced to look again upon human 
beings and dwelling-houses, after having travelled so 
many days without seeing any signs of life. Maritzburg 
is not like any of the villages in the old colony. Perhaps 
it resembles George more than any other place. No 
one expected our arrival for at least a week to come. 
They were disposed to think it impossible that I could 
accomplish the jourjiey in the time proposed. I told 
them that I make it a point to keep my engagements, if 
possible. Before I left Capetown I ^rrote to say that 
" possibly I might be here on Thursday — more likely 
on Friday — probably not till Saturday." I should 
have been here on the Friday had I not gone one day 
out of my road to visit the Mission stations in the Sove- 
reignty. I bless God that he hath brought me to this 
distant part of the Diocese in health and safety ; and 
heartily do I pray that my visitation here may tend to 
the promotion of His glory, the advancement of His 
kingdom, and the good of the souls of this people. 

The Governor received me very kindly, and has, I am 



VISITATION JOURNAL, 1850. 41 

sorry to say, given up Ws own rooms for my accommo- 
dation. 

I calculate that I have travelled 1,400 miles with the 
same horses, in less than seven weeks. Mr. Green 
has ridden not less than 400 miles to meet me. 

Whitsundai/, May \'dth, 1850.— An interesting day. A 
little more than a year ago there was no Clergyman of 
the Church of England in this Colony, nor, as far as the 
members of the Church could see, any prospect of one 
being appointed. Now there are two; one here and the 
other at the Bay.i A large emigrant population is, 
however, flowing in, and there is a vast missionary work 
lying before the Church, amongst the 100,000 Zoolus 
that have of late come into the Colony. We shall need, 
therefore, a considerable increase in the number of our 
Clergy, if we are in good earnest to undertake the work 
God has given us to do. Our services were held this 
morning in the Government school-room, a large and 
commodious building, the upper end of which is parti- 
tioned off for divine service. It is fitted up with a decent 
Communion-table, a very handsome Early English stone 
font, well executed, and a massive lectern, carved and 
made of the finest wood in the colony. There was 
a large congi'egation, filling the whole room. Every 
thing was done decently and in order, and in accordance 
with the rubrics. There were twenty-five communicants. 
I preached both in the morning and evening. When 
the choir broke forth with the Psalm, " O come, let us 
sing unto the Lord, let us heartily rejoice in the strength 
of our salvation," I was for the moment quite overcome. 
That text, " How shall I sing the Lord's song in a 
strange land?" rushed into my mind. It was not that 
I was moved by any desponding or ungrateful feelings, 
but I could not refrain from tears. The sacredness of 
the day itself, its peculiar appropriateness for the first 

(1) A third has since arrived, sent out by the Society for ike Fropaga- 
iion of the Gospel. 



42 BISHOP OF Capetown's 

service of the first bisliop of the Church of God in this 
land, — the devout and reverential manner of the congre- 
gation that had been gathered by the zeal and earnest- 
ness of my dear friend, — gratitude to Almighty God for 
Avhat He has already ^vrought for us in this land, — and 
a very fervent desire that God, " who as at this time 
did teach the hearts of His faithful people by sending to 
■thera the light of His Holy Spirit," might pour out 
abundantly the gift of His Spirit upon our infant 
Church, — all these contributed to make me feel very 
deeply the services of this day. 

Maij 2bth.— l have been at Maritzburg now a week. 
My whole time has been fully occupied with receiving 
and paying visits, — the examination of Mr. Steabler for 
Ordination, the Confirmation, and the preparation of 
Sermons. It is a comfort to have the daily prayers of 
the Church established in this far-distant land. The 
sacrifice of prayer, and praise, and intercession, is un- 
interruptedly offered, and will, I trust, prevail with God. 
The worshippers, indeed, are not many, but there are 
a few who value the privilege ; and Christ's promised 
presence is, assuredly, not withheld. 

On Thursday the Confirmation took place. There 
were forty-four candidates, amongst whom were several 
of the military. The congregation was large, and all 
behaved devoutly. Several Dutch were present, and 
amongst them their minister. He told me afterwards 
that his people liked the service, but objected to the 
coloured people, of whom there were several, being 
confirmed along with the rest. He reasoned with them 
on the subject, but it will require some time to eradicate 
their prejudices. 

I have had much interesting conversation with the 
Governor this week. He seems disposed to devote 
his whole energies to the improvement of the colony. 
I have seen much also of the other public servants, 
and especially of Mr. Shepstone, the very able super- 



VISITATION JOURNAL, 1850. 43 

intendent, or chief, of the whole coloured population 
of the colony. We dined one day with the Secre- 
tary to Government; another, at the camp, with the 
officers of the 45th regiment. On the other days the 
Governor has had one or two of the chief inhabitants 
to dinner. 

On Friday, being the Queen's birth-day, the troops 
fired a royal salute, and paraded before the Governor ; 
and in the evening His Honour had a party. After the 
review I went with the Governor to the Colonial Office 
to receive the ambassadors of Panda, Chief or King of 
the Zoolus, who had come to congratulate him on his 
arrival. Mr. Shepstone told us they were the same mes- 
sengers who had been sent on all occasions during the 
last two or three years. He said that one of them was 
a subtle-minded clever man. Theyhad no clothing except 
a dark kind of blanket, or horse-cloth, and were fine, 
intelligent-looking men. After they had been seated, 
they were invited to declare their message. This they 
did sitting, with much expressive action. " They had 
been sent to congratulate the Governor on his arrival, 
and to wish him health and prosperity — to inform him 
that Panda was not well." (This was supposed to be 
said to avoid the possibility of an invitation to the 
Chief to come to the colony. On a former occasion, 
when invited, he excused himself on the ground that 
his feet were sore ; he was offered a wagon, but replied 
that he had once, in the time of the Boers, taken a jour- 
ney in a wagon, and had been so shaken that he had 
never recovered from it since.) They added " that 
Panda admired the British Government for its justice ; 
— that he liked it much better than that of the Boers ; 
— that he particularly approved of the arrangement with 
regard to cattle ;— that he thanked the Government for 
what had been sent, and hoped that more had been 
found; that the Amaswagi tribe had been entirely 
conquered by Panda, and had sent in its submission." 



44 BISHOP OF CAPETOWN S 

The Governor informed tliem that he had sent an em- 
bassy to Panda to announce his arrival, which had crossed 
Panda's on the road ; and that he thanked them for their 
message, but would give his reply on a future occasion. 

The ambassadors are lodged in a kraal out of the 
town, from which the inhabitants have been removed to 
accommodate them. They had an ox given them for 
their maintenance on their arrival two days ago. They 
w ere asked if they had had it, and liked it. They re- 
plied, " Yes, and had eaten it up." Another was pro- 
mised, for which they were duly grateful. The formal 
business being finished, a friendly conversation sprung 
up. We asked them about the unhealthy country near 
Delagoa Bay, upon which their country borders. They 
spoke of it as marshy, full of bushes and trees ; and said 
that wild beasts were there as thick as leaves, but that 
all men and oxen that went near it died. The Governor 
told them that I was the chief minister of religion iu 
this part of the world, and said that if Panda wished for 
a minister of God, and would send him word to that 
effect, he would communicate with me about it. They 
Avere asked how they liked the review. They admired 
it very much. They could not understand how all the 
soldiers marched with one step. They thought the music 
showed a great house. It gave them a pain across their 
stomachs. The only thing they could have dispensed 
w ith was the firing ; it gave them a pain in the head. 

Panda's army is enrolled in regiments, and consists 
chiefly of young unmarried men, kept apart from the 
rest of the population. The arrangement about cattle, 
to which they alluded, arises out of the desire of Go- 
vernment to check the influx of Zoolus into this colony. 
Such is the tyranny of Panda, that, if no restrictions 
existed, his whole people would leave him, take refuge 
in the colony, and place themselves under British pro- 
tection ; and thus Panda's power, which, under any cir- 
cumstances, it is supposed, cannot last long, would be 



VISITATION JOURNAL, 1S50. 45 

entirely and immediately broken np. This, however, it 
is thought, would not be a politic measure to adopt at 
present, for the colony has already a very large coloured 
population, — 115,000, to which it is necessary to assign 
lands which would otherwise be sold ; and Panda's 
neighbourhood serves as a wholesome restraint upon 
those who have once felt, and might again, if they mis- 
conducted themselves, feel his power. His name is 
a kind of bugbear to them ; not that these poor people, 
however, are disaffected, or difficult to govern ; on the 
contrary, they are most docile and manageable. 'Jhey 
have hardly yet, in any single case, fallen into habits of 
intoxication. They show a great aptitude for labour, 
and willingness to work, especially under good super- 
intendence ; and they have the very greatest respect for 
law and constituted authorities. Still, however, it is 
thought advisable to discourage the extensive immi- 
gration which is setting in, especially from Panda's 
country; therefore no one is allowed to bring his cattle 
with him across the frontier. He may come himself if 
he likes, but he must come empty-handed. If he brings 
cattle, they are taken from him, and sent to Panda, who 
consoles himself for the loss of his subjects by the ap- 
propriation of their property, to which, indeed, he is by 
the laws of his country (that is, his own laws) entitled. 
The consequence is, that there is personal safety for 
those who are oppressed, and w'hose lives are threat- 
ened ; but there is no encouragement given to disaffec- 
tion ; and Panda himself cannot fail to be struck with 
the good faith and generosity of the British Govern- 
ment. It is singular enough that his former subjects, 
after changing their allegiance, have no fear whatever 
of his resentment, on revisiting, which they occasionally 
do, their former country. Mr. Shepstoce says there are 
not more than three or four men now in the colony who 
would be afraid to put themselves in his power. And 
these are menwhoAvere his former counsellors, and who 



46 BISHOP OF CAPETOTVTJ'S 

are acquainted with all his seci-ets. The right of 
changing their chiefs, — transferring their allegiance, — 
seems to be recognised amongst all the South African 
tribes. 

I should have inserted here, at greater length, 
incidental notices of this very interesting people, if 
I had not obtained a promise from Mr. Shepstone to 
put down upon paper for me much that he told me. 
There are many traditions, customs, habits, and man- 
ners of these people, which he, more than any other 
man, is competent to give information upon, which are 
gradually dying out, and which will be altogether lost 
in a short time, unless he record them. Being the son 
of a Wesleyan Missionary, having lived with Kafirs 
from his childhood, and being now regarded by the 
115,000 Zoolus in this colony as their Inkosi Inkulu, 
which brings him into daily contact with their national 
life, system, laws, and polity, he has had opportunities, 
greater than perhaps all other men, of acquiring an in- 
timate knowledge of all that relates to them. 

Tfiiiity Siindoij, May 2(ilh, 1S50, Maritzburg. — This 
day I admitted to the Holy Order of Deacons the Rev. 
W. A. Steabler, who came out more than two years ago 
in the same ship with myself. During this period he 
has approved himself as a zealous faithful labourer, 
having been employed as catechist, both here and on the 
frontier, with much acceptance. I purpose sending 
him to commence our work at Bloem-Fontein. I took 
occasion to preach plainly on the subject of the Ministry 
of Christ. This I should have thought it desirable 
to do under any circumstances, at the very first 
ordination in a new Colony ; but I felt the more 
constrained to do so, in consequence of a person 
having, immediately upon my arrival, advertised 
lectures and sermons, in which he has assailed the 
Orders of the Church, and her services, especially 
Confirmation. In the evening I preached again, on 



VISITATION JOURNAL, 1850. 47 

the subject of tlie Ever Blessed Trinity. The school- 
room uas quite full on each occasion. 

On JMonday I was present at another interview with 
Panda's messengers, when the Governor gave them his 
oflficial answer. They do not like to receive messages 
in writing. They carry away, however, the substance 
of what is said very accurately. Some messengers also 
from the Chief Faku received an audience on the same 
occasion. 

It will, I think, be a happy day for the native popu- 
lation of South Africa when British rule shall extend, 
as I think it must ere long, from the eastern frontier of 
the Cape to Delagoa Bay. Before ten years shall have 
passed away, this will, I apprehend, be the case. May 
the Church be prepared to enter heartily upon the 
important and most promising work which God in his 
Providence is opening out to her ! 

On Tuesday I started with the Governor, who oc- 
cupied a seat in my cart, for D' Urban. Several gen- 
tlemen accompanied us. It is his intention to see as 
much as possible of this portion of the Colony during 
the next fortnight. We are to visit together the American 
Mission Stations, the Cotton Company's lands, &c. The 
day was unfortunately wet, and we could not see much 
of the country, which was hilly, grassy, and bare. The 
roads became so slippery that we could hardly travel, 
ind evening came upon us before we reached Botha's, 
ibout thirty miles, where we were to sleep. One of my 
iorses fell in the dark just before we ai'rived. Next 
morning we started after breakfast for D'Urban, distant 
about twenty miles. We diverged from our road to 
visit Mr. Bergthiel's settlement at Little Germany. 
Mr. B. has brought out thirty-six German families, 
and planted them on a farm which he has purchased. 
He paid their passage out, fed them till they could 
support themselves, assigned 200 acres to each family, 
upon which they have built comfortable houses, supplied 



48 BISHOP OF Capetown's 

them with agricultural implements, and stocked in some 
degree their land. Besides this, though a Jew himself, 
he in part supports a JNIissionary from the Berlin Society, 
and a schoolmaster, and has built both chapel and 
school. There are said to be 1,200 acres of land on the 
farm under the plough. The farm is of the usual extent, 
viz. 6,000 acres. But beside this he has purchased 
several other farms. The original cost of the farm was 
500/. ; but I understand that he calculates that he has 
in one way or another embarked a capital of nearly 
10,000/. upon it. The greater part of this remains in 
the shape of a debt from the occupiers of the land to 
the owner, who has charged to their account all that he 
has expended in their behalf from the time they left 
Germany to the present hour. The result of this is 
that each family is indebted to Mr. Bergthiel to a con- 
siderable amount, varying, I understand, from 150/. to 
350/. This of course places very considerable power 
in the hands of the creditor. All agree, however, that 
it has not been in the least abused by him. On the con- 
trary, he has not only been lenient, but liberal. His 
arrangement, I am informed, is that they shall pay six 
per cent, interest on the debt till it is paid off, and one- 
third of the produce of their land by way of rent. 
Nothing, however, has as yet been paid. As to the 
system itself, I conceive it is in some respects valuable. 
The comforts which the people enjoy, the order, neat- 
ness, and industry which prevail, all are highly impor- 
tant, if only for example's sake to others. Undoubtedly 
such an establishment is in many ways beneficial to the 
Colony. I think also it may be considered as a safe 
speculation for the proprietor. Be it, that he has 
altogether laid out 10,000/. ; it is all upon his own land. 
Every emigrant, though nominally enjoying a lease for 
five year.^, with a right to a renewal upon the same 
terms, and a promise of remuneration for improvements, 
buildings, Sec. should he remove from the settlement, is 



VISITATION JOURNAL, 1850. 49. 

de facto a. raevQ labourer upon the estate, fed, clothed, 
and supported, but not paid. Consequently, the owner's 
property is becoming more valuable from day to day, 
at as cheap a rate to himself as possible. The stipend 
of the Pastor and schoolmaster, indeed, bring in no 
direct return. But if the labour of the emigrant's 
family is worth more than the cost of his keep, every 
hour that he works is a benefit to the proprietor. 
Whether the system will work ultimately well for the 
emigrant, is another matter. I do not think it will. He 
is entirely in the hands of the proprietor, and, except 
under the most liberal treatment, will be in debt all his 
life. I believe Mr. Bergihiel feels that it is utterly 
hopeless to expect that the debts will be paid off. 
They give him, however, a very considerable power 
over his tenants. Were I a poor emigrant, I would 
infinitely pi-efer fighting my own way in a new Colony. 
At the end of two or three years any industrious 
labourer would be better off than Mr. Eergthiel's 
tenants. He would not have lived so comfortably during 
those years, but, at the end of them, he would not be in 
debt, and would probably have realized something. 

I put down my impressions upon visiting this settle- 
ment, because it has excited a good deal of attention, 
and the system adopted is much approved of. My 
statistics were gathered from conversations with those 
whom Mr. B. has left in charge of the settlement 
during his absence in Europe, whither he has gone to 
bring out more emigrants, whom he purposes to engage 
upon very liberal terms, and upon a somewhat different 
system. From all that I have seen I should say that Mr. 
Bergthiel may be entirely depended upon for the fulfil-, 
ment of his engagements, which is more than can be 
said for most speculators. 

The Governor was received most loyally, and myself 
also with many marks of respect. Their bell rang at 
his Honour's approach. The people, headed by their 
E 



50 BISHOP OF CAPET0%VN'3 

minister, came out in procession to meet him, with their 
Psalm-books under their arms. He was welcomed with 
a salute of small arms as he passed under the first of 
the triumphal arches which were erected. Flowers were 
strewed in the path, and at the Superintendent's house, 
the minister, in the name and presence of the inhabi- 
tants, addressed his Honour, thanking him for his visit, 
&c., and afterwards addressed me. We returned our 
thanks, and said a few words, which were interpreted to 
the people, who then cheered us. After visiting one 
very well cultivated allotment, we partook of a cold col- 
lation at the Superintendent's house, and quitted this 
interesting and beautifully situated settlement, much 
pleased with all that we had seen. 

Our drive to D'Urban was through a beautiful undu- 
lating countr^^ I should have called it well wooded, but 
the timber is so very small as scarcely to deserve the 
name. Much of the country is like an English gen- 
tleman's park, and brought forciblj- to my mind thoughts 
of home and days long past in our dear native land. 
In some of its features, too, it reminded me of the 
Knysna district, though it is not, I think, equal in beauty 
to that part of the Colony. We caught from several 
points distant view s of the sea, and as we approached 
D'Urban, commanded a full view of the bay. Unfortu- 
nately, the bar has ag<ain washed up so high as to leave 
only seven feet of water upon it, and ships are conse- 
quently obliged to ride outside in the open anchorage. 
Several gentlemen came out to meet us. The Governor 
took up his abode at the house of Mr. Field, collector 
of customs, and I at that of Mr. Mesham, one of the 
churchwardens, the son and brother of clergymen. 

June \st. — The town of D'Urban is rapidly rising. 
Building seems to be the employment of every one. 
At the present moment it is inundated with an influx of 
emigrants, some of whom willingly remain spending their 
little capital in drink and idleness after their long voyage. 



VISITATION JOURNAL, 1850. 51 

Others are detained from inability to get upon their 
lands, Mr. Byrne's agent not being prepared to locate 
them. This is causing some degree of discontent, 

I cannot but fear that a labouring population, the 
greater part of which is without capital, is pouring in too 
fast, and that there will consequently be much distress. 
How the majority of those who come are to live for the 
first few months, I know not. There are not sufficient 
capitalists to employ them. The land, indeed, is rich, 
and will grow almost anything; but how they will 
subsist till their houses are built, and their crops come 
up, remains to be seen. And if they all take to cul- 
tivating the soil, will there be a sufficient market? 
Cotton, indeed, if the cultivation of it will pay, may be 
exported to any extent, but there are, in the immediate 
neighbourhood of this town, deserted cotton lands ; 
although in some places it is said that this year the 
crops will pay exceedingly well. I have taken two rides 
with the Governor, — one to the Point, and across the 
harbour to the BluflF, a projecting hill of about 300 feet 
high, which runs out into the sea, and forms the western 
bank at the entrance of the harbour. In the immediate 
neighbourhood of the Bluff, the small remnant of one 
of the original tribes of the country is still living. 
The chief's name is Umneni. The tribe does not con- 
sist of more than 600 souls. 

Another ride which we took was to the Umgeni river. 
The country is very beautiful, and I enjoyed the ride 
greatly. The trees are chiefly evergreens. The convol- 
vulus was creeping over the highest of them. The 
bush was very thick, and flowei's were still blooming. 
Amongst these I observed the hibiscus, salvia, &c. 
The castor-oil, tobacco, indigo, sarsaparilla, and hemp, 
grow in great abundance. Elephants abound in the hills 
in the neighbourhood of D 'Urban, and as we passed 
through the bush, we saw their paths in every directiou. 
The tiger, wolf, and wild dog are also to be found. 



52 BISHOP OF CAPETOWN'S 

On Sunday, June 2d, I preached twice, and adminis- 
tered the Lord's Supper to twenty-five communicants, 
in the Government school-room, which is used for 
Divine Service until a church can be built. The con- 
gregation in the morning was full to overflowing. 
Several persons were obliged to go away unable to 
obtain admittance. On the Monday, I held a Confir- 
mation in the morning, when only eleven candidates 
presented themselves. I afterwards attended a meeting 
of the parishioners, (at which the Governor was present,) 
to take into consideration the subject of the erection of a 
church. There were not very many present ; but a 
committee was formed to collect additional subscriptions. 
I intimated to the parishioners my desire to see the 
Church system of weekly collections adopted. We 
began with the oifertory on Sunday, which produced 
upwards of 7/. 

On Tuesday morning the Governor, myself, Mr. 
Green, Dr. Stanger, Mr. Shepstone, and Captain Gordon, 
started on horseback to visit several of the American 
Mission Stations along the north-east coast, and the 
lands of the Natal Cotton Company. We are to be 
out the whole week. Our first day's journey lay through 
a beautiful country to Mr. Lindley's Mission Station. 
The scenery partakes more of the mountain character 
than any I have yet seen in the Colony. We had some 
very fine views, especially where we off-saddled, at a 
water-fall, where a branch of the Umgeni falls into a 
basin nearly 300 feet below it. Thelatter part of our day's 
ride was through a pleasing valley. I like Mr. Lindley 
much. There is a plain straightforwardness about him. 
He shows no desire to colour any thing. He has not 
many houses in the immediate vicinity of his station, 
and he does not give an encouraging account of his 
work. He has been here two years, and has baptized 
fifteen. There are about ten more cither baptized, or 
ripe for baptism ; and he regards all these as sincere. 



VISITATION JOURNAL, 1850. 53 

His congregation is about forty, and be bas a school of 
about thirty under the charge of a native teacher. 

When be first came here, the heathen flocked around 
him, and be bad large schools and congregations ; but 
when they found that the gospel would interfere with 
their heathen customs and practices, they held several 
meetings, and resolved that they would have nothing to 
do with the religion of Christ. From that time much 
opposition bas been offered to the Mission work. The 
men will not allow their wives to come to hear the 
Missionary, or the children to go to school. They fear 
that if they became Cbrisiians, they would leave them, 
and they would thus lose a valuable property ; for they 
buy their wives, who do all the work, and sell their 
daughters. Perhaps the very opposition that is offered 
is encouraging. Satan feels bis kingdom invaded. Mr. 
Lindley's impression is that very many have a secret 
conviction that the truths pressed upon their acceptance 
are truths, but that they hate the light, and will not 
come to the light, lest their deeds should be reproved. 
Both he and Mr. Shepstone agree that the Zoolus 
are in one respect very different from the frontier 
Kafirs, — that, whereas the latter are essentially scep- 
tical, and doubt or dispute all you say, the former are 
ready to believe when truth is pressed upon them. 
They readily, for instance, believe in the being of God, 
His providence, the account of the creation, &c. The 
great difficulty in the conversion of this people will be, 
that they practise fearful abominations, and love to have 
it so. I doubt, too, whether hereafter it will not be 
found that their covetous dispositions offer a serious 
impediment. They have a great desire to accumulate 
property, like their countrymen, the Fingos, in the old 
Colony. A great part of the Zoolu population does not 
practise the rite of circumcision, which is common to 
the whole Kafir race. Chaka forbade it during his reign, 
and thus the custom was broken in upon. Many, 



54 BISHOP OF CAPETOWN S 

however, still practise it ; and there is a rite similar in 
its nature for the females. 

Wed)i€S(lay. — We rode this day through a beautiful 
undulating country to the Mission Station of Mr. Lewis 
Grout, Avho received us very hospitably. Mr. Lindley 
accompanied us, and I had much interesting conversa- 
tion with both these gentlemen respecting Missions 
and the Heathen. Mr. Grout's account of his work is 
not more encouraging than Mr. Lindley 's, and they say 
that all their Missions are in the same state, and from 
the same causes. 

Mr. Grout has only about fifteen children at school, 
six Christians in his Mission field, and from forty to sixty 
attendants on Divine worship. He does not appear 
to have any course of systematic instruction for cate- 
chumens, which Mr. Lindley has, instructing them in 
the Creed, the Lord's Prayer, and the Ten Command- 
ments, and in a short elementary Catechism. Mr. 
Grout prefers commenting on the historical parts of the 
Old and New Testaments, which have been translated, 
and in which ihey take much interest. There is as yet 
no chapel at either of these institutions. During our 
day's ride we entered into several kraals, as we passed 
near them. Most of the inhabitants fled and hid them- 
selves at our approach. We understood that they were 
afraid of the " sambok," (whip) which, I apprehend, in 
days I hope for ever gone by, has been freely admi- 
nistered to them by the white man. 

Thursday. — Our day's ride was through a beautiful 
country, covered for the first ^<i.\s miles with bush, but 
afterwards consisting of extensive plains, to the Mission 
Station of Mr. Alden Grout. We looked into many of 
the kraals as we passed by. Such of the inmates as 
were not frightened, seemed always thankful to be 
noticed. When Mr. Shepstone told one of the great 
men of a tribe, whom we met, who the Governor was, 
he said, " It was a lucky day for him to have seen his 



VISITATION JOURNAL, 1850. 55 

great chief. He should be the happier for it." These 
savages have a delicate, and sometimes very striking way 
of expressing themselves. The language of this man, 
Mr. Shepstone said, was not merely complimentary. 

In the course of the day we passed by a farm of a 
newly-arrived emigrant who seemed in great discomfort, 
and complained bitterly against the Government for 
having taken him in, in allowing him to come here. 
He said he could not live. His poor wife, with a babe 
in her arms, stood by, uncomplaining, but looking un- 
happy. A little further on we came to the farm of a 
Mr. Morwood, who has thirty-five acres of rich land in 
a high state of cultivation. The sugar-cane, tobacco, 
wheat, and oats, were growing in great abundance. 
He talks of founding a village. Besides his arable land, 
he has a complete nursei-y-garden well stocked with a 
variety of plants and trees. It is quite refreshing to 
behold a farm in so advanced a state. Our day's journey 
was thirty miles. 

Mr. Grout's station is very beatifully situated on the 
banks of the Umvoti. The view as you descend the 
hill to his house is very striking. To the left you look 
upon a rich well-wooded valley. To the right you see a 
considerable reach of the river stretching down to the 
sea, the roar of vi hose waves you hear, and which is 
about six miles distant. Mr. Grout has an excellent 
house, and well-stocked garden extending down to the 
river. 

All the rivers here abound Avith crocodiles, as does the 
country with the usual kinds of wild beasts. Last Sunday 
morning one of the Kafirs was much torn by a tiger. 
When I was going to bathe in the morning Mr. Grout 
warned me against the crocodiles, which are more 
diflQcult to escape from in the water than on the land. 
They frequently catch the Kafirs in the water, and 
destroy animals, especially calves and dogs. Before 
taking our departure on Fridaj^, we were present at an 



56 BISHOP OF CAPETOWN'S 

examination of Mr. Grout's school. Of tlicse there are 
two, one for adults, the other for children. There were 
about fifty present, chiefly adults ; and we were much 
pleased with their appearance and examination. They 
were all clothed in clean dresses, which I rejoiced to see 
in this distant part of the Colony ; for it is very painful 
to behold the whole population, even in the towns, 
walking about entirely unclothed. Nothing can be 
more picturesque, indeed, than the naked Zoolu, with 
his shield on his arm, his assegai and knob-keri in hand, 
his fine form improved by the crown which the married 
men usually wear vipou the head, and his body adorned 
with rings and beads; but one soon loses all idea of the 
picturesque, in a sense of the degradation of these in- 
teresting people. I could not therefore but rejoice in 
the conviction that Mr. Alden Grout's Mission was 
being, at least in some degree, blessed to their good. 
Most of those in the school either have been baptized, 
or desire to be so ; and I could not but perceive that 
there was a difference in their very countenances from 
those of their Heathen countrymen. There was a mo- 
desty, a diffidence, an innocency of look. The most 
advanced read our Lord's Sermon on the Mount out of 
the Gospel of St. Matthew, which has been translated 
for them ; and one young woman read very fairly in 
English. Mr. Shepstone was our interpreter. We put 
a few questions to them. They showed an acquaintance 
with the leading doctrines of the Christian faith, and 
the outlines of Scripture history. They sang and chanted 
very nicely, Mr. Grout confirming what other Mission- 
aries had previously told me, that the Kafir language is 
peculiarly adapted for chanting. Their knowledge of 
arithmetic and geography was not great. The sewing 
was very respectable. The young women had both cut 
out and made up the clothes that they wore. I should 
have enjoyed the whole scene more, and entered into it 
with more spirit, had I not, just before the examination 



VISITATION JOURNAL, 1S50. 57 

commenced, opened tliree newspapers in succession, 
which were lying on the table, and found each of them 
full of accusations against the Church. May God pre- 
serve us from falling into a similar spirit. 

Just as we were about to mount our horses, we were 
informed that there Afas to be a gathering of the Kafirs 
to meet the Governor. When Mr. Shepstone told the 
messengers that we could not wait, they said, " They 
would burst, if they found on their arrival that their 
great Chief had gone." We therefore waited for them, 
and spoke a few words of kindness to them. They 
shouted and clapped their hands when we took our de- 
parture. Our ride this day was nearer to the sea-coast ; 
the country was less undulating, but covered to a consi- 
derable extent with bush. Some parts of it were very 
beautiful; but it is still almost without inhabitants, 
though nearly the whole of the country on the sea-coast 
has already been disposed of. We arrived towards sun- 
set at the Cotton Company's lands, lately sold to Mr. 
Byrne. We took up our quarters in tents, which his 
agent had prepared for us on the site of one of the pro- 
posed new villages, and partook of an excellent dinner, 
which he had managed to provide in the wilderness. 

Saturday. — We examined this morning the site of the 
proposed new village, which is beautifully situated on 
a hill, commanding a view of the sea, and surrounded 
by well-wooded hills and dales. I fixed upon sites for 
chui-ch and burial-ground, and also upon 100 acres 
apportioned for glebe land. Mr. Byrne's agent ex- 
pressed his readiness to transfer these at once to the 
see. I do not wish to detract from the apparent libe- 
rality of the Company, but it must be remembered that 
each adult labourer of either sex upon this property 
has cost the government 100 acres of this very land for 
bringing him out; and that the probable appointment 
of a Clergyman or Catechist will help forward, in a 
temporal point of view, the objects of the Company, 



58 BISHOP OF CAPETOWN S 

Chiving confidence to those who need it, and an air of 
stability and progress to the undertaking. Several of 
the emigrants formed themselves into a Church Com- 
mittee, with a view to obtain funds for the support of a 
minister, and to take measures for the erection of a 
wattle-and-daub building, until a church can be built. 
We afterwards rode through a beautiful country to 
another village, called Verulam, a few miles off. This 
is fixed upon for a Methodist location, and consists of 
about 1 2,000 acres. I obtained a site for a church here. 
There probably will be a third village on these cotton 
lands, and at least three more between D'Urban and the 
Umvoti. If the tide of immigration should still continue 
setting into Natal, several additional Clergy will soon be 
required to provide for the necessities of the people. I 
think there are not less than a dozen new villages already 
decided upon in several parts of the colony. After en- 
deavouring to settle some disputes between the immi- 
grants and the Company's agents, we proceeded on our 
journey through an exceedingly beautiful country to 
D'Urban, and arrived about 7 o'clock at Mr. Mesham's, 
having had a most agreeable and interesting excursion. 
June Qth. — We had service both in the morning and 
afternoon in the government school-room. I have 
heard to-day from a lady who lives in the neighbour- 
hood, that the chief Umneni, of whom I have before 
spoken, removed from his lands on the BhifFlast Friday. 
He came to bid her farewell before he left; for they 
had been kind neighbours to each other. "It was not 
without sorrow that he quitted his birthplace, where 
he has resided all his life, and withstood in his fast- 
nesses the victorious troops of Chaka, who conquered 
the whole country, and brought into subjection all the 
native chiefs except this one and another. Hut now we 
want his land. It is important for our growing settle- 
ment at D'Urban that it should be in our possession ; 
therefore he must go. He is weak, and we are strong." 



VISITATION JOURNAL, 1850. 59 

If we are to pursue the system wliicli we have already 
in some degree adopted towards the native tribes, the 
same judgments from a just God which have already 
overtaken the Boers for their cruelties and injustice 
towards the poor heathen will assuredly come upon 
us. I fear we are treading in their steps. 

I should here observe that the local government, 
acting under the instructions of Earl Grey, who takes 
a deep interest in the condition of the natives, is about 
to fix the whole coloured population in ten locations. 
This had been decided upon for some time, but it has 
never yet been carried out, and the natives are quite un- 
certain as to the proper boundaries of their reserves. The 
Report of the Committee appointed for locating them, 
dated so far back as March, 1847, strongly recommends 
that all lands set apart for the natives should be vested 
in trustees for their use. I believe this to be a point of deep 
importance. Unless it be done, the natives will be gradu- 
ally deprived of their land. No local government will 
be able to withstand the restless and insatiate demands 
of the white man, even if its own wants did not tempt 
it to sell, from time to time, under various pretences 
which will always be forthcoming, property which has 
no legal owner, and is in the hands of government. The 
question is one which demands immediate attention, 
and should not be postponed. The Zoolu has now a 
great respect for the English. He hates the Dutch for 
their injustice. There is now a saying which is be- 
coming very common amongst them, which is, I think, 
a very affecting one ; when he sees or feels a wrong, he 
is in the habit of saying, " I should say it was wrong, if 
it was not done by an Englishman." His reverence for 
the English will not allow him to believe that they 
would willingly do a wrong; and yet he cannot alto- 
gether stifle his convictions. How long will this last? 

June lOi/i. — We rode this morning along the S.W. 
coast to Dr. Adams' Mission Station. The country is, 



60 BISHOP OF CAPETOWN'S 

I think, not quite equal to the eastern side of D'Urban, 
though it is throughout very pleasing, and we had oc- 
casionally some fine views of the sea. The distance was 
about twenty-four miles. Dr. and Mrs. Adams, though 
not expecting us to-day, received us very kindly. During 
our ride I mentioned to the Governor what I had heard 
about Umncni's removal. He knew nothing about it, 
and undertook to inquire into it on his return, and see 
justice done. 

Tuesday, Wth. — After breakfast this moniing, wc had 
an examination of Dr. Adams' school. There were 
fifty present, chiefly adults, and all dressed. There ivere 
present also some of the chiefs, with a few of their 
followers who had come to see Mr. Shepstone. They 
all sang a hymn very nicely. Two or three read the 
English Bible, and others read it in Kafir. I asked 
them a few elementary questions respecting the Chris- 
tian faith. The Governor put questions relating to their 
moral and social state. Their answers were satisfactory. 
Dr. Adams told us his school Avas not in a good state, 
in consequence of his inability to attend to it of late, 
through the ftiilure of his health. By two o'clock we 
reached, according to appointment, Mrs. Dunn's farm 
at Sea-view. Here I met a party of immigrants settled 
in the neighbourhood, and urged them to form a Com- 
mittee with a view to the erection of a church or 
churches, and the maintenance of a minister. One 
gentleman offered 100 acres of land for glebe, and it was 
thought that 200 or 300 acres would be given. I am to 
hear from them shortly. Mrs. Dunn gave us a cold 
collation under a fine tree in lier grounds. The situation 
of this farm is very beautiful. It commands an extensive 
view of the Bay and the surrounding country. Wc 
returned late in the evening to D'Urban. 

Wednesday, Villi. — This morning after Divine Service I 
consecrated the burial-ground. I afterwards returned 
several calls of the parishioners, which I had hitherto 



VISITATION JOURNAL, 1850. 61 

been unable to do. Two gentlemen, who had under- 
taken to collect subscriptions towards the support of 
a Clergyman or Catechist for the Cotton Company's 
land, called to report that they had raised upwards of 
60/., and to express their hope that the Catechist would 
be able also to undertake the office of teacher to their 
children, for which they promised additional payments. 
Mr. Morwood also, in behalf of another Company, 
volunteered a free passage out in any of their ships for 
a Clergyman or Schoolmaster, 500 acres of land for 
glebe, and sites for church, &c. in a new village about 
to be erected, provided I would undertake to send out 
a Clergyman. This I have agreed to do, though of 
course the glebe will provide no adequate support for 
some years. 

At four o'clock I attended a meeting of the parish- 
ioners of D'Urban, called with a view to promote the 
erection of the new church. It was decided that a 
church, for which I should furnish the plans, should be 
as soon as possible erected, to hold 250 persons. From 
the report of the Committee appointed at the last 
meeting to raise additional subscriptions, it appeared 
that upwards of 100/. had been collected, making a total 
of 450/. The church will cost 1,000/. Some of the 
parishioners took the opportunity of complaining that 
the benches in the schoolroom had been let. I told 
them that I had already expressed my opinion on that 
point to the minister and churchwardens, and, as they 
felt as I did on the point, would give directions that 
they should be free. They objected also to the payment 
of choir, clerk, and sexton, in their pi-esent impoverished 
state. As some gentlemen in the room offered to lead 
the choir gratuitously, I advised that a sum of 121. 
a-year only should be paid for a sexton. Complaint 
having also been made that 70/. had been taken from 
the church-building fund, and applied to the fitting up 
of the schoolroom, I suggested that the only way of 



62 BISHOP OF CAPETOWN S 

repaying it would be from the weekly offerings. It 
was arranged that they should be appropriated to this 
purpose and to the relief of the poor at present, though 
the Missions of the Church, and other works brought 
under the notice of the Church in my last pastoral letter, 
were not to be altogether overlooked. We drank tea 
at Mr. Lloyd's. The meeting lasted nearly four hours. 

Thursday, \Zth. — After passing a great part of the 
night in writing letters, I had a very busy morning, 
receiving by appointment several gentlemen wlio wished 
to make arrangements about Clergy and Schools. I 
licensed this morning Mr. Steele as Catechist and School- 
master to the immigrants on the Cotton Company's land. 
This gentleman came out of Ireland, highly recom- 
mended to me by many people of respectability. He 
is anxious to offer himself as a candidate for Holy 
Orders. After several conversations with him, I deter- 
mined to receive him as a candidate for the office of 
Catechist, and had him under examination the whole of 
yesterday. At twelve o'clock I started in my cart on 
my return to Maritzburg, the Governor following on 
horseback. We slept at Botha's that night, and arrived 
at the capital the next afternoon. 

Suiulai/, 1 Glh. — Preached at Mr. Green's. Seven o'clock 
service to the troops, who quite filled the School Chapel, 
which they have erected for themselves. Preached again 
at morning prayer. Mr. Green in the afternoon. Ex- 
amined the Sunday School ; I Mas glad to find the 
children evidently under good training. 

Wednesday, 19///. — Ilode with Mr. Green and Mr. 
Allison to Indaleni, the Mission Station of the latter. 
The day was very warm, and by the time we arrived at 
our destination I was so unwell that I was scarce able 
to enter with interest into an examination of the Mission 
people. After dinner, however, eight of the most ad- 
vanced and intelligent converts, whom Mr. Allison 
employs as teachers, sending them out to preach to the 



VISITATION JOURKAL, 1850. 63 

different kraals, came in and sat down upon the floor, 
and we had first an examination of them, and afterwards 
a conversation which lasted between two and three 
hours. I was much pleased with the account which 
they gave of their past Heathen and present Christian 
state. They showed an acqu.iintance Avith the leading 
doctrines of the Christian faith ; and, so far as I could 
judge, are sincere in the profession of it. They seemed all 
intelligent men, some of them remarkably so. 1 talked to 
them about witchcraft. Their opinion was that the witch- 
doctor had no supernatural power, but that all his preten- 
sions were delusions. They could not account for the 
universal belief prevalent amongst the heathen that he 
has such power. I asked themAvhetherin their heathen 
state they had any notion of the one true God? " No, 
they believed their ancestors were gods, some good, some 
evil." " Where did these gods dwell? " " Everywhere. 
They flitted about, some in smakes ; " consequently they 
never killed snakes. " Did they think the good and 
the evil, or only the evil, were in snakes?" " Both." 
" Did they worship their gods ? " " They offered sacri- 
fices to them." Any one ofl'ered these saci'ifices. 
They had no particular people for it. They afterwards 
ate the sacrifices. " What was their belief about them- 
selves when they died ? " " They would also be amongst 
the gods." " The good and the evil alike?" " Yes." 
" Did Panda, who was killing his subjects every day, 
think he would be amongst the gods when he died ? " 
" They did not suppose he ever thought on the matter." 
"Did his subjects think so?" "Yes." "Did they 
think there was much prospect of their countrymen, as 
a whole, embracing the Gospel ?" " They thought the 
prospect encouraging." 

After a sleepless night, we had an examination of 
such as were under instruction in the school, after 
breakfast. They sang, like all the natives of this land, 
very sweetly. Mr. Allison examined them in the 53d 



64 BISHOP OF CAPETOWN S 

chapter of the Propliet Isaiah. I addressed to them a 
lew Avords of encouragement and exhortation. After- 
wards some of them came down to wish me a good 
journey. I returned to Maritzburg the same day, taking 
in my way the ncAV village of Ivolo, which was being 
laid out. Some few of the immigrants had arrived, and 
were living in tents. They complained grievously of 
their not being able to get their land marked out. 
There were several from the Duke of Buccleuch's 
estates. These had been very liberally provided for by 
him. He had paid their passage out, and the expense 
of their land journey, — a most important point, but 
little thought of by poor emigrants in England, — had 
supplied them with ploughs and other implements, 
clothes, &c., and ordered that they should receive rations 
of flour till their crops came up. For this generous 
treatment they seemed very thankful. The only regret 
I felt was, that no provision seemed to be made for their 
spiritual wants. 

Mr. Allison's is, I think, upon the whole, the most 
advanced Mission station in the colony. He has alto- 
gether, I believe, 120 professing Christians. Several of 
these have already built houses in European fashion, 
and are cultivating enclosed gardens. He has twenty 
boys in his own house, maintained at an expenditure of 
3o0l. a-year; 110/. has been acquired by the labour of 
the people, chiefly, I believe, by the making of wheel- 
barrows, which have been taken by government. He 
has 10,000 acres of land, which he is allowed to occupy. 
Mr. Allison's position is somewhat anomalous. He 
belongs to the Wesleyan Society, who have ordered 
him to leave this station, which he is unwilling to do. 
He has appealed home, and is now awaiting the decision 
of his case. 

Saturday, 22d. — This morning I consecrated theburial- 
ground after Divine Service, the Governor and many of 
the congregation being present. At one o'clock we held 



VISITATION JOURNAL, 1850. 65 

a public meeting, to take into consideration the subject 
of the erection of the church. It appeared that during 
the sixteen months of Mr. Green's ministry, a sum of up- 
wards of 600^. had been raised in the parish for church 
purposes ; that of this, 200/. had been expended in the 
fitting up of the school, the purchase of land for the 
improvement of a site for the church, fencing in the 
burial-ground, maintenance of Divine worship, and in 
house rent for the clergyman, — and that, therefore, 400A 
remained. The grant of the Sociely for Promoting 
Christian Knowledge, and my subscription, made this 
altogether about 550/. A church to hold 250, of the 
simplest character, it was found, would cost 1,500^, 
Some were anxious that a fresh subscription should be 
opened, and the church immediately begun. But the 
majority of the meeting preferred depending upon the 
weekly offertory alone, being convinced that as much 
would be raised in that way, which they deemed more 
legitimate than the other. In the end it was decided that 
the windows, which would take the longest time to 
complete, should be immediately begun, and that the 
foundation of the building should be laid, but that the 
remainder of the church should not be contracted for 
until the churchwardens had 900/. actually in hand. 
I informed the meeting that the Secretary at War had 
refused 100/. a-year for a military chaplain. There are, 
therefore, 600 of our troops still dependent upon ser- 
vices voluntarily rendered to them; and the poor in 
England are giving their weekly pence to suppoi't a 
minister for Her Majesty's foixes. 

The meeting also fully agreed with me, that it would 
be most desirable, in the present circumstances of the 
colony, to invest in land a sura of 450/. placed in my 
hands for Church education in this district. 

Siindinj, 23d. — This morning I again preached in the 
military chapel, and afterwards in the church. Mr. Green 
preached in the afternoon. 
F 



66 BISHOP OF CAPETOWN 3 

Tuesday, 25th. — Confirmed at early prayer this morn- 
ing four more candidates, who had not been able to 
present themselves at the last confirmation. After- 
wards rode out with the governor and a large party to 
a review of about 900 Kafirs, who had been sum- 
moned for the purpose. We were on the ground some 
time before they made their appearance. After a little 
delay they came pouring down in several bands from 
the heights above us, chanting in a low monotonous 
tone a war-song. They then ranged themselves in a 
semicircular form in front of the Governor, Mr. Shep- 
stone, their chief, being at their head. When all had 
placed themselves, one, who acted as a kind of public 
orator or herald, decked \Aitli cows' tails, brass rings, 
and a variety of other ornaments, stood forth, and with 
most stentorian lungs proclaimed his chief's (Mr. Shep- 
stone's) praises. The people then shouted. Next, 
Mr. Shepstone rode up to the Governor, and did homage 
by surrendering to him bis sword. The people again 
shouted for the Governor, who then rode into the midst 
of them and addressed them. Afterwards, he proclaimed 
a new law against cattle stealing, which is commencing 
for the first time in the district. The law was, that 
every kraal to which stolen cattle should be traced, 
should pay a fine of five, for each ox stolen ; that every 
thief .should be " eaten up," that is, lose all his cattle, 
and should, besides, be well beaten. 

After the law was read, the people, through their 
orator, assured the Governor that they were his children, 
and w ould obey his law. They then began their war- 
songs and war-dances, which tribe after tribe continued 
for two or three hours. Their dresses were somewhat 
fantastic. Most had great feathers in their hair, or 
bunches of feathers, &c. dangling about their heads, 
and many were hung about with ox-tails. They had 
their shields, which covered nearly the whole body, and 
long sticks with them, but not their assegais. 'I here 



VISITATION JOURNAL, 1850. 67 

M'ns nothing vei'y striking in the dance. They moved 
generally slowly, in unison with their chant, which con- 
tinued all the time, and grew louder and louder as they 
proceeded. At times they worked themselves up to a 
high pitch of excitement, rushing forward very vehe- 
mently, beating the air with their sticks, and kicking Avith 
the knee or the foot against their shields. Occasionally 
some favourite warrior would rush out from the crowd, 
take several bounds in the air, and endeavour to show 
himself off to the best advantage. The applause which 
followed was proportioned to the estimation in which 
his prowess and valour were held. One man who was 
figuring away was recalled, his companions telling him, 
they never heard that he Avas a great Avarrior. Their 
wives and children were on the ground in considerable 
numbers, bringing melies and beer for the men. The 
Governor, however, had already provided them Avith 
ten or twelve oxen for their repast. Afterwards, they 
rushed in bands up and down the hill, exhibiting their 
mode of attack. Altogether, the sight Avas, I thought, 
painful and humiliating. The men looked more like 
demons than human beings. ^ 

(1) Mr. Shepstone's office, as respects the British Government, is that 
of diplomatic agent. In the eyes of the natives, he is, as I have said, 
as much their paramount chief, as Panda or Faku of their respective 
people. He governs tliem according to their own laws. The laws of the 
colony do not apply to them ; to attempt to govern them by our laws at 
present, would thoroughly unhinge them, and lead ere long to disturb- 
ances. It is only very gradually that they can he brought to submit to 
so great a change. Mr. Shepstone, in addition to the subordinate chiefs, 
is assisted, like all Kafir chieftains, by a body of counsellors. These 
are sixty in number, and are amongst the most intelligent men of the 
nation. Panda, who knows most of them, complimented him, he tells 
me, not long since, on his selection. A few of these men are always in 
attendance. Every day, sitting cross-legged on the ground, they hear 
cases. Their decision is generally a very sound one, and almost always 
confirmed by the " Kose." There is no lack of litigation. They are 
very fond of going to law, and plead acutely, and almost inierminably. 
The process is very tedious. They begin from the beginning, and men- 
tion every circumstance, whether relevant or irrelevant. If you cut 
fhem short, and tell them to get to the point, they will begin all over 



68 BISHOP OF Capetown's 

Wednesday. — I rode out to- day \wth tbe Governor 
to the station of Mr. Davies of the Wesleyan Society, 
There is no daily school here, and nothing to see but 
some tolerable mission premises. He said his con- 
gregation averaged from GO to 100 ; that he had ten 
Christians, four of whom were converts from this people ; 
that he had a tolerable Sunday-school, but that the 
people Avere opposed to a Day-school. A neighbouring 
chief with his tribe came to greet the Governor. He 
complained that the white man was daily encroaching 
upon the location, and that he was uncertain whether 
he would be allowed to stay on his land. The Governor 
told him, that so long as he and his people did well they 
need not be afraid of any, that he was to remain 
upon the location, and would not be disturbed. Upon 
inquiry of Mr. Davies, he stated that the land commission 
had given farms to individuals within the limits of the 
location, the boundaries of which had been fixed by 
proclamation, by the late Lieutenant-Governor. It 
appears absolutely necessary that some steps should be 
taken to secure to the natives the lands which have 
been assigned to them. The grasping selfishness of the 
white man will encroach upon them from year to year, 
unless something is done for their protection. If the 
matter is not soon settled permanently in one way or 
the other, whether by appointing trustees, or in some 
other way, my conviction is, that no local government, 
however honest and sincere in its desire to protect the 
weaker side, will be able long to resist the continual 
pressure from without. 

Sutiirday, June 29///. Si. Peler's Daij. — The third 
anniversary of my consecration. Little did I foresee 
three years ago the extent of the duties, anxieties, and 
responsibilities of the episcopal office, especially in a 

again. It is of no use being impatient, you cannot hurry thera. A 
Kafir can always talk against time. Every mornin;: a knot of suitors 
may be seen sitting on tlie ground round tlie cliiefs liouse, awaiting his 
appearance. 



VISITATION JOURNAL, 1850. 69 

diocese so circumstanced as this. Had I known, when 
summoned to take the oversight of the Church in this 
land, in all its fulness the nature of the work to which 
I have been called, or my own insufficiency for it, I had 
not dared to consent to bear the burden. Here is a vast 
colonj^, or rather a number of colonies, neglected, and 
almost abandoned by the Church for the previous half 
century. Within it there is a population of foreign 
extraction, hostile to the British Government, and to 
the Church as the representative of the British nation. 
Amongst its people, European or Heathen, nearly 200 
ministers, belonging to perhaps 20 different denomina- 
tions, have been labouring. In every village and town 
is to be found an English population, a large proportion 
of whom, amidst every discouragement and difficulty, 
have adhered with imshaken loyalty to the Church of 
their Baptism. P'or these, at one and the same moment 
a ministry has to be supplied, and churches to be erected, 
and at the same time wide and effectual doors appear 
to open out for the work of the conversion of the heathen. 
There is a general expectation too, in various quarters, 
that the Church will found Colleges or Grammar Schools 
at least, for the education of the upper classes of society. 
To meet all these demands, funds have been raised after 
great exertions, chiefly by friends in England, partly also 
from the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel, about 
equal to one-fifth of what the Wesleyans alone expend 
in South Africa, and little more than one-fifteenth of 
what is spent by all other Protestant denominations. 
I am speaking now of the annual 'n\covae raised to enable 
me to meet the Bills of the Clergy, who dravv upon me 
for their income. The absolute necessity of providing 
at once a ministry for our people, the diflBculty of devis- 
ing a satisfactory scheme for raising their contributions 
towards it, the uncertainty of my funds being found 
equal to the demands upon them, all these have, in a 
mere financial point of view, been a source of much 



7D BISHOP OF CAPETOWN'S 

anxiety. Tlien the jealous spirit of those who are not 
of us, and who are determined to interfere with us, u hose 
only desire and endeavour it is to live in peace and hive 
with all who are round about us, has been productive of 
much pain and distress. The political condition of the 
colony, too, which has led to a violence of temper and 
action with which the Church could have no sympathy, 
has added to our trouble. But, blessed be God, amidst 
all our infirmities His work has prospered : — churches 
are being everywhere erected — clergy have been supplied, 
though, alas! there are several places still destitute, 
v\here the people are most anxious for clergymen, but 
for which I am able to make no provision. And now 
there seems so plain and solemn a call upon the Church 
to enter heartily upon the work of the conversion of the 
heathen to the faith, that we may no longer refrain with- 
out sin, and fear of judgment. Oh, may God, of His 
great goodness, raise up duly qualified men, and provide 
the requisite means'! May He bless the work of His 
Church in this land. May He give wisdom, and faithful- 
ness, and zeal, and patience, and perseverance, and love 
to His ministering servants, and may He give to His 
people, here and everywhere, a spirit of humility, and 
faith, and holiness, and zeal for the honour and glory of 
His great name! 

Sundaij, 30///. — Preached both morning and afternoon. 
At the Communion there were ;;5 present. In the 
afternoon I touched upon such points as I thought i^ 
important to bring under the notice of the Church before 
leaving this part of the diocese, to wliich I cannot hope 
to return for some time to come. The chief subjects 
upon which I spoke were our responsibilities as a Church, 
and as individual members of Christ, towards the heathen 
amidst whom we dwell; and the conduct of the Church 
under trials, arising from the bitter and unprovoked 
assaults of its enemies. 

Julj \st. — I have been much employed since ray 



VISITATION JOURNAL, 1850. 71 

return from the Bay in carrying on a correspondence 
with Government respecting ecclesiastical matters ; and 
in maturing a scheme for a Mission work among the 
1 15,000 heathen in the district of Natal. As this scheme 
may come to nothing either from want of co-operation 
upon the part of Government, or inability on my part to 
raise the funds, or procure the men needed for carrying 
it out, I put it on record here, that it may serve to show 
at least what was attempted to be done. 

Proposals for the formation of certain Institutions for the 
benefit of the heathen population in the district of Natal. 

It is understood that ten locations are being formed for 
the exclusive use of the coloured race. Each location 
to contain within it on an average not less than 10,000 
souls. It is proposed that in each of these locations at 
least one Institution should be founded to embrace the 
following objects : — 

1. The conversion of the heathen to the faith of 
Christ. 

2. The education of the young. 

3. The formation of industrial habits. 

4. The relief of the sick and afflicted. 

That with a view to this there be included within the 
Institution a Day-school, Boarding-school, Home for 
Orphans, and the germ of an Hospital. 

That a clergyman be at the head of each Institution, 
and that he be aided in the industrial and educational 
part of the work by teachers selected for that purpose. 

That all the pupils who resort to the Institution be 
fully instructed in the Christian religion. 

That in addition to the ordinary instruction given in 
elementary schools in England, the male pupils be 
practically taught gardening, farming, and certain 
mechanical arts; the female pupils, sewing, cooking, 
washing, &c., the whole of the household work being 
performed by them. 



72 BISHOP OF CAPETOWN S 

That the members of the Institution (who shall, if 
possible, have some acquaintance with medicine) under- 
take the charge of the patients, who shall in cases of 
necessity be visited by the medical practitioner of the 
district, appointed and paid by Government for that 
purpose. 

That sufTicient land be granted to enable each Institu- 
tion to exhibit a model farm and garden in operation, 
and to Ecrow sufficient grain, vegetables, &c. for its own 
consumption. 

That Government guarantee in aid of each Institution 
as it becomes established, the sum of 300/. a-yeaf. This 
orant to be for five years certain, but liable to be reviewed 
at that period. That the Bishop endeavour to obtain 
a free passage from England in some of the emigrant 
ships for the clergymen, a\ ith their assistants and families, 
but that, should he be unable to do this, the Govern- 
ment pay for the same. 

That, inasmuch as it appears to be doubtful whether 
it would be desirable that a shop be attached to the 
Institution, it remain with the Visitor hereafter to decide 
in each particular case. 

That the accounts of each Institution, so long as it 
continues to receive assistance from Government, be 
open to its inspection; and, if required, an annual 
account of receipts and expenditure be transmitted to 
Government. 

That the Bishop of the Diocese be, ex officio, Visitor 
of the Institutions. 

The plan here sketched out is further developed in 
the following letters addressed to the Lieutenant 
Governor : — 

p. Marifzburg, June 17, 1850. 

Sir, — I beg to submit for your Honour's consideration 
the enclosed scheme for the improvement of the heathen 



VISITATION JOURNAL, 1850. 73 

popvilation of this land. It is unnecessarj^, I feel assured, 
for me to discuss the duty or the necessity of the Govern- 
ment's adopting some measures for their benefit. The 
obligation has been recognised both here and at home ; 
and has been pressed by Earl Grey upon the attention 
of the local Government. It is, I apprehend, felt by 
every one, that if the coloured race in the dependency of 
Natal, already amounting, as I am informed, to 115,000, 
and still increasing in numbers, is to be saved first from 
contamination, and ultimately from annihilation, through 
its intercourse with the white race now pouring itself 
into the country in large masses, as has unhappily too 
often been the case, immediate steps must be taken to 
educate it in the fullest and highest sense of the word. 
The education that I propose is one that embraces the 
physical, as well as the mental and moral improvement 
of the people. I desire to see them taught an industrial 
system, in combination with the ordinary instruction 
usually given in elementary schools. Above all do I 
trust, that at least the opportunity maybe afforded them 
of embracing the Christian faith, under the teaching of 
zealous pastors. With a view to this I have proposed, 
that in each of the locations about to be formed an 
Institution should be founded similar in many respects 
to those adopted by the Moravians in other countries, 
which, under the superintendence of a clergyman, should 
combine with religious teaching an extended system of 
secular and industrial education ; and at the same time 
afford a home where those who are suffering from sick- 
ness or disease should both be nursed, and receive the 
benefit of such medical treatment as the Institution 
might be able to afford. The scheme also embraces 
the instruction of a limited number of children of both 
sexes as boarders in the Institution, in the hope that 
there may thereby be gradually raised up a body of 
teachers, who both by example and direct instruction 
may exercise a beneficial influence over others. The 



74 BISHOP OF CATETOWN S 

chief obstacle in carrying out the plan that I have pro- 
iioscd, would arise from the difficulty of raising sufficient 
funds for maintaining it. As it appears, however, that 
Earl Grey has given instructions that the hut-tax imposed 
upon the heathen, already amounting to 8,000/. a- 
year, and expected to increase, should be expended 
for the immediate benefit of those from whom it is 
raised, I apprehend that there is no way in which a 
portion of it could be more appropriately and beneficially 
emploj^ed than in the formation and maintenance of such 
Institutions as I have proposed. I have, therefore, 
suggested that 300/. a-year should be set apart for each 
Institution. Should your Honour see fit to approve of 
this, and it should receive the sanction of His Excellency 
and Earl Grey, I should be prepared to attempt the 
formationof such Institutions, upon receiving a guarantee 
that they would meet with the support of Govei-nment 
for a limited period. The Institutions to be under the 
sole control of the Bishop of the Diocese, and those 
whom he may appoint under him. This would involve 
me in considerable pecuniary responsibilities, as the 
expense of founding and maintaining the proposed 
establishments would undoubtedly be great. I would, 
however, cheerfully undertake this ; and should be pre- 
pared, within a Cew months after my return to Capetown, 
luiless delayed by the contemplated alterations in the 
political institutions of the coimtry, to proceed to 
England, expressly for the purpose of raising the neces- 
sary funds, and selecting the agents for carrying on the 
work. I need not, I feel assured, impress upon your 
Honour's observation, that the very interesting people 
whom the providence of God has so remarkably brought 
under British rule and protection, is apparently ripe 
for the introduction of such a system as I have proposed, 
that they are looking to us as their guides and instructors, 
and would readily submit to our teaching. Nor need 
I do more than just remark, th.at the system and con- 



VISITATION JOURNAL, 1850. 75 

stitution of the Church are singularly adapted to their 
existing notions of law and government ; and that the 
character of its teaching must ever be such as to make 
them loyal and obedient subjects of the British Crown, 
— a subject well worthy of the attention of Government, 
considering thecounter-influences which can scarce fail to 
be at work, in a country so peculiarly situated as this is. 
I have only, in conclusion, to add, that I should be glad 
that the scheme which I now propose should, if your 
Honour see fit to approve of it, be submiUed, before any 
actual steps are taken, to the diplomatic agent, Mr. 
Shepstone, who is regarded by the whole native popula- 
tion as their paramount chief, and than whom no man 
is more competent to give an opinion on the subject. 
I have the honour to be, 
Sir, 
Your obedient Servant, 

R. Capetown. 

The following private letter accompanied the fore- 
going public and official one : — 

P. Maritzburg, June 19, 1S50. 

Dear Sir, — I have, during my visits with you to the 
several locations for the natives on the coast, been en- 
deavouring to mature a scheme, which, while it should 
benefit the coloured race of this land, both in a 
temporal and spiritual way, should aid the Government 
in the difficult duties which will devolve upon it under 
the peculiar and rapidly changing circumstances of the 
country. We all see that the heathen who are round 
about us are in a transition state, — that they are being 
trained for good or for evil by the white man from day 
to day. Already has a great change taken place in 
many of them, and this will be the case in an increased 
degree, as the tide of immigration, now setting in so 
strongly, extends over the land. Ere long the power 



76 BISHOP OF Capetown's 

of the chief, upon Avhich the good government of the 
people at present mainly depends, will melt away. It 
is already in certain instances much diminished. What 
moral influence have we at work to supply the place 
of the fading power of the chiefs, Avhich has hitherto 
been relied upon for restraining this people? Unhap- 
pily there is but little. A few foreign missionaries, 
owning no allegiance to the Britisli Government, and 
opposed upon principle to our institutions, cannot, 
however good and zealous they may be, meet the 
necessities of the case ; and yet, with the exception of 
two or three Wesleyans, no other agency is at work for 
the benefit of this very interesting people, whom we 
have taken under our charge. After visiting most of 
the Mission stations in the colony, and conversing with 
those who take the deepest interest in the matter, I am 
satisfied that Institutions similar to those which I have 
proposed to found, are most suited to the existing 
wants of the natives, and the best calculated to 
transform them gradually into a religious, loyal, and 
industrious people. Should your Honour agree with me, 
and think my plan feasible, I shall very readily enter 
into it, and labour to bring it into effectual operation. 
If I could see that there was a prospect of my being 
able to carry it out without any assistance from 
Government, I would, for many reasons, prefer doing 
so. But in the present weak state of the Church 
throughout the whole Diocese, requiring as it does, 
in all its parts, liberal aid from the mother Church, I 
see no prospect of my being able to bear the whole 
expense of the undertaking. I propose, therefore, that 
the Government should help forwai'd the work, out of 
the fund collected through the hut-tax ; and I have the 
less scruple in doing this, as I understand that it is in 
accordance with Lord Grey's views that the amount 
raised should be spent for the immediate benefit of the 
tax-payer; and I can conceive of no way in which it 



VISITATION JOURNAL, 1850, 77 

could be appropriated more advantageously to liim 
than by that Avhich I have suggested. Roads and 
bridges, and other material improvements, would at 
present be of little benefit to the Kafir who lives 
amongst his mountains and valleys, and always travels 
on foot. I have endeavoured to make some calculation 
as to the probable expense of each Institution, and I 
have come to the conclusion that the buildings, including 
accommodation for 50 pupils, — a hospital or infirmary, 
— a residence for several families of teachers — school — 
chapel, &c., could not when completed cost less than 
1,000/. : they would probably cost much more. To 
this must be added the expense of stock for the farm, — 
wagon, implements, &c. The annual cost, were the 
establishment complete, and the Institution full, would 
not, I think, be less at first than 600/. a-year. Ultimately 
it might perhaps be made very nearly to pay its own 
. expenses. Missionaries at present pay 5s. a-raonth to 
each pupil, and they reckon the cost of each at 5s. a- 
month. Girls are rather more expensive, as the parent 
takes the wages, and leaves the Missionary to clothe 
them.' 50 pupils at this rate would cost 300/. a-year. 
I reckon this item at 250/. To this I add 50/. a-year 
as the probable expense of a hospital or infirmary, — 
50/. a-year for repairs and incidental expenses, — and 
250/. a-year for the maintenance of the officers of the 
Institution and their families. These woiild probably 
be four ; a principal, schoolmaster, mechanic, and 
agriculturist. The whole expense to Government 
would be little more than the cost of a single school 
and schoolmaster in each location. There would be 
no shadow of a ground of complaint upon the part of 
other bodies of Christians that fhei}' money was applied 
for the promotion of a Church Avork. The money is 
drawn exclusively from the heathen, and is to be ex- 

(1) I liave since found that this is not the case, at least in one 
instance. 



78 BISHOP OF CAPETOWN S 

pcnded exclusively for the heathen, in such way as 
Government shall deem most conducive to their welfare. 
I should have entered more fully into the scheme, had 
I not felt that circumstances aud experience might lead 
to a considcKible modification of it. As the various 
Institutions can only be slowly and gradually formed, 
both on account of the difficulty of obtaining- the 
requisite funds and suitable agents for carrying on the 
work, there will be ample opportunity for any al- 
terations or improvements in the details. I have only 
to add, that the working out of the plan, if I engage in 
it, must be left altogether to myself. If I am in any 
way to be responsible for its success, I must have the 
entire control of it. Of course, however, I shall be 
happy at any time to furnish information respecting 
the various Institutions, and I should desire that their 
accounts should be inspected from time to time. 

I am, dear Sir, very truly yours, 

R. Capetown. 

This scheme, the Lieutenant-Governor informed me, 
he highly approved of ; but saw difficulties in the way of 
its entire adoption. These difficulties related chiefly to 
the divided religious condition of the colony. What 
he has undertaken to do, when laying my proposal 
before Earl Grey, is " to suggest the question whether 
an arrangement might be made by which, upon certain 
terms, the secular instruction of these people might be 
committed to the See." Should this be decided upon, 
it would meet my views, and enable me, I trust, to 
carry out my plan. The State would then supply 
the means for their secular, — the Church for their 
religious education. 

July \st. — My last day at Maritzburg. I leave this 
colony after a little more than six weeks' residence in 
it, with a mind full of hopes and fears for the future. 



VISITATION JOURNAL, 1850. 79 

One most important question is that of the coloured 
population. It is essential for the sake of the whole 
colony, white as well as black, that well-considered 
and well-digested plans should be adopted for the 
moral, religious, and social improvement of the natives; 
and should the present time be allowed to slip 
by, there will be no possibility of redeeming it. 
Another source of anxiety is the religious condition 
of the immigrants now pouring in in large masses. 
New villages are springing up in every direction, and 
yet I dare not invite clergy out to take the spiritual 
charge of them. I have no funds to fall back upon — ■ 
nothing upon which I can depend for the maintenance 
of a ministry for a few years to come, until the people 
shall be in a condition to build their own churches and 
support their own pastors. May God in His mercy 
provide a remedy. " Thy kingdom come." 

Tuesday, July 2d, 1850.— This day I left Pieter Maritz- 
burg, on my way to Graham's Town, through the 
Southern parts of this colony — Faku's country, — and 
British KafFraria. My first resting-place is to be King 
William's Town, distant about 450 miles. I allow 
myself till the 20th of the month for the performance 
of the journey, but think it very probable that I may 
be much longer, as no vehicle drawn by horses has 
ever been through the country before, and the mountains 
are pronounced to be almost impassable. Indeed, Mr. 
Harding, the Crown Prosecutor, who has just returned 
with three ox-wagons from Faku's country, persists iu 
maintaining that I shall never reach King William's 
Town in my cart. However, there is no help for it, 
therefore I must make the best of it. Mr. Shepstone, 
who is unable himself to accompany me as he wished, 
has arranged, with the Governor's consent, for his 
brother to do so, until I fall in with Mr. Fynn, who has 
engaged to meet me on the banks of the Umzumkulu 
on Thursday, his business compelling him to go round 



80 BISHOP OF CAPETOWN S 

by the Bay. This will secure me civility and assistance 
from all the Kafirs, and I shall never be without one 
who can speak the language of the country. I started 
after breakfast. The Governor, the Recorder, Mr. 
Shepstone, Dr. Stanger, and several other gentlemen rode 
out some distance with me. We took luncheon at an 
intelligent Dutch farmer's, (Mr. Zederberg from the 
Cape,) who had sent me an invitation. I slept at Mr. 
AUison's Mission station, Indaleni, and was again 
hospitably entertained. Almost the whole country is 
now burnt up, and is as black as a cinder. It wears a 
very gloomy appearance. We had an instance to-day 
of tlie danger of buming the grass, as is now universally 
done, and will continue to be, I fear, till there is 
sufficient stock to eat it down. We met an English- 
man with his wife in a wagon, who had just been burnt 
out of his tent, and had lost everything ; amongst other 
things, a little child, as he supposed, but which we 
afterwards learnt had been discovered, somewhat burnt, 
near some very long grass, where it had lain two whole 
days and nights. I saw the poor child, which was a 
very interesting one. 

Wednesday.— This morning Ave were joined by our 
three Kafirs who are to be our guides. One only had 
his shield and assegai. They all took an unconscion- 
able quantity of snuff, which they administered to 
themselves with ivory spoons, usually carried in the 
hair. We had a very difficult day's journey over the 
mountains. Some of the descents were fearful. I won- 
dered how my man was able to drive down them. I 
thought several times that cart and horses would all 
have rolled together down the mountain. The ascents 
-were no better. At one very steep place the horses 
fairly refused to go on. After several vain attempts to 
"•et them up it, we parlially unloaded the cart, and I ran 
before them, leading them with a rein, as they knew me 
almost as well as Ludwig. The Kafirs ran behind with 



VISITATION JOURNAL, 1850. 81 

Stones to stop the cart from going back at the resting 
places. I never remember to have been more oppressed 
by any exertion. Had the hill been a little longer, I 
am sure I should have fainted ; as it was, my legs quite 
gave way, and 1 nearly fell. I did not recover myself 
for half an hour. I walked nearly the whole way, 
thinking that I was better able to carry myself than 
the horses were to draw me. We passed the night in 
a valley half way up a mountain. In the morning we 
discovered that the horses had strayed. We did not find 
them till past eight o'clock. We traced their spoor for 
three miles up the mountain. Fortunately there were 
some sandy spots which showed distinctly that they 
were before us ; otherwise we might have been looking 
for them all day, for we should hardly have supposed 
that they had gone so far. Observing some marks of a 
human foot, we had, just before finding them, almost 
come to the conclusion that some Kafir or Bushman 
had stolen them. This threw us out for the whole day, 
and we were not able to reach the Urazumkulu this 
evening as we had intended. Some part of the country 
through which we have passed is fine ; there is still, 
however, a deficiency of wood, and one sees nothing but 
mountains with narrow valleys separating them. There 
may be plains in Natal, but I have not seen them ; nor 
do I know of any country in the world which is so 
mountainous, though the mountains are not very high. 
We outspanned for the night by the banks of a little 
stream ; The Kafirs in the neighbourhood brought us 
sticks for our fire, new milk, and a few melies, which 
are very scarce, for our horses. They brought us, also, 
a calf as an offering or tribute, which it is customary to 
bring to a great chief (which Mr. Shepstone is con- 
sidered to be) as he passes through the country on a 
journey. After we had done our supper, I gave them 
some of our hard biscuits, which they had never seen 
before, and did not know what to make of; also some 

G 



82 BISHOP OF CAPETOWN'S 

sugar, which they pronounced very good, and said it 
was honey; I then gave them some tea, made very sweet, 
which they thought best of all. We supposed they 
would not know the value of money, and Mr. Shepstone 
told them he would give them some beads for their 
melies when they next came to town. I thought, 
however, I would try them with money, and gave them 
half-a-crown, telling them it would pay one-third of next 
year's hut-tax. One of them at once knew w hat it was, 
and they seemed to rejoice in their good luck. They 
left us apparently very happy. These people all belong 
to Dushani, who formerly was a great chief, but has 
been reduced by his incessant wars with Chaka, Faku, S:c. 
The people whom we met were all quite naked, which 
is not the case with any other Kafirs that I have seen. 
They were all, even lads of twelve or thirteen, circum- 
cised. Mr. Shepstone says that they eat their meat raw, 
and are very ^a arlike. Many of them paint their faces. 
Friday, 5th. — We could hardly get away this morning 
from the Kafirs, who brought us an abundance of melies 
on their heads, in baskets. Our kind treatment of them 
last night seems to have encouraged others to come 
and take their chance. Those who had had some sugar 
last night begged for a little for those who had not. 
We have had a most disastrous day's journey, and yet 
have much cause for thankfulness. We ascended the 
mountain which overhangs the Umzumkulu well 
enough : but in our descent we came to some very 
broken ground, but yet not worse than much that we 
have passed safely over. Just, however, as I was offer- 
ing up thanksgiving for escape from danger, I saw my 
cart roll over. In an instant it was turned completely 
upon its head, quite crushing the tent, and the wheelers 
were upon their backs, with their feet in the air. 
Ludwig was invisible, being under the cart. We extri- 
cated him with some difficulty, and found that by God's 
great mercy he was not in the least hurt : — he had not 



VISITATION JOURNAL, 1850. 83 

even a bruise. In a short time we managed to release 
the horses, and then with the assistance of some Kafirs 
turned the cart over. We found it considerably damaged, 
but Ludwig, who is a most invaluable and indefatigable 
man, bound it together with " riems." We then packed 
some of our goods on the horses' backs, and carried the 
rest ourselves with the aid of the Kafirs, having pre- 
viously sent the empty cart a considerable distance in 
adv.ance, the ground being still very rough. The 
country here is thickly inhabited by Kafirs, who were 
not always civil. One chief man of a kraal, on being 
asked for some milk, said he would get some if we 
would pay for it. The same man refused to send a 
messenger to his chief Dushani to tell him of our 
arrival. Upon Mr. Shepstone, however, threatening 
him, he found a man. After leaving this place we had 
still a very difficult country to travel over. It Avas a 
plain intersected by a great number of deep ravines. 
There was no road, not even a track or path to guide 
us. I was amazed that we got safe through our dif- 
ficulties ; we broke our harness in several places in 
doing so ; but arrived at the Umzumkulu before sunset. 
This is a fine broad river, and the country about it may 
be called beautiful, though there is a great sameness in 
all the mountainous parts of Natal. In coming out of 
the drift our horses stuck fast, being unable to drag the 
cart out. After taking the luggage off, we managed to 
get safe to land, and outspanned just on the bank of 
the river where I had agreed to meet Mr. Fynn, who, 
however,did not make his appearance. Some of the grass 
about us was at least eight feet high ; the horses were 
quite lost in it. I feel thankful to Almighty God that 
the accident which has befallen us this day has not been 
attended with more mischief Both man and horses 
might easily have been killed. This loss of my cart, 
however, seems to me like the loss of a home. I read 
in it, wrote in it, slept in it, in fact, lived in it, — for it 



S4 BISHOP OF CAPETOWN'S 

tas been my chief home for some months. Now I am 
without shelter, but, thank God, it is not a season of 
the year when we may expect mucli rain. It is sinc^ular 
that the two worst accidents which I have had in all my 
South African travels, should have happened in coming 
into, and going out of. Natal. My exit was not much more 
dignified than my entrance, for I drove on foot four of 
my horses for a considerable distance, and had a knap- 
sack on my back, and two other packages in my hands. 
Poor Ludwig insisted upon my occupying at night bis 
bed under the cart, though I was loth to rob him of his 
comfortable berth. I reckon the actual distance from 
Maritzburg to the Umzumkulu to be eighty miles. I have 
walked nearly the whole of this, and shall probably 
have to walk most of the way to King William's Town, 
as my cart, in consequence of the accident, is quite 
filled up with luggage. 

SaUirday. — After bathing this morning again in the 
Umzumkulu, as I did after sunset last night, I started 
on foot with a Kafir guide, but waited at a bad drift 
for the cart. When it came up, Ludwig informed me 
that he had, at starting, had another tipset precisely 
similar to that of yesterday. He was again under the 
cart, and both he and the horses once more, by God's 
great mercy, escaped without injury. The only addi- 
tional damage to the cart was a considerable crack in 
the pole, which would undoubtedly have broken, had it 
not been for the iron plate ^vhich was under it. In the 
early part of the day we had some very difficult drifts. 
I was quite glad to find myself ascending a mountain 
again. Before starting, I dreaded the ascents and 
descents of the mountains more than anything; but 
since I have been out, I have learnt that there is more 
danger in a plain perpetually intersected by ravines. 
We arrived at the Ibesi river just as it grew dark. It 
was well that we were enabled to reach it, for the whole 
country for the last fifteen miles was burnt up, and not 



VISITATION JOURNAL, 1850, 85 

a blade of grass was to be seen. The day being windy, 
the ashes were blown in clouds across our path, which 
rendered travelling very disagreeable. The atmosphere 
from this and other causes, such as burning the grass, 
&c., has been so hazy for the last few days, that I have 
scarcely been able to see anything of the country. In 
the course of the day, a messenger from Mr. P'ynn over- 
took us, to say that he had been detained by illness, and 
the knocking up of his horses, and that he would meet us 
to-night at a place where two roads met. We, however, 
saw nothing of him. The greater part of the country 
through which we have passed to-day is uninhabited. 
It appears to be at least equal in fertility to any part of 
the Natal District. The neighbourhood of the Umzum- 
kulu seems admirably adapted for farms. 

Sunday, July 7th.— After passing a tolerable night 
under the cart with Mr. Shepstone for a companion, 
there being just room for two, I took my usual bathe 
in the Ibesi, but did not like to venture very far for 
fear of crocodiles, which, for aught I know, were lurking 
amidst the reeds. After breakfast I endeavoured to 
give some religious instruction to our three Kafirs, 
Mr. Shepstone kindly interpreting. I spent a most 
interesting hour with them. They had heard some- 
thing of the Christian religion, having been formerly in 
the neighbourhood of a Missionary. They said they 
thought at first very lightly of Christianity, but that 
they began to think there must be something very 
great in it. They listened with much attention and 
apparent interest while I explained to them the Being 
and Nature of the true God, and told them that He was 
their Maker and Preserver. They said that in their 
ignorant state they had some sort of idea of a Great 
Preserver, different from and above their gods, who had 
been their ancestors. I told them God had given us 
certain commandments, would they like to hear them ? 
They said, Yes. I then went through several of them. 



86 BISHOP OF CAPETOWN'S 

This led me to speak of the nature of sin, and the 
punishment of it ; of a Redeemer, of repentance, and of 
I'aith. They appeared very much struck with God's 
attributes of love and mere}', so difi'erent from anything 
they knew of or had experienced from men. After 
speaking to them about praying to God, and asking 
them if they understood me, they said, " Yes, it was like 
going to their chief and asking him to forgive them any 
fault." They expressed astonishment at being told 
that God forgave those who Avere sorry for sin, and left 
off sinning. Very few chiefs ever did this. I spoke to 
them of the torments of hell, and the happiness of 
heaven. While speaking upon this latter subject, I asked 
them if they were happy, or ever had been so ; they 
said, " No ; how should they?" I thought my endeavour 
to explain to them the blessedness of the saved, some- 
what affected them. When I asked them, if they 
would like me to send them a teacher to instruct them 
about God, they said they Avould wish it very much. 
Would they listen to what he told them? They would, 
and would tell their friends and children what I had told 
them. Would they give oxen and melies to feed a 
teacher from God? To this they did not like to pledge 
themselves ; but they said they thought their chief 
would. I told them, I should like much to send them 
a man of God ; but he would have to come from a great 
w ay beyond the sea, and he would be poor ; and if one 
came amongst them, they must do what tliey could for 
him. They promised that from this time they would pray 
to God and try to keep His commandments. I told them 
that, if they did this with all their hearts, God would 
give them more light and knowledge. Upon telling them 
that this was the holy day of Christians, and that 
though we prayed to God every day, yet this was our 
chief day of prayer, and that they must be very quiet 
while we prayed; they doubled themselves up close 
beside us, and put their carosses over their faces while 



VISITATION JOURNAL, 1850. 87 

I offered the prayers of the Church. In this land of 
darkness and the shadow of death, cold indeed must he 
be, who prays not fervently and frequently, " Thy king- 
dom come." 

my God, raise up, I pray Thee, faithful pastors who 
may teach these lost ones the way of life. Stir up the 
hearts of many within Thy Church, to offer of their 
substance for the establishment and maintenance of a 
Mission-work in this diocese; and bless the means 
which Thy poor weak servant shall adopt for the con- 
version to the faith of multitudes in this land, who 
neither know Thee nor serve Thee. 

1 feel more and more the importance of going home 
next year, if spared so long, and if the affairs of the 
Diocese will admit of it, to awaken the conscience of the 
Church at home, with reference to the myriads of im- 
mortal souls in this land, for whom, as yet, little or 
nothing has been done. In the afternoon two more 
guides, who knew the country better than those who 
were with us, came up with us. They brought a strong 
calf from their chief Dushani as a present. They made, 
after their arrival, some feeble efforts to catch it, that 
they might kill it for supper; but we saw plainly that 
they wished to keep it, knowing full well that if we did 
not eat it, it would become their property. Though our 
commissariat is getting low, in consequence of our being 
obliged to feed so many mouths, I was quite willing 
that the poor beast's life should be spared. The after- 
noon I spent in writing a sermon by the river-side. 
We then had evening prayer ; and after dark another 
long conversation with the new comers. I was much 
pleased with one of them. He spoke of the peace and 
quiet and protection they enjoyed under the British 
Government, so different from the former state of things 
under Chaka, who had devastated the whole country, 
and so destroyed the various tribes, that the one to 
which these Kafirs belonged, a very small one, was 



88 BISHOP OF Capetown's 

made up of the remnants of several. He spoke also 
with great gratitude of Mr. Fynn, who, he said, had 
saved tlie lives of many of them, and to whom they 
and many other small tribes looked up as their chief. 
I like these savages, and could be well content to settle 
down amongst them, and endeavour to teach them the 
things of God. 

Monday, 8th. — We had a blustering night, and but 
little sleep. It blew almost a hurricane, so that more 
than once I thought the cart would have gone over. 
Our curtains were but little protection to us. I felt for 
my poor Kafirs who were lying out in the long grass 
almost naked. We were just in-spanning in the morn- 
ing, and I had settled with Mr. Shepstone that he 
should not go on further with us, as the country we were 
about to travel over was quite uninhabited, when some 
one said, that he heard voices shouting. In a short 
time two Kafirs came up, who told us that Mr. Fynn 
had slept near us, and had sent them to inquire whether 
we were at the drift. Thus at the very moment when 
we were about to lose our guide and to travel through 
an unknown and desolate country, without understand- 
ing one word of the language of those whom we were 
likely to meet, he whom we had been looking for so 
long in vain, appeared. I was very thankful for God's 
providential care of us. Shortly after, Mr. Fynn him- 
self came up, and we started again on our journey. 
The whole country was burnt up as far as we could 
see, and we were thankful to find a patch of withered 
grass and some muddy water for our cattle. The road 
was much better than any we have yet passed over since 
we left Maritzburg,but the country looked very dreary, 
though it clearly is rich and fertile. The moles and 
worms had so turned up the soil since the fire had 
passed over it, that it was precisely like ploughed land. 
There was not an inhabitant or a hut to be seen. Mr. 
Fynn thinks there are about 100 miles square un- 



VISITATION JOURNAL, 1850. 89 

inhabited. This is part of the country depopulated by 
Chaka ; and it is a portion of the district to which Faku 
has ceded his right for 100 head of cattle. I have had 
this day a great deal of interesting conversation with 
Mr. Fynn, who has been twenty-seven years in the 
country, and who is now British Resident in these parts. 
He is convinced, as I think every one must be, that in 
the order of Providence, British rule will probably ere 
long extend from Graham's Town to near Delagoa Bay. 
We took up our quarters for the night near some 
clumps of trees, around which some small remains of 
unburnt grass were to be found, affording some hope of 
a scanty meal for our poor jaded horses. I felt it quite 
a luxury to have the enclosure under my cart to myself 
again, for Mr. Fynn would not share it with me ; but I 
begin to feel there is some truth in the saying, that if 
you wish to sleep well on the ground you must dig two 
holes, one for your shoulder, and one for your hip. 
My bones are getting sore with the hardness of my 
couch ; but as I walk nearly the whole time from sun- 
rise to sunset, I am generally sufficiently tired to sleep 
well at night. In the morning we found our horses had 
strayed to a great distance, in a vain search for food ; 
I was out for two hours looking for them. We had a 
difficult day's journey over a succession of mountains 
and valleys. Our late disasters have made us use every 
endeavour to prevent a repetition of them. Conse- 
quently, wherever the country is uneven, we hold the 
cart down with a riem. Down steep descents we do the 
same. This is very fatiguing, as it requires to be done 
constantly, but I feel it a duty to do it, as any neglect 
would again endanger the life of my driver. We have 
had to-day constantly to put our shoulders to the wheel 
to get our cart out of its difficulties, for some of the 
drifts are so muddy and steep that the horses cannot 
drag it out of them. One of Mr. Fynn'a horses quite 
knocked up, and he was obliged to leave it on the road. 



90 BISHOP OF CAPETOWN S 

The whole country is still burnt up in every direction 
as far as we can see. We Ibnnd, however, here and 
there a patch which afforded a scanty meal for our 
horses. The only tine feature in the country that I have 
seen for the last day or two is a high range of moun- 
tains which we kept all day on our right. Beneath it 
was some forest scenery. I walked nearly every step 
of the way to-day, and can generally keep up with the 
cart, gaining in the ascents what I lose in the descents, 
or on level ground, of which latter, however, it is very 
rarely that we find a few hundred yards. I am surprised 
to find that Mr. Fynn knows nothing of the country, 
nor does his Kafir guide ; our only help in finding our 
way has been what we suppose to be the track of Mr. 
Harding's wagons, when he came, a few weeks since, this 
way to negotiate with Faku for the surrender of his 
land. I know that he took a very bad road in his way 
down ; and I have every reason to fear that we are 
following in his steps. After outspanning for the night, 
I had another very pleasant evening's conversation with 
"Mr. Fynn about Kafir habits, customs, manners, &c. 
He mentioned several circumstances showing a simi- 
larity between their customs and those of the Jews. 
Circumcision of course was one ; the marrying of a 
deceased brother's widow for the express purpose of 
raising up children to his brother, was another. The 
sprinkling of the door-posts of their huts on certain 
occasions, sacrifice, purification after touching a dead 
body, were amongst the number. It was also their habit 
to shave their heads in seasons of mourning, — no 
Jewish custom indeed, but practised by Job and others. 
The country we have passed through to-day is wholly 
uninhabited, we saw no traces of human beings or of 
human dwellings. The whole of the coast, or nearly 
the whole, is inhabited, and Mr. Fynn informs me that 
it is a much more interesting country, being close by 
the sea, and abounding in wood. At one time I had 



VISITATION JOURNAL, 1850. 91 

some thoughts of going that way, bixt I believe I should 
have been delayed several days while a road was being 
cut out for me through the bush. We lose, however, a 
good deal of time here in digging a way for our cart 
through drifts. Ludwig quite agreed with me to-day 
that if it please God to bring us safe through this 
journey we will not attempt it again. I had no concep- 
tion of the extent of the difficulties of the road ; but if 
I had, I still must have made the attempt, or left 
important work undone. We found a small piece of 
unburnt grass for our poor horses at night. 

Wednesday, \Otli. — Another most anxious, fatiguing, 
wearisome day's journey over a country still imin- 
habited and burnt up. Our road has, I think, been 
more difficult than ever, and we consider ourselves as 
lost amongst the mountains. The horses are getting 
sensibly weaker from want of food, and refused several 
hills. The only way to get them through a difficulty is 
for me to walk before them and lead them. 1 pet them a 
good deal, and they will follow me almost anywhere. 
Nearly the whole of this day I have been thus employed, 
or in holding down the cart with a riem on ground 
where it was likely to be upset, or holding it back down 
steep descents. I am consequently getting as much 
out of condition as my horses. Towards evening we 
arrived opposite the highest mountain we have yet 
ascended. I pronounced it perfect insanity to attempt 
the ascent. After resting our horses a little while, 
however, we determined to try if we could get up it, as 
we saw there was no alternative. I led the way in my 
shirt sleeves (for I have discarded my coat, — which is 
in no better condition than its owner, — the days being 
very warm though the nights are cold) ; Ludwig drove, 
Mr. Fynn held down the cart, and the Kafir carried a 
great stone on his shoulder to put under the wheel. 
After great efforts, and frequent restings, we managed 
to climb the ascent, which was more than I expected. 



92 BISHOP OF CAPETOWN'S 

and outspanned for the night on the top of the mountain, 
close by a forest of yellow wood, where there was a 
narrow frinjre of grass which had escaped burning. 
We determined to send off the Kafir by daybreak to 
find out a kraal which we believed could not be far 
distant, and to procure, if possible, some mclies for our 
half-starved horses. It was in this neighbourhood, Mr. 
Fynn tells me, that Captain Gardiner, some few years 
since, was reduced to live upon sugar for some days, and it 
was not very far from this that Mr. Fynn himself was 
for five days enclosed between two rivers with nothing 
to eat but some sambok — strips of the sea-cow, or hip- 
popotamus hide. Thank God we are still provided with 
food, though our stock is getting low. Had it not been 

for the forethought of who put into my cart some 

tins of meat and soup, and a cheese, we should before 
this have been in want. I understood Mr. Fynn to say, 
before we left Maritzbiirg, that I was to make no pro- 
•^ision for the way beyond the Umzumkulu, but to leave 
all to him ; that we should have an ox every night, &c. 
I laid in, however, a stock of 40 lbs. of biscuit, which 
happily has been much burnt, and has therefore lasted 
us longer than it would have done had it been more 
palatable ; and 30 lbs. of salt beef. It is well that I did 
this, for I know not what we should have done without it, 
as I have had to feed Kafirs every night. The patience, 
endurance, contentment, and thankfulness for kindness 
on the part of these poor people is pleasing. I always 
insist upon our all — in the circumstances in which we 
are — sharing alike. Our Kafir said this evening that it 
was very fortunate that he was travelling with white 
men, as they lent him a covering at night. Poor fellow, 
he would otherwise be out night after night in frost and 
wind, quite naked. We cannot be too thankful that 
amidst all our difficulties the weather has been so fine 
— we could hardly have chosen any more to our wishes. 
Had our journey taken place during the rains of 



VISITATION JOURNAL, 1850. 93 

summer, we certainly should not have been able to 
get through the country. The only disadvantage of 
this season, — and it is a very great one, — is the loss of 
grass. In the spring, I can quite imagine this country 
looking very beautiful, for although the scenery is not 
generally bold, there is everywhere a rich clothing of 
grass, a great abiandance of rivers and streams, and a 
fair proportion of forest. I fear the difficulty of making 
roads over so very mountainous a district will always 
impose obstacles in the way of its advancement. Other- 
wise it would be a very tempting field for the English 
emigrant. We passed to-day a heap of stones on the 
top of one of the mountains. Mr. Fynn told me that it 
is customary for every traveller to add one to the heap, 
that it may have a favourable influence on his journey, 
and enable him to arrive at some kraal while the pot 
is yet boiling. The women, with a similar view, are in 
the habit cf tying the grass in knots. 

Thursday, 1 1 tJi. — From the top of our mountain, 
which is the highest ground we have yet passed over, 
we could see the country for many miles round. Every- 
where its features were the same, and everywhere it 
was burnt up and black. On retiring into a w ood, near 
to which we out-spanned for breakfast, (which we 
seldom get much before two o'clock,) to perform my 
ablutions, I found myself as black as a pitman just 
come out of a pit. On a windy day the fine ash of the 
grass penetrates through all one's clotlies. We have 
made a better journey to-day, the country not being so 
mountainous and rugged, and consequently our diffi- 
culties not so appalling as on former days, though we 
have had quite enough of them. For a mile or two we 
had unburnt grass. Some of the country through 
which we have passed would, under other circumstances, 
appear beautiful ; but our anxieties, and the blackness 
of the whole face of nature, give a gloomy tinge to 
everything aroimd us. We were much disappointed 



94 BISHOP OF Capetown's 

at not arriving at Palmerston this evening. We out- 
spanned for the night in a very bleak spot, exposed to 
a cutting wind. Mr. Fynn was obliged to leave another 
of his horses on the road quite knocked up. I cannot 
be too thankful that mine hold out so well. One of the 
wheels of my cart, however, is pronounced to. be in a 
dangerous state ; we are to try to mend it to-morrow. 
We have not yet met with a human being, or the 
slightest vestige of human habitations. It seems strange 
to travel over so fine a country, abounding in wood, 
clothed with a rich grass, wonderfully well watered, 
with a beautiful climate, and yet find it totally unin- 
habited. Old footpaths are the only evidences of the 
country having been once occupied by man. War has 
left the laud without its inhabitants. 

Friday, \2th. — I spent two hours this morning search- 
ing for the horses, while Mr. Fynn and Ludwig 
endeavoured to mend the wheel, — a fatiguing com- 
mencement of my day's march. Our day's journey has 
been more prosperous than we expected, though at 
night we find ourselves still about twenty-five miles from 
Palmerston. While out-spanning at mid-day six Kafirs 
came up with baskets of melies on their heads, sent by 
Mr. Fynn's Kafir. Our half-starved horses devoured 
them voraciously. We had some fine mountain views 
and forest scenery during the latter part of the day. 
At night we finished all our provisions except four 
biscuits and a little cheese, &c. 

The natives, who came to us to-day, belong to a chief 
called Jojo, who is inferior only to Faku in power. 
Faku is the greatest chief in this part of the country. 
He has about 40,000 people under him ; Jojo has about 
8,000. There are several smaller chiefs with 2,000 or 
3,000 people each. I understand from Mr. Fynn that 
in the lands on this side of the Umzumkulu, recently 
acquired from Faku by the Natal Government for 100 
bead of cattle, there arc three tribes living who have a 



VISITATION JOURNAL, 1850. 95 

better title to the land than either Fakii or ourselves. 
These tribes ai-e the Amakholo, under the chief Kani ; 
the Amangotshan, under the chief Madigezela ; and the 
Amanekna, under the chief Umzaba. They are living 
in their own native country. It will be a gross injustice 
towards them if we take possession of their lands with- 
out their consent ; but there is no doubt, I believe, 
that they would gladly place themselves under the 
British government, provided their lauds, which form 
but a small portion of the territory in question, were 
duly secured to them. If we honestly desire to protect 
the natives in this part of the world, and to secure to 
those who are under our dominion the possession of 
their lands, I must again repeat, they should at once be 
vested in trustees, or in some other manner be legally 
made over to them for ever. I trust something may be 
done by the government by way of recognising their 
right to the lands which they occupy, for if it be left in 
any way indefinite, I feel assured (and those most in- 
terested in their welfare concur in the opinion) that 
they will gradually be deprived of their land under one 
pretence or another, to make room for the white man. 

Saturday Yith. — We arrived this evening before sunset 
at Palmerston, thankful to Almighty God for having 
brought us thus far in safety. We were very kindly 
received by Mr. and Mrs. Jenkins of the Wesleyan 
Society. Our road to-day was better than any \ve had 
passed over since we left Indaleni. The country was 
less burnt, and the views occasionally very beautiful. 
I do not think that my horses could have travelled 
another day without rest. One of them showed symp- 
toms of sickness. I trust a day's rest, and two or three 
more of freedom from work, while oxen draw the cart 
over the difficult country beyond the Umzumvoobo, may 
restore them so as to enable me to reach Butterworth, 
about 150 miles, by next Saturday. I have been sitting 
up till late conversing with my host, and am surprised 



96 BISHOP OF CAPETOWN'S 

that I do not fpcl more fatijiucd Avith my journey, for 
we have travelled, I think, during the last twelve days, 
not less than 250 miles, nearly the whole of which I 
have walked. 1 ought to be thankful that I have been 
enabled to do this, considering that for two years of my 
life I could only move upon crutches. Anxiety for the 
safety of my man, horses, and cart, have done more to 
weary me than mere bodily fatigue. Altogether, I 
think, I have lost nearly as much in condition as my 
horses. Mr. Jenkins informs me that there are in the 
village some Hottentots who have passed through the 
Drakenberg mountains in search of cattle stolen by the 
Bushmen. They describe the country as very fertile 
and well watered, and the scenery as bold and magnifi- 
cent. The mountain range, where they passed it, was 
about 40 miles wide. The whole of the country under 
the Drakenberg, from the Tambookies, who border on 
British Kaffraria, to Natal, is uninhabited, and is, I un- 
derstand, a very fine country. It must be between two 
and three hundred miles long. I gathered from various 
quarters that there is a great tendency on the part of 
the whole native population to move eastward. During 
Chaka's reign of terror it was just the reverse: he drove 
them all westward. As an instance of the inclination 
to return to the east, I may mention that Jojo has just 
moved several miles in that direction, and it is under- 
stood that others are prepared to follow. It is supposed 
that Kreli has an intention to move, and that, if he does, 
some of the chiefs from British Kaffraria will occupy 
his land. The people on the coast, too, show an incli- 
nation to move into the interior. Should they actually 
do this, and the British government occupy the territory 
which they vacate, it will at once place at our disposal 
the most valuable land of the country. I have had 
some conversation with Mr. Jenkins about his work. 
He does not speak with much confidence of it; though 
from what he said I could not gather that there was any 



VISITATION JOURNAL, 1850. 97 

great room for despondency. He reckons his usual 
congregation of hearers on the Lord's Day at 300 ; he 
has 40 baptized, and large day and Sunday schools. 
He expressed a great desire to see a Cluu-ch Mission 
founded in this country. Sad, indeed, it is, that in all 
these distant outposts there should be no work carried 
on by the Church. How is it that those who are less 
richly blessed than ourselves with spiritual gifts and 
privileges, should be more abundant in labour — more 
full of zeal for extending the kingdom of God? May 
the Lord speedily raise up men within His Church, who 
shall offer themselves for the work of the conversion of 
the heathen ; and may He dispose the wealthy of our 
land to offer largely and liberally, and in proportion to 
their means, for the support of those who are ready to 
spend and be spent for Christ. 

Sunday Wth. — The services at the Mission station 
began with a prayer-meeting at daybreak among the 
natives, conducted entirely by themselves. About nine 
o'clock the Sunday school began. This is also con- 
ducted exclusively by natives. The children were very 
noisy, and did not seem far advanced, though some were 
reading in the New Testament. They all appeared to 
take much interest in their work, and to show a great 
desire to learn. At eleven o'clock there was morning 
prayer. This consisted of a portion of the Liturgy 
translated into Kafir, and used in all the Wesleyan 
Missions, singing, and a sermon. They chaunted the Te 
Deum very tolerably. As Mr. Jenkins was very anxious 
that I should address the people, I spoke to them for 
some time after the service, he acting as interpreter. 
There were between 200 and 300 present. There was 
service again in the afternoon at half-past two o'clock, 
after which about ten of the Christians of the station 
came to express their satisfaction at seeing me here, 
and their appreciation of what I had said to them. I 
had some interesting conversation with them. They 

H 



98 BISHOP OF CAPETOWN'S 

spoke of themselves in their heathen state as violves 
and not men. They seemed to think that there was a 
conviction on the minds of the heathen generally, that 
the only war which the Gospel waged was a war against 
sin ; that they respected Christianity, and did not sus- 
pect, as they formerly did, that the teachers of religion 
had some purposes of their own to serve. They ex- 
pressed a hope that more teachers would come. I told 
them that 1 had come through this difficult country, 
expressly to see with my own eyes what its spiritual 
wants were, and that I was so deeply impressed with 
the need there is of more teachers, that I purposed, if 
God spared me, going soon again to my own country to 
fetch them. I invited them, whenever they offered the 
Lord's prayer, and came to the words " Thy kingdom 
come," to remember to pray for faithful pastors for their 
countrymen. In the evening I oilered the prayers of the 
Church and preached to Mr. Jenkins's household. 

Monday \5th. — Having repaired the wheel, and spliced 
the pole of my cart, and purchased some beads to traffic 
with the natives (who do not know the value of money) 
for food for my men and cattle, I proceeded on a horse, 
which j\Ir. Jenkins had kindly lent me, to the Umzum- 
voobo, ray cart being drav.n by eight oxen, lent also 
by him. 

I had a most beautiful ride, especially during the latter 
part of it. Some of the views from the heights of the 
Umzumvoobo up and down the river, and over the sea, 
are magnificent. We saw them in a setting sun, which 
added to the effect. The mountains which overhang the 
river are of a considerable height, and their sides are 
well wooded. The whole country is thickly inhabited 
by Faku's people. These Kafirs are very inferior both 
to those in the Natal district and in British Kaffraria. 
They are more heavy, dull, and stupid. Their forms 
are not so well moulded, and they appeared to me 
smaller than their neighbours : they are also more dirty. 



VISITATION JOURNAL, 1850, 99 

I am told that the Amapondas are looked down upon 
by the other tribes, and that the others would object to 
marry into their tribe. They drink and smoke inces- 
santly. I passed to-day a party smoking dagga and 
drinking their beer, and I was told by Mr. Fynn that 
they would sit up most of the night at it. Faku him- 
self sets a bad example in this respect. A murder has 
just taken place in this neighbourhood. The punish- 
ment for murder is not heavy. If the murderer sends 
an ox to the chief, the affair is considered as settled. 
We arrived at Mr. Hancock's, a trader living on the 
banks of the river, just after sunset. Next morning we 
went down the river to its mouth (a distance of about 
nine miles) in a boat rowed by Kafirs, and had a most 
enjoyable day. The river opposite to Mr. Hancock's 
house is about five fathoms deep, and lower down ten. 
The banks are very precipitous, rising to a height of 
perhaps 800 or 1,000 feet ; Mr. Hancock said, 3,000. 
" The Gates," lofty mountains at the mouth of the river, 
.are very fine. The banks are well wooded. We landed 
for a short time in one part of the forest where Mr. 
Hancock employs some sawyers. There are several 
kinds of valuable wood unknown in the colony. Two 
of the hardest and most useful are called by the natives 
" Unizimbeti" and " Umnebelala." The latter Mr. Han- 
cock considered to be ebony. This is one of the finest 
rivers I have seen in South Africa. It is aboAt as 
broad as the Thames at Henley, It has, like all the 
other rivers on this coast, a bar at its mouth. The 
depth of water on the bar, I understand, varies from 
three to seventeen feet. It is nearly a mile across at 
the mouth from rock to rock. We saw a great many 
sea-cows (hippopotamus) swimming about. One fol- 
lowed our boat a great way up the river, but, as it was 
getting dark, our sportsmen did not attempt to shoot 
it. As our Kafirs were either knocked up, or did not 
seem inclined to pull, I took an oar in returning, and 



100 BISHOP OF CAPETOWN'S 

had a very pleasant row, which reminded me of days 
long past. We returned for the night to Mr. Hancock's, 
who received us very kindly, though living in a very 
rough way. On AVednesday morning we rode on to 
Buntingville, a Wesleyan Mission station, distant about 
30 miles. The whole country was most mountainous. 
On climbing some of the hills, I could not but be thank- 
ful that my cart was being drawn by oxen, and that my 
horses were enjoying comparative rest. Indeed, I doubt 
Avhether, in their weak state, they could have got on at 
all. I overtook my cart at the Umgazi river, and 
reached Buntingi'ille at sunset. The cart, however, did 
not make its appearance till the next morning. The 
country through which I passed was partially occupied. 
It is this tract of land, extending to the Umtata, that 
Mr. Fynn is desirous that the British government 
should occupy, and he says that Faku is quite willing. 
His view is, that our occupation of it might prevent 
another Kafir war, this being the back country to which 
the Kafirs drive their cattle for safety, previous to en- 
gaging in war with us. Our occupation of it would cut 
them off from this. Faku, he says, would be glad to 
have us between himself and the frontier Kafirs. The 
country is a very fine one, and well watered. 

Buntingville station is one of the largest in the 
district. There are about 600 people residing upon it. 
It is tibout 17 years since it was commenced. Many of 
the coloured people are beginning to build European 
houses. It is now under the charge of an Assistant 
Missionary or Catcchist, Mr. Wakeford, and the Mission 
appears to me to be in a languishing state. He tells 
me there are 75 Christians upon it. The people call 
themselves Faku's followers, but they belong to a great 
variety of tribes, who, from various causes, have con- 
gregated in this place, and regard the Missionary as 
their chief. I was sorry to see that while several 
houses were being built, and had an appearance of 



VISITATION JOURNAL, 1850. 101 

comfort, the Chapel, which is also the school-house, 
was ill a most dilapidated state. 

Thursday, I8th. — Mr. Wakeford having kindly pro- 
posed to lend me horses, I determined to ride to the 
JNIorley station, while my cart went by the wagon road. 
I accordingly had a warm but pleasant ride of about 
30 miles. The country was hilly, but appeared to me 
Avell suited for farming operations. It is but partially 
occupied. We passed several small rivers, besides the 
Umtata, which runs through a very deep and beautiful 
valley. I had my usual bathe at a sweet spot. The 
Morley station is just above it, and it took me nearly 
an hour to ascend a very steep hill to it from the river. 
The Missionaries have not shown as much taste as the 
monks of old in the selection of situations for religious 
houses. Morley, indeed, stands high, and enjoys an 
extensive view" over the open country; but below it 
there are some beautiful spots commanding extensive 
reaches of the river, and upon these the natives have 
fixed their kraals. One serious objection, however, 
there is to some of the finest sites, — that they are 
inaccessible even to a South African wagon, which is a 
machine warranted to go almost anywhere. The rank 
vegetation also of the lower grounds, and the great 
heat and closeness of them in the summer months, 
render such situations unsuitable. Faku's land ends 
at the Umtata ; the country between that river and the 
Bashee belongs to the Tambookies. It is only 
partially inhabited. Mr. Garner, who has, as usual, 
received me very hospitably, informs me that this 
whole country is very damp, and that neither oxen, 
horses, nor sheep thrive in it. He has planted a cotton 
field 50 acres in extent, which he expects will succeed, 
The natives receive 2d. a-day for their labour. The 
Mission station, which, like most of the others in this 
neighbourhood, does not consist of the people of any 
particular tribe, but of persons from various neigh- 



102 . BISHOP OF CAPETOWN'S 

bouring tribes, has about 100 families upon it, and 
there are 100 Christians. The mixed nature of the 
population on the Mission stations arises, in part at 
least, from their being regarded, like the monasteries 
of old, or the cities of refuge amongst the Israelites, as 
sanctuaries to %vhich men may flee for safety. It is a 
very common thing for the natives when accused, 
justly or unjustly, to take refuge on the lands recog- 
nised as belonging to the Mission. The chiefs generally 
protect the Missionaries, because they desire to have 
some one in their neighbourhood who can be their friend 
with the British Government. They do not, however, 
really like the institutions, inasmuch as they tend to 
diminish their power over their people. 

One or two native teachers are generally employed 
on each station. These are usually not Kafirs. They 
receive a payment of from 10/. to 30/. a-ycar, the 
native schoolmaster from 4/. to 8/. Mr. Garner is the 
only Missionary I have met with who thinks it possible 
that the witch-doctors may occasionally exercise super- 
natural or Satanic power. He mentioned several in- 
stances in which he could not account for the knowledge 
they seemed to possess. One case he mentioned struck 
me particularly. Some years since, when he and his 
party had arrived as strangers in the Bechuana country, 
they were rather jeering at a m itch-doctor, who, how- 
ever, told one of his people precisely the state of his 
family find circumstances in (Jraham's Town. He was 
perfectly accurate in all he said, and could not, by any 
possibility, have received information on the subject 
from any of their party. 

Friday, YjUi. — I started this morning, on a horse lent 
me by Mr. Garner, for Beecham Wood, the station of 
Mr. Brown, a catechist, distant sixty miles ; and I have, 
thank God, been enabled to accomplish the ride without 
any fatigue. I cannot be too grateful for the health and 
strength which I enjoy. It requires considerable powers 



VISITATION JOURNAL, 1850. lOS 

of endurance to go through what I have done during 
the last three weeks. The district through which I have 
passed to-day is inhabited by Tambookies. It does not 
appear to be wholly occupied, but I perceive more oxen 
and goats than I have of late seen. The character of 
the country has undergone a gradual change since we 
left Palmerston. Its general features now are hilly 
slopes. The grass is still abundant, but there are not 
so many streams. We crossed the Bashee at a very bad 
drift. The land in its neighbourhood, though covered 
with mimosa, looks more bare than any I have seen of 
late. We off-saddled at one or two kraals. All asked 
for presents; but at one some women brought us skins 
to sit upon. There is a slight change in the dress of 
these people. The married men cease to wear the crown 
which is so becoming in the Zoolu and Amaponda. 
The women wear more rings on the arms, and even on 
the toes, and a handkerchief lightly fastened round the 
head, which would give them a pleasing appearance if 
it were not always so dirty. We did not reach Mr 
Brown's station till late at night. There is not much 
to interest one in it. It has only been established in 
this place since the war. There are but twenty-five 
families on the spot, and twelve Christians. The so- 
called chapel is a most ruinous, dilapidated building. 
After a sleepless night, passed on a sofa, I rode on to 
Butterworth, another Wesleyan station, distant about 
twenty-five miles, Mr. Brown again kindly furnishing 
me with horses. The country between the Bashee and 
the Kei, perhaps 100 miles long and 50 broad, belongs 
to Kreli, who till the close of the late war was consi- 
dered paramount Chief of British Kaffraria. His coun- 
try, so far as I have seen of it, has a dense population. 
In no part of South Africa have I seen the kraals so 
near together, or the cattle so numerous, or the grass so 
closely cropped, or more land under cultivation. Could 
they but be induced to build more substantial houses. 



104 BISHOP OF CAPETOWN'S 

and to purclaase sheep, we miglit hope to see the end of 
our border wars. 1 was glad to hear from a trader, at 
whose house I called, that the demand for clothes and 
other manufiictured goods is increasing. 

Mr. Gladwin, the Missionary at Butterworth, received 
me with the same hospitality and kindness as the rest of 
his brethren. In talking with him respecting the work of 
Missions in this land, he expressed the pleasure which 
he felt at the prospect of our commencing a Mission, but 
spoke his mind freely with reference to our past neglect 
and unconcern. He said it was a disgrace and reproach 
to the Church of Enngland that it had so long delayed 
to enter upon the work, and that 100 more missionaries, 
at the least, were required in this land. I told him that 
I felt the reproach keenly, — that I was deeply conscious 
of our sin, and that if God spared me for another year 
in health and strength, and the circumstances of the 
Diocese admitted of it, I purposed going to England to 
raise the necessary means, and select the men for the 
work. God grant that the Church may be awakened to 
a sense of her great responsibilities towards the many 
thousand heathen under British rule in this land, that 
when she enters upon the work of their conversion, 
she may make up by her hearty zeal and diligence in it 
for past neglect and unconcern. 

Sundaji, 2\st. — The services here this day were the 
same as at Palmerston. That portion of the Liturgy 
which has been translated into the Kafir language was 
used. All the people knelt, and made the responses. 
Mr. Gladwin pressed me so strongly to address the 
people that I did so, through an interpreter. The con- 
gresation consisted of nearly 500, for the chapel, which 
is the most respectable which I have yet seen, and fitted 
up with benches, was crowded to excess. There were, 
perhaps, near 100 Christians. The remainder were 
either catechumens, or inquirers, or such as came out of 
mere curiosity. This is the second time during this 



VISITATION JOURNAL, 1850. 105 

journey tbat 1 have undertaken to preach to tlie heathen. 
I was thankful for the opportunity of doing so, how- 
ever imperfectly ; but I was so circumstanced each time 
that I could not well have avoided it. The people soon 
understood that a " Great Teacher " had come amongst 
them, and they would not have been easy or satisfied 
had I not addressed them. The Sunday-school consisted 
of about 100 children. The basis of instruction is the 
Creed, the Lord's Prayer, and Commandments ; but a 
Catechism is also used, translated by the missionaries. 

The sight to-day has been a most interesting one. 
The whole people of this land are ready, at least, to 
hear the Gospel ; they are willing to attend Christian 
assemblies, and schools ; to read our books, to be taught 
by us. The field is white already unto the harvest, but 
the labourers are few ; so far as the Church is concerned, 
alas ! they are none. It is most distressing to think how 
unfaithful we have been, and are, to our trust. " Thy 
kingdom come." 

Butterworth is, I believe, the oldest Wesleyan station 
in this part of the country. It has been, I think, twenty 
years in existence, and was entirely burnt down during 
the last wai-. There are about 125 Christians upon it. 
In the evening I held Divine Service for the few Iilnglish 
living in the neighbourhood : we had a congregation of 
about twenty. 

Monday, 22d. — This day I started for King William's 
Town in company with Mr. W. Fynn, the British 
Resident, who not only has kindly offered to escort me, 
but has furnished me with a saddle horse, and oxen to 
take my cart over the difficult country about the Kei. 
I have nothing particular to recount of our day's 
journey. The drift of the river is a very difficult one. 
When we arrived at it, two wagons, drawn each by 
upwards of twenty oxen, had stuck fast in it, and delayed 
us for some time. On the road down to the river, 
which is very precipitous, we passed the ruins of two 



106 BISHOP OF CAPETOWN'S 

more \vap:ons, one of uliich had broken down, and tbe 
other had been upset. I passed the night half-way up 
the ascent in the wagon of a trader, which he placed at 
my disposal. My bed, which consisted of sacks of Kafir 
corn and melies, was none of the softest. Mr. Fynn 
pointed out to me, as we journeyed, the scenes of several 
actions with the Kafirs during the late war, and the 
graves of not a few of our officers. 

Tuesday, 23d. — We are now in British Kaffraria, and 
have travelled to-day through the territory of the Chief 
Umhalla, to whom I have promised to send missionaries. 
He is the shrewdest, and perhaps the most influential, 
of the Kafir chieftains, and one of the least hopeful, I 
fear, for missionary operations. But I feel that we 
ought to seek the conversion of these poor frontier 
savages perhaps before all others in the land. I do not 
dispute the justice of our wars with them, or question 
our present treatment of them ; but they have suifered 
both morally and physically more than any other heathen 
in the country, from their close contiguity to ourselves. 
When I shall be able to commence this mission I know 
not. What we chiefly need is a well-qualified, devoted 
man, Avho, for the love of Christ, will give himself to 
the work ; indeed, there ought to be two. The Clergy 
of the Diocese have undertaken to raise 200/. a-year 
for their support. May fit agents speedily be raised 
up in answer to our prayers ; and may our prayers be 
unceasing until the desire of our hearts be accomplished 
< — " Sursum corda." 

I have passed to-day over much of the country that 
was the scene of the late Kafir war. I walked over the 
ruins of Fort Warden and Fort Wellington, and visited 
the graves of several of our brave soldiers. Nigh to the 
road-side, on the floor of a trader's house, now in ruins, 
are the graves of five young officers, killed on a 
neighbouring mountain. They had gone out for a ride, 
and ascended the mountain, the highest in the country. 



VISITATION JOURNAL, 1850. lO? 

to enjoy the prospect. The Kafirs observed them, and 
•waylaid them as they came down, in a narrow gorge. 
Most of them were killed at once by the assegais hurled 
at them from the enemy, who were in considerable 
numbers, but one officer remained for some time, and 
defended himself, with his back to the rock. He killed 
five Kafirs before he was dispatched himself. His last 
act was to tear an assegai from his own body, and hurl 
it back upon the adversary. I took more interest in the 
fate of these officers, because I had frequently heard one 
of them. Captain Baker, spoken of most highly, and 
because his brother has given 200/. towards the church 
at King WiUiam's Town. I had an account of the 
whole affair from Lishani, a very fine Kafir, chief of a 
neighbouring kraal, who was one of the attacking party. 
The trader, too, in whose wagon I slept, knew all the 
particulars, as he was with the camp at the time, and 
formed one of the party who went next day to recover 
the bodies. There seems to be a doubt whether the 
last officer killed was Captain Baker, or a Mr. Lock. 
It seems most probable that it was Captain Baker. His 
body was dragged to some distance, and shockingly 
mutilated. We passed the night at Hangman's Bush, the 
last, I trust, that I shall for some time spend in the veldt, 
as we are within nineteen miles of King William's Town. 
Wednesday, 24//<.— Arrived early in King William's 
Town. Colonel Mackinnon, Chief Commissioner of 
British Kaffraria, had kindly made preparation for my 
accommodation in his house. The remainder of the day 
was spent in reading several packets of letters which 
had been lying here waiting for me. 

Sunday, 28th. — Preached to the troops and civilians 
both morning and evening in the temporary chapel used 
for Divine Service. In the afternoon I held a Confirma- 
tion. I am much pleased with the state of things here ; 
the congregations are good, and Mr. Fleming, the 
Military Chaplain, is labouring zealously amongst all 



108 BISHOP OF CAPETOWN'S 

classes. The foundations of the church, which is calcu- 
lated to hold 300, and for whicli about 1,500/. is already 
raised, are being laid. The plan is Early English. It 
will be, perhaps, the nicest and most correct little church 
in the Diocese when finished, and is to be entirely of 
stone, of which there is an abundance, of a good quality, 
in the immediate neighbourhood. 

On Monday I drove down in company with Mr. 
Fleming in a mule cart to East London, the port of 
British Kaffraria. Our route lay through a country in no 
Avay very striking. The distance is about thirty-five 
miles. We breakfasted with Captain McClean, the in- 
telligent Commissioner of the T'Slambie tribes, who 
resides near Fort Murray. AVe afterwards visited Mount 
Coke, which, in addition to missionary work amongst 
the surrounding heathen, is intended for the instruction 
of a certain number of Kafir youths as teachers. There 
were eight in the school, some of whom were married 
men. They live in the institution, but not under the 
roof of the missionary ; yet, if charactei's arc to be 
formed, if men are to be educated, and not merely in- 
structed, it surely is of the utmost importance that they 
should live in the very presence of their teacher. The 
pupils here are taught to read both in English and Kafir, 
and they receive much the same sort of education that 
would be given to boys in a national school in England. 
I was glad to find that they had a well-educated 
European teacher for tlieir instructor. The missionary 
also .appeared to be an intelligent man. 'J'he buildings 
of the institution, which have been erected since the 
war, are of a substantial kind ; the chapel and the school 
are distinct buildings, which I have nowhere else found 
lo be the case. After inspecting this institution, we 
proceeded on our journey, and arrived at East London 
in the afternoon, having out-spanned for some time at 
Fort Grey, the buildings of which are in a great state of 
dilapidation. East London, situated on the mouth of 



VISITATION JOURNAL, 1850. 109 

the Buffalo River, is but a very small place, and has as 
few natural advantages as any place I have ever seen 
claiming to be a port. I could have walked across the 
river without getting wet above the knee. There is no 
shelter Avhatever for vessels, it being an open roadstead ; 
the shore is rugged, and the surf, though there was no 
wind during my stay, was very heavy. 'I'he sole re- 
deeming point is that the anchorage is said to be very 
good. There has, I believe, as yet been but one wreck. 
Some people are sanguine in their hope that a trade will 
be opened through this place with Bui-ghersdorp, and 
the Sovereignty. The land carriage certainly would all 
be in favour of this, as the distance is much less than by 
Algoa Bay. Wagons travel between King William's Town 
and Burghersdorp in a week, and the road is good. 

On the morning after my arrival I held a Confirmation 
in a small store, used by the Wesleyans and by the 
Church, for Divine Service. There was a larger congre- 
gation than I had anticipated. Afterwards, Mr. Buckner, 
the Military Chaplain, with whom I am staying, rowed 
me a mile or two up the river, the banks of which are 
pretty, and covered with the euphorbia. 

On Wednesday we returned to King William's Town. 
I have omitted to state that on Friday last 1 rode out 
with Colonel Mackinnon, to visit the mission-station of 
Mr. Birt of the London Missionary Society. Mr. Birt 
has the credit of having done more than most of the 
other missionaries around him in the way of promoting 
industry and civilization. His chapel was built almost 
entirely by the Kafirs. A considerable number of 
wattle-and-daub houses were either finished, or in the 
course of erection ; and in several of these, articles of 
furniture were to be found. Most of the people on the 
station have their gardens, and an increasing breadth of 
land is being brought under the plough. 

August \st. — This day I went, accompanied by Mr. 
Fleming, to Umhalla's kraal. Mr. Shepstone rode 



no BISHOP OF Capetown's 

there from Fort Murray to meet us, and acted as in- 
terpreter. I had intended to go on horseback, but, 
the weather proving rainy, Colonel Mackinnon very 
kindly pressed me to go in a mule-wagon. We took 
a tent with us, which we pitched at the old deserted 
post of Fort Waterloo. We did not arrive until dusk, 
not having been able to start early in the morning 
in consequence of my having fixed ten o'clock for the 
consecration of the burial ground at King William's 
Town. The distance is about thirty mUes. I was on 
the look-out during the day for suitable sites for our 
mission-station, but, of course, could not fix upon any, 
being ignorant of the nature of the soil, the quality of 
the water in the streams which we passed, and the 
position of the various places with reference to the 
population of the tribe. The situation which appeared 
to us most desirable, was on the banks of the Kahoon 
River. I am disposed to think that the wisest course 
for us to adopt, will be for our missionaries on their 
arrival to repair some of the ruined huts at Fort 
Waterloo, and remain there until they are in some 
degree acquainted with the country, and can fix \ier- 
manently upon a site. This will bring them at the 
outset into close intercourse with the chief, whose kraal 
is close by, and give them an opportunity at least of 
obtaining an influence over him; whereas, if they were 
to settle at a distance from him, they would probably 
not see much of him. 

Unhalla is the principal chief of the T'Slambie tribes. 
He has upwards of 10,000 people under him. He is not, 
I fear, a promising subject himself, being addicted to 
drinking, and "eating up" his people, — i.e. robbery and 
injustice. He does not bear a good character, compared 
w ith the other Kafir chiefs, but he is an able and influ- 
ential man, and no mission exists amongst his people. 
After we had partaken of a little food, atc walked down 
in the dark to pay the chief a visit ; but we had hardly 



VISITATION JOURNAL, 1850. Ill 

left our tent before we met two of his messengers 
coming to ask for a present. We found him sitting in 
a large smoky hut in the midst of his counsellors, wives, 
children, &c. There was a fire in an earthen bason 
in the middle of the hut, which partially lighted it. 
Most of the people were smoking ; and Mr. Shepstone in- 
formed me that they had been drinking beer, but this 
they had discontinued before our arrival. We crept into 
this crowded reception hall with some difBculty, and 
were nearly blinded by the smoke. After I had seated 
myself on the floor, I bade Mr. Shepstone explain to 
the chief who I was. He got up to welcome me and to 
shake hands. I then asked him if he remembered ever 
meeting me before. He perfectly recollected the two 
occasions on which we had met, and spoke of circum- 
stances connected with them. I explained to him that 
I was travelling through the country over which I had 
spiritual charge ; that I had been from home four moons, 
and should be still journeying for five moons more ; that 
in the course of my travels, I had arrived at King Wil- 
liam's Town, and had come expressly from that place to 
see him, not being willing to leave the country without 
doing so. He thanked me, and said he was very glad 
to see me. I then told him that I had not yet heard of 
the teachers whom I had sent for — that they had to 
come a great way from beyond the sea ; but that I hoped 
they would soon arrive. He said that I must send him 
the Archdeacon, who had been to see him ; that he had 
taken a great fancy to him, and would have him for his 
teacher. I told him that he could not be spared, and 
enumerated all the places in the Archdeaconry that he 
had to look after; but said I would send him a good 
man whom he would like, and who would teach him 
about God. Umhalla then said that "he was a great 
chief, and that I was a great chief; that he would be 
very glad if I would come and teach him : but that he 
knew that this was impossible, for he had heard how 



112 BISHOP OF CAPETOWN'S 

many places I had to go to, but that if I could not come 
myself, I must send him the Archdeacon." Thinking 
that it Mas from pride that he desired to have one of our 
great men to teacli a great chief, I told him that the son 
of one of our great chiefs in England, (the Hon. and 
Rev. H. Douglas, who had A^oluntecred for this special 
work,) was willing to come and teach him ; he said, 
" Very well, he might come too, but he hoped I would 
let liim have the Archdeacon." This he repeated twenty 
times during the course of our conversation, which lasted 
about two hours. If I felt quite sure that he appre- 
ciated in any degree the noble character of my dear 
friend and brother, and desired to have one so eminently 
qualified for the work with him, for his own salce, I 
should augur well for the success of our future mission ; 
but I could not quite satisfy my mind that this was the 
case, although I think it far from improbable. 

I gave the chief a blanket with red stripes, for which 
he had asked when the Archdeacon was here, and Mr. 
Fleming gave some beads and knives to his children. 
He told us he had ten wives, but two had left him, — and 
twenty-six children. Some ol' these had very sweet 
countenances. I then endeavoured to turn the dis- 
course to religious subjects. Umhalla assented to all 
I said and told him, but did not seem much interested, 
although he asked me questions about the soul coming 
back after death to visit those who are yet in the flesh. 
Like most of the heatheu in this land, he professed to 
assent to the truth of there being but one true God. 

I pressed upon his attention the commandments of 
God, with special reference to Kafir vices and sins, the 
doctrine of a future judgment, and the misery or blessed- 
ness of the de.id. I then talked to him of the country 
through w Inch I had been travelling, but found that, like 
the common people of his tribe, he knew very little 
even of the greatest chiefs, at a distance. He knew 
Faku by name, and had heard of Mosbes, but never of 



VISITATION JOURNAL, 1850. 113 

Panda. When I told him Panda Tias Chaka's brofher, 
lie said lie had heard of the latter and of his ■wars. He 
promised to lielp the missionaries in every Avay in his 
power when they came ; and when I asked him where 
he thought they had better settle, he said lie would go 
about with them, and help them to choose a spot. All 
his people listened with much interest to what was 
passing, and he was so much excited that the perspi- 
ration ran down his naked body during the greater part 
of our interview. After taking some sour milk, we 
parted very good friends. I told him that I always 
prayed for him and his people to God, and should con- 
tinue to do so ; that, though I was a chief, yet I was 
but chief minister or servant, and that if God had not 
given me other work to do, I would willingly settle 
down amongst his nation and teach them the knowledge 
of the one true God, and Jesus Christ his Son. He 
thanked me, as he had repeatedly done before, saying he 
must see me before I went in the morning. Accordingly, 
before I had washed myself in the river, he came up 
with most of his wives to introduce them. We waited 
till we had had some breakfast, and then received him in 
our tent, and the others at the door. They speedily ate 
and drank up all that was left, and we had some more 
friendly conversation about the mission. Whatever may 
be his motives, I am sure that he will be thankful to 
have clergymen for his tribe. It may be that he thinks 
that they will befriend him with the civil power; or 
improve his people in worldly knowledge ; or give him 
presents (though I specially impressed upon him that 
they would be poor men, and could not give presents, 
and that he must help them); or bring a "winkel" 
(shop) in their train ; but whatever be his motive, he 
will be glad, I think, to see a teacher come into his land. 
God grant that such may be speedily raised up. The 
field is white unto the harvest, but the labourers, alas ! 
are few. Our prayers are, I trust, not wanting, that 
I 



114 BISHOP OF CAPETOWN'S 

the Lord will be pleased to send some true and faithful 
servants into this portion of the vineyard. 

In my further conversation with Umhalla, I endea- 
voured to impress upon him that our motives in coming 
to him were to do him good in this world, and in that 
which was to come; that we were not soldiers, or 
traders, or Government-officers, but men of God, who 
wished to teach him the things of God. I liked his 
whole manner, in spite of my distrust of him. He said, 
apparently with some feeling, that he knew there was 
a God, and that he must serve him ; that he could not 
do this without his help, and that he must pray to him 
for help, and that he would pray. All this may have 
been mere talk and compliment, but I would fain hope 
that this poor savage is not all hypocrisy, however bad 
his general character may be. AVe are apt, I think, to 
judge too severely of the heathen. What can we expect 
from these poor Kafirs ? They are brought up, generation 
after generation, amidst scenes of depravity and vice which 
could hardly be conceived by those unacquainted with 
heathenism ; they have nothing about them to raise and 
improve them ; they have been nurtured amidst \var and 
rapine, and have been in deadly conflict with us from 
childhood ; the greater number of Europeans with whom 
they have mixed, and do mix, have not sought to do 
them good, but have let them see that they despise 
them, and regard them as no better than dogs ; and it is 
we that have taught them to drink. It is a sad fact, 
true of this as of all other colonies, that the native 
population becomes worse and not better for its contact 
with civilization and a professedly Christian people. 

I parted with Umhalla, satisfied, on the whole, with 
mj' intei'view with him. I reminded him again that 
we were men of peace, not of war ; that there had been 
too much fighting between our people and his people; 
that henceforth, I trusted, our great aim would be to 
do him and his people good; to teach them to cultivate 



VISITATION JOURNAL, 1S50. 115 

their lands, and how to become civilized like ourselves; 
but above all, to know and serve God. He gave me 
his assegai, as a token of friendship, and that there 
should be no more wars between us ^ 

We returned to King William's Town on the 2d. 

August Sd. — I am now leaving King William's Town, 
and am about to re-enter the Colony. My Visitation 
will yet extend, if God spare me so long, until Christmas. 
I feel that no man can bear the wear and tear of the 
work " which cometh upon me daily" for any great 
length of time; but I am content to bear it, so long as 
He enables me, and I can in any way serve Him, whose 
I am, and to whom I have pledged my life. The re- 
sponsibilities and anxieties, however, arising out of the 
peculiar circumstances of this diocese are very great. 
To this moment, a grant of 700/. a-year, pledged to me 
by the Government for seven additional Clergy, has 
never been confirmed by the local legislature, in con- 
sequence of the breaking up of the Council through the 
Convict Agitation ; and I may be called upon any day 
to refund what has been paid to them, and to support 
them altogether for the future. The new Elective 
Council is composed of men who are not members of the 
Church, nor very friendly. The difficulty therefore of 
providing a maintenance hereafter for the great body of 
the Clergy who draw upon me for their stipends is one 
of my chief sources of anxiety, my funds being already 
pledged to the utmost. The keeping up the parishes, 
also, to the full amount of their promised contributions, 
and the labour necessary to bring a church to its com- 
pletion ; the unhappy condition of those parishes which 
are still without a minister, and the impossibility of 
raising sufficient funds to warrant me in bringing more 
clergy out; the jealousies which have been excited 

(1) Umhalla has not engaged in the present war. He is " sitting still, " 
but renders us no assistance, like Toise and Pato, and the other T'Slambie 
chiefs. They call him the Gholaub Sing of South Africa. 



116 BISHOP OF CAPET0^V^•'S 

amongst various bodies of Christians in consequence of 
the progress of the Church during the last two years, 
and the bitterness with which we liave been assailed ; 
the efforts which the Church of Rome is making in 
this eastern province ; the agitation which has arisen 
within the mother Church in consequence of a re- 
cent judgment, which has its reverberation here; all 
these are sources of much anxiety at the present 
moment. One great consolation, however, I am per- 
mitted to enjoy. There is not one of the Clergy whom 
I have brought out who is not doing well in his parish, 
and some have been eminently successful in rearing up 
infant Churches in fields too long neglected. If God be 
with us, we need fear nothing. Would that I could 
learn more fully to cast all my care upon Him, assured 
that He careth not for me only, but much more for His 
Church. " Lord, increase our faith." 

I have endeavoured, during the few days that I have 
been in British Kaffraria, to form some opinion of my 
own as to the system adopted towards the Kafirs, and 
as to their present condition and future prospects : and 
I have come to the conclusion, which I believe most 
people have arrived at, that no other system could have 
been adopted with safety, — that it is essential to our 
own security, and is working well for the Kafirs them- 
selves, and even acceptably to many of them. We 
have assumed the Sovereignty of the country. The 
chiefs have had the land divided out amongst them, but 
they occupy it, not as totally independent powers, but 
in subordination to the Briti.sh crown. The Queen is 
the great chief, and they hold their lands of her. The 
power of the chiefs has been much circumscribed, but 
they still govern their people by their own laws without 
any interference on our part, except when wc are 
appealed to, or any great wrong is done. The principal 
occasions in Avhich we interfere are when thefts or 
murders are committed, witchcrafts practised, or a 



VISITATION JOURNAL, 1S50. 117 

chief" eats up" one of his rich subjects. An instance 
of this has just occurred with reference to my friend 
Umhalla. The witch-doctor, who is the great ally of 
the chief, and the instrument by which he works for 
the destruction of his people and the replenishment of 
his own stock of cattle, informed against a rich man of 
the tribe as guilty of witchcraft. He was instantly 
" eaten up," i. e. deprived of every ox, cow, and calf. 
These were divided between the chief and his counsellors. 
Captain Maclean, the Commissioner of the T'Slambie 
tribes, insisted upon their disgorging the prey. Um- 
halla was compelled to give up ox after ox, till he re- 
tained only a calf, which he said he wished to keep for 
his mother. But this was not allowed, and he w^is 
made to send it back. In doing so he sent a message 
to Captain Maclean to say, it was the only time in his 
life that he was ever beaten. He has been sulky ever 
since. So far as I can gather, our rule is acceptable to 
the common people, who feel the benefit of laws ad- 
ministered with justice, and the protection given to life 
and property ; but, as might have been expected, it is 
not so agreeable to the chiefs. One does not wonder 
therefore at hearing that they have been talking of 
moving over the Kei, and becoming again independent. 
Colonel Mackinnon, however, is of opinion that if they 
were to do this, their power would be greatly broken, 
and that they would not be followed by the great body 
of the people. I should grieve much if such a move 
were to take pLace ; for the result would be that we 
should hereafter have a repetition of our old wars on a 
more distant frontier. 

Being strongly of opinion that we must hereafter be 
led to colonize the whole country between British 
Kaffraria and Natal, it seems to be of much importance 
that our old enemies should remain where they are, 
under the influence of a system which is gradually 
changing them. I do not indeed mean to say that we 



118 BISHOP OF CAPETOWN'S 

shall have no more border wars, but I cannot but 
hope, if the existing sj'stem is persisted in, and marlied 
with firmness, justice, and kindness, as it is under 
Colonel Mackinnon and his subordinate Commissioners, 
that we may escape future collisions. It must, however, 
be remembered that the present generation has been 
educated in stealing ; they are thieves by profession. 
Of course, a mere system of Government will never, 
however ably conducted, elevate a people. They re- 
quire to be trained, and educated. This is being par- 
tially, though imperfectly, done by means of missions. 
The children are in many cases being taught in the 
Mission Schools. European dresses are being partially 
adopted, — and European houses built. The plough is 
also being introduced; but no great progress has as 
yet been made in any of those things. The civilization 
of Kaffraria is yet in its infancy ; and its conversion to 
the faith has yet to be accomplished. 

I was glad to see, on my ride to-day, a farm with 
wagon, oxen, &c. belonging to a Kafir. He has just 
brought his brother to occupy another farm near him. 
European houses were rising up around him. 

There are about 80,000 Kafirs in British Kaffraria. 
The Tambookics beyond our territories are said to 
amount to 90,000 ; Kreli's people to 60,000. But these 
latter calculations are not based upon any accurate data. 
There is no census. Our military posts arc fixed in 
several parts of the land. The troops, however, are 
not employed in executing the orders of Government. 
Everything is done through means of the Kafir police, 
which is a very effective, and, so far as they have yet 
been tried, faithful body. 

I rode to-day to Fort Peddie, distant about thirty-five 
miles. Col. Somerset having kindly placed Cape Corps 
horses at my disposal. I took up my quarters at Capt. 
Campbell's, who was kind enough to invite me to his 
house. On arriving at the post, I found that in reply to 



VISITATION JOURNAL, 1S50. 119 

a communication whicli I had made, several parties were 
anxious to be confirmed, — others to have children bap- 
tized, — and others again to take steps towards the 
erection of a church. I therefore spent a portion of 
the evening in conversing with the candidates for con- 
firmation, and appointed them to meet me in class at the 
magistrate's office to-morrow morning; for I thought 
it better to receive them, if at all prepared, rather than 
let the opportunity, which to some of them might not 
again present itself, pass by. I fixed also eight o'clock 
on Monday morning for a meeting of the people. 

Sunday, August 4lh. — A busy day. At nine o'clock, I 
met the candidates for confirmation, ten in number, 
and was much pleased with tbem. I found them well 
acquainted with the catechism, and apparently in 
earnest. I remained with them tiU eleven o'clock, 
when we held service in the room generally used by the 
Methodists, but belonging to the post. There was a 
crowded and attentive congregation, and seven com- 
municants. After service, I called upon several church 
families, some of the members of which were sick. This 
occupied my time till three o'clock, when I held service 
again. I had one churching, ten candidates for con- 
firmation, and seven baptisms. I both addressed the 
candidates extempore, and preached ; Ave had again 
an excellent congregation. After evening service, I 
walked to see some sick members of the Church at a 
Mission station, about a mile from the Fort, and to call 
upon the Missionary whom I had deprived of his place 
of worship for the day. I returned somewhat late, and 
fatigued, although I have enjoyed the services of the day 
very much. 

August 5th. — Rode to Graham's Town, in company 
with Mr. Fleming, who arrived at Fort Peddie, from 
King William's Town, a distance of thirty-five miles, by 
nine o'clock in the morning. The whole day's ride was 
upwards of eighty miles. We were met about fifteen 



120 BISHOP OF CAPETOWN'S 

miles from Graham's Town by the Archdeacon and 
Clergy, Col. Somerset, and several of the laity. I was 
thankful to find all our friends well, and the work of 
God, I trust, prospering in their hands. Before I left 
Fort Peddie in the morning, I held a meeting of the 
members of the Church. They entered into a subscrip- 
tion towards the erection of a church, amounting to 
nearly 100/. They were anxious about the appointment 
of a clergyman. I could not hold out much hope to 
them in the present state of my finances. I was not 
even able to promise them, which they were urgent that 
I should do, that a clergyman should hold service in 
their village once a-month ; though one of their number, 
with some degree of justice, said that as I had founded the 
Church there by the baptisms, confirmations, and Holy 
Communion celebrated the previous day, they looked to 
me to carry on the good work which had been begun. 
Fort Peddie, formerly in the neutral territory, is now 
part of the province of Victoria, within the colony. The 
district consists of about 600 square miles, out of 
which 140 square miles have been assigned to the 3,000 
Fingoes who have been located there. These Fingoes, 
like all their race, are covetous and saving, and there- 
fore add yeai-ly to their stock of cattle. But in other 
respects they do not seem to improve much. The 
Wesleyans have a mission amongst them. The Fingo 
popxilation came originally from the county of Natal, or 
the uninhabited regions which I have lately passed over. 
Chaka drove them out of their country, and the Kafirs 
in their depressed state enslaved them. We have been 
their emancipators, and they have always been with us 
in our wars. There still exists much enmity between 
the Kafirs and Fingoes ; the former still affect to despise 
the latter. All the Fingoes on this frontier are now 
subjected to direct taxation. The system commenced, I 
believe, last year, when the .'5,000 around Fort I'eddiewere 
rated at 10s. per family; 415 families paid this amount. 



VISITATION JOURNAL, 1850, 121 

Up to the pi'esent time in this year, only 290 have paid. 
Mr. Edge, the magistrate, thinks that about 500 out of 
660 families will pay; but the tax has been raised to 1/. 
per family, and they are suffering much in consequence 
of the failure of their crops. This system of taxation 
is justified on the ground that they have had land given 
free of rent ; — that they cost the colony a good deal 
in the appointment of superintendents, police, &c. ; and 
enjoy the protection of the law, while they contribute 
but little to the revenue of the country, as they use but 
few articles of import. These reasons are, I think, 
in their present state, fair, provided they be not too 
heavily taxed ; but as they advance in civilization it will 
of course be highly unjust to tax one part of the com- 
munity, w^hile others are exempt. I prefer, however, 
the system of taxation adopted in Natal, where the 
huts, and not families, are taxed. There, when a man 
has eight or ten wives, living, as they do, in separate 
huts, he has to pay 7s. 6d. for each of them. Here the 
poor man with his one wife pays as much as the rich 
man with his ten. In Natal, the tax not only presses 
more heavily upon the rich man, but serves as a direct 
check upon polygamy. There are eight petty chiefs 
over the 3,000 Fingoes in the district of Fort Peddie. 

Graham's Town, August \'2th. — I have been here now 
a week. My time has been fully occupied in making 
arrangements for my future Visitation, in receiving and 
returning the visits of the parishioners, and in discus- 
sing matters of deep interest to the Church with the 
Archdeacon. 

Yesterday I preached twice at St. George's. The con- 
gregations were very good. Every one speaks with 
great satisfaction of the increase of the congregation 
and of the number of communicants since the arrival 
of the Archdeacon, and also of the increase of de- 
votion in the people. A large proportion of the con- 
gregation now kneels. The offertory averages, I think. 



122 BISHOP OF CAPETOWN'S 

about 41. per week. The Sunday and grammar school 
has been completed. Tlie building is substantial and 
handsome, and has cost about 900/. Some disappoint- 
ment has been felt in consequence of the non-arrival 
of a master. A master has, however, been appointed, 
and will, I trust, speedily arrive ; but in the mean 
time parents are sending their boys to the Romish 
priests to be educated, as they are also entrusting 
their daughters to the nuns who have lately come out ; 
the evil effects of which have already been felt. Our 
Grammar School is at present under the charge of a 
catechist ; it has 21 boys in it. The Sunday School, 
which appeared to be in a good state of discipline, has 
about 160 children in it. I understand that the Romish 
bishop has withdrawn the priests whom he had sent 
to Cradock and Somerset. I confirmed to-day 46 of the 
younger members of the Church. They all appeared to 
feel deeply, and some Avere much affected. They have 
been carefully prepared for this holy ordinance by the 
Clergy. 

Thursday, August \Glh. — To-day I received the follow- 
ing Address from the Churchwardens and Vestry, Avhich 
I insert here as indicative of the feelings of the members 
of the Church by whom they have been elected to their 
present offices. 

" To the Right Rev. R. Gray, D.D., Lord Bishop 
of Capetown. 
" The Address of the Vestry of St. George's Church, in 
the name and behalf of the Members of the Church 
in Graham's Town, in communion with the united 
Church of England and Ireland. 

" My Lord, — We are happy to see your Lordship 
again amongst us, enjoying luidcr the Divine blessing 
health and strength, and continually labouring in the 
Lord's vineyard with zeal and energy befitting your 
high callinjr. 



VISITATION JOURNAL, 1850. 123 

" We rejoice that the Institutions of our Church, now 
happily in course of development in the Colony, are, as 
it would seem to us, devotedly appreciated by its mem- 
bers. We hail with delight your Lordship's unremit- 
ting exertions to extend the blessings of the Gospel 
among the surrounding native tribes, and we pray that 
those exertions, aided by the much-respected Clergy of 
your diocese, may, through Divine assistance, prove 
eminently successful. 

" We are happy at having witnessed the confirmation 
of a large number of our young friends and neighbours 
in whose welfare we feel the liveliest interest, and we 
congratixlate your Lordship on the prospects thereby 
opened. 

" That your Lordship may long live to witness the 
foundations thus laid (' the good seed which thou hast 
sown in thy field') grow up into a tree, so that the birds 
of the air come and lodge in the branches thereof, is 
the sincere prayer of your Lordship's most obedient 
servants and followers in Christ." 

To this Address I replied at some length. The sub- 
stance, however, of what I said is embodied in the fol- 
lowing remarks: 

" Gentlemen, — I sincerely thank you for your kind 
and cordial welcome to this part of the diocese. It has 
pleased God to bring me safe hitherto through a long 
and difficult journey. I gratefully acknowledge His 
goodness therein, and trust that He may spare me to 
finish this visitation, which, when completed, will have 
occupied nearly nine months. I only regret that the 
vast extent of the diocese renders it impossible for me 
to continue long in any one place, or to become ac- 
quainted, as I could wish, with the members of the 
Church. The only remedy for this will be a subdivision of 
the diocese, an event to which I look forward with hope 



124 BISHOP OF CAPETOWN'S 

at some future day. You express your satisfaction at 
the development of the Church since I was last amongst 
you. I rejoice with you therein, and bless God for it. 
Many — very many, of our brethren, who had for years 
been deprived of the ministrations of their own Church, 
have been supplied with them, and appreciate Avith your- 
selves their increased privileges and blessings. We must 
not, however, forget that much yet remains to be done. 
In several places the Church is not yet built, and in- 
creased exertions will be needed for the maintenance of 
the ministry. There are still some villages and districts 
which are without those means which have been sup- 
plied to others, and which I am at present unable to 
provide from want of funds. Upon the great and deeply 
interesting work of the conversion of the heathen to the 
faith, we can scarcely be said to have yet entered in 
earnest. 

" For the carrying on of all these important and holy 
undertakings, the Church in this Diocese will, I trust, 
learn to depend more and more upon the blessing of 
God resting upon its own exertions. It is right and 
necessary, indeed, that we should, in our infant state, 
lean for support both upon the mother Church and 
upon the Government of the country ; but I trust that 
the increase of piety and zeal within our own commu- 
nion will render us from year to year less dependent 
upon others for the carrying on the work God has given 
us to do in this land. I gladly hail the success which 
has attended your weekly collections at the Offertory, 
and on other occasions, as a token of this ; and I con- 
fidently look forward to an increase from these sources, 
— especially to the fund for the maintenance of the 
Ministry. I have only, gentlemen, in conclusion, to 
congratulate you on the great increase which has con- 
fessedly taken place in the numbers who attend at 
Divine Service in this church since my last visitation. 
I pray that, along with this outward enlargement of the 



VISITATION JOURNAL, 1850. 125 

body, there may be an inward growtb in Divine truth 
and godliness, ' till we all come, in the unity of the 
faith, and of the knowledge of the Son of God, unto 
a perfect man, unto the measure of tlie stature of the 
fulness of Christ.' Gentlemen, again I beg to thank you 
for your kind welcome, and to express my readiness to 
cooperate with you to the utmost of my ability in all 
yovir designs for the furtherance of God's glory, and 
the advancement of Christ's religion in this important 
parish." 

On Saturday, Aug. lltJi, I left Graham's Town for 
Bathurst, my cart having been repaired, and my horses" 
somewhat refreshed. We outspanned for a time at Mr. 
W. Currey's, and arrived before dark at Mr. Barrow's, 
where we found a party awaiting our appearance. 

Sunday, IS///. — We had Morning Prayer at eight 
o'clock; at ten, the Litany, Confirmation, Sermon, and 
Holy Communion. There were twelve candidates for 
Confirmation, and about thirty communicants. The 
congregation was large, some having come from a great 
distance. Several young ■women rode seventeen miles, 
and returned again in the afternoon. The collection at 
the Offertory was about \\l. In the evening we had 
full service at six o'clock. The magistrate's daughters 
formed the choir, and chanted the hymns of the church 
very well, and in a devotional spirit. One individual 
from Cuylerville, Avho had ridden seventeen miles to the 
service, spoke anxiously about an appointment of an- 
other deacon or cathechist to that district. He said 
thejr could not come often to the church here, and they 
felt it " so lonesom.e" on a Sunday. 

Circumstances have compelled me for a time to dis- 
continue our services at that post, where there was an 
excellent, and apparently devout, congregation ; and 
want of funds, and the fear of involving myself, and in- 
curring liabilities which I cannot meet, alone prevents 
my resuming the station. I stated this frankly, and 



126 BISHOP OF CAPETOWN'S 

this young man undertook to see wliether they could 
not raise sufficient funds to lighten my responsibilities. 
I was grieved to say, that all that I could at present do 
■vvas to assure them that I bore them in my mind, and 
was most anxious to send them another teacher so soon 
as I could see my way clearly in the matter. 

Monday \9th. — Met several of the parishioners in the 
vestry. Endeavoured to stir them up to raise funds for 
an endowment, or the erection of a parsonage. They 
thought 100/. might be raised i'or this purpose. It was 
agreed that there should be a monthly Communion, and 
monthly Offertory. Those who were present were quite 
willing that this latter should be weekly, but thought it 
better to begin with it in this parish once a-monthonly. 
Afterwards I examined the Government school. 

Tuesday 20lh. — Started for the Cowie, accompanied 
by Mr. Dyason, the resident magistrate, Mr. Barrow, 
and Mr. Waters. It being low water, my cart was 
driven across the mouth of the river, which, it is hoped, 
will soon become one of the chief ports in the colony. 
After taking luncheon with Mr. Cock, I mounted the 
horse which Colonel Somerset had kindly sent for me, 
and rode to Theopolis, a missionary station of the 
London Society. The station of late years has been 
much affected by the departure of a considerable number 
of its most industrious inhabitants to the Kat River 
Settlement.' The institution is beautifully situated. 
It has a fine estate annexed to it of, I believe, 7,000 
acres of excellent land, w orth, I was told by a neigh- 
bouring farmer, at least 3,000/. The buildings are on a 
large scale; but the houses of the coloured people are 
in a most dilapidated condition, and scarcely any of the 
land is cultivated, though I was told by the person in 
charge that there were nearly 100 people resident upon 
it. Most of the London Society's institutions which I 

(1) The Ilottentols at each of these places have joined the Kafirs in 
the war now raging. 



VISITATION JOURNAL, 1850. 127 

have seen tvlthin the Colouy, as Pacclesdorp, Bethels- 
dorp, Zaurbrak, are in a languishing condition, but at 
this there really seems to be scarcely anything doing. 
It is true indeed that there is an infant school kept by 
the daughter of the last missionary, and another school 
by a coloured man ; but there is no missionary residing 
at the station, the only representative of one being an 
old soldier, who, in addition to his other functions, keeps 
a store. Those in charge did not affect to conceal the 
fact that it was doing no good whatever. The only 
reason for maintaining it arises from an unwillingness 
to give up the land, which Government allows the 
Society to occupy rent free, on the ground of its being a 
missionary station. I was pleased to hear how grate- 
fully all the people in this part of the country spoke of 
Colonel Somerset's exertions during the last war. 
Almost the whole neighbourhood was indebted to him 
for the preservation not only of the property, but even 
of the lives of the inhabitants. In the evenmg I rode 
on to Southwell, the station of Mr. Waters, whom I 
hope shortly to ordain Deacon. Here I found the 
Archdeacon, who had come down from Graham's Town 
to bring me a large packet of letters Avhich had arrived 
since I left him. Mr. Waters keeps school at Southwell 
during the week, and officiates there every Sunday. 
Once a-fortnight he has services at Riet Fontein, and 
the Cowie mouth. He has also attempted the establish- 
ment of a small mission and mission school for the 
surrounding Kafirs, which is our first direct attempt at 
missionary work. The Archdeacon's Kafir man, Wil- 
helm, is to be a kind of Catechist under Mr. Waters. 

After passing a tolerable night on the sofa, I endea- 
voured to prepare for the services of the day. We had 
first the Litany ; after which I confirmed ten candidates, 
Avho seemed to feel much on the occasion, and whom I 
addressed at some length. Then followed a sermon, 
and the Holy Communion; about twenty comrauni- 



128 BISHOP OF CAPETOWN'S 

cated. After the services were over, several of the 
farmers of the district dined witli Mr. Waters. I spoke 
to them strongly on the necessity of doing something 
towards the endowment of this chapelry, and promised 
them 100/. in aid of it, on condition that they raised at 
least an equal amount before Christmas. This they 
thought they should be able to do. As soon as our 
meeting was concluded, we mounted our horses, and 
rode about ten miles to the Wesleyan Mission Station 
at Farmerfield. This is said to be one of the most 
flourishing institutions in this part of the country. 
There are four distinct races of coloured people residing 
upon the property ^vhich has been bought by the 
Society. There are Fingoes, Bechuanas, Hottentots, 
and Kafirs. They require to be addressed in the Dutch, 
Sechuana, and Kafir languages, 'ihere is no missionary 
residing on the station ; it is under the charge of a 
catechist. "\Vh«n I arrived, I found that all the people 
on the station had assembled in the expectation that I 
would preach to them. For this I was not prepared; 
but, not liking to disappoint them, I spoke to them for 
about half an hour through a Bechuana and a Kafir 
interpreter. The people on this station cultivate a 
considerable quantity of land, and have nearly thirty 
wagons belonging to them. I understand that they 
almost supply Graham's Town with fire-wood. A con- 
siderable number are baptized, and many read and 
write. It was nearly dark before our service was over. 
We had still, however, about six miles to ride to Salem, 
where we were to sleep at the house of the Wesleyan 
missionary. Salem is not, properly speaking, a mission 
station. It is a small vill:>ge consisting chiefly of 
English. There is a Wesleyan school for boys, of whom 
there are about twenty, and girls, of whom there are 
about six. I sat up till late talking over some subjects 
of interest which the gentlemen of this institution wished 
to discuss with me. 



VISITATION JOURNAL, 1850. 129 

Thirsclay, August lid. — After breakfast, rode through 
.1 fine open country to Church-place, where there is 
a building used as a Church, and belonging to the 
Dutch, in which tlie minister from Uitenhage holds 
service once in six months. Mr. Henchman holds 
service here, and at Mr, Heugh's in Olifant's Hock, one 
Sunday in every month, and has a small congregation 
at each place. The population is, however, chiefly 
Dutch, and the people are very anxious to have a 
minister who can officiate in their own language. They 
asked me to use my influence to obtain them one. At 
about two o'clock I held service in the Church, and had 
a very good mixed congregation. After Divine service, 
I rode on with Colonel Somerset to Mr. Heugh's in 
Olifant's Hock, distant about twelve miles. This part 
of the country is very beautiful, abounding in bush and 
fine yellow-wood timber. It somewhat reminded me of 
the coast country at Natal. Mr. Heugh's house is 
prettily situated about a mile from the sea. 

Friday, 23d. — Started this morning at day-light, on 
horseback, and arrived at Quagga's flat, forty-five miles 
distant, before two o'clock. Here I held by appoint- 
ment a meeting of some of the inhabitants, who are 
anxious to erect a small chapel; which they hope may 
be done for 100^. or 150^ the greater part of the labour 
being given gratuitoush'. It was decided to commence 
a subscription, and 40/. were raised in the room. I fixed 
upon a site, and promised plans. It will be very 
plain and simple, and is to be built of rammed earth. 
A very good spirit prevailed, and several, having built 
their own houses, resolved that they would have a 
Church, even if they had to build it altogether by them- 
selves. At a little after three I got into my cart, and 
arrived at Commando Kraal, near the Sunday River, 
.'ibout seven o'clock. 

Saturday, 2Ath. — Arrived at Port Elizabeth in the 
afternoon, and took up my quarters at Mr. M'CIeland's, 
K 



130 BISHOP OF CAPETOWN S 

■svho refused to allow me to go to a lodging. I found 
the town somtwhat enlarged since I arrived at it nearly 
two years ago. The bay too had fourteen ships in it, 
and I understand it has frequently many more. I fear 
that our Church work is not advancing with the worldly 
progress of the chief port of the Eastern Province. 
There is no parish that I have been more desirous to 
assist than this, ever since my arrival in the Diocese. 
There is scarce one for which I have been enabled to 
do so little. I remain here nearly a fortnight in the 
hope that I may be able to devise some plan, in con- 
junction with the parishioners, for the extension of our 
work. May God bless my endeavours with success. 
It was only yesterday that Mr. Henchman of Sidbury 
suggested my sending a clergyman here, and leaving him 
to be altogether supported by the voluntary offerings of 
the Church, as I could not undertake the responsibility 
ef inviting another clergyman out from England to be 
dependent upon my funds. The proposition is worth 
considering. I should not despair of finding a clergy- 
man, were the circumstances known in England. 

Port Elizaheth, Augtist Z\st. — I have now been in this 
town a week, having arrived last Saturday. My time 
has been fully occupied in conversations, &c. with the 
parishioners, in the general business of the Diocese, 
and in religious services. On Sunday I directed notice 
t^o be given that I would sit on Wednesdays and Fridays, 
during my stay, in the vestry, for the purpose of seeing 
any persons who might wish to converse with me on 
matters relating to the Church, or of a spiritual nature; 
that there would be Divine service on those days ; and 
that the consecration of the Church and Churchyard 
would take place on Friday. The services on all these 
occasions have been exceedingly well attended. During 
the Meek I have bad a good deal of conversation with 
the parishioners respecting the state of the Church in 
this parish. I have said plainly that our work is in a 



VISITATION JOURNAL, 1850. 131 

more dead state here, and at Uitenhage, tlian in any 
other part of the Diocese. Many feel this, and are dis- 
tressed at it. Several of the more earnest members of 
the Church with whom I have spoken agree with me, 
that we ought to make an effort to procure the erection 
of a second Ciiurch at the north end of the town, \^hich 
is increasing very rapidly. I therefore addressed the 
following letter to the members of the Church, which 
has been printed, and circulated by the Churchwardens 
through the Parish : — 

" Brethren. — Since my arrival amongst you, several 
zealous members of our communion have expressed to 
me their earnest desire to see another Church erected 
at the north end of the town, with a special view to thp 
spiritual wants of that portion of the parish, of our 
poorer brethren, and of the sailors Avho frequent this 
port ; and one at least has offered to contribute liberally 
towards its erection. 

" I have long felt that there existed a need of an 
additional Church and a second clergyman in Port 
Elizabeth, and have some months ago stated how far 
I might be enabled to forward these objects in a pecu- 
niary point of view. 

" I am anxious now to repeat publicly to you, that 
I still have at my disposal a sum of 250/. given by Miss 
Burdett Coutts, for increased Church accommodation 
for the poor, and that from the Society for Fromot'mg 
Christian Knoivtedge, and other quarters, I feel assured 
that I can obtain 150/. more. This whole amount of 
400/. I am willing to guarantee towards the erection of 
a Church, provided the inhabitants can raise, during the 
present year, a sum of 500/. from private sources to 
meet it. I cannot pledge the sum 1 have named after 
this present year, because the demands upon me from 
every quarter are so very heavy, that all the funds 
placed at my disposal will by that time be well nigh 



182 BISHOP OF Capetown's 

exhausted. Should there be no prospect, tlierefore, of 
a second Church beinsj; erected, I must devote the sum 
I have mentioned to other more preashig objects. But 
should .'500/. be raised by Christmas, I would then sug- 
g;est that a Church, to contain 200, or, if possible, 
250 persons, should be erected upon the land offered by 
Mr. Tee and Mr. Korsten, or such other site as may be 
deemed more desirable. The Church would of course 
be so constructed, as to be capable of future enlarge- 
ment, so that when completed it might hold perhaps 
500. The nave might first be erected; aisles, chancel, 
and tower might be added, as funds were forthcoming. 
I should be sorry, however, to see anything like a 
large debt incurred : and a Church to hold 200 would 
probably not cost less than 1000/. 

But the thought will naturally occur to us all, — IIow, 
when the Church is built, is the minister thereof to be 
supported? I have already pledged myself towards the 
maintenance of clergy in the Diocese, to an extent 
beyond what is prudent; and there are still, in several 
parts of the land, many of our brethren utterly destitute 
of the means of grace. I must at once, therefore, 
candidly say, that, whatever I might have been able to 
do a yctar ago, I have not now the means at my disposal 
for the support of an additional clergyman, lie must 
altogether depend for his subsistence upon the free-will 
offerings of the members of the Church in this parish. 
I have myself no fear that an earnest minister, who will 
devote himself to the visitation of the sick and needy, to 
Sunday Schools, and to labouring among the poorer 
members of the Church, will ever be suffered to want, 
by those who have the power to give, and who are not 
at present called in any way to support their Pastor. 

With this understanding, then, I am willing to look 
out for a clergyman, and bring him out, and place him 
here to minister amongst you. I cannot, of course, 
undertake to say when one will be found vvillmg to 



VISITATFON JOURNAL, 1850. 133 

leave liome, and all that is dear to him, to labour in 
this place upon such terms. But I have a good hope 
that of the very many clergy of the English Church 
whose sole desire is to spend and be spent for the 
glory of God, the advancement of Christ's Kingdom on 
earth, and the salvation of the souls for whom He died, 
one may be found to offer himself for this work before 
your Church can be completed. If yon then are pre- 
pared to cooperate in the attempt now being made to 
provide additional means of grace for this important and 
rising town, I will use every endeavour in my power to 
provide for you a faithful and zealous pastor. 

Commending this work to your support, and your 
prayers, I remain, Brethren, 

Your friend and Pastor, 

R. Capetown. 

Before this letter was printed, sixteen gentlemen 
undertook, at my request, to act as a committee for the 
collection of funds. On Friday I met them in the vestry 
of the church, when a Building-Committee was formed, 
and steps taken to promote the erection of the church. 
To-day I have met the Committee again to select a site 
and commence a subscription. A very eligible situation 
has been fixed upon, the ground being given by two 
individuals. About 200/. were contributed in the room 
by the Committee, and the greatest confidence was ex- 
pressed that the amount required would speedily be 
raised. In the afternoon I rode out to the Retief Light- 
house, which is nearly finished. I enjoyed my ride 
much, for it was the only relaxation that I have had 
since I have been in this place. The light-house is a 
very fine piece of mason-work, and has already cost 
upwards of 7,000/. It is said that if it had been erected 
a little sooner, several of the most distressing wrecks 
which have occurred during this present year would in 
all probability not have taken place. 



134 BISHOP OF CAPETOWN'S 

On Siindcaj, Sept. 1, I preached twice to very large 
congregations, and administered the Holy Communion 
to about sixty persons. Between the Services I attended 
the Sunday-school at the north end of the town, estab- 
lished by Mr. Tee, who has erected a wooden building 
specially for it. I afterwards attended the Sunday- 
school, which is carried on in the church under the 
zealous old clerk. The children here still bring their 
weekly pence ^^for the Bishop's Missions" alas, not yet 
in operation. The box was opened before me. Alto- 
gether they have raised about 6/. The offerings in 
church were about 15^. for the same object to-day. I 
addressed the children for about half an hour on the 
subject of Missions. The services of the day were all 
very encouraging. 

Sept. 2. — Drove out with some gentlemen to see the 
Maitland mines. It has long been known that there 
are in this neighbourhood veins both of lead and copper. 
Several gentlemen have formed themselves into a com- 
pany with a view to work them, or at least to ascertain 
whether they are Avorth working. No great progress 
has as yet been made. Several shafts have been driven 
a little way, but no rich veins have hitherto been dis- 
covered. The ore, however, is said to be very good, 
and the indications most promising. 

Sept. 5. — This day I left Port Elizabeth after an inte- 
resting, and, I trust, profitable visit of twelve daj-s. 
Several persons have availed themselves of my invitation 
to meet me in the vestry, and with them I have held some 
most interesting conversations. I am very anxious that 
the Clergy, wherever it is practicable, should adopt this 
plan, which I myself followed in England, of sitting at 
stated periods in the vestry, for the purpose of seeing 
those who may wish to seek their spiritual counsel. 
I am perfectly satisfied that there are some persons in 
every parish w ho are most anxious to have close con- 
fidential intercourse with God's ministers, but who 



VISITATION JOURNAL, 1850. 133 

know not how to approach them. This practice of 
sitting in the vestry to receive them opens a way for 
such intercourse, of which I find the people of this 
Diocese well inclined to avail themselves. Several in 
the parish have told rae how much they needed advice 
and instruction, and how thankful they were for it. 

Our congregations have been excellent during the 
whole period of my stay; On Sundays the church has 
been quite full. On Wednesdays and Fridays I think 
there must have been about 150 present. During the 
twelve days that I have been here I have preached eight 
times. 

Yesterday I held my official Visitation, and examined 
into the affairs of the Church. I suggested to the 
Churchwardens and Vestry that an addition of 50/i 
a-year should be made to the stipend of their Minister, 
who has been labouring amongst them for many years 
on a very insufficient income. This was agreed to, 
although there is still a debt of upwards of 200^. upon 
the church. The Vestry, however, quite assented to 
the propriety of having collections every Sunday, and 
it was arranged that they should have them. 

The Vestry presented to me the following address : — 

My Lord, — We the undersigned, the Minister, Church- 
wardens, and Vestrymen of St. Mary's Church, in Vestry 
assembled, beg to offer to your Lordship our sincere 
congratulations on your safe arrival amongst us once 
more. In the protection which has been afforded your 
Lordship during your long and arduous travels through 
the perils of the wilderness, we cannot fail to recognize 
the watchful care of the Great Head of the Church ; and 
the success by which your I^ordship's endeavours to 
advance the glory of God have been hitherto attended, 
induces us to look forward to a time when, through the 
length and breadth of the land, the word of the Lord 
shall have free course and be glorified, through His 



136 BISHOP OF CAPETOWN'S 

blessing upon the same continued exertions. We are 
well aware of the many difnculties by which your path 
was obstnicted, when your Lordship first engaged in 
the great work of building up the Church in this long- 
neglected portion of the British dominions; and, al- 
though your Lordship's labours may be truly said to be 
only in their beginning, still, the facility with which 
obstacles have been overcome leads to the belief that 
the Lord has been with you of a truth, and that He will 
continue to prosper His work in your hands. 

During the short stay of your Lordship in this portion 
of your Diocese, the interest in the welfare, temporal 
and eternal, of the inhabitants of Port Elizabeth which 
characterized you in your first Visitation, seems to have 
suffered no diminution; and the willingness with which 
your Lordship has come forward to aid in the erection 
of an additional church for the accommodation of the 
rapidly increasing population of the town, is the best 
evidence that can be adduced of your Lordship's untir- 
ing exertions in this particular. 

Although the want of some superior education to that 
imparted in the Government schools has already occu- 
piedyour Lordship's serious attention,still wedeemit our 
duty to bring tliis important subject to your notice again, 
as the difficulties under which the inhabitants labour 
in this respect are becoming every day more pressing. 

That your Lordship may be long preserved, and 
spared to a good old age, to see a prosperous issue put 
to all your labours, is the heartfelt prayer of your 
Lordship's obedient and faithful servants. 

To this I replied in words to the following effect : 
Gentlemen, — I beg to assure you that I fully appre- 
ciate the kind expressions towards myself personally, 
contained in the address which you have just delivered. 
I do indeed (eel deeply grateful to Almighty God for 
His merciful care and protection during this long and 



VISITATION JOURNAL, 1850. 137 

arduoiTS Visitation, and amidst the many anxieties 
which must needs beset the first Bishop of so important 
and long neglected a Diocese, in times of much trial 
and difficulty. You allude to the measure of success 
with which it has pleased God to bless our endeavours 
to advance His cause in the world ; and you regard it 
as the earnest of richer mercies yet in store for us. 
We cannot be too thankful for God's goodness and long 
suffering towards our Church, which at length has, 
I trust, become fully alive to its responsibilities, and is 
endeavouring to make adequate provision for the spiri- 
tual wants of its people. Whether we are to expect 
a continuance of the Divine favour, and richer manifes- 
tations of God's blessing and presence, will depend in 
no light degree upon ourselves. Increased zeal, devo- 
tion, and faithfulness ou our part, will lead to increased 
blessings on God's. 

The Mork of the Church in this Diocese is, as you 
rightly observe, only beginning. It will require the 
earnest and united eff'ort of every member of our com- 
munion to bring it to its completion. I hail with satis- 
faction the exertions which many in this flourishing 
town and port are making for the erection of a second 
church. I have already, in my letter addressed to the 
parishioners, expressed the deep interest which I take 
in this work. There are few things in the Diocese 
which I am more anxious to see accomplished ; and 
none which I shall be more ready to promote to the 
utmost of my power. With reference to the subject of 
education, to which you allude, I can only now say that 
I am fully alive to its importance ; that I regret with 
yourselves the inadequate provision which exists for 
those who desire to see their children enjoying a sound, 
liberal, and religious education ; and that I shall at all 
times be prepared to cooperate with you in your 
endeavours to secure for yourselves so inestimable a 
blessing. I would willingly have offered to bring out a 



138 BISHOP OF CAPETOWN'S 

clergj'man for this special work, were it not that I am 
already involved in very serious liabilities which I do 
not feel justified at the present moment in adding to. 

My prayers are united \vith yours, that it may please 
God very abundantly to bless his work in this portion 
of His vineyard. 

I quit Port Elizabeth with some degree of comfort, 
and with more hope than when I entered it. The people 
are certainly very anxious about their church, and there 
seems to be but little doubt that the money will be 
raised. The parishioners are kind-hearted and friendly, 
and, if it please God to raise up a zealous and judicious 
man for this post, I feel assured he will be of much 
service, and be largely blessed in his work. I slept at 
Taylor's, Commando Kraal, beyond the Sunday River. I 
have for my companion Mr. Ebden, late member of 
council, whom I found in Port Elizabeth, and who is 
anxious to proceed to Graham's Town. I have, there- 
fore, offered him a seat in my cart. On Friday I 
arrived at Sidbury. On calling at Mr. Daniel's, Sid- 
bury Park, I found several gentlemen coming out on 
horseback to meet me. They returned with us to 
Sidbury. On Saturday I consecrated the church. On 
Sunday I confirmed eleven, administered the Holy Com- 
munion to sixteen parishioners, and preached twice to 
very respectable congregations. I am very thankful to 
find that a great change for the better has taken place 
in this parish since the arrival of Mr. Henchman.' The 
people now take an interest in their church, and attend 
Divine Service. Some, who did not like the establish- 
ment of the weekly ofTcrtory at first, told me yesterday 
that they had quite changed their minds ; th:it they now 
see that it is on every ground most desirable, and that they 
feel assured that the alms of the people will increase. 
All, they said, would have given more, had they not 
(1) See Note A., at the end of the Volume. 



VISITATION JOURNAL, 1850. 139 

still been in some difficulties. Tliey liave not yet 
recovered from the effects of the late Kafir war, in 
1 847 ; and the losses which they now sustain by stealing, 
on the part of their herds, or strangers in the colony, 
are very great. One fiirmer present told me that he 
had lost in this way 600 sheep during the last year. 
Another said that the annual loss in sheep was one 
tenth of the flock. The drought this year is greater 
than has been known for many years past, and the 
locusts have been very destructive. The whole country 
appears quite burnt up, cattle are dying in considerable 
numbers, and there is scarce sufficient water for daily 
use. My horses have been very unwilling to drink it, 
because what there is, is very bad. The gentlemen of 
this parish bore very strong testimony to the excellence 
of the present system in British Kaffraria. So effective 
is the Kafir police on the frontier, and so certain to 
trace to their hiduig-place any cattle that may be driven 
across the line, that all the thieves and vagabonds have 
ceased to make the attempt. Cattle and sheep are now 
driven over the Orange River, amongst the Mantatees 
and Bechuanas. They all cried out for a better system 
of police in the colony, declaring that farmers would 
gladly give from 20/. to 30/. a-year towards its establish- 
ment. But they affirmed that under the present system, 
their losses would almost be equal in ten years to 
another Kafir war. 

Saturdatj, September \-\lh. — I arrived in Graham's 
Town on Monday last. My time has been chiefly 
occupied in some very anxious business connected with 
several parishes, arising chiefly from the difficulty the 
people find in completing the churches which they have 
begun. The expense of building in this colony is greater 
than any o.' us have been willing to believe. Though 
the designs of the churches have all been very simple, 
they have in most cases exceeded the means which are 
at the disposal of the several committees, St. Helena 



140 BISHOP OF Capetown's 

has also furnished me with several topics for careful 
consideration. On Wednesday evenin<j I preached. On 
Thursday I attended a tea meeting in tlie new grammar- 
school. The vestry had invited the parishioners to meet 
me. There were about 300 present. After tea and 
some music, the report of the building committee was 
read, and sundry resolutions adopted. It appears that 
the school-house cost 900/., and that a debt of 160/. still 
exists. Tiiis it was determined to liquidate by a general 
subscription. After the report was read, I addressed 
those present at some length, entering first into matters 
of a local character, and then upon the general prospects 
of the Church, and the work which was lying before it 
in this Diocese. I ixrged upon the parishioners the 
erection of a boarding-house in connexion with the 
grammar-school ; spoke of the necessity of our attempt- 
ing hereafter to found a college for the eastern province ; 
and warned parents against sending, as some were 
doing, their children to the convent for instruction. I 
then pointed out to them the great progress which the 
Church, by the blessing of God, had been enabled to 
make within the colony, during the last two years. 
There had been an increase of thirty-one clergy in the 
Diocese during that period, thus trebling the whole 
mimber. I reminded them of the great state of spiritual 
destitution in which many of our bretl.ren are still 
living in several villages and districts ; and urged upon 
them the duty of doing all in their power towards 
maintaining the work of God, and the ministry of the 
Church. I then entered upon the missionary field, 
and spoke of the obligations of the Church. I told 
them of the steps which had already been taken 
towards the foundation of a mission, both in British 
KalTraria, and in the colony of Natal ; and informed 
them that it was my intention, if God spared me, to 
return to England during the course of next year, with 
a view to promote this and other good works. Those 



VISITATION JOURNAL, 1850. 141 

present seemed much interested. 1 concluded wifeh 
urging them to remember that the Cluu'ch in S. Africa 
had a great work to accompUsh ; that though it was 
true that, from past neglect, there was much to be done 
all at once, which it was impossible that we should be 
able to accomplish by ourselves in our present weak 
state, and, therefore, Ave justly leaned in some degree 
hoth vipon the mother Church and upon the Government; 
yet that this was a state of things which ought not to 
continue, and would not continue. Tliat what we had 
to depend upon was the blessing of God resting upon 
our own exertions. That what every parish must learn 
to do was this ; to maintain our whole church-work 
through means of the Aveekly offertory ; that 1 rejoiced 
that they w^ere aiming at this, and setting an example 
to others. I concluded with entreating all to make the 
cause of God and His Church in this land the subject of 
their unceasing intercessions. 

SiDidcuj, September \5fh. — I preached in the morning at 
St. George's, generally upon ttie state, prospects, and 
responsibilities of the Church, with a sjjccial reference 
to the subject of Missions. In the afternoon I preached 
at Fort England, where service is held, which both 
civilians and military attend. There being no military 
chaplain allowed at this place, though it is the head 
quarters of t^vo regiments, the clergy of the town have 
readily undertaken the duties which seemed to devolve 
upon them. Their zealous eflbrts have met with a 
response from the troops. They speak with more satis- 
faction of their work amongst the soldiers, than amongst 
any other class of the community. There is always a 
good congregation at the second service at Fort England. 
Many of them attend the week-day services, and one or 
t\^o even the daily prayers of the Church. The Arch- 
deacon preached in the evening. ■. 

Saliirday, 2\st. — This has been a busy and anxious 
week. The pressure of Diocesan business has been 



142 BISHOP OF CAPETOWN'S 

itiorp ihan usually heavy ; and the examination of the 
candidates for Holy Orders has afforded full occupation 
to the Archdeacon and to myself. On Saturday I conse- 
crated the church and churchyard. The church was 
full, the parishioners appearing to take a deep interest 
in the matter. The Archdeacon preached with his usual 
power, comparing the state of the Colonial with that of 
the mother Church in the way of gain and loss, and 
endeavouring to arouse the minds of his hearers to a 
deeper appreciation of their privileges and duties. We 
have had full service with sermon every evening this 
■week, the Clergy taking it in turn to preach. The con- 
gregations have been good, and there is an increase in 
the number of attendants at early prayers. 

Sioidai/, 22<^/.— This day I ordained one Deacon, and, 
assisted by the Clergy, four priests. There were present 
altogether ten Clergy. I preached on the occasion. The 
congregation was very large; communicants about 
ninety. The service was not over until nearly three 
o'clock. The offerings for the sick and aged Clergy 
amounted to nearly 2Gl. ; yesterday, for the church, 
they were about 12/. It has been a solemn day for us 
all. I preached again in the evening. 

Mondcnj, 23f/.— The Clergy of the archdeaconry of 
Grahamstown this day assembled in synod. Several 
were unable t > be present owing to the great distance 
they would have to travel, and the impossibility of pro- 
viding for their duty during their absence. Mr. Steabler, 
for instance, at Bloemfontain, would have had to travel 
400 miles each way. The Clergy agreed to apply to Dr. 
Bray's Associates for a grant of books, to form a library 
for the archdeaconry. Steps were taken to place the 
Bocietrj for Fromotbig Chndiaii Knowledge upon a better 
footins:, so that the books and tracts of that Society, 
which has bean so great a benefactor to this Diocese, 
might be introduced into every parish. I requested the 
Clergy to state, after full consideration, to the Arch- 



VISITATION JOURNAL, 1S50. 143 

deacon what they thought would be the best boundaries 
for their respective parishes ; and I informed them that, 
upon their doing so, the Archdeacon would make a 
general report to me on the subject, and that I would 
thereupon fix definitively the boundaries of the parish 
for each Clergyman. Afterwards I brought tinder their 
notice our contemplated mission-woi'k, both in British 
Kafi'raria and Natal, and laid fully before them the plan 
which I proposed to adopt. They expressed their 
hearty interest in it, and their entire approbation of it. 
I then sought their counsel as to the desirableness of 
my returning to England, the more effectually to carry 
out my plans, both in the selection of men and raising 
of the funds required. They expressed unanimously 
their conviction of the expediency, if not the necessity, 
of my returning home for that purpose ; and, though 
fully aware of the great inconvenience which all would 
feel from the prolonged absence of the Bishop of a 
Diocese so lately formed, and still in so unsettled a 
state, they assured me they would cheerfully submit to 
whatever loss or inconvenience might be occasioned, in 
order that the great work of the conversion of the 
heathen might be the more eff'ectually promoted. 

Tuesday, 'i\th. — We resumed our session this day. 
The subject of Missions was again renewed. One of 
the Clergy thought that the Mission work should begin 
with the Church in South Africa itself; or at least, that 
if it did, we should be better entitled to say to the 
Chvtrch at home, " Come over and help us." He offered 
himself for the work, if I thought good to send him, and 
said that he should feel honoured in being sent forth to 
the heathen. I believe he but spoke the sentiments of 
others present. Towards the close of our session, I 
brought under the notice of the Clergy the Declaration 
which I had prepared respecting the Convocation. 
I am thankful to say that they were unanimous in their 
approbation of it. They felt that the circumstances of 
the Church at home called for an expression of the 



144 BISHOP OF Capetown's 

mind and judgment of this distant branch of it, and 
•were most anxious to show this sympathy with the 
mother Church under her present trials and difTiculties. 

Both yesterday and to-day we liave had full service, 
with sermon, in the evening, in addition to the usual 
Morning Prayer. 

Wednesdai/, 2r>th. — Married Mr. Fleming, Military 
Chaplain at King William's Town, this morning, after 
which I started on horseback, in company with Colonel 
Somerset, for Fort Hare. Several gentlemen rode out 
a little way with us. It is now nearly two years since 
I proceeded precisely in the same way, in the same 
company, along the same road. Since that period GoD 
has wrought much for the ad\ancement of His cause 
and Church in South Africa. May we be found faithful! 
W'c slept at the neat little inn at the Koonap. I was 
thankful to have a good night's rest, and a little cessa- 
tion from exhausting business. I have every reason to 
be "grateful that God preserves me in health amidst 
incessant and most anxious toil. I do not think, during 
the month that 1 have spent at Grahamstown, I have 
had more than an hour or two of leisure. Indeed, I 
have been obliged to leave it, with much which ought 
to have been done left undone, and much more done, 
I fear, in a slovenly way, though I have worked, I may 
fairly say, night and day. My dear friend and brother, 
the .-Archdeacon, seemed almost worn out uhen I left. 

Thursdaii 26l/>. — Arrived at Alice about two o'clock, 
after a hot ride of about thirty miles. Spent an hour 
with Mr. Beaver talking over business, and the state of 
his parish ; after which, I went up to Fort Hare, Colonel 
Cooper having kindly invited me to take up my quarters 
with him during my visit to this place. During these 
last two days, I have heard a good deal abotit the 
probability of an outbreak on the part of the Kafirs." 
It is said that they are suffering so much in consequence 
(1) See Xote B. at the end of the Volume. 



VISITATION JOURNAL, 1850. 145 

of tbe long-continued drought, that they think they may 
as well die by the ball as by famine. It is certain that 
they are in great distress and want. Their melies are 
all gone, and none are to be had in Alice at less than 
thirty shillings a muid (the price the Kafir gets for 
them when he sells them to a trader being four shillings 
a muid). Milk they have none. The cows do not give 
any, and are themselves dying of starvation. The 
ground is too hard to allow of their sowing seed for 
pumpkins ; and these things form the chief food of the 
Kafir. He relies upon his melies for five months in the 
year, milk for four, and pumpkins for three : and all 
these have failed him. I drove out in the afternoon, 
after my arrival, with Colonel Cooper, and had brought 
vividly before my eyes the state of destitution to \ihich 
these poor people are reduced. The mimosa, which 
abounds here, has been stripped of its bark to furnish 
them Avith food, and that, with roots Avhich the Avomen 
are digging up all over the country, forms the chief 
support of the population. Can we wonder that they 
should begin to think of stealing ? It is said that they 
are well supplied with guns and ammunition through 
the traders, and there can, I think, be no doubt, from 
all one hears from various quarters, that they are at 
present in a state of considerable excitement. This it 
is thought has in part arisen from the appearance of a 
man amongst them, claiming to be a prophet, who is 
exercising great influence over them. 

We passed by Macomo's kraal : he was standing by 
his hut, smoking, and stupid from drink. He came up, 
however, to shake hands. 

Friday 27th. — I confirmed, this morning, nine candi- 
dates in the court-house at Alice. The building is but 
small, and the congregation more than filled it. After- 
wards I consecrated two military burial grounds, and 
visited a seminary or training institution belonging to 
the Free Kirk of Scotland, which is intended for the 
L 



146 BISHOP OF CAPETOWN'S 

education of coloured children for teachers, in the same 
school Tiith the children of European parents. There 
Avere in the Institution about eighteen of each race. 
The Europeans pay from 20/. to 25/. each ; the coloured 
children nothing. The children are together only during 
school hours. They do not live in the same building, 
or take their meals in common. The coloured children 
dine after the white, in the same room and at the same 
table. I do not see that any good can arise from such 
a mixed education. The distinction between the races 
is more marked than if any Avere educated in -nholly 
separate establishments. None of the children were far 
advanced. In arithmetic, they did sums in compound 
multiplication ; they read some of Chambers' books on 
sreography and astronomy, full of hard words, and 
answered some simple questions relating to religious 
truth. It is the fashion in this colony in almost all 
schools to teach Chambers' books. Little children who 
can scarce spell are dosed daily with a smattering of 
science, or rather scientific terms and words, to the 
neglect of more useful and important things. The whole 
colony is, however, I believe, well-nigh sick of the 
system. The Government gives 100/. a-year to this 
Institution. There has been a shocking murder com- 
mitted in this neighbourhood, within the last few days, 
which is illustrative of the little regard in which the life 
of the natives is held by iTiany Europeans. The son 
of a neighbouring farmer was out in the veldt, with a 
servant, an Englishman. They saw a Kafir going along 
the road, and called upon him to stop. He did so. 
They asked for his pass. He had none. They told him 
they would take him prisoner, and proceeded to loose 
the rein from their horses' neck to bind him. He ran 
away, but stopped about twenty paces off. The English 
servant walked up to him and deliberately shot him in 
the neck. He fell down dead. The farmers, doubtless, 
have much to «ndure. Thev lose immense numbers of 



VISITATION JOURNAL, 1850. 147 

sheep, but if sucli deeds as these are perpetrated, vtc may 
justly expect Kafir wars as God's scourge and chastise- 
ment. The Kafir had about seven pounds of meat and 
a chisel. He had no assegai, nor even a knife ; and it 
is supposed was on a journey. His murderer is in 
custody. I am told that I passed close bj^ the dead body 
in my ride yesterday. 

The military villages which were founded after the late 
war are in a languishing state.' Kemp is broken up ; 
Joanna nearly deserted; at Woburn not a dozen 
remain; Ely is suffering much from "the drought, and 
its population is much diminished : at Auckland the 
decrease is not so great; but all are reduced. Soldiers 
do not generally make good settlers ; but unmarried 
soldiers are sure to fail in their attempts. So at least 
it has been in all these villages. 

On Saturday, after returning several calls, I drove in 
my cart to Fort Beaufort. The day was intensely 
hot. Finding Colonel Somerset still here, I have talked 
over with him the subject of a subscription to purchase 
food for the Kafirs in their present destitute state. He 
has entered readily into it, and agreed to write to Colonel 
Mackinnon on the subject; and if he should think it 
desirable, to cooperate with the Ai'chdeacon in setting 
one on foot. I have written to the Archdeacon about 
it. I took up my quarters with Mr. Wilshere, who is 
allowed the use of a portion of the fine stone barracks, 
which are now nearly empty. 

Sunday 29tk. — We had a very large congregation this 
morning in the church, which was in the course of 
erection when I was last here, and is now completed. 
Ecclesiastically speaking, the building is very incorrect, 
but it is neatly fitted up inside. Our whole work here 
is carried on by means of the weekly offertory, which, 
however, does not produce as much as might have been 

(1) The male inhabitants of these villages were all murdered at the 
breaking out of the war — January, 1S51. 



148 BISHOP OF CAPETOWN'S 

expected. Still, during the two years that a clergyman 
has been here, much has been effected. The church is 
finished and paid for, an organ has been purchased for 
loo/., several churchmen have made special oiferings, 
e.g., a very handsome communion cloth, a pair of 
Glastonbury chairs for the altar, books, &c. The pews 
have no doors, and there are no pew rents. We had 
seventeen candidates for confirmation, and thirty-five 
communicants. I both preached and addressed the 
candidates. The service lasted nearly three hours and 
a half. In the evening, also, we had an excellent con- 
gregation ; I preached again. 

Monday SOth. — This morning' the church was conse- 
crated. There were present of the clergy, Mr. Beaver, 
Mr. Willson, and Mr. Wilshere. The congregation was 
very large. 1 preached on the occasion. Afterwards 1 
went with several gentlemen to inspect the new church- 
yard, which I told them must be fenced-in previous to 
consecration. In the evening Mr. Wilshere invited the 
members of the church to tea in the long barrack-room. 
About seventy were present. An address was presented 
to me expressive of the satisfaction of the inhabitants 
at the progress made since the last visitation, &c. To 
this I replied at some length, and entered into a full ex- 
planation of the circumstances of the church in the 
Diocese. 1 took this opportunity of pressing upon the 
parishioners that it was absolutely necessary that their 
offerings towards the support of the ministry should be 
greatly increased. It is essential that it should be 
thoroughly understood by the whole diocese, that the 
work cannot be carried on without increased effort upon 
the part of all. I informed those present of the steps 
I was taking towards the formation of missions to the 
Heathen, both in British Kaffraria and Natal ; and en- 
treated the benefit of their prayers. 

Tuesday, October Ist. — After returning several calls, 

(1) See Not ■ C, at the end of the Volume. 



VISITATION JOURNAL, 1850. 149 

I started about twelve o'clock, accompanied by several 
gentlemen on horseback, for the Mancazana. I have 
arranged for ray cart to meet me at Shiloh next week. 
Colonel Sutton having kindly furnished me Avith Cape 
corps horses, I have decided to ride this week through 
the Winterberg. We did not arrive at the Mancazana ^ 
post till late, having stopped at several farm-houses ou 
the way. The ride was through a very beautiful 
country, though sadly burnt up at present. Mr. Boon, 
the catechist at this post, was looking out anxiously for 
our arrival. 

To-day's post informed me that four of the members 
elected by the people to frame a constitution for the 
colony have resigned. There is no country, that I know 
of, in the world, with a small population of 200,000, so 
thoroughly divided as this in language, race, and re- 
ligion. There are more than twenty different religious 
bodies: besides Mahomedans, and Heathen. There are 
four languages spoken, and at least four distinct races 
residing in the colony. There is a vast amovint of 
ignorance, and I fear there ever must be, from the 
scattered nature of the population. In the country 
districts, a very large proportion of the children of the 
present generation are growing up without being able 
to read and write. Altogether our political prospects 
are not encouraging. 

Wednesdcnj 2d. — Soon after breakfast this mornino-. 
several parties came in for the confirmation and services. 
With these I conversed previous to the hour of church. 
There were eleven candidates whom I addressed at 
some length. I also preached to an attentive congre- 
gation of about sixty, some of whom had come from 
a great distance. After service I held a meeting of the 
parishioners at the post. I took the opportunity of 
consulting them about the services held at the different 
stations, and brought under their notice the subject of 
(1) See Note D, at the end of the Volume. 



150 BISHOP OF CAPETOWN'S 

pecuniary support for a minister. I informed them tliat 
I could not keep up the Avork here without considerable 
contril)utions from them : that their ucckly offerings 
Tiere very small, and wholly inadequate; that I wished to 
know what they were prepared to do. I spoke to them 
very plainly, and at considerable length, on all these 
points. They seemed to feel the necessity of doing more; 
and pi-oposed that a subscription should be opened, in 
addition to the weekly offvirtory, which they did not 
wish to give up. By this means they thought that 
those who lived at a distance would have an opportunity 
of contributing. I told them I should not object to a 
subscription, though I had no confidence in it. One 
■was begun in the room, and only 171. put down. I felt 
constrained to intimate that unless the contributions 
were very largely increased, I should be obliged, how- 
ever reluctantly, to withdraw the present catechist from 
the post ; that the demands upon me from every part 
of the Diocese were so heavy that I could not give 
towards this work more than a small annual sum. 

Tliursday 3d I held service to-day at the old 

post, a few miles off, and afterwards conversed with the 
people who had 'assembled. It was somewhat un- 
willingly that I went to this service, which was held in 
a private house, and was the first at this station, which 
Las only just been occupied, in consequence of the 
commencement of a village in the neighbourhood. I 
preached extempore, and Avas very glad afterwards tliat 
I had gone; for a good, earnest, devout spirit prevailed; 
the people made a collection of their own accord, and 
entered their names readily in the subscription book. 
Several expressed themselves very properly, and with 
much good feeling; and I think tliey are really anxious 
to maintain a standing ministry amongst them. I told 
them they might bring as offerings a goat, or a sheep, 
or an ox, or a horse, if they had no money. In the 
afternoon, Mr. Boon had several of the parishioners to 



VISITATION JOURNAL, 1850. 151 

meet me at dinner. I again pressed upon their atten- 
tion tlie duty of offering of their substance to God; 
and urged them to devote at least a tenth to His service. 
In the evening, walked out to call upon the Church- 
Avardens. 

Friday ilh. — Rode to Retief, thirty miles, through 
the same beautiful country which I admired so much 
two years ago. We called on oue or two of the parish- 
ioners by the way. One, who had been a wealthy 
former on my last visit, was now a bankrupt. I believe 
his loss is proving gain to him. I endeavoured to turn 
the hour I sat with him and his wife to good account. 
I trust he may yet live to bless God for his chastise- 
ment. I examined at Kaal Hock, a little school of 
about thirty children, which Mr. Willson had got up 
since I was last here. The children are, I think, ad- 
vancing. This school receives 30/. a-year from govern- 
ment. I am anxious to see more of these country 
schools spreading throughout the colony. If they do 
not, the next generation of the agricultural population 
will grow up in barbarism. At present, the government 
funds are given almost exclusively to support free 
schools in the towns and villages, which want little or 
no assistance, and set very little value on the govern- 
ment. Some of these cost between 300/. and 400/. a- 
year, and are doing but little good. It is with the 
greatest difficulty that schools are raised or maintained 
in the country districts, where the popvilation is scat- 
tered. 

Saturdatj 5th. — This morning I went a few miles to 
examine another church school. There were about 
thirty children here also. It put me much in mind of 
our little village schools in England. As but few people 
came to our church meeting, appointed to take place at 
twelve o'clock, it was soon over, and I had some time 
in the afternoon for letter writing. 

Sunday 6th. — We had a large gathering of people this 



152 niSIIOP OF CAPETOWN S 

morning. Divine service was held in the commissariat 
room of the Fort, which makes an excellent chapel. It 
was quite crowded, and indeed many had to remain 
outside. I did not preach, but, instead, addressed the 
congregation extempore after morning prayer upon such 
points as I felt it to be of importance to bring before 
them. These people, the greater part of whom are old 
settlers with not much education, have risen by their 
own exertions to competency. From long neglect and 
lack of teaching, they have not, 1 fear, much knowledge. 
I therefore spoke to them very familiarly, contrasting 
their past state without the means of grace, with their 
present blessings; and urging them to devote the tenth 
of their substance to forward the work of the Lord, in 
the erection of churches, support of ministers, and 
missions. I addressed separately the unconfirmed and 
unwilling to be confirmed, the confirmed, communi- 
cants, and those who neglect communion. After this 
we proceeded with the confirmation ; when I again 
addressed the candidates, of whom there were eight. 
The number of communicants was fifteen. The 
people seemed to feel the services of the day a good 
deal. All, or nearly all, remained for the afternoon ser- 
vice, when I preached again, — though many came from 
a great distance. Several of the ^vagons would not 
reach home till to-morrow. The day has been one of 
much comfort both to Mr. Willson and myself. 1 trust 
there is a real Avork going on in the souls of some. 
Certainly there is a manifest improvement in the 
general state of things. May God give more abundant 
grace ! ' 

Oct. 7th. — We started early this morning for Shiloh. 
The distance is about forty-five miles. Our route lay 
over the Winterberg, and we had to walk up the pas.s. 
In our way I called upon a sick man, dying, I believe, 
from the excessive use of brandy; I was told that he 
(1) See Note E, at the end of the Volume. 



VISITATION JOURNAL, 1850, 153 

took two bottles daily. He professed to be penitent, 
but I stand in donbt of him. Unfortunately one of the 
Cape Corps horses took ill upon the road. The Hotten- 
tots did not know Avhat to do with him. I therefore 
took out my lancet and bled him. I left him to come 
on slowly with one of the orderlies, but he was obliged 
to leave him about six miles off on the road. I start at 
daybreak to-morrow to see what can be done for him. 
We arrived about five o'clock at the ISIoravian Mission 
station at Shiloh. The Brethren received us most 
kindly, but I found they had no forage, and that my 
cart had gone on beyond Whittlesea to find some. 
After changing my dress, and taking a cup of tea, 
I walked with Mr. Bonatz, one of the Missionaries, to 
Whittlesea, which is about two miles off, notice having 
been given that I would hold service there this evening. 
The village is quite in its infancy. The only pastoral 
visits which it enjoys are those of Mr. Willson, who 
holds service here once a quarter. Mr. Shepstone, how- 
ever, the magistrate, reads prayers every Sunday. We 
had a room full of people. I had intended to preach to 
them : but as I had unexpectedly two candidates, both 
of whom Mr. V/illson presented to me as fit for con- 
firmation, I thought it best to make two short addresses 
— one to the congregation, the other to the candidates. 
After service I discussed with a few of the people the 
possibility of the erection of a small chapel. They 
thought one could be raised for 100^., and that they 
could collect 75/. I told them that in that case, I would 
guarantee them the other 251., to be paid when the 
building was roofed in. They said that they thought 
some funds could be raised for the support of a minister. 
I told them that what they should aim at would be a 
deacon schoolmaster, who should both educiite their 
children, and minister to them in things spiritual. We 
reached home about half-past nine o'clock, and luckily 
got safe through the host of dogs, which dwell in great 



154 BISHOP OF CAPETOWN'S 

numbers in all native habitations, and are very danger- 
ous at night. Shiloh has 20,000 acres of valuable land 
attached to it, given lately to the Society by Sir H. 
Smith. There are about 800 people in the Institution : 
Kafirs, Fingoes, and Hottentots ; 300 of whom are 
Christians. A considerable quantity of land is under 
cultivation, and there is a fine stream of water, in spite 
of which, in this severe drought, their crops are suffering 
greatly. Mr. Bonatz informed me that some of the 
Kafirs have as many as 100 head of cattle. There are 
2,000 head altogether upon the Institution, which is 
clearly in a thriving state. There are four Missionaries 
with their families. The whole cost of their support is 
about 200/. a-year. To meet this the mill produces 
100/., and the remainder is obtained by the sale of the 
produce which they raise, by the shop, and by the wages 
paid to the Missionaries for work done by them, some 
being carpenters, others blacksmiths. The people pay 
no rent for the use of the land, nor do they seem to give 
much in the way of offerings. Mr. Bonatz spoke of the 
rumours, which are spread everywhere, of an outbreak 
amongst the Kafirs. He said that they were dissatisfied 
at the repeated burnings of their kraals. This only 
happens, 1 believe, when they cross the frontier, and 
squat upon land belonging to the Government or to 
private individuals. 

Tuesday Sl/i. — I did not sleep much last night, being 
anxious about the horse, which Ave had left in the veldt. 
At half-past four I called up the orderlies, and, after 
feeding the horses, went in search of the lost one. We 
found he had gone from where he was left over night, 
but traced him to a kraal, where the Kafirs had taken 
care of him. I drenched him with a bottle of wine 
which I had brought out for him, and sent him gently on 
to the Kafir police-station, where I had procured forage. 
I then returned to Shiloh, after a three hours' ride, with 
a hghter heart. The good brethren .soon prepared 



VISITATION JOURNAL, 1850. 155 

breakfast for me, after wLicli I -".valked round their vil- 
lage and grounds. There is a vast superiority in the 
Moravian establishments, so far as civilization and im- 
provement are concerned, over all other institutions in 
this colony. There is more work done, greater industry, 
and a more rapid advance in agricultural and mechanical 
operations. There are two water courses cut here, 
three miles long, which were full even in this dreadful 
drought. The gardens were in excellent order, and 
abounded with a variety of fruit-trees ; walnut, peach, 
apricot, vine, mulberry, apple, and pear. Some very 
large fields, all under irrigation, were fenced in with a 
willow hedge ; the churchyard, a quiet, secluded, peace- 
ful spot, surrounded with an excellent quince fence. 
The oak and the willow abounded on every side. All 
seemed busy : I did not see any lying lazily about ; 
several very good mud houses were in the course of 
erection ; a Kafir was planing a door in the carpenter's 
shop. Mr. Bonatz showed me, with some pride, a bell 
just cast by Mr. Nauhaus, and made out of the hoops 
that surrounded some ammunition casks left at the 
station during the last war. It was 45 lbs. weight, and 
sounded well. It seemed to me as an illustration of the 
promise that the sword should be turned into the plough- 
share, and the spear into the pruning hook.^ I parted 
from the Brethren sooner than I could have wished, and 
walked to Whittlesea to call upon some of the inhabi- 
tants who were at service last night. They seem 
anxious to erect a little school chapel, even though I 
was unable to promise them services more frequently 
than once a quarter. After tiffin with Mr. Lloyd, Lieu- 
tenant of Kafir police, I walked to see a Bushman's 
cave in the neighbourhood. There are several of these 
in this part of the country : the sides are covered with 
rude drawings of men, animals, snakes, &c. This one 
had pictures of Kafirs, represented as tall and red, Bush- 

(1) See Note F, at the end of the Volume. 



156 BISHOP OF CAPETOWN'S 

men shooting with the bow,— cows, deer, snakes, buf- 
faloes, and some other indescribable animals; the 
execution was very imperfect. The Bushmen are, I 
believe, the only aboriginal inhabitants who have shown 
any disposition to imitate nature. There are still a 
certain number of Bushmen in this district of Victoria ; 
they are under a chief of the name of Vlux, formerly, 
I am told, a soldier in the Cape Corps. The Govern- 
ment has recognised their right to a certain tract of 
land ■^^ithin the colony. This being more than they 
want for their own use, they have let it out to the Tam- 
bookies, or allowed them to occupy it. Under the 
pretence of rent they seem, lately, to have seized a con- 
siderable number of cattle and goats, and blood has 
been shed in consequence ; we have had therefore to 
interfere, and have captured nineteen Bushmen, through 
means of the Kafir police, and they are now in the 
"Tronk" awaiting their trial. There has also been a 
disturbance between the Boers and Tambookies about 
some disputed land. It is said that the Tambookies are 
leaving our frontier, and retiring back upon the unin- 
habited country through which I passed on my way 
from Natal, to secure peace and quiet. About two 
o'clock I started off again in my cart, en route for 
Burghcrsdorp. We slept at Kama's town, a Wesleyan 
Missionary station imder the charge of Mr. Shepstone, 
several of whose sons are filling important posts in the 
country. He received us very kindly. The Station is 
upon land given by Government to the chief, Kama, 
who has stood by the English in both the last wars, 
literally renouncing kindred, land, and home, for the 
Gospel's sake.' He is brother to Pato and Cobus 
Congo, both powerful chiefs in British Kaffraria. I was 
anxious to see this man, because he is allowed, even 
by those who deny that any Kafirs are Christians, to 
be sincere in his profession. He has two sons, who 
(1) See Note G, at the end of the Volume. 



VISITATION JOURNAL, 1850. 157 

fire living on the Station, both very excellent young 
men ; I had much conversation with them. 

Wednesdaii 9th. — Kama, hearing that I wished to see 
him, came over by seven o'clock this morning from his 
own place, distant about five miles. He was well 
dressed, and has a fine open countenance. I was glad to 
find that he was happy and contented with his land, 
Avhich I had heard was not the case. His people, I 
believe, are 3,000 in number. Each head of a family 
pays 1/. a-year to government. Mr. Shepstone said 
they complained of this; but I think, while the great 
body of the coloured people do not consume articles of 
import to any extent, and therefore pay no indirect 
taxes, it is quite reasonable that they should contribute 
in some way to the expenses of the country ; e.cj. there 
is a division of the Kafir police in their immediate 
neighbourhood, a most eff'ective body, to which they, 
as well as all the colonists on the frontier, are much 
indebted, but to whose support they could not contri- 
bute at present except by a direct tax. Kama spoke 
much of the present excited state of the Kafirs in con- 
sequence of the appearance of the prophet, of whom 
I have before spoken. He says that up to the period 
when this man assumed the oflice of a prophet, no one 
dreamt of war, but that he is now exercising an extra- 
ordinary influence over them, and he thinks that they 
will do whatever he urges upon them. Many of Kama's 
own people have gone after him. Kama has sent one of 
his Pacati to his brother Pato to entreat him to have 
nothing to do with the prophet, or with war ; and he 
has sent to ask the prophet himself what his message 
from Heaven is : telling him that he is a Christian, and 
cannot believe that he is a prophet unless he speaks in 
accordance with God's word. He says, that he thinks 
the common people amongst the Kafirs are satisfied 
with British rule, and feel the comfort of not being 
" eaten up ;" but that they cannot endure the restraint 



158 nrsHOP of Capetown's 

of not being allowed to roam about wLcre they please. 
I parted with Mr. Willson here, he returning home, and 
I proceeding on my journey. Our route lay through 
the ordinary South African country, dry and sandy 
plains, and valleys bounded by bare and bleak moun- 
tains. I found a good number of English farms in this 
part of the country. The people are living as sheep 
without a shepherd. They are, in spite of great losses 
in cattle, from the thefts of their neighbours the Tam- 
bookies, all growing rich, and could they but be induced 
to offer the tenth of their substance to God, might have 
their spiritual wants supplied. We passed the night at 
a little inn kept by an Englishman. 

Thursday lOi/i. — After a tolerable night upon the 
sofa, I proceeded on my journey through a country 
precisely similar in its general features to that which 
I passed through yesterday. Slept at a Dutch farmer's, 
the good vrouw making me a bed on some chairs. 

Friday. — The weather has become intensely cold; 
there was ice of some thickness on the vley near to the 
farm, and the wind was so cutting yesterday that I was 
fain to have recourse to a horse-cloth. We reached 
Burghcrsdorp about eleven o'clock. It is a most deso- 
late looking village, and reminded me, with its little 
square brick houses used only at the nacht-maals by the 
farmers, more of Richmond than of any other place in 
the colony. It would be difficult to say what local 
advantage could have tempted any one to fix upon such 
a spot for a village. The country round about is bare 
and uninteresting, — the village itself is a swamp, and it 
does not appear to offer a single advantage. It owes its 
rise, like some other villages in this colony, to the 
Boer's desire to have a village. When once this is 
determined on, a farm is purchased, a town laid out, 
erven sold. The farmers tliemselves purchase erven, 
and traders, &:c. soon follow. Many buy on speculation. 
The proceeds go to erect a church. In this way £6,000. 



VISITATION JOURNAL, 1850. 159 

or 80,000 dollars have been realized, a cliurch has been 
built, ali'eady showing symptoms of decay, and a very 
handsome parsonage, the best, I think, in the colony. 
Had this large sum been judiciously laid out, it wovild 
have provided an endovrment, as well as buildings. 
I understand that one of the conditions of the sale of 
erven, since rescinded, was that no place of worship for 
any other body of Christians than the Dutch Church, 
should be erected. Such being the case, one need not 
be surprised that the congregation were unwilling, as 
their amiable young minister desired, to offer their 
church to me to officiate in on Sunday, there being no 
Dutch service on that day, owing to the absence of the 
minister. I took up my quarters at a little inn. 

Saturday \1th. — Being at an inn, I have had some 
quiet in the morning for business ; at ten o'clock I met 
the members of the church by appointment in the 
court house. I told them that I had come amongst 
them on a visit of inquiry to seek out the members of 
the church, and take counsel with them as to the 
supply of their spiritual wants. That I wished during 
my short stay to see as much of them as possible, and 
to perform any religious offices. That I was ready to 
baptize their children, confirm any whom I might find 
prepared, hold Divine service amongst them, and cele- 
brate the Holy Communion. All expressed their earnest 
desire to have a clergyman. I told them that the only 
difficulty was the providing an adequate maintenance. 
That Government could give no more assistance, even 
if inclined, — the state of the revenue was not such as to 
admit of it ; — that I could not maintain one ; but if 
they were prepared to bear the main burden I would 
aid them as for as lay in my power. It was thought 
that if one would combine education with the pastoral 
work he might be maintained. I told them I would 
look out for such a person as they required, provided 
they raised the funds ; that I should prefer to have a 



160 BISHOP OF Capetown's 

clergyman who could give liimsclf exclusively to the 
•work of the ministry, visiting the farm houses in the 
country periodicalh', for that I felt that the farmers' 
families were sinking gradually into practical hea- 
thenism, and that unless something was done for them, 
the next generation would lose all sense of religion ; that 
in this very neighbourhood I had met with children who 
could not say the Lord's Prayer. They seemed to feel 
the force and importance of this, but thought that with- 
out combining education, a maintenance could not be 
secured. It was ultimately agreed that a committee 
should be formed with a view to take the whole matter 
into consideration, and report to me. They were also 
to endeavour to raise funds for the erection of a school 
chapel, to which I promised assistance. Should a 
clergyman be appointed, he is to officiate once a month 
at Aliwal. A Hottentot, baptized in Capetown, was the 
first to subscribe. He gave 61. and s.aid that he should 
rejoice to have a church to which he might go without 
fear of being turned out for being a coloured man ; that 
he had not ventured for this reason to set foot in the 
Dutch Church since he had been here. I afterwards 
called upon several people, and visited two sick men, 
one of whom I found brought to repentance by his 
affliction. He complained grievously of the want of a 
minister, and offered 51. a-year to support one. I dined 
with Mr. Cole, the Civil Commissioner, and in the even- 
ing had five candidates for confirmation, with whom 
I spent a couple of hours. Two of these were daughters 
of a former London Societj' Missionary. 

Sunday 13///.— Held service in the Court-house this 
morning, which was crowded. The responses were 
very fairly made, the singing good. I addressed the 
candidates extempore, preached, and administered the 
Holy Communion to seven persons. The service was, 
in consequence, somewhat long. In the afternoon the 
congregation was equally good, several being obliged to 



VISITATION JOURNAL, 1850. 161 

go away for want of room. I baptized some children 
after the second lesson. The offerings for the support 
of the ministry amounted to 8/. 8s. Between services 
I visited some sick, and administered the Holy Commu- 
nion to one person. In the evening several people 
came by invitation to converse with me. The services 
of the day have been very satisfactory. 

3Io!fcIfff/ 14/A. — Started this morning a little after six, 
for Aliwal North, distant about forty miles. The road 
is dreary and uninteresting, and there are but few farms. 
I drove round by the hot-springs, which are about two 
miles from the proposed village. These springs cast up 
about a million and a half of gallons of water daily, at 
a temperature of aboi\t 92^. The water tastes precisely 
similar to the Harrogate, but loses its peculiar smell 
and flavour by the time it reaches Aliwal. The village 
is situated on a fine plain on the banks of the Orange 
River, by an excellent drift. There are not many 
houses at present; but being, as it is said, in the direct 
line from East London to Bloemfontein, with a very fair 
road, it will, I think, hereafter flourish. The journey 
to East London may, I understand, be accomplished in 
eight days, and that to Bloemfontein in five. Shortly 
after my arrival, a single inhabitant presented himself 
as a deputation from the public, and welcomed me, in a 
formal address signed by about twenty people, to Aliwal, 
hoping that my visit would lead to the erection of a 
church and support of a minister. I told him that this 
depended almost altogether upon themselves. I soon 
fovmd that he at least was in earnest, and therefore 
entered into conversation with him. He asked what 
would be required to support a minister. I replied, 
L50/. a-year. He undertook to raise the money, and 
offered 201. a-year himself. I encouraged him to make 
the attempt. We then went to examine sites for school, 
parsonage, and church ; after which I rode out a few 
miles into the country to baptize some children. The 
M 



162 BISHOP OF CAPETOWN'S 

state of the family will very fairly illustrate the condi- 
tion of a large number of English on this frontier. I shall 
therefore explain it. The father was an Englishman, 
well connected at home. He came out to the colony 
young, took to travelling, trading, elephant-shooting, 
and riotous living. Subsequently he married an entirely 
uneducated English girl, and settled down upon a farm. 
For several years he has lived without GoD in the 
world ; but as his children begin to grow up around 
him, he is brought to think seriously of his responsi- 
bilities towards them. I found that not one of them 
could write, or read, or spell — that they could not even 
speak the English language. Unless something be 
done, and speedily done, for the outlying English and 
Dutch farmers in these remote districts, both for the 
education of their children and the supply of their own 
spiritual wants, they will ere long sink into a state little 
better than that of the heathen who are round about 
them. 

Tuesday \Mh. — This morning I held Divine service at 
eight o'clock, in a large room in the house where I 
spent the night. The room was full. I baptized two 
more children, and preached extempore from Mark viii. 
36, 37 : " What shall it profit a man, if he gain the w hole 
world, and lose his ow n soul ? or w hat shall a man give 
in exchange for his soul ?" I spoke plainly and simply, 
endeavouring to apply the words to those who were 
present. After service, the subscription was proceeded 
with, and upwards of 10/. guaranteed for five years 
towards the support of a minister. A subscription Avas 
also commenced for a church. 

I hear from various people in this neighbourhood, 
that the recent proclamation, by which 150 miles 
square of territory, reaching nearly to the Witte Bergen, 
has been added to the colony, has given great dissatis- 
faction, especially to the coloured people, to whom it 
belongs. The inhabitants are chiefly Tanibookies, For 



VISITATION JOURNAL, 1850. 163 

tlie benefit of being placed under British government, 
they pay a capitation tax of 7s. for each head of a 
family. The district is called a " Native Reserve." No 
European is allowed, at present, to settle in it, or to 
purchase land of the natives. The name of the chief of 
the tribe is Morosi,' and he has recently been to 
Bui'ghersdorp, to protest against being brought under 
British government. I heard from an intelligent Eng- 
lish farmer to-day, that considerable tracts of land are 
being bought in Moshesh's country for one penny an 
acre, or for a few oxen. This ought not to be allowed. 
It will gradually lead to the expulsion of the Bechuanas 
from their land. It is not allowed in the case of a 
neighbouring chief, Adam Kok : he is not permitted to 
dispose of his land, and for a very sufficient reason, — he 
does not know the value of it, and would soon be 
cheated out of the whole. No coloured man under- 
stands the value of land. He would at any time part 
w ith large quantities for a few oxen, a little tobacco, &c. 
We did not return to Burghersdorp till eight o'clock. 
After taking a mouthful of dinner, I went out to see 
some people who desired to converse with me, espe- 
cially one person who had expressed an earnest wish to 
be confirmed before I left. I was so pleased with her, 
that I promised to confirm her privately at six o'clock 
to-morrow morning, as it may very probably be three 
years before I can visit this place again. She knew her 
Catechism perfectly, and traced all her religious im- 
pressions to the old clerk at Port Elizabeth and his 
Sunday-school. 

Wedimduy IQth. — After confirming the person of 
•whom I have spoken above, I made an early start for 
Cradock. Our road lay through an uninteresting 
country, abounding in the spring-bok. We passed the 
night at an inhospitable Dutch boer's place, who re- 
ceived me coldly enough as an Englishman ; and, after 

(1) He has since engaged in the war. 



164 BISHOP OF CAPET0^V^•'S 

I had retired to my cart, finding from my man ■who 
I was, regretted that he had not known before, for he 
■would have refused me shelter. As it ■was, I ■\ras 
indebted to him for nothing but a little tripe and pigs' 
feet for supper. Many of these poor people believe 
that there are no other Bishops but those in commu- 
nion ^vith Rome; and entertaining, as they do, a trans- 
mitted and hereditary hatred and fear of Romanists, are 
imw illing to receive them into their houses, or to bid 
them God-speed. I passed a sleepless night. There 
being no forage but what -was growing hard by, my 
poor horses, a''ter travelling nearly fifty miles, Mere 
obliged to be tethered for the night, without their 
suppers, to an empty vragon. They were consequently 
very restless, and one of them got his fore-legs en- 
tangled in the wagon, and passed three liours erect on 
his hind-legs, struggling to emancipate himself. I 
thought for a long while that they were merely quar- 
relling, but at length I got up, and was enabled to 
release him. We started in the morning without our 
breakfast, the family resisting all attempts on my part 
at friendly conversation. The good wife at parting 
refused me a piece of bread for the road, though I had 
just before paid her double what she could have ex- 
pected. At the next farm we came to, the people were 
very obliging, and gave us what they had. At night 
1 slept at another Dutch farm, at which the family w ere 
in all respects a perfect contrast to those with whom 
I had been the previous evening. They were cheerful, 
amiable, kind-hearted, and treated me, as is generally 
the case with the respectable Dutch boers, all the more 
courteously 'out of regard to the sacred office 'which 
I bear. 

On Friday, at two o'clock, I arrived at Cradock. The 
greater part of the last three hours I walked, the road 
being hilly and stony. I find we have taken the shortest, 
indeed, but by no means the best road, and my cart 



VISITATION JOURNAL, 1850. 165 

again shows evident symptoms of going to pieces ; in- 
deed another day's rough travelling ivithout repairs, 
would, I fear, make an entire wreck of it. Mr. Gilfillan, 
the Civil Commissioner, was kind enough to invite me 
to stay with him during my visitation ; but, finding that 
Mr. Gray had prepared a- room for me, I determined to 
take up my quarters with him ; and was very glad to 
find myself once more in the congenial society of one of 
my brethren in the ministry of Christ. 

On Sunday I preached twice, and confirmed in the 
Court-house. The congregations were very good. The 
Dutch Mmister had kindly offered his church, but I 
declined it, chiefly because I know that some of the 
Dutch dislike our using their churches, and I do not 
choose to be the cause of dissensions between minister 
and people ; but also because the Court-house is at 
present sufficiently large for our English Church con- 
gregation, and I do not think I am called upon to use a 
larger building to accommodate those who are not of us, 
but might desire to attend our services on the occasion 
of a Bishop's visitation, out of curiosity or compliment. 
I object also to make such a distinction between the 
ordinary ministrations of the Priest, and the occasional 
ministrations of the Bishop. 

Monday 2\st. — Held a meeting of the parishioners at 
twelve o'clock, with a view to take steps towards the 
immediate erection of a church. It appeared that out 
of 200/. promised two years ago, at my first visitation, 
only 163/. could now be depended upon, in consequence 
of deaths, removals, &c. The difference, however, has 
been almost made up through the offertory during the 
seven months that Mr. Gray has been here. The whole 
amount of the offerings being nearly 53/. or at the rate 
of lOOZ. a-year. We decided that a small church capable 
of future enlargement, to cost about 700/., should be 
begun, and that the town should be canvassed for further 
subscriptions. I announced to them also that JMr. Gray 



166 BISHOP OF CAPETOWN'S 

•would be prepared to tnke pupils in order to meet the 
difficulty of finding means for his support. He is to 
give four hours a-day to school work, and take ten 
pupils at 10/. each. By this means, and with the 
assistance of the offertory, he will be able, I trust, to 
live without being any great. burden upon my limited 
funds. I decided, with the full concurrence of the 
parishioners assembled, that the offertory should, for 
the present, be appropriated in the following way — two 
Sundays in the month towards the building of the churcli ; 
two Sundays towards the support of the Ministry ; one 
Sunday in the quarter towards the missions of the 
church. Hitherto they had followed the plan sketched 
out in my Pastoral letter, without availing themselves 
of the liberty therein given to parishes circumstanced 
like this. Tliey had consequently applied the offertories 
in rotation to the purposes of church building, main- 
tenance of the ministry, education, missions, sick and 
aged clergy, and the poor. 

In the evening I held another and more general 
meeting of the parishioners, when I spoke to them for 
a little more than an hour on the past and present state 
of the Church, its future prospects, and the steps which 
I am taking with a view to the foundation of an ex- 
tensive mission. The clergy are anxious that I should 
touch upon these points in a more full and familiar way 
than can be done from the pulpit, and I feel that much 
good is effected by these meetings. I come by their 
means in closer contact with the lay members of the 
Church than I otherwise could ; I endeavour to lead 
them to feel that we are one body, one communion, one 
brotherhood, from St. Helena to the extreme border of 
Natal ; and to induce them to take an interest in our 
church work as a whole, which, hitherto, they have 
scarcely done at all. It is the flishion in the colony for 
congregations to regard themselves simply as congrega- 
tions, without recognising their relationship to the 



VISITATION JOURNAL, 1850, 167 

other parts of the same body. I am enabled on these 
occasions to give them more complete and accurate in- 
formation as to the progress of the good cause in the 
Diocese, than they could elsewhere obtain, and to en- 
courage and stimulate them by the example and efforts 
of others. I find that they take an interest in what they 
hear, that they are comforted, and strengthened, and 
cheered amidst their own difficulties, by finding how 
others, circumstanced as they are, either have overcome 
them, or are doing so. And the result is, I think, that 
they exert themselves the more, and with a better 
courage. In the evening, also, I called upon the judge,' 
who had just arrived, and whom I found very ill. On 
calling again in the morning I found him somewhat 
better, and he determined to go into court. I did what 
I could to induce him to give up his intention, and 
return home, but was unable to succeed. He would 
not allow me to write to the Cape to say how unfit he 
was for duty, so I tore up the letter which I had pre- 
pared. I much fear that he will not be able to get 
through his work. 

JFednesdmj 28d. — Started late for Graaff Reinet, my 
cart not being ready, though four men had been at work 
upon it ever since my arrival. We lost our way, and 
arrived by a difficult road at an intelligent Englishman's, 
whei-e we passed the night. We were off again at day- 
break. In the middle of the day the iron axle of my 
cart suddenly broke. My first feeling was one of great 
thankfulness that this severe accident had not happened 
between Natal and King William's Town, for, had it 
been so, I must inevitably have left my cart, with the 
greater part of my luggage, to its fate. No assistance 
could have been obtained there. After taking some 
food, I mounted one of my horses, and rode Avith Mr. 
Gray (who accompanies me to Graaff Reinet) in search 
of assistance. After riding some hours we came to a 

(1) Judge Meiiziesdied soon afterwards on circuit. 



168 BISHOP OF CAPETOWN'S 

farm, and obtained the ])romise of a span of oxen, and 
a Avagon, upon which it is proposed to put the cart, and 
bring it on to Mr. Liesching's, at Avhose house we 
arrived after dark. The road, hoAvevcr, over the uagon- 
pat-berg, is so very rocky and precipitous, that it seems 
doubtful whether the cart can be brought in this way. 
I\Ir. Licsching, therefore, in the morning, very kindly 
sent his son and a blacksmith with a bar of iron, in the 
hope that they may be able to repair the axle. Mean- 
time I remain with Mr. Liesching, feeling thankful that 
I have such comfortable quarter's. His farm, which is 
a very beautiful one, belonged to the rebel Pretorius. 
Mr. Gray rode ou to Graaff Reinet to announce the 
delay to Mr. Long, and to put off the consecration of 
Lis church. 

Saturday. — .\ day of disappointment. The smith who 
■was sent to my cart got intoxicated, and did not remain 
to complete his job. He came back, however, saying 
all was done, and my man coming on with the cart. 
But shortly after Mr, Liesching's son came home with 
a different story. The smith's work w as a failure, and 
Ludvvig resolved to wait for the wagon, w hich he was 
expecting every hour. The Dutch Boer, who had made 
great professions of a desire to assist, had sent no 
wagon, but instead had gone himself to Graaff Reinet. 
A Hottentot, to whom he had committed the job, could 
not find his oxen, and nothing had been done. Mr. 
Liesching most kindly sent two more men to look for a 
Avagon and oxen. 

Graaff Reinet, Moiuhuj 2SlJi. — I was not able to 
leave Mr. Liesching's hospitable mansion till this 
morning, the cart only making its appearance yesterday 
afternoon. I have thus lost three whole days, which 
have, however, been employed in writing many letters, 
especially to friends at home, to whom under ordi- 
nary circumstances I find it almost impossible to 
write. Yesterday I held service twice in Mr. Lies- 



VISITATION JOURNAL, 1850. 169 

cliing's house. Some young persons in the neigh- 
bourhood, knowing that I tv as there, came over. During 
the day, I became very unwell, and passed the night in 
much pain. Mr. Liesching was good enough to lend me 
his cart, my own proceeding on the top of an ox wagon 
to Graaff Reinet to be repaired. J find the English 
round about this part of the country already speaking 
with great distrust and uneasiness of our proposed new 
constitution. They are, comparatively speaking, so few 
in number that they are afraid to make their sentiments 
known, and are already suffering some little degree of 
oppression on the part of their more numerous neigh- 
bours. 

Tuesday 29th. — I consecrated the church this morn- 
ing. There was a full congregation. The building has 
cost nearly 1,600/. and is not yet quite finished. I think 
it might have been completed for one-half the amount 
in England. It will hold about 250 persons, and is very 
neat and ecclesiastically correct. All are much delighted 
with it ; but there is a debt of between 300/. and 400/. 
still due upon it. 

Wednesday SOtk. — I held a confirmation at three 
o'clock. There were but a i'ew candidates, as I con- 
firmed here six months since. One Avas a Roman- 
catholic convert. I preached also, on the subject of 
Missions, to a very respectable congregation. 

31s/. — The whole day spent in writing letters, of which 
1 put twenty-two, some of them very important ones, 
into the post. 1 should have proceeded on my road to 
Somerset, to-day, had my cart been finished. The 
charges for these repairs, and for forage for my horses 
in the present severe drought, are exorbitant. At the 
three last villages I have paid upwards of 50/. for these 
things. Indeed, so heavy are the expenses attendant 
upon this long visitation, that the mere cost alone would 
prevent me from repeating it. 

The papers to-day have brought more fiivourable 



170 BISHOP OF CAPETOWN'S 

news respectinjr the Kafirs. The Governor has had a 
meeting of them at Kinp; William's Town, at which most 
of the chiefs of the T'Slambie division (including my 
friend, Umhalla,) attended. Of the Gaikas there were 
fewer. Sandilli, the most powerful and disaffected of 
them, was absent. The Governor questioned them 
on the subject of war. They all declared they had 
never thought of it, and were his children. He told 
them that if a new war broke out, he would take their 
lands from them, drive them over the Kei, and hand 
them over to the tender mercies of Faku, and even 
Panda. The Governor has, I believe, determined to 
institute a searching inquiry into the causes of the late 
commotions. 

November Isf.— Left Graaff Reinet early this morning 
for Somerset, Mr. Gray returning at the same time to 
Cradock. At Graaff Reinet" the Church may now be 
considered as established. When the debt upon the 
church shall be nearly paid off, the parishioners will, 
I trust, be able to do more towards the support of their 
minister. 

At Cradock our work is quite in its infancy, but 
this being a rising town, I have but little doubt that 
God's cause will prosper under the earnest ministry of 
Mr. Gray. In no place, however, are the fruits of our 
past neglect more visible. We have a small congrega- 
tion which assembles in the Court-house; the Inde- 
pendents have a chapel ; the Methodists have two, built 
at a considerable cost, and by the aid, at least in some 
degree, of Churchmen; the Dutch, of course, have a 
church. It is generally understood that a certain 
number of the Methodists contemplate a return to the 
Church. 

More would undoubtedly return had we a church 
to fold them ; but they not unnaturally prefer a very 
respectable chapel, to which they liave been long ac- 
customed, to the uncomfortable, secular aspect of the 



VISITATION JOURNAL, 1850. 171 

Coui't-liouse, which is suggestive to them of anything 
but pleasing associations. 

Our road to Somerset lay along the foot of a I'ange of 
mountains, and the country was more pleasing than 
I had anticipated. I saw here, for the first time, the 
spek-boom tree or shrub in full flower ; it had a very 
pleasing appearance. The flower is of a delicate pink, 
and reminds me more of the heliotrope than of any- 
other. We arrived in Somerset on Saturday afternoon. 
Had it not been for the kindness of Mr. Long, I should 
have been without any food the last day, for we out- 
spanned by an empty house, the farmer having, during 
drought, taken his stock to the mountains. The re- 
mains, however, of our yesterday's breakfast served to 
sustain us till we reached Mr. Pain's house in Somerset, 
where I soon obtained refreshment. I hear, as I travel 
through the country, more and more of the wretched 
state of the farmers through the increasing wholesale 
robberies of their Kafir and Hottentot servants. One 
Dutchman told me yesterday that he has lost 300 sheep 
within the last fortnight, driven away, but he knew not 
whither; another told me that he had lost a still larger 
number. What is wanted seems to be an efficient rural 
police, and, perhaps, a vagrant law. Of this latter, 
however, I am more doubtful, as it may easily be per- 
verted into an engine of great oppression to the coloured 
races. 

Sunday 3d. — Much gratified with the services of this 
day. The congregations were good, and not, I am told, 
much larger than usual. The Government school-room, 
in which I officiated, was neatly fitted up, and every 
thing was done decently and in order. I preached both 
morning and evening. There were sixteen communi- 
cants, and seven candidates for confirmation, whom I 
addressed extempore at evening prayer. 

November Ath. — Received visitors, and rode out to 
Glen Avon, one of the most beautiful farms in all South 



172 BISHOP OF CAPETO^VN'S 

Africa. In the afternoon Mr. Pain Lad several members 
of the Church to dine, and others ajjain to tea in the 
evening. Somerset appears to me, on this occasion, 
even more pleasing than on my last visitation. It is 
beautifully situated at the foot of mountains abounding 
in wooded kloofs and ravines, and the village has an air 
of quiet, a peace and order about it, a\ Inch is very attrac- 
tive. Mr. Pain's house is next door to the London 
Society's Mission Chapel, and I was much gratified at 
beholding a numerous and well-dressed congregation of 
Hottentots and other coloured people attending it yes- 
terday. It was humbling not to see one coloured person 
at our service. God has been very long-suffering 
towards our Church, considering how fearfully negligent 
■we have been, not only of the heathen in this land, but 
of our own people. It is marvellous that, after half a 
centiu-y of neglect, such a field should still be open to 
Its ; and that, as is, I believe, the case in this place, our 
congregation should be larger on a Sunday than that of 
other communions. God grant that we may redeem the 
time, and make amends for past neglect and unconcern, 
by redoubled diligence, zeal, and self-denial now. May 
He vouchsafe in time to come, as hitherto, His bless- 
ing upon our labours, and render us in our several sta- 
tions and degrees fit agents for carrying on His work 
in this land. If His presence go with us, we need fear 
nothing. 

November o/Ii. — This morning we had prayers in tlic 
school-room, Mr. Pain reading the service appointed 
for the day, which, however, I told him might be omitted 
in the colonies. There were about eighteen persons 
present, which is about the usual congregation at morn- 
ing prayer on "Wednesdays and Fridays. At twelve 
o'clock I held a meeting of the parishioners in Mr. Pain's 
house, the school-room not being at liberty. The two 
questions for consideration were the continued support 
of the Ministry, and the erection of the church. Towards 



VISITATION JOURNAL, 1850. 173 

the former, the Civil Commissioner, acting as Treasurer 
to the Church Committee, paid me 50/. 6s., being a 
trifle more than the amount guaranteed ; and it appeared 
that in addition to this the iveeldy offertory had averaged 
11. a-week. With the parishioners' concurrence, I con- 
sented to cancel the subscription hst, and to depend 
altogether upon the offertory for carrying on onr work. 
It was decided that on two Sundays in the month the 
offerings should be for the support of the Ministry, and 
generally on the other two Sundays towards the erection 
of the Church ; — that once a quarter the offerings should 
be for Missions, and occasionally for sick and aged 
Clergy. It appeared that only 100/. had actually been 
paid into the bank towards the erection of the church. 
A fresh subscription was therefore opened for this special 
object, and several gentlemen undertook to advance 
500/. on loan, depending upon the offertory for the liqui- 
dation of the debt. I promised to furnish them plans, 
working drawings, and specifications, for a church to 
hold 150, bnt capable of future enlargement, — the pro- 
bable cost would be 1,000/. After business was over 
I gave the parishioners an account of the present state 
of the Diocese, and our proposed Mission work, in 
which they appeared to take an interest. In the 
evening I returned the calls of the parishionei'S. The 
people in this village observe the fifth of November as 
]ioisiiy as in England. There was a figure of Guy 
Fawkes, with a lantern, paraded about the streets, tin 
kettles, bonfires, ringing of bells, and shouting, till a 
late hour, 

November 6th. — Left Somerset after early prayers this 
morning. I was glad to find we had again a nice con- 
gregation. Mr. Pain and Mr. Brown accompanied me 
part of the way. I was not allowed to depart without 
a good supply of pat-koss, and other comforts provided 
by the kindness of the parishioners. I quit Somerset 
with much satisfaction. There is a good work, I be- 



174 BISHOP OF CAPETOWN'S 

lieve, going on there, and Mr. and Mrs. Pain are both in 
earnest. They are taking a few pupils, male and female. 
The payments from the parents for their education are 
to be appropriated to the erection of the church. There 
has been some little opposition shown by the Dutch 
minister here, which has only tended to knit together 
in closer bonds the members of the Church. It will not 
be long, I trust, before a neat little church, in one of 
the prettiest parts of this very pretty village, will be 
erected to gladden the hearts of not a few earnest and 
devout members of our communion. 

Slept at the foot of the Zuurberg. My chamber was 
a shop filled with all sorts of goods, I had but little 
rest, in consequence of the incessant assaults of the too 
frequent companions of a night spent in a farmer's 
house. I was glad to hear from the farmer here that 
he had lost no sheep by stealing, — and that he had with 
him Fingo herds who had been in his service several 
years. He seemed disposed to think that the thefts 
and loss of sheep, so very generally complained of, arose 
in no small degree from motives of revenge : that the 
servants are frequently unfairly defrauded of their 
wages, under plea of making up losses, and that they 
are occasionally beaten very severely, and tied to the 
wagon wheel for that purpose. A Graham's Town 
paper, which I have seen to-day, announces that Sir H, 
Smith has deposed Sandilli, the most powerful chief in 
British Kafifraria. He refused, when summoned, to 
attend the meeting at King William's Town ; and is 
generally understood to have been the chief instigator 
of the Kafirs at the present time to war. What the 
next move will be, God only knows. Matters are in a 
very critical state. 

November 7lh. — Off at daybreak. The horses m ere 
unable to drag the cart up one very steep and stony 
pitch, in ascending the Zuurberg range. Even after 
unloading the cart, it required much exertion and flog- 



VISITATION JOURNAL, 1850. 175 

ging to get tliera up it. I took my usual post at the 
head of the leaders, but -when we got well off, could not 
keep up with them, and was trod upon. By our joint 
efforts we afterwards brought the luggage up. On these 
occasions I am sometimes much amused at thinking 
how people would stare in England at seeing a bishop 
in his shirt sleeves, with a box or bag on his back, 
ascending an African mountain. We arrived about 10 
o'clock, by a very difficult road, at the first convict sta- 
tion. The religious teacher, or late missionary of the 
Berlin Society, kindly provided refreshment for myself 
and horses. After breakfast I inspected the station. In 
the three stations on this mountain there are 350 con- 
victs. Of these about 40 are English ; nO are Kafirs ; 
the remainder are chiefly Hottentots and people of 
Dutch extraction. The Kafirs all work in irons in the 
chain-gang. This is said to be necessary in consequence 
of their determined efforts to escape, and their proximity 
to their own country. There were several in hospital, 
chiefly with chicken-pox. I spoke for about half an 
hour on religious subjects with several Englishmen 
Avhom I found in confinement. The road, when finished, 
Avill be a fine piece of workmanship. It is one of Mr. 
Montague's great roads, which are of such vast import- 
ance to this colony. It is well engineered through 
a very difficult country. The southern side is nearly 
finished ; the northern hardly begun, but it m ill be 
finished, I believe, in less than a year. The object of 
this road is to open out the interior to the sea. It will 
be the direct route to the sovereignty, and the whole of 
the north, through Cradock, and perhaps Somerset. 
The descent is very fine. It commands most extensive 
views, and the mountains on each side are both precipi- 
tous and clothed with forest. The afternoon was de- 
lightfully cool. I do not know when I have enjoyed a 
drive so much. We slept at Commando Kraal, Sunday's 
River, having accomplished about fifty miles. 



176 BISHOP OF Capetown's 

Novemher SUi. — Arrived about two o'clock at Uitcn- 
hago. I am, during my stay here, the guest of Mr. 
Cbase, the Civil Commissioner. Received a few visitors, 
and inspected a site which has been bought for the 
church, and which is not approved of by many. Un- 
happily I fear the state of the church in this parish is 
no better than when I was here two years since. 

November 9/h. — Visitors, correspondence, business 
with the church-wardens, &c. occupied the greater part 
of the day. 

November lO/h. — Our services this day were held in 
the court-house. I preached both morning and evening. 
There were twenty communicants in the morning, and I 
confirmed nine candidates in the evening. 

November llf/i. — Returned calls, and prepared for a 
public meeting of the parishioners of which I had given 
notice for this evening. 

. In the evening xs e had our meeting, which lasted two 
hours. It was decided almost unanimously that the 
church should be erected on the site originally granted 
by Government, and not upon that which the Church 
Building Committee had purchased a short time since 
for 80/. It was also decided that the church should 
contain 150 sittings; and I undertook to have plans 
prepared. There appeared to be about .500/. to be de- 
pended upon, and it was arranged that the new Building 
Committee, which was appointed at this meeting, should 
Ciinvass the parish for additional subscriptions. A me- 
morial was addressed to (Jovernment lor an extension 
of the site formerly granted, and for sites for .school 
and parsonage. I trust that the dissensions upon these 
points, which have now lasted for a period of three 
years, will at length be brought to a close, and that the 
church will be proceeded with. 

November \2lk. — Business .and correspondence in the 
morning. The accounts from the frontier are some- 
what more encourairing. The governor has left King 



VISITATION JOURNAL, 1850. 177 

William's Town, and is in Graham's Town, He has 
had another meeting of the Gaika chiefs. He allows San- 
dilli to live with his mother, Sutu, who is to be respon- 
sible for his conduct. But he is no longer to be a chief. 
Time only will show whether the Governor's word alone, 
can induce the 14,000 followers of this chief to withdraw 
their allegiance from him, and to transfer it to the com- 
missioner. The frontier people do not seem satisfied ; 
but I think they are unreasonable, and will not be satis- 
fied without the deposition of all the chiefs, which would 
be most unjust upon principle, and undoubtedly lead to 
another war, A note from my dear brother, the arch- 
deacon, informed me that he had started on foot for 
liloemfontein, being anxious to visit it, and to return 
home by Christmas, His route will be by Cradock, 
Colesberg, Bloemfontein, Caledon River, Aliwal, Burgh- 
ersdorp, Whittlesea, Shiloh, Fort Beaufort, and so 
home. If he is able to accomplish this he will have 
traversed at least 800 miles in about six weeks. This 
journey will not be accomplished without much difficulty, 
and I fear, some danger. The Boers not uufrequently shut 
their doors in his face, telling him he is a "bandit" or 
convict. Sometimes he has had, in consequence, but 
mean fare, and has, I fear, at times been in actual want; 
but nothing can damp his indomitable energy, or break 
his heroic spirit. He is cheerful in the midst of every 
trial and hardship that he is called to endure. Well 
may all love him, and admire his great self-denial and 
zeal. 

Left Uitenhage (Nov. 12) about two o'clock for Port 
Elizabeth, and arrived at Mr. McCleland's about half- 
past five. 

November 16///.— On Wednesday evening we had ser- 
vice in church. I preached to a very respectable con- 
gregation. On that day also I met the committee for 
the collection of subscriptions towards a new church. 
It appeared that upwards of 500/. had been pledged, and 

N 



178 BISHOP OF CAPETOWN'S 

tbat, when the whole town sliiill have been canvassed, 
GOO/, may be depended upon. We were not able to fix. 
upon a plan. On Thursday I held a confirmation, when 
twenty-one young persons were received into full com- 
munion with the Church. On P^riday evening we had ser- 
vice also in the church, when I preached again, to a large 
congregation for a week-day, though I was so hoarse 
from a severe cold as almost to be unable to speak. 

On Saturday I attended another meeting of the 
Church Building Committee, when we decided upon the 
outline of a plan, for which I Avas to furnish a design 
and working drawings. Called on several of the parish- 
ioners. 

Sunday, Mlh. — The congregations to-day were very 
large ; indeed some were obliged to go away for want of 
room ; I Avas sorry to see some of the soldiers leaving 
on this account. As the congregation consisted almost 
exclusively of church people, it shows how much an 
additional church is required. There were about fifty 
communicants. The collection to-Jay was appropriated 
to the support of the ministry. In the afternoon I at- 
tended the funeral of one of the most respectable mem- 
bers of the church in this town. In the evening I con- 
firmed eight additional candidates, who had not been 
able to present themselves at the previous confirmation. 
I have been very unwell all day, and have got through 
the services with difficulty. 

Nocembcr \^th. — It is with much satisfaction that I turn 
my face homewards again. I have still a journey of 
about 700 miles before me, but I shall be shortening the 
distance daily. My energies, after nearly eight months' 
incessant labour, are beginning to flag. The Governor 
is expected at Port Elizabeth, I believe, to-day, on his 
way back l)y sea to Capetown. I regret that I cannot 
remain to see him ; but a day's delay would disturb all 
my arrangements. I slept this evening on the banks of 
the Gamtoos River, Part of our journey lay along the 



VISITATION JOURNAL, 1850. 179 

sea-coast. The sight of the sea always gives me plea- 
sure, though in this land it is not unmixed with sadness, 
for it recalls recollections of the past. There is a satis- 
faction, however, in merely Avatching the avrjpi6fxov ye- 
}^aa-fia KHfiarav, and this satisfaction I have enjoyed 
to-day. In the evening I had a good deal of conversa- 
tion with my host, who was an Englishman, about the 
Missionary Institution at Hankey, which I was anxious 
to have visited, but I could not do so without interfering 
with my engagements. 

Tuesday, i.9(h. — Slept at the house of Mr. Mackintosh, 
who is living upon the farm of his relative, Captain 
Boys. I spent a few hours two years ago with these 
pleasing families, who are members of the Church. As 
they did not lie in the direct road, I had not intended 
to visit them this time, having a very heavy week's 
journey before me. Mrs. Mackintosh, however, wrote 
to express her regret that I did not, and I therefore 
changed my plan. In the evening I held Divine Service, 
preaching extempore. I baptized also three children. 
I had a good deal of conversation with Captain Boys 
about Hankey, which, he told me, Mr. Phillip, the 
Missionary, was very anxious that I should visit. I 
■was very glad to hear a very different account of the 

Institution from what Mr. had given me. Captain 

Boys informed me that it was in a highly satisfactory 
condition ; that, so far as the improvement and civiliza- 
tion of the people were concerned, there was a real 
work going on ; that, as a magistrate, he could afBrm 
that the amount of crime for so large a population, 
upwards of 3,000, was very small ; that bad characters 
were dismissed ; and that the Institution was, in his 
judgment, doing as much good as any that he had seen. 
There is no doubt that Captain Boys' opinion, as a man 
of education, a gentleman, and a magistrate, and living 
in the immediate neighbourhood, ought to have very 
great weight. 



180 BISHOP OF CAPET0\\'N'S 

November 20ih. — Started early. The weather is singularly 
cold for this season of the year ; I have been sitting all 
day in the cart with my great-coat on, and a horse-cloth 
round my legs. Outspanncd at a Dutch fanner's, where 
I slept two years ago. I found his children all talking 
English, having an English tutor. There was another 
Englishman there, who expressed great disappointment 
at finding I had left Uitenhage and the Bay without his 
knowing of my being there. He told me a Dutch farmer 
in the neighbourhood had promised to let him know. 
He had meant to ride in from a distance of seventy 
miles, and to present himself for confirmation. I would 
have confirmed him on the spot if I had had time, as he 
seemed much in earnest. He did not, however, open 
his heart to me till I was going away, and I could not 
then, without breaking engagements, remain to examine 
and confirm him. I could only therefore tell him to put 
himself in communication with Mr. McCleland at Port 
Elizabeth. I find there are a good many English scat- 
tered amongst the farms in this district. It would be 
very desirable if I could appoint a clergyman to itinerate 
through the Lange Kloof, between George and Uiten- 
hage, a rich and flourishing district, 200 miles in length, 
but without any minister for the white population. The 
new village of Human 's-dorp, where the Dutch are just 
finishing a church, but for which they can find no minis- 
ter, though Government have, I believe, promised a 
stipend, might form an excellent station for a monthly 
service. The whole country is looking quite green and 
fresh after the late rains. Arrived somewhat late at the 
house of Dr. Buchan. 

November 2\st. — Off again a little after six o'clock. It 
rained in torrents the v> hole day, and the tops of the 
mountains were covered with snow. Just before arriving 
at a house where I slept on my last visitation, my cart 
and horses sunk in a complete bog of mud in the very 
middle of the road. In a miiuite four horses were fioun- 



VISITATION JOURNAL, 1850. 181 

dering, and totally incapable of extricating themselves. 
After getting almost bogged myself in endeavouring to 
relieve them, I left the cart and horses with the men, 
and ran to the farm for assistance. This was most 
cheerfully rendered; nearly a dozen men, including 
some travellers, returned with me. They speedily re- 
leased the horses from their comfortless bed, and drew 
the cart out of its difficulties, taking it all the way to 
the house. I found that this family instantly recollected 
me ; I had given them all Prayer-books on my last 
visitation, and heard them read. They received me 
very kindly. Mr. Welby sometimes comes down as far 
as this, and Dr. Andrews, who can officiate in Dutch, 
has occasionally held services here. The people are 
anxious to know when he wiU come again, and ask if he 
cannot come oftener. 

November 22d. — Another very cold and wet day. I had 
calculated upon enjoying much my drive up the Lange 
Kloof, which is a part of the colony that I like ; but the 
substitution of an English winter for an African summer 
is enough to mar all enjoyment. We slept at Van Roy's, 
a farmer who, on my first visitation, supplied me very 
kindly with horses free of all expense. I found that 
since that time he had considerably altered, and Angli- 
cised his house. The great hall, which occupies so con- 
siderable a portion of a Dutch farm-house, was divided 
into two good rooms. There was a third sitting-room, 
with round table and fire-place, the first, I think, that 
I have seen in any farm in the country, and in which we 
had a good fire of wood. I found here an Englishman, 
formerly a Roman Catholic, but whom I confirmed in 
my first visitation, keeping school at this place, and as 
zealous as ever. I thanked him for an erf which he 
had given since 1 last saw him to the Church at Blanco. 
He told me that the Dutch show a great unwillingness 
to have their children taught English ; that they say 
there will be no need of it now that they are to have 



182 BISHOP OF CAPETOWN'S 

a representative government, that henceforth all viill be 
Dutch. 

Saturday, 23d. — A fine day, and a delightful drive 
of three hours to Mr. Richardson's. As usual, I arrived 
before I was expected, and before Mr. Welby from 
George, who had been detained by the river. He came 
about eleven o'clock, and we had much interesting .ind 
important conversation. Mr. and Mrs. Henery were 
both far from well. They are, I hope, doing much good 
here. In the evening I examined the night school, and 
found it in a satisfactory state. Sat up late writing 
letters. 

Schoonherg, November 2ith. — The services of this day 
have been full of interest. There was Sunday-school 
ill the morning ; it consisted chiefly of coloured people. 
At the morning service eighty-five were present ; there 
were fifteen communicants ; I preached extempore. In 
the afternoon there was a large congregation ; eight 
were confirmed, five of whom were people of colour. 
I both addressed the candidates and preached. This 
may be considered at present as one of our most direct 
missionary posts in the diocese. It shows, I trust, 
some signs of future promise ; already several who were 
heathens have been baptized and confirmed, and have 
become communicants. I grieve to say there is much 
difficulty in keeping up the work, from lack of means. 
Mr. Richardson is anxious to proceed as soon as 
possible with the erection of the church. He has given 
four acres of land, and offers 100/. towards the building. 
There will be some dilliculty, I fear, in raising the 
necessary funds. Money is not plentiful, and almost 
everv village in the colony is exerting itself in behalf of 
its own church. 

November 25th. — Rode over the Devil's Kop this 
morning in company with Mr. Welby, my cart proceed- 
ing by the direct road to George, to await my arrival 
there next week. A thick cloud was on the top of the 



VISITATION JOURNAL, 1 8'iO. 183 

mountain, which effectually prevented my enjoying the 
very fine views which, I am told, present themselves on 
every side. As we descended the mountain, however, 
and got under the cloud, we were enabled to get a view 
of the sea, the lakes, the forest, and the nearer moun- 
tains, and gradually the weather cleared up so as to 
allow us fully to appreciate the beauty of the prospect 
before us. We did not reach Mr, Dumbleton's till past 
ten o'clock, though we started a quarter before six, the 
road over the mountain being very rocky and precipit- 
ous. Wagons still continue to pass over this mountain 
with loads of wood from the forests beneath. How 
they manage I know not. I am sure it would have been 
pronounced impossible by anj^ one who had not seen 
what a South African ox-wagon can do, and where it can 
go. After resting an hour for breakfast at Mr. Dum- 
bleton's, I rode on with him through the beautiful 
Knysna country, which I have so often before admired, 
to Meding's, he having provided me with fresh horses, 
and leading one which carried my saddle-bags. At 
Meding's we found that our relays had not arrived. 
After off-saddling, therefore, for a time, we proceeded 
towards Mr. Currey's ; but just as we had mounted the 
hill, ive met Mr. Duthie, Mr. E. Rex, and Mr. Andrews, 
with fresh horses. We therefore returned, and, having 
removed our bags, proceeded rapidly to Belvidere, where 
we arrived a little after sunset, having had a most de- 
lightful ride of about ten hours. After having seen 
nearly all South Africa, I am still of opinion that the 
Knysna district is, perhaps, the most lovely of the 
whole. The only country to be compared with it is 
that in the immediate neighbourhood of D'Urban, Port 
Natal ; but I do not think it, beautiful as it is with its 
tropical plants, &c., quite equal to this. I remained for 
the night at Mr. Duthie's. 

November 26th. — This morning I rode after breakfast 
to call upon Mr, and Mrs. Barrington, at Portland. 



184 BISHOP OF Capetown's 

I knew that if I did not go this morning I should pro- 
bably not see them at all. On our way back to Melville 
I was met by a large party of gentlemen on horseback 
from that village. RIy arrival in the village was 
honoured with a salute of one gun, and with Hying of 
flags. I rode up immediately to the church, which is 
about half built. I am happy to say that a very fine 
stone has been found close at hand in time to use it for 
the quoins, buttresses, and windows, for which the stone 
of which the walls are built would not have done. The 
church is a decorated building, copied from an ancient 
English church, and is intended to be the chancel of a 
larger edifice. I slept at Mr. Andrews', and passed a 
quiet evening, a portion of which was spent in talking 
over with the mason the working drawings of the plans 
of a proposed plain Norman church at Belvidere; and 
in endeavouring to convince an earnest and respectable 
Irvingite that he ought to conform to the Church. He 
thought so, too ; his only scruple was about a double 
confirmation, having been already confirmed by " the 
Apostles." He determined to refer the matter to 
them. 

November 27th. — Started at seven o'clock this morn- 
ing for Plettenburg Bay. We called in our way at 
several houses, and reached Mr. Bull's, the catechist 
here, after a ride of about twenty-seven miles, at one 
o'clock. Just as we arrived at the Residency, a party of 
twenty newly baptized coloured people, quite of their 
own accord, came out to meet me. They sang a hymn, 
and then welcomed me to the Bay. I was the more 
pleased with this, because neither Mr. nor Mrs. Bull 
knew of their intention. After a few minutes' rest I 
began an examination, first of the candidates for con- 
firmation, and next of the catechumens, Mr. Andrews 
assisting in the Dutch parts. Some seemed to feel a 
good deal ; but I had not sufficient time to carry on 
individual examinations to any great extent, for our 



VISITATION JOURNAL, 1850. 1S5 

service began a little after three o'clock ; ^Yllell eighteen 
adults were baptized and nineteen infants, and twelve 
persons were confirmed ; the congregation consisting of 
nearly eighty. The whole were coloured people except 
two emigrant girls, who were confirmed, and these have 
all been instructed in the faith, and prepared for admis- 
sion into the fold of Christ, and to full communion, by 
Mr. Bull, who has laboured very diligently and earnestly 
•v.mongst them. It is only a few months since nine 
adults and ten infants, from amongst the heathen, were 
baptized in the same place by Mr. Welby, the Rural 
Dean. A portion of the service was conducted in 
Dutch by Mr. Andrews. Several of the candidates for 
confirmation were deeply impressed, and all seemed to 
feel the solemnity of the occasion. I addressed them as 
simply and plainly as I could in English, and most of 
them, if I may judge from their countenances, vmder- 
stood at least the greater part of what I said to them. 
The service lasted so long that I did not preach as I 
had intended, fearing that I should weary them. One 
old woman of ninety years of age, who was confirmed, 
told Mr. Andrews how she first came to know some of 
the great truths of religion. Her first conception of the 
being of a God arose from the following circumstances. 
She was a slave ; when, walking out with her mistress 
one fine night, the latter asked her if she knew who 
made the stars and the moon. She replied, "Yes, the 
white man." Upon her mistress telling her that it was 
a far greater Being than man, who lived in the heavens, 
and who was called God, she was deeply impressed, and 
from that hour believed in God. Some time after, her 
instructor had great difficulty in making her understand 
the nature of the Crucifixion, and the doctrine of the 
Atonement. She understood, however, and realized the 
■whole, on being shown a picture of the Saviour on the 
Cross. This happened some years ago. Upon these 
two great truths of natural and revealed religion, she 



186 BISHOP OF CAPETOWN'S 

had fed, until she liad an opportunity of heing further 
instructed in the Christian faith. She was one of those 
baptized a few months since. Her case serves to show 
that pictures, carefully and cautiously used, may be 
of much service in the instruction of the Heathen. 

Mr. Bull had several of the parishioners to meet me 
in the evening. 

November 2St/i.—I left the Residency this morning 
early, on foot, with Mr. Bull. We walked by the coast, 
and enjoyed much the view of this beautiful bay, with 
its fine range of mountains in the rear. We took an 
early breakfast with Mr. Sinclair, and then rode to Red- 
bourne, where I held service at ten o'clock. Here the 
congregation, which was between thirty and forty, con- 
sisted entirely of English emigrants. I preached to 
them extempore. Several of their children were bap- 
tized. This village has been much increased since 
I was here, two years ago. The population, however, 
will probably never be very large. As the funds for the 
erection of a stone church are not yet sufficient, Mr. 
Newdigate is building, at his sole cost, a wooden church, 
which will serve for a few years ; and, ^hen the church 
shall be built, can be afterwards used for a school. He 
has agreed to transfer it immediately to the See. Un- 
fortunately it came on to rain heavily while we were 
here, and, in spite of a thick coat which Mr. Newdigate 
lent me, I had a cold and wet ride to Melville. I slept 
this evening at Mr, Sutherland's, who had invited seve- 
ral of the parishioners to meet me. 

Novemher 2^th. — We had a meeting this morning at 
eleven o'clock in the school-room at Melville, to take 
into consideration the affairs of the church. It appeared 
that at least 150/. were still wanting to complete the 
building now in the course of erection. Six gentlemen 
undertook to raise the money by loan. On examining 
the parish accounts, I found that the weekly offerings 
fell far short of what thev oujrht to be, and what they 



VISITATION JOURNAL, 1850. 187 

are in otter places. This, I thinlc, can only be accounted 
for by the majority of the people, who are recent emi- 
grants, not understanding that our whole Church work 
very materially depends upon the free-will offerings of 
the people. I pressed upon the gentlemen present the 
importance of making this fact generally known. An 
address was presented to me at this meeting by the 
parishioners, congratulating me on my safe arrival at 
this place after the difficulties and dangers of so long a 
visitation, expressing their interest in the countries 
beyond the frontier, their hope that the Church might 
be able to undertake a work there, and the gratification 
they felt in hearing that a Mission was about to be com- 
menced in British Kaffraria. In the afternoon I ex- 
amined the children in the school, which has only lately 
been commenced. In the evening, Mr. Andrews had 
the churchwardens and sidesmen to dinner. It was not 
till late that four wagons full of coloured people arrived 
for the services of to-morrow and Sunday. Had they 
come earlier, I was to have examined the candidates for 
baptism and confirmation. They outspanued on the 
green in front of Mr. Andrews' house, and soon lighted 
their fires and made themselves comfortable. I under- 
stand there are seventy souls in all. 

November 'iWi. — I began this day with an examination 
of the candidates for baptism, which lasted about two 
hours. With several of these I was very much pleased. 
They seemed quite in earnest, and Avere well instructed 
in the faith. They appeared fully to understand the 
nature of the step they were about to take, the privi- 
leges of which they were to be made partakers, and the 
increased responsibilities they were about to incur. 
One only did I think insufficiently prepared, and re- 
quiring to have his baptism postponed. At eleven 
o'clock our service began. I understood there were 
upwards of one hundred present, a large proportion of 
whom were coloured people. I baptized fifteen Hot- 



188 BISHOP OF CAPETOWN'S 

tentot, Fingo, and Mozambique adults. I confirmed seven, 
three of whom were Europeans. I addressed the candi- 
dates as simply and plainly as I could for half an hour. 
The services were partly in Dutch and partly in English. 
After service I called upon a few of the parishioners, and 
then rode out to tiffin at " The New Place," where were 
assembled the chief members of the Rex family. 

Sunday, December \st. — We had very large congrega- 
tions this day in our temporary place of worship. 
Indeed, there was not room for them all. There could 
not be less than 150 persons at each service. In the 
morning the communicants were forty-six. In the after- 
noon, about twenty children, chiefly belonging to the 
recently baptized converts, were admitted into the fold 
of Christ. I preached at both services. In the evening 
I returned with Mr. Duthie in his boat to Belvidere. 
The tide, however, being low, and the night dark, we 
grounded several times, and were between three and 
four hours crossing the lake. We did not get shelter 
till ten o'clock. Next morning I started on horseback 
■with Mr. and Mrs. Andrews for George. We were ac- 
companied part of the way by Mr. Duthie and Mr. 
Newdigate. The day being fine, we enjoyed much this 
beautiful ride. We reached George before seven o'clock. 
At the Zwart River, Mr. Welby, accompanied by the 
Rev. H. Cadnall, my chaplain, the Rev. Mr. Baker, and 
Mr. Dreyer, the churchwarden, met us. I have been 
much interested with my visit to the Knysna ; great 
progress has been made during the past year, especially 
with the coloured people. The churches are i-ising up, 
and the congregations are good. Up to this time no 
other body of Christians has been at work in this field. 
The Church is at present in undisturbed possession of 
the ground, and is, I trust, doing her work faithfully. 
All that is required to give permanence and solidity to 
our system there is a somewhat increased scale of con- 
tributions towards the support of the ministry. I am 



VISITATION JOURNAL, 1850. 189 

not sorry to find myself once more under the hospitable 
roof of Mr. Welby. 

December ^d. — I spent the morning in writing letters 
and receiving visitors. Before breakfast I went out 
with Mr. Welby to inspect the new church, which is to 
be consecrated on Saturday. It is a well-built Eng- 
lish structure. The cost has been 1,200/., and it has 
been with great difficulty that the necessary funds 
have been raised. Considering the poverty of our 
people, the inferiority of colonial workmen, and the 
scarcity of good stone, this church is, I think, a credit 
to the diocese. It is delightful to see our old English 
churches repeated in this land. I am glad to find that 
it is generally admired and appreciated; for this en- 
courages me to persevere in my efforts to get correct 
churches built. It requires, indeed, much patience to 
combat the prejudices, and to endeavour to elevate the 
tastes, of church builders in South Africa. Very many 
have not a conception beyond the ordinary shapeless 
brick building, plastered and whitewashed. As yet, 
however, I am happy to say, no incorrect building has 
been commenced, though the inferiority of our materials 
and workmanship would make one shrink from seeing 
them subjected to a very critical eye. 

December Mh. — Examination of candidates for Orders, 
letter writing, receiving visitors, and returning visits. 
We have evening service with sermon in the Dutch 
Church, every day this week. The clergy take it in 
turn to preach. 

December ^tli. — Letter writing; examination of candi- 
dates. Since I have been here, I have had an applica- 
tion from Mr. Niepoth, voor-lezer of the Dutch Church, 
and missionary to the heathen, to be received into the 
communion of the English Church. Mr. Niepoth in- 
forms me that he has been for eleven years teacher of 
the coloured people, that he has a congregation of 300 
souls, that he has long been dissatisfied with his own 



190 BISHOP OF CAPETOWN'S 

Church, believes in episcopacy, and approves highly of 
our services. He states his ground of dissatisfaction 
■with the Dutch Church to be their neglect of the 
coloured people, and their unwillingness to admit them 
to Church privileges. They are not allowed to commu- 
nicate with the white people, or to be confirmed at the 
same time; many of their children remain unbaptized, 
and they arc refused burial in the Dutch Church ground. 
This application has been totally vuiexpected both by 
Mr. Welby and myself. Upon Mr. Niepoth's first an- 
nouncement of his desire, I declined giving any answer, 
and informed him that I must take time to consider the 
course which I might feel it right to pursue. Before 
seeing him again, I have made full inquiries both of 
Mr. Welby and others, as to Mr. Niepoth's character 
and usefulness, and have had such satisfactory replies 
to my queries, and such willing testimony to his zeal 
and piety, from various quarters, that I have informed 
Mr. Niepoth that, if he seeks communion with the 
Church, I shall not feel at liberty to repel him, and that 
I shall be prepared to sanction his continuance in the 
office of Instructor to the Heathen. It appears that 
Mr. Niepoth has had doubts in bis mind for some time, 
and resolved not to allow me to leave the place without 
stating his views and wishes to me. His congregation, 
he tells me, are equally desirous with himself to be re- 
ceived into the communion of the Church, and have 
been urging the matter upon him.' 

(1) Within a few days of Mr. Niepoth's reception into tlie communion 
of the Church, 100 of his congregation, already baptized, applied to be 
allowed to sign our Declaration of Jlembership : " I do declare that I am 
a member of the Church in tlie Diocese of Capetown, in communion with 
the United Church of England and Ireland, and that I will conform to 
the doctrine and discipline of the said Church." Besides these, there 
are about 200 catechumens and children under instruction. Our new 
church is already nearly full : and the services of the coloured people are 
in Dutch. I have authorized the use of a selcctioii'dtoin the Liturgy. 
There is no authority for this. Convocation alone could sanction it. As 
oar missions extend, the question of religious services becomes im- 



I 

VISITATION JOURNAL, 1S50. 191 

December ^tli. — The greater part of the day has been 
occupied with a vica voce examination of the candidates 
for Orders. I have been able to accept of them all. 
The Rev. W. Andrews and the Rev. J. Baker will be 
admitted to the order of priests, and Mr. Henrey to that 
of deacon. The latter will have no licence to preach, 
but will read homilies. It is my intention to have a 
non-preaching body of deacons in this diocese, and to 
keep the order as much as possible to the duties pre- 
scribed for it in the Ordinal. The examination for 
deacons' orders is consequently a very diflerent one 
from that required for priests. There is nothing to pre- 
vent a deacon being advanced to the priesthood, if his 
qualification should prove sufficient ; but in many cases 
men admitted to the diaconate, will, in all probabilitj'^, 
not be able to pass the examination for the higher 
degree in the ministry of Christ. This evening we had 
a very large congregation in the Dutch church. Being 
the last time that the building will be used by us; 
many of the Dutch came to the service. Mr. Welby 
preached a very impressive sermon, and expressed for 
himself and his congregation, very feelingly, the obliga- 
tions they had been under to the Dutch community. 

Saturday, Dec. 7th. — This morning our new church was 
consecrated. It was crowded to excess, there being 250 
present in a building calculated to contain only 200. The 
whole service was a highly devotional one, a great por- 
tion of the congregation kneeling, and making the 
responses very audibly. The singing too was very 
good, the congregation joining in it. The churchyard, 
which, in this instance, is around the church, was also 
consecrated. In the afternoon we had prayers at three 
o'clock, after which I instituted Mr. Welby to the Arch- 
deaconry of George. This Archdeaconry will consist 

portant. The uneducated natives would be quite incapable of appre- 
ciating our vfhole service. A selection like that which the Methodists 
use in their missions in this diocese is best suited to new converts. 



I 

192 BISHOP OF CAPETOW-N's 

of tlie districts of George, Swellendam, and Beaufort; 
and include the parishes of the Knysna, Plettenburg 
Bay, Beaufort, Riversdale, Swellendam, Mossel Bay, 
Schoonbergr, &c. ; but Avork is opening out so rapidly 
here, that I felt it right to erect this central part of 
the colony into an Archdeaconry, and I am very fortu- 
nate in being able to appoint one so qualified in every 
way for the office as Mr. Welby has proved himself to 
be. The archdeaconry still is, in point of extent, equal 
to several European dioceses. Mr. Welby hopes to be 
able to make arrangements with a clergyman who is 
coming out from England to act as his assistant, and to 
take charge of the parish uhile he is absent on visita- 
tion, which in his case will probably be several times 
a-year. 

In the evening I had a meeting of the parishioners 
in the public offices, Mr. Welby having expressed a 
desire that I should meet the lay members of the 
Church, in this the only possible way, during my stay. 
I readily consented to do so; being anxious that the 
Church at large should regard the Bishop as havinir a 
direct relation to them, and not merely as the overseer 
of the Clergy, and being desirous of interesting all in 
the work of the Church throughout the diocese. I there- 
fore gave them some account of the state and progress 
of our work from St. Helena to Natal. 

On this occasion the parishioners presented the fol- 
lowing address, which I insert here, because it was got 
up entirely by the laity without the knowledge of their 
pastor, and is, I think, full of promise, as sho\ving that 
there exists a deeper interest in things spiritual than 
would probably have been felt a year ago, and provin"- 
that the parishioners here at least are beginning to feel, 
with relation to other portions of the diocese, that they 
are members of the same body ; — if one member suffer, 
all suffering with it; or, if one be honoured, all rejoicin'^ 
with it. It contains also, which to me is the most 



VISITATION JOURXAL, 1S50. "19'3 

cbeering part of the whole, the recognition of ourduty 
as a Church towards the heathen, and expresses a de- 
sire to see the work begun. 

" To THE Right Reverend the Lord Bishop of 
Capetown : — 

" We, the undersigned members of the English Church, 
beg to congratulate your Lordship on your safe arrival 
at George, after a very toilsome journey to the most 
distant parts of this extensive diocese. We are thank- 
ful to be enabled to state that, since your Lordship's 
last visitation, a goodly edifice has been erected for 
Divine worship, in which we, and our posterity for ages 
to come, may hear the joyful sounds of the Gospel; 
and, while we duly appreciate the inestimable privilege 
thus afforded to us, we think it our duty to tender to 
your Lordship the sincere expression of our gratitude 
for the great interest you have shov.n in our spiritual 
welfare, and for the seasonable assistance you have af- 
forded us towards completing the House of God. 

" In whatever direction we turn, we see churches in 
the course of erection, and pious ministers dispensing 
the ordinances of religion, signs which lead us to hope 
that the branch of the Church of Christ to which we 
belong is taking deep root in the land, and that our 
hitherto neglected brethren and countrymen, who have 
been so long scattered throughout this wide-spread 
territory, as sheep without a shepherd, are now, blessed 
be God, being gathered within the fold. For them, and 
for ourselves, we see a lively interest, and an earnest 
zeal, manifested by your Lordship, in a degree which 
we could hardly expect in a diocese so remote from our 
father-land ; and which prompts us to hope and pray 
tliat your Lordship may be long spared to labour in 
this portion of the vineyard, to extend the Redeemer's 
kingdom far and wide over the dark continent, that 
' Ethiopia may soon stretch out her hands unto God.' 
o 



194 BISHOP OF CAPETOWN'S 

" We trust that your Lordship may be blessed with 
health and strength of body, with vigour of mind, 
and with a large measure of the Divine grace to sup- 
port you, comfort you, and direct you, in the discharge 
of the duties of your high office, to the honour and 
glory of God, and the good of souls." 

The Address was signed by upwards of fifty members 
of the congregation. 

Sunday, Dec. 8//1. — This day I ordained two priests 
and a deacon, the Archdeacon and the Rev. II. Badnall 
assisting. I preached on the occasion ; the congregation 
was very large ; the communicants were about thirty- 
five in number : the offerings on this day and yesterday 
amounted to about ,31/. After evening prayer, I con- 
firmed eighteen candidates, who were all very serious 
in their deportment. The Archdeacon said they were 
the most satisfactory set of candidates he had ever pre- 
sented. Amongst them, as amongst the communicants, 
there were several coloured people. One poor black 
boy had Avalked from Mossel Bay, near forty miles, to 
be confirmed. When residing about fifteen miles from 
this town, he had walked in every Sunday morning to 
attend the Archdeacon's Sunday-school, and had, after 
long preparation, been baptized by him. Another of 
our candidates was a convert from Romanism. I ad- 
dressed them for some time in a plain manner. The 
congregation was again very large. I preached on the 
subject of missions. In the course of the day I looked 
into the Sunday-school, and was glad to find it much 
increased, and the white and coloured children taught in 
the same class. There w ere nearly sixty present. 

December dlli. — We had morning prayer at seven 
o'clock; and a congregation of between sixty and seventy. 
We had full service in the evening, when jMr. Badnall 
preached. There was again an excellent congregation. 
The ne\\s from the frontier becomes more alarming. 



VISITATION JOURNAL, 1850. 195 

Sir H. Smith, who had returned to Capetown, having 
terrified, as he had imagined, the Kafirs, has again 
sailed for East London in H. M. Steamer, Hermes, 
accompanied by 400 men of the 73d regiment from 
Capetown, and some artillery. God grant that we may 
yet be spared another war. This land, however, has of 
late done much to provoke, and is apparently now en- 
during, His judgments. In the Eastern Province during 
this year there has been almost a plague of locusts. 
Farmers have told me that for very many years there 
have not been seen so many. Then there has been a 
drought more severe than has been known for years, 
so that the cattle have perished, and the fruits of the 
earth been destroyed. In the west, during the same 
period, there has been almost a deluge of rain ; and now 
the fearful scourge of rust is threatening the crops of 
wheat throughout the country. The depredations on 
the part of servants and others on the sheep farmers 
have been on a larger scale, and under more irritating 
circumstances than ever; and now there is every pro- 
spect of another fearful war with a savage people, who, 
if permitted to burst into the colony, will probably in a 
few days sweep off the herds and flocks of the colonists, 
and lay waste the whole country, burning the houses, 
and destroying the defenceless people. Would that the 
people of the land did but recognise God's chastening 
hand, and humble themselves before him for their sins. 

In the afternoon I drove out to the new and rising 
village of Blanco, to inspect some pieces of land which 
have been given by private individuals to the Church. 
The Archdeacon has held a monthly service here, and 
has a congregation of about forty. He contemplates 
erecting a little oratory, or chancel of a future church, 
towards which about 100/. have been already con- 
tributed. 

'Tuesday, lOth. — My visitation at George has been 
full of interest. Great progress has been made in many 



196 BISHOP OF CAPETOWN'S 

ways during the past year. The parishioners take an 
increasing interest in the Church's work; and there is, 
I trust, a gradual growth in grace and holiness, at least 
in some. I was much pleased with the demeanour of 
all who on this occasion publicly confessed Christ before 
men, and with the interest taken in them, and especially 
in the coloured candidates, by the older members of the 
Church. There is evidently a good work going on in 
this parish in the souls of the people, and, indeed, it 
could scarce be otherwise under the ministry of such a 
man as the Archdeacon, who is singularly endowed with 
gifts and graces for the work to which he is called. 

We left after breakfast for Riversdale. Mr. Badnall 
accompanied me in my cart, and I was glad once more, 
after so long a separation, to have free and uni-estrained 
intercourse with him. "We slept at Jan Meyer's, one of 
the most wealthy and intelligent Dutch farmers in the 
country. He had twice before invited me to come and 
stay Avith him. Next morning he furnished me with a 
fresh span of horses for an hour or two, while mine were 
driven forward. After a long day's journey through a 
country I have passed over several times and have 
described before, we reached Riversdale. I took up my 
quarters with Mr. Hudson, but dined with my excellent 
friend. Captain Rainier, the magistrate of the place, who 
holds service twice every Sunday for the English con- 
gi-egation, of whom there are upwards of sixty. 

Thursdai/, \2th. — Visited some of the villagers in the 
morning, and examined three candidates, whom Captain 
Rainier had been preparing for confirmation. I lound 
them all well instructed, and apparently much in earnest. 
After an early dinner we went with Mr. Borcherds, the 
amiable Dutch minister, to inspect a site which he lias 
ollered to give for an English church. We had service 
at seven o'clock in the evening. There was one child 
for baptism; three were confirmed. I addressed the 
candidates, and also preached. Our service lasted till 



VISITATION JOURNAL, 1850. 197 

past nine o'clock, and there were upwards of fifty pre- 
sent. We ought to have a clergyman here, but, imless 
my funds become greatly increased, I see no prospect 
of my being able to appoint one. 

Friday, \Zth. — A long and warm day's journey to 
Swellendam, through a country which I now travel 
over for the fifth time since my arrival in the diocese. 
We intended to have slept at a farm about three hours 
short of Swellendam ; but the farmer could not accom- 
modate us; we therefore pushed on, and arrived at 
Mr. Baker's about ten o'clock, having accomplished 
a journey of upwards of sixty miles. My horses did not 
seem at all tired. Mr. Baker was still out in the parish 
preparing the candidates for confirmation. The next 
day was spent almost exclusively in receiving visitors 
and writing letters. 

On Sinidaij I preached in the morning in the school- 
room, and afterwards administered the Holy Commu- 
nion to twenty-five persons. The congregation was 
good, and filled the room. In the evening I confirmed 
eight candidates, of whom three had been Wesleyans, 
and one a Romanist. Mr. Badnall preached. There 
was a very full congregation, and the candidates, as is 
almost always the case, seemed to feel deeply. 

On Monday we held a meeting of the Church Building 
Committee, which, after a long conversation, was ad- 
journed till the next day. We had some difficulty in 
fixing upon a suitable site, and it was found that the 
funds were far from sufficient to complete the church, 
there not being more than 600/. in hand ; and a very 
simple building costing not less than 1,000/. At our 
meeting on Tuesday the site was determined upon, and it 
was decided that the plans I had furnished should be 
adopted, and the building be proceeded with. On the 
evening of this day, being the last of my stay in the 
village, I met the parishioners in the school-room, and 
aimounced to them the course which had been decided 



198 BISHOP OF CAPETOWN'S 

upon. I took this opportunity of explaining my views 
and plans with reference to the future missionary ope- 
rations of our Church, and endeavouring to excite an 
interest in them. I gave, at the same time, u general 
view of the state and progress of the Church throughout 
the diocese. 

I think that a decided improvement has taken place 
in this parish since my visitation last year. The con- 
gregations have increased; Mr. and Mrs. Baker are 
evidently both much respected by the parishioners, and 
there is a determination on the part of some to meet 
difficulties, and to bring the church to its completion. 
There are, however, some peculiar circumstances con- 
nected with this parish that have in some degree im- 
peded the progress of our work. Efforts have been 
made, by those who are not of us, to weaken the hold 
of the Church upon the minds of her members. Though 
some have been disturbed and distressed thereby, none 
have been led astray, and it will, I trust, be seen here, 
as elsewhere, that unkind and unjust attempts to mar 
the Church's work tend only in the end to strengthen it. 
A Romish priest has arrived in this village since my last 
visitation. He has no congregation. There are now, 
besides him, a Dutch and English minister to a popula- 
tion of about 2,000 souls. 

Wechieschii/. — Started at six o'clock this morning. I 
sent my own horses on four hours last night, Mr. Barry 
having kindly lent me his for the first stage. By this 
means I was enabled to reach Captain Rainier's in good 
time. We stopped at several houses in the way for 
a short time. At Lindis I examined three candidates 
for confirmation from amongst the Heathen. They had 
been baptized a short time before by Mr. Sandberg, 
Minister of Caledon, who has since prepared them for 
confirmation. Mr. Sandberg met me on the road at 
IMr. Vigne's, who has several children to be confirmed. 
As this is the fifth time of my passing through this 



VISITATION JOURNAL, 1850. 199, 

country, I attempt no desci'iption of it. The mountains 
looked, however, more beautiful than ever ; and the 
country, which is somewhat parched, notwithstanding 
tbe late rains, more dreary than usual, with its un- 
broken, monotonous rhinoster bush. 

Just before leaving Swellendam, my letters from home 
brought me word that my old friend Mr. Jackson, 
Bishop Designate of Lyttelton, in New Zealand, had 
touched at the Cape on his way out, and was a guest of 
my wife's at Protea. He will have sailed again, I fear, 
before I can return home. It is a great disappointment 
to me to have missed him. 

On Thursday, I left Captain Rainier' s, and made a short 
day's journey to Colonel Button's, near Caledon. The 
next day I proceeded to Major Shaw's, stopping a few 
hours at Caledon in my way to see the clergyman and 
churchwardens, inspect the church, which is now re- 
maining in an unfinished state from want of funds, and 
examine into the proceedings of the Church Building 
Committee, &c. I find that a good deal of money has 
been wasted on the building, which might have been 
completed, or nearly so, with the funds in hand, had 
they been judiciously expended. Some little irritation 
had arisen in consequence of my declining to draw for 
the grant of the Society for Promoting Christian Kuowledge 
until I saw a prospect of the church being completed. 

Saturday, Dec. 2\st. — Major Shaw drove me into Cale- 
don this morning for our meeting. There were assembled 
in the Court-house most of the neighbouring gentlemen. 
I received from them an address, signed by 121 pa- 
rishioners, congratulating me on my safe return, regret- 
ting the stoppage of the church, and thanking me for the 
appointment of their minister, of whom they spoke in 
warm terms. After replying to the address, I laid before 
them the real state of the affairs of the parish, and 
pointed out to them the necessity of doing more towards 
the erection of the church, and the maintenance of the 



200 BISHOP OF CAPETOWN'S 

ministry. A very good and kindly spirit prevailed. The 
gentlemen present guaranteed the advancement of 200/. 
on loan without security, and a fresh subscription ^vas 
entered into. Upwards of 80/. was subscribed in the 
room, and several gentlemen undertook to collect through- 
out the district. I wrote a letter, after the meeting, to 
the minister and churchwardens, which is to be circu- 
lated throughout the parish, and the object of which is 
to make the English inhabitants feel, that if they desire 
to have a church and clergyman, they must all contri- 
bute largely towards both objects. 

Suiidaj/, Tld. — As a considerable number of the pa- 
rishioners were expected to attend the services this day, 
I accepted of the offer of the loan of the Dutch church, 
in lieu of the public offices, which are not large. There 
was a very considerable congregation both in the morn- 
ing and afternoon. I preached on both occasions ; we 
had thirty-two communicants in the morning, and 
twenty-five candidates for confirmation in the afternoon. 
In the evening I returned to .Major Shaw's. This will, 
I believe, be the last public service which I shall hold 
during the present visitation. God be praised that 
I have been enabled to go through every duty to which 
I have been called from the hour I left home, without 
having ever been hindered by 'sickness ! Would that 
they had been more efficiently performed ! No one is 
more deeply conscious than myself of my many defi- 
ciencies in the services of the sanctuary. 

Monday, 23f/.— Left Major Shaw's at five o'clock this 
morning ; called at several English farms during the 
day. I had intended to have slept at the beautiful little 
village of Somerset; but, on arriving there at four 
o'clock, I determined to proceed to Eerste Rivier, 
which is a distance of nearly sixty miles from where 
I slept last night. Here I found my dearest wife, who 
had ridden thus far to meet me, and was on the point of 
starting again for Somerset. 



VISITATION JOURNAL, 1850. 201 

Tuesday., 2\tli. — We were iu the saddle at six o'clock 
this morning, and, after an agreeable ride across the 
flats, reached home by ten o'clock. Here I was per- 
mitted to meet again my dearest children in health and 
strength. How shall I be sufficiently thankful to Al- 
mighty God for His many mercies towards me ! He 
has most graciously protected me during an anxious 
and laborious visitation, which has lasted nearly nine 
months, and during which I have travelled in my cart, 
on horseback, or on foot, upwards of 4,000 miles, and 
enabled me to return to my home to find those nearest 
and dearest to me in perfect health and safety I 

Stirsum corda ! May each renewed mercy be regarded 
as a fresh call to dedicate my whole self to Him and His 
service ! " Let all that is Avithin me praise His holy 
name ! " 

It may not be amiss if I record, at the close of this 
visitation, my views and impressions upon several 
points which have engaged much of my thoughts, and 
will be to many matters of some interest. 

Though I have expressed myself freely, in several 
places in this Journal, upon passing events, which at 
the moment aroused my feelings, I have nevertheless 
upon principle abstained from touching upon many 
points, which, in my peculiar position, it seemed wise 
not to discuss. Had I been free to express opinions as 
a private individual, I should have wished to touch 
upon topics which, circumstanced as I am, cannot well 
be noticed. I propose, therefore, in the observations 
which I am about to make, to confine myself almost 
exclusively to the present state and futui-e prospects of 
the Church of this diocese, and only to allude to other 
extraneous matter as it seems to bear more or less 
directly upon the object which I have in view. 



202 BISHOP OF CAPETOWN'S 



EXTENT OF DIOCESE. 

The Diocese of Capetown consists of the colony of the 
Cape of Good Hope; the Sovereignty ; Natal; Kaffra- 
ria; and the island of St. Helena. St. Helena lies at a 
distance of 1,000 miles from Capetown on one side; 
Natal at 1,000 miles on the other ; and the whole inter- 
vening country is included in the diocese. The Cape 
Colony alone is as large as England, Scotland, and Ire- 
land. The Sovereignty is equal in extent to England 
and Wales; Natal to the whole of Greece; and British 
Kaffraria, with the country beyond it, to Ireland. In 
point of extent of territory the diocese is, I believe, 
larger than any other in the world, except Calcutta, 
containing not less than 250,000 square miles. 



POPULATION. 

The population Avithin the diocese cannot be stated 
with any accuracy ; but, so far as I have been able to 
ascertain, from inquiries on the spot, of those who are best 
informed on the subject, and from official documents, it 
amounts to about 700,000, and, perhaps, 800,000. It 
may be divided amongst the dillbrent countries or dis- 
tricts, perhaps in the following proportions. 

In the colony of the Cape of Good Hope there are up- 
w ards of 220,000. Of these, rather more than half are 
coloured. By far the larger portion of the remaining 
population is of Dutch extraction. 

In the Sovereignty the population is estimated at 
nearly 100,000; of whom perhaps 85,000 are coloured. 

In Natal the population is said to be 125,000 ; of 
whom 115,000 are Zulus. 

The popvilation of British Kaffraria is ascertained to 
be about 80,000. The Tambookies are rated, and pro- 



VISITATION JOURNAL, 1850. 203 

bably over-rated, at 90,000 ; Kreli's tribe at 60,000 ; 
and the tribes between him and Natal, including Faku's, 
at 100,000. In point of population this exceeds any of 
our colonial dioceses, with the exception of the Indian, 
amongst which I include Ceylon. It has occupied nine 
months to travel over only a portion of the diocese. 
It would take a year to visit the whole ; and in order 
to do so thoroughly, 6,000 miles must be travelled by 
land or by water. These facts, surely, are sufficient to 
show the absolute necessity of a speedy subdivision of 
the diocese. 



LANGUAGE. 

The languages chiefly spoken in this diocese are 
English, Dutch, and Kafir. But, besides these, the 
Bechuana, Hottentot, Bushman, and others of less note, 
prevail in some parts. Dutch is of much importance to 
clergymen ministering within the colony, especially in 
the western district, as nearly the whole of the coloured 
people speak that language in a corrupt form. A know- 
ledge of the Kafir language will be essential to success- 
ful missionary operations among that people. The 
whole Kafir race up to Delagoa Bay speak the same 
language with slight variations. Mr. Appleyard, in his 
recent grammar, thus characterises it : " The Kafir lan- 
guage, although at present spoken by a race of people 
just emerging from barbarism, bears strong internal 
evidence of having been used, at one time, by those who 
must have constituted a much more cultivated order of 
society. Time has probably effected a deterioration in 
some of its parts, considering in whose possession we 
find it; yet even now it does not seem to be the legiti- 
mate property of an uncivilized people." In sound, the 
language, especially in Natal, reminded me much of the 
Italian. 



204 BISHOP OF CAPETOWN'S 



PROGIIESS OF THE CHURCH. 

There can be no doubt that it lias pleased God, dur- 
ing the last three years, to bless in .a very remarkable 
manner the work of the Church in this land. The 
increase of life within our communion has been observed 
by all. The addresses presented to me in the course of 
this visitation are evidences of this. Unhappily our 
eflPorts to provide for the spiritual wants of our people, 
and to do the work God has given us to do, have not 
always been regarded in a Christian spirit by those Avho 
are not of us. We have been met not unfrequently 
witli misrepresentation, and bitter opposition; and 
efforts have been made through the press, and in other 
ways, to excite the prejudices of the ignorant against 
the Church. From this wrong spirit most of the foreign 
missionaries, and, I think I may add, the Wesleyans 
generally, have been exempt. From some of the 
ministers of the Dutch Church much kindness and 
co-operation have been experienced. Independents, 
Baptists, Romanists, and some other self-constituted 
societies and sects, have been the most bitter, I am 
thankful to say that the great body of the clergy have 
both felt and acted with real charity towai'ds those who 
differ from us. They have ever sought and desired to 
live on terms of amity with all who are round about 
them, and have, I believe, been uniformly courteous to 
all. Still, I repeat, amidst the jealousy and opposition 
of others the work has prospered. It is not yet three 
years since I landed in the colony. There were then 
sixteen clergy in the diocese. At this moment there 
are fifty, notwithstanding that three have withdrawn. 
Several more are expected. It is impossible not to feel 
anxious about the future maintenance of the extensive 
work which has been undertaken in this land. There 
are circumstances peculiar to this colony which render 



VISITATION JOURNAL, 1850. 205 

the establishment of the Church upon a secure founda- 
tion singularly difficult. Amongst these we must 
reckon the distinctions of race and class with all its pre- 
judices and antipathies. There are three distinct races 
at least in each village or parish, and there is no drawing 
towards one another on the part of any. Of these the 
English are the fewest in number, and they are again 
broken up by religious divisions. The Churchmen are 
indeed in most places of the colony more numerous than 
the dissenters, and many of these latter have already 
joined our communion. But we are in most places the 
last in the field, are regarded as intruders, and have lost, 
through our previous neglect, many valuable members. 
The scattered nature of our population offers another 
great difficulty. Our people, few in number as they are, 
are distributed over a vast extent of country, which, for 
the most part, is incapable of supporting a dense popu- 
lation. The critical question for us is. How are we to 
maintain our ministry for the next few years, until our 
numbers are increased by immigration, by converts from 
the heathen, or the return to our communion of such of 
our members as at present are separate from us ? Our 
people are generally doing as much as, or more than, I 
could have expected. Notwithstanding the efforts re- 
quired to erect their churches, they are coming forward 
to maintain a standing ministry; but the amount thus 
raised is wholly inadequate, and will be so for some 
years to come. The colonial government renders 
some assistance ; but support from this quarter is 
likely to be diminished rather than increased in years 
to come. Under these circumstances we must continue 
to look to the mother land and mother Church to aid 
Its. That she disregarded her responsibilities towards 
this colony for well nigh half a centurj', and thereby 
made the work more difficult when entered upon in 
earnest, is an additional reason for pushing it forward 
Mith unremitting zeal and vigour during the first few 



206 BISHOP OF CAPETOWN'S 

years. There is good reason to hope, I think, that 
from year to year each parish will do more and more 
towards maintaining its own work. But Churchmen, 
■who at home have had their spiritual wants supplied 
thi'ougli the bounty of our forefathers, are slow to 
learn the lesson that their own offerings are the only 
endowment to be depended upon here, and many are 
really not capable of doing much, for the colony is after 
all a very poor one. The average expenditure of the 
V/esleyan Society in this land has been 10,000/. a-year 
for the last ten years. The London Society, (Indepen- 
dents,) expends, I believe, 6,000/. And other Protest- 
ant denominations, exclusive of the English Church, 
make up the total to something little short of 30,000/. 
a-year. 

RELIGIOUS BODIES IN SOUTH AFRICA. 

There arc in South Africa altogether upwards of 200 
ministers of religion. Many of these are engaged in 
missionary operations far beyond the countries which I 
have visited. Some, indeed, arenot far distant from the 
great lake discovered by Mr. Oswell, an Indian gentle- 
man, and Mr. Livingstone of the London Society. 

The number, indeed, of those Avho are engaged in 
endeavouring to plant the Gospel amongst the tribes 
beyond the colony, and to civilize them, is considerable. 
Unhappily, there is no unity of design in their efforts, 
nor is there any adequate system of supervision 
established. They act independently of each other, 
without much mutual consultation or intercourse. The 
field, however, is so wide, that it is very rarely that one 
Society interferes with another. There is ample room 
for all; and, so far as I have been able to judge, a 
kindly and brotherly spirit prevails amongst those 
Christians who dwell in the very midst of the kingdom 
of darkness. But the fact that there are not less than 



VISITATION JOURNAL, 1850. 207 

twenty ' different religions in South Africa, cannot but 
be a subject for anxious consideration to the thoughtful 
mind which looks forward to the future. 



PROSPECTS OF THE CHURCH. 

It would be presumptuous to speak very decidedly 
as to the future prospects of the Church. The difficulties 
arising from race and language, will, at least for years 
to come, stand greatly in the way of its extension. It 
yet remains to be seen how far these will be overcome. 
AH that can be said at present is, that the Church ap- 
pears to be taking deep root in the land, and that a few 
years more of progress like the three that are past will, 
under God, establish it firmly. If His Spirit be poured 
out, as we hope and pray, in enlarged measure on 
ministers and people, there will be no reason for fear or 
doubt, and we need be under no anxiety. It is im- 
possible to tell as yet what effect the changes which are 
about to take place in our political institutions may 
have upon the Church. Looking at the spirit and 
temper of the times, and bearing in mind that repre- 
sentative institutions will place great political power in 
the hands of the majority of the population, which is 
not of British extraction, and has strong prejudices and 
antipathies, I own I do not look forward to the future 
with much comfort or confidence. I shall be agreeably 
surprised if efforts should not be made to Avithdraw 
Ecclesiastical grants from the Church, though it is to 
be hoped that under the worst circumstances, vested 
interests will be respected, and that those who under 

(1) Church of England; Dutch Church; Roman Catholics; Independ- 
ents (London Society) ; Wesleyans ; Baptists ; Scotch Establishment ; Free 
Kirk; United Presbyterian; Moravian; Berlin, Rhenish, and Paris 
Societies ; Americans ; Swedes ; Lutherans ; single congregations sepa- 
rated from Lutherans and from Dutch Church ; Apostolic Union ; S. A. 
Missionary Society ; Church Instruction Society ; and there are besides 
Jews and Mahommedans. 



20S BISHOP OF CAPETOWN'S 

distinct pledges have come out to labour for Christ's 
cause and truth in the land, thereby sacrificing prefer- 
ment and prospects at home, uill not be cast adrift 
without a prospect of support, and incapable, from their 
sacred profession, of seeking employment and main- 
tenance through worldly business and occupations. 
Probably the circumstance that the Dutch and English 
Church must, in this respect, stand or fall together, may 
save us from injustice. If thrown on their own re- 
sources, the former, with all their advantage of numbers, 
would, I believe, have greater difliculty in maintaining 
their ministry than we should. 

Then, again, it seems quite uncertain what effect the 
war, which, while I write, has just burst out, may have 
upon our work. It is certain that the whole eastern 
province will be thei'eby impoverished, and vast numbers 
of our people be ruined. Indeed they are so already, 
for their houses are destroyed, and their flocks have 
perished. They will not, therefore, be able to fulfil their 
engagements towards the support of their ministers. 
Should the Home Government decline to pay the 
expenses of this war, which some think it will, as a 
just punishment for our violence and rebellious spirit 
during the last two years, but which it is hoped the 
generosity of the British Parliament will not determine 
upon, as it would well-nigh ruin the colony ; — should 
this unfortunately prove to be the case, 1 do not see 
how the colony, burdened Avith a heavy debt, m ould be 
able to maintain its existing establishments. Looking, 
therefore, at our present position, I feel satisfied that, 
if the mother Church were to relax her efforts in behalf 
of her newly planted daughter in this land, it would 
expose our whole work to imminent pcriL We cannot 
as yet stand alone. Our work is, however, founded 
upon right principles, the principles of our Church and 
Prayer-book ; and I look confidently lor increased 
fruits from vear to rear. 



VISITATION JOURNAL, 1S50. 209 



MISSION WORK. 



I have already in the body of my Journal spoken 
fully on this head, and will, therefore, only here repeat 
that there is a mighty field before us ; that there arc 
myriads of souls within this diocese, who have yet to 
be won to Christ ; and that if we, as a Church, are to 
go forth in the name of God against the powers of 
darkness in this land, the means and the men must be 
furnished from home. Every parish in this diocese will 
contribute according to its ability ; but the amount so 
raised will be wholly inadequate for the carrying on of 
any extensive work. I do earnestly hope that we may 
not plead in vain for men and means for this special 
work. The Kafir war just broken out will delay the 
formation of our mission in Kaffraria, upon which we 
were just preparing to enter. But the more important 
field amongst the Zulus in Natal is still open to us. 



EDUCATION. 

It may be well that I should say here a few words on 
the subject of Education. There are not, perhaps, many 
countries in the world that devote so large a proportion 
of their revenue towards providing education for their 
people. Out of a contemplated revenue of 204,161/. for 
the year 1851, it was intended to have appropriated no 
less a sum than 7,478/. to this special purpose, which 
is about the proportion granted in former years. The 
violent disruption, however, of the legislative council 
prevented the estimates from being passed. 

The greater portion of this annual grant is expended 
in the maintenance of free government schools in the 
towns and villages of the colony. Each of these is 
supported at au expense to Government of from 150/. 
to 300/., or even 350/. There are other schools which 
P 



210 BISHOP OF Capetown's 

are aided by Government in villages and in the country ; 
these are supported in pai't by subscriptions, and pay- 
ments from the children. The mission schools also 
throughout the colony receive some assistance; and 
there is a so-called college in Capetown, to which a 
grant has been made of 400/. a-year. In the schools 
which are altogether supported by Government, no 
creeds or catechisms are allowed to be taught, though 
this rule is not strictly observed. 

It is a subject of gi-eat regret to many that the liberal 
intentions of Government have not, from various causes, 
been of that service to the countrj^, which, had they 
been more efficiently carried out, they might have been. 
Though there are several excellent schools in the colony, 
which have been raised by the exertions and abilities of 
some very efficient teachers, the Government system 
of education, now in operation, cannot be considered as 
that which is best suited to the existing circumstances 
of the country. 

The South African College, above alluded to, has 
long, and very generally, been regarded as almost use- 
less. I doubt much, whether for some time past it has 
had ten pupils within its walls who were paying any- 
thing for their education. Not a few of the schools in 
the villages of the colony have failed to secure the con- 
fidence of the inhabitants, and some of them are almost 
without pupils. Several causes have led to this. The 
teachers are in some instances most inefficient, and have 
been, in our late disturbances, amongst the most violent 
democrats in the colony. The School Commissions 
possess no powers, and therefore take no interest in the 
schools. The schools being free, are open to all. Pre- 
cisely the same education is professedly given in the 
same school to the children of the chief people in the 
neighbourhood, as is given to the children of Hottentots 
and Kafirs. This is by many urged as a grave objection 
against the schools, and there is force in the objection. 



VISITATION JOURNAL, 1850. 211 

I do not indeed in the least sympathise with the feeling 
which leads the white man to think it a degradation for 
his child to be educated with a coloured child; but 
surely the education required for the children of mer- 
chants, farmers, and magistrates, is not exactly that 
which you would give to the Hottentots ; nor is it alto- 
gether unreasonable that Christian parents should ob- 
ject to their children being brought into close contact 
either with the moral or physical contamination which 
the children of heathen parents almost invariably carry 
Avith them. Another objection urged against these 
schools is, that the teachers are allowed to take pay- 
ments from parents who choose to pay. It is thought 
that the free children are neglected for these. I have 
also frequently heard parents complain that their chil- 
dren, instead of I'eceiving a plain solid education, are 
taught the bare elements of science. I have often 
myself been struck with this. As an illustration of my 
meaning, I select at random from the Blue Book of last 
year, some extracts from the official returns of Govern- 
ment schools, to which it will be remembered the chil- 
dren of the coloured people are admitted, and which are 
entirely free. "The subjects selected for discussion 

were the analysis and etymology of words 

the properties of matter; the nature and iniiu- 

ence of heat, — the first principles of mechanical science 

the higher branches of arithmetic." Another 

discusses " the first principles of statics applied to 
fluids." Another, " the first principles of physical 
science, including the properties of matter connected 
with the subject of motion, the elements of chemis- 
try," &c. 

The education of the farmers in the country is in 
some degree sacrificed to the maintenance of these 
schools, which are often inferior to schools started in 
the same place by private individuals, who succeed in 
maintaining themselves without any Government as- 



212 BISHOP OF CAPETOWN'S 

sistancc. It would be a great improvement if, for the 
present system, Avere substituted one which merely 
aided the inhabitants of any village in the maintenance 
of their own schools, over which the promoters might 
exercise a control. This would render the existing 
schools less costly to Government, and place at their 
disposal additional funds, for the extension of education 
in the remoter districts, for which, up to this time, very 
little has been done. I do not think that there would 
be any objection to this on the part of the inhabitants 
of the towns and villages. On the contrary, I am per- 
suaded that they would rejoice in the alteration. They 
no longer require an entirely gratuitous education ; and 
are prepared to contribute something towards their 
children's instruction. Unless some such arrangement 
be come to, the country districts cannot be provided 
ibr ; for the colony cannot, out of its revenue, appro- 
priate a much larger sum for educational purposes. 
Nor does it seem reasonable that 200/. or 300/. a-year 
should be given for the education often of a very 
limited number of pupils, while extensive neighbour- 
hoods are left altogether destitute. At present this is 
the case. In many parts of the country there is no 
education at all. The inhabitants are growing up in a 
sad state of ignorance. The usual custom with those 
who value education is for a farmer to engage a tutor — 
say for six months, or a year, or longer, to teach his 
children. They learn to read and write their names, 
and get up the Catechism of their Church, and there, I 
fear, their education too often ends. These tutors have 
been frequently men of bad character, — discharged sol- 
diers, &c. Some of them, however, are very respectable 
men ; and an improved class is being educated for the 
work, through the efforts of the Dutch ministers in 
Capetown. 

Of course any alteration in the present Government 
system of education would have to be carried out 



VISITATION JOURNAL, I 85 1. 213 

gradually, so as not to interfere with the engagements 
made with existing teachers. 

We have not been able as yet to do much in the way 
of education. Our Collegiate school, which has already 
cost 2,600/., is, indeed, full ; and many more, whom the 
Principal is obliged to refuse, would avail themselves 
of the advantages which it offers, if there were funds 
for the enlargement of the buildings. Grammar schools 
have also been erected in Capetown and Graham's 
Town ; and there are a few other Church schools here 
and there throughout the diocese. 

There are few things which I am more anxious about, 
or deem of greater importance, than the erection of 
suitable college buildings. Till we are able to do this, 
our most important educational work must be cramped. 
Had we sufficient room to accommodate double our 
present number of pupils, the College would, I think, 
support itself. I subjoin the Appeal which 1 published 
some time since in behalf of this undertaking/ 

January \^th, 1851. — I have thought it desirable at 
the present eventful period, to continue from time to 
time to place on record facts and circumstances of mo- 
ment to the colony and the Church. 

On Christmas-day 1 was again permitted to celebrate 
the Holy Communion in the cathedral; 170 communi- 
cated. During the course of the week the following 
Address was presented to me : — 

" From the Vestry and Churchwardens of the 
Cathedral Church, Capetown, and other lav 
Members of the Church of England. 

" My Lord, 

" We, the undersigned members of the Vestry 
and Churchwardens of the Cathedral Church of St. 
(I) See Note H, at the end of the volume. 



211 BISHOP OF capeto\vn's 

George, and lay members of the ChurcL of England, 
resident in Capetown and its neighbourhood, beg to 
offer our hearty congratulations on your Lordship's 
safe return to this city after so very long and laborious 
a visitation throughout the remote divisions of your 
diocese. We are fully sensible of the deep and earnest 
devotion ^vith which your Lordship has sought to diffuse 
the pure spirit of the Gospel amid the destitute por- 
tions of South Africa, and of the cheerfulness and zeal 
■with which you encountered the toil and privation to 
w hich you have been thus unavoidably exposed ; and 
•we confidently trust that, in God's appointed time, they 
vrill be productive of good to those on whose behalf 
they were undertaken, and that, eventually, the ser- 
vices, sacraments, and teaching of our venerable Church, 
may be brought within the reach of the greater part, if 
not of the whole of her dispersed members in every part 
of the diocese. 

" Nor are we less sensible of your Lordship's untiring 
efforts for the diffusion of true religion in the hearts of 
the people in this more favoured part of the colony, nor 
of the manifold benefits we have oiirselves derived from 
your Lordship's appointment to the See of Capetown. 

" Without a Bishop for the maintenance of order and 
discipline, the Church of England at the Cape of Good 
Hope Avas, for many years, so inadequately provided 
with a ministry, as to be w holly incompetent to perform 
the work Avhich lay so w idely scattered around her ; 
while many of her members, from the want of shepherds 
to lead them, wandered in pursuit of pasture into other 
folds. 

" But, blessed be God, under whose providential 
care your Lordship has at length been sent to oversee 
the gathering in of the flocks, brighter hopes have now- 
dawned upon the Church of South Africa; and we 
heartily pray that you may long be preserved to provide 
for her growth and maturity ; that your Lordship may 



VISITATION JOURNAL, 1851. 215 

long continue to be a blessing to all those whose spi- 
ritual welfare is witMu the reach of the influence of your 
conduct and example; and that, hereafter, when you 
shall be called to render account of your'sacred and 
solemn mission, you may receive that rich reward 
which our Heavenly Father has in store for those, who, 
under the guidance of His Holy Spirit, have laboured 
faithfully in the discharge of those apostolical duties 
for which they have been consecrated in His Church 
here on earth." 

To this I replied as follows : — 

" To THE Chairman of St. George's Vestry. 

" Dear Sir, 

" I beg to acknowledge the receipt of an Address 
from the Vestry, Churchwardens, and Lay Members of 
the Church of England, resident in Capetown and its 
neighbourhood, which you have been good enough to 
forward to me, and in which they offer their hearty 
congratulations on my safe return, after a long and 
laborious visitation throughout the remote divisions 
of the diocese. I shall feel obliged by your conveying 
to the subscribers to the Address my sincere thanks for 
their kind and cordial welcome, after so long an absence. 
It has pleased God to bring me back in health and 
safety, after a visitation which has extended over nearly 
nine months. May the life which He has spared be 
devoted more entirely to Him and His service ! 

" The Address expresses a hope that the day is not 
far distant when the members of the Church throughout 
the land will be provided with an adequate supply of 
the means of grace, within their own communion. Such, 
I trust, will ere long be the case. 

" It is, indeed, being gradually accomplished through 
the zeal of the members of the Church, who in many 
places have contributed very largely, both towards the 



216 BISHOP OF Capetown's 

erection of churches, and the mjiintenance of their 
ministers, and who are beginning very generally to feel 
that their spiritual wants can only be supplied by much 
exertion and self-denial on their part. 

" Commending our Avork to the blessing and favour 
of Almighty God, 

" I remain, dear Sir, faithfully yours, 

" R. Capetown." 

On the following Sunday I preached 'in the cathedral, 
from Isaiah xxvi. 9 : "When thy judgments are in tlie 
earth, the inhabitants of the world shall learn righteous- 
ness." I endeavoured to impress upon the Church my 
own conviction, — that this land is suffering God's chas- 
tisement for its sins, and especially for those of the last 
Two years. I urged particularly the severe drought, 
which had almost led to a famine in the east; — the 
plague of locusts, which had visited the country in 
greater numbers than for the last quarter of a centur}' ; 
— the unceasing rains in the west, followed by the rust ; 
— and the war, which seemed to be impending; as 
proofs that God was visiting us in His wrath. 

On the last day of the year we had full service in the 
cathedral in the evenmg, and again on the morning of 
the new year, — the Feast of the Circumcision, w hen 
seventy partook of the Lord's Supper. IMr. Newman 
preached on both occasions. As we came out of church 
we were informed that the Kafirs had commenced the 
Avar. The probability of this must have occurred to 
most minds ; but men Avere sanguine to the last, that it 
would be staved otT, at least for the present. The im- 
mediate effect Avas, that our troops, 2, .000 in number, 
Avere shut up in their forts, and their communication 
A\ith each other and Avith the colony Avas cut off. The 
Governor himself, with Colonel Mackinnon, Avas cooped 
up in Fort Cox. He did not, howevei-, remain there 
long; but, having 250 Cape Corps Avilh him, and but 



VISITATION JOURNAL, 1851. 2l7 

little forage, he cut his way through the enemy to King 
William's Town, distant about twenty-four miles. Col. 
Somerset, who attempted to open a communication with 
the Governor, was obliged to retreat with the loss of 
about thirty men. The Kafir Hermanns, located at the 
Blinkwater, within the colony, has taken part with the 
enemy, and is now ravaging the Winterberg, carrying 
fire and sword throughout the country. Even the Hot- 
tentots of the Kat River settlement are said to be dis- 
affected ; and there is some reason to fear that Kreli, 
and the Taraboukie chiefs, are preparing to ravage the 
frontier. Should this be the case, the odds against us 
will be fearful. 

Fort Beaufort and Alice have each been attacked, but 
the enemy has been repulsed from both by the inhabit- 
ants aided by a few soldiers. The military villages of 
Auckland, Woburn, and Joannasburg, have been de- 
stroyed, and the male inhabitants massacred. At 
Graham's Town there are no troops. The inhabitants, 
who are expecting to be attacked, are constantly under 
arms. Straggling bodies of Kafirs wander over the 
whole open country. Houses and individuals have been 
attacked in various directions ; the houses have been 
burnt, and the inmates, in some instances, murdered. 
Great efforts are being made to raise levies. These 
consist almost exclusively of Hottentots from the Mis- ■ 
sionary Institutions (chiefly Moravian) in the west, 
and of Fingoes from the frontier. The English do not 
appear to volunteer in great numbers, and the Dutch 
scarce at all. 

OvL Thursday, the 2cl oi Januari/, a synodical meeting 
of the Clergy of the Rural Deanery of Capetown was 
held at Protea ; nineteen clergy were present, a larger 
number than had ever met before in the diocese. I gave 
them some account of my visitation, and of the state of 
the diocese ; laid befor.e them the Zulu Missionscheme, 
w hich met with their entire approbation ; and consulted 



218 BISHOP OF capetoavn's 

them about the division of the diocese, which they ap- 
peared to think as necessary as their more distant 
brethren do. I also informed them of the circumstances 
Avhich seemed to require my return to England, and 
invited their opinion. They concurred with me in the 
necessity of the step, and expressed themselves very 
kindly on the subject. They unanimously agreed to the 
proposal that, under our present chastisement, a day 
should be appointed for special humiliation before God, 
■with prayer and fasting, and that we should seek the 
co-operation of the Dutch Church in the matter. A Ser- 
vice has since been prepared, and the Governor has 
recommicnded the day to be observed by all Christians 
in the colony. 

Jammrr/'l^tli. — The Archdeacon of Graham's Town has 
had a very merciful escape. He walked into Graham's 
Town the very day the war broke out, which was also 
the day of my return home. He had been oiit on 
visitation six vreeks, during which he had accomplished 
800 miles on foot. For the last three weeks, in his way 
down from Bloemfontein, he had been in the part of the 
country most exposed to invasion. Had he been a week 
later he would have been in imminent peril. A merciful 
I'rovidence, however, watched over him. Several of the 
clergy are, I grieve to say, in much danger. Mr. and 
Mrs. Beaver have sustained two severe attacks in Alice 
from the Kafirs; Fort Beaufort, where Mr. and Mrs. 
Wilshere reside, has been also twice attacked ; on the 
second occasion the chief Hermanns was killed, fighting 
in the streets. Mr. Willson, at Post Relief, is, perhaps, 
in the most perilous situation. The place has been 
repeatedly attacked by the Hottentots, who have now, 
throughout the whole of the east, joined in the rebel- 
lion ; it has only a few farmers to defend it, and all com- 
munication with it has been cut olT. Mr. ^^'atcrs and 
Mr. Henchman are both in laagers in their respective 
parishes. Not one clergyman, however, has yet aban- 



VISITATION JOURNAL, 1851. 219 

doned his post. Mr. Boon, catechist at the Mancazana, 
has indeed been compelled to fly, and his residence, and 
his church, the latter only just freed from debt, have, I 
believe, been burnt. 

March 2QtIi. — The war still drags on, without much 
prospect of a speedy conclusion. Through Mr. Mon- 
tagu's indefatigable exertions, 3,000 newly raised leA^es, 
chiefly Hottentots, have been sent up to the Governor. 
These have been employed on frequent patrols ; but no 
great blow has yet been struck. The Kafirs fight boldly, 
hand to hand, with the troops, and the Hottentots, in 
their present undisciplined state, seem hardly a match 
for them. The Fingoes, on all occasions, fight with 
great courage. Having been formerly slaves to the 
Kafirs they hate their ancient masters with a deadly 
hatred. The addition to the Governor's force has enabled 
him to send 400 European levies to Major-General So- 
merset, who proceeded Avith these to the Kat River 
settlement, where he was joined by bodies of Dutch 
and English volunteers. A combined attack was made 
upon the Hottentots, who had taken possession of Fort 
Armstrong, a very strong post. The post was taken 
after a severe fight, and in the course of the next few 
days the rebellion was apparently put down. Several 
himdred prisoners have been taken, many thousand 
sheep and oxen, and seventy wagons of goods of all 
kinds, — the spoils of the neighbouring farms, watches, 
jewellery, books, dresses, scientific instruments. This is 
the state of things up to the present time. The Gaika 
Kafirs in the Amatola, not less than 40,000 in number, 
still remain to be conquered, and such of the Tam- 
bookies as have engaged in the war. 

The inhabitants of the eastern province are crying out 
for a commission to inquire into the causes of the Hot- 
tentot rebellion. It is laid by them very freely at the 
door of the Missionaries of the London and Glasgow 
Societies. The whole subject is at present involved in 



220 BISHOP OF CAPETOWN'S 

much mystery; but I cannot for an instant believe that 
any Missionaries would deliberately encourage rebellion, 
though I can easily understand that their whole system 
and teaching might lead to it. There is certainly a very 
great contrast in the conduct of the coloured races who 
are under tlie training of Moravians and Wesleyans, 
when compared with those who are under the London 
and Scotch Societies. This is so remarkable, that it has 
been observed by all who are acquainted with the state 
of things in the country. 

I feci it right to express here my firm conviction that 
neither the present Kafir war, nor the rebellion of the 
Hottentots, has been brought about by any oppression 
on the part of the Government of this country. There 
are features in our border policy of which I cannot ap- 
prove ; but our Government of British KafFraria has 
been wise, just, and humane. We have, it is true, held 
military possession of the country ; it was essential to 
our own safety that we should; but we have not inter- 
fered with the government of the chiefs more than was 
absolutely necessary ; and, when we have interfered, it 
has been to protect the oppressed. The real causes 
which have led to the present war Avith the Kafirs are, 
— 1st, that under the system which was established, 
the chiefs' power was gradually fading away ; — 2d, 
cattle stealing was put a stop to by a very efficient police ; 
— 3d, the distress consequent upon the severe drought 
of last year ; — and 4th, A knowledge of our internal 
divisions, and the alienation of feelings between the 
white and coloured races, and between the English and 
the Dutch. 

For the Hottentot rebellion there is no exoise what- 
ever. The rebels of the Kat River had had one of the 
finest parts of the country given them to live on ; Govern- 
ment dealt most liberally with them. Sobriety and 
industry would have enabled them to take their place 
among the landed proprietors of the country, 'i'hat the 



VISITATION JOURNAL, 1851. 221 

white man has failed in his duty to the coloured races 
in South Africa, — the Christian to the Heathen, I do 
not deny; I feel it to be a great reproach. But what- 
ever may be the amount of his short-coming in this 
respect, it would be a grievous wrong to assign it as a 
justification of the rebellion which has spread over so 
large a portion of the eastern province. 



NOTES. 



Note A.— Page ]3S. 

Nearly all the inhabitants of tliis part of the country have 
been obliged to leave their farms since tlie breaking out of the 
present war. A Laager, or encampment, has been formed at 
Sidbury, and Mr. Henchman still continues at his post, which 
is far from secure. 

Note 15. — Page H4. 

Just tliree months after this the war actually broke out. 
Colonel Somerset and myself heard the first rumours of it at 
Fort Brown on the day we left Graham's Town. As we rode 
along the Fish River these riunours increased. When Colonel 
Somerset arrived at Fort Beaufort he sent an e.\press to 
Colonel Mackinnon on the subject. Alice lias been twice 
attacked by large bodies of Kalirs. Mr. Beaver has remained 
at his post the whole time. 

Note C— Page 148. 

Since the coinnu'nccinent of the war the church has been 
used as a place of defence. Fort Beaufort has been attacked 
twice by the Blinkwater rebels ; at the second attack the chief 
Hennanus met his death fighting in the streets. Mr. Wilshere 
lias remained at his post the whole time. 



VISITATION JOURNAL, 1850. 223 



Note D.— Page 149. 

Ths Post has since been burnt down by t!ie rebel Hottentots, 
and ilie liitle church, I believe, destroyed. ]\Ir. Boon escaped 
on horseback to Cradock, leaving his little ^H'operiy in books 
and furniture behind him. 



Note E.— Page 152. 

Mr. Willson has been, since the breaking out of the viar, in 
the most dangerous and distressing position of any of the 
clergy on the frontier. He has been cooped up in this little 
post, with the families of the neighbouring farmers, whose 
houses have been burned, and their crops destroyed, and cattle 
driven off' by the rebel Hottentots. All commuuicatioii with 
the post lias been cut off during the greater part of the last 
two months ; it has been repeatedly attacked by the enemy. 



Note F. — Page 155. 

The Institution has been burned down since the war com- 
menced. The Hottentots received the enemy with open arms. 
The brethren escaped to AVhittlesea, which place has been most 
bravely defended by a handful of men. Had iliis place fallen, 
the whole of the Cradock district would have been laid 
waste. 

Note G. — Page 156. 

Kama has proved faithful again in this new war, and has 
done good service with his tribe. 



Note H.— Page 213. 
" Diocesan Collegiate School. 

"A year has now passed since the Bishop opened a Diocesan 
Collegiate School at Protea, the first principle of which was, 
that it should be conducted strictly on the pr;ncij;les of the 



224 BISHOP OF CAPETOWN S 

Englisli Church ; and tlioiigh this period is not long enough to , 
show the whole working oi' such a school, yet, considering the 
undertaking in the lowest point of view, as an experiment^ the | 
following conclusions seem to be already established. , ; 

" 1. That the want of such a school in the diocese was^felt, , 
and thai this want has now been in some measure supplied. j 
This is plain from the fact that the numbers, whicli were siiiall , 
at first, have been steadily increasing, so that the school, tho^ gh j 
of late much enlarged, is now all but full. I 

" 2. That a further increase of accommodation is necessary, j 
as several applications for admission at no very distant ijaie I 
have been already made, and there are no means at present of j 
receiving more boys. J 

" 3. Tliat the time is now arrived for bringing the mat er | 
before those who will as a class receive the greatest benefit | 
from the complete success of the undertaking, since it is upon ' 
their co-operation that so desirable a result in great measure | 
depends. The attention, therefore, of those who have it in i 
their power to aid in the full establishment of the College is ! 
invited to the following statement : — 

" The Bishop finding upon his arrival no system of education 
for the youth of the upper classes possessing their confidence, 
and considering that the rich as well as the poor members (.f 
the Church were committed to his spiritual charge, determined 
to do what lay in his power to remove a defect so prejudicial to 
the whole body of the Church as the want of sound education 
for those, whose position calls upon them to be the guides and 
leaders of society. As soon, therefore, as the means were at 
his disposal, he opened a school, partly under his own roof ; 
and, when an opportunity offered, purchased an estate, with a | 
house, &c. upon it, calculated to receive a larger number than 
could be accommodated in his own house. It must be remem- | 
bered that in all this the Bishop alone has made any venture; j 
he alone lias borne the heavy expenses necessarily attending the 
commencement of such an undertaking, out of the funds 
raised in England for the special benefit oi the diocese. While i 
his plans were only intentions, while the work wore the form j 
of an untried experiment, while it was quite unct rtain how ] 
many parents would desire such an education for their sons, 
he did not ask any assistance from those for whose special 
benefit the venture was made. It is only now, when these , 
preliminary questions have been satisfactorily disposed of, that 
he asks those ])rincipally interested to meet in a tair and liberal - 
spirit the sacrifices that have been made in their behalf. It is 
impossible for him to do all that he wishes to see done, unless 
funds are supplied for carrying out his further plans. 



VISITATION JOURNAL, 1850. 225 

" The fund for the diocese, out of which these expenses have 
been borne, was raised not so much by the superfluous wealth 
of the rich, as by the self-denying offerings of the middle and 
lov.er classes, who felt bound to give something out of their 
jjoverty for the spread of Christ's kingdom in South Africa. 
It has been raised for religious purposes, and it is only because 
the religious interests of the whole community depend so much 
)n education, that the Bishop has felt justified in bestowing so 
large a portion of it in this manner. The same considerations 
apply to the funds of the Society for Promoting Christian 
Knowledge, out of which the noble grant of 2,000i. has been 
made for the promotion of education in this diocese. Surely 
then, there is a call for some sacrifice on the part of those who 
'will especially benefit by the success of the undertaking. They 
cannot, it may be, do all that is required for the founding of 
such an Institution. They cannot furnish such buildings and 
endowments as single men at home have furnished in past 
years ; but they may give greater efficiency to the aid that is 
offered them. An appeal has been made to the mother coun- 
try for funds for this special purpose ; no answers have yet been 
received from England to this appeal, and the aid to be ex- 
pected from that quarter may depend in great measure upon 
the exertions of the colonists for themselves. One diocese, 
constituted at the same time with this, has already found a 
benefactor within itself, who has devoted nearly 3,000Z. to the 
Diocesan College. The work which has begun here may go 
on, on its present limited scale, and be doing real benefit, but 
it cannot offer the advantages to the public generally which a 
larger institution would do. It remains yet to be decided, 
whether funds can be raised for it here and in England, or 
whether its extension must be put off for an indefinite time. 

" The first great want is that of larger and better buildings. 
The best use has, it is believed, been made of the present build- 
ings ; but there must always be inconveniences in temporary 
arrangements, variously affecting the discipline of the school, 
the comforts of the boys, and the domestic economy of the 
household. On this ground, then, it does not seem advisable 
to attempt the enlargement of the present buildings, which would, 
lead to additional inconvenience, without proportional advan- 
tages : but rather to begin some buildings especially adapted to 
the purpose. Indeed the present buildings are not such as 
could be regarded as permanent. They are as unlikely to re- 
main for the benefit of future generations, as they are inadequate 
to meet even present necessities. In endeavouring to found, 
an Institution like that now contemplated, it is needful to look 
beyond the present moment, and to aim at producing that 
Q 



226 BISHOP OF CAPETOWN'S 

which shall he enduring, and of which future generations need 
not be ashamed. 

" When suitable buildings are erected, some endowments will 
still be required, in order to give due stability and permanence 
to the work. These may be of gradual growth, but the Insti- 
tution cannot be regarded as in a secure and satisfactory con- 
dition until it is possessed of funds sufficient to maintain its 
Principal and Tutors, and to assist in the education of poor 
scholars. The need of exhibitions for this latter purpose will 
be more felt, when, as it is hoped, may ere long be the case, an 
upper department of the College shall be opened, in which a 
course of education like that of the English Universities shall 
be carried on. Such assistance is indispensable, when young 
men of good character, but small means, are anxious to avail 
themselves of the complete course of education; and a lengtli- 
ened course of education, while it is the best preparation' for any 
station in life, will be especially requisite for those of the stu- 
dents who are designed for the ministry of the Church. 

" It must be remembered, however, that the present appeal is 
made exclusively for funds for the erection of adequate Colle- 
giate buildings. It would not have been made at this particular 
moment, had it not been that the Bishop is about to leave home 
on visitation, and will not in all probability return till the end 
of the year, before which period it may be advisable to com- 
mence the new buildings. 

" In the confident hope, then, that some may be found who 
appreciate the efforts that have been made, and are ready to 
come forward to complete the good work v.hich has been begun, 
the Bishop would invite all who take any interest in the Insti- 
tution to communicate with the Reverend the Principal on the 
subject, and in conjunction with him to adopt measures for 
raising funds, that so increased accommodation may be pro- 
vided, as soon as possible, for those who must otherwise be ex- 
cluded from the advantages which it is his earnest wish to 
extend to a much larger number than can be at present received 
into the College. 

" R. Capltown." 

"Protea, March 25, 1850." 

The following extract from a circular sent home for publica- 
tion at the end of 1819, and published in the Colonial Church 
Chronicle for January, 1850, will serve to make the appeal 
given above more intelligible : — 

"The College is intended to embrace an upper and a lower 
department. Pupils will be received into the lower depart- 
ment at the age of ten years, and they may be allowed to 



VISITATION JOURNAL, 1850. 227 

remain there till the age of eighteen. The upper department 
will receive students at the age of seventeen or eighteen, if they 
are otherwise duly qualified ; and there will be some standard 
of qualification, answering to the examination for matriculation 
at the English Universities. The education given will be such 
as to fit the pupils for secular employments and professions 
as well as for the ministry of the Church. It is proposed that 
the College should be governed by a body of statutes similar to 
those by which our ancient institutions in the mother country 
are ruled. The Bishop will be Visitor. There will be a Prin- 
cipal, and, it is hoped, at no time fewer than three Fellows and 
Tutors, of whom one will be Vice-Principal. The Principal 
will be appointed by the Bishop ; the other offices in the Col- 
lege will be filled up by the Society itself, subject, to the 
approval of the Bishop, as soon as it is sufficiently matured to 
supply duly qualified candidates for them. In the mean time, 
the appointments to these offices also will rest with the Bishop." 

"The Bishop would earnestly commend to the whole 

body of the Church in England, this attempt at founding an 
Institution in connexion with the daughter Church at the Cape, 
in the firm belief that it may hereafter become a great engine 
for the extension of the pure faith of Christ throughout that 
part of the vast African continent, by the education of a body 
of devoted clergy and a pious and intelligent laity. 

"Protea, September 10, 1849." 



THE END. 



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