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By Rodney Hitt, B. M. E. 


A. M. Waitt, Late Superintendent of Motive Power, New York Central & Hudson River. 

J. S. Lentz, Master Car Builder, Lehigh Valley. 

W. P. Appleyard, Master Car Builder, New York, New Haven & Hartford, 


It was revised and published under similar conditions IN 1884, AND CONTAINED 2188 ENGRAVINGS. 




At the Fifth Annual Convention, held In Richmond, Va., In 1872 It was 
"Resolved, That a committee be appointed with power to publish an Illustrated 
book, defining the proper terms or names of each and every part used In the con- 
struction of railway cars, and a description of the use of the same." 

At the Fourteenth Annual Convention, held In Detroit In 1880, 
"The committee to whom was assigned the duty of preparing a Dictionary of Terms 
used In the Construction of Cars submitted a copy of the book and reported that they 
had finished their work, and were discharged/' 

At a meeting of the Executive Committee held In Saratoga, June 17, 1902, the letter 

ballot vote of the members of the Executive Committee on the appointment of a com- 

mlttee, consisting of Messrs. A. M. Waltt, W. P. Appleyard and John S. Lentz, to 

supervise the publication of a new M. C. B. Dictionary by the Railroad Gazette, was 

formally accepted and made a record of the meeting. 




The original Idea of the Car Builders' Dictionary, be- 
gun by tne Master Car Builders' Association In 1872, 
was to standardize car building language. The first 
and successive editions have accomplished this and tre- 
mendously more — ^the book has been the most efficient 
single force for securing standardization of cars and 
parts of cars. Since the enlargement of the scope of the 
1895 edition, however, a new and more Important use 
has been found for the book. In every country on the 
globe where there are railroads It Is now used as a 
guide for ordiering, designing and specifying cars, and 
parts of cars. The present edition has been prepared 
^ with a view to facilitate the use of the book for such 
r<4purposes. Wherever possible, the name of the maker of 
'^fiach device has been placed under the engraving and In 
^many cases, the maker's designation, or number of the 
^part has been preserved. This, It Is believed, will add 
^ to the value of the book and should not be taken as an 
advertisement for the makers of such equipment. 

While the definitions, as originally laid down and from 
time to time revised, have not been materially changed 
In this edition, they have been carefully edited with a 
. view to eliminating the ancient history which many of 
i them contained, condensing and modernizing the de- 
scriptive matter and making that part of the book more 
of a ready-reference section than an encyclopedia. To 
those who are actively engaged in railroad work, there 
is little need of more than a concise definition and the 
reference to an illustration shown elsewhere. To the 
novice, a clearly understood drawing is worth more than 
a page of necessarily technical description. 

The number of illustrations has been reduced from 
5,683 In 1895 to 4,971 in 1903, but this has been done In 
such a way as to Increase the scope of the book. The 
aim has been to show nothing that is experimental or 
rapidly going out of use, but only such devices and cars 
as are In general use at this time. In making up the 
engravings, wherever possible, duplication of identical 
parts has been avoided, and In this way the number of 
engravings has been reduced, while at the same time the 
number of different types of cars and car parts has been 
Increased. Standardization of designs and the constant 
tendency toward uniformity for interchange equipment 
during the last few years has also allowed the use of a 
less number of engravings In Illustrating prevailing 
practice In car body and truck details. 

No change has been made in the general arrangement 
of the Illustrated pages from that used In previous edi- 
tions. One new feature, however, has been added, that 
of Car Shop Machinery. While not strictly within the 
province. It will no doubt prove an acceptable addition 
to the rest of the subject matter. Inasmuch as It is 
often as Important to be familiar with the tools as 
to be familiar with their product. The engravings 
have been limited to a few of the most common forms 
of wood working machines and pneumatic tools, so large- 
ly used In steel car repairs. Machine tools more properly 

belong to the motive power department, and hence have 
not been included. 

Particular attention has been paid to the selection of 
drawings of freight car bodies. Since the last edition 
was published an almost complete revolution in car con- 
struction has come about The steel car, which at that 
time was an untried experiment, has made rapid strides 
forward, and In so doing has forced the builders of 
wooden cars to keep pace and meet the ever-increasing 
demand for higher capacities and reduced dead loads. 
While the wooden car still holds the lead in point of 
numbers, the tendency Is the other way, and with this 
idea in mind the editor has shown steel cars perhaps at 
more length than the present situation would warrant 
Those Illustrated represent the latest types and may 
be taken as good examples of present practice. No at- 
tempt has been made to go into details with most of the 
drawings of steel cars, since they are built under pat- 
ents and the manufacturers are reluctant to show their 
detail designs. In nearly all cases, however, enough 
dimensions and details are shown on the general draw- 
ing to serve all practical purposes. Wooden cars, which 
are usually built after the designs and specifications of 
the railroad company ordering them, have been shown 
more in detail. In putting dimensions on all the draw- 
ings care has been used in selecting only those which are 
essential and omitting for the sake of clearness a large 
part of the unessential figures. Reference numbers and 
letters have been placed on one or more of each of the 
different types of cars, but it was not thought necessary 
to supply them on all figures, since they are given once 
in each case. 

All of the large car building companies have adopted 
standard systems of framing for passenger cars, ap- 
plicable in a slightly modified form to almost any 
design. The illustration of each type covers a large pro- 
portion of the passenger equipment now in use. By show- 
ing the general types of framing only, the number of 
engravings in this part of the book has been greatly 
reduced. The interior and exterior arrangements and 
finish are much better shown in the floor plans and 
half-tone plates than would be possible with detail line 

Some criticism might be made on the rather meager 
treatment of electric cars. The editor feels that to do 
this large field Justice another work as comprehensive 
as this, but devoted exclusively to electric equipment, 
would be necessary, and sincerely hopes that this work 
will be undertaken by hands more competent to do full 
credit to this branch of car building than his could 
possibly be. 

In preparing that part of the book which includes 
the Master Car Builders' standards and recommended 
practice, the aim has been to preserve as nearly as poi^ 
sible the order in which the engravings appear in the 
proceedings of the Association, and under each engrav- 
ing Is given the reference to the plates shown in the 


proceedings for 1902. With one or two exceptions all of 
the historical and descriptive matter printed under the 
head of Rules for Interchange of Traffic, and Standards 
and Recommended Practice has been included in the 
section of the book devoted to definitions. 

As In all compilations of this kind, mistakes are sure 
to occur. The work of prepafring so many engravings 
and making a thorough revision of the definitions in the 
short time iMlowable involves many chances for errors 
of admission and omission. Some of these have ^already 
come to light and as many as possible corrected, but 
doubtless sqme others will be found. 

In conclusion, the editor wishes to express his ad- 

miration for the thoroughness and accuracy which has 
characterized the work of those men who, from time to 
time, have successively made and remade this book, and 
without which the work of preparing the present edi- 
tion might have been a formidable task. Acknowledg- 
ments are due to Mr. A. M. Waitt, Mr. W. P. Appleyard 
and Mr. John S. Lentz, members of the Supervising Com- 
mittee of the Master Car Builders' Association, for valu- 
able assistance and timely advice, and also to Mr. 
Arthur O. Tartas, under whose direction the engrav- 
ings were prepared and to whom is due the credit for 
their uniformly excellent appearance. R. H. 

New York, June, 1903. 


For Using the Car Builders' Dictionary. 

To find the meaning of a given word or term, refer to it in the alphabetical 
list which constitutes the first half of the book, where a definition similar to those 
contained in ordinary dictionaries and a reference to some engraving illustrating the 
object — if it is capable of such illustration — will usually be found. 

To find the name of a car, or part of a car, examine the alphabetical list of the 
different classes of engravings in the index which immediately precedes them, until 
the class is found to which the object looked for belongs, bearing in mind the system 
of alphabelicai ciasssification for the engravings, which is as follows: 



By referring to the engravings included in that class a representation of the 
part or object sought will be found with either its name underneath or a reference 
number, by which number the name may be learned from the list of names of parts ao 
companying the illustration and usually to be found in the immediate vicinity. 

Press op 
Chebouny Print and Pub. Co 
Nuw York. 


[For Alphabetical Index see page following last page of llluatratlons] 

Air Brakes I 

New York Air Brake COj, New York. N. Y. 
Pennsylvania Air Brake Co., Washington, Fa. 
Westingbouse Air Brake Co., Pittsburg, Pa. 

Air Brake Hoset 

Boston Belting Co., Boston, Mass. 

Air Compreasors I 

Chicago i'ncumatic Tool Co., Chicago^ 111. 
Standard Traction Brake Co., New )fork. 

Axles I 

Allison Mfg. Co., Philadelphia, Pa. 

American Car & Fdy. Co., St. Louis, Mo. 

Baume & Marpent, Haine-St. Pierre, Bel- 

Bettendorf Axle Co., Davenport. la. 

J. G. Brill Co., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Cleveland City Forge & Iron Co., Cleveland, 

Gould Coupler Co., New York, N. Y. 

Pittsburg Forge & Iron Co., Pittsburg, Pa. 

Thos. Prosser & Son, New York, N. Y. 

Russel Wheel & Fdy. Co., Detroit, Mich. 

BearlnsB (Center and Side) : 

Baltimore Ry. Specialty Co., Baltimore, Md. 
Chicago Ry. Equipment Co., Chicago, 111. 
W. H. Miner, Chicago, 111. 
Simplex Ry. Appliance Co., Hammond, Ind. 
Western Ry. Equipment Co., St. Louis, Mo. 

Bell and Slffnal Cordi 

Samson Cordage Works, Boston, Mass. 

Bell Cord CoapllnvBi 

Samson Cordage Works, Boston, Mass. 

Beltlns (Rubber): 
Boston Belting Co., Boston, Mass. 

Bolsters I 

American Steel Foundries, New York, N. Y. 
American Car & Fdy. Co., St. Louis, Mo. 
Bettendorf Axle Co., Davenport, la. 
J. G. Brill Co., Philadelphia, Pa. 
Buckeye Malleable Iron & (^upler Co., Co- 
lumbus, O. 
Pressed Steel Car Co., Pittsburg. Pa. 
Simplex Ky. Appliance Co., Hammond, Ind. 
Standard Steel Car Co., Pittsburg, Pa. 

Brake Beams i 

Chicago Ry. Equipment Co., Chicago, III. 
Pressed Steel (Jar Co., Pittsburg, Pa. 
Republic Ry. Appliance Co., St. Louis, Mo. 
Simplex Ry. Appliance Co., Hammond, Ind. 
Standard Steel Car Co., Pittsburg, Pa. 

Brakes (Sec Air Brakes and Electric Brakes). 

Brake Shoes i 

American Brake Shoe & Fdv. Co.. New York. 
Buckeye Malleable Iron & Coupler Co. Colum- 
bus, O. 
CoffinMegeath Supply Co., Franklin, Pa. 
Republic Ry. Appliance Co., St. Louis, Mo. 

Brake Slack Ad J asters i 

American Brake Co , St. Louis, Mo. 
Western Ry. Equipment Co., St. Louis, Mo. 

Bampiair Posts i 

McCord & Co., Chicago, III. 
Car Couplers I 

American Steel Foundries. New York. N. Y. 
Buckeye Malleable Iron & Coupler Co., Co- 
lumbus, O. 
Coffin- Megeath Supply Co., Franklin. Pa. 
Gould Coupler Co., New York. N. Y. 
Latrobe Steel & Coupler Co.. Philadelphia, Pa. 
McConway & Torlcy Co.. Pittsburg, Pa. 
Nat. Car Coupler Co. Wks., Converse, Ind. 
Nat'l Malleable Castings Co.. Cleveland, O. 
Railway Appliance Co., Chicago. 111. 
Standard Coupler Co., New York, N. Y. 
VVashburn Coupler Co., Minneapolis, Minn. 

Car Curtains I 

Curtain Sunply Co., Chicago. 111. 
Fabrikoid Co., Newburgh, N. Y. 
Pantasote Co., New York, N. Y. 

Car Door Fasteners (Freight) : 

Dayton Malleable Iron Co., Dayton, O. 
National Malleable Castings Co., Cleveland, O. 

Car Doors t 

Chicago Grain Door Co., Chicago, 111. 
Jones Car Door Co., Chicago^^ 111. 
Western Ry. Equipment Co., St. Louis, Mo. 

Car Ueatlnsi 

Wm. C. Baker, New York. 
Consolidated Car Heating Co., Albany, N. Y. 
Gold Car Heating & Lighting Co., New York. 
Safety Car Heating & Lta. Co.. New York. 

Car Llvhtlnvi 

Adams & Westlake Co., Chicago, 111. 
Commercial Acetylene Co., New York, N. Y. 
Consolidated Car Heating Co., Albany, N. Y. 
Gould Coupler Co., New York, N. Y. 
Safety Car Heating & Ltg. Co., New York. 

Car Rooflnffi 

Drake & Weirs Co., Cleveland, O. 
Excelsior Car Roof Co., St. Louis, Mo. 
Standard Ry. Equipment Co., St. Louis, Mo. 

Car Seats I 

Adams & Westlake Co., Chicago, 111. 
American Car Seat Co., Brooklyn, N. Y. 
Hale & Kilburn Mfg. Co., Philadephia, Pa. 
Richards Chair- Panel^ Co., Chicago, 111. 
St. Louis Car Co., St. Louis, Mo. 
Scarrett Furniture Co., St. Louis, Mo. 

Cars (See Hand, Push, Velocipede.) 

Cars (Freight): 

Allison Mfg. Co., Philadelphia, Pa. 
American Car & Fdy. Co., St. Louis, Mo. 
American Steel Foundries, New York. 
Barney & Smith Car Co., Dayton, O. 
Baume & Marpent, Haine-St. Pierre, Bel- 
Goodwin Car Co., New York, N. Y. 
Middletown Car Wks., Middletown, Pa. 
Mt. Vernon Car Mfg. Co., Mt. Vernon, 111. 
Pressed Steel Car Co.. Pittsburg, Pa 
Russel Wheel & Fdy. Co., Detroit, Mich. 
Standard Steel Car Co., Pittsburg, Pa. 

Cars (Miscellaneous) : 
Baume & Marpent, Haine-St. Pierre, Bel- 
Buda Fdy. & Mfg. Co., Harvey, 111. 
Fairbanks, Morse & Co., Chicago, 111. 
Russel Wheel & Fdy. Co., Detroit, Mich. 

Cars ( Passenger) : 

American Car & Fdy. Co., St. Louis, Mo. 
Barney & Smith Car Co., Dayton. O. 
Wason Mfg. Co., Springfield, Mass. 

Cars (Street and Elevated): 
American Car & Fdv. Co., St. Louis, Mo. 
Barney & Smith Car Co.. Dayton, O. 
J. G. Brill Co.. Philadelphia, Pa. 
St. Louis Car Co., St. Louis, Mo. 
Wason Mfg. Co., Springfield, Mass. 

Car Steps I 

Railway Appliances Co., Chicago, 111. 

Car Shop Maclilnery (See Wood Working 

Car Trlmmlnfrsi 

Adams & Westlake Co.. Chicago, 111. 

Dayton Mfg. Co., Dayton, O. 

Jas. L. Howard & Co., Hartford, Conn. 

Car Vpholsteryt 

Fabrikoid Co , Newburgh, N. Y. 
Pantasote Co.. New York, N. Y. 

Car liVheei Presses t 

Watson-Stillman Co., New York, N. Y. 

CastinflTB (See Forgings and Castings). 

Costinars (Bronze and Brass) : 

Adams & Westlake Co.. Chicago, 111. 
Dayton Mfg. Co., Dayton, O. 
Tas. L. Howard & Co., Hartford. Conn. 
National- Fulton Brass Mfg. Co., Detroit, 

Cranes t 

Morgan Engineering Co., Alliance, O. 
Wellman-Seaver- Morgan Engineering Co., 
Cleveland, O. 

Crossinir Gates i 
Buda Fdy. & Mfg. Co.. Harvey, IIL 

Curtains (See Car Curtains). 

Curtain Fixtures i 

Curtain Supply Co., Chicago, 111. 

Couplers (Air and Steam, Automatic): 

Forsyth Automatic Air & Steam Coupler Co., 
Chicago, 111. 

Westingbouse Automatic Air & Steam Coup- 
ler Co., St. Louis, Mo. 

Diaphragms (Vestibule) : 

Boston Belting Co., Boston, Mass. 
Railway Appliances Co., Chicago, IIL 
G. S. Wood & Co., Chicago, III. 

Door Checks! 

Yale & Towne Mfg. Co., New York, N. Y. 

Door Itocksi 

Dayton Mfg. Co., Dajrton, O. 

Jas. L. Howard & Co., Hartford, C^nn. 

Yale & Towne Mfg. Co., New York, N. Y. 

Draft RiMinsi 

Butler Drawbar Attachm't Co., Cleveland, O. 
Coffin-Megeath Supply Co., Franklin, Pa. 
Dayton Malleable Iron Co^ Dayton, O. 
McConway & Torley Co., Pittsburg, Pa. 
W. H. Miner, Chicago, 111. 
National Car Coupler Co. Wks., Converse. 

Republic Ry. Appliance Co., St. Louis, Mo. 
Standard Croupier Co., New York, N. Y, 
Thornburgh Coupler Attachment Co., Ltd. 

Detroit, Mich. 
Wellman-Seaver-Morgan Engineering Co., 

Cleveland, O. 
Western Ry. Equipment Co., St. Louis, Mo. 
Westingbouse Air Brake Co., Pittsburg; Pa. 

Dust Guards I 

American Dust Guard Co., Columbus, O. 
Baltimore Ry. Specialty Co., Baltimore, Md. 
Franklin Mfg. Co., Franklin, Pa. 
Harrison Dust Guard Co., Toledo, O. 
Holland Co., Chicago. III. 
T. H. Symington & Co., Baltimore, Md. 
G. S. Wood & Co., Chicago, lit 

Dynamos I 

Crocker-Wheeler Co., Ampere, N. J. 
General Electric Co., Schenectady, Ns Y. 

Buffines (Gasoline): 
Fairbanks, Morse & Co., Chicago, 111. 

Blectric Brakes i 

General Electric Co., Schenectady, N. Y. 
Westingbouse Traction Brake Co., New York. 

Bmerirency Knuckles i 

Railway Appliances Co., Chicago, 111. 

Expanded Metal i 

Merritt & Co., Philadelphia, Pa. 

ForffinsB and Castinirss 

Allison Mf^. Co., Philadelphia, Pa. 

American Steel Foundries. New York, N. Y. 

Baume & Marpent, Haine-St. Pierre, Bel- 

J. G. Brill Co., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Buckeye Malleable Iron & Coupler Co., Co- 
lumbus, O. 

Buda Fdv. & Mfg. Co., Harvey, 111. 

Cleveland City Forge & Iron Co., Cleve- 
land, O. 

Dayton Malleable Iron Co., Dajrton, O. 

Gould Coupler Co., New York, N. Y. 

Holland Co., Chicago, 111. 

Latrobe Steel & Coupler Co., Philadelphia. 

Mt. Vernon Car Mfg. Co.. Mt. Vernon 111. 

Nat. Car Coupler Co. Wks., Converse. Ind, 

Nat'l Malleable Castings Co., Oeveland, O. 


Pittsburg Forge & Iron Co., Pittsburg, Pa. 
Thos. Prosscr & Son, New York, N. Y. 
Russel Wheel & Fdy. Co., Detroit. Mich. 
Standard Steel Works, Philadelphia, Pa. 
Vulcan Iron Works Co., Toledo, O. 
Wellman-Seaver-Morgan Engineering Co., 
Cleveland, O. 

Boston Belting Co., Boston, Mass. 
McCord & Co., Chicago, 111. 

Grain Uoom (See Car Doors). 

Hammer* (Steam): 
Morgan Engineering Co., Alliance, O. 

Hand and Inspection Carni 

Buda Fdy. & Mfg. Co.. Harvey, 111. 
Fairbanks, Morse & Co., Chicago, 111. 


Adams & Westlake Co., Chicago, 111. 
Dayton Mfg. Co., Dayton, O. 
St Louis Car Co., St. Louis, Mo. 

Heaters (for Metal) : 
Walter Macleod & Co., Cincinnati, O. 

Hoists (Pneumatic): 
Chicago Pneumatic Tool Co., Chicago, III. 

Hoisting Machinery I 

Morgan Engineering Co., Alliance, O. 
Wellman-Morgan^Seaver Engineering Co., 
Cleveland, O. 

Hose I 

Boston Belting Co., Boston, Mass. 

Hydranllc Machinery i 

Morgan Engineering Co., Alliance, O. 
Watson-Stillman Co., NeW York, N. Y. 

Iron (Pig): 
Superior CHiarcoal Iron Co., Grand Rapids, 

Jacks I 

Chapman Jack Co.. Cleveland, O. 
Fairbanks, Morse a Co., Chicago, III. 
A. O. Norton, Boston, Mass. 
Watson-Stillman Co., New York, N. Y. 

Tonrnal Bearings i 

Atlantic Brass Co., New York, N. Y. 
McCord & Co., Chicago, 111. 
More-Jones Brass & Metal Co., St. Louis, Mo. 
National-Fulton Brass Mfg. Co., Detroit, 

St. Louis Car Co., St. Louis, Mo. 

lonrnal Boxes and Lldsi 

Gould Coupler Co., New York, N. Y. 

Holland Co., Chicago, 111. 

McCord & Co., Chicago, 111. 

Nat'nal Malleable Castings Co., Cleveland, O. 

Railway Steel- Spring Co., New York, N. Y. 

T. H. Symington & Co.. Baltimore, Md. 

Joints (Steam, Liqui^-^or Air): 

Boston Belting Co., Boston, Mass. 
The Holland Co.. (Jhicago, 111. 

Lamps and Lanterns t 

Adams & Westlake *Co., Chicago, 111. 

Dayton Mfg. Co., Dayton, O. 

Jas. L. Howard & Co., Hartford, Conn. 

Locks I 

Adams & Westlake Co., Chicago, 111. 
Dayton Mfg. Co., Dayton, O. 
Jas. L, Howard & Co., Hartford. Conn. 
Yale & Towne Mfg. Co., New York, N. Y. 

Lockers (Expanded Metal): 
Merritt & Co., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Lnbrlcators (Journal Box): 
Harrison Dust Guard Co., Toledo, O. 

Machinery (See Metal Working Machinery 
and Wood Working Machinery). 

Mats and Mattlnv (Rubber): 
Boston Belting Co., Boston, Mass. 

Metal Working Machinery i 

Ajax Mfg. Co., Cleveland, O. 

Morgan Engineering Co., Alliance, O. 

Motors, Generators (Electrical): 

Crocker-Wheeler Co., Ampere, N. J. 
General Electric (^o., Schenectady, N. Y. 

Office Furnitures 

A. H. Andrew Co., Chicago. 111. 


Boston Belting Co., Boston. Mass. 
Franklin Mfg. Co., Franklin, Pa. 

Paint I 

Buckeye Paint & Varnish Co., Toledo, O. 
Detroit Graphite Mfg. Co., Detroit, Mich. 
Forest City Paint & Varnish Co., Cleveland, 

Lowe Bros. Co., Dayton. O. 
Protectus Co., Philadelphia, Pa. 
Republic Ry. Appliance Co., St. Louis, Mo. 

PalntlnflT Machines! 

Chicago Pneusiatic Tool Co., Chicago, 111. 
Walter Macleod & Co., Cincinnati, O. 

Platforms, Can 

(k>uld Coupler Co., New York, N. Y. 
McConway & Torley Co., Pittsburg, Pa. 
Nat. C^r Coupler Co. Works, Converse, Ind. 
Standard Coupler Co., New York, N. Y. 

Platform Trap Doors i 

O. M. Edwards Co., Syracuse, N. Y. 

Pneumatic Tools i 

Chicago Pneumatic Tool Co., Chicago, 111. 
Railway Appliances Co., Chicaso, 111. 
Standard Ry. Equipment Co., St. Louis, Mo. 

Push Cars I 

Fairbanks, Morse & Co., Chicago, 111. 
Buda Fdy. & Mfg. Co., Harvey, 111. 

Rail Benders I 

Watson-Stillman Co., New York. N. Y. 

Rattan Car Seating i 

American Car Seat Co., Brooklyn, N. Y. 
Hale & Kilbum Mfg. Co., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Rattan for S^reepersi 

American Car Seat Co., Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Rubber Goods i 

Boston Belting Co., Boston, Mass. 

Sash Balances! 

O. M. Edwards Co., Syracuse, N. Y. 

Sash Cord I 

Samson Cordage Works, Boston, Mass. 

Shade Rollers s 

O. M. Edwards Co., Syracuse, N. Y. 

Side Bearlnffs (See Bearings). 

Snaps I 

Samson Cordage Co., Chicago, 111. 

Sno^r Flanflrersi 

Ralway Appliances Co., Chicago, HI. 

Sprlnir Dampenert 

McCord & Co., Chicago, 111. 

Sprlnirs I 

Allison Mfg. Co^ Philadelphia, Pa. 

J, G. Brill Co., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Fort Pitt Spring & Mfg. Co., McKees 

Rocks, Pa. 
Pittsburg Spring & Steel Co., Pittsburg, Pa. 
Railway Steel-Spring Co., New York, N. Y. 

Steam Shovels i 

Vulcan Iron Works Co., Toledo. O. 

Tires I 

Thos. Prosser & Son, New York, N. Y. 
Sundard Steel Works, Philadelphia, Pft. 

Train Pipe CoTcrlnffs (Asbestos): 
Franklin Mfg. Co., Franklin, Pa. 

Treads (Rubber): 
Boston Belting (>>., Boston, Mass. 

Trolley Cordi 

Samson Cordage Works, Boston, Mass. 

Trucks I 

American Steel Foundries, New York, N. Y. 
J. G. Brill Co., Philadelphia, Pa. 
Commonwealth Steel Co., St. Louis, Mo. 
Kindl Car Truck Co., Chicago, 111. 
Peckham Mfg. Co., Kingston. N. Y. 
Pressed Steel Car Co., Pittsburg, Pa. 
St. Louis Car Co.^ St. Louis, Mo. 
Simplex Ry. Appliance Co., Hammond, Ind. 
Standard Car Truck Co., Chicago, 111. 
Standard Steel Car Co., Pittsburg, Pa. 

Tnblnff (Rubber): 
Boston Belting Co., Boston, Mass. 

Tur nbuckles t 

Cleveland City Forge & Iron Co., Cleveland, 

Valve Cord Hooks i 

Samson Cordage Works, Boston, Mass. 

Varnishes I 

Buckeye Paint & Varnish Co., Toledo, O. 

Vestibules I 

Gould Coupler Co., New York, N. Y. 
McConway & Torley Co., Pittsburg, Pa. 

Velocipede Carsi 

Buda Fdy. & Mfg. Co., Harvey. 111. 
Fairbanks, Morse & Co., Chicago^ 111. 

Ventilators I 

Railway Appliances Co., (Chicago, 111. 


Boston Belting Co., Boston, Mass. 


Franklin Mfg. Co., Franklin, Pa. 

James L. Howard & Co., Hartford, Conn. 

Water Closets i 

Adams & Westlake Co., 'Chicago, III. 

Dayton Mfg. Co., Dayton. O. 

Jas. L. Howard & Co., Hartford, Conn. 

Weather Strips t 

O. M. Edwards Co., Syracuse, N. Y. 

Wheels I 

American Car & Fdy. Co., St. Louis, Mo. 
Keystone Car Wheel Co.. Pittsburg. Pa. 
Mt. Vernon Car Mfg. Co., Mt. Vernon, 111. 
Thos. Prosser & Son, New Yorlt N. Y. 
Railway Steel-Spring Co., New York, N. Y. 
Russel Wheel & Fdy. Co., Detroit, Mich. 
Standard Steel Works, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Wheel Presses I 

Watson-Stillman Co.. New York. N. Y. 

Window Fixtures t 

O. M. Edwards Co., Syracuse, N. Y. 

W^ood^vorklnn: Machlneryi 

J. A. Fay & Egan Co., Cincinnati, O. 
Greenlee Bros. & Co., Chicago, 111. 
New Britain Machine Co., New Britain. Conn. 
S. A. Woods Machine Co., South Boston, 

Wrenches I 

Coes Wrench Co., Worcester, Mass. 




**A, B, C" Journal Bearing and Wedge. Figs. 4091-98. 
"A" Car Roof. A car roof with straight carlines, meeting 

at a point like rafters in the center of the upper deck. 
"A" Frame (Steam Shovel). 13, figs. 357-59. A strut to 

which are fastened the boom guys. 
"A** Frame Step (Steam Shovel). 14, figs. 357-59. 

AccoRDEON Hood (Buhoup Vestibule). 124, figs. 1526-1630. 

Acetone. A colorless liquid obtained from the destruc- 
tive distillation of wood which resembles alcohol and 
which has the property of absorbing acetylene gas under 
pressure in a high degree. It is used in the storage 
tanks of the Commercial Storage System of Car 
Lighting, which see. 

Acetylene Gas. A colorless gas, C«H«, produced when 
water is brought in contact with calcium carbide. 
It has a distinctive odor and bums with a bright, lumi- 
nous flame. It has recently been used in car lighting 
with success. It may be generated in the car, as in the 
Adiake system, or carried in tanks filled with acetone 
under pressure, as in the Commercial storage system. 
See, Adlake System and Commercial Storage Sys- 

Acme Automatic Window Shade. Fig. 3714. A car shade 
with a shade holding device, which consiste of a 
hollow tube with a metallic guide at either 
end, through which two cords are passed, one end of 
each being fastened to the casing on either side of the 
shade near the top, the cords passing down the side to 
the bottom of the shade, thence through the tube and 
down the other side to the bottom, being fastened at 
the bottom of the window to the casing. 

Acme Burner. Figs. 2702-07, etc. A burner constructed 
upon nearly the same principle as a locomotive head- 
light burner, and which gives a powerful light. 

Acme Diaphragm. Fig. 1805. A diaphragm for vestibules, 
made of fabric and heavily stitched at the joints. 

Acme Lamp. A lamp fitted with an Acme burner. 

Acme Spring. A form of elliptic spring, the peculiarity 
of which consists in tapering a single leaf from the 
center toward the ends, without the use of a number of 
separate leaves. One type is constructed of plates with 
a beveled edge, arranged one above the other as usual, 
and held in position by a wrought iron band. 

Acorn. Fig. 3027. A general term for the ornaments of 
tips resembling the acorn, used to finish the ends of 
rods of various forms. 

Acorn Butt Hinge. Figs. 1942 and 1947-48. A trade term 
for hinges having the hinge pin ornamented with acorns 
at each end. 

Adjustable Foot Rest. Figs. 3148-3224. A sliding foot 
rest, supported by various mechanical devices — as by a 
ratchet arc or on rabbet pieces. A foot rest or rail un- 
der a seat which can be adjusted to suit the passenger 
using it See, Foot Rest. 

Adjustable Lamp Canopy. Fig. 2666. 

Adjusting Screw (Pump Governor). 8, figs. 963-964. 

Adlake Acetylene Gas System of Car Lighting. Figs. 


2641-56. A system of car lighting using acetylene gas 
which is generated in the apparatus shown in figs. 2641- 
42, which is enclosed in one end of a car, as in fig. 2643. 
The carbide is contained in cartridges, fig. 2642, in 
pockets or baskets. The water flowing down from above 
and coming into contact with the carbide generates 
acetylene gas, which is stored in the receiving tank, fig. 
2656, under the car. The piping and arrangements 
through the car are similar to the Pintsch system. The 
form of lamp is shown in fig. 2654. 
Advertising Rack Rail (Street Cars). A rail to which the 
frames for advertising cards are screwed or otherwise 
Ant Brake. Any brake operated by air pressure, but 
usually restricted to systems of continuous brakes oper- 
ated by compressed air, in distinction from Vacuum 
Brakes, which see, which are operated by creating a 
vacuum. The air is compressed by some form of pump 
on the locomotive, and is conveyed by pipes and flexible 
hose between the^ cars to cylinders and pistons under 
each car, by which the pressure is transmitted to the 
brake levers, and thence to the brake shoes. This sys- 
tem is what is now termed the plain air brake or 
straight air brake. This brake is now obsolete in steam 
road practice, having been replaced by the Automatic 
Air Brake, which see, and also see Westinghouse Air 
Brake, Quick Action Automatic, Fames Vacuum 
Brake, New York Air Brake. 
Air Brakes — General Arrangement and Details. Figs. 
4303-07 and below. The general arrangement and de- 
tails of brake gear for air brake cars, as shown, are 
standard. The following standards have also been 
adopted in this connection: i. Maximum train pipe 
pressure, 70 pounds per square inch. 2. Maximum 
brake power in freight cars, 70 per cent, of the light 
weight of car. 3. All levers i inch in thickness; all 
pins turned to i 3-32 inches in diameter ; all jaws or 
clevises made of ^ inch by 2;^ inch iron; all rods ^ 
inch diameter. 4. Angle of brake beam lever, 40 de- 
grees with vertical. 

The revision made in 1896 consisted in the omission 
of such detail dimensions as could not be used in all 
cases, such as the len{>th and proportions of main levers, 
and the omission of some of the smaller parts from the 
drawing, such as the pipe clamps, staples, etc. The di- 
mensions of the cross section of the malleable iron 
truck lever connection were increased, and the letters 
W. I., M. I., C. I., etc., indicating the material of which 
the parts were to be made, were omitted from the draw- ^ 

In 1898 the following changes were made : 

Diameter of truck lever connection for outside hung 
brakes changed from H inch to J^ inch, and a note to 
this effect was added under title on this sheet. 

Diameter of hole for cotter in air brake pin was first 
indicated as 7-16 inch. 

Addition was made to note under drawing of truck 



lever connection for inside hung brakes as follows: "If 
made of round iron or steel, must not be less than i^ 
inches diameter." 

Dummy coupling was omitted from drawing and air 
hose was shown as hanging down. 

The words '*32 inches or" were omitted from height 
shown for air brake pipe above rail. 

Diameter of release valve rod was changed from ^ 
inch to }i inch. 

In I goo a standard brake pipe nipple, lo inches long, 
was ordered shown located directly back of the angle 

See below for recommended practice for location of 
air brake parts. 




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Air Brakes. General Arran'^ements and Details. — 
In 1899 a Recommended Practice for the location of 
air brake parts on different classes of cars was adopted, 
as follows : 

1. Location of air brake cylinders and triple 
valves on box cars and other clear bottom cars. 

2. Location of air brake cylinders and triple 
valves on hopper gondola cars and drop bottom gon- 
dola cars. 

3. Arrangement of piping for clear bottom cars, or 
cars of the box car type. 

4. Location of main air pipe at ends of cars. 

5. As to the manner of fastening air cylinder 
reservoirs, retaining valves, etc., to the frame work 
of cars, the bolts fastening the cylinders and reser- 
voirs should be either double nutted or cottered, so 
as to prevent the same from working loose. The air 
pipes should be fastened to the frame work of the 
car with a liberal number of clamps. 

One elbow should be applied to the retaining valve 

pipe, it being located at the end sill of the car where 
pipe turns upward. 

One union should be applied as close to the triple 
valve as practicable to permit the easy removal of 
same ; the pipe to be carried along under side of the 
intermediate sill when practicable, from the triple 
valve to end of car, and be supported by either staples 
or clamps, not to exceed six feet apart. 

6. Badge for marking air brake hose to show dates 
of application and removal, manufacturer's name ar.J 
name of railroad company. 
Air Brake -Cut-Out and Defect Card. (M. C. B. Recom- 
mended Practice.) See, Air Brake Repair Card. 
Air Brake Hose. See, Brake Hose. 

Air Brake Hose, Label for. — In 1902 the label for hose, 
as shown in the specifications for air brake hose, was 
made a standard. The specification for its use is as 
follows : 

Each standard length of hose must be branded with 
the name of the manufacturer, year and month when 
made, and serial number, the initials of the railway 
company, and also have a table of raised letters at least 
3-16 inch high to show the date of application and 
removal, thus: 



12 34 5 6 
7 6 9 10 11 12 

12 34 5 6 
7 8 9 10 II 12 


All markings to be full and distinct and made on a 
thin layer of white or red rubber, vulcanized, and so 
applied as to be removed either by cutting with a knife 
or sharp instrument. 
Air Brake Repair Card. (M. C. B. Recommended Prac- 
tice.) In 1894 21 recommended practice was adopted to 
use an air brake repair card, as shown, to report to 
division terminals such defects as are found by train- 
men which require brake to be cut out. This was 
revised in 1898 and is now as shown on next page. To 
be attached as near to the car number as possible. In 
1902, adopted as standard. 
Air Brake Tests. — In 1895 a code for the guidance of the 
Committee on Air Brake Tests in testing triple valves 
was adopted as Recommended Practice for such tests, 
which code is as follows : 

Conditions of Tests. — No. i. — Construction of 
Rack. — Brakes will be tested on a rack representing 
the piping of a fifty 34-foot car train. All cocks, 
angles and connections wmII be as nearly as possible 
identical with those in train service. The rack shall 
conform to a blue print which is in hands of the 
committee, which gives the proper fitting, piping, 
dimensions of cylinder, auxiliary reservoirs, main 
reservoirs, engineer's valve, etc. 

No. 2. — Pressure. — Tests will be made with a uni- 
form train pipe pressure of 70 pounds. 

No. 3. — Construction of Triples. — Triples must be 
constructed so that they can be secured and operated 
on apparatus conforming to diagrams. Figs, i and 2 
(see pages 166 and 167 of the 1892 Annual Report). 

No. 4. — To secure accuracy in measurement of time 
application and release tests, electrical recording ap- 
paratus will be used, arranged to give an indicator 
card in the fiftieth car. 






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No. 5. — Tests shall be repeated three times under 
the same general conditions. The temperature at the 
time of the tests will be recorded. 

No. 6. — Classification. — Triples shall be classified 
Nos. I, 2, 3 and outlawed. In grading triples the 
reasons for their classification shall be given. 

No. 7. — The three essentials for a quick action 
brake are as follows : 

First. Graduation. 

Second. Release. 

Third. Quick action. 

Rack Tests.— No. i.— Application Test (a) (Ser- 
vice). — Brakes must show with full service appli- 
cation and 6 inches piston travel, a brake cylinder 
pressure of 50 pounds. The minimum pressure must 
not be less than 48 pounds, nor the maximum press- 
ure over 52 pounds. This test will be made with : 

(i) 4 inches piston travel. 

(2) 6 inches piston travel. 

(3) 12 inches piston travel. 

The necessity for the 4-inch and 12-inch piston 
travel tests will depend upon the character of the 
brakes being tested. 

Note. — The object of this test is to secure such 
proportion between the auxiliary reservoir and the 
brake cylinder as will give the desired maximum 
power in a full service application of the brake. 

No. 2.— Application Test (b) (Emergency).— 
Brakes must be applied on the fiftieth car with at 
least 45 pounds pressure with 6 inches piston travel 
in three seconds from the first movement of the en- 
gineer's handle. They should indicate at least 55 
pounds in three and one-half (3^^) seconds. The 
final maximum pressure in this test must not be less 
than 15 per cent, nor more than 20 per cent, above 
the pressure given by the same brake in full service 

This test will be made to determine that quick 
action is obtained in each case, with 
(i) 4 inches piston travel. 

(2) 6 inches piston travel. 

(3) 12 inches piston travel. 

Note. — The object of this test is to secure, as nearly 
as possible, uniformity of pressures in the brake cylin- 
ders in an emergency application, and as nearly as 
possible a uniformity of time required to attain the 
pressures; to secure a minimum length of stop, of 
shock and of trains parting. 

No. 3. — Application Test (c). — Commencing with 
the first car from the engine, the brakes of three suc- 
cessive cars, or less, if they fail to jump three, will 
be cut out until the fifth, sixth and seventh are cut 
out, the brakes in each case to be applied as per Test 
No. 2. After the first series of three has been tested, 
in order to test the second series the first car must be 
cut in, and so on. The quick action brake should pass 
the three cars cut out and apply on the fiftieth car in 
the same time as in Test No. 2. Tests will be made 
with piston travel of 4 inches. 

In addition, at least two other applications shall be 
made with three successive triples cut out in any por- 
tion of the rack beyond the fifth car. 

Note. — In freight car service the most common 
method of remedying a defective brake is to cut the 
brake out ; hence it is essential that a limited number 
of brakes can be cut out successfully without de- 
stroying the quick action feature. 

No. 4. — Graduating Test (a). — Seventy pounds 
train pipe pressure having been secured, the following 
tests will be made: 

(i) A reduction of 8 pounds in train pipe pressure. 
This should apply lightly the fifty br^es. 

(2) A further reduction of 4 to 6 pounds. This 
should increase the braking power on all the brakes. 

(3) A reduction of 30 pounds should equalize the 
pressure between the auxiliary reservoirs and brake 
cylinders. The piston travel in this test will be six 

(b). — One or more triples shall also be tested, hav- 
ing substituted for the brake cylinder a reservoir 
having the capacity of a cylinder with 8-inch stroke. 
The first admission to the cylinder shoutd be made 
with a reduction of train pipe pressure not exceeding 
five pounds ; each succeeding reduction should reduce 
the pressure in the auxiliary reservoir not to exceed 
three pounds, until full equalization takes place. The 
pressure in the train pipe should not be more than 
three pounds lower than the equalized pressure in the 
brake cylinder and reservoir at full equalization. 

No. 5. — Test to Determine the Sensitiveness of the 
Service Valve. — ^Three valves selected at random will 
be taken for this test and each tried separately. They 
will be tested on a train pipe representing a locomo- 
tive and one car, the engine and tender brake being 
cut out. 

A train pipe pressure of 70 pounds having been 
secured, the air will be discharged as rapidly as it 
may through an opening in the engineer's valve of 
two-sixty- fourths to three-sixty-fourths (2 to 3-64) 
inch diameter. Under this condition the service 
action must take place and continue to take place 
without any appearance of quick action (P E, Partial 
Emergency) until the disk has been enlarged up to 
and including a 10-64 opening. 

Note. — The object of this test is to insure the work- 
ing of triples in "service" with practically the same 
reduction of air. 

No. 6. — Test to Determine the Sensitiveness of the 
Quick Action Valve. — The same three valves as in 
No. 5, or others selected at random^ will be taken for 



this test and each tried separately. They will be 
tested under the same train pipe conditions as Test 
No. 5- Engine and tender brake cut out. 

A train pipe pressure of 70 pounds having been 
secured, the air will be discharged as rapidly as it 
may through disk openings, as in the preceding test, 
increasing in diameter by 1-64. Triples must not 
show a range of more than 3-64 before full quick 
action is reached. Full quick action must not take 
place before 11-64, but must take place when the 
opening is 14-64. 

Note.— The object of this test is to check the intro- 
duction of triples which will cause a quick action 
application when not wanted. 

No. 7.— Test to Determine the Holding Power of 
the Brake in Service Application and Quick Action 

(a) Service Application.— Gauges will be placed on 
the cylinder and auxiliary reservoir of the first, 
twenty-fifth and fiftieth cars with 70 pounds train 
pipe pressure ; brakes will be applied by admittting, as 
nearly as may be, 15 pounds into the cylinder of the 
first car. Record of pressure in the auxiliary reser- 
voirs and cylinders will be taken as follows; 

(i) At the first application. 

(2) In five minutes from first application. 

(3) In ten minutes from first application. 

(4) In fifteen minutes from first application. 

(b) Quick Action Application. — This will be the 
same as above, except that all the air will be ex- 
hausted from the train pipe. 

(c) Dummy Cylinder Test.— A modification of the 
holding test, as with the graduating tept by the intro- 
duction of dummy cylinders. 

No. 8.— Release Test.— The following conditions 
should be observed in this test : 

(a) Main air reservoir cut in. 

(b) Any pump or boiler pressure may be used that 
will maintain a uniform head of 90 pounds pressure. 

A uniform pressure of 70 pounds having been 
secured in the train pipe, all the air will be exhausted 
by a quick action application. A pressure of 90 
pounds will then be maintained against a diaphragm 
perforated by a 3-32 hole, and a record taken of all 
brakes that release inside thirty minutes. In making 
this test special care must be taken to see that there 
is no leak in the train pipe. 

It will not be considered satisfactory if a greater 
proportion than ten per cent fail to release in the 
prescribed time. 

Note.— This test, in addition to testing the release 
feature of the triples, is intended as an equivalent to a 
release after a break- in-two in train service. 

No. 9.— Test to Determine the Time of Charging 
One Auxiliary Reservoir : 

(a) Cut out the brake to be tested by the cut out 

(b) Bleed the auxiliary reservoir empty and close 
the bleed cock. 

(c) Keep the pump running and maintain a head 
of 90 pounds in main air reservoir and train pipe 
during test. 

(e) Cut in the brake to be tested and note from the 
reading of the gauge the time occupied in charging to 
70 pounds. The time of charging should be 55 sec- 
onds. The reservoir should not be charged in less 
than 45 seconds nor more than 60 seconds. 

Note. — The object of this test is to prevent ir- 
regular charging of auxiliary reservoirs, and thus 
insure that the front brakes will not apply after 

No. 10. — Test to Determine Whether Quick Action 
Will Follow a Service Application : 

Commencing with a service application of 20 
pounds pressure in the first cylinder a full quick 
action reduction will follow. It will be observed 
whether quick action takes place or not. The press- 
ure in the first cylinder will be increased or decreased 
by steps of about 5 pounds until the point at which 
quick action ceases or commences is determined. 
. Quick action should take place with not less than 20 
pounds in the first cylinder. 

Note. — The object of this test is to determine 
whether, after a service application, quick action 
can be obtained without first releasing the brakes. 

No. II. — Such additional tests as in the judgment 
of the committee the construction of the triples, sub- 
mitted to them for test warrants. 

Train Tests. — No. i, — In order to provide against 
defects which a rack test may not develop, it is 
recommended that railroads make a 50-car train 
test in actual service before accepting the result from 
the rack test as final. 

No. 2. — In making Application Test No. 2 with a 
train, the measurement of time from the first car to 
the fiftieth car should be provided for. This will 
determine the time occupied by the engine brake 
as against the car brake. 

No. 3. — Special care should be taken with the en- 
gine and tank brakes in order that they may do their 
share of the braking during the stops, and not pull 
away from the train. 

No. 4. — All brake shoes must have a proper bear- 
ing on wheels, which is best accomplished by giving 
them some previous service before testing, and all 
should be of the same material. 

No. 5. — Tests to determine the shock should be 
made on a level track, with all the slack in the train 
pulled out at the time the brakes are applied. 
An Controller (Pintsch Lamp). 458, figs. 2605-21. 
Air Cylinder Gasket (Air Pump). 103, 104, figs. 893-94 

and 48, 49, Fia 965. See, Gasket. 
Air Cylinder Oil Cup (Air Pump). 53, fig. 965; 98, figs. 


Air Flue (Refrigerator Cars). The vertical passage of the 
car through which the chilled air passes to enter the re- 

Air Gage (Air Brake). Fig. 921. A gage to register the 
pressure of air in the reservoir, similar to an ordinary 
steam pressure gage. 

Air Inlet. An opening for the admission of air to an 
air compressor or a refrigerator car. The term includes 
both the air strainer and air pipe. 

Air Pipe (Air Brake). More properly supply pipe or air 
inlet. The train brake pipe is sometimes called the air 

Air Pipe Strainer (Air Brake). 106, figs. 893-94. Also 
called Inlet Strainer, which see. It is frequently a 
part of the Drain Cup, which see. Figs. 945, 943, etc. 

Air Piston (Air Brake). 66, figs. 893-94; 31 and 32, fig. 
965. The air pistons and steam pistons of engines and 
air pumps are generally alike in style of construction. 
See, Piston. 

Air Piston Packing Rings (Air Pump). 33 and 34, fig. 
965. See, Air Piston. 

Air Pump and Motor. Figs. 4842-62. A machine for com- 
pressing air, mounted beneath the floor of a car, con- 
sisting of air cylinders, the pistons of which are di- 
rect driven by a slow speed electric motor. See, Motor 
Driven Air Compressor. 

Air Pump and Engine Complete (Air Brake). See, En- 
gine AND Air Pump. Figs. 893-94 and 965. 

Air Pump Cylinder (Air Brake). 63, figs. 893-94 and 3-4, 
FIG. 965. A hollow cast iron cylinder with a piston, 
which piston compresses the air required to operate the 
brakes. The piston in the air cylinder is directly con- 



nected with and is worked by the piston in the steam 

Ant Pump Cylinder Head (Air Brake). 64, figs. 893^94. 
The cover for the lower end of the air cylinder of an 
air pump for an air brake. See, Cylinder Head. 

Air Pump Governor. See, Governor. Electric Pump Gov- 

Air Signal Reducing Valve. Sec, Reducing Valve. 

Air Space (Refrigerator Cars). C, figs. 185-95. A space 
left between the linings to aid in insulation. 

Air Strainer, i. (Air Pump). 106, figs. 893-94. A funnel 
shaped mouthpiece on the end of the air inlet pipe, with 
a perforated plate over its mouth to exclude dirt, in- 
sects, etc. 

2. (Train Brake Pipe). Fig. 945. An air strainer and 
drain cup, the purpose of which is to strain out particles 
of dust, scale, etc., and to drain moisture from the pipes. 

Air Valve Chamber Cap (Air Pump). 89, figs. 893-94. 

Air Valve, Seat and Cage (Air Pump). 86, 87, 88, figs. 
893-94 and 9-14, fig. 965. 

Aisle. The longitudinal passageway through a passenger 
car, between the seats. 

Aisle Seat End. Fig. 3215; 3, figs. 3151-52, etc. The end 
or arm of a transverse car seat next the aisle. See also, 
Wall Seat End. 

AjAX Diaphragm. Figs. 1799-1802. A cotton fabric dia- 
phragm for vestibules made of sections riveted at the 
joints and bound with leather at the corners. Made in 
two styles, single for Pullman and double for (Jould 

AjAx Truck. Figs. 3738-40. A pedestal truck using cast 
steel side frames and boster. 

Alcove. A recess. See, Faucet Alcove. Lamp Alcove. 
Water Alcove. 

Alcove Faucet. Figs. 2763-65. A faucet in a water alcove 
connected with a water cooler to supply drinking water. 
See, Faucet. 

Alcove Front. See, Water Alcove Front. 

Alcove Lamp. A lamp placed in a recess in the side of a 
car. Also called Panel Lamp, which see, as it is usual- 
ly covered by a panel. 

Alcove Pan or Bottom. Sec, Water Alcove Pan or Bot- 

Allen Paper Wheel. Figs. 4152-66. A car wheel with 
a steel tire, a cast iron hub or center, and the space 
between the tire and center filled with compressed paper 
and held in place by wrought iron face plates on either 
side extending from the center to the tire and bolted 
thereto. See, Steel Tired Wheel. 

Alleyway. More properly a corridor. A narrow passage 
at the side of staterooms or compartments in parlor or 
sleeping cars. Fig. 127. 

American Car Coupler. Figs. 1454-63- 

American (Continuous) Draft and Buffing Apparatus. 
An apparatus by which the drawbars at both ends of 
the car arc connected by two rods with loops at the 
ends, that hook over the ends of a bar passing through 
the shank of each drawbar. Each car is in this man- 
ner pushed from the rear end and all the pull is trans- 
mitted through the train by the draft rods. It has two 
buffer springs and two follower plates at each end of 
the car. 

American Dust Guard. Fig. 4090. A dust guard in two 
pieces, which are held together and against the axle by 
a spring. 

American Student Lamp. See, Argand Lamp, Student 


Angle Clips (Janney Freight Coupler). Plates to fit the 
angles or bends of an uncoupling rod. They are fastened 
by angle clip bolt. 

Angle Cock (Air Brakes). Fig. 944- A cock placed in 
the train pipe under each end of the car just in front 
of the hose connection. This must always be open 
except at the rear end of the last car, where it must 

always be closed to prevent escape of air from the train 
line and setting of the brakes. 

Angle Cock (Consolidated Car Heating). Fig. 2303. An 
angle valve for controlling inflow of steam to the heat- 
ing apparatus. 

Angle Iron. A general term applied by makers to iron 
rolled in the form of an L, but with the corner rounded 
off somewhat. When the angle is rolled to a sharp cor- 
ner and not rounded off, it is termed square root iron. 

Anti-Friction Car Door Hanger. Figs. 2153-60. See, Car 
Door HaI^ger. 

Anti-Friction Side Bearings and Center Plates. Figs. 
4123-37. Devices, a few of which are shown, to elimi- 
nate the friction between body and truck in curving. 
The two general forms are roller si<}e bearings and ball 
bearing side bearings and center plates. 

Anti-Telescoping Device. A type of end framing adopted 
by the Pullman Company, in which the end sill is 
greatly strengthened by an end sill stiffening plate, an 
end sill stiffening angle bar, comer angle posts, and end 
plate strengthening angles, knee irons, etc., as shown in 
the engravings. The device is known as the "Sessions" 
anti-telescoping device, and the patents are owned by 
the Pullman Company. 

Anvil (of Track Torpedoes). Interior pieces of iron placed 
directly over the fulminating powder to insure its igni- 
tion. Some track torpedoes have three anvils. 

Apron. See, Door Apron, Roof Apron, Bunk Apron. 

Arbel Wheel. In this country, strictly, a wheel with a 
wrought iron center, plate or spokes, and a steel tire 
manufactured by the Arbel establishments. Rive de 
Gier, France. The wheels as built at the Arbel shops 
are built up of loose parts and then heated and forged 
solid under a steam hammer. Now little used. 

Arbor. "A spindle or axle for a wheel or pinion; a man^ 
drel on which a ring or wheel is turned in a lathe." — 
Knight. See, Door Latch Arbor. 

Arch (Elliptic Spring). The height from the center of 
the scrolls at the ends of the elliptics to the under side 
of the main leaf of the spring. Twice the arch of an 
elliptic spring, less the thickness of the spring bands, is 
the set and is the maximum amount which an elliptic 
spring can be compressed. In a half elliptic spring the 
arch and set differ only in the thickness of the spring 

Arch Bar. Figs. 4433-43; 14, ncs. 3735-3951- A bent 
wrought iron or steel bar, which forms the top member 
of an iron truck side frame. In the diamond truck the 
next lower member is the inverted arch bar, and the 
next lower (occasionally used) is the auxiliary arch 
bar, 16, figs. 3735-3951- The tie bar comes under all, 
and sometimes becomes an arch bar. See also, Center 
Bearing Arch Bar and Center Bearing Inverted 
Arch Bar, for six wheel trucks. 

Arch Bars and Column Bolt for 80,000- Pound Capacity 
Cars (M. C. B. Standard). .Figs. 4433-43. In 1897 a 
committee on this subject reported designs, which were 
subsequently adopted by letter ballot as Recommended 
Practice. Proceedings 1897, pages 188 to 192. 

In 1901 these were, by letter ballot, changed from 
Recommended Practice to Standard. 

Arch Plate (Buhoup Vestibule). 91, figs. 1526-1630. 

Arch Plate and Buffer Spring (Buhoup Vestibule). 46, 
FIGS. 1526-1630. 

Arch Plate Band (Buhoup Vestibule). 49, figs. 1526- 1630. 

Arch Rail (English). Sec, End Arch Raiu 

Arched Roof. A roof, the surface of which is curved. 
Some boudoir and private cars are built with arched 
roofs ; they arc at the present time little used for pas- 
senger cars. A Turtle Back Roof, which sec. 

Argand Burners. Figs. 2523, 2525. See, Lamp BtJRNERS 
and below. 

Argand Lamp. A lamp invented by Argand, a native of 
Geneva, about the year 1784. The burner consists of 



two concentric cylindrical tubes in which is the 
mnular wick. The tube inclosing the wick is, closed 
at the bottom and communicates by a pipe with the oil 
resen'oir. The interior tube being open, free access 
of air is allowed to the interior and exterior of the 
flame, insuring more perfect and equal combustion. 

Argand Lamp (Moehring). This lamp has certain improve- 
ments in the way of convenience for filling and for the 
use of a long wick. 

Arm. See» Berth Arm. Seat Arm. 

Gas Arm. Seat Back Arm. 

Lamp Arm. Striker Arm. 

Arm Cap. Figs. 3260-64. A metal plate, wooden cap, or 
piece of upholstery with which the top of a seat end, 
arm rest or chair arm is cover<fd. Those for chair arms, 
however, are also called Chair Arm Plates, which see. 
An Arm Rest, which sec, is fixed to the side of the car. 

Arm Holder (English). See, Arm Sling. 

Arm Pivot. Sec, Seat Arm Pivot. 

Arm Plate. Sec, Seat Arm Plate. 

Arm Rest. A wooden or metal b?.r or ledge attached to 
the side of a car, and not, like an arm cap, to the top 
of a seat end, for passengers to rest their arms on. 

Arm Rest Bracket. See, Arm Rest. A bracket support- 
ing the arm rest. 

Arm Sling (English). In a carriage, a padded ornamental 
leather strap, looped and secured to the doorway pillar. 
Also called arm holder or arm strap. 

Armature. Figs. 4782, 4851; 4, figs. 47^3'^^S'> 4891- The 
rotating part of a railway motor; consists of a lami- 
nated iron cylinder or core keyed to a shaft, and in 
slots of which are wound the armature coils of insu- 
lated copper wire or ribbon. At one end of the core on 
the shaft is mounted the commutator, a copper cylinder 
composed of insulated segments, which are connected 
to corresponding armature coils. 

Armored Brake Hose. Brake hose covered with a woven 
wire fabric, to protect it from injury or abrasion. 
Another form of armored brake hose is formed by 
winding a continuous wire spirally around it by a ma- 
chine which makes the spiral slightly smaller than the 
tube, so that it grips it tightly. Vacuum brake hose, 
for vacuum brakes, is usually lined with coiled wires 
on the inside to prevent collapsing, but such is not 
termed armored brake hose. 

Asphalt Car Roofing. A saturated and coated felt applied 
in sheets. 

Asbestos Cock (Consolidated Car Heating.) Fig. 2321. 
A cock packed with asbestos, with a drip connection 
which drains the opening when the cock is shut off. 
This allows the leakage to escape to the ground and 
avoids a freeze in the train pipe in cold weather. 

Asbestos Felt. A preparation of asbestos in loose sheets 
similar to felt, for use as a non-conductor. It is" 
largely used in refrigerator cars. It is manufactured 
for that purpose in rolls about 42 in. wide, and weighs 
about I lb. per square yard. It must be handled with 
care to prevent tearing. 

Asbestos VVick (Pintsch Lamp). 299, figs. 2605-21. 

Ascending Rail (English). Nearest American equivalent, 
grab iron or hand rail. The end ascending rail is a 
long wrought iron bar secured at the ends of a covered 
vehicle, serving as a hand rail for ascending to the roof. 
The roof ascending rail, or roof commode handle, is .1 
similar hand rail at the end of the roof of a covered 

Ascending Step (English). Nearest American equivalent, 
ladder round. A roughed wrought iron plate secured 
to the ends of a covered vehicle serving as a step to 
ascend to the roof. They are used in England on both , 
passenger and freight cars. 

Ash Pan (Baker Heater). Fig. 2187. 

Ash Pit. Figs. 2186-87, 2190. The lower portion of every 
stove, under the grate, into which the ashes fall. Under 

it is sometimes placed an ashbox, fig, 2187. The ash 
pit is made up of a casting usually called the ash pit 
base, and closed by an ash pit front carrying one, or 
more commonly two, ash pit doors. An ash pit ring 
serves as a hopper to guide the coal and ashes on to 
the grate. The doors are distinguished as right and 
left; as for a person standing facing the stove. The 
ash pit doors are sometimes carried as in fig. 2186, 
in an ash pit frame instead of an ash pit front. Below 
are references to a few of the many such parts. 
Ash Pit (Baker Heater). Fig. 2190. 

Ash Pit Door (Baker Heater). Figs. 2186, 2207. 

Atmospheric Brake. See also, Air Brake. Vacuum 

Attachment or Couplers to Cars. Figs. 4490-4506, 4537- 
50. See, Drawbar Attachments, etc. 

In 1893 a Recommended Practice was adopted for at- 
taching M. C. B. automatic couplers to cars, as shown 
on Sheet B, and by a separate vote the use of a draft 
spring, 6J4 inches diameter, 8 inches long, with 2% 
inches motion was recommended. At that time the ca- 
pacity of the spring was placed at 22,000 pounds, but 
this was changed in 1896 to 19,000 pounds to better ac- 
cord with the facts. See Proceedings 1893 and 1896. 

In 1897 the yoke or pocket strap, shown in detail in 
figs. 4545-50, was adopted as standard of the Associa- 
tion, with the addition of l4 inch radius at back end. 
This radius was changed to ^ inch in 1899. 

In 1897 the buffer block and location, shown in figs. 
4490-4506, but with some additional details of buffer 
block, were adopted as standard of the Association. 
Sec, figs. 4363-65. 

Automatic Air Brake. One which is automatically applied 
by breakage of a coupling, derailment, etc. The term 
is indefinite, but usually refers to the Westinghouse 
Automatic Air Brake, figs. 891-958, which see. which 
is the one in most general use in this country. 

Automatic Car Coupler. Figs. 1299- 1525. A coupler which 
will couple by impact without the necessity of a person 
going between the cars. The Master Car Builders' coup- 
ler is any coupler of the vertical plane type which con- 
forms to certain contour lines adopted by the M. C. B. 
Association. This coupler is shown in figs. 4345-61, the 
contour lines in Fia 4362. Recommended Practice in 
attaching couplers, 4490-4506, 4537-50. 

This form of automatic coupler was adopted as stand- 
ard in 1887 (see report for that year, pages 199-208, 243 
and 253). Further details were adopted in 1889 and 
1893. An action of the Association in 1889 permits the 
use of a coupler 28 ins. long instead of 30 ins., as shown, 
for use only on cars already in service and requiring 
such length drawbar. The carrier iron as shown for 
this coupler adopted in 1889. 

The revision made in 1896 consisted in the elimina- 
tion of the carrier iron from Sheet B of the Recom- 
mended Practice. 

In 1899 the play of the shank of the coupler in the 
. carry arm was changed to not less than J^ inch on each 
side. See letter ballot, 1899. 

In 1899 the vertical dimension of the knuckle was 
fixed at 9 inches as a minimum. 

In 1899 the vertical dimension of the end of guard 
arm was fixed at 7^ inches as a minimum. 

In 1899 the recommendation of the Coupler Commit- 
tee that the horizontal plane containing the axis of the 
shank of the coupler bisect the vertical dimensions of 
the knuckle and end of guard arm was adopted as a 
standard of the Association. 

In 1899 the vertical height of the stop shoulder, or 
horn of coupler, was fixed at not less than 31/2 inches. 

In 1899 the recommendation of the Coupler Commit- 
tee that the horn of the coupler be arranged to touch 
the striking plate before the back of the head of the 




coupler strikes the ends of the draft timbers, was adopt- 
ed as a standard of the Association. 

In 1899 the sizes of pivot pins were fixed as follows : 

11/2 inches or i^^ inches in diameter and 131/2 inches 
from the under side of head to center of pinhole for H 
inch cotter. 

In 1901 a design of shank 5 by 7 inches back of the 
head was submitted, and, upon reference to letter ballot, 
was adopted as standard. 

Standard contour line was announced by Executive 
Committee under instructions from the Association 
April 8, 1888. Limit gages for preserving standard con- 
tour line adopted in 1891. 

These gages, properly proven by master gages, may 
be procured from Pratt & Whitney Companj^, of Hart- 
ford, Connecticut. A duplicate set of master gages is 
held in the office of the secretary for reference when 

In 1899 the contour lines showing the length of the 
guard arm was extended about i inch. 

In 1899 the M. C. B. standard limit gage for new 
couplers was changed by moving the screw to a new 

In 1902 the contour gage was strengthened by the use 
of a solid web in the weak part of the frame, and part 
of the outside flange increased to ^ inch in thickness. 
The hand hold was also reduced in size to give greater 

Other types of couplers are shown, as follows : 
American, figs. 1454-63. Lone Star, figs. 1401-03. 

Brown Emergency Major, figs. 1421-33. 

Knuckle, fig. 1396. Monarch, figs. 1441-53. 

Buckeye, figs. 1407-20. Munton, figs. 1473-82. 

Caufornia, figs. 1392- National, figs. 1397- 

95- 1400. 

Chicago, figs. 1464-72. Standard, figs. 1299- 1308, 

Gould, figs. 1309-10, 1514-25. 

1500-01. Tower, figs. 1311-70, 

HiEN, FIGS. 1434-40, 1505-13- 

1503-04. Trojan, figs. 1483-99. 

Janney, figs. 1380-91. Washburn, figs. 1404- 

Kelso, figs. 1371-79. 06, 1502. 

Automatic Closet Ventilator. Fig. 3103. See, Bell's 

Exhaust Hopper Ventilator. 
Automatic Coupling (Steam and Air Hose). Figs. 880- 
90. A device by means of which the steam and air 
brakes and signal pipes are automatically coupled by 
impact. It is usually supported by a hanger from the 
coupler, and springs back of the head keep the parts 
tight together. Allowance is made for vertical and 
lateral movement, and arrangement provided for inter- 
change with cars not equipped with the device. 

Automatic Drain Cock (Air Brake). Fig. 974. See, 
Drain Cock. 

Automatic Lubricator. Fig. 979. A device for feeding at 
regular intervals a certain quantity of oil or lubricant 
to a cylinder or some mechanism requiring lubrication. 
See, Lubricator. 

Automatic Reducing Valve (High Speed Brakes). Figs. 
952-957. A valve attached to the brake cylinder to 
automatically bleed the pressure down to 60 lbs. after 
an emergency application, when the pressure in the 
cylinder rises to 85 lbs. or more. The triangular port 
gives a graduated reduction. 

Automatic Switch (Gould Electric Light). Figs. 2637, 
2640. An automatic switch connected to the armature 
of the dynamo, by which the current is turned 
onto the lights and batteries when the armature has 
reached a predetermined speed of rotation and conse- 
quent voltage output. 

Automatic Ventilator. Figs. 3483-99. A ventilator 
which is self adjusting, so as to exhaust air from 
a car if the train runs in either direction. A great 

variety of such devices exists, not all shown. See, 
Ventilator, Bell's Exhaust Hopper Ventilator. 

Automatic Window Catch. A device to hold a window 
sash from being shoved up or down. See, Sash Lock. 

Auxiliary Arch Bar. 16, figs. 3735-3951. A wrought 
iron bar sometimes used, which forms the lower 
member of diamond truck side frame. In some 
cases such arch bars are made continuous by trans- 
verse pieces which extend across from one frame. to the 
other under the transoms. See, Arch Bar. 

Auxiliary Brake Equalizing LpvER (Six Wheel Truck). 
A short lever to which the brake lever connecting rod 
is fastened, and which divides the pressure equally 
between the center pair of wheels and the outside pair 
of wheels. 

Auxiliary Buffer Spring. A spring placed back of a 
draw spring to give greater resistance to compression 
on the drawbar in buffing. In this manner two springs 
operate in buffing, and only one in tension. 

Auxiliary Compression Beam Brace. 165b, figs. 343-48; 
164b, figs. 360-72 and 385-87. See, Center Compres- 
sion Beam Brace. 

Auxiliary Reservoir (Westinghouse Automatic Air 
Brake). Figs. 933-35- A cylindrical reservoir made 
of boiler iron, attached to the under side of a 
car or tender by auxiliary reservoir bands attached 
through auxiliary reservoir beams. In freight cars, 
auxiliary reservoir beams are termed brake cylinder 
blocks and end blocks. The reservoir serves to hold a 
supply of compressed air to operate the brakes of each 
car, and is supplied from the main reservoir on the 
engine through the train pipe. For train service the 
auxiliary reservoir, triple valve and brake cylinder are 
combined in one piece, figs. 918-19. 

Auxiliary Reservoir Bands (Air Brake). Figs. 655-7. 
See above. 

Auxiliary Reservoir Beams (Air Brake). Short wooden 
timbers bolted to the under side of the sills. In freight 
cars called brake cylinder blocks. See above. 

Auxiliary Reservoir Bleeding Cock. Fig. 932. 

Auxiliary Reservoir Nipple (Automatic Air Brake). 
Fig. 927. A short pipe by which the triple valve is 
connected with the auxiliary reservoir. 

Axle. 2, figs. 3735-395^ A shaft made of wrought iron or 
steel, to which a pair of wheels is attached by pressing 
on in a hydraulic wheel press. They are distinguished 
according to use, as passenger car, freight car, hand 
car, street car axle, etc., and according to mode of 
manufacture, as Hammered, Faggoted, Muck Bar 
Axles, etc., which see. See also. Car Axle. The M. 
C. B. standard axles are shown in figs. 4284-87. See 
Hammered Car Axle. 

Axle (M. C. B. Standard). In 1899 it was decided that the 
standard axles should be known by letters. 

In 1901 a designation was given the standard axles, 
whereby each shall be known to carry a definite weight 
instead of for cars of particular capacity. See figs. 

Axle.— A. With journals 3^ by 7 inches. Designed 
to carry 15,000 pounds. This axle is the standard of the 
Association for cars of 40,000 pounds capacity. 

In 1873 a standard for car axle was recommended, the 
form and dimensions of which, excepting the diameter 
in the middle, were substantially the same as shown in 
this sheet. In 1884 the diameter at the middle was in- 
creased frorn 3% inches to 4^ inches, by letter ballot 

In 1901 the diameter of wheel seat was changed from 
4% to 5% inches. 

In 1901 a notation was added to the drawing of this 
axle showing a straight taper between certain points on 
the axle, also a diagram showing location of the borings 
to be taken from steel axles for analysis. See figs. 4434- 




In 1902 further changes were made in the diameter 
of the tapered portion where it joins the fillet next to 
the rough collar ; also in the diameter of the rough col- 

For action of the Association see Proceedings 1876, 
page 99 ; Proceedings 1878, page 129 ; Proceedings 1879, 
page 103; Proceedings 1880, page 130; Proceedings 
1884, pages 156-162. 

Axle. — B. With Journals 4l4 hy 8 inches. Designed 
to carry 22,000 pounds. This axle was adopted as a 
standard of the Association for cars of 60,000 pounds 
capacity, by letter ballot, in 1889. (See Proceedings 
1889, pages 88-109.) 

In 1901 the diameter of wheel seat was changed from 
SH inches to sH inches. 

In 1901 a notation was added to the drawing of this 
axle, showing a straight taper between certain points on 
the axle, also a diagram showing location of borings to 
be taken from steel axles for analysis. See figs. 4454-55. 

In 1901 the diameter of the middle was increased 
from 4^ inches to 4^ niches. 

In 1902 changes were made in the diameter of the 
tapered portion of the axle where it joins the fillet next 
to collar. 

Axle. — C. With Journals, 5 by 9 inches. Designed to 
carry 31,000 pounds. This axle was adopted as Recom- 
mended Practice in 1896 and was made a standard of 
the Association in 1898. 

In 1901 the diameter of wheel seat was changed from 
6H inches to 65^ inches. 

In 1901 a notation was added to the drawing of this 
axle, showing a straight taper between certain points on 
the axle, also a diagram showing the location of borings 
to be taken from steel axles for analysis. See figs. 4454- 

In 1902 changes were made in the diameter of the 

tapered portion of the axle where it joins the fillet next 

to collar; also in the diameter of the rough collar. 

Axle. — D. With Journals, 5J/2 by 10 inches. De- 
signed to carry 38,000 pounds. This axle was adopted 
as a standard of the Association in 1899. 

In 1901 the diameter of wheel seat was changed from 
6^ inches to 7 inches. 

In 1901 a notation was added to the drawing of this 
axle showing a straight taper between certain points on 
the axle, also a diagram showing the location of bor- 
ings to be taken from steel axles for analysis. See figs. 

In 1902 changes were made in the diameter of the 

tapered portion of the axle where it joins the fillet next 

to collar; also in the diameter of the rough collar. 

Axles (M. C. B. Recommended Practice for Specifications 

for Iron and Steel Axles). Specifications for Iron 


In 1899 the following specifications, including tests 
for iron axles, were adopted as Recommended Practice : 

Car axles for the use of this company will be ordered 
subject to the following conditions : 

1. All axles must conform in shape and size to the 
dimensions shown on the blue prints, which will be 
furnished by the .... R. R. Co. 

2. All axles must be cut off and faced to exact 
lengths, and be centered with 60 degree centers in the 
manner indicated in blue prints, so as to prevent 
lathe centers from bottoming. Axles must be made of 
double-work fagoted scrap, 16 per cent, of new bar 
iron worked into the center of the axles being allowed 
if desired. Axles must be well hammered and free 
from any clearly defined open seams. They must fin- 
ish in the lathe with journal free from flaws in the 
shape of holes, pieces shelled out, or open seams large 
enough so that with a knife blade scale or dirt can be 
removed from such seams, or open seams showing a 
clear opening of 1-32 inch or over, and being more 

than I inch long. The maker's name or initials must 
be stamped plainly on each axle. 

3. All axles are to be inspected and tested at the 

works where they are made. The shall be 

notified when they are ready for inspection. Under 
no circumstances shall car axles be shipned from the 
works where they are made until they have been 
tested, inspected and accepted by a proper representa- 
tive of the company. 

4. For each one hundred axles or fraction thereof 
ordered one additional axle must be furnished for 
test This axle will be selected at random from the 
pile and subjected to the prescribed drop test for iron 
axles of its class. If it stands the test the one hun- 
dred axles, or fractional part thereof that it repre- 
sents, will be inspected, and only those accepted that 
are made in a workmanlike manner and are free from 
defects mentioned in these specifications. All axles 
received are subject to rejection if they do not finish 
in the lathe in accordance with the requirements 
herein given. The manufacturer must furnish, free 
of charge, the axles that are to be tested, the testing 
apparatus and the assistance necessary to enable the 
inspector to make a satisfactory inspection and test 
Axles will not be accepted if the diameters fall below 
the dimensions for forged sizes given in the blue 
prints, or if exceeding those dimensions by more than 
% inch. Car axles in the rough must not have less 
than the prescribed minimum weight, nor more than 
the prescribed maximum weight for axles of their 

Axle Drop Test: 

5. All axles will be tested physically by drop test 
The testing machine must conform in its essential 
parts to the drawings adopted by the Master Car 
Builders' Association. These essential parts are : The 
points of supports on which the axle rests during 
tests must be three (3) feet apart from center to cen- 
ter; the tup must weigh 1,640 pounds; the anvil, 
which is supported on springs, must weigh i7iS00 
pounds; it must be free to move in a vertical direc- 
tion; the springs upon which it rests must be twelve 
in number, of the kind described on drawing, and the 
radius of the supports and of the striking face on the 
tup in the direction of the axis of the axle must be 
five (5) inches. When an axle is tested it must be so 
placed in the machine that the tup will strike it mid- 
way between the ends, and it must be turned over 
after the first and third blows, and when required 
after the fifth blow. After the first blow the deflection 
of the axle under test will be measured in the man- 
ner specified below. 

6. It is desired that the axles when tested as speci- 
fied above shall stand the number of blows at the 
heights specified in the following table without rup- 
ture, and without exceeding, as the result of the first 
blow, the deflections given: 

No. Height of Deflec- 
Axle — Blows. Drop. tion. 
M. C. B. 454 by 8 inch jour- 
nals 5 21^ ft 714 in 

M. C. B. 5 by 9 inch jour- 
nals 5 29 ft 6 i-i6 in 

M. C. B. 5J^ by 10 inch jour- 
nals 5 36 ft. 5 7-16 in 

7. Axles will be considered as having failed on 
drop test and will be rejected if they rupture or frac- 
ture in any way, or if the deflection resulting from 
the first blow exceeds the following: 

M. C. B. axle, 4% by 8 inch journals. . SH inches 

M. C. B. axle, 5 by 9 inch journals 8 1-16 inches 

M. C. B. axle, $1^2 by 10 inch journals. . 6 1-16 inches 

In order to measure the deflection, prepare a 

straightedge as long as the axle by reinforcing it on 




one side, equally at each end, so that when it is laid 
on the axles the reinforced parts will rest on the col- 
lars of the axle, and the balance of the straightedge 
not touch the axle at any place. Next place the axle 
in position for test, lay the straightedge on it, and 
measure the distance from the straightedge to the 
axle at the middle point of the latter. Then, after the 
first blow, place the straightedge on the now bent axle 
in the same manner as before, and measure the dis- 
tance from it to that side of the axle next to the 
straightedge at the point farthest away from the lat- 
ter. The difference of the two measurements is the 
Specifications for Steel Axles. In 1899 the following 

specifications, including tests for steel axles, were 

adopted as Recommended Practice: 

1. Axles will be ordered not less than 100 on one 
order. All axles must be made and finished in a 
workmanlike manner, and must be free from cracks,, 
or seams, or flaws which can be detected by the eye» 
All parts must be rough turned, except at point "A" 
on diagram below. 

2. All axles must be made of steel, and the ma* 
terial desired have the following composition: 

Carbon 0.40 per cent 

Manganese, not above 0.50 per cent 

Silicon 0.05 per cent 

Phosphorus, not above 0.05 per cent 

Sulphur, not above 0.04 per cent 

3. All axles must conform in sizes, shapes and 
limiting weights to the requirements given on the or- 
der or print sent with it The rough turning must be 
done with a tool so shaped as to leave the surface 
free from ridges; and in centering them 60 degree 
centers must be used, with proper clearance for lathe 
centers. All axles must be legibly stamped when 
offered for test, on the unfinished portion, "A" on 
diagram below, with the blow or heat number and 
the date, and on the cylindrical portion at center they 
must be stamped with the name of the maker. 

Portions marked "A" to be unfinished and to have 
Stamped upon either of them blow number and date. 



4. Manufacturers must notify 

when they arc ready to ship not less than 100 axles ; 
must have all the axles made from each heat, and no 
others, in a pile by themselves; must furnish the 
testing machine referred to in Section 6, and the 
proper appliances for checking the dimension? pnd 
weights; must have a car or cars ready to receive 
shipment; must furnish the labor and power neces- 
sary to enable tl:*e inspector to promptly inspect and 
test; and ship or store the axles when tests arc fin- 
ished. Axles which, when offered for test, are so 
rusty as to hide defects will not be considered. 

$. A shipment of axles being ready for test, the in- 
spector will first make a list of the heat numbers in 
the various piles of axles offered, and the number of 
axles bearing the same heat number in each pile. If 
he finds in any pile axles bearing different heat num- 
bers he must, before going further, have the pile re- 
arranged, so that only those axles having the same 
heat number will be in the same pile. Also, if he 
finds in any pile any axles having evidence of 
changed or defaced heat numbers, or any axles hav- 
ing heat numbers not clearly legible, or any bearing 
heat numbers previously rejected, he will exclude 
such axles from further consideration. He will then 
examine the axles in each pile or heat, as to work- 
manship and defects visible to the eye, and as to 
whether they conform to dimensions and directions 

on the order, or tracing, or in these specifications. 
All axles not satisfactory in these respects must be 
laid aside and will not be further considered. This 
being done, if less than thirty axles in any heat are 
left, he will refuse to consider that heat further. If 
in this inspection defects are found which the manu- 
facturer can remedy while the inspector is at the 
works, he may allow such defects to be cured and 
may count the axles which are successfully treated 
in this way as a part of the thirty above mentioned. 
Not less than thirty axles from any one heat having 
passed the foregoing inspection, the inspector will 
select from each pile or heat, one axle at random, and 
subject it to the physical test prescribed for such 
axles as may be under consideration. If the test 
axle fails to fill the physical requirements, all the 
axles from that heat of steel will be regarded as re- 
jected, and none of them will at any time be consid- 
ered again. If the test axle passes physical test the in- 
spector will draw a straig^ht line parallel with the 
axis of this test axle ten (10) inches long, starting 
from one end of it, and prick-punch this line at sev- 
eral points. He will then have a piece about six (6) 
inches long cut off from the same axle, so as to leave 
mff some of the prick-punch marks on each piece of the 
axle. The 6-inch piece must be sent at once prop- 
erly tagged to The piles 

of axles which have passed physical test will be al- 
lowed to remain as the inspector leaves them, until 
the results of the chemical test are known. The 6- 
inch piece being received at the laboratory, a line 
will be drawn from the prick-punch line above de- 
scribed, through the center of. the axle across the 
cut-off end, and a prick-punch mark made on this; 
last line, 40 per cent, of the distance from the center 
to the circumference of the axle. Borings for analy- 
sis will be taken by means of a ^-inch diameter drill,, 
acting parallel to the axis of the axle, and starting: 
with its center in the last described prick-punch 
mark. The borings will be analyzed in accordance 
with standard methods, and the results of analy- 
sis will be communicated to the inspector, who will 
at once proceed to the works, and reject, or accept 
and ship, or mark and store, as the case may be, the 
axles in question. H the analysis of any test axle 
shows that the steel does not meet the chemical re- 
quirements, all of the axles of that heat will be re- 
garded as rejected, and none of them will at any 
time be considered again. If the analysis of any test 
axle shows that the steel meets the chemical require- 
ments, all of the axles of that heat which have passed 
inspection and physical test will be regarded as ac- 
cepted. The inspector will proceed to load and ship 
from the accepted axles as many as may be required 
to fill the order. If, as the result of inspection and 
the physical and chemical tests, more axles are ac- 
cepted than the order calls for, such accepted axles 
in excess will be stamped by the inspector with his 
own name, and will then be piled and allowed to re- 
main at the works, subject to further orders from the 
purchasing agent. On receipt of further orders, 
axles once accepted will, of course, not be subject to 
further test, but in no case will even accepted axles 
be loaded and shipped except in the presence of the 
inspector. In all cases the inspector will keep an 
accurate record of the heat numbers, of the number 
of axles in each heat which are rejected, or stored, 
and will transmit this information with each report. 
6. All axles will be tested physically by drop test. 
The testing machine must conform in its essential 
parts to the drawings adopted by the Master Car 
Builders* Association. These essential parts are: 
The points of supports on which the axle rests dur- 
ing tests must be three feet apart from center to cen- 




ter; the tup must weigh 1,640 pounds; the anvil, 
which is supported on springs, must weigh 17,500 
pounds; it must be free to move in a vertical direc- 
tion; the springs upon which it rests must be twelve 
in number, of the kind described on drawing; and 
the radius of supports and of the striking face on the 
tup in the direction of the axis of the axle must be 
five (5) inches. When an axle is tested it must be 
so placed in the machine that the tup will strike it 
midway between the ends, and it must be turned 
over after the first and third blows, and when re- 
quired, after the fifth blow. After the first blow, 
the deflection of the axle under test will be measured 
in the manner specified below. 

7. It is desired that the axles, when tested under 
the drop test as specified above, shall stand the num- 
ber of blows at the height specified in the following 
table without rupture and without exceeding as the 
result of the first blow the deflections given : 

No. Height. 
Axle. Blows, of Drop. Deflection. 

M. C. B. 4J4 by 8 inch 
journals for 60,000- 
pound cars 5 34 feet 7 inches 

M. C. B. 5 by 9 inch 
journals for 80,000- 
pound cars 5 43 " SH *' 

M. C. B. SJ^ by 10 inch 
journals for 100,000- 
pound cars 7 4.1 " 4 " 

8. Axles will be considered as having failed on 
physical test and wilj be rejected if they rupture or 
fracture in any way, or if the deflection resulting 
from the first blow exceeds the following: 

M. C. B. axle, 454 by 8 inch journals 7^ inches. 

M. C. B. axle, 5 by 9 inch journals 6)4 " 

M. C B. axle, s54 by 10 inch journals. ..4^ " 

9. Axles will be considered to have failed on 
chemical test and will be rejected if the analysis of 
the borings taken as above described gives figures 
for the various constituents below, outside the fol- 
lowing limits, namely: 

Carbon. . .below 0.35 per cent, or above 0.50 per cent. 

Manganese " 0.60 " 

Phosphorus " 0.07 " 

In order to measure the deflection, prepare a 
straightedge as long as the axle, by reinforcing it on 
one side, equally at each end, so that when it is laid 
on the axle, the reinforced parts will rest on the 
collars of the axle, and the balance of the straight- 
edge not touch the axle at any place. Next place the 
axle in position for test, lay the straightedge on it 
and measure the distance from the straightedge to 
the axle at the middle point of the latter. Then, 
after the first blow, place the straightedge on the 
now bent axle in the same manner as before, and 
measure the distance from it to that side of the axle 
next to the straightedge at the point farthest away 
from the latter. The difference in the two measure- 
ments is the deflection. 
Axle Box (English). A Journal Box, which see. See, 

Grease Axle Box, Oil Axle Box. 
Axle Box Cover (English). A hinged movable cover 
on the axle box through which the lubricant is intro- 
duced. On English oil axle boxes the cover is gen- 
erally bolted to the box, with a strip of leather inter- 
posed to make an oil tight joint. The oil is replen- 
ished monthly through a small orifice closed by a screw 
plug, or spring hinge. 
Axle Box Keep (English). The lower part of an axle 
box, which in an oil box contains the lubricant, and in 
a grease box simply protects the under side of the 
journal from dust. 
Axle Collar. Figs. 4284-87. A rim or enlargement on the 

end of a car axle, which takes the end thrust of the 
journal bearing. 

Axle Gages. Gages for fixing the lengths and diam- 
eters of an axle. Were at one time standards of M. C. 
^B. Association. 

Axle Guard, i. (English). American equivalent, ped- 
estal. The ordinary or W pattern consists of a 
wrought iron plate attached to the solebar, which per- 
mits vertical motion of the axle box, but restrains 
movement in any other direction. 

2. Axle guard has been applied to the axle safety 
strap as at figs. 3849-50. It has also been applied to 
the safety beam, figs. 3823-24. 

Axle Guard Crown (English). The main part of the 
Axle Guard, which see. 

Axle Guard Crown Washer (English). A piece of 
wrought iron plate, used as a washer for three or 
more bolts, which secure the main part of the axle 
guard to the sole bar. 

Axle Guard Keep, or Horn Stay (English). A piece of 
iron which secures the lower end of the jaws of the 
axle guards together. 

Axle Guard Stay Rod, or Axle Guard Stretcher (Eng- 
lish). American equivalent, pedestal tie bar. A longi- 
tudinal rod connecting the lower ends of the axle 
guards, and keeping them at the right distance apart. 

Axle Guard Strap. See, Axle'Guard Safety Strap. 

Axle Guard Truss. 60, figs. 3948-51. A wrought iron 
forged bar connecting the iron transoms of a six 
wheeled truck, and carrying the middle safety beam. 
It were better called the middle safety beam truss. 

Axle Guard Wing (English). The inclined part of an 
axle guard, strengthening it fore and aft. 

Axle Guard Wing Washer (English). A piece of plate 
used as a washer for two or more bolts securing the 
wing of the axle guard to the sole bar. See, Axle 
Guard Wing. 

Axle Light System of Lighting. So called from the 
fact that the current is generated from a dynamo 
connected either directly or by belt to the car 
axle. Auxiliary storage baftteries, which are charged 
while the train is running, supply current when the 
train is standing still or going slow. Automatic 
switches throw in the current for charging and cut 
the generator in and out. There are a number of sys- 
tems in limited use, but the demand is growing rapidly. 
See, GovLD Electric Car Lighting, figs. 2622-40. 

Axle Packing. A Dust Guard, which see. The journal 
packing is often called axle packing. 

Axle Safety Bearing (Passenger Car Trucks). 54, figs. 
3781-3951. A bar of iron like an inverted letter U, 
or a block of wood bolted to the safety beam of 
a truck above the axle. The axle safety strap, 55, 
goes below it, the two parts together forming a circle 
around the axle. The axle safety bearing thimbles, 56, 
are used as distance pieces to hold both in their proper 

Axle Safety Bearing Thimbles. 56, figs. 3781-3951. See 

Axle Safety Strap. 55, figs. 3781-3951 and figs. 3849-50. 
See above. 

Axle Seat. The hole in a car wheel which receives the 
axle. More properly, it is the inside surface of this 
hole which comes in contact with the axle, and not the 
hole itself. The corresponding part of an axle is called 
the wheel seat or wheel fit. 


Babbitt Metal. "An alloy, consisting of 9 parts of tin 

and I of copper, used for journal boxes; so called 

from its inventor, Isaac Babbitt, of Boston. Some 

variations have been made, and among the published 

recipes are: 




Copper I I 

Antimony i 5 

Tin 10 50 

Another recipe substitutes zinc for antimony. 

The term is commonly applied to any white alloy for 
bearings, as distinguished from the box metal or 
brasses in which copper predominates." — Knight. 

Babbitt Metal Bearing. A style of bearing of which a 
great variety of forms exist, which in effect substitutes 
babbitt metal in some of its many forms for brass as a 
bearing surface. Lead Lined Bearings, which see, are 
different in that they merely use a thin sheet of lead 
over the brass, to correct slight irregularities and give 
an even bearing surface. The bearing or brass should 
be bored out to remove scale. 

Babcock Fire Extinguisher. Fig. 2969. A device for 
causing the rapid generation of carbonic acid gas 
when desired by breaking a bottle of acid in the interior 
by means of the bottle breaking head (the handle pro- 
jecting up in the center of the top of the apparatus). 
The solution within consists of about 25^ lbs. of bicar- 
bonate of soda in about 6 gallons of water. 

Back (for a Pipe Clip). Fig. 2259. A metal strap some- 
times used to attach the clips to, instead of attaching 
the latter directly to the surface to which the clip is 

Back. See, Seat Back. 

Back Arm. See, Seat Arm. 

Back Band (Car Seat). 15, figs. 3x51-52. The molding 
or metallic band that protects the top, bottom and side 
edges of a seat back. A seat back molding. Figs. 

3237-38, and 3268-79. 

Back Cap (Brake Valve). i02a,FiGS. 968-71. 

Back Cylinder Head (Westinghouse and Other Brakes). 
4, FIGS, 918-19. The cover for the end of a brake cylin- 
der which has an opening in the center for the piston 
rod. For convenience of designation the end of the 
cylinder opposite to the piston rod is always called the 
front end, and that adjoining the piston rod the back 
end, as in locomotives. 

Back Cylinder Head (Air Brake Cylinder). 4, figs. 917 

and 975-77. 

Back Face Plate (Steel Tired Wheels). The inner one of 
the two plates connecting the tire with the hub. See, 
Front Face Plate. 

Back Face Plate. See, Gould Vestibule. 

Back Frame (Car Scat). 47, figs. 3151-52. 

Back Gravity Bar. See, Cjould Vestibule. 

Back Guy (Steam Shovel). 15, figs. 357-59. 

Back Seat Bottom Rail (Longitudinal Seat). A horizon- 
tal wooden strip at the back edge, to which a wooden 
seat bottom is attached. See also. Front Seat Bottom 

Back Seat Rail (Street Car Seats). A longitudinal strip 
of wood which extends along the back edge, and is 
fastened to the window posts. 

Back Seat Rail (English). In a carriage, a small trans- 
verse wooden bar secured to the partition and support- 
ing the seat boards. 

Back Squab (English). American equivalent, seat back. 
In a carriage, that part of the seat which fits the 
small of the passenger's back, and also supports the 
head and a fixed back, covered with broadcloth and 
stuffed with curled hair, and also made elastic by 

Back Squab Sofa Springs (English). Analogous to the 
American back springs. One end of these springs butts 
against the partition and the other against a sheet 
of stout canvas, the back squab resting against the lat- 

Back Stop Timbers. Short sub-sills bolted and keyed by 
packing blocks to the center sills of a car in line with 
the draft timbers, to assist the draft or center sills in 

transmitting the bufHng shocks and strains. Usually 
called a buffing sub-sill. 

Baggage Car. Figs. 375-77. A car for carrying the baggage 
of passengers. A combination baggage car, fig. 120, is 
one having compartments set off for express or mail, or 
both. A combination car or coach, figs. 74, 134, etc., 
is a passenger car with a baggage compartment. A 
Push Baggage Car, which see, is a light car for use 
at stations. 

Baggage Truck. See, Baggage Wagon Truck. 

Baggage Wagon Truck. A four wheeled vehicle with a 
frame or rack for carrying baggage, used to move the 
latter by hand about railroad stations. A two wheeled 
vehicle is a baggage barrow. 

Bail. A curved handle of a more or less semicircular form 
for a pail, bucket, lantern or other utensil. As applied 
to lanterns, figs. 2728-37. 

Baker Car Heater. Figs. 2180-2287. A stove invented 
and patented by Mr. Wm. C. Baker for warm- 
ing cars. It is arranged so as to heat water in a coil of 
pipe in the inside of the stove, and cause it to circulate 
through a series of pipes laid near the floor of the car. 
The original heater has undergone many changes, and 
only those forms are shown that are in current use. 
They are: The Single Coil Fireproof, figs. 2180-99; 
the Two Coil Fireproof, figs. 2200-20; the Perfected, 
FIGS. 2221-39, and the Mighty Midget, figs. 2240-52, 
with the parts belonging to them. 

Balance Spring (Passenger Truck Brake Gear). Figs. 
3862-4, 3912-7. A flat spring from which the adjusting 
hanger is suspended and which keeps the brake head 
balanced in its proper position. 

Balance Valve Pressure Regulator. Fig. 2345. A valve 
for automatically regulating the pressure in the steam 
pipes in a car heating system. 

Ball Bearing Butt Hinge. Figs. 1949-52. A butt hinge, 
the washer of which is a ball bearing. 

Ball Bearing Jack. Figs. 2972-77. See, Norton's Ball 
Bearing Jack. 

Ball Bearing Side Bearing and Center Plate. Figs. 
4130-37. See, Norwood Ball Bearing Side Bearing. 

Ballast Car. Figs. 43, 41-48. A dump car for hauling and 
distributing ballast. See, Rodger Ballast Car. (jood- 
wiN Car. Gravel Car. 

Ballast Plow. See, Rodger Ballast Car and Plow. 

Ballast Wagon (English). American equivalent, gravel 
car. A four wheeled gondola car, fitted with falling 
doors at the sides and ends, and used for conveying bal- 
last, rails and ties. 

Band (for Seat Backs). Figs. 3268-79. More properly 
Seat Back Molding, which see. 

Bar Lift. See, Bar Sash Lift. 

Bar Sash Lift. Figs. 3699-3703. A sash lift having a 
short horizontal metal bar attached to two flanged 
studs or stanchions; used for the large sashes of sleep- 
ing and parlor cars. 

Bar Shackle (of a Padlock). A rectangular, instead of U- 
shaped, shackle. 

Barber Roller Side Bearing. Figs. 3735-37. See, Roller 
Side Bearing Truck. 

Barr Vestibules. Two types of vestibules designed by 
Mr. J. N. Barr, which are called the wing vestibule 
and the toggle vestibule, now little used. 

Barrel Car. Fig. 14. A flat car, racked so as to carry 
many empty barrels. They are made long, and the 
racks are very high in order to make up a carload 

Barrel Door Bolt. Figs. 1889-98. A door bolt made of a 
round metal bar and held on its slide in a round 
tube or "barrel." It is constructed so that when it is 
either engaged or disengaged from its keeper it can be 
turned by a short lever or knob and held in either po- 
sition by suitable stops. 

Barrel Seat Lock. Figs. 3294-98. See, Seat Lock. 




Barrett's Double Acting Lever and Rack Jack. Figs. 
2983-84. A jack for track work consisting of a rack 
with sharp teeth, into which pawls engage as the lever 
is worked up and down. It is double acting; that is, 
the load is lifted when the handle is lifted or thrust 

Barrow Truck. This term has been used to designate 
two wheeled vehicles used about railroads for moving 
freight and baggage by hand ; but the more usual prac- 
tice is to speak of Baggage Barrows and Freight 
Trucks, which see, although both are sometimes desig- 
nated as barrow trucks. 

Base Board Corner Molding. A light molding at the junc- 
tion of the base board and the floor. 

Base Plate (of a Derrick or Crane). A large plate placed 
on the floor of the car for supporting the mast. An- 
other method is by a Mast Pocket, which see. 

Base Washer (Passenger Car Platform Posts). 40, figs. 
388-91. A metal ring or plate, which forms a bearing 
for the post on the platform end timber. 

Basin, i, figs. 2798-2800. A hollow vessel made of por- 
celain or metal, and in cars usually fixed in a suitable 
stand with pipes and other attachments for filling it 
with water and emptying it Such basins are used as 
lavatories in sleeping and other passenger cars. They 
are emptied at the bottom through a pipe connected 
to the basin by a basin coupling, or basin bushing, 
which is closed by a basin plug. The basin plug is at- 
tached to a basin chain, which again is fastened to a 
stanchion called the basin chain holder. 

Basin Chain. See, Basin. 

Basin Chain Holder. Fia 2770. See« Basin. Frequently 
called a basin chain post, or basin chain stay. 

Basin Couplings. Figs. 2749-55. See, Basin. 

Basin Plug. Figs. 2750-51. See, Basin. 

Basin Pump. A pump of peculiar construction for sup- 
plying the basin of sleeping and parlor cars from the 
tank carried under the slab. It is called single or 
double acting, according as the upward stroke only, or 
both the upward and downward strokes, eject water. 
Double acting most used. The use of basin pumps 
has been practically discontinued on sleeping cars, the 
water being carried in tanks under the car and forced 
through the pipes by compressed air. See, Pullman 
Water Supply. 

Basin Valve. 5, figs. 2798-2800. 

Basket Rack (English, Parcel Net). Figs. 2987-3012; 
145, figs. 388-91, etc. A receptacle made of cast metal 
ends, rods, or a combination of rods and wire netting 
for holding parcels. They are attached to the sides of 
passenger cars, above the heads of the passengers, so as 
to be out of the way. Continuous basket racks extend 
the full length of the car, and are increasing in favor. 
One is shown in A, figs. 388-91. Parlor cars usually 
have no basket rack, but sometimes package racks are 
placed between the windows. Basket racks are some- 
times called bundle racks. 

Basket Rack Bracket. 18, fig. 1782 and figs. 3013-16. A 
light metal or wooden support for the end or center of 
a basket rack. 

Basket Rack Netting. Figs. 3002-03. Wire or silk netting 
with very large meshes, which forms the bottom or 
back of a basket rack. 

Basket Rack Rod. Figs. 3002-03. A small round metal 
bar which forms the main portion of a basket rack, 
and to which the netting, when used, is fastened. 

Basket Rack Tip. Figs. 3002-03. An ornamental knob or 
acorn on the end of a basket rack rod. 

Bastard Howe (Freight Car Framing). Figs. 164-65, 
166-67, etc. A style of framing having the vertical rods 
and inclined posts like the familiar Howe truss, but 
having also an upright post connected with the rod and 
serving more or less as a part of the truss. The Howe 

truss proper has been used in freight car construction 
to a limited extent. 

Bastard Pratt Framing. Is a similar modification 
of the Pratt bridge truss, which differs from the Howe 
in having vertical posts instead of rods, and inclined 
rods instead of braces. A combination truss embodying 
the essential features of both the Howe and Pratt 
trusses is quite common in new constructidn. 

Batten. "A piece of board or scantling of a few ipches 
in breadth." — Webster. 

Batten Wagon. (English). A four wheeled flat car about 
24 feet long, fitted to carry sawed timber about 23 feet 
long, termed battens. 

Bayonet Catch. A general term derived from the 
manner of fastening on a bayonet to a gun, applied to 
the mode used in many forms of hardware and me- 
chanical construction for connecting separate parts so 
as to be firmly united and yet easily removable. Many 
lamps are held in place by a form of bayonet catch. 

Bay Window Parlor Car. A style of parlor car construc- 
tion designed to give more variety to the interior and 
improve the line of vision of the passenger. No longer 
used in new construction. 

Bead. "A small salient molding of semi-circular section. 
Also the strips on the sash frame which form a guide 
for the sash. These beads are known as the inside 
bead, outside bead and parting bead." — Knight. 

In car construction the place of the inside bead is 
taken by the window casing, or inside window stop ; the 
place of the outside bead by the outside window stop, 
and of the parting bead by the sas.h parting strip, or 
stop bead. The term is also frequently applied to any 
form of small, light molding of simple outline. See^ 
Molding and Stop Bead. 

Bead Molding (English). See, Bead and Planted Mold- 

Beam. "The term beam is generally applied to any piece 
of material of considerable scantling, whether subject 
to transverse strain or not; as, for example, 'collar 
beam,* 'tie beam,* 'Brestsummer beam,* the two former 
beinfif subject to longitudinal strains of compression and 
tension, respectively, and the latter to transverse strain.*^ 
— Stoney. 

1. "Any large piece of timber, large in proportion to 
its thickness and squared or hewed for use.*' — Webster. 

2. A bar of metal of similar proportions is also called 
a beam. 

3. "A bar supported at two points and loaded in a 
direction perpendicular or oblique to its length is called 
a beam.'* — Rankine. 

By analogy the term has of late years cone to be 
applied to similar pieces or bars of iron. Thus we 
have iron I-Beams and Deck Beams (which see), to 
take the place of wooden beams in buildings. The 
term is also used to designate such things as the beam 
of a balance or scales, a plow beam, the walking beam 
of a steam engine, brake beam, etc. 

Bearing. That which supports or rests on something, and 
is in contact with it. Thus a block or stone on which 
the end of a timber rests is called a bearing. The 
metal block or bushing in contact with a journal is 
called a bearing. 

For M. C. B. Standard Journal Bearing see figs, 
4238-83, etc. See, 

Axle Safety Bearing. Rocker Bearing. 

Body Truss Rod Bear- Rocker Side Bearing. 

ING. Safety Beam Truss Rod 

Brake Hanger Bearing. Bearing. 

Brake Shaft Bearing. Side Bearing. 

Center Bearing. Spring Plank Bearing. 

Crank Shaft Bearing. Stop Key Journal Bear- 

Cup Side Bearing. ing. 

Dust Guard Bearing. Stop Journal Bearing. 



Half Eluptic Sfukg Swing Hanger Pivot 
Bearing. Bearing. 

• Journal Bearing. Truck Bolster Truss 

Lead Lined Journal Rod Bearing. 

Bearing. Truck Side Bearing. 

Lever Shaft Bearing. Truss Rod Bearing. 

Lower Brake S^AFT Upper Brake Shaft 
Bearing. Bearing. 

Bearing Casting (Tip Cars). A casting, one of a pair at- 
tached to either the car body or to the truck which sup- 
ports the car body and its loads. In tip cars it is piv- 
oted or hinged so as to permit the body to tip or rock 
laterally and to thus discharge its load. 

Bearing Spring. An occasional but not the conventional 
term for the bolster springs or main springs of the car. 

Bearing Spring (English). American equivalent, bolster 
spring. The spring which carries the weight of the 
vehicle and rests on the axle box. In English prac- 
tice, almost invariably a half-elliptic spring. 

Bearing Spring Buckle (English). An American equiva- 
lent, spring band. A solid wrought iron strap which 
confines the plates of the bearing spring, and is gen- 
erally provided with lugs on the lower side so that 
it cannot be moved transversely or longitudinally on 
the axle box. The plates are secured to the buckle by 
a f^-in. vertical rivet. 

Bearing Spring Shoe (English). A cast iron lipped rub- 
bing piece, secured to the under side of the sole bar, 
on which the ends of the bearing spring bear. 

^ Pee" Door Spring. Fig. 2147. See, Door Spring. 

Bell. See, Recording Belu Signal Belu Smoke Bell, 

Bell Cord. Fig. 1828. Originally a rope, one end of which 
is attached to a signal bell on the engine, and which ex- 
tends through or along the tops of the cars the whole 
length of the train, and is used for signaling to the loco- 
motive engineman. It is carried by various forms of 
Bell Cord Bushings, Bell Cord Hangers, and Bell 
Cord Guides (which see). In passenger trains it is at- 
tached to the raftetrs or purlins by suitable supports 
on the inside of the cars. On passenger trains, the bell 
cord is made of lengths equal to that of each car, and is 
fastened together with suitable couplings. Bell cord is 
made of flax, hemp, and sometimes of leather, and is 
known by the following names in trade: Brass wire 
covered, fancy braided, flaxen, Italian hemp, solid 
leather, solid braided. The usual sizes are yi in. and 
9-32 in. diameter. Since the introduction of the air sig- 
nal system the bell cord in each car is separate and not 
carried through the train. One end is attached to the 
car discharge valve and a pull on the cord releases the 
air in the signal pipe and blows the signial in the engine 

Bell Cord Beveled Bushing. Figs. 1814-15. See, Bell 
Cord Bushing. 

Bell Co^ Bushing. Figs. 1810-19. A thimble lining a 
hole through a partition for a bell cord to pass 
through ; in distinction from a bell cord guide, which is 
attached to the side or roof of the car or to a bell cord 
hanger and serves solely the purpose which its name 
implies. For passing the bell cord through inclined sur- 
faces beveled bushings are used, which are frequently 
provided with one or more pulleys to avoid frictioa 

Bell Cord Chain Hanger. Figs. 1871-72, 1880. 

Bell Cord Coupling. Figs. 1820-27. The hook attached 
to the end of a bell cord to enable it to be con- 
nected or disconnected at pleasure with another bell 
cord; not to be confused with a bell cord splice, fig. 
1822, which is intended as a permanent connection. 

Bell Cord End Hook. A common metal hook with a 
screw shank by which it is attached to the end of the 
car. The hook is used to fasten the end of a bell cord 
to the last car and thus hold it in its place and prevent 
it from being drawn out of its guides. 

13 BEL 

Bell Cord Guide. Figs. 1830- 1856. A metal eye or ring 
attached to the roof or ceiling of a car, or to the 
end of a Bell Cokd Hanger (which see), and by 
which a bell cord is carried or conducted. According 
to their method of attachment to the car they are des- 
ignated as bell cord guides, with flange, or with screw, 
or with screw and flange, and they are often provided 
with one or more pulleys, and are sometimes swiveled 
when the bell cord is to be conducted in an oblique line. 
The pulleys are ordinarily at the bottom, but some- 
times at the side of the bell cord guide, according to 
the direction of probable strain. Certain tubelike forms 
of bell cord guides are occasionally miscalled Bell 
Cord Bushings, which see. 

Bell Cord Guide Washer. An ornamental washer for 
making a finish for a bell cord guide where it is at- 
tached to a car roof. 

Bell Cord Hanger. Figs. 1857-80. A guide for the bell 
cord, hanging usually from the center of the clear 
story or upper deck. In its original form it consists of 
a bell cord strap, attached to a bell cord strap hanger 
bracket, which latter is screwed to the top of the car. 
The simpler forms of these brackets, as figs. 1873-75, 
are called screw tops. The lower end of the strap car- 
ries a ring called the bell cord guide, which latter is 
often provided with a pulley at the bottom to obviate 
friction. To avoid unpleasant vibration, the double 
strap hanger has been used, giving lateral stability, and 
recently Bell Cord Rod Hangers, figs. 1873-79, have 
been introduced, swinging on a pivot. Bell Cord Fixed 
Hangers, fig. 1868, are used where the drop is small. 

Bell Cord Hanger Straps. Figs. 1881-88. See, Bell 

Cord Hanger. 
Bell Cord Hanger Bracket, or Screw Top. Figs. 1859-60; 

1873-74, See, Bell Cord Hanger. 
Bell Cord Pulley, or Sheave, Figs. 1837-47. A wheel 

in a bell cord guide over which a bell cord runs. 
Bell Cord Rod Hanger. Figs. 1873-76. See, Bell Cord 

Bell Cord Sheave. A Bell Cord Pulley, which see. 
Bell Cord Splice. Fig. 1822. A metal coupling with right 

and left hand screws for permanently splicing the ends 

of a broken bell cord. See, Bell Cord Coupling. 
Bell Cord Strap. Figs. 1881-88. See, Bell Cord Hanger. 

Bell Cord Strap Hanger. Figs. 1881-88. See, Bell Cord 

Bell Cord Strap Hanger Bracket. Figs. 1857-64. See, 
Bell Cord Hanger. 

Bell Cord Strap Hanger Screw Top. Figs. 1859-60, 1873- 
74. See, Bell Cord Hanger. 

Bell Cord Thimble. A Bell Cord Bushing, which see. 

Bell Crank. An L-shaped rectangular lever, often with 
the two extremities connected so as to be of triangular 
form, for changing the direction of motion by 90 de- 
grees, more or less. 

Bell Crank (Hand Car). 23, figs. 4722-27. A crank 
attached to the propelling lever shaft, giving more 
favorable direction to the power applied to the levers. 

Bell Rope. A Bell Cord, which see. 

Bell's Exhaust Hopper Ventilator. Fig. 3103. An 
attachment placed underneath the floor pipe of a 
closet hopper, on the under side of a passenger car, 
to produce a downward draft through the hopper when 
the car is in motion. The attachment is of a concave 
conical form, which by the motion of the train in either 
direction causes the air to pass downward through the 
floor pipe by creating a partial vacuum at the base. 

Belt Molding. A molding passing entirely around the 
interior of the passenger car directly above the win- 
dows, in the middle of the wide board called the inside 

Belt Rail. 49, figs. 159-169, etc. ; 65, figs. 360-72, 385-87, 
388-91. A part of the framing of a passenger or s|reet 




car frame below the windows on the outside, extending 
the whole length of the car body and attached to each 
post. It is usually framed into the posts and supports 
the window sills. The term is often applied to the girth 
of a box car. The Upper Belt Rail, 82, figs. 360-72, 
is a similar strip directly above the window. 

Belt Rail Band (Street Cars). An iron band on the 
outside of a belt rail covering the joint of the latter 
with the panel. It extends around each corner of the 
car to the door posts. 

Belt Rail Cap. 81, figs. 385-87. A thin strip of wood 
nailed to the top of a belt rail, and which forms a seat 
for the window sill. 

Bench Cap. Transverse timbers resting upon the side rails 
of a coal or ore car, to tie the rails together and pre- 
vent spreading, and also to support the doors or wind- 
ing shaft about which the winding shaft chain is wound. 

Bend (Iron Pipes). Fig. 2275, etc. See, Return Bend. 
They are distinguished as close and open return bends. 

Bent Ladder Round. The lower round of the ladder 
of box cars, having an angle turned up at the in- 
side for the safety of trainmen, to prevent the foot 
slipping off the ladder round. The use of such rounds 
has been recommended by the M. C. B. Association. 
See, Ladder and Ladder Round. 

Berth, i, 2, figs. 1778-80, 1783. A bed in a Sleeping Car, 
which see; also, the shelf or support on which the bed 
rests. There are two such beds in the space occupied by 
two double seats, which is called a section. The lower 
berth is made upon the seats and the upper one on a 
shelf, which can be raised or folded up out of the way 
in daytime, as shown in fig. 1780. A full section with 
both the upper and lower berths made up is shown in 
FIG. 1780. See, Lower Berth. Upper Berth. 

Berth Arm. A Berth Brace, which see. 

Berth Bolt. See, Berth Latch Bolt. 

Berth Brace. A metal rod, chain, or wire rope some- 
times attached to the side and near the top of a sleep- 
ing car, and at the other end to the outer edge of a 
berth, which is supported by the brace. In the later 
designs it is done away with, the berth being supported 
by the berth chain. 

Berth Brace Eye. A metal plate with suitable lugs for 
fastening the brace to the top of the car or to the berth. 

Berth Bracket. Fig. 3395. A bracket on which an upper 
berth of a sleeping car rests when lowered and the 
bed is made and in use. 

Berth Catch and Plate. Figs. 3383-84. 

Berth Chain. 25, figs. 1778-83; C, figs. 3428-32. A 
pitch chain passing from the berth spring through the 
overhead pulley and to the comer of the upper berth to 
support it. The berth spring is attached to the chain 
to counteract the weight of the berth. The berth chain 
docs the service of the berth spring rope and berth 

Berth Chain End Plate. See, Berth Spring Lug. 

Berth Chain Pulley. 24, figs. 1778-83. L, figs. 3428-32. 
A pulley attached to the roof of a sleeping car, over 
which a berth chain runs. 

Berth Curtain. 17, pigs. 1778-83. A curtain hung in 
front of a sleeping car section to hide the occupants 
from sight. A single curtain covers both berths, and is 
hung from the berth curtain rod. 

Berth Curtain Hook. Figs. 3441-42. A metal hook at- 
tached to a berth curtain, and by which the latter is 
hung on a rod above the berths; usually covered with 
leather to prevent rattling. 

Berth Curtain Pole. See, Berth Curtain Rod. 

Berth Curtain Rod. 16, figs. 1778-83, A rod usually 
made of metal tubing, fastened above a* section of 
a sleeping car and to which a berth curtain is hung. 
They are now made in sections, supportetd by folding 
brackets, and swing into the upper berth out of sight, 

except when berths are made up. See, Berth Curtain 
Rod Bracket. 

Berth Curtain Rod Acorn. See, Berth Curtain Rod Tip. 

Berth Curtain Rod Bolt. A small vertical bolt, usually 
tipped with an acorn, fastening the curtain rod in the 
coupling on the bracket. 

Berth Curtain Rod Bracket. 15, figs. 1778-80, and figs. 
3463-69. A metal bracket attached to the deck side of a 
sleeping car, which forms a support for a berth curtain 
rod. Such brackets usually have a coat and hat hook 
attached to them. A hanger, fig. 3469, is sometimes 
used as a substitute for a bracket at certain points. The 
stationary bracket has been replaced by the folding cur- 
tain rod bracket, which folds, with the rod attached, 
into the upper berth and out of sight when the curtains 
are not in use. See, Curtain Rod Folding Bracket. 

Berth Curtain Rod Coupling. A fastening by which a 
berth curtain rod of a sleeping car is secured to a 
bracket. It usually consists of a bolt or screw. 

Berth Curtain Rod Hanger. Fig. 3469. See, Berth Cur- 
tain Rod. 

Berth Curtain Rod Socket. Fig. 3469. A metal flanged 
ring which is fastened to some part of a sleeping car 
to carry the berth curtain rod, also called berth curtain 
rod bushing. 

Berth Curtain Rod Tip, or Acorn. See, Acorn. 

Berth Extension Arms. Fig. 3388. 

Berth Fixtures, Etc. Figs. 3376-3469. 

Berth Front. 4, 5, Figs. 1778-83. The bottom of the upper 
berth when it is down. There are two parts, the upper 
part and the lower part, which is next to the car side. 
The berth front panel is between the two berth fronts. 

Berth Front Borders and Corners. Figs. 3333-38. 

Berth Front Panel. 6, figs. 1778-83. The panel in the 
bottom of the upper berth between the two berth fronts. 

Berth Handle. A Berth Latch Handle, which see. 

Berth Headboard. 9, figs. 1778-80. See, Headboard. 

Berth Head Rest Pivot and Plate. Figs. 3398-99. 

Berth Hinge. Figs. 3418-21. A hinge or joint by which 
the back edge of an upper berth of a sleeping 
car is attached to the side of a car. They are dis- 
tinguished as loose and fast. Fast hinge is shown in 
FIG. 3418. The loose hinge fits in a plate or bushing. 
Shown with the hinges. 

Berth Hinge Bushing. A hollow metal socket in which 
the spindle of a loose berth hinge works. 

Berth Hinge Plate. Fig. 3422. A plate which takes the 
place of a berth hinge bushing. 

Berth Lamps. Figs. 3449-5^. Electric lamps for the 
berths of sleeping cars. The Gibbs lamp is fixed in 
the partition between two berths, and the one lamp 
may light two berths, there being a metallic cover or 
slide which shuts it off at any time from either side of 
the partition. 

Berth Latch. 47 and 48, figs. 1778-83 and figs. 3426-27. 
A spring bolt for holding the upper berth of a 
sleeping car up in its place when not in use. To ob- 
viate the danger of the berth shutting up in case of 
overturning of the car, the safety berth rope and at- 
tachments, 26, figs. 1778-83, are used. Safety berth 
latches have also been used to obviate the necessity of 
using a safety rope. See, Safety Berth Latch. 

Berth Latch Bolt. 48, figs. 1778-80. A bar or pin of a 
berth latch which engages in a corresponding strike 
plate or keeper to hold the berth up. 

Berth Latch Face Plate. Figs. 3434-38. 

Berth Latch Handle. Figs. 3434-38. 

Berth Latch Keeper. Also called Strike Plate, which 
see. See, Berth Latch Bolt. 

Berth Latch Lever. The part by which the berth latch 
handle operates the berth latch bolt ; also called a berth 
latch rocker plate. 

Berth Latch (or Lock) Plate and Bolt. Figs. 3393-94. 

Berth Latch Rocker Plate. See, Berth Latch Lever. 




Berth Latch (or Lock) Rods. Fig. 3433. 

Berth Latch Shell. A metal covering made in the form 
of a sea shell for covering and protecting the handle of 
a berth latch in a sleeping car. 

Berth Lock. A Berth Latch, which see. 

Berth Mattress. 18, figs. 1778-83. The mattresses which 
cover the seat cushions of the lower berth and 
the springs of the upper berth. When the berths are 
made up for day travel the mattresses are stored in the 
upper berth, as shown in the figure. 

Berth Numbers. Figs. 3444-48. Figures or numbers, usual- 
ly made of metal or porcelain, for numbering the berths 
or sections of sleeping cars. They are frequently sewed 
to plush panels and hung from the berth curtain rods. 

Berth or Bunk Partition. 8, figs. 1778-83. The partition 
between the upper berths of two adjacent sleeping sec- 
tions. It is of the same outline as the upper berth's 
cross section. 

Berth Pivot. Fig. 3397. 

Berth Pivot Socket. Figs. 3376-80. 

Berth Rattle Stop. Figs. 3400-01. 

Berth Rest. See, Upper Berth Rest. 

Berth Safety Latch Handle, in place attached to car. 47, 
FIGS. 1778-80. See, Safety Berth Latch. 

Berth Safety Rope. 26, ncs. 1778-83 and fig. 3425. A 
wire rope fastening the upper berth of a sleeping car 
to the fixed arms of the lower berth, to prevent acci- 
dental closing up of the upper berth in case of over- 
turning of the car. The rope is fastened to the upper 
berth by a berth safety rope fastener and to the lower 
berth by inserting a knob into a berth safety rope 

Berth Safety Rope Fastener. See, Berth Safety Rope. 

Berth Safety Rope Holder. See, Berth Safety Rope. 

Berth Safety Rope Hook. Fig. 3443. 

Berth Safety Rope Knob. See, Berth Safety Rope 

Berth Spring. 23, figs. 1778-83, fig. 3432. A spring 
usually made in a spiral form, like a watch spring, 
coiled within a device called the berth spring fusee and 
attached to the upper berth of a sleeping car by a berth 
chain so as to counteract the weight of the latter and 
make it easy to raise and lower it. 

Berth Spring Frame. 23, figs. 1778-80 and fig. 3432. A 
metal support which holds a berth spring and fusee. 

Berth Spring Fusee. See, Fuseel 

Berth Spring Lug, or Clip. M, fig. 3432. The means by 
which the end of a berth chain is fastened to the upper 
berth, sometimes called a berth chain end plate. 

Berth Striker Plate. A Berth Latch Keeper, which see. 

Bettendorf Bolster. Figs. 795-98. Body and truck bolsters 
made of I beams having their webs compressed to give 
the necessary reduction in height at the ends. The two 
beams are placed side by side and tied together with 
end plates, the side bearing castings and center plates. 

Bettendorf Frame. Figs. 251-54. A metal underframe for 
freight cars, built up of structural steel shapes, pressed 
and formed into the shapes as used in the car. 

Beveled Bushing. Fig. 1814. See, Bell Cord Bushing. 

Beveled Washer. Figs. 487-88. A washer used to give an 
even bearing for rods which stand at an acute angle to 
the surface on which the nut or bolt head bears. Some- 
times two such washers which come near together are 
cast in one piece, and are then called double beveled 
washers. See, Triangular Washer. 

Bezel. "A term applied by watchmakers and jewelers 
to the groove and projecting flange or lip by which the 
crystal of a watch is retained in its setting. An ouch." 
— Knight. Hence, Globe Bezel (Pintsch Gas Burner). 
307, FIGS. 2605-2. 

Bibb. A curved nozzle for conveying liquids and chanidng 
the direction of their flow, usually from a horizontal 
to a vertical current. Hence — 

Bibb Cock. Figs. 2765-66. Literally, a cock with a curved 

nozzle or spout, but commonly restricted to a cock 
with a plain valve without springs, moved by the hand 

Billet Car. Figs. 266-67. A low side gondola of steel 
throughout for transportation of hot steel billets or 
other heavy material. 

Bit (of a Key). The part of a key which enters the lock 
and acts upon the bolt and tumblers. The bit consists 
of the web and wards. The web is the portion left after 
the wards are cut out. The wards (of a key) conse- 
quently are those parts of the bit which are not there 
and fit over the Wards of a lock, which see. Some bits 
have no wards. 

Blake Butt. An indefinite term, meaning in general a plain 
cast iron butt hinge, having a washer, but no acorns or 
screw pin. 

Blank Hinge. A hinge which permits the door to swing 
open in either direction. It is intended as a substitute 
for one of a pair of Double Acting Spring Hinges, 
which see, as being lighter and cheaper. 

Bleeding Cock. A small cock on the auxiliary reservoir, 
etc. Generally called a drain cock. 

Bleeding Valve or Bleeding Cock, Another term for re- 
lease valve or release cock. The operation of releasing 
the brake when applied upon a car detached from the 
locomotive is sometimes called bleeding. The bleeding 
valve is located in the auxiliary reservoir, and the 
brakes may be released by opening it. 

Blind. A Window Bund, which see. They are sometimes 
single, but usually double, and then distinguished 
as lower and upper. Flexible window blinds are rarely 
met now, having been displaced by window shades. 

Blind Ceiling. (Refrigerator Car). L, figs. 185-95. A 
layer of light boards next above the inside ceiling in 
the roof of the car. 

Blind Floor (Refrigerator Cars). I, figs. 185-95. A layer 
of boards under the sub-floor and fastened to nailing 
strips secured to the bottom of the sills. 

Blind Lifts, Bushing, Bolt, Etc. Figs. 3575-3^20. See, 
Window Blind Lift, etc. 

Blind Lining (Refrigerator Cars). E, figs. 185-95. A 
lining between the outside sheathing and the inside lin- 
ing ; also called intermediate lining, 53a, figs. 185-95. 

Bliss Folding Platform Gate, Figs. 1803-04. A metal 
gate for platforms of railroad and sL"eet cars which has 
a joint in the middle and which folds together when 
opened, and does not occupy much space. 

Block, i. "A heavy piece of timber or wood, usually with 
one plane surface; or it is rectangular and rather thick 
than long." — Webster. 

2. "A pulley or system of pulleys mounted on its 
frame or shell, with its band or strap. A block consists 
of one or more pulleys or sheaves, in a groove of which 
the rope runs, fastened in a shell or frame by pins, on 
which they revolve; of a shell or frame inclosing the 
pulley or pulleys ; and of a strap or band, consisting of a 
rope, encompassing the shell, and attached by an eye of 
rope or a hook to some object." — Ed. Ency. 

The interior wheels are termed sheaves, which latter 
term is often used to designate the whole block or pul- 
ley, but incorrectly. A snatch block is a block with only 
one sheave, and with an opening at the side for the 
ready insertion and removal of the rope. Blocks with- 
out this opening, however, are sometimes loosely termed 
snatch blocks. See, 
Body Bolster Spacing Stirrup Block. 

Block. Stop Block. 

Body Bolster Truss Center Plate Block. 

Block. Dead Block. 

Brake Block. Swing Hanger Friction 

Buffer Block. Block. 

Brake Cylinder Block. Transom Bearing 
Distance Block. Block. 




Floor Timber Distance Transom Truss Block. 
Block. Truck Bolster Guide 

Follower Plate Block. Block. 

Guide Block. Truck Bolster Truss 

Packing Block. Block. 

Safety Beam Block. Truss Block. 

Spring Block. 
Block and Tackle. A general term applied to a pair or 

more of pulleys and accompanying rope. Also termed 

fall and tackle, or simply tackle. 
Block Car. A car generally attached to wrecking trains, 

behind the wrecking car proper, for carrying blocking, 

ropes, chains and other tools. Usually a common box 

car, sometimes fitted up with bunks. 
Blocking. A mode of securing together the vertical angles 

of woodwork by blocks of wood glued or nailed in the 

inside angle. The method is largely used in every form 

of carpentry, where great strength is not required in 

the joint. In car work, generally known as furring 

Blocking Strip. See, Floor Blocking Strip. 
Blow Off Valve (Gold Car Heating). See, E^ccelsior 

Steam Trap, etc. 

Board. "A piece of timber sawed thin, and of considerable 
length and breadth, compared with the thickness, used 
for building and other purposes." — Webster. See, 
Brake Foot Board. Letter Board. 

Deck Soffit Board. Roof Boards. 

Eaves Fascia Board. Roof Running Board. 

Fender Board. Running Board. 

Head Board. Seat Back Board. 

Inside Cornice Fascia Soffit Board. 

Board. Splash Board. 

Inside Cornice Sub-Fas- Tread Board. 

CIA Board. 

Board Roofs (Freight Cars). A very indefinite term, usual- 
ly meaning either one with a double layer of boards 
only, with or without painted canvas or other packing, 
or a single layer of boards covered with sheet metal. 
The Winslow and other roofs have boarding over the 
metal sheets. 

Boarding Car. A car fitted up for cooking and serving 
meals to men at work on the line of a road. It is some- 
times fitted with sleeping berths and bunks. 

Body. i. (Of a Car.) The main or principal part in or on 
which the load is placed. American cars usually con- 
sist of a body carried on two trucks. 

2. (Of a Valve, Cylinder, etc.) The main or prin- 
cipal part, to which the other parts are attached, as 
cylinder body, etc. 

Body Bolsters. Figs. 764-820; also 12, Figs. 159-69, 
185-95, 215-22, 271-95, etc.; 10, figs. ^60-72, 388-91; 
Freight Car Bolsters, figs. 764-810; Passenger, figs. 
8ii-20. Cross beams attached near the ends of the un- 
der side of a car body which is supported on two trucks. 
The body center plate and side bearings, which rest on 
the truck, are fastened to these bolsters. Such beams 
are made of wood, or of iron, or steel trussed, or of 
wood and iron combined. A body bolster is sometimes 
called body transom, or simply transom, but the term 
body transom is more properly applicable, if used att^ll, 
to the needle beams passing from side to side of the 
car between the trucks; also known as cross frame tie 
timbers, or cross bearers. A part analogous to a body 
bolster, and frequently called the body bolster, is the 
Bunk of logging cars, figs. 54-56; but this rests above 
a reach connecting the trucks, corresponds more prop- 
erly to the car body, as it sustains the load. The 
body bolsters of passenger cars are sometimes very 
elaborate structures, as the Double Iron Body Bolster, 
figs. 811-13. Iron body bolsters are in the form of a 
truss, the top member being known as the top plate, or 
tension bar, and the bottom as the bottom plate, or 

compression bar, the two being held apart by small 
castings called body bolster thimbles. 

Body Bolster Compression Bar. 2, figs. 804-05, and 12b, 
figs. 159-69, etc. See, Body Bolster. Bottom Plate. 

Body Bolster End Pocket Casting. A cast cap that fits 
over the end of a composite body bolster, through 
which the truss rods pass, and on which the 
truss rod nuts bear. It is a body bolster truss rod 
washer enlarged so as to cover the entire end of the 

Body Bolster Flitch Plates. Plates of iron or steel sand- 
wiched in between pieces of wood and bolted together 
to give it greater strength. Frequently called body bol- 
ster sandwich plates. 

Body Bolster Sandwich Plates. See above. 

Body Bolster Spacing Blocks. See, Body Bolster. 

Body Bolster Tension Bar. i. figs. 804-05, and 12a, figs. 
159-69, etc. See, Body Bolster. Top Plate. 

Body Bolster Thimble. See, Body Bolster. 

Body Bolster Truss. See, Body Bolster. 

Body Bolster Truss Block. A block of wood or distance 
piece on the top of a wooden body bolster between the 
center floor timbers and underneath the bolster truss 

Body Bolster Truss Rod. A rod which lies parallel with 
and passes above the center of the bolster over the truss 
rod bearing so as to form a truss; generally two are 
used for each bolster. 

Body Bolster Truss Rod BEARiNa See, Body Bolster 
Truss Rod. 

Body Bolster Truss Rod Saddle Straps. Straps that con- 
nect the truss rods, passing diagonally through the two 
ends of the body bolster. The strap is a flat bar of iron 
about 3x^ inch, with a rectangular bend at the ends, 
into which the truss rod heads fit. These straps bear 
upon the center sills. 

Body Bolster Truss Rod Washer. An iron bearing plate 
on the end of a body bolster; often made to take two 
or more rods. 

Body Brace, z^y figs. 159-69, etc.; 51, figs. 21^7^* etc. An 
inclined beam or strip of timber in the side or end 
frame of a car body, which acts as a brace. A substi- 
tute for body braces, as well as for truss rods, is the 
Challender Truss, which see. A compression beam 
brace, 164B, figs. 360-72, answers to the definition of a 
body brace, but is a long brace, constituting with the 
compression beam, 164, a single truss or arch from bol- 
ster to bolster. A body brace is an oblique brace in one 
of several panels included in this space. See, Brace. 
Body Counter Brace. End Body Brace and Side Body 

Body Brace Rod. 34, figs. 159-69; 52, figs. 360-72. An in- 
clined iron rod in the side or end of a car body frame, 
which acts as a brace. They are distinguished as end 
and side body brace rods. A brace straining rod is a 
short vertical rod in the side of a passenger car under 
the window. 

Body Center Plate. 17, figs. 159-69, 246-50, 271-95, etc. 
The upper of the two Center Plates, which see, 
through which the king bolt, or center pin, passes. 

Body Check Chain Eye. An eye bolt or clevis for fasten- 
ing a check chain to the car body. See also. Truck 
Check Chain Eye, 

Body Check Chain Hook. An iron hook on the check 
chain which enters into the check chain eye. 

Body Counter Brace. Z7i "cs. 159-69, etc. A brace in the 
side frame of a car body between the bolsters and the 
end of the car. These braces are inclined in a direction 
opposite to those between the bolster and center of the 
car. Sometimes counter braces are inserted in the cen- 
tral portion of the car between the two bolsters. They 
are then termed center counter braces. See, Counter 
Brace and Framing. 

Body Counter Brace Rod. 37, figs. 159-69. Usually an in- 




dined iron rod in the side frame of a car body, between 
the bolster and the end of the car. It may be a diagonal 
brace rod in a Pratt truss, which runs counterwise with 
those rods which carry the load. It may then be be- 
tween the bolsters. 

Body End Furring (Street Cars). Furring in the end of a 

Body End Plate. A plate across the end of the car joining 
the side plates together. They are frequently made very 
wide and heavy. See, End Plate. 

Body End Raiu See, End Rail. 

Body End Rib (Street Car). A rib in the end of a street 
car. See, Body Rib. 

Body Hand Raiu 44, figs. 388-91. An iron rod or bar at- 
tached to the end of passenger and street cars for per- 
sons to take hold of in getting on or off the cars; 
not to be confused with Platform Rail, which see. 

Body Knee (English). No American equivalent, A heavy 
wrought iron knee, securing the sides of the body to 
the under frame and keeping them at right angles to 
one another. 

Body Post (Freight Car Bodies). 42, figs. 139-169, 185-95. 
An upright timber which is framed into the sill 
and plate of a freight car. The body posts and corner 
posts form the vertical members of the side frame of a 
car body. In passenger cars such posts are called Win- 
dow Posts, which see. See, Post. 

Body Post Pocket. 42, figs. 159-69, etc. See, Pocket. 

Body Queen Post. 22, figs 360-72, 385-87, 388-91. An iron 
rod, bar or casting, on the under side of a car body and 
against which the body truss rods bear. It is often 
stiflfened laterally and longitudinally by a body queen 
post stay. See also. Queen Post. 

Body Queen Post Stay. 22b, figs. 388-91. See, Body 
Queen Post. 

Body Rib or Side Stud (Street Car). A rib of car body 
framing which corresponds to the studs. They are 
curved to conform to the shape of the street car car 

Body Ring (Pintsch Lamp), 301, figs. 2605-21. 

Body Side Bearings. 16, figs. 159-69, 185-95, 223-26, 271-95, 
etc.; 9, FIGS. 804-05. The upper one of the two Side 
Bearings, which see, attached to the body bolsters. 

Body Spring. A Bolster Spring, which see. 

Body Transom. 22, figs. 159-69, etc.; 26, figs. 360-72, etc. 
A name sometimes given to the Needle Beams or Cross 
Frame Tie Timber, which see, bolted to the under side 
of the sills. 

Body Truss Roa 19, figs. 159-69, 185-95, 215-22, 271- 
95, etc.; 20, figs. 360-72, 385-87» 388-9I1 and figs. 630-33. 
A long rod under a car body to truss it and prevent it 
from sagging in the center. This rod is usually con- 
tinuous from end sill to end sill, but sometimes it is 
attached to a truss rod anchor iron on or near to the 
body bolster. In passenger cars the use of the Truss 
Rod Anchor Iron, 24, figs. 360-72, is very common, al- 
though some roads use a continuous rod. The truss 
rods are distinguished as center and side or outside 
body truss rods. The center truss rods are universally 
continuous from end sill to end sill. There are usually 
four truss rods to a car. See also. Inverted Body Truss 

Body Truss Rod Bearing. 21, figs. 159-^ 185-95, 215-22, 
271-95; figs. 497-502. A cast or wrought iron plate 
or posti on the under side of a truss block, or of a 
cross frame tie timber, serving the purpose of a Body 
Queen Post, which see. 

Body Truss Rod Hopper Strap. A tie strap passing under 
and supporting the hopper of a gondola car, the ends 
of which strap are fastened to the round body truss 
rods, which carry the stress to the end sills. 

Body Truss Rod Saddle. 20, figs. 159-69, 185-95, 215-22, 
271-95, etc. ; 21, figs. 360-72. A block of wood or cast- 
ing which forms a distance piece on top of a bolster, 

and on which a continuous body truss rod bears. Prop- 
erly speaking, a saddle means a common bearing for a 
pair of rods with a central support, but it is not re- 
stricted to such use. 

Body Truss Rod Washer. 19a, figs. 159-69. A heavy 
washer on the outside face of the end sill, on which 
the nut of the body truss rod bears. 

Bogie (English). A swiveling Car Truck, which see. 
All American eight wheeled cars and coaches are what 
^re termed in England bogie carriages, or wagons. 

Bogie Carriage (English). A vehicle for passenger 
service recently much used on the fastest trains. The 
body is from 40 to 54 feet long, divided into compart- 
ments, with side doors, and seating from 30 to 80 
passengers. It is carried on four or six wheel trucks. 
See also, Carriage. 

Bogus Plate (Refrigerator Cars). A horizontal tim- 
ber attached to the posts on the inside of the car, a 
short distance below the plate. The bogus plates sup- 
port horizontal cross timbers, called meat timbers, or 
hanging bars, to which hooks are attached for hanging 

BoHN Refrigerator. Figs. 196-98. A system of refrigera- 
tion in which the cold air is siphoned from the ice 
tanks into the circulating passages of the car. The 
same principle is used on small refrigerators for dining 
and cafe cars. 

Boies Car Wheels. Figs. 4167-72. A steel tired wheel 
with a wrought iron single plate, or with a double plate 
center. The single plate seems most in favor, and is 
fastened by what the manufacturers call an integral 
tire lock. This lock and the manner of fastening the 
tire are shown in the engravings, with the cross section 
of the tire, fig. 4168. 

Boiler (Steam Shovel). 26, figs. 357-59. 

Boiler Wagon (English). A six or eight wheeled car 
having two bogies or trucks at the ends with a drop- 
down platform between them, adapted to carry any ex- 
. ceptionally heavy or bulky load, such as a boiler, a 
heavy piece of machinery or a portable engine. It is 
mechanically an American freight car, with the middle 
portion dropped down to near the level of the rails. 

Bolster. Figs. 764-820, 4057-81, etc. A cross timber or 
trussed beam on the under side of a car body (Body 
Bolster, which see), and in the center of a truck 
(Truck Bolster, which see). The bolsters carry the 
body and truck center plates, the body bolster resting 
on the truck bolster. Special forms for passenger cars 
are Compound Bolster, Double Iron Body Bolster, 
which see. Figs. 811-20. 

Truck bolsters are either Swing Bolsters, which see, 
admitting of lateral motion to ease off shocks, or rigid 
bolsters, which permit no lateral motion. All passenger 
trucks have swing bolsters. In freight car service the 
rigid bolster has the preference, and rigid bolster trucks 
are the more numerous. 

Bolster Bridge (Six Wheel Truck). 62, figs. 3781 -3951. A 
Side Bearing Bridge, which see. 

Bolster Center Casting. A hollow rectangular shaped 
casting placed between the draft timbers and body 
bolster plates; the king bolt passes through it. 

Bolster Distance Block. The same as a Body Bolster 
Thimble, which see. 

Bolster End Cap. 17, fig. 3735. A metal plate oyer the 
end of the truck bolster, replacing the bolster truss 
rod washers used on trussed wooden bolsters. 

Bolster Flitch Plate. The iron or steel plates of a built 
bolster sandwiched between wood pieces. They are 
rarely met with now, having been almost entirely supcr-^ 
seded by the metal bolster. 
They are also called bolster sandwich plates. 

Bolster Jack Screws (Wrecking Cars). Jack screws at- 
tached to the spring plank for the purpose of taking^ 
the load off the springs and making the entire truck 




and car body one rigid structure when the der- 
rick of the wrecking car is in use. Tongs or Crabs^ 
which see, and detached jack screws are used to ac- 
complish the same end. 

Bolster Plates (Passenger Car Trucks). Figs. 4023-25. 
Wrought iron plates bolted to the sides of wooden 
bolsters to strengthen them. 

Bolster Sandwich Plate. See above. 

Bolster Springs. 80, figs. 3735-3951, and fig. 4151. The 
main springs of a car, carried on the spring plank and 
supporting the truck bolster, on which the weight of 
the car body rests. 

Bolster Spring Cap. 75, figs. 373S-39SI ; "cs. 3957-58. Sec, 
Spring Plate. 

Bolster Spring Seat. 74, figs. 3735-3951, and figs. 3802-03, 
3957-8. See, Spring Plate. 

Bolster Truss Block. A timber serving as a distance piece 
to fill a vacant space between the bolster and the center 
plate. There are two, a Body Bolster Truss Block and 
a Truck Bolster Truss Block, which see. 

Bolster Truss Rod. See, Body Bolster Truss Rod. Truck 
Bolster Truss Rod. 

Bolster Truss Rod Washer. See, Body Bolster Truss 
Rod Washer. Truck Bolster Truss Rod Washer. 

Bolt. i. A pin, rod or bar of metal used to hold or fasten 
anything in its place; ordinarily a bolt has a head on 
one end and a screw and nut on the other, while a rod 
has a nut on both ends. 

Various forms of bolts, which see for further defini- 
tion, are as follows: 
Carriage Bolt. Lug Bolt. 

Eye Bolt. Machine Bolt. 

Jaw Bolt. Strap Bolt, or U-shaped 

Joint Bolt. Bolt. 

Key Bolt. 

For bolts whose names are derived from the purpose 
for which they serve, see, 

Box Bolt. Journal Box Cover Bolt. 

Brake Safety Chain King Bolt (or Center 

Bolt. Pin). 

Column Bolt. Piston Follower Bolt. 

Discharge Valve Stop Reversing Valve Plate 

Bolt. Bolt. 

Draft Bolt. Stake Pocket U-Bolt. 

Drawbar Bolt. Stop Bolt. 

Hub Bolt. Tire Bolt. 

Journal Box Bolt. 

2. (Locks and Latches.) A bar which enters the 
keeper or strike plate and effects the lock. See, 
Berth Latch Bolt. Door Sash Bolt. 
Cupboard Bolt. Door Sash Lock Bolt. 
Door Latch Bolt. Seat Lock Bolt. 

Door Lock Bolt. Sofa Bolt. 

3. Figs. 1889-1907. A Door Bolt, which see, moved 
in slides directly by the hand to fasten an opening. See 

Barrel Door Bolt. Head Board Bolt. 

Flush Bolt. Window Blind Bolt. 

Bolt Stop (Seat Lock). Figs. 3294-95. A small pin passing 
through the bolt to check excessive withdrawal. 

Bonnet (Passenger Cars). A Platform Hood, which see. 

Books, Catalogues, Pamphlets, Etc. (M. C. B. Standard 
Sizes). See, M. C. B. Reports. 

Boom (Steam Shovel). 6, figs. 357-59. The heavy swing- 
ing arm which carries the boom engine and ratchet 
beam. It is stepped at the foot of the A frame and held 
in its inclined position by boom guys. 

Boom Cap Clevis (of a Derrick, Steam Shovel or Crane). 
Figs. 357-59. A Clevis, which see, sometimes attached 
to the upper end of the boom, to which the fixed end 
of the hoisting rope is attached. In other cases the 
clevis for this purpose is carried on the hoisting block. 

Boom Engine (Steam Shovel). 8, figs. 357-59- An en- 
gine mounted on the boom to operate the ratchet beam. 

Boom Foot Sheave (Steam Shovel). 31, figs. 357-59. 

Boom Guys (Steam Shovel). 12, figs. 357-59. Guys 
from the point of the boom to the top of the A frame, 
holding the boom in its inclined position. 

Boom Idler Sheave (Steam Shovel). 32, figs. 357-59. 

Boom Point Sheave (Steam Shovel). 33, figs. 357-59- 
See, Boom Sheave. 

Boom Sheave (of a Derrick, Steam Shovel or Crane). 
Figs. 357-59. A sheave carried at the upper extremity of 
the boom, over which the hoisting chain passes. 

Boom Shoe (of a Derrick or Crane). A casting carried 
at the foot of the mast and constructed so as to be able 
to revolve against the boom base. It is supported by 
boom shoe rods. 

Boom Shoe Rods (of a Derrick or Crane). Rods at- 
tached to the head block or cap at the top of the mast 
and supporting the boom shoe. 

Boom Shoe Rollers (of a Derrick or Crane). Rollers at 
the foot of the mast upon which the boom shoe re- 

BosLEY Weather Strips. Figs. 2149-52. See, Weather 

Boss, OR Hub (of a Steel Tired Wheel). The central por- 
tion, through which the axle passes. Boss is the usual 
English term, but little used in the United States. 

Boston Finish Flush Door Bolt. Fig. 1899. 

Bottle Breaking Head (Babcock Fire Extinguisher). Fia 
2969. It breaks the acid bottle by screw pressure. 

Bottom. "The lowest part of anything; as the bottom of a 
well, vat or ship." — Webster. See, 
Alcove Bottom. Lamp Bottom. 

Candle Lamp Bottom. Seat Bottom. 

Drop Bottom. Slide Bottom. 

Fire Proof Bottom. Water Bottom. 

Hopper Bottom. 

Bottom Arch Bar. 15, figs. 3735-53. An inverted arch bar. 
The pedestal tie bar is sometimes called bottom arch 
bar. See, Arch Bar. 

Bottom Cap (Engineer's Valve). 5, figs. 907-09. Another 
term for a lower cap of a valve. 

Bottom Case (Engineer's Valve, etc.)- 4, figs. 907-09. 
Another term for a lower case of a valve. 

Bottom Chord (of Trusses). See, Lower Chord. Neither 
term is regularly used to designate any part of car 
trusses, but the side sills are bottom chords in trussed 
side frames. 

Bottom Cross Piece (English). The transverse piece in 
the Under Framing, which see, supporting the floor 
and partition. Also called bottom cross bar. 

Bottom Door Panel (English). The lowest panel on the 
outside of the door of a carriage. 

Bottom Door Rail. 5, figs. 1029-37 and 147, figs. 388-91. 
The lower transverse piece of a Door Frame, which 

Bottom Door Track. 66, figs. 159-69, and figs. 674-5. A 
door track below a sliding door. Usually a metal bar. 
Sliding doors are often provided with rollers or slides, 
which rest on the track. Freight car doors usually slide 
on a Top Door Track, which see. See also. Door 
Hanger and Car Door Hanger. 

Bottom End Piece (English). American equivalent, end 
sill. The transverse end piece in the under frame of a 
passenger vehicle. 

Bottom Light Rail (English). A part of the body fram- 
ing of a carriage, forming the bottom of the window 

Bottom Panel Batten (English). American equivalent, 
furring. In a carriage, a part of the body framing used 
to stiffen the panel, which is pinned to it. See, Bottom 
Side Panel. 

Bottom Plate (Metal Body Bolster). 12b, figs. 159-69, 
223-26, 271-95, etc. ; 2, FIGS. 804-05. See, Body Bolster. 

Bottom Raiu i. (Of a Sash or Door.) 147, figs. 388-91; 




5, FIGS. 1029-37. The lowermost horizontal bar or mem- 
ber of a frame. 

Bottom Side (English). The lower longitudinal framing 
of the body of a passenger vehicle. 

Bottom Side and End Knee (English). A wrought iron 
knee, joining together the side and end members of the 
bottom of the body framing of a carriage. 

Bottom Side Panel (English). The lower panel on the 
outside of the body of a carriage. 

Bottom Stove Plate (Baker Heater). Fic. 2233. See, Ash 
Pit Bottom. 

Bow. See, Platform Hood Bow. 

Bowu See, Basin. 

Bowl (Pintsch Gas Lighting). A glass bowl used on all 
center and vestibule lamps. 

Box. See, Journal Box. Wheel Box (Street Cars). 

Box Bolt (Diamond Trucks). 108, figs. 3735-3951- The 
bolts holding the journal box in place. More properly, 
journal box bolts. 

Box Car. Figs. 1-13, 159-84; details, 440-676. A common 
form of American freight car, with roof and sides in- 
closed, to protect its contents. They are mounted upon 
two four wheel trucks. They are usually lined for half 
their height with inside lining, and sometimes provided 
with an interior grain tight grain door. See, Car. 
Freight Car. 

Box Car Details. Figs. 440-676. 

Box Car Side Door and End Door Fixtures. Figs. 4668- 
4704. (M. C. B. Recommended Practice.) In 1897 a 
committee on this subject reported with details which 
were afterward adopted by letter ballot as Recom- 
mended Practice of the Association. See Proceedings 
1897, page 186. 

Box Cover. See, Journal Box Cover. 

Box Cushion. Figs. 3251-53, etc. A cushion for passenger 
car seats made on a wooden frame. In distinction 
from a squab cushion, now little used, which is a loose 
pad on the seat. Box cushions are sometimes stuffed 
with hair or other elastic material alone, but usually 
steel springs are used in addition. 

Box Fruit Car. Figs. 7, 208-11. See, Ventilated Box 

Box Guide. See, Journal Box Guide. Pedestal. 

Box Lid. 4, figs. 3735-3951. See, Journal Box Cover. 

Box Packing. Journal Packing, which see. 

Box Room (Axle). The Dust Guard Seat, which see. 

Box Steps. 45, 46, 48, figs. 360-72. Passenger car steps 
made with wooden stringers or sides. They are to be 
distinguished from open steps. Ordinarily called the 
platform steps. 

Box Stock Car. An ordinary box car with large grated 
openings for ventilation, but excluding rain. Little 
used except for horses. See, Stock Car. 

Brace. 33, figs. 159-^, 185-95, etc.; 51, figs. 360-72, 385-87. 
An inclined beam, rod, or bar of a frame, truss, girder, 
etc., which unites two or more of the points where 
other members of the structure are connected together, 
and which prevents them from turning about their 
joints. A brace thus makes the structure incapable of 
altering its form from this cause, and it also distributes 
or transmits part of the strain at one or more of the 
joints toward the point or points of support, or resist- 
ance to that strain. A brace may be subjected to either 
a strain of compression or tension. In the former case, 
in car construction, it is called simply a brace; in the 
latter it is called a brace rod. 

They are called right or left handed, according to the 
inclination of their top to a person standing facing tHe 
car. See, 

Berth Brace. Door Brace. 

Body Brace. End Body Brace. 

Brake Lever Bracket Floor Timber Brace. 

Brace. Pedestal Brace. 

Brake Shaft Brace. Roof Brace. 

Brake Shaft Step Brace. Seat Bracket Brace. 
Compression Beam Brace. Side Lamp Brace. 
Corner Post Brace. Stop Brace. 

Brace Pocket. 39 and 41, figs. 159-69, and ncs. 451-53, 
etc. A casting which forms a socket for holding 
the ends of braces, especially of car bodies. See, Brace, 
also Double Brace Pocket. 

Brace Rod. 34, figs. 159-69, 185-95; 52, figs. 360-72. An 
inclined iron rod which acts as a brace. A vertical rod 
acting in conjunction with a brace is called a sill and 
plate rod, or, in passenger cars, for short rods below 
the window, brace straining rod. See, Body Brace 
Rod. Counterbrace Rod. 

Brace Rod Washer. 38, figs. 159-69; figs. 487-88 and 
514-5. A bearing plate for the nut or head of a brace 
rod, sometimes made a triangular or beveled shape, and 
sometimes a flat bar of iron bent to fit into a notch cut 
in the timber. 

Brace Straining Rod (Passenger Car Framing). A ver- 
tical iron rod in the side or end frame of a car body 
by which the upper end of a brace is connected or tied 
to the sill of the car. The brace rods are members of 
the truss, of which the sill, braces, posts or plates, etc., 
form parts. Such rods often have hook heads at the 
upper ends against which the braces bear, and nuts at 
the lower ends by which they are screwed up, and are 
thus brought into a state of tension and the braces into 
compression. An equivalent in freight service is the 
sill and plate rod. 

Bracket, i. "An angular stay in the form of a knee to 
support shelves and the like." — Webster. See, 
Arm Rest Bracket. Lamp Bracket. 

Basket Rack Bracket. Lamp Chimney Bracket. 

Bell Cord Strap Hanger Longitudinal Step 

Bracket. Bracket. 

Berth Bracket. Post Bracket. 

Berth Corner Bracket. Release Spring Bracket. 
Berth Curtain Rod Running Board Bracket 

Bracket*. Scheme Rod Bracket. 

Brake Lever Bracket. Seat Bracket. 

Brake Shaft Bracket. Seat Rail Bracket. 

Brake Step Bracket. Side Lamp Bracket. 

Coupling Spring Signal Light Bracket. 

Bracket. Sliding Door Bracket. 

Cylinder Lever Bracket. Smoke Bell Bracket. 
Door Track Bracket. Tender Spring Bracket. 

Hand Rail Bracket. Towel Bracket. 

Inside Hand Rail Window Curtain 

Bracket. Bracket. 

2. (Iron Framing for Bridges or Cars.) An L-shaped 
angle plate riveted to each of two members which it is 
desired to connect at right angles to each other, as an 
end sill bracket, or sill knee iron, 8, figs. 360-72. A 
stronger form, now used in car construction, is called 
a triangular Gusset Plate, which see. 

Bracket (Cast Iron Wheels). Fig. 4222. The stiffening 
ribs cast on the plate. 

Bracket Gas Burner. A gas burner attached to the side 
of a car. 

Bracket Lamp. Figs. 2569-70. A Side Lamp, which see. 
See, Pintsch Gas Lamp. 

Bracket Nut. A small Spanner Nut, which see. 

Bracket Steps (Hopper Cars). 28, figs. 271-95. Steps 
secured to the side of the car on the inside to serve as 
a substitute for a Running Board, which see. 

Brake, or Brake Gear. Figs. 821-1025. The whole com- 
bination of parts by which the motion of a car is re- 
tarded or arrested. Passenger car brakes are now al- 
most exclusively air brakes, operated by compressed air. 
The most important is the Westinghouse, although the 
New York is in limited use. The air brake is now al- 
most exclusively used in its automatic form, and by the 
term air brake the automatic brake is understood. 




On freight cars the continuous or train brakes have 
been introduced in large numbers. All new equipment 
is now supplied with automatic air brakes. The West- 
inghouse Air Brake Company has supplied the bulk of 
the equipment. 

The brake beams are either inner hung, figs. 821-22, 
or outer hung, figs. 823-24 Inner hung brakes are also 
termed compression rod brakes, the brake lever coupling 
bar or brake lever strut which unites them being in 

Brake Axle (Hand Car). A shaft carrying an S Brake 
Shoe, which see. 

Braice Beam. Figs. 832-873; 84, figs. 3781-3951- Trans- 
verse iron, steel, or wooden bars to which the brake 
block and shoes are attached. They are either inner 
hung or outer hung, and often trussed, especially in pas- 
senger service. 

Brake Beam Adjusting Hanger. 121, figs. 378i-395I- 
A link attached to a brake beam so as to cause the 
latter and the brake head and shoe to manitain the 
same relative positions when the brakes are released, so 
as to prevent the ends of the brake shoes from coming 
in contact with the wheel when the brakes are released. 
It is attached to the truck transoms or truck bolster in 
freight trucks, and to the truck frame end piece in 
passenger trucks, by a projecting brake beam adjusting 
hanger carrier, and to the brake beam by an eye or clip. 
Sometimes called a parallel brake hanger. 

Brake Beam Adjusting Hanger Carrier. 120, figs. 3781- 
3951. See above. 

Brake Beam Adjusting Hanger Eye or Cup. 123, figs. 
3781 -395 1. See above. 

Brake Beam Chafing Plate. A plate attached to a brake 
beam against which a brake spring bears, designed to 
resist the wear due to the action of the spring. 

Brake Beam Data. (M. C. B.) Fig. 4293. 

Certain dimensions and capacities of brake beam 
were adopted as standard of the Association, by letter 
ballot, in 1889, and these standards, as modified by sub- 
sequent action, are shown for iron brake beams. 

All beams must be capable of withstanding a load 
of 7,500 pounds at center without more than 1-16 inch 
deflection ; where it is necessary to use a stronger beam 
it must be capable of standing a load of 15,000 pounds 
at center without more than 1-16 inch deflection. 

The angle of brake beam lever is 40 degrees from ver- 
tical. Standard heights of brake beams, when meas- 
ured from the tops of the rails to the center of the face 
of new shoes, were adopted in 1894, as follows : 
For inside hung beams, 13 inches. 
For outside hung beams, 14^2 inches. 

Br/.ke Beam Eye Bolt. Properly an eye bolt for fasten- 
ing a lower brake rod to a brake beam. They have 
threads cut nearly their entire length, and usually a nut 
is placed on each side of the brake beam, which can be 
screwed up so as to take up the wear of the brake shoes. 

Brake Beam Fulcrum. See, Brake Lever Fulcrum. 

Brake Beam Hanger (Hand Car). 28, figs. 4722-27. A 
Brake Hanger, which see. 

Brake Beam King Post. A post or distance piece which 
forms a bearing for the truss rods of a brake beam. 
In metal brake beams the brake lever is attached to it, 
and it then becomes a brake lever fulcrum. 

Brake Beam Release Spring. See, Release Spring. 

Brake Beam Safety Chain. See, Brake Safety Chain. 

Br.\ke Beam Safety Guard. See, Brake Safety Chain. 

Brake Beam Strut. A brake beam king post. 

Brake Beam Truss Rod. A rod used to truss or 
strengthen a brake beam. 

Brake Block. 82 and 83, figs. 3781-3951. A piece of wood 
or metal which carries a removable shoe which bears 
directly against the tread of the wheel when the brake 
is applied. The brake blocks are attached to the ends 
of a brake beam. A brake head is supposed to be a 

combined brake block and shoe, but break block and 
brake head are often used as equivalent terms. 

Brake Carrier. See, Brake Hanger Carrier. 

Brake Chain. See, Brake Shaft Chain. 

Brake Chain Sheave. i6oa, figs. 388-91. A wheel around 
which the brake chain passes. 

Brake Chain Worm. i. 160, figs. 388-91; figs. 691-92. 
A conical casting attached to the brake shaft with a 
screw shaped groove for the brake chain. Its object is 
to produce a rapid motion at iirst and increase the 
power when the brake shoes are brought to a bearing. 

2. A cylindrical casting with a screw shaped groove 
intended only to make the chain wind evenly. 

Brake Clevis. A Brake Lever Fulcrum, which see. 

Brake Connecting Rod. More properly, Brake Chain 
Connecting Rod, which see. 

Brake Cord Guide. A guide similar to a bell cord guide 
for the air brake cord, which passes through every 
car fltted with the Westinghouse signal apparatus, and 
operates the conductor's valve. See, Bell Cord. 

Brake Cut Out Cock. Fig. 943. 

Brake Cylinder (Air Brake). Figs. 916-19 and 975-77. 
A cast iron cylinder attached to the frame of the car 
or locomotive, by which the brakes are operated. 
Upon passenger cars and locomotives the brake cylinder 
is fitted with two heads, while in the freight brake the 
auxiliary reservoir and brake cylinder are cast in one 
piece. The cylinder contams a piston, which is forced 
outwardly by the compressed air to apply the brakes, 
and is returned to its normal position when the com- 
pressed air escapes by a release spring which is coiled 
about the piston rod inside the cylinder. The piston rod 
of the passenger car cylinder, fig. 916, has a crosshead 
upon its extremity, which is attached to the cylinder 
lever. The piston rod of freight car cylinder, figs. 918- 
19, and tender cylinder, fig. 917, is hollow and loosely 
incloses a push bar, which latter is attached to the cyl- 
inder lever. The piston of the driving brake cylinder 
has a crosshead to which brake connections are at- 
tached. In the Eames vacuum brake a diaphragm takes 
the place of the brake cylinder. 

Brake Cylinder Block (Westinghouse Freight Brake 
Gear). A stick for attaching the combined cylinder 
and auxiliary reservoir to the under side of the sills. 
See, Auxiliary Reservoir Beam, a similar part for 
passenger cars. 

Brake Cylinder Pipe (Westinghouse Brake). The pipe 
which connects the brake cylinder with the triple valve. 

Brake Cylinder Plate (Westinghouse Freight Brake). 
Figs. 628-9. The plate to which the brake cylinder is 
bolted and by which it is attached to the sills. 

Brake Dog. A Brake Pawl, which see. ^ 

Brake Drum. A Brake Shaft Drum, which see. 

Brake Eye Bolt. 85, figs. 3781-3951. 

Brake Finger. A Brake Pawl, which see. 

Brake Foot Board. A Brake Step, which see. 

Brake Gear [(Air) for Freight Cars (M. C. B. Stand- 
ards)]. Figs. 4303-7, 4341-44- See, Air Brakes— Gen- 
eral Arrangements and Details. 

Brake Gear, Foundation (M. C. B. Standard). Figs. 

Brake Gear. (Rules for Interchange of Traffic.) 


Rule 29. Defective, missing or worn-^ 
out parts of brakes, not elsewhere provided 
for, which have failed under fair usage, 
except missing material on cars offered in 

Rule 30. Cylinder or triple valves of 
air brake cars not cleaned and oiled within 
twelve months and the date of last clean- 
ing and oiling marked on the brake cylin- 
der with white paint. 









' responsibility 
afif " 

Rule 31. If i-inch hose and fittings are' 
found on 1 54-inch train pipe. 

Rule 32. Missing or torn air brake 
hose or missing or broken air brake fit- 
tings, angle cocks, cut-out cocks, cylinders 
and reservoirs, triple valves, release valves 
and pressure retaining valves or parts of 
any of these items. 

Rule 33. Damage to any part of the 
brake apparatus caused by unfair usage, 
derailment or accident. 

Rule 34. If the car has air signal pipes ^ 
or air brake pipes, but no air brakes, the 
hose and couplings on the car are at own- 
er's risk, unless the car is stenciled that it 
is so equipped. 

Brake Hand Rail. 190, figs. 159-69, etc. A hand rail, on 
the roof of box and stock cars, usually made of *gas 
pipe, for the protection of brakemen when applying 
brakes. It is stiffened by a hand rail brace. 

Brake Hand Wheel. 93, figs. 159-69 and 157, figs. 388-9; 
475-6. See, Brake Wheel. 

Brake Handle.' See, Lindstrom Brake. 

Brake Hanger. 86, figs. 3735-3951. A link or bar by 
which brake beams and attachments are suspended from 
a truck frame or car body. It is attached to truck and 
car body by a brake hanger carrier. Brake hangers are 
distinguished as hooked, linked and U-shaped. 

2. (English.) A wrought iron bar by which the brake 
block is suspended. No brake beam is used. 

Brake Hanger Bolt. 188, figs. 159-69. A bolt which 
fastens the brake hanger to the brake hanger carrier. 

Brake Hanger Bearing. 87, figs. 3735-3951. A casting 
which is held by a brake hanger carrier, and which 
forms a bearing for a brake hanger. 

Brake Hanger Bracket (English). American equivalent, 
brake hanger bearing. A bearing for the brake hanger, 
generally made of wrought iron. 

Brake Hanger Carrier. 87, figs. 3735-3951 and 3870-72. 
An eye or U-bolt, a casting or other fastening by 
which a brake hanger is attached to the truck or 
body of a car. See also. Parallel Brake Hanger Car- 
rier and Brake Beam Adjusting Hanger Carrier. 

Brake Hanger Pin. Fig. 3918. A pin passing through 
the brake hanger carrier and brake hanger. 

Brake Hanger Timber. A short transverse timber be- 
tween the floor timbers of a car body, and which is 
framed into them, and to which the brake hangers, 
which are hung from the body of a car, are attached. 

Brake Head. 83; figs. 3781-3951. A piece of iron or wood 
attached to a brake beam and which bears against the 
wheels, and combines both a brake block and brake 
shoe in one piece. The term is also commonly applied 
to brake blocks which carry a detachable shoe. See, 
Christie, and below. 

Brake Head and Shoe (M. C B. Standard). Figs. 4295- 
4302. The brake head and shoe shown and known as 
the Christie brake head and shoe, were adopted as a 
standard of the Association, by letter ballot in 1886, 
with the exception of some slight modification in de- 
tails made since that date. Drawing revised in 1896 
and in 1898. 

The revision made in 1896 consisted in the modifi- 
cation of the designs of brake head and shoe so 
as to secure increased clearance at the ends of shoe and 
equal clearance both above and below the central lug 
on the back of the shoe ; also, the addition of brackets 
to support the lower bridge lug of brake head similar 
to the brackets formerly used to support the upper 
bridge lug. The taper of the shoe was altered so that 
it would correspond with the taper of the standard 
wheel tread, by increasing the thickness of the inner 
edge of the shoe from i 3-16 inches to i 5-16 inches. 
The revision made in 1898 consisted in reducing the 

clearance allowed on either side (above and below) the 
central lug of brake shoe and adjacent lugs of brake 
head from ^ inch to 1-16 inch — ^the change being made 
wholly in the head and no change in the shoe. 

For action of the Association, see Proceedings 1886, 
page 72; Proceedings 1888, pages 140, 160, 161; Pro- 
ceedings 1891, pages 212 and 240. 

Brake Hose (Air Brakes). Figs. 936-37, Flexible tubes 
made of rubber and canvas by which the cars are con- 
nected together, and compressed air, which operates the 
brakes, conducted through the train. The hose is made 
with a coupling at each end of each car, so that they 
can readily be connected or disconnected. See, Armored 
Brake Hose. 

Brake Hose Armor. See, Armored Brake Hose. 

Brake Hose Coupling. (Air Brake). Figs. 939-4a A 
contrivance for coupling or connecting the ends of a 
pair of brake hose together, so that the air by which the 
brakes are operated can pass from one vehicle in a trai*: 
to another. The couplings for train signal apparatus 
are made with thicker lips than brake hose couplings, 
though otherwise similar, to avoid danger of wrong 

Brake Hose Coupung Case (Air Brake). Figs. 939-40. 
A hollow casting which joins the main part of a coup- 
ling to which the hose is attached. 

Brake Hose Nipple (Air Brake). Fia 93a A tubular 
elbow connecting the coupling hose and the brake pipe. 

Brake Hose, Specifications for. In 1901 the following 
specifications and tests for an air brake hose were 
adopted as Recommended Practice: 

1. All air brake hose must be soft and pliable and 
not less than three ply nor more than four ply. These 
must be made of rubber and cotton fabric, eacK of 
the best of its kind made for the purpose ; no rubber 
substitutes or short fiber cotton to be used. 

2. Tube must be hand made, composed of three 
calendars of 1-32 inch rubber. It must be free from 
holes and imperfections in general, and must be so 
firmly united to the cottton fabric that it cannot be 
separated without breaking or splitting in two. The 
tube must be a high quality of rubber, and must be 
such composition as to successfully meet the require- 
ments of the stretching test given below ; the tube to 
be not less than 3-32 inch thick at any point. 

3. The canvas or woven fabric used as wrapping 
for the hose to be made of long fiber cotton loosely 
woven, and to weigh not less than 22 ounces per yard, 
and to be from 38 inches to 40 inches wide. The 
wrapping must be frictioned on both sides, and must 
have in addition a distinct coating or layer of gum 
between each ply of wrapping. The canvas wrapping 
to be applied on the bias. 

4. The cover must be of the same quality of gum 
as the tube, and must not be less than 1-16 inch to 
H inch. 

5. Air brake hose to be furnished in 22-inch 
lengths. Variations exceeding % inch in length will 
not be permitted. Hose must be capped on ends with 
not less than 1-16 inch or more than % inch rubber 
caps. Caps must be vulcanized on, not pasted or 

6. The inside diameter of all V/i inch air brake 
hose must not be less than iJ4 inches or more than 
I 5-16 inches, except at the ends, which are to be 
enlarged 3-16 inch for a distance of 2^ inches, the 
change from the smaller to the larger to be made 

The outside diameters must be kept within the 
following dimensions: 

The main part of hose i% inches to 2 inches. 

The enlarged ends 2 1-16 inches to 2 3-16 inches. 

The hose must be finished smooth and regular in 
size throughout, as stated above. 




7. Each standard length of hose must be branded 
with the name of the manufacturer, year and month 
when made, and serial number, the initials of the 
railway company, and also have a table of raised let- 
ters at least 3-16 inch high to show the date of appli- 
cation and removal. 

Each lot of 200 or less hose must bear the manu- 
facturer's serial number, commencing at i on the first 
of the year and continuing consecutively until the 
end of the year. 

For each lot of 200 or less one extra hose must be 
furnished free of cost for test. 

All markings to be full and distinct and made on a 
thin layer of white or red rubber, vulcanized, and so 
applied as to be removed either by cutting with a 
knife or sharp instrument. 

8. Test hose will be subjected to the following 

Bursting Test.— Test hose must stand for ten 
minutes a pressure of 500 pounds before bursting. 
Each hose must stand a shop test of 200 pounds. 

Friction Test.— A section i inch long will be taken 
from any part of the hose and the friction determined 
by the force and the time required to unwind the 
hose, the force to be applied at right angles to line of 
separation. With a weight of 25 pounds suspended 
from the separated end, the separation must be uni- 
form and regular, and, when unwinding, the average 
speed must not exceed 6 inches in ten minutes. 

Stretching Test.— A i-inch section of the rubber tube 
or inner lining will be cut out at the lapped or thick- 
est part. Marks 2 inches apart will be placed on the 
test piece; it will then be stretched until the marks 
are 10 inches apart, and released immediately. The 
piece will then be re-marked as at first and stretched 
to 10 inches, or 400 per cent, and will remain 
stretched ten minutes. It will then be released and 
the distance measured between the marks ten minutes 
after the release. In no case must test piece show 
defective rubber or show a permanent set of more 
than ^ inch between the 2-inch marks. 

Small strips taken from the cover or friction will 
be subjected to the same tests. 

9. If the test hose fails to meet the required tests, 
the lot from which they are taken may be rejected 
without further examination. If the test hose is 
satisfactory the entire lot will be examined, and those 
complying with the requirements herein set forth will 
be accepted. All rejected hose will be returned to 
manufacturers, they paying freight charges both 

Brake Lever. 92, figs. 378i-39Si; details, figs. 4308-36, 
3845-48, etc. A lever by which the power employed to 
apply the brakes is transmitted to the brake beams. The 
brake levers are connected to the brake beams at or 
near the short ends of the former, and the brake shaft 
connecting rod, or some equivalent part, to the other 


When only one brake lever to a truck is used, the 
pressure of the two brake beams is unequal. To ob- 
viate this two brake levers are used, which are further 
distinguished as dead lever and live lever. The upper 
end of the dead levers is then attached to a brake lever 
stop or dead lever guide. Dead levers are also called 
fixed brake levers. See, Centre Brake Lever. Float- 
ing Lever. 

2. (English.) A long bar attached to the brake shaft 
in order to apply the brake by hand. 

Brake Lever Bracket. A wrought iron knee on the 
under side of a car, to which the fulcrum of a brake 
lever is sometimes attached. 

Brake Lever Bracket Brace. A diagonal wrought iron 
brace to stiffen the brake lever bracket. 

Brake Lever Clevis. A Brake Lever Fulcrum, which see. 

Brake Lever Coupling Bar (Inner Hung Brakes). A 
compression bar connecting the two brake levers (dead 
lever and live lever), to which it is fastened by the 
coupling bar pin. When the brakes are outer hung, 
this member becomes in tension instead of compression 
and is known *as the lower brake rod. It is called a 
brake strut. 

Brake Lever Fulcrum. 93, figs. 3781-3951. A forked 
iron attached to the brake beam, by means of which a 
brake lever is connected to the beam. It is usually a 
jaw bolt. In some cases a casting is used, brake lever 
jaw. In the trussed iron brake beam the king post of 
the brake beam becomes the brake lever fulcrum. See, 
Brake Beam King Post. 

Brake Lever Guard (English). No American equivalent. 
A curved wrought iron bar which confines the move- 
ment of the brake lever within proper limits. See also. 
Brake Lever Ratchet. 

Brake Lever Guide. 94, figs. 3781 -3951; figs. 589-91. 
An iron bar which guides the upper end of a brake 
lever. Further distinguished as live lever and dei-d 
lever guides, the latter provided with pins for re- 
adjustment as the brake shoes wear; and also called a 
brake lever stop. 

Brake Lever Handle (English). The handle at the end 
of the brake lever. 

Brake Lever Jaw. A Brake Lever Fulcrum, which see. 

Brake Lever Ratchet (English). Teeth cut in the 
Brake Lever Guard (which see) to prevent the brake 
coming off after being applied. 

Brake Lever Stop. 95, figs. 3781-3951 and 3881-83. An 
iron bar or loop attached to a truck or car frame, 
and which holds the upper end of a fixed or dead brake 
lever. It usually has holes in it in which a fulcrum pin 
is inserted. By moving the pin from one hole to another 
the lever is adjusted so as to take up the wear of the 
brake shoes. Also called dead lever guide. 

Brake Lever Strut. A brake lever coupling bar. 

Brake Mast. A Brake Shaft, which see. 

Brake Pawl. 103, figs. 159-69, etc., and figs. 623-4. A 
small pivoted bar for engaging in the teeth of a Brake 
Ratchet Wheel^ which see. It is placed in such a po- 
sition as to be worked by the foot. 

Brake Pawl Carrier. Figs. 493-96. See, Brake Pawl 
and Brake Ratchet Wheel. 

Brake Pawl Dog. Figs. 523-4. A pivoted casting serv- 
ing as a weight to throw up the brake pawl so as to en- 
gage with the ratchet when the ratchet is on the under 
side of the brake ratchet wheel. Also applied to an ec- 
centric which holds a pawl against a ratchet wheel. 

Brake Pin. Figs. 3918-20. A pin used in the brake lever 
coupling bar and other connections. 

Brake Pipe (Air Brake). An iron pipe extending from 
one end of the car to the other under the car body 
and connected to the pipes on the adjoining cars by 
flexible brake hose, serving to convey the air from the 
air pump on the engine to the auxiliary reservoirs at- 
tached to the cars. These pipes are filled with com- 
pressed air when the brakes are not on. When the lat- 
ter are to be applied the air is allowed to escape from 
the pipes, which causes the triple valves to open com- 
munication between the auxiliary reservoirs and the 
brake cylinders, so that the compressed air stored up in 
the reservoirs acts on the pistons and brake levers. The 
popular term for this pipe is a train pipe, or, more prop- 
erly, a train brake pipe, to distinguish it from the train 
signal pipe or steam heating pipes. 

Brake Pipe Strainer (Air Brake). Figs. ^2-72^. 

Brake Ratchet Gear, Complete. Includes the ratchet 
wheel, the pawl, the dog, the carrier. 

Brake Ratchet Wheel. 103, figs. 159-69- A wheel at- 
tached to a brake shaft, having teeth shaped like saw 
teeth, into which a pawl engages, thus preventing the 
wheel and shaft from turning backward. In some forms 




the ratchet wheel has the ratchet upon the under side, 
instead of on the edge ; the brake pawl being automat- 
ically pressed upward against the teeth by a counter 
weight, called a brake pawl dog, and without being ad- 
justed by the foot of the brakeman. Such a ratchet 
wheel is shown in figs. 505-6. The brake pawl is pivoted 
in the Brake Pawl Casrier, fig. 493, which latter is 
bolted to the roof of the car. 

In 1879 the M. C. B. Convention recommended that 
the practice of placing the ratchet gear on a small plat- 
form or brake step be discontinued, and that they be 
fastened to a suitable casting on the roof. Their recom- 
mendation has not been universally adopted, though it 
is a very common practice. 

Brake Rod. Any rod serving to connect brake levers, but 
especially the Lower Brake Rod, 97, figs. 373S-395i» 
which see, and the Secondary Brake Rod, which see. 
The brake shaft connecting rod is sometimes called the 
main brake rod. See, 

Lower Brake Rod. Main Brake Rod. 

Secondary Brake Rod. 

2. (English.) A bar of iron connecting the brake 
shaft arms to the brake blocks. 

Brake Rod Guide. Any form of special support for a brake 

Brake Safety Chain, or Link. 88, figs. 3781-3951* 
A chain attached by brake safety chain eye bolts to a 
brake beam and to the truck or body of a car. It is in- 
tended for the same purpose as a Brake Safety Strap 
or a Brake Beam Safety Hanger, which see, to hold 
the brake beams in case a brake hanger should break. 
Sometimes made of a single link or bar. A brake beam 
safety guard is not bolted or fastened to the brake 
beam, but is usually a T-shaped forging, the stem being 
bolted to the truck frame, the cross bar hanging under 
the brake beam to prevent it falling upon the track if 
the hanger break. 

Brake Safety Chain Eye Bolt. 89, figs. 378i-395I- An 
eye bolt attached to a truck or car body, and which 
holds a brake safety chain. 

Brake Safety Strap. 90, figs. 3781-3951. A strap of iron 
fastened to the end piece or transom of a truck and bent 
into such a shape as to embrace the brake beam. In 
case any of the hangers should give way, the safety 
strap is intended to catch and hold the beam and pre- 
vent it from falling on the track. Sometimes it is made 
of steel, and used as a brake spring for throwing off the 
brake. A Brake Safety Chain, which see, is another 
device for the same purpose. 

Brakf Shaft. Fig. 604; 94, figs. 159-^, 27i-95> etc.; 
152, figs. 388-91, etc. A vertical shaft on which a chain 
is wound and by which the power of a hand brake is ap- 
plied to the wheels. It is sometimes made horizontal, 
and so called, as 95, figs. 164-66, etc In box and stock 
cars it extends above the roof, and is called a long 
brake shaft 

The M. C. B. Association (1879) recommended "that 
all brake shafts be placed on the left-hand corner of the 
car when a person is standing on the track facing the 
end of the car." See, Horizontal Brake Shaft. Long 
Brake Shaft. 

2. (English.) A horizontal shaft to which are at- 
tached brake shaft arms, which actuate the brake blocks. 
A long lever is attached to it, provided with a handle, 
by which the brakes can be applied. 

Brake Shaft (M. C. B. Position and Dimensions). Figs. 

In 1893 the following Recommended Practice was 
adopted to protect trainmen from accident, under the 
sub-heads as given. The brake shaft to be placed on 
what is the left hand comer of the car when a person is 
standing on the track facing the end of the car; the 
ratchet wheel and brake pawl to be fastened to a suit- 
able casting attached to the roof; the center of the 

brake shaft to be 20 ins. from the middle of the car. In 
1902 this was adopted as standard. 

Brake Shaft Arm (English). See above. 

Brake Shaft Bearing. A metal eye by which a brake 
shaft is held in its place, and in which it turns. 
See, Brake Shaft Step. Lower Brake Shaft Bear- 
ing. Upper Brake Shaft Bearin& 

Brake Shaft Bevel Gear Wheel. i6ob, figs. 388-91. 

Brake Shaft Bracket. 99, figs. 159-69. A support for 
holding a horizontal brake shaft in its place. 

Brake Shaft Chain. 150, figs. 159-69; figs. 619-20. A 
chain connecting the brake shaft with the brake levers 
through the brake shaft connecting rods, to the end of 
which it is attached. The force exerted on the shaft is 
transmitted by this chain. See, Horizontal Brake 
Shaft Chain. 

Brake Shaft Chain Sheave. A roller over which a brake 
shaft chain passes. 

A sheave attached to the end sill for the chain of a 
horizontal brake shaft to work in, 105, figs. 159-69. 

Brake Shaft Connecting Rod. 151, nGs. 159-69, etc A 
rod which is attached at one end to a brake chain and 
at the other to a brake lever, or to the floating lever. 

Brake Shaft Crank (Street Cars). An elbow attached to 
the upper end of the brake shaft, carrying a handle for 
turning the brake shaft and operating the brake. 

Brake Shaft Crank Handle (Street Cars). Called also a 
brake shaft crank or a brake handle. See above. 

Brake Shaft Cross Bearer (English). A piece of timber 
secured to the under frame and carrying a wrought 
iron bracket, in which the brake shaft works. 

Brake Shaft Drum. The part of a brake shaft on which 
the brake chain is wound. See, Brake Chain Worm. 

Brake Shaft Gear Wheel. i6ob, figs. 388-91. A bevel 
gear wheel attached to the brake shaft, by which the 
power applied to the brake hand wheel is conveyed to a 
horizontal winding shaft or worm, called a brake chain 
guide casting. 

Brake Shaft Hanger (English). A bracket by which the 
brake shaft is carried and in which it is free to revolve. 

Brake Shaft Holder. A Brake Shaft Bearing, which 

Brake Shaft Stanr A Brake Shaft Step, which see. 

Brake Shaft Step. 100, figs. 159-69, etc.; figs. 564-5- A 
bearing which holds the lower end of a brake shaft It 
usually consists of a U-shaped bar of iron, the upper 
ends of which are fastened to the car body, with a hole 
in the curved part of the bar which receives the end of 
the shaft The brake shaft step should not be confound- 
ed with a brake step, which latter is a shelf on which 
the brakeman may step when applying brakes. 

Brake Shaft Step Brace. A wrought iron brace to resist 
the pull of the brake chain. 

Brake Shaft Thimble. An iron bushing attached to some 
part of the car to form a bearing for a brake shaft 

Brake Shoe. i. Figs. 999-1025; 98, figs. 378i-395i. A 
piece of metal shaped to fit the tread of a car wheel 
and attached by a key or otherwise to a brake block or 
brake head. The latter term, however, is more properly 
a combined brake shoe and brake block in one solid 
casting. The brake shoe rubs against the tread of the 
wheel when the brakes are applied. Such shoes are 
made of cast, wrought or malleable iron or steel, usually 

cast iroa 
Brake Shoe Key. Fig. 4300. A key or wedge by which a 

brake shoe is fastened to a brake block. 
Brake Shoes, Specifications for (M. C. B. Standard). 
In 1 901 the following specifications were adopted as 
standard as a result of letter ballot: 

For Cast Iron Chilled Wheels. — Shoes when tested 
on the Master Car Builders' Association testing ma- 
chine, in effecting stops from an initial speed of 
forty miles per hour, shall develop upon a cast iron 




chilled wheel a mean coefficient of friction not less 

22 per cent when the brake shoe pressure is 2,808 

20 per cent when the brake shoe pressure is 4,152 

16 per cent when the brake shoe pressure is 6,840 

For Steel Tired Wheels.— Shoes, when tested on 
the Master Car Builders* Association testing ma- 
chine, in effecting stops from an initial speed of 
sixty-five miles per hour, shall develop upon a steel 
tired wheel a mean coefficient of friction of not less 

16 per cent when the brake shoe pressure is 2,808 

14 per cent when the brake shoe pressure is 4,152 

12 per cent wlien the brake shoe pressure is 6,840 
Brake Slack Adjusters. Figs. 885-88. A device to auto- 
matically take up any slack in the brake gear between 
the air brake cylinder and the brake shoes, so that the 
piston travel shall not be too great. 
Brake Spool. Also see. Brake Shaft Drum. An en- 
largement by a sleeve or otherwise of a brake shaft to 
give greater speed and less power to the brake gear. A 
Brake Chain Worm, which see, is a somewhat similar 
Brake Spool Step (Logging Cars). A U-shaped strap in- 
closing the brake spool, and equivalent to a Brake 
Step, which see. 
Brake Spring. A Release Spring, which see. 
Brake Staff. A Brake Shaft, which see. 
Brake Step. 100, figs. 159-69, 271-95, etc. A small 
shelf or ledge on the end of a freight car near the top, 
on which the brakeman stands when applying the brake 
from the top of a car. Also called a brake footboard. 
A brake step should not be confounded with a Brake 
Shaft Step, which see, which is a bearing for the lower 
end of a brake shaft. 

The use of brake steps has been discouraged by the 
Master Car Builders* Association, which recommended 
(Chicago, 1879) "that the small platform (brake step) 
placed at one end of freight cars, to fasten the brake 
pawl, etc., be discontinued ; the ratchet wheel and pawl 
to be fastened to a suitable casting on the roof." 
Brake Step Bracket, ioi, figs. 159-69, 271-95, etc.; and 

figs. 641-3. An iron bracket to support a brake step. 
Brake Strut. 93, figs. 3735-3951. A compression bar 
or strut between the live and dead levers of a truck 
with inside hung brakes. Probably the term brake strut 
is more common than brake lever coupling bar. Brake 
strut should not be cpn fused with brake beam strut. A 
Brake Lever Coupling Bar, which see. 
Brake Treadle (Hand Cars). A lever for applying brakes 

with the foot. 
Brake Valve (Air Brakes). The valve operated by the 
engineman to apply brakes. See, Engineer's Brake 
Brake Van (English). American equivalent, caboose, or 
baggage car. A covered vehicle in which the conductor 
(guard) of a train travels, and which is fitted with a 
powerful screw hand brake. On passenger trains it car- 
ries the passengers' baggage (luggage), express mat- 
ter (parcels), and dogs, etc. On freight (goods) trains 
it is weighted with pig iron, and is primarily used as a 
source of brake power. Also called guard's van. 

Brake Wheel. 93, figs. 159-69, 271-95, etc. A hand wheel 
attached to brake shaft, and by which the latter is 

Brake Windlass. A term sometimes used to designate 
the Brake Shaft, which see, with all its attached parts. 

Brass. "An alloy of copper and zinc. The term is com- 
monly applied to the yellow alloy of copper with about 
half its weight of zinc, in which case it is called by en- 
gineers yellow brass ; but copper alloyed with about one- 
ninth its weight of tin is the metal of brass ordnance 
or gun metal. Similar alloys used for the 'brasses* or 
bearings of machinery are called hard brass, and when 
employed for statues and metals they are called bronze.** 
— ^Toml. Cycl. Useful Arts. 

According to present usage, alloys of copper and tin, 
or of copper, tin and zinc are termed Bronzes, which 
see. Railroad Journal Bearings, which see, are often 
termed brasses, but they have the composition of 

Bridge. In car construction the term bridge means a tim- 
ber, bar or beam which is supported at each end. See, 
Bolster Bridge. Center Bearing Bridge. Side Bear- 
ing Bridge. 

Bridging (Passenger Car Framing). 6, figs. 360-72, 388- 
91, etc. Short transverse distance blocks between the 
sills of an under frame to keep the sills from displace- 
ment or buckling. A sill tie rod is usually employed to 
keep the sills drawn tightly against the bridging. It is 
toenailed and sometimes tenoned into the sills w^ith 
small tenons. 

Brill's Eureka Maximum Traction Pivotal Trucks 
(Street Cars). Fig. 4905. 

Brill's Street Car Trucks. Figs. 4905, 4909-11. 

Broad Band Elliptic Spring. Fig. 3246. See, Seat Spring. 

Broad Base Jack. Figs. 2978, 2985. See, Jack Screw. Hy- 
draulic Jack. 

Broad Gage. A term applied to a gage when the dis- 
tance between the head of the rails is greater than 4 ft. 
9 ins. The principal broad gage was 5 ft. ; other gages 
were 5 ft. 3 ins., 5 ft 6 ins., 6 ft. 00 in., etc. These gages 
have been abandoned and the 4 ft. 8>4 in. or 4 ft 9 in. 
gage adopted throughout this country on all lines. The 
broad gages, if any exist, are confined to short branches 
of no importance. Tracks of 4 ft. SI/2 and 4 ft. 9 in. 
gage allow cars which are gaged by the Interchange 
Rules to pass over them. See, Narrow Gage. Standard 

Broad Lace (English). A woolen fabric made in bands 
about 4 ins. wide and used as an ornamental border to 
the upholstery of a carriage. 

Brooks Car Seals. Figs. 3120-39, etc. 

Broom Holders. Figs. 2958-63. 

Bronze. An alloy composed of copper and tin, sometimes 
with a little zinc and lead. Bronzes also often contain 
various other metals and chemical substances, as Phos- 
phor Bronze, which see. Brass is an alloy of copper and 
zinc. Most journal bearings are bronzes. The variety of 
proportions of the various metals is very great. 

Brush. Fig. 2961, etc. See, Car Window Brush. 

Brush and Comb Rack. Figs. 2785-93. 

Brushes. Carbon plates pressing on the commutator, for 
supplying current to the armature. 

Brush Holder. Fig. 4841. A support for the brushes of an 
electric motor, providing by means of springs for a 
constant pressure of the brushes on the commutator. 

Buckeye (Little Giant) Car Coupler. Figs. 1407-20. 

Buckeye Pressed Steel Truck. Fig. 3731. A pressed steel 
truck using a plate side frame somewhat similar to the 
arch bar form of truck. 

Buckle (English). See, Bearing Spring Buckle. 

Buda Hand Cars. Figs. 4719, 4728-30. 

Buffer. An elastic apparatus or cushion attached to the 
end of a car to receive the concussions of other cars 
running against it. The term is generally applied to 
those attachments in which springs are used to give the 
apparatus elasticity. The term is often applied to a 
Drawbar, which see. 

Buffer Arm. A Drawbar Timber, which see. 

Buffer Band (Street Cars). A band of iron or steel fast- 




ened to the buffer beam to save it from wear and bruis- 

Buffer Bail A wrought iron bar at the end of a car carry- 
ing a Buffer Plate, which see. 

Buffer Beam. i. (Freight Cars.) 32a and 32, figs. 159-69, 
185-95, etc. A transverse timber bolted to the outside of 
an end sill of a car to which the buffer blocks are at- 

2. (Passenger Cars.) A term sometimes used to 
designate a platform bend timber. 

Buffer Blocks. 32, ncs. 159-69, 215-22, 223-26, 271-95, 
etc. Two blocks of wood or iron attached to the end 
sill or buffer beam of a freight car, in contradistinction 
to buffer beam, which is a single block in the middle of 
the end sill, although the latter also is sometimes desig- 
nated as a single dead block. 
Buffer blocks are sometimes called dead blocks. 

Buffer Blocks, Dimensions and Location (M. C. B. Stand- 
ards). The M. C. B. Standard dimensions of buffer 
blocks and their' location, recommended in 1873, are 
shown in figs. 4363-65. Buffer blocks are to be made 8 
ins. square on the face and 6 ins. thick, and are to be 
placed 22 ins. apart from center to center, and to have 
14 ins. space between them. 

Single dead blocks are to be not less than 30 ins. long, 
7 ins. thick and 8 ins. deep, measured vertically. In 
1893 a Recommended Practice, as shown, was adopted 
for buffer blocks, single and double, and location for 
same suitable for the old link and pin couplers. The 
beam 36 by 8 by 4 inches shown with the location of 
double buffer blocks may be omitted if construction of 
car permits. In 1897 this Recommended Practice was 
adopted as standard, with some additional details of 
buffer block. 

Buffer Block Face Plate. A metal plate bolted to the 
face of a wooden buffer block to protect the wood from 

Buffer Cushion. A circular rubber pad to prevent the 
platform or buffer springs from being overloaded. 

Buffer Guide. See, Buffer Stem Guide. 

Buffer Plate. 42a, figs. 360-72 ; 29, figs. 388-91 ; 614, 
FIGS. 1 526-1613. A plate (usually bolted to the end of 
the buffer stems) which bears and rubs against the op- 
posing plate of the next car of the train. The vestibule 
face plate is bolted or riveted to, and carried by, the 
buffer plate. 

Buffer Rod (English). A rod which transmits buffing 
strains from the buffer head to the buffer spring. See 
also. Buffer Stem. 

Buffer Rod Guide, or Buffer Block (English). A casting 
bolted to the outer side of the end sill or head stock. 

Buffer Rod Shoe (English). A casting keyed to the end 
of the buffer rod which bears on the buffing spring. 

Buffer Safety Lug. A projecting horn cast on top of 
.freight drawbars to bear against a buffer block and re- 
lieve the draw gear from excessive compressive strains. 

Buffer Shank. The square part between the buffer head 
and buffer stem. 

Buffer Spring Bed (English). Serves the purpose of the 
American draft timber. A timber in the center of the 
under frame which receives the thrust of the buffing 

Buffer Stem (Janney-Buhoup Platform). 620, figs. 1526- 
1613. The round part which passes through the buffer 
springs. The term is sometimes applied to the buffer 
bar, which includes the round stem and the square 

Buffer Stem Bracket (Janney-Buhoup Platform). 634, 
FIGS. 1526-1613. 

Buffer Stem End Washer (Janney-Buhoup Platform). 
156, FIGS. 1 526-1613. 

Buffer Stem Guides. 641, figs. 1526- 1613. Iron bushings 
inserted in the platform end sill, in which the buffer 

stems work. They are to protect the wood from abra- 
sion and wear. 

Buffer Stem Ring Washer (Janney-Buhoup Platform). 
154, figs. 1526-1613. 

Buffer Spring, i. (Passenger Cars.) 630, figs. 1526- 
1613. In the Janney and other platform equipments the 
springs that resist the compression of a train or the im- 
pact when they come together as in coupling. In 
passenger equipment this thrust is not taken by the 
drawbar alone, but by the buffers, which transmit it to 
the buffer springs, which absorb or transmit it to the 
car body. 

2. (Freight Cars.) A synonymous term for draft 
spring, there being but one set of springs for buffing 
and draft strains. Draft spring is the preferred term, al- 
though both are used. 

Buffet Car. Figs. 106-108, 133. A term (meaning, lit- 
erally, sideboard car) applied to a style of sleeping car 
or parlor car which has an ornamental buffet, where 
light lunches can be prepared for the passengers. Buffet 
smoking cars are also built in the same general style of 

Buffing and Draw Spring (English). See, Plate Buff- 
ing AND Draw Spring. 

Buffing Sub Silu A sub sill bolted to the center sills 
on the under side and forming a continuous buffing sill 
in conjunction with the draft timbers. They are bolted 
and keyed to the center sills with key blocks and bolts. 
Also called back stop timber. 

Buhoup Platform. See, Janney-Buhoup Platform. 

Bull's Eye. A convex glass lens, which is placed in 
front of a lamp to concentrate the light so as to make it 
more conspicuous for a signal. They are used to close 
the opening in fixed lamps at the ends of xars, and also 
in signal lanterns. 

Bull's Eye Lamp. See, Signal Lamp. 

Bumper. An indefinite term used to designate a buffer 
or drawbar, or a Buffer Block, which see. 

Bumper Block. A Buffer Block, which see. 

Bundle Rack. See, Basket Rack. 

Bunk. i. A rough form of sleeping berth permanently 
built against the side of a car. Is also applied to the 
upper berth of a sleeping car, though it be finished and 

2. (Logging Cars.) A crosspiece similar to a body 
bolster, on which timber is loaded. See, Body Bolster. 

Bunk Apron. 7, figs. 1778-83. In a sleeping car, a board 
nailed to the upper deck sill and projecting several 
inches below it to cover the edge of the upper berth 
when it is folded up. In the latest Pullman pattern of 
berths it has been done away with by rounding the edge 
of the upper berth or bunk and closing the upper edge 
against the upper deck sill. 

Bunk Panel. 21, figs. 1778-83. A window panel below 
the inside cornice fascia board of a sleeping car, in the 
upper berth. It shuts off the upper part of the car 

Bunk Partition. 8, figs. 1778-80. The partition between 
the two upper berths of two adjacent sleeping car sec- 

Bunk Truss (Logging Cars). An iron strap to stiffen 
the bunk. 

Bunter Beam. A buffer beam. 

Burlap. A coarse canvas for use in car upholstery, gen- 
erally manufactured 24 or 40 ins. wide. 

Burner. Figs. 2519-25. "That part of a lighting apparatus 
at which combustion takes place." — Knight. See, Lamp 

Burner Cock (Pintsch System Gas Lighting). 21a, fig. 
2524. It is used in wall lamps only. This cock is han- 
dled with KEY, 46 (fig. 2513). 

Burrowe's Car Shade. Fig. 3713. A car shade with 
an automatic shade holder at the bottom, which con- 
sists of two rods with rubber t'-*': nnd springs which 




keep the tips pressed out against the window casings. 
The shade is released by pressing the two rods together 
by thumb latches. 

Burton Stock Car. i. (For Horses.) Fics. 59-61. A 
car specially designed for the transportation of val- 
uable horses and trotting stock. 

2. (For Cattle.) One of the older and best arranged 
cars for the proper transportation of cattle. Arrange- 
ments are made for feeding, watering and protection of 
the stock. 

Bushing. "A lining for a hole." — Knight. Usually a metal 
cylindrical ring which forms a bearing for some other 
object, as a shaft, valve, etc., which is inserted in the 
hole. Often contracted into bush. See, 
Bell Cord Bushing. Pipe Bushing. 

Berth Curtain Rod Reversing Valve Bush- 

Bushing. ING. 

Berth Hinge Bushing. Sash Lock Bushing. 

Brake Shaft BusHiNa Steam Valve BusHiNa 

Deck Sash Pivot Upper Steam Valve 

Bushing. Bushing. 

Head Board Bushing. Window Blind Bushing. 

Lower Steam Valve Window Rod Bushing. 


2. (Pipe Fitting.) A short tube with a screw cut in- 
side and outside, used to screw into a pipe to reduce 
its diameter. Generally, a bushing has a hexagonal 
head by which it is turned, and is sometimes called re- 

Business Car. A term often applied to an officer's or 
director's car, and sometimes applied to a pay car. 

Butler Drawbar Attachment. Figs. 121 5- 16. A form 
of attachment using the strap pocket or yoke with 
thimbles, which engage in what is termed a case or 
housing, with lugs on the side that engage m grooves 
cut in the draft timbers. 

Butt. A contraction of Butt Hinge, which see, and gen- 
erally used as a substitute for the longer term. 

Butt Hinge. A hinge for hanging doors, etc., which is 
fastened with screws to the edge of a door, so that when 
the latter is closed the hinge is folded up between the 
door and its frame. A hinge the two parts of which are 
so fastened together that they cannot readily be de- 
tached is called a fast joint butt hinge. Other forms 
are: Loose Joint Butt Hinge (figs. 1947-48), and 
Loose Pin Butt Hinge (figs. 1953-55). In hg. 1942 
the wear is taken by a hinge pin screwing into the 
knuckle and bearing against a washer. The hinge pin is 
often ornamented with an acorn, and those having a 
washer between the two knuckles, but no acorns, are 
known as Blake Butts, which see. The best butt 
hinges have washers, which are generally plain, but figs. 
1949-52 show a butt hinge with ball bearing washers. 
Butt hinges are commonly termed simply butts. 

Button. This term, besides its usual meaning, has been 
used to designate an axle collar, but the term is now 
obsolete. See, 

Door Sash Button. Pull Rod Button. 

Door Base Sash But- Tufting Button. 

ton. Solid Leather Button. 

Eccentric Window V- Window -Button. 

Button. Wheel Box Button. 

L- Window Button. Window Button. 


Cabin (Pile Driver Car). Fig. 158. A small house for the 

engine and hoisting gear, usually built on the swinging 

Cabin Car. A term sometimes applied to Caboose Cars, 

which see; more particularly four wheeled caboose 

Cable Car. A car designed for a street railway in which 

the tractive power is a cable. The cable is usually 
placed between the rails and under ground in a conduit 

Caboose Car. Figs. 63-66, 340-52. A car attached to the 
rear of all freight trains for the accommodation of 
the conductor and trainmen, and for carrying the vari- 
ous stores, tools, etc., required on freight trains. Also, 
but rarely, called conductor's car or train car. Ca- 
booses are made with a lookout for displaying train 
signals to the locomotive and trains following, and to 
give the trainmen a view of the train. Caboose cars 
are either four wheel or eight wheel, and both are in 
general use; four wheeled cabooses are sometimes 
termed cabin cars. The eight wheel cabooses are fre- 
quently provided with lockers, cooking stove, writing 
desks, and other conveniences for living. 

Cafe Car. Figs. 123, 13& A buffet dining car, in which 
only light meals are served. 

Cage. See, Tank Valve Cage. 

Calamined Iron. See, Kalamined Iron. 

Caldwell Sash Balance. Fig. 3705. Sec, Sash Balance. 

Caufornia Car Coupler. Figs. 1392-95. 

Cam (Yale Lock). The revolving disk, usually of a spiral 
eccentric or heart shape, fixed on the outside of the 
shaft which carries the tumblers. 

Cam Nut Wrench. Fig. 928, A wrench to turn cam nuts. 

Camber. The upward deflection or bend of a beam, girder, 
or truss. Freight cars are usually heavily cambered 
when new by screwing up the body truss rods. Passen- 
ger cars have little or no camber. 

Canda Box Car.* Figs. 3, 174-75. A box car of large ca- 
pacity, built with wooden under frame and reinforced 

Canda Cattle Car. A stock car having some novel 
features of construction, which include a deck roof, end 
door trussing to prevent bulging of end, alternate doors, 
and a flexible folding partition m the middle of the car. 
The partition and arrangements for feeding and 
watering may be folded out of the way at a moment's 
notice. It is provided with end doors for loading lum- 
ber and rails, and is equipped with Canda swing motion 

Canda Freight Car Truck. This is a modified type of 
the suspension car truck with the number of parts 
considerably diminished. The essential features 
of it are : i, the lateral motion of each pair of wheels 
in the truck frame, which is accomplished by hanging 
the truck frame in stirrups, over the journal boxes; 
2, the carrying of the car body and load on V shaped 
body side bearings, which bear upon swing links sup- 
ported in a body bearing casting, which last is also the 
spring cap. The truck has a center plate, but it acts 
only as a guide and does not carry the car body or load. 
The truck has transoms, but no body bolster or spring 

Canda Hopper Car. Figs. 296-97. A wood hopper car 
in which the sides are trussed with posts and braces 
on the outside of the planks. 

Canda Refrigerator Car. A refrigerator car whose 
chief features are: (i) the insulation, (2) the 
economic method of effecting it, (3) the arrangements 
for icing, (4) the circulation of air within the car. 
The insulation consists of an exterior sheathing of 
boards which are fluted on inside and allow a circu- 
lation of free air beneath them. This is to put the car 
in the shade and to give a free circulation of air around 
about the inclosed and shaded car, thus preventing the 
heat of the sun penetrating to the insulated part of the 
car. Beneath this exterior sheathing of weather boards 
is a subsheathing, several layers of tar paper, one of 
felt I in. thick, two ^ wood partitions and a lining 
^ in. thick. The tar paper is tacked upon both sides of 
triangular frames, which frames wedge the felt in place, 
thus saving any nailing and fitting. 

Candle. A special kind of large diameter called car candles 




are used for lighting passenger cars and burned 
in Candle Lamps, figs. 2572-76, which see. Since the 
introduction of high proof mineral oils they are now 
rarely used. The best car candles are made of paraffin 
and hydraulic pressed. 

Candle Bottom. Figs. 2572-76. See, Candle Lamp. 

Candle Bracket Lamps (Pintsch System). Figs. 2572-76. 
Are for use in emergency, as in case gas gives out. 
May be attached to wall or to any center lamp at will. 

Candle Holder. See, Candle Lamp. 

Candle Holder Cap. 21, figs. 2694-2710. See, Candle 

Candle Holder Cup. 22, figs. 2694-2710. See, Candle 

Candle Lamp. Figs. 2572-76. A lamp for burning candles, 
sometimes elaborated into a chandelier with two or 
three burners. Candles, however, are now but little 
used except in emergency bracket lamps, to be used 
when the gas or electric lights fail. The candle is 
placed within a candle holder, carried within a candle 
bottom. The candle holder consists of a candle holder 
cup and candle holder cap connected by the candle rods 
and having a light spiral candle spring within. As the 
candle burns away it is pressed upward by the candle 
spring against the cap so as to keep the flame always in 
one position. 

Candle Rods. 23, figs. 2694-2710. See, Candle Lamp. 

Candl^ Spring. 24, figs. 2694-2710. See, Candle Lamp. 

Canopy. Figs. 2663-73. See, Lamp Canopy. Also called a 
Smoke Bell, which see. A platform hood is sometimes 
called a canopy. 

Canopy Ventilator. See, Ventilators. 

Cant Rail (English). American equivalent, plate. A 
horizontal timber running along the top of the upright 
pieces in the sides of the body, and supporting the roof 
and roof sticks. Its upper edge is cut to the bevel of 
the roof; hence its name. 

Cantilever Truss (Overhang of Underframe). An in- 
verted truss which bears upon the side sill directly 
over the body bolster. The inner end is connected by a 
tie rod to the inner end of the truss at the other end 
of the car body, while the outer end supports the over- 
hang of the underframe by a vertical tie rod and by a 
diagonal brace rod similar to the overhang truss rod 
of the old Pullman framing. 

Canvas. A coarse cloth, made of cotton, used for out- 
side covering of street car roofs and for upholstering 
seats. Roofing canvas is used for covering street cars. 

Canvas Lined Seating. Figs. 3241-48. See, Cane Seat. 

Cap. The top or covering of anything. See, 

Arm Cap. Main Cap of Triple 
Belt Rail Cap. Valve. 

Bolster Spring Cap. Reversing Cylinder Cap. 

Brake Hose Coupling Reversing Valve Cap. 

Cap. Right Chamber Cap. 

Candle Holder Cap. Smoke Pipe Cap. 

Equalizing Bar Spring Spiral Spring Cap. 

Cap. Spring Cap. 

Inside Lining Cap. Tank Nozzle Cap. 

Leakage Valve Cap. Trimming Cap. 

Left Chamber Cap. Truss Plank Cap. 

Lever Frame Cap. Upper Cap of Triple 
Lower Cap of Triple Valve. 

Valve. Window Sill Cap. 

Cap Nut. (Triple Valve). 4, fig. 913. 

Cap Screws (Air Pump). 99, 100, 11 1, figs. 893-94. 

Car. The term used in the United States to designate a 
vehicle or carriage for running on a railroad. As the 
term is usually employed, it denotes any vehicle used 
for transportation and not belonging to the motive 
power of a railroad 

The term Coach, which see, is synonymous with 
passenger car. In England passenger cars, or coaches. 

are called carriages (first, second and third class), and 
freight cars, wagons, or trucks, and vans. 

Cars are divided into two general classes, passenger 
cars and freight cars. The latter is also further subdi- 
vided into freight cars proper and working or con- 
struction cars, the latter including a great variety of 
types, but a comparatively small number of each type. 
The prices allowed by the Master Car Builders' Asso- 
ciation for the various forms of freight cars will be seen 
under Interchange of Traffic, which see. Street &rs, 
for city and suburban use, take their names from the 
motive power employed to move them, as electric motor 
cars, cable cars, etc. They constitute a class by them- 
selves. Hand Cars, which see, are a light vehicle 
moved by hand power, and under this head should be 
classed velocipede cars. Among passenger equipment 
cars the following vehicles are usually classed, not be- 
cause they carry passengers alone, but rather for the 
reason that they are run in trains which carry passen- 

Baggage Car. Mail Car. 

Bay Window Parlor Officer.s' Car. 

Car. Palace Car. 

Buffet Sleeping Car. Parlor Car. 

Combination Baggage Passenger Car or 

Car. Coach (first class and 

Dining Car. second class). 

Drawing Room, or Pay Car. 

Parlor Car. Postal Car. 

Excursion Car. Private Car. 

Express Car. Sleeping Car. 

Hotel Car. Smoking Car. 

Among the cars for regular freight service arc : 
Box Car. Gravel Car. 

Box Fruit Car. Heater Car. 

Caboose Car or Cabin Hopper Bottom Cab. 

Car. Hopper Car. 

Coal Car. Ice Car. 

Double Deck Stock Lumber Car. 

Car. Milk Car. 

Drop Bottom Car. Mine Car. 

Dump Car. Oil or Tank Car. 

Flat Car. Ore Car. 

Fruit Car. Poultry Car. 

Furniture Car. Refrigerator Car. 

Gondola Car. Stock Car. 

Grain Car. Tip Car. 

Among working cars are : 
Air Brake Instruction Pile Driver Car. 
Car. Push Pole Car. 

Boarding Car. Sweeping Car. 

Derrick Car. Snow Pi-ow or 

Ditching Car. Flanger. 

Inspection Car. Tool Car. 

Locomotive Crane. Wrecking Car. 

Car Axle. Figs. 4284-87. M. C. B. Standard. Also, 2, 
FIGS. 3735-3951- A shaft made of wrought iron or steel 
to which a pair of car wheels is attached. In nearly all 
cases the wheels are both rigidly fastened to the axle* 
but sometimes one or both of them are made so that it 
can turn independently of the axle. The following are 
the names of the parts of an axle: Center of Axle, 
Neck of Axle, Wheel Seat, Dust Guard Bearing, Collar, 
Journal. See, Axle. Hammered Car Axle. 

Car Body Details. Figs. 440-1809. 

Car Bodies. Figs. 159-439. 

Car Box. A Journal Box, which see. 

Car Box Jack Screw. Figs. 2981, 2986. A low screw or 
hydraulic jack to fit under a journal box so as to take 
the load off the journal bearing and enable it to be 

Car Candle. See, Candle. 

Car Coupler. An appliance for connecting or coupling 
cars together. All passenger car couplers and the 




greater part of the freight car couplers in use are 

By Act of Congress, Feb. 27, 1893, all engines, pas- 
senger and freight cars engaged in interstate com- 
merce must be equipped with couplers, that couple 
automatically by impact and that may be uncoupled 
without going between the cars, on or before Jan. i, 
1898. A penalty of $roo is imposed for each violation 
^ of this act, unless the time shall have been extended 
for each road by the Interstate Commerce Commission 
after a hearing and for a good cause. 

Of automatic couplers there are a gfreat many; the 
freight couplers all conform to the lines adopted by the 
M. C. B. Association and shown in fig. 4362; they 
differ chiefly in the lock and the device for uncoupling. 
The general dimensions of the coupler universally 
adopted for freight service are given under figs. 4345- 
61, with the limit gages to which all M. C. B. couplers 
should conform. The same gages are applicable to 
passenger couplers. The method of attachment of 
coupler recommended by the M. C. B. Association is 
shown in figs. 4490-4506, 4537-50. 

Car Cylinder (Air Brake). Any one of several kinds of 
Brake Cylinders shown in figs. 916-19, 975-77. 

Car Discharge Valve (Train Signaling Apparatus). 
Fig. 958. A valve placed in the end of the car and 
connected with the signal cord. When the cord is 
pulled the car discharge valve is opened and the air 
escapes, which blows the whistle in the locomotive cab. 
See, Train Signaling Apparatus. 

Car Door Hangers. Figs. 2153-66. A device for hanging 
a sliding door so that it may be movable. In common 
practice the simple hooks upon which most freight car 
doors are hung are termed simply Door Hangers 
(which see), while more elaborate forms with rollers 
have their names expanded into car door hangers. 

Car door hangers with wheels or rollers to prevent 
friction are termed door sheaves, of which there are 
various types. 

Car Door Lock. Figs. 1889-2090. A lock for a car door, 
usual Iv meaning for a passenger car door. See, 
Freight Car Lock. Padlock. 

Car Door Sheaves. See, Door Sheaves and Car Door 

Car Drain Cup (Air Brake). Fig. 980. An attachment 
to the brake pipe of every car to collect the water of 
condensation, which is drawn off from time to time by 
a cock at the bottom; it is usually combined with an 
air strainer and so called. 

Car Furnishings. Figs. 1810-3728. The hardware, uphol- 
stery materials and other fittings, such as lamps, venti- 
lators, water coolers, etc., used in finishing a passenger 
car. In general it includes those parts of a car that are 
applied after it has left the paint shop. 

Car Heater. Any apparatus for heating cars by con- 
vection; that is, by conveying hot water, steam, or 
warmed air into, or through, the car. It generally re- 
fers to any arrangement for warming car's other than 
stoves. See, Baker, Consolidated, Gold and Safety 
Heating Systems. See also. Stove. 

Car Moldings. See, Moldings. See also. Car Seat Mold- 
ings (figs. 3268-79), which latter are metal bands for 
seat backs. 

Car Platform. More commonly, simply Platform, which 
see. See, Platform Furnishings. 

Car Pump. A Basin Pump, which see. 

Car Replacer. A device for getting a derailed truck 
back onto the track. It usually consists of two inclined 
planes, by which the wheels are raised so that the flange 
of the outside wheel can ride upon and over the- rail. 
They are placed at an acute angle with the track so as 
to guide the wheels and force them upon the track. 
See, Wrecking Frog. 

Car Roof. Figs. 1714-77. A covering for a car, supported 
by the carlines and purlins. The various forms in use 
in freight car construction may be divided generally 
into the four following classes: First, what is known 
as a double board roof, with or without felt or other 
material between boards. To this class belong many 
roofs in which the boards are tongued and grooved and 
have a sheet of painted canvas, asphalt rooflng material 
or other prepared materials between them. Second, 
single board roofs, covered with tin or other sheet 
metal. Third, roofs made of metal sheets, fastened to 
purlins and roof strips, and protected by a single layer 
of roughly matched boards. Fourth, a type of double 
roof consisting of inside roof covered with felt, tar 
paper or asphalted canvas, and an outside roof built 
over it to protect the rooflng material from injury. 
Passenger car roofs are commonly of tin, zinc or gal- 
vanized iron or steel of about 22 W. G., painted. For 
street cars, painted canvas is used. See also, Board 
Roof. In respect to form, see. Arched Roof, Deck 
Roof, A Car Roof, and X Car Roof. 

Car Seau Figs. 3120-41. A device to secure freight car 
doors against opening by making it impossible with- 
out destroying the seal. The original form consisted of 
a lead disk with two holes to receive a piece of twisted 
wire, which is compressed by a die so as to leave a 
seal mark, which must be defaced or the wire cut be- 
fore the door can be opened. To prevent stripping the 
seal from the wire and re-inserting it, a detective wire 
of irregular cross section is used, figs. 3133 and 3137. 
Sheet metal eye shackles, in a variety of other forms, 
are now also used, with or without tin return tags, 
jnd also a simple lead rivet with a tin shackle. Tin 
shackles often have the name of the road printed on 
them. Of seals there are a great variety, some of the 
more common of which are shown. See also. Seal 
Locks. Seal Press. 

Car Seat. Figs. 3142-3255. The complete set of fixtures 
on which passengers sit in a car. It ordinarily consists 
of a seat frame, seat cushions, seat back, arm rest, foot 
rest, and their attachments. Ordinarily, the seats in 
American cars are placed crosswise of the car, and are 
made for two passengers. The backs of the seats are 
generally made reversible. The seats of parlor cars are 
commonly called chairs (see. Revolving Chair, Rich- 
ards Panel Back Chair). To replace chair cars these 
chairs have been superseded by so called Twin Seats, 
which see. In private and parlor cars, sofas, placed 
longitudinally against the side of the car, are some- 
times used. In order to give an inclination to the seats 
which makes them more comfortable, various devices 
have been introduced. In fact, all first class car seats 
not only incline the seat cushion, but they move it 
bodily forward, as well as automatically adjust the back. 
Other improvements in seats are the head roll (figs. 
3154-56), the extra high seat back (figs. 3186-87), 
the adjustable foot rest (figs. 3186-87). The covering 
of seats is usually plush, but sometimes Cane or Rat- 
tan Seats, Canvas Lined Cane Seats, Perforated 
Veneer Seats, Woven Wire Seats (which see) are 
used. The seats of street cars are usually placed longi- 
tudinally on each side of the car, as shown in fig. 3239, 
but in open cars they are usually transverse and in 
length equal to the full width of car. 

Car Seat Connecting Rod. 25, figs. 3151-52. A round rod 
connecting wall and aisle seat ends of a Scarritt seat 
with adjustable foot rests. 

Car Seat Moldings. Figs. 3237-38. Metal bands, usually 
nickel plated, used to finish seat backs. They are either 
plain or beaded. See, Moldings. 

Car Shop Machinery. Figs. 4912-4969. 

Car Signal Valve (Train Signaling Apparatus). Fig. 
958. A valve placed in every car and attached to the 
bell cord or signal cord, by which air is allowed to 




escape from the signal pipe, thus blowing the signal 
whistle on the engine. It is more often called a car 
discharge valve. 

Car Spring. Figs. 4138-51, 4652-58, etc. See, Spring. 
Spiral Spring. Elliptic Spring. Bolster Spring. A 
general term applied to springs on which the weight of 
a car rests, and also to draw and buffer springs. 

Car Steps. See, Platform Steps. 

Car Truck. Figs. 3729-4056. Mechanically, a small, low, 
four wheeled (or sometimes six wheeled) car, carrying 
as a dead load one-half the weight of a long car body. 
The car body is usually carried on a pair of center 
plates (truck center plate and car body center plate), 
with a center pin or king bolt passing through them, 
about which the truck, or, more properly speaking, the 
car body, can swivel. In England such trucks are 
called "bogies." See, Truck. 

Car Washer. Figs. 2961, 2964-65. A brush made for 
washing the outside of passenger cars. It is made of 
bristles or feathers. 

Car Wheel. Figs. 4152-4237; i, figs. 3735-3951- A 
wheel for a railroad car. (Thilled wheels are called sin- 
gle plate wheels or double plate wheels, according to 
the number of plates between the hub and rim. When 
one plate is used it is sometimes made flat, with ribs 
called brackets on the back, and sometimes corrugated, 
without ribs. The disks of double plate wheels also 
are generally corrugated. What is known as the 
Washburn wheel has two corrugated disks extending 
from the hub about half way to the tread, and a single 
plate, with curved brackets on the back between the 
tread and the double plates. This wheel is generally 
known as a double plate wheel. Cast iron wheels are 
also made with spokes, either solid or hollow, princi- 
pally for locomotive use. Those in use in this country 
are either cast iron with a chilled tread and called 
chilled wheels, or are steel tired with wrought or cast 
iron or combination center. For freight cars the cast 
wheel with a chilled tread is largely in use. 

Prices of wheels and axles and cost of work on same 
have been fixed at various times by the rules for inter- 
change of cars of the M. C B. Association. See, In- 
terchange OF Traffic. 

The parts of wheels are the flange, tread, rim, tire, 
retaining rings, plate, ribs, spokes, center, hub and axle 

The varieties of cast iron wheels besides the single 
plate, double plate and Washburn, above mentioned, are 
the combination plate wheel, combination wheel, hollow 
spoke wheel, open plate wheel, spoke wheel. See, Steel 
Tired Wheel. 

In 1893 the M. C B. Association adopted specifica- 
tions for cast iron wheels and a form of guaranty by 
manufacturers as Recommended Practice. These had 
formerly been standards of the Association. See, 
Wheels, Specifications and Guarantee. 

See also the following wheels: 
Allen, figs. 4152-66. McKee-Fuller, figs. 

Boms, FIGS. 4167-72. 4173-76. 

Chilled Cast, figs. Paige, figs. 4178-83. 

4214-24. Snow's figs. 4187-95. 

Griffin, figs. 4217-20. Standard, figs. 4206-13. 

Keystone, figs. 4223-24. Taylor's, figs. 4196-99. 

Krupp, figs. 4200-05. Washburn, figs. 4184-86. 

Lobdell, figs. 4214-16. 

Car Window Blind. See, Window Blind. 

Car Window Brush. Figs. 2961, 2964-65. 

Card Rack. A small receptacle on the outside of a freight 
car to receive cards giving shipping directions. 

Card Table. 27, figs. 1778-83. See, Table. 

Carey Plastic Car Roof. Figs. 1776-77. A roofing mate- 
rial the body of which is composed of a very heavy 
layer of woolen felt, thoroughly saturated with a secret 
compound which it is claimed preserves the roofing 

itself and also the upper and lower boarding with 
which it comes in contact. See, Car Roof. 

Carline, or Carling. 81, figs. 159-69, etc.; 100, figs. 
360-72, etc. A transverse bar of wood or iron which 
extends across the top of a car or from one side to the 
other, and which supports the roof ^boards. In passen- 
ger cars carlines are divided into main carliiies, pass- 
ing entirely across the car; short carlines or deck 
carlines, which are confined to. the upper deck, and 
rafters, which are confined to the lower deck. The 
carlines of freight cars are also rarely called .rafters. 
The main carlines are usually compound, i. e., built up, 
of wood and iron. They sometimes pass directly from 
side to side of the car across and under the upper deck,{ 
when they are termed continuous or straight carlines, 
but usually are bent to the outline of the clear story, 
when they are termed profile carlines. In freight cars 
the main carline is one made stronger than the others 
for carrying the purlins and roof. Other carlines hav- 
ing special names, which see, are : 
End Carline. Platform Roof Carline. 

Platform Hood Car- Platform Roof End 

LINE, Carline. 

Carline Knee Iron. An angle iron which connects the 
end carline to the plate. 

Carlton & Stroudley Fastening (Steel Tired Wheels). 
Fig. 4230. See, Tire Fastening. 

Carpet Eyelet. Fig. 2167. See, Eyelet. 

Carpet Knob. An Eyelet Nail, which see. 

Carriage, or Railway Carriage (English). American 
equivalent, passenger car, or coach. A vehicle for pas- 
sengers, having four, six, eight, or twelve wheels (usu- 
ally six wheels). It is divided into compartments by 
transverse partitions extending the full wijdth of car, 
A first class compartment seats six or eight passengers, 
. and a second or third class compartment ten passengers. 
About 89^^ per cent of the total number of passengers 
travel third class, which really corresponds to the so- 
called "first class" here, the real first class being carried 
in sleeping and parlor cars. The English first class is 
used by about 3J/^ per cent of the passengers. The 
second is an intermediate class which is gradually going 
out of use. See also. 

Bogie Carriage. Second Class Carriage. 

Composite Carriage. Smoking Carriage. 

Corridor Carriage. Sleeping Carriage. 

First Class Carriage. Third Class Carriage. 

Lavatory Carriage. Tri-Composite Carriage, 

Saloon Carriage. or Tri-Compo. 

Carriage Bolt. A bolt made square under the head so as 
to prevent it from turning when in its place. They 
usually have button shaped heads and are used for 
fastening wooden objects together. 

Carriage Truck (English). An open four wheeled ve- 
hicle, with low sides, adapted to run on passenger 
trains, and carry a road vehicle. 

Carrier. See, 

Brake Hanger Carrier. Parallel Brake Hanger 

Brake Pawl Carrier. Carrier. 

Foot Rest Carrier. Spring Plank Carrier. 

Carry Iron. See, 

Drawbar Carry Draw Timber 

Iron. Carry Iron. 

Drawbar Stirrup. 

Case. "A covering, box, or sheath; that which incloses 
or contains : as a case for knives ; a case for books ; a 
watch case; a pillow case." — Webster. See, 
Brake Hose Cx)upling Lock Case. 

Case. Spring Case. 

Door Case. Tool Case. 

Lamp Case. Triple Valve Case. 

Casing, i. (For Heaters.) See, 

Heater Pipe Casing. Perforated Smoke 

Inside Casing. Pipe Casing. 




Outside Casing. Smoke Pipe Casing. 

2. (For Windows.) T^e frame which surrounds a 
window. See, Window Casing. 

Caster. Figs. 3350-53. A small wheel on a swivel at- 
tached to furniture and on which it is rolled on the 
floor. By custom of the trade, furnishings which are in 
reality mere sockets or knobs are termed casters, al- 
though they are, strictly speaking, not such, not having 
any rollers. They are distinguished as chair casters, 
table casters, sofa casters, etc, according to size and 
probable use. 

Caster Holder (Dining Cars). A shelf or tray for holding 
bottles of condiments. 

Cast Iron Double Plate Wheel. Fia 4214. See, Double 
Plate Wheel. Car Wheeu 

Cast Iron Spoke Center Wheel. Figs. 4208, 4219-20, 
4223, etc. 

Cast Iron Top (Baker Heater). Fig. 2232. A plate which 
forms the top of the fire chamber. It has perforations 
around the outside and an opening in the center through 
which the stove is supplied with coal. 

Cast Wheels. Figs. 4217-24. See, Car Wheel. Chilled 
Wheel. Chill. 

Casting. Any piece of metal which has been cast in a 
mold. See, 

Corner Casting. Side Casting. 

Draw Bar Side Casting. Transom Casting. 
Roof Corner Casting. 

Catch. See, 

Cupboard Catch. Second Catch. 

Deck Sash Catch. Sliding Door Holder 

Door Holder Catch. Catch. 

Ratchet Catch. Vestibule Gate Catch. 

Catch Lever (Janney Coupler). 523, figs. 1526-1613. 
A crank lever passing vertically through the catch, by 
means of which it is caused to release the knuckle for 

Catch Spring (Janney Coupler). 525, figs, i 526-1613. A 
coiled spring on the catch spring bolt operating the 

Catch Spring Bolt (Janney Coupler). 543, figs. 1526-1613. 
The bolt on which the catch of Janney coupler slides. 

Cattle Car. Figs. 57-58, 212-222. More properly Stock 
Car, which see. 

Ceiling. The inside or under surface of the roof or 
covering of a room or car opposite the floor. This term 
is sometimes used to mean Sheathing, which see. 
When the ceiling of a passenger car is made of painted 
canvas or other decorated lining it is termed head lin- 
ing, the term ceiling in modern usage being restricted 
to wood ceiling. The term panel ceiling is also used as 
synonymous with wood ceiling, although cloth head 
lining is also sometimes put on in panels. Deafening 
Ceiling, which see, is boarding under the sills of the 
car, making an air space between the sills. See, Ligno- 
MUR, Veneering, Paneling. 

Ceiung Furring. Strips or pieces fastened to the carlines 
overhead, and to which the paneling or veneering of 
the ceiling is applied. 

Ceiling Plate for Gas Arm (Pintsch Lamp). 487, figs. 

Ceiling Veneers. Thin boards with which the ceilings of 
passenger cars are covered. The term is also misapplied 
to the thin preparations of papier mache, etc., in imita- 
tion of natural wood veneers. 

Center Bearing. The place in the center of a truck 
where the weight of the car body rests. A body center 
plate attached to the car body here rests on a truck 
center plate attache4 to the truck. The general term 
center bearing is used to designate the whole arrange- 
ment and the functions which it performs, in distinc- 
tion from Side Bearing, which see. 

Center Bearing Arch Bar. 66, figs. 3948-51. See, Center 
Bearing Bridge. 

Center Bearing Beam. 65, pigs. 3948-51 and 4008-9. See 

Center Bearing Bridge (Six Wheel Trucks). 66-7» 
FIGS.. 3948-51 and 4038-9. A longitudinal iron 
beam, formerly sometimes a wooden beam, the ends of 
which rest upon the spring beams, and by which the 
truck center bearing beam, 65, carrying the center 
plates, is supported. It consists of the center bearing 
arch bar and inverted arch bar, inclosing between thent 
the center bearing beam. Truck side bearings, 61, sim- 
ilar in form to an arch bar, are also attached to the ex- 
tremities of the spring beams, connecting them to- 

Center BkARiNG Inverted Arch Bar. 67, figs. 3948-51. See 

Center Block. A Center Bearing Beam, which see. 

Center Block Column. Figs. 3981-3. A column placed on 
top of the center plate block and between it and the 
center bearing arch bar. 

Center Block Flitch Plate. Figs. 4036-37. See, Center 
Block and Flftch Plates. 

Center Body Truss Rods. Those nearest the center when 
two or more body truss rods are used under each side 
, of a car body. 

Center Buffer Follower Guide. See, Combination Fol- 
lower Guide. 

Center Buffer Spring. A spiral spring situated above the 
draft springs, intended for buf&ng purposes only. 

Center Buffer Stem. See, Buffer Stem. 

Center Casting (Pintsch Lamp). 382, figs, 2605-21. 

Center Casting Diaphragm (Pintsch Lamp). 383, figs. 

Center Compression Beam Brace. In passenger car fram- 
ing, a brace for the compression beam in the center of 
the side truss. 

Center Counterbrace. A counterbrace in the body of the 
car between the trucks, to stiffen a compression beam 
brace. See, Counterbrace. 

Center Cross Bar (English). See, Brake Shaft Cros& 

Center Cross Beam. A cross timber framed into the two- 
intermediate sills of a coal or ore car, to which the cen- 
ter doors are hung. 

Center Cross Beam Cap. A cap piece to cover the center 
cross beam. 

Center Cross Tie Timber. A cross tie timber in the middle 
of a car, generally placed between the double drop- 
doors of a gondola car. 

Center Door Hinge and Stop (English). The center 
of three brass hinges securing the door to the 
body. The insertion of two rubber plugs into striking 
pieces or side wings on the hinge constitutes Cross's 
patent stop, which is used to prevent the door striking^ 
the outside of the body when thrown violently open^ 
See also. Seat Rail Support. 

Center Door Raiu See, Middle Door Rail. 

Center Draft Draw Bar. A draw bar which is connected 
directly with the king bolt of a truck. It is a. 
style specially designed for use on the very sharp 
curves (of 90 and 100 ft. radius) of elevated railroads, 
and is confined to those lines. 

Center Draft Tube (Argand Lamp). The hollow passage 
for air in the center of the burner. 

Center Floor Timbers. The Center Sills, which see. 

Center Girth. See, Door Center Girth. 

Center Lamp. Figs. 2690-91, 2702-07. A lamp sus- 
pended from the center of the ceiling of a car. The 
term is used to distinguish center lamps from side 
lamps, the latter being attached to the sides of cars. 
Center lamps having two or more burners are common- 
ly called chandeliers. 
2. Pintsch Gas Center Lamps, which see. Figs. 

Center Piece (Air Pump). 62, figs. ?93-94, and 35, fig. 




965. An iron casting which forms the lower head of a 
steam cyhnder. and the upper head of an air cylinder. 

Center Pin, or King Bolt. Figs. 557-58. A large bolt 
which passes through the center plates on the body 
bolster and truck bolster. The truck turns about the 
bolt It normally has no strain upon it and no key or 
nut at the lower end. It is therefore a mere pin and 
not a bolt in the usual sense, but in wrecking cars the 
center pin is sometimes provided with keys to fasten 
the truck and car body firmly together. The name king 
bolt is derived from the name of the corresponding 
part for the front wheels of a wagon. Center pin, 
however, is the more common term. 

Center Plate. Figs. 545-7; ^7, figs. 159-^; 63, figs. 3735- 
3951. One of a pair of plates made of cast or malleable 
iron or pressed steel, which support a car body on the 
center of a truck. There are two, the body center plate 
and the truck center plate, which are sometimes also 
called the male and female center plates. The Center 
Pin or King Bolt (which see) passes through them, 
but carries none of the strain except in emergencies. 

Center Plate Block. 64, figs. 3781-3951. A piece of wood 
placed under a truck center plate to raise it up to the 
proper height 

Center Sills. 4, figs. 159-169, i85-95, 215-22, 360-372, etc; 
5, Fics. 246-50, 271-95, etc. The two main longitudinal 
timbers underneath the floor which are nearest the 
center of the car. In iron frame cars they are usually 
I Beams, or channels, which see. 
2. (Hand Car). 10, Figs. 4722-27. 

Center Sill Cover Plate (Steel Cars). 121, figs. 271-95. 
A flat plate riveted across the top of the center sills to 
give additional strength in resisting longitudinal shocks 
and to prevent buckling of the sills. 

Center Stay (of a Chandelier). 30, figs. 2694-2710. 
The central support around which the lamps are 
grouped. In some cases it is the only method of at- 
taching the chandelier to the ceiling, and in others 
there are several inclined roof braces or vertical lamp 
arms in addition. 

Center Stem (Janney-Buhoup Platform). 987, figs. 1526- 

Center Stem Thimble (Janney-Buhoup Platform). 845, 
figs. 1526-1613. 

Center Stop (Tip Car). A bracket or block attached to a 
draw timber to restrain the body from moving longi- 

Center Strut for Hopper Floor (Hopper Car). 46, figs. 
271-95. An inclined strut or support for the hopper 
fltK)r between the bolster and the end of the car, 
fastened to the center of the end sill. See, Side Strut 
for Hopper FLoor. 

Center Suspension Lamp. See, Pintsch Lamps. 

Centering Gage. A gage to fix the middle point of -an 
axle. See, Mounting Wheels. 

Central Filling Piece (Steel Tired Wheels). The part 
surrounding the hub and connecting it with the tire. 
Also termed the skeleton. A wheel center is a hub 
and central filling piece combined in one. 

Chafing Plate. A metal plate to resist wear, used on 
brake beams, truck transoms, swinging spring beams, 
etc. See, 
Brake Beam Chafing Transom Chafing 

Plate. Plate. 

Check Chain Chafing Truck Bolster Chafing 

Plate. Plate. 

Drawbar Chafing Coupling Pin Chafing 

Plate. Plate. 

2. (Janney-Buhoup Platform). 1120, figs. 1526-1613. 
A bar across the top of the stirrup. 

Chaffee Drawbar Centering Device. Figs. 1706-7 and 
1 7 12- 13. A device to permit displacement of the draw- 
bar on rounding curves, which also tends to hold the 
drawbar in a central position at all other times. The 

type for passenger' cars is shown in nGS. 1706-7 ; that 

for freight cars in figs. 1712-13. 
Chain. "A series of links or rings connected, or fitted 

into one another, usually made of some kind of metal" 

— Webster. Sec, 

Basin Chain. Hotizontal Brake 

Berth Chain. Shaft Chain. 

Brake Safety Chain. Lock Chain. 

Brake Shaft Chain. Manhole Cover Chain. 

Center Brake Lever Pftch Chain. 

Chain. Platform Railing 

Check Chain. Chain. 

Connecting Chain. Railing Chain. 

Coupling Chain. Safety Coupling Chain. 

Door Pin Chain. Tank Nozzle Cap 

Driving Chain. Chain. 

Drop Bottom Chain. Uncoupling Chain. 

Hoisting Chain. Wedge Chain. 

Chain and Eye (for Door Bolt, Postal Car Fittings). 

Fig. 3078. 
Chain Coupling Link, Two or more coupling links at- 
tached together like a chain. Used with a Draw Hook, 

which see. 
Chain Holder (for Basin Plug). Fig. 2770. A Stanchion 

(which see) provided with screw thread and nut for 

passing through the marble slab. Also called a chain 

post, chain stay. 
Chain Post. See, Chain Holder. 
Chain Stay. See, Chain Holder. 

Chair. Figs. 3157-65, 3192-94, 3224-25. The usual desig- 
nation for the seats of parlor cars. See, Revolving 


Chair Arm Plate. A metal plate for the top of a chair 
arm. If for common passenger car seats it is called an 
Arm Cap, which see. 

Chair Car. Figs. 72, 77. The term chair car generally is 
applied to a car equipped with reclining chairs or twin 
car seats, and which car is run on local night trains so 
that passengers may rest 

Chair Caster. Sec, Caster. 

Chair Leg Caster or Socket. Figs. 3350-53. A hollow 
casting which fits on the end of a chair leg. Such 
casters, when casters proper, are provided with wheels, 
but frequently in car construction they are without 
wheels, and are then by custom of the trade still called 
caster? (fixed or rigid casters), although properly not 

Challender Truss. A substitute for the truss plank and 
side body bracing of passenger car frames, and used on 
the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy Railroad. It con- 
sists of a thin plate of iron with an angle iron riveted, 
to the bottom, and sometimes one at the top and bot- 
tom. It is fastened to each post by large wood screws 
and is bolted to the side sills. It is sometimes made to 
serve as a substitute for truss rods under the car, and 
it forms a part of the inside finish under the window. 
Cars trussed in this way are said to be as light and 
cheap as those in which the ordinary form of construc- 
tion is used, but the truss has not so far found sufficient 
favor to be adopted as standard, not even by a few 

Chamber. See, Dust Guard Chamber. 

Chandelier. A center lamp having two or more burners, 
but generally meaning only those of very elaborate form 
or having more than two burners, as the two and four 
light chandeliers, figs. 2694-95. 

Channel Bar. A general term applied by makers to iron 
rolled with the following section : [. They are in use 
for the side sills of iron frame cars, for transoms and 
spring planks of trucks. 1 Beams, which see, are used 
for inside sills of under frames and for truck bolsters, 

Chaplet. a piece of iron used in a mold for casting, to 
hold a core in its place. 





Chapman Jack. Figs. 2970-71. See; Screw Jack. 

Check Chain. 68, figs. 378i-395i and 3856-57- A chain 
attached to a truck and the body of a car to prevent the 
former from swinging crosswise on the track in case 
of derailment. Such chains are usually attached either 
to two or to each of the four corners of a truck and 
to the sills of the cars. 
* At the eighth Annual Convention, Cincinnati, 1874, it 


"Resolved, That truck and car body check chains arc, 
when properly applied, a valuable acquisition on passen- 
ger equipment, and your committee recommend their 
general use." In 1893 the use of truck and car body 
check chains, properly applied, was adopted as a Rec- 
ommended Practice. 

A difficulty with check chains has been that the eyes 
by which they are attached to the body and truck were 
not strong enough to resist the strain, and that the 
chains themselves have been too long to come to a 
bearing soon enough to have the trucks controllable. 

Check Chain Chafing Plate. A plate attached to a 
truck timber to resist the wear of a check chain. 

Check Chain Eye. 70, Figs. 3781-395 i. See, Body Check 
Chain Eye. Truck Check Chain Eye. 

Check Chain Hook. 69, Figs. 3781 -3951. See, Body 
Check Chain Hook. Truck Check Chain Hook. 

Check Gage (for Mounting Wheels). Fig. 4368. The 
check gage for mounting wheels shown was adopted 
as standard in 1894. The gage is shown as applied, in 
one position, to a pair of standard wheels mounted to 
standard distance, and it is important that such gage 
be universally used after September i, 1894, in mount- 
ing wheels, in order to have them pass inspection at 
interchange points. 

Check Valve (Triple Valve). 15, figs. 910, and 117, figs. 

Check Valve Case (Triple Valve). 13, fig. 910. See above. 

Check Valve Case Gasket (Triple Valve). 14, fig. 91Q. 
See above. 

Check Valve Spring (Triple Valve). 12, figs. 910, and 
118, FIGS. 959-62. 

Chicago Car Coupler. Figs. 1464-72. 

Chicago Car Roof. Figs. i'JT^J-ZT. An inside metallic iron 
roof made up of an inside layer of boards, a covering 
of sheets of corrugated sheet iron and an outer roof of 

Chicago Grain Door. Figs. 1073-86. One of several grain 
doors, which slides up and down on a grain door rod 
fastened to the door post, and is hung to the car- 
lines when not in use. The top of the door is fastened 
to the rods by a ring and a door arm. 

Chill. A kind of crystallization produced when melted 
cast iron is cooled suddenly. It is usually accomplished 
by bringing the molten iron in contact with a cold metal 
(usually iron) mold. The hardened part of a car wheel 
is called the chill. The mold in which a chill is pro- 
duced is sometimes called a chill, but the name chill 
mold has been given to this. 

Chill Crack. An irregular crack developed in casting 
upon the chilled surface of the tread of car wheels. 
Chill cracks not over ^^ in. wide, and not extending to 
the flange, are not considered as injuring the wheel or 
as indicating weakness or inferior quality. Iron which 
makes the most durable car wheels is most liable to 
chill cracks. See, Wheel Specifications, Inter- 
change OF Traffic. 

Chilled Cast Iron Wheel. Figs. 4217-24. 

Chimney (for Lamps). Figs. 2678-86. See, Lamp Chim- 
ney for table of standard dimensions. See also. 
Globe Chimney. Smoke Pipe. 

Lamp Case Chimney. Stove Pipe. 

Lamp Globe Chimney. 

Chipping (of Chilled Car Wheels). A scaling off of small 
portions of the chilled metal, due to imperfect or irreg- 

ular crystallization. Wheels chipped on the tread to a 
depth of more than Yi in. or leaving the tread less than 
3J^ in., are rejected under rules for interchange of car. 
See, Wheels. 
Chock or Chock Piece. "In shipbuilding a wedge or tri- 
angular shaped block or timber used to unite the head 
and heel of consecutive timbers." — Century. Also in- 
tended as a filling piece to give form or shape. Hence 
in a snow plow a timber which joins successive tim- 
bers, and fills out to give shape. 
Chord (of a Truss). The long horizontal members at top 
and bottom of a truss. The side sills and plates of a 
car body are top and bottom chords of the side trusses, 
but the terms are not used in car building. In England 
the chords are termed booms. 
Christensen Air Brake. Figs. 986-87. A system essen- 
tially the same as the Westinghouse for use on electric 
cars. The air is compressed by a motor driven com- 
pressor under the car. All the other parts for the auto- 
matic and straight air system operate in the same man- 
ner as the systems in use on steam roads. 
Christie Brake Shoe and Head. Figs. 4295-4302. One 
of the many forms of this detail in which combined 
strength and convenience of removal have been sought. 
It has been adopted as standard by the M. C. B. Asso- 
ciation. See, Brake Block. 
Chute (Baker Heater). Fig. 2185. The interior frame of 

the feed door forming a passage for the fuel. 
Cigar Holders. Fig. 3458. 

Circuit Breaker. Fig. 4880. A device for automatically 
opening the circuit from the trolley or third rail shoe 
to the controller when the current exceeds a predeter- 
mined amount. It is usually provided with magnetic 
Circulating Drum (Baker Heater). Figs. 2208, 2222, 2224. 
A cast iron vessel with hemispherical ends, on top or 
inside of the car, filled with water, and connected by 
two pipes with the coil in the stove and with the pipes 
which extend through the car. As the water in the 
coil becomes heated it ascends to the drum, and from 
there it descends through the other pipe to the radiat- 
ing pipes in the car. After passing through them it is 
brought back by return pipes to the coil, when it is 
again heated. Thus a continuous circulation is kept up. 
It is also called the expansion drum. There are sev- 
eral styles, among them the upright, fig. 2222; the 
horizontal, figs. 2208, 2224, etc. 
Circulating Pipes (Baker and Other Heaters). Fig. 2287. 
A general name for the pipes which carry the steam or 
heated fluid through the car and return it again to the 
heater. The term radiating pipes is also used. 
Circumference Measure (M. C. B. Standard). Figs. 4288- 
91. A steel tape measure specially designed to measure 
the circumference of car wheels. 
Clamp, i. "In general, something that fastens or binds a 
piece of timber or of iron used to fasten work together." 
— Webster. 

2. (Joinery.) "A frame with two tightening screws, 
by which two portions of an article are tightly com- 
pressed together, either while being formed or while 
their glue joint is drying." — Knight. See, Deck Sash 
Quadrant Clamp, Deck Sash Pivot Clamp, Platform 
Timber Clamp, Ridge Clamp. 
Cleaning Air Brakes. In 1902 the following method for 
cleaning air brakes was adopted as the Recommended 
Practice of the Association : 

Inspection and Cleaning of Triple Valves. — The 
triple valve should be removed from the car for clean- 
ing in the shop, and should be replaced by a triple in 
good condition. It should be dismantled, and all the 
internal parts, except those with rubber seats and 
gaskets, immersed in kerosene oil to soften the accu- 
mulated oil and gum. No hard metal should be used 
to remove gum or dirt, or to loosen the piston packing 




ring in its groove, as the almost inevitable result will 
be damage to some vital part of the triple. Particular 
pains should be taken in cleansing the feed groove 
not to enlarge it. Rags, or, better still, chamois skins, 
should be used rather than waste, as the latter in- 
variably leaves lint on the parts on which it is used. 
Great care must be used in removing the emergency 
valve seat, as this is frequently found bruised and 
distorted in triples which have been cleaned. The 
working parts should be carefully examined to know 
that they are in good order. Particular attention 
should be given the triple piston packing ring. It 
should have a neat fit in its groove in the piston, and 
also in the triple piston bushing. The fit of the pack- 
ing ring in its groove and bushing and the condition 
of the bushing should be such as to pass the pre- 
scribed tests. The graduating stem should work freely 
in its nut, and the graduating spring be of standard 
dimensions and free from corrosion. The slide valve, 
triple piston packing ring and bushing should be 
lubricated with a few drops of light bodied, high 
grade mineral lubricating oil, such as dynamo oil; 
but the emergency piston, valve and check should not 
be oiled. 

Should the triple piston packing ring need to be 
renewed, or the bushing require truing, we strongly 
recommend that such work be done by the manu- 
facturers. We are thoroughly convinced that the 
average workman cannot, or at least does not, do 
work of this kind satisfactorily, and that by far the 
largest proportion of the attempts to economize in 
this way results in inefficient air brakes and slid, 
flat wheels. It also permits a departure from the 
maintenance of standards in the several parts, which 
cannot but result in demoralization in repairs. 

Usually, sufficient attention is not paid to the con- 
dition of the emergency parts of the triple, as shown 
by their condition. The emergency valve seat is 
found damaged, the stem bent, the rubber seat imper- 
fect and the check valve not properly fitting in a 
number of cases. These facts account for a large 
number of slid, flat wheels. 

The cylinder cap gasket and check valve case gas- 
ket should be carefully examined and cleaned by 
using a cloth. They should not be scraped with a 
metal tool. Judging by an examination of a number 
of triples, these gaskets should be renewed more 
frequently than they are. 

Before assembling the parts after cleaning, the 
casings and body of the triple should be thoroughly 
cleaned out with a blast of compressed air. In tak- 
ing down and replacing the emergency parts of the 
triple, the greatest care should be exercised not to 
injure any of them. More damage is done by care- 
less workmen in taking down these parts than is 
done in replacing them. 

When replacing the triple valve on the auxiliary 
reservoir, the gasket should be fitted to the triple 
instead of the reservoir. Home made gaskets should 
be avoided, and standard gaskets of the manufacturer 
be used. Reports have been made where triple 
pistons have been found bent, due to the use of 
gaskets of irregular thickness, and trouble has been 
experienced in using gaskets which are too thick "or 
too thin. 

Cleaning and Inspection of the Brake Cylinder. — 
The brake cylinder need not be removed from the 
car for cleaning. First secure the piston rod firmly 
to the cylinder head ; then, after removing the cylin- 
der head, piston rod, piston head and release spring, 
scrape off all deposits of gum and dirt with a narrow 
putty knife or its equivalent, and have the removed 
parts wiped with waste saturated with kerosene or 
other light oil. The packing leather should never be 

permitted to soak in kerosene oil, as the penetrating 
qualities of kerosene reach into the pores of the 
leather, and force out the life giving qualities of the 
special oil in which the leather is treated by the 
manufacturer. Particular attention should be paid 
to cleaning the leakage grooye and the brake cylin- 
der tube. The packing leather and expander ring 
should receive their share of proper inspection and 
cleaning. The expander ring should be of a circum- 
ference which shall fit the bore of the brake cylinder 
when the ring is removed from its place between the 
follower and packing leather and entered in the cylin- 
der. In all cases the follower nuts should be drawn 
up snugly before replacing the piston, and the inside 
of the cylinder and the packing leather evenly coated 
with a suitable grease or vaseline. A goodly quantity 
of grease should be placed on the expander ring and 
the adjacent side of the packing leather, thus per- 
mitting the pressure to force the grease into the 
leather and giving it greater life. 

No sharp tool should be used in getting the packing 
leather into the cylinder. After the piston is in place 
and before the cylinder head is fastened on, the piston 
rod should be slightly rotated in all directions about 
three inches from the center line of the cylinder, in 
order to be certain that the expanding ring is not out 
of place. The old stencil marks should be removed. 
The auxiliary reservoir should be stenciled on both 
sides, with the date and place of cleaning, using 
white lead for the purpose ; and if the car belongs to 
a foreign road, a repair card should be attached, as 
provided by the rules. The bolts or nuts holding the 
cylinder and reservoir to the car should be tightened. 

Testing Triples. — After cleaning and repairing, it 
is essential that triples be tested and come within re- 
quired limits, if a reasonable efficiency of the air 
brakes is to be maintained. 

Test No. I. — The tightness of the slide valve, the 
emergency and check valves and all joints should be 
determined by painting with soap suds. 

Test No. 2. — Maintaining a pressure of ninety 
pounds in the train pipe, the auxiliary reservoir 
should reach seventy pounds in not less than forty- 
five seconds or more than sixty seconds, as provided 
for in Test No. 9 of the M. C. B. Air Brake Tests 

Test No. 3. — To test repaired triples for release, 
charge the auxiliary to seventy pounds pressure and 
make a full service reduction of twenty pounds, or 
until the auxiliary and cylinder pressure are equal. 
Place the special cut out cock in such position that 
pressure must pass through the 3-64 inch port, and 
turn main reservoir pressure of ninety pounds into 
the train pipe. If the triple does not release under 
these conditions it should be condemned. 

Test No. 4. — The triple piston packing ring should 
be tested for leakage by blocking the piston in the 
graduating position, preferably by use of the device 
shown at **A" in the accompanying diagram, main- 

taining the drain pipe pressure at seventy pounds. 
Under these conditions the pressure in the auxiliary 
reservoir should not increase faster than fifteen 
pounds per minute. 




Clearance Car. A car with a light frame built out on all 
sides to the extreme width and height required for any 
car that is to pass over the road. It is run over the 
road first to ascertain if the car can with safety be sent 
over the rgad. The car may also be used to ascertain 
what is the maximum cross section of tunnels, bridges, 
etc., over a road so that cars can be built within the 
limits determined by the car. 

Clear Story. 110,1^108.360-72,388-91. "An upper story or 
row of windows in a church, tower, or other erection, 
rising clear above the adjoining parts of the build- 
ing." — ^Webster. Also spelled clere story. Hence the 
portion of a passenger car roof which rises above the 
roof proper, in the mahner which is now customary in 
nearly all Amerioein passenger cars, has been termed 
the clear story, and this name was exclusively used in 
the former edition of this dictionary. Since the issuing 
of the first edition the use of the term deck for clear 
story seems to have become practically universal among 
car builders and manufacturers, especially in compound 
words. As a general name for designating the entire 
space included within the upper deck, however, the 
term clear story is frequently used. The clear story 
was first used in American car framing about i860. 
The part corresponding to a clear story in freight ca- 
booses is termed a lookout. 

Clearance (of Track Gage). The total difference between 
the gage of the rails and the gage of the exterior bear- 
ing surface of the flanges is at present fixed at about 
^ of an inch, as adopted in June, 1894. See, Figs. 
4367-69. The method of testing wheels for this pur- 
pose has been by measuring the distance in the clear 
from inside to inside of car wheel. By resolution of 
the Master Car Builders' Association, 1883, the stand- 
ard distance for flanges was fixed at 4 ft. 5f^ in. The 
limit of li in. either way from 4 ft. 5^ in. was adopted 
in 1885. In 1894 a standard check gage for mounting 
wheels was adopted (see, fig. 4366) which is intended 
to make the clearance of flanges a fixed distance. The 
relation of wheel gage to track and guard rails is 
shown in figs. 4367-68. 

Cleat, "i. A narrow strip of wood nailed on in joinery. 
2. A term applied to small wooden projections in tackle 
to fasten ropes by." — Webster. 

Cleveland Turnbuckle. Fig. 2968. See, Turnbuckle. 

Clevis. "A stirrup shaped metallic strap used in connec- 
tion with a pin to connect a draft chain or tree to a 
plow or other tool." — Knight. The term is applied to 
various kinds of irons resembling a plow clevis in 
shape, and also to bolts with forked ends. See, BooH 
Cap Clevis. Brake Lever Clevis. Draw Clevis. 
Hoisting Block Clevis. 

Clinch Nail. A wrought iron forged nail, so named 
because it can be bent or clinched without breaking. 
Cut nails, the common and cheapest kind, although of 
wrought iron, will not clinch. 

Clip. A U shaped strap for attaching any body, more par- 
ticularly a pipe, to the side of a partition. See, Berth 
Spring Clip, Deck Sash Quadrant Clip, Pipe Clip. 

Close RtruRN Bend. Fig. 2275. A short cast iron tube 
made of a U shape, for uniting the ends of two wrought 
iron pipes. It differs from an open return bend in 
having the two branches in contact with each other. 

Closed Car (Street Cars). Generally a car with end doors, 
and the sides closed by the car panels or sheathing, 
and windows, so that the passengers are protected from 
the wind aiid weather. 

The term is used for a winter car to distinguish it 
from an open or summer car, in which the seats are 
usually transverse to the car, the sides open, except for 

Closed Door Stop (Freight Car Doors). 72, figs. 159-69. 
A block of wood or iron to prevent outside sliding 

doors from moving too far when they are dosed. See 
also, Open Door Stop. 

Closet, i. A small room, usually for storage. See, Linen 
Closet, Wine Closet, etc. A locker is a closet of less 
than the full height of the car, but this distinction is 
not always observed. 

2. A retiring room for sanitary purposes, more com- 
monly called a Saloon, which see. 

Closet Hopper. Figs. 3091-95. Also called soil hopper. 
A metal or porcelain hopper used in saloons. 

Closet Hopper Ventilator. Fig. 3103. See, Bell's Ex- 
haust Hopper Ventilator. 

Cloud Steel Truck Frames. Figs. 4082-83. 

Clusters (Pintsch Lamps). The four flame cluster, No. 
227 (fig. 2520), is the one ordinarily used in center 
lamps. Where a large amount of light is required, as 
in compartments having but one lamp, five or six flame 
clusters (Nos. 228, 229) may be used. Where a small 
amount is needed, as in central corridors at ends of 
cars, two flame clusters (No. 226) may be used. 

For vestibule lamps the two flame cluster (No. 226A, 
FIG. 2522) is 'required. Four flame vestibule lamps 
use the ordinary four flame cluster (No. 227). 

All clusters are provided with check screws, placed at 
the base of the burner arm, by means of which the flow 
of gas to each burner can be regulated. These check 
screws are locked in place by small nuts. 

Cluster Stem (Pintsch Lamp). 305, figs. 2605-21. 

Cluster Stem Flange (Pintsch Lamp). 305a, 305b, figs. 

Clutch Coupung. See, Brake Hose Coupling. 

Coach. Figs. 69-81, 141, 360-65. A term used to desig- 
nate cars for the conveyance of passengers, in distinc- 
tion from freight, baggage and express cars. By in- 
creasing usage the term is used as an equivalent for 
day car in distinction from sleeping cars as well as 
freight and baggage cars. 

Coach Bolt (English). American equivalent. Carriage 
Bolt, which see. 

Coach Screw (English). American equivalent, lag screw, 
but coach screw is also used. A square headed screw 
with a pointed end used to screw into wood. 

Coal Box. A box for carrying coal. It is usually a long 
narrow deep box, placed between the heater and the 
end of the coach. 

Coal Car. Figs. 21-45, 239-324. A car especially designed 
for carrying coal. The standard cars built for coal ser- 
vice to-day are largely what are termed gondolas. They 
are from 27 to 36 feet long and carry from 60,000 lbs. 
to 100,000 lbs. They are usually designated by the char- 
acter of the dumping devices applied, as drop bottom, 
hopper bottom, box hopper bottom, pyramidal hopper 
bottom, twin hopper bottom, etc. See, 
Drop Bottom Car. Twin Hopper Car. 

Hopper Bottom Car. 

Coal Feed Chute (Baker Heater). Fig. 2185. 

Coal Hopper. See above and Hopper. 

Coat and Hat Hook. Figs. 2929-50. 

Coat Hook. Figs. 2951-55. 

Cock. 4 and 6, figs. 2798-2800, and 2763-68. "A spout; an 
instrument to draw out or discharge liquor from a cask, 
vat or pipe." — Webster. See, Faucet for the various 
forms; also 

Bibb Cock. Reservoir Drain Cock. 

Combination Cock. Self Closing Cock. 

Compression Faucet. Stop Cock. 

Drain Cock. Telegraph Cock. 

Draw Off Cock. Three Way Cock. 

Main Cock. Vertical Telegraph 

Release Cock. Cock. 

Cocoa Matting. Matting for the floors of cars made from 
the coir fiber, growing in East India and the east coast 
of Africa. 

Coil (Baker Heater). Figs. 2189, 2226-7, etc. An iron pipe 




which is bent in a spiral fonn and placed in the fire, 
for heating water which circulates through the car. 

Coil Jacket Steam Heating System (Safety Car Heating 
System). Fics. 2395-97. This system is primarily a 
system devised to meet the requirements of those who 
demand that all the jackets and circulation piping be 
retained entirely within the car. The principle is 
the same as indicated under the head of Standard 
Systems. The jackets are shown in figs. 2403-10; 
and in these the circulating water is heated by steam 
from the locomotive. See, Safety Car Heating Co.'s 
Systems of Car Heating. 

Coke Car. Figs. 244-45. A gondola car with extra high 
sides or a rack, made necessary by the light character of 
the load. Box cars are often used as coke cars. 

Coke Rack Stake Pocket. A stake pocket fastened to 
the side or end planks of a gondola car which are to 
take the stakes of a coke rack. 

Cold Shot. Small globules of iron resembling ordinary 
gun shot, which are found in the chilled portion of cast 
iron wheels. 

Collar, i. "A ring or round flange upon or against an 
object" — Knight Ordinarily an axle collar, below, is 
meant See, 

Deck Collar. Lamp Collar. 

Dust Collar. Reducing Collar. 

Expanding Collar. 

2. (Of Journal) Figs. 4284-87. A rim or enlarge- 
ment on the end of the car axle which takes the end 
thrust of the journal bearing. 

Collection op Salt Water Drippings. In 1898 the subject 
of rust on trucks and track from salt water drippings 
from refrigerator cars was discussed, and a Recom- 
mended Practice for the collection of such drippings 
was adopted. See figs. 4529-30. 

CoLUNS Brake Head. The shoe is fastened by a dove tail, 
which is wedge shaped. Not now used. 

Color Coat (Painting). The coats which follow the rough 
stuff or scraping filling coat in painting passenger 
car bodies. It is applied before the lettering and 
striping. The colors are mixed with turpentine and 
dryers, as little oil as possible being used, only suffi- 
cient to prevent the color from rubbing oflF. Twenty- 
four hours are allowed to each coat to dry, and the 
processes of lettering, striping and varnishing then 
follow, which vary greatly in the time and care given to 
them, but which are always very carefully done. See, 
Finishing Varnish and Painting. 

Column, i. (Diamond and Other Trucks), y;* Figs. 3735- 
53. Another and perhaps more common name for 
a Bolster Guide Bar^ which see. 

2. (Of Crane). Another name for the mast, espe- 
cially when entirely supported from below. 

Column Bolt. 109, figs. 3735-53- A bolt passing through 
the arch bars and holding the column in place and the 
truck frame together. 

Comb and Brush Rack or Case. Figs. 2784-96. 

Combination Baggage Car. Fig. 120. A baggage car 
having compartments for express or mail, or both, 
as well as for baggage. See, Combination Car. 

Combination Car. Figs. 73-74> 7?, 134- A passenger car, 
one portion of which is devoted to passengers and 
the other to the conveyance of mail, baggage or express. 
A Combination Baggage Car, which see, is also a com- 
bination car. 

Combination Cock (Baker Heater). A cock with funnel 
attached, used at the top of a tank for filling. When 
opened with the key it allows the inward passage of 
the water, and at the same time the outward passage 
of air through a separate channel. Hence the name. 

Combination Hot and Cold Water Faucets. 6, figs. 
2798-2800 and FIGS. 2768, 2801. 

Combined Triple Valve, Reservoir and Brake Cylinder 
(Westinghouse Freight Brake). Figs. 918-19. To 

lessen the complication and reduce the cost of freight 
brake gear these three parts, which are separate in 
passenger brake gear, are combined in freight 

Commercial Acetylene System of Car Lighting. 
Details, figs. 2657-62. This system uses acetylene gas 
stored in tanks filled with asbestos and charged with 
4-10 of the volume of acetone, a colorless liquid 
obtained from the dry distillation of wood which 
absorbs large quantities of acetylene under pressure. 
When the pressure is relieved the acetylene is given off 
and the acetone remains in the tank and may be used 
over again on recharging ; 3,500 cu. ft. of acetylene may 
be stored under a pressure of 240 lbs. in a 10 ft. x 20 in. 
tank and may not be exploded by any known means 
when in the tanks filled with asbestos bricks. Such a. 
supply is sufficient for more than one month's lighting 
of an ordinary car. The gas is generated in stations at 
terminals, and the tanks, when empty, are replaced by 
full tanks supplied from the charging stations. The 
lamps and piping for the car are practically the same as 
the Pintsch. 

CoMMiNGLER STORAGE System OF Car Heating (Con- 
solidated Car Heating Co.). Fig. 2324. A small 
commingler is placed under the middle seats on 
each side of the car, between the floor of the car and 
the deafening ceiling. The outflow connection of this 
commingler is the side piping, and the other end, form- 
ing the return, is connected with a valve, and thence 
into the base of the commingler. A complete circuit is 
thus established, through which a continuous flow of 
water may take place, as shown by the arrows. The 
overflow, through which surplus water is removed from 
the system, is connected with the fitting, which is placed 
at the highest point in the system, 3K. When the pipes 
are entirely filled, the surplus water flows from this fit- 
ting through the restricted opening in the trap cock, 
and thence down through the channel way, 3A, cast in 
the base of the commingler, and out at the drip pipe. 
The connection of the overflow pipe to the base of the 
commingler is made to prevent possibility of freezing 
of the drip pipe in cold weather. When the pipes are 
filled with water of condensation all surplus is carried 
off through the overflow pipe. The entire system is 
quickly emptied of water, and the car is then ready to 
stand out in the cold without danger of freezing, and 
it is also ready to be quickly heated by direct steam 
when again brought into service. 

0>mmingl£r System of Car Heating. Figs. 2319-23. 
See, McElroy's Commingler System. 

Commode Handle (English). Nearest American equiva- 
lent, body hand rail. A piece of brass or iron secured 
to the sides of the body, and shaped so as to be con- 
veniently grasped by the hand in entering and leaving 
carriage or in gassing along the train outside the car- 

Common Sense Bolster. Figs. 799-802. A type of bolster 
having a top and bottom plate of wrought iron and a 
center filling piece of steel. 

Communication Cord Pulley (English). American 
equivalent, bell cord pulley. A small brass pulley fixed 
to the eave of the roof and carrying the communication 
cord (bell cord) running outside the train. 

Commutator. Fig. 4840.' See, Armature. 

Compartment. A subdivision of a passenger car. In Eng- 
lish carriages it runs entirely across the car. In 
American parlor and sleeping cars, in which alone 
compartments often occur, it runs only partially across, 
leaving room for a passage or corridor at the side 
Often called Staterooms, which see. 

Compartment Sleeping Car. Figs. 97-99, 127. A sleep- 
ing Car which is divided into staterooms all opening 
into a common corridor which runs the whole length 
of the car. See, Sleeping Car. 




CoMPO Brake Shoe. Figs. 1022-24. A brake shoe of soft 
cast iron with cork inserts. 

Composite Carriage or Composite (English). A coach in 
which compartments for more than one class of passen- 
gers are provided. A compartment for baggage is gen- 
erally included. 

CbMPOSiTE End Framing. Figs. 433-35. A type of 
framing adopted by the Vanderbilt system of rail- 
roads, which combines iron and wood, in the sills, 
posts, plates, etc. The sills and plates of the body and 
deck consist of two pieces of wood with an iron or 
steel flitch plate between, the three pieces being bolted 
together as one. To these iron flitch plates and mor- 
tis.ed into the wood flitch planks of the sills and plates 
are bolted or riveted upright iron posts. These iron 
posts are also sandwiched between wood studs, mak- 
ing a composite post of great stiflFness and strength. 
The end plate is also strengthened in the same manner, 
as are all the important members of the car body frame. 

Composite End Post. See, Composite End Framing. 
' Compound Bolster. A bolster composed of one or more 
sticks of timber stiflFened with vertical plates of iron. 

Compound Carline. 100, figs. 360-72, 385-87, 388-91. A 
carline, of which the main or central portion is made of 
wrought iron, with a piece of wood on each side. They 
are commonly used for cars with clear stories, and 
either extend directly from one plate to the other or are 
bent to conform to the shape of the clear story. In the 
latter case they are called profile carlines. See, Car- 
'Compression Bar. See, Body Bolster Compression Bar. 

Compression Beam. 163, figs. 360-72, 385-87. A horizontal 
timber in the center of the side of a car body, which 
acts as the compression member of a truss for strength- 
ening the body. The compression beam brace abuts 
against it. An end compression beam is sometimes used. 
The compression beam is sometimes made double, one 
above the other, with separate braces (main compres- 
sion brace and center compression brace) acting upon 

Compression Beam Brace. 164, figs. 343-48, 360-72, 385-87. 
A brace used in connection with a compression beam to 
form a truss in the side of a passenger car. It is some- 
times stiffened by a center counterbrace, 165 ; and some- 
times two or more braces are used. It is then termed 
main compression brace. 

Compression Faucet, fig. 2769, and 4, figs. 2798-2800. A 
spring faucet with a flat disk on top, letting on the 
water by direct vertical compression. Telegraph Cocks, 
which see, are in a sense compression faucets, but are 
not so called. 

Compression Member. Any bar, beam, brace, etc., which is 
subjected to strains of compression, and forms part of 
a frame truss, beam, girder, etc. Struts, body braces, 
etc., are compression members. Similarly a tension 
member is used for tensile strains. 

Compression Rod Brake. An inner hung brake with a sin- 
gle lever which is connected with a brake beam farthest 
from it by a rod or bar which is subjected to a strain of 
compression when the brakes are applied. The pressure 
on the brake blocks is not equal. 

Concealing Urinal. One designed to be opened for use by 
a handle at the top, and then closed up flush with the 
woodwork so to be invisible. They are in limited use, 
but not generally approved. 

Concealing Water Closet. A form of closet covered with 
a seat to resemble an ordinary chair or sofa. 

Condensing Diaphragm (Refrigerator Cars). Sheets of 
metal placed in the cold air flue on which moisture may 
be precipitated. 

Conductor (Refrigerator Car). The drip pipe from the ice 
pan. See also, Heat Conductor. 

Conductor's Car. A Caboose Car, which see. 

Conductor's Lantern. Figs. 2730-37. One with an extra 
sized bail attached to it by which it can be held on the 
ami, leaving the hands free. It is sometimes provided 
with a reflector. They are often elaborately finished, 
and sometimes bear the name of the conductor cut on 
the globe. 

Conductor's Valve (Westinghouse Brake). Fig. 942. A 
valve for applying the train brakes placed at some con- 
venient point in a car, usually in the saloon. 

Conductor's Valve Discharge Pipe (Westinghouse 
Brake). A pipe leading from the conductor's valve 
down through the floor of the car. 

Conductor's Valve Pipe (Westinghouse Brake). Connects 
the brake pipe with the conductor's valve. 

Conduit Plow. Figs. 4834, 4875. A collecting device used 
with the open conduit system, consisting of metal con- 
tact shoes mounted upon a thin steel carrier, and de- 
signed to make contact with two insulated contact rails 
located in a conduit between the running rails. Copper 
leads through the steel carrier connect the shoes to the 
car wiring. The plow is supported by the trucks in 
such a manner as to allow lateral motion to permit its 
readily following the conduit slot. 

Cone and Apron Ventilator. Fig. 3484. See, Ventilators. 

Cone Cap Ventilator. Fig. 3483. See, Ventilators. 

Cone Lamp Shades. Figs. 2687-89. See, Lamp Shade. 

Coned Closet Hopper. Figs. 3093-94. See, Closet Hopper. 

CoNGDON Bridge Back Brake Shoe. Fig. 1021. A shoe 
with soft cast iron body and wrought iron inserts ?nJ 
a steel bridge back. Especially adapted for use on 
chilled wheels. 

Connecting Chain (Steam Shovel). A Pitch Chain. 
which see, connecting the pitch gear on the two axles 
of a truck, used for making the car self propelling. 

Connecting Rail. 48, figs. 3151-52. The wood or metallic 
bars that join the wall and aisle ends of a seat. 

Connecting Roa i. A rod which connects two or more 
parts or objects together. See, Brake Shaft Connect- 
ing Rod. Floating Lever Connecting Rod. Car Seat 
Connecting Rod. 

2. (Hand Car.) 24, figs. 4722-27. The iron rod 
which connects the bell crank and the crank shaft to- 

Consolidated Car Heating Systems. Figs. 2288-2324 
Several systems of car heating, including a Direct 
Steam System, a Multiple Circuit Drum System, the 
McElroy Commingler System and the Commingler 
Storage System, all of which see. 

Consolidated Steam Hose Coupling. Figs. 231 i, 2314. A 
straight port coupling used on Consolidated Car Heat- 
ing Co.'s equipments. 

Contactor. Fig. 4837. See, Control System. 

Continuous Basket Rack. 17, fig. 1782 and figs. 2987-98» 
3002-03. See, Basket Rack. 

Continuous Brake. A system of brakes so arranged that 
by connecting together the brake apparatus on the dif- 
ferent vehicles forming a train it can be operated on all 
of them from one or more points on the train, as from 
the engine or from any of the cars. See, 
Air Brake. Westinghouse Auto- 

Eames Vacuum Brake. matic Air Brake. 

New York Air Brake. 

Continuous Carline. A Carline, which sec, which passes 
directly from side to side of the car, across and under 
the clear story or upper deck, in distinction from a 
profile carline, which is bent to follow the outline of 
the clear story. 

Continuous Counterbrace Rod. The body counterbrace 
rods are sometimes combined into one long rod passing 
from one end of the car to the other, which is theti 
sometimes termed a continuous counterbrace rod; also, 
overhang truss rod, inverted truss rod, or hog chain 
Continuous Draft Gear. A draft gear, having a continu- 





ous rod or rods extending throughout the length of the 
car from the drawbar at one end to the drawbar at 
the other end, whose office is to transmit the tractive 
strains and relieve the draft timbers. The American 
is the type most frequently met. 
Continuous Top Side (English). Nearest American 
equivalent, top side rail. A side board run continu- 
ously from end to end of a wagon in order to stiffen it 
vertically and assist in tying the ends together. 
Continuous Truck Frame. An iron bar which is welded 
together in a rectangular shape so as to form the sides 
and ends of a truck frame. 
Control System (Type M., Gen. Electric Co.). Figs. 4835- 
38, 4874. A system of control where one or more con- 
trollers are operated from a distance. 

This system has been developed with special reference 
to the operation of a train consisting of several motor 
cars coupled together, all motors being controlled simul- 
taneously by a single operator. Each motor car is 
equipped with a motor controller, one or two master 
controllers, and control couplers, together with such 
other apparatus as switches, fuses, rheostats, etc., as 
constitutes a complete operative motor car equipment 

The motor controller consists of a number of elec- 
trically operated switches, called "contactors," which 
close the various power and motor circuits, and which 
carry only the current for the operating coils of the 
contactors. These latter are designed to open the motor 
circuit contacts by gravity, and are provided with an 
efficient magnetic blowout for quickly and positively 
disrupting the arc thus formed. The motor controller 
also includes an electrically operated reversing switch, 
called "reverser," the function of which is to connect 
the motor armatures and fields in the proper relations 
for giving forward or backward movement of the car. 
The reverser consists of a drum having two positions 
and carrying the necessary contacts for engaging fixed 
contact fingers, together with two operating coils, one 
for throwing the reverser to each position. The opera- 
tion of this reverser is also effected by the master con- 

The master controller is similar in construction to 
the ordinary hand controller, but very small and easily 
operated. It is provided with separate operating and 
reversing interlocked handles, and has a magnetic blow- 
out for disrupting the arcs formed on opening the con- 
trol circuit connections. 

The combinations of motors, rheostats, etc., effected 
by the motor controllers are the same as those accom- 
plished by ordinary hand controllers, giving series and 
parallel operation of motors and two economical run- 
ning speeds. (See, Controller.) 

Where several cars are coupled in a train the control 
circuits of the various cars are joined together by 
means of couplers located at the end of each car, so 
that all motor controller operating circuits and all mas- 
ter controllers are connected together, making all of 
the motor controllers operative from any master con- 
troller. The cars may be coupled into a train without 
reference to their relative positions, and either end of 
any car may be coupled to any other car in the train. 

The couplings for connecting the control circuits be- 
tween cars consist of a coupler socket fixed to the end 
of the car, and a jumper consisting of two coupler plugs 
connected by a multiple cable. The coupler sockets and 
plugs contain corresponding metal contacts for the con- 
nection of the electrical circuits. 

A cutout switch is provided on each car, by means of 
which damaged motors or motor controllers may be 
disconnected from the energizing circuits. 
Controller. Figs. 4823-24, 4837-38. An electric switching 
mechanism for controlling the speed and direction of 
rotation of electric motors. It includes the necessary 
movable and fixed contacts for connecting the motors to 

the power circuit and to a variable resistance in the 
combinations necessary for starting, accelerating and 
reversing the car. Practically all railway controllers are 
of the series parallel type, arranged to connect the 
motors first in series with each other, and then in par- 
allel across the power circuit, giving two running 
speeds. While accelerating to these speeds, variable re- 
sistances introduced into the circuit prevent undue rise 
of current. 

The controller consists of a main cylinder, carrying 
the necessary contacts insulated from the shaft and 
from each other for engaging with fixed contacts or 
fingers, thus effecting the required electrical connections 
for placing motors either in series or in parallel, and 
regulating the resistances in series with them, A re- 
versing cylinder makes the necessary connections for 
reversing the direction of rotation of the motors. The 
arcs formed on opening the circuits are disrupted by 
a magnetic blowout. The controller is enclosed in an 
iron casing, which protects all parts and serves to at- 
tach it to the car framing. One controller is usually 
located on each platform of the car, which can be oper- 
ated from either end. See, Control System. 

Convertible Car (Electric). Figs. 4731-34, 4750-52, 4759- 
61. A type of car which may be readily converted from 
a closed car to an open car. The seats are arranged 
crosswise and the side of the car is made up of panels 
between the posts. When it is desired to change the car 
from closed to open the panels and sash are raised into 
pockets under the roof, as shown in figs. 4759-61. See, 
Semi-Convertible Car. 

Cope. The upper portion of a mold or flask used in making 
metal castings. 

Coping (English). A bar of iron secured to the top of the 
sides and ends of a gondola car (open wagon), and 
protecting them from local distortion and the friction 
of a chain or any heavy body. 

Cord. "A string or small rope composed of several strands 
twisted together." — Webster. See, Bell Cord. 

Cork Wall (Refrigerator Cars). One of the means of 

Corner Angle Post. A corner post which consists of an 
angle bar, usually in combination with a wooden post 

Corner Brace (Street Car). A diagonal floor timber be- 
tween the end sill and transverse floor timber. 

Corner Casting. A Knee Iron, or a Corner Plate, which 
see. See also. Roof Corner Casting. 

Corner Handle. More commonly a Hand Hold or a Gra3 
Iron, which see. 102, figs. 155-69. 

Corner Pillar (English). American equivalent, corn«ir 
post. An upright piece at the comers of the body. 

Corner Plate, i. (Freight Car Bodies.) 55, 56, 57, figs. 
159-69, 185-95. A wrought or cast iron angle plate or 
knee on the outside comer, to strengthen and protect 
the frame. There are usually three comer plates, 
upper, lower, and middle. Very commonly a push pole 
comer iron or push block, 191, figs. 159-69, is cast 
upon the lower comer plate. 

2. (Pullman End Framing.) An angle iron applied 
to the corner of a stick of timber (the deck end plate) 
to keep it from abrasion and to strengthen it. 

Corner Post. i. 43, figs. 159-69, 185-95, 215-22; 8, figs. 
271-95; 61, FIGS. 360-72, 385-87. The upright stick 
which forms the comer of the frame of a car body. 

Corner Post and Brace Pocket. Figs. 459-60. 

Corner Post Knee Iron. i. (Pullman End Framing.) 
An angle brace used to connect the foot of the comer 
angle post to the side sill. 

2. (Pullman Extended Vestibule.) An angle brace 
for the outside corner post of a vestibule resting upon 
the platform end sill. 

Corner Post Pocket. 45, figs. 159-69 and figs. 457-8. See, 




Corner Seat. A seat for the comer of a car, the back of 
which is not reversible. They are called left hand or 
right hand, as for a person sitting in them. 

Corner Seat End. A seat end bracket secured to the wall 
of a passenger car for supporting the outer end of a 
Corner Seat, which see. 

Corner Transom Muntin or Mullion (Street Cars). A 
side mullion in the transom frame of an open car, to 
distinguish it from the center transom muntin. 

Corner Urinal. Figs. 31 10-12. So called in distinction 
from a side urinal. 

Cornice. 94, figs. 392-98. The moldings at the eaves of ihe 
roof outside of a car, and where the ceiling joins the 
sides and ends of the car inside. There is, therefore, 
an inside and outside cornice. See also, Deck Insice 
Cornice. Window Cornice, etc 

Corning Soft Insert Brake Shoe. Figs. 1009 and 1012. 
A brake shoe of hard cast iron body with soft cast iron 

Corridor (Sleeping and Compartment Cars). Figs. 98, 127. 
A passage running at one side of a car from one door 
to the other, affording access to the compartments. All 
sleeping, dining and private cars have longer or shorter 
corridors to pass the state rooms, smoking compart- 
ments, etc. 

Corridor Carriage (English). A passenger vehicle having 
a passage from end to end along one side, the various 
compartments having doors which open into this pas- 
sage. Little used. See also. Carriage. 

Corrugated Key (Yale Lock, which see). 

Corrugated Metal Car Roof (Freight Cars). Fig. 1775. 
A roof consisting of iron, steel, or zinc plates covered 
with boards, and resting on roof strips on top of the 
rafters and carlines. See also. Car Roof. 

Corrugated Moldings. See, Waved Moldings. 

Corrugated Rubber Floor Mat. So called in distinction 
from perforated rubber floor mats. 

Corrugated Yale Lock. See, Yale Lock. 

CoRTiciNE. A form of floor covering much like Linoleum, 
which see, composed of linseed oil, prepared by a special 
process, mixed with ground cork and placed upon a 
strong backing of water proof canvas. 

Counter Boring. An enlargement or other alteration of 
form, for a certain portion of its length, of a hole bored 
in any substance. 

CouNTERBRACE. Z7* "GS. i5$)-69, 185-9S ; 55, FIGS. 360-72 and 
165, FIGS. 343-48; 360-72, 385-87. In bridge building, 
a brace which carries a load in the opposite direction 
to a main brace, or resists the tendency to buckling of 
panel, when the shear due to dead load exceeds that of 
the live load. In car building, a counterbrace usually 
. means a brace on the side of the body between its ends 
and the body bolster. Sometimes there are two styles 
of counterbraces : one, near the middle of the car, is 
alone a counterbrace proper, in the technical sense, and 
called center counterbrace; while the other is desig- 
nated as the counterbrace or overhang brace, and gen- 
erally the only counterbrace recognized in car building. 
See, Body Counterbrace. 

Counterbrace Rod. 37a, figs. i5S)-^» 185-95. An inclined 
rod which acts as a counterbrace. See above and also 
Body Counterbrace Rod. 

Counterbrace Rod Plate Washers. 34b, 34c, figs. 159-^ 
185-95, etc. Washers that rest upon the plate and re- 
ceive the end of the counterbrace rod. 

Coupler, That which couples. In relation to cars the term 
usually designates the appliances for coupling or con- 
necting cars together. The word is more appropriately 
applied to the automatic car coupler, which performs 
the act of coupling itself. The term is sometimes used 
to designate the coupling of steam pipes between cars, 
but this is unfortunate, as it seems desirable to maintain 
the distinction already established. To apply the term 
coupling to an M. C. B. automatic coupler would be an 

innovation, and it would seem equally so to call a 
steam hose coupling a coupler. See, Automatic 
Freight Car Couplers. 
Couplers. (M. C. B. Specifications.) In 1899 the following 
specifications and tests for M. C. B. automatic couplers 
were adopted as Recommended Practice: 
For drop testing machine and details see figs. 


After January i, 1902, all M. C. B. automatic car 
couplers purchased by or used in the construction of 
cars for the above named company musi meet the re- 
quirements of the following specifications : 

Couplers will be subject to the inspection and tests 
of the representative of the above named company, 
preferably at the works where they are made, as to 
their mechanical workings, general condition and 
strength. The inspection and tests to be made with 
the aid of gages and apparatus approved by the As- 
sociation. Test couplers to be furnished free by 
manufacturers. Testing apparatus and assistance 
necessary to make satisfactory tests and inspection to 
be furnished free by the manufacturers when such 
tests are carried on at their works. 

The bars, knuckles and locking pins, or blocks, 
must be accurately made to fitting gages prepared by 
the manufacturers, governing those dimensions which 
will insure that, when afterward assembled, parts 
taken at random will go together without adjustment 
or machining. When so assembled, knuckles and 
locking pins, or blocks, must work freely, but with- 
out so much lost motion between knuckle and bar as 
will permit more than 1-16 inch vertical play in the 
former, or between knuckle and lock as will permit 
knuckle to drop forward beyond the proper contour 
line ; but % inch to H inch lost motion in the opposite 
direction is not undesirable. 

Couplers must conform to M. C. B. contour lines, 
dimensions and gages. They must couple and un- 
couple with each other (with either or both knuckles 
open) and with the master or sample coupler. They 
should unlock easily, and lock with freedom when 
knuckle is pushed in by hand. They must have com- 
plete locking fixtures, with lock set preferably within 
the head of the coupler. They must have steel pivot 
pins i^ inches in diameter, and of a uniform length 
of 13^ inches from under side of head to center of 
pin hole for ^ inch cotter. Pivot pins, after being 
heated and having ends struck up, must be carefully 
and properly annealed. 

Bars will not be accepted if distorted by improperly 
matched flasks, or other defects due to molding or 
casting, and must be free from shrinkage cracks, cold 
sheets and blow holes. The coupling faces and bear- 
ing surfaces must be free from sand or scale. The 
coupling face must be square with axis of bar. The 
dimensions of the bearing surfaces of butt and its 
depth must not vary more than 1-16 inch from the 
standard. The back end of shank and the front faces 
of butt must be flat and square with the axis of bar. 
The front faces of butt must be free from sand wash 
in the corners. The dimensions shown on standard 
drawing of that part of shank lying between butt and 
head of coupler are maximum, and must not be ex- 
ceeded. The holes for pivot pin in lugs of bar must 
be drilled, or, if cored, must be broached out so as to 
be not more than i 21-32 inches diameter. They mu^t 
not only be in line with each other, but their common 
center line must be parallel to face of bar and at right 
angles to its axis. 

Knuckles must conform to manufacturers* fitting 
gages and to M. C. B. knuckle gage, so as to fit prop- 
erly in coupler head and insure strict adherence to the 
M. C. B. contour. They will not be accepted if dis- 
torted by improperly matched flasks, or other defects 




caused by molding, and must be free from shrinkage 
cracks, cold shot and sand, scale or blow holes. The 
pivot pin hole must be drilled, or, if cored, must be 
broached out so as to be not more than 1 21-32 inches 
diameter. It must be parallel to face of knuckle and 
at right angles to its axis. 

The name of the coupler and class of bar must be cast 
upon the top side of head of bar, in letters and figures 
)i inch long and raised 1-16 inch. Each coupler must 
also have plainly cast upon it the Master Car Build- 
ers' standard label of dimensions and size, and in the 
location as shown in detail on drawing which forms 
a part of these specifications. Each knuckle must have 
the serial number of class or style and maker's mark 
cast upon it at some point where it will not be worn 

The weight of each complete coupler having 5 by 5 

inch shank to be not less than pounds ; of each 

coupler having 5 by 7 inch shank to be not less than 

pounds. Each knuckle to weigh not less than 

pounds. As many couplers and knuckles as pos- 
sible must be cast from each heat of steel or melt of 
iron used. All parts to be well annealed throughout. 

The representative of the railroad company, having 
inspected the couplers offered, shall proceed to test 
from such as he accepts, selecting for test as follows : 
One complete coupler shall be taken at random by 
him from each lot of one hundred couplers accepted, 
or from each accepted heat of steel cast (for mal- 
leable iron, from each annealing heat), it being op- 
tional with the manufacturer which method is pur- 

The coupler shall be subjected to test No. i, here- 
after specified. If the coupler fails to stand the pre- 
scribed test, but before failing stands a sufficient 
number of blows to make a retest admissible, a second 
coupler shall be taken from the same lot from which 
the first coupler was taken. If it stands the test, that 
lot of couplers will be accepted as far as test i is con- 
cerned. Otherwise, that lot will be rejected and an- 
other lot substituted and tested in the same way. 

From each 1,000 couplers accepted by test i, five 
complete couplers shall be selected by the inspector, 
one of which shall be subjected to test 2, two to test 
3, and two to test 4, hereafter specified. 

If any coupler, or pair, fails to stand the prescribed 
test, but before failing stands a sufficient number of 
blows to make a retest admissible, a second coupler, 
or pair, shall be taken from the same lot from which 
the first five were taken. If it (or they) stand the 
test, that lot of couplers will be accepted. Otherwise 
that lot will be rejected and another lot of 1,000 coup- 
lers substituted. Any part of any coupler which has 
been subjected to test is condemned for retest and for 

List of tests to which couplers shall be subjected : 

1. Striking test on closed knuckle of complete 
coupler, covering lots of 100 each. 

2. Guard arm test, covering lots of 1,000 each. 

3. Jerk test, covering lots of 1,000 each. 

4. Pulling test, covering lots of 1,000 each. 

Test I. — Striking Test on Closed Knuckle of Com- 
plete Coupler. As a preliminary, coupler is to be 
marked on bottom with a center punched hne parallel 
to axis of shank, the line being extended to inner face 
of knuckle; coupler is then rigidly held in a 
vertical position in machine with steel fillers and 
wedges, the latter sledged down tight, and this sledg- 
ing operation repeated after each blow, with its axis 
in center line of drop, pivot pin hole parallel to line 
through centers of legs of machine and butt resting 
solidly on anvil. Blows to strike directly on knuckle. 
Three blows of i,6i40 pounds, falling 5 feet. 
Three blows of 1,640 pounds, falling 10 feet. 

The coupler will be considered as having failed to 
stand this test if it is broken before it has received all 
the blows above specified, or if any cracks appear 
more than i inch long, or open more than 1-16 inch, 
or when center punched line is distorted more than i 
inch, or when knuckle is found to have closed more 
than }i inch from its original position when pulled 
out against lock by hand, after receiving three blows 
at 5 feet, or if knuckle will not open and locking de- 
vices operate after test. Should the coupler before 
failing stand three blows at $ feet and two blows at 
10 feet, another complete coupler shall be provided 
and tested, as per clause governing retest. 

Test 2.— Guard Arm Test of Coupler.— As a pre- 
liminary, pivot pin, knuckle and locking device hav- 
ing been removed, coupler is to be marked on bottom 
with a center punched line, parallel to axis of shank, 
and extending from coupling face or contour to back 
end of shank; a center punch mark must also be 
placed at tip of guard arm and on lug. 

Coupler is then held rigidly in a vertical position in 
machine, with steel fillers and wedges (the latter 
sledged down tight and this sledging repeated after 
each blow), butt resting solidly on anvil and blocked 
to prevent lateral motion, edge of guard arm in line 
connecting centers of legs of machine. Blows to 
strike directly on guard arm. 

Three blows of 1,640 pounds, falling 3 feet. 
Four blows of 1,640 pounds, falling •; feet. 

A coupler will be considered as having failed to 
stand this test when it is broken before it has re- 
ceived all the blows above specified, or when any 
cracks appear more than i inch long, or open more 
than 1-16 inch, or when center punched line is dis- 
torted more than ij4 inches, or when distance be- 
tween punch marks on botttom of head has widened 
more than H inch. Should the bar, before failing, 
stand three blows at 3 feet and two blows at 5 feet, 
another coupler shall be provided and tested, as per 
clause governing retest. 

Test 3— Jerk Test of Complete Coupler.— The 
couplers will be placed in yoke forgings of machine, 
and equalizer placed in position in closed knuckles. 
Blows to strike directly on equalizer, midway be- 
tween the two couplers. 

Three blows of 1,640 pounds, falling 5 feet. 
Three blows of 1,640 pounds, falling 10 feet. 

A coupler will be considered as having failed to 
sUnd this test if it is broken before it has received 
all the blows above specified, or if cracks appear 
more than i inch long, or open more than 1-16 inch, 
or if equalizer will not stay in place when struck, or 
if knuckle will not open and locking devices operate 
after test. Should either or both couplers fail to 
stand the prescribed test, but both stand three blows 
at 5 feet and two blows at 10 feet, another complete 
coupler, or pair of couplers, shall be provided and 
tested, as per clause governing retest. 

Test 4.— Pulling Test of Complete Couplers. — 
Couplers to stand a steady pull of 120,000 pounds. A 
coupler will be considered as having failed to stand 
this test if it is broken before it has been pulled the 
prescribed number of pounds, or if any cracks appear 
more than i inch long, or open more than 1-16 inch, 
or if couplers pull past each other in machine, or if 
knuckle will not open and locking devices operate 
after test. Should either or both couplers fail to 
stand the prescribed test, but both stand 90,000 
pounds, another complete coupler, or pair of couplers, 
shall be provided, as per clause governing retest. 

In case of the failure of any part of the complete 
coupler under tests i, 3 and 4, only such parts of the 
lot of couplers represented by the test coupler shall 
be condemned as correspond to the part which failed 




under the test, but the balance of the parts may be 
submitted for future test. 

Couplers, Automatic. For M. C. B. Rules for Interchange 
of Traffic with regard to couplers see, Drawbar and 
Attachments and Interchange of Traffic 

Coupler, Electric Figs. 4871-72. A device attached to the 
end of a car including insulated metallic contacts for 
the connection of electric circuits between cars, general- 
ly used for connection of trail car lighting, heating or 
signal circuits to the motor car. See, Control System. 

Coupler Gages. Figs. 4350-51. Gages adopted by the M. C. 
B. Association in 1891 to preserve the contour line for 
couplers. These gages may be obtained from Pratt & 
Whitney Company, Hartford, Conn. 

Coupler Jumper. Figs. 4871-72. Two coupler plugs con- 
nected by an insulated flexible cable. See, Control Sys- 

Coupler Label. In 1900 these specifications and tests for 
couplers were modified by the provision that couplers 
should have the Master Car Builders' label, as shown 
in figs. 4707-10. See page 187, Proceedings 1900. 
Further modification by letter ballot in 1901. 

Coupler Plug. Figs. 4871-72. A movable coupler designed 
to engage and connect to coupler socket. See, Control 

Coupler Socket. Figs. 4871-72. A fixed electric coupler. 
See, Control System. 

Couplet (of Springs). Figs. 4148-9. Two Eluptic 
Springs, which see, placed side by side, to act as one 
spring. Three springs united in this way form a triplet, 
four a quadruplet, five a quintuplet, six a sextuplet. 

Coupling. "That which couples or connects, as a hook, 
chain or bar." — Webster. A coupling link was called 
simply a coupling. See, Coupler. See, 
Basin Coupling. Head Board Coupling. 

Bell Cord Coupling. Hose Coupling. 

Berth Curtain Rod Pipe Coupling. 

Coupling. Reducing Pipe Coup- 

Brake Hose Clutch ling. 

Coupling. Screw Coupling (Eng- 

Brake Hose Coupling. lish). 

Clutch Coupung. Steam Hose Coupling. 

Coupling Link. 

Coupling Bar, See, Brake Lever Coupling Bar. 

Coupling Bar Pin (Brake Gear). A pin for the Brake 
Lever Coupling Bar, which see. 

Coupling Case. See, Brake Hose Coupling Case. 

Coupling Chain, or Chain Coupling Link. A three link 
chain used in coupling to Draw Hooks, which see. 

Coupling Hook. Fig. 941. A bracket with a hook project- 
ing, on which the hose coupling is hung when un- 

Coupling Hose. More commonly brake hose. 

Coupling Link. A wrought iron link or open bar by which 
freight cars are coupled together by coupling pins. 
Chain coupling links are used with draw hooks. In 
consequence of the danger to trainmen attending the 
use of coupling links, and legislation forbidding their 
use after January i, 1898, automatic car couplers have 
almost entirely replaced them. See, Car Coupler. 

2. (English.) A link forming part of a wagon 
coupling or draw chain. The open ended link connected 
to the draw hook or draw bar is the coupling shackle. 
The intermediate links are sometimes termed the short 
links, and the end link the long link. A single long link 
is often used instead of three short intermediate links. 

Coupling Pin. A short bar of iron with which a coupling 
link is connected to a drawbar. 

Coupung Pin Chain. A small chain attached to the car 
by a suitable eye to prevent the coupling pin from being 

Coupling Screw (English). A right and left handed screw 
used in a Screw Coupling, which see. 

Coupling Shackle (English). The end link of the coup- 
ling which is secured by a pin to the shank of the 
Draw Hook, which see. 

Cover. See, 

Drum Coves. Urinal Cover. 

Journal Box Cover. Window Molding Joint 

Man Hole Cover. Cover, 

Molding Joint Cover. 

Cover Plate. A face plate of a steel tired wheel is a disk 
connecting the tire and hub. 

Cover Strip, i. (Refrigerator Car.) Metal plates cover- 
ing a gutter in the fioor. 

2. A strip of metal, or sometimes wood, to cover a 
joint in the roof sheets. 3, figs. 1714-26. 

Covered Wagon (English). A roofed vehicle used for con- 
veying freight liable to be stolen or to be damaged by- 
damp. It has side doors which can be locked, and oc- 
casionally doors in the roof so that the contents can be 
readily hoisted. As a rule. Tarpaulins, which see, and 
open cars are used in England. 

Crabs, or Tongs (Pile Driver Car). See, Tongs, also 
called rail clips, or rail clamps. 

Crane (Pile Driver Car). See, Pile Driver Car and Der- 

Crane Post. The post of a crane, which corresponds to 
the mast of a derrick. 

Crank, i. "Literally a bend or turn; hence an iron axis 
with a part bent like an elbow, for producing a hori- 
zontal or perpendicular motion by means of a rotary 
motion or the contrary." — Webster. See, Bell Crank. 
See also, Brake Shaft Crank. Door Shaft Crank 
(Street Cars). 

2, (Of a Derrick or Crane.) The L-shaped handle 
by which the driving gear is actuated. 

3. (Of a Lever Hand Car.) 6, figs. 4722-27. The 
Bell Crank (which see) of a hand car; 23, is at the 
upper end of the connecting rod, the crank at the lower 

Crank Shaft (Lever Hand Cars). 6, figs. 4722-27. A 
short wrought iron shaft to which a crank of a hand 
car is attached, which is turned by suitable levers and 
is connected by gear wheels with one of the axles of 
the car. 

Crank Shaft Bearings (Hand Car). 5, figs. 4722-27. 

Crib Rail (English). A longitudinal piece of timber se- 
cured to the upper part of the outer side of the sole 
bar and supporting the body of the vehicle. 

Cricket Iron. A Seat Stand, which see. 

Cripple Post. (Street Cars.) A post of an end window, 
where the window is not of the full width, between the 
door post and comer post. 

Cross Bar ( Swing Link Hanger) . The bar supporting the 
cross bar casting which carries the springs plank. Also 
called mandrel pin and lower swing hanger pivot 

Cross Bar Casting, or Spring Plank Carrier (Swing 
Link Hanger). See, Cross Bar. 

Cross Beam. A transverse floor timber placed upon the 
sills to support the inclined floor of a coal or ore car. 

Cross Bearer (English). American equivalent, cross frame 
tie timber, needle beam, and sometimes cross bearer. A 
transverse member of the under frame, placed between 
the ends of the vehicle. It serves to transfer the weight 
of the body and lading to the sole bars, and keep the 
latter apart. Also called cross bar, or transom. 

Cross Frame King Post, or Truss Block. See, Cross 
Frame Truss. 

Cross Frame Tie Bolt. A Sill Tie Rod, which see. 

Cross Frame Tie Timber. 22, Figs. 159-69, etc.; 26, figs. 
360-72. A transverse timber bolted to the under side 
of the longitudinal sills and floor timbers of a car body 
between the bolsters, and to which the body king or 
queen posts, or truss blocks, are atttached when truss 
rods are used under a car body. 
The term Needle Beam (which see), taken from 




bridge engineering, is also used. Other names are body 
transom, cross bearer, cross berth, etc. 

Cross Frame Truss. 26t, figs. 385-7 and figs. 436-38. A 
truss for a needle beam or cross frame tie timber. The 
various parts, king post, truss rod, truss rod washer, 
etc., are shown. 

Cross Frame Truss Rod. See above. 

Cross Head (Westinghouse Brake). 6, fig. 916. A 
forked casting attached to the outside end of a piston 
rod, to which the brake levers are connected. 

Cross Tie Rod (Street Car). A Sill Tie Rod, which see. 

Cross Tie Timber. 22, figs. 159-69, 185-95, 271-95 and 25. 
figs. 246-50; 26, figs. 360-72, 385-7, etc. A Cross 
Frame Tie Timber or Needle Beam, which see. 

Cross Tie Timber Truss Rod. 26c, figs. 360-72; 26t, figs. 

Cross Tie Timber Truss Rod Bearing. See Cross Frame 

King Post, etc. 

Cross Tie Timber Truss Rod Queen Post. 26b, figs. 

Cross Tie Timber Truss Rod Seat. A body truss rod 

Cross Timber Hopper Ends. A transverse floor timber 
framed between the intermediate sills, to which the 
lower end of the inclined floor is spiked and to which 
the outer hopper doors are hung. The ends of the 
draft timbers are bolted to it, and the short center sills 
abut against it. 

Crown Lamp Shade. Fig. 2676. See, Lamp Shade. 

Crown Molding (Street Cars). A molding on the inside 
above the deck sask and tacked to the de^k posts and 

Crown Piece (Street Cars). A platform end timber or sill. 

Crown Piece Corner Iron (Street Cars). A strap iron 
that protects the corner of the crown piece. 

Crown Ring (Pintsch Lamp). 314, figs. 2605-21. 

Cuff Rack. Fig. 2789. For lavatories. 

Cup. I. "A small vessel used commonly to drink out of, 
but the name is also given to vessels of like shape used 
for other purposes." — Webster. See, 
Buffer Spring Cup. Oil Cup. 

Candle Holder Cup. Side Bearing Cup. 

Drain Cup. 

Cup Holder, or Tumbler Holder. Figs. 2777-83. A stand 
or rack for holding a drinking cup. 

Cup Side Bearing. A side bearing for trucks, with a re- 
ceptacle for holding oil and waste. Little used. 

Cup Washer. A Socket Washer, which see. 

Cupboard Bolt. Figs. 1902-07. See, Door Bolts 

Cupboard Catch, or Flush Bolt. Figs. 1902-07. A very 
indeflnite term for a light spring catch nearly or quite 
flush with the surface to which it is attached. It has a 
beveled bolt which snaps shut. 

Cupboard Latch. Figs. 1902-05. See above. 

Curled Hair. Hair from the tails or manes of cattle, 
horses, etc., which is first spun into ropes, then wound 
into coils, and either steeped or boiled in water. After 
this the coil is dried and the hair unwound, which 
leaves it in a curly and elastic state, suited for stufling 
cushions, etc. 

Curtain. 17, fig. 1782. A cloth hanging in front of or 
around any space or object, as a window or sleeping 
car berth, and which may be contracted or spread at 
will. The term, however, is usually restricted to loosely 
hung drapery, suspended on a curtain rod by curtain 
hooks or rings, in distinction from a shade, which is 
flat and rolls up. Curtains in cars are chiefly used for 
sleeping car berths (Berth Curtains, which see) and 
for the sides of Open Street Cars, which see. Win- 
dow curtains are used in dining, parlor and private 
cars. Except in the saloons, blinds have been aban- 
doned, and window shades are in almost universal use 
on steam railroads. Blinds are still in general use in 
street cars. 

Curtain (Buhoup Vestibule). 11, figs. i526-i63a 

Curtain Bearing (Buhoup Vestibule). 20, 20a and 21, 
figs. i526-i63a 

Curtain Brackets (Hartshorn and McKay). Figs. 3725- 
28. One bracket has a circular hole and the other a 

Curtain Fixtures. Figs. 2826-87. 

Curtain Hooks (Sleeping Berths). Figs. 3441-2. 

Curtain Plate (Buhoup Vestibule). 8 and 9, figs. 1526- 

Curtain Rings. Figs. 2845-48. Rarely used. See, Curtain. 

Curtain Rod. Fia 2854. A bar to carry a curtain hung 
upon rings and sliding freely along the rod. 

Curtain Rod Bracket. Figs. 2826-57. 

Curtain Rod Bushing. Figs. 2882-87. A socket or bushing 
for the end of a curtain rod as it abuts against a wall 
or partition. 

Curtain Rod Folding Bracket (Sleeping Car). 15, figs, 
1778-83, A bracket for a curtain rod in a sleeping car 
which may be folded into the upper berth in such a 
manner that it is out of sight when the upper berth is 
shut up. See, Folding Curtain Rod Bracket. 

Curtain Roller (Buhoup Vestibule). 10, figs. 1526- 1630. 

Curtain Roller Plug (Buhoup Vestibule). 45, figs. 1526- 

Curtain Spring (Buhoup Vestibule). 44 figs. 1526- 1630. 

Curved Seat Stop. Figs. 3301-05. See, Seat Stop. 

Cushion, i. Figs. 3226-35. Cushions used in passenger car 
upholstery are of the box type, being built upon and 
connected with a wooden framework (cushion frame). 
See, Seat Cushion. 

Cushion Back Rail (English). In a carriage, a small 
transverse bar which confines the hind end of the seat 

Cushion Frame. 12, figs. 3151-521 3169-91. A wooden 
frame to which the seat springs and upholstery of a 
car seat are attached. 

Cuspidor. Fia 2176. A vessel to receive discharges of 
spittle, and having a wide rim so that if it is upset its 
contents will not be spilled. It is the substitute for a 
spittoon, FIG. 2173, from which it differs only in form. 

Cut Out. A switch or fuse in a branch electric circuit or 
loop, used to disconnect the branch circuit from the 
main circuit. 

Cut Out Cock. Fig. 943. See, Brake Cut Out Cock. 

Cylinder, i. A chamber or vessel whose ends are circular^ 
and with straight parallel sides, as the cylinder of a 
steam engine. The cylinders used in connection with 
cars and locomotives are made of cast iron, and have 
pistons fitted so as to work air tight in them. Cylinders 
used in brake apparatus are shown in figs. 916-19, 975- 
7T. Also see, Air Cylinder. Brake Cylinder. 

2. A name sometimes given to the fire pot of a stove 
or heater, as in fig. 2201. 

Cylinder Body (Westinghouse Brake). 2, figs. 916-19. The 
main central portion closed by the cylinder heads. 

Cylinder Cap (Triple Valve). 3, fig. 913, and 19, fig. 910. 

Cylinder Cap Gasket (Triple Valves). 23, fig, 910; 11, 
fig. 913. 

Cylinder Head. A metal cover for the end of a cylinder, 
held on by cylinder bolts or cylinder studs. The cylin- 
der head through which the piston passes is commonly 
termed the back cylinder head, and the other the front 
cylinder head, corresponding to locomotive practice. In 
the Westinghouse air pump and engine they are desig- 
nated as top and bottom cylinder heads. See, Cylinder. 

Cylinder Levers (Westinghouse Brake). Figs. 555-6. I'vvo 
levers which are connected together by a tie rod at- 
tached near their centers. One end of one lever is at- 
tached to the cross head of the brake cylinder, and the 
corresponding end of the other is attached to a bracket 
on the brake cylinder head at the opposite end of the 
cylinder. The other ends of the levers are connected 
with the floating levers by rods. 




Cylinder Lever Bracket (Westinghouse Brake). A T- 
shaped piece of iron bolted to the front cylinder head, 
to which one of the brake levers is attached. 

Cylinder Lever Guide. Figs. 609-10. 

Cylinder Lever Support (Westinghouse Brake). A 
wrought iron bar bolted to one of the center sills, on 
which the ends of the cylinder levers rest. 

Cylindrical Gages. Gages made for measuring the size 
of cylinders and cylindrical holes, often called Whit- 
worth gages. They consist of steel cylinders and rings 
hardened and ground very accurately to standard sizes. 
These fit into each other. The first is used for measur- 
ing the size of holes, and the last for measuring the 
outside of cylindrical objects, and they are called inter- 
nal and external cylindrical gages. They are generally 
used as standards alone, from which other tools and 
gages are made of the proper size. 

Cylindrical Stove. See, Stove. 


Damper. Sec, Stove Pipe Damper. A valve for regulat- 
ing the draft. 

Damper Handle. See, Stove Pipe Damper Handle. 

Damper Plate (Pintsch Lamp). 467, figs. 2605-21. 

Dash Guard (Street Cars). A plate attached to the plat- 
form railing to prevent mud or snow from being 
thrown upon the platform. Called a dash board and a 

Dash Guard Straps. Small clips by which a dash guard 
is fastened to the platform posts. Also called dasher 
post clip. 

Dasher or Dashboard. See below. 

Dasher Post (Street Cars). A post supported by the 
crown piece which carries the dasher and the platform 
rail. Called on steam cars a platform railing post. 

Dasher Rail (Street Cars). A platform rail. 

Dasher Rail Cap (Street Cars). A wood or metal cap 
bolted to the dasher rail for decoration and to prevent 

Day Coach. Figs. 69-76, 360-65. A common term for an 
ordinary passenger car in distinction from sleeping cars. 
It ought in strictness to include parlor cars, but in 
general does not. It is often termed a Coach simply, 
which see. 

Dayton Draft Gear. Figs. 1248-59. 

Dayton Freight Car Door Lock. Figs. 2091-92. See, 
Door Hasp. 

Dead Air Space (Insulation of Refrigerator Car). Air 
spaces which have no communication with the atmos- 
pheric air outside, so there can be no free circulation 
or change of air as there is in a free air space. 

Dead Block. A single wooden block or stick of timber 
attached to the end sill of freight cars to protect per- 
sons between the cars from injury, by preventing the 
cars from coming together in case the drawbar or its 
attachments should give way. They are called dead 
blocks from the fact that they are blocks which sub- 
serve no function in the construction of the car proper. 
See, Buffer Block. 

The M. C. B. standard dimensions recommended in 
1882 were amended in Saratoga, 1884, as follows : 

Buffer blocks are to be made 8 in. square on the 
face and 6 in. thick, and are to be placed 22 in. apart 
from center to center, and to have 14 in. space be- 
tween them. 

Single dead blocks are to be not less than 30 in. 
long, 7 in. thick, and 8 in. deep, measured vertically. 

Dead Lever (of Brake Gear). 92A, figs. 3735-3951, etc. 
The one of a pair of levers to which the brake shaft 
connecting rod is not attached. The upper end of the 
dead lever is confined within a dead lever guide, or 
brake lever stop, which latter is provided with pins to 
adjust the end of the brake lever as the brake shoes 

wear. The lever to which the power is first applied is 
termed the live lever. 

Dead Lever Guide, or Brake Lever Stop (Brake Gear). 
Figs. 878-80; 95, figs. 3735-3951- See above. 

Dead Lock. Figs. 2089-90. A lock in which the bolt is 
thrown each way by the key, and not in one direction 
by a spring, as with a spring lock or night latch. 

Dead Padlock. A padlock in which neither the lock, bolt, 
nor hasp has a spring, but the former is thrown each 
way by the key, and the hasp must be opened by the 

Dead Wood. A Dead Block, which see. 

Deadening, or Deafening. The filling placed between the 
floor and the deafening ceiling to serve as a non-con- 
ductor to heat and noise. Mineral Wool, which sec, 
is sometimes used for deadening, but commonly shav 
ings, when anything at all is used. An intermediate 
floor (between the sills) and deafening ceiling (under 
the sills) is used in refrigerator cars. 

Deafening Ceiling. 28, figs. 388-91. Boarding on the 
under side of the floor timbers of a passenger car to 
exclude or deaden the noise of the car. When cut and 
inserted between the sills it is called a deafening floor, 
but quite as often, though improperly, a deafening 
ceiling. See, Deadening. 

Deafening Floor. See, Deafening Ceiling. 

Decatur Grain Door. Figs. 1107-37. A door suspended 
from the carlines over head when not in use. The 
door posts are gained out and fitted with angle irons, 
behind or between which the door fits. A lever is pro- 
vided by which the door may be started from the bot- 
tom and the grain allowed to discharge itself auto- 

Deck. 102, figs. 360-72, etc. A term applied to the roof 
of a passenger car by analogy from the deck of a ship. 
The term is not applied in general use, however, to 
freight cars. The deck of passenger cars is subdivided 
into the upper deck (also called Clear Story, which 
see), and lower deck, the roof at the side of the clear 
story; but in designating parts which belong to the 
clear story alone, and which are not repeated in the 
lower deck, the term deck alone is used. 

Since the issuing of the first edition of this work the 
use of the term deck instead of clear story in compound 
words seems to have become practically universal 
among manufacturers of furnishings and in far more 
general use than any other among car builders. 

Deck Beam. i. A beam in the form of an inverted T with 
a round knob on the upper end, used in some forms of 
iron car construction. The Sterlingworth steel brake 
beam (figs. 842-51) is a deck beam. 

2. Transverse beams extend across a car from side 
rail to side rail to which the deck planks are spiked. 

Deck Bottom Rail. 112, figs. 388-91. A horizontal tim- 
ber running lengthwise of a car, fastened to the rafters 
and carlines of the main roof, or to the deck sill, which 
forms the base for the deck posts. The term is some- 
times applied to the deck sill. 

Deck Bridging. See, Bridging. 

Deck Carline, or Upper Deck Carline. 118, figs. 360-72, 
etc. A timber which extends from side to side of the 
upper deck, and supports the roof boards. Correspond- 
ing parts in the lower deck are generally called rafters. 

Deck Collar (Heaters). A sheet metal ring to line the 
smoke pipe opening through the roof, having a double 
sheet metal tube to leave an air space as a heat guard, 
and a flange on the outside to exclude rain. 

Deck Ea\ts Molding, or Upper Deck Eaves Molding. 
1 19, figs. 392-98. A molding under the outside edge of 
the upper deck. 

Deck End Panel. 116, figs. 388-91. It is frequently used 
as a ventilator. 

Deck End Plate. A member that fulfills the same office 





for a clear story that the body end plate does for the 
body. See, End Plate. 

Deck End Sill. 230, figs. 385-87; 113, figs. 388-91. A 
horizontal timber connecting the ends of the deck sills, 
and forming the base for the end of the upper deck. 

Deck End Ventilator. See, Deck End Panel. 

Deck End Ventilator Hood (Street Cars). A projecting 
screen, placed over the aperture of an end ventilator, 
to exclude snow and rain. Also called upper deck hood. 

Deck Inside Cornice. 120, figs. 392-98. A molding which 
fills the interior angle where the upper deck joins the 
deck side. 

Deck Lamp (Pintsch System). Figs. 2577-82. A lamp 
which is fastened to the deck or ceiling of the car with- 
out any drop. An ornamental ring surrounds the rim 
of the bowl, which projects through the deck. 

Deck Planking. Planking nailed to the side and end 
rails of a coal or ore car to form a deck. 

Deck Plate. 117, figs. 360-72, 385-87; 121, figs. 388-91. 
A horizontal timber on top of the deck posts or mullions 
to which the deck carlines are attached. Also called a 
deck top rail. 

Deck Post. 115, figs. 360-72, 385-87, 388-91. An upright 
piece of wood which connects the deck plate with the 
bottom rail. 

Deck Sash. 144, hgs. 360-72, 388-91. A glazed sash in 
the sides of the upper deck. 

Deck Sash Catch. Figs. 3535-41. A hook giving a 
simpler equivalent for a deck sash latch. 

Deck Sash Double Ratchet. Figs. 3571-72. A special 
form of deck sash pivot plate, used with spring ratchets. 

Deck Sash Flush Catch. A deck sash latch mortised 
into the sash rail flush with the sash. 

Deck Sash Latch. Figs, 3535-41. A spring bolt attached 
to a deck sash, which engages with a deck sash latch 
keeper or strike plate. See, Keeper. 

Deck Sash Latch Keeper. Figs. 3558-61. See above. 

Deck Sash Lintel. See, Lintel. 

Deck Sash Opener. Figs. 3504-15. A lever attached to a 
revolving rod by which a deck sash is held in any de- 
sired position. A great variety of forms exist, includ- 
ing many patented devices. See engravings. A pull 
hook, FIGS. 3546-50, is sometimes called a deck sash 
opener, but a more elaborate contrivance is generally 

Deck Sash, Outer. 144a, figs. 392-98. A deck sash which 
carries the screen, and prevents the admission of dust 
and cinders. 

Deck Sash Pivot, Figs. 3528-34. A metal stud or spindle 
attached to a suitable flange by which it is fastened to 
a deck sash, and on which the latter turns. A variety 
of forms exist, including several patented devices, as 
Monitor, figs. 3569-70; Morgan, figs. 3554-57, etc., to 
render the sash readily removable and adjustable. 

Deck Sash Pivot Bushing. Same as figs. 3579-80. See, 

Deck Sash Pivot Plate. Figs. 3528, etc. A plate at- 
tached to the window casing, with a hole or eye in 
which a deck sash pivot works. Sometimes they are 
provided with springs to prevent the sash from rattling. 

Deck Sash Pull. Figs. 3516-22. A screw ring attached 
to a deck sash to open and close it. Made either with 
screw or with flange. 

Deck Sash Quadrant. Figs. 3563, 3568. A curved bar 
or plate of metal used as a guide or stop to control the 
movement of a deck sash. Little used. 

Deck Sash Quadrant Clip. Fig. 3563. A guide strap 
embracing a deck sash quadrant. 

Deck Sash Ratchet Plate. Figs. 3569-72. A part 
usually attached to the side of the car, but sometimes 
to the sash, carrying a ratchet in which the ratchet 
catch engages. 

Deck Sash Socket. Fig. 3566. A hook attached to a 
peculiar form of deck sash pivot. See engravings. 

Deck Sash Spring Pivot. Fig. 3527. A Deck Sash 
Pivot, which see, provided with a spring to make the 
sash removable. 

Deck Screen Bottom Rail. 112A, figs. 392-98. A rail 
running the entire length of the clear story, and clos- 
ing the space between the bottom of the screen and 
the roof. 

Deck Screen Post. I44p. figs. 388-91. 

Deck Side. The entire part, consisting of a plate, rail, 
posts, and panels, or sashes, which forms the side 
which occupies the vertical space between the lower and 
upper deck. 

Deck Side Ventilator. Figs. 3504-15. This term is used 
to designate the sash or valves and their attachments 
for opening and closing the aperture. 

Deck Sill, hi, figs. 360-72, 385-^7, 388-91. A horizontal 
timber attached to the inner ends of the rafters, or 
short carlines, on which the deck side rests. 

Deck Sill Bottom Molding. 114a, figs. 388-91. 

Deck Sill Facing. 114, figs. 388-91. Thin boards or 
moldings attached to the inside of a deck sill, for orna- 
ment. Sometimes the bunk apron serves this purpose 
in sleeping cars. See 7, figs. 1778-83. 

Deck Sill Sub-Facing. 114a, figs. 388-91. 

Deck Soffit Board. 121s, figs. 388-91. A board on the 
under side of the overhanging cornice of an upper deck. 

Deck Top Rail. 117, figs. 392-98. A Deck Plate, which 

Deck Ventilator, See, Deck End Ventilator. Deck 
Side Ventilator. The deck sashes are frequently hung 
and operatetd as deck side ventilators as by the con- 
tinuous deck sash opener. Fig. 3523. 

Deck Window Screen. S, figs. 388-91 and 36, figs. 1778- 
83. An outside sash with a screen over it to exclude 
dust and cinders. 

Deflecting Plate (Pintsch Lamp). 346, figs. 2605-21. 

Deflecting Plate and Chimney (Pintsch Lamps). 288, 
288a, FIGS. 2605-21. 

Deflector, i. (For Windows.) Figs. 3695-98. A piece 
of thin board attached to the jamb of the window and 
left projecting two or three inches beyond and at right 
angles to the car. When the car is in motion it deflects 
the cinders and dust from the window, and also pro- 
duces an exhaust draft. Also called a window dust 

Deflector Springs (of Ventilators). Springs controlling 
the movement of the deflectors. 

Deflector Ventilator. A name given to the Pancoast 
ventilators, figs. 3497-98. 

Derrick Car. Figs. 142-43. A strong platform car which 
carries a derrick crane which is used for removing 
wrecked cars and engines, erecting bridges, or handling 
any heavy objects. Also called wrecking car. They 
are distinguished as hand or steam derrick cars, accorc! 
ing to the power used. 

Destination Board Bracket (English). A small shelf of 
cast or wrought iron secured to the upper part of the 
outside of the body, in order to carry a wooden board 
or enameled metal plate, giving the destination of a 
train. It is universally used on all English carriages, 
and carried throughout the entire trip. 

Detachable Globe Holder. A globe holder arranged so 
that a lamp globe can readily be attached or removed. 
Many lamps have the globes fixed or plastered. 

Detaching Slot (Deck Sash Ratchet). A slot in the 
ratchet plate to facilitate removal of the sash. 

Detective Wire (for Seals). Fig. 3137. A flat twisted 
wire or other equivalent device to prevent the seal 
being stripped from the wire without destroying one or 

Diagonal (English). American equivalent (used chiefly 
in street cars), diagonal floor timber. A member of 
the under frame. One end butts against the rear side 
of the transverse end member of the under frame (the 




head stock), and the other end butts against an inter- 
mediate transverse member of the under frame (the 
cross bearer) near its center. The diagonals take the 
strain of the side buffers, and distribute it so as to 
prevent distortion of the under frame. See, End Sill 
DiAGONAL Brace. 

Diagonal Floor Timbers. Floor timbers which are placed 
in an inclined position to the sills. Used chiefly on 
street cars. 

Diagonal Roof Strap (Street Cars). A band of hoop iron 
placed diagonally on the top of the roof boards to 
stiffen the roof. 

Dial Cock (Consolidated Car Heating). Fig. 2310. A ^ 
inch asbestos packed cock, the flange of which is made 
in the form of a dial to indicate the amount of opening 
of the cock. It indicates to the eye the exact position of 
the plug and the size of the opening for the admission 
of steam. 

Diameter Testing Gage (for Car Wheels). A gage for 
testing wheels and axles. Sometime, an M. C. B. stand- 

Diamond Special Brake Beam. Figs. 852-53. A trussed 
beam using a heavy rectangular bar for compression 
member and an iron rod for tension. 

Diamond "S" Freight Shoe. Fig. 1016. 

Diamond "S" Skeleton Brake Shoe. Fig. 1007. A brake 
shoe with flange and skeleton body for locomotive driv- 
ing wheels. Cast iron body and expanded metal in- 

Diamond Truck. A car truck with iron side frames con- 
sisting of two or more Arch Bars^ which see, and a 
pedestal tie bar. The spaces between the arch bars are 
diamond shaped, whence the name. The journal boxes 
are rigidly bolted to the sides. The cross members of 
the truck, bolster, spring plank, etc., are either of wood 
or iron, or of both wood and iron combined. Iron tran- 
soms, bolsters and spring planks may be said to be in 
general use and increasing in favor. 

At the Master Car Builders' Convention (1884) it 
was voted that this form should be the type used in 
preparing designs for a standard freight car truck, to 
have a 5 ft. wheel base, channel bar transoms, and 
either Swing or Rigid Bolster, which see. It is the 
type in almost universal use for freight cars, and the 
rigid bolster is applied to nearly all new construction. 
The swing bolster truck remains a standard on a few 
important roads that have a large traffic of live stock. 

Diaphragm, i. (Fames Vacuum Brake.) An equivalent 
for the Westinghouse brake cylinder, serving to operate 
the brakes. It consists of a cast iron, bowl shaped shell, 
to which the diaphragm rubber is attached by dia- 
phragm rings. A rubber diaphragm hose connects it to 
the brake pipe. 

2. (Pintsch Gas Pressure Regulator.) Fig. 2473. 

3. (Refrigerator Car.) See, Condensing Dia- 

4. (Westinghouse Brake and Train Signal Appa- 
ratus.) Some valves are regulated by diaphragms or 
diaphragm plates, to which are attached springs, nuts, 
stems, etc., etc., whose names explain themselves. See 
figs. 947-50. These diaphragms all operate on the same 
principle. They are spring plates, which guide the rod 
and, assisted by spiral springs, cause the attached 
valves to seat or unseat at a fixed pressure. 

5. (Of a Vestibule.) Figs. 1799-1805; 2, figs. 1784- 
86. A piece of rubber, ducking or canvas in folds at- 
tached to the diaphragm face plate and platform in- 
closure to exclude the dust and cinders, and at the same 
time to allow the face plates free movement laterally 
and longitudinally in the Gould vestibules, and longi- 
tudinally only in the Pullman vestibules. 

Diaphragm Button (Pump Governor). 12, figs. 963-64- 
Diaphragm Face Plate, i, figs. 1784-86. See, Face Plate. 
Diaphragm. Vestibules. Pullman Vestibules. 

Diaphragm Ring (Pump (jovemor). 43, figs. 947'S^ 

Dictionary of Terms (Master Car Builders). At the Fifth 
Annual Convention, held in Richmond, Va,, in 1872 
(see page 18 of the report of that meeting), it was 

"Resolved, That a committee, with power to publish 
an illustrated book defining the proper terms or names 
of each and every part used in the construction of rail- 
way cars, and a description of the use of the same." 

At the Fourteenth Annual Convention, held in De- 
troit in 1880, "The committee to which was assigned 
the duty of preparing a dictionary of terms used in the 
construction of cars submitted a copy of the book and 
reported that it had finished its work, and it .was dis- 

Dining Car. Figs. 82-87, 136-39, 368-72. A car provided 
with a kitchen and cooking appliances and arrange- 
ments for serving meals. 

Dining Car Range. Figs. 2738-43. See, Range. 

Dipper (Steam Shovel), i, figs. 357-59. Also called bucket 
or shovel. 

Dipper Bail (Steam Shovel). 3, figs. 357-59. The link 
fastened to the top of the dipper and to the dipper 

Dipper Block (Steam Shovel). 5, figs. 357-59. The block 
at the point of the boom around which passes the hoist- 
ing chain. 

Dipper Teeth (Steam Shovel). 2, figs. 357-59. Teeth pro- 
jecting from the dipper to break the earth. 

Direct Steam Heating Systems. Figs. 2291-94. A system 
of car heating in which the steam from the locomotive 
or heat tender is carried directly to the radiators or 
heating pipes. The term is used to distinguish the sys- 
tem from those in which the steam is employed to heat 
the water which circulates in the radiators or heating 
pipes, usually in connection with the Baker heater. See, 
Consolidated, Gold's and Safety's Systems of Car 

Direct Steam Storage System. Fig. 2326. A direct sys- 
tem of car heating, in which the radiating pipes are 
enlarged and inclose a smaller pipe or tube which is 
filled with salt water or other heat retaining sub- 
stance, and which when heated continues to radiate 
heat after the steam is shut off. In the Gold terra 
cotta storage heater the radiating pipe contains a fluted 
cylinder of terra cotta of the same extreme diameter as 
the inside diameter of the radiating pipe. These storage 
heaters are shown in detail in fig. 2352. See, Gold's 
Car Heating Systems. 

Discharge Pipe (Air Pump). Also called reservoir pipe. 
A pipe by which the compressed air is conveyed from 
the air pump to the main air reservoir. 

Discharge Valve, r. (Of Car Signal Valve.) The valve 
in the attachment called the car signal valve. The 
whole device is also sometimes so called. 

2. (Of Air Pump.) 11-14, fig. 965. The valve 
through which the air as compressed passes to the 
main reservoir. There are two — upper and lower. See 
also Auxiliary Discharge Valve. 

Dished Cap Ventilator. Fig. 3487. See, Ventilators. 

Distance Between the B*acks of the Flanges of Car 
Wheels. The standard distance between the backs of 
flanges of car wheels is 4 feet sH inches. See Pro- 
ceedings 1883, pages 55, 1 18-120. 

In 1885 it was decided by letter ballot that in fitting 
wheels on axles a variation of ^ inch each way from 
the standard distance of 4 feet sH inches between 
flanges would be allowed, making the maximum dis- 
tance 4 feet 5^ inches, and the minimum distance 4 
feet syi inches. See Proceedings 1885, pages 111-119. 
Drawing revised in 1896 

Distance Block. A short, thick piece of wood placed 
between two or more objects to keep them apart, or to 
preserve an interval of space between them, as floor 
timber distance block, truck bolster distance block, etc. 





Distance Piece. A metallic distance block. See, Draw- 
bar Distance Piece. 

Distributing Table (Postal Car). A table upon which the 
mail bags are emptied of their contents, and from 
which they are distributed to the various boxes or 

Distributing Table Hinge. Fig. 1965. 

Ditching Car. A car provided with derricks and scoops 
for excavating the ditches of cuts by the power of a 

Dividing Attachment (Eames Vacuum Brake). A device 
to regulate the application of the brakes to either the 
locomotive or train, or both. 

Division Arm (Twin Seats). The middle seat arm be- 
tween the two seats. 

Dog. I. A general term in mechanics for all devices which 
bite or take hold of or give motion to other parts. See, 
. Ratchet Dog. 

2. (For Pawl of Winding Shaft.) A disk or button 
eccentrically pivoted in such a way as to hold the 
ratchet wheel pawl of a winding shaft in its place. The 
pawl itself of a ratchet gear is also sometimes termed 
the dog in other forms of ratchet gear where no dog to 
hold the pawl is necessary. 

3. A Brake Pawl Dog, which see. A very similar 
part of that defined above. 

Dome. A clear story or upper deck is sometimes erroneous- 
ly called a dome. See also, Tank Dome. 

Dome Head (Tank Car). 109, Figs. 325-37- The top of 
the dome. 

"'Dome" Lamp Shade. Fig. 2674. A Lamp Shade (which 
see) of curved or ogee outline. 

Door. Figs. 1026- i 141. A frame of boards for closing a 
doorway. See, DooR Frame for names of parts. See 

Ash Pit Door. Grated Door. 

Double Door. Lamp Case Door. 

Double Fire Door. Overhung Door. 

Draft Door. Platform Trap Door. 

Dust Hand Hole Door. Sliding Door. 
Feed Door. Smoke Box Door. 

Fire Door. Underhung Door. 

Grain Door. Ventilator Door. 

Door Apron (Street Cars). A sheet iron cover attached to 
a swinging door to inclose the step. 

Door Bolt. Figs. 1889-1907. A metal bar attached to a slide 
and fastened to a door so as to hold it shut from the 
inside. They are either round, or barrel, or square. A 
square neck door bolt is one with an angle or shoulder 
in it. Flush door bolts are gained in so as to be flush 
with the surface, figs. 1899- 1901. A cupboard catch is 
a form of door bolt having a beveled latch and actuated 
by a spring ; but bolts so formed are commonly termed 
Latches, which see. 

Door Bolt Keeper. 72, figs. 1067-69; fig. 1922, etc. A 
catch attached to a door frame, in which the bolt en- 

Door Bottom Rail. 5, figs. 1029-37. See, Door Frame. 

Door Bottom Ventilator Rail (English). A strip of 
wood running horizontally and supporting a sliding 

Door Brace (Freight Car Doors). 69, figs. 159-69. A diag- 
onal piece of timber framed to stiffen the door. 

Door Butt. A Butt Hinge, which see. 

Door Button. L, figs. 1087-1106. "A small piece of wood 
or metal swiveled by a screw through the middle, and 
used as a fastening for a door or gate." — Knight. They 
are often attached by a rivet or pin to a metal door but- 
ton plate, which is fastened on with screws. Sometimes 
the button is an eccentric disk. 

Door Cap (Freight Car Doors). 177, figs. 159-69. A hori- 
zontal board across the top of the door. 

Door Case. i. The frame which incloses or surrounds the 
sides and top of a door. The separate parts are the 

Door Jambs, or Door Posts, Door Sill and Door Lin- 
tel, which see. 

2. A partition at the end of a street car which in- 
closes a sliding ddor when open. 

DocR Case Intermediate Rail (Street Cars). A rail of a 
door case above the window. 

Door Case Panel (Street Cars). A panel in a partition 
which incloses the sliding door. There are two — ^the 
top panel and seat panel. 

Door Case Sash (Street Cars). A window sash in the par- 
tition which incloses a sliding door. It opens on hinges 
and is placed opposite to another in the end of the car 
inside of the door. 

Door Case Sash Button. See, Door Button. 

Door Case Seat Panel. See, Door Case Panel. 

Door Case Top Panel. See, Door Case Panel. In some 
cases a mirror is used in place of a panel. 

Door Case Top Rail. A stick parallel with the Door Lin- 
tel, which see. 

Door Center Girth (Freight Car Doors). A horizontal 
board across the middle of the door. A middle door 
rail, except that it is not framed into the door, but 
simply nailed on. 

Door Chain Bolt. Fig. 1941. A device which permits a 
door to be opened a short distance, yet not far enough 
to gain admission. 

Door Check. (Yale- Blount.) Fig. 2148. A combined 
door spring and hydraulic check, which automatically 
controls the motion of a door. The check consists of 
a metallic piston moving in a metallic cylinder against 
a non-freezing liquid, its motion being controlled by a 
regulating valve which may be set to give any desired 
action to the door to prevent slamming and noise. 

Door Fence Rail (English). A horizontal piece of wood 
forming, on the outside of the door, the bottom of the 
window aperture. It is reinforced with a band of 
brass or iron against which the window sash bears 
when it is closed. 

English carriage windows drop down to open, like 
an omnibus or street car window. 

Door Frame. Figs. 1026-31. The structure in which the 
panels of a door are fitted. It is composed, as is also 
a window sash, of the stiles, or upright pieces at the 
sides; the mullions, or central upright pieces; the bot- 
tom rail; the lock, or central rail, and the top rail. 
The Door Case, which see, surrounds it. See, Fire 
Door Frame. 

Door Friction Roller. Figs. 2153-66. See, Sliding Door 
Friction Roller. Car Door Hanger. 

Door Fulcrum (Grain Door). J, figs. 1087-1106. 

Door Glass Frame Stop Rail (English). In a carriage, a 
small horizontal piece of wood in the lower part of the 
door against which the window drops when opened. 
See, Door Fence Rail. 

Door Guards (Baggage and Freight Car Sliding Doors). 
23, FIGS. 1036-37. Strips of wood which inclose the 
space occupied by the door when open to keep the 
freight from interfering with its movement. 

Door Guard Band (Street Cars). A metal band fastened 
crosswise on the middle door rail to protect the door 
from being chafed. Also called a sliding door strip. 

Door Guard Rod. Figs. 3021-23. See, Vestibule Door 

Door Guide Bracket. Figs. 539-41. 

Door Handle (Freight Cars), i. 78, figs. 159-69 and 
FIGS. 503-04. A U-shaped iron bar attached to the door, 
sometimes horizontally and sometimes vertically. A 
Sliding Door Handle, which see, is for passenger cars. 
2. (English.) Serves the purpose of an American 
door knob. An L-shaped brass bar attached to the 
outer end of a door spindle, and conveniently shaped 
to be grasped by the hand, so that the door can be 
opened by a person either inside or outside the car- 




Door Hanger. 68» figs. 159-69; 21, figs. 1029-37 and figs. 
2153-60. A hook shaped piece of metal by which a 
sliding door is suspended at its, top, and which slides 
on an iron track at the top of the door. For freight 
cars they are usually made of wrought iron, but some- 
times of cast iron, with friction rollers, or sheaves, on 
which the door rolls. They are also used in sleeping 
and drawing room cars, and are then generally made 
of brass and plated. The name of these more elab- 
orate forms is commonly extended into Car Door 
Hanger, which see. See also, A nti- Friction Car Door 

Door Hasp, ^2^y "cs. 159-69, 1067-69, and figs. 518-20 and 
2094. A metal clasp attached to car doors, by which 
they are fastened to a staple on the body of the car. 
Used chiefly on freight car doors, secured with a pin or 
bolt. They are now made of malleable iron and the pin 
fixed so it cannot be lost. Padlocks are rarely used on 
freight cars. 

Door Hasp Pin (Seal Lock). Fig. 2096. A projecting 
lug on which a carefully shaped door hasp enters, and 
is secured in place by the clasp. 

Door Hasp Staple. Figs. 477-8 and 2095. 

Door Hinge, i. See, Hinge. 

2. (English.) Three brass hinges, upper, middle and 
lower, securing the door to the body. These hinges 
generally differ- slightly to allow for the curvature or 
fall under of the door. 

Door Holder. Figs. 2134-45. A device for holding a door 
open or shut. They are also called door stops, as they 
are also intended to check momentum of the door 
when swung open violently. Sec, Lamp Case Door 
Holder. Sliding Door Holder. 

Door Holder Catch, or Door Holder Stop. Figs. 2134-45. 
A metal bracket attached to the floor (floor stop) or 
side (partition stop) of a car, with which a door holder 
engages, to hold a door open. 

Door Hook. 22, figs. 1036-37 and figs. 1912-13, 1996-97. 
A Sliding Door Holder, which see. 

Door Jamb, i, figs. 1029-31. The side piece or post of a 
door case. Also called door post. Not to be con- 
fused with the stiles of the door itself. 

Door Keeper or Dog (Grain Door). G, figs. 1087-1106. 

Door Knob. Figs. 1983-87, etc. A ball attached to the end 
of the spindle of a door latch to take hold of in moving 
the latch or opening the door. The knob is often made 
in various peculiar forms, as T door knob, fig. 1982. 

Door Latch. Figs. 1914-34. An attachment to a door to 
hold it shut. See, Latch. A door latch is often made 
in combination with a lock, having a separate bolt and 
key to secure or fasten the door from the outside, as 
in figs. 2073-88, etc. 

Door Latch Arbor. A Door Latch Spindle, which see. 

Door Latch Bolt. See, Latch. 

Door Latch Hook. Figs. 1914-34. The part of a sliding 
door latch which engages with the keeper and holds 
the door shut. 

Door Latch Keeper. Figs. 1902-07, i9i4-34- Also called 
Strike Plate, which see. 

Door Latch Rose, or Escutcheon. Figs. 1983-87. A 
plate fastened to a door as a guard or bearing for the 
spindle. A rose is frequently called a rosette. See, 

Door Latch Spindle. B, figs. 1980-81. A small metal shaft 
to which the door handle or knob is attached, and by 
which the latch is turned. 

Door Latch Spring. A spring which acts on the latch hook 
or bolt and causes it to engage with its keeper ; usually 
made of a flat piece of cast steel. 

Door Light (English). In a carriage, the window in the 
door, which in English carriages is lowered to open it 
like an omnibus or street car window. 

Door Light Bottom Sash Rail or Glass Frame Bottom 

Sash Rail (English). The bottom part of the door 
window framing. 

Door Light Stile, or Glass Frame Stele (English). The 
upright members of the window framing. 

Door Lintel. 99, figs. 360-72, 385-87, 388-91. The hori- 
zontal part of a door casing above the door. It is usual- 
ly of wood, but in passenger cars it is sometimes made 
of a thin shell of cast iron. See, Door Frame. 

Door Lock. Figs. 19 10-2090. See, Lock. A Latch, which 
see, is usually combined with a passenger car door 

Door Lock Bolt. See, Lock. 

Door Lock Keeper, or Nosing. See, Keeper. 

Door Mullion. 2, figs. 1026-31. A vertical bar of wood 
between the panels of a door. See, Door Frame. Door 
Window Mullion. 

Door Name Plate. A metal plate on the inside of a passen- 
ger car door with the name of the builder inscribed on 
it. This is now more commonly painted on. 

Door Panel. 151, figs. 388-91 ; 10 and 11, figs. 1029-31. "A 
piece of board whose edges are inserted into the groove 
of a thicker surrounding frame of a door." — Webster. 
They are distinguished as lower, middle and upper. 
Any panel, but especially the lower, is sometimes cut 
up into two twin panels by a door mullion, as in figs. 

Door Panel Batten (English). American equivalent,, 
furring. In a carriage, a piece which stiffens the door 
panel, which is Dinned to it. 

Door Pillar, or Door Stile (English). American equiva- 
lent. Door Stile, which see. The outer sides of the 
stiles are beveled in a peculiar manner, so as to shut 
tight, and the inner sides are grooved to allow the 
movement of the window. 

Door Pin (Freight Car Doors). 74, figs. 159-69, 271-95. A 
pin used to fasten a hasp to a staple. Leaden seals are 
sometimes attached thereto. 

Door Pin Chain. 75, figs. 159-69. A chain by which a 
door pin is attached to a car. 

Door Plate. Figs. 2108-2033. A notice plate. See, Door 
Name Plate. 

Door Post, or Door Jamb. 44, figs. 159-69, 185-95 ; 62, figs. 
360-72, 385-87, 388-91. A vertical post which forms the 
side of a doorway. 

Door Post Angle Iron. A, figs. 1087-1106. 

Door Post Plate. Fig. 667. A metal plate laid over the 
door post to protect it from damage. 

Door Post Pocket. 44, figs. 159-69, and figs. 454-6, 466-8. 
See, Pocket. 

Door Pull. Figs. 1937-38. A D-shaped handle attached to 
a door to take hold of in opening or closing it. 

Door Rail. Figs. 1029-37. A horizontal member or bar 
of the framing of a door. The upper one, 4, is called 
the top rail ; the lower one, 5, the bottom rail ; 6, the 
middle or lock rail ; 7, the parting rail. 

Door Rail Bracket (Car Doors). A bracket to carry a top 
door rail, serving as a guide for the door. See, Door 
Track Bracket. 

Door Roller. Figs. 2153-66. Also called a door sheave. The 
term door roller is applied to a flat tread wheel pivoted 
in a bracket and attached to the bottom of a door to 
roll upon a flat surface rather than a narrow track. 

Door Sash. 12 and 13, figs. 1029-37. A wooden frame^ con- 
taining one or more panes of glass, placed in a door. 
In some cases one of these sashes is made to slide, sO' 
that it can be opened for ventilation. They are distin- 
guished as lower and upper door sash. The lower sash 
is commonly movable for ventilation and held open by 
a door sash lift or bolt entering into a door sash plate. 

Door Sash Bolt. Figs. 3631-39. A metal pin attached to a 
sliding door sash to hold it in any desired position. 

Door Sash Plate. Figs. 3639-43. See above. 

Door Sheave, or Sliding Door Sheave. Figs. 525-6, 2153- 
66. A small wheel on which a sliding door rolls. It is 




usually placed at the top of the door, and sometimes at 
the bottom also. It is carried in a door sheave holder. 
A grooved casting called a door shoe or door slide is 
sometimes used as a substitute on freight car doors, es- 
pecially when the load does not rest upon the lower 
door track. See also. Door Roller. 

Door Sheave Transom (Street Cars). A long narrow 
panel which is hinged and with catch so that access 
may be had to the car door sheaves and track. 

CooR Shoe. 70, figs. 159-69, and N, figs. 1087-1106. See, 
Door Sheave. 

Door Sill. 64, figs. 159-69, 343-52. A cross piece attached 
to the floor on the under side of a door opening. In car 
construction the term is usually applied to an iron plate 
used under passenger car, and occasionally freight car 

Door Sill Plate (English). American equivalent, door 
sill or door sill plate. A roughened brass wearing 
piece placed in the doorway entrance. 

Door Slide. See, Door Sheave. 

Door Spindle. Figs. 1983-85. The bar passing through the 
door which carries the door knobs. 

Door Spring. Figs. 2146-48. An attachment to make doors 
self closing. Two of the great numbers of devices in 
use are shown. Double action spring hinges, figs. 197 i - 
^2^ are in general use instead, for the few doors re- 
quiring them. 

Door Stile. 150, figs. 360-72, 388-91 ; 8, figs. 1029-37. One 
of the two upright pieces on the outer edges of a Door 
Frame, which see. 

Door Stop. i. A peg or block against which a passenger 
car door strikes when opened, often provided with a 
rubber cushion, especially for swinging doors. Door 
holders, which both stop the door and retain it, are 
often called door stops, as figs. 2134-45. 

2. (Freight Car Sliding Doors.) 71, 72, figs. 159-69. 
Blocks or strips of wood or iron to restrain excessive 
motion. They are distinguished as closed door stop and 
open door stop. 

Door Threshold Plate. Figs. 668-9. A plate on the 
threshold of the door. 

Door Track. 65, 66, figs. 159-69, etc. A metal bar or guide 
which supports a sliding door, and upon which it 
moves, or by which it is held in its place. They are 
either top door tracks or bottom door tracks. The for- 
mer usually carry the weight of freight car doors, being 
hung thereon by door hangers. The lower track serves 
only as a guide for the door shoes. 

Door Track Bracket. 67, figs. 159-69. An iron or wooden 
block fastened to the side of a freight car, to which a 
door track is attached, or which holds a sliding door in 
its place. See also, Door Rail Bracket. 

Doorway. The passage or opening formed by a door casing, 
which is closed by a door. 

Door Wedge (Security Car Door). Figs. 570-71. 

Door Wedge and Clasp. Fig. 3078. A postal car furnish- 

Door Wedge Guide Plate (Security Car Door). Figs. 

Door Window Mullion. A middle upright bar. See, Door 

Dope. A mixture of waste, oil, and grease, for journal 
box packing, which is not fluid. 

Double Acting Spring Hinge. Figs. 1971-72. A device 
to permit a door to open either way and also to make it 
self-closing. They are from 25/^ to 7 ins. in length of 
flange, 4 ins. being the most usual. They consist in 
their original form of a hinge on a hinge, the two open- 
ing in opposite directions. The "Utility" double acting 
hinge is much like an ordinary butt hinge, the tendency 
to restore the door to its normal position when opened 
in either direction being caused by a spring. 

Double Board Roof. Fig. 1737. See, Car Roof. The 
upper layer of grooved boards is sometimes laid with 

the grooves under, so as to form a kind of tube be- 
tween the two layers. 

Double Brace Pocket. Figs. 471-2. See, Pocket. 

Double Chair. Figs. 3189-91, etc. A twin car seat For- 
merly two reclining chairs combined in pairs to save 
room. They were used three abreast, two on one side 
and one on the opposite side of the aisle. 

Double Circuit System of Car Heating (Consolidated). 
Figs. 2288-90. One form of the Multiple Circuit , 
System, which see. 

Double Coil Jet System (Gold's Car Heating System). 
Fig. 2ZV' A system of car heating which combines the 
drum or jacket features with the jet or commingler sys- 
tem of injecting steam into the hot water circulation. 
The steam is first sent through the inner or steam coil 
of the double coil in the Baker heater, and then through 
an annulus, F, into the circulating pipe. The jet is so 
directed as to aid the circulation in the pipes. It is 
claimed to be noiseless. A feature of the system is the 
carrying of the steam pipe to the full height of the cir- 
culating drum before it enters the coils of the heater. 

Double Coil Nest Spring. A Spiral Spring, which sec, 
with another inside of it. 

Double Deck Stock Car. Figs. 219-22. One with two 
floors, or stories, one above the other, for carrying 
sheep, hogs, etc. The intermediate floor is called the 
upper floor or double deck. 

Double Door. i. A door made in two parts. These are 
sometimes fastened together by hinges, so as to fold 
back on each other, fig. 1032, and sometimes each part 
is hinged to one of the door posts. Sliding doors are 
also sometimes made in two parts. 

2. (Fruit Car.) Doors in pairs, one inside the other, 
as in refrigerator cars, etc., are also called double doors. 

Double Elliptic Spring. See, Elliptic Spring. 

Double Iron Body Bolster. Figs. 811-13. A common 
form for passenger cars with six wheel trucks, com- 
posed of two parallel iron trusses connected by iron 
plates or bars. It is seldom applied to freight cars. 

Double Pipe Clip. Fig. 2259. An iron band made with two 
bends for holding two pipes (as heater pipes) in their 
place. See, Clip. 

Double Plate Wheel. Figs. 4217-ia A cast iron car 
wheel, the rim and hub of which are united by two cast 
iron plates or disks. Wheels in which the double plates 
extend only part way between the hub and rim, the con- 
nection being made by a single plate, are often called 
double plate wheels. See, Car Wheeu Wheeu Wash- 
burn Wheel. 

Double Ratchet (Morgan's Deck Sash Pivot). Figs. 3554- 
57. A pair of radially ribbed disks which engage with 
each other in any position, there being no separate dog 
or ratchet bolt. 

Double Sash Spring. See, Sash Spring. 

Double Strap Hanger (Bell Cord). See, Bell Cord 

Double Track Snow Plow. Fig. 147. A push plow which 
plows the snow to one side. of a track only, so as to 
not crowd it upon the other parallel track. 

Double Washer. A washer that answers for two bolts. 
See, Twin Washer. 

Double Window Blind. The usual form of window blind. 
They are made in two parts, so as to require less 
height when raised. See, Window Blind. 

Double Window Blind Lift. Figs. 3613-20, etc. See, Win- 
dow Blind Lift. 

Dove Tail. "A flaring tenon adapted to fit into a mortice 
having receding sides so as to prevent the withdrawal 
of the tenon in the directions to which it will be ex- 
posed to strain." — Knight. There are many forms of 
dove tail joints. 

Draft Bar Slide or Drawbar Slide. (Street Cars.) A 
drawbar sector which supports the coupler end of the 
drawbar and over which it swings. 




Draft Beam. Figs. 440-45, 1260-62. Goula malleable iron 
draft beam. A substitute for draft timbers and stops, 
being cast in one piece and bolted on the inside of the 
center sills. Sec, Drawbar Side Casting. ' 

Draft Bolt (Janney Coupler). 648, figs. 1526-1613. A 
draft spring bolt. 

Draft Door (Baker Heater). Figs. 2183, etc. A door in 
the smoke flue base, automatically opened and closed 
by the fire regulator, and by which the fire is regulated. 

Draft Gear. Figs. 1142-1710. A term used to designate 
the drawbars, draft timbers, buffing apparatus, and all 
their attachments — in short, the whole of the arrange- 
ments by which a car is drawn and which resists con- 
cussions. See the various heads above. Also, Draw- 
bar, Draw Head, Draft Timbers, etc. 

Draft Gear Check Casting. A casting which incloses the 
thimbles or followers and carries the thrust to the draft 
sills and draft timbers, with which they engage. 

Draft Gear Tie Rod. A rod which connects an end sill or 
platform end timber with a body bolster or drawbar 
cross timber to tie them together. The term is some- 
times applied to the continuous draft rods that run from 
one drawbar to the one at the other end of the car. 

Draft Regulator. See, Fire Regulator. 

Draft Rod (Continuous Draw Gear). A rod which unites 
two drawbars at opposite ends of a car, and relieves 
the draw timber attachments from strain. 

Draff Sills. The Center Sills, which see. 

Draft Spring, i. 24, figs. 159-69 and fig. 4550. A spring 
attached to a Coupler or Drawbar, which see, to give 
elasticity. They are usually so arranged by means of 
follower plates at each end as to resist either tension or 
compression. The usual size for draft springs is 5^ 
inches in diameter and from 6 to 8 inches in length, 
double coil spiral springs. 

In 1893 a Recommended Practice was adopted by the 
M. C. B. Association for attaching M. C. B. automatic 
couplers to cars, as shown in figs. 4490-4506, and by a 
separate vote the use of a draft spring 6% inches diam- 
eter by 8 inches long, with 2]/2 inches motion and 22,000 
pounds capacity, was recommended. 

2. (English.) A long, half elliptic spring reaching 
entirely across the car. Rubber draft springs are more 
generally used, especially with continuous drawbars. 
Sometimes called a draw spring. 

Draft Spring Cradle Plate (English). A longitudinal 
plate in the under frame, which supports the draw 

Draft Spring Pocket. A Drawbar Spring Pocket, which 

Draft Spring Stop. A metal sleeve or thimble in the 
center of a .spiral draw spring to resist excessive com- 
pression. Not to be confused with a Drawbar Stop, 
which see. 

Draft Spring Thimble. Figs. 491-92. A projection 
riveted to the follower plates and fitting inside the draft 
spring to hold it in place. 

Draft Timbers. 26, figs. 159-69, 185-95, 271-95, etc.; 31, 
figs. 360-72. A pair of timbers, carrying the drawbar 
attachments, placed below the center sills, and usually 
extending from the platform end timber of passenger 
cars, or the end sill of freight cars, to the body bolster. 
In passenger cars these timbers are usually the princi- 
cipal supports of the platform. See, Platform Sills 
and Platform Short Sills. The draw timber in a tip 
car is also termed a car perch. 

Draft Timber Pocket. A casting attached to the body 
bolster or center sills of a car to receive the end of a 
draft timber. 

Draft Timber Tie Bar. A transverse iron bar attached to 
the under sides of a pair of draft timbers to tie them to- 

Drain Cock (Air Pump). 54, fig. 965; 105, figs. 893-94. 
A faucet attached to the lower end of the steam cylin- 

der to draw off water of condensation. See also. Res- 
ervoir Drain Cock and Tender Drain Cup Cock. 

Drain Cup, or Drip Cup (Air Brake). A globular recep- 
tacle under a triple valve to collect water of condensa- 

Drain Plug (Brake Cylinder), ii, figs. 918-19. (Triple 
Valve.) 28, figs. 959-62; 13, fig. 966. 

Drake & Weir Car Roof. Fig. 1775. See, Car Roofs. 

Drapery Curtains. C, fig. 1781. 

Drawbar, i. (Link and Pin.) An open mouthed bar at the 
end of a car, in which the coupling links enter and are 
secured by a coupling pin. They are provided with a 
Draft Spring^ which see, to give elasticity to the con- 
nection between the cars. Drawbars are made either of 
cast, malleable, wrought iron, or cast steel, and in re- 
spect to their form are either (i) bolt or spindle draw- 
bars, in which the draw spring is attached by a bolt 
passing through its center; or (2) spring pocket or 
strap drawbars, in which the draw spring is inclosed 
within a yoke surrounding it. The solid head is a 
wrought iron drawbar forged in one piece instead of 
having a drawbar face plate riveted on. The drawbar 
is frequently called draw head, especially cast iron 
drawbars. With certain coal cars a cheap form of draw- 
bar, called a draw hook, is used. In England this style 
is almost universal, in combination with plain links, in 
freight car service, and with a Screw Coupling, which 
see, for passenger cars. The drawbar of the Miller 
couplers is also very frequently called a coupling hook. 
See below. 

2. The word drawbar is used indiscriminately to 
designate both the oM link and pin drawbar and the 
modem automatic car coupler. There has been an ef- 
fort to confine the name drawbar to the old link and 
pin type, but in the proceedings of the M. C. B. Asso- 
ciation, in speaking of the height of drawbars, the term 
is manifestly applied to the M. C. B. standard automatic 
coupler. The general adoption of the word to mean the 
old link and pin drawbar is hardly desirable, if it were 
possible, for the link and pin drawbar is a thing of the 
past. The standard height of passenger car drawbars 
adopted in 1890 by the M. C. B. Association is 35 inches 
from the top of the rail to center of drawbar, where the 
car is light. The standard height of drawbar for 
freight cars from level of top of rails to center of draw- 
bar is 34 J^ inches, adopted in 1893, with no greater 
variation than 3 inches, minimum height 3iJ/$ inches. 
See, Automatic Car Coupler. Coupler and Car Coup- 

Drawbars, Adjusting Height of. (M. C. B. Standard.) 
In 1896 it was decided that in adjusting the height of 
couplers to meet the requirements of the United States 
law fixing the height from the top of rail to center of 
coupler for standard gage cars in interstate traffic, cars 
should be adjusted when empty, as far as possible. In 
order to justify a bill for work done under the Rules of 
Interchange an empty car should be adjusted to 34 J4 
inches, or within l4 inch thereof, and when it is neces- 
sary to alter a loaded car it should be adjusted to 33}^ 
inches, or within J4 inch thereof, or as near as possible 
to such height as will bring it to 345^^ inches when the 
car is unloaded. 

In 1901 this was changed from Recommended Prac- 
tice to Standard, as a result of letter ballot. 

Drawbar Attachments. Figs. 4490-4506. In 1893 a Recom- 
mended Practice was adopted for attaching M. C. B. 
automatic couplers to cars, as shown, and by a separate 
vote the use of a draft spring, 6% inches diameter, 8 
inches long, with 2% inches motion, was recommended. 
At that time the capacity of the spring was placed at 
22,000 pounds, but this was changed in 1896 to 19,000 
pounds to better accord with the facts. See Proceed- 
ings 1893 and 1896. 
In 1897 the yoke or pocket strap shown in detail in 




FIGS. 4355-7 was adopted as standard of the Association, 
with the addition of % inch radius at back end. This 
radius was changed to ^ inch in 1899. 

In 1897 the buffer block and location shown in figs. 
4363-65, but with some additional details of buffer block, 
were adopted as standard of the Association. 

Drawbar Bolt. A bolt or spindle which connects a draw- 
bar to a draw spring and follower plates, passing 
through the center of the latter. A tail bolt See, Draw- 

Drawbar Carry Iron. 25 and 201, figs. 159-69 and figs. 
607-8. A transverse iron bar bolted to the under side 
of the draft timbers, and on which the drawbar rests. 
It is usually U-shaped, and the ends are bolted to the 
end sills, but sometimes flat, with draft timber guards 
at the side, figs. 607-8. A drawbar carry iron is some- 
times called a stirrup. 

Drawbar Follower Plates. Figs. 594-6. Two iron plates 
which bear against each end of a draw spring and trans- 
mit the tension and compression on the drawbar to the 
draft springs and to the draft timbers. 

Drawbar Follower Stop. Figs. 479-81. A casting bolted or 
riveted to the sills or draft timbers to act as a stop to 
the motion of the follower. 

Drawbar Friction Plate (Street Cars). A cast iron plate 
through which the drawbar passes, attached to the 
platform end timber, to protect it from abrasion. 

Drawbar Guide. Cast iron lugs, or wrought plates, bear- 
ing against the sides of draft timbers over the drawbar 
carry iron, to resist lateral strains and protect the draft 
timbers from wear. 

Drawbar Guides. Wrought iron bars which are fastened in 
pairs to the top and bottom of the lugs or stops bolted 
to the draft timbers on each side, forming guides in 
which the drawbar follower plates move. A Drawbar 
Jaw, which see, is sometimes used as a substitute for 
both the guides and stops. 

Drawbar Pocket. A Drawbar Spring Pocket, which see. 

Drawbar Pocket Guide. Figs. 534-6. 

Drawbar Safety Lug. A horn on the upper side of a draw- 
bar to bear against the end sill on a single dead block 
on the end sill, to relieve the draft spring, etc., from ex- 
cessive buffing strain: 

Drawbar Sector (Center Draft Draw Gear). A guide for 
the drawbar, shaped like an arc of a circle, fastened 
underneath the platform. 

Drawbar Side Casting. An iron casting, of which a pair 
serve as combined Drawbar Guide and Stop, which see, 
for the followers to hold them in their places. A draw- 
bar jaw is a wrought iron substitute and equivalent. 

Drawbar Spindle, or Stem. The drawbar bolt which 
passes through the center of the draw spring and fol- 
lower plates in a bolt or spindle drawbar. 

Drawbar Spring Pocket. The space at the back end of a 
spring pocket or strap drawbar which receives the draft 
spring and follower plates. 

Drawbar Stem. A Drawbar Bolt, or Tail Bolt, which 

Drawbar Stirrup. A Drawbar Carry Iron, which see. 

Drawbar Stop. A casting which limits the movement of 
the drawbar followers, bolted to the draft timbers 
and forming distance pieces, to which the drawbar 
guides are bolted. The castings for the drawbar stop 
are sometimes made long enough to bear against the 
body bolster, or a filling block interposed between it 
and the drawbar, thus relieving lugs and bolts of strain. 

Drawbar Yoke. Figs. 602-3. The yoke or strap pocket that 

incloses the draft spring and is bolted to the end of the 

drawbar is called a yoke. 
Draw Chain (English). See, Wagon Coupling. 
Draw Head. The head of an M. C. B. coupler, exclusive of 

the knuckle, knuckle pin and lock. See also, Drawbar 


Draw Off Cock (Baker Heater). Fig. 2262. A cock at- 
tached to the pipe, R, for emptying the pipes. It is a 
Combination Cock, which see. 

Draw Spring. See, Draft Spring. 

Draw Timbers. See, Draft Timbers. 

Drawer Pull. A wooden or metal attachment to a drawer 
to take hold of in pulling it out In postal cars they are 
combined with label holders, figs. 3086-87. 

Drawing Room. A compartment in a drawing room car. 
See, State Room. 

Drawing Room Car. A luxurious passenger car for day 
travel, furnished with arm chairs, sofas, carpets, etc. 
An extra charge is. usually made to passengers who 
travel in them, and they are run by separate companies, 
like sleeping cars, under contract with the railroads. 
Also, and perhaps more commonly, termed Parlor Car, 
or Chair Car, which see. Sometimes, extravagantly, 
palace car. 

Dressing Room. Another name for a saloon, especially one 
provided with wash bowl and toilet facilities. The 
ladies* saloon of sleeping and parlor cars is commonly 
so fitted. 

Drilling. A term used for Switching, which see, or mak- 
ing up trains. Regulating is another term sometimes 
used. The English term for this is marshaling or 

Drip Cock (Air Brake). The cock at the bottom of the 
Drip Cup, which see. 

Drip Coupling, or Basin Coupling (Wash Basin). Fig. 
2754. The connection of the waste pipe or drip pipe 
with the basin. 

Drip Cup. (Air Brake.) . Fia 980. A receptacle inserted 
in the brake pipe of each car to receive water condens- 
ing therein. A drain cup. 

Drip Dish (Refrigerator Car). A dish or pan at one cor- 
ner or end of the car for receiving the water from the 
melting ice, usually permitting it to escape by a Trap, 
which see. 

Drip Tray. Figs. 3104-05. An enameled piece of sheet iron 
placed directly under the seat of a closet, and over the 

Driving Chain (Pile Driver Car). A Pitch Chain, which 
see, used to make the pile driver car self propelling, by 
engaging with the pitch gear attached to one of the 
axles. Such cars are not usually made self propelling. 

Driving Gear (Lever Hand Car). 4, 5, figs. 4722-27. It 
consists of the spur wheel, or gear wheel, and pinion. 

Drop (of Lamp). "The drop of a center lamp is its ex- 
treme length," measured from the ceiling to the lowest 
part of the lamp. 

Drop Bottom. See, Drop Door. 

Drop Bottom Car. Figs. 239-43, 259-65, 268-70. A car so 
constructed that its contents can be readily unloaded 
from the bottom by means of drop doors. 

A distinction is sometimes made between hopper bot- 
tom cars, which will discharge nearly all their contents 
without assistance, on opening the drop doors, and a 
drop bottom car, which will not do this. 

Drop bottom cars are usually gondola cars. 

Drop Door. 61, figs. 246-50, 271-95. A door at the bottom 
of a drop bottom or hopper bottom car for unloading it 
quickly by allowing the load to fall through. Drop 
doors are usually, if not invariably, in pairs, and arc 
supported by a drop door chain wound upon a winding 
shaft. A drop door beam extends across the car above 
the winding shaft to assist in supporting it and to 
stiffen the car. The subject of drop doors has received 
a great deal of attention of inventors, and numerous de- 
signs and devices have been patented, yet the original 
drop door with winding shaft and chain is in very gen- 
eral use. 

Drop Door Beam. See above. 

Drop Door Chain. 64, figs. 271-95. A chain attached to 




the Winding Shaft and the Drop Doors, which see. 
Also termed hopper chain. 

Drop Door Hinge. 62, figs. 271-95. See above. 

Drop Forging. One made under the drop hammer by the 
use of a die. 

Drop Letter Box Plate. Figs. 3065-6. A Letter Drop, 
which see. 

Drop Table (Dining Car Kitchens). A table hinged to the 
wall so as to drop against it out of the way when de- 

Drop Test Machine. (M. C. B. Recommended Practice). 
Figs. 4711-13. In 1900 the drop testing machine was 
modified, and a further modification made in igoi. For 
details see illustrations in report of committee, pages 
147-154, Proceedings igoi. 

Drum. i. "A cylinder over which a belt or band passes. 

2. "A chamber of a cylindrical form used in heat- 
ers, stoves and flues. It is hollow and thin, and gener- 
ally forms a mere casing, but in some cases, as steam 
drums, is adapted to stand considerable pressure." — 
Knight. See, Brake Shaft Drum. Circulating Drum, 
or Expansion Drum (Baker Heater). 

3. (Hoisting Gear.) The main cylinder upon which 
the hoisting rope is rolled up. The spur wheel is car- 
ried on the same shaft. 

Drum Cover, i. (Baker Heater.) Fig. 2263. A sheet iron 
covering for the circulating drum on the outside of the 

Drum Shaft (of a Derrick or Crane). The shaft on which 
the winding drum is carried. 

Drum Support (Baker Heater). A bracket on the roof to 
hold the circulating drum. . 

Drum Systems of Car Heating. This method of heating 
employs a hot water circulation within the car, to 
which a Baker or other similar heater is attached. To 
provide a means for maintaining heat in the car when 
steam from the locomotive is used, a drum is employed 
to transfer the heat of the steam to the water of circu- 
lation. Simple forms of drums consist simply of a 
cylinder or pipe within another pipe of larger cross sec- 
tion, provision being made for the unequal expansion of 
the pipes, and outlet and inlet orifices being provided 
for the circulation of the steam and water. 

Another type is the coil drum or coil jacket, which 
generally consists of a large sized pipe or casting capped 
at both ends. In this drum is placed a coil of copper 
pipe, which coil is made a part of the hot water circuit 
within the car. Steam from the locomotive is admitted 
to this drum around the copper coil, through which 
heat is imparted to the water of circulation. That part 
of the circuit above this drum becoming relatively 
lighter than the water of the circuit, a movement of 
the circulating medium is produced, creating a steady 
flow up through the coil. The amount of heat commu- 
nicated to the circulating medium depends upon the 
surface of the coil and upon its conductive power to 
heat. A pressure of from 10 to 20 pounds of steam is 
carried in the drum. 

Dry Closet. Figs. 31 15-19. A closet so called in distinction 
from a water closet, which is not flushed with water. 

Duck. A flax fabric, lighter and finer than canvas, for use 
in car upholstery. It is usually manufactured in rolls 
18, 24 and 40 inches wide and about 40 yards long. 
Roofing duck (used for street car roofs) is manufac- 
tured of many different widths up to 12 feet, so as to 
entirely cover the roof when desired. 

Dudgeon's Hydraulic Jack. Figs. 2985-86. See, Jacks. A 
jack with a base and head and two cylinders, one cylin- 
der sliding within another. To the inner one (which is 
termed the ram) is attached the head, having a socket 
to receive the lever which operates the force pump in 
the lower end of ram ; the remaining space is the reser- 
voir containing the liquid, which when forced into the 
lower chamber causes the ram to rise, and to lower 

when allowed to return through the lower valve and 
back passages, which are operated by the same lever. 

Dummy Coupling. Fig. 941. A casting of the same shape 
as a hose coupling, attached to the car, into which the 
coupling may be hooked and prevent dirt and debris 
getting in the train pipe, as well as to prevent the coup- 
ling being damaged when hanging down. 

Dump Car. A term used to designate both Drop Bottom, 
Side Dump and Tip Cars, which see. 

Dunham Storm Proof Car Door. Figs. 1042-49. 

Duplex Air Gage (Air Brake). Fig. 921. A gage to reg- 
ister simultaneously on the same dial the main reser- 
voir pressure and train line pressure. For this purpose 
a red hand for the reservoir and black hand for train 
line are provided. 

Duplex Air Pump (New York Air Brake). Fig. 965. A 
pump for compressing air for the brake system, in 
which two air and two steam cylinders ^re used, and 
the air is compressed in two stages to the main reser- 
voir pressure. In construction similar to the single air 
pump. See, Air Pump. 

Duplex Pump (Governor (Air Brake). Figs. 949-50, 963-64. 
Used in connection with the high speed brake. One 
diaphragm is set for 90 lbs. and the other for no lbs., 
and by turning the cut out cock the apparatus is readily 
changed from control at the low pressure to control 
at the high pressure. 

Duplex Ventilator. Fig. 3489. See, Ventilators. 

Duplicate Elliptic Spring. A Double Elliptic Spring, 
which see. 

Dust Arrester (of Pintsch Gas Pressure Regulator). A 
cavity closed at each end by a perforated plate to pre- 
vent dust entering to clog the regulating valve. 

Dust Collar. A grooved wrought iron ring, sometime* but 
not generally placed on a car axle between the hub of 
the wheel and the journal to receive and hold a dust 

Duster. See, Feather Duster. 

Dust Guard. 115, figs. 3781 -395 i ; figs. 4084-90. A thin 
piece of wood, leather, felt or vulcanized fiber inserted 
in the dust guard chamber at the back of a journal box, 
and fitting closely around the dust guard bearing of the 

axle. It is to exclude dust and prevent the escape of 
oil and waste. Sometimes called axle packing or box 

Dust Guard Bearing (Axle). See above. 

Dust Guard Chamber (Journal Box). See above. 

Dust Guard Spring Holder. Fig. 3704. See, Window 
Dust Guard or Deflector. 

Dutchman. A block or wedge of wood driven into a 
crevice to hide the consequences of bad fitting in con- 
struction. A kind of shim. 

Dynamo (Gould Electric Light). Figs, 2637-40. The ma- 
chine for generating an electric current, driven by a 
belt from the car axle. 


Fames Vacuum Brake. A system of continuous brakes, 
operated by exhausting the air by an 'Ejector, which 
see, from behind flexible india rubber diaphragms at- 
tached to each truck. These diaphragms are directly 
connected to the brake levers, and the pressure of the 
air on the outside of the diaphragms is thus communi- 
cated to the brake shoes. The rubber diaphragms 
cover the mouth of a large cast iron diaphragm shell 
or bowl. Now little used. 

Ear. a general name for projections to which handles or 
other exterior parts are attached, but more especially 
applicable to projections intended for movable attach- 
ments, See, Ear Bail, below. 

Ear Bail (Lanterns). Figs. 2730-37. An attachment 
formed of wire connected with the wire guard, to which 




the bail is attached instead of to the body of the 

Earthen Hoppers. Figs. 3092, 3093, 3095. 

Eastman Heater Car. See, Heater Car. 

Eaves Fascia Board, i. (Freight Cars.) 91, figs. 159-69. 
A plain board connecting the sheathing with the roof. 
2. (Passenger Cars.) 92, figs. 360-72, 388-91. A 
projecting board on the outside of the lower deck, im- 
mediately under the eaves, which comes below and 
under the eaves molding. 

Eaves Molding, i. (Freight Cars.) A plain strip some- 
times used outside an Eaves Fascia Board, which see. 
2. (Passenger Cars.) 93, figs. 360-72, 385-87, 388-91, 
etc. An ornamental finish to the exterior angle of the 
lower deck, outside of and above the eaves fascia board. 
A similar deck eaves molding is used for the upper 

Eccentric Pivot Plate (for Seat Arms). A seat arm 
pivot plate, made eccentric only to get room for screw 
holes. The eccentricity has no functional purpose. 

Edward's Automatic Window Sash Balance. Figs. 


Edward's Vestibule Trap Door. Figs. 1795-98. A trap 
door mechanism for wide vestibules by which the door 
is forced up when the catch is released by a spring in 
the hinge. The catch is operated by a foot latch ex- 
tending up into the vestibule. By pressing down on 
the latch the catch is released, and further pressure 
forces the door up out of the frame in case it sticks 
and the spring will not operate it. 

Egg Shaped Stove. A stove resembling an egg in form. 
It is commonly known simply as a cast iron stove, and 
is very largely used for cabooses, etc., where appear- 
ance is not important. 

Eight Wheel Car. The standard type of American roll- 
ing stock, consisting of a car body carried upon two 
Trucks or Car Trucks (both of which see) of four 
wheels each. Sleeping, parlor, and dining cars are 
usually twelve wheeled. 

Ejector. An appliance for operating a vacuum brake by 
exhausting or "ejecting" air. It consists essentially of 
a pipe placed in the center of a surrounding shell or 
casing, with an annular opening, between the pipe and 
the casing. When the current of steam is admitted at 
the lower end and escapes at the upper end, the air in 
the casing is drawn out through the annular 
opening by the current of the escaping steam. 
The space is connected by a pipe with the 
appliances on the cars for operating the brakes. 
Suitable valves are also used in connection with the 
ejector to shut off and admit steam and air. Ejectors 
are very noisy. In the ejector for Fames vacuum 
brake, a muffler is used to render noiseless the escaping 
steam. It consists simply of a box of small round 
balls, like shot, through which the steam must pass to 

Ejector Spider (Pintsch Lamp). 468, figs. 2605-21. 

Elastic Fiber Journal Packing. A compound, princi- 
pally of cocoanut fiber mixed with jute, to serve as a 
substitute for waste. It is lighter, cheaper, and claimed 
to be more effective. 

Elastic Wheel. Any car wheel in which some elastic ma- 
terial is interposed between the tire and the wheel 
center or hub to resist the concussions. Different sub- 
stances are used, such as paper, wood, india rubber, 
oakum, etc. 

Elbow. Figs. 2277, 2286, etc. A short L-shaped cast iron 
tube for uniting the ends of two pipes, generally at 
right angles to each other. 

Elbow Rail (English). In a carriage, a part of the body 
framing running horizontally along the sides at about 
the height of the elbow of a passenger in a sitting 

Elbow Rest (English). See, Folding Arm Rest. Side 
Arm Rest. 

Electric Car. An electric motor car. 

Electric Car Heating Apparatus (Consolidated and 
Gold's). Figs. 2447-65. Both of these systems take 
current from the motor circuit and pass it through re- 
sistance coils placed under the seats or alongside the 
car. These coils or heaters are shown in figs. 2451-61. 
Regulating switches serve to control the heat output. 
Plans of wiring the cars are shown in figs. 2447-48. 

Electric Car Lighting. Figs. 2622-40. There are a num- 
ber of distinct systems of electric car lighting in limited 
use. These are the Axle Light System, which see; 
the storage battery system, using batteries charged to 
last the entire run of the car or train; the auxiliary 
electric installations in the baggage car using live steam 
at about 90 lbs. pressure from the locomotive to drive a 
reciprocating engine or steam turbine which is con- 
nected to a dynamo supplying all the lights in the 
train. This latter system is in use on the limited trains 
between New York and Chicago and on some other 
trains in this country. The axle light system, which 
allows the independent operation of each car, is rapidly 
coming into use. Only on isolated cars on short runs 
is the storage battery system used at all. 

Electric Motor. Figs. 4774-7, 4783, 4815, 4888-95. A ma- 
chine for transforming electric energy into mechanical 
motion ; as applied to the propulsion of cars, it consist 
of a rotating armature within an enclosed steel magnet 
frame usually of a box shape. The whole is mounted 
on the truck and motion transmitted to the car by 
means of a pinion on the armature shaft and a gear 
on car axle. All standard railway motors are series 
wound and operate at a voltage of from 500 to 600. 

Electric Motor Car. Figs. 4731-73. A car which is pro- 
pelled by an electric motor, which is carried on the 
axle and truck and is geared to the axle and wheels. 
Such cars are also described as trolley cars, if they re- 
ceive the current from a live wire through a trolley 
which is kept in contact with it; or as storage battery 
cars if they carry and derive the current for their pro- 
pulsion from a storage battery. 

Electric Pump Governor. Figs. 4862-63. An adjunct to 
the electrically driven air compressor, designed to auto- 
matically open or close the motor circuit when the air 
pressure in the reservoir exceeds or falls below certain 
predetermined limits ; these limits are usually 90 and 80 
pounds. Its function is to maintain a practically uni- 
form air pressure in the main reservoir. 

Electric Pump (Governor (Westinghouse Traction Brake). 
Fig. 995. See, Pump (Governor. 

Electrolier. Fig. 2690. A chandelier of electric lights. 

Elliptic Spring. Figs. 4138-49. A spring of elliptical 
form made of two sets of parallel steel plates of con- 
stantly decreasing length. Such springs are generally 
used for bolster springs for passenger cars. Their use 
in freight service has been practically abandoned in 
favor of spiral springs. Half elliptic springs are for 
locomotive springs. In England they are almost the 
only bearing springs used and are also used as Draw 
AND Buffing Springs, which see. 

The set of elliptic springs is the total amount of bend 
or compression of which the spring is capable. The 
arch differs from half the set by the amount of the 
thickness of the spring band. The connection between 
the two halves of the elliptic spring at its extremities 
is termed the scroll. Elliptic springs in service are 
termed double or duplicate, triplets or triplicate, quad- 
ruple, quintuple, sextuple, etc., according to the number 
of springs used side by side and connected by a single 
eye bolt so as to constitute practically one spring. In 
passenger car service elliptic springs are usually tripli- 
cates, quadruples, or quintuples. The length of the 
spring is the distance from center to center of scrolls 




when unloaded; and the height, the height over all 

Emergency Candle Lamp. Fig. 2775-76. See, Pintsch 
Bracket Candle Lamp. Candle Lamp. 

Emergency Tool Box. T, figs. 388-91. See, Tool Box. 

Emergency Valve (Triple Valve). 10, fig. 910. See, 
Triple Valve. 

Emergency Valve Nut (Triple Valve). 28, fig. 910. 

Emergency Valve Piston (Triple Valve). 8, fig. 910. 

Emergency Valve Piston Packing Ring (Triple Valve). 
30, fig. 910. 

Emergency Valve Seat (Triple Valve). 9, fig. 910. 

Emigrant Sleeping Car. A cheaply finished car without 
springs or mattresses, bvit in other respects similar to 
ordinary sleepers, for the use of emigrants. Now used 
chiefly on the long runs west of Chicago, and to some 
extent used for ordinary travel, especially by parties 
of excursionists. See, Tourist Sleeping Car. 

End Arch Rail (English). American equivalent, end 
plate. A piece of timber run across the upper portion 
of the end of the body, its upper side being cut to the 
curve of the roof which it supports. 

End Ascending Step (English). See, Ascending Rail. 

End Belt Rail. 50, figs. 159-69. (Freight Car.) A belt 
running across the end of a car about midway between 
the sills and plate, and with the side belt rail forming a 
continuous girth around the car except across the 
doors. It is usually the top of the inside lining and is 
framed into the posts and braces. See, End Girth. 

End Belt Rail Tie Rod. 51, figs. 159-69. A tie rod par- 
allel to and alongside of the end belt rail to keep the 
posts drawn tight and close against the end belt rail. 

End Board (English). American equivalent, end plank. 
A plank in the end of a "goods wagon" or gondola car. 

End Brace. 35, figs. 159-69, 185, etc.; 51, figs. 388-91. 
See, Body Brace. 

End Brace Pocket. 35, figs. 159-69., etc. See, Pocket. 

End Brace Rod. 34, figs. 159-69, 185-95, etc. Sec, Brace 

End Carline. A Carline (which see) at the end of a car 
body. See also. End Plate. Platform Roof End 

End Chute Plank. The planking of an inclined floor of 
a car which discharges its load longitudinally from the 
end toward the middle of a car, or vice-versa. Sec, 
End Slope. 

End Compression Beam (Passenger Car Framing). A 
timber directly above the sills over the body bolster 
against which the compression beam brace and the end 
counterbrace abut. The compression beam proper is 
situated at the middle of the car directly under the win- 
dow sills. The end compression beam is sometimes 

End Counterbrace (Passenger Car Framing). More com- 
monly, simply counterbrace. A brace in the side of a 
car body, between its ends and the body bolster. See, 

End Door (Box Cars), i. A door frequently applied to 
afford means for the insertion of long pieces of freight 
or lumber that cannot be entered by the main side 
2. (Refrigerator Cars.) 6ie, figs. 185-Qf;. 

End Doors (Passenger Car). Figs. 1026-34. 

End Door Locks. Figs. 2003-83, etc. See, Locks. 

End Door Sash Bolt. Figs. 3635-38, etc. See, Sash Bolt. 

End Door Sasq Lift. Fig. 3636. See, Sash Lift. 

End Frame (of a Car Body). The frame which forms the 
end of a car body. It includes the posts, braces, end 
rail, end girth, etc. 

End Girth. 50, figs. 159-69; 49b and 49c, figs. 185-95. A 
girth in the end of a box car. An end belt rail. 

End Girth Tie Rod. A rod extending across the end of 
a freight car body along the end girth, from one comer 
post to the other. An end belt rail tie rod. 

End Grab Iron. See, Grab Iron. 

End Half Longitudinal (English). American equivalent, 
intermediate sill. A part of the under framing extend- 
ing from the cross bearer to the headstock. 

End Hook (Bell Cord). Fig. 1820. A hook sometimes 
used on the ends of passenger cars, high up under the 
platform roof, for fastening the end of the bell cord to. 

End Lamp Iron (English). American equivalent, tail light 
holder. A wrought iron holder secured to the sole bar 
or the end of the body in order to carry one of the col- 
ored signal or tail lamps, denoting the last vehicle of 
the train. See also. Side Lamp Iron. 

End Muntin (English). See, End Stanchion. 

End Panel, i. A panel at the end and on the outside of a 
passenger or street car below the window. In street 
cars distinguished as lower and upper, both under the 
window. In passenger cars distinguished As end win- 
dow panel, alongside of the window, and end panel, 
below it 

2. (English). A panel in the outside end of the 
body of a carriage, extending from the arch rail to the 
bottom end piece. 

End Piece (Wooden Truck Frame). 17, figs. 3735-3951, 
and figs. 3813-14. 3l^^7-^- A transverse timber or bar 
of iron by which the ends of the two wheel pieces of a 
truck frame are connected together. A crooked end 
piece is one cut away on top to clear the draw gear. 
The inside end piece is the one nearest the center of 
the car, in distinction from the outside end piece. 
They are frequently designated as the front and back 
end piece. 

End Piece Corner Plate (Passenger Trucks). 130, figs. 
378i-395i> sind fig. 3790. See, Truck Frame Corner 

End Piece Plate. Figs. 3828-3a A top and bottom plate 
for the end piece of a passenger truck. Also side plates 
bolted to the end piece to further stiffen it Figs. 3839- 

End Pillar (English). An upright post in the end of the 

End Plank (of a Gondola Car). They are often hinged to 
the car floor so as to drop down upon it, when they are 
called drop ends. 

End Plate. 48, figs. 159-^, 185-95, etc. A timber across 
the end and top of car body and which is fastened to 
the two side plates. It is usually made of the proper 
form to serve as an end carline. 

End Plate Strengthening Angle. An angle iron bolted 
or lag screwed to the top of the end plate between the 
side plates to strengthen the end plate and the con- 
nection between the sides. 

End Play. i. (Of an Axle.) The movement, or space left 
for movement, endwise. • 

2. (Of a Truck Bolster.) Usually called lateral mo- 
tion. See, Swing Bolster. 

End Post (Hopper Cars). 47, figs. 271-95. A vertical sup- 
port for the overhang of the hopper floor, resting on 
the end sill. Ladder rounds are usually riveted to the 
two center end posts. 

End Post. See, Vestibule End Post. 

End Rafter. A term erroneously applied to the End Car- 
lines, which see. 

End Rail. i. See, Wainscot End Rail (Lower and 

2. (English.) A part of the body framing running 
horizontally across the end of the vehicle. See, Side 

End Roof Panel. The panel above the door and below the 
clear story. 

End Scroll Iron (English). A wrought iron support for 
the spring link adjusting screw. The upper face is at- 
tached to the under side of the sole bar, and the lower 
part is bored horizontally for the adjusting screw. It 




is placed near the end of the vehicle, and hence diflFers 
somewhat in pattern from the ordinary scroll iron. 

End Seat Panel (Street Car). An inside panel at the end 
of a longitudinal or side seat 

End Sill. 2, figs. 159-69, 185-95, 215-22, 246-50, 360-72, etc. 
The main outside transverse timber of a car body, into 
which all the floor timbers are framed. In passenger 
cars it comes directly under the door, the Platform^ 
(which see) with its various parts being a separate 
construction. In England the end sill is termed the 
head stock. 

End Sill and Plate Tie Roa 54, figs. 388-91. A tie rod 
joining the end sill with the end plate. 

End Sill Brackets (of Iron Frame Cars). L-shaped angle 
plates used to connect the iron sills and the end sill 
channel bar. In bridge building such plates are termed 
brackets. When of triangular section they are termed 
Gussets, which see. 

End Sill Channel Bar. See above. 

End Sill Diagonal Brace. 195, figs. 159-69, 271-95; 11, 
FIGS. 271-95. A horizontal brace extending from the 
comers of the end sill diagonal back to or beyond the 
bolster at the center sills. 

End Sill Flitch Planks. The planks or sticks of timber 
which are placed on the sides or between the flitch 
plates, and are part of a composite end sill. 

End Sill Flitch Plates. The iron or steel plates sand- 
wiched between the wood members of a composite end 

End Sill Stiffening Angle. Pullman anti-telescoping de- 
vice. A f^x3x4 angle iron riveted or bolted to the end 
sill stiffening plate and to the end sill on the inside. 
The inner body truss rods pass through it, the end sill 
and the truss rod washer plate. 

End Sill Stiffening Plate. Pullman anti-telescoping 
device. A $^-inch plate, 20 inches wide in the middle 
by 12 inches at the ends, bolted on the under side of 
the end sill and to the under side of the center, inter- 
mediate, and side sills. 

End Slope (Hopper Car). 27a, figs. 271-95. The sloping 
floor from the end of the car to the hopper door. See, 
Side Slope and Hopper Slope. « 

End Stanchion, or End Muntin (English). An upright 
bar at the end of a wagon, stiffening the end against 
shocks in switching. 

End Stop (Journal Box). A block inserted upon the in- 
side of the lid to take up the end thrust of the axle. 
See, Stop Journal Bearing and Stop Key Journal 

End Timber. See, Platform End Timber or Buffer 
Beam ; also. End Sill. 

End Train Pipe Valve (Steam Heating). Figs. 2297-99, 

• 2432-38, etc. A valve in the train pipe at the end of 

the car by which the entire car may be cut out. Usually 

operated by an extension handle extending up to the 

platform or out to the side of the car. 

End Truss Plank. See, Truss Plank. 

End Ventilator. An aperture for the admission or escape 
of air at the end of a car, usually placed over the win- 
dows. See also, Deck End Ventilator. 

End Ventilator Opener. See, Deck Sash Opener. 

End Wainscot Paneu See, Wainscot Panel. 

End Window Panel. A panel at the end and on the outside 
of a passenger car alongside of the window, in distinc- 
tion from the end panel proper, which is below the win- 

Engine and Air Pump Complete (Air Brake). Figs. 893- 
94, 965. A machine attached to a locomotive for com- 
pressing air. It consists of a steam and an air cylinder, 
the pistons in which arc connected to the same piston 
rod, so that the air piston is worked directly by the 
steam piston. Suitable valves are provided for ad- 
mitting and exhausting the steam and air to and from 
the cylinders. See, Reversing Valve, etc. 

Engineer's Brake Valve (Wcstinghouse and New York 
Brake). Figs. 907-09, 967-71. The valve now used, in- 
stead of the old three way cock, for applying and re- 
leasing the brakes. A valve device located in the cab 
of the locomotive for applying and releasing the air 
brakes. It is operated by the engineer through the me- 
dium of a projecting handle or lever. In the release po- 
sition of the handle the air from the main reservoir has 
direct access, through a large port, to the train pipe. 
In the running position the air from the main reservoir 
has access to the train pipe only through the feed valve 
attachment, which operates to limit the pressure in the 
train pipe to 70 lbs. when it is 90 lbs. in the storage 
reservoir. In the position for service application of the 
brakes the air pressure is partially released from the 
chamber above a piston, which is then forced upward 
by the train pipe pressure below it, and opens a valve 
to the atmosphere, through which the train pipe air is 
discharged at such a rate that the emergency action of 
the triple valyes on the cars cannot take place. Any de- 
gree of reduction of train pipe pressure may be effected 
in this way for graduated applications of the brakes. In 
the position for the emergency application of the brakes, 
a large direct port from the train pipe to the atmosphere 
is opened, which causes the instantaneous application of 
the brakes throughout the train. 

Engine Lamp. Fig. 2726. 

Equalizer, i. A short term for an Equalizing Bar, 
which see. 

2. (Janney Platform.) The bar connecting the two 
buffers and having a bearing against the center buffer 

3. (Pullman Vestibule.) 27, figs. 1784-86. A bar in 
the hood of a platform which equalizes the pressure of 
the two upper face plate springs and keeps the opposing 
face plates together in contact, so as to maintain fric- 
tional contact and exclude dust and smoke. 

Equalizer Block. See, Brake Equalizer Block. 

Equalizer Connecting Chain. 26, figs. 1784-86 (Pullman 
Vestibules). Three links of a chain connecting the 
upper ends of the vertical equalizing levers with the 
ends of the horizontal equalizing lever. 

Equalizer Spring. 79, figs. 3781-3951. A spring which 
rests on an equalizing bar and carries the weight of a 
car. Single or two group spiral springs are generally 
used for this purpose. Rubber and volute springs are 
out of use. 

Equalizer Spring Block (Passenger Trucks). Figs. 3969- 
71. A casting bolted to the wheel piece which rests on 
the equalizer spring cap. 

Equalizer Spring Cap. 72, figs. 3781-3951, and figs. 3784- 
6. A casting on top of the spring, which bears against 
the under side of the wheel piece and holds the spring 
in its place. 

Equalizer Spring Seat. 73, figs. 3781 -3951, and figs. 
3787-9, 3972-4, A casting which sets on an equalizing 
bar and on which the spring rests. See, Spring Plate. 

Equalizer Strap. See, Brake Equalizer Strap. 

Equalizing Bar (Passenger Car Trucks). 71, figs. 3781- 
3951; figs. 3835-36, 4033-35» etc. Commonly abbre- 
viated into equalizer. A wrought iron bar which bears 
on top of the journal boxes and extends longitudinally 
from one to the other. Equalizer springs rest on it be- 
tween the two boxes. It is used to transfer part of the 
weight on one wheel to the other, and thus equalize it 
on both; hence its name. 

Equalizing Bar Pedestal (Four Wheeled Caboose Cars). 
A casting serving to give a fulcrum to the center of an 
equalizing lever. 

Equalizing Bar Seat. The surface on top of a journal box 
on which an equalizer rests. 

Equalizing Brake Lever. A Floating Lever, which see. 
The center brake lever is also, with little propriety, so 




Equalizing Lever. An Equalizing Bar, which see. A 

floating lever is also called an equalizing lever. 
Equalizing Reservoir. A reservoir placed on the side of 
the locomotive underneath the cab, the office of which 
is to increase the volume of the chamber above the 
piston in the engineer's brake and equalizing discharge 
Equalizing Valve (Westinghouse Brake). A valve for use 
on long trains to equalize the pressure in the brake pipe 
and prevent the inequality of pressure in the front por- 
tion of the pipe during the brief period in which the 
brakes are being applied by release of air from the 
brake pipes, from tending to first apply and then inmie- 
diately release the brakes on the forward cars, owing to 
the rush of air from the rear portion of the train. 
Escutcheon, i. figs, 1973-79, etc. A plate or guard for a 
key hole of a lock. Similar plates for the holes through 
which door knob spindles pass are also called es- 
cutcheons, but more commonly rose or rosette. See, 
Seat Lock Escutcheon. An escutcheon plate is often 
attached to an escutcheon to cover the key hole. 

2. (Yale Lock.) A revolving post provided with 
holes to carry the pins, which act as tumblers. When 
the key with corrugated edge is inserted each of these 
tumblers is raised so that the joint comes exactly at 
the edge of the escutcheon, thus permitting revolution. 
Escutcheon Plate. See, Escutcheon. 
Examination of Car Inspectors. In 1902 the following 
rules for examination of car inspectors were adopted 
as a Recommended Practice of the Association : 

Requirements : 

One year at oiling cars. 

Two years at car repairing. 

Age limit for new men, thirty years. 

Age limit for promoted men, forty years. 

Vision, 20-20 in one eye and not less than 20-40 in the 
other, without glasses. 

Method of Testing.— Acuity of Vision— The test card 
should be hung in a good light, and the party to be ex- 
amined should, if possible, be seated with his back to 
the window. Each eye should be examined separately, 
using, for the purpose of excluding one eye, a folded 
handkerchief. The lowest line that can be read should 
be determined by exposing only one letter at a time 
through a hole cut in a strip of cardboard. In making 
out the report in each case the visual acuity of each 
eye should be denoted by a fraction of which the 
numerator represents the number of feet at which the 
applicant is seated from the card, while the denominator 
represents the number of feet at which the lowest line 
which he can read should be read. Thus, if at 20 feet 
he reads the line marked 20 feet, his vision — 20-20 or i, 
which is the normal standard. If at the same distance 
he only can read the line marked 70 feet, his vision — 
20-70. If at 20 feet he reads the 15 foot line, the vision 
— ^20-15, or more than normal. If a room 20 feet long 
can not be used a testing distance of 15 or 10 feet 
should be employed, in which case normal vision would 
be represented by 15-15, or 10-10 respectively, and lower 
grades of vision by such fractions as 15-20, 10-70 and 
so on. 

Field of Vision.— Test should be made by having the 
applicant and examiner stand about three feet apart, 
each with one eye shut, looking each other steadily in 
the eye. The examiner should then bring his hand in 
from the edge of the field toward the center of the 
space between them, until the applicant sees it coming. 
This should be done from different directions, up, down 
and from each side. The applicant should see the hand 
coming about as soon as the examiner does. If not, this 
should be noted on the report. 

Hearing. — Test should be made in a quiet room. 
First, the examiner should hold the watch opposite the 
ear to be examined not less than 48 inches distant, then 

gradually approach the ear until the applicant hears the 
tick, the stop being used to satisfy the examiner that 
the applicant is not deceiving. The distance at which 
the applicant hears the watch should be noted in inches. 
The normal ear should hear the tick of the watch at 48 
inches. Then the hearing power will be denoted by a 
fraction whose numerator represents the number of 
inches at which the watch is heard. Thus, if he hears 
the watch at 48 inches, his hearing — 48-48, or nonnaL 
If he hears it at only 10 inches distant, his hearing — 
10-48, and so on. 

Color. — The committee does not think it essential that 
inspectors should be rejected on account of imperfect 
color sense. It is, however, believed that inspectors 
should be tested as to their color sense, so that they, as 
well as their employer, may know their condition in this 

Educational. — The applicant should be able to write 
a legible hand in English, and also to read manuscript, 
as well as printed matter. 

Car Knowledge. — The inspectors should be able to 
name each part of the cars in general use, in preference 
using M. C. B. dictionary terms. 

M. C. B. Rules. — Inspectors must pass a satisfactory 
examination on M. C. B. Rules, answering seventy-five 
per cent, of the questions submitted. These questions 
should be of about the following character : 

1. What are the Master Car Builders' Rules? 

2. What is the object of the M. C. B. Rules ? 

3. What is the underlying idea 01 principle of these 
rules ? 

4. When is a company, operating the cars of an- 
other company, responsible for defects of such cars ? 

5. When a company is thus responsible, what should 
it do? 

6. What care should be given to foreign cars by the 
company hauling them? 

7. What cars must be accepted in interchange? 

8. What is a defect card, and how is it used? 

9. Under what conditions is a road obliged to accept 
a car which is carded for defects for which the owner is 
not responsible? 

10. What are the defects of wheels and axles for 
which owners and delivering companies are respon- 

11. Describe the form and use of the M. C. B. wheel 

12. What are the rules which apply to the cleaning 
of triple valves and cylinders? 

13. What does the limit of height of drawbars 

14. When a company is obliged to make improper 
repairs, what must it do to call attention to such re- 
pairs ? 

15. What does the term unfair usage mean? 

16. What are the rules regarding splicing sills? 

17. What is the purpose of the repair card? 

18. How do these rules apply to switching roads? 

19. Are switching roads allowed to render bills 
against owners direct for repairs of any other than 
those named in Section 23 of Rule 5? 

Excelsior Car Roof. Figs. 1738-47. See Car Roof. 

Excelsior Galvanized Car Roof. Figs. 1743-47. See, 
Car Roof. 

Excelsior Steam Trap and Parts (Gold Car Heating Sys- 
tem). Figs. 2355-84, 2394. An automatic Thermostatic 
Steam Trap, which see. 

Exhaust Pipe (Air Pump). A pipe through which the 
exhaust steam is conveyed from the steam cylinder to 
the smokestack. 

Exhaust Pipe Union (Air Pump). 58-60, Fig. 965. 

Exhaust Ventilator (for Closet Hoppers). Fig. 3103. 
See, Bell's Exhaust Hopper Ventilator. 

Expanded Metal. A perforated metal screen which 

IS *- 




made by slotting a sheet of sheet iron or steel and then 
drawing it out so that the slots form diamond shaped 
holes in the plate. It is largely used in composite con- 
crete construction as a binder, in the "Diamond S" 
brake shoe (figs. 1007, 1016), for lockers and for win- 
dow guards (figs. 3063-64). 

Expansion Drum (Baker Heater). Figs. 2208, 2222, etc. 
A Circulating Drum, which see. 

Express Car. Fig. 120. A car for carrying light pack- 
ages of freight for express companies on passenger 
trains. Also see, Combination Baggage Car. 

The express business was originated in 1839 ^y Will- 
iam F. Hamden, who traveled for some time as a mes- 
senger between New York and Boston ; but it was not 
for a long time thereafter that it grew to suflftcient 
dimensions to require separate cars. Alvin Adams, 
founder of the Adams Express Company, began busi- 
ness in 1840. At present complete trains of express 
cars are occasionally required. 

Extension Pillar (Pintsch Lamp). 303, figs. 2605-21. 

Extension Pillar Lock (Pintsch Lamp). 304, figs. 2605- 

Extension Reach (Logging Cars). The reach is a long 
bar connecting the two trucks. The extension reach is 

Extension Reach End (Logging Cars). A strap for the 
end of the extension reach. 

External Cvxinder Gage. A steel ring with a cylindrical 
hole, which is very accurately made of a precise size, 
and used as a standard of measurement for the diame- 
ters of solid cylindrical objects. 

External Screw Gage. A steel ring with a very accurate 
screw thread in the inside for testing screw threads. 
See, Internal Screw Gage. 

Extra Transom (Passenger Trucks). Figs. 3811-12. An 
extra or auxiliary timber placed alongside the transom 
to further strengthen the truck frame. 

Eye. "A small hole or aperture." — Webster. See, 
Body Check Chain Eye. Lamp Case Eye. 
Berth Brace Eye. Brake Beam Adjusting 

Bull's Eye. Hanger Eye. 

Check Chain Eye. Switching Eye. 

Truck Check Chain Eye 

Eye Bolt. i. "A bolt having an eye or loop at one end for 
the .reception of a ring, hook or rope, as may be re- 
quired." — Knight. See, Bolt; also 
Brake Beam Eye Bolt. Lock Eye Bolt. 

Eye Bolt. Lock Chain Eye Bolt. 

Brake Safety Chain 

Eye Bolt Link Hanger. A special form of Swing Hanger, 
which see, having a very short link attached to an eye 
bolt passing through the transoms. 

Eyelet, i. Figs. 2167-69. "A short metallic tube, the ends 
of which are flanged over against the object through 
which it passes. Used as a bushing or reinforcement 
for holes." — Knight. In metallic eyelets of the usual 
form the two halves which when compressed together 
form the eyelet are known as grommets. See, Carpet 

2. (Window Shade.) A slot in the window shade 
leather to fit over the sash lift to hold the shade fast. 

Eyelet Nail. Fig. 2170. A wire nail with turned knob for 
use with carpet eyelets. 


Fabrikoid. An artificial leather made by coating a cloth 
fabric with a secret compound which gives it the tex- 
ture and appearance of leather. 

Face (of Rim of Car Wheel). The vertical surface of the 
outside of the rim. 

Face Plate, i. A metal plate by which any object is cov- 
ered, so as to protect it from wear or abrasion. A jour- 
nal box lid is sometimes called a face plate. See, 

Berth Latch Face Drawbar Face 

Plate. Plate. 

Buffer Block Face End Face Plate. 


2. (Steel Tired Wheels.^ Figs. 4178-83. The plates 
connecting the tire and hub, and bolted to each. They 
are distinguished as front and back face plates. 

Face Plate. See, Vestibules. 

Face Plate Buffer. A buffer plate to which a vestibule 
face plate is attached. 

Face Plate Buffing Stem (Pullman Vestibule). See, 
Face Plate Piston. 

Face Plate Piston (Vestibules). 24, figs. 1784-86. A 
face plate buffing stem corresponding to side buffer 
stem, beneath the platform floor. The end is contained 
in a face plate piston guide, 29. 

Face Plate Piston Guide. 29, figs. 1784-86. See above. 

Facing. "A covering in front for ornament." — Webster. 
See, Deck Sill Facing. 

Faggoted Axle. See, Axle. Car Axle. 

Fall (Hoisting Tackle). That part of the rope to which 
power is applied. 

Fall and Tackle. Another name for Block and Tackle, 
which see. 

Falling Door, or Flap Door (English). In a gondola car 
a door opening downward and outward, the hinges 
being on the lower side. 

Falung Door Latch (English). A latch which automat- 
ically secures the falling door when elevated into a 
closed position. 

Fall Under, or Turn Under (English). The distance 
which the bottom of the body curves in from a vertical 
line let fall from the sides or ends. 

Fare Register (Street Cars). A mechanism with a clock 
face and index or with a numbering dial which shows 
the number of fares collected and registered. For every 
fare collected the conductor is expected to record it by 
pulling a cord or turning a rod connected with the 
register. The register is attached to a fare register 
block which is fastened to the car frame. 

Fascia Board. See, Eaves Fascia Board. Inside Cornice 
Fascia Board. Inside Cornice Sub-Fascia Board. 

Fascia Molding (English). See, Wrought Molding. 

Fast Berth Hinge. Fig. 3424. See, Berth Hinge. 

Fast Joint Butt Hinge. Fig. 1961. See, Hinge. So called 
in distinction from a loose joint butt hinge or loose pin 
butt hinge. 

Fastener. See, 

Berth Safety Rope Sash Fastener. 

Fastener. Tire Fastener. 

Lamp Fastener. Window Fastener. 

Faucet. Figs. 2763-69. A synonymous term with Cock, 
which see for fuller definition. 

Faucet Alcove. A Water Alcove, which sec. 

Feed Door (Baker Heater). Fics. 2188, etc. A door for 
closing the aperture giving access to the fire pot or (in 
base burners) magazine. See also, Fire Door. 

Feed Tube (Lamp). 31, figs. 2694-2710. The tube con- 
necting the reservoir with the burner. The standard by 
which the entire lamp is supported passes through it. 

Feed Valve, i. (Westinghouse Air Brake.) Figs. 907-9. 
An auxiliary valve attached to the engineer's brake 
valve and consisting of a feed valve body, 51, cap nut, 
53, piston, 54, spring, 56, stud, 30, case gasket, 2:j^ and 
other essential parts. 

2. (New York Air Brake.) Figs. 968-71. The cor- 
responding parts are, feed valve cap, 98, feed valve, 97, 
feed valve spring, 90, etc. 

3. (Signal Valve.) The valve regulating the supply 
of air from the main reservoir to the signal line. 

Felt Edge (Car Seats). A device for building up the edges 
of car seat cushions. It is simply a roll of felt stitched 
in such a manner as to fit over a cleat ; and when tacked 
down it forms an even elastic face to the cushion. 





Female Center Plate. The body and truck center plates 
are sometimes called male and female plates. See, 
Center Plate. 

Female Gage. An External Gage, which see. 

Fender Board. A board at the end of passenger car steps 
to prevent mud and dirt from being thrown on them 
by the wheels. More commonly, string board. The 
splash board, if used, goes on the back side of the 

Fender Rail (Street Car Bodies). A longitudinal exte- 
rior rail, between the belt rail and the sill, and to 
which an iron strip called a fender guard is attached 
to protect the panels from contact with other vehicles. 

Ferry Push Car. A very long platform car used for push- 
ing or pulling other cars on or off a ferry boat when 
the latter is approached by an incline too steep for 
locomotives, so that the latter can push or pull the 
cars without running on the incline. 

Fiber Packing. See, Elastic Fiber Journal Packing. 
Patent Waste. 

Field Coils. 6, nGS. 4783-4815. Coils of insulated copper 
wire or ribbon surrounding the iron poles of the railway 
motor field magnet Standard motors have four poles. 
Current passing through these coils produces the mag- 
netic flux in which the armature rotates. 

Fillet. A small light molding, more generally termed 
beads. See, Molding. 

Filling Funnel (Baker Heater). Fig. 2269. A funnel 
attached to the combination cock for filling the circu- 
lating drum with brine. 

FiLUNG Piece. Any piece of timber which has no other 
structural purpose than to close a gap. 

Filling Spider (Pressed Steel Bolster). Figs. 507-8. 

Filling Valve (Pintsch System). Fig. 2468. This valve 
is a soft metallic seated valve of peculiar construction. 
Is handled with key No. 45 (fig. 2512) and is a left 
handed valve. It is placed on each side of a car, bolted 
to an iron bracket, fig. 2469, by bolts, fig. 2502. The 
pipe connection (J4 i"-) is made to connection piece, 
fig. 2474, which is slipped through the bracket from 
the outside and screwed to the pipe. The filling valve 
is then bolted back against this flange connection piece, 
a lead and rubber gasket forming the tight joint. 

The valve has a sheet iron cover, fig. 2467, secured 
to it by four screws. 

Finger Guard (Brake Beams). Figs. 847-51, etc. A pro- 
jecting rod or finger which prevents the brake beam 
from being excessively displaced laterally by bearing on 
the inside of the wheel. 

Finished Upper Seat Back Rail (Street Cars). The top- 
most rail or molding of a longitudinal seat back. 

Finishing Varnish (Painting). An elastic (oily) varnish 
applied in two coats. The first is allowed at least 24 
hours to dry. The second and fuller coat of the same 
varnish is then applied and allowed 24 hours to dry. 
A first class job can be turned out in 10 days. Addi- 
tional time between coats will give additional safety. 
See, Painting. 

Fire Box, or Fire Pot (Baker Heater). Fig. 2201, etc. The 
inside cast iron cylinder which contains the fire. It is 
cast in one piece and contains the coil. Also called fire 
chamber, fire box, furnace, and sometimes cylinder. 

Fire Extinguisher. Fig. 2969. See, Babcock Fire Ex- 

Fire Grate, and Fire Grate Support. See, Grate and 
Grate Support. 

Fire Proof Heaters (Baker), i. Single Coil. Figs. 2180- 
99. A Baker heater having a single coil, 30 feet in 
length, FIG. 2189, or a double coil, fig. 2214, in a flexible 
steel, jointless fire proof safe, with no apertures large 
enough to permit the escape of live coals. This inner 
fire pot or safe is enclosed in a flexible steel outside 
casing, with asbestos sheets between the safe and cas- 
ing, and between the ash pit bottom and sheet iron 

bottom; a safety plate covers the feed chute at the 
top, and a cinder proof door effectually closes the ash 
pit at the bottom. The smoke pipe and smoke flue 
base may be destroyed and leave the fire pot practically 
2. Two coil. Figs. 2200-20. 

Fire Regulator and Pressure Indicator. Fig. 2182. The 
device is attached to the hot water circulating pipes at 
a point a little above the coils, and is somewhat after 
the old ball and lever safety valve, the ball or weight 
in this case being the draft door. The fire regulator 
bowl consists of two concave plates bolted together, 
with a corrugated steel diaphragm and two copper 
duplicates, top and bottom, between (for preservation). 
On this set of diaphragms rests a piston connected 
with a lever, on one end of which hangs the counter 
draft damper in the base of the smoke flue. On the 
front end of this lever is the spiral adjusting spring, 
and the figures denoting the pressure within the heater. 
The "adjusting spring" is to be hooked into the hole 
at the figures denoting the pressure and consequent 
temperature desired. 

First Class Car. The ordinary American day coach used 
by the great bulk of short trip passengers. So called 
to distinguish it, on the one hand, from those of an 
inferior grade, as emigrant and (rarely) second class 
cars, and on the other hand from sleeping and parlor 
cars, and in which an extra charge, in addition to the 
ordinary fare, is made, and which are the true Ameri- 
can first class cars. 

First Class Carriage (English). Nearest American 
equivalent, parlor or drawing room car. A coach for 
passengers paying the highest rate of fare. It is 
divided into four or more compartments, each about 
7 feet cube, and seating six or eight passengers. 

Fish Van (English). A covered vehicle adapted to run 
on passenger trains, and fitted to carry fresh fish in 
crates or boxes. When without a roof it is termed a 
fish truck. 

Fittings. Figs. 1810-3728. Furnishings, which see. 

Fixed Brake Lever. More commonly, dead lever. A 
brake lever, the upper end of which is fastened to a 
brake lever stop or dead lever guide. 

Fixed Hanger (Bell Cord). Fig. 1868. See, Bell Cord 

Fixed Ratchet (Morgan's Deck Sash Pivot). Figs. 
3554-5' The piece attached to the side of the window 
frame with which the sash ratchet engages, the latter 
being pressed against it by a spring. 

Fixed or Stationary Freight Car Lock. Figs. 2091-96. 
A lock which is attached to the side of a car. The bolt 
or hasp is fastened to the door. 

Flag (for Train Signals). The standard size of flags 
adopted by the American kailway Association is 16x16 
inches, and the colors indicate their purpose as follows : 
Red signifies danger and is a signal to stop ; green signi- 
fies caution and is a signal to go slowly ; white signifies 
safety and is a signal to go on; blue denotes that car 
inspectors are at work under or about the train or car, 
and that it cannot be moved or coupled to until the 
blue signal is removed by the car inspectors. In the 
night time lanterns with colored glass globes are used 
instead of flags, and the colored lights have the same 
meaning as the colored flags. 

Flag Holder (for Corner Post of Passenger Car). Figs. 
2711-25. A cast or malleable iron receptacle for a sig- 
nal flag staff. It has a lug cast on it which engages 
into a flag holder plate attached to the corner post. 

Flag Holder Plate. See above. 

Flange, i. (Of Bell Cord Guides, etc., etc.) Figs. 1883, 
1885, etc. A projecting rim for attaching the part to 
any surface by wood screws. 

2. (Of a Car Wheel.) Fig. 4370. A projecting edge 
or rim on the periphery for keeping it on the rail. The 





inside edge of the flange which connects with the tread 
of the wheel is termed the throat, and the extreme 
outer point the toe of the flange. Worn flanges having 
flat vertical surfaces extending more than i inch from 
tread of wheel, or i inch thick or less, are a cause for 
rejection under the rules for interchange of traffic. 
See, Wheels. The standard distances fixed by the 
Master Car Builders* Association, from outside of 
flange to inside of tread in surface, is 4 feet sH inches, 
with J4-inch variation either way. See, Interchange 
Rules. See, Flange Gage. 

Flange Brake Shoe, Figs. 1003-11, etc. See, Ross 
Brake Shoe. 

Flange Gage, or Distance Gage. Figs. 4371-2. A gage 
for determining the correctness of the distance between 
inside and outside of flanges. The dimensions shown 
in the engravings are those adopted by the M. C. B. 

Flange Fittings (Pintsch System). Figs. 2477-84. Spe- 
cial fittings required for the Pintsch system are all 
flanged and made of brass, the flanges held together 
by screws. The joints are made tight by the use of 
special lead and rubber washers. 

Fl anger. See, Snow Fl anger. 

Flap Door (English). See, Falling Door. 

Flashing. "Plumbing. A lap joint used in sheet metal 
roofing, where the edges of the sheets meet on a pro- 
jecting ridge. A strip of lead leading the drip of a wall 
into a gutter." — Knight. Hence, extended to mean any 
strip of sheet metal of an L section used to make a 
water tight joint. 

Flat Car. Figs. 15-20, 223-38. A car, the body of which 
consists simply of a platform, which is not inclosed on 
the sides or top. The floor is usually of wood, but some 
cars have been built with steel underframe and steel 
floor. If sides are added it becomes a gondola car. See, 
Car and Freight Car. 

Flat Door Bolt. Fig. 1899. See, Door Bolt. 

Flexible Top Seat Cushions. A seat cushion, the top of 
which is in detached parts so that one part can yield 
without carrying down the other. 

Flitch Plates. An iron or steel plate sandwiched between 
pieces of wood and bolted together to give the member 
which they comprise greater strength. Also called sand- 
wich plates. 

Floating Connecting Rod (Westinghouse Brake). A rod 
which connects a cylinder lever with a floating lever. 

Floating Lever. (Westinghouse Freight Brake.) A lever, 
to the middle of which the push rod is attached, each 
end being connected directly to the live lever of each 

Floating Lever Bracket. A bracket bolted to the under 
frame of a car to carry the floating lever of brake gear. 

Floating Lever Connecting Rod. (Brake Gear.) More 
properly a Cylinder Lever Tie Rod, which sec. 

Floor, i. "That part of a building or room on which we 
walk; the bottom or lower part, consisting, in modem 
houses, of boards, planks or pavement. 

2. "A platform of boards or planks laid on timbers, 
as in a bridge or car ; any similar platform." — Webster. 

3. 27, FIGS. 159-69, 246-47, 271-95, 360-72, etc. The 
boards which cover the sills of a car. In passenger cars 
the floor consists of two, and sometimes three, courses 
of boards, called respectively the flooring, intermediate 
floor and deafening ceiling, the latter being on the un- 
der side of the sills. An intermediate or upper floor, 28, 
more commonly called the double deck, is used in stock 
cars for carrying sheep and hogs. Hopper bottom cars 
have an inclined floor, subdivided into inclined end 
floor and side floor when both are used. 

Floor Beam. A Sill, which see. 

Floor Frame. The main frame of a car body underneath 

the floor, including the sills, body bolsters, needle 

beams, etc. The underframe. 

Floor Furnishings. Figs. 2167-78. 

Floor Joist. A floor timber. 

Floor Mat. Figs. 2174-75. A texture or structure of hemp, 
cocoa fiber, rattan, india rubber, wood or other material 
laid on the floor of a car for passengers to clean their 
boots and shoes on. Mats are placed on the floors of 
street cars to take up the dust and dirt. See, Cocoa 
Fiber. Wood Floor Mat. Rubber Floor Mat. The lat- 
ter is either perforated or corrugated. 

Floor Pipe (for Closet Hopjpers). A pipe passing through 
the floor of the car only, with which the hopper proper 
is connected. 

Floor Stop. i. (For Door Holder.) Figs. 2134-5. A 
catch for a door holder attached to the floor, in dis- 
tinction from a partition stop attached to the wall or 
partition. See, Door Holder. 

Floor Strip. The strips that make the grated floor frames 
of a street car. 

Floor Timbers, i, 3, 4, figs. 159-69, 360-72, etc. The 
main timbers in the frame of a car body underneath 
the floor, and on which the latter rests. They are 
chiefly the sills (side, center, and intermediate) and the 
end sills. They are a part of the underframe. See 
also. Diagonal Floor Timber. Inclined Floor Tim- 
ber. Transverse Floor Timber. 

Floor Timber Braces. 7, figs. 388-91, etc. Diagonal tim- 
bers let into the sills under the floor to stiffen the floor 
frame laterally. 

Floor Timber Distance Block. A short transverse piece of 
timber placed between adjoining floor timbers and sills 
to stiffen them, the whole being fastened together with 
bolts in connection with a cross frame tie bolt In iron 
frame cars tie plates are riveted across the top of the 
sills to subserve the same purpose. See, Bridging. 

Flooring. Tongued and grooved boards of which a passen- 
ger car floor is made. The floor of freight cars is com- 
monly two-inch planking. 

Flue (Pintsch Lamp). 312, 321, figs. 2605-21. 

Flue Post (Pintsch Lamp). 546, figs. 2605-21. 

Flush Bolt. Figs. 1899- 1901. A bolt attached to a slide 
which is let into a door, sash or window, so as to be 
flush with its surface. A spring flush bolt is commonly 
called a cupboard catch. Figs. 1902-07. 

Flush Bolt Keeper. Fig. 1903. A plate which is attached 
to a door, sash or window frame, and has a suitable 
hole, in which a flush bolt engages. When for spring 
bolts, as in the engraving, they are also called strike 

Flush Catch. Figs. 1902-07. 

Flush Handle. Figs. 1922-35, etc. A handle for a lock or 
latch which is placed in a recess, as of a door, sash or 
berth, and which does not project beyond the surface of 
the object to which it is attached. 

Flush Sash Lift. Fig. 3682. A metal plate with a recess, 
to take hold of, which is let into a sash so as to be 
flush with its surface. 

Folding Arm Rest, or Elbow Rest (English). A wooden 
support for the elbow, upholstered on both the upper 
and lower sides and fitted with a spring hinge, so that 
it can be turned up to lie flat against the back of the 
seat in order to allow a passenger to lie down at full 
length on the seat. 

Folding Curtain Rod Bracket. 15, figs* 1778-83. See, Cur- 
tain Rod Bracket. 

Folding Lavatory. Figs. 2802-5. A device for the state- 
rooms of sleeping, private, and business cars, which 
can be folded out of the way and out of sight. 

Folding Platform Tail Gate. Figs. 3053-54. A gate for 
the end door or face plate door of a vestibule. 

Folding Wash Stand. Figs. 2802-05. A lavatory for the 
staterooms of compartment sleepers. 

Follower. A very common abbreviation for a Follower 
Plate, which see. 

Follower Bolt. A piston follower bolt. See, Piston. 




Follower Lua A Drawbak Stop, which see. 

Follower Plate. See, Drawbar Follower Plate. Piston 
Follower Plate. The word "plate" is frequently 
omitted from these names. 

Foot Board, i. (Freight Cars.) See, Brake Step. 

2. (English.) (Upper and Lower.) American equiv- 
alent (Street Cars), longitudinal step. Two continuous 
steps running along the sides of a carriage or hrake van, 
the upper a short distance below the doors and slight- 
ly above the level of highest station platform ; the lower 
about i8 inches from the rail level. They form steps 
and prevent any person falling between the train and 
the platform. 

Foot Board Bracket. See, Brake Step Bracket. 

Foot Plate (Janney Platform). 655, figs. 1526-1613. A cast 
iron wearing plate on the upper side of the passenger 
platform end rail. In platforms taking vestibules a slid- 
ing foot plate is attached to the buffer plate and works 
or slides back and forth in a foot plate housing. 

Foot Plate Bolt (Janney-Buhoup Platform). 660, figs. 

Foot Plate Housing. 139, figs, i 526-1613. See above. 

Foot Plate Stop (Janney-Buhoup Platform). 665, figs. 

Foot Rail. 23, figs. 3151-52. A horizontal wooden bar un- 
derneath a car seat for the passengers who occupy the 
next seat to rest their feet on. These fixed foot rails are 
often called foot rests, but such use is confusing, since 
the tenn Foot Rest, which see, is applied to many 
forms of adjustable foot rests. 23, figs. 3151-52. See, 
Side Foot Rest. 

Foot Rest. 23, figs. 3151-52, and 29, figs. 3169-91. Any 
movable support for the feet of passengers, especially 
two horizontal wooden bars underneath a car seat, and 
attached to two iron rockers, called foot rest carriers, 
pivoted in the center so that it can be adjusted to a 
comfortable position for the passenger occupying the 
next seat, or moved out of the way if desired. Another 
style is an adjustable foot rest sliding in a grooved 
channel. A portable stuffed carpet foot rest is usually 
termed an ottoman or hassock. 

Foot Rest Carriers. See above. 

Foot Rest Rod Bracket. Figs. 2877-78. 

Forefoot Sheave (Steam Shovel). 34, figs. 357-59. 

Foreign Car. Any car not belonging to the particular 
railroad on which it is running, including Line Cars, 
which see. By the established rules for interchange of 
traffic all such cars are, or are supposed to be, in- 
spected before entering on the lines of a foreign corpo- 
ration, and "if an accepted foreign car is injured upon 
a road it shall be repaired by and at the expense of the 
company in possession thereof as promptly as it repairs 
its own cars." The cost thereof is sometimes charged 
to the owner of the car and sometimes not, according 
to an elaborate system of rules adopted by the M. C. B. 
Association, revised annually. See, Interchange 

Forney Seats. Figs. 3182-3223. See, Scarritt-Forney 

Forsyth Air and Steam Coupler. Figs. 89O-890a. See, 
Automatic Air and Steam Hose Coupler. 

Forsyth Curtain Fixtures. Figs. 3711-12. 

Fount. See, Lamp Fount. 

Fountain Car Washer. Fig. 2965. A car washer which 
has a stream of water passing through the brush at the 
will of the operator. 

Four Arm Lamps. Figs. 2583-98, etc. See, Pintsch Lamps. 

Four Way Cock (Westinghouse Brake). A tapered conical 
spindle, with two passages in it which form a faucet for 
opening and closing communication between the brake 
cylinder, reservoir and brake pipe. 

Four Wheel Trucks. Figs. 3729-3946. 

For Solid Pressed Steel Car Truck. Figs, yj^^ 3757-59- 
A truck, the frame of which is wrought and hydraulic 

forged of steel plate consisting of few pieces which are 
all riveted together. It is a pedestal truck with journal 
box springs, with transoms, but no bolster or spring 
plank. The details are fully shown. 

Frame, i. The outline or skeleton upon which a structure 
is built u]}. In a car the framing is usually supposed to 
mean the side frame, as distinguished from the floor or 
underframe, unless otherwise so expressed. The lead- 
ing types of freight car frame are shown in figs. 159- 
342, etc. See, Bastard Howe. Bastard Pratt. The 
leading styles of passenger car framing are shown in 
FIGS. 360-72, etc., and, in perspective view, figs. 380-87, 
The framing of street cars is shown in figs. 4748-73, 
with the dimensions of parts and over all. A marked 
innovation in the framing of passenger cars is the in- 
troduction of iron in combination with wood. This is 
shown in the so-called composite framing of figs. 433-5. 
In freight car framing the general use of structural 
shapes for bolsters, sills, spring planks, etc., should be 

2. (Of a Door, Ventilator, Window Sash, Mirror, 
etc.) The rectangular or curved border surrounding or 
inclosing it. See. 

Berth Spring Frame. Grate Frame. 

Continuous Truck Lever Frame. 

Frame. Match Striker Frame. 

Cushion Frame. Mirror Frame. 

Door Frame. Name Panel Frame. 

End Frame. Register Frame. 

Fire Door Frame. Signal Bell Frame. 

Franklin Institute System of Screw Threads. The 
Sellers System of Screw Threads, which see, is often 
called the Franklin Institute system because the former 
was first proposed in a report to, and was recommended 
by, the Franklin Institute. ' 

Free Air Space (Refrigerator Car Insulatiorf). An air 
space which has free communication with the outside 
air so that the air it contains can circulate and be re- 
placed by fresh air. 

Freight Car. Figs. 1-68, 159-342. A general term used to 
designate all kinds of cars which carry goods, mer- 
chandise, produce, minerals, etc., to distinguish them 
from those which carry passengers. English term, 
wagon. For varieties of freight cars see. Car. 

Freight Car Lock. Figs. 2091-96. A lock for fastening 
the doors of freight cars. The usual freight car lock 
is simply a hasp, staple, pin and seal, but stationary or 
fixed freight car locks are in increasing use. 

Freight Car Trucks. Figs. 3729-80. 

Freight Truck. A two- wheeled vehicle, universally used 
about stations for loading and unloading freight. A 
baggage barrow is much the same. Baggage bar- 
rows and freight trucks are both sometimes designated 
as freight or baggage barrow trucks. 

Fresnel Lantern. A lamp inclosed in a cylindrical 
Fresnel Lens, which see. They are more used in 
marine than in railroad service. 

Fresnel Lens. A lens formed of concentric rings of glass 
or other transparent substances, one or both sides of 
which are bounded by spherical surfaces. The object 
of making a lens in this form is to reduce its thick- 
ness in the centre, and thus lessen the liability of having 
flaws and impurities in the glass, and also to reduce 
the absorption and aberration of the rays which pass 
through it. Such lenses are also made of a hollow, 
cylindrical form, and used to inclose signal lamps. 
The outside of the glass is formed of successive rings, 
the external surfaces of which are bounded by spherical 

What is known to the trade as a semaphore lens is a 
Fresnel lens with the inner surface concave. 

Friction Block. See, Swing Hanger Friction Block and 
Friction Plate. 

Friction Plate, i. Figs. 3791-93 (Four Wheel Truck). 




A Bolster Chafing Plate, which see. 2. The body 
and truck side bearings are sometimes called friction 
plates. 3. The plate screwed to the wall to protect the 
wood work from chafing by the seat back arms when 
the seat back is tilted. See, Chafing Plate. 

Friction Roller. A wheel or pulley interposed between a 
sliding object and the surface on which it slides to 
diminish the friction. See, Car Door Hanger. Slid- 
ing Door Friction Roller. 

Frieze. That portion of a passenger or street car body on 
the outside, between the cornice or eaves of the roof 
and the tops of the windows. The letter board occu- 
pies this space. 

Frieze Ventilator. See, Ventilator. 

Frieze Ventilator Plate. A perforated metal plate placed 
on the outside of a frieze ventilator to exclude rain and 
cinders from the car. 

Front. See, Ash Pit Front. Alcove Front. Water 
Alcove Front. 

Front Cap (Triple Valve). 126, figs. 959-62. 

Front Face Plate (Steel Tired Wheels). See, Face 

Front Seat Bottom Rail (Street Cars). See, Seat Bot- 
tom Rail. 

Frost Dry Carburetor System of Car Lighting. The 
light in this system is produced by burning at the lamps 
a gas generated in the carburetors, which are placed on 
top of the car. The gas is simply air carrying a certain 
amount of gasoline vapor. The air is taken from the 
air brake service; the gasoline, absorbed by wicking, 
is contained in the carburetors, and the object of the 
details of this system is to bring these two elements 
together and thus produce a gas. The supply of air is 
taken from the end of the auxiliary reservoir and enters 
the air tank after passing through the combined dust 
guard and check valve. This valve frees from dirt the 
air which passes through it and acts as a check to retain 
the supply of air stored in the tank at such times as 
the pressure is withdrawn from the brake system. The 
air tank also serves as a storage reservoir, and its 
capacity is such that, when charged to the pressure 
ordinarily carried in the air brake system, the air con- 
tained therein will sustain the lights several hours 
after the car is detached from the train. A tank valve 
placed at each end of the tank controls the retention of 
air. The air pipe conducts the air to the saloon, where 
the air gage indicates the pressure in the air tank, and 
the closet valve directly controls the supply of air to 
the carburetors. From the closet valve the air passes 
through the regulator, where it is reduced in pressure 
to i^ pounds, which pressure is practically constant 
on all parts of the system beyond this point. The 
. course of the air next taken is through the mercurial 
check valve and the roof pipe to the carburetors. After 
entering the carburetors, the air moves slowly through 
a spiral passage, sixty feet in length, packed solidly 
with cotton wicking saturated with gasoline, and ab- 
sorbs sufficient of the volatile oil to produce the desired 
gas which is consumed by the lamp directly beneath. 
This system was at one time in general use on the 
Pennsylvania, Norfolk & Western, and several other 
prominent roads. 

Fruit Car. Figs. 7, 208-11, etc. A car of special design 
for the carrying of fruit and other perishable products 
requiring ventilation. The ventilators are so arranged 
that they can be opened and closed while the car is in 
motion, so that there may be a constant stream of fresh 
air passing through the car. Ice is not used generally, 
but it is used in cars carrying fruits from California to 
eastern markets. 

Fulcrum, i. "In mechanics, that by which a lever is sus- 
tained, or the point about which it moves." — Webster. 
See, Brake Lever Fulcrum. 

2. (For Propelling Lever of Hand Car.) 32, figs. 

Fulcrum Hanger Carriers. Figs. 3952-3. A cast bracket 
which is bolted to the iron transom of a six wheel 
truck to carry the brake lever hanger bridge. The 
brake lever connection rod is sometimes called a brake 
lever fulcrum, hence the name. 

Funnel, i. "A vessel for conveying fluids into close ves- 
sels; a kind of inverted hollow cone with a pipe; a 
tunnel." — Webster. See, Filling Funnel. 

Furnishings. A term designating the smaller fixtures, 
hardware, etc., which are usually applied to cars after 
they shall have left the paint shop. The engravings are 
very nearly alphabetical in their arrangement and a 
complete list is given in the index to engravings. 

Furniture Car. Figs. 4, 170-73, 176-79. An extra sized 
box car. The dimensions given in the engravings are 
not unusual. More particularly designed for carrying 
furniture and made extra. large. 

Furring. Pieces of wood placed in a wall or other posi- 
tion to nail something to, as a panel or molding. The 
term is also applied to angle blocks glued or nailed in 
the inside angle of wood work, where strength and 
stiffness are required. See, Blocking and Furring 
Brace Blocks. See, Panel Furring. 

Furring Blocks. 59b, figs. 385-87. See, Blocking and 

Furring Brace Blocks. Blocks of triangular cross section 
glued in the angles between the sheathing and furring 
to give it greater stiffness. 

Fuse. A wire strip or bar of fusible metal or alloy placed 
in series with an electric circuit and designed to fuse 
and open the circuit when the current exceeds a prede- 
termined value. It performs a function similar to that 
of a circuit breaker. 

Fuse Box. Figs. 4877-79- A support for fuses, containing 
contacts for readily attaching the same, and usually pro- 
vided with magnetic blowout. 

Fusee. The cone or conical part of a watch or clock, 
round which is wound the chain or cord. It is a very 
ancient mechanicaf contrivance, and is made of a cone 
form in order to equalize the power of the spring, the 
leverage of the cord increasing as the resistance of the 
spring increases and vice versa. See, Berth Spring 

Fusee or Fuse. A tube, casing, rope or ribbon filled or 
saturated with a slow burning composition, as nitre, 
sulphur, etc., and used primarily for firing blasts. They 
are also made to give warnings to approaching trains. 
They are carried on a train and dropped or placed upon 
the track at night to warn other trains following that a 
train has passed that point within a short time before. 
Trains meeting with a fusee burning on the track are 
required to stop and wait until it has burned out. 


Gage. i. (Of Track.) The distance in the clear between 
the heads of the rails of a railroad ; 4 ft. 8^^ ins. is the 
standard gage; if greater than this by more than Vi 
inch, a broad gage; if smaller, a narrow gage. Wide 
gage usually means a minor and irregular or exception- 
al enlargement of a given fixed gage, in distinction from 
tight gage, a corresponding contraction. 

2. A tool or instrument used as a standard of meas- 
urement of pressure or size. See, 
Air Gage. Screw Pitch Gage. 

Cylindrical Gage. Screw Thread Gage. 

Pressltie Gage. Whitworth Gage, etc. 

Screw Gage. 

Gage for Worn Couplers. In 1899 the Coupler Committee 
recommended a form of gage to define the contour lines 
more fully when worn. This gage was adopted as Rec* 
ommended Practice. See, figs. 4705-06. 




Gagger. a Chaplet, which see. 

Gain. "In architecture, a beveling shoulder, a lapping of 
timbers, or the cut that is made for receiving a tim- 
ber." — Webster. In car work the term generally means 
a notching of one piece of timber into another. Boxing 
is almost a synonymous term. The timbers are boxed 
out in order to gain them into each other. A Mortise^ 
which see, is usually deeper and does not extend clear 
across the stick. 

Galva{^ized Iron. Sheet iron covered with sal ammoniac, 
after first cleaning it in a bath of dilute acid, coated 
with zinc by immersing it in bath of the liquid metal. 
An amalgam of 11.5 zinc and i mercury is sometimes 
used. It is usually made in sheets about 2 feet wide by 
6 to 9 feet long, and its thickness measured by its num- 
ber, wire gage (W. G.). See, Kalamined Iron. 

Ganet Air Brake. A system of air brakes for electric and 
cable cars, in which the air is compressed by a com- 
pressor operated from the axle of the car by an eccen- 
tric. The apparatus includes (i) an air pump, or com- 
pressor, to furnish the compressed air ; (2) an eccentric 
and connecting rod to work the piston of the air com- 
pressor; (3) a controlling valve, by which the brakes 
are applied and released; (4) a jam cylinder, or brake 
cylinder, to move the brake levers; {5) a main reser- 
voir, and (6) an auxiliary reservoir. 

Garnish Rail (English). A horizontal piece of ornamental 
wood curved on the upoer surface and placed on the 
inner side of the mouth of the slot into which the mov- 
able window falls. It carries the Glass String Roller, 
which see. 

Gas Arm. A Gas Way Tube, which see. 

Gas Body (Pintsch Lamp). 451, figs. 2605-21. 

Gas Broiler and Utensils. Figs. 2744-48. A small cook 
stove heated by Pintsch gas for use on parlor and sleep- 
ing cars in preparing light meals. 

Gas Burner. Figs. 2519-25. "The jet piece of a gas light- 
ing apparatus, at which the gas issues and combustion 
takes place." — Knight. A system of gas burning has 
been in use on the Pennsylvania Railroad by com- 
pressing ordinary city gas. Another and more elaborate 
system is the Pintsch, which see, figs. 2466-2621. 
Acetylene gas is now being successfully employed in 
train lighting. 

Gas Lamps. See, Pintsch Lamps. 

Gas Nipple (Pintsch Lamp). 453, figs. 2605-21. 

Gas Nipple Cover (Pintsch Lamp). 454, figs. 2605-21. 

Gas Pipe. See, Pipe. 

Gas Pipe Fittings. Figs. 2477-95. See, Pipe Fittings. 

Gas Way (Pintsch Lamp). 327, figs. 2605-21. 

Gas Way Tube (Pintsch Lamp). 309, figs. 2605-21. 

Gate. i. See, Platform Gate. 

2. (Of a Casting Mold.) The opening through 
which the melted metal is poured.' Also called ingate. 

Gauze. See, Wire Gauze. 

Gear. i. In mechanics the term is used to designate a com- 
bination of appliances for effecting some result, as valve 
gear. See, Brake Gear. Draw Gear. Swing Motion 

2. Wheels are said to be in gear when they have cogs 

Gear Wheel. 5, figs. 4722-27. Any cogged wheel is a gear 
wheel, but the term is usually restricted to the larger 
one of two cog wheels in gear, the lesser one being 
called the pinion. The gear wheel is also called a spur 

Gelatinized Fiber. Another name for Vulcanized Fiber, 
which see. 

"Gem" Door Spring. Fig. 2146. See, Door Spring. 

General Electric Company's Electric Motor (For Street 
Cars). Figs. 4774-82. ' 

Generator (Gould Electric Light). Figs. 2637-40. See, Dy- 

&NERAT0R Coils (Heaters, Baker's, Gold's, etc.). Figs. 

2189, 2214, 2226-27. Wrought, iron pipe coiled into a 
' variety of spiralic shapes, as shown in the figures, and 
put into the fire pot of a heater, to heat the water they 
contain and create a circulation through the hot water 
pipes of the car. Among the different types is the ex- 
panding generator coil, figs. 2226-27, in which the diam- 
eter of the pipe increases as the heated water ascends in 

Gib (for Journal Bearings). A Journal Bearing Key, 
which see. 

Gm AND Key. A fastening to connect a bar and strap to- 
gether by a slot common to both, in which an E-shaped 
gib with a beveled back is first inserted and then driven 
fast by a taper key. 

Gibson Fastening. Fig. 4225. One of the earliest applica- 
tions of the principle of securing a tire to a wheel by- 
means of clips instead of bolts, studs or rivets. 

Gilman-Brown Emergency Knuckle. Fig. 1396. A knuckle 
designed to be used in cases where loss or breakage of 
the lock or knuckle would cause delay. The knuckle has 
a long tail, which projects back through the head and 
bears against the walls of the shank. It may be inserted 
for temporary use in almost any make of coupler. 

Gimlet Pointed Screw. The common Wood Screw, which 
see, of carpentry and joiner work, havmg its screw cut 
to a point like a gimlet, so that it can force its own way 
into wood. 

Girder. "In architecture, the principal piece of timber in a 
floor. Its ends are usually framed into the summers, or 
breast summers, and the joists are framed into it at one 
end. In buildings entirely of timber the girder is fast- 
ened by tenons into the posts." — Webster. 

"The term girder is restricted to beams subject to 
transverse strain, and exerting a vertical pressure mere- 
ly on their points of support." — Stoney. The term is al- 
most s3monymous with truss. Thus, engineers speak of 
a "Howe truss," a "Pratt truss," a "Warren girder" 
and a "lattice girder." The distinction is that a truss 
consists of separate parts held together by pins, or even 
simply by pressure, which may be taken down and re- 
erected; whereas a girder is a single solid structure, 
either all one solid piece (rolled girder) or of plates 
riveted together (plate girder), or of combined plates 
and riveted lattice work (lattice girder). 

Girth. 49, figs. 159-69, 185-95, A belt rail. A long hori- 
zontal piece of wood on the side of a box car body fitted 
to the posts and braces so as to embrace them, placed 
about half way between the floor and the roof. The 
end girth is a similar stick across the end of the car. 
The inside lining reaches up to the girth. 

GntTH Tie Rod. A Belt Rail Tie Rod, which see. A hori- 
zontal rod extending from the door to the comer post 
along the girth of a freight car and intended to tie the 
two posts together. 

Gland. A cover of a stufHng box, as for a piston rod, etc. 
See, Piston Rod Packing Gland. 

Glass. See, Window Glass. Cut Glass. Sand Blast. 

Glass String, or Glass Strap (English). A leather strap 
by which the window in the door of a carriage is raised 
or lowered. The strap is pierced with a number of 
holes, which fit a small brass or ivory knob placed on 
the door immediately under the Glass String Roller^ 
which see. 

Glass String Roller (English). In a carriage, an orna- 
mental roller attached to the upper edge of the garnish 
rail in a door. The leather strap (glass string) by 
which the window is raised and lowered passes over this 

Glass Water Gage. A gage consisting essentially of a ver- 
tical glass tube connected at top and bottom with a 
boiler so as to make the height of water therein visible. 

Globe (of Pintsch Gas Lamp). Fig. 2549, etc. A globe of 
hemispherical form, admitting air only from the top. It 
is an almost universal type of car lamp globe in Europe. 




A glass bowl. See, 

Adjustable Globe. Lamp Globe. 

Fast Lamp Globe. Loose Globe. 

Globe Chimney. Figs. 267^-86. A Lamp Globe Chimney, 
which see. 

Globe Finger (Pintsch Lamp). 452, figs. 2605-21. 

Globe Holdek. 7, figs. 2694-2710. Any contrivanceefor hold- 
ing a globe on a lamp. Usually it consists of a metal 
ring at the base of the globe, on which the latter rests, 
and to which it is fastened with springs, screws, or by 
the pressure of the globe chimney on top, when the lat- 
ter is adjustable. See, Adjustable and Detachable 
Globe Holder. 

"Globe" Ventilator. Figs. 3494-95. A ventilator of spher- 
ical form, with annular openings which produce an in- 
duced exhaust current in whatever direction a current 
of air strikes against it. They are made erect and hori- 

Glue. A preparation from the hoofs, horns and hides of 
animals, washed in lime water, boiled, skimmed, 
strained, evaporated, cooled in molds, cut into slices and 
dried upon nets. If good, it is a hard cake, of a dark 
but almost transparent color, free from black or cloudy 
spots and with little or no smell. The more transparent 
and amber colored the better. Inferior glue made from 
bones will almost entirely dissolve in cold water ; other 
kinds are contaminated with lime. Glue is better for re- 
melting. The strength of glue for common work is in- 
creased by adding a little common chalk. 

Glue Size. One pound of glue in a gallon of water. Double 
size has about twice this quanSty of glue. Patent size is 
a kind of gelatine. 

Gold's System of Car Heating. Figs. 2325-94. Several 
systems of car heating, designated as the plain pipe or 
direct steam system; direct steam terra cotta storage 
system ; double coil sealed jet accelerator system. 

Gold's Universal Straight Port Steam Coupling. Figs. 
2329-32. A steam hose coupling somewhat resembling 
the Sewall coupling. 

The coupling is effected by locking arms or lugs, 
which project beyond the end of the body and engage 
with the projecting rollers and stud on the opposite side 
during the act of coupling. To couple, the heads are 
brought together so that the locking projections on 
either side engage with one another ; then the bodies are 
tilted downward, bringing the seats together. 

To insure the bodies locking firmly together a spindle 
or stud is cast on the side of each body, and a roller is 
placed over the stud, so that when lugs of coupling 
bodies engage with the rollers they turn on the studs 
and the friction is reduced to a minimum. 

The seat is made of an asbestos composition, formed 
externally as a segment of a sphere, and mounted in a 
tubular metal thimble or ring, which is made with two 
opposite guide fingers projecting inwardly and engage 
with the base of the socket in coupling head. This 
limits the movement of the seats. 
This coupling interchanges with the Sewall. 

Gondola Car. Figs. 21-46, 239-286. A car with sides, but 
without a top covering, for the transportation of freight 
in bulk. They are sometimes distinguished as high side 
and low side, drop bottom and hopper bottom. Cars 
with inclined floors and entirely self clearing are more 
properly called Hopper Cars, which see. Gondola cars 
are sometimes made with drop ends for loading lumber. 

Gong. A Signal Bell, which see. 

Goods Wagon (English). American equivalent, freight car. 

Goodwin Car. Figs. 322-24. An automatic dumping car, 
operated by compressed air from the engine. The aprons 
are so arranged that the load may be dumped fast or 
slow and over any part of the track. They are rapidly 
coming into use for the transportation of all manner of 
bulk freight, ballast, ore, billets, rock, coal, etc. 

Gould Buffer and Platform. Figs. 1699- 1705. A platform. 

draft gear and buffer for passenger cars using a three 
stem buffer. Largely used on the Vanderbilt lines. 

Gould Car Coupler (Freight). Figs. 1409-10. (Passenger). 
Figs. 1500-01. 

Gould Dummy Vestibule and Draft Gear. Figs. 1704-05. 

A modification of the vestibule for passenger cars to 

suit blind end baggage and express cars. The buffer 

springs are placed back of the end sill of the car, no 

< platform end sill being used. 

Gould Electric Car Lighting Apparatus. Figs. 2622-40. 
A system of car lighting from electricity generated by a 
dynamo connected by a belt to the axle. The details of 
the apparatus and plans of wiring and connection are 
shown in the figures. The dynamo, figs. 2637-40, has 
connected to it an automatic governor switch which 
throws the current into the system when the predeter- 
mined speed is reached and which controls the voltage 
output as the speed increases. When the lights are 
not turned on and the car running, the current gen- 
erated is used to charge the storage batteries, from 
which current is taken when the car is at rest. The 
current is deflected from the lamps or batteries with- 
out noticeable flickering. The whole system is con- 
trolled automatically and requires little attention. See, 
Axle Light. 

(jOuld Journal Box. Fig. 41 ii. 

Gould Platform. See, Gould Buffer and Platform. 

Gould Spring Buffer. Fig. 171 i. A yielding buflFer block 
attached to the end sill of freight cars. 

Governor (Air Brake). Figs. 947-50. See, Pump (Gov- 

Grab Irons. 60, figs. 159-69^ etc. Also termed comer han- 
dles, or ladder handles, and hand holds. The handles 
attached to freight cars for the use of trainmen in 
boarding the cars. They are often more definitely spec- 
ified as roof, side or end grab iron. 

For Standard of M. C. B. Association with regard to 
hand holds or grab irons see. Hand Holds. 

The grab irons or hand holds shown in figs. 4444-67 
are in the positions recommended. 

The term handle, though often used to designate these 
attachments, is not strictly appropriate to such a part, 
nor is it so widely in use as grab iron. Similar parts on 
passenger cars are called Hand Rails, which see. 

Graduated Spring. A form of compound spring in which 
only a certain number of the individual spirals come 
into action with a light load and the others only under 
a heavy load. Another method of accomplishing the 
same end, graduating the resistance of the spring to the 
load placed upon it, is the use of the keg shaped or 
spool shaped spring. Under a load the part of larger 
diameter closes first and that of smaller diameter is 
much stiff er. Graduated springs have formerly been 
constructed by combining rubber and spiral springs, 
but they are now out of use. Graduated springs have 
been superseded by single and double nest coil, of equal 
length, and few, if any, are being applied to new con- 

Graduating Spring. 22, fig. 910 and 9, fig. 913. (Triple 
Valve) . A spiral spring which acts against a collar on 
the graduating stem to hold the latter against the triple 
valve piston when it is forced downward. 

Graduating Stem (Triple Valve). 21, figs. 910 and 8, fig. 
913. A slender rod or pin which works in a hole 
drilled in the center of the triple valve piston, and 
which, by the movement of the latter, opens and closes 
communication from the chambers above and below the 

Graduating Stem Nut (Triple Valve). 20, fig. 910 and 
10, FIG. 913. 

Graduating Valve (Car Heating). Figs. 2295, 2417-18. 
A valve constructed so as to open slowly and designed 
to give better regulation of the temperature of the car 
after a car is heated. This is accomplished by attach- 




ing a movable piston to the valve stem, which has a 
loose fit in an inwardly projecting ledge cast with the 
valve case. As the valve opens the piston exposes V- 
shaped notches above this ledge through which steam 
passes up under the valve seat in its course to the heat- 
ing apparatus, opening the valve wider, exposing more 
of the V-shaped ports and increasing the flow of steam. 
When the valve is closed the steam is entirely shut oflf 
by means of the valve disc and seat attached to the 
same stem. 

Graduating Valve, i. (Triple Valves.) 7, figs. 910, 913 
and 48, FIGS. 959-62, 966. See above and Triple Valve. 
2. (Engineer's Valve.) no- 112, figs. 968-71. 

Graduating Valve Spring (Triple Valve). 49, figs. 959- 
62, 966. 

Graham Draft Rigging or Gear. A draft rigging that 
has been in much favor which employs a tail bolt in- 
stead of a yoke strap. It has two check castings which 
engage in the draft sills and draft timbers, and in these 
two thimbles or drawbar followers fit, through which 
the tail bolt passes. These, with two follower plate 
straps, one carry iron, three strap plates, the chafing 
plates and filling pieces between center sills, constitute 
the attachments. 

Grain Car. A box car with tight inside grain doors. 
Nearly all box cars are provided with them. 

Grain Door. Figs. 1073-1141. A close fitting movable 
door on the inside of a box car by which the lower part 
of the door opening is closed when the car is loaded 
with grain, to prevent the latter from leaking out. 
Such doors are usually made so that they can be thrown 
over on one side of the doorway or suspended from the 
roof, and thus be out of the way when they are not 

Grain Door Flap. The upper part of a grain door. 
Hinged horizontally with the door proper. 

Grain Door Rod. K, figs. 1087-1106. An iron rod at- 
tached to the door posts on the inside of a box car, to 
which a grain door is fastened or hinged. The door 
and rod are generally arranged so that the former can 
be moved to one side and out of the way when the car 
is not loaded with grain. In other styles the door 
slides upon the rod to the roof and is there suspended. 

Grate (Baker Heater). Fig. 2195. A frame of iron bars 
for holding coals in a stove, fire place, etc. It is usually 
capable of a sliding or rocking motion, or both, to clear 
away ashes and clinkers. See, Anti-Clinker Grate. 
Safety Grate. 

Grated Door. 61, figs. 208-11. A door consisting of a 
wooden frame with iron or wooden bars, used on cars 
for carrying fruit, live stock, etc. 

Grate Shaker (Baker Heater). Fig. 2194. An iron bar 
which can be attached to a grate to move it m shaking 
the fire. 

Grate Support (Baker Heater). Figs. 2196, etc. A crow- 
foot shaped bracket, fastened to the sides of the ash 
pit to carry the fire grate. 

Grating. See, 

Clinker Grating. Ventilator Grating 

Ice Box Grating (Re- (Fruit Car), 

frigerator Cars). Window Grating. 

Gravel Car. A car for carrying gravel; usually either a 
tip car or a flat car, the latter most used. They are 
often fitted with a central rail, over which a ballast 
plow, drawn by the locomotive after detaching it from 
the cars, works to unload the cars. Sometimes a hoist- 
ing plant is mounted upon one of the cars, for moving 
the plow. 

Gravity Relief Trap ((k>ld's Car Heating). Figs. 2339-47. 
An auxiliary trap, automatic in its action, which is 
closed by the escape of steam and held closed by the 
steam pressure. When the pressure is removed the 
weight of the valve stem tips the valve and allows the 
escape of the water of condensation. The pressure 

under which it closes is dependent on the weight of the 
valve stem. 

Grease Axle Box (English). An axle box which is lubri- 
cated from above by a grease composed of tallow, soda,, 
and water, which is solid at ordinary temperatures and 
melts should the box get warm. This form is being 
superseded by the Oil Axle Box, which see. 

Grease Box. A Journal Box, which see. 

Grease Chamber (English). A cavity above the journal 
bearing which contains the lubricating material in a 
Grease Axle Box, which see. 

Griffin Chilled Cast Iron Car Wheels. Figs. 4217-20. 

Grille (Interior Decoration). Figs. 2911-281 Generally a 
piece of wrought work in wood or metal for decoration. 
Used in the place of panels^ over doorways and in bulk- 
heads and sometimes employed as brackets, as at G, fig. 

Grommet. Figs. 216&-69. "A ring formed with spliced 
rope (Nautical)." The separate parts of any metallic 
eyelet are known as grommets. The two grommets, 
when compressed together (with a setting die), form 
the eyelet. 

Ground Glass. Glass whose surface has been roughened 
by mechanical or chemical process so as to break up the 
light passing through it and destroy its transparency. 
Several processes exist : by the wheel, sand blast, rotat- 
ing with pebbles, or by fluoric acid. The sand blast is 
at present most commonly used. 

Group Spring. A spiral car spring formed of a number of 
separate springs, single 6r nested, united together by a 
common pair of spring plates. It is called a double, or 
two group, a three group, four group spring, etc., ac- 
cording to the number of separate springs. 

Guard, i. See, 

Dash Guard. Heat Guard. 

Door Guard. Mirror Guard. 

Draw Timber Guard. Lining Guard. 

Dust Guard. Window Guard. 

Fender Guard. 

2. (English.) American equivalent, conductor. A 
railway official traveling with and having charge of a 
railway train. He unites the functions of a conductor, 
baggage master, express agent, and brakeman, but sel- 
dom collects or nips tickets, and never issues them or 
receives fares. An assistant guard is sometimes, but 
not always, carried. 

3. (For Lanterns.) The exterior wire cover sur- 
rounding the globe and protecting it from accident. 
They are termed either single, double, or triple guard, 
according to the number of horizontal wires. 

Guard Lining Strips Horizontal bars or strips which are 
placed in a car to keep freight from a door, ice box, 
ventilator, etc. When placed vertically, as they usually 
are, they are termed guard posts. 

Guard Posts (Fruit Car). A row of posts standing inside 
of the ventilators and serving as a fender for the load 
packed within so as to prevent obstruction to the ven- 

Guard Rail and Frog Wing Gage. Fig. 4369. The guard 
rail and frog wing gage shown were adopted as 
standard in 1894, to define the dimensions of track to 
which M. C. B. standard wheel and flange gages have 
been made to conform. 

Guard's Van (English). American equivalent, caboose or 
baggage car. See, Brake Van. 

Gudgeon. The bearing portion of a shaft, especially an 
upright wooden shaft. A rude journal bearing for 
slow motion. See, Screw Coupling Nut and Gud- 

Guide. "That which leads or conducts." — Webster. See,. 
Bell Cord Guide. Drawbar Guide. 

Bell Strap Guide. Glass Plate Guide. 

Brake Lever Guide. Journal Box Guide. 





Brake Rod Guide. Stop Bar Guide. 

Dead Lever Guide. Strap Hanger Guide. 

Guide Bar. i. See, Truck Bolster Guide Bar or Column, 

2:7, figs. 373S-395I. 
Guide Block. See, Truck Bolster Guide Block. 
Guide Casting. 27, figs. 3151-52. A strip or plate of 

metal screwed to the wall or arm rest of a seat for the 

striker arms to rub against to save the wood. Called 

also a Friction Plate, which see (figs. 3169-91). 
Guide Rail. A Door Track, which see. 
Gun Shaped Lamp Chimney. Fig. 2685. See, Lamp 

Gurring Piece (Snow Plow). Probably from gurr, a fort, 

hence a piece built out to protect or fortify a structure. 

In a snow plow, timbers bolted to the posts to build 

out and give shape to the sides. 
Gusset Plate. 192, figs. 159-69, 271-95, etc. A flat plate 

used to rivet two parts of a metal underframe together 

by riveting through each member and the plate. 
Guy. a rope used as a stay. 
Guy Rings (of a Derrick or Crane). Rings attached to the 

head block at the top of the mast to which guy ropes 

may be attached. 


Hair. See, Curled Hair. 

Hair Felt (Refrigerator Car). D, figs. 185-95. A heavy 
non-conductor of heat made of hair placed between the 
inner and outer linings to prevent absorption of heat. 

Hale and Kilburn Car Seats and Upholstery. Figs. 
3142-72, 3226-44. 

Half Elliptic Spring. See, Spring. Elliptic Spring. 

Hammer of a Pile Driver Car. The heavy weight (4,000 
to 4,500 lbs.) by which piles are driven. It falls between 
the leaders and is provided with a hammer eye or 
clevis, to which the shears of the hoisting rope or ham- 
mer rope are attached. In England called a tup. 

Hammock (Sleeping Car Berth). 52, figs. 1778-83. A light 
small hammock of twine, in which to put wearing ap- 
parel in a sleeping car berth. One is furnished to each 

Hand Car. Figs. 4714-28. A small and light car arranged 
with cranks or levers and gearing so that it can be pro- 
pelled by hand by persons riding on the car. One of 
these cars is provided for each section of 3 to 6 mil^s 
of track. Hand cars for regular section service weigh 
from 450 to 600 lbs., generally about 500 lbs. 

Hand Car Lever, or Propelling Lever. 19, figs. 4722-27. 

Hand Car Truss Rod. 26, figs. 4722-27. A transverse or 
longitudinal rod by which the floor frame of a hand 
car is trussed. 

Hand Car Wheel. A light wheel for hand cars, with cast 
iron rim and hub and wrought iron spokes, or some- 
times with a wooden center. 

Hand Holds (M. C. B. Standards). Figs. 4444-67. See, 
Protection of Trainmen. The standards for hand 
holds are as follows: 

Box and stock cars constructed with projecting end 
sills, with end ladders, should be provided with a 
longitudinal grab iron or hand hold about 24 inches 
long on side of car over each step, located not 
less than 18 inches nor over 30 inches above center 
line of drawbar. The end ladder should be located on 
left hand side of end of car, and one horizontal grab 
iron or hand hold, about 24 inches long, on right hand 
side of end of car not less than 18 inches nor over 30 
inches above center line of drawbar, the lower rung of 
ladder being a suitable grab iron for opposite side of 
end of car, as shown. 

Box and stock cars constructed with projecting end 
sills with side ladders located over steps, the lower 
rung of such ladders is an effective grab. They should 

also be provided with two horizontal end grab irons or 
hand holds, about 24 inches long, located on each side 
of end of car not less than 18 inches nor over 30 inches 
above the center line of drawbar, as shown. 

Box and stock cars not constructed with projecting 
end sills, and which have end ladders, should be pro- 
vided with horizontal grab iron or hand hold about 24 
inches long on side of car over each step, located not 
less than 18 inches nor over 30 inches above center line 
of drawbar. The end ladder should be located on left 
hand side of end of car, and one horizontal grab iron 
or hand hold about 24 inches long on right hand side 
of end of car not less than 18 inches nor over 30 inches 
above center line of drawbar, the lower rung of ladder 
being a suitable grab for that side of end of car, as 
shown. End ladders constructed without side frames 
should have the lower rung provided with a guard to 
prevent the foot from slipping off. 

On box and stock cars not constructed with project- 
ing end sills, and which have side ladders located over 
steps, the lower rung of such ladder is an effective 
grab. They should be provided with two horizontal 
end grab irons or hand holds about 24 inches long, 
located on right hand side of end of car not less than 
18 inches nor over 30 inches above center line of draw- 
bar, as shown. 

All gondolas with drop ends to be provided with 
horizontal grab irons or hand holds on sides of car over 
each step, about 24 inches long, located as high as pos- 
sible, but not less than 18 inches nor over 30 inches 
above center line of drawbar, and two grab irons or 
hand holds placed under the sill at end of car as near 
the face as will insure a good safe fastening, the out- 
side end of it to be in line with the inside face of the 
side sill, and to be about 18 inches long with a space 
not less than 3 inches between it and the end sill, as 
shown. If preferred, the end hand holds may be placed 
on the face of the end sill, as shown in the alternate 

All high-side, fixed-end gondolas should be equipped 
with a vertical grab iron or hand hold over steps on the 
sides of the car, about 24 inches long, the lower end to 
* be placed about 6 inches above the floor of the car, and 
two horizontal grab irons or hand holds on each end of 
car, about 24 inches long, 4 inches from the outside of 
car and not less than 18 inches nor over 30 inches above 
center line of drawbar; exception to be made where 
the car is provided with a brake step, in which case the 
bracket of the brake step can be used as a grab iron on 
that side of end of car, as shown, for low sides. It is 
also recommended that where the side of a gondola car 
is too high for a man standing on the step to reach the 
top, there should be two additional vertical grab irons 
or hand holds placed on each side of end of car, extend- 
ing from within 4 inches of the top, to be about 18 
inches long, as shown for high sides. 

Tank cars should be provided with horizontal grab 
irons or hand holds, about 24 inches long, on sides over 
steps; but cars provided with safety railings on sides 
do not require side grab irons or hand holds, but should 
be provided with two end grab irons or hand holds, 
about 18 inches long, located on under side of end sill, 
the same as for drop-end gondolas, and as shown. If 
preferred, the end hand holds may be placed on the 
face of the end sill, as shown in the alternate illustra- 

All flat cars to be provided with horizontal grab irons 
or hand holds on sides of cars over steps, about 24 
inches long, and if not equipped with step, one grab iron 
or hand hold on each side near end of car, where coup- 
ler unlocking rod is located, and two end grab irons or 
hand holds, about 18 inches long, placed under the sill 
as near the face as will insure a good safe fastening, 
the same as for drop-end gondolas, and as shown. If 



preferred, the end hand holds may be placed on the face 
of the end sill, as shown in the alternate illustration. 

It is also recommended that all grab irons or hand 
holds shall be secured by through bolts of }/^-inch 
diameter, with nuts on the outside and riveted over 
wherever it is possible to do so, and where lag screws 
are used they shall be not less than Yt inch diameter 
* and 3 inches long, and screwed into solid wood. 

Hand holds on end sills should have at least 2 inches 
clearance behind them, and all other hand holds should 
have at least 2^ inches clearance behind them. 

All hand holds should be made of iron not less than 
^ inch diameter ; hand holds on sides and ends of cars 
should be about 24 inches long in the clear; those on 
end sills to be made shorter only when it is impossible 
to use this length. 

See, Proceedings 1879, pages 109, no and in; Pro- 
ceedings 1893; Proceedings 1894; Proceedings 1896; 
Proceedings 1902. 

Hand Hole. See, Dust Hand Hole. 

Hand Pole (Street Cars). A pole carried on hand pole 
brackets bolted to the deck sill, on which pole are hung 
hand pole straps for people who are required to stand to 
cling to. See, Pole Straps. 

Hand Rail. i. A bar or rail to take hold of with the hand, 
as the body hand rail of passenger car platforms, door 
hand rail, inside hand rail and step hand rail of street 
cars, and roof hand rail or brake hand rail of box and 
stock cars. 

2. (Tank Cars.) 121, ncs. 325-37. An iron pipe 
supported on hand rail posts on the outside of the run- 
ning board, for trainmen to hold on to in passing over 

Hand Rail Brace (Freight Car Roofs). See, Roof Hand 

Hand Rail Bracket (Postal Cars). Figs. 2888-89. See 
also. Inside Hand Rail Bracket (Street Cars). 

Hand Rail Post (Tank Car). 122, figs. 325-37. 

Hand Straps (Street and Suburban Cars). Figs. 2907-10. 
Straps attached to the inside handrail for passengers to 
hold on by. Generally made in the form of a double 

Hand Wheel. A Brake Wheel, which see. 

Handle. "That part of anything by which it is held in 
the hand. A haft. As the handle of a knife or other 
instrument" — Worcester. They are designated by the 
name of the part or thing to which they are a handle, as 
ash pit door handle, etc. 

Handle Bolt (Engineer's Valve). 9, figs. 907-909. 

Handle Spring (Engineer's Brake Valve). 10, figs. 907-909, 
and 69, figs. 968-71. A spring carrying a dog to hold 
the handle in any desired position. 

Hanger, i. "That by which a thing is suspended." — Web- 

2. "A means for supporting shafting of machinery." 
— Knight. See, 

Bell Cord Hanger. Push Rod Hanger. 

Berth Curtain Rod Rocker Bearing Tim- 

Hanger. BER Hanger. 

1 Brake Beam Adjust- Safety Hanger. 

ING Hanger. Spring Hanger. 

Brake Hanger. Step Hanger. 

Door Hanger. Strap Hanger. 

Link Hanger. Swing Hanger. 

Parallel Brake Swing Link Hanger. 

Hanger. T Hanger. 

Hanger Link. A Swing Hanger, which see. 

Hanging Boards, or Meat Timbers (Refrigerator Car). 
Transverse bars, resting usually on bogus plates, to 
which the load of meat is suspended. 

Hanging Door Sheave. Figs. 2153-60. See, Car Door 

Hard Hair. A quality of curled hair which is very stiff or 
rigid. See. Curled Hair. 

64 HEA 

Harrison Dust Guard. Fig. 4090. 

Hart Deck Sash Pivot and Ratchet Catch. A device 
for regulating the opening of deck sashes, the special 
feature of which is the undulating rack, enabling the 
sash to be easily moved by the hands and yet holding 
it fixed when released in any one of several different 

Hartley Parlor Car Chair. One of the varieties of ad- 
justable chairs for railroad use. In its complete form 
it has three separate adjustments of the foot rest, the 
back and the head rest. A rear foot rest is also some- 
times attached for the benefit of the occupant of the 
chair in the rear. The adjustments are controlled by a 
thumb lever, chair back latch and adjusting lever. 

Hartshorn Shade Roller. Fig. 3724. See, Shade Roller. 
An ingenious device to hold window shades at any de- 
sired point by means of centrifugal pawls which fly out 
and do not check the revolution of the roller while in 
rapid motion, but engage with and hold it at any point 
otherwise. The McKay shade roller is somewhat sim- 
ilar, but uses a cam instead of a pawl. 

Hasp. The bar which fits over a staple and is fastened 
thereon by passing the shackle of a padlock through the 
staple, or by a pin. The other end of the hasp is at- 
tached by a pin or another staple to the door. Sec, 
Door Hasp. Head Board Coupling Hasp. Shackle. 

Haskell Truck. Figs. 3730, 3768-73. A modified form of 
arch bar truck using pressed steel forms for the mem- 
bers of the side frame. 

Hat Hook. Figs. 2929-50, etc. A metal hook for hanging 
hats on. 

Hat Post. Figs. 2929-50, etc. An upright metal pin for 
hanging hats on. These are used chiefly in sleeping 
and parlor cars, and they are invariably combined with 
a hook and technically called hat post and hook. 

Hat Rack. A Basket Rack, which see. 

Hay Car. A box car for carrying baled hay ; usually made 
with larger bodies and doors than ordinary box freight 

Head. See, 

Cylinder Head. Draw Head. 

Brake Head. Drawbar Head. 

Buffer Head. Piston Head. 

Cross Head. Tank Head. 

Dome Head. 

Head Block, i. (Of a Derrick or Crane.) The casting 
carried at the top of the mast to which the boom shoe 
rods, tension rods and guy rings, etc., are attached. It 
usually revolves upon a head block pin. 

2. (Of a Switch.) The long timber to which the 
switch stand or its equivalent is fastened, and on which 
the ends of the switch rails bear. 

Head Board. 9, figs. 1778-83. A light partition which sep- 
arates one berth in a sleeping car from that next to it. 
It is stowed away by day in the pocket between the up- 
per berth, when closed up, and the roof. It is se- 
cured in place at the back and front by head board 
bolts entering at the back into a bushing, fixed to the 
top of the stationary seat back and along the upper in- 
side edge by a head board coupling, entering into a 
head board coupling keeper. The head board bolt for 
the front corner of the head board is of peculiar con- 
struction, designed to avoid all interruption of a flush 
surface by day, while still giving a secure attachment. 

Head Board Bolt. Figs. 3389, 341 1, etc.; 54, figs. 1778-83. 
See above. 

Head Board Bolt Bushing. Figs. 3402-06. See above. 

Head Board Coupling. Figs. 3407-08. A metal hasp and 
keeper by which a head board is fastened to the side of 
the car. 

Head Board Coupling Hasp. See above. 

Head Board Coupling Keeper. Fig. 3408. See above. 

Head Board Fastener. Figs. 3409-10. 




Head Board Lug. Serves same purpose as a Bushing, 
which see. 

Head Board Pocket. 32, figs. 1778-80. A pocket which 
closes up flush with the head board surface, but opens 
at night, by releasing a head board rack catch so as to 
afford a receptacle for clothing or parcels. This form 
of head board pocket has been superseded by a pocket 
made by folding up the upholstered head rest, as shown 
in Fig. 1780, 32. 

Head Lining. A painted canvas or prepared lining with 
which the ceilings of passenger cars are covered. The 
painting on head linings is intended to be of an orna- 
mental character. When of wood the head lining is 
called ceiling. The duck for head lining comes in any 
width up to 12 feet. Head lining is sometimes cut up 
into panels, but a paneled ceiling is usually understood 
to be a wood ceiling, which is largely supplanting can- 
vas head linings. 

Head Lining Naiu A nail with a large button shaped head 
especially made for fastening head linings to the ceil- 
ings of cars. 

Head Piece (Street Cars). A body end plate. 

Head Rest. 32, figs. 1778-83. In a first class carriage and 
sleeping cars a fixed vertical projection from the back 
of the seat, thickly padded with horse hair and covered 
with broadcloth or leather. It serves to support the side 
or back of the head of a passenger. That at the end of 
the seat is a head rest, but it is also called a seat head 
end or end head rest, 14, figs. 1778-83. 

Head Roll (of a Seat). Figs. 3154-56. A padded projec- 
tion at the top of a seat or chair back, which is to sup- 
port the head. It is cylindrical and extends full width 
of the seat. 

Headstock (English). American equivalent, end sill. The 
transverse end member of the Underframe, which see. 
It is pierced transversely in the center for the draw- 
gear, and the bufEng gear is carried near the ends. 

Headstock and Diagonal Knee (English). A wrought 
iron knee connecting the headstock to the diagonal and 
the sole bar, and thus binding three of the four main 
members of the underframe together. 

Headstock Cap (English). A cast iron cap fitting the end 
of the headstock in order to prevent its splitting, and to 
prevent any access of water to the end grain of the 
wood. A wrought iron strap is sometimes used. 

Heat and Light Tender. A special car coupled in a train 
carrying a steam generating plant by which the cars 
are heated, and an electric light plant for lighting the 

Heat Guard. A sheet metal covering for the woodwork 
of a passenger car, to protect it from the heat of a stove. 
It is nailed to the side and ends of the car, and some- 
times surrounds the stove, as the conical Russia iron 
heat guard of the Baker heater. 

Heater, i. Figs. 2180, etc. Any apparatus for warming a 
car, room, or building by convection; that is, by con- 
veying hot water, steam, or warmed air into or through 
the apartments. The term generally refers to any ar- 
rangement for warming apartments other than stoves, 
which heat by direct radiation. There have been many 
varieties in use, but the one remaining and which has 
the field practically to itself is the Baker heater. Tnere 
are numerous heating systems, but they, for the most 
part, use Baker heaters in connection with their appar- 
atus. Nearly all the systems use heaters which circu- 
late hot water. They are usually placed in a small 
closet called the Heater Room, which see. In emigrant 
cars cook stoves are used for heating. 

2. (For Lamps or Lanterns.) A metallic attachment 
passing around and above the flame or otherwise im- 
mediately adjacent to it, by which heat is conveyed to 
the oil in the reservoir below, to prevent freezing, or, in 
some cases, to assist combustion by heating or volatiliz- 
ing the oil. 

Heater Car. One constructed for the carrying of fruits, 
vegetables, and other perishable products in winter. 
They are heated by special forms of mineral oil lamps, 
the supply to which is automatically controlled by the 
expansion and contraction of metallic rods. They are 
principally in use for the transportation of potatoes and 
other vegetables. 

Heater Room. A small closet, cased with sheet metal inte- 
rior heat guards, to contain the heater and prevent all 
direct radiation. All heaters proper are placed in some 
equivalent for such rooms. 

Heater Pipe Casing. Q, fig. 1781. A wooden or iron 
shelf over a heater pipe in a passenger car to pre- 
vent the feet of passengers from coming in contact with 
the hot pipes. The casing also forms a foot rest. 

Heig6t of Couplers. The standard height of couplers for 
passenger equipment cars is 35 inches from top of rail 
when car is light. Adopted in 1890; see. Proceedings 
1890 and 1893. 

The standard height of couplers for freight cars, 
measured perpendicular from the level of the tops of 
rails to center of couplers, adopted in 1893, is 34J^ 
inches, with no greater variation allowable than 3 
inches, minimum height 31J/2 inches. By center of 
coupler is meant the horizontal line through the center 
of the coupler shank. See, Proceedings 1872, pages 42, 
43 and 46; Proceedings 1879, pages 108 and 109; Pro- 
ceedings 1884, page 30; Proceedings 1896. 

Helper. A term used to designate either an assistant en- 
gine for trains, or a horse to help street cars up grades. 

Herron Reinforced Insert Shoe. Figs, ioio and 1017. A 
brake shoe with cast iron body and special metal in- 
serts. The feature of this shoe is the placing of a 
strip of wrought iron immediately back of the inserts 
to bind the shoe together. 

Heywood Bros. & Wakefield Car Seats. Figs. 3173-81. 

Hien Friction Draft Gear. Figs. 1217-34. 

Hien Coupler. (Freight), figs. 1434-40; (Passenger), 
FIGS. 1503-04, 

High Back Seat. Figs. 3154-56, etc. A class of seats 
with extra high back and frequently a head roll or 
head rest. 

High Sided Wagon (English). A four wheeled gondola 
car, with sides about 4 feet high. Used chiefly for 
bulky freight, wheat, potatoes, sacks and bales. See, 

High Speed Brake (Westinghouse). Figs. 897, 952-57. 
Brake attachments essentially the same as the ordinary 
quick acting brake, with a pressure reducing valve, figs. 
952-56. The reservoir pressure is increased from 90 
lbs. to no lbs. by means of the duplex pump governor, 
FIGS. 949-50, and on emergency applications an excessive 
pressure of 90 lbs. is admitted to the brake cylinder. 
This high pressure is slowly bled off through the re- 
ducing valve to 60 lbs. when subsequent operations of 
release and recharging take place, as in the ordinary 
quick acting brake. For cars not equipped with re- 
ducing valves a safety valve, fig. 951, is required. 

Hinge. Figs. 1942-72. "A hook or joint on which a door, 
gate, etc., turns" — Webster. They are provided with 
a tube like knuckle through which the Hinge Pin, 
which see, passes. See, 

Ball Bearing Butt Hinge. Man Hole Hinge. 

Door Hinge. Seat Hinge. 

Double Acting Hinge, Sofa Hinge. 

Drop Door Hinge. Stop Bar Hinge. 

The common door hinge is usually a butt or butt 
hinge, the varieties of which are the acorn butt, a large 
ornamental hinge, Blake Butt, which see, and the 
hopper butt, so called from its pointed form. The par- 
liament hinge is a sort of T-shaped butt hinge to afford 
more room for screws. It is little used except for or- 
namental purposes. The strap hinge is a common form 
of rough hinge for heavy doors, but it is sometimes 




made very elaborate and ornamental, figs. 1958-59. A 
T-hinge is a combination of the butt and strap hinge, 
one-half being of each form. Butt hinges are either 
fast joint, loose joint or loose pin. A double acting 
hinge is one which permits the door to swing either 

Hinge Pin. Figs. 1944, 1954, etc. The pin passing through 
the knuckle of a hinge and holding the two parts to- 
gether. A loose joint butt hinge has the pin fast in the 
lower half of the knuckle and projecting upward, so 
that the -other half is held on only by gravity. The 
hinge pin in the best hinges screws into the knuckle. 

Hinge Plate Washer (English). A long wrought iron 
washer taking all the bolts securing the mam part of 
the hinge to the door. 

HiNKLEY Brake Slack Adjuster. A device consistinjg of a 
screw working in a swiveled sleeve actuated by a 
ratchet wheel and pawl. When the rod to which it is 
attached travels, as it must when the brakes are applied 
the screw is turned so as to take up the slack, and if it 
be more than a certain amount, the pawl engages in the 
next tooth, when the rod returns in its movement to 
release the brakes. 

HiNSON Draft Gear. Figs. 1185-96 and 1283-85. Various 
forms of friction and spring gear invented by J. A. 
Hinson. The distinguishing feature of the friction 
gears is the use of an auxiliary friction device actuated 
by the movement of the yoke. 

Hitchcock Chair. A revolving and reclining chair with 
leg and foot rests. 

Hitchcock Combination Hot and Cold Water Faucet. 
Fig. 2768. 

Hodge Brake. An arrangement invented by Nehemiah 
Hodge, patented 1849, ^or operating the brakes on each 
truck of a car simultaneously, and equalizing the pres- 
sure on all the wheels. The brake may have one or 
two levers on each truck. Underneath the car body 
are two levers, called Hodge or floating levers, with 
movable fulcrums in their centers, which are connected 
together by a rod. One end of each of these levers is 
connected by a rod and chain to the brake shaft, and 
the other end of the floating lever is connected by a rod 
with the long arm of a brake lever on a truck. 

Hog Chain "(Shipbuilding.) A chain in the nature of a 
tension rod passing from stem to stem of a vessel, and 
over posts nearer amidships; designed to prevent the 
vessel from dropping at the ends." — Knight. 

Hence applied to certain forms of trusses in car con- 
struction. A hog chain is an inverted truss rod, and 
usually so called when applied in connection with and 
in similar form to a body truss rod, the object of a truss 
rod being to prevent a beam from sinking in the middle," 
and of a hog chain to prevent sinking at the ends when 
supported at the middle. Also called an overhang 
truss rod. 

Hog Chain Queen Post. 221, figs. 360-72. See above. 
^ The struts over which the hog chain passes. 

Hog Chain Rod (of a Passenger Car). See above. More 
properly a continuous counterbrace rod or an overhang 
truss rod. 

Hoisting Block (of a Derrick or Crane). The main 
block at the lower end of the hoisting chains carrying 
the sheave hook, or hoisting hook, to which the load is 

Hoisting Block Clevis. A clevis carried at the top of a 
hoisting block to which the fixed end of the hoisting 
chain is attached. In some cases it is attached to a 
clevis at the upper end of the boom. 

Hoisting Chain (of a Derrick, Steam Shovel or Crane). 
18, FIGS. 357-59. The chain attached to the hoisting 
drum at one end and to the hoisting block or boom 
clevis at the other, by which the loads are raised. 

Hoisting Chain Sheave. A pulley placed in some wreck- 
ing cars at the foot of the mast, when the hoisting gear 

is at some distance from it. The term is equally ap- 
plicable to the mast sheave and boom sheave at the top 
of those parts of a derrick, but the latter are generally 
otherwise distinguished. 

Hoisting Drum (Steam Shovel). 20, figs. 357-59. 

Hoisting Engine (Steam Shovel). 21, figs. 357-59. 

Hoisting Gear '(Steam Shovel). 19, figs. 357-59. 

Hoisting Hook. See, Sheave Hook. See also. Hoisting 

Hoke Car Door. Figs. 1065-66. 

Holder. "Something by which a thing is held." — Webster. 
A great variety of parts which serve this purpose are so 
called, as door holder, lamp holder, etc., which take 
their names from the thing which they hold. 

Holder Valve (Pintsch System). Figs. 2472, 2534-35. 

Hollow Piston Rod (Freight and Tender Brakes). A 
brake cylinder piston rod which is hollow to receive the 
Push Rod or Push Bar, which see. 

Hollow Spoke Wheel. Fig. 4186. See, Car Wheel and 

Hood. i. See, Platform Hood. Ventilator Hood. A 
roof apron which is attached to both platform roofs 
and platform hoods is sometimes called a hood. 

2. (Heater.) More properly a ventilator or wind 

scoop. A horizontal tube or covering on the outside of 

a car, and on top of the cold air pipe, so as to give the 

latter a T-shape. The air is admitted to the pipe 

through the ends of the hood, which are covered with 

wire netting to exclude cinders. It has a valve which 

is moved by the current of air so as to admit it which- 
ever way the car runs. 

3. (For Urinal.) More properly ventilator cap. 
Hood Brace (Buhoup Vestibule). 129, figs. 1526-1630 and 

55, FIGS. 1784-86. 

Hood Brace Brackets (Buhoup Vestibule). 125-128, figs. 

Hood Support (Street Cars). A platform end post. 

Hook. See, 

Bell Cord End Hook. Draw Hook. 

Berth Catch Hook. Hat Hook. 

Berth Curtain Hook. Hat Post and Hook. 

Body Check Chain Pouch Hook. 

Hook. Lamp Case Hook. 

Check Chain Hook. Seal Hook. 

Coat and Hat Hook. Stake Hook. 

Coat Hook. Table Hook. 

Coupling Hook. Table Leg Hook. 

Door Hook. Truck Check Chain 

Door Latch Hook. Hook. 

Drawbar Coupling Window Curtain Hook. 


Hoop (for Oil Lamps). A ferrule with an interior thread 
into which the burner screws. 

Hoopstick (English). See, Roofstick. 

Hopper, i. (Passenger Cars.) Figs. 3091-96. A closet 
hopper, or soil hopper. 
2. (Freight Cars.) See, Hopper Bottom Car. 

Hopper Bottom Car. Figs. 41-46, also figs. 271-86. A car 
with an inclined bottom sloping from every side (or 
simply from the ends), to drop doors in the center, so 
that the entire contents can be 'discharged. They are 
chiefly used for carrying coal and other minerals. Hop- 
per bottom gondola cars, figs. 34-37, 271-86, etc., have a 
similar bottom in their center. Hoppers are dis- 
tinguished as box hoppers, those whose sides slope from 
the ends only, and as pyramidal, or those whose sides 
slope from the sides and ends. A hopper bottom car 
should be distinguished from a drop bottom, the latter 
not being provided with a hopper. See, CjOndola Car. 

Hopper Butt Hinge. Fig. 1956. A hinge so named from 
its pointed form. 

Hopper Car. Figs. 41-46. See, Hopper Bottom Car. 

Hopper Carry Irons. A Hopper Supporting Strap, which 




Hopper Chain. See, Drop Door Chain. 

Hopper Door (Hopper Cars). Figs. 271-95. See, Drop 

Hopper Door Toggle Arm (Hopper Cars). 104, figs. 271- 
95. A link in the drop door mechanism which is 
fastened to the door and forces it shut when the toggle 
link is forced down. 

Hopper Door Toggle Link (Hopper Cars). 105, figs. 271- 
95. The arm in the drop door mechanism which forces 
down the toggle arms when the winding shaft is re- 
volved and closes the doors. 

Hopper Plates. The sheets of iron constituting the bottom 
of a hopper bottom car. Also termed inclined floor or 
hopper slope. 

Hopper Siding. The planking that forms the side of a box 

Hopper Slope (Hopper Car). 27d and 27c, figs. 271-95. 
That part of the floor which slopes from the center of 
the car to both hopper doors. See, Side Slope and 
End Slope. 

Hopper Stayrods Inclined rods passing through the center 
sill and to the hopper supporting strap at the hinged 
end of the doors to prevent the hopper from sagging 
in the middle. 

Hopper Support (Hopper Cars). 45, figs. 271-95. An 
angle riveted to the ridge of the hopper at the center 
and the top of the side sheet, forming a support for the 
hopper. It serves the same purpose as the Hopper 
Supporting Strap, which see. 

Hopper Supporting Strap. A heavy U-shaped iron strap 
bent to the shape of the hopper of a gondola car, and 
the ends bolted to the side sills. Its oflice is to sup- 
port the hopper, and it is usually applied at the end of 
the inclined floor, and in the middle of the hopper at 
which point the doors are hinged. 

Hopper Ventilator. Fig. 3103. See, Bell's Exhaust 
Hopper Ventilator. 

Horizontal Brake Shaft. 95, figs. 164-66. A brake 
shaft usually at the end of a car body, whose position 
is horizontal instead of vertical, so that it can be ap- 
plied from below. When used it is commonly in com- 
bination with a long brake shaft of the ordinary kind 
at the other end of the car. It is for use in grain ele- 
vators, tunnels and in city )rards, and chiefly on the 
Pennsylvania Railroad. 

Horizontal Brake Shaft Chain. 104, figs. 159-69- A 
chain attached to a brake rod at the end of a car and 
running over a. pulley to a horizontal shaft on which 
it is wound. 

Horizontal Equalizing Lever. 2:j, figs. 1784-86. Pull- 
man Vestibule. See, Equalizer. 

Horizontal Telegraph Cock, or Faucet. Figs. 2763-64. 
See, Faucet. 

HORNPLATE (English). The name given to the part of a 
locomotive or tender which on other railroad vehicles is 
termed Axle Guard (American, pedestal), which see. 

Horse Box (English). A four wheeled covered vehicle 
adapted to run on passenger trains. It is fitted with 
large side doors and mangers, and is divided into three 
stalls by movable padded partitions. See also, Race- 
horse Box. 

Horse Car. i. Figs. 59-62. A box car fitted up especially 
for carrying horses, by leaving certain slatted openings, 
etc. They are then classed under the general name of 
box stock car. Some horse cars are very elaborate. 

2. (Street Cars), which see, drawn by horses, are 
very frequently called horse cars. 

Horse Hook, or Towing Hook (English). Nearest Ameri- 
can equivalent, roping staple. An iron hook attached 
to the sole bar and forming an attachment for a rope 
by which the vehicle can be drawn. Horses are largely 
used for switching in England. 

Horse Shoe Seal. Figs. 3130-32. A cast-in wire and lead 

Hose. Flexible tubing, made of leather, canvas, or india 
rubber, for conveying water, air, or other fluids. See 
also. Brake Hose. Coupling Hose. 

Hose Clamp. Fig. 946. A clamp to bind the hose to the 
hose nipple and coupling. 

Hose Collar. Figs. 2336-37. A collar which surrounds the 
hose and binds it on the nipple. Also called hose band. 

Hose Couplings. See, Brake Hose Couplings. 

Hose Nipple. Fig. 2338. 

Hot Water Heater. See, Baker Heaters. 

Hot Water Pipes. P, fig. 1781. Pipes running alongside of 
a car and under the seats, which contain hot water, and 
by which the car is heated. They are usually naked iron 
pipes, and the car is heated by convection as well as 
radiation. Between the seats the pipes on the side of 
the car have a hot water guard rail running along over 
and above them. 

House Car. An occasional term for a Box Car, which see. 

Housing Box. A Journal Box, which see. 

Howard's Railroad Water Closet. Figs. 3089-90. A de- 
vice the essential feature of which is the connection be- 
tween the seat lid and the pan and service measure, by 
which no water is carried to the pap except on opening 
the lid. 

Hub (of a Car Wheel). The central portion, into which the 
axle is fitted. It is usually cylindrical in form and pro- 
jects beyond the disks or spokes of the wheel on each 
side. In England termed the boss. 

Hub Bolts (Steel Tired Wheels) Figs. 4177-81. Bolts 
fastening the face plates to the hub. 

Hutchins Metallic Car Roof. Figs. 1749-66. An outside 
metallic roof. 

Hutchins Plastic Car Roof. Fig. 1767. A form of roof 
consisting of two layers of boards, 6 inches wide and 
matched, and separated by a continuous sheet of Hutch- 
ins three-ply plastic roofing. See, Car Roof. 

Hydraulic Jack. Figs. 2978-82, 2985-86. A tool or machine 
in which the power is exerted by means of the pressure 
of some liquid acting against a piston or plunger, for 
raising heavy weights, like a car. The head and in- 
terior tube or ram form a reservoir, from which the 
fluid flows to the pump, and to which it is returned in 
lowering. From the pump it is forced, by the down- 
ward stroke of the piston, past the lower valve into the 
cylinder, and, this being closed at the bottom, the ram 
rises. The lever, which is made with a projection on 
one edge, slips into a socket at the side of the head. 
This socket passes through an arm on the interior of 
the head, and to this is fastened the piston of the pump. 
The claw attachment is a third tube, which screws into 
the head, below the ram collar and outside of the cylin- 
der, at the lower end of which is a claw projecting out 
at one side. They are rated so that one man can raise 
the weight for which they are designed. The speed of 
lifting is inversely proportionate to the amount lifted. 
Ten tons can be lifted one foot in about a minute and 
a half. See, Dudgeon's Hydraulic Jacks and Watson 
AND Stillman's Hydraulic Jacks. 

Hydraulic Pressed Car Candles. Candles made of par- 
affin by hydraulic pressure. See, Candles. 

Hydrostatic Buffer. A platform and buffing apparatus de- 
signed by Mr. A. G. Leonard and first applied to the 
Empire State Express between New York and Buffalo. 
It consists of a buffer plate extending the full width of 
the platform end sills, with two side, two intermediate 
and one center buffer stems. These center stems are 
backed up by springs, as is usual in other buffing ap- 
paratus, and in addition the center and side stems are 
enlarged at their ends and fitted so as to act as pistons 
in buffer stem cylinders. The two side and center cyl- 
inders are filled with a liquid and they are connected 
with suitable piping. The draw bar has attached to it a 
pressure bar, which is also fitted to a cylinder which 
has pipe connection with the center and side buffer 



stems. The effect of this arrangement is to equalize the 
pressure upon the buflFer plate. If one side buflFer stem 
receives more than its proportion of the thrust the fluid 
conveys the hydrostatic pressure to the other side and 
center and tends to equalize it. When the draw bar is 
drawn out the pressure bar piston forces the fluid from 
its cylinder into the buffer stem cylinders and forces 
out the buffer plate, insuring contact at all times be- 
tween the buffer plates. Folding steps are required, 
since the buffing apnaratus takes up the full width of 
the platform. 

I Beam. A general term applied by makers to any form of 
rolled iron having an I cross section. The top and bot- 
tom parts are termed the flanges, and the middle the 
web. The usual dimensions are given by the total 
height from out to out, and vary from 3 to 15 inches. 
When one of the flanges is simply a round bar it is 
termed a deck beam. I beams are used for center and 
intermediate sills, also for truck bolsters. 

Ice Car. A car for transporting ice, usually constructed 
with double roofs, floors and sides, filled in with saw- 
dust or other non-conducting substance. 

Ice Pan (Refrigerator Cars). The receptacle for carrying 
ice, especially roof ice pans, in distinction from ice 
racks, at the ends of the car. 

Inclined Floor (Coal Cars). 27, 27a, 27b, 27c, figs. 271-95. 
Subdivided into inclined end floor and inclined side 
floor, the latter not always used. 

Inclined Floor Cross Bar (Hopper Bottom Coal Car). 
Cross bars passing from one sill to the other, in the 
modern cars usually of iron, supporting the inclined 
hopper plates, or wood floor. 

Inclined Floor Timbers (Coal Car). The wooden sills to 
which the inclined floor of a coal car is nailed. 

Inclined Plane Car. A passenger street car which is 
drawn by a wire rope on a steep inclined plane. The car 
is so arranged that the floor will be level when the 
wheels are on the incline, by making the wheels at one 
end larger than at the other, or by raising up one end 
of the car body. 

Inclined Side Floor (Coal Car). See, Inclined Floor. 

India Rubber. A gum which exudes from a tropical tree 
growing in the East and West Indies, Mexico, South 
America, etc. It is prepared for use by vulcanizing with 
a greater or less proportion of sulphur, according to 
the stiffness required. 

India Rubber Body Cushion, or Attock's Body Block 
(English). A piece of rubber about 6 in. by 3 in. by i 
in. thick, interposed between the body and the under 
frame, serving to deaden noise and vibration and per- 
mit a free circulation of air to the floor timbers. 

India Rubber Floor Mat. Figs. 2174-75- See, Floor Mat. 
They are either perforated or corrugated. 

Ingate. "The aperture in a casting mold at which the 
melted metal enters."— Knight. Often called a gate. 

Incoldsby Dump Car. Figs. 33, 40. A self clearing car for 
carrying coal, ore, ballast or other bulk freight. The 
doors in the bottom are operated by gears at the end 
of the car. 

Injector. A large hood or wind scoop on the roof of the 
car to catch the air and force it through the various 
pipes into the car. Corresponding parts are called 
hoods, jacks, ventilators, ventilator jacks, wind scoops, 

Injector Bottom (Pintsch Lamp). 461, figs. 2605-21. 

Injector Knob (Pintsch Lamp). 462, figs. 2605-21. 

Injector Plate (Pintsch Lamp). 460, figs. 2605-21. 

Injector Top (Pintsch Lamp). 459, figs. 2605-21. 

Inner Face Plate (Vestibule). 4, figs. 1784-86. Also 
called back face plate. 

Inner Intermediate Sills. 3, figs. 159-69, 185-95, 246-50, 

etc. Those two intermediate sills next to the center 
sills. See, Outer Intermediate Sills. 

Inner Lamp Ring (English). An ornamental or wooden 
ring in the inner surface of the roof surrounding the 
aperture for the Roof Lamp, which see. 

Inside Body Corner Knee (English). American equivalent, 
sill knee iron or corner plate, which latter is used out- 
side instead of inside. A wrought iron knee placed in a 
horizontal plane securing the end and side of the body 

Inside Casing (Baker Heater). Fig. 2239. Sheet iron or 
steel plate bent and riveted into the shape of a. frustum 
of a cone, which forms the top of the fire pot. 

Inside Casing (English). Boards in the inside of the body 
attached to the framing of the sides and ends. Also 
called inside lining. 

Inside Ceiling (Refrigerator Car). K, figs. 185-95. The 
inside layer of light boards in the roof of the car. 

Inside Cornice (Passenger Car Interiors). 94, figs. 388-91. 
A molding which fills the angle where the roof joins 
the side of the car. 

Inside Cornice Fascia Board. 95, figs. 388-91. A project- 
ing board which forms a molding or ornament under 
the inside cornice. The sub-fascia board lies under it. 
The arrangement of these details, however, is frequent- 
ly varied. 

Inside Cornice Sub-Fascia Board. Z, fig. 1781. See above. 

Inside Deck Cornice. 120, figs. 388-91. 

Inside End Piece (Truck Frame). The end piece which is 
nearest to the center of the car. It is usually straight, 
while the outer one is cut away on top so as to make 
room for the draft rigging. 

Inside Frieze Panel (Street Cars). A panel on the inside 
over a window. 

Inside Hand Rail (Street Cars). A rail, usually made of 
wood, attached to the rafters by metal brackets, and 
carrying leather straps in the form of loops for passen- 
gers to hold fast to. 

Inside Hung Brakes. Figs. 821-22. Brake attachments for 
trucks in which the brake shoes and beams are between 
the wheels. When attached on the outside they arc 
Outside Hung Brakes, which see. 

Inside Lining, i. 53, figs. 159-69; 53b and A, figs. 185-95; 
97, FIGS. 388-91. The boarding which is nailed to the 
insides of the posts of freight, baggage and other cars. 
In box cars it extends half way up only, to the girth. 
Inside lining becomes sometimes inside sheathing when 
it is carried up to the roof, and is the only sheathing 
for the car, the frame being left exposed. 
2. (English.) See, Inside Casing. 

Inside Lining Cap. A Girth or Belt Rail, which see. See 
also above. 

Inside Lining Stud. A stud extending from the side sill to 
the girth to serve as a "nailer" for the inside lining. 

Inside Roof. 86c, figs. 159-69. A light roof under the main 
roof and separated from it by the purlins. 

Inside Spring Case. A shell cast on the spring plates to 
keep the coils in place. 

Inside Wheel Piece Plate. 12, figs. 3735-3951. See, 
Wheel Piece. 

Inside Window Panel. 89, figs. 388-91 ; 10, figs. 1778-83. 
A panel inside of a passenger car between the windows. 

Inside Window Silu 78, figs. 388-91 ; J, fig. 1781, etc. A 
horizontal piece of wood under the window on the in- 

Inside Window Stop. A wooden strip attached to a win- 
dow post on the inside of a window blind or an inner 
sash of a double window. It forms a groove in which 
the blind or window sash slides. Also called window 
casing. Sometimes the window molding forms a stop 
on the inside. 

Inspection Car. i. A car used for inspecting track of a 
railroad. In inspecting the track it is pushed in front 
of a locomotive. 




2. Figs. 4716, 4720. A hand car used for very much 
the same purpose. Three wheeled hand cars are also 
used by roadmasters for inspection. See, Hand Car. 

3. Fig. 4716. A small car propelled by gasolene with 
seats for four to six persons. 

Instruction Car. Figs. 140, 155-57 (Air Brake). A car 
maintained by the Westinghouse Air Brake Co. and by 
some railroads to send out over the line in charge of 
experts, and with a full equipment of air brake ap- 
paratus, for the purpose of instructing employes re- 
quired to operate or inspect air brakes as to their con- 
struction, operation and proper maintenance. The same 
end is accomplished by some roads by establishing in- 
struction shops or schools at certain points along the 
road and requiring employes to attend the same. 

Insulating Paper (Refrigerator Cars). B, figs. 185-95. A 
heavy tar paper placed between the linings to aid the 
insulation of the contents of the car from heat 

Intake Air Valves (Air Pump). 9-10, fig. 965. 

Interchange of Traffic, Rules for. These rules make 
car owners responsible for, and therefore chargeable 
with, the repairs to their cars necessitated by ordinary 
wear and tear in fair service, so that defect cards will 
not be required for any defects thus arising. 

Railroad companies handling cars are responsible for 
damage done to any car by unfair usage, derailment or 
accident, and for improper repairs made by them, and 
they should make proper repairs at their own expense, 
or issue defect card covering all such damage or im- 
proper repairs. 

Care of I<oreign Freight Cars. 

Rule i. Each railway company shall give to foreign cars, 
while on its line, the same care as to oiling, packing and in- 
spection, that it gives to its own cars. 

Interchanging Freight Cars. 

Rule 2. Cars offered in interchange must be accepted if 
in safe and serviceable condition, the receiving road to be 
the judge in cases not provided for in Rules 3 to 54 in- 

Use of Defect Cards. 

Rule 3. Defect cards shall be $}>^ inches by 8 inches, 
and of the form shown below. They should be 
printed in red ink on both sides, and shall be 
filled in on both sides with ink or black indelible pencil. 
The cards must plainly specify in full each item for which 
charges are authorized, indicating on which end of the car 
the defects exist. The end of the car upon which the brake 
staff is located shall be known ad "B" end, and the opposite 
end shall be known as "A" end. Where there are two 
brake staffs on the same car, the end toward which the 
cylinder push rod travels shall be known as "B" end. 


{//awu of /lead.) 

CtrNo ; ThU 

Iskul Line 

Will be rcceiTcd at any point on this eompany's line with the 
following defcdi: 

NoTS.^Pill ln-d«- 
facts OS both tidM 
wtib ink or black 
iadoliblo poncil. 
Attach this card 
with low tacka on 
ootaido ffaco of io- 
tonnediaio till, ba* 
twaon croaaHia tirn* 





Rule 4. Defect cards shall not be required for defects 
for which owners are responsible, except for missing ma- 
terial on cars offered in interchange, as provided for in 
Rules 27 and 39, neither shall they be required- of the de- 

livering road for improper repairs that were not made by 
it, with the exception of the cases provided for in Rules 
31, 40, 42 and 43. 

Rule 5. If a car has defects for which the owners are 
not responsible, but which do not render it unsafe to run, 
nor unsafe to trainmen, nor to any lading suitable to the 
car, the receiving road may require that a defect card be 
securely attached to the car with four tacks, preferably on 
the outside face of intermediate sill, between cross tie tim- 

Rule 6. Duplicate defect cards shall be furnished for 
lost or illegible cards. 
For defects of wheels, rules 7 to 21, see Wheels. 

defects of axles which justify renewal. 

Rule 22. Axles broken, or having seamy" 
journals, fillets at the back shoulder worn out, 
or with collars broken or worn to % inch or 
less, under fair usage. 

Rule 23. Axles less than the following pre- 
scribed limits: 

of car. 


6 inches. 











Wheel seat 

€% inches. 














5% inches, f responsible. 

5 6-16 " 












All cars to have their capacity stenciled on 

Rule 24. Cut journals, axles bent or axles^ 
rendered unsafe by unfair usage, derailment or 

defects of trucks which justify repairs if 
owners are responsible^ or repairs or card- 
ing if delivering company is responsible. 

Rule 25. Defective, missing or worn out 
parts of trucks not elsewhere provided for, 
which have failed under fair usage, or if any 
part of the truck frame or attachments is less 
than 2^ inches above the top of the rail 

Rule 26. Damage of any kind to the truck" 
due to unfair usage, derailment or accident. 

Rule 27. Material missing from trucks of 
cars offered in interchange. 

. Rule 28. Journal bearings and journal box 
bolts which require renewal by reason of 
change of wheels or axles for which the deliv- 
ering company is responsible, regardless of the 
previous condition of the bearings. 

For defects of brakes, rules 29 to 34, see Brakes. 

defects of bodies which justify repairs if 
owners are responsible, or repairs or card- 
ing if delivering company is responsible. 

Rule 35. Locks, grain doors and all inside' 
or concealed parts of cars missing or dam- 
aged under fair usage, and failure or loss 
under fair usage of any part of the body of the 
car, except as provided for in Rules 39 and 84. 

Rule 36. Cars not within the limits of 
standard height for couplers, sV/z inches to 
34;^ inches for standard gauge cars. 

Rule 317. Steps, ladders, handholds or run- 
ning boards in bad order or insecurely fast- 
ened, or absence of grabirons or handholds as 
required by law. Handholds or grabirons 
must be of wrought iron or steel and secured 
by bolts or lag screws. 




» Company 


» Owners 




^ Owners 







^ makins 
repairs ^ 

Rule 38. Damage of any kind to the body' 
of the car due to unfair usage, derailment or 

Rule 39. Material missing from body of 
cars offered in interchange, except locks, grain 
doors and all inside or concealed parts of car. 

Rule 40. M. C. B. couplers not equipped 
with steel or wrought iron knuckles. 

Rule 41. Cars intended to be equipped with 
metal brake beams and so stenciled, if found 
with wooden brake beams. 

Rule 42. Cars equipped with M. C B. coup- 
lers having pocket rear end attachments and 
so stenciled, if found with tail pin attachments 
instead of pocket. 

Rule 43. Uncoupling attachments of M. C.^ 
B. couplers offered in interchange must ^cIcomoMy' 
made operative before moving from inter- [responsible, 
change point 

IMPROPER repairs. 

Rule 44. Any company making improper re- 
pairs is solely responsible to the owners, with 
the exception of the cases provided for in 
Rules 31, 40, 41, 42 and 43. 

Rule 45. The company making such im- 
proper repairs shall place upon the car, at the 
time and place that the work is done, an M. C. 
B. defect card, which card shall state the 
wrong material used. 


Rule 46. Damaged coupler, accompanied by damage to 
either coupler stop, filling block, draft timber or its substi- 
tute, or end sill. 

Rule 47. Damaged coupler pocket, spindle or their sub- 
stitutes, accompanied by damage to either draft timber or 
its substitute, or end sill. 

Rule 48. Damaged coupler stop or filling block, accom- 
panied by damage to either coupler or end sill. 

Rule 49. Damaged draft timber or its substitute, accom- 
panied by damage to either coupler, coupler pocket, spindle 
or its substitute, or to end sill. 

Rule 50. Damaged wood or iron buffer block, accom- 
panied by damage to end sill. 

Rule 51. Damaged end sill, accompanied by damage to 
either coupler, coupler pocket, spindle or its substitute, 
coupler stop, filling block, draft timber or its substitute, 
wood or iron buffer block, or longitudinal sill. 

Rule 52. Damaged longitudinal sill, accompanied by 
damage to end sill. 

Rule 53. Damaged longitudinal sills, if necessitating re- 
placement or splicing of more than two sills. 

Rule 54, Damaged comer and end posts, if necessitat- 
ing the replacement of or repairs to more than two end or 
two corner posts at one end, or more than one end and 

one corner post at same end of car. 

The word "coupler" in the above rules, 46 to 64, inclusive, means 
the coupler body or knuckle. 

Instructions to Repair Men. 

Rule 55. Any car having defects which render it unsafe 
to run, unsafe to trainmen, or to any lading suitable to the 
car, may be repaired. 

Rule 56. Repairs to foreign cars shall be promptly 
made, and the work shall conform in detail to the original 
construction, and with the quality of material originally 
used, except that malleable iron M. C. B. standards may 
be substituted for gray iron M. C. B. standards, and gray 
iron may be used in place of malleable where gray iron is 
an M. C. B. standard, provided that in substituting mallea- 
ble iron for gray iron the price of gray iron is used, and 
except as provided for in Rules 60 and 61. 

Rule 57. In repairing damaged cars M. C. B. standards 
may be used when of dimensions that do not impair the 

strength of the cars, in lieu of the parts forming its original 
construction. When using materials for repairs to foreign 
cars for which the Master Car Builders' Association has 
adopted specifications as a standard, the materials must 
comply with the requirements of these specifications. 

Rule 58. In making repairs for which owners are re- 
sponsible, 30-inch and 36-inch wheels may be replaced with 
33-inch wheels, if practicable. If changes are necessary in 
order to bring the car to the proper height, the cost of so 
doing shall also be chargeable to the car owner. 

Rule 59. Couplers of the vertical plane type other than 
M. C. B. replaced with M. C. B. standard, the expense of 
alteration thus necessitated shall be chargeable to car own- 

Rule 60. When M. C. B. couplers of another make are 
placed upon a car, the uncoupling arrangements shall be 
made operative at the expense of the company making the 

Rule 61. When M. C. B. couplers, knuckles, metal brake 
beams, wheels or axles are replaced under conditions which 
make them chargeable to the owner, it must be plainly 
stated on the repair card and stub whether the material is 
new or second hand. 

Rule 62. Any company finding cars not within the limits 
of standard height for couplers may make repairs and 
charge to owners. Cars should be adjusted in height when 
empty, as far as possible, and in order to justify a bill for 
this work under the Rules of Interchange an empty car 
measuring 325^ inches or less should be adjusted to 34^ 
inches, or within % inch thereof, and when it is necessary 
to alter a loaded car it should be adjusted to 33^ inches, 
or within ^ inch thereof, or as nearly as possible to such 
height as will bring it to 345^ inches when the car is un- 
loaded, the height to be measured from top of the rails to 

the center line of the coupler shank. 
Rule 63. Center sills or draft timbers must not be 

spliced. All other sills may be spliced once. When the 

sills are less than 12 inches in depth the plan shown in na 

8 is to be followed : 


Fi*. 9. 

When the sills are 12 inches or more in depth the plan 
shown in fig. 9 is to be followed: 

The splice may be located either side of body bolster, but 
the nearest point of any splice must not be within 12 inches 
of same. The splicing of two adjacent sills at the same 
end of the car, or the splicing of any sill between cross tie 
timbers, will not be allowed. 

Rule 64. Wheels on the same axle must be of the same 

Rule 65. New wheels must not be mated with second- 
hand wheels. 

Rule 66. Prick punching or shimming the wheel fit must 
not be allowed. 

Rule 67. Th e ^h e tl ^j pate ^f f^ ^^'c" axles must not be 
reduced more than 1-16 inch to fit the wheels, and i n no 
case must they be reduced below the limits gfivert itTRilTe iji. 

Rule 68. Any company repairing foreign cars with 
wrong material, and not in compliance with the Rules 55 
to 68, inclusive, shall be liable to the owners for the cost 
of changing such car to the original standard, or to the re- 
quirements of these rules, except that companies applying 
axles smaller than the limits given in Rule 23 shall not be 
held responsible for improper repairs if the car is not sten- 
ciled showing the capacity of the car. 





Rule 69. In replacing air brake hose on foreign cars 
for which bills are made, new hose must be used. 

Rule 70. If the weight of a car is found to vary more 
than 500 pounds from the light weight stenciled on the car 
a railroad company having the car in its possession may 
weigh and restencil the car, making a charge for each car 
weighed and so reported. The railroad company making 
the bill shall notify the owner, giving the date and point at 
which the reweighing was done. 

Rule 71. Cars undergoing extraordinary repairs, such 
as sills, resheathing, roofing, etc., should be reweighed and 
restenciled by the company having the car in its possession 
at its own expense, and the owner notified. 

Rule 72. When secondhand axles are applied under con- 
ditions which make them chargeable to the owners, the 
diameters of such axles applied should not be less than }i 
inch above the limit dimensions given in Rule 23. 

Use of Repair Card. 
s Rule 72. When repairs of any kind are made to foreign 
cars a repair card shall be securely attached to outside face 
of intermediate sill between cross tie timbers. This card 
shall specify fully the repairs made, and reason for same, 
the date and place where made, and name of road making 
repairs; also show location of parts repaired or renewed. 
The end of car on which brake staff is located shall be 
known as "B" end, and the opposite end as "A" end. Where 
there are two brake staffs on the car, the end toward which 
the cylinder push rod travels shall be known as "B" end. 
The card shall be provided with a stub, which will dupli- 
cate information on the card, and stubs must be forwarded 
with the bill. 

If no bill is to be rendered, the repair card stub must be 
forwarded on or before the twentieth day of each month, 
with the words "no bill" written across the face of the re- 
pair card stub. In case it is not the intention to render 
bill, the words "no bill" shall be written across the face of 
the repair card. 

Rule 74. The repair card shall be 3^ by 8 inches, and 




the stub 35^ by 4 inches. The card shall be printed on both 
sides in black ink, and shall be filled in on both sides with 
ink or black indelible pencil, and be of the following form : 

The cards and stubs must state whether solid or filled 
journal bearings are applied or removed. 

Rule 75. Any road making partial repairs of defects on 
a car which are covered by defect cards will have the de- 
fects repaired crossed off the original card with ink or in- 
delible pencil and card placed back on car. A copy of the 
card accompanying the bill with the defects which were not 
repaired crossed off will be sufficient authority to bill. 

Rule 76. Duplicate repair cards shall be furnished for 
lost or illegible cards. 

Instructions for Billing. 

Rule 77. Bills may be rendered for work done under 
Rule 55, except in cases where owners are not responsible 
and the car bears no defect card covering the defects re- 
paired, stating upon the bill the date and place where the 
repairs were made; the repair card stub or defect card to 
accompany the bill. 

Rule 78. Car owners may require receipt of repair card 
or stub before payment of bill for repairs. 

Rule 79. For repairs made on defect cards, the card 
must accompany the bill as voucher for the work done, but 
no bill shall be rendered for repairs which have not been 

Rule 80. When improper repairs of owner's defects 
have been made and bill rendered, the owner may counter 
bill against the company making the wrong repairs for the 
cost of changing the car to the original standard, or to the 
requirements of Rules 55 to 76, inclusive, if the work is 

Rule 81. When improper repairs of defects for which 
owners are not responsible are made, the owner may make 
bill against the company making the improper repairs for 
the cost of changing the car to the original standard, or to 
the requirements of Rules 55 to 76, inclusive, if the work 
is done. 

Rule 82. The evidence of a joint inspector or the joint 
evidence of two persons, one representing the owner of the 

O Q 

S H 























9 O 

• o 


8 I 



car, and the other representing the delivering road, that 
the repairs are not proper, shall be final. A joint evidence 
card shall be used for this purpose, which shall describe 

^ INT 

and show location of parts repaired or renewed. The end 
of the car on which the brake staff is located shall be known 
as "B" end, and the opposite end as "A" end. Where there 
are two brake staffs on the car, the end toward which the 
cylinder push rod travels shall be known as "B" end. This 
card shall be of the following form : 

Rule 83. The joint evidence card shall not be used as 
authority for rendering a bill, but shall ,t>e sent to the com- 
pany against which evidence is presented, and it shall fur- 
nish defect card covering the wrong repairs if it made them. 
The joint evidence card, accompanied by a proper repair 
card, itpon which a bill has been made, shall be used as au- 
thority for rendering bill, but if unaccompanied by such 
repair card, the joint evidence card shall be sent to the 
company against which the evidence has been presented, 
and it shall furnish a defect card covering the wrong re- 
pairs if it made them. 

Rule 84, Bills may be rendered against car owners for 
the labor only of replacing couplers, brake beams (includ- 
ing their attachments, such as shoes, heads, key bolts, jaws 
and hangers), brake levers, top and bottom brake rods that 
have been lost on the line of the company making the re- 
pairs. Coupler springs, followers and yokes may be in- 
cluded in the above, providing they have bees lost with the 

Rule 83. In making bills under these rules, the informa- 
tion necessary for the car department should be embodied 
on the following forms, whether the same is made as a bill 
or a statemi^t to accompany a bill ; 


. n 

1 ^ 


1 : 










i \ u 

\ }jj 

' 111 







































i - 




Rule 86. Bills rendered for wheels and axles shall be 
in accordance with the following schedule of prices (or 
material, with the proper debits and credits : 




New. hand. Scrap. 

One 36-inch wheel $10.00 $7.60 $6.00 

One 33-incb wheel 8.60 6.75 4.60 

One axle, 100.000 lbs 24.00 13.60 7.TC 

One axle, 80.000 lbs 19,00 ILOO 6.60 

One axle, 660,000 lbs 14.00 7.75 &25 

One axle, 60,000 lbs. (or under) 12.00 6.60 4.60 

and with an additional charge of $1.50 for all labor for each 
pair of wheels and axles removed from the truck. If new 
wheels and axles are substituted for second hand wheels 
and axles, proper charges and credits shall be allowed, al- 
though such substitution be made on account of only one 
loose or defective wheel, or a defective axle, with the fol- 
lowing exceptions : In case the owner of a car removes a 
damaged wheel or axle, no charge shall be made for any 
difference in value between the parts used and those re- 
moved that are not damaged. 

Rule 87. If car owner elects on account of improper re- 
pairs to remove M. C. B. standard axles suitable to the ca- 
pacity of the car, he shall allow credit for second hand 
axles if they are in good order. Axles removed below the 
journal limit of 100,000 pounds, 80,000 pounds and 40,000 
pounds capacity to be credited as scrap when removed. 

Rule 88. Bills for wheel and axle work must make spe- 
cific mention of each axle and wheel removed or applied. 

Rule 89. Bills which do not embody all the information 
called for by the headings of the columns may be declined 
until made to conform to the requirements of the rule. If 
no marks are found on wheels or axles removed, a notation 
to that effect must be made on face of bill. 

Rule 90. In noting on bills the cause of removal of 
wheels and axles, the terms used in Rules 7 to 21, inclu- 
sive, shall be used, and the dimensions of the defect or vari- 
ation from the prescribed limits should be carefully speci- 

Rule 91. Bills for repairs made under these rules and 
for material iumished shall be in conformity with sched- 
ules of prices and credits for the articles enumerated below : 

Material. Charge. Credit. 
Air brake hose, 1% inch, complete with fittings 

applied 12.00 

Air brake hose, 1% inch, credit for fittings for 

same • ^*> 

Air brake hose, 1 inch, complete with fittings 

applied 1-75 

Air brake hose, 1 inch, credit for fittings for 

same '^ 

Angle cock 1-40 

Angle cock handle 08 

Auxiliary reservoir 2.46 

Bolts, nuts and forgings, finished per lb. .03 %c. 

Brake shoes applied ; no credit for scrap 80 

Castings, rough iron per lb. .01% 6-lOc. 

malleable iron " .08 He. 

steel " .04^ %c 

Chain " •« .01 

Coupling, dummy 1^ 

Coupler, M. C. B., one. complete, new 7.60 For credlU 

Coupler body, one, new 4.50 for broken 

Other individual malleable, wrought or steel ^uple^w- 

parts per lb. 03^4 ^^^^4 gee 

Cut-out cock 1-20 RulesQl 

Cut-out cock handle 08 and 99. 

Cylinder, body (8 by U inches) 1.60 

" piston and rod 96 

" piston follower 10 

*' piston pack'ng leather 40 

" •• " " expander 06 

*• " release spring..' 60 

•* non-pressure head 60 

" gasket 06 

iDoor, for end of box or stock car, wooden, each, 

applied; no credit for scrap 1.75 

Door, for end of box or stock car, ventilated 
(wooden frame with iron rods), each, applied; 

no credit for scrap 8.00 

Door, for side of box or stock car, wooden, each, 

applied; no credit for scrap 3.60 

Door, for side of box or stock car, ventilated 
(wooden frame with iron rods), each, applied; 

no credit for scrap 6.00 

Door, for side of stock car, with iron rods, each, 

applied ; no credit for scrap 4.00 

Gasket, air hose coupling 04 

Half door, for side of box or stock car, each, ap- 
plied; no credit for scrap 2.60 

kx>n, galvanized per lb. .04 

Journal bearings of brass or bronze, lined or un- 

lined, per lb., applied 16 

Journal bearings, filled brass or bronze shell, 

per lb., applied 12 

The weight charged for new journal bearings 
for 7 inch journals and over, but not 8 inches 
long, shall not exceed 10 pounds; the weight 
charged for new journal bearings for journals 8 
inches long and less than 9 inches long shall not 
exceed IS pounds; and for new journal bearings 

9 inches long or over, but not 10 inches, 20 
pounds. The weight charged for new journal 
bearings for 100^000 pound capacity cars (6V4 by 

10 inches) shall be 26 pounds. The weight of 
scrap credited must be one-half the weight of the 
bearing charged. 

Labor, per hour 20 

Lumber— yellow, white and Norway pine, poplar, 
oak, hickory and elm, dressed and framed, per 

ft. BM. required to make the part 02^ 

Nails perlb. .08 

Paint, lead, freight car, mixed " .15 

Paint, mineral, freight car, mixed " .05 

Pipe, nipple on end of train pipe 10 

Pipe, % inch, per foot 03 

" 1% inch per foot 07 

Pressure retaining valve 1.00 

Release valve 1 70 

Release valve handle 08 

Release rod 10 

Steel for springs, rough perlb. .04 

" helical springs " ,03% 

Train pipe air strainer (1% inch) 65 

Triple check valve case 80 

cylinder cap (drain cup) 70 

gasket 35 

" emergency valve 66 













piston , 

" rubber seat. 

check valve 


case gasket 

graduating spring 

" stem , 

«t <f II 














valve 05 

piston and ring 1.75 

" ring (only) 25 

" slide valve 90 

" spring 05 

valve strainer 05 

gasket 15 







Rule 92. Not more than one pound of mineral paint can 
be charged for 15 square feet of surface covered, and not 
more than one pound of lead paint for 12 square feet of 
surface covered. No charge to be made for lettering. 

Rule 93. Whenever scrap credits are allowable the 
weights of scrap credited shall be equal to the weights of 
the new metal applied, except as otherwise provided in the 
rules, and except in the case of scrap M. C. B. couplers, 
and parts of same, and material applied on defect cards, in 
which cases the weight and kind of metal removed shall be 

Rule 94. In the application of channels they should be 
charged out at the market price plus the necessary labor for 
drilling, etc.; credit should be at prices quoted above for 
similar metal. 

Rule 95. Bills shall not be rendered for amounts less 
than 25 cents in aggregate, but charges for items less than 
25 cents may be held until they amount to that sum, pro- 
vided said aggregate is rendered within 60 days. No bill 
shall be returned for correction on account of error for less 
than 100 cents in aggregate of bill, but said bill shall be 
passed for payment at once, and the alleged error brought 
to the attention of the road rendering the same within sixty 
days from date of bill. The receiving road shall at once 
issue a letter of authority for counter bill to cover the ac- 
knowledged error, said letter to be attached to the bill as 

Rule 96. All offices rendering bill should consolidate all 
charges against any one company into one monthly bill. 





Rule 97. Journal bearings having a lining % inch thick 
or thicker shall be charged as filled journal bearings, and 
not as lined journal bearings. 

Rule 98. In rendering bills for owner's defects the fol- 
lowing should be observed : 

No credit for scrap and no charge for labor shall be al- 
lowed in renewing brake shoes. 

Rule 99. When M. C. B. coupler parts or metal brake 
beams are replaced, good second hand material may be 
used, but they must be charged at seventy-five per cent, of 
the prices when new. The credits for similar parts re- 
leased from service in good condition must also be seventy- 
five per cent, of the prices when new. 

Rule 100. Manufactured articles not included in the 
above list must be charged at current market prices, with- 
out freight charges. 

Rule ioi. When M. C. B. couplers are changed in Can- 
ada to replace wrong material, couplers may be charged at 
the prices fixed by the rules plus the customs duty paid on 
entering Canada. 

Rule 102. No percentage to be added to either material 
or lat)or. 

Rule 103. Bills for the following work, to make cars 
conform to United States laws and to conform to the re- 
quirements of Rule 62, must be rendered within 60 days 
aftef the work is done, and must state the height of the 
car before and after altering. 

Altering height of one end of one car $1.00 

Putting on one hand hold or grab iron 20 

Rule 104. The following table shows the number of 
hours which may be charged for labor in doing the various 
items of work enumerated, which includes all work neces- 
sary to complete each item of repairs, except in so far as 
labor is already included in charges for materials : 

Ordinary Refrigerator 
Cars. Cars. 

Charge Charge 

for for 

Hrs. Labor. Hrs. Labor. 

American continuous draft rods, ene rod, 

welding 1 ^-20 1 |0.20 

Arch- bars, 1 or 2, replaced on same side 

of truck 8 .«0 8 .60 

Arch bar, blacksmith shop labor, repairing 2 .40 2 .40 

Axle, bent, straightening * .80 4 .80 

Bolster, body, composite, one, replaced 10 2.00 12 2.40 

Bolster, body, plain metal or wood, one, 

replaced » !•» 10 2W 

Bolster, body, plain meUl or wood, one, 

replaced when one or more defective 

sills are replaced 2 .40 2 .40 

Bolster, composite, one, replaced when one 

or more defective sills are replaced 4 .80 4 .80 

Bolster, truck, one, replaced 10 2.00 10 2.00 

Bolster, truck, one, and one spring plank 

in same truck, replaced 12 2.40 12 2.40 

Brake beam, one, replaced 2 .40 2 .40 

Brake beam, one, metal, blacksmith labor 

repairing 2 .40 2 .40 

Buffer blocks, cast iron, each, replacing... 1 .20 1 .20 

Buffer blocks, wooden, replacing at one 

end of car 2 .40 2 .40 

Carlin, one, replaced 3 .60 

Center pin head applied, empty car H 10.10 % $010 

" " " " loaded car 2 .40 2 .40 

" " key " empty car 1% .30 1% .30 

Center plate, one, replacing 2 .40 2 .40 

Center plates, two, replacing at same end.. 3 .60 3 .60 

Center plate bolts, replacing, in part or all 

at one end 3 .60 3 .60 

Center plate bolt or bolts and center plate, 

replacing on one end of car 3 .60 3 .60 

Column bolts, one or more^ replaced in 

same truck 2 .40 2 .40 

Comer iron, one, replaced 1 .20 1 .20 

Comer post, one, replaced 3 .60 6 1.20 

Coupler stops, all, at one end of car, re- 
placed 3 .60 3 .60 

Coupler stops, one or two, at same end of 

car, replaced 2 .40 2 .40 

Coupler, with stem attachments, coupler 

springs, one or more follower plates, 

American continuous draft key, American 

continuous draft rods, one or two coup- 
ler stops, coupler p-^cl.ct, coupler pocket 

rivets, renewing or replacing any or all, 

at same end of car, at same time 2 

Coupler, with pocket attachmenu, as above. 3 

Cross tie timber, one, replaced 3 

Cross tie timber, one, replaced when one or 

more defective sills are replaced 1 

Door, end, old, rehanging H 

" side. " " 1 

Door post, one replaced 3 

Draft timber, one, replaced 6 

Draft timber, one, replaced when its cen- 
ter sill has been replaced 1 

Draft timbers, two, on same end, replaced.. 9 
Draft timber bolts complete, at one end of 

car, replacing 3 

Draft timber bolts, three or less at one end 

of car, replacing 2 

Draft timber bolts, four or more at one end 

of car, replacing 8 

End plank, one, renewed on gondola car... 2 

End planks, two, renewed on same end... 2^ 

End planks, three, renewed on same end.. 3 

End planks, four, renewed on same end.... 3H 

End plate, one, replaced 12 

End post, one, replaced 3 

Journal box, one, replaced 2 

" boxes, two, on same axle^ replaced 3 
Journals, tiuing up one or two, on same 

axle 2 

Platform plank, one, replaced 1 

Releasing rod for M. C. B. coupler, one, 

replaced ^ 

Running board, complete, applied 6 

Spring plank, one, replaced 10 

Side plank, one, renewed on gondola car.. 4 

Side planks, two, renewed on same side.... 6Vi 

Side planks, fhree, renewed on same side.. 7 

Side planks, four, renewed on same side... 8^ 

Side plate, one, applied 26 

** plate, one, spliced 8 

" post, one, replaced 3 


1 center sill, replaced 32 

2 center sills, replaced 38 

lend sill under siding, replaced 16 

1 end sill outside siding, replaced 7 

1 end sill under siding, replaced when one 

or more defective sills have been replaced 3 
1 end sill outside siding, replaced when 
one or more defective sills have been re- 
placed 2 

1 intermediate sill, replaced 29 

2 " sills, " 36 

3 " " " 41 

A U tt U Aft 

1 inter, sill and 1 center sill replaced 38 

1 " " " 2 " sills " 44 

2 " sills " 1 " sill " 43 

2 " " " 2 " sills " 60 

3 " " " 1 " sill " 48 

3 •• " " 2 " sills " 60 

4 " " " 1 " sill " 60 

4 " " *• 2 " sills " 66 

1 intermediate sill, spliced 11 

1 side sill and 1 center sill replaced 48 

1 " " " 2 " sills " 63 

2 " sills "1 " sill " 68 

2 " " " 2 " sills " 71 

1 " sill spliced 12 

1 •• " replaced 25 

2 " sills " 40 

1 ** sill and 1 inter, sill replaced 44 

1 " " " 2 " sills " 50 

1 " sill " 3 " " " 56 

< t4 << it A it *t tt g2 

2 " sills " 1 " sill " 58 

2 " " " 2 " sills " 64 

2 ** « ** Q '( *t <( YQ 

O 4< <« HA II It tt fja 

1 side, 1 inter, and 1 center sill replaced.... 53 

2 " 1 " "1 " " " .... 74 

1 •• 2 •' "1 " " " .... 58 

2 " 2 " "1 " " " .... 76 

1 " 3 " "1 " " " .... 63 

2 " 3 " "1 " " " .... 81 

1 " 4 " "1 " " " .... 68 

2 " 4 " " 1 " tt tt .... 8$ 

1 " 1 " "2 •* sills " .... 58 

2 " 1 " "2 " " " .... 76 
1 •• 2 " "2 " " " .... 63 
1 " 3 " "2 " " " .... 69 
1 •• 4 •• "2 •• " " .... 74 

9 << 9 << "2 " " " SI 














m • 

• • • • 


























• ■ 

• ■ • • 


• ■ 

• « • • 


• • 

• • • ■ 


■ • 

■ « • • 





























• • 

• • • • 


• « 

« • • • 


• ■ 

• • ■ • 


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• ■ • • 

































































































12 40 



























































« « 


2 " 3 " «• 2 " " .... 86 17.20 143 28.G0 

2 '• 4 " " 2 " " " .... 91 18.20 153 30.60 

Each side or inter, sill spliced, when other 

sills have to be replaced, as above 6 1.20 7 1.40 

An additional charge of 75 cents shall be 
allowed in replacing intermediate or 
center sills on cars equipped with air 

Truck spring, one, replaced 2 $0.40 2 $0.40 

Truck transom, one; wood, replaced 10 2.00 10 2.00 

Truck transoms, two, wood, replaced in 

same truck 12 2.40 12 2.40 

Weighing and re-stenciling car, per rule 70. H ^lO % -10 

When necessary to remove load to replace 

body center plate and bolt or bolts, draft 

timber bolts, at one end of car.< 2 .40 2 .40 

Rule 105. No charge to be made for labor of replacing 
or applying M. C. B. knuckles, knuckle pins, locking pins, 
clevises, clevis pins, lift chains, brake shoes or brake shoe 
keys, except on the authority of a defect card. 

Rule 106. When it is necessary to apply an M. C. B. 
coupler complete, on account of a broken or missing 
knuckle, the usual labor charge for replacing a coupler can 
be made. 

Rule 107. No additional labor to be charged for apply- 
ing center pin or friction rollers when center plate bolts or 
center plates are renewed on same end of car. 

Rule 108. No additional labor to be charged for renewing 
head blocks or buffer blocks if end sill at same end is re- 
newed or replaced. 

Rule 109. The following table shows the labor charges 
allowable, in cents, for the items named in air brake work. 

A key to schedule of prices, covering the determination of 
prices involved in any piece of work, precedes the table 
showing the labor charges allowable. The letters *'R, & R." 
in this key mean "removed and replaced." 

KEY TO schedule OF PRICES. 


Cap screws or studs or bolts, R. & R., each i 

Cylinder cleaning, testing and stenciling 13 

Emergency valve seat, R. & R 5 

Graduating stem nut, R. & R 2 

Lag or wood screws, R. & R., each i 

Nuts tightened when loose, each i 

Nuts yi inch or less, R. & R., i or a on same bolt i 

Nuts H inch or over, R. & R., i or 2 on same bolt 2 

Pins connecting, R. & R. (including split key) 2 

Pins riveted, R. & R., each 3 

Plugs oil, R. & R., each i 

Release valve, R. & R., each 2 

Spring cotters, R. & R., each i 

Staples, R. & R., each i 

Testing air (after repairs) S 

Threads on pipe, cutting, per coupling S 

Train or branch pipe disconnected and connected, or 

only connected, each connection 3 

Triple valve, cleaning, testing and stenciling 6 

Union disconnected and connected 2 

The labor charges allowable (in cents) are as follows : 

Air hose, R. & R 3 

Angle cock, R. & R 6 

Angle cock handle, R. & R 6 

Check valve case, spring, gasket, or all, R. & R 9 

Coupler, dummy, R. & R i 

Cut-out cock, R. & R 8 

Cut-out cock handle, R. & R 3 

Cylinder, R. & R 27 

Cylinder and' reservoir, R. & R 36 

Cylinder and reservoir, tightening when loose 8 

Cylinder, cleaned, oiled, tested and stenciled 20 

Cylinder release spring, R. & R 8 

Cylinder gasket, R. & R 20 

Gasket, coupling, R. & R 2 

Graduating nut, stem, spring, or all, R. & R 2 

Oil plugs, R. &R 2 

Packing leather expander, R. & R 7 


Pipe, securing to body, R. & R., for each staple i 

Pipe, train or branch, for each connection made 3 

Piston, R. & R X2 

Piston packing leather, R. & R n 

Pressure retaining valve, removed, repaired and re- 
placed 10 

Push rod, R.&R 2 

Release valve, R. & R 4 

Release valve, removed, repaired and replaced 9 

Release valve rod, removed, repaired and replaced 2 

Reservoir, R. & R 2$ 

Strainer, R. & R 5 

Triple cylinder cap gasket, R. & R 3 

Triple emergency valve seat, R. & R 9 

Triple piston packing ring, fitted IS 

Triple slide valve, removed, ground in and replaced... 33 
Triple valve, removed, cleaned, oiled, tested and sten- 
ciled 24 

Triple valve gasket, R. & R 8 

Unions, disconnected and connected 2 

Rule iio. The settlement prices of new eight wheel cars 
shall be as follows, with an addition of $27.50 for each car 
equipped with air brakes. The road destroying a car with 
air brakes may elect to return the air brake apparatus, in- 
cluding such attachments as are usually furnished by the 
air brake manufacturer, complete and in good condition : 

Wood or Iron. 

Box car, eight wheel, 40 feet long or over $400.00 

Box car, eight wheel, 36 feet long or over, but under 

40 feet 350-00 

Box car, eight wheel, 34 feet long or over, but under 

36 feet long 32500 

Box car, eight wheel, 32 feet long or over, but under 

34 feet long 300.00 

Box car, eight wheel, under 32 feet long 240.00 

Box car, ventilated, eight wheel, 40 feet long or over 425.00 
Box car, ventilated, eight wheel, 36 feet long, but un- 
der 40 feet 375-00 

Box car, ventilated, eight wheel, 34 feet long, but un- 
der 36 feet 350.00 

Flat car, eight wheel, plain, 40 feet long or over 180.00 

Flat car, eight wheel, plain, 32 feet long or over, but 

under 40 feet 140.00 

Flat car, eight wheel, plain, under 32 feet long 100.00 

Gondola car, eight wheel, drop bottom, 40 tons capac- 
ity or over 300.00 

Gondola car, eight wheel, drop bottom, 30 tons capac- 
ity or over, but under 40 tons 275.00 

Gondola car, eight wheel, drop bottom, 25 tons capac- 
ity or over, but under 30 tons 250.00 

(k>ndola car, eight wheel, drop bottom, 20 tons capac- 
ity or under 180.00 

Gondola car, eight wheel, hopper bottom, 50 tons ca- 
pacity 400.00 

Gondola car, eight wheel, hopper bottom, 40 tons ca- 
pacity or over, but under 50 tons 325.00 

Gondola car, eight wheel, hopper bottom, 30 tons ca- 
pacity or over, but under 40 tons 300.00 

Gondola car, eight wheel, hopper bottom, 25 tons ca- 
pacity or over, but under 30 tons 265.00 

Gondola car, eight wheel, hopper bottom, 20 tons ca- 
pacity or less 200.00 

Gondola car, eight wheel, plain, 40 tons capacity and 

over 275.00 

Gondola car, eight wheel, plain, 30 tons capacity, but 

under 40 tons 250.00 

Gondola car, eight wheel, plain, 25 tons capacity, but 

under 30 tons 225.00 

Gondola car, eight wheel, plain, under 25 tons 125.00 

Stock car, eight wheel, 34 feet long or over 300.00 

Stock car, eight wheel, 32 feet long or over, but un- 
der 34 feet 275.00 

Stock car, eight wheel, under 32 feet long 240.00 

INT ^ g 

The lengths of cars above mentioned refer to the lengths 
over the end sills. 

When cars of 60,000 pounds capacity or over, and so sten- 
ciled, have trucks with journals 4 inches or over in diam- 
eter when new, $40 per car shall be added to the figure as 
given above for the values of car bodies, when equipped 
with metal bolsters. 

50,000 lbs. capacity, with metal transoms and wooden 

bolster, per pair $175-^ 

60,000 lbs. capacity or under, with wood bolster, per 

pair 175-00 

60,000 lbs. capacity or under, all metal, per pair . .... 260.00 
80,000 lbs. capacity or under, but over 60,000 lbs., all 

metal, per pair 325*00 

100,000 lbs. capacity or under, but over 80,000 lbs., all 

metal, per pair 3So.oo 

Prices include brake beams complete, truck levers, dead 
lever guides and bottom connection rods. 

Four Wheel Cars. 

Coal car, ordinary, complete $200.00 

Box car, complete 230.00 

Gondola car, drop bottom, complete 300.00 

Rule hi. Depreciation due to age shall be estimated at 
six per cent per annum upon the yearly depreciated value of 
the bodies and trucks only; provided, however, that allow- 
ances for depreciation shall in no case exceed sixty per cent 
of the value new. The amount, $27.50, for air brakes shall 
not be subject to any depreciation. 

Rule 112. Refrigerator cars, special stock cars, tank cars, 
except the tanks, and other freight cars, designed for spe- 
cial purposes, not referred to above, shall be settled for at 
the present cost price, as may be agreed to by the parties in 
interest, less the deduction for depreciation due to age, 
which shall be on the same basis as for regular freight 

Rule 113. In rendering bills, cars shall be treated as be- 
longing to companies or individuals whose name or initials 
Ihey bear, except in case of Line Cars, where the equip- 
ment list of the general officers of the Line designates a 
party to make settlement. 

Rule 114. Switching roads will only be allowed to ren- 
der bills against car owners for the following defects re- 
paired by them: Roof lost on account of decay or faulty 
construction, womout brasses, broken truck springs, truck 
transoms, arch bars, draft timber bolts, column bolts, truck 
hangers, truck transom truss rods, truck bolsters, truck bol- 
ster truss rods, oil boxes, spring planks, truck hanger pins, 
side bearings and center plates, center plate bolts, center 
pins, followers, American continuous rods or keys, draft 
springs, couplers and knuckles, provided the damage has not 
been caused by derailment or rough usage. They will be 
allowed to render bills direct against car owners on all car 
owners' defects on cars received by them from a railroad 
company, provided they procure joint evidence from the de- 
livering road that such car owners' defects existed when 
the car was delivered by the railroad company, joint evi- 
dence to accompany the bill against the car owner. 

Rule 115. A switching road is a corporation doing the 
major part of its business on a switching charge, or one 
which does not pay mileage for handling cars. 

Rule 116. Bills may be rendered against car owners for 
the cost of applying temporary running boards and hand 
rails to make cars safe for trainmen. 

Destroyed Cars and the Return of Trucks. 

Rule 117. The company on whose line the bodies or 
trucks are destroyed shall report the fact to the owner im- 
mediately after their destruction, and shall have its option 
whether to rebuild or settle for the same. 

Rule 118. If the company on whose lines the car is de- 
stroyed elects to rebuild either body or trucks, or both, the 
original plan of construction must be followed, and the 
original kind and qualities of materials used. The rebuild- 
ing must be completed within 60 days from the original 


date of damage or destruction. In such cases no allowance 
shall be made for betterments. 

Rule 119. If only the body of a car is destroyed, and the 
company destroying it elects to return the trucks, they shall 
be put in good order, or accompanied by a defect card, cov- 
ering all defects or improper repairs made by them for 
which owners are not responsible, and forwarded, within 60 
days, free of freight or other charges, to the nearest point 
on the line of the company owning or operating the car, and 
the number, line and class of car destroyed shall be sten- 
ciled or painted on each truck so returned. 

Rule 120. The company on whose line the body or trucks 
of a car are seriously damaged, but not destroyed, may 
notify the owner and ask ah appraisement on the damage 
done to the car as a basis for the disposal of the damaged 

Rule 121. For the mutual advantage of railway com- 
panies interested, the settlement for a car owned or con- 
trolled by a railway company, when damaged or destroyed 
upon a private track, shall be assumed by the railway com- 
pany delivering the car upon such tracks. 

Sending Home Wornout and Damaged Cars. 

Rule 122. A car unsafe to load on account of general 
womout condition, due to age or decay, shall be reported to 
its owner, who must be advised of all existing defects. If 
the owner elects to have it sent home, he shall furnish two 
home cards, noting upon them existing defects and the route 
over which the car is to be returned to its owner. If the 
route coincides with that over which the car passed to the 
point where it became unserviceable, no liability shall be in- 
curred as between the owner and the road handling the car,, 
either for freight charges in handling the car or for car ser- 
vice during this movement. 

Such cards shall be attached to each side of the body of 
the car. They shall be 354 by 8 inches, and of the form 
shown below. They shall be printed on both sides, and 
shall be filled in on both sides with ink or black indelible 
pencil : 


TO' __ 

it R. 


cir No V. '. y. '/.*. ^^^^YoViai•^^' !! J! ^* i !! .\\\' !!!*!!!! ir. '..','! I ! *. 

To be shopped for 

(Hetd of Car DqMflmcat.) 

Rule 123. A car which is safe to run, but unsafe to load 
on account of serious damage caused by wreck or accident^ 
shall be reported to the owners for appraisement and dispo- 
sition, and disposed of as provided in Rule 122, if the owner 
so elects. 

Rule 124. In case of cars of private ownership sent home 
on account of general womout condition, due to age or de- 
cay, such cars shall be entitled to as many miles of home- 
ward movement, free of charge to owners, as they ma^ have 
been handled over said line under load, and no mileage to 
be paid to owners by roads handling. If the haul necessary 
to get cars home is in excess of such loaded mileage, said 
excess will be billed against the owner at regular freight 
rates and the owner notified. 

Rule 125. Private line cars sent home to owners on ac- 
count of being wrecked or damaged in accident shall be reg- 
ularly billed home free of charge to owners, and owners 
notified, providing such homeward movement passes over 
roads which have handled the cars loaded, previous to their 
homeward empty movement; otherwise the damaged cars 
to travel home empty, free of charges and free of mileage, 
according to home route ; or, if owners prefer to have them 




billed home via direct line, then charges to accrue to such 
line over which cars were not entitled to free movement 

Furnishing Materials. 
Rule 126. Companies shall promptly furnish to each 
other, upon requisition, and forward free over their own 
road, material for repairs of their cars injured upon foreign 
lines that cannot be procured in open market. Requisition 
for such material shall state that it is for repairs of cars, 
and shall give the number and lettering of such cars and 
pattern number of castings required when possible. 

Conditions of Acceptance of This Code. 

Rule 127. Any car owner or railway company may be- 
come a party to this Code of Rules by giving notice through 
one of its general officers to the Secretary of the Master Car 
Builders' Association. 

Railroad companies becoming subscribers to this Code of 
Kules must have a representative member in the Master 
Car Builders' Association. 

Rule 12S, Any car owner or railway company that is a 
party to this Code of Rules shall be bound by same through 
its successive revisions until one of its general officers files 
with the Secretary of the Master Car Builders' Association 
its notification of withdrawal. 

Rule 129. Acceptance or rejection of this Code of Rules 
must be as a whole, and no exception to an individual rule 
or rules shall be valid 

Settlement of Disputes. 

Rule 13a In order to settle disputes arising under the 
rules, and to facilitate the revision of the rules at the an- 
nual conventions of the Association, an Arbitration Com- 
mittee of five representative members shall be appointed an- 
nually by the Executive Committee; three members of this 
•committee to constitute a quorum. 

In case of any dispute or question arising under the rules 
between the subscribers to said rules, the same may be sub- 
mitted to this committee through the secretary, in abstract, 
jointly, said abstract setting forth the point or points at 
issue, and each part/s interpretation of the rules upon 
ivhich its claim is based, clearly and concisely, not exceed- 
ing three type-written pages of letter size, single space, 
which shall be signed by both parties to the dispute. Should 
one of the parties refuse or fail to furnish the necessary in- 
formation, the committee shall use its judgment as to 
w^hether, with the information furnished, it can properly 
Sive its opinion. The decisions of the committee shall be 
final and binding upon the parties concerned. This com- 
mittee shall report its decisions to the Association, and its 
report shall be incorporated in the annual report of pro- 
ceedings of the Association. 

Revision of This Code of Rules. 

Rule 131. The Arbitration Committee shall ask for sug- 
gestions of changes, amendments and additions to these 
rules prior to each annual convention, which it shall con- 
sider, and it shall report its recommendations to the suc- 
ceeding annual convention. 

Rule 132. In the revision of these rules by the Asso- 
ciation a two-thirds vote shall be necessary for adoption. 

Rule 133. Voting powers shall be the same as prescribed 
in the Constitution of the Master Car Builders' Association 
on matters pertaining to the adoption of standards and the 
expenditure of money. 

Rule 134. This Code of Rules shall be introduced for the 
discussion and revision at one session of the Master Car 
Builders' Association convention each year. 

Rule 135. This Code of Rules shall take cflFect September 
I, 1902. 


Code of Rules 

Ooveitiing the Condition of and Repairs to Passenger 

Equipment Cars in Interchange. 

I. Each railway company shall give to foreign cars, 

while on its line, the same care and attention that it gives its 

own cars, except in case of cars on which work is done un- 

der special agreement existing between the company own- 
ing the cars and the road operating the same. 

2. Railroad companies handling cars are responsible for 
damage to any car by unfair usage, derailment or accident, 
and for improper repairs made by them, and they should 
make proper repairs at their own expense or issue defect 
card covering all such damage or improper repairs. 

3. Cars must be delivered in good running order, and re- 
turned in as good general condition as when received. 

4. The receiving road is authorized to make such altera- 
tions and repairs as are necessary for the safe movement of 
cars over its line, and must immediately notify the deliver- 
ing road of all such alterations and repairs, upon receipt of 
which notification the delivering road shall furnish proper 
authority to render bill for such alterations and repairs. 

5. Authority must be furnished for the replacement of 
wheels and axles if in the following condition : 

(0) Loose wheels. 

(b) Variation from gage beyond the limits as prescribed 
in the Rules of Interchange for freight cars. 

Wheels, Cast Iron. 

(a) Shelled out, with treads defective on account of cir- 
cular pieces shelling out, leaving round, flat spots, deepest 
at the edges, with raised centers, if i^ inches or more in 

(b) Tread worn hollow; if tread is worn sufficiently 
hollow to render flange or rim liable to breakage. 

(c) Worn flange; flanges having flat, vertical surfaces, 
extending more than ^ inch from tread. 

(d) Flat spots; if flat spots, caused by sliding, exceed 
V/i inches in length. 

(e) Burst; if wheels are cracked from the wheel fit out- 
ward by pressure from the axle. 

(/) Flanges, rim, tread, plate or brackets, either cracked, 
chipped or broken in any manner. 

Wheels, Steel Tntsa 

(a) Loose, broken or cracked hubs, plates, bolts, retain- 
ing ring or tire. 

(b) Worn flange or tire ; with flanges less than ^ inch 
thick, or having flat, vertical surfaces extending more than 
^ inch from tread, or with tire thinner than shown 



^y^ vTWVMK H1OM4 




-- 4X- 

(r) Flat spots; if flat spots, caused by sliding, exceed 
i^ inches in length. 

* Axles. 
Axles bent or broken, or having journals cut or less than 
3H inches in diameter. 


6. Brakes must be in perfect working order. Cylinders 
must have been cleaned and oiled within six months, and 
the date of the last cleaning and oiling marked on brake cyl- 
inder and triple valve with white paint. 

The adjustment of piston travel, based on seventy pounds 
as the initial pressure, must not be less than 5 inches nor 
more than 8 inches. 


7. Bills for wheels and axles shall be of the following 
form, and must make specific mention of each wheel and 
axle removed or applied: 

116 inch cut wheel tlOOD 

113 inch cut wheel 8.S0 

lul*. Sft«» lb. 14.00 

lule, «I,V» Ibi 12.00 

.. ^^t 


! ^w 



1 11 

1 11 

i IJ 


L -X 


' il 

■ 1 


if i« 


!^ 113 

ll' 1 

ii 'Hi 


'^ 111 


'8 ITA 

Cars in interchange requiring holders to be filled, the 
receiving road shall be charged for the quantity of gas sup- 

For cars stored in shop for repairs, the company having 
the car in its possession shall be responsible to the deliver- 
ing company for the gas in the holders. This will apply to 
sleeping car companies when cars are m their possession 

8. Bills rendered for labor and material furnished shall 
be in accordance with the following prices, with the proper 
debits and credits ; 

Credil lor 

New. Scrap. 

Journal B*»ring» per lb. 1« c<nta 11 cents 

Mslleable Iron " ! " W " 

Bolls, Kuts, Wrought Washen and ill 

Wrought Iron, except AxIm " 3 - % " 

CsitingM ■■ Hi" fi-10 " 

Spring Sleel (not Spring.) " 4 " % " 

Lumber: Oat, Pine, PopUr. Hickory and 

Elm pcrft. 2)4 ■' 

Labor Jtc. per hour. 

All steel castings and steel wheels of the different makes 
to be charged at current market prices. 

Removing, turning and replacing a pair of steel tired 
wheels, $7. 

Removing and replacing a pair of cast iron wheels, $2. 

Loss of service metal from steel tired wheels as a result 
of slid spots or other causes to be charged at the rate of 
$2 per i-i6 inch thickness of tire. 

Glass, paints and other materials to be charged at cur- 
rent market prices. 

Debits and credits for gas shall be settled on the follow- 

Gas shall be charged at its current market price. No labor 
shall be charged for tilling tanks. 

1£ a car is transferred from the service of one railroad to 
that of another, the receiving road shall issue an M. C. B. 
defect card authorizing the delivering road to bill against it 
for the quantity of gas in the holders at the time car was 

of s. 

Inteslocking BitAKB Shoc Figs. 999-1002. A form of 
brake shoe designed to be held in the brake shoe head 
until it is entirely worn out. The face of the shoe has 
pockets cast into it, into which fit the lugs on the back 
of the front shoe. When the shoe first applied is worn 
down thin il is removed and inserted in front of a new 
shoe applied to the brake shoe head. It then wears com- 
pletely down, and the second shoe applied goes on tak- 
ing the wear until it becomes thin, when it is placed in 
front, and so on. All that is not worn out are the lugs 
on the back of each shoe. Shoes for replacement and 
foreign equipment are plain faced and are similar in 
appearance to the ordinary forms. 

Intumediatx Brake Lever Fulcbuu. Figs. 585-6. A ful- 
crum for the intermediate brake lever, attached to the 
sills of the car body. 

Intermediate Floor (Passenger Cars). A floor consisting 
of boards placed between the sills and between the 
deafening ceiling, or under floor, and the upper or main 
floor. Its purpose is to exclude noise and cold. The 
tendency is to use no other deadening material in car 

Intermediate Sills. 3, ncs. !59-69, 360-72, etc. The two 
main longitudinal timbers underneath the floor between 
the side sills and the center sills. 

Internal Cylindrical Gage. A very accurately made, solid 
steel cylinder, used as a standard of measurement of 
cylindrical holes. 

Internal Screw Gagc A solid sleel cylinder with a screw 
thread on it, for testing the diameter of female screws. 

Inverted Arch Bar (Truck Side Frames). 15, figs. 3?3S- 
3951. A wrought iron or steel bar which rests on top 
of the journal boxes with the Arch Bar, which see, on 
top of it. Also sometimes called the middle or lower 
arch bar, as in logging cars. See, Center Bearing In- 
verted Arch Bar (Six Wheel Trucks), 67, ncs. 3735- 

Inverted Body Queen Post. A post in the side of a car 
body which supports the inverted body truss rod or 
overhang truss rod. 

Inverted Body Truss Rod A truss rod used as a Hog 
Chain, which see, to prevent the ends of a car body 
from sagging. It rests on two queen posts on top of 
the sill and is attached to the latter at each end, bear- 
ing against an inverted truss rod plate. An overhang 
truss rod. 

Carrv Iron. 
Cricket Iron. 
Knee Iron. 
Pull Iron, or Sw 

iNG Iron, or Roi 

Iron Body Bolster. Fios. 764, 780-82, etc. A Body Bolster, 
which see, of iron, usually made in the form of a truss, 
consisting of two flat bars, the body bolster top plate 
and body bolster bottom plate. Double Iron Body Bol- 
STEKS, which see, are also used. 
Iron Truck. A car truck of which the side frames are 
made wholly of iron. See, Diamond Trl'ck, which is 
the principal type. These are often made of iron with 
wooden transoms and spring planks, although iron tran- 
soms are now used in many cases. See also, figs. 3940- 

Safety Beam Iron. 

Step Ikon. 

Truck Fraue Knee 

Truss Rod Iron. 

Italian Hemp Bell Cmid, See, Bell Cord. 




Jack. See, Jack Screw. Ball Bearing Jack, figs. 2972- 
yy. Hydraulic Jack, figs. 2978-82, 2586. Lamp Jack. 
Lever Rack Jack. Screw Jack, figs. 2970-77. Smoke 
Jack. Stove Pipe Jack. Ventilator Jack. Etc. 

Jack Arms (Steam Shovel). 29, figs. 357-59. 

Jack Screw. Figs. 2970-77. i. A tool or machine for lift- 
ing or raising heavy weights. It consists of one or 
more screws, turned by a lever and working in a case, 
which rests upon the floor or ground, as shown in the 

Jacks take various names from their forms, sizes and 
shapes, and are designated as bell base, broad base, 
claw, and low, and also from the uses for which they 
are designed, as journal box jacks, traversing jacks, 
track jacks, etc. See, Hydraulic Jack. 

2. (Pile Driver Car and Steam Shovel.) 30, figs. 
357-59. A jack screw working on a jack screw pin 
attached to the body, for relieving the springs of the 
cars from action and making the platform a rigid body. 
Tongs or crabs attached to the track are used to pre- 
vent the car body from rising upward when on the jack 
screws. Another device for this same purpose is a 
bolster jack screw. 

Jackets for Steam- Heating (Safety's). Figs. 2401-10. 
The figures show in detail the construction of the 
single jackets, anti-hammering jackets and double 
jackets, respectively. The inner or the water circula- 
tion pipes are of brass or copper, and therefore most 
efHcient conductors of heat. Leakage of steam from 
steam spaces past the water pipes is prevented by packed 
glands shown. 

Jacquemin Grain Door. Figs. 1138-41. 

Jam Nut (Engineer's Valve). 6, figs. 907-09. 

Jam Nut (Pump Governor). 9, figs. 963-64. 

Jamb (of a Door). The door post on each side of the door 
proper. Ash Pit Jamb, which see, is a similar use of 
the term. 

Janney-Buhoup 3-Stem Platform Equipment. Figs. 
1526- 1630. An improved form of the Janney draft gear 
for passenger cars. The coupler head is connected to 
the center stem and the two side stems and its move- 
ment out of the center line of the car is resisted by the 
side stem springs. The center stem is backed up by the 
draft spring proper which is held in a pocket between 
the sills and which absorbs most of the shocks. The 
buffer plate is backed up by two buffer stem springs 
which aid in absorbing buffing shocks. 

Janney Car Coupler. Figs. 1380-91. A drawbar arranged 
to couple cars automatically, invented and patented by 
E. H. Janney in 1870. The outer end of the drawbar 
is made of a forked or U-shape, and to one arm an 
L-shaped knuckle is pivoted. When the two drawbars 
come together, the two knuckles engage into each other. 
The axis of the drawbar therefore remains always 
fixed, and does not move sidewise to couple as in the 
Miller coupler. 

In the passenger coupler, when the knuckles engage, 
the rear point of one or both of them is thrown back, 
and in its rearward motion it displaces a catch, which 
snaps back over the point of hook and secures it in 
place. The motion of the catch is controlled by the 
catch spring, which glides on the catch spring bolt. 
The drawbar is cast hollow to contain the knuckle, 
catch and attached parts. 

To uncouple, a platform lever draws a pull rod 
which operates a catch lever and unlocks the knuckle, 
permitting the same to swing upon the knuckle pin. 

Janney Freight Coupler. Figs. 1380-91. One of the M. 
C. B. automatic couplers, with a gravity lock. 

Janney-Miller Coupler. A modification of the Janney 
coupler, so as to enable it to be rapidly changed into an 
equivalent of the Miller coupler, thus enabling cars pro- 

vided with it to be run in connection with either Janney 
or Miller draw gear. The principal changes to effect 
this end were as follows : 

A joint was made in the barrel of the ordinary Jan- 
ney coupler to provide for the removal of the head 
when it was desired to change to the Miller. There 
was added the part called the center buffer yoke, in 
order to provide a connection between the center buffer 
spring and center buffer when used as a Miller coup- 
ling, the same springs being used, whether in use as a 
Janney or as a Miller coupler, 

A spiral spring called the side spring, with its bracket 
and clevis, was added to give the necessary side resist- 
ance to the Miller hook. The platform lever was 
lengthened for the purpose of conforming to the differ- 
ence in heights between the Janney catch lever and the 
chain by means of which the Miller hook is moved in 
uncoupling, the same lever serving for either draw gear. 
Followers and guides were provided and placed back 
of the center buffer spring to form a better base for 
that spring when used in connection with the Miller 
buffer. The Miller stop was added to the Janney plat- 
form. After a little practice the change from the 
Miller to the Janney gear was made in from two to five 
minutes. Superseded almost entirely by more modern 
platform equipments using only M. C. B. couplers. 

Jaw. a Pedestal Jaw, which see. 

Jaw Bit. A bar extending across the mouth of a pedestal 
jaw underneath a journal box and bolted to the horns 
of the pedestal. 

Jaw Bolt. A bolt with a U-shaped split head, perforated 
to carry a pin. Used largely as a brake lever fulcrum 
on brake beams. 

Jaw Spring. A Journal Spring, which see. 

Jenings Refrigerator. Figs. 199-205. A system of re- 
frigeration in which the ice tanks and interior fittings 
of the car are collapsible and readily folded out of the 
way when ice is not required, increasing the capacity 
of the car. 

Jib (of a Derrick or Crane). More properly Boom, which 

Joint. See, Head Joint. Scarf Joint. Three Way 

Joint Bolt. Fig. 3280. A bolt used for fastening two 
timbers when the end of one joins the side of another. 
The lug bolt is another form for the same purpose. 

Joint Cover. See, Window Molding Joint Cover. 

Joint Strip (of Winslow Roof), i, figs. 1714-26. A strip 
of wood with rabbeted grooves for inserting the corru- 
gated roof sheets. A cover strip is a U-shaped strip of 
metal for uniting flat roof sheets. 

Jones Car Dodk. Figs. 1055-56. 

Journal. The part of an axle or shaft on which the jour- 
nal bearing rests. A gudgeon is a rough form of jour- 
nal, usually of wood with an iron strap around it, as 
for the mast of a derrick or crane. The journals of 
bodies of irregular shape, like cannon or leaders of pile 
driver cars, are more commonly designated Trun- 
nions, which see. See below. 

Journal Bearing. Figs. 4091-99. A block of metal, 
usually some kind of Brass or Bronze, which see, in 
contact with a journal, on which the load rests. In 
car construction the term when unqualified means a 
car axle journal bearing. A standard form has been 
adopted by the Master Car Builders' Association, but 
its composition is not specified. The Hopkins or lead 
lined journal bearing is one coated on the inside with a 
thin sheet of lead to make it self fitting on journal. 
Babbitt metal in some of its many forms is used for car 
journal bearings occasionally, and almost universally 
for the bearings of machinery. In order that the jour- 
nal bearing may be more easily removable, and to dis- 
tribute the load more equally, a journal bearing key, 
also called a wedge, etc., is used to hold the journal 










bearing in place. The term "wedge" is in very com- 
mon use, perhaps more common than the name here 
Journal Bearing and Wedge Gage. Figs. 4556-75. In 
1894 a Recommended Practice was adopted for gages 
for journal bearings and wedges, to insure their proper 
interchangeability and freedom from binding when in 
place. The set comprises: 
Two bearing and wedge cross section gages. 

" " longitudinal section gages, 
flanged side lug gages, 
bore gages. 

One " thickness gage, common to both sizes. 
In 1898 the radius of both bearing bore gages was 
reduced 1-32 inch on drawing to correspond strictly 
with M. C. B. Standards shown in figs. 4244-60, 4267- 

Journal Bearing Key or Wedge. M. C. B. Standard, figs. 

4275-79, 4244-48. See above. 
Journal Bearing Stop Key. A journal bearing key with 
a projection to which a stop plate is attached to re- 
strain lateral play, so that a collar on the axle may be 
dispensed with. 
Journal Box. 165, figs. 159-69 and 3, figs. 3735-3951 ; figs. 
4100-4122. A cast iron box or case which incloses the 
journal of a car axle, the journal bearing and key, and 
which holds the packing for lubricating the journal. 
Also called an axle box, car box, grease box, housing 
box, oil box, and pedestal box. English, usually axle 

All car journal boxes are outside bearing. In certain 
larry or push cars, and also in locomotive trucks, in- 
side bearing journal boxes are used. To dispense with 
• the need of a collar on the axle, various devices, like 

the stop key and stop journal bearings, have been intro- 
duced, but they are now seldom used. 
Journal Boxes and Details (M. C. B. Standard). 

(For Journals 3^ in. x 7 in.). Figs. 4238^. The 
journal box and details as shown in these drawings 
were adopted as standards of the Association, by letter 
ballot, in 1893, and revised in 1894 and 1896. For 
former action, see Proceedings 1874, page 40 ; Proceed- 
ings 1881, pages 14, 15 and 27. 

The revision made in 1894 consisted in correcting the 
drawing at the top of the journal box, and in leaving 
off the lugs at sides of arch bars. Also in changing 
the wedge and bearing so as to make the latter flat on 
top instead of curved, as theretofore, and in curving 
the top of the wedge, thus making this construction 
similar in general arrangement to the standard forms 
for the 434 by 8 inch journal box. 

The revision made in 1896 consisted in the elimina- 
tion of the dust guard from Sheet i, and the addition 
of notes providing that any suitable dust guard might 
be used, and that a rivet or nut might be used instead 
of the cotter, if preferred, in the hinge pin of the lid. 
Also in the addition to Sheet 3 of a similar note to 
the latter, and of notes concerning the lid spring and 
the wedge. At the same time the side lugs on the 
i brass were increased so as to measure i}i inches long 

instead of i inch long as they were formerly. 

One additional note was made on Sheet i and two 
additional notes on Sheet 2 in 1898. 

In 1899 the size of bolt hole was increased from i 
inch to 1 1- 16 inches. 

(For Journals 454 by 8 in.). Figs. 4261-83. The 
journal box and details as shown in these drawings 
were adopted as standards of the Association, by letter 
ballot, in 1893, and revised in 1896. For former action 
«ee Proceedings 189 1, pages 142-144. 

The revision made in 1896 consisted in the elimina- 
tion of the dust guard from Sheet 4 ; also, in removing 
the arch bar seat lugs from Sheets 4 and 5, and making 
the arch bar seat 4J/2 inches wide. Also, in the addi- 

tion to Sheet 4 of notes providing that any suitable 
dust guard might be used, and that a rivet or nut might 
be used instead of a cotter, if preferred, in the hinge 
pin of the lid. Also, in the addition to Sheet 6 of a 
similar note to the latter, and of notes concerning the 
lid spring and the wedge. At the same time the side 
lugs on the brass were increased so as to measure iH 
inches long instead of ^ inch long as they were for- 

One additional note was made on Sheet 4 and two 
additional notes on Sheet 5 in 1898. 

Tne revision in 1901 consisted of cutting out entirely 
the inner dust guard wall at the top. 

(For Journals 5 x 9 in.). Fics. 4373-90, 4400-27. 
The journal box and details shown in these drawings 
were adopted as Recommended Practice in 1896. In 
1898 they were adopted as standards of the Associa- 

In 1900 the opening at the back end of box, corre- 
sponding with the dust guard, was increased from 
3 3-16 inches to 3>i inches radius, making the opening 
6}i inches wide instead of 6H inches, the height re- 
maining unchanged. 

The revision in 1901 consisted of cutting out entirely 
the inner dust guard wall at the top. 

In 1902 the wedge stop lugs were increased in size 
and extended laterally to the sides of box. 

(For Journals $^2 in. x 10 in.). Figs. 4391-4424. 
The journal box and details shown in these drawings 
were adopted as standard in 1900. 

In 1901 the inner dust guard wall at the top was 
cut out entirely to avoid all danger of the journal bear- 
ing striking the wall of the box at the rear. 

In 1902 the wedge stop lugs were extended laterally 
to the sides of box. 

(For Passenger Car Journals 4% in. x 8 in.). Figs. 
4476-78. In 1898 a Recommended Practice was adopted 
for passenger car journal box and contained parts for 
journals 4^4 by 8 inches, and was formerly shown on 
Sheet G. In 1901, as a result of letter ballot, this was 
changed to Standard. 

Journal Box Bolts. 108, figs. 3735-53. The bolts on 
either side of the journal box/which secure it be- 
tween the arch bar and the pedestal tie bar. 

Journal Box Cover, or Lid. 4, figs. 3735-3951. A door 
or lid covering an aperture on the outside of a jour- 
nal box, by means of which oil and packing are sup- 
plied and journal bearings are inserted or removed. 
Such covers are made of cast iron, malleable iron, 
pressed steel, and sometimes of wood. They are 
usually closed by a spring. 

Journal Box Cover Bolt. A bolt used to fasten covers 
which have no hinge to the box. Two of these arc 
usually employed to each cover. A gasket of canvas, 
rubber or leather is used to make a tight joint. Jour- 
nal box covers are, however, now almost invariably 
held on by hinges and springs or some arrangement of 
lugs or grooved joints. 

Journal Box Cover Hinge Pin. Fig. 41 17. 

Journal Box Cover Spring. A flat spring to hold the lid 
in place. 

Journal Box Guides. Iron bars or blocks placed one on 
each side of the journal boxes of some iron frame 
trucks in which journal springs are used. These irons, 
while holding the box in place longitudinally and trans- 
versely, allow it to have a vertical motion between 
them. When a pair of these guides is cast in one piece 
it is called a Pedestal, which see. 

Journal Box Jacks. Figs. 2981, 2986. A low jack spe- 
cially designed to set under journal boxes, and take the 
weight off the journal, so that brasses can be removed 
as from a hot box. 

Journal Box Lid. See, Journal Box Cover. 

Journal Brass. A Journal Bearing, which see. 




Journal Packing. Waste, wool, or other fibrous material 
saturated with oil or grease, with which a journal box 
is filled to lubricate the journal. Various forms of 
patent packing have also been introduced. 

Journal Spring. Shown in figs. 3757-59, Z77A-77* etc. A 
spring supporting part of the weight of a car which is 
placed directly over the journal, and which usually 
rests on the journal box under the truck frame. Such 
springs are sometimes placed above the truck frame 
and supported by straps, and the weight of the car is 
transmitted to the journal box by a vertical pin or 
stirrup. Equalizer Springs, which see, accomplish the 
same end in six wheel trucks as journal springs, and 
more eflFectually. 

Jute. A coarse fibre raised in India for making gunny 
bags, matting, ropes, etc. It has been recently used for 
making journal packing by a patented process. 


Kalahined Iron. Sheet iron, coated with an alloy of 
zinc, lead, tin and nickel in the proportion of 29 lbs. of 
tin, 50 to 75 lbs. of zinc, 100 lbs. of lead, and three to 
six ounces of nickel. The alloy melts at a lower tem- 
perature than common zinc, and is claimed to give a 
more durable compound as well as a thinner and more 
adhesive coating. Galvanized iron is sheet iron coated 
in the same way with pure zinc. 

Keeper. "A ring, strap, pocket, or the like device for de- 
taining an object; as 

1. "A jam nut. 

2. "The box on a door jamb into which the bolt of a 
lock protrudes when shot, as figs. 1890- 1900. When 
the keeper is for a beveled latch bolt, which is moved 
by contact with it, it is more commonly called a strike 
plate, as fig. 1900. They are also further designated 
by the name of the lock or latch which they accompany. 

3. "The latch of a hook, which prevents its acci- 
dental disengagement.'' — Knight. 

Keewanee Brake Beam. Figs. 836-37. A steel brake 
beam of rectangular cross section, and a bar for truss 
rod, which is bent around the ends of the beam proper. 

Keg Shaped Spiral Spring. A spiral spring, the form of 
which resembles a keg or cask. Its object is to obtain 
a Graduated Spring, which see. 

Kelso Coupler. Figs. 1371-79. 

Keratol. An artificial leather used for curtains and up- 
holstering. It is made by coating a cloth fabric with 
a compound which gives it the appearance of leather. 

Key. i. "In a general sense, a fastener; that which 
fastens; as a piece of wood in a frame of a building." 
— ^Webster. Hence a pin inserted in a hole in a bolt, 
and used to secure the bolt or its nut. A Split Key, 
which see, is a special form. 

2. "An instrument for opening or shutting a lock by 
pushing the bolt one way or the other." — Webster. 
See, Lock. Bit. 

3. A block over the top of a journal bearing, called 
in full Journal Bearing Key, which see. This part is 
also very commonly called a wedge. 

4. A beveled bar used with a gib to form a Gib and 
Key, which see. See also, King Bolt Key. 

5. (For Lamps and Valves of Pintsch Gas Appa- 
ratus.) A substitute for the ordinary cocks of gas 
fixtures to prevent unauthorized tampering. 

Key Block. 186, figs. 159-69. See, Packing Blocks. 
Key Bolt. A bolt slotted near the end to receive a key, 

which takes the place of a nut. 
Key Hole Escutcheons See, Escutcheons. 
Key Hole Plate. An Escutcheon or Escutcheon Plate, 

which see. 
Key Pin (of a Lock). The pivot on which the key turns 

when inserted in the lock. 

Key Ring Tire Fastening. A mode of securing the tire 
to the wheel, composed of two rings, one of U-section 
and the other nearly rectangular. The .former ring 
holds tire and wheel together, and the latter ring holds 
the former in place, filling up the groove in the tire. 
When both rings are in place the outer lip of the 
groove in the tire is slightly hammered over, thus grip- 
ping the second or key ring, and retaining it in place. 
See also. Tire Fastening. 

Keystone Car Seal. Figs. 3138-39. 

Keystone Car Wheel. Figs. 4223-24. 

Keystone Cast Steel Bolster. Figs. 765-72. Body bol- 
sters of cast steel made in one piece. 

Keystone Palace Horse Car. See, Stock Car. 

Kicking Coil. A coil of wire consisting of about ten turns 
wound on a wooden core ; it is located in the feed cir- 
cuit between lightning arrester and controller, and acts 
as an inductive resistance to the passage of lightning 
discharge through the apparatus. See, Lightning Ar- 

KiNDL Truck. Figs. 3778-80. A pedestal truck of struct- 
ural shapes reinforced somewhat after the manner of 
arch bar trucks. 

King Bolt, or Center Pin. 18, figs. 159-69, 185-95; figs. 
557-8. A large bolt which passes through the truck and 
body bolsters and center plates of a car body and the 
center of a truck. It is accessible from the floor of the 
car by removing the king bolt plate. The truck is sup- 
posed to swivel on the king bolt, but in reality the two 
center plates normally carry all the strain. In some 
wrecking cars the king bolt is provided with keys to 
bind the truck to the car so that they cannot be sepa- 
rated from each other. 

King Bolt Key. Figs. 625-7. See above. 

King Bolt Plate. See above. 

King Post (of a Truss). A single post or distance piece 
between a truss rod and the chord of a truss or beam. 
If two such posts are used they are called queen posts. 
In car construction king posts are made in two ways : 
one adjustable, so that they may be lengthened or 
shortened, and the other without adjustment. Also see. 
Brake Beam King Post. Cross Frame King Post. 
Truck Bolster King Truck Frame King Post. 


Kirby's Car Door Lock. Figs. 1980-81. A device to give a 
lock extra strength and durability and to dispense with 
the use of screws for fastening on the door knobs. 

Kirby's Seat Lock. Fig. 3259. 

Kitchen (Dining Car). A large compartment at one end 
of the car provided with all the facilities of a well 
organized kitchen. Officers' and other private cars arc 
commonly provided with a kitchen smaller than in 
dining cars and usually at the extreme end. 

Knee Iron. An L-shaped or angle iron casting or forging 
which is fastened to the comer where two timbers are 
joined to strengthen the joint See, Sill Knee Iron. 
Truck Knee Iron. 

Knob. See, Berth Safety Rope Knob. Door Knob. 
Window Curtain Knob. 

Knob Escutcheon. Figs. 1983-87. A Door Latch Rose, 
which see. 

Knob Sash Lift. See, Sash Lift. 

Knob Shank. Fig. 1980. A Door Lock Spindle, which 

Knuckle, i. (M. C. B. Couplers.) Figs. 1299-1499. The 
rotating coupling hook by means of which coupling is 
effected when the knuckle is locked by the catch or 
lock. It must conform to certain contour lines adopted 
by the M. C. B. Association in 1888 and shown in fig. 

2. (Of a Hinge.) Figs. 1942-69. Tne central tubu- 
lar projections which carry the hinge pin. The term 
is of wide and general application in mechanics to many 
similar parts. 




Knuckle^ Automatic Coupler, Contour Line and Limit 
Gages. Figs. 4355-56. Standard contour line was an- 
nounced by Executive Committee under instructions 
from the Master Car Builders' Association April 8, 
1888. Limit gages for preserving standard contour line 
were adopted in 1891. 

These gages, properly proven by master gages, may 
be procured from Pratt & Whitney Company, of Hart- 
ford, Conn. A duplicate set of master gages is held in 
the office of the Secretary for reference when desired. 

Knuckle Joint. "A joint in which a projection on each 
leg or leaf of a device is inserted between correspond- 
ing recesses in the other, the two being connected by a 
pin or pivot on which they mutually turn. The legs of 
dividers and the leaves of door hinges are examples of 
true knuckle joints. The term, however, has been 
somewhat commonly restricted to compound or univer- 
sal joints designed to act in any direction." — Knight. 
Among the applications of this joint which have been 
made in car building are gas pipe knuckle jointed tubes 
to be used instead of rubber for brake hose. They are 
not in general use. 

Knuckle Pin (M. C. B. Coupler). 16, figs. 1526-1613. 
The steel pin connecting the knuckle to the jaws of the 

Krupp Safety Lock (SteeJ Tired Wheels). Fig. 4226. 

Krupp Steel Tired Car Wheels. Figs. 4200-05. 

Label Holder (Postal Car). Figs. 3069, 3083, 3086^ 
Made both single and double. Sometimes combined 
with a drawer pull. 

Lace (English). See, Broad Lace. Pasting Lace. Seam- 
ing Lace. 

Ladder. 59, figs. 159-69. Bars of wood or iron attached 
to the side or end of a box car so as to form steps by 
which persons may climb to and from the top of the 

The individual bars, whether of wood or iron, and 
whether round or square, are termed ladder rounds. 
They are sometimes made with Ladder Side Rails, 
which see. The handles alongside of the ladder are 
termed grab irons, or hand holds, or sometimes comer 
handles; that placed on the roof near the ladder, the 
roof grab iron or ladder hand rail. See, Protection of 

Ladder Handle. 60, figs, 159-69. A Roof Grab Iron or 
Hand Hold, which see. 

Ladder Rod. An iron ladder round. 

Ladder Round. 59, figs. 159-69, etc.; figs. 559-60, etc. See, 
Ladder. The lower round of the ladder, by recom- 
mendation of the Master Car Builders' Association, 
should be a bent ladder round, as a safeguard against 
the slipping of the foot in swinging around the corner 
of a car. 

Ladder Side Rails. The wooden vertical side pieces to 
which wooden or iron ladder rounds are attached. This 
form of constructing the ladder is more common than 
ladder rounds directly secured to the end of the car. 

La Flare Spring Insulation. Figs. 1067-69. A system of 
insulation for refrigerator car doors, in which the open- 
ings are securely sealed against the outside air by strips 
pressed against the door by springs set in the posts. 

Lag Screw (English, Coach Screw). An iron bolt with a 
square or hexagonal head, and with a wood screw 
thread cut on it, intended to screw into wood. Lag 
screws are round under the head, so that they can be 
turned after they enter the wood. 

X^MBREQUiN. Fig. 3723. A cloth or drapery fastened over 
the upper part of a window. It covers the rod and rings 
or roller of the window curtains. The lambrequin has 
been replaced by Valances, which see. 

Laminated Buffing Spring (English). A half elliptic 
spring. See, Plate Buffing and Draft Spring. 

Lamp. Figs. 2568-2748. "A vessel for the combustion of 
fluid inflammable bodies for the purpose of producing 
light." — Webster. The chief forms of lamps now used 
are for burning gas and mineral oil .or petroleum, 
though candle lamps are used in cases of emergency, 
as also oil lamps for lard oil, for panel lights, lanterns, 
etc. Car lamps are distinguished as side lamps and 
center lamps, the latter now usually consisting of tw^o 
or more distinct lamps, forming a chandelier. In Eng- 
land roof lamps, inserted from the roof of the car, arc 
exclusively used. Lamps are also distinguished as ad- 
justable globe, loose globe and plastered or fixed globe, 
the latter being a form in which the lamp is removed 
from below and the globe cannot be taken off. Many 
modern lamps are constructed upon the Tornado or 
Hurricane principle, which see, to avoid the effects of 
draft. Postal car lamps or chandeliers are a special 
class, in which every means possible is used to obtain 
a powerful light. See also. Acme Lamp. Alcove Lamp. 
Gas Lamps. Signal Lamp. Tail Lamp, etc. 

Lamp Alcove. A metal casing or lining for a recess in the 
side of a car to contain an Alcove Lamp, which see. 

Lamp Arms. 4, figs. 2694-2710. Rods by which a lamp is 
attached to the ceiling of a car. Some lamp arms have 
bracket angles to support the shade, and are then called 
bracket arms. 

Lamp Bottom. 20, figs. 2694-2710. The lower portion of a 
lamp which is removable. Contains the wick, burner 
and oil. See, Candle Bottom. 

Lamp Bracket. See, Side Lamp Bracket. 

Lamp Burner. Figs. 2319-25; 8, figs. 2694-27^ That por- 
tion of a lamp by which the opening on the top of the 
reservoir is closed, which holds the wick, and by which 
the latter is adjusted. The Acme and Dual Burners, 
which see, are favorites for car service where a brilliant 
light is wanted, but many forms are used. The name 
burner is also applied to the tips of a gas light in the 
Pintsch gas system. See, figs. 2519-25. 

Lamp Burner (English). The wick holder in the Roof 
Lamp, which see. 

Lamp Canopy. Figs. 2663-73. A large and elaborate Smoke 
Bell, which see. 

Lamp Case (Street Cars), i. A box over the end windows 
in which a lamp is placed. It has a glazed door on the 
inside and usually colored glass on the outside as a sig- 
nal to designate the line to which the car belongs.^ It is 
fastened by a lamp case hook and eye. 

2. (English.) A cylindrical sheet of iron for the 
protection of the Roof Lamp, which see. 

Lamp Case Base or Packing (English). A wooden pack- 
ing piece secured to the roof boards and presenting a 
level face for the lamp case. See also. Roof Lamp. 

Lamp Case Chimney (Street Cars). A metal pipe through 
which the smoke and gases escape from a lamp case, 
very similar to a Lamp Jack, which see. 

Lamp Case Door (Street Cars). See, Lamp Case. 

Lamp Case Door Holder. A kind of hook attached to the 

Lamp Case Eye. See, Lamp Case. 

Lamp Case Hook. See, Lamp Case. 

Lamp Chimney. A glass tube which incloses the flame of 
a lamp, conducts away the smoke and gases and pro- 
duces the necessary draft. 

Figs. 2678-86 give what are known as the standard 
types. For the names of which see engravings. 

Lamp Chimney Bracket. 12, figs. 2694-2710. A projecting 
metal arm attached to the side of a car and carrying a 
chimney holder, by which a lamp chimney is held in 

Lamp Chimney Holder, ii, figs. 2694-27ia See above. 

Lamp Chimney Reflector. 15, figs. 2694-2710. Usually it 





has a hole in the center in which the chimney is in- 

Lamp Cover, or Lamp Protector (English). American 
equivalent, lamp jack. A sheet iron cover hinged to the 
lamp case and secured by a spring catch to protect the 
lamp from rain, while it allows the smoke to escape. 
See also, Roof Lamp. 

Lamp Cover Spring Catch (English). See above. 

Lamp Fount. The receptacle for the oil burned in a lamp. 
Also called lamp reservoir. 

Lamp Glass (English). In a carriage, a hemispherical 
glass globe of unusual thickness, which surrounds the 
burner of a Roof Lamp, which see. 

Lamp Globe. Figs. 2548-67 ; 28, figs. 2694-2710, etc. A glass 
or porcelain case or vessel inclosing or surrounding the 
flame of a lamp or candle, and intended to protect the 
latter from wind. Lamp globes are approximately glob- 
ular in form, in distinction from a lamp shade, which 
flares at the bottom, but are often made of different 
shapes, as round, pear shaped, egg shaped, melon 
shaped, double cone shaped, etc. 

Lamp Globe Chimney. 3, figs. 2694-2710. A metal tube at- 
tached to the top of a lamp globe for conducting away 
the smoke. A shade cup is an equivalent device for a 
lamp shade. 

Lamp Holder. See, Side Lamp Holder. 

Lamp Hoop. A ring with an interior screw thread for at- 
taching to cheap oil lamps to receive the burner. 

Lamp Iron (English). American equivalent, tail light 
holder, or signal light holder. See, End Lamp Iron and 
Side Lamp Iron. 

Lamp Jack. A cap or covering over a lamp vent on the out- 
side of a car to exclude rain and prevent downward 
currents of air. Also see, Lamp Case Chimney. 

Lamp Key (Pintsch Gas). Fig. 2513. A substitute for the 
ordinary cock of gas fixtures, used to prevent unau- 
thorized tampering with the burners. 

Lamp Plug (English). A cylindrical piece of wood secured 
to the lamp case by a chain, and used to block up the 
lamp aperture in the roof when the lamp is not in its 
place. See, Roof Lamp. 

Lamp Plug Stand (English). A cast iron stand on which 
the lamp plug rests when the Roof Lamp, which see, is 
in use. Its object is to prevent the lamp plug bumping 
on the roof of the carriage when the train is moving. 

Lamp Reflector. 14, figs. 2694-2710. See also. Alcove 
Lamp Reflector. 

Lamp Reservoir. 6, figs. 2694-2710. The portion of a lamp 
which holds the oil. Also called lamp fount. 

Lamp Ring. 5, figs. 2694-2710. A metal ring at the base of 
a lamp, to which the lamp bottom or reservoir and 
lamp globe are attached. In center lamps the ring is 
supported by the lamp arms. 

Lamp Screw. A more elaborate Lamp Hoop, which see, 
with a flange. 

Lamp Shade. 2, figs. 2694-2710. A conical shaped reflector 
placed over a lamp to reflect the light downward. 

Figs. 2674-77 and 2687-89 give what are known as 
standard forms, the dimensions of which, in inches, are 
as shown in the figures. 

Lamp Socket. Figs. 2711-25. A socket or dove tail joint to 
which a lamp or flag is attached at the comer of a car. 
They are flat, inclined, angular or projecting, as may 
be desired. 

Lamp Stay, i, figs. 2694-2710. A horizontal bar, usually 
reaching from side to side of the clear story, by which 
a car lamp is steadied, and also made more ornamental. 

Lamp -Vent. An opening in the roof, through which the 
gases from a lamp escape. 

Lantern. Figs. 2730-37. A portable lamp, the flame in 
which is protected from wind and rain by glass, usually 
in the form of a globe surrounded by wires, called 
guards. According to the number of these wires the 
lantern is called single, double or triple guard. The 

conductor's lantern is one with a large bail, so as to be 
carried on the arm, leaving both hands free. It is usual- 
ly provided with a reflector above. Inspector's lanterns 
are generally arranged to give blue light. See, Lens. 
Signal Light. 

Lantern and Flag Holder. A device for displaying sig- 
nals on rear of trains. See, Flag Holder. The novelty 
is the convenience of attachment for either a lamp or 

Larry. See, Lorry. 

Lappin Brake Shoes. Fig. ioii. A brake shoe cast from 
a mixture of metals, which is a solid casting with al- 
ternate sections of hard chilled and soft parts. The 
chilling of the harder sections is done in the usual man- 
ner by chilling blocks brought into contact with the 
molten metal. The process gives no sharply defined 
line between the hard and soft sections, to make a cut- 
ting edge, as the chilled parts radiate into and mingle 
with the soft metal, and thus disappear. The number 
and area of the soft sections can be increased or dimin- 
ished by changing the number arid size of the chilling 
blocks in the mold, and the holding power of the shoe 
thus varied to suit the conditions of service. 

Latch. Figs. 1902-34, etc. The primary sense of this word 
is — to catch, to close, stop, or make fast; hence, an at- 
tachment to a door, window, etc., to hold it open or 
shut, is called a latch. The ordinary distinction be- 
tween a latch and a lock is that a lock is closed and 
opened with a separate key, and usually has a square 
bolt; whereas, a latch has no separate key, and usually 
has a beveled bolt which snaps shut automatically by 
contact with the keeper or strike plate. The most exact 
distinction between a latch and lock seems to be the 
form of the bolt, and not the use or disuse of a key. 
See, Sash Lock. Latches named from the use which 
they subserve are the following, which see: 
Berth Latch. Saloon Latch. 

Deck Sash Latch. Sliding Door Latch, 

Safety Berth Latch. or Lift Latch. 

Safety Strap Latch. Spring Door Latch. 

A sliding door latch, or lift latch, figs. 1914-34, has 
a beveled hook instead of a beveled bolt, but operates 
upon substantially the same principle. Nearly all forms 
of latches are spring latches. A night latch is a large 
and carefully made form of an ordinary latch, which 
can be opened from the outside by a key. A cupboard 
latch is any form of small latch.' A rim latch, like a rim 
lock, is one attached simply to the outside of the door, 
in distinction from a mortise or rabbeted latch (both 
rarely used), which is boxed into the door. 

Lateral Motion. A movement sidewMse, more particularly 
meaning, as generally used, a side or swing motion of 
the bolster of a swing motion truck, in distinction from 
the end play of an axle under the journal. A lateral 
motion spring, which is slipped over a lateral motion 
spring pin, is sometimes used to check the lateral move- 
ment of such spring bolsters, but this end is more com- 
monly accomplished by. splaying the swing hangers out- 

Lateral Motion Spring. 40, figs. 3735-3951. See above. 

Lateral Motion Spring Pin. 41, figs. 3735-3951- See 

Lateral Play. Side motion of any part of a car or ma- 
chinery; the space left to permit of such side motion. 
See, Lateral Motion (of a Truck Bolster). End Play 
(of an Axle). 

Lavatory. A room provided with washbowl, towels, combs, 
brushes, etc., in which passengers may make their toilet. 
Parlor and sleeping cars are provided with separate 
lavatories for men and women, which are separated 
from the saloons. The best and most modern coaches 
have a lavatory. See, Wash Room. A saloon is some- 
times termed a lavatory. 

Lavatory Carriage (English). A passenger vehicle in 



which two or more compartments have access to a 
small lavatory, urinal, etc. See also, Carriage. 

Lead Car Seal. Figs. 3122-25, etc Lead seals are either in 
the form of rivets or buttons. Both are in common use. 
See, Car Seal. 

Lead Lined Journal Bearing. A journal bearing which has 
its inner surface covered with a thin layer of lead, so 
that it may fit itself to the journal as soon as subjected 
to wear. Such bearings are often called Hopkins jour- 
nal bearings. A variety of other bearings are more or 
less similar, but a greater quantity of lead or babbitt 
metal is frequently used. 

Lead Rivet Car Seal. Figs. 3122-25, etc. See, Car Seal. 

Lead Seal. Figs. 3122-25, etc. See, Car Seal. Lead Car 

Leaders (of Pile Driver Car). The long vertical timbers 
serving to guide the Hammer (which see) in its fall. 
The leaders swing upon leader trunnions, carried on 
the leader trunnion pedestal. They are stiffened at some 
point midway of their length by top stringers, leader 
braces, and commonly by pilasters at the outside, which 
latter serve to support the top stringers. They are con- 
nected at the top by a leader cap and at the bottom by 
a leader cross piece, the latter attached at the side in 
such a manner as not to interfere with the fall of the 

Leader Brace (Pile Driver Car). See above. 

Leader Brace Pocket (Pile Driver Car). See above. 

Leader Cap (Pile Driver Car). A cross piece connecting 
the two leaders at the top and carrying the main sheave 
and pile hoisting sheave of the hoisting gear. 

Leader Cross Piece. See, Leader. 

Leader Stay. An oblique diagonal brace, attached at the 
upper end to the top stringers, serving to stiffen the 

Leader Trunnion. See, Leader and Trunnion. 

Leakage Groove (of Westinghouse Brake Cylinder). A 
small passage past the brake piston to prevent applica- 
tion of the brakes by trifling leakages of air. 

Leather. See, Piston Packing Leather. Packing 
Leather. Window Shade Leather. Solid Leather 

Leather Bell (Tord. See, Bell Cord. 

Leatheroid. a substance somewhat resembling leather, and 
somewhat similar to Vulcanized Fiber^ which see, in 
its general character and appearance. It is made by 
treating paper with sulphate of zinc. 

Leather Seat. A Dust Guard Bearing, which see. 

Left Main Valve Cylinder Head (Air Pump). 85, pigs. 

Left Main Valve Head Gasket (Air Pump). 108, figs. 


Leg. See, Seat Leg. 

Leg Iron (English). See, Step Iron. 

Leg Rest (Reclining Seats). 30, figs. 3151-52. A bracketed 
and adjustable shelf, which may be used on a chair seat 
to support the limbs when the seat or chair is in a re- 
clining position. It is adjusted by a leg rest ratchet and 
leg rest pivot casting, as in fig. 3172, or by a leg rest 
slide fitting in a leg rest socket casting, as in figs. 3190- 


Length (of Elliptic Springs). The distance from center to 
center of scrolls when the spring is unloaded. 

Lens. An optical instrument for conveying rays of light 
upon a fixed path or fixed point. Lenses for lanterns 
consist of three types — bull's eye, a double convex or 
piano convex lens ; semaphore (a mere modification of 
the Fresnel), and the Fresnel proper, the latter rarely 

Leonard Hydrostatic Buffer. See, Hydrostatic Buffer. 

Letter Board (Passenger Car Exteriors). 91, figs. 360-72, 
388-91. A horizontal board under the cornice, extend- 
ing the whole length, on which the name of the com- 
pany to which the car belongs is usually painted. The 


letter board occupies the frieze of the car, and is often 
so called. 

Letter Box Plate. Sec bejow. 

Letter Case Label Holders. Figs. 3068, 3077. 

Letter Drop (Postal Cars). Figs. 3065-66. A plate with a 
spring flap for receiving letters for the post A letter 
box lid. 

Lettering (of Freight Cars). Figs. 4551-53. In 1893 the M. 
C. B. Association adopted a Recommended Practice for 
Marking Fast Freight Line Cars, as shown in figs. 
4551-53. It was resolved: 

1st. The half of side of car on which the doors do 
not slide to show the name of the *Fast Freight Line,' 
spelled out in full, and the car number in the Fast 
Freight Line series immediately below it In the same 
panel and within 2 ft of the sill shall appear, in letters 
not over 4 in. high, the name of the railroad company 
owning or contributing the car, and between the same 
and the sill shall appear the light weight of the car, 
with such other information as it is found advisable to 
give in connection with same. 

"2d. Side doors to bear the initials of the road to 
which the car belongs, or the name of the line on which 
the car is used, together with the number of the car. 

"3d. The ends to show the initials of the 'Fast 
Freight Line,* with the car number in the Fast Freight 
Line series, and the light weight just below them; no 
other marks will appear on ends of car. 

"4th. The half of sides of cars on which the doors 
do slide to be reserved for advertising symbols or 
trade marks, where used. The use of profuse lettering 
in this panel is to be discouraged, however, and it is 
recommended that only the simplest trade marks or ad- 
vertising signs should be used; the capacity of the car 
to appear near the sill in this same panel." 

Lever. "In mechanics, a bar of metal, wood or other sub- 
stance, turning on a support called a fulcrum."— Web- 
ster. See, 

Brake Lever. Hand Car Lever, or 

Brake Equalizing Propelling Lever. 

Lever. Live Lever. 

Center Brake Lever. Platform Lever. 

Compression Lever. Release Lever. 

Cylinder Lever. Roof Lever. 

Dead Lever. Thumb Lever. 

Door Shaft Lever. Tripping Lever. 

Eccentric Lever. Uncoupling Lever. 

Floating Lever. 

Lever and Rack Jack. Figs. 2983-4. See, Barrett's Jack. 

Lever Faucet. Figs. 2763-64. A self closing faucet, shut 
by a spring and opened by the movement of a handle or 
lever. Also called telegraph faucet They are called 
vertical or horizontal according to the direction of the 
pipe or opening into which they are fastened. 

Lever Frame (Hand Car). 17, 18, figs. 4722-27. A wooden 
frame shaped somewhat like a letter A, on top of a 
hand car, which supports the lever shaft and lever. 

Lever Frame Cap (Hand Car). 18, figs. 4722-27. A short 
horizontal piece of timber, to which the lever journal 
bearings are fastened. 

Lever Frame Post (Hand Car). 17, figs. 4722-27. 

Lever Frame Tie Rod (Hand Car). 25, figs. 4722-27. A 
vertical rod by which the lever frame cap is bolted to 
the floor frame. 

Lever Guard. A guide on the platform rail for the platform 
upcoupling lever. 

Lever Guide. See above arid Brake Lever Guide. 

Lever Hand Car. Figs. 4722-27. The common style of 
Hand Car, which see, worked by levers connected to 
cranks. These levers are usually placed horizontally, 
but sometimes they are vertical. Double lever hand 
cars, to avoid danger of trouble with the dead center, 
have been in use. See, Hand Cars. 


Ixm Handle (Janney-Buhoup Platform). 15a, figs. 1536- 

LnxK HiNGB BsACKn (JaiuKr-Buhoup Platform). 1^ 
ncs. 1526-1613- 

Lcm Shaft, i. (Hand Car.) 21, figs. 4733-27. A sturt 
iran shaft to which the propelling levers are attached. 
3. (Engineer's Valve.) 120, figs. g68-7i- 

Livra Sbaft Beaungs (Hand Car). 32, figs. 4722-37. 

Lip. See, Joubnal Box Coras. Journal Box Lm. Sa- 
loon Seat Lm. 

Lift. A finger hold attached to windows and window 
blinds to take hold of in raising or lowering them. 
See, Sash Lift. Window Blind Lift. 

Lift Latcb, ob Slidinc Doos Latcb. Figs. 1914-25, etc. 
A lock, the latch of which is lifted by turxiing the knob 
instead of drawing it backward. 

Lift Latch Lock. "A lock in which the latch is pivoted 
and lifted free of the keeper, passing through a notch 
in the box instead of being simply retracted." — Knight. 

Lightning Arkester. Figs. 4826, 4S28-9. A device for pro- 
tecting electrical apparatus from damage by lightning. 
It usually consists of an air gap in series with a non- 
inductive resistance connected between power circuit 
and ground. The gap serves as an easier path to 
ground for high voltage discharge than through the 
electrical apparatus. The gap is provided with a mag- 
netic blowout that extinguishes the arc after discharge. 

LiGNoif L'R. A decorative head lining made from strawboard 
or paper, with figures stamped or embossed upon it. 
The figures are usually light colored, while the back- 
ground is darker. It is glued to a thin narrow matched 
ceiling or may be applied directly to an old veneered 

LmiT Gage A term applied to many forms of gages which 
are used for determining whether pieces do not exceed 
or tall below a certain specified range of dimensioa In 
1693 limit gage and diameters for round iron were 
adopted as a Recommended Practice ; these had former- 
ly been standard of the Association. Limit gages, such 
as shown herewith for I'/i inch iron, are recommended 
for use in procuring round iron to take the Seller's 
standard screw threads ; round iron used to be of such 
size as will enter the large or -|- end of the gage intend- 
ed for that size, in any way, and also of such size as will 
not enter the small or — end in any way. 

The limiting diameters for certain nominal 
iron, together with the maximum variation allowable 
by such use of these gages, are given in the following 

Sizes of Liiiit Gages for Round Iion. 
Nominal diam- Large size. Small size. Total 

eterofiron. -f-end. — end. variation. 

Inches. Inches. Inches. Inches. 

^ .2550 .2450 .010 

5-16 3180 .3070 X>I I 

H 3810 .3690 .013 

7-16 .4440 .4310 .013 

J4 5070 -4930 -014 

9-16 5^» 5550 .CIS 

H 6330 -6170 .016 


a -7585 -7415 -017 

Ji .8S40 .8660 .018 

I 1-0095 Wos .019 

iH 1.1350 1.1150 -on 

lii 1.2605 1.3395 -oai 

LiNCBliSTA Walton. A decorative material for walls and 
ceilings, having something of the appearance and 
toughness of leather. It is made from the residuum of 
boiled linseed oil mixed with sawdust. Designs of any 
form are pressed upon it and it is furnished in a great 
variety of colors. It is attached to walls, generally 
with paste or glue, like wall paper, but is water proof 
and very flexible. 

LiNSSTSou Ratchet Brake Handle. Figs. 3042-52. A 
brake handle for wide vestibules intended to work in a 
small arc of a circle. It is attached to the end panel of 
the vestibule and when not in use is pushed against the 

Line Car. Figs. 8-13, 28, 39, etc A short term to designate 
cars belonging to the various fast freight lines which 
run over several roads between the leading shipping 
points east and west The number of these lines is 
large, and at the present time they are nearly all owned 
by associations of the roads themselves and not by pri- 
vate individuals. Their object is to make it possible to 
issue through bills of lading and to avoid breaking 
bulk, as well as to obtain greater dispatch. 

At the seventeenth M. C. B. Convention, Chicago, 
1883, the following resolutions were adopted; 

"Whereas, It is a common practice to store line cars 
on side tracks during summer months or dull times 
away from home, after they have been in severe ser- 
vice; and, 

"Whereas, Many of the cars after being so stored are 
found to be more or less out of jtroper condition, so that 
they need more or less repairs, and when put into ser- 
vice cause much detention to traffic and many transfers; 
"Be it resolved, therefore, That it is the sense of this 
meeting that all line cars owned by foreign companies 
should be returned to their owners instead of beii^ 
stored on foreign tracks, and that a competent man 
should be detailed to inspect the stored cars and to ar- 
range to have the necessary repairs made during the 
time such cars are out of service." 

For standard lettering of line cars, figs. 455I-S3. see. 

Liner Blocks (Coupler). Blocks of cast or malleable iron 
bolted to the top and bottom of the tail end of the 
coupler or drawtiar. They are now usually cast in- 
tegral with the coupler shank. For different sizes of 
liner blocks see figs. 1316-63. 

Lining. See, End Lining. Head Lining. iNsmc Lining. 
Feed Door Lining. Inner, outer and intermediate lin- 
ings of refrigerator cars are those linings or partitions 
intermediate between the inside lining and the sheath- 
ing, which usually consists of ^ or fi stuff, whose 
purpose is to make dead air spaces for insulating the 
contents of the car. 

Lining Strips. Wooden or metal strips put on the inside 
of freight or ba^age cars to protect the inside of the 
car from being injured by freight or baggage. Lining 
strips serve very much the same purpose as inside 

Lining Studs. 54, figs. 185-95. Vertical studs placed be- 
tween the posts and over or under the braces, and to 
which the lining is nailed. 

Link. t. "A short connecting piece, of circular or other 
equivalent shape ; as one of the oval rings or divisions 
of a chain."— Knight. 

2. (Coupling Links.) A short bar with an eye at 
each end for connecting two things together or for 
supporting one from another. When used alone the 
term in railroad service always meaqs a CouptiNO 




Link, which see. See also, Brake Block Suspending 
Link. Eccentric Lever Link. Hanger Link. 

Link and Pin Coupler. An old type of drawbar by which 
cars were connected together by a link and a pin. 
There were a great variety of shapes and devices, but 
they have now been almost entirely replaced by the M. 
C. B. automatic coupler. 

Link Hanger. 46, figs. 3745-53- A Swing Hanger, which 
see, in the form of a link. 

Link Hanger Eye Bolt. A bolt passing through the tran- 
soms, from which a short swing hanger is suspended. 

Link Pin. A Coupung Pin, which see. 

Linoleum. A form of floor covering manufactured from 
linseed oil, prepared by a special process, mixed with 
ground cork and backed with canvas. Another floor 
covering of substantially the same nature as linoleum is 
known as corticine. 

Lintel. 90 and 99, figs. 392-98. The horizontal part of a 
door or window frame above the sash. Sec, Deck Sash 

Lip. See, Retaining Lip (Steel Tired Wheels). 

Lip Lamp Chimney. One with an indented ring near the 
bottom, for use with screw lamp burners. 

Live Lever. 92, figs. 3781-3951. The one of a pair of 
brake levers to which the brake power is first applied 
is sometimes given this title, the other lever being 
termed the dead lever. 

Live Lever Guide. Figs. 3869-69a. A guide in which the 
live lever moves. 

Loading Poles, Logs and Bark on Cars. (M. C. B. Rec- 
ommended Practice.) Figs. 4576-4651. In 1893 a Rec- 
ommended Practice was adopted for loading logs and 
poles on cars and for racking cars for loading bark, and 
in 1896 extended rules governing the loading of lumber 
and timber on opeij cars were adopted, replacing the 
former practice, heretofore shown on Sheet B, with the 
exception of racking cars for loading bark. At the same 
time rules governing the loading of long structural ma- 
terial, rails, plates, girders, etc., were adopted. 

In 1897 some modification of these rules was adopted, 
with slight changes in the illustrations also. In 1898 still 
further slight changes were made in the text and in 
some of the drawings, and a new section was added 
containing rules for loading large logs, pipe and stone 
on open cars. In 1900 a further modification was made 
in both text and illustrations. 

For present Recommended Practice see Appendix B, 
Proceedings 1902. 

Lock. i. Figs. 1910-2107. Generically, a fastening of any 
kind operated by a key. Specifically, one having a dead 
bolt as distinguished from one having a spring latch 
bolt, the latter being technically termed a latch. A rim 
lock is one applied to the exterior or surface of a door. 
A mortise lock is one designed to be mortised into the 
edge of a door. A rabbeted lock is one with an offset 
front to conform in shape to a rabbeted door. 
A dead lock is one in which a bolt is moved 
by a key and not a spring. A latch is a lock 
with a spring bolt. A night latch is a lock 
with a spring bolt operated from the outside only 
by a key and from the inside usually by a knob. A 
padlock is a detached lock provided with a shackle 
adapted for engagement with a hasp or staple. Accord- 
ing to their uses locks are divided into, berth locks, 
door locks, freight car locks, grain door locks, seat 
locks, sliding door locks, etc. See also, Sash Lock. 
Freight car locks are usually seal locks. See, Car Seal. 
The Yale Lock, which see, is a special, secure type 
largely used. 

2. (M. C. B. Automatic Coupler.) The catch which 
drops in front of the knuckle horn and holds it shut, 
thus locking the couplers together. 

Lock Case. The outside or covering part of a lock, more 
especially a padlock. 

Lock Chain. A chain by which a padlock is fastened to a 

Lock Keeper. Figs. 1914-2090. The box on a door jamb 
into which the bolt of a lock protrudes when shut 
See, Keeper. 

Lock Nut. The outer one of a pair of nuts on one bolt, 
which, by screwing up separately to a tight bearing, 
locks the inner one. 

Lock Seal. A piece of glass, lead or paper, which forms a 
seal for a lock, so that the latter cannot be opened with- 
out its being known. See, Car Seal. 

Locker. A small compartment or closet for storage. A 
closet is usually the same height as the room and a 
locker is of less height Lockers are frequently at- 
tached under cars. 

Locomotive Crane. A self propelling car, with a steam 
crane, mounted upon it, which crane has three inde- 
pendent motions, viz.: that of hoisting, slewing or 
rotating and raising of the boom. 

Lodging Car. A passenger or box car fltted up with sleep- 
ing accommodations for men at work on the line of a 
road. More commonly called boarding car. 

Logging Cars. Figs. 54-56. A special variety of light and 
strong cars used for getting out lumber, runmng usually 
on cheap logging railroads. 

Lone Star Coupler. Figs. 1401-03. 

Long Brake Shaft. 94, figs. 159-69. One which extends 
up above the top of a car so that brakes can be applied 
by a person on the roof. 

Long Flat Car. A flat car of extra length for long tim- 
bers, piling, etc. A barrel car is an example, shown 
racked in fig. 14. 

Long Seat End. A vertical frame of wood or iron which 
combines a seat end and seat stand together, supports 
the end of the car seat and also forms the arm or seat 
end. A short seat end is a seat end proper, which is 
supported on a separate stand. 

Longitudinal Rising Timber. See, Rising Timber. 

Longitudinal Seat (Street and Suburban Cars). A seat 
which extends lengthwise of a car. 

Longitudinal Step. i. A board which extends along the 
side of an open car, or a car with doors on the side, 
used as a step in getting on or off the car or for passing 
from one end of the car to the other. 
2. (English.) See, Foot Board. 

Longitudinal Step Bracket. A bracket to carry a longi- 
tudinal step. See above. 

Longitudinal Tie Rod (English). Corresponds in part 
to an American truss rod. A long bolt binding the 
timbers of the under frame together longitudinally. It 
is generally horizontal, and if inclined slopes downward 
to the ends of the vehicle to prevent them sagging or 
drooping. In English eight wheeled vehicles truss rods 
are used, but in four wheeled vehicles the ends are more 
likely to sag than the center. 

Lookout (Freight Caboose). 174, figs. 343-52. A small 
cupola or upper deck in the roof to afford opportunity 
for the display of signal lights and to enable train hands 
to keep a better lookout on the train. 

Loose Berth Hinge. Figs. 3418-21. A berth hinge, the two 
parts of which are detachable. It enters into a loose 
berth hinge bushing or plate. Fig. 3422. See, Berth 

Loose Globe. See, Lamp Globe. 

Loose Globe Lamp. A lamp or lantern in which the globe 
is attached to the frame by springs, screws or catches, 
so that it can be easily removed. 

Loose Joint Butt Hinge. Figs. 1947-48. A Butt Hinge, 
which see, permitting the door to be lifted off its hinges 
when desired. 

Loose Pin Butt Hinge. Fig. 1953-55. A Butt Hinge. 
which see, having a removable hinge pin. 

Lorry, or Larry. Figs. 4717, 4729-3. Push cars used in 
construction for moving rails, ties, etc. Often made 




with only a half bearing for the journals so that the 
frame can be removed from the wheels at any time. 

Low Sided Wagon (English). A freight car with sides and 
ends about 9 in. high. It has generally no doors, and 
is used chiefly for conveying pig iron and similar loads. 

Low Truck. Trucks constructed so as to bring the floor 
nearer to the rails ; mainly used in construction service. 
They are commonly constructed so as to bring the floor 
about 3 ft 2 to 6 in. from the rail, instead of about 

4 ft. 

Lower Arch Bar. The Inverted Arch Bar, which see. 
See, Arch Bar. 

Lower Berth (Sleeping Cars), i, pigs. 1778-80-83. The 
bed nearest the floor made up by pulling out the seats 
and dropping down the seat backs. The mattress foe 
it is carried by day in the pocket formed by the upper 
berth. See, Berth. 

Lower Berth Stop Bar. 49, fig. 1778-83. See, Stop Bar. 

Lower Brake Rod. 97, figs. 3781-395 i. A rod which con- 
nects the two brake beams or levers of outer hung 
brakes. When two levers are used the rod is attached 
to each lever. It is sometimes supported in case of ac- 
cident by a lower brake rod carrier. With inner hung 
brakes the substitute for the lower <brake rod becomes 
a part in compression and is called the brake lever coup- 
ling bar. 

Lower Brake Shaft Bearing. 97, figs. 159-69 and figs. 
516-17. An eye or support for a vertical brake shaft, near 
the lower end. The support at the lower end is called the 
brake shaft step. The lower bearing is above the step. 

Lower Chord (of a Truss). The lower outside member. 
In the side trussing of a freight or passenger car the 
side sill is the lower chord. 

(The distinction between a lower chord and a truss 
rod is not very clear. A chord is usually so called only 
in a truss having both vertical and inclined members. 
A mere trussed beam is not a truss in modem technical 

Lower Corner Plate. 57, figs. 159-69. See, Corner Plate. 
A push block, or push pole corner iron, is usually the 
lower corner plate. 191, figs. 159-69. 

Lower Deck. 102, figs. 388-91. The main roof of a passen- 
ger car on each side of the clear story or upper deck. 

Lower Deck Ceiling (Sleeping Cars). 22, figs. 1778-83. 
The inside finish of the lower deck which forms the top 
finish for the upper berth. 

Lower Diaphragm (Pintsch Lamp). 286, figs. 2605-21. 

Lower Discharge Valve (Air Pump). 46, fig. 965. A 
Puppet Valve, which see, at the bottom of the air 
pump .through which the air below the piston escapes. 

Lower Door Hinge (English). See, Door Hinge. This 
hinge is made with a longer butt than the others, to 
allow for the curvature or fall under of the door. 

Lower Door Panel. 10, figs. 1029-37. 

Lower Door Sash. 13, figs. 1029-31. The lower section of 
a door sash, which is made in two parts. This is com- 
monly movable, the other fixed. 

Lower Foot Board (English). American equivalent, plat- 
form step. A board running nearly the whole length 
of the carriage, and situated about 20 in. from the 

Lower Head (Air Pump). .64, figs. 893-94. The Air 
Cylinder Head, which see. 

Lower Intermediate Valve Seat. 40, fig. 965. 

Lower Receiving Valve Chamber (Air Pump). 39, Fia 

Lower Seat Back Rail (Street Cars). Also called a seat 

back bottom rail. See, Upper Seat Back Rail. 
Lower Swing Hanger Pivot. 48, figs. 378i-395i- A bar 

by which a spring plank is attached to the lower end of 

a Swing Hanger, which see. 
Lower Thimble (Pintsch Lamp). 290, 290a, figs. 2605-21. 
Lower Wainscot Rail (Passenger Car Interiors). 74, figs. 

388-91 ; D, fig. 1781. A longitudinal rail immediately 

above the truss plank. The upper wainscot rail comes 
directly below the window. 

Lower Window Blind. 140, figs. 388-91. The lower section 
of a window blind which is made in two parts, as is 
usually the case. 

Lower Window Blind Lift. Figs. 3593-3620. The lifts for 
lower blinds differ from those for a single blind in hav- 
ing a lug which engages with the upper blind when the 
lower one is raised up half way, and thus the upper one 
is raised with the lower one. See, Window Blind Lift. 

Lubricator. Figs. 920, 979. An instrument used for apply- 
ing a lubricant. Also called oiler. See, Automatic 

Lua A projecting stud or ear to afford a bearing or 
point of attachment. See, Follower Plate Lua 

Lug Bolt. A Strap Bolt, which see, with a lug tuhied up 
at one end to enter a mortise in the timber and in part 
relieve the attaching bolts from strain. 

Lumber. Timber of all kinds sawed into merchantable 
form, but more particularly such as is not sawed into 
boards. The term, however, is often used in the broad 

Lumber Car. A car of extra length, sometimes 40 ft. 
long, more particularly intended for carrying long tim- 
bers. Box and stock cars frequently have end doors to 
facilitate the loading of lumber, (londola cars, with 
flat bottoms and drop doors, are largely used for lum- 

Lumber Lorry. Set, Lorry Car. 


McCoRD Journal Box. Figs. 4107-ia 

McCoRD Spring Dampener. Fig. 4150. 

McElroy Commingler System (Consolidated Car Heat- 
ing Co.). Figs. 2319-23. This system depends upon 
the direct action of the steam upon the water of circu- 
lation, caused by the steam discharging within the body 
of the water itself. The contact of the steam and water 
takes place within the pear shaped body of the com- 
mingler, a sectional view of which is shown in fig. 232a 
The flow of steam is broken into small jets within a 
body of quartz pebbles, to destroy the noise and to si- 
lently force the water through the commingler. The 
steam jets give a forced as well as a gravity circulation, 
which feature of forced circulation enables the com- 
mingler to move the water through large circuits. The 
heating system is kept constantly filled from the con- 
densation which takes place within the commingler, 
and the water in the expansion drum kept level with 
the top of the overflow pipe. It is claimed that 5 lbs. 
steam pressure in the train pipe at the car is sufficient 
to heat a car in the coldest weather. 

McElroy Commingler Storage System (Consolidated Car 
Heating). Fig. 2324. A system of heating in which a 
small commingler is placed under the center of the car 
and so arranged that when the car is not in use there is 
no water in the system. In heating up a car the heat- 
ing is accomplished by forcing live steam into the pipes, 
and the water of condensation that collects is circulated 
by the commingler through the pipes, thus automatical- 
ly operating as a hot water circulating system, whose 
temperature may be run high or low, depending upon 
the amount of inflowing steam. On laying off a car a 
valve is turned and the water of circulation allowed to 
drain to the ground. 

McGuiRE Grain Door. Figs. 1087- 1106. A grain door fast- 
ened to a grain door rod by a U-strap or arm and hung 
to the carlines, when not in use by an overhead door 
catch. The door post is protected by a door post angle 
iron. The door is held in place by a door keeper, G, 
and a button head, L, and the corners are shod with a 
shoe, N. 




McKay's Curtain Brackets, Figs. 3725-28. A form of 
bracket for holding the various forms of spring roller 
curtains, one bracket having a rectangular hole and the 
other a circular. A variety of patterns are made besides 
those showa The McKay and Hartshorn shade roller 
accomplish the same end in much the same way, but 
the McKay works with a cam, while the Hartshorn 
works with a pawl. See, Shade Roller. 

McKee-Fuller Steel Tired Car Wheels. Figs. 4173-76. 

Machine Bolt. A bolt with a metal thread cut on it, and 
with a square or hexagonal head, especially if turned or 
finished. The word bolt, unqualified, usually means a 
machine bolt. 

Magazine (Base Burning Stoves). A general term for a 
receptacle for coal before it reaches the fire pot proper, 
usually situated directly above the latter. 

Magnetic Curtain Holder. A device for holding a win- 
dow shade fixed in any position, while still leaving it 
easily movable. It consists simply of a bar magnet 
running across the lower edge of the shade, bearing 
against two fixed bars of soft iron, one on each side of 
the window, to which the magnets attach themselves. 

Magnetic Track Shoe Brake. Fig. 998. A brake for elec- 
tric cars which has, besides the usual brake shoes on 
the wheels, a sliding shoe, which fits the rail and which, 
when the current is applied, is drawn down to the rail 
by magnets energized from the current set up in the 
armature of the motor acting as a generator. By a suit- 
able system of links the shoes on the wheels are ap- 
plied at the same time by the movement of the track 

Mail Car. A car for carrying mails. More properly a 
postal car. Figs, i 12, 378-79. Mail cars are sometimes 
defined as those used only for carrying mail bags and 
not for distributing mail matter, but the distinction is not 
always observed. Distributing mail cars are, however, 
always called Postal Cars, which see. See also. Com- 
bination Baggage Car. 

Mail Car Lamp. Fig. 2584. See, Postal Car Lamp. 

Mail Catcher or Collector. Fia 3079. A contrivance 
consisting of a bent iron bar attached to the door of a 
postal car for taking up or "catching" mail bags while 
the train is in motion. The English system of collect- 
ing mail bags is different from the American, and re- 
lies upon the use of nets. The leather bag is fastened 
by a spring to an iron bar in the car, and when the ex- 
changing station is near the bar is turned out, the bag 
hanging suspended. At the same time the catching ap- 
paratus, consisting of a net attached to a bar, is put out 
The bag from the car is caught in a net attached to a 
stationary post and the bag for the car caught in the 
car net in a similar manner. The American plan has 
been copied in Australia and India. 

Mail Catcher Socket, or Mail Collector Socket. The 
brackets or sockets on either side of the postal door 
which hold the collector. 

Mail Van (English). A vehicle adapted to run on passen- 
ger trains and fitted with apparatus for sorting and con- 
veying letters, and generally with apparatus for taking 
up and dropping mail bags while the train is at full 
speed. A mail van in which letters can be posted and 
letters are postmarked is termed a traveling postofiice. 
When fitted only for conveying mail bags and not for 
sorting it is termed mail van tender. Every projecting 
piece of either wood or metal is carefully padded to 
prevent injury to the postoffice ofHcials in collisions, etc. 

Main Carline (Freight Cars). A carline stronger than 
the ordinary carlines, so as to support the roof and tie 
the two plates together. 

Main Cock (Pintsch Gas Lighting). Fig. 2475. A cock 
usually placed in the saloon for the control of the low 
pressure supply. It regulates all the burners at once, in 
addition to which there are separate cocks to each. 
25, 25b, 25c, FIG. 2475, are respectively for % in., ^ in. 

and Yi in. pipe, and are used in all classes of cars, ac- 
cording to size of main low pressure pipe required. 25c 
(^ in.) is in most general use. This cock is handled 
with key, no. 2513. 

Main Cock (Pintsch System). Fig. 2530. No. 22. A ^ 
in. tee handle cock for postal or express cars. 

Main Cock Covers (Pintsch System). No. 135, 135C, na 
2476. For main cocks. No. 25, 25B, 25C, fig. 2475. They 
are of cast iron, with hinged lid to fit over key shaft of 
cock. Are to be screwed to side of car or to bulkhead. 

Main Floor (Refrigerator Car). G, figs. 185-95. The top 
layer of boards in the floor of the car. See, Floor. 

Main Pipe (Air Brake). The brake pipe. 

Main Piston Ring (Triple Valve). 3, figs. 959-62. 

Main Rafter. A Main Carline^ which see. 

Main Reservoir (Air Brake). Fig. 931. A cylindrical 
boiler plate tank, carried on the locomotive, under the 
foot board, to hold a supply of compressed air. So 
called in distinction from the auxiliary reservoirs un- 
der each car. 

Main Slide Valve (Air Pump). 83, ncs. 893-94. 

Main Slide Valve (Engineer's Valve). 114A, figs. 968-71. 

Main Steam Casting (Consolidated Car Heating). Fig. 
2319. A casting connected into the train pipe and pro- 
vided with side ports, not connected to the train pipe 
ports, but connected to a drip port through which water 
drops to the ground. The return pipe from the heat- 
ing apparatus is co -^ected into these side ports from 
one or from both sides of the car. The pipe leading to 
the casting is heated by the train pipe and the casting 
prevents the drip from freezing. 

Main Steam Valve (Air Pump). 76, figs. 893-94. A valve 
admitting and exhausting steam above and below the 
main piston. At the end of the stroke they are reversed 
by steam being admitted above the reversing piston by 
the reversing valve, 72. They are usually called simply 
main valves. 

Main Valve Bush (Air Pump). Fig. 892, and 75, figs. 

Main Valve Cylinder Head (Air Pump). 84, 85, figs. 

Main Valve Packing Rings (Air Pump). 78, 80, figs. 


Main Valve Piston (Air Pump). 76, figs. 893-94. 

Main Valve Piston Packing Ring (Air Pump). 78, 8o^ 
FIGS. 893-94. 

Main Valve Stem (Air Pump). 81, figs. 893-94. 

Main Valve Stem Nut (Air Pump). 82, figs. 893-94. 

Major Couplek Figs. 1421-33. 

Male Center Plate. The body and truck center plates are 
sometimes called male and female. See, Center Plate. 

Malleable Iron. Castings whose brittleness has been re- 
moved by packing them in powdered hematite (perox- 
ide of iron) in tight fire brick cases and subjecting 
them to a continued red heat for about a week. They 
are then allowed to cool slowly. The oxygen of the 
hematite combines with and removes a part of the car- 
. bon of the iron, making the castings almost as tough as 
wrought iron, but they are ordinarily not truly malle- 
able, or capable of being rolled or forged. Malleable 
iron is much used for pipe fittings and similar small 
castings, and even for brake shoes. 

Mandrel, i. (For Lathes.) A shaft serving as a tem- 
porary axis for objects to be turned. 

2. (Foundry.) A plug around which a body of metal 
is cast. 

Mandrel Pin, or Cross Bar (Swing Link Hanger). 44, 
FIGS. 3781-3951- The bar which supports the spring 
plank. See, Swing Hanger. 

Manhole, no, figs. 325-37- An opening in a boiler or tank 
through which a man can creep to the inside. The 
tanks for tank cars always have manholes on top. 

Manhole Cover, hi, figs. 325-37. A plate or lid to close 
a manhole. 




Manhole Cover Chain. A chain with which a manhole 
cover is fastened to a tank to prevent it from falling off 
the tank when the manhole is opened. 

Manhole Hinge. 113, figs. 325-37. A hinge by which a 
manhole cover is attached to manhole nng. 

Manhole Ring. A metal ring riveted around a manhole, 
and which forms a seat for the cover. 

Mansell Retaining Rma Fics. 4227-8, 4237. A mode of 
connecting steel tires to the wheel centers by a ring of 
an approximate L or U cross section, which secures the 
tire to the wheel, so that every part of the tire is se- 
curely held, into however many pieces it may be rup- 
tured. This ring is almost universally used in English 
passenger service. Various applications of the ring are 
shown in the figures. 

Mansfield Deck Sash Opener. Figs. 3504-06. One of the 
numerous styles of deck sash openers, the peculiarity in 
which consists in the manner of connecting each end of 
each deck sash to an opener in such manner that either 
the front end or the back end of the window may be 
thrown open, producing draft either into or out of the 
car, at discretion. 

Marking Cars. In 1893 a Recommended Practice was 
adopted as follows: That all railroad companies hav- 
ing the same initials as other railroad companies should 
stencil the name of the road in full on some part of the 
car where it may be readily seen. See, Lettering. 

Marshaling (English). American equivalent, switching, 
or drilling. Arranging the cars of a freight train in 
proper station order. 

Mast. i. (Of a Derrick or Crane.) The main upright 
member against which the boom abuts. 
2. (Of Brake Gear.) A Brake Shaft, which see. 

Mast Pocket (Wrecking Car). A heavy casting under 
the car supported by a derrick truss rod serving as a 
socket for supporting the mast of a derrick to hold it 
upright. Another method of supporting the mast is by 
a large base plate, bolted to the floor of the car. 

Mast Sheave or Pulley (of a Derrick or Crane). A 
sheave or pulley wheel placed at the top of the mast. 

M. C. B. Reports. In 1893 a standard size of 6 inches by 9 
inches was adopted for M. C. B. reports. 

In 1894 a standard size for Pamphlets, Catalogues, 
Specifications and publications of that nature was 
adopted, as follows : 
For postal card circulars, 3^ inches by 6% inches. 

'3/^ in. by 6 in. 
For pamphlets and trade catalogues- 6 in. by 9 in. 

-9 in. by 12 in. 
For specifications and letter paper, 8J4 inches by lo}^ 
inches. In connection with these standards it was de- 
cided that a standard practice should be to have the 
proper standard dimensions, and the word "standard" 
printed on the upper left-hand comer of title page or 
cover whenever practicable. 

Master Car Builders' Standards and Recommended 
Practice. A variety of standard details for cars, or 
recommendations in respect to them, which have been 
adopted and promulgated by the Master Car Builders' 
Association, and are separately described in this vol- 
ume. By a letter ballot, cast in 1893, the standards of 
the Association prevailing at that date were modified — 
First — By abolishing certain standards because they 
had either become obsolete or nearly so, or because 
they were simply forms of gages for shop use to pro- 
duce certain other standard forms, and it was believed 
that such gages were not essential as standards of the 
Association, and it had been ascertained that they were 
not generally used. 
The old standards thus abolished were : 
Wheel diameter testing gage. 
Wheel flange and journal gage. 
Wheel bore testing gage. 
Wheel boring, use of six dogs. 

Journal length and diameter gage. 

Journal shoulder and centering gage. 

Journal distance gage. 

Guard rail gage. (Made standard again in 1894.) 

Attachments and dimensions of drawbars. 

Train pipe fitting for steam heat. 
Second — By ordering that the three items formerly 
printed at the end of the standards, namely: 

Storage of line cars on foreign roads, 

Dictionary of terms. 

be printed with the proceedings as heretofore, but not 
among the standards. 
Third — By dividing the remaining standards into: 

(a) Standards of the Association. 

(b) Recommended Practice, as follows: 

(a) Standards : 

Journal Box and Details, Journals, 3^ in. x 7 in. 

Figs. 4238-4260. 
Journal Box and Details, Journals, 4^ in. x 8 in. 

Figs. 4261-4283. 
Journal Box and Details, Journals, 5 in. x 9 in. 

Figs. 4373-4390. 
Journal Box and Details, Journals, 5^ in. x 10 in. 

Figs. 4391-4424. 
Journal Bearing and Wedge Gages, Journals, 5 in. 

X 9 in. and 5J4 in. x 10 in. Figs. 4394-6, 4425-27. 
Axles. Figs. 4284-87. 

Form of Wheel Tread and Flange. Fig. 4292. 
Wheel Circumference Measure. Figs. 4288-91. 
Brake Head and Shoe. Figs. 4295-4302. 
Specifications for Brake Shoes, which see. 
Brake Beam. Figs. 4293-94. 
Air Brakes. — (General Arrangement and Details. 

Figs. 4303-36, 4341-44- 
Pedestal for Journal, 3^ in. x 7 in. Figs. 4337-40. 
Automatic Coupler. Figs. 4345-53. 
Cx)ntour Line and Limit Gages for Automatic 

Coupler. Figs. 4354-59, 4362. 
Yoke or Pocket Stran for M. C. B. Couplers. 

Figs. 4360-61. 
Buffer Blocks and Location. Figs. 4363-65. 
Terms and Gaging Points for Wheels and Track. 

Fig. 4367. 
Guard Rail and Frog Wing Gage. Fig. 4369. 
Distance Between Backs of Flanges of Car Wheels, 

which see. 
Standard Reference Gage for Mounting and In- 
specting Wheels and Wheel Check Gage. Figs. 

4366 and 4368. 
Wheel Flange Thickness Gage. Figs. 4371-72. 
Height of Couplers, which see. 
Screw Threads, Bolt Heads and Nuts, which see. 
Uniformity of Section for Car Sills. See, Sills. 
Square Bolt Heads, which see. 
M. C. B. Reports, Pamphlets, Specifications, Cata- 
logues, etc. See, M. C. B. Reports. 
Siding, Flooring, Roofing and Lining. Figs. 4428- 

Arch Bars and Column Bolt for 8o,ooo-lb. Capacity 

Cars. Figs. 4433-43- 
Adjusting Height of Couplers. See, Height of 

Stenciling Cars. See, Stenciling. 
Passenger Car Pedestal for Journal 4% in. x 8 in. 

Figs. 4468-75. 
Passenger Car Journal Box and Contained Parts 

for Journal 454 in- x 8 in. Figs. 4976-78. 
Air Brake Repair Card, which see. 
Protection of Trainmen. Figs. 4444-67, 4479-80. 
Mounting Wheels. Figs. 4481-89. 

(b) Recommended Practice: 

Specifications for 33 in. Cast Iron Wheels. See, 




Specifications for Iron Axles. See, Axles. 

Specifications for Steel Axles. See, Axles. 

Limit Gages for Round Iron. See, Limit Gages. 

Check Chains, which see. 

Marking Cars. See, Lettering. 

Air Brake and Signal Instructions. 

Platform Safety Chains, which sec. 

Marking Fast Freight Line Cars. Figs. 4551-53. 

Attachment of Couplers to Cars. Figs. 4490-4506, 

Uncoupling Attachments for M. C. B. Couplers. 

Figs. 4507-28. 
Journal Bearing and Wedge Gages. Figs. 4556-75. 
Safety Chains for Freight Cars. Figs. 4532-36. 
Minimum Thickness for Steel Tires. Fig. 4531. 
Loading Poles, Logs and Bark on Cars. Figs. 

Mounting Wheels, which see. 

Air Brake Appliances. See, Air Brakes. 

Air Brake Tests, which see. 

Box Car Side and End Door Fixtures. Figs. 4668- 

General Dimensions of Cars with Steel Under- 
. framing. See, Steel Underframe. 
Springs and Spring Caps for Freight Trucks. 

Figs. 4652-58, 4664-67. 
Collection of Salt Water Drippings. Figs. 4529-30. 
Twist Gage for New Couplers. Figs. 4659-63. 
Gage for Worn Couplers. Figs. 4705-06. 
Specifications for M. C. B. Couplers. See, Couplers. 
Coupler Label. Figs. 4707-10. 
Drop Test Machine. Figs. 471 i- 13. 
Specifications for Air Brake Hose. See, Brake 

Rules for Examination of Car Inspectors. See, 

Cleaning Air Brakes, which see. 
These Standards and this Recommended Practice are 
given under their respective heads in these pages as 
modified by letter ballot on these or other subjects, and 
revised up to 1902. 

New drawings of the Standards and Recommended 
Practice have been made on sheets of uniform size, and 
lithographed and printed on transparent paper so that 
blue prints may be taken from them; such sheets are 
for sale by the Secretary of the M. C. B. Association in 
connection with pamphlets containing explanatory text 
as given in the Proceedings. See, Standards. Recom- 
mended Practice. 
Master Controller. Fig. 4835. See, Control System. 
Master Key. Fig. 2105. A key which commands many 
locks of a certain set, the keys of which are not inter- 
changeable through the hollow rollers, coupling the 
middle ring of rollers to the outside rings each to each, 
which insures their keeping in line and working to- 
Mat. Figs. 2174-75. See, Floor Mat. 
Match Box Holder. Fig. 3471. 
Match Lighter. Figs. 2967, 3459-62. A Match Striker, 

which see. 
Match Safe. Figs. 3455-56. 
Match Striker. Figs. 2967, 3459-62. A metal plate with 

a rough surface. 
Match Striker Frame. A metal frame for holding a piece 

of sand or emery paper. 
Matting. See, Cocoa Matting. 

Mattress (Sleeping Cars). D, E, fig. 1780, etc. In ordi- 
nary sleeping cars both mattresses are stowed away by 
day above the upper berth. In the boudoir cars they 
go in boxes under the seats. 
Meat Timbers (Refrigerator Car). The vertical and hori- 
zontal timbers inside the refrigerating chamber on 
which the meat is suspended. They are usually inde- 

90 MIN 

pendent of the framework of the car and fastened to it 
with coach screws. 

Metal Screw Thread. A form of screw thread used when 
both the male and female screws are made of metal. 
Metal threads are made of the same size as the spaces 
between them, whereas the spaces between wood screw 
threads are made wider than the projections. See also, 
Sellers System of Screw Threads. 

Mica Chimney. (Pintsch System.) 109, fig. 2536. A 
chimney for use on all center lamps, being placed imme- 
diately above the ring reflector, allowing a portion of 
the light to be directed toward the roof of the car. See, 
Pintsch Lamps. 

Micrometer Gage. A general term for any form of gage 
giving very minute and exact measurements. There are 
several varieties ; the most common is one with an accu- 
rate screw thread and an index to give the number of 
revolutions and fractions thereof. 

Middle Brake Shaft Bearing. Figs. 527-8. 

Middle Corner Plate. Figs. 548-50, 580-2. See, Corner 

Middle Door Panel, ii, figs. 1029-31. See, Door Panel. 

Middle Door Rail. 148, figs. 388-91 ; 6, figs. 1029-31. A 
horizontal bar intermediate between the top and bottom 
rails. See, Door Frame. 

Middle Longitudinal (English).. American equivalent, 
intermediate sill. A part of the underframing support- 
ing the body or floor, and in many cases transmitting 
the buffing and the draft strains. 

Middle of Axle. The portion of a car axle between the . 
two sloping necks which come next to the wheel seat. 
See, Axle. Car Axle. 

Middle Safety Beam (Six Wheel Trucks). 52, figs. 3948- 
51. A beam attached to the two transoms to hold the 
center axle in case of breakage. 

Middle Transoms (Six Wheel Trucks). 21, figs. 3948-51 
and FIGS. 4051-53- The two cross pieces nearest the 
center in distinction from the two outside transoms. 
They are sometimes made of iron to allow the two 
swinging snring beams to be connected to each other 
by the bolster bridge. 

Mighty Midget Heater (Baker's). Figs. 2240-52. A 
small heater for cars. 

Milk Car. A car for carrying milk in cans, usually built 
with platforms similar to baggage cars, and equipped 
with passenger car trucks. They are usually provided 
with tight doors, ice racks or boxes, and insulation. 

Mine Car. A small car for carrying minerals in mines, 
usually four wheeled, and provided with a dumping 
device by which the load may be quickly and completely 

Mineral Wool. A substance having much the appearance 
which its name implies, manufactured from the slag of 
iron furnaces by throwing against it while in the molten 
state a strong blast of air. It is used for deadening in 
passenger cars and also largely as a non-conductor for 
coating steam pipes and boilers. 

Miner Draft Gear. Figs. 1263-73. 

Minimum Thickness of Steel Tires. In 1894 a Recom- 
mended Practice was adopted for minimum thickness 
for steel tires of car wheels, to be i inch, to be meas- 
ured normal to the tread and radial to the curved por- 
tions of the flange through the thinnest part within 
4% inches from the back of the flange; the thickness 
from the latter point to the outer edge of tread to be 
not less than ^ inch at thinnest part as shown in fig. 


A further practice was adopted of cutting a small 

groove, as shown in the outer face of all tires when 
wheels are new, at a radius ]4 inch less than that of 
the tread of tire when worn to the prescribed limit, to 
facilitate inspection. 





MntROR (for Wash Rooms of Sleeping Cars). A looking 

Mirror Frame. Figs. 2916, 2918. A frame for a looking 

Mirror Frame Spring. A mirror sash holder. 
Mirror Guard (Wash Rooms, etc., of Sleeping Cars). A 
fender of various forms to protect mirrors. Usually 
nickel plated bars across the face, and a tray for towels 
or brush and comb at the bottom of the mirror. 
Mirror Sash. A frame of a mirror which covers a lamp 
alcove in the side of a car. It slides up and down like 
a window sash. 
Miscellaneous Furnishings. Figs. 2854-3016. 
Molding. Figs. 420-32. i. "A mode of ornamentation by 
grooved or swelling bands or forms, following the line 
of the object." — Knight. Small moldings are often 
termed beads, and also fillets. A cove molding is one 
of concave section. There are a great variety of other 
special technical terms for different forms of moldings. 
Moldings are either straight or Waved, which see. 
See also, 

Deck Eaves Molding. Window Cove Molding. 

Eaves Molding. Window Molding. 

Platform Hood Molding. Window Sill Molding. 

2. (For Car Seats.) Figs. 3268-79. Also called seat 
back bands or seat molding. A metal band to finish the 
edge of the seat back. Plush or leather covered strips 
are also used. 
Molding Joint Cover. A piece of wood or metal in some 
ornamental form for covering the joints of two pieces 
of molding. See, Window Molding Joint Cover. 
Monarch Brake Beam. Figs. 838-841. One of a number 

made of a 5 in. I-beam not trussed. 
Monarch Coupler. Figs. 1441-53. 

Monitor Deck Sash Pivot and Ratchet Catch. Figs. 
3569-70. A device for regulating the opening of deck 
sashes by means of a small fixed ratchet plate in which 
a ratchet bolt engages, holding the sash fixed in any 
one of four different positions. See, Deck Sash Pivot. 
Monitor Top. A Clear Story, or Upper Deck, which see. 
Morgan's Automatic Deck Sash Pivot. Figs. 3554-57. 
A device for regulating the openings of deck sashes, the 
essential feature of which is the use of a double circular 
undulating ratchet, one attached to the sash and the 
other to a fixed part of the car, the two ratchets being 
pressed together by springs so as to admit of easy mo- 
tion of the sash by hand at the same time that it is held 
in any position when released. 
Mortise Lock. Figs. 1919-20, 1924. "A lock adapted to be 
inserted into a mortise in the edge of a door, so as only 
to expose the selvage or edge plate." — Knight. See, 
Motor Driven Air Compressor (Air Brake). Figs. 990-92. 
An air compressor driven by a motor for use on electric 
Mould. See, MoLDiNa 

Mounting Wheels. In 1896 it was decided by letter ballot 
that a gage for determining the center of the axle be- 
tween centers of journal be used, and that all axles be 
carefully centered between centers of journals prior to 
mounting, and that a gage for locating the wheels equi- 
distant from the center of the axle, as thus determined 
and shown in figs. 4481-89, should be used in mounting 

In 1902 this gage was made a standard of the Asso- 

In 1897 the Recommended Practice for mounting 
wheels was modified by letter ballot by the omission of 
that part providing, among other things, that wheels 
with flanges worn to a thickness of i>^ inches or less 
should not be remounted, and the substitution therefor 
of the following : 

First — That wheels with flanges worn to a thickness 
of I I -16 inches or less shall not be remounted. 

Second— That the thickness of flanges of wheels fitted 
on the same axle should be equal and should never vary 
more than 1-16 inch. 

Third— That in mounting wheels, new or second 
hand, the standard wheel check gage should be used 
in the following manner : 

After one wheel is pressed into position place the 
step "A" or "B" of the check gage against the inside of 

the flange of the wheel with the thinner flange with the 
corresponding tread stop "C" or "D" against the tread 
of the wheel. Press the other wheel on the axle until 
the opposite tread stop comes in contact with the tread 
with the corresponding gage point "E" or "F" in con- 
tact with the outside of the thicker flange. 
Movable Foot Rest (Car Seats). 23, figs. 3169-91. More 
properly, simply Foot Rest, which see; in distinction 
from fixed foot rails under the seats. 
Muck Bar. "Bar iron which has passed once through the 
rolls. It is usually cut into lengths, piled, and rerolled." 
— Knight. Certain grades of iron axles are made di- 
rectly from muck bars and contain no scrap. See, 
Muffler (Fames Vacuum Brake). A device to render 
noiseless the emission of steam at the ejector when 
brakes are applied. It is simply a lot of beads or shot, 
through the interstices of which the steam forces its 
Muley Axle. An axle without collars. 
MuLLiON. A slender bar between panes of glass or panel 
work. See, Door Mullion. 2, figs. 1029-37. Win- 
dow Blind Mullion. Window Mullion. 
Multiple Circuit Drum System. (Consolidated Car 
Heating Co.) Figs. 2288-90. A system of car heating 
by circulating hot water heated by steam from the loco- 
motive by means of a drum, placed longitudinally be- 
neath the floor of the car, as shown. The piping in the 
car is connected from this drum in a number of cir- 
cuits so that there is a quick flow of water through the 
different circuits and all parts of the apparatus are run 
at practically the same temperature. Its time of circu- 
lation is about one-sixth of the time of circulation of a 
heater in which piping is arranged in series. 

The advantages claimed for multiple circuits are: i, 
a low pressure of steam; 2, no limit, practically, to 
amount of heating surface, that can be supplied ; 3, a 
more uniform heat is supplied to all parts of car; 4, 
short circuit of hot water circulation. 

The circulating system, as shown, is also connected 
with a fireproof heater, which may be used when steam 
is not available, and in those States where the law per- 
mits a stove or heater. 
Multiple Control Switch. Fig. 4882. See, Westing- 

HousE Electro-Pneumatic System of Control. 
MuNTiN. A corruption of the word mullion, chiefly used 

in England. See, End Stanchion or Muntin. 
MuNTON Coupler. Figs. 1473-82. 
Murphy's American Car Roof. Fig. 1769. An outside 

metallic roof. 
Murphy's Improved Winslow Car Roof. Fig. 1768. 


Nail. "A small pointed piece of metal, usually with a 
head, to be driven into a board or other piece of timber, 
and serving to fasten it to other timber."— Webster. 

NAI 92 

The common nails of commerce are divided into Cut 
Nails^ and Cunch Nails, and Wire Nails, which see. 
They are distinguished in size by the number of 
pennies, as lod., 20d., etc., nails. See also. Panel Pin 

Naiung Strip. 194 and 194a, figs. 159-69. A strip of 
wood laid over a metal underframe and bolted to it, to 
which are nailed the floor boards. 

Nailing Strip Bracket. 193, figs. 159-69. A bracket se- 
cured to the sills to hold in place the Naiung Strip, 
which see. 

Nailing Strip Cross Ties. 196, figs. 159-69. Light mem- 
bers of a metal underframe extending across the sills 
for the purpose of supporting the nailing strips. 

Name Panel. A panel, usually of elliptical form, on the 
outside of a passenger car body below the windows, on 
which the name or number of the car is painted. 

Name Plate. See, Door Name Plate and Notice Plates. 

Narragansett Car (Electric). Figs. 4736, 4757-58- A type 
of long double truck open car having a neculiar Z bar 
side sill construction which gives a double side step or 
running board without decreasing the width of the car 
body with a given clearance limit. 

Narrc'.v Gage. The distance in the clear between the heads 
of the rails of a railroad when less than 4 ft. 8^ in. 
See, Gage. 

National Adjustable Journal Bearing. Fig. 4099. 

National Brake Lever Jaw. Figs. 881-84. A malleable 
iron substitute for the forged jaws on brake lever con- 

National Coupler. Figs. 1397-1400. 

National Dead Lever Guide. Figs. 878-80, A malleable 
iron guide for the dead lever similar in shape and 
dimensions to the usual form of wrought iron. 

National Hollow Brake Beam. Figs. 832-835. A brake 
beam consisting of a hollow tube 2 or 2^ ins. diameter, 
trussed by a rod passing through cast end pieces and 
over a king post, through which the brake lever passes. 

National Journal Box. Figs. 4112-22. 

National Push Rod End. Figs. .876-77. A malleable iron 
jaw for the end of the bra e cylinder push rod. 

National Safety Freight Door Lock. Figs. 2093-96. A 
lock for freight car doors designed to prevent the open- 
ing of the door without breaking the seal by removing 
the hasp staple. The staple plate and seal pin are 
riveted together so that the pin cannot be lost. 

National Window and Curtain Fixtures. Figs. 3708-10. 

Neck of Axle. The sloping portion of a car axle just in- 
side of the hub of the wheel. 

Neck Door Bolt. Fig. 1892. See, Door Bolt. 

Needle Beam. "(Civil Engineering.) A transverse floor 
beam of a bridge, resting on the chord or girders, ac- 
cording to the construction of the bridge." — Knight. 
The term seems, however, to be more particularly used 
in bridge construction, as applying to the cross pieces of 
queen post trusses, supporting the floor and themselves 
supported by the truss. Hence (Car Building), 22, figs. 
159-69; 26, FIGS. 360-72. The cross frame tie timber, a 
transverse timber bolted to the under side of the longi- 
tudinal sills and floor timbers of a car body between 
the bolsters, and to which the body king or queen posts, 
or truss blocks, are attached when truss rods are used 
under a car body. 

The terms, cross frame tie timber, body transom cross 
bearer and needle beam are all more or less used, but 
cross frame tie timber seems more precisely descriptive 
of its character than any other. 

Needle Valve (Pintsch Lamp). 398, figs. 2605-21. 

Nest Spring. A spiral spring with one or more coils of 
springs inside of it. See, Spiral Spring. 

Netting. Figs. 2987, 3002-03. See, Basket Rack Netting. 

New York Air Brake. Figs. 959-985. Air brake apparatus 
sold by the New York Air Brake Company. The de- 
vices sold are very similar to the Westinghouse equip- 



ment, and in most cases interchange with it The ap- 
paratus was calculated to work in the same train with 
Westinghouse equipment, and to that end nearly all the 
parts are the same as those made by the Westinghouse 
Air Brake Company. 

Night Latch. Figs. 2062-63, 2073-78^ etc. A spring door 
lock which requires a key to be opened from the out- 
side, but which can be opened from the inside without 
one. A spring door lock. See, Latch. 

Nipple, i. In mechanics "a small rounded perforated pro- 
tuberance, as the nipple of a gun." — Knight It is often 
used, however, in a more general sense. 

2. (Pipe Fittings.) Figs. 2282, 2284. A short 
wrought iron pipe with a screw thread cut on each end» 
used for connecting couplings, tees, etc., together or 
with some other object, as a tank or heater. See, 
Auxiliary Reservoir Nipple. Brake Hose Nipple. 

Norton Ball Bearing Jack. Figs. 2972-77. A screw jack 
having ball bearing pivots. 

Norwood Side Bearing and Center Plate. Figs. 4130-37, 
An anti-friction device using hardened steel balls roll- 
ing in semi-circular grooves and bearing on a hardened 
flat plate. 

Nosing, i. (Of a Lock.) A Keeper, which see. 

2. (Of Steps.) The part of a tread board which pro- 
jects beyond the riser, hence the metallic moldings used 
to protect that part of the tread board. The nosings 
should be distinguished from the step facings. 

Notice Plate. Figs. 2108-33. Varieties are the platform 
notice plate, saloon notice plate, etc. See, Name Plate. 

Nozzle. See, Tank Nozzle. 

Number. Fig. 3444-48. See, Berth Number. 

Number Panel. See, Name Panel, Now rarely used on 
modern cars. The number is simply painted on be- 
tween horizontal bars. 

Nut. "A small block of metal or wood containing a concave 
or female screw." — Webster. Nuts take their name 
from the bolts, rods or other parts to which they are at- 
tached. They are usually either square or hexagonal 
A Spanner Nut, which see, is one with eight or more 
sides. They are usually more truly couplings than 
nuts, properly so called, which screw on to a bolt or 
rod. See, Screw Threads. 


"O. & C." Cast Steel Bolster. Figs. 773-76, 

"O. & C." Draft Gear. Figs. 1274-79. A spring gear ia 
which leaf springs are used instead of spiral springs. 
It is claimed that the device has capacity for absorbing 
by friction some of the shock by means of the friction 
between the plates as they move over each other. 

Oakette. An artificial leather used for curtains and uphol- 
stering. It is made by coating a cloth fabric with a 
compound which gives it the appearance of leather. 

Oblique Closet Hopper. Fig. 3094. See, Closet Hopper. 

Observation End of a Car. Fig. 88, etc. A car, one end 
of which it fitted with an extended platform and large 
windows, from both of which passengers may get a 
good view of the country and especially of the track 
and structures. They are coupled at the end of the 
train and the observation end is a feature of many ofli- 
cers' cars. 

Observation Sleeping Car. Figs. 88, 95, 132. A sleeping 
car with an Observation End, which see. 

Officers' Car. A car for the private use of the higher 
officers, directors, etc., of railroads in traveling over 
their lines. They are usually provided with kitchens. 
They are sometimes very elaborate and costly — some- 
times merely business cars. A pay car is a special 
variety, found on nearly all roads from 300 to 600 miles 

Offset Butt Hinge. Fig. 1962. 




Oil Axle Box (English). A journal box in which oil is 
used instead of grease as a lubricant The oil is fed to 
the under side of the journal by means of a worsted 
pad held lightly against the journal by spiral steel 
springs. See, Axle Box, and Grease Axle Box. 

Oil Box. A Journal Box, which see. 

Oil Car. A car made especially for the transportation of 
mineral oil. Some oil cars are built for carrying barrels 
of refined oil. Crude oil and refined oil arc usually car- 
ried in Tank Cars, which see, figs. 67-68 and 325-42, or 
in combination box and tank cars. 

Oil Cellar. A cavity in the lower part of some exceptional 
forms of journal boxes for collecting the oil and dirt 
which run off the axle at the dust guard. The oil 
cellar is below the space occupied by the axle packing. 

Oil Cup. (Air Cylinder of Westinghouse Pump.) A 
small metal cup attached to an air pump to hold oil 
for lubricating an air piston. 

Oil Lamp. Figs. 2690-2710. A lamp for burning oil. 

Opal Dome (Pintsch Gas Lighting). Fig. 2550. May be 
used on any center lamp. 

Opal Globe. (Pintsch Gas Lighting.) 102, fig. 2549. It 
is for use on bracket lamps of all descriptions. 

Open Door Stop. 71, figs. 159-69 and figs. 537-8. A block 
of iron or wood fastened to the side of a freight car to 
prevent a sliding door from sliding too far when 

Open Excursion Car. An open car with curtained sides 
for short suburban runs to summer resorts. 

Open Plate Wheel (Street Cars). Fig. 4223. A light cast 
iron single plate wheel, with openings cast in the plate 
between the ribs. See, Wheel. Car Wheel. 

Open Return Bend (Pipe Fittings). Fig. 2276. A short 
cast or malleable iron U-shaped tube for uniting two 
parallel pipes. It differs from a close return bend, fig. 
2275, in having the arms separated from each othei*. 

Open Wagon (English). American equivalent, four 
wheeled gondola car. A vehicle with sides and ends 
from 6 in. to 5 ft. high, and having no roof; suitable 
for the conveyance of freight A Tarpaulin, which see, 
is used to protect the freight from the weather. Sec 
also, Wagon. 

Opener. See, Deck Sash Opener. Ventilator Opener. 

Operating Head. Fig. 4844. See, Westinghouse Electro- 
Pneumatic System of Control. 

Operating Valve (Westinghouse Traction Brake). Figs. 
993-94- The valve for controlling the brakes. Corre- 
sponds to the engineer's brake valve. 

Ore Car. Figs. 44, 291-95, 304-07. A car made especially for 
carrying iron or other ores. Ordinarily gondola cars, 
which are sometimes lined with sheet iron, and drop 
bottom and tip cars are also used for this purpose. 
They are shorter than the ordinary hopper car, with a 
steeper incline to the hopper to permit ready dumping 
of the load. 

Ormolu. Literally, ground gold, a style of bronzing metal- 
lic surfaces. 

Ornamental Carlines. A recent innovation of breaking 
up the interior of a car into sections by very heavy, 
prominent and highly decorated compound carlines. 

Ottoman. A carpet covered movable cushion serving as a 
foot rest. 

Outer Double Floor, or Floor Under Lining (English). 
American equivalent, deafening ceiling. In a carriage, 
planking attached to the under side of the framing and 
floor of the body. The space between it and the true 
floor is generally flUed with sawdust. 

Outer Intermediate Sill. 3a, figs. 159-69, i85-9S» 360-72; 
4, FIGS. 246-50. A term applied to the two intermediate 
sills next to the side sills, to distinguish them from the 
two intermediate sills adjacent to the center sills, which 
are the inner intermediate sills. 

Outside Body Truss Rod. When two or more truss rods 
are used under each side of a car body those farthest 

from the center are called outside body truss rods, in 
distinction from the inside truss rods. 

Outside Casing (Heaters). Fig. 2250. An outside shell 
made of Russia iron or sheet steel and bent and riveted 
into the form of a cylinder or a frustum of a cone. 

Outside Corner Plate (English). A plate placed outside 
of the body, securing the side and ends together; made 
a continuous plate, or in several knees, each ^Yz in. 

Outside Cornice (English). See, Side Gutter. 

Outside End Piece (of Wooden Truck Frame). Figs. 
3817-18. The cross piece next to the end of the car, in 
distinction from the inside end piece. 

Outside End Sill. Fig. 13. A type of box car framing in 
which the end sill projects outside the sheathing, form- 
ing a narrow platform at the ends of the car. It is not 
the general practice. 

Outside Hung Brake. Figs. 823-24. Brake shoes and 
beams attached to the outside of the wheels of a truck. 
ITiey are sometimes hung from the car body, but usual- 
ly the truck frame is extended and the brakes are hung 
from it. When hung between the wheels it is an inside 
hung brake. 

Outside Paneu 67, figs. 360-72, 388-91. A panel in the 
outside of a passenger or street car under the windows. 
Those between the windows are called outside window 
panels. Above the windows comes the frieze, or letter 
board. Street cars have lower outside panels, below the 
outside panels proper. In standard car construction 
outside paneling between and below the windows has 
been superseded by sheathing. 

Outside Sills. The side sills. See, Sills. 

Outside Transoms (Six Wheeled Trucks). 22, figs. 3948- 
51. The two transoms farthest from the center of the 
truck, in distinction from the middle transoms. 

Outside Wheel Bars (Iron Six Wheel Truck). An iron 
substitute for wooden wheel pieces. 

Outside Wheel Piece Plate, ii, figs. 3735-3951. An iron 
plate fastened to the outside of a wheel piece to 
strengthen it. There are two when any are used, out- 
side and inside. They are usual on six wheel trucks, 
and frequently met on late construction of four wheeled 

Outside Window Panel. 68, figs. 360-72. See, Outside 

Outside Window Silu ^^^ figs. 360-72, 388-91. A hori- 
zontal piece of wood or iron under a window on the 
outside of a car, and on which the sash rests. 

Outside Window Stop. A wooden strip attached to a win- 
dow post on the outside of a sash to hold the latter in 
its place. Often called a Bead, which see. 

Oval Brake Beam. Fig. 869. An untrussed beam, in which 
a tube of oval shape is used, the long axis being set 
perpendicularly to the face of the wheel. 

Overhang (of a Roof). The projection beyond the sides. 

Overhang (of a Car Body). That part of a car body be- 
tween the body bolster and end, and which is not sup- 
ported by the body truss rod. 

Overhang Brace Rod (Passenger Car Framing). 167 and 
220, FIGS. 360-72. A truss rod extending over the side 
sills and between the sheathing and wainscoting. Its of- 
flce is to sustain and stiffen that part of the underframe 
which overhangs at the ends and outside the bolsters. 
Usually it passes from the end of the side sill diagonal- 
ly up to the belt rail and over a queen post, called the 
overhang brace rod strut, and then along close under the 
belt rail to the other end of the car and down to the end 
of the side sill. Frequently they extend diagonally down 
on both sides of the overhang brace rod strut (which 
then becomes a king post), and diagonally through the 
sill. The overhang brace rod strut stands upon the sill 
directly over the body bolster. It is sometimes called 
an inverted truss rod, a continuous body brace rod, 
body chain rod, and a hog chain rod. 




Overhang Brace Rod Strut. 221, fics. 360-72 and figs. 
718-20. A vertical cast or wrought iron strut seated 
upon the side sill directly over the body bolster, and 
acting as a king post or queen post for the overhang 
brace rod. See, Overhang Brace Rod. 

Overhang Truss. Shown in fig. 373. An inverted truss, 
forged or cast, the office of which is to support and 
stiffen the overhang ends of a passenger car under 
frame. It is used only in very long and heavy cars, and 
is intended as an auxiliarv to the overhang truss rod. 
Its use is confined to palace and sleeping cars. 

Overhead Door Catch, or Hook (Grain Door). C, figs. 
1087- 1 106. 

Overhead Equalizer Spring (Pullman Vestibule). 23, 
figs. 1784-86. A face plate buffer spring is a more ap- 
propriate term, as it corresponds to the side stem buffer 
spring of a platform equipment. It affords the spring 
pressure on the face plate stem, which is attached near 
the top of the face plate, and keeps it forced out. 

Overhung Door. A sliding door which is hung from or 
supported on a rail above the door. If the door is sup- 
ported by a*rail below it is called an underhung door. 
Overhung doors are almost universal for freight cars. 
See« Door Hanger. Car Door Hanger. 

"P. AND S." Car Seats. Fig. 3176, etc. A car seat patented 
by Pottier & Stymus and made by Heywood Bros. & 

Package Rack (Passenger Cars). Figs. 2987-3012. A 
small rack analogous to basket racks. 

Packing. Journal Packing, which see. 

Packing Blocks. Rectangular blocks gained into the center 
sills and draft timbers, and serving the purpose of con- 
necting them firmly together longitudinally. The term 
is borrowed from bridgework, in which the form of 
packing block is very common. They are called key 

Packing Expander (Westinghouse Brake). A spring wire 
ring for spreading out the leather packing of the piston 
so as to make it fit air tight. See, Piston Packing Ex- 

Packing Gland. See, Piston Rod. 

Packing Leather, i. (Of Journal Boxes.) A dust guard 
is sometimes called packing leather. 

2. (Westinghouse Brake.) A ring of leather used in 
connection with brake cylinder pistons to make an air 
tight joint. When so used it is always accompanied 
with a packing leather expander. A packing leather for 
a piston rod is called a cup leather, and is compressed 
by a piston spring. See, Piston Packing Leather. 
Piston Rod Packing Leather. 

Packing Nut (Westinghouse Brake). See, Piston Rod 
Pacjcing Nut. • 

Packing Nut Wrench (Westinghouse Brake). Sec, 

Packing Ring. i. (Westinghouse Brake.) (fj^ Figs. 893-94, 
etc. See, Piston Packing Ring. 

2. (Hose Coupling.) An india rubber ring in a 
coupling case, which makes a tight joint between the 
two parts of the coupling. 

3. (Triple Valve.) 5, fig. 910. 

Padlock. Fia 2101. A loose lock having a semi-circular 
shackle jointed at one end so that it can be opened, the 
other end of the link being locked when desired by the 
entrance of the sliding bolt into it. Such locks are used 
to secure a hasp or the like on a staple or similar device 
by passing the link through the staple. A spring pad- 
lock is one which snaps shut and locks by pressUf e only. 
A dead padlock has no springs. 

Paige Steel Tired Wheel. Figs. 4178-81. A type of steel 
tired wheel, the hub and skeleton (wheel center) being 

in one piece, and the tire secured thereto by front and 
back face plates, hub bolts and tire bolts. It has no re- 
taining ring, although the company does make a wheel 
whose tire is fastened by retaining rings. Figs. 4182-83. 
Painting (of Passenger Cars) consists usually of the prim- 
ing, rough stuff or scraping filling coats, color coats 
and varnishing. The care and expense devoted to the 
process and the order and number of the various coats 
are often varied, but the following is among the most 
approved processes, and the order of the coats and the 
time required for each to dry are about as follows : 


Priming with drier 24 

Scraping filling coat (2 coats) 48 

Color coats (3 coats) 72 

Color and varnish 24 

Striping 24 

Finishing varnish (2 coats) 48 

Total 10 days, or hours 240 

A process known as "Murphy's A, B, C System" is also 
used, A being a liquid used for priming or first coat on 
new wood; B a liquid heavier in body than A, which 
is used for the second and third coat. C is a still 
heavier liquid, applied over B, and when thoroughly dry 
and hard is rubbed down to a smooth surface with 
water and block pumice stone, leaving the surface ready 
for the color coat. 

Other systems are the "lead and oil" and the "M. J. 
S." The former being a very old method and the latter 
a very simple method, consisting simply of a priming 
or filling coat, followed by a surface coat that is rubbed 
down with pumice stone or sandpaper, preparatory to 
the color coat. 

Pair of Trucks. A pair of trucks means two truck frames, 
each with two or more pairs of wheels, etc., complete 
for an entire car, and does not mean one truck frame 
with wheels and axles for one end of a car only. 

Pair of Wheels, This term is used to designate two car 
wheels fitted on one axle, including the axle. 

Palace Car. An extravagant term used to designate sleep- 
ing, drawing room, parlor and chair cars, which are 
fitted up with more than the ordinary amount of orna- 
ment and elaborate finish and furniture. 

Palace Stock Car. An extravagant general term applied 
to cars designed for carrying stock with less injury and 
greater comfort than the common stock car. Cars built 
after the plans of so-called palace stock cars are in 
general use, and are shown in figs. 59-62. They are pro- 
vided with apparatus for feeding and watering, and 
those for very valuable stock have separate stalls par- 
titioned off. 

Pan. i. (Refrigerator Cars.) The ice pan. 

2. (Howard's Water Closet.) Figs. 3089-90. The 
basin forming the bottom of the bowl, so constructed 
that it is only brought into position and filled with 
water on raising the lid. 

Paneu I. A board inserted in the space left between the 
stiles and rails of a frame or between moldings. Some- 
times metal plates are used for this purpose. Door 
panels in passenger cars are usually only the middle 
and lower or twin door panels. The upper door panel 
is usually of glass. Window panels come between the 
windows, and are distinguished as outside and inside. 
Wainscot panels come below the windows, between the 
upper and lower wainscot rails. Other interior panels 
are deck side panels and end panels, the latter some- 
times called ventilator panel, and the end roof panel 
over the door. The exterior panels are the end panel 
below the windows and the end window panel along- 
side of the window. A name panel is now quite obso- 
lete. In street cars additional panels to those above 
named are an upper end panel, which also sometimes 
occurs in passenger cars ; a lower outside panel or 




concave below the outside panels proper; inside frieze 
panels, end seat panels and door case seat panels and 
top panels. 

2. (Of a Truss.) The space between two vertical 
posts or braces and the two chords of a truss. 

3. (English.) In a carriage, the outside sheathing 
of the body. Teak and mahogany are generally used for 
this purpose in England, and sheet iron on the Conti- 
nent of Europe. See, Bottom Door Panel. End Panel. 
Quarter Light Panel. 

Panel Ceiling. Properly, any form of ceiling divided up 
into panels, but in popular custom used as synonymous 
with wood ceiling, which is always divided into panels, 
in distinction from a head lining of canvas, lignomur, 

Panel Furring. 59, figs. 388-91. Horizontal bars or strips 
of wood between the posts of a passenger car, and to 
which the outside panels are nailed. When a strip is 
made continuous and extends from one end of the car 
to the other, and is notched into the posts, it is called a 
panel rail. Window panel furring is included in the gen- 
eral term, and is that coming between the window posts. 

Panel Lamp. An Alcove Lamp, which see. 

Panel Pin (English). A small, headless nail of copper, 
brass or iron, used to secure the outside sheathing 
(panel) of a passenger car to the framing of the body. 

Panel Rail. 66, figs. 388-91. See, Panel Furring or 
Sheathing Furring. 

Panel Strip. A narrow piece of wood or metal with which 
the joint between two panels, or a panel and a post, on 
the outside of a car, is covered. 

Panel Washer. The washers of the transverse floor tim- 
ber tie rod of a street car. 

Pantasote. a substitute for leather, and in extensive use 
for upholstering and decorating cars and steamships. 
The material was first made by R. P. Bradley, a chem- 
ist, and the ingredients are a secret. That it contains 
rubber or any animal substance is denied. It is made 
by sheeting two or more pieces of cloth or canvas to- 
gether, with the warp running in different directions, to 
give strength. The sheet making the leather side is 
passed between heavy rollers many times, and each time 
it receives a very thin coat of pantasote material, and 
this is kept up until the cloth or canvas is literally satu- 
rated and coated. The color is added to the pantasote 
material and is incorporated into the fabric. It is very 
like leather, and is not readily distinguished from it 

Paper Case Casting. Fig. 3082. A cast side or bracket 
(rame for a paper case in postal car. 

Paper Holders. Figs. 3106-07. (Which take rolls of closet 
paper.) See, Paper Hook. 

Paper Hook (for Saloons). Figs. 3108-09. A hook for car- 
rying closet paper in sheets. A carrier for perforated 
continuous roll paper is in larger and increasing use. 
Figs. 3106-07. 

Paper Seal Holder. A style of seal holder (of which sev- 
eral patterns exist) in which a sheet of paper or printed 
label is used to protect the lock against unauthorized 
opening. The paper is usually protected by glass. 

Paper Wheel* More properly, Allen Paper Wheel. Figs. 
4152-53. A car wheel with a steel tire and a center 
formed of compressed paper held between two plate 
iron face plates. It is in general use. The compressed 
paper can be turned and polished like wood. 

Parallel Brake Hanger. 122, figs. 3781-3951. See, Brake 
Beam Adjusting Hanger. 

Parallel Brake Hanger Carrier. See, Brake Beam Ad- 
justing Hanger Carrier. 

Parallel Brake Hanger Eye. See, Brake Beam Adjust- 
ing Hanger Clip or Eye. 

Parcel Net (English). American equivalent, basket rack. 
In a carriage, a netting placed transversely above the 
seats for the purpose of carrying light baggage, parcels, 

etc. The front edge is attached to a wooden bar called 
the parcel net rod, which is supported by a bracket. 

Parcel Net Bracket (English). See above. 

Parcel Net Rod (English). See above. 

Parcel Rack. See, Basket Rack. 

Parcel Van (English). American equivalent, express car. 
A closed vehicle adapted to run on passenger trains and 
to carry parcels and packages, rather than passengers' 
baggage. Such business in England is done by the rail- 
way companies themselves, and not by separate cor- 

Parliament Hinge. Fig. 1946. See, Hinge. 

Parlor Car. Figs, 89-91, 135. See, Drawing Room Car. 
The names parlor car, drawing room car and chair car 
are all used somewhat indiscriminately, but chair car 
ordinarily refers to a parlor car with adjustable or re- 
clining chairs, for riding in which no extra fare is 
charged. Parlor and drawing room cars are usually 
run by separate companies. See, Bay Window Parlor 

Parlor Car Chairs. Figs. 3157-65, 3181, 3225, etc. The 
most common type of chair for parlor cars is a simple 
arm chair revolving on a pivot which enters a fixed 

Parting Bead, or Parting Strip. A long thin piece of 
wood which acts as a distance piece between two ob- 
jects, as a window and a window blind. See, Sash 
Parting Strip. 

Parting Rail (of Door Frame). 7, figs. 1029-31. A ver- 
tical rail between the bottom and middle or middle and 
top rails of a door or partition, dividing a panel into 
twin panels. 

Partition (English). A vertical division dividing the in- 
terior of the body into separate compartments, general- 
ly extending completely across the vehicle from side to 
side, and from floor to roof, but occasionally made to 
extend only some four or five feet from the floor, leav- 
ing a clear space between the top and the roof. This 
practice is, however, going out of favor. 

Partition Stop (for Door Holder). Figs. 2136-37. So 
called in distinction from a floor stop, with which a 
door holder engages. 

Passenger Car or Coach. Figs. 69-1 ii, 360-74; (Fram- 
ing), figs. 380-87; (Interior Fmish), figs. 399-439, 
(Cross Sections), 392-98. Literally, a car used for car- 
rjring passengers, but in popular practice restricted to 
ordinary vehicles for day travel, in distinction from 
sleeping cars, and sometimes in distinction from the 
more luxurious Parlor Cars, Drawing Room Cars or 
Chair Cars (which see), as well. Passenger cars arc 
also very commonly termed day coaches or first class 
coaches. Second class coaches are very rarely run, al- 
though there are large numbers of emigrant cars. A 
smoking car is usually attached to all trains, and hold- 
ers of second class tickets or tickets bought at reduced 
rates are often required to /ide in the smoking car. See, 
Car. Coach. 

Passenger Car Truck. Figs. 3781-4056. A truck for car- 
rying a passenger car body. Such trucks are usually 
wooden frame and have two sets of springs — bolster 
springs under the truck bolster between the two truck 
frames and equalizer springs attached to the outside 
truck frames. They always have swing bolsters. The 
wooden truck frames are usually reinforced with iron 
plates, especially for six wheel trucks, which latter are 
almost always used for sleeping and parlor cars. Other 
passenger cars usually have four wheel trucks. See, 
Truck. Car Truck. 

Pasting Lace (English). An ornamental woolen fabric, 
made in bands about Vi in. wide, and used to finish and 
cover the seams and joints in upholstering against the 
woodwork of a carriage round the quarter lights and 
front seat rail, and to form borders to the broad lace 
above the back squabs. It is fastened by tacks driven in 




the tape edge, the main part being then turned over to 
hide the tacks, and pasted in position. See also, Seam- 
ing Lace. 

Pawu I. (For Brake Ratchet Wheel.) 103, figs. 15^^ 
"A pivoted bar adapted to fall into the notches or teeth 
of a wheel as it rotates in one direction, and to restrain 
it from back motion. Used in windlasses, capstans and 
similar machinery." — Knight. 

In most of the English dictionaries ratchet is given as 
another name for pawl, but this is believed to be incor- 
rect, according to present practice. See, Ratchet 

Peckham Truck. Figs. 4899-4908. 

Pedal Alarm Gong (Street Cars), A large bell, sounded 
by striking a stem, connected by a lever with the clap- 
per, to warn teams and persons of the car's approach. 

Pedestal, i. 5, figs. 3735-3951. A casting of somewhat the 
form of an inverted letter U, bolted to the wheel piece 
of a truck frame to hold the journal box in its place, 
while permitting a vertical movement. The two projec- 
tions of a pedestal are called pedestal horns, and the 
space between them a jaw, which is closed at the bot- 
tom by a Jaw Bit, which see. In Great Britain pedes- 
tals are called axle guards on cars and horn plates on 
locomotives, and are there made of wrought iron. 

2. (Revolving Chairs.) The stand by which the 
chair is supported; consists of three portions — ^base, 
column and seat frame. 

Pedestal (M. C, B. Standard). 

(For Journals 3^ in. x 7 in.). Figs. 4337-40. The 
pedestal shown was recommended in 1874. See Pro- 
ceedings 1874, page 40; again approved as standard in 
1881; see Proceedings 1881, pages 14, 15 and 27. Also 
approved by the Master Mechanics' Association in the 
same year. Again adopted as standard in 1893. Weight, 
141 pounds. 

(For Journals 454 in. x 8 in.). Figs. 4468-75. In 1898 
a Recommended Practice was adopted for passenger car 
pedestal for journal box with 4% by 8 inch journal, and 
was formerly shown on Sheet H. In 1901, as a result 
of letter ballot, this was changed to Standard, as shown. 

Pedestal Box. A Journal Box, which see. 

Pedestal Brace. 8, figs. 3735-3951- A diagonal bar or rod 
staying the lower end of a pedestal longitudinally. It is 
often combined into one piece with a pedestal tie bar to 
form a pedestal brace tie bar. 

Pedestal Brace Tie Bar. 8, figs. 3735-3951. A pedestal 
brace and a pedestal tie bar combined in one piece. See 

Pedestal Horns. See, Pedestal. 

Pedestal Jaw. It is closed at the bottom by a jaw bit. See, 

Pedestal Spring. A Journal Spring, which see. • 

Pedestal Stay Rod. 7, figs. 3735-3951 ; 167, figs. 349-52, 
figs. 3831-32. I. A transverse rod connecting the 
pedestal tie bars on each side of a truck, so as to pre- 
vent them from spreading apart. 

2. A similar rod connecting the pedestal tie bars on 
four wheel caboose cars. 

Pedestal Tie Bar. 6, figs. 3735-3951, and figs. 3837-38. 
An iron bar or rod bolted to the bottom of two or more 
pedestals on the same side of a truck or car, thus hold- 
ing or tying them together. The pedestal tie bar is to 
get a low truck. Sometimes it is given a half turn for 
additional stiffness. It is also sometimes combined 
with a pedestal brace to form a Pedestal Brace Tie 
Bar, which see. 

Pedestal Timber, i. (Four Wheel Cabooses, etc.) 169, 
figs. 349-52. A longitudinal timber sometimes used on 
four wheeled cars, which is placed under the floor or 
alongside the sill and to which the pedestals are bolted. 
2. 10, figs. 3781 -395 1. A term sometimes used to 
designate the Wheel Piece of trucks, which see. 

Pedestal Trucks. Figs. 3732, 3734. 3738-40, 3757-59» 3774- 


80. Trucks so called because the journal boxes are 
held in jaws or pedestals which are an int^ral part of 
the truck frame as distinguished from trucks using 
pedestals bolted to the truck frames. 

Perch. Another name for the draw timbers of a tip car, 
on which the floor is not directly built. The name 
comes from the perch of wagons connecting the front 
and hind running gear. 

Perfected Heater (Baker's). Figs. 2221-39. 

Perfection Car Seal or Shackle. Fig. 3136. 

Perforated Rubber Floor Mat. Fig. 2175. Another style 
is the corrugated rubber floor mat. 

Perforated Veneer. A form of seat covering which con- 
sists of three, and sometimes four, layers of wood 
veneering, glued together and perforated with holes for 
ornament and ventilation. 

Phosphor Bronze. "A term applied to an alloy of bronze 
or brass, or to a triple alloy of copper, tin and zinc, 
which has been given special purity and excellence by 
skillful fluxing with phosphorus. It is supposed that 
the presence of phosphorus gives the tin a crystalline 
character which enables it to alloy more completely and 
strongly with the copper. Whether for this reason or 
not, the phosphor bronzes, when skillfully made, are 
greatly superior to unphosphorated alloys." — Thurston. 

Piece. See, 

Center Piece. End Piece. 

Distance Piece. Wheel Piece. 

Pilaster, i. (Architecture.) "A square pier, like a flat 
column built against a wall, and having cap and base.'* — 

2. (Car Construction.) Any stick or timber fast- 
ened against another piece to serve merely as the sup- 
porting block or a cross piece. 

3. (Sleeping Car.) An ornamental finish to the win- 
dow posts on the inside of the car. 11, figs. 1778-83, 

Pile Driver Car. Figs. 158, 353-56. A class of cars, one of 
which at least is kept upon most large railways, the 
details of which vary, but which are similar to the type 
shown. The essential features of a pile driver car are 
the swinging platform, or upper platform, carrying the 
cabin and framework upon which the leaders and hoist- 
ing engine and the accompanying gear are carried. The 
swinging platform is to enable piles to be driven at a 
considerable distance from the rails on either side. To 
enable the cabin to be swung through a wider arc, ad- 
justable wings are fixed to the side of the car, which 
are removed when not required for use by the crane. 
The leaders are usually long enough to take a 35- to 40 
ft. pile and swing upon leader trunnions, so that the 
leaders may be dropped back upon the roof of the cabin 
for transportation over the road. The hammers weigh 
from 4,000 to 4,500 pounds. 

Pile Hoisting Sheave (Pile Driver Car). A wheel placed 
at the side of the main sheave, for use in hoisting piles. 
It projects a little further forward than the other, so 
as to swing the pile more easily clear of the leaders. 

Pillar, i. "A kind of irregular column. 

2. "A supporter; that which sustains or upholds; 
that on which some superstructure rests." — Webster. 
See, Transom Pillar. 

Pillar Crane. A style of crane used on wrecking cars, 
having the mast supported from below, either by a 
mast pocket or a base plate. See, Derrick. 

Pillow Box (Sleeping Cars). 19, figs. 1778-83. 

Pin. "A peg or bolt of wood or metal having many uses." 
— Knight. In railroad service the word, when used 
alone, commonly means a coupling pin. See also. 
Brake Block Pin. Lateral Motion 

Center Pin. Spring Pin. 

Door Pin. Platform Lever Pin. 

Head Block Pin. Push Bar Pin. 

Hanger Pin. 




Journal Box Cover Hinge Pin. 
Pinion, i. The smaller cog wheel of two wheels in gear. 

See, Shifting Pinion. 

2. (Hand Car.) 4, figs. 4722-27. A small gear wheel 
attached to the axle of the car, into which the larger 
wheel on the crank shaft gears. 

3. Pinion is sometimes incorrectly used in the sense 
of a small pivot pin or journal. 

Pintle. "A pivot pin, such as that of a hinge. The king 
bolt of a wagon." — Knight. 

PiNTSCH Gas Burner. Figs. 2519-25. Used on all Pintsch 
lamps other than the bracket lamps. It consists of a 
small lava tip of the "fish tail" type, held in a special 
brass pillar. Its consumption is about ^ cubic ft. per 
hour. A larger burner of the same type is usually em- 
ployed on bracket lamps. Its consumption is about i 
cubic ft. per hour. 

Pintsch Gas Lamp. Figs. 2568-2621. A lamp for burning 
gas, the essential features of which are the closed globe 
at the bottom, the white porcelain reflector above the 
flames near the top of the globe, and the peculiar 
method of supplying air. 

Various forms of center lamps are made, all on the 
regenerative principle, the inlet air being highly heated 
before reaching the flames, thereby producing extreme 
whiteness and steadiness of light. 

Some of these lamps are supported by four orna- 
mental arms, figs. 2583-98, etc., one of which forms the 
gasway. In all, the interior of the lamp is so construct- 
ed that a portion of the light is reflected outward and 
upward toward the roof of the car, illuminating the 

In all standard center lamps, fig. 2606, air is admitted 
to the lamp immediately above the upper dome, loi. 
Passing thence through the orifices in chimney, 313, 
it comes in contact with the sheet iron flues, 312, and 
in its downward passage becomes highly heated. It 
then issues into the space within the dome, loi, between 
the dome and the mica chimney, 109, and continuing its 
course is by the diaphragm, 315, deflected and con- 
strained to pass close to the mica chimney, where it is 
still further heated. It now passes outward between 
diaphragm, 315, and the ring reflector, no, and through 
the orifices near the outer rim of this reflector into the 
bowl and to the flames. In its tortuous course the ef- 
fect of drafts against the lamp is entirely nullified. 

.The products of combustion escape directly through 
the annular space between mica chimney, 109, and the 
cup reflector, in. Thence by flues, 312, out through the 
crown at the top of the lamp, in the case of the four 
arm lamps, and through the flues, 333. 

In vestibule lamps, two or four flame, fig. 2607, air 
is admitted to the annular space between the parts of 
ventilating chimney, 324, through the shielded opening 
above the roof, immediately below the ventilator. Be- 
coming heated in its downward passage, it passes 
through the diaphragm, 323, and through the orifices in 
the body, 320, to the flames. The products of com- 
bustion escape through the flues, 321, and the chimney, 
324, to the outside air. Any excess of air over and 
above what is required for proper combustion of the 
gas will also be carried off by the ventilating chimney, 
which the air reaches from the space above the body 
by means of the passage around the outside of the 
chimney, 321. 

Bracket lights, wall lamps for express cars and ves- 
tibule lamps, FIGS. 2658-70, are supplied in various de- 
signs and forms. 

The burner is of the "fish tail" type, and from one to 
six are used in each lamp or light, four being the num- 
ber generally adopted. See, Pintsch Burners. Con- 
sumption of gas is at the rate of about H cubic ft. per 

hour for each burner enclosed in a lamp, or i cubic ft 
per hour for single open burners. 

Pintsch Gas Lamps. (Method of Securing and Connect- 
ing.) (Four Arm Lamps.) Fig. 2605. The arms are 
secured by means of nipples, 26, pasing through the 
roof ; a water tight joint around the nipples on the roof 
being made by bedding putty close around the nipple, 
with a rubber washer, 24, above the putty, and the iron 
washer, 23, above the rubber. The lock nuts, 27, arc 
then put on and forced down until the excess putty is 
forced out and the arm drawn firmly up to its place. 
The gas arm nipple is then supplied with the reducing 
ell, 28, the three blank arms with caps, 29. The ell, 28, 
is then connected with the J^ in. pipe to the flange 
tee, i6c, on the roof line. The roof around the smoke 
bell is protected with a tin thimble, large enough to 
give a j4-in. air space around the smoke bell flue. The 
upper end of this thimble is made of proper size to 
receive the ventilator, 204. 

Pintsch Pillar. 230, fig. 2516. Used on bracket lamps 
below the burner, 222, fig. 2519. Where no globe 
holder is used, mill check, 231, fig. 2514, is placed im- 
mediately below the pillar, 230. 

Pintsch System of Gas Lighting. Figs. 2466-2621. A 
system of car lighting which bums gas taken from a 
storage tank, where it is carried under a pressure of 
150 lbs., or less, per square inch. The system is well 
and favorably known. The gas is an oil gas, made 
from crude petroleum or similar oils, and is able to 
withstand a high degree of compression without undue 
loss of luminosity. The pressure of 150 lbs. of the re- 
ceiver tank is automatically reduced by the Pintsch 
regulator (fig. 2473) to a uniform pressure at the 
burners of about J^ oz., regardless of the pressure in 
the gas receiver. Works for the supply of the gas are 
now established in all the large cities. 

The arrangement of the apparatus is shown in fig. 
2466. The receiver or gas holder. A, suspended be- 
neath the car floor, is connected by a system of extra 
heavy }4-in. pipes, with soldered joints and special fit- 
tings, to the regulator, R. The charging of the re- 
ceiver is effected (from either side of the car) by 
means of hose, connecting the charging lines from the 
gas station with the filling valves, F (fig. 2468). The 
gage, G, communicating with the high pressure pipes 
connecting the various parts of the apparatus below the 
car, serves the double purpose of registering the amount 
of pressure in the receiver at any time and of showing 
the amount of gas consumed in lighting the car for any 
given period. 

From the regulator, R, the gas (with its pressure re- 
duced to about 54 oz. per sq. in.) passes upward 
through the car toward the roof. At some convenient 
point, as in a saloon or locker, a main cock (No. 25c, 
FIG. 2475) is placed as shown, whereby the flow of gas 
to the lamps is controlled. 

A ^-inch pipe is run along the roof, with J<-inch 
branches to each lamp or bracket. These branches are 
made by means of special flanged tees (No. i6c, fig. 
2478). Where J^-inch connections are necessary pass- 
ing downward from the ^-inch low pressure line on 
the roof to brackets or vestibule lamps, the flanged 
elbow or angle fitting (No. 17A, fig. 2482) is used. 

For lamps and methods of suspending and connect- 
ing them see, Pintsch Gas Lamps and figs. 2568-2621. 

Pintsch Washers. Figs. 2507-09, 2517-18, etc. These 
washers are of lead and rubber, in three sizes, and are 
always used in pairs. The rubber is always placed 
first on the fitting, the lead outside with the collar in- 
ward. When pressure is brought upon the washer, the 
lead collar protects the inner edge of the rubber, and 
the body of the lead washer protects the outside sur- 
face of the rubber, and the rib protects the outer edge 
of rubber. The rubber is entirely enclosed in metal, 




and protected from the action of the gas, which would 
otherwise destroy it. The scored surfaces of the flanges 
entering into the soft lead make a perfectly tight joint. 
These washers are used on all classes of flanged flttings, 
whether high or low pressure. 

Pipe. "A tube for conveyance of water, air, or other fluids." 
— Knight. The wrought iron pipes used for conveying 
gas, steam, etc., and commonly called gas pipe, are usually 
meant by compound words beginning with pipe, as be- 
low. See, 

Brake Cylinder Pipe. Signal Pipe. 

Brake Pipe. Smoke Pipe. 

Cold Air Pipe. Steam Pipe. 

Conductors' Valve Dis- Stove Pipe. 

CHARGE Pipe. Supply Pipe. 

Conductors' Valve Pipe. Triple Valve Branch 
Deflector Pipe. Pipe. 

Discharge Pipe. Waste Pipe. 

Exhaust Pipe. Water Drip Pipe. 

Guard Pipe. Urinal Drip Pipe. 

Hot Air Pipe. Urinal Ventilating 

Injector Pipe. Pipe, Etc. 

Running Pipe. 

Pipe Bushing. Fig. 2285. See, Bushing. 

Pipe Clamp. Figs. 598-99. A clamp for the air brake pipe 
or train pipe under the car. 

Pipe Clip, or Strap. Figs. 2255, 2259. An iron band for 
fastening a pipe against or to some other object. They 
are usually single, but sometimes double, for two or 
more pipes. See, Clip. 

Pipe Coupling. Figs. 2271-72. A short cast iron tube with 
a thread cut on the inside at each end, which is screwed 
on the ends of two pipes and used for uniting them 
together, or uniting one pipe with another object, as a 
cock or valve. In some couplings the thread at one end 
is right hand and the other left hand, but generally they 
are both right hand threads. Also see. Reducing Pipe 

Pipe Fittings. Figs. 2270-86, etc. The connections for 
systems of wrought iron gas, water, and steam pipes. 
The more usual pipe fittings are bushings, elbows, tees, 
return bends (close or open), reducers, couplings, nip- 
ples, plugs, clips, etc. 

Pipe Hanger. Figs. 600-1. A hanger for the air brake pipe 
or train pipe. 

Pipe Reducer. See above. Bushings, tees and couplings 
may be and are all so made as to serve as reducers. 

Pipe Screw Threads. Screw threads used for connecting 
wrought iron pipes together. Such screws are cut 
"tapered" ; that is, the end of the pipe, or the inside of 
the coupling where the thread is cut, forms part of a 
cone, so that in screwing up the pipe a tight joint can 
be made. Pipe threads are of a V-shape, sharp at the 
top and bottom, and their sides stand at an angle of 60" 
to each other. The following is the number of threads 
per inch for pipes of different sizes. The size is given 
by the inside diameter, but the actual bore of the 
smaller sizes is considerably larger than the nominal. 
The exterior diameter of ordinary gas pipe is from .27 
to .37 inches greater than the inside diameter. 


Inside diam. 
Outside Inside diam. Double 
diam- diam- Extra extra Threads Whit- 
Size of eter. eter. strong, strong. per worth's 
pipe. Ins. Ins. Ins. Ins. inch, thread. 
Jiin. .405 .2:^ .205 27 28 
54 " .54 .364 .294 18 19 
M " .675 494 -421 18 19 
J4 " .84 .623 .542 .244 14 14 
f4 " 1.05 .824 .736 .422 14 14 
I " 1.315 1.048 .915 .587 iiJ^ II 
VA " 1.66 1.38 1.272 .884 iVA II 

I^ " 







2 " 




1 491 



254 " 






3 " 












4 " 






4^ " 




5 " 




6 " 




7 " 




8 " 




9 " 




10 " 




(The European standard is the Whitworth pipe thread, 

which is quite different.) 
Taper of Thread ^ in. per foot. 

Pipe Support (Baker Heater). Fig. 2268. A cast iron 
stand screwed to the floor, with a receptacle at the top 
to receive and hold a pipe. 

Pipe Turnbuckle. See, Turnbuckle. 
Piping (Baker's Plan). For heating passenger cars. Fig. 

Piston. A metal disk with packing, etc., made to fit air 
tight and work back and forth in a cylinder. Those 
shown in this volume are chiefly in connection with air 
brakes, figs. 893-94, etc., to which more detailed refer- 
ence seems unnecessary. The piston consists of a pis- 
ton head, attached to a piston rod. The piston fol- 
lower or follower plate lies at the back of the piston 
head, inclosing between them the piston packing rings,, 
or (in the Westinghouse air brake cylinders) the pis- 
ton packing leather, which latter is provided with a 
packing leather expander. The follower plate is se- 
cured to the piston with follower bolts. All these parts 
are essentially the same in all the various cylinders 
shown, and for distinctness should be designated with 
the name of the cylinder within which they work. 

Piston Packing Expander (Air Brake), fe, Figs. 918-19, 
975-77. See below. 

Piston Packing Leather (Air Brake). 7, figs. 918-19,. 
975-77. A circular ring of leather used as a substitute 
for Piston Packing Rings, which see, pressed into the 
cylinder so as to have an L-section, which is attached 
to and surrounds the piston and bears against the inside 
surface of the cylinder, being pressed against it by a 
round steel rod called the piston packing expander. 

Piston Packing Ring. 67, figs. 893-94. A circular metal 
ring of rectangular section which is placed in grooves 
in the edge of a piston head to make it work air tight 
in its cylinder. The rings are turned slightly larger 
than the cylinder and cut in two diagonally at one point, 
so that when compressed they will tend to spring open. 

Piston Ring (Engineer's Valve). 19, figs. 907-09; 3, figs. 
968-71. (Triple Valve.) 3, fig. 966. 

Piston Rod (Air Pump). 18, fig. 965. 

Piston Rod Cross Head (Brake Cylinder). 17, fig. 975. 

Piston Rod Nut (Air Pump). 74, fig. 965 ; 68, figs. 893-94. 
A screw nut on the lower end of the piston rod, which 
holds the piston on the rod. 

Piston Rod Packing Gland (Air Pump). 96, figs. 893-94 
and 38, FIG. 965. A metal ring which encircles the 
piston rod, and which is forced into the stuffing box 
and against the packing, which is then compressed by 
the packing nut, 97. More commonly called a stuffing 
box gland. 

Piston Rod Packing Nut. i. (Air Pump). 97, figs. 893- 

94 and 36, FIG. 965. See above. Called stuffing box nut. 

^ 2. A nut which is used for holding the piston rod cup 

leather in its place, which thus makes an air tight joint 

in which the piston rod works. 

Piston Stem (Buhoup Vestibule). 54, figs. 1526-1630. 

Piston Stem and Nut (Reducing Valve). 6 and 7, figs. 




Piston Stem Bracket (Buhoup Vestibule), iis), figs. 

1526- 1630. 
Piston Stem Ferrule (Buhoup Vestibule). 122, figs. 

1 526- 1630. 
Piston Stem Guide (Buhoup Vestibule). 120, figs. 1526- 

Piston Stem Spring (Buhoup Vestibule). 47, figs. 1526- 

Piston Stem Washer (Buhoup Vestibule). $7, figs. 1526- 

Piston Stuffing Box (Air Pump). 95, figs. 893-94* 
Piston Travel Indicator. A graduated scale abutting 

against the piston of a brake cylinder and passing 

through the end of the cylinder so that it can be seen. 

It shows the maximum movement of the piston since it 

was last adjusted. Seldom used. 
Piston Valve (Engineer's Valve). 18, figs. 907-09. 
Pit. See, Ash Pit. 
Pitch, i. (Of a screw.) The advance made by the thread 

in one complete revolution, usually expressed by the 

number of threads in a given space, as (in U. S. and 

England) an inch. 

(Of a Roof.) The ratio of the rise of a roof to 

the horizontal distance covered. 
Pitching Roof. A roof formed of one or more inclined 

plane surfaces. When the pitch becomes steep, the term 

is used to distinguish a roof formed of plane surfaces 

from one formed of curved or arched surfaces. 
Pivot, i. "A pin or short shaft on which anything turns." 

—Webster. Seat arm pivots are inaccurately called 

rivets. See, 

Deck Sash Pivot. Seat Arm Pivot. 

Lower Swing Hanger Upper Berth Rest 

Pivot. Pivot. 

Monitor Deck Sash Ventilator Pivot. 

Pivot. Upper Swing Hanger 

Ratchet Pivot. Pivot. 

Rocker Pivot. 

2. (Of Car Door Fastener.) The pin on which tfie 
hasp turns. 

3. (Monitor Deck Sash Pivot.) The pin held in 
place by a spring upon which the deck sash turns. 

PivoT Bearing. 49, figs. 3781-3951. See, Swing Hanger 
Pivot Bearing (Passenger Car Trucks). 

Pivot Plate. See, Seat Arm Pivot Plate. Window 
PrvoT Plate. Ventilator Pivot Plate. 

Pivot Spring (Monitor Deck Sash Pivot). The spring re- 
taining the pivot in its proper place after the sash has 
been placed in position. 

Pivoted Seat or Seat Cushion. A seat commonly called 
an "opera seat," with the cushion pivoted so that it may 
be raised to permit easy access. Used in dining cars. 

Pivoted Seat Back Arm. Figs. 3343. 

Plain Triple Valve (Air Brake). Figs. 913, 966. A triple 
valve which has no provision for making emergency 
applications. See, Triple Valve. 

Planished Iron. One of the attempted substitutes for 
Russia iron. One of many processes consists of the 
formation of an oxidized surface on each sheet over 
and above the surface secured in ordinary working. 
The oxidized surface is then reconverted into metallic 
iron, which will enter readily into combination with an 
oxidizing agent applied throughout. The surface thus 
given to the sheet is fixed by planishing or hammering 
until the desired polish is secured. 

Plank. "A broad piece of sawed timber, dilTering from a 
board only in being thicker. In America, broad pieces 
of sawed timber, which are not more than an inch or 
an inch and a quarter thick are called boards; like 
pieces from an inch and a half to three or four inches 
thick are called planks." — Webster. See, Spring 
Plank. Truss Plank. 

Plank Car Roof. More commonly Single Board Roof, 
which see. See also Car Roof. 

Planted Molding, or Bead Molding (English). American 
equivalent, panel strip molding, or bead molding. In a 
carriage, a small molding which is pinned on the body, 
and is not worked out of the solid on the post or rail, 
as is a Wrought Molding, which see. 

Plastered Lamp. A lamp with a fixed globe which is 
fastened to a lamp frame with plaster of Paris. 

Plate, i. (Architecture.) "A piece of timber which sup- 
ports the ends of the rafters."— Webster. 

2. (Car Building.) 46, figs. 159-69, 185-95; 98, figs. 
360-72, 385-87, 388-91. A horizontal piece of timber on 
top of the posts of a car body supporting the roof car- 
lines or rafters. Also sometimes called side plate, in 
distinction from an End Plate, which see, which is a 
similar stick across the end of the car. A deck plate 
is used to cap the deck posts of an upper deck. Main 
Carunes, which see, are sometimes called tie plates. 
In refrigerator cars Bogus Plates (which see) are 

Plate. (Of a Cast Car Wheel.) The central portion 
connecting the hub and tread, sometimes single plate, 
sometimes double plate. The plate is stiffened by 
brackets. See Car Wheel and Face Plate (Steel 
Tired Wheel). 

Plate, or Laminated Buffing and Draw Spring (Eng- 
lish). A large half elliptic spring which spans the dis- 
tance between the two buffer rods and takes the buffing 
strains. It is also connected in the center to the draw- 
bar and takes the draft strain. 

Plate Facing. An inside cornice fascia board. 

Plate Rod (Freight Cars). 47, figs. 159-69. A horizontal 
metal rod which passes through two plates to tie them 

Plate Side Frame Truck. Fig. 3734. A truck for pas- 
senger cars with a plate side frame made of steel and 
reinforced with angles. The journal boxes are fitted 
in jaws or pedestals cut out of the plate, as are also the 
equalizer and bolster springs. 

Plate Washer. Usually a wrought iron cut washer, in 
distinction from a cast washer, but also used to desig- 
nate many forms of large washers or plates serving as 
double or triple washers. See Washer. 

Plate Wheel. Figs, 4156, 4159, etc. A car wheel of which 
the center portion is formed of a disk or plate instead 
of spokes. Varieties are the single, double, open and 
combination plate wheel. See, Wheel and Car Wheel. 

Platform (Passenger and Caboose Cars). i. 31, figs. 
343-48; 34, figs. 360-72, and vestibules, figs. 1526-1711. 
A floor at the end of a car, supported by projecting tim- 
bers below the car body to facilitate ingress and egress. 
On freight cars they are not common, except on ca 
booses, but narrow platforms are sometimes added for 
convenience of train men. See also Gould, Janney 
and Standard Platforms, containing certain special 
modifications of the platform, which have greatly added 
to its strength and security. 
2. (Pile Driver Car.) See Swinging Platform. 

Platform Car. Figs. 15-20 and 223-38. A flat car, which, 
if provided with sides, becomes a gondola car. 

Platform Chain. A chain connecting the inner platform 
railings, posts and rails, closing the passageway be- 
tween the platforms of two cars coupled together. It 
is used only on rear end of last car, and front end of 
first car when the first car is a passenger car. 

Platform End Hand Rails, Panels and Brackets. Figs. 

Platform End Post, or Corner Post. A hollow iron post 
standing upon the platform end sill and helping to sup- 
port the platform hood. 

Platform End Sill. 3!^ figs. 360-72, 388-91. 

Platform End Timber, or Buffer Beam. 38, figs. 360-72, 
388-91. A cross timber at the outer end of a car plat- 
form. A platform end sill. 

Platform Floor. 34, figs. 360-72. 

«" ;• 




Platform Foot Plate. See Foot Plate. 

Platform Furnishings. Figs. 3017-39. 

Platform Gate. Figs. 3040-41, 3053-62. A gate used to 
close the entrance to a platform, in general use only for 
private cars, suburban cars or street cars. 

Platform Gate Panel. Fig. 3024. 

Platform Hood. 107, figs. 360-72 and 20, figs. 1784-86. A 
cover or canopy attached to the end of a car body, cov- 
ering the j)latform. They are made of either wood or 
sheet iron. When it consists of an extension of the 
main roof of a car it is called a platform roof; but 
when it is a separate part, and fastened to the car body, 
as is usually the case on street cars, it is called a plat- 
form hood. A roof apron is a vertical finish of sheet 
iron to either a platform hood or platform roof. 

Platform Hood Bow. 108, figs. 385-87. A bent wooden 
or iron bow which forms the outer edge of a platform 
hood, to which the platform hood carlines are fastened. 

Platform Hood Bracket. A bracket or knee iron to con- 
nect the hood to the comer post. 

Platform Hood Carlines. Transverse timbers which sup- 
port the roof of a wooden platform hood. 

Platform Hood Ceiling. See Platform Hood Side Piece. 

Platform Hood Knee. An L-shaped piece of wrought iron 
by which a platform hood is fastened to the car body. 

Platform Hood Molding (Street Cars). A small wooden 
molding to cover the nails with which the roofing can- 
vas is fastened around the edge. It corresponds with 
a roof molding. 

Platform Hood Post. 109, figs. 388-91. An upright iron 
bar or rod attached either to the platform or platform 
railing, to support a platform hood. 

Platform Hood Shoulder Carline. A hood carline that 
lies adjacent to and against the end plate in a street 

Platform Hood Side Piece. The end piece to which the 
ceiling is attached. 

Platform Knee, or Platform Timber (Street Cars). A 
longitudinal piece bolted to the underframe and ex- 
tending out under the platform to support it. Corre- 
sponds to the platform sill of a coach. 

Platform Lever (Janney Platform). A lever correspond- 
ing to the Miller uncoupling lever, actuating the pull 
rod which operates the catch lever. 

Platform Lever Pin (Janney Platform). The pin on 
which the platform lever pivots. 

Platform Plate, or Buffer. A steel angle plate bolted to 
the buffer stems and overlapping the platform end sill. 
When in contact with the like plate of another car, it 
makes a continuous floor between them. Being pivoted 
at the platform end sill, it adjusts itself to all curves of 
the road. The platform plate also acts as a buffer, and 
is sometimes so called. See Vestibule. 

Platform Post. 39, figs. 388-91. See below. 

Platform Rail. 41, figs. 388-91. A wrought iron bar 
fastened to the tops of the platform posts, forming a 
railing on the end of a car platform. On steam cars 
an opening is left in the middle of the railing to allow 
persons to pass from one car to another. The railing 
is therefore made in two parts, and two platform rails 
are used. On street cars no such passageway is left, 
and the rail is in one piece. The outside ends of the 
platform rails of steam cars are usually carried down 
to the end timber, so as to form the outside post. On 
street cars the outside end is attached to an ordinary 

Platform Railing. Figs. 3017, etc. An inclosure consist- 
ing of iron posts and rails on the end of a platform of 
a car to prevent persons from falling off. See above. 

Platform Railing Chain. A chain connecting the two 
sections of the platform rails of a passenger car. Com- 
monly used in service on the rear platform of the rear 
car only. 

Ti^ftotiU R<A9.ijrG Post. 39, figs. 388-91. 

" • • • 

Platform Roof. 103, figs. 360-72. That portion of a car 
roof which projects over the platform. Sec Platform 

Platform Roof Carune. 104, figs. 360-72, 388-91. Sec 

Platform Roof End Carline. 105, figs. 360-72, 388-91. 
See Carline. 

Platform Safety Gate. A gate to close the entrance on 
one side of a street car, to prevent passengers from get- 
ting on or off on the side of the double track. Sec also 
Platform Gate. 

Platform Short Sills. 37, figs. 360-72, 388-91. Short 
longitudinal pieces of timber, not extending under the 
car proper, which are framed into and bolted to the 
end sills and platform end timbers of a passenger or 
street car to sustain the floor of the platform. The 
longer timbers which extend under the body of the car 
proper are called platform sills. 

Platform Sills. 35, figs. 360-72, 388-91. Pieces of timber 
attached to the bottom of a car frame at each end out- 
side of the draw timber, and projecting beyond the end 
of the car to support the platform. They extend usual- 
ly from the platform end timbers to the bolster, or, in 
street cars, to one of the transverse floor timbers. See 

Platform Steps. 30, figs. 343-52; 45, figs. 360-72, 388-91. 
The stairs at each comer of a passenger or street car 
which afford the means of ingress and egress. Forms 
of steps have been introduced, but are not in general 
use, which are folding or extensible, being dropped 
down into position when the car is stationary, and 
removed or elevated when the train starts. In modem 
passenger cars the platform steps consist of usually 
three and sometimes four separate steps below the plat- 
form. The steps being of wood, are often called box 
steps. On street cars, one step only is used, and it is 
commonly made of plate iron. See Vestibuled Plat- 

Platform Sub-Sill (Street Cars). A sub-end sill, to 
which the platform is hung ; it makes part of the riser 
of the step from the platform into the car. 

Platform Tie Rods. Horizontal rods which pass through 
the platform end timber and end sill or body bolster, 
for the purpose of holding them and the other portions 
of the frame of the car securely together. 

Platform Timber. See Platform Sill. 

Platform Timber Band (Street Cars). A band made of 
plate iron, which covers and embraces the outer end 
of a olatform end timber. Called also a buffer band. 

Platform Timber, or Platform Sill, Clamp. A U-shaped 
iron clamp or bolt, with which a platform sill is fastened 
to the end sill of a street car. 

Platform Trap Door. i. Figs. 1795-98. A door which 
covers the space occupied by the steps, and thus ex- 
tends the platform out to the side of the car. It is used 
on officers* or other private cars, and invariably with 
the Pullman extended vestibule. 

2. A door used in cabooses to serve the purpose of a 
water closet. 

Play. See End Play. Lateral Motion. 

EH^yer Truck. Figs. 3741-44- A form of diamond arch 
bar truck having a cast steel bolster and cast steel tran- 

Plow. See Snow Plow. 

Plug (Pipe Fittings). Fig. 2264. A short, solid, metal cyl- 
inder, with a screw on the outside and a square or hex- 
agonal end to take hold of with a wrench, screwed into 
the end of a pipe or hole in a plate, to close the open- 
ing. See also. Basin PLua 

Plumbago. Graphite; one of the forms of pure carbon 
from which pencils, etc., are manufactured. When 
pulverized, plumbago is an excellent lubricant, especially 
under heavy loads, and plumbago oils, prepared so as 




to hold the plumbago in permanent suspension, are 
among the most efficient of all lubricants. 

Plush. "A species of shaggy cloth or stuff with a velvet 
nap on one side, composed regularly of a woof, of a 
single thread and a double warp ; the one, wool of two 
threads twisted, the other of goat's or camel's hair. 
But some plushes are made wholly of worsted, others 
wholly of hair." — Webster. Plush is used in car build- 
ing chiefly as a covering for upholstered seats, for 
which it is almost invariably used. 

Pneumatic Tools. Figs. 4956-69. 

Pocket, i. (Sleeping Cars.) 32, figs. 1778-80. A recep- 
tacle for the clothing and small baggage of occupants 
of sleeping berths. They are known as the head board 
pocket for the lower berth and upper berth pocket. It 
is formed by turning the head rest up, as shown in 
FIG. 1778. 

2. Any object having a cavity or opening which 
forms a receptacle to hold anything in its place. The 
main pockets of a car are the body post, comer post 
and right and left hand body brace pockets, which are 
castings fastened to the upper side of the sill and the 
under side of the plate, to serve instead of mortises to 
receive the posts and braces. Brace pockets are dis- 
tinguished as right or left hand, according to the in- 
clination of their top to a person standing facing the 
car. Double brace pockets, to receive two braces in- 
clining in opposite directions, are also made, often 
with a receptacle in the middle for a post. A post 
pocket is a receptacle for the posts, door post or cor- 
ner post. A stake pocket of a fiat or gondola car 
should be distinguished from a post pocket, it being 
bolted to the outside on the side of the side sill. See 
also, Drawbar Spring Pocket. 

Pocket Hinge. Fig. 1963. See Hinge. 

Pocket Strap or Yoke (Drawbar Attachment). The U- 
shaped strap or yoke that incloses the draft spring and 
follower plates. See, Yoke. 

Pole or Hand Straps. Figs. 2907-10. Straps to which 
people who are required to stand may cling and keep 
from falling as the car starts and stops. See, Hand 

Pole or Hand Strap Brackets. Figs. 2890-93. For street 
cars from which the straps are suspended. See above. 

Poung Car. See Push Pole Car. 

Pop Safety Valve. A valve set with a spring so as to open 
suddenly with a wide opening at a fixed pressure ; hence 
the name. 

Port. An opening in a valve for the passage of steam. 
See Steam Port. 

Post (of a Truss). A piece of timber or metal set upright 
and intended to support something else, as the posts of 
a house ; the posts of a door ; the posts of a gate ; the 
posts of a fence ; the posts of a bridge. See 
Body Post. Lever Frame Post. 

Body Queen Post. Platform Hood Post. 

Brake Beam King Platform Post. 

Post. Queen Post. 

Corner Post. Truck Bolster King Post. 

Deck Post. Truck Frame King Post. 

Door Post. Truck Frame Queen Post. 

Hand Rail Post. Window Post. 

Hat Post. 

Post Bracket (Open Street Car). The cast brackets be- 
tween the posts and plate on the side. 

Post Cross Bar (Open Street Car). A bar or plank con- 
necting the posts at the ends of a transverse seat. They 
are under the seat. 

Post Office Car. See Postal Car. 

Post Parting Strip. See Sash Parting Strip. 

Post Plate. (Buhoup Vestibule.) 12, figs. 1526-1630. 

Post Pocket. Figs. 463-5. An iron casting which is at- 
tached to the top of the sill of a car to receive and hold 
a post in distinction from a stake pocket which is bolt- 

ed to the outside of side sill. Such pockets are more 
commonly used with stock cars. See Pocket. 

Postal Car. Figs. 112-119, 378-79. A car for carrying 
mail matter, and fitted up with boxes and other con- 
veniences for assorting and distributing it. Nearly all 
mail matter is now assorted en route. 

A distinction has been attempted between mail cars, 
used solely for carrying mails and distributing postal 
cars, but the distinction is not well observed, and so- 
called mail cars, except as compartments in combina- 
tion baggage cars on minor lines, are little used. The 
word mail is invariably used in speaking of a combina- 
tion baggage and mail car. 

The railway post office is an English invention, sep- 
arate postal cars having been used as early as 1837. 
The present American postal car service was intro- 
duced by George B. Armstrong in 1864, and the first 
postal cars were run between Chicago and Clinton, la., 
and at about the same time between Washington and 
New York. Postal cars are owned by the railway com- 
panies, but when in use are under the exclusive control 
of the post office authorities. They are usually built 
after plans and specifications approved by the Superin- 
tendent of Railway Mail Service, in whose district they 
are to run. 

Postal Car Chandelier. Fig. 2584. See, Chandelier. A 
variety of postal car lamps and chandeliers have been 
introduced with the object of giving a brilliant light 
when and as desired. Pintsch gas lamps and oil lamps 
with the Acme burner are in special favor. 

Postal Car Furnishings. Figs. 3063-88. 

Postal Car Side Lamp. Figs. 2700-01. See, Postal Car 

Postal Lamp. See Postal Car Chandeuer. 

Pot. See Fire Pot. 

Pouch Hook (Postal Cars). Figs. 3067, 3080-85. Hooks 
used for suspending mail bags while assorting the mails. 
They are usually strung loosely upon a rod, and are dis- 
tinguished as square eye or round eye, according to the 
section of the rod. Some forms are permanently at- 
tached to the side of the car. 

Pouch Rack. A rack built of standards and horizontal 
rods to which the pouch hooks are attached and which 
support the pouches or bags while mail is being dis- 
tributed into them. 

Poultry Car. A car specially designed to carry live poul- 
try. The car is provided with arrangements for 
feeding, watering, and by removing intermediate floors 
may be arranged to carry geese and turkeys instead of 

Pr.\tt Dump Car. Figs. 30, 318-21. A side dump car for 
carrying coal. The side planks are hinged on a shaft 
running the length of the car, and so arranged that the 
lower plank may be raised and the upper swung down, 
opening the whole side of the car. 

Press. See Seal Press. 

Pressure Bar. ((k)uld Buffing Apparatus.) A stiff iron 
bar of a cross shaped ( + ) cross section, which connects 
the drawbar to the b.uffer spring, so that the draft 
spring reinforces the buffing spring and the buffing 
spring takes up pan of the pull on the drawbar, thus re- 
lieving the draft spring. The pressure bar also forces 
out the buffer stem and plate when the drawbar is 
pulled out, thus maintaining a continuous platform be- 
tween the cars. 

Pressure Gage (Pintsch Gas Lighting). Fig. 2470. A gage 
usually placed in the saloon. It registers atmospheres 
and not pounds, for convenience in computing the vol- 
ume of gas in the tank. 

Pressure Regulator ((jold's Car Heating). Fig. 2345. A 
valve designed to regulate the delivery pressure of 
steam, etc. It depends entirely upon the elasticity of 
springs, the pressure of which can be gaged or regu- 
lated by screw studs that bear upon one end of the 




springs. In the Gold pressure regulator there is a 
spring on each side of the valve. 

Pressure Regulator (Pintsch Gas Lighting Apparatus). 
R, FIG. 2466, and fig. 2473. The valve by which the 
pressure of the compressed gas is reduced for con- 
sumption. The pressure regulator is one complete fix- 
ture, adjusted by the maker. Names of the principal 
interior parts are diaphragm, diaphragm connecting 
rod, diaphragm lever, regulating valve and dust ar- 

Pressure Retaining Valve (Westinghouse Brake). Figs. 
91 1 -1 5. A valve for use on long and steep gradients, 
provided with a valve connected with the discharge port 
of the triple valve. It is controlled by a small handle, 
which, if turned in one direction, permits the air to 
escape freely, and, if in the other, forces it to 
pass through the valve. In descending long gradients 
the valve retains a pressure of 15 lbs., which keeps the 
train under control when the brakes are released to re- 
charge the reservoirs. On slight grades or on a level 
the cock is turned to permit the air to escape freely 
without raising the valve. This valve does away with 
the necessity of using straight air on such grades. 

Priming (Painting). The first coat in car painting. Usu- 
ally a pure thin oil put on hot, at about 150* F. or less. 
A thin Drier, which see, of red lead or borate of man- 
ganese, is used with it. The next coat is the scraping 
filling coat or Rough Stuff, which see. See also 

Private Car. Figs. 92-94, 121-22, 124. Either an Officers' 
Car or Excursion Car, which see. 

Private Lock (English). A door lock universal in passen- 
ger service, which can only be operated by a tapered 
rectangular hardened steel key, which is carried by all 
passenger trainmen, and most habitual travellers. One 
key will open any private lock. 

Produce Car. Figs. 6, 193-95. A modified form of refrig- 
erator car, provided with ventilators and ice boxes, for 
the transportation of fruit, vegetables and perishable 

Profile Carline. A Carune, which see, extending from 
one plate to the other, bent to conform to the shape of 
the clear story. They are, of necessity, always Com- 
pound Carlines, which see. 

Propelling Chain (Steam Shovel). 28, figs. 357-59- 

Propelling Gear (Steam Shovel). ^, figs. 357-59- 

PRortiLLiNG Lever, or Hand Car Lever (Lever Hand Car). 
19, FIGS. 4722-27. The main lever, to which power is 


Propelling Lever Brace Rods (Lever Hand Car). 25, figs. 

Protection Cap. A lamp jack. 

"Protection" Cuspidor. Figs. 2178-79. One with a large 
mat fastened to it to prevent overturning. See, Cus- 

Protection of Trainmen (M. C. B. Standards). Figs. 
4444-67, 4479-80. In 1893 a Recommended Practice was 
adopted to protect trainmen from accident, under the 
sub-heads as given. In 1896 some changes were made, 
especially in regard to hand holds, and by the elimina- 
tion of various details from drawing. In 1902 it was 
changed to Standard. 

Position of Brake Shafts. — The brake shaft to be 
placed on what is the left hand corner of the car when 
a person is standing on the track facing the end of the 
car. The ratchet wheel and brake pawl to be fastened 
to a suitable casting attached to the roof. The center 
of the brake shaft to be 20 inches from the middle of 
the car. See Proceedings 1888, pages 25 and 123 ; Pro- 
ceedings 1893 and 1896. 

Running Boards. — The ends of the running boards 
of box cars to be made to project over the ends of the 
cars, and properly supported, so that the end of run- 
ning board shall not be more than 6 inches back of 

face of buffer block. The running board shall be made 
not less than 18 inches wide. See Proceedings 1888, 
pages 24 and 123 ; Proceedings 1893 and 1896. 

Steps. — ^Two good substantial steps, to be made o^ 
wrought iron, about y^ by lyi inches section, to be 
fastened, one to each side sill, next to the comer of the 
car to which the ladder is attached on cars having 
ladders, and to diagonally opposite comers on all other 
cars. The steps to be not less than 12 inches long, 
measured horizontally between the sides, and the tread 
to be not less than 8 inches below the bottom of the 
sill. The side of the step next to the comer of the 
car to be as near to the end of the car as is practicable. 
Each side of the step to be fastened to the sill with 
two 1/2 inch bolts and nuts. See Proceedings 1888, 
pages 25 and 121 ; Proceedings 1893 ; Proceedings 1902. 
Ladders. — Each box and stock car should have two 
iron or wooden ladders, with not less than five steps 
to each ladder ; steps, if of iron, to be not less than ^ 
inch diameter; if of wood, to be not less than i^ by 2 
inches, and to be made of hardwood; the steps to be 
not less than 254 inches from side or end of car ; each 
ladder to have the hand hold on the roof directly over 
top of ladder, the hand hold to run longitudinally with 
the car, and to be located about four inches from the 
side edge of the roof. When iron ladders are used and 
placed on ends of car, the bottom step to have a guard 
or projection to prevent men from slipping when 
swinging around the end of car to get on the step. 
Proceedings 1902. See, Hand Hold. 

Pull. "A catch or lip upon a drawer, door or window, by 
which it is pulled open." — Knight. See 
Door Pull. Seat Pull. 

Drawer Pull. Sliding Door Pull. 

Deck Sash Pull. Window Blind Pull, 

Pull Hook or Deck Sash Opener. Figs. 3516-22. A 
shaft with a small hook on the top for opening deck 
sashes. Also called ventilator staff. 

Pull Iron. 58, figs. 159-69. A roping staple. A U-boIt 
passing through the side sill for the purpose of at- 
taching ropes in switching. A push pole comer iron, 
191, is a lower comer plate with a socket cast or forged 
thereon, and in which the end of a pole is inserted for 
pushing instead of pulling the car. 

Pull Ring. Figs. 3516-22. A metal ring with a screw at- 
tached, by which it is fastened to any object, as a sash, 
drawer, etc., to take hold of in opening it. Chiefly used 
for deck sashes. 

Pull Rod (Janney Platform), i. The rod connecting the 
uncoupling lever with the catch lever; also called an 
uncoupling rod. 

2. (English Brake Gear.) Any rod transmitting ten- 
sion when the brake is applied. 

Pull Rod Carry Iron. A carry iron for an uncoupling rod. 

Pull Rod Plate (Janney Platform). A small chafing plate 
on the Janney platform knee timber through which the 
pull rod passes. A pulJ rod carry iron. - 

Pulley. "A wheel with a grooved, flat or slightly convex 
rim, adapted to receive a cord or band which runs over 
it. Its function is to transmit power or change the di- 
rection of motion." — Knight. A sheave is a pulley 
wheel in a block, but sheave and pulley are used as al- 
most synonymous terms. See Sheave. See also 
Bell Cord Pulley. Side Pulley. 

Berth Chain Pulley. Window Curtain Pulley. 

Pullman Car. A name strictly applicable only to cars 
operated by the Pullman Company, but in common 
usage not un frequently applied to "palace" sleeping, 
parlor or drawing room car built after the same designs 
as those adopted by Pullman Company, the Pullman 
cars having been the first of this class introduced on 
a large scale and in modem style of finish, and being 
much more in use than any other class of parlor or 
palace cars. Included among Pullman cars are sleep- 




ing cars, parlor or drawing room cars, dining cars and 
combination cars. Late designs diflfer from the earlier 
designs in the use of a "buffet," etc., and in being fin- 
ished in much lighter colored woods than the former 
dark styles prevalent. 

The plans of Pullman cars are shown in figs. 121-22, 
etc. Interiors, figs. 83-103, etc. Framing, figs. 380-87. 
Sleeping car berth, figs. i778-8a Vestibules, figs 1784- 
86. Truck, figs. 3781 -3951. 
Pullman Passenger Car Trucks. Figs. 3781-4056. Near- 
ly, if not all, Pullman cars are equipped with six 
wheeled trucks, similar to the illustration, which is the 
latest standard at this writing, 1903. 

Pullman System of Water Supply. Figs. 2807-19. This 
system of water supply under air pressure replaces the 
old method of using pumps for raising water for wash 
purposes in sleeping cars. The system consists of forc- 
ing water into the wash bowls by air pressure taken 
from the brake system as applied to cars. When the 
auxiliary air brake reservoir is filled with air to a press- 
ure of 60 lbs., an air governor, Q, admits air through 
a drip cup into an air tank, 36 inches long by 22 inches 
in diameter. This is a storage tank for use when cars 
are disconnected from the locomotive. The pressure 
carried is about 75 lbs. From this tank the air passes 
through a reducing valve, R (set for 22 lbs. pressure), 
into the water tank. At the end and centre of the tank 
is a special three way valve, P. This valve performs 
the triple service of admitting water and air, and also 
allowing the air to escape when the tank is filled with 
water. The valve, P, is operated from inside the car 
by a stem, marked W, to which is attached a pinion 
and gear. The air before passing into the water tank 
passes through a check valve, which is to prevent the 
water in the tank from backing into the air pipes ; the 
water being forced out of the tank passes through a 
strainer or screen, T. This strainer is cleaned by the 
valve, Z, which when opened allows water to pass over 
the screen in such a manner as to thoroughly wash it. 
After passing through valve O the water enters the car 
and is led by pipes to the different washstands and 
closets. One pipe passes to the heater and the water 
goes through a check valve, I, and a shut off valve, H, 
when it enters the copper coil which encircles the fire 
magazine. The hot water passes by gravity to a tank 
marked N, which has a connecting pipe back to the coil. 
Through these pipes there is a constant circulation from 
the heater, which keeps the water hot. A connection is 
made from the top of this tank to the various wash- 
stands and bath tub where hot water is required. At 
each end of the car a fire hose is placed, which can be 
used at a moment's notice, under the tank pressure. At 
the top of tank N is a safety valve marked M. The 
water tank is insulated to prevent the water freezing in 
cold weather. This insulating box contains about 20 ft. 
of heater pipe, which is connected with the heating pipes 
of the car. 

Pullman Wide Vestibule. Figs. 1784-86. A vestibule 
which incloses and utilizes the whole of the platform of 
a car. It is provided with equalizing devices above and 
below and employs the same frictional resistance to pre- 
vent lateral oscillation as the earlier type. The improve- 
ments are chiefly confined to the platform inclosure. 
Windows are introduced at the end of the car in this 
construction, which permit of better ventilation. The 
platform may be utilized, the steps being covered with 
trap doors, so that the entire area of the platform is 
available. A single door may be used at the sides and 
avoid the double folding doors of the other pattern. 

The peculiarities of the Pullman vestibule are ex- 
plained under Vestibules, which see. The frictional re- 
sistance of the diaphragm face plates to oscillation un- 
der opposing spring pressure is accomplished by an in- 
genious mechanism, shown in the figures. The plate 

equalizer is intended to keep the upper part of the face 
plate thrust out and adjusted to its companion plate. It 
is shown in the hood and plan and the parts are num- 
bered from 23 to 29 inclusive. The two sides are equal- 
ized at the top by the face plate equalizing lever, 27, and 
at the bottom by a platform equalizer. 

Pump. i. (Air Brake.) Figs. 893-94, 965. An Air Pump, 
which see. 
2. (Wash Rooms) A Basin Pump, which see. 

Pump Drain Cock (Air Pump). 54, fig. 965. 

Pump Governor (Air Brake). Figs. 947-50, 963-64. An at- 
tachment designed to automatically cut off the supply 
of steam to the pump when the air pressure in the main 
reservoir exceeds a certain limit, usually about 90 lbs. 
The governor not only prevents the carrying of ex- 
cessive air pressure, but also causes the accumulation of 
a supply of air in the main reservoir while the brakes 
are applied, which insures the release of the brakes, 
without delay. It also obviates the unnecessary working 
of the pump when the desired air pressure has been ob- 

Pump (Governor Piston, Nut and Spring. 28, 29, 30, 31, 
FIGS. 947-50. 

Pump (Governor Union (Air Pump). 56 and 57, fig. 965. 

Purlin. 83, figs. 159-69, etc. A longitudinal piece of tim- 
ber over the rafters, extending from one end of the car 
roof to the other, to which the roof boards are fastened. 
Sometimes called a roof strip, but the latter more cor- 
rectly applies to strips sometimes used above the purlins. 

Push Baggage Car. A light lorry car, used at stations for 
moving baggage or freight from one train to another. 

Push Bar (Grould Vestibule). A Pressure Bar, which see. 

Push Bar (Westinghouse Brake). Usually called push rod. 
A compression bar which butts up against the piston of 
a brake cylinder, being guided by a hollow piston rod in 
such manner as to transmit the pressure of the piston 
when the air brake is used, but to simply move away 
from the piston, without moving the latter, when brakes 
are applied by hand. 

Push Block. See Push Pole Corner Plate. 

Push Car, or Lorry Car. Figs. 4717, 4729-30. A four 
wheeled car, also called larry car, used to carry ma- 
terials and tools, moved or pushed by hand. Also see. 
Ferry Push Car. 

Push Pole. A pole or wrought iron tube which is used as 
a strut to span diagonally the distance between the cor- 
ners of a locomotive and a car, standing on two parallel 
tracks, and which is used to push such car without 
switching the locomotive onto the same track that the 
car occupies. 

Push Pole Car. A flat car with a push pole attached to the 
side sill so that it can be used in "poling" cars. The 
pole of former days has become a wrought iron tube, 
and one end is pivoted to the side sill of the car. A 
post and lever is attached to the pivoted end so it can 
be swung out over the side track by the operator, who 
stands upon the push pole car. See, Push Pole. 

Push Pole Corner Plate or Iron. 191, figs. 159-69, 271-95. 
A plate for inserting poles or bars in switching to enable 
the car to be moved from the side by an engine on a 
parallel track. It is usually a cavity cast upon the lower 
comer plate, and not a separate attachment A Roping 
Staple, which see, serves the same purpose for the use 
of a rope. 

Push Rod (Westinghouse Freight Brake). Figs. 613-4. The 
rod which butts against the brake cylinder piston and 
transmits its thrust. 

Putty. A mixture of linseed oil with whiting, which latter 
is chalk finely pulverized. Water is sometimes added in 
adulteration, causing the putty to stick to the lingers, 
and making it hard and brittle when dry. Panel putty, 
used for filling nail holes in car work, is an extra qual- 
ity made from whiting, white lead in oil, japan or var- 




nish, and a small quantity of turpentine. The whiting is 
used merely to prevent the white lead from sticking to 
the fingers, and no more than necessary for this purpose 
is required. This putty forms a hard cement, which docs 
not shrink. When dry it can be rubbed down with pum- 
ice stone or dusted with sandpaper. Glycerine putty is 
made of good thick glycerine and white lead or litharge. 
It hardens in 15 to 45 minutes, and stands water and 
« acids. 
Pyramidal Hopper Bottom. Figs. 23, 31, etc Sec, Hopper 


Quadrant. A piece of metal curved in the form of the 
arc of a circle. See, Sector. See also, Deck Sash 
Quadrant. Lever Quadrant (Engineers* Valve), 124, 
FIGS. 968-71. 

Quadrant (Steam Shovel), 16, figs. 357-59- 

Quadrant Latch (Engineers' Valve), 172, figs. 968-71. 

Quadrant Levers (Steam Shovel), 17, Tics. 357-59- 

Quadruplet (of Elliptic Springs). Figs. 4142-45. Four 
springs side by side acting as one. 

Quarter Light Molding, or Glass Frame Stile (English). 
The upright member of the fixed window framing. The 
glass is very generally fitted direct to the body, a strip 
of rubber being interposed, and the molding screwed on 
outside, keeping the whole in position. 

Quarter Light, or Side Light (English). American 
equivalent, window. In a carriage, the window in the 
body as distinguished from the windows in the doors. 
The quarter lights, in English practice, are always fixed, 
but on the continent of Europe they are invariably made 
to fall or open, and this is also the case with the ve- 
hicles made in England and exported to warm climates. 

Quarter Light Panel (English). A panel on the outside 
of the body, placed above the window. Other exterior 
panels are quarter panel, waist panel, and bottom side 
panel. Interior panels are the partition panel, inside 
top light panel and roof panels. 

Quarter Light Pillar (English). A part of the body 
framing of a carriage. A vertical post forming one side 
of the window aperture. 

Quartette (Elliptic Spring). Also called Quadruplets, 
which see. 

Queen Post (of a Truss). One of a pair of vertical posts 
against which the truss rod bears. When one post only 
is used, it is called a King Post, which see. Such posts 
are used for the body truss rods under car bodies and 
occasionally trucks. See, Body Queen Post. Inverted 
Body Queen Post. Truck Frame Queen Post. 

Queen Post Stay. A bar attached to a queen post to stay 
it laterally. See, Body Queen Post Stay. 

Quick Acting Air Brake (Westinghouse and New York). 
Figs. 891, 895, etc. A system now almost universally 
used equipped with quick acting triple valves to permit 
the rapid successive application of brakes throughout 
the train. 

Quintuplet (of Elliptic Springs). Five springs side by 
side acting as one. Figs. 4140-41. 

Quick Acting Passenger Triple Valve (Westinghouse 
Air Brake). Fig. 910. See, Triple Valve. 

Quick Action Valve (Triple Valve). 138, figs. 959-62. 

Quick Action Valve Piston, Spring and Cap (Triple 
Valve). I37» 140-141, figs. 959-62. 


Rabbet. "A rectangular groove made longitudinally along 
the edge of one piece to receive the edge of another. 
It is common in paneling, and in door frames for the 
door to shut into."— Knight. Rabbet is a corruption of 
the word rebate. 

Rabbeted Lock. "A kind of lock whose face plate is sunk 
within a rabbet cut in the edge of a door." — Knight. 
See, Lock. 

Race Horse Box (English). American equivalent, horse 
car. A four wheeled covered vehicle adapted to run on 
passenger trains aiid to carry valuable and excitable 
horses. The mangers, stalls, etc., are carefully padded, 
and a compartment provided for the jockey, who can 
reach the horse's head. 

Rack. i. "A frame for receiving various articles." — Web- 
ster. See, Basket Rack. Brush and Comb Rack. 
Card Rack. Head Board Rack. Towel Rack. 

2. "In machinery, a rectilineal sliding piece, with 
teeth cut on its edge for working with a wheel." — 
Brande. A Ratchet, which see. 

Rack Catch (for Head Board). A small cupboard catch 
to hold the head board pocket closed. 

Radiating Draft Bar (Street Cars). A draw bar pivoted 
so that it may be swung oblique to the car length over 
a draw bar sector. A center draft draw bar is an 
example of a radiating draft bar. 

Radiator, i. Baker and other steam and hot water heat- 
ers. Figs. 2273-74; shown in plan, fig. 2987. A piece 
of iron pipe bent into a U-shape under the seats of a 
car, through which the hot water or steam circulates. 

Radiator Stand (Baker and Other Heaters). Figs. 2266- 
68. A support for a radiator. 

Rafter. A timber to support the roof of a car, which ex- 
tends part way across the top, either from the plate to 
the ridge of the roof, or to the base of the deck side 
only, as loi, figs. 360-72, 385-87, 388-91, etc. When 
such timbers extend all the way across they are called 
carlines. See, Main Rafter. 

Rail. "The horizontal part in any piece of framing or 
paneling." — Webster. 

Rail Roof Molding (Street Car). A roof deck sill mold- 
ing. Its use is to make a tight joint between the roof 
boards and deck sill, or upper deck bottom rail. 

Railing. "A series of rails; a fence." — Webster. Sec, 
Platform Railing. Step Railing (Street Cars). 

Railing Chain. See, Platform Railing Chain. 

Railroad Car. See, Car. 

Railroad Lantern. Figs. 2730-37. A lantern used in large 
numbers by trainmen and other employes of railroads. 
A variety of patterns exist and are shown. 

Raised Roof. An Upper Deck or Clear Story, which see. 

Ranges and Cook Stoves. Figs. 2738-48. A range is a 
fixed and more elaborate cook stove attached to the 
wall, and, in houses, usually built in with brick so as 
to need no stove pipe to connect with the chimney. 

Ratchet. A serrated edge, sometimes straight and some- 
times on a wheel, into which a pawl engages, for pro- 
ducing or (more commonly) restraining motion. See, 
Brake Ratchet Wheel. Winding Shaft Ratchet 
Wheel. An undulating ratchet is one having no sharp 
edges, so that the ratchet catch will slide over them 
without removal on the application of force, as in deck 
sash pivots, figs. 3554-57- See, Bottom Ratchet. See 
also. Deck Sash Pivot, figs. 3554-57, for various 
forms of ratchets and attached parts used in connec- 
tion therewith. 

Ratchet Burner (for Lard Oil). One in which the wick 
is moved up and down by a pointed wheel engaging in 
it, like mineral oil burners. 

Ratchet Wheeu See, Brake Ratchet Wheel. Wind- 
ing Shaft Ratchet Wheel. 

Rattan Seating (Canvas Lined). Fig. 3250. See, Canvas 

Rave. 15, Figs. 4722-27. A vertical side piece to the frame 
of a wagon body or other vehicle. The term is ap- 
plied to such parts on hand cars (the raves being al^o 
called seat risers), but not to other railroad cars, al- 
though literally applicable, for instance, to the sides of 
a gondola car. 




Reach. See, Extension Reach. 

Rear Sheath (Security Car Door). Figs. 66i-3- 

Rebate. "In architecture, a groove or channel sunk on 
the edge of a piece of timber."— Webster. Usually 
written Rabbet^ which see. 

Receiver (Pintsch System). Fic. 2471. A cylindrical steel 
tank, with riveted and soldered seams, adapted to re- 
ceive and retain gas at high pressures. The sizes vary 
in diameter from i6>4 ins. to 20j4 ins., and in length 
from 6 ft I in. to 9 ft. 6 ins. According to require- 
ments, cars are equipped with from one to four receiv- 
ers, connected by ^ in. high pressure piping, etc. See, 
Pintsch Gas Apparatus. 

Receiver Filling Valve (Pintsch C^s Lighting). F, fig. 
24()6; Fia 2468. A valve of peculiar construction for 
the admission of the compressed gas to the receiver, so 
that it can be transmitted to the regulator for con- 

Recuning Chair. Figs. 3171-72, etc. A chair the back of 
which can be inclined to almost any angle, and which is 
provided with leg and foot rests. 

Reclining Car Seat. Figs. 3171-72, etc. A car seat the back 
and cushion of which can be tilted into a comfortable 
reclining position, and which, together with a leg and 
foot rest, make a seat in which people try to sleep. 
They are always divided by a division arm and intended 
for two persons. 

Recommended Practice. Figs. 4490-4713. "Those forms, 
parts, constructions, units, measurements or systems 
which are conducive of sound construction, good prac- 
tice and safe operation, but which do not affect either 
interchangeability of parts or interchangeability of cars 
as a whole. See, Master Car Builders' Standards. 

Recording Bell (Street Cars). A bell attached to a bell 
punch or other instrument on which the conductor 
records the fares collected, to indicate that fact to the 

Reducer (Pipe Fittings). Fig. 2272. A means of decreasing 
the diameter of the pipe used. They are either Bush- 
ings, Couplings or T's, which see. 

Reducing Pipe Coupling. Figs 2272, etc. See, Reducer. 

Reduqng Tee, or T (Pipe Fittings). See also, Reducer and 

Reducing Valve (Train Signal Apparatus). Fig. 981. A 
valve for reducing the pressure of air admitted to the 
train signal pipes below that maintained in the brake 
pipes and main reservoir. In the train signal apparatus 
a very low pressure, not usually exceeding two atmos- 
pheres, is used. 

Reference Gage for Mounting Wheels. (M. C. B. Stand- 
ard.) Fig. 4368W In 1896 a new standard reference gage 
for mounting and inspecting wheels was adopted by 
letter ballot to take the place of the check gage for 
mounting wheels, formerly shown on Sheet 12, and the 
gage for distance between wheels, formerly shown on 
Sheet 7. At same date a standard check gage was 
adopted, both as shown on Sheet 12. See Proceedings 

Rfflectors (Pintsch System). Figs. 2537-47. 

Refrigerator (of a Refrigerator Car). The chamber, con- 
stituting the main body of the car, in which the paying 
load is placed. 

Refrigerator Car. Figs. 6, 8-13, 185-207; details, figs. 196- 
207. A car for carrying perishable articles, especially 
meat, constructed with compartments in which ice is 
carried, and with double floor, sides and roof, to keep 
the ice from melting. A great variety of tjrpes have been 
designed, but they can all be reduced to four general 
classes, viz. : Those which use ice and salt, or ice only, 
for refrigerating, and those which carry ice overhead in 
ice pans or in the ends of the cars in ice racks or tubes. 
The most important difference of all in refrigerator cars, 
the difference in the character of the circulation and 

dryness of air, is not touched by the classification, nor 
can it be gone into. The temperature aimed at is about 
40 degrees F., or 8 degrees above freezing. Many of the 
older cars were mere air tight boxes, without any cir- 
culation whatever, with the effect that an unnecessarily 
low temperature was required in one part of the car to 
keep all cool enough. The principal difference in the ex- 
ternal appearance of refrigerator cars, as may be seen, 
is their greater height and width. Refrigerator cars 
using salt use from i to 2 bushels for each 100 lbs. of 

Refrigerator Car Doors. Figs. 1067-72. 

Refrigerator Door Hinge. Fig. 1968. 

Refrigerator Express Car. A car that does not differ from 
a regular baggage and express car, except that about 
one-third of it is partitioned off, insulated and iced to 
maintain a low temperature, and in which are carried 
perishable goods. 

Register. An aperture for the passage of air, provided with 
suitable valves, doors and sliding or revolving plates, 
by which the aperture is opened or closed. See, Feed 
Door Register. Frieze Ventilator Register. Venti- 
lating Register. 

Register Face. A grating with which the opening of a reg- 
ister is covered. It is usually of some ornamental pat- 

Regulating. An unusual term for switching, or the act of 
moving cars from one track to another in making up or 
separating trains. Also called drilling, or, in England, 
marshaling, or, less correctly, shunting. 

Regulating Nut Spring (Pump Governor). 40 and 41, figs. 
947-50; 10, figs. 963-64- (Safety Valve) 3 and 4, figs. 
951; (Reducing Valve) 11 and 12, fig. 952. 

Regulating Valve (Pintsch Gas Pressure Regulator). See, 
Pressure Regulator. 

Regulator (Pintsch System of Gas Lighting). An auto- 
matic regulator which receives the gas from the re- 
ceiver at its inlet at any pressure from i to 300 lbs. and 
automatically reduces it to an outlet pressure of J4 oz. 
It is screwed to a board, having a recess 12^ ins. 
diameter and fi in. deep to receive the upper surface of 
the regulator, this board being held against the under 
side of the car floor by straps and suitable lag screws. 
The regulator is sealed and is guaranteed by the mak- 
ers for 5 years, if returned intact and seal unbroken. 

Regulator. See, Heat and Draft Regulator. Fig. 2182. 
Pressure Regulator. 

Regulator Straps (Pintsch System). 243, fig. 2498. An 
iron strap used to secure the regulator to under side of 
car. One is passed across each end of the board carry- 
ing the regulator, and is lag screwed to the board and 
to the car sills. 

Release Cock (Air Brake). Fig. 984. More properly an 
auxiliary reservoir bleeding valve. A cock attached to 
the auxiliary reservoir fpr permitting the compressed 
air to escape therefrom, when the locomotive is de- 
tached or when the apparatus is out of order, so as to 
release or "bleed" the brakes. 

Release Spring, i. (Passenger Car Trucks.) 91, figs. 3781- 
.^Q5i, and figs. 385^-55- A spring attached to the end 
piece of a truck for the purpose of throwing the brakes 
out of contact with the wheels.* The name is also ap- 
plied to any spring used to throw the brakes off from 
the wheels. 

2. (Westinghouse Brake.) 12, fig. 916, and 9, figs. 
918-19. A spiral spring which acts so as to move the 
brake piston inward, and thus release the brakes from 
the wheels after the compressed air is allowed to escape 
from the cylinders. It was formerly carried outside the 
brake cylinder by a release spring bracket, etc., but is 
now placed inside the cylinder. 

Release Valve (Air Brake). Fig. 984. A valve placed on 
the top of the auxiliary reservoir to release under es- 
cessive pressure or to be opened by the release valve rod 




from the side of the car to bleed the reservoir and re- 
lease the brakes. 

Release Valve Rod. Figs. 605-6. A rod extending from the 
release valve on the auxiliary reservoir to the side of the 
car to operate the release valve. 

Release Valve Rod Guide. Figs. 587-8U A guide for the Re- 
lease Valve Rod, which sec. 

Reservoir, i. (Air Brake Apparatus.) The main reservoir, 
FIG. 931, goes under the locomotive, and the auxiliary 
reservoir, figs. 933-35, under the tender and each car. 
In the Westinghouse freight brake, figs. 918-19, the 
auxiliary reservoir is connected with the brake cylinder 
and triple valve. 

2. See, Lamp Reservoir, or Lamp Fount. 

3. (Pintsch Gas Lighting Apparatus.) See, Re- 

Reservoir Drain Cock (Air Brake). Fig. 974. A -cock 
for emptying the reservoir of any water condensed 
from the air. Also used as a Release Cock, or Cylin- 
der Release Cock, which see, for letting off or "bleed- 
ing" the brake. 

Reservoir Pipe (Air Brake). Also called air pipe and dis- 
charge pipe. The pipe conveying the air from the air 
pump to the reservoir. 

Reservoir Union. Fig. 924. See, Union. 

Rest. That which supports something or on which it rests. 

Arm Rest. . * Stake Rest. 

Berth Rest. Upper Berth Rest. 

Foot Rest. Window Blind Rest. 

Grate Rest. Window Sash Rest 

Side Foot Rest. (Street Cars). 

Side Rest (Tip Car). 

Retaining Ring (for Wheel Tires). Figs. 4225, etc. A 
ring securing the tire to the wheel. See, Mansell Re- 
taining Ring and Tire Fastening. 

Return Bend (Pipe Fittings). Figs. 2275-76. A short cast 
iron U-shaped tube for uniting the ends of two wrought 
iron pipes. They are called close return bends, or open 
return bends, according as the section of the pipe is kept 
a distinct circle at all points. The close return bend 
has simply a partition dividing the two parts for a short 

Return Heating System. In this arrangement, by means 
of a second drain pipe, the condensed steam, after per- 
forming its work, is returned to the locomotive, instead 
of being discharged to the ground. 

Special valves on the car, and a suction pump on the 
tender, are necessary adjuncts of this system. By 
means of the pump a vacuum of 15 to 22 inches is con- 
stantly maintained on the second or return train pipe. 
The returned condensation being at a high temperature 
when reaching the tender tank, a saving of fuel is 
thereby effected. Lower steam pressures can be used 
with this system than with the others; the exhaust of 
the suction pump alone is sometimes sufficient to keep 
up the circulation. 

Return Tag. A tag attached to cars, usually by slipping it 
on to the shackle of the seal, and used as an evidence 
of the due arrival of the car, or as a direction to what 
point the car itself is to be returned. 

Reverser. Fig. 4836. See, Control System. 

Reversible Car Seat. A name sometimes applied to the 
common form of car seat in which the back only re- 
verses, but more properly applied to a seat in which 
the seat is moved and not the seat back only, what was 
the seat becoming the seat back, and vice versa. 

Reversing Valve (Westinghouse Air Pump). 72, figs. 893- 
94. A slide valve working in a small cylinder in the 
steam cylinder head, and thus controlling the admission 
and exhaust of steam to and from the reversing piston. 
See, Reversing Valve Stem. 

Reversing Valve Bush, or Bushing (Westinghouse Air 
Pump). 7Zi figs. 893-94. See, Bushing. 

Reversing Valve Cap, or Chamber Cap (Westinghouse Air 
Pump). 74, figs. 893-94. A screw plug which holds the 
reversing valve bushing in its place. 

Reversing Valve Plate (Westinghouse Air Pump). 69, 
FIGS. 893-94. 

Reversing Valve Plate Bolt (Westinghouse Air Pump). 

70, FIGS. 893-94. 

Reversing Valve Stem, or Rod (Westinghouse Air Pump). 

71, FIGS. 893-94. A rod attached at the upper end to the 
reversing valve. It extends downward into a hole bored 
into the piston rod, and is moved by the piston at each 
end of its stroke. The admission and exhaust of steam 
above the reversing piston is changed at each end of the 
stroke of the main steam piston, and by this means the 
main valves are shifted and made to admit steam, al- 
ternately, above and below the steam piston. 

Revolving Chair. Figs. 3157-65, 3224-25. See, Parlor Car 

Rheostat. Fig. 4876. A resistance used in connection 
with the controller for limiting the current taken by 
the motors during acceleration. Usually consists of a 
number of iron grids or strips of iron ribbon properly 
connected together and packed in a substantial frame, 
the whole being mounted on the under side of the car 

Rib (of a Cast Iron Wheel). A bracket. See, Wheel Ria. 
Car Wheel. 

Richards Panel Back Seats. Figs. 3224-25. A car seat 
made with a loose panel in the back, supported by 
springs set in the seat back frame. The panel pushes 
back and accommodates itself to the occupant's back, 
making a very comfortable chair. This principle is used 
on parlor car chairs in all Pullman cars, as shown in 
FIG. 3225. 

Ridge. See, Roof Ridge. 

Ridge Clamp. The grooved stick on top of the boarding of 
a pitched roof directly over the ridge pole. In the Win- 
slow car roof they are called simply Roof Strips, which 

Ridge Pole. 84, figs. 159-^, etc. A longitudinal timber in 
the center of a roof, supported by the carlines or rafters 
on which the roof boards rest. In some cases the rafters 
are framed into the ridge pole, and in some cases the 
ridge pole is grooved to receive the roof sheets. 

Ridge Timber. A timber which caps the intersection of two 
inclined floors meeting in the center of the car, as in 
side dump or ore cars. If the inclined floors were the 
two sides of a gable roof the ridge timber would then 
become a ridge pole. 

Right and Left Screw. A pair of screw threads cut turn- 
ing in opposite directions, so that a common nut or pipe 
coupling tapped with similar threads will, according to 
the direction in which it is turned, draw the two rods 
nearer together or press them farther apart. 

Rigid Bolster Truck. Figs. 3760-64, etc. A car truck 
with a bolster which has no Lateral or Swing Mo- 
tion, which see. See also, Bolster and Truck Bolster. 

Rigid Caster (for Tables). Fig. 3352. See, Caster. A 
"rigid caster" is a mere socket and not properly a 
caster at all, except from being used in the same man- 
ner as a finish for legs of tables and chairs. 

Rim. I. (Of a Car Wheel.) That portion of a car wheel 
outside of the plate. The face of the rim is the outside 
vertical edge or face. 

2. (Of a Wrought Iron Wheel.) The wrought iron 
ring which is welded to the outer ends of the spokes and 
surrounded by the tire. 

Rim Latch. Fig. 1998, etc. A latch which is attached to 
the outside of a door and is not let into it. 

Rim Lock. Figs. 2003-90. "A lock having an exterior 
metallic case which projects from the face of the door, 
differing thus from a mortise lock." — Knight. 

Ring. i. See, 

Ash Pit Ring. Packing Ring. 




Casing Ring. 
Grate RiNa 
Inside RiNa 
Lamp Ring. 
Mansell Retaining 

Manhole RiNa 

Pull Ring. 

Rubber Packing Ring. 
Slewing Ring. 
Stove Pipe RiNa 
Top Ring. 
Ventilator Ring. 
Window Curtain Ring. 

2. (Baker Heater.) Figs. 2184, 2193. A cast iron 
ring attached to the smoke top to stiffen it and hold the 
feed door. Also an ash pit ring. 

Riser. 3, figs. 2798-2800. A piece of marble or metal set on 
edge around about the wash bowls to prevent water 
from running against the walls. See, Step Riser. Seat 

Rising Timber. A timber placed upon another parallel or 
transverse timber to get greater height. 

Rivet. "A pin of iron or other metal, with a head drawn 
through a piece of timber or metal, and the point bent or 
spread and beaten down fast to prevent it being drawn 
out, or a pin or bolt clinched at both ends."— Webster. 
See, Coupling Link Rivet. The Seat Arm Pivot, 
which see, figs. 3281-86, is usually in the trade termed a 
rivet, but incorrectly.* 

Rivet Fastening (English). As applied to railroad wheels, 
, the oldest and most defective mode of securing the tire 
to the wheel. Little used. See, Tire Fastening. 

Rivet Seal. A seal with a lead rivet, which is closed by a 
die. See, Car Seal. 

Rocker (Tip Car). A crescent shaped casting bolted to the 
rocker timbers of the car body on which the body rests 
and rolls when the body is tipped. 

Rocker Bearing (Tip Car). The iron cap for the rocker 
bearing timber to support the rocker. 

Rocker Bearing Timber (Tip Car). A horizontal timber at 
the end of the car, on which the rocker bearing rest^. 

Rocker Bearing Timber Hangers (Tip Car). Vertical tim- 
bers or iron bars framed and bolted to the end piece, to 
which the rocker bearing timbers are fastened. 

Rocker Car Seat. A seat having the bottom adjustable, so 
as to give it an inclination toward the seat back in all 
cases, on whichever side the seat back may be placed. 
All modern car seats have mechanism by which this in- 
clination is automatically given to the seat when the 
back is reversed or swung back. See, Car Seat. 

Rocker Casting (Car Seats). A casting forming a part of 
the cushion carrier or stand, which is moved back and 
forth by the seat back arms, and moves the cushion for- 
ward, as well as giving it some inclination toward the 

Rocker Side Bearing (Trucks). Figs. 3765-67. A device 
somewhat similar to the Roller Side Bearing, which 
see, but differing from in that the rocker plates rest on 
top of the springs, and the bolster on top of them, in- 
stead of having the plates rest on the truck frame and 
having the springs rest on them. Instead of rollers, 
elliptical rockers are used, which tend to offer a gradual- 
ly increasing resistance to the lateral motion of the bol- 
ster and tend to return it to its normal position at all 

Rocker Timbers (Tip Car). See, Rocker. 

Rocking Bar (Heaters). A horizontal bar which supports 
the grate, and on which the latter is attached by a 
pivot in the center so that it can be turned horizon- 
tally and thus shake down the ashes. 

Rocking Lever. A bell crank which operates the toggle 
joint, to open and close King's door for hopper bottom 

Rock Plank. A Truss Plank, which see. 

JlOD. In car building this term generally means a slender 
bar of iron with a nut on each end, in distinction from 
a bolt which has a head on one end and a nut on the 
other. Very long bolts, however, are often called rods. 

Rods in general take their name from the parts with 
which they are connected or the use which they serve. 

Rod Hanger (Bell Cord). Figs. 1874-75, etc- See, Bell 
Cord Hanger. 

RoDGERs Ballast Car and Distributing Plow. Figs. 47, 
48, 50. A hopper bottom car with bottom doors by 
which crushed stone or gravel ballast can be distributed 
between the rails, and a flat car with a plow attached 
beneath it, by which the ballast is levelled and plowed 
out over the ends of the ties and cleaned from the rails. 

Rodgers Convertible Car, Fig. 48. A car which can 
readily be converted from a centre dump car to a gon- 
dola car with sides, ends and fiat bottom. 

Roe Ventilator. Fig. 3490. See, Ventilators. 

Rolled Axle. An axle made of rolled iron. See, Axle. 
Car Axle. 

Roller, i. "That which rolls; that which turns on its 
own axis, particularly a cylinder of wood, stone, metal, 
etc." — Webster. 

2. (Window Shades.) Fig. 3724. The cylinder on 
which the shade is rolled up, containing within it the 
springs which actuate it. See, Hartshorn and McKay 
Shade Roller. 

Roller Side Bearing Truck. Figs. 3729, 3735-37' A 
lateral motion diamond truck whose frame is very like 
a swing motion truck (figs. 3745-53), with a rigid 
spring plank. Lateral motion is given to the truck 
bolster by placing it upon cylindrical rollers resting 
upon the spring caps. The spring cap and bolster 
bearing plate are concaved, so that the motion of the 
rollers is restrained and the truck bolster given stabil- 
ity. See, Rocker Side Bearing Truck. 

Roller Side Bearings, Body and Truck. Figs. 4123-27. 
See, Anti-Friction Side Bearings. 

Roof. Figs. 1714-77. "The cover or upper part of a house 
or other building, consisting of rafters covered with 
boards, shingles, or tiles, with a side or sides sloping 
from the ridge for the purpose of carrying off the water 
that falls in rain or snow." — Webster. The roof of 
passenger cars is in two parts, commonly called the 
Upper and Lower Deck, which see. See, Car Roof; 

Arched Roof. Platform Roof. 

"A" Car Roof. Pitching Roof. 

Corrugated Metal Car Single Board Roof. 

Roof. Win slow Roof. 

Double Board Roof. "X" Roof. 

Roof Apron. 106, Figs. 360-72, 388-91, etc. A vertical or 
inclined metal or wooden screen attached to the end of 
a passenger car roof to prevent cinders, rain, or snow 
from being driven on to the platform and into the 

Roof Ascending Rail (English). See, Ascending Rail. 

Roof Boards, i. 86, figs. 159-69; 102, figs. 360-72, 385-87, 
388-91. The boards which form a covering of a roof. 
They run longitudinally on passenger cars and usually 
transversely on freight cars. See, Car Roof. 

2. (English.) The planking forming the roof. It 
invariably runs longitudinally. 

Roof Brace (of a Center Lamp or Chandelier). Diagonal 
stays passing from the lamp to the roof. Vertical sup- 
porting stays are known as lamp arms, with or without 
a large center stay. 

Roof Commode Handle (English). See, Ascending Rail. 

Roof Corner Casting (Passenger Cars). A cast iron mold- 
ing for the comers of platform roofs. They are made 
rights and lefts, and are specified as for a person 
standing and facing the end of the car. 

Roof Cover Strips (Single Board Roofs). A metallic U- 
shaped strip used to cover the joints of the roof sheets. 
See, Roof Strip. 




Roof Hand Rail. A hand rail usually made of gas pipe 
in front of the brake wheel, designed to protect the 
brakeman when applying the brakes. It is stiffened by 
a hand rail brace. The whole arrangement is designed 
to take the place of the brake step, which has been dis- 
approved of by vote of the M. C. B. Association. See, 
Brake Step. 

Roof Grab Iron (Box and Stock Cars). 60, figs. 159-69, 
etc. A hand hold. An iron bar fastened to the roof 
to be grasped when ascending the ladder at the end of 
the car. Also called ladder handle. See, Grab Iron. 

Roof Lamp (English). A lamp used to illuminate the 
inside of a carriage or other covered vehicle. A cir- 
cular hole, about 8 in. diameter, is cut through the 
roof, and the roof lamp placed in this aperture from 
the outside, the glass and burner when in position being 
a little below the inner surface of the roof, and en- 
tirely inaccessible from within. This form of lamp is 
wasteful of oil, yields a dim and uncertain light, is 
costly to handle and the glass is constantly broken. It 
is therefore being superseded in Germany and England 
by Pintsch's, Pope's, and similar methods of usmg com- 
pressed oil gas. 

Roof Landing. A small platform built on the roof of a 
trolley car on which inspectors step in climbing upon 
the room to inspect the trolley. In freight cars it is 
called a roof step. 

Roof Light. A Deck Sash, which see. See also, End 
Roof Light (Street Cars). 

Roof Panel (End). The panel over the door of a passenger 

Roof Ridge (Freight Cars). The intersection of the two 
plane surfaces forming a pitching roof. 

Roof Running Board. 87, figs. 159-69, etc. See, Run- 
ning Board. 

Roof Running Board Bracket. 89, figs. 159-69, etc. See, 
Running Board Bracket. 

Roof Running Board Extension. 88, figs. 159-69, etc. 
See, Running Board Extension. 

Roof Sheets. Metallic sheets, sometimes corrugated and 
sometimes not, for covering freight car roofs. Their 
joints are sometimes closed by a roof cover strip, and 
sometimes the edges fit into grooves in wooden carlines 
or joint strips. See, Car Roof. 

Roof Step (Freight Car Roofs). A horizontal board which 
extends sidewise from the running board to near the 
side of the car above the ladder, its object being to give 
a secure foothold and protect the roof from wear. It is 
not much in use. 

Roof Stick, or Hoop Stick (English). American equiva- 
lent, carline. A piece of timber which supports the 
planking of the roof, and is either bent or cut to the 
curve of the roof. 

Roof Strap (Street Cars). See, Diagonal Roof Strap. 

Roof Strips, i. Used quite frequently, but somewhat con- 
fusedly, to designate a Purlin, which see. 

2. Passenger Cars. Narrow wooden strips attached 
as stiffeners to the under side of the carlines of the 
lower deck. 

3. (Winslow and Other Car Roofs). Figs. 1714-26. 
A longitudinal wooden strip on top of the metal roof 
sheets to which the roof boards are attached. The 
central roof strip is called in other roofs a ridge clamp. 
Sometimes at the ridge a single ridge clamp is used. 

Roof Thimble (Pintsch Lamp). 291, figs. 2605-21. 

Roof Ventilator. See, Ventilator. 

Roofing Canvas. A heavy duck for covering the outside 
of the roofs of cars, chiefly used on street cars. 

In England it is universally used for all cars with 
roofs. It is bedded on fresh thick white lead or 
Smudge (which see), and then receives several coats of 
the same paint. 

Roofing Duck. The trade name for the cloth used for 

head linings, manufactured in any width up to 12 ft. It 
is lighter than roofing canvas. 

Rope. "A large string or line composed of several strands 
twisted together."— Webster. See, Berth Safety Rope. 
Berth Spring Rope. 

Roping Staple. 58, figs. 159-69. A U-bolt secured to the 
side sill near the end of a car into which the hook of a 
switching rope may be caught, so that a switching loco- 
motive may pull cars on side tracks while it is on the 
main track, or vice versa. 

Rose. Figs 1983-87. See, Door Latch Rose. Sometimes 
called a rosette. 

Ross, or Skeleton "U" Brake Shoe. Fig. 1005. A brake 
shoe of semi-steel having extended tapering ends hard- 
ened by chilling from the back. 

Rotary Snow Shovel. See. Snow Shovel. 

Rotary Valve (Engineer's Valve, etc.). 14, figs. 907-09. 

Rotary Valve Key (Engineer's Valve, etc.). 12, fics> 


Rotary Valve Seat (Engineer's Valve, etc.). 3, figs. 

Rough Stuff, or Scraping Rlling Coat (Painting). The 
next coat after the Priming, which see. Its purpose is 
not to protect, but to level the surface of the wood. 
Therefore, none of it is left on the higher portions of 
the surface, but used merely to fill the hollows to a 
level with these. The surface is scraped to an even 
plane level with the highest level of the bare wood. 
After 24 hours to dry, a second coat is put on, scraped 
down to the level of the highest portions of the bare 
wood. After a second 24 hours to dry, the car is sand 
papered or rubbed down, pumice stoned, and is ready 
for the Color Coats, which see. See also, Painting. 
A common material for this coat is 6 lbs. keg white 
lead, 7 lbs. whiting, mixed thick with coat japan and 
ground in a paint mill. This mixture is thmned with 
turpentine, so as to be thin enough to work easily, and 
so thick as not to run. It is put on with a leveler or 
scraper, often made of an old saw blade. 

Round (of a Ladder). 59, figs. 159-69, etc. The hori- 
zontal bars on which the foot rests. They are called 
rounds, whether of wood or iron, and whether round 
or square. See, Ladder Rounds. 

Round Cornered Car. A method of finishing the ends of 
passenger cars by omitting the comer posts and round- 
ing them off to a very large radius. It is exceptional 
and quite out of use. 

Rubber Floor Mat. Figs. 2174-75. There are two leading- 
styles, corrugated rubber and perforated rubber. 

Rubber Gasket. See Gasket. 

Rubber Spring. A car spring made of india rubber. They 
are rarely used, it having been found difficult to secure 
uniform quality, and the cost of a really good quality 
being higher than steel spiral springs of equal efficienc>' 
and durability. The same is true of the various rubber 
and steel compound springs. Rubber springs are in 
occasional use on platform safety chains for passenger 
equipment, and in England they are used for draft and 

Rubber Tread (for Step). An india rubber coverinrr 
fastened to a step, or threshold plate, of a car to pre- 
vent persons from slipping when ascending or descend- 
ing the steps. 

Ruberoid Car Roof. Fig. 1748. A composition material 
intended to be laid between the inside and outside board 

Rules for Interchange. See, Interchange of Traffic 

Runners (Foundry). Apertures which connect the ingatc 
of a mold for casting metals with spaces to be filled 
with molten metal. 

Running Board, i. 87, figs. 159-69, etc. A plane surface^ 
made usually of boards, for train men to walk or run 
on. It is placed on the roof of box or stock cars and 
at the side of tank cars. Gondola and flat cars usually 





have none, but hopper bottom cars sometimes have a 
running board passing over the tops of the end rails 
and drop door beam. 

2. (Tank Car.) 119, figs. 32S'37. The only substi- 
tute for a car floor. 

HuNNiNG Board Blocking. 86a, figs. 159-69. Rectangular 
shaped blocks, the acute angle of which is the same as 
the slope of the car roof. Inserted under the running 
boards to level them up and to give them a bearing on 
the roof boards over the carlines. 

T^UNNiNG Board Bracket, i. 89, figs. 159-69, etc. See 

2. (Tank Car.) Cast iron knees attached to the 
main sills of a tank car, and projecting outward to sup- 
port the running board. 

Running Board Extension. 88, figs. 159-69, etc. The 
part which extends beyond the end of the car body so 
as to bring the ends of the running boards on adjoining 
cars nearer together to facilitate the passage of train- 
men from one car to another. See, Running Board. 

Running Board Extension Bracket. Figs. 566-7. A 
bracket to support the Running Board Extension, 
which see. 

Russell Snow Plows. Figs. 145-47- 

Russia Iron. A form of sheet iron manufactured in 
Russia the exact process for making which has hereto- 
fore been kept secret, but which consists essentially in 
forming a chemical compound of iron upon its surface 
at the same time that it is highly polished, so that it is 
not likely to rust. Modem substitutes for this iron are 
also known as Planished Iron, which see. 


Saddle. "A seat or pad to be placed on the back of an 
animal to support the rider or the load." — Knight. 
Hence, a block or plate which acts as a bearing or sup- 
port for a rod, b^m, etc., in construction, is called a 
saddle. See, Body Truss Rod Saddle. Spring Saddle. 
Truss Rod Saddle. Bolster Truss Rod Saddle. 

Safety Beam (Passenger Car Trucks. 51, figs. 37^^-39Sh 
FIGS. 3823-4. A longitudinal timber connecting the end 
piece and transom above the axles and inside of each 
wheel piece. Iron straps (axle safety bearings) are at- 
tached to the beam and pass under the axles so as to 
hold them in position in case of a breakage of axles or 
wheels on either side. An additional middle safety 
beam is used on six wheel trucks, 52, figs. 3948-51- 

Safety Beam Block. 53, figs. 378i-395I- A block fastened 
to the under side of a safety beam and to which a 
safety strap is attached. It is put there to bring the 
safety beam nearer to the axle, and is usually cut out so 
as to conform to the shape of the latter. 

Safety Beam Iron. 60, figs. 3948-51- A wrought iron bar 
or casting bolted to the transom (six wheeled truck), 
by which the middle safety beam is attached to the 

Safety Beam Tie Rod. 59, figs. 3781-3951- A longitudinal 
rod alongside a safety beam, tying the end piece and 
transom together. A safety beam truss rod sometimes 
serves as a substitute and equivalent. 

Safety Beam Truss Rod. A long longitudinal rod parallel 
with a safety beam, extending from one truck end piece 
to the other, under the transoms, so as to support them, 
in addition to serving as a substitute for Safety Beam 
Tie Rods, which see. Not much in use to-day. 

Safety Beam Truss Rod Bearings. Cast or wrought iron 
pieces attached to the transoms. See above. Not much 
in use to-day. 

Safety Bearing. See, Axle Safety Bearing for safety 
beam above. 

Safety Bearing Thimbles. See, Axle Safety Bearing 

Safety Berth Latch. A device by which it is made im- 
possible for the berth to shut itself automatically in 
case of accidental overturning of the cars. These de- 
vices enable the Berth Safety Rope (which see) to be 
dispensed with. 

Safety Car Heating and Lighting Co.'s (Systems of 
Steam Heating). Figs. 2395-2446. (Standard Sys- 
tems.) The fundamental principle of these systems is 
the replacing of the heat of the Baker heater fire, by 
the heat of the steam from the engine, applied by means 
of jackets on portions of the circulation piping, but in 
all cases leaving the Baker heater system in such con- 
dition that a fire or steam can be used, separately, or in 
conjunction, without its being necessary to alter or ad- 
just any valves or other devices whatsoever. These 
systems are all closed circulation, the seal of the Baker 
heater being unbroken, and, therefore, no reduction of 
the water in the pipes, and danger of burning out of the 
coil. Salt water may be used and is recommended. 

Details of the various applications to single and 
double circulation are given in figs. 2395-97. The 
water circulation being heated at from three to six 
different points (instead of one point, as when fire is 
used in the Baker heater) it produces more rapid and 
more equable heating of the car. See, Coil Jacket 
System and Return Heating System. 

A system of direct steam heating is shown in fig. 

Safety Chain, i. See, Brake Safety Chain (for brake 
beams). Safety Coupling Chain (for draw gear), 
figs. 4532-36. 

2. (English.) American equivalent, safety coupling 
chain. An additional coupling chain provided at one 
end with a hook, and intended to hold the train to- 
gether should the main coupling part. Two are secured 
at each end of the vehicle, one on each side of the main 
coupling. Also called side chain. 

Safety Chains, Freight Car (M. C. B. Recommended 
Practice, as to location of). Figs. 4532-36. 

Safety Chain Eye Bolt, or Strap Bolt. See, Brake 
Safety Chain Eye Bolt. 

Safety Coupling Chain (Passenger Car Platforms). 
Figs. 728-31 and 4532-36. i. A chain attached to the 
platform end timber and hooked to an eye in the plat- 
form of an adjoining car or tender so as to prevent the 
train from being separated in case the coupling should 
be detached. They are necessarily used in pairs, an 
eye and a chain with hook being attached to opposite 
sides of the same platform. 

2. (M. C. B. Recommended Practice.) Figs. 4532-36. 
In 1893 a Recommended Practice was adopted for loca- 
tion and details of platform safety chains for passenger 
equipment cars. See Proceedings 1890 and 1893. In 
1896 this was modified as follows : Platform safety 
chains for passenger equipment cars to be located 14^2 
inches each side of center; to be suitably attached to 
under side of platform timbers, and to be of such 
length that when extended horizontally the chain with 
hook shall measure 12^ inches from face of end timber 
to bearing point of hook, and the chain with eye shall 
measure 2^ inches from face of end timber to bearing 
point of eye. The hook shall not be more than ij^ 
inches thick transversely, and the eye shall not be less 
than ij^ inches wide, or less than 4 inches long in its 
opening. When facing end of car the chain fitted with 
hook shall be on the left hand side, and the chain fitted 
with eye on the right hand side. 

In 1894 a Recommended Practice was adopted for 
safety chains for freight cars, when such chains are 
used. The use of safety chains on freight cars was 
not recommended, but when they are used on cars for 
special services a location is recommended as shown. 

Safety's Direct Steam System. Fig. 2398. This depends 
for its efficiency upon the close regulation of steam 




supply possible with the special inlet valve, 603A. This 
valve has a Jenkins Seat, and is so constrtx:ted that the 
first full turn of the handwheel only opens the valve 
enough to give y^ sq. in. area of the inlet port. It 
can be adjusted by the wheel so as to give any desired 
inlet area from that point to the full area of i inch 
pipe. By this means the flow of steam to the radiator 
pipes (and therefore the car temperature) can be closely 

Safety Gate. See, Platform Gate. 

Safety Guard (for Spring Plank). Figs. 3873-75. An iron 
strap attached to the truck transoms and passing under 
the spring plank to hold up the latter in case of acci- 
dental breaking of the link hangers. More properly 
Spring Plank Safety Strap, which see. 

Safety Hanger. Sec above, also, Brake Safety Chain. 
Brake Safety Strap. Safety Hanger (for Lower 
Brake Rod). 

Safety Hanger (for Lower Brake Rod). A metal loop or 
eye attached to a truck and through which the lower 
brake rod passes. It is intended to prevent the brake rod 
from falling on the track in case it or its connections 
should break. 

Safety Latches. See, Safety Berth Latch. 

Safety Plate (Baker Fireproof Heaters). Figs. 2197, 2219. 
An iron plate which covers the hole in the partition be- 
tween the fire pot and base of smoke flue. Its office is to 
prevent the ignited coals from falling out if the heater 
be overturned. It is operated by a safety plate handle, 
figs. 2197, 2219, the safety plate sliding between safety 
plate guides, fig. 2216. The safety plate is held closed by 
a safety plate spring, fig. 2198, bearing upon the safety 
plate handle. 

Safety Plate and Gas Preventor (Baker's Perfected 
Heater). Fig. 2247. This is a cover for the fire pot with 
an upturned flange, and is fitted to the top, fig. 2245. It 
has an upturned flange along its hinged axis which de- 
flects the cool air that enters when the door is opened, 
and prevents its mixing with the gases which escape 
from the fire pot through the holes in the top, fig. 2245. 
The gases remaining hot pass up through the smoke flue 
and do not escape into the cr.r. 

Safety Plate Guide. See, Safety Plate. 

Safety Plate Handle. See, Safety Plate. 

Safety Plate Spring. See, Safety Plate. 

Safety Rod (Postal Cars). A rod suspended from overhead, 
over the pouch racks, within easy reach, to serve as a 
hand hold or grab iron in case of derailment, etc. Cer- 
tain fittings, figs. 3070-72, are used to fasten it to the 
roof or sides of car; they are the safety rod brackets, 
bushings and T joints. 

Safety Rope (for Sleeping Car Berths). 26, figs. 1778-80. 
More properly Berth Safety Rope, which see. See also, 
Safety Berth Latch. 

Safety Straight Port Coupler. Figs. 2439-46. A straight 
port steam hose coupler used on all equipments of the 
Safety Car Heating and Lighting Co. 

Safety Strap. See, Axle Safety Strap. Brake Safety 
Strap. Spring Plank Safety Strap. 

Safety Valve, i. (Baker Heater.) Figs. 2260-61. A valve 
formed of an india rubber ball, with which an opening 
on top of the circulating drum is closed. When the 
pressure in the drum exceeds the elasticity of the rubber 
ball the latter permits the steam or hot water to escape, 
and thus relieve the former. This safety valve is liltle 
used now, it having been replaced by a safety vent or 
bushing, fig. 2241. The latter is simply a cast iron cap, 
the top of which is cut out so that if the pressure in the 
pipes becomes too high the top will blow out and re- 
lieve it. A new cap must be supplied whenever the 
pressure exceeds the limit and the head of the safety 
vent is blown out. 

2. (High Speed Brake.) A valve applied to the aux- 
iliary reservoir of cars in the train, not equipped with 

reducing valves, to relieve the brakes from excessive 

pressure. Fig. 951. 
Safety Valve Ball (Baker Heater). Sec, Safety Valve. 
Safety Valve Body. 2, Fig. 951. 

Safety Vent and Bushing. Fig. 2241. See, Safety Valve. 
St. Louis Flush Car Door. Figs. 1040-41. 
Saloon, i. "A lofty, spacious apartment." — Worcester. 

2. The main room in a compartment car (rarely 

3. One of the smaller subdivision^ or staterooms of 
a sleeping or parlor car. 

4. A retiring room, furnished with urinal and closet 
hopper, or soil hopper ; and in the more luxurious cars 
with a water closet. The saloon is commonly also pro- 
vided with washing facilities. Other terms arc lavatory, 
closet, toilet, etc. 

Saloon Carriage (English). Answers the same purpose as 
an excursion car, or American private car. A luxurious 
vehicle, one or more of which is kept for hire on most 
English railways, having one or more large compart- 
ments, about 15 ft. long, fitted with tables, sofas, etc, 
and termed saloon, is never used in England in the 
American sense (4) above. Sec also. Carriage. 

Saloon Door Plate, or Notice Plate. Figs. 2118-33. 

Saloon Furnishings. Figs. 3089-31 19. 

Saloon Handle. Figs. 3097-3102. See, Urinal Handle. 

Saloon Hopper. Figs. 3091-95. See, Closet Hopper. Also 
called soil hopper. 

Saloon Hopper Ventilator (Bell's, which see). Fia 3103. 

Saloon Latch. Figs. 2086-88. A latch for saloon doors, 
which consists of a spring bolt, usually with a stop on 
the inside, which locks the bolt fast, or with a separate 
bolt for fastening the door from the inside. Sec below. 

Saloon Lock. Figs. 2040-65. The same as a saloon latch, 
with provision for lockincr the door from the outside. 
Saloon latches without locking facilities are rarely used. 

Saloon Paper Hook. Figs. 3108-09. See, Paper Hook. 

Saloon Plate. Sec, Notice Plate. 

Saloon Roof. In most of the modem cars the saloon is en- 
tirely roofed over so as to be distinct from the body of 
the car. Sometimes the partitions are carried up to the 
roof of the car. 

Saloon Seat. The wooden seat over a closet hopper. 

Saloon Stop Latch. See, Saloon Latch. 

Saloon Ventilating Jack. See, Ventilator. 

Sand Blast Process. A process of cutting glass by blowing 
sand upon it with a strong blast of air The glass is cov- 
ered with paper or other elastic surface, which it is 
found the sand does not cut at all while rapidly cutting 
away the glass itself. The process was invented by ob- 
serving the action of sand blown by the wind upon the 
rocks in the western plains of the United States, and is 
now largely used in place of wheel cutting. 

Sand Box (Street Cars). A box placed under the seats con- 
taining grit for sanding the tracks. It is provided with a 
spout and valve, operated by a lever, connecting rod and 
lever holder. 

Sand Plank. 43, figs. 3735-3951- A common name for 
spring plank. 

Sandwich Plates. See, Flitch Plates. Body Bolster. 
Flitch Plates, etc. 

Sargent Skeleton Brake Shoe. Fig. 1006. A brake shoe 
of mild steel with depressions in the face so disposed as 
to leave the metal to wear the tire when the rail does 
not. Used on locomotive driving wheels. 

Sargent Steel Insert Brake Shoe. Fig. 1003, Another 
form of skeleton shoe serving the same purpose of 
giving a proportionate wear on the tire. Made with 
cast iron body and crucible steel inserts. 

Sash. The frame of a window or blind, in which the glass 
or slats are set, but commonly used, especially in conv 
pound words, as a substitute for window, meaning the 
window and sash complete. The various members used 




in framing a sash arc the same as a Door Frame, which 

see. See, 

Deck Sash. Mirror Sash. 

Door Case Window Swinging Sash. 

Sash. Upper Door Sash. 

Door Light (English). Ventilator Sash. 

Door Sash. Window Blind Sash. 

Lower Door Sash. Window Sash. 

Sash Balance. Figs. 3691-94, 3705, 3709- A spring or 
weight, with or without a cord, so connected to a sash 
as to counterbalance its weight and make it easy to raise 
or lower. There are numerous devices of the kind, only 
three of which are illustrated — O. M. Edwards, the 
Caldwell and the National. 

Sash Bar Lift. Figs. 3688-90, 3699-3703. A sash lift having 
a projecting bar sufficiently large to be grasped by the 
entire hand. Chiefly used for heavy double windows, in 
parlor cars, etc. 

Sash Fastener. A Sash Lock, which see. 

Sash Holder. See, Sash Lock. Spring Sash Holder. 

Sash Lift. 43, figs. 1778-83; 3662-90. A metal finger hold 
attached to the bottom rail of a window sash for rais- 
ing and lowering it. They are sometimes let in flush, 
and so called (fig. 3682), but usually attached on the 
outside. Sometimes, but rarely, the sash lift is a mere 
knob, and so called. A Window Blind Lift, figs. 3593- 
3620, which see, is a somewhat similar device. See, 
Sash Bar Lift. End Door Sash Lift. 

Sash Lock. Figs. 3652-60. A spring bolt attached to a win- 
dow sash, or (rarely) a window blind, provided with 
thumb lever (sash lock trigger), to withdraw the bolt 
with by one hand, while the sash is lifted by the other. 
Both hands must thus be used. To accomplish this end 
less awkwardly sash balances, figs. 3691-94, have been 
adopted. See also. Deck Sash Latch. 

In the common form of sash lock, fig. 3648, the sash 
lock bolt, I, is pressed outward by the sash lock spring, 
2, and moved inward when desired by the sash lock 
trigger, 3. The bolt enters into a sash lock bushing, 
FIG. 3623, let into the parting strip or other part of the 
window casing. In place of the bushing, sash lock stops, 
FIGS. 3621-30, or sash lock plates, fastened upon the 
outside of the window casing, or let in flush, are some- 
times used, and occasionally a sash lock rack, figs. 3642- 
J3. A sash lock lower stop is often added at the bottom 
to hold the sash shut and prevent it from being opened 
from the outside. 

Sash Lock Bolt, i, fig. 3648. See above. 

Sash Lock Bushing. Figs. 3579-80. See above. 

Sash Lock Lower Stop. See above and Sash Lock Stop. 

Sash Lock Plate. Fig. 3639-41. A sash lock stop. See 

Sash Lock Rack. Fig. 3642-43. 

Sash Lock Spring. 2, fig. 3648. See, Sash Lock. 

Sash Lock Stop. Figs. 3621-30. There are two kinds of 
stops, upper stops for holding the window o(5en, and 
lower stops to hold it shut. Sash lock bushings, plates, 
or racks, are substitutes and equivalents for sash lock 
stops. See, Sash Lock. 

Sash Lock Trigger. 3, Fig. 3648. See, Sash Lock. 

Sash Opener. Figs. 3504-23. A contrivance, as a lever 
or rod, for opening a window, used chiefly for the 
deck sashes, which are out of reach. See, Deck Sash 

Sash Parting Strip. A strip of wood attached to the 
window post of a passenger car which acts as a dis- 
tance piece between two sashes and against which the 
latter slide. Also called Bead and Parting Bead, which 

Sash Pivot. Figs. 3528-34. A metal pin or pivot attached 
to a sash on which the latter turns. The term almost 
always means a deck sash pivot. 

Sash Pocket Post (Street Car). The intermediate parts 
in the end of an open car, between the end sash. 

Sash Prop. A Window Button, which see. 

Sash Pull. Figs. 3516-22. See Deck Sash Pull. 

Sash Pull Hook. Figs. 3546-50. See, Pull Hook. 

Sash Rail. A horizont^ bar in the outside frame of a 
window or blind. See, Window Blind Rail. 

Sash Rest (Street Cars). See, Window Sash Rest. 

Sash Spring. Figs. 3575-77. A metal spring attached to 
the edge of the stile of a window or blind sash to pre- 
vent it from rattling. They are made of various forms. 
A single window sash spring consists of a metal plate, 
like fig. 3577, attached to the sash at one end. A double 
window sash spring is a metal plate fastened in its 
center to the sash. Another is of a spiral form, spiral 
window sash springs, let into the sash. 

Scantling (Carpentry). "Lumber under 5 inches square 
used for studs, braces, ties, etc. It is expressed in 
terms of its transverse dimensions." — Knight. An up- 
right scantling is termed a stud. 

Scarf. "A joint uniting two pieces of timber endwise. 
The ends of each are beveled off and projections are 
sometimes made in the one corresponding to concavi- 
ties in the other, or a corresponding concavity in each 
receives a jiggle" (or packing block). — Knight. It is 
technically known as a ship splice, prescribed by the 
rules for interchange of traflic for splicing any broken 
sills but the center sills. See, Interchange of Traffic 
for the splice recommended for sills. 

ScARRiTT- Forney Seats. Figs. 3182-3223. Seats made by 
the Scarritt-Comstock Furniture Company under the 
Forney patents. The feature of the Forney seat is the 
seat back arms and the tilting of the cushion and in- 
clinations of the back given by these arms. This is 
fully shown in the figures. Another feature of these 
seats is the adjustable foot rest, which permits luggage 
to be set under it out of the way as shown in fig. 3186. 

Scheme Rod (Postal Cars). A rod supported upon the 
scheme rod bracket, and carrying the scheme or sched- 
ule of the proper distribution of mail matter for the 
various post oflices used in distributing mail. 

Screen (For Heater Room Doors, Wash Room Panels, 
etc.). A perforated plate of sheet metal, usually 
japanned, used as an ornamental finish. 

Screen, Deck Window. A wire netting extending the 
entire length of the clear story outside the deck sash 
to exclude cinders. It is usually a very fine wire net- 
ting, 64 meshes to the inch. 

Screw, i. "A cylinder surrounded by a spiral ridge or 
groove, every part of which forms an equal angle with 
the axis of the cylinder, so that if developed on a plane 
surface it would be an inclined plane. It is considered 
as one of the mechanical powers." — Knight. When 
used alone the term commonly means a wood screw, 
having a slotted head and gimlet point, for driving in 
with a screw driver. Machine screws are similar, ex- 
cept that they have no gimlet point and have a metal 
screw thread. They are used for uniting metallic parts. 
All ordinary forms of bolts have screw threads cut on 
them, but are not commonly called screws. A special 
form of wood screw is a lag screw, which is a large 
sized screw with a head like a bolt, so that it may be 
inserted with a wrench instead of a screw driver. See, 
Screw Thread. 

Screw Coupling (English). The means by which passen- 
ger train vehicles are coupled together. On the Conti- 
nent it is used for both passenger and freight cars. It 
comprises a right and left handed screw provided with 
a hinged weighted handle, which always hangs down- 
ward, so that it has no tendency to unscrew and slacken 
the coupling, and two nuts with gudgeons taking in 
the eyes of U-shaped _coupling links or shackles. The 
screw coupling may be either loose, or one shackle may 
be attached to the drawbar. 

Screw Coupling Nut, and Gudgeons (English). Sec 

SCR ^ 

Screw Coupunc Weighted Lever (English). See above. 

Screw Gages, Instruments for measuring the diameter or 
siie of screws. They arc of two kinds : cxlemal, for 
measuring male screws, agd internal, for measuring 
female screws. See also, Screw Pitch Gage. Screw 
Thread Gage, 

Screw Jack. Figs. 1970, etc, A jack, the power of which 
depends upon a screw, turned by a lever. There arc 
several such jacks in use, the bell base, ratchet screw 
jack; the differential screw jack, which has two screws, 
one workii^ within the other, and the Chapman screw 
jack, which has a capstan head, into which a bar may 
be inserted. 

Screw Pitch Gage. "A gage tor determining the num- 
ber of threads to the inch on screws and taps. It con- 
sists of a number of toothed plates turning on a com- 
mon pivot, so that the serrated edge of each may be 
applied to the screw until one is found which corre- 
sponds therewith. The figures stamped on the plate 
indicate the number of threads to the inch," — Knight 
In the ordinary single thread screw the pitch is indi- 
cated by the number of threads to an inch. 

Screw Thread. The groove, or the material between the 
grooves, which is cut on the outside surface of a cylin- 
der to form a male screw, or on the inside surface of a 
cylindrical hole to form a nut or female screw. Metal 
Screw Threads and Wood Screw Threads, which see, 
are of diflferent form. Pipe Screw Threads, which 
see, are usually V-shaped, but all other threads in com- 
mon use for ordinary purposes are made by the WhJt- 
worth or Sellers standard screw threads, tiie former 
being the European and the latter the American stand- 

• At the M, C. B. Convention, 1882, it was "Resolve4 

That this Association deprecates the use of screws 
larger or smaller in diameter by a small fraction of ati 
inch than the sizes specified for the Sellers or Frankli/i 
Institute system, and that all the members of tile Asso- 
ciation are urged to abandon entirely the use of over 

The Sellers or Franklin Institute system of screw 
threads, bolt heads and nuts is the standard of the 
Association, and repeated action of the Association has 
deprecated the use of any other system, and encouraged 
the careful maintenance of these standards. See Pro- 
ceedings 1872, pages 18 and 2J ; Proceedings i^g, 
pages 82 and 83 ; Proceedings 18S2, page 229. 

A set of gages for standard screw threads and a 
standard inch scale, 3 feet long, are held in the office 
of the Secretary for reference. 

Mr. Sellers, who proposed this system of screw 
threads, described it in an essay before the Franklin 
Institute of Philadelphia, April 21, 1864, as follows: 

"Tlie proportions for the proposed thread and its 
comparative relation to the sharp and rounded threads 
will be readily understood from the diagrams, ncs. 
11-16. The angle of the proposed thread is fixed at 60 
degrees, the Sdme as the sharp thread, it being more 
readily obtained than 55 degrees, and more in accord 
ance with the general practice in this country. Divide 
the pitch, or, which is the same thing, the side of the 
thread into eight equal parts, lake off one part from the 
top and Itll in one part in the bottom of the thread, 
then the flat top and bottom will equal one-eighth of 
the nitch; the wearing surface will be three-quarters of 
the pitch, and the diameter of screw at bottom of the 
thread will be expressed by the formula: 



Number of threads per inch. 
The tables are reprinted from Mr. Sellers' essay: 
they give the proportions of his standard screw threads, 
nuts and bolt heads. 

The Sellers or Franklin Institute System is also 
called the United States Standard System. 

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NoTB. — In 1899 the foUowiag dimeoiioas for iqnare bolt heads were adopted as recommended practice : The side of the head 
shall be one and one-half times the diameter of the boU, and th^hickness of the head shall be one-half the side of the head. See 
page 39, Recommended Practice. In 1900 these dimensions were adopted as standard. 

Screw Thread Gage. A steel plate with notches in the 
edge of the precise form of screw threads, used for giv- 
ing the proper form to the edges of screw cutting 
tools. See, Sellers' Screw Thread and Screw 

Screw Top (Bell Cord Hangers). Figs. 1859-60. A simple 
form of Bell Cord Hanger Bracket^ which see. 

Scribing. The fitting of the edge of a piece of timber or 
metal to another more or less irregular surface. Scrib- 
ing is usually done by marking a parallel line to the 
surface which it is designed to fit by a pair of com- 
passes or with a scribe awl. 

Scroll Iron (English). A wrought iron forging, carry- 
ing a vertical spring link adjusting screw. The upper 
face is attached to the under side of the sole bar, and 
the lower part is bored horizontally for the adjusting 
screw. In general use on passenger service. 

Scrubber and Condenser. (Adlake System). Fig. 2656. 

Scutcheon (of a Lock). Properly, Escutcheon, which see. 

Seals. Figs. 3120-41. See, Car Seals. See also, Lead 
Seal. Lock Seal. Rivet Seal. 

Seal Lock (Freight Car). Figs. 3120-41. A lock in which 
a seal made of glass, paper, or other material is in- 
serted in the lock in such a manner as to cover the bolt 
or the key hole. The lock cannot be opened without 
breaking the seal. See, Car Seal. 

Seal Press. Figs. 3126-27. A pair of levers arranged like 
a pair of pincers, with two dies in which lead car seals 
are compressed on the wire to which they are attached, 
leaving an impression on the lead so that if the seals 
are removed or defaced it can be known. Similar seal 
presses are used for eyelet shackles. 

Seal Wires. Figs. 3122, etc. Several strands of fine wire 
twisted together like a rope, or single bars of twisted 
flat wire, by which leaden seals are attached to car 
doors. There are various special forms, called detect- 
ive wires, as figs. 3133, etc., to prevent stripping the 

Seal Wire Opening (Car Door Fastener). A hole for 
inserting the shackle of a seal. 

Sealed Jet Accelerator. ((Jold's Car Heating). Fig. 2388. 
The essential part of the apparatus shown in Fig. 2327. 
Live steam is brought directly into contact with the 
circulating water and heats it, at the same time forcing 
the circulation. 

Seaming Lace (English). An ornamental woolen fabric 
made in bands about J^ inch wide, and used to cover 
the seams and joints in the upholstery of a carriage. It 
is sewn to any textile fabric and has two tape edges 
and is wrapped round a piece of seaming cord which 
is stitched inside. It differs from Pasting Lace, which 

Seat, i, "That on which one sits." — Webster. 

2. Fig. 3142. "The flat portion of a chair or sofa to 
support the person." — Knight. See, Car Seat, special 
forms, which also see, being : 

Cane Seat. 

Corner Seat. 

Hale and Kilburn 

Heywood Bros. & Wake- 
field Seats. 

Longitudinal Seat. 

Parlor Car Chairs. 

Pushover Seat. 

Rattan Seat. 

See also, Saloon Seat. 
3. In Mechanics : "The part on which another thing 

rests, as a valve seat." — Knight. See, 

Richards Panel Back 

Reversible Seat. 
Revolving Chair. 


Side Seat. 
Slat Seat. 
Slideover Seat. 
Wheeler Seats, etc. 

Rubber Seat. 
Spring Seat. 
Tank Valve Seat. 
Wheel Seat. 

Axle Seat. 
Bolster Spring Seat. 
Discharge Valve Seat. 
Equalizing Bar Seat. 
Equalizing Bar Spring 

Leather Seat. 

4. (For Hand Car.) 12, figs. 4722-27. A horizontal 
board placed lengthwise over the wheels above a rave 
for the occupants to sit on. 

Seat Arm. 9, figs. 3151-52; figs. 3339-43. An arm by which 
the back of a seat is attached to the seat end or to the 
side of the car. Such arms are usually attached by a 
pivot, so that the seat back can be reversed. Sometimes 
called striker arm, seat back arm, and also seat back 
reversing arms. Some of the various forms are the For- 
ney, fig. 3195, etc.; the Hale & Kilburn, figs. 3151-52, 
etc., and the Walkover (H. & K.*s), figs. 3153-56. 

This term is also used to designate the portion of a 
seat end (more properly called seat end arm) which 
supports the arm of a person sitting in the seat, as 3, 
FIGS. 3151-52, and sometimes, incorrectly, to designate 
an Arm Cap, figs. 3260-64, which see. 

Seat Arm Cap. Figs. 3260-64. A piece of metal shaped to 
the form of the seat arm and screwed to the top to take 
the wear and as an ornament. 

Seat Arm Pivot. Figs. 3318-3332. A metal pivot by which 
a seat arm of a reversible seat is attached to a seat end 
or the side of a car. In some cases the pivot is made in 
one piece with the seat arm plate, which is attached to 
the seat end. The two combined then become a Seat 
Arm Pivot Plate, which see. A seat arm pivot is some- 
times called in the trade a seat arm rivet. 

Seat Arm Pivot Plate. Figs. 3318-19, 3324-32. See above. 

Seat Arm Plate. Fig. 3316, etc. A plate fastened to a seat 
end with a hole in the center, which receives and holds 
a seat arm pivot. In some cases the pivot is made in 
one piece with the plate. The part formed by combining 
the two is then called a Seat Arm Pivot Plate, which 
see, sometimes a seat arm pivot plate or washer and a 
bolt is used, fig. 3280. 

Seat Arm Rest Bracket. Figs. 3256-58. A bracket to be 
screwed to the wall to carry a wood arm rest. 




Seat Arm Rivets. Figs. 3281-86. 

Seat Arm Stop. Figs. 3306-11, etc A metal lug or bracket 
attached to a scat end, and sometimes to the side of the 
car, on which the seat arm rests. Scat stops are either 
attached to a long plate (curved or straight seat stop), 
as in FIGS. 3299-3305, etc., or as in round seat stops, figs. 
3312-15, etc., and have a flange entirely surrounding 
them, by which they are attached to the seat arm or side 
of the car. They are also called seat stops. 

Seat Arm Thimbles. Figs. 3265-66. 

Seat Arm Washer. Figs. 3290-93. A small washer for the 
head of a screw, by which a seat arm is fastened to a 
seat end. Now little used. 

Seat Back. 2, figs. 3151-52, 3169-91. That part of an ordi- 
nary American car seat which forms a support for the 
back. It has an arm, called the seat back arm, attached 
to it, by which it is attached to the seat ends with a seat 
arm pivot, so that it can be swung over so as to face 
the other way. In some styles the seat back arm is piv- 
oted below the seat cushion and the seat back swings 
over the cushion so that both sides are used alternately. 
See, Seat. On some suburban cars, and usually on 
street cars, longitudinal seats are used, with the backs 
against the side of the car. See, Slat Seat Back. Flex- 
ible Top Seat Back. Sectional Seat Back. 

Seat Back Arm. A Seat Arm, which sec 

Seat Back Arm Lock. See, Seat Lock. 

Seat Back Arm Pivot, i. Pivoted seat arm. Fig. 3343. The 
swinging joint or seat back pivot in the seat arm. 
2. A Seat Arm Pivot, which see. 

Seat Back Band. Figs. 3237-38, 3268-79. A Seat Back 
Molding, which see. 

Seat Back Board (Street Cars). A board placed between 
the two seat back rails of a longitudinal seat. Usually 
made in the form of a raised panel so as to make a com- 
fortable rest for the back. A seat back. 

Seat Back Bottom Raiu See, Back Seat Bottom Rail. 
Also called a lower seat back rail. 

Seat Back Corners. Fig. 3338. A metallic comer piece to 
screw to the backs of seats and protect the upholstery 
from wear. 

Seat Back Curved Stop. Figs. 3301-05. A Seat Back Stop, 
which see, of a curved form, resembling somewhat a 
letter S. 

Seat Back Molding. Figs. 3268-79. A wood or (usually) 
metal band or molding fastened around the edge of a 
seat back to give it a finish and protect it from wear. 

Seat Back Pivot Plate. 10, figs. 3151-52, 3169-91. The 
plate bearing a seat arm pivot fastened to the seat back. 

Seat Back Rail (Street Cars). Two narrow rails, upper 
and lower, which form the top and bottom of a longi- 
tudinal scat inclosing the seat back board between 

Seat Back Reversing Arms. 9, figs. 3169-91. A seat 
back arm of a Scarritt-Fomey seat. 

Seat Back Round Stop. Figs. 3312-15. A round Seat 
Stop, which see. 

Seat Back Slats. Fig. 3145. Narrow strips of wood 
used to form a seat back; used chiefly for seats which 
are not upholstered. 

Seat Back Spring. A weak spring placed in the uphol- 
stering in the back of a seat. Usually called simply 
back spring. 

Seat Back Stop. See, Seat Stop. 

Seat Bearing Cross Bar. (Longitudinal Seat of Street 
Car.) The bearing bar transverse to the seat and rest- 
ing upon the seat leg and the back seat rail. 

Seat Board (English). In a carriage, the support for the 
seat sofa springs. These springs are tied down, and a 
piece of canvas is stretched tightly over them, the 
cushion resting on this canvas. 

Seat Bottom (Street Cars). The boards or floor in a 
seat frame on which a cushion rests, or on which per- 

sons sit when no cushion is used. It is attached to the 
back and front seat bottom rails. 

Seat Bottom Cross Bar. A flUing piece shaped like the 
seat bottom, to which the slats are screwed. It rests 
upon or over the seat bearing cross bar. 

Seat Bottom Rail. See above 

Seat Bracket (Hand Car). 13, figs. 4722-27. A wrought 
iron knee which supports the seat. 

Seat Bracket Brace (Hand Car). 14, figs. 4722-27. 

Seat Corner. Fig. 3338. A metal comer plate to protect 
the wood comer from abrasion. 

Seat Cove. The rail that takes the place of the back seat 
bottom slat. 

Seat Cover (Street Car). A piece of tapestry or seat 
covering with which the bare seat is often covered. 

Seat Cover Guard Rail. A strip of wood tacked to the 
flap of the seat cover to keep it straight. 

Seat Cushion, i. Figs. 3151-52, 3169-91. A soft pad or 
pillow on which passengers sit. Two kinds of cushions 
are used on cars ; a squab cushion, which is a loose pad 
and is now little used, and box cushion, which is a 
cushion built upon a cushion frame, with springs, etc. 
See, Back Squab (English). 

A great variety of forms of seat cushions exist, the 
leading ones of which are shown. Special fonns, sepa- 
rately defined, are, as respects material, woven wire, 
rattan or cane, canvas lined ; as respects mode of con- 
struction, flexible top, elliptic, broad band elliptic, spiral 
elliptic, spring edge, sectional, drop down frame, etc.» 

2. (English.) American equivalent, squab cushion. 
In a first class carriage, a flat, loose squab cushion, 
about four inches thick, covered with broadcloth on 
one side and leather on the other, and stuffed with 
curled horse hair. It is reversible, and often so called. 

Seat Division (Longitudinal Seats). Shown in fig. 80. A 
bar of wood or metal to separate the space occupied by 
a passenger from that adjoining it. 

Seat End. 123, figs. 388-91 ; 3, figs. 3151-52, 3169-91, and 
13, figs. 1778-83. A frame of wood or metal at the 
end of a car seat which supports the arm of the occu- 
pant and to which the seat back arm is attached. Seat 
ends are designated long or short, according to whether 
they extend entirely to the floor or are supported upon 
a seat stand. They are also designated as aisle seat 
ends, or wall seat ends, and, for corner seats, as left 
hand or right hand seat ends. 

Seat End Arm. 4, Figs. 3151-52. The portion of a seat 
end which supports the arm of a person sitting in the 
seat. An arm rest. 

Seat End Panel Rib (Open Street Car). A piece of fur- 
ring to which the seat end panel of an open car is 

Seat End Cross Rail. 6, figs. 3151-52, 3169-91. The end 
rail between the posts of a wood seat end. 

Seat End Rest. 5, figs. 3151-52, 3169-91. The end posts 
or upright members of a wood seat frame. 

Seat Frame. 12, figs. 3169-91, 3151-52. 

Seat Front (Street Car). The rave or seat riser. 

Seat Front Panel (Street Car). The panel beneath the 
seat, the same as a rest front. 

Seat Front Rail. A rail fastened to the ends of the seat 
bearing cross bar and running along at the top of the 
seat front and under the front seat rail. 

Seat Head End. 14, figs. 1778-83. The upper part of the 
seat end projecting out beyond the .head rest. 

Seat Hinge (Sleeping Cars). Figs. 3359-60. A strap hinge 
used to connect a seat with the seat back. See also. 
Sofa Hinge. 

Seating. Fig. 3234, etc. See, Canvas Lined Rattan Seat- 
ing. The plush which is commonly used to upholster 
car seats is also sometimes called seating. 

Seat Joint Bolt. Fig. 3280. A bolt for fastening a seat rail 
to aisle seat ends. It is also used at the wall ends. 




Seat Leg (Longitudinal Seats). A wooden post which sup- 
ports a front seat rail. 

Seat Leg Plate. A metal plate with which the front of a 
seat end or leg is covered to protect it from injury. 

Seat Lever (Howard's Water Closet). Figs. 3089-90. A 
lever projecting backward from the seat lid, to which 
the connecting rod is attached. 

Seat Lid (Howard's Water Closet). Figs. 3089-90. A lid 
connected with the pan and service measure by the con- 
necting rod in such a manner that on raising it the pan 
is brought up into position and about half a gallon of 
water is discharged from the service measure. 

Seat Lock. Fig. 3259. A lock for holding the back of a 
seat so that its position cannot be reversed. Such locks 
are attached either to the seat end, seat back arm or 
seat back stop. A form for iron seat ends with a smaller 
escutcheon, not provided with screw holes, is sometimes 
distinctively called a barrel lock, although the term is 
almost equally applicable to any form of seat lock. Seat 
locks operate by pushing the key inward, turning it a 
• little and then pulling on the key. 

Seat Lock Bolt. Figs. 3294-95. The beveled bolt by which 
locking is effected. 

Seat Lock Key. A key for a seat lock. Some work by 
pushing in and not turning. See, Seat Lock. 

Seat Lock Spring. Fig. 3294. The spring which moves the 

Seat Pull (Sleeping Cars). Figs. 3354-55. A flush handle 
for pulling out the seat in making up the berth so as to 
drop the back and seat to the same level. 

Seat Rail. 48, figs. 3169-91. One of a pair of wooden 
rails, front and back resting on and attached to the 
seat end and to the side of the car, and which sup- 
ports a cushion frame or seat bottom. 

Seat Rail Bracket. A support for a wooden seat rail. In 
iron seat ends it is frequently cast upon it. 

Seat Rail Knee (English). A piece of wood secured to 
the door pillar and supporting the seat rail. It is 
generally slotted to receive a leather strap, restraining 
the undue opening of the door. 

Seat Rail Support (English). A piece of hard wood 
supporting the seat and securing it to the side of the 
bodv of a carriage. It is often pierced for a leather 
strap limiting the opening of the door. 

Seat Riser, i. (Street Cars.) A vertical board or front 
of a seat, extending from the seat rail to the floor; 
seldom used with reversible seats. A seat front. 

2. (Hand Car.) 15, figs. 4722-27. A Rave, which 

Seat Slat. 13, figs. 3169-91. A narrow strip of wood 
which forms part of a seat bottotm, or seat back. 

Seat Spring. Figs. 3226-55. A spiral or other metal spring 
used to give a seat elasticity. Spiral springs are the 
most common, the elliptic and spiral-elliptic having be- 
come nearly obsolete in new seats. A special form of 
seat springs called back springs, of little resistance, is 
used for seat backs. English seat springs are called 
sofa springs, and the back springs back squab sofa 

Seat Stand. 124 figs. 388-9 ; 7, figs. 3169-91. A support, 
usually made of cast iron, on which an aisle seat end 
rests. Very commonly the seat stand and seat end are 
in one part, which is then called a long seat end. 

Seat Stand Tie Rod. 25, figs. 3169-91. A rod connecting 
the aisle and wall seat stands of a Scarritt- Forney seat 

Seat Stop. See, Seat Arm Stop. 

Seat Tilting Levers. 35, figs. 3151-52. See, Parallel 

Seat Webbing. Figs. 3226, etc. A form of coarse canvas 
used in upholstering car seats. 

Second Catch (of Car Door Fastener). A double hook or 
eye placed in the hasp of a car door lock in such man- 
ner that the door can, if desired, be locked, leaving a 
crack open for ventilation. 

Second Class Car. A plainly flnished passenger car for 
carrying passengers who pay a lower rate of fare, than 
first class passengers do. Such cars are rarely used, 
the smoking car usually serving this purpose for the 
small number of so-called second class (in reality, third 
class) passengers. See, Coach. First Class Car. 

Second Class Carriage (English). A vehicle adapted to 
carry passengers paying an intermediate rate of fare, 
the fittings being less expensive and comfortable than in 
the first class. Each compartment measures about 6 
feet in the length of the carriage, and seats 10 passen- 
gers. It is rapidly going out of use, so much so that 
several of the English roads have discontinued the run- 
ning of second class carriages. See also. Carriage. 

Section, i. See, Sectional Seat Cushion. 

2. (Of a Sleepiniar Car.) Figs. 1778-80. Two double 
berths, one above the other, making up into two seats 
facing each other by day. There are from 8 to 16 sec- 
tions in a car, besides the state rooms. 

Sectional Seat Cushion. One with spiral springs sep- 
arately attached to narrow slats so that the seat can be 
made up or repaired in sections. 

Sector. In geometry: "A part of a circle included by an 
arc and the two radii drawn to its extremities." — Da- 
vies. Hence, any object whose shape is that of a part 
of a circle ought to be called a sector, but as a matter 
of fact, it is generally called a quadrant. See, Deck 
Sash Quadrant. 

Security Car Door. Figs. 1062-64. 

Security Door Brackets. Figs. 1050-51. A door bracket 
designed to prevent the opening of the doer 
from the side or bottom without destroying the seal. 
They are bolted to the car body, and the bolt head is 
fitted into a socket in the bracket. 

Self Acting Ventilator. An Automatic Ventilator, 
which see. 

Self Closing Faucet, or Cock. Fig. 2766. A faucet hav- 
ing a horizontal bar handle provided with a spring by 
which it is closed when released. Telegraph Cocks, 
which see, figs. 2763-64, and also compression cocks, 
fig. 2769, are also self closing, but not distinctively so 

Self Locking or Spring Padlock. One which snaps, locked 
by pressure only, without using a key, in distinction 
from a dead padlock. 

Sellers System of Screw Threads. A system of screw 
threads designed by William Sellers of Philadelphia. 
Often called Franklin Institute or United States Stand- 
ard Thread. See, Screw Thread. 

Semaphore Lens. A trade name for a cheap modification 
of the Fresnel lens, the latter term being more gen- 
erally restricted to those having the back a plane or 
nearly cylindrical surface. 

Semi-Convertible Car. Figs. 4732, 4735, 474^49» 4762-64. 
A modification of the convertible car in which only the 
sash raises into the roof, leaving the car open above 
the belt rail. 

Service Measure (Howard's Water Closet). Figs. 3089-90. 
An auxiliary tank holding about a half-gallon of water 
connected with the seat lid and water tank and dis- 
charging the water on raising the lid only. 

Sessions Standard Friction Draft Gear. Figs. 1157-84. 
A form of friction draft gear in which the friction 
surfaces are triangular wedges forced together with 
gradually increasing pressure as they slide over each 
other. In one type, figs. 1157-74, the springs are set 
at right angles to the line of draft, and are compressed 
by the displacement of the wedge cap or front follower 
which rubs on the wedges placed inside the yoke. 

Set (of Elliptic Springs). The amount of compression ot 
which the spring is capable. The distance between the 
spring bands when unloaded. The arch is half the set, 
plus the thickness of the spring band. 




Set of Springs. All the springs for carrying the weight of 
one car, not including draw springs. A set of bolster 
springs consists of the springs which are placed between 
the truck frames and carry the weight of the body only. 
A set of equalizing bar springs means all the springs 
for a car on the equalizing bars. A set of wheel or 
journal springs means all the springs which are placed 
directly over the journal boxes of one car. 

Set of Wheels. This term means a number of wheels suf- 
ficient for one car. A set of wheels and axles means 
the requisite number of wheels fitted to axles complete 
for one car. A pair of wheels means two wheels al- 
ready fitted to an axle, including the axle ; but a set of 
wheels does not include the axles unless specified. 

Set Screw, or Stud Fastening. Fig. 4233. As applied to 
railroad wheels, a mode of securing the tire to the 
wheel which is becoming obsolete. See, Tire Fasten- 

Sew ALL Steam Coupling. Figs. 2315-18. This is a straight 
port, abutting face, and insulated steam coupler. 
The cut shows its construction. The passage for 
steam is unobstructed. On the coupler head are a tooth 
and space in such a position as to serve the double pur- 
pose of a guide for the interlocking devices when being 
coupled, and also retain the coupler heads in proper re- 
lation while uncoupling. The locking features are con- 
structed upon epicycloidal curves, thereby drawing the 
gaskets together in a direct line after contact. , The 
center line of pressure exactly coincides with the centre 
line through the locking devices, and hence gravity 
tightens the gasket faces. The coupler is automatic in 
uncoupling in consequence of the curvature of the hose 
nipple, the center line of draft being brought above the 
center line of pressure as soon as hose begins to ap- 
proach a horizontal position. The gaskets are of nib- 

Sextuple (Elliptic Springs). Six elliptic springs coupled 
together, side by side, to act as one. 

Shackle, i. (Of a Padlock.) A U-shaped bar which is 
passed through the staple in front of the hasp by which 
the padlock is used to lock the object. The inner end of 
the shackle is termed the heel, which is sometimes pro- 
vided with the shackle spring to hold the shackle open 
or shut. 

The shackle of cheap padlocks is attached to pro- 
jecting ears, but in those of better quality the heel is 
entirely within the lock itself. The shackle is sometimes 
termed the hasp, but this usage is incorrect. 

2. (Of Car Seals.) The wire or metal strip passing 
through the fastening to be sealed and closed together 
at the end. See, Car Seals. 

Shackle Bar. A Coupling Link, which see. 

Shackle Guard (of a Padlock). A plate used in some pad- 
locks lying immediately under the point of the shackle 
when locked in place, serving to exclude dirt and wet 
from the interior. 

Shackle Lock (Car Door Fastener). A term used in dis- 
tinction from the seal lock. 

Shade. See, Lamp Shade. Window Shade. Figs. 3708-28. 

Shade Cap (of a Lamp). 33, figs. 2694-2710. A vertical 
tube extending the shade upward and constituting in 
effect an extension of the chimney. A similar part for 
a lamp globe is called a globe chimney. 

Shade Holder (Pintsch Lamp). 483, figs. 2605-21. 

Shade Roller (for Window Shades). Fig. 3724. A device 
serving the purpose which its name implies, the only 
forms of which now in general use are the automatic 
forms, which hold the shade in any position when re- 
leased by means of centrifugal pawls. The leading styles 
are the Hartshorn Shade Roller and the McKay Shade 
Roller, which see. The Hartshorn works with a pawl 
on the end, while the McKay has a cam. See Burrowes 
Car Shades. 

Shaft. "That part of a machine to which motion is com- 
municated by torsion," — Webster. See 
Brake Shaft. Horizontal Brake 

Crank Shaft. Shaft. 

Door Shaft. Lever Shaft 

Driving Shaft. (Street Cars). 

Drum Shaft. Winding Shaft. 

Shaker. Fig. 2194, etc. Sec, Grate Shaker. 

Shank. (Of a Coupler.) That part of a coupler or draw- 
bar between the draw head and tail end. The body of 
the coupler. It may be round, square and corrugated 
in different couplers. 

Shank (Kirby's Car Door Lock). A, fig. 1980. The 
spindle. See also. Buffer Shank. Lock Shank. 

Shank Facing (Kirby's Car Door Lock). P, fig. 1980. 

Sharp Journal Box. Figs. 4102-06. 

Shear Beams. (Snow Plow Framing.) The timbers form- 
ing the inclined plane and parting ridge of a plow. 
They are placed in positions so that they resemble the 
knives of a pair of shears, hence the name. 

Shears (of a Pile Driver Car). The tongs which grasp 
the Hammer, which see. 

Sheathing. 52, figs. 159-69 and F; figs. 185-95, also 70; 
FIGS. 388-91. Boards which are tongued and grooved, 
and with which the sides of cars are covered. The sides 
of a gondola car are ordinarily termed side plank and 
end plank, and are much heavier than the sheathing of a 
box car. Inside Lining, which see, is in addition to the 
ordinary outside sheathing. Formerly passenger cars 
were covered with panels, but it is now the universal 
practice to use sheathing. 

Sheathing Furring. 59, figs. 385-87. Pieces of wood 
nailed, screwed or glued in a wall to nail the sheathing 
to, inserted where the distance between rails is so great 
as to require intermediate pieces to back up the sheath- 
ing. Corresponds to Panel Furring, which see. 

Sheathing Rail. 66, figs. 360-72, 385-87, 388-91. See, 
Panel Furring. A sheathing rail, or sheathing furring, 
is the same as a panel rail or a panel furring, the panel- 
ing having been superseded by sheathing. 

Sheathing Strips. 69, figs. 360-72. See, Panel Strips. 

Sheave, A wheel, roller or pulley, over which a cord or 
rope runs, or on which any object, as a door or window, 
rolls. Sheave is often used to designate a block or pul- 
ley, but more properly it designates simply the grooved 
wheel in the block. See, Pulley, 

Sheave Hook (Derrick Cars). The hook carried at the 
lower end of a hoisting block, to which the load is at- 

Sheave Pin, or Pintle. The axle of a sheave. See, Pin- 

Sheet Iron. Iron rolled thin and, in car work, usually 
galvanized. Its thickness is given by its number of Wire 
Gage, which see. The standard sizes are 6 and 8 ft. 
long and 24, 26, 28 and 30 in. wide. It is, however, 
manufactured to order up to 10 ft. long and 44 in. wide. 
Sheet steel, galvanized or not, is now also largely man- 

Sheet Ring and Staple (English). A small wrought iron 
ring, to which are tied the cords attached to the edges 
of the tarpaulin protecting the contents of an open 
wagon from the rain. 

Sheffield Hand Car. Figs. 4716-18, etc. A name applied 
to several varieties of hand cars, taken from the name 
of the designer, but more particularly applied, first, to 
an ordinary section hand car with wooden wheels, and, 
secondly, to a three wheel hand car for inspection pur- 

Shell. See, Berth Latch Shell. 

Shelled Out (Car Wheels). A term applied to wheels 
which become rough from circular pieces shelling out of 
the tread, leaving a rounded flat spot, deepest at the 
edge, with a raised center. The M. C. B. rules for In- 
terchange of Traffic, which see, specify that no wheel 





shall be condemned for this fault unless the spots are 
over 2j4 in. in length, or are so numerous as to en- 
danger the safety of the wheel. 

Shield (Buhoup Vestibule). 50, figs. 1526- 1630. 

Shield (Pintsch Lamp). 293, figs. 2605-21. 

Shim. A thin piece of wood or metal used as a distance 
block to save more careful fitting. In track work shims 
are very largely used in order to remedy the heaving of 
the rails from frost. Shimming has been used in fitting 
on car wheels when the wheel seat of the axle was a 
little too small, but the M. C. B. rules for interchange of 
traffic forbid this. See, Interchange of Traffic and 

Shipper Shaft (Steam Shovel). 7, figs. 357-9. The shaft 
connected to the boom engine and geared to the ratchet 

Ship Splice. One of the many forms of splicing or scarf- 
ing broken pieces of timber. It is that selected for 
splicing broken car sills under the regulations for In- 
terchange OF Traffic, which see. See, Scarf. 

Shoe. A plate, block or piece of any material on or against 
which an object moves, usually to prevent the latter 
from being worn. See, Boom Shoe. Brake Shoe. 
Door Shoe. 

Short Seat End. A seat which does not extend below the 
seat or support it, but is supported upon a separate seat 
stand. See, Seat End. 

Short Plate Rod. Horizontal bolts passing through the 
plate bolt strip and the plate, serving to stiffen the latter 
horizontally. It is rarely used. 

Short Sill, or Floor Timber. An auxiliary longitudinal 
timber used in a car floor, but not extending its whole 

The term short floor timber is also applied with ques- 
tionble propriety to short auxiliary cross pieces used in 
freight car floors as distance blocks between the sills 
and not extending across the whole width of the floor. 
Corresponding timbers in passenger cars are termed 
floor timber distance blocks. See also Bridging. 

Shot (Chilled Car Wheels). See Cold Shot. 

Shovel, i. (Steam Shovel.) Figs. 148-54, 357-59- A car 
upon which is mounted a steam derrick frame so ad- 
justed and connected with proper mechanism that it 
will scoop up bucketfuls of dirt and gravel and deposit 
them in a car or other conveyor. 
2. (Snow Shovel.) See Snow Plow. 

Shunting (English). The act of moving cars from one 
track to another, as in making up or separating trains. 
In this country usually called switching. Marshaling, 
which see, has a nearly similar meaning. Sometimes 
the word drilling or regulating is used. 

Siamese Fitting. (Duplex Pump (jovemor.) 46, figs. 
947-50 and 28, fig. 963. 

Side. See, Deck Side. Ladder Side. Truck Side. 

Side Arm Rest, or Elbow Rest (English). A wooden 
support for the elbow attached to the inner sides of a 
carriage beneath the windows, and padded with horse- 
hair and covered with broadcloth or leather. See also 
Folding Arm Rest. In American cars a window ledge 
is made to serve the same purpose, but arm rests are 
general in sleeping cars. 

Side Bearings. Supports placed on each side of the center 
pin of a car to prevent too much rolling or rocking 
motion of the car body. Usually there is a plate of 
iron or steel attached to the body bolster on each side 
of the center pin, called a body side bearing, 16, figs. 
I59-C)9, etc ; 14, figs. 360-72 — ^and a corresponding plate, 
block or roller on the truck bolster, called the Truck 
Side Bearing, which see, 61, figs. 3735-3951- They are 
also distinguished as lower and upper side bearings. 
Generally there is a little space left between the bear- 
ings, so that the truck can turn freely on the center 
plate, although in some cases the weight of the car 

body rests on the side bearings instead of the center 

Side Bearing Block. Figs. 3978-80. A tilling casting bolted 
to the truck bolster and forming an abutment for the 
truck side bearing bar. 

Side Bearing Bridge or Arch Bar (Six Wheeled Truck). 
62, figs. 3948-51 and figs. 4040-41. An iron bar, truss or 
wooden beam attached to the spring beam to support 
the truck side bearing. 

Side Bearing Roller. See, Roller Side Bearin& 

Side Bearing Spring (Side Dump or Tip Car). Bearing 
springs, upon which the body bears at the side to steady 
the box and to receive the shock when the body is re 
turned to its normal position after dumping. 

Side Bearing Timbers. Longitudinal or transverse floor 
timbers framed or bolted to the side posts of a coal or 
ore car, which support the upper ends of the inclined 
floor planking. 

Side Board, i. (Dining Cars.) An ornamental receptacle 
for dishes, etc., usually placed so as to face the central 
compartment of the car. See, Buffet Car. 

2. (English). American equivalent, side plank. A 
planking constituting the sides of the car. 

Side Body Brace. 33, figs. 159-69, etc. Commonly, simply 
Body Brace or Brace, which see, except when the end 
braces are to be distinguished from them. 

Side Body Brace Rod. 34, figs. 159-69. See above. 

Side Body Truss Rods. See, Side Truss Rod. 

Side Buffer Spring. See, Buffer Spring. 

Side Buffer Stem. See, Side Stem. 

Side Cap (Triple Valve). 127, figs. 959-62. 

Side CASTiNa See, Drawbar Side Casting. 

Side Chute Plank. 27b, figs. 271-95. The planking of an 
inclined floor which discharges its load transversely to 
the car, either toward or from the middle of the car. 

Side Deck Lamp. A bracket lamp fastened above the win- 
dows and to the deck sill* or to the lower deck ceiling 
and the deck post. 

Side Doors, i. (Baggage Car.) Figs. 1035-37. 

Side Dump Car. Figs. 30, 318-24. A car so constructed 
that its contents may be discharged to one side of the 
track through side doors, either by having the floor in- 
clined or by tipping it sidewise. See, Dump Car and 
Tip Car. 

Side Foot Rest (Passenger Cars). Q, fig. 1781. A metal 
plate fastened to the truss plank between the seats for 
passengers to rest their feet on. Chiefly used over 
heater pipes as a guard to prevent the feet of passengers 
from coming in contact with the hot pipes. Also called 

Side Frame, i. (Of a Car Body.) The frame which forms 
the whole side of a car body. It includes the posts, 
braces, plate, rail, girth, etc. See, Framing. 

2. (Of a Truck.) See, Truck Side Frame. Dia- 
mond Truck. 

Side Gutter or Outside Cornice (English). A piece of 
wood secured on the outside of the vehicle at the angle 
of the roof to the sides. It is channeled on the top to 
catch the rain and to convey it to the ends of the vehicle 
to prevent it running down the sides. 

Side Gutter Moulding (English). A moulding which is 
attached to the outer side of the side gutter in order 
to hide the heads of the bolts by which it is secured. 

Side Lamp. i. Figs. 2696-2701. A lamp attached to the 
side of a passenger car. In distinction from a center 
lamp, which hangs from the roof ; they are usually made 
with brackets, by which they can be conveniently fast- 

2. (English.) American equivalent, side tail light. 
A colored signal lamp carried at the side of the last 
vehicle of a train. Two red side lamps and one red tail 
lamp are generally carried, arranged in the form of a 




Side Lamp Braces. i8, figs. 2694-2710. Diagonal bars at- 
tached to a side lamp and to the side of a car to steady 
the lamp. 

Side Lamp Bracket. 17, figs. 2694-2710. See, Side Lamp. 

Side Lamp Holder. 16, figs. 2694-2710. A metal ring or 
bowl shaped receptacle usually attached to a bracket to 
hold a lamp. 

Side Lamp Iron (English). American equivalent, tail light 
holder. A wrought iron lamp holder secured to the 
outer side of the body to carry the colored Side Lamp, 
which see. See also, Signal Lamp. 

Side Piece (for Platform Hood). A thin block cut to the 
curve of the hood. 

Side Plank (Gondola Cars). 52, figs. 246-50, 271-95. The 
boards bolted to the stakes constituting the sides of the 
car. They vary in height according to its capacity and 
are 2j^ to 3 ins. thick. Those at the end of the car are 
termed end planks, and are usually hinged at the bot- 
tom so as to drop down inwardly on to the floor of 
the car. 

Side Plank Tie Rod. A vertical rod passing through the 
side sill and side planking, and tying them together. A 
side plank tie strap fulfills the same office, but the 
planks are bolted or riveted to the plank, the end of 
the strap being forged round and threaded to take a 

Side Plank Tie Strap. See above. 

Side Plate. 46, figs. 159-69; 98, figs. 360-72. More prop- 
erly, simply plate. The longitudinal stick on top of the 
posts of the car body. So called as distinguished from 
the end plate. 

Side Plate Stiffening Angle (Steel Cars). 41, figs. 271- 
95. An angle iron riveted to the side plank or plate, 
and serving the same purpose as the stakes. 

Side Post Strap Bolt. A strap bolt joining the post to the 
side sill. 

Side Rail. A longitudinal timber extending along the top 
of a side frame of a coal or ore car. It rests upon 
posts and braces and connects with end rails, which go 
across the end of the car. It corresponds to the plate 
of a box car, but does not carry any rafters or carlines, 
as does a plate. 

Side Rest (Tip Car). A block of wood or metal, or a 
spring, on top of the frame on which the body rests 
when tipped. 

Side Seat. Fig. 3239. A longitudinal car seat, the back 
of which is against the side of a car. See, Car Seat. 

Side Sheet Angle Tie (Steel Cars). 44, figs. 271-95. An 
angle secured to the top edge of the side sheets and 
running across the car, to prevent the sides from bulg- 
ing. See, Bench Cap. 

Side Sills or Outside Sills, i, figs. 159-169, 185-195, 208- 
II, 215-22, 223-26, 246-50, 271-78, 287-95, 360-72, etc. 
The exterior Sills, which see. Sometimes the out- 
side sills only are referred to by the single word sill, 
but this use of the word is uncommon. The side sills 
are usually made deeper than the inside sills in flat and 
gondola cars, and in box and stock cars. When the side 
sills are deeper than the center and intermediate sills, 
bolsters, similar to figs. '7'JZ-7t and 780-82, are used. 
In passenger cars the side sill, and the end sill as well, 
are sometimes plated with steel or iron to give greater 

Side Sill Flitch Plank. The two wood parts which en- 
close the flitch plate and make up a composite side sill. 

Side Slope (Hopper Car). 27b, figs. 271-95. That part of 
the floor which slopes from the side of the car to the 
hopper door. See, End Slope and Hopper Slope. 

Side Spring (Miller Hook). A spiral spring actuating the 
Miller hook laterally. The M. C. B. coupler, from its 
peculiar movement of the knuckle or coupling hook in 
coupling, requires no side play. 

Side Stem (Janney-Buhoup Platform). 998, figs. 1526-1613. 

Side Stem Bevel Washer (Janney-Buhoup Platform). 608, 
figs. 1 526-1613. 

Side Stem Bracket (Janney-Buhoup Platform). 594, figs. 

Side Stem Lug Washer (Janney-Buhoup Platform). 607, 
figs. 1526- 1613. 

Side Stem Pivot Pin (Janney-Buhoup Platform). 586, 
FIGS. 1526- 16 1 3. 

Side Stem Spring (Janney-Buhoup Platform). 602, figs. 

Side Step (Street Cars). A ledge usually made of a 
wrought iron plate attached to the side of the platform. 
Also called foot board. 

Side Straps ((Gondola Cars). The straps to which the end 
plank and sometimes also the side plank are bolted. 
They are also called side plank tie straps. 

Side Strut for Hopper Floor (Hopper Cars). 43, figs. 
271-95. An inclined strut or support for the hopper 
floor between the bolster and the end of the car, fast- 
ened to the comer of the end sill. See, Center 
Strut for Hopper Floor. 

Side Top Panel Rail (English). A part of the body fram- 
ing running horizontally in the upper part of the side of 
a carriage. 

Side Truss Rod Bearings. The queen posts of the side 
truss rods. 

Side Truss Rod Block. A block of wood or cast iron in- 
serted in the corner at the junction of the side and end 
planking to guide the side truss rod. 

Side Truss Rod or Side Trussing. A horizontal truss rod' 
extending longitudinally along the sides and fastened to 
the end planks. Its office is to prevent the sides from 
bulging. Seldom used. 

Side Urinal. Fig. 31 13. A urinal to fit against the flat 
side of a room, in distinction from a comer urinal. 
The latter arc almost universal in car work. 

Side Urinal Handle. So called in distinction from a 
Corner Urinal Handle, which see. 

Siding, i. A side track. 
2. See, Sheathing. 

Siding, Flooring and Roofing. (M. C. B. Standard.) In 
I901 the following specifications were adopted as stand- 

Flooring shall be of three kinds — square edged, 
dressed all over; ship-lapped, dressed all over; or 
tongued and grooved, dressed all over, in accordance 
with section shown in figs. 4428-32. 

Siding, roofing and lining shall be of the section 
shown in figs. 4428-32, and the tongue and groove 
placed centrally, so that either side of the material can 
be used as a face side. 

Signal Lamp, or Signal Light. Figs. 2726-29. A name 
applied to lanterns of extra power and quality of sev- 
eral kinds, but usually meaning those provided with 
semaphore or bull's eye lenses, of which from one to 
four are used; whence the name single lens, double 
lens, etc. They are also called side tail lights, tail 
lights, operator's signal lights, etc. 

Signal Pipe Stop Cock (Train Signal Apparatus). Fia 
958. A cock placed at each end of every car for closing 
the signal pipe at the rear of the train. 

Signal Reservoir (Train Signal Apparatus). Fig. 958. 
A small auxiliary reservoir for operating the train sig- 
nals carried on the locomotive and connected with the 
main reservoir through a reducing valve, for the pur- 
pose of reducing the pressure to about two atmospheres, 
which is all that is required for operating the signals. 

Signal Strap (Street Cars). A Bell Strap, which see. 

Signal Bell. i. (Street Cars.) A saucer shaped bell at- 
tached to each platform. They are rung by a clapper, 
to which a strap is attached which extends from one 
platform to the other. 

2. (Locomotives.) A similar bell to which the bell 
cord is attached. 




Signal Bell Cord. See, Bell Cord and Bell Strap. 

Signal Branch Pipe. Fig. 958. A pipe leading from the 
train signal pipe to the car discharge valve. 

Signal Branch Pipe Cut Out Cock. Fig. 958. 

Signal Car Discharge Valve. Fig. 958. See, Car Dis- 
charge Valve. 

Signal Cord. Fig. 958. See, Bell Cord. 

Signal Hose. Fig. 958. See, Hose. 

Signal Hose Coupling. Fig. 958. See, Hose Coupling. 

Signal Lamp Bracket. 141, ncs. 343-52. A bracket at- 
tached to the car body to hold the signal lamp. 

Signal Lens (Street Car). A lens in the clear story of 
colored glass, behind which a lamp is placed. 

Signal Pipe (Train Signal Apparatus). Fig. 958. A con- 
tinuous pipe running from car to car through the train, 
substantially a duplicate of the brake pipe, but working 
with a much lower pressure of air. The signal pipe 
couplings are also substantially similar to brake hose 
couplings, FIGS. 936-40, but have a thicker lip, so that 
they cannot be misconnected with the brake pipe. 

Signal Pipe Coupling (Train Signal Apparatus). See 

Signal Valve (Train Signal Apparatus). Figs. 958 and 
985. A valve attached to the signal pipe on the engine, 
which, on the opening of the car discharge valve in any 
car, and the consequent reduction of pressure in the 
signal pipe, permits the air to escape to blow the signal 

Signal Whistle (Train Signal Apparatus). Fig. 958. 
See Signal Valve. 

Sill. i. "Properly, the basis or foundation of a thing; ap- 
propriately, a piece of timber on which a building rests. 
The lowest timber in any structure, as the sills of a 
house, of a bridge, of a loom, and the like. 

2. "The timber or stone at the foot of a door; the 

3. "The timber or stone on which a window frame 
stands, or the lowest piece in a window frame." — 

4. (Car Building.) The main longitudinal timbers, 
usually six, but sometimes eight in number, which are 
connected together transversely by the end sills, body 
bolsters, and cross frame tie timbers. Sills are divided 
into side sills, intermediate sills, and center sills. A 
few cars, such as dump cars and tank cars, have but 
two sills, and others only four. For the splice for 
broken sills required by the regulations for the inter- 
change of cars, see Interchange of Traffic. See also 
Deck End Sill. Platform Sill. 

Deck Sill. Platform Short Sill. 

End Sill. Short Sill. 

Platform End Sill. Swinging Platform Sill. 

5. The lower horizontal member of the frame sur- 
rounding a window or door. See Door Sill. Win- 
dow Sill. 

Sills. (M. C. B. Standards.) In 1899 the following fin- 
ished sizes for sections of longitudinal car sills were 
adopted as standard of the Association: 

For cars such as box, stock, flat, long gondolas, re- 
frigerators, etc., 32 feet and over in length, but under 
40 feet: 

4" x8'' 4" x9 
4)^''x8" 4^''x9'' 4^''xio 
5'^ x8" 5" x9^ 5" xio" 

For cars 40 feet long and over, such as furniture and 
special long gondolas : 
4y/'xSr 4^"x9'' 5" xio" 
5" x8'' 5" x9" 6" XIO" 
6" X9'' 

It is believed that the above recommendations afford 
a sufficient range of sizes to cover all requirements of 
design; they are good merchantable sizes, and if used 
as suggested car repairs will be greatly expedited, as 
there will be less delav »n netting special sizes of lum- 


4" xio" 




S" XI 2" 

5" XM" 

6" X12" 6" X14" 

ber, and requisitions for regular sizes can be filled more 
promptly, as lumbermen can saw in advance of orders, 
with a reasonable certainty of selling their stock. 

Sill and Plank Rod. A rod passing through the sill and 
planking to tie them together securely. A side plank tie 

Sill and Plate Rod. 36, pigs. 159-69, etc.; 54, figs. 360- 
372, etc. A vertical iron rod which passes through the 
sill and plate of a car body frame^and ties the two 
together. A Brace Straining Rod, which see, is a 
similar part for low passenger car trusses below the 

Sill and Plate Rod Washer. Figs. 574-5. 

Sill Knee Iron. 8, figs. 3^372, etc. An L- shaped or 
right angled iron casting or forging bolted into the in- 
side comer of a car frame to strengthen it. Figs. 737-8. 

Sill Splice. See Ship Splice, and Interchange of Traf- 

Sill Step (Freight Cars). 30, figs. 159-69, 185-195, 271-95 
etc., and figs. 542-4. A U-shaped iron attached to the 
sill of a car, below the ladder, as a step for getting to 
or from the ladder. In 1893 the M. C. B. Association 
recommended that "That two good substantial steps 
(sill steps), made of wrought iron, about J^xi^ in. 
section, be fastened, one to each side sill, next to the 
corner of the car to which the ladder is attached, on 
cars having ladders, and to diagonally opposite comers 
on all other cars. The steps to be not less than 12 
inches long, measured horizontally between the sides, 
and the tread to be not less than 8 inches below the 
bottom of the sill. The side of the step next to the 
comer of the car to be as near to the end of the car 
as is practicable. Each side of the step to be fastened 
to the sill with two ^ in. bolts and nuts." In 1902 
this recommended practice was adopted as standard. 
See, Protection of Trainmen. 

Sill Step Stay. A diagonal iron rod or bar attached to 
one of the sills and to a sill step to stiffen the latter. 
Not commonly required or used. 

Sill Strap Bolt. 220, figs. 159-69. A strap bolt, used to 
fasten the side and end sills together. When set into 
the sill is called a joint bolt. 

Sill Tie Rod. 10, figs. 246-50, 271-95, etc. ; 9, figs. 360-72, 
388-91. A transverse tie rod in the floor of a car for 
holding the sills together. 

Sill Timber Key. Figs. 529-30. A metal block let into a 
gained seat on the sills to relieve the sill bolts from 

SiMONTON Drop Door. (Drop Bottom Cars.) Figs. 762- 
63. A drop door mechanism in which two links are 
brought into a self locking position when the doors are 
closed. The usual winding shaft is employed with a 
sheave over which the links are wound. 

Simplex Bolster. Figs. 803-05. A type of bolster both 
body and truck using flat iron plates for the top and 
bottom members, and a cast center filling piece. The 
ends are lapped over and riveted. In the truck bolster 
the top member is a channel, and a heavy malleable 
iron strut is used in the center. 

Simplex Brake Beam. Figs. 860-62, 868. A metal brake 
beam made of 5-in. I beam, not trussed. 

Single Board Car Roof (Freight Cars). Figs. 1714-36. A 
roof, of which several varieties other than those shown 
exist, in which one layer of boards covered by some 
kind of sheet metal is used in place of double boards. 
All single board freight roofs use a sheet metal cover, 
either above or below the boards, but those only having 
sheet metal on top are commonly so called. 

Single Guard (for Lanterns)'. According to the number 
of horizontal wires surrounding the globe, lanterns are 
designated as single, double or triple guard. 

Single Lever Brake. A brake which has but one lever to 
a truck or four wheeled car, to apply to two brake 
beams. In some cases applied to but one of the trucks 




of a car ; in other cases, to both. An objection to this 
form of brake is that the pressure is not equal on each 
brake beam. To overcome this difficulty two levers are 
used, and the brake is then called a Doubi«e Lever 
Brake, which see. 

Single Pipe Strap. Fig. 2265. A pipe Clip, which see. 

Single Plate Wheel. Figs. 4221-24. A cast iron wheel, in 
which the hub and tire are united by only a single plate, 
which is strengthened usually by ribs, called brackets, 
or sometimes by corrugations. See, Wheel. Car 

Single Sash Spring. See Sash Spring. 

Single Screw Turnbuckle. A Turnbuckle, which see, 
shaped like a link of a chain with a screw at one end 
and a swivel at the other. 

Single Window Blind. A blind which is made in one piece 
or section, and large enough for one window. They 
require a lower window, and hence are rarely used in 
the better grades of passenger cars unless Flexible, 
which see. See also Window Blind. 

Single Window Blind Lift. See, Window Blind Lift. 

Sink (Dining Cars). A shallow metallic box to receive and 
carry off dirty water. 

Six Wheel Truck. Figs. 3947-51 ; details, figs. 3952-4056. 
Six wheel trucks are the standard for sleeping, parlor 
and dining cars. They are sometimes, though rarely, 
built of iron. See, Truck. Car Truck. 

Skeleton (Steel Tired Wheels). Another term for the 
Wheel Center or Central Filling Piece, which see. 
The word skeleton is principally used when the wrought 
or cast wheel center consists of open bars. 

Skew Back. i. (Masonry.) The face on the edge of the 
abutment against which the arch proper abuts. 

2. (Of a Truss.) A casting on the end of a truss 
or a trussed beam to which a truss rod is fastened. It 
is usually made in the form of a cap, and forms a bear- 
ing for the truss rod nuts. 

3. (Car Building.) A Truss Rod Washer, which 

Slab. 2, figs. 2798-2800. See Wash Stand Slab. 

Slack Adjuster. Figs. 885-888. A device for automat- 
ically taking up the slack in the foundation brake gear 
when normal piston travel is exceeded. 

Slanting Table Leg. One which abuts against a slanting 
table leg plate in the side of the car instead of standing 

Slanting Table Leg Hook. Fig. 3472. See above. 

Slat. A narrow piece of board or timber, such as Seat 
Back Slats. Seat Slats. Window. Blind Slats, 
which see. 

Slat Cattle Car. A Stock Car, which see. 

Slat Seat. A seat composed of narrow strips of wood. 
These are usually placed longitudinally on the seats 
with a space between them. 

Slatted Floor. An open floor made of slats nailed to 
cross pieces with a space left between them so that air 
can circulate bei^ath and through between the slats. 

Sleeper, i. The ties or cross timbers on which the railR 
of a tramway are laid and spiked. 

2. A misnomer for a sleeping car, since it is the pas- 
sengers who sleep and not the car. 

Sleeping Car. Figs. 95-io5» 125-132. Framing, figs. 373-4 
A car provided with sleeping berths or beds for the 
use of passengers at night, which make up by day into 
ordinary seats. The greater number of sleeping cars 
are operated by the Pullman Company, and are hence 
often referred to simply as Pullman cars. Emigrant 
Sleeping Cars, or Tourist Sleeping Cars, figs, iio- 
III, which see, have recently been introduced, resem- 
bling ordinary sleeping cars, but without expensive up- 

The first sleeping car built in the United States was 
made in the shops of the Terre Haute, Alton & St. 
Louis Railroad by a mechanic named Woodruff. The 

coach provided seats for sixty passengers, which were 
convertible into flat berths. The patent was secured in 
1856-7. The next sleepers were two of the same kind 
run on the New York Central Railroad. Webster 
Wagner, founder of the Wagner Palace Car Co., built 
and patented four sleepers for the New York Central 
Railroad in 1858. The modem palace sleeping car was 
introduced by George M. Pullman, who built his first 
car in 1859. Some of the early Pullman cars had six- 
teen wheels instead of twelve. The first Wagner pal- 
ace car was built in 1867. Both Wagner and Pullman 
paid royalties to Woodruff. See, 
Sleeping Car Section. Upper Berth. 
Lower Berth. Compartment Sleeping Car. 

Sleeping Car Furnishings. Figs. 3354-3478. See, Car 

Sleeping Car Section. Figs. 1778-80. The space in a 
sleeping car occupied by two double seats in daytime 
and by two berths or beds at night There are usually 
12 sections in a car, in addition to a stateroom, smok- 
ing compartment, etc. 

Sleet Cutter, Figs. 4865-66. A special trolley wheel hav- 
ing corrugated contact surfaces, used in place of a 
standard wheel during sleet storms. The corrugated 
surface breaks through the ice on the trolley wire and 
maintains electrical contact between the wheel and 

Sleeve. See, Piston Sleeve. Stake Sleeve. 

Sleeve, i. (Of Car Door Lock.) The part connecting the 
knob to the shank. 

Slewing Gear. i. (Of Pile Driver Car.) The means for 
causing the swinging platform to revolve. It consists 
of a hand wheel and spur wheel, the latter engaging in 
the slewing rack fixed to the floor of the car. 

Slewing Rack (of Pile Driver Car). See above. 

Slewing Rings (of a Derrick). Rings attached to the 
upper end of the boom for attaching a rope by which 
to move or steady it when loaded. 

Slide Bottom (Jondola. A gondola car with the center and 
intermediate sills separated and a slide door inserted 
between. The door is moved by a lever, winding shaft 
and chain. 

Slide Valve (Triple Valve), (i) 6, figs. 913; 3, figs. 910, 
and 38, FIGS. 959-62 ; 966. A D-valve, controlled in its 
motion by the piston, by means of which the air is ad- 
mitted to, and exhausted from, the brake cylinder, ap- 
plying and releasing the brake. See also, Reversing 

(2) (Reducing Valve.) 8, fig. 952. 

Slide Valve Lever (Engineers* Valve). 118^ figs. 968-71. 

Slide Valve Spring (Triple Valve). 9, figs. 959-62, 966; 
6, fig. 910, and 18, fig. 913. 
(Reducing Valve). 9, fig. 952. 

Suding Bolt (of a Padlock). The bolt in the interior of 
the padlock which engages with the shackle, locking it 
to place. The forward end of the bolt is termed the 
bit. The movement of the sliding bolt is controlled by 
the sliding bolt spring. 

Sliding Door. A door opened by sliding sideways instead 
of swinging on hinges. Such doors are almost univer- 
sally used on freight cars. They are hung by a hook 
called the door hanger, which slides on a top door track. 
See also, Car Door Hanger. They are also in general 
use on baggage cars and street cars. 

Sliding Door Bracket. A Door Track Bracket, which see. 

Sliding Door Fixtures. Figs. 2153-66. See also, Car Door 
Hanger, Sliding Door Lock and Latch. 

Sliding Door Friction Roller. Figs. 2153-60. A small 
wheel attached to the top or bottom of a sliding door to 
make it run easily. It may or may not carry the weight 
of the door. 

Sliding Door Handles. Figs. 1936, 1939-40. See, Door 




Sliding Door Hasp and Staple (Mail Car). Figs. 1910-11. 
See, Hasp and Staple. 

Sliding Door Holder or Hook (Street Cars). A metal 
hook by which a sliding door can be fastened on the in- 

Suding Door Hook and Button (Baggage Car). Figs. 

Sliding Door Latch. Figs. 1914-34. A latch made with a 
hook lifting vertically instead of a bolt sliding hori- 
zontally, for fastening sliding doors. 

Sliding Door Latch Keeper. Figs. 1914, 1919-34, etc Also 
called a strike plate. 

Sliding Door Lock. Figs. 191 6, 1922-34. A lock made 
especially for fastening sliding doors. Such locks 
usually have a hook which engages in a corresponding 
catch attached to the door post. The hook is secured 
in connection with the catch by means of a bolt, which 
is operated by a key. 

Sliding Door Roller. Figs. 2153-60. 

Sliding Door Sheave (Street Cars). See, Door Sheave. 

Sliding Door Track. See, Door Track. 

Slip Lamp Burner. A burner in which the chimney is 
held in place by springs or screws^ and so constructed 
that the entire slotted cap to the burner may be re- 
moved at once by lifting, still carrying the chimney, 
without removing any spring. 

Sloping Closet Hopper, Fig. 3094. See, Closet Hopper. 

Smith Car Door. Figs. 1053-54. 

Smoke Bell. Figs. 2663-73, and 13, figs. 2694-2710. A 
cover or screen of glass, porcelain or metal, shaped 
somewhat like a bell, and placed over a lamp to protect 
the ceiling of a car or room. Large smoke bells are 
often called canopies. 

Smoke Bell (Pintsch Lamp). 1140, figs. 2605-21. 

Smoke Bell Bracket. A separate carrier for a smoke bell. 

Smoke Bell Ceiling Plate (Pintsch Lamp). 1141, figs. 

Smoke Bell Stem (of Lamps). A tube attached to the 
upper part of a smoke bell and serving to conduct away 
the gases so as to bring the smoke bell lower and 
nearer to the lamp. 

Smoke Flue. A smoke pipe. 

Smoke Flue Base (Baker Heater). Fig. 2199. 

Smoke Jack. See Lamp Jack. Stove Pipe Jack. 

Smoke Pipe (Heaters). The pipe by which the smoke is 
conducted to the outside of the car, usually called stove 
pipe, but the stove pipe of heaters is called a smoke 
pipe or smoke flue, to distinguish it from the air pipes. 

Smoke Pipe Cap. A covering on top of the smoke pipe to 
exclude rain and wind. Also called jack. 

Smoke Pipe Casing (Heaters). An outside pipe which in- 
closes a smoke pipe, leaving a space between the two 
through which air is admitted from the top and is thus 
warmed. See also Perforated Smoke Pipe Casing. 

Smoke Screen (Baker Heaters). Fig. 2192, etc. A con- 
ical shaped box, the front of which is the feed door and 
the bottom of which is the hole through which the coal 
enters the fire pot, and which is covered by the safety 

Smoke Top (Baker Heater). Fig. 2199, etc. The upper 
part of the heater, made of Russia iron, in a conical 

Smoking Car. A car usually attached to all passenger 
trains immediately behind the baggage car, in which 
smoking is permitted ; also, in general custom, the only 
one open to passengers with second class tickets. Buf- 
fet Smoking Cars, which see, and some others, are 
more luxurious. Combination Smoking and Baggage 
Cars^ which see, are also largely in use. 

Smoking Carriage (English). A passenger vehicle in 
which smoking is allowed. The whole of a vehicle is 
seldom devoted to this purpose, separate compartments 
of each class being set apart for smoking in every train, 
as required by law. See also Carriage. 

Smoking Chair (Parlor Cars). A chair distinsruished from 
other parlor car chairs chiefly in being less roomy and 

Smoking Compartment Furnishings. Figs. 3453-62. 

Smoking Room (Sleeping Cars). A compartment now al- 
most universal in modem sleeping cars and parlor cars. 
It is generally kept for the free use of the passengers, 
and separate seats or berths are not sold in it. 

Smoking Room Furnishings. Figs. 3453-62. 

Smudge (English). The scrapings and cleanings of paint 
pots collected and used to cover the outer side of the 
roof boards as a bed for the Roofing Canvas, which 

Snatch Block. Properly a single block which has an 
opening (notch) in one cheek to receive the rope. The 
snatch block is usually provided with a swivel hook. 
The term is also popularly applied to any form of sin- 
gle block provided with a hook, although more properly 
it applies to only one with an opening at the side for 
readily inserting or removing the rope. 

Snow Plow. Figs. 145-47. "A machine operated like a 
plow, but on a larger scale, for clearing away the snow 
from railroads." — Webster. The parts of a snow 
plow corresponding with the plow share and mold 
board of an ordinary plow are mounted on running 
gear similar to that used for freight cars. Small snow 
plows are also attached to the cow catchers of locomo- 
tives and regularly carried throughout the winter. See 
RusstLL Snow Plow. 

Other machines, called the rotary steam shovel, and 
the Jull centrifugal snow excavator, operated in a man- 
ner altogether different from ordinary snow plows, are 
made and are in use on roads in mountainous districts 
where the snow fall is very great. They have found 
considerable favor in the Western States. The rotary 
steam snow shovel is a powerful machine, carried in a 
heavy frame, made of steel I and channel beams. A 
boiler and double cylinder engine of the locomotive 
type are carried, which are connected by heavy steel 
pinions to a bevel gear on a horizontal shaft. 

Upon this shaft is mountetd the rotary wheel, con- 
sisting of a series of 12 rotary shovels with automatic 
reversible cutting blades. This is rotated in a drum, 
or casing, having a square, front which cuts the snow 
not reached by the knives to a width of 10 feet 6 inches 
or more if required. 

The cutting blades sliccsthe snow from the bank inta 
the shovels, which, with the centrifugal force of the 
wheel, discharge the snow in a solid stream through a 
shute on top of the drum, to either side of the track de- 
sired, and to a distance of from one to two hundred 
feet. The speed of the wheel is from one to two hun- 
dred revolutions per minute. This machine is equipped 
with an ice plow and flanger — the former to protect it 
from derailment by snow and ice — the latter, for clean- 
ing the flange and rail everv time it passes over th*: 
road. Coal and water for the rotary are carried in an 
ordinary locomotive tender, coupled to the rotary for 
this purpose. One standard locomotive is required to 
push this machine in any kind of snow. 

The Jull centrifugal snow excavator has a "scoop" in 
front, 10 feet or more wide and 11 feet high, consisting? 
of a square shaped open front box, within which re- 
volves the "snow cutter." The "snow cutter" consists 
of an inverted truncated cone, inclined downward and 
laterally, upon which are riveted four helical, sharp 
edged cutting blades, which slice off the snow, gather 
it into the "scoop," and, by centrifugal force, dischargv 
it to either side of the track separately, or to both sides 
at once, through openings in the "scoop." The diam- 
eter of the cone from the outer edge of one cutting 
blade to that of its opposite blade is, at the large or 
upper end, 10 feet, at the small or lower end 3 feet. 
The "snow cutter" is operated by an engine of locomo- 




tive design, having two cylinders, i8-inch diameter, 24- 
inch stroke. The excavator is equipped with separate 
flanger and ice cutters, which are controlled and oper- 
ated by the pilot by means of compressed air, and it is 
equipped with Westinghouse air brake. Two hundred 
revolutions of the "snow cutter" are made to 175 revo- 
lutions of the engine. In actual service, the number 
of revolutions of the "snow cutter" varies from 150 to 
250 revolutions per minute according to the difficulty 
of the work to be done. 

Snow Flanger. A plate of iron or steel attached to a car 
or engine to scrape away snow and ice on the sides of 
the heads of the rails so as to make room for the 
flanges of the wheels. The term is sometimes applied 
to an adjustable plow fitted to a locomotive or car 
which extends low down onto the track and has a plate 
or tool for cutting and scraping the snow and ice from 
the rail. 

Snow Scraper. A plate or bar of iron or steel attached to 
an engine or car to scrape away the snow and ice from 
the rails. 

Snow's Boltless Steel Tired Car Wheel. Figs. 4187-95 
One of the many forms of steel tired car wheels in use. 
The tire is prevented from crowding in toward the 
centre of the axle by a heavy cast steel lip on the tire, 
which engages in the cast center, and the tire is held 
in place against this lip or lug by a retaining ring 
somewhat of the Gibson form, and shows in figs. 
4188-90 and 4195. The other parts of the wheel are the 
tire with its internal flange, or lip, the retaining ring 
and the cast iron center. 

Soap Dish. Figs. 2771-76; 7, figs. 2798-2800. 

Soap Holder. A soap dish attached to a partition like a 

Socket. "Any hollow thing or place which receives and 
holds something else." — Webster. As the socket for 
water cooler valve. See also. 
Berth Curtain Rod Bush- .Revolving Chair Stand 

iNG, OR Socket. Socket. 

Flag Holder Socket. 

Socket Caster. Fig. 3352. A fixed or rigid caster. Not 
properly a caster at all, except by custom of the trade. 
See Caster. 

Socket Washer. Fig. 521. A large washer with a cavity 
to receive the head or nut of a bolt or rod so that it 
will not project beyond the surface of the wood to 
which it is attached. Also called cup washer. 

Sofa (Sleeping Cars). A longitudinal seat which makes 
up by pulling out sidewise so as to drop the back. 
Now used only in staterooms. 

Sofa Arm Rest Bolt. Figs. 3373-74. 

Sofa Arm Rest Fixtures. Figs. 3361-74. 

Sofa Back Leg Socket. Figs. 3371-72. 

Sofa Back Pivot Hinge and Bushing. Figs. 3365-66. 

Sofa Bolt (Sleeping Cars). Fig. 3375. A sliding bolt 
used for holding a sofa in its place. It is operated 
from the front by a sofa pull working through a sofa 
crank. Sofas standing against the side of the cars are 
now little used, except in private cars. 

Sofa Caster. Figs. 3350-53. See Caster. 

Sofa Furnishings. Figs. 3350-78. 

Sofa Hinge. Figs. 3359-60. A hinge by which the seat 
and back of a sofa are fastened together so that they 
can be changed from a sofa into a bed. See Seat 

Sofa Leg Hook. Fig. 3378. 

Sofa Rail End and Socket. Fig. 3385. 

Sofa Spring (English). See Seat Sofa Spring. Back 
Squab Sofa Spring. 

Soffit Board. 121s, figs. 388-91. A board which forms the 
under side or ceiling of some subordinate part or mem- 
ber of a building or a car, as of a staircase or cornice. 
See, Deck Soffit Board. 

Soil Hopper. Figs. 3091-95. See Closet Hopper. 

Sole Bar (English). American equivalent, side sill. One 
of two longitudinal bars which are the main members 
of the Under Frame, which see. In English car con- 
struction the side sills are relatively more important 
than in America. 

Sole Bar Angle Iron (English). An angle iron secured 
to the sole bar, to stiffen it. A plate is sometimes used 
instead of an angle iron. 

Solid Braided Bell Cord. Fig. 1828. See, Bell Cord. 

Solid Leather Nails. Figs. 2896-2905. A form of orna- 
mental nail for finishing work, in which the head is of 
solid leather. The same principle is applied to the man- 
ufacture of solid leather buttons, also much used for 
decorative purposes. 

Solid Wrought Iron Single Spoke Wheel. A wheel in 
which the spokes, hub (boss) and rim are all welded 
together, each spoke consisting of one single bar. The 
tire is shrunk on. 

SouLE Rawhide Lined Dust Guard. Fig. 4084. 

Spacing Block (Pintsch Lamp). 292, figs. 2605-21. 

Spacing Block. See Body Bolster Spacing Block. 

Spanner. A wrench for uncoupling hose, etc., formed like 
the arc of a circle, with notches or lugs for engaging 
into dogs or grooves on a spanner nut. An ordinary 
wrench is termed a spanner in England. 

Spanner Bar (Buhoup Vestibule). 6 and 94, figs. 1526- 

Spanner Bar Bolt (Buhoup Vestibule), iii, figs. 1526- 

Spear Anti-Clinker Car Heaters. Heaters or stoves 
manufactured by James Spear, of Philadelphia, for 
heating cars, and made with a sheet iron outside casing 
which leaves an air space between the stove and casing, 
into which a current of air is admitted, and is warmed 
by coming in contact with the stove, and then escapes 
into the car. Several different patterns are made. In 
one, the cold air is admitted through a hood on top of 
the car, is carried down to the bottom of the stove by 
a pipe, and then circulates around the pipe, and enters 
the car through a hot air pipe which extends the whole 
length of the car, with registers at each seat. In an- 
other pattern the hot air pipe is not used, the warmed 
air escaping directly into the car through openings in 
the base and top of the stove. In this pattern an inde- 
pendent cold air pipe is not used, but the smoke pipe 
is inclosed in a casing, with a space between the two, 
through which the cold air descends and passes over 
the stove and escapes. 

The "anti clinker" feature of these heaters consists in 
a peculiarly arranged grate, with an annular opening 
between it and the base of the stove, through which the 
clinkers can be removed from the grate. 

Spear's Draft Regulator. A device by which an air inlet 
is opened in the smoke pipe in such manner that the 
draft is checked, but no gas is permitted to escape, the 
current being entirely inward. 

Specifications, Cast Iron Wheels. See Wheels, Speci- 
fications for Cast Iron Wheels. 

Spider (Pintsch Lamp). 302 and 284, figs. 2605-21. 

Spider Diaphragm (Pintsch Lamp). 384, figs. 2605-21. 

Spider Plate, or Underframe Plate (English). A flat 
horizontal wrought iron bar connecting two or more 
timbers of the underframe together, and being placed 
beneath them prevents one sinking below the others. 
It is often made with three or more arms radiating 
from a common center; hence its name. 

Spindle. See Door Latch Spindle. 

Spiral Elliptic Seat Spring. A spring made of a thin 
band of steel wound in a spiral coil, the transverse 
section of which is elliptical. 

Spiral Sash Spring. See. Sash Spring. 

Spiral Seat Spring. The common* form of Seat Spring, 
which see. 




Spoal Spring. Figs. 4652-58. A spring made of a metal 
rod or bar coiled in the form of the thread of a screw, 
so that it can be compressed or expanded in the direc- 
tion of the axis around which it is coiled. Most of the 
springs now in use in car work, except the bolster 
springs of passenger cars, are spiral springs. Volute 
springs, india rubber springs, comoound or wool 
packed springs are quite obsolete. Spiral springs are 
designated as single, double, triple or quadruple coil 
springs when nested one inside the other. Such springs 
are also called nest springs. Usually the single springs 
or nest springs are again combined into two group, four 
group, six group, etc., springs. Two to eight group 
springs are the most common. Graduated springs seem 
to have had their day, and are not often specified for 
new construction. The various springs in them come 
into action successively as the load increases, instead of 
all at once. Spiral springs are also designated accord- 
ing to the section of bar, as round bar, flat bar, square 
bar, half round bar, oval bar, edge rolled, etc., but 
nearly all springs are now made from round bar steel. 
Equal bar is a term applied to nest springs made from 
bars of such size that the resistance of the coil is pro- 
portioned to its diameter. Spiral springs are also desr 
ignated according to their use, as equalizer springs, 
journal springs, pedestal springs, bolster springs 
(which latter are the main springs of a car), buffer 
springs, draft springs, etc. 

Spiral Spring Cap. 75, figs. 3781 -3951; figs. 4652-58. A 
casting -or plate which forms a bearing for the top of a 
sprial spring, and which also holds it in its place. A 
seat is used at the other end, but both these parts in 
bolster springs are commonly called Spring Plates, 
which see. 

Spittoon. Figs. 2171-79, etc. A vessel to receive the dis- 
charges of spittle and other abominations. A Cuspi- 
dor, which see, is the same thing in a different form. 

Splash Board. A board attached in an inclined position 
covering up the back of passenger car steps. It serves 
much the same purpose as the risers of steps, and pre- 
vents mud and dirt being thrown on the steps. Not in 
general use. 

Splasher (English). An iron plate attached to the floor 
above the wheels. Only used when the wheels are too 
large in diameter to clear the ordinary floor. Also 
called wheel cover or wheel plate. 

Splice. i. "The union of ropes by interweaving the 
strands." — Webster. Hence any appliance by which 
the ends of a rope, cord, beam or bar, are united. See 
Bell Cord Splice. 

2. (For Car Sills.) See, Scarf Joint. Ship Spuce. 
According to the rules for the interchange of cars of 
the Master Car Builders' Association, the splice of a 
sill to be received must be 24 in. long. See, Inter- 
chance of Traffic. 

Split Key. Figs. 551-2. A form of pin which is self 
fastening, consisting essentially of two parallel strips 
or bars of metal, which, when united, constitute one 
pin, but which tend to spring apart, so that the pin can- 
not be withdrawn without the use of considerable force. 

Spoke. "One of the radial arms which connect the hub 
with the rim of a wheel." — Knight. 

Spoke Wheel. Figs. 4154, etc. A wheel, the rim or tire of 
which is connected with the hub by spokes instead of 
one or more plates. These spokes are sometimes made 
of solid cast iron, in others they are cast hollow, and 
in still others are made of wrought iron or cast steel. 

Spool (of hoisting gear). The drums on which the hoist- 
ing rope or chain is wound. 

Spool Shaped Spiral Spring. This form was patented by 
W. P. Hansen in 1874-5. Its object is to obtain a 
Graduated Spring, which see. Little used. 

Spring. Figs. 4138-51, 4652-58. Elliptic springs, figs. 4138- 
49. An elastic body to resist concussion. Springs are 

also used to produce motion in a reverse direction to 
that caused by some other applied force, as a brake 
spring and the spring of a door latch. The leading 
forms of springs are Elliptic Springs and Spiral 
Springs, which see. Spiral springs are designated ac- 
cording to the number combined together one within 
the other, as double coil, triple coil, etc.; or, if the 
springs are placed side by side, as two group, four 
group, six group, etc. ; elliptic springs, according to the 
number united to work together as one spring, are des- 
ignated as double or duplicate, triple or triplicate, quad- 
ruple, quintuple and sextuple. The main springs about 
a car are nearly all spiral springs, except that elliptic 
springs are almost exclusively used for the bolster 
springs of passenger cars. 

The principal springs of a car supporting its weight 
are the bolster springs, also called bearing springs or 
body springs. Equalizing bar or equalizer springs are 
used in addition on passenger cars, as also sometimes 
journal springs. Side journal springs are used on 
street cars, and are sometimes keg shaped or spool 
shaped. Tension is communicated through the draw 
spring or springs. 

In European practice bearing springs are semi-ellip- 
tical; buffing and draft springs are rubber, semi-ellip- 
tical spiral or volute. The scat cushions and backs 
are supported by sofa springs. The tendency to-day of 
American practice is toward single and double coil, 
round bar springs for car work. The use of 7, 8, 9, 
etc., coil bolster springs is rare, and the great majority 
of bolster springs used under new freight cars are the 
three and four coil springs shown in figs. 4652-58, etc. 
For equalizer springs the universal practice is to use 
plain single and double coil, round bar spiral spring. 

Springs and Spring Caps. (M. C. B. Recommended Prac- 
tice.) Figs. 4652-58, 4664-67. In 1898 detail designs of 
spring coils and caps suitable therefor were adopted 
as Recommended Practice, and were then shown on 
Sheet J. 

In 1901 a committee presented revised drawings, with 
full details and specifications. They were submitted to 
letter ballot and adopted as Recommended Practice, 
and are now shown on Sheet H, figs. 4652-65. 

In 1901 designs, with full details and specifications 
for springs for 100,000 pound capacity cars, were pre- 
sented, and as a result of letter ballot were adopted as 
Recommended Practice. See figs. 4666-67. 

Spring Abutment (Reducing Valve). 22, fig. 952. 

Spring Band (Elliptic Springs). A wrought iron strap 
which embraces the plates at the center. 

Spring Beam (Six Wheeled Trucks). 42, figs. 3948-51. A 
transverse timber which rests on top of the bolster 
springs. There are two such to each truck, on which 
the bolster bridges, which support the bolster, rest. 

Spring Block. 74, figs. 3781-3951. A piece of wood used 
as a distance piece above or below a spring. 

, Spring Blocks. Figs^ 3969-71. Blocks to which the equal- 
izer spring caps are attached. They are made right 
and left. 

Spring Box (Pump Governor). 38, figs. 947-50 and 3, 
figs. 963-64. (Automatic Reducing Valve), 3, figs. 

Spring Box (Janncy-Buhoup Platform). 961, figs. 1526- 

Spring* Box Holder (Janney-Buhoup Platform). 932, figs. 

Spring Cap. A cup shaped piece of cast or wrought iron 
for holding the top of a spring and against which the 
latter bears. They are further distinguished by the 
name of the spring, as bolster spring cap, etc. The 
spring seat comes below the spring, but both these parts 
are very commonly called spring plates, especially in 
large group springs. 




Spring Door Latch. Figs. 2086-88, etc. A latch, the bolt 
of which is thrown into contact with a catch by a 
spring, and is disengaged by a knob or handle. Such 
latches are not arranged so as to be fastened with a 
key. See, Latch. 

Spring Door Lock. Figs. 2077-78, etc. A lock usually 
called a night latch. See, Latch. 

Spring Edge (Car Upholstery). Figs. 3230-32, etc. A 
term applied to a method of upholstery which protects 
the frame work entirely by springs, so that it is not felt 
by the occupant of the seat. 

Spring Hanger, i. (Elliptic Springs.) 170, Fia 349, and 
46, FIGS. 3781 -3951. A T-shaped bolt or an 8 or U- 
shaped iron strap which sustains the end of a semi- 
elliptic spring. The T-hanger is a bolt with a T-head 
passing through a slot in the spring, used in locomo- 
tives, but not on cars. The 8-shaped hanger is a 
wrought forging with holes at each end for two bolts, 
FIG. 349. 

Spring Hanger Iron or Bracket (Cabooses, etc.). 171, 
FIG. 349. A bent bar fastened to a pedestal timber or 
wheel piece, to which the spring hangers are attached. 

Spring Hinge. Figs. 1971-72. See, Double Acting Spring 

Spring Link, or Spring Shackle (English). American 
equivalent, spring hanger, a term also used in England. 
A link attached to the end of a laminated spring by 
which the weight is placed upon it. 

Spring Link Adjusting Screw, or Tee Bolt (English). 
An eye bolt by which the tension of the bearing spring, 
and, to some extent, the height of the car body above 
the rails can be regulated. Rarely used except in pas- 
senger service, where it is very general. A different 
style, having the bolt vertical, is the same as above, 
except that being vertical, it cannot put initial tension 
on the spring. 

Spring Padlock. A padlock, the hasp of which can be 
locked by pressure only, without a key; so called in 
distinction from a dead padloclc 

Spring Pin. 41, figs. 3781-3951. See, Lateral Motion 
Spring Pin (Passenger Car Trucks). 

Spring Plank. 43, figs. 3735-3951, and figs. 3815-6. A 
transverse timber underneath a truck bolster and on 
which the bolster springs rest. Also called sand plank 
or sand board. A Spring Plank Safety Strap or 
Guard, which see, passes under the spring plank. In 
iron trucks, iron spring plank bars take the place of 
the wooden spring plank, and in other trucks they are 
very common. A swing spring plank is used in pas- 
senger and other Swing Motion Trucks (which see). 
In rigid bolster trucks the spring plank is bolted to the 
lower arch bar of the truck frame. 

Spring Plank Bars CIron 6- Wheel Truck). See above. 

Spring Plank Bearing. 44, figs. 3781 -3951. A casting on 
which a spring plank rests, and which is supported by 
the lower swing hanger pivot. Also called cross bar 
casting or spring plank carrier. • 

Spring Plank Flitch Plates (Passenger Truck). See, 
Flitch Plate. 

Spring Plank Safety Strap (Passenger Car Trucks). 45, 
figs. 3781-3951, and figs. 3873-75. A U-shaped strap of 
iron attached to the transoms, and passing under the 
spring plank, so as to hold it up in case the swing 
hangers or their attachments should break. 

Spring Plank Timber (Framed Spring Plank). A timber 
forming one of the sides. 

Spring Plate. Figs. 3802-03, etc. A common term for 
spring seats and caps, especially those of considerable 
size, as for bolster springs. They are often provided 
with spring plate lugs to hold the spring in place. 

Spring Pocket (Strap Drawbar). See below. 

Spring Pocket, or Strap, Drawbar. A drawbar with a 
rectangular strap or "pocket" at the back end, in which 
the draft spring is placed. So called in distinction 

from a tail bolt attachment. See, Yoke. Practically all 
drawbars are now attached with a yoke or strap, and 
this form is the Recommended Practice of the M. C. 
B. Association. 

Spring Seat. 74, figs. 3781-3951. A cup shaped piece of 
cast or wrought iron, on which the bottom of a springy 
rests. See, Spring Cap. Spring Plate. 

They are further distinguished by the name of the 
spring for which they serve, as bolster spring scat» 
equalizer spring seat, etc. 

Spring Shackle (English). See, Spring Link. 

Spring Stud (Street Cars). A round iron bar which rests- 
on the top of the journal box or spring seat and passes- 
through the centre of a spiral spring. The upper end 
works in a guide and thus holds the spring in its place. 
A similar bar has been used on steam cars for trans- 
mitting the weight from the spring to the journal box. 

Sprue (Foundry). The piece of metal which fills the gate 
or channel through which the metal is poured in mak- 
ing a casting. This piece is broken off when the cast- 
ing is cooled. The gate itself is often called a sprue. 

Sprue Hole. A gate of a mold for casting metals. 

Spud. Figs. 2758-59. A bushing or coupling by which the 
hole of a sink or water cooler drip is connected with 
the drain or drain pipe. 

Spur Wheel, i. (Hoisting Gear, etc.) Literally any cog 
wheel, but usually meaning the larger one of a pair of 
wheels in gear, in distinction from the pinion, which is- 
the smaller one of the two. 
2. (Lever Hand Car.) 5, figs. 4722-27. 

Squab Cushion. One formed of a bag or case stuffed 
with curled hair or other elastic material, not attached 
to the seat, but simply laid upon it. Now little used,, 
box cushions being preferred. See, Cushion. 

Square Bolt Heads. In 1899 the following dimensions for 
square bolt heads were adopted as Recommended 
Practice : 

The side of the head shall be one and one-half times- 
the diameter of the bolt, and the thickness of the head, 
shall be one-half the side of the head. 

In 1900 these dimensions were adopted as a Standi 

Square Door Bolt. Fig. 1894, etc. A door bolt made of a 
square and straight bar of metal. When the bolt has ao 
offset it is termed a square neck door bolt, as in figs^ 

Square End. A rectangular piece on the end of a shaft to 

which a crank or wrench can be applied; also termed 

winding arbor or crank pin. 
Square Lantern. A form having glass on three sides, used 

chiefly for fixed lights. 
Square Root Iron. A term applied by manufacturers to 

angle iron in which the corners are brought to a sharj^ 

angle and not rounded off. Square root iron is one 

form of angle iron, but is never meant when that term 

alone is used. 
Stake (Flat or Gondola Cars). 42, figs. 246-50, 271-95. 

1. (Flat Cars.) A stick of wood attached to the out- 
side of the sills by a Stake Pocket or Stake Pocket 
Strap and Stake Bolt, which see, to keep the load 
from falling off. They are sometimes attached by swiv- 
eling bolts, so that they can be dropped if desired along 
the side of the car. 

2. (Gondola Cars.) A similar piece, attached by 
stake pockets to the sills and fastened to the side plank, 
usually on the outside, but sometimes on the inside, by 
bolts. In steel cars the stakes are formed of angles, 
or pressed T shapes. 

Stake Bolt (Gondola and Flat Cars). A bolt passing 
through the end of the stakes, serving in connection 
with the Stake Pocket Strap, which see, in place of 
the ordinary form of stake pocket. 

Stake Hook (Flat Cars). A hook on the side of a flat 
car to hold a swiveling stake in an upright position. 




Stake Pocket (Gondola and Flat Cars). 39, figs. 223-26, 
246-50, 271-95, etc. A cast iron receptable attached to 
the side sills by U bolts to receive the end of a stake. 
A substitute is the Stake Pocket Strap, which see. 

Stake Pocket Strap or U-Bolt (Gondola, Flat and Stock 
Cars). A U-shaped bolt flattened at the side, and serv- 
ing as a substitute for the ordinary form of stake 
pocket, when the stakes are intended as permanent at- 

Stake Pocket U-Bolt. A U-bolt applied to a stake pocket 
that encloses three sides of the stake and pocket and 
passes through the flange holes into the side sill, to 
which it is bolted. 

Stake Rest (Flat Cars). A bracket or support on which 
a stake rests when turned down horizontally. 

Stake Sleeve (Flat or (k>ndola Cars). A casting with a 
horn shaped projection slipped over a stake to hold up 
the hinged side of a platform or gondola car. 

Stanchion, i. A prop or support. 

2. (Nautical.) A term very generally, but not ex- 
clusively, used for posts with an eye in one end, which 
carries a rope. 

3. (Car and locomotive work.) By analogy from 
nautical use, a metal post or hanger with an eye in one 
end, which holds a rod or other object, as a hand rail 
or curtain rod. The opposite end is usually fastened by 
a nut, or with a flange or lugs, which form a part of 
the stanchion. Also see, Window Curtain Rod 

Stand. "Something on which a thing rests or is laid." — 
Webster. See, 

Radiator Stand. Seat Stand. 

Revolving Chair Stand. Water Cooler Stand. 

Standard, i. A name sometimes applied to the Column or 
Bolster Guide Bar, which see. 

2. (Of M. C. B. Association.) A considerable list of 
standard details of cars, given under Master Car Build- 
ers' Association, have been adopted. See, Master Car 
Builders' Standards. 

In 1893, when the old standards of the Master Car 
Builders' Association were divided into two groups, the 
group which retained the name standard was defined 
as "Those forms, parts, constructions, units, measure- 
ments or systems in which it is desirable to secure not 
only sound construction, good practice and safe opera- 
tion, but which also promote quick and cheap repairs 
and consequent free interchange of cars." 

The group termed Recommended Practice was de- 
fined as "Those forms, parts, constructions, units, meas- 
urements or systems which are conducive of sound con- 
struction, good practice and safe operation, but which 
do not affect either interchangeability of parts or inter- 
changeability of cars as a whole." 

Standard Axles (M. C. B.). See, Axle. 

Standard Bolts and Nuts (Table). See, Sellers Stand- 

Standard Car Axle (M. C. B.). See, Axle. 

Standard Car Coupler (Freight). Figs. 1299-1308; Pas- 
senger, FIGS. 1514-25. 

Standard Check Gage, for Mounting Wheels (M. C. 
B.). Adopted in 1894. See, Check Gage. 

Standard Dry Closet. Figs. 3115-19. See, Dry Closet. 

Standard Gage. The most common distance between the 
rails of railroads, which is throughout the world 4 ft 
8j^ ins. See, Gage. This gage originated from the use 
of an even 5 ft. gage, with outside flanges. As inside 
flanges came to be preferred, and had to run on the 
same rails (then with much narrower heads than now), 
the present standard was of necessity used. 

Standard Journal Bearings and Wedges (M. C. B.). See, 
Journal Bearings. 

Standard Journal Boxes (M. C. B.). Sec, Journal 

Standard Pedestal (M. C. B.). See, Pedestal. 

Standard Screw Threads (M. C. B.). See also. Sellers 
and Whitworth. See, Screw Threads. 

Standard Splice (M. C. B.). See, Interchange of Traf- 

Standard Steel Co.'s Steel Tired Wheels. Figs. 4206-13. 

Standard Steel Platform. Figs. 1631-93. A platform, 
construction for passenger cars, combining a draft gear 
and buffer plate mechanism. The platform sills are of 
I-beams, which are continuous back to the bolster. It 
is the standard construction on Pullman cars and on 
large numbers of other passenger cars. 

Standard Wheel Gage (Between Backs of Flanges; M. C. 
B.). See, Wheel Gage. 

Standing or Partition Pillar (English). American equiv- 
alent, post. An upright piece in the body running its 
entire height. The term is not applied to the Corner 
or Doorway Pillars, which see. 

Staple. A U-shaped piece of wrought iron pointed at the 
ends, to be driven into wood to hold a hasp, hook, pin, 
etc. The term is also applied to a wrought or cast iron 
keeper, which is screwed or bolted to the door post or 
frame, and over which a hasp fits. 

Star Ventilator. See, Ventilators. • 

Stateroom. Fig. 94. A compartment in sleeping and pri- 
vate cars, sometimes containing a stationary bed and in 
other designs the usual berths. Also termed Drawing 
Room, which see. 

Stationary Lock (Freight Cars). Figs. 2091-96. A lock 
permanently fixed to the door or side of the car, in 
distinction from padlocks, which are quite out* of use 
on freight cars. 

Stay. A beam, bar, rod, etc., by which two or more ob- 
jects are connected together to prevent lateral deviation 
of one or both of them. 
See, Body Queen Post Stay. Pipe Stay. 

Center Stay. Sill Step Stay. 

Lamp Stay. 

Stay Rod. i. A rod which acts as a stay. See, Pedestal 
Stay Rod, 7, figs. 3781-3951. 
2. (Of a Derrick or Crane.) See, Tension Rods. 

Steam Car. A term used to designate ordinary railroad 
cars when it is desired to distinguish them from street 

Steam Chest Bushing (Air Pump). 16 and 17, nG. 965. 

Steam Chest Cap (Air Pump). 15, fig. 965. 

Steam Cylinder (Air Pump). 61, figs. 893-94, 1-2, fig. 
965. The admission of steam to this cylinder is con- 
trolled by the reversing piston and reversing valve, 
which operate the main steam valve. Sec, Cylinder. 

Steam Cylinder Gasket (Upper and Lower, of air pump, 
etc.). 50, 51, FIG. 96s; 101-2, figs. 893-94. See, Gasket. 

Steam Cylinder Head (Air Pump). 2, fig. 19; no. 965. 
A cover for the top of the steam cylinder. 

Steam Drum (Car Heating Apparatus). Figs. 2301-05. A 
part of every indirect steam heating system, being the 
covered coil or nest of tubes in which the circulating 
water is heated by the steam surrounding the pipes. 

Steam Pipe Union (Air Pump). A pipe coupling, which is 
often called a union. 

Steam Piston (Air Pump). 21-22, fig. 965; 65, figs. 893- 
94. See, Piston. 

Steam Piston Packing Ring (Air Pump). 33, fig. 965. 
See, Piston. 

Steam Trap (Car Heating). Figs. 2306-7, 2312-13, 2355- 
84, 241 1, etc. A device for catching and liberating 
the water of condensation in any steam pipe line. There 
are a large number of special forms made by each com- 
pany which has a steam or hot water system. 

Steam Valve, or Main Steam Valve (i) (Air Pump). 
Figs. 893-94. A peculiar device for controlling the ad- 
mission of steam to the steam cylinder of the engines 
and air pump, by means of the Reversing Piston, 
which see. See, Main Steam Valve. 




(2) (Pump Governor.) 25 and 26, figs. 947-50f and 
I, 5, 6, FIGS. 963-64. 
Steam Valve Bushing (Air Pump). Sec above, and 

Upper and Lower Steam Valve Bushing. 
Steam Valve Cylinder (Pump Governor). 32, figs. 947-50. 
Steam Wrecking Car. See, Derrick Car and Wrecking 

Steel Tire, Minimum Thickness. (M. C. B. Recommend- 
ed Practice.) Fig. 4531. In 1894 a Recommended Prac- 
tice was adopted for minimum thickness for steel tires 
of car wheels to be i in,, to be measured normal to the 
tread and radial to the curved portions of the flange 
through the thinnest part within 4% ins. from the back 
of the flange ; the thickness from the latter point to the 
outer edge of tread to be not less than ^ in. at thinnest 
part, as shown in fig. 4531. 

A further practice was adopted of cutting a small 
groove, as shown in the outer face of all tires when 
wheels are new, at a radius ^ in. less than that of the 
tread of tire when worn to the prescribed limit, to fa- 
cilitate inspection. 
Steel Tired Wheel, Figs. 41 52-421 3. A wheel with a 
steel tire. In the McKee-Fuller and Washburn 
Wheels, which see, the tire is welded to the body or 
center of the wheel, which is made of cast iron. The 
term, unless otherwise stated, however, always means 
that the tire is shrunk on, bolted or fastened with re- 
taining rings. 
Steel Under Framing, General Dimensions of Cars. (M. 
C. B. Recommended Practice.) In 1897 individual de- 
signs for steel under framing for freight cars were sub- 
mitted, and the persons submitting such designs agreed 
' on general recommendations as follows, which were 
submitted to letter ballot and adopted as Recommended 
Practice of the Association : 

First. — That the inside length should be 34 feet for 
a standard box car of 60,000 pounds capacity. 

Second. — The inside width should be 8 feet 4 inches 
for a standard box car of 60,000 pounds capacity. 

Third. — The height from the top of the floor to the 
top of the plate should be 7 feet 6 inches for a standard 
box car of 60,000 pounds capacity. 

Fourth. — The width of the side door should be 5 feet 
4 inches clear for all box cars. 

Fifth. — The end doors, if any are used, should be 24 
inches wide by 36 inches high. 

Sixth. — The height from the top of the rail to the 
top of the floor should be 4 feet 2 inches. 

Seventh. — The design should show the end sill flush, 
and not projecting beyond the siding. 

The dimensions above given for standard inter- 
change box cars, as far as length of sills, width and 
height from the rail are concerned, should be adopted 
also for other flat bottom freight cars of 60,000 pounds 
capacity, such as stock, gondola and flat cars, so that 
same style of sills, bolsters, end sills and draft gear 
will suit for all these classes of cars of the same ca- 
pacity. The cubic capacity for interchange box cars 
should be 70 cubic feet per ton of 2,000 pounds. 
Stem. See, Buffer Stem. Graduating Stem. Reversing 
Valve Stem. Smoke Bell Stem. The rod to which 
a valve of any kind is attached is always called a stem. 
Stenciling Cars. (M. C. B. Standard.) In 1896 it was de- 
cided : 

That on all box cars standing more than twelve (12) 
feet from top of rail to eaves, the width at eaves be 
stenciled in 3 inch letters on side of car, as near the 
bottom as convenient. 

That all box, stock and other roofed cars have the 
number and initials stenciled in 3 inch letters on outer 
face of outer floor timber between cross tie timbers, 
except where cars are ceiled over underneath, in which 
case the stenciling shall be put on inside face of each 
cross tie timber in center. 

That all classes of cars have style of coupler and rear 
attachments and style of brake beams stenciled in not 
less than i^ inch letters near one end of car on each 
side, or on each end of car directly above the buffer 
blocks, where design of car permits it 

That where the construction of the truck permits,, 
trucks shall be stenciled on each side, giving the size of 
journal, and the letters "M. C. B." if the axle is M. C. 
B. standard axle. If the axle is not M. C. B. standard^ 
use dimensions from center to center of journal in 
place of M. C. B. This stenciling to be in 1% inch let- 
ters, and to be put on end or side of bolster in Diamond 
trucks, and on side truck frame in center on pedestal 
type of trucks. 

That on all cars equipped with air brakes the words 
"Air Brake," in letters not less than 3 inches high, be 
stenciled on the sides or ends of the cars, and that the 
make of air brake equipment be stenciled (in smaller 
letters, if desired) over or just preceding these words, 
to enable inspectors to detect repairs made with wrong 
material Initials of the road should also appear in 
letters not less than 2 inches high on one side of bol- 
ster or transom of each truck. 

In 1901 this was changed from Recommended Prac- 
tice to Standard, as a result of letter ballot. 

In 1902 the following additions were made to prevent 
errors in filling out M. C. B. defect and repair cards,, 
and to at once identify the end of car on which defects 
are found or repairs made. 

"All freight equipment cars used in interchange shall 
be stenciled with a letter 'B* on the end of car upon 
which the brake shaft is located, and with the letter 'A" 
on the opposite end. On cars having brake shafts on 
both ends, the end toward which the brake cylinder 
push rod trayels should be stenciled 'B,' and the oppo- 
site end 'A.' This stenciling shall be in plain, black 
letters, not less than 13^ inches high, enclosed in a cir- 
cle not less than 2^ inches in diameter, as shown in 
FIGS. I and 2. 

• •• 

-24- W 

I I 

ne. /. 

F/G. 2. 

"The location of the lettering to be as near the center 
line of end of car as convenient, and where possible be 
not less than ten inches nor more than fourteen inches 
above the buffer block, on box, stock and other classes 
of cars having stationary ends, and to be located on the 
end sill near the buffer block, or on the face of the 
buffer block near the top, on other classes of cars. 
FIGS. 3, 4 and 5." 

^— r- 


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Step. i. A ledge on a stair or round or rung of a ladder. 
2. A foot piece for ascending to or descending from a 
car or for standing in certain places or positions. Pas- 
senger car steps are from their locality called platform 
steps, or from their material box steps. In freight cars 
a U-shaped iron, called the Sill Step, which see, is 
used, and a kind of platform on the roof, called the 
roof step. A small ledge on the end of a freight car 
near the top for a brakeman to stand on when apply- 
ing brakes, called the brake step, is also used, but it is 
not recommended by the Master Car Builders' Associa- 
tion, but it is considered good practice on many roads. 
A bracket called a tank step is attached to the tanks of 
tank cars. Steps in stairs are connected by vertical 

Step Facings. Figs. 3036-37. A metallic facing for the 
step hanger. 

Step Hanger. 48, figs. 360-72, 388-91. A vertical wrought 
iron bar by which the steps are supported from the cor- 
ner of a car and from the platform timber. 

Step Iron. i. (Platform Steps.) 47, figs. 360-72. A flat 
iron bar bent to conform to the shape of the steps and 
their risers, and to which they are fastened. It is bolt- 
ed at the upper end to the platform sill. 

2. (English.) Also called leg iron. A wrought iron 
forging attached to the sole bar, and supporting the 
upper and lower Foot Boards, which see. 

Step Ladder (Sleeping Car). A folding step ladder, for 
use in a sleeping car, to reach the lamps, upper berths, 

Step Ladder Hinge. Fig. 1970. 

Step Moldings or Nosings. Figs. 3030-32. A metallic 
facing or molding for the tread of steps. 

Step Riser. The vertical portion of a step in stairs. 

Step Timber. A timber bolted to the end sill and platform 
end sill, to which the platform steps are hung. 

Sterling WORTH Brake Beam. Figs. 842-51. A brake beam 
made of deck or bulb iron shapes and not trussed. 

Sterlingworth Bolster. Figs. 806-10. One of a number 
of built up bolsters for body and truck using flat plates 
and channels. 

Sterlingworth Flat Car. Figs. 227-30. A flat car with 
structural steel underframing and wood floor. Diag- 
onal braces extend from the center of the center sills to 
the side sills between the cross tie and the bolster, add- 
ing to the lateral strength. 

Sterlingworth Hopper Car. Figs. 300-03. A hopper car 
built entirely of structural steel shapes. The sides are 

built up of 12 in. channels, riveted through the flanges, 
and extend beyond the hopper overhang to the end silL 

Sterlingworth Hopper (jOndola Car. Figs. 279-82. An 
all steel car built of structural shapes. The sides are 
made of channels reinforced at the comers with angle 
plates and riveted to each other through the flanges. 
Sometimes called a "Battering Ram" car on account 
of their longitudinal strength. 

Sterlingworth Truck. Figs. 3774-77. A pedestal truck 
built of structural shapes. The pedestal jaws on the 
outside are hinged and may be swung open, allowing 
the removal of a pair of wheels without jacking the 
truck clear of the boxes. 

Stile. 8, fig. 1029-37. The upright pieces on the outer 
edge of a door or sash, as door stile, sash stile, window 
blind stile, etc. 

Stirrup, i. A kind of ring or bent bar of iron resembling 
somewhat the stirrup of a saddle. A drawbar carry 
iron is sometimes called a stirrup. 

2. (Janney Platform.) 11 11, figs. 1526-1613. A 
drawbar carry iron. 

Stock Car. Figs. 57-62, 212-222. A car made for trans- 
porting live stock, usually having a tight roof, but 
open grating sides and ends. Double deck stock cars 
are built for the carrying of sheep and hogs, and mod- 
ern stock cars are so designed that they can be used as 
double deck cars if desired. In order to prevent suffer- 
ing and injury to stock when carried, modem stock cars 
are provided with some of the devices that were for- 
merly special to so-called palace stock cars. Stock cars 
are usually provided with at least the apparatus for 
feeding and watering. 

Stop Bar (Sleeping Car). 49, figs. 1778-83. A bar to con- 
nect the two seats on which the seat bottoms may rest 
when drawn down to make up into beds. It rests upon 
a stop bar plate. 

Stop Bar Guide. An attachment to hold a stop bar in 
place laterally. 

Stop Bar Hinge. The hinge which enables the stop bar 
to swing horizontally. 

Stop Bar Plate. See, Stop Bar. 

Stop Bead, or Parting Strip. More properly sash parting 
strip. The strip dividing the groove for the window 
sash and the groove for the blind. 

Stop Bolt (of Car Door Lock). An attachment for throw- 
ing a door latch out of gear. 

Stop Cock (for Brake Pipe of Air Brake). An Angle 
Cock, which see. A cock attached to the brake pipe 
of a Westinghouse automatic brake so that the pipe 
can be closed if the brake hose is to be uncoupled. If 
the compressed air were allowed to escape from the 
brake pipe, the brakes would be applied. 

Stop Key. See below. 

Stop Key Journal Bearing. A key or wedge with a lug 
or projection which bears against the end of the axle 
to restrain lateral motion and thus dispense with a 
collar on the axle. See, Stop Wedge. 

Stop Latch. A spring door latch with a stop bolt by 
which the latch can be fastened on one side so as not 
to act. Also, see. Saloon Stop Latch. 

Stop Plate or Wedge (for Journal Box). A metal plate 
which forms an end bearing for the axle and checks its 
end motion. It is held in position either by flanges 
cast in the box, or by attaching it to the journal bear- 
ing or its key. Its object is to dispense with a collar. 
But little used. 

Stop Wedge. A stop key. See, Stop Key Journal Bear- 

Storage Battery. ((}ould Electric Light.) Fig. 2636. 

Storage Heaters (Car Heating). Fig. 2352. See, Direct 
Steam Storage. 

Storm Sash Fasteners. Figs. 3706-07. 

Stove. An apparatus made usually of iron, variously con- 
structed, in which a fire is made for warming a room, 




house or car by direct radiation. When the warming 
is effected by convection, as with warm air, hot water, 
etc., the entire apparatus is called a heater. Stoves are 
out of use for heating passenger cars, but cast iron 
stoves are largely used for caboose cars. 

A cook stove permanently fixed against the side of a 
room and directly connected with the chimney without 
the use of stove pipe, is called a range; used in dining 
cars, etc., figs. 2738-43. 

Stove Pipe. A tube, usually of sheet iron, for conveying 
the smoke from a stove or heater, and creating a draft. 
In heaters, commonly called Smoke Pipe or Smoke 
Flue, which see. 

Stove Pipe Cap. A U-shaped piece of sheet iron fastened 
to the top of a stove pipe, serving as a rough form of 
Jack, which see. 

Stove Pipe Damper. A circular disk in the stove pipe for 
regulating the draft. 

Stove Pipe Jack. A covering or bonnet for the aperture of 
a stove pipe on the outside of a car. The term usually 
means a more elaborate structure than a stove pipe cap. 

Stove Pipe Ring. A metal plate or ring attached to the 
ceiling of a passenger car around the opening through 
which the stove pipe passes from the inside to the out- 
side of the car. It is used for ornament or to make a 
finish around the opening for the stove pipe. 

Stove Plate. See, Ash Pit Bottom. 

Stove Ring. A Stove Pipe Ring, which see, or a ring for 
Russia iron casing of a Baker heater, fig. 2184, etc. 

"Straight Air" (Air Brake). A term applied to the orig- 
inal form of the Westinghouse air brake, which is still 
used on engines and tenders and street cars. Fig. 898. 

Straight Closet Hopper. Figs. 3092-93. 

Straight Tank (Tank Car). One with the rings or 
plates of metal placed alternately inside and outside of 
each other, in distinction from telescope tanks. See, 
Tank Car. 

Strainer (Air Brakes). 16, figs, 910-28; figs. 957-62 See 
Air Strainer. 

Straining Rod. See, Brace Straining Rod. 

Strap Bolt, or Lug Bolt. A round bolt with a flat bar 
of iron welded to it, and usually with a hook on the 
end which serves the purpose of a head. The flat bar 
has holes in it, by which it is attached to a piece of 
timber or other object by one or more separate bolts or 

Strap Brake (Hoisting Gear). A method of controlling 
the spools by an iron strap which is pressed down upon 
the spool by a treadle. 

Strap Drawbar. A Spring Pocket Drawbar, which see. 

Strap Hanger. Figs. 1857-62, etc. See, Bell Cord 

Strap Hinge, i. Figs. 1958-59. A door hinge, the two 
parts of which are made longer than those of a butt 
hinge, and of a triangular shape. 

2. (English.) In a freight car (goods wagon) a 
hinge in which the pin is welded to two flat bars at 
each end, and the main part of the hinge is turned 
while hot over the pin. The hinge has thus no loose 
part. The main part or strap is secured to the door, 
which !t stiffens. The flat ends of the pin are bolted 
to the car. 

Strap Washer, or Washer Plate. A wrought iron strap 
which takes the heads of several bolts. 

Street Draft Gear. Figs. 1235-45 and 1295-99. 

Street Car Wheel. Fig. 4223. A light cast iron single 
plate or open plate wheel. 

Streeter Steel Back Brake Shoe. Fig. 1008. A skeleton 
driver brake shoe with hard white iron spiral inserts 
and cast iron body, steel back. Fig. 1014, a similar 
form of shoe for freight cars. 

Strike Plate. Figs. 1900-1905. The keeper for a beveled 
« latch bolt against which it strikes, so as to snap shut 

automatically. See, Keeper, which is a general term 
including and often used as a substitute for strike plate. 

Striker Arm. 9, figs. 3151-52. A Seat Arm, which see. 
The terms striker arm, seat back arm and seat arm are 
used in the trade. 

Striker Plate. See, Strike Plate. 

String Board (Passenger Car Steps). A vertical board 
wl\ich supports the ends of the steps. A step hanger. 

Stringer. (Carpentry.) i . "A horizontal timber con- 
necting posts in a frame, as a tie timber of a truss 
bridge ; a horizontal tie in a floor framing." — Knight. 

2. (Bridge Construction.) The principal longitud- 
inal timbers at the base of the roadway or track struct- 
ure, analagous to the sills of cars. Hence, this name 
is often given to the sills of a car. 

Strut (of a Truss). A member subjected to a strain of 
compression. A vertical strut is usually called a post. 

Stud. i. (Carpentry.) "A small piece of timber or joist 
inserted in the sills and beams between the posts to 
support the beams or other main timbers. The boards 
on the outside and the laths on the inside of a building 
arc also nailed to the studs." — Webster. A vertical 
Scantling, which see. 

2. (Car Construction.) 60, figs. 360-72, 385-87. A 
short vertical wooden post in the side or end of a car 
between the window posts, or below the windows, ex- 
tending from the side sills to the window sills. 

3. A standing bolt, pin, boss or protuberance de- 
signed to hold an attached object in place, especially 
one formed of a headless bolt permanently screwed into 
a tapped hole in a casting or forging so as to become 
a part thereof. See, Bracket Studs. Brake' Block. 
Suspending Stud. Eccentric Lever Stud. Spring 

Student Lamp. A lamp having a form of Argand Bur- 
ner, which see, connected by a feed tube with a re- 
movable reservoir having a valve at the bottom to per- 
mit the slow escape of the oil. The reservoir is so 
placed that the level of the oil is very near to the flame. 
The whole lamp slides up and down upon a standard. 

Stuffing Box (Air Pump). 95, figs. 893-94, and 36, Fia 

Stuffing Box Nut and Gland (Air Pump). 96, 97, figs. 
893-94, and 37-38, Fia 965. See, Piston Rod Packing 

Sub-Carline. (Refrigerator Car.) O, figs. 185-95. A 
carline under the main carline, supporting the sub-roof. 

Sub-Center Sill. 6, figs. 246-50. An extra sill bolted 
under the center sill and running the length of the car. 

Sub-Floor. 276, figs. 392-98. 

Sub-Floor (Refrigerator Car). H., figs. 185-95. A layer 
of flooring under the main floor, and separated from it 
by an air space and hair felt. 

SuB-RooF (Refrigerator Car). M., figs. 185-95. The in- 
side layer of the roof proper, supported on sub-carl ines. 

Sub-Sill. See, Buffing Sub-Sill and Back Stop Timber. 

Summer Street Car. Figs. 4736-38, 4753-54. See, Street 

Summer Street Car Curtain. Fig. 3714. A cloth, usually 
made of heavy canvas, to inclose open cars and ex- 
clude rain or sunshine. 

Supply Pipe. i. (Air Pump.) A pipe through which the 
air enters the air pump. More commonly called air 

2. (Lavatory Fittings.) 9, 11, 12, figs. 2798-2800. 
Pipes which carry water, hot or cold, to the faucets. 

Support. "That which upholds, sustains or keeps from 
falling, as a prop, a pillar, a foundation of any kind." 
Webster. See, Cylinder Lever Support. Pipe Sup- 

Suspending Link. See, Brake Block Suspending Link. 
Swing Hanger. 

Suspending Plate. See, Brake Block Suspending Plate. 

Suspending Stud. See, Brake Block Suspending Stud. 



Suspension. Figs. 4778-81, 4888-90. The method of sup- 
porting a railway motor. Except in the case of gear- 
less motors, the suspension is designed to put as little 
dead weight as possible on the axle. 

Sway Brace. A term borrowed from the similar parts 
used in trestles to designate any form of diagonal brac- 
ing, but more especially timber planking spiked on the 
main timbers of a structure. 

Sweeping Car, or Sweeper. A car with rotary brooms for 
sweeping snow from a railroad track. The brooms 
are attached to a horizontal shaft which is con- 
nected by suitable gearing with the axles, and the 
brooms are thus made to revolve. Used in cities, and 
chiefly on electric roads. 

Swing Back Car Seat. A car seat the back of which 
swings over the cushion, without reversing, top-to-bot- 
tom. It requires that both sides of the seat back be 
upholstered so that either side may be used. Such 
a seat back requires but one head roll. 

Swing Beam. See, Swing Bolster. Swing Spring 

Swing Beam Flitch Plates. See, Flitch Plates and 
Swing Beam. 

Swing Bolster. A truck bolster (so called in distinction 
from a rigid bolster) which bears on springs that are 
supported by a transverse timber called a spring plank, 
which is suspended by hangers or links so that it can 
swing laterally to the truck. As the springs rest on 
this plank and they support the bolster, the latter can 
swing with the spring plank. The object of providing 
this swinging motion to the bolster is to prevent, as 
much as possible, lateral blows and shocks from being 
communicated to the car body, and, vice versa, to pre- 
vent the momentum of the car body from acting with 
its full force on the truck. All passenger car trucks 
are swing bolster. 

Swing Bolster Spring. See, Lateral Motion Spring. 

Swing Cables (Steam Shovel). 22, figs. 357-59- 

Swing Engine (Steam Shovel). 24, figs. 357-59- 

Swing Gear (Steam Shovel). 23, figs. 357-59- 

Swing Hangers. 46, figs. 378i-395ii and figs. 3876-77- 
Bars or links attached at their upper ends to the tran- 
soms of a swing motion truck, by which the spring 
plank is suspended at their lower end so that it can 
swing laterally. Various forms are (i) solid bars with 
an eye at each end ; (2) swing link hangers, made like 
a long link of a chain ; (3) those made with a fork or 
clevis at one end and an eye at the other, figs. 2^7^77* 
and used on passenger trucks; and (4) those made 
with a very short link attached to an eye bolt passing 
through the transom. These latter are called eye bolt 
link hangers. 

Swing Hanger Friction Block. 50, figs. 378i-395i and 
figs. 3954-6. A casting or bearing of considerable 
diameter, on which the upper end of a swing link 
hanger rests. See, also, below. 

Swing Hanger Friction Washer (Lower and Upper). A 
cast iron chafing block serving no other purpose than 
to take the wear. It is only occasionally used. A 
friction block is almost synonymous, but is usually a 
larger casting. 

Swing Hanger Pivot (Lower and Upper) (Passenger Car 
Trucks). 47-8, HGS. 3781-3951- An iron bar by which 
a swing hanger is suspended, or which supports a 
spring plank. The lower swing hanger pivot is more 
commonly called a cross bar or mandrel pin or axle, 
FIGS. 3878-80. The upper one is carried in a swing 
hanger pivot bearing attached to the transom. 

Swing Hanger Pivot Bearing. 49, figs. 3781-3951- See, 

Swing Hanger Shaft. A Swing Hanger Pivot or Cross 

Bar, which see. 
Swing Links, etc. See, Swing Hanger. 

Swing Link Hanger. 46, figs. 3745-53, etc. A Swing 
Hanger, which see, made in the form of an open link. 

Swing Motion. A term applied to an arrangement of hang- 
ers and other supports for the springs and truck bolster 
which enables a car body to swing laterally on the 
truck. See, Swing Bolster. Swing Hanger. 

Swing Motion Spring, i. A Bolster Spring, which see. 
2. A lateral motion spring. 40, figs. 3781-395 i. 

Swing Motion Truck. Figs. 3745-53. 378i-395i- A truck 
with a bolster and spring plank suspended on swing 
hangers so that they can swing laterally to the truck 
frame. Also called swing bolster truck in distinction 
from a rigid bolster truck. 

Swing Spring Plank. 43, figs. 3781 -3951. A transverse 
timber underneath the bolster of a four wheeled truck, 
or the spring beam of a six wheeled truck, on which 
the bolster springs rest. A swing spring plank differs 
from an ordinary spring plank in being supported by 
hangers or links. See, Spring Plank. 

SwiNGii^ Circle or Mast Wheel (Steam Shovel). 10, 
FIGS. 357-59. A large wheel at the foot of the mast or 
boom about which is wound a chain for revolving the 

Swinging Figurehead (Steam Shovel). 25, figs. 357-59- 

Swinging Platform (Pile Driver Car). A platform car- 
rying the entire pile driving gear in such manner that 
it can be swung about at right angles to the car so as 
to project for a considerable distance on either side. It 
swings upon a center plate, and its movements are con- 
trolled by the Slewing Gear, which see. A cabin is 
almost always built upon it, and the floor is construct- 
ed with sills and end sills corresponding to those usu- 
ally used in a car floor. Removable wings are some- 
times provided to support the swinging platform when 
swung out in this manner. See, Pile Driver Car. 

Swinging Sash. A window or blind sash which is hung 
and swings on hinges. See, Door Case Sash (Street 
Cars). Otherwise rarely used. 

Switching. The act of moving} cars from one track to 
another by means of switches, as in making up or sepa- 
rating trains, and placing the cars on the tracks and in 
the places where they are needed. Also occasionally 
called drilling or regulating, and in English shunting or 

Switching Eye. More commonly Push Pole Corner Iron 
or Push Block, which see. A cast iron socket usually 
attached to the lower comer plate of a freight car, to 
which a push bar or push pole can be attached, to move 
the car by an engine on an adjoining track. A roping 
staple or pull iron is sometimes called a switching eye. 

Swivel (of a Chain). A twisting link, consisting of a 
headed pin, entering into an eye or ring in an adjacent 
link. The object is to avoid kinking. Hence the term 
is applied to many forms of equivalent devices, con- 
sisting essentially of a ring surrounding a headed bolt 
in such manner as to permit rotation. 

Symington Dust Guard. Figs. 4086-88. A dust guard 
made of a sheet of perforated steel, a sectional wooden 
ring and spring, making a joint against the dust guard 
wall and all around the axle, taking up ^ inch wear 
in diameter of the wooden ring. 

Symington Journal Box. Figs. 4100-1. A journal box 
with a machined joint on the lid and box and with a 
spring exerting its entire pressure in the center of the 
lid. The interior of the box is arranged to prevent 
settling and rolling of waste and to facilitate packing 
and maintenance. 


T, OR Tee (Pipe Fittings). Figs. 2279-80. A T-shaped 
cast iron tube for uniting one pipe at right angles to 
two others in the same line. The pipes are screwed 



into the arms of the T. A REDuaNG Tee, which see, 
has the arms of different diameters. 

T-BoLT (English). See, Spring Link Adjusting Screw. 

T-Hanger. See, Spring Hanger. 

T-HiNGE. Fig. i960. A door hinge, one part of which is 
made like a strap hinge, and the other like a butt 
hinge, so that the shape of the whole resembles a 
letter T. 

Taber Burner. A burner similar to the dual, except that 
it has two wicks in one tube instead of a separate tube 
for each wick. 

Table (Parlor and Sleeping Cars). 27, nGS. 1778-80. A 
removable board attached to the side of the car by 
inserting a table hook fixed to the table into a table 
hook plate fixed to the side of the car. The inner end 
of the table is supported by a table leg, which is some- 
times vertical and sometimes Slanting, which see. The 
tables of Dining Cars, which see, are permanently 
fastened to the floor and sides of the car. A drop table 
is used in the kitchens of dining cars. 

Table Fastener. A latch by which a folding table is fast- 
ened up out of the way. 

Table Furnishings. Figs. 3473-78. 

Table Hinge. Fig. 1957. A hinge for a table. 

Table Holder. Figs. 3473-74. A special form of table 
hook. See, Table. 

Table Hook. 45, figs. 1778-83, and figs. 3475-77. See, 

Table Plate. 46, figs. 1778-80, and fig. 3478. See, Table. 

Table Leg Hook. Fig. 3472. A metal hook which is at- 
tached to a slanting table leg. It engages in a plate at- 
tached to the side of the car. See, Slanting Table 

Table Leg Hook Plate. See, Slanting Table Leg. 

Tag (Seal Lock). A loose label used chiefly in connection 
with seals. They are now often made of metal. 

Tail Bolt. See, Drawbar Bolt. 

Tail Coupling (Alcove Faucet). Fig. 2752. 

Tail Lamp, or Tail Light. Figs. 2727-29. i. A signal 
lamp attached to the rear end of a train. They are 
always carried on the platform, usually in pairs, and 
very commonly also at the side of the car so as to be 
visible from the engine. They are often of two or 
more colors. 

2. (English.) A colored signal lamp carried at the 
rear end of the last vehicle of a train. See also. Side 

Tank. i. (Passenger Cars.) 14, figs. 2798-2800. A water 
tank for the wash room. 

2. (Gas Lighting Apparatus.) A, fig. 2466. More 
properly Receiver, which see. 

3. (Tank Car.) Figs, yts-yj^ A boiler iron recep- 
tacle for oil, sometimes made of uniform diameter or 
straight, but generally made telescopic by slipping each 
successive ring inside the other, so as to bevel the tank 
toward the middle, to afford better drainage. It is 
held in place by tank bands, 107, figs. 325-37, fastened 
to tank band tie rods, F, on the top of a car to prevent 
the tank from turning. A tank dome, 108, is added at 
the top and dome heads, 109, are used to close the ends. 
A tank nozzle, 115, is used for emptying the oil, closed 
by a tank nozzle cap, 118, which latter is fastened to 
the nozzle by a tank nozzle cap chain. The oil is drawn 
off through the tank valve, 114. 

4. (Westinghouse Brake.) The main reservoir. 

Tank Band. 107, figs. 325-37. See, Tank. 

Tank Band Tie Rod. F, figs. 325-37. See, Tank. 

Tank Car. Figs. 67-68, 325-42. A car provided with a 
large Tank, which see, for carrying oil, acids, molasses, 
paraffine, and in fact all liquids transported in bulk. By 
far the greater number of tank cars are engaged in car- 
rying crude and refined petroleum. Those used to 
carry the thicker oils, molasses and parafline, are fitted 

with steam pipes, by which the contents may be melted 
or warmed to hasten its discharge. 

Tank Dome. 108, figs. 325-37. See, Tank. 

Tank Head. 106, figs. 325-37. See, Tank. 

Tank Head Block. E, figs. 325-37. A block securely- 
bolted to the underframe transverse to the sills, at 
either end of the tank, to prevent any longitudinal mo- 
tion of the tank with respect to the car. The block is 
shaped to fit the end of thfe tank. 

Tank Nozzle. 115, figs. 325-37. A short pipe used to 
empty the Tank, which see. It is usually cast in one 
piece with the Tank Valve Seat, which see. 

Tank Nozzle Cap. 118, figs. 325-37. See, Tank. 

Tank Nozzle Cap Chain. See, Tank. 

Tank Saddles. D, figs. ytS-zy. Floor distance blocks 
placed between the sills and curved to the contour of 
the tank ; they support the tank slabbing, which in turn 
carries the tank. 

Tank Slabbing. C, figs, ^zs-yj. Longitudinal strips or 
filling pieces underneath the tank of a tank car, upon 
which the tank bears. 

Tank Step (Tank Car). A metal shelf or bracket fast- 
ened to the tank to facilitate access to the top of the 

Tank Valve, i. (Tank Car.) 114, figs. 325-37. A valve 
attached to the bottom of the tank to draw off the 

2. (Water Cooler.) A valve used with water tanks 
which extend to the roof, and sometimes with other 
smaller fixed tanks, for enabling them to be completely 
drained when desired. Also called water cooler valve. 

Tank Valve Cage. 116, figs. 325-37. A metal inclosure» 
over the top of a tank valve, as a guide for it. 

Tank Valve Rod. 117, figs. 325-37. A rod for opening 
and closing a tank valve extending from the valve to 
the top of the dome. 

Tank Valve Seat. 115, figs. 325-37. A metal plate, with 
one opening in it, closed by the valve. It is riveted to 
the under side of the tank and has a nozzle attached 
to it to which pipes are connected for conducting the 

Tank Waste Cock Spider. Fig. 2761. 

Tappet Plates (Air Pump). 20, fig. 965. 

Tappet Plate Bolt (Air Pump). 54, fig. 965. 

Target Lamp (Operator's). A Signal Lamp, which see, 
used for attaching to fixed targets or semaphore sig- 
nals. No special form of signal lamp is required or 
used for this purpose except that they be powerful and 
well constructed lamps. 

Tarpaulin, or Wagon Sheet (English). A piece of stout, 
flexible waterproof painted canvas, measuring about 
20x12 ft., used to protect the contents of open freight 
cars (wagons) from the weather. Cords fastened to 
its edges are tied to Sheet Rings (which see), by 
which it is firmly secured to the vehicle. It is largely 
used, as it saves much of the dead weight of a covered 
car, and gives good protection, except from theft. 

Tassel. See, Window Curtain Tassel. 

Tassel Hook. See, Window Curtain Holder. Tassels 
and tassel hooks are now rarely used. 

Taylor's Interlocked and Welded Steel Tired Wheel. 
Figs. 4196-99. 

Taylor's Manganese Steel Wheel. Figs. 4198-99. Sec, 
Steel Wheel. 

Teak. An oily, hard and most durable wood, raised in 
India. Largely used for ship building or other pur- 
poses requiring strength and exceptional durability. It 
has an oily, odorous sap, shrinks little, and docs not 
corrode iron. Generally used for passenger car bodies 
in England and for wheels. 

Teak Wood Center Wheel. A form of steel tired wheeU 
in which triangular blocks of teak wood are used to 
connect the hub to the tire, which latter is attached to 
the wood by Mansell retaining rings. This wheel is 




the standard for English passenger service, but it has 
been considered that it would not stand the dry Ameri- 
can climate. See, Wheel. Car Wheeu Mansell 
Tee. See, T. 

Telegraph Cock, or Faucet. Figs. 2763-64. A self clos- 
ing cock, the lever of which resembles the key of a 
telegraph instrument. See, Lever Faucet. When the 
water enters the cock horizontally they are called hori- 
zontal telegraph cocks, as figs. 2763-64. When it enters 
vertically they are called vertical telegraph cocks. See, 

Telescopic Tank (Tank Cars). See, Tank. 

Tender Brake (Air Brake). Figs. 976-77. See, Westing- 
house Brake. The tender brake gear does not differ 
essentially from that used under cars, except that the 
plain triple valve is used instead of the quick action 
triple valve. 

Tender Brake Cylinder (Air Brake). Fig. 977. See, 
Brake Cylinder. 

Tender Buffer. The buffer used on locomotive tenders 
so as to meet the buffers on passenger cars equipped 
with the M. C. B. coupler. 

Tender Drain Cup (Air Brake). Figs. 922 and 982-83. A 
larger cup than that used under cars. A chamber lo- 
cated in the train pipe containing an air strainer, and 
from which a branch pipe leads to the triple valve. A 
tender drain cup cock at the bottom is provided for re- 
moving the collected water. 

Tenon. The projecting end of a piece of timber fitted 
for insertion into a mortise by cutting away a portion 
on one or more sides. Sometimes the tenon is made 
cylindrical. Tenons are secured in their mortises by 
pins or by giving them a Dove Tail, which see. 

Tension Bar. Any bar subjected to a tensile strain. The 
upper member of an iron body bolster is called the 
tension bar. 

Tension Member (of a Frame, Truss, Beam or Girder). 
Truss rods, brake rods, etc., are tension members in dis- 
tinction from Compression Members, which see. 

Tension Rod (of a Derrick or Crane). A horizontal stay 
connecting the top of the mast and boom. It is of fixed 
length in a crane and of adjustable length in a derrick. 
See, Derrick. 

Tension Rod Clevis (of a Derrick or Crane). A Clevis, 
which see, sometimes carried at the upper end of a 
boom, to which the tension rod connecting the boom 
and mast is attached. 

Terra Cotta Storage Heater System (Gold's). Figs. 
2326, 2352. A system of steam heating using direct 
steam, in which the radiators are large iron cylinders 
filled with terra cotta bricks. Steam is admitted into 
these cylinders and heats the bricks, which give off 
heat after the car is cut out at stations and other like 

Texoderm. An artificial leather used for curtains and up- 
holstering. It is made by coating a cloth fabric with a 
compound which gives it the appearance of leather. 

Theatre Seats (Dining (Tars). An ordinary double car 
seat having two separate seat bottoms which can be 
raised up into a vertical position in the manner usual 
in theatres, in order to make the inner seats more easy 
of access. 

Thermostatic Steam Trap (Gold's C^r Heating). Fig. 
2355-84 2394, A device to regulate the escape of steam 
in proportion to the condensation that has taken place. 
It consists of a cast iron shell or body with an inlet at 
the left and outlet at the bottom. In front of the inlet 
is a hollow brass diaphragm, shown, partly Ailed with 
an expansive fluid, adjusted and kept in place by lugs 
round the sides of the trap body by a regulating spring, 
and the set screw, seen in the cover. When cold the 
trap is always open, and the diaphrag^m, as in position 
shown, but as live steam is forced into the trap and 

comes in contact with the diaphragm, it immediately 
expands, and meeting the composition disc seat, closes 
the trap and prevents the waste of steam. As conden- 
sation proceeds and the water cools, the diaphragm 
gradually contracts and allows it to pass off through 
the outlet. 
Thimble, i. A bushing. 

2. A sleeve or tube through which a bolt passes, and 
which may act as a distance piece. A thimble is usu- 
ally round, but sometimes square, as smoke pipe thim- 
ble. See, 

Axle Safety Bearing Body Bolster Thimble. 

Thimble. Buffer Thimble. 

Brake Shaft Thimble. 

3. (Janney Platform). A small casting in which the 
point of the catch lever rests. 

Third Class Carriage (English). A car which performs 
much the same functions as an American so-called 
"first class" passenger car, since it carries 89^ per 
cent, of the passengers, but very dissimilar in arrange- 
ment, weight and size. It generally weighs about 
20,000 lbs., and is carried on four or six wheels, di- 
vided into five compartments, and seats fifty passen- 
gers. The seats and backs are comfortably shaped and 
upholstered in rep, stuffed with horsehair. Sofa 
springs and carpets are usually omitted, but parcel nets 
and shades are provided. The comfort of this class 
of carriage has been very much improved of late years^ 
but the interior finish is considerably inferior to that 
of ordinary American cars, the interior being generally 
painted and grained. 

Third Rail Shoe, Figs. 4827, 4878, 4874. A metallic slid- 
ing contact, usually of cast iron, mounted on the car 
truck, and insulated therefrom, for collecting current 
from an insulated third rail located alongside the run- 
ning rails. Positive contact between shoe and rail is 
maintained by gravity or by a stiff spring. Four shoes 
are usually used for a double truck car, each being 
carried on a wooden beam, supported by the truck 
journal boxes. 

Thornburg Draft Gear. Figs. 1197-1214. A spring gear 
made in twin and tandem forms the distinguishing feat- 
ure of which is the use of interlocking box followers^ 
shown in figs, i 197-1202. 

Thread. See, Screw Thread. 

Three Pipe Manifold. Ssab, fig. 2291. A pipe fitting 
forming a return bend for three pipes instead of two. 

Three-Way Battery Switch (Gould Electric Light). 
Figs. 2624-26. 

Three Way Cock (Westinghouse Brake). A cock for- 
merly used on the locomotive for applying and releas- 
ing the brakes. It has been supplanted by the Engi- 
neer's Brake Valve, figs. 907-09, which see. 

Three Wheeled Hand Car. A light hand car with two 
wheels on one rail, somewhat like a velocipede, and a 
third wheel on the opposite rail merely to steady the 
vehicle. They are worked either with levers operated 
by the hands, or by treadles with the feet, or by both 
hands and feet. See, Hand Car. 

Three Wire System of Electric Car Lighting. Fig. 
2622. See, Gould Electric Car Lighting System. 

Threshold, or Threshold Plate, i. (Passenger Cars.) 
A Door Sill, which see. 

2. (Of a Vestibule.) The plate which covers the 
buffer plate and connects it with the platform forming 
an adjustable threshold for the end door, etc. 

Throat (of a Car Wheel). The interior angle of a flange 
where it joins the thread of the wheel. See, Flange. 

Throat Piece (Snow Plow Framing). (Side, Center and 
Intermediate Throat Pieces.) The curved ribs con- 
necting the inclined plane of the plow, with the deck, 
being curved they give a projection to the deck, which 
lessens the tendency of the snow to ride over the top 
of the plow. 




Throttle Valve. An angle globe valve (i. e., one having 
the entrance and exit pipes at right angles to each 
other) attached to the locomotive for admitting steam 
to and shutting it off from the air pump. Called a 
steam valve. 

Through Body Bolt (English). Nearest American equiv- 
alent, sill and plate rod. A bolt passing vertically 
through the body and securing the various parts of the 
sides or ends together. 

Thumb Piece. A general term applied to many forms of 
lugs or projections for moving springs, catches, or 
other movable mechanical parts. 

Thumb Screw. A screw with two projecting flat sided 
flanges adapted to be turned with the flnger and thumb. 

Tie. "A beam or rod which secures parts together and is 
subjected to a tensile strain. It is the opposite of a 
strut or straining piece, which acts to keep objects 
apart, and is subject to compressing force." — Knight. 

Tie Bar. A bar which acts as a tie. See, Draft Timber 
Tie Bar. Pedestal Tie Bar. Pedestal Brace Tie 
Bar. Transom Tie Bar. 

Tie Bolt (Janney Coupler). A long bolt passing through 
the end sill and holding on the buffer beam outside of 
the platform end timber. 

Tie Plate, i. A Main Carline, which see. 

2. (Iron Frame Car.) Flat plates riveted to the top 
flange of the iron sills, usually over the bolsters and 
sometimes between them, to connect the sills together 
and serve the same purpose as the floor timber distance 
blocks and sill tie rod, with wooden sills. 

Tie Rod. A rod which acts as a tie. See, 

Body Counterbrace Tie Rod. Girth Tie Rod. 
Brake Block Tie Rod. Lever Frame Tie Rod. 

Cylinder Lever Tie Rod. Platporm Tie Rod. 

End Brace Tie Rod. Safety Beam Tie Rod. 

End Girth Tie Rod. Sill Tie Rod. 

Wheel Piece Tie Rod. 

Tie Timber. See, Cross Frame Tie Timber. 

Tiffany Refrigerator Car. An i.ce and salt car belonging 
to the class of cars having the ice supply on the roof. 

Timber Wagon (English). A short four wheeled flat car 
with a swiveling bolster, chains, posts, etc., adapted to 
carry timber in the log, which rests on two or three 
timber wagons coupled together. 

Tin Car Roof. A roof consisting of a layer of boards 
resting on the rafters and running lengthwise to the 
car, covered with tin plates, the edges ot which are 
soldered together. Used on passenger cars, and a 
somewhat similar roof of galvanized iron is the Excel- 
sior galvanized car roof made for freight cars, figs. 

Tip. An ornamental knob on the end of a rod. More 

commonly called acorn. See, Basket Rack Tip. 

Berth Curtain Rod Tip. 

Tip Car. Figs. 49, 51-53. A car constructed so that its 
body can be tipped to allow its contents to slide out. 
Often also called a dump car. They are usually four 
wheeled, rarely eight wheeled. A style of four wheeled 
tip car, which is slowly tipped by gearing, which winds 
a chain, has gained considerable favor on the Boston 
& Albany Railroad. 

Cars which are tipped by compressed air have been 
introduced and received with considerable favor. The 
advantages secured by the use of air are that cars may 
all be dumped at once and the bodies restored to their 
normal positions; they may be dumped while in mo- 
tion, and they are all under the control of the man on 
the locomotive. The dumping and restoring of car 
body is effected by two train pipes, provided with an 
auxiliary reservoir, and the dumping is effected in 
much the same way that the brakes are applied under 
the Westinghouse system. Mine cars are frequently 
tip cars. 

Tire. A heavy hoop or band of iron or (usually) steel 

forming the ring or periphery of a wheel to impart 
strength to it and to resist wear. In this country car 
wheels are generally cast, but within a few years steel 
tired wheels have come into general use for passenger 
service. They have been universal in European prac- 
tice, and many devices for fastening them securely to 
the wheel have been devised. See, Tire Fastening. 

In England the word is usually spelled tyre. The 
name is supposed to come from the fact that iron bands 
were first used on wheels in the city of Tyre, Syria. 

Tire Bolt. A screw bolt for holding a tire on a wheel 
center. When retaining rings are used the bolts pass 
through the rings and hold them and the center and 
tire together. 

Tire Fastening. Figs. 4225-37 show the principal meth- 
ods. The Mansell fastening, shown in figs. 4227, 4231, 
4237, etc., is the mode of securing the tire to the wheel 
which becomes operative when the shrinkage of the tire 
alone is insufficient to prevent the latter leaving the 
wheel. The Mansell retaining rings, figs. 4227, 4231, 
etc.; the Gibson fastening, figs. 4225, etc.; the Boies 
tire lock, figs. 4168, etc., are quite common. See, Car 
Wheels and Wheels. 

Toe (of a Car Wheel Flange). The extreme outer point 
where the wheel has the largest diameter. 

Toe Nail. A nail driven in obliquely to fasten the end of 
a board or other piece of timber to the surface of 
another. The stick so fastened is said to be toed, or 
toe nailed. 

Toggle Arms. The two arms of a toggle joint, which form 
a strut between the two opposite hopper doors, holding 
them closed. 

Toggle Joint. "An elbow joint ; a joint between two bars 
articulating endwise, as the human knee." — Knight 

Toilet. Another name for a saloon. 

Tongs, or Crabs (Pile Driver and Wrecking Cars). A de- 
vice for anchoring the body of the car to the track 
when in use. A jack screw is used in connection with 
the tongs to raise the body of the car, so as to bring a 
strain upon the tongs. See, Bolster Jack Screw, 
which is a different device for the same purpose. 

Tool Box. i. Figs. 63, 66. A box very frequently placed 
under the body of the car, especially in caboose, derrick 
or wrecking cars, for carrying tools and supplies. 

2. T, figs. 388-91. A rectangular wooden box with 
a glass front, in which are kept tools to be used in case 
of accident. It usually contains an axe, a saw, a sledge 
and a bar. A ground glass front is sometimes used. 

Tool Car. A box car arranged for carrying all kinds of 
tools, ropes, etc., which are used, in case of accident to 
trains on the road, in replacing or removing the cars or 
engines on or from the track. Such cars are often 
used when any heavy objects are to be moved, as is 
necessary in erecting bridges, etc. 

Tool cars are often fitted up with sleeping berths for 
workmen. A tool car usually serves as a tender for 
every wrecking car. 

Top Arch Bar. More properly, simply Arch Bar, which 

Top Chord (of a Truss). The upper outside member of ^ 
truss, especially one divided up into panels. The mem- 
bers of mere trussed beams are not commonly desig- 
nated as chords. 

Top Door Rail. 149, figs. 388-91, etc., and 4, figs. hz^S^- j 
The uppermost horizontal bar or piece of a door irzAi^U 

Top Door Track. 65, figs. 159-69. See, Door Track. 

Top Head (Air Pump). 47, fig. 965; 60, figs. 893-94- '^^ 
top cylinder head of the pump together with the valve 
seats, valves, etc. 

Top Light Rail (English). A part of the body framing 
of a carriage forming the top of the window opening. 

Top Nut (Engineer's Valve). 7, figs. 907-09. 

Top Panel Batten (English). American equivalent, fnr- 





ring. A part of the body framing to stiffen the top 
panel, which is pinned to it. 

Top Plate (Metal Body Bolster). 12a, figs. 159-^. 223-26, 
271-95, etc. See, Body Bolster. 

Top Rail (of door). See, Top Door Rail. 

Top Rail. A name applied sometimes to the plate of a 
street car. 

Top Rail Filling Strip. Sec, Filling Piece. 

Top Reservoir Journal Box. A journal box having a 
reservoir for oil or grease above the journal, from 
which the oil flows to the journal. Rarely used in this 
country, but common in Europe, with either oil or some 
form of grease as a lubricant. 

Top Side Bearing. A body side bearing. See, Side Bear- 

Top*SiDE Rail (Coal Car). The horizontal piece of timber 
which forms the top of the side. A similar part in 
roofed cars is called the plate. 

Torch and Key (Pintsch System). Fig. 2528. A special 
device combining the ordinary wax taper torch, and a 
key, fitted to handle the cock of any Pintsch lamp, as 
well as to open or close the globe of any lamp from the 
floor of the car. 

Tornado Canopy Ventilator. Fig. 3486. See, Venti- 

Tornado Lamp. A general term applied to lamps which 
receive their supply of air through a long tube, usually 
connected with the supports or arms of the lamp, so 
as to check the effect of sudden gusts of wind. Hurri- 
cane lamp is another name for the same thing. 

Torpedo. A cylindrical detonating cap provided with clips 
for folding under the head of the rail for the purpose 
of making a loud alarm as a signal or the passage of 
engines over them. The basis of the detonating com- 
pound is fulminate of mercury. The interior pieces of 
iron, to insure the explosion of the fulminate, are 
termed anvils. Some torpedoes have three anvils. A 
torpedo with spring clips has been introduced for at- 
taching to the track from the rear end of a train in 
motion by means of a patented carrier to be held in 
the hands of the trainman, which insures that the tor- 
pedo will not escape except to clasp the head of the 
rail. The same device is also used to attach blue lights 
to the track, burning for a fixed length of time. 

Torpedo Ventilator. Fig. 3499. See, Ventilators. 

Torsion Proof Car Roofing. Figs. I77i-74- A construc- 
tion for freight car roofs with sheets sliding into sub- 

Tourist Car. Figs, iio-iii. i. A car roughly built and 
furnished for the transportation of men alone, such as 
bodies of troops, parties of excursionists, emigrants, 
etc. Frequently they are flat or box cars furnished 
with roof sides, seats and doors. The emigrant sleep- 
ing car is now usually called a tourist car, the latter 
being preferred by those who patronize them. 

2. A private car, one of several, of elaborate finish 
and luxurious appointments, chartered by excursion- 
ists who are making a tour of the country. 

Tourist Sleeping Car. Figs, iio-iii, 126, 131, 366-67. A 
sleeping car plainly finished, sometimes upholstered in 
rattan, for accommodation of travelers who cannot 
afford the comforts of the so-called palace sleeping car. 

Towel Rack. Fig. 2790, etc. A tray for holding clean 

Tonn-el Rod. Figs. 2825, 2861-64. A rod with brackets or 
bushings at the ends upon which towels may be hung. 

Towel Rod Brackets. Figs. 2825-42, etc. See, Towel 

Towel Roller Bracket. Figs. 2830, 2839-42. A bracket 
for supporting a towel roller. There are two, the 
fixed end and loose end bracket. The principal supply 
of towels, however, is usually carried in a towel rack 
or hung on towel rods. 

Tower Coupler (Freight). Figs. 1311-70. (Passenger). 
Figs. 1505-13. 

Track, i. A rail or bar which forms a path on which any- 
thing, as a car or door, runs. Sliding doors have usual- 
ly two door tracks, bottom and top door track. 

2. (Pile Driver Car.) A circular track upon which 
the rollers of the swinging platform travel. A rack is 
connected with it as a part of the slewing gear. 

Track and Wheels, Terms and Gaging Points. Fig. 
4367. See, Wheels and Track. 

Track Laying Car. i. A low push car, primarily for car- 
rying rails short distances in construction. They are 
frequently without a floor or platform and are provided 
with fixed rollers at the side for running the rails for- 

2. A platform car with a cantilever truss extending 
out from one end of the car over the track and on 
which rails may be run out and distributed on the ties. 

Track Sweeper. Fig. 4742. A Sweeping Car, which see. 
For city use only. 

Train Brake Pipe. See, Brake Pipe. 

Train Car. A Caboose Car, which see. 

Train Pipe. (Train Brake Pipe.) See, Brake Pipe. The 
later and preferable name is train brake pipe. 

Train Pipe Valve and Thermostatic Steam Trap (Gold's 
Car Heating). Figs. 2355-56. A train pipe valve is a 
combination of valves, cocks and steam traps, by means 
of which the steam supply from car to car is controlled 
from the interior of each car, thereby simplifying the 
application of any system of equipment for steam heat 
from the locomotive. Sec, Thermostatic Steam Trap. 

Train Signal Lamp. Figs. 2726-29. A lamp attached to 
a car as a signal, usually to the last car on a train, and 
commonly called a tail light. See, Signal Lamp. 
They are usually some form of lantern. Lanterns of 
ordinary form, but with red globes, are also used. 

Train Signal Pipe. See, Signal Pipe. 

Train Signal Stop Cock. A stop cock in the signal pipe. 
There is one at each end of a car. 

Train Signaling Apparatus. Fig. 958. A substitute for 
the bell cord arranged to give train signals by com- 
pressed air. A separate line of signal pipe, similar to 
the brake pipe, extends throughout the train, connected 
between the cars by hose and couplings. A car dis- 
charge valve, connected to this signal pipe, is located 
in each car and attached to the bell cord in such man- 
ner that pulling on the cord releases air from the sig- 
nal pipe. On the engine is a signal valve, which is 
also connected with the main signal pipe and a small 
signal whistle. The supply .of air is received from the 
main reservoir through a reducing valve, which main- 
tains a pressure of about 40 lbs. per square inch in the 
signal apparatus. 

When the car discharge valve is opened, by pulling 
on the cord, the diaphragm in the signal valve is oper- 
ated so as to blow the whistle. Signals can be given in 
this way with rapidity and great certainty. If the train 
breaks in two the whistle is blown loudly for a consid- 
erable time. 

Transfer Table. A platform and section of track on 
wheels, its length being equal to the length of a car. 
Its chief use is to transfer cars from one section of a 
shop to another, connecting with parallel tracks and 
running transversely to them. 

Transom, i. Primarily, a cross piece. 

2. (Carpentry.) A horizontal piece framed across a 
door or double light window. The term is also applied 
in the general sense of a cross piece in other ways. 

3. (Car Building, Swing Bolster Trucks.) 20, figs. 
3735-3951, and FIGS. 3809-12. One of two horizontal 
cross beams attached to the side frames, between which 
the swing bolster is placed. They are usually made of 
wood, but recently they have been made of iron. They 
are used in some forms of truck, which are not swing 




motion. See also, Middle Transom. Outside Tran- 
som (Six Wheel Trucks, 3948-51). 

4. The body bolster is also sometimes called a tran- 
som or body transom, but incorrectly. The term body 
transom is more properly limited, when used at all, to 
the Cross Frame Tie Timber or Needle Beam^ which 

5. A word frequently used in street car work as an 
adjective, for the word "deck," and meaning that the 
part belongs to the upper deck windows or to the clear 

6. (English.) (Commonly spelled Transome^ which 

Transome (English). A Cross Frame Tie Timber or 
Needle Beam, which see. More commonly called cross 
bearer, which latter term is also in use in this country. 

Transom Bearing Block. A piece of wood or iron placed 
on top of a transom, under the attachment or bearing 
of a swing hanger, to raise it up higher. 

Transom Casting. 28, figs. 3735-3951. A casting attached 
to a truck frame, and to which the end of one or both 
of the transoms are fastened. 

Transom Chafing Plate. 27, figs. 3781-395 i. A plate at- 
tached to the side of a transom to prevent it from abra- 

Transom Corner Plate (Passenger Trucks). 131, figs. 
3781 -395 1, and FIGS. 3799-3801. See, Truck Frame Cor- 
ner Plate. 

Transom and End Piece Tie Rod. Figs. 3851, 3885. A rod 
extending through the transom and end piece to stiffen 
the truck frame. 

Transom Muntin or Mullion. See, Mullion. 

Transom Opener. Fig. 3507. A device for opening a tran- 
som over a door ; very similar to a deck sash opener. 

Transom Pillar (Diamond Trucks). 29, figs. 3735-3951. 
A small casting acting as a distance piece between the 
transom and inverted arch bar. 

Transom Plate. Figs. 3858-61. Iron plates on both sides 
of wooden transoms of passenger trucks. 

Transom Sash Stop. Fig. 3573. 

Transom Tie Bar. 23, figs. 3781-3951. A wrought iron bar 
bolted to a pair of transoms, sometimes above and 
sometimes below, to hold them together. 

Transom Truss Block. 25, figs. 3781-3951. See, Transom 
Truss Rod. 

Transom Truss Rod. 24, figs. 3781-3951; figs. 3841-42, 
3884, Transverse rods attached at their ends to the 
wheel pieces, which extend alongside the transoms and 
are inclined downward under a central transom truss 
block, so as to strengthen the transoms. Generally, two 
such rods are used with each truck. In the Pullman 
trucks a transom plate is used with a straight transom 
tie rod. 

Transom Truss Rod Seat. A bearing for the transom 
truss rod on the under side of the transom. 

Transom Truss Rod Washer. 26, figs. 3781-3951; figs. 
3794-S- See, Washer. 

Transverse Floor Timbers (Street Cars). Timbers which 
extend across the car underneath the floor, and on 
which the latter rests. They are used only when there 
are two sills. Not to be confused with cross frame tie 
timbers, which are under the sills. 

Transverse Floor Timber Plate. A wrought iron or steel 
plate to strengthen the transverse floor timber and act 
as a tie rod for the floor timber braces. 

Transverse Rising Timber. See, Rising Timber. 

Transverse Tie Rod (English). American equivalent, sill 
tie rod. A long rod which serves to bind together the 
underframe transversely. 

Trap. See, Steam Trap. 

Trap (for Refrigerator Car). An S-shaped pipe, largely 
used in all forms of plumbing work for permitting the 
exit of water, while preventing the entrance of air. 

Trap Cock (Consolidated Car Heating). Figs. 2308-9- The 
trap cock is an asbestos packed cock, in which the plug 
has an opening of the proper size to regulate the flow of 
water from a car. It takes the place of the trap in the 
commingler system, the use of the trap itself having 
been abandoned. 

Trap Door. i. A door in a floor or roof» closing flush 
therewith when shut See also, Platform Trap Door. 

2. (Pullman Extended Vestibule.) A door which 
covers the platform steps and makes a continuous level 
floor for the full width of the car in an extended vesti- 

3. A door of a street car in the floor which gives ac- 
cess to the motor and gearing between it and the axle. 

Trap Valve (Consolidated Car Heating). Fig. 2296. This 
trap valve is designed to take the place of the thermo- 
static trap. It gives an adjustable opening for the dis- 
charge of water from the heating apparatus. It also 
leaves the apparatus so that it can be entirely closed off 
so as to prevent the water from flowing from the heat- 
ing apparatus. 

Traversing Jack. Fig. 2973. A jack that can be moved 
horizontally on a bed or track while under its load. 

Tread, i. (Of a Step.) The part on which the foot is 
placed. See, Tread Board. Rubber Tread. 

2. (Of a Car Wheel.) Fig. 4370. The exterior cylin- 
drical surface of a car wheel inside of the flange which 
comes in contact with the rail. The usual width is 
about 4 in., measured from the throat or inside of the 
flange, and about 5^ in. out to out measurement, from 
outside of flange to outside of wheel. The standard 
section adopted by the M. B. Association in 1886 is 
shown in fig. 4370. 

1'read Board (of a Step). 46, figs. 360-72. The horizontal 
part on which the foot is placed. Usually covered with 
rubber or metal safety treads to prevent slipping. See 
Figs. 723-4. 

Triangular Washer. An iron plate or block, the cross 
section of which is triangular, and which forms a bear- 
ing for the nut or head of an inclined brace rod. Also 
called beveled washer, but the latter term is chiefly 
used when the angle between the two faces is small. 

Tri-Compo,orTri-Composite Carriage (English). A com- 
posite coach in which separate compartments for first, 
second and third class passengers are provided. 

Trigger. See, Sash Lock Trigger. 

Trimming Cap. A Car Seat Molding, which see. Figs. 

Triple Brake. Figs. 825-26. Brakes for six wheel truck. 

Triple Coupling Link. A kind of chain used with the 
draw hooks of English draw gear. Used in America 
for small four wheeled coal cars only. 

Triple Valve (Air Brake). Figs, 910, 913, 959-62, 966. i. 
A valve device consisting of a body or case, called the 
triple valve body, which has connections to the train 
pipe, the auxiliary reservoir and the brake cylinder, in 
which a slide valve is operated by a piston^ so that 
when the pressure of the air in the train pipe is in- 
creased the auxiliary reservoir is charged and the air 
in the brake cylinder is released to the atmosphere ; and 
SQ that, when the air pressure in the train pipe is re- 
duced, air from the auxiliary reservoir is discharged 
into the brake cylinder for applying the brakes. A 
triple valve performing only these functions is now 
known as the plain triple valve. 

2. The quick acting triple valve has all the features 
and performs all the functions of the plain triple valve, 
and has the additional function of causing a discharge 
of air from the train pipe to the brake cylinder, when, 
in emergencies, the maximum force of the brakes is in- 
stantly required. 

3. (For Freight Air Brake Gear.) Figs. 918-19. A 
special form, not differing in principle from the passen- 
ger brake valve, but generally combined with the reser- 




voir and brake cylinder in one single part for economy 
and convenience of attachment. 

Triple Valve Body. 125, figs. 959-62. 

Triple Valve Bracket and Nipple (Air Brake). Figs. 
926-27, 978; 14, FIG. 966. A four legged standard in the 
nature of a distance piece, to which the triple yglve is 

Triple Valve Branch Pipe (Air Brake). A short pipe by 
which the triple valve is connected with the brake pipe. 

Triple Valve Gasket. 15, figs. 918-19. A gasket placed in 
the joint between the triple valve and the brake cylin- 

Triple Valve Piston (Air Brake). 4, fig. 910; 5, fig. 913. 
See, Triple Valve. 

Triple Valve Rubber Seat. 20, figs. 959-62. 

Tripod, i. A three legged stand. 

2. (For Lamp Shade.) A cheap substitute for a 
shade ring. 

Trojan Car Coupler. Figs. 1483-99. One of the M. C. B. 

Trolley (Street Car). A small wheel, or a carriage with 
journal, bearings, case, etc., usually attached to the end 
of a trolley pole, the latter being attached, pivoted and 
swiveled to the top of a street car, and so stayed by 
springs that it tends to stand in a vertical position. This 
tendency of the trolley pole to stand erect keeps the 
trolley wheel in contact (on the under side), of an 
electric conductor stretched above the car over the cen- 
ter of the car tracks. Electric motor cars which drive 
the electric current through a trolley are called "Trol- 
ley Cars." The majority of electric motor cars in use 
at the present time are "trolley cars," taking the cur- 
rent from an overhead conductor. 

Trolley Base. Fig. 4873. A swivel base placed on the 
roof of an electric car for the support of the trolley 
pole; strong springs preserve a firm contact between 
the trolley wheel and wire. 

Trolley Board (Street Car). A board or several boards 
making a long, narrow platform (very much like a run- 
ning board of a freight car), to which the trolley pole 
is attached, and on which inspectors and repair men 
may stand. The boards rest upon trolley board cleats. 
Trolley base blocks are fastened to the trolley boards, 
and the trolley pole is fastened to the base blocks. 

Trolley Cord. Fig. 1823. An extra heavy cord, by which 
the trolley is handled from the platform. 

Trolley Harp. Fig. 4864. A clevis shaped metallic frame 
at the end of the trolley pole for holdin*>: the trolley 
wheel. Also called trolley fork. 

Trolley Wheel. Figs. 4867-70. A deeply grooved metal 
wheel mounted on a trolley pole for collecting current 
from an overhead wire. 

Truck, i. "A small wheel; hence trucks, a low carriage 
for carrying goods, stone, etc., either on common roads 
or on railroads. Indeed, this kind of carriage is often 
called a truck, in the singular." — Webster. The term 
is applied to different kinds of small vehicles used on 
and about stations for handling freight and baggage by 
hand, sometimes in a confused sense. The usage seems 
to be increasing, however, to speak of baggage barrows 
and freight trucks, although both are sometimes desig- 
nated as barrow trucks. Four wheeled vehicles, called 
baggage wagon trucks and freight wagon trucks, are 
also used. Vehicles of this class are also designated as 
warehouse trucks. Special varieties are the telescope, 
swing barrel and self loading trucks. Many others 
exist, in limited use. 

2. Figs. 3729-4056, 4896-491 1. A car truck, which 
is, mechanically, a small four wheel (or sometimes six 
wheel) car, imder each end of an American car body, 
and carrying the latter as a dead load by means of two 
swiveling center plates connected by a center pin or 
king bolt. The purpose of the truck is to enable short 

wheel bases to be used in connection with long car 
bodies. See, Car Truck. 

Passenger car trucks are nearly always of wood in 
combination with iron flitch plates, truss rods, etc. For 
freight car trucks wood has almost passed out of use, 
except for the transoms, truck bolsters and spring 
planks, and iron is being rapidly substituted for the lat- 
ter as well. Even when wood is employed it is fre- 
quently strengthened by iron or steel plates. Wooden 
brake beams are. the exception. For spring planks, tran- 
soms and bolsters the common structural forms of 
channels and I beams are used. 

Truck Bolster. 30, figs. 3735-3951, and figs. 4057-81. A 
cross timber or beam in the center of a truck, to which 
the lower center plate is fastened, and on which the car 
body rests. The truck bolster is connected to the body 
bolster by a center pin, which passes through it. 

For the price allowed for trucks by the rules for in- 
terchange of traffic see, Interchange of Traffic and 
Freight Cars. See also. 

Continuous Frame Rigid Bolster Truck. 

Truck. Swing Motion Truck. 

Pair of Trucks. 

3. (English.) Am^ican equivalent, freight car. 
This term is never used in England in the American 
sense, the word bogie being used instead. Truck has 
precisely the same meaning and application as Wagon, 
which see. See, Carriage Truck. 

Truck Bolster Chafing Plate (Passenger Trucks). 36, 
FIGS. 3735-3951. A plate attached to a swing bolster to 
protect it from wear. 

Truck Bolster Flitch Plates. See, Bolster Flitch 

Truck Bolster Guide Bars (Diamond Trucks). 37, figs. 
3735-3951. More commonly called columns. Cast iron 
posts between the arch bars, held in place by column 
bolts, which form a guide for the end of the bolstef. 
These columns are sometimes also required to perform 
the office of brake hanger carrier, as in figs. 3745-53. An 
offset shoulder is cast on the column near the top and 
on the inside with a jaw, to which the brake hanger 
is fastened by a brake pin> 87, figs. 3745-53. 

Truck Bolster Guide Block. A cast iron shoe for the end 
of a truck bolster, which slides vertically between the 
columns or bolster guide bars. They are used only in 
connection with the latter. See above. 

Truck Bolster Truss Block. See, Truss Block. 

Truck Bolster Truss Rod (Rigid Bolster Trucks). A rod 
attached near the ends of a wooden truck bolster. In 
swing bolster trucks, rods of a similar nature are used, 
and termed transom truss rods. 

Truck Center Bearing Truss. Figs. 4038-39; 66, figs. 
3948-51. The combination of the Center Bearing Arch 
Bar and Center Bearing Inverted Arch Bars, which 

Truck Center Plate. 6^, figs. 3735-3951, and figs. 3796-8. 
See, Center Plate. 

Truck Check Chain Eye. 70, figs. 3781 -3951. See, Check 
Chain. A body check chain eye is also used. 

Truck Check Chain Hook. 69, figs. 3781-3951. A hook 
on the end of a check chain. 

Truck Details. Figs. 3784-3935» 3952-4237- 

Truck End Piece. 17, figs. 378i-395I- See, End Piece. 

Truck Frame. A structure composed of wooden beams or 
iron bars, to which the journal boxes or pedestals, 
springs and other loose parts are attached, and which 
forms the skeleton of a truck. 

Truck Frame Corner Plate. 130, 131, figs. 3781-3951. A 
malleable iron or pressed steel plate bolted to the cor- 
ners of a wooden truck frame to keep it stiff and rigid. 
They take the place of Knee Irons, which see below. 

Truck Frame Knee Iron (Passenger Car Trucks). 81, 
figs. 3781 -395 1. An interior angle plate of cast or 
wrought iron to connect the truck frame together. 




Truck Knee Iron. See, Truck Frame Knee Iron. 

Truck Side, A Truck Side Frame, which see. 

Truck Side Bearing. 6i, figs. 3735-3951. A plate, block or 
roller or spring plate attached to the top of the truck 
bolster, on which a corresponding bearing fastened to 
the body bolster rests. Their purpose is to prevent the 
car body from having too much rocking or rolling mo- 
tion. They are made of various forms, such as a plain 
metal plate, to protect a wooden bolster from wear, a 
cup shaped casting to hold oil or grease and waste, and 
various forms of rollers, rockers, studs, spring cases 
and the like. 

Truck Side Frame. The longitudinal portion of a truck 
frame, on the outside of the wheels, which extends 
from one axle to the other, and to which the journal 
boxes and bolsters or transoms are attached. See, Dia- 
mond Truck Side Frame, in designating which the 
term is chiefly employed. 

Truck Sub-Sill. A sub-sill bolted to the side sill of a 
street car which bears upon the truck frame, to which it 
is bolted. 

Trunnion. The pivot upon which any body, as a gun, re- 
volves. The term is usually applied to bearings for 
objects of irregular shape, and having slow or irregu- 
lar motion, as distinguished from the journals, of" 
wheels, etc. 

Truss. A frame to which rigidity is given by uniting the 
parts so that its figure shall be in effect cut up into tri- 
angles, making it incapable of distortion by turning of 
the bars about their joints. The simplest form of truss 
is that in which a truss rod and king post are put un- 
derneath a beam to strengthen it, or two beams are 
framed together in the form of a letter A, and tied to- 
gether at their lower ends by a rod or another beam. 
These are called king post trusses. Another form is 
that in which two posts are used, which are called 
queen post trusses. This is not a perfect truss, since it 
is capable of altering its shape by simply bending with- 
out rupturing its parts, when unequally loaded. In or- 
der to prevent this counter braces should be added. 
This is the usual way of trussing the under frame of 
cars. The sills resist bending and act as straining 
beams, thus preventing great distortion. The usual 
forms of trusses used for the side framing of cars are 
the Pratt and the Howe types. In the former all the 
braces are subject to tension, and in the latter the 
braces are compression members. The Pratt truss is 
rarely used alone to-day for side trussing, but is often 
used in combination with the Howe truss. The Howe 
truss is rarely used in its simple form, being usually 
provided with vertical posts alongside of the vertical 
tension members. The side of a car is not a perfect 
truss as ordinarily built, for the middle panel, which 
contains the door, lacks the essential elements of braces 
or counter braces. Long cars are reinforced with 
heavy trusses of the bridge or roof type, and further 
strengthened by body truss rods. 

The Challender Truss, which see, is a kind of plate 
girder. See, Girder. See also. Bastard Howe. Bas- 
tard Pratt. Fr.\ming. Bunk Truss (of Logging 

Truss Block. A distance piece between a truss rod and the 
compression member of a trussed beam, which forms a 
bearing for both. See, Body Bolster Truss Block. 
Transom Truss Block. Truck Bolster Truss Block. 

Truss Plank (Passenger Frames). 63, figs. 343-48, 360-72, 
385-87, 388-91, and I, fig. 1782. A wide piece of timber 
bolted to, and sometimes locked into, the posts on the 
inside of the car immediately above the sills. 

A substitute for the truss plank and body truss rod 
is the Challender Truss, which see. The end truss 
plank is a continuation of the latter across the ends of 
the car, for uniformity of finish. 

Truss Plank Cap. A strip of wood attached to the top of 
a truss plank between the seat frames. 

Truss Roa An inclined rod used in connection with 2 
king or queen post truss, or trussed beam, to resist de- 
flection. It is attached to the ends of the beam, and is 
supported in the middle by a king post, truss block, or 
two queen posts between the beam and the rod. A sub- 
stitute for the body truss rod, as well as for the truss 
plank and body brace rods of an ordinary car frame, is 
the Challender Truss, which see. 

Truss Rod Anchor Iron. 24, figs. 360-72, etc. ; figs. 701-4. 
A wrought iron strap with lugs and a turn at the end 
which engage with the iron body bolster and in recesses 
cut into the side sill, to which it is bolted. It serves as 
an anchor to attach the ends of the body truss rods ta 
the side sills. 

Truss Rod Bearing. A bearing used to furnish support to 
a truss rod, at an angle or bend in the latter, as 
Body Truss Rod Bear- Rod Bearing. 

iNG. Truck Bolster Truss 

Body Bolster Truss Rod Bearing. 

The bearing over the bolster of a long body truss rod 
running from end sill to. end sill is called a body truss 
rod saddle, probably in part from its form. A distinc- 
tion has been attempted between a truss rod bcaring^ 
and a truss rod saddle, founded upon the direction of 
the strain which it resists, and this distinction has been 
preserved in this edition. It cannot, however, be said 
to be founded on usage, either of bridge builders or car 
builders, except in respect to the body truss rod saddle^ 
as above stated. 

Truss Rod Iron. 24, figs. 360-72. A bar of iron, having an 
eye, to which a body truss rod is attached, bolted to the 
under side of a sill below a body bolster. It is a fomi 
of attaching body truss rods almost out of use for 
freight cars, but in common use on passenger cars. A 
truss rod anchor iron. 

Truss Rod Queen Post. See, Truss Rod and Queen Post. 

Truss Rod Saddle. See, Truss Rod Bearing and Body 
Truss Rod Saddle, 20, figs. 159-69, etc. 

Truss Rod Washer. Figs. 461-2, 469-70. A large flat or 
beveled washer, used under a nut on the end of a truss 
rod. Sometimes called a skew back. See, Body Bolster 
Truss Rod Washer. Truck Bolster Truss Roi> 

Trussed Brake Beam. Figs. 832-37, etc. Many brake 
beams in use to-day are trussed beams. The usual 
method is to use a truss rod from end to end of the 
beam with a king post in the middle. 

Tubular Car. A form of car construction, introduced some 
years ago, in which the sills and floor framing are built 
of iron gas pipe. A small number of these cars have 
been built and are in service under leases on the smaller 
roads. They were built at a time when the demands 
upon cars were rapidly increasing, and they were not 
equal to the burdens and rough treatment to which they 
were subjected. They grew in disfavor owing to the 
fact that the repairs were expensive and arduous, as 
well as the difficulties attending the repair of distorted 
parts. Few, if any, have been built lately. 

Tubular Lantern. A lantern having no guards except a 
rectangular frame of tubes, through which the air sup- 
ply is also carried. They are in two forms, with shade 
reflector and square or side reflector. 

Tufting Button. Figs. 2896-2905. A button used in up- 
holstery to hold the cord which passes through the 
upper covering of the upholstered surface, dividing it 
up into squares or diamonds. 

Tumbler, i. A drinking glass. 

2. (Foundry.) A machine for cleaning castings, lo- / 
comotive tubes, etc. It consists of a case mounted on a 
shaft, on which it is made to revolve. The articles in- 
side of the case are cleaned by their attrition against 
each other and the case. 





3. (Locksmithing.) "A latch engaging within a 
notch in a lock, bolt, or otherwise, opposing its motion 
until it is lifted or arranged by the key so as to remove 
the obstacle." — Knight. 

TtJMBLER Holder. Figs. 2777-8:^. A bracket or stand for 
holding glass tumblers or drinking cups. They are 
either single or double. 

Tumbler Holder and Drip. Fig. 2753. A water cooler drip, 
the top of which is made large enough to hold a glass. 

Turnbuckle. Fig. 2968. A device inserted in the miBdle 
of a long rod for changing its length. Right and left 
screw tumbuckles, fig. 2968, or single screw turn- 
buckles are the most common ; pipe or tube turnbuckles 
are rarely used. 

A form that has gained much favor for use on cars 
is that shown in fig. 2968. They are made the following 
sizes, and larger in proportion : 
Size. D. A. B. C. L. 

I inch 6 in. V/j in. 9 in. 25 in. 

1^ " 6 " 111-16 " 9H " 25 " 

VA " 6 " i^g " gH " 26 " 

1^ " 6 " 2 1-16 " 10^ " 27 " 

v/j " 6 " 2% " loYz " 27 " 

\^ " 6 " 27-16 " 10^ " 28 " 

i^ " 6 " 2% " ivA " 28 " 

D. Size=Outside Diameter of Screw. 

A. Length in Clear between head=6 in. first length 
for all sizes. 

B. Length of Tapped Heads=i^^ D. 

C. Total Length of Buckle without Bolt Ends 

L. Total Length of Buckle and Stub Ends when 
The letters refer to dimensions shown in fig. 2968. 

Turn Under (English). See, Fall Under. 

Turtle Back Roof. A roof for a passenger car which is 
arched, but without a clear story or upper deck. It is 
the prevailing roof for English carriages, but has not 
found favor in this country, its use being confined 
chiefly to a few coaches on the Boston & Albany Rail- 

Twin Car Seat. Figs. 3171-72, etc. A seat stand with a 
division arm, two cushions, two seat backs with two 
striker arms each, so that they may be turned so as to 
bring the occupants face to face. 

Twin Door Panels. 10, figs. 1029-31. A pair of panels side 
by side in a door, formed by inserting a parting rail 
into a wide panel. 

Twin Hopper Gondola Car. Figs. 21, 23, 26, 37, 2g6'7, 
etc. A gondola car with two hoppers, the centers of 
which are about 10 feet apart. This type of gondola 
has been adopted to get a long flat bottomed car that 
will discharge its contents with the least amount of 
shoveling. The car may also be used for long timber. 

Sec, G0NIX)LA. 

Twin Washer. A Double Washer, which see. 

Twist Gage for New Couplers. Figs. 4659-63. In 1899 a 
twist gage for new couplers, as shown, to be used so as 
to insure that the heads are neither twisted nor dis- 
placed side wise with relation to shank, was adopted as 
Recommended Practice. 

Twisted Flat Wire (for Car Seals). Figs. 3133-34- A 
form adapted to prevent the possibility of the lead seal 
being stripped from the wire and afterward replaced 
upon it. See, Car Seals. 

Two Light Center Lamp. Sec, Center Lamp and Chande- 
lier. The majority of center lamps are two light burn- 

Tyre (of a Wheel). See, Tire. The spelling "tyre" is the 
English method, and corresponds with the supposed 
origin of the word, which is from the fact that iron 
bands were first used on wheels in the city of Tyre, 


U-Bolt. a double bolt made of a bar of iron, bent in the 
shape of the letter U, with a nut and screw on each 
end. Sec, Brake Hanger Carrier. Stake Pocket 


Umbrella Holder and Pocket. Figs. 2956-57. A bracket 
with oval holes, put up in a horizontal position wil'.i 
the pocket a suitable distance below it. The umbrella 
is thrust through the bracket, the end resting in the 
pocket below. 
Uncoupling Attachments (M. C. B. Recommended Prac- 
tice). In 1897 a committee reported on uncoupling ar- 
rangements for M. C. B. couplers, submitting designs 
shown in figs. 4507-28, which were subsequently adopted 
as Recommended Practice of the Association. 

The report of the committee, also adopted, contained 
the following reference to these designs ;_ 

"Diagram No. i shows the application of the pro- 
posed standard parts to a car with concealed end sills 
witTi the parts of the dimensions and located as shown 
on 'Plate B, Recommended Practice for Attaching 
Automatic Couplers to Cars,' arranged to operate the 
lock in a coupler having the lock located on the vertical 
center line of the coupler. 

"Diagram No. 2 shows the application to the same 
design of car with the center of the lock located three 
inches from the vertical center line of the coupler. 
Within these limits are located the locks on the great 
majority of couplers in service. 

"Diagram No. 3 shows the application to a car hav- 
ing projecting end sills. The bracket supporting the 
end of the release rod farthest from the coupler is pro- 
vided with a projection to enable the lock of tiie coupler 
to be held in the raised position by pushing the rod 
toward the center of the car, after being raised, until 
the outer arm engages the projection, a feature which 
with many designs of couplers is necessary. 

"The dimensions of the parts as shown will be suit- 
able for all cars with dead blocks of the dimensions 
as shown on 'Plate B, Recommended Practice,' and 
with end sills 8 or 9 inches in depth; for cars with 
these parts of different deptlis the proper adjustment 
can be made by changing the relation of the arms of 
the lever to bring the center of the eye of the horizontal 
arm to the proper height above the eye of the lock or by 
the use of links of different lengths. 

"There are some designs of M. C^ B. couplers in use 
in which the lock is operated from the side or from be- 
neath. As each type has a distinctive method of oper- 
ating the lock, your committee did not think it neces- 
sary to consider them in this report, although some 
such types are used in considerable quantities." 
Uncoupling Chain. Sec below. 

Uncoupling Lever (Freight Cars). 210, figs. 159-69. An 
uncoupling, lever and rod usually attached to the end 
sill by which the lock of the M. C. B. coupler is opened 
and the cars uncoupled without going between them. 
The lever and rod is in various forms, as the form of 
lock may require. 
Uncoupling Rod. 210, figs. 159-69, 271-95, etc.; and 173, 
figs. 388-91. A rod connecting the uncoupling lever 
with the lock of an automatic coupler. On freight cars 
it is forged in one piece with the lever. Figs. 650-52. 
Uncoupling Shaft (Passenger Cars). 173, figs. 388-91. 
Uncoupling Shaft Bracket. Figs. 446-8, 509-13. A 
bracket supporting the uncoupling shaft on the end of 
the car. 
Underfrahe. a stout framework, which receives the buff- 
ing and pulling stresses and carries the weight of the 
floor and body of the vehicle. In both freight and 
passenger cars in America the under frame and body 
are rigidly connected and mutually stiffen and 
strengthen one another, but in English carriages the 




body is framed as an independent structure, and merely 
rests on the under frame, rubber pads (india rubber 
body cushions) being interposed to deaden shocks. 
The only connection is through a Body Holding Down 
Bolt, which see. Underframe includes all the framing 
below the floor, and includes the platforms, draft tim- 
bers, etc. Many cars have been built with pressed steel 
underframes an'^. structural steel underframes. Figs. 

Underframe Plate (English). See, Spider Plate. 

Under Hung Door. A sliding door which is supported and 
slides on a rail below the door. Over hung doors are 

Union (Pipe Fittings). A Union Joint, which sec. 

Union Joint (Pipe Fittings). A means of uniting the 
ends of two pipes with a nut. The latter is attached 
to one pipe with a collar, and is screwed on the oppo- 
site pipe, or on a thimble attached to the pipe. Often 
called simply a union or coupling. They are largely 
used for all forms of pipe work, and take their dis- 
tinctive names, if any, from the parts with which they 
are connected, as drain pipe union, reservoir union, 
etc., of Westinghouse brake. 

United State.s Standard System of Screw Threads. 
This term is often used to designate the Sellers Sys- 
tem OF Screw Threads, which see. 

Universal Joint, i. "A device for connecting the ends 
of two shafts so as to allow them to have perfect free- 
dom of motion in every direction within certain de- 
fined limits." — Knight. An application in car building 
which has not yet secured general use as a substitute 
for brake hose, in connection with air brake and steam 

Upholstery. In passenger car construction, the cushions, 
curtains, carpets, beds, etc., and generally the mate- 
rials from which they are made. 

Upper Bearing, See, Swing Link Hanger. 

Upper Belt Rail (Passenger Car Exteriors). 82, figs. 
388-91. A horizontal bar attached to the posts on the 
outside and above the windows. 

Upper Berth. 2, figs. 1778-83. The top berth in a sleep- 
ing car section. It folds up by day against the roof, 
being secured by a berth latch or safety berth latch, 
having a pocket above it in which the head board, two 
thin mattresses and the bedding are stored. See, 

Upper Berth Bracket. Fig. 3395. A form of upper berth 
rest closely resembling a bracket. 

Upper Berth Pocket. A pocket against the sides of the 
car which closed up flush therewith when the upper 
berth was folded up, but dropped open when the berth 
was made up, so as to afford a receptacle for clothing 
and baggage. It has been replaced by a hammock. 
Similar pockets for the lower berth are made by turn- 
ing up the head rest of the seat. 

Upper Berth Rest (Sleeping Cars). Fig. 3395- A metal 

lug, or shelf, which supports an upper berth when 

Upper Berth Rest Pivot. Fig. 3423. A pin attached to a 

plate fastened to an upper berth. The pin engages in a 

hole in a Berth Rest, which see. 
Upper Bolster Plate. 12a, figs. 159-69* etc. Should read 

body bolster top plate. See, Body Bolster. 

Upper Brake Shaft Bearing. 96, figs. 159-69* 271-95, and 
156, FIGS. 388-91 ; FIGS. 493-6. An eye by which the 
upper end of a brake shaft is held in place. In passen- 
ger and street cars, usually attached td the hand rail; 
on freight box cars, when the brakes are operated from 
the roof, to t-he end of the body near the top. 

Upper Corner Plate. Figs. 561-2. See, Corner Plate. 

Upper Deck (Passenger Cars), no, figs. 360-72, etc. 

Also called clear story. The raised central portion of 
the roof. See, Deck. 

Upper Deck Bottom Rail (Street Car). The deck sill or 
sill of a clear story. 

Upper Deck Carline. 118, figs. 360-72, 385-87, 388-91. 
Carlines, which see, passing from side to side of the 
upper deck only, resting on the deck plate. Usually 
called simply deck carline. 

Upper Deck Eaves Molding. A molding, usually called 
simply deck eaves molding, on the outside edge of the 

Upper Deck Furring Strip. See, Furring. 

Upper Diaphragm (Pintsch Lamp). 287, figs. 2605-21. 

Upper Discharge Valve (Air Pump). 44, 45, no. 965. A 
poppet valve at the top of the air pump cylinder through 
which the compressed air above the piston passes. 

Upper Door Sash. 12, figs. 1029-31. The part of a double 
window sash in a car door which covers the upper part 
of the opening. This upper section is usually made 
movable, so that it can be lowered for ventilation. 

Upper End Panel (Street Cars). See, Panel. 

Upper Floor (Stock Car). 28, figs. 219-22. More com- 
monly double deck. 

Upper Intermediate Valve Seat and Chamber (Air 
Pumo). 42, 43, fig. 965. 

Upper Rail (Sliding Doors). Usually called top door rail. 
A guide rail above doors which are supported upon 
rollers at the bottom, or one carrying a door suspended 
upon door hangers. See, Door Rail. 

Upper Receiving Valve (Air Pump). 41, fig. 965. 

Upper Seat Back Rail. See, Seat Back. 

Upper Swing Hanger Pivot. 47, figs. 3781 -3951. See 
also. Lower Swing Hanger Pivot. 

Upper Wainscot End Rail (Passenger Car Interiors). 
See below. 

Upper Wainscot Rail. 75, figs. 388-91, and E, fig. 1781. 
A longitudinal wooden bar or rail, fastetned to the 
posts immediately under the window. See, Wainscot 

Upper Window Blind. See, Window Blind. 

Upper Window Blind Lift. Figs. 3593-94, etc. Dis- 
tinguished from a lower window blind lift in not hav- 
ing a lug or ledge. See, Window Blind Lift. 

Urinal. Figs. 31 10-14. A metal or porcelain receptacle 
used in saloons, connected to a pipe leading through 
the floor. They are distinguished as corner or side 
urinals, the former almost invariably used in car work. 
A Concealing Urinal, which see, shutting up flush 
with the wood work when not in use, is sometimes used. 

Urinal Cover. A wooden or sheet metal lid for inclosing 
a urinal. 

Urinal Drip, or Drip Pan. A pan under a urinal on the 

Urinal Handle. Figs. 3097-3102. A handle in a saloon, 
placed above the urinal to hold on to. They are dis- 
tinguished as corner or side urinal handles, according 
to their position on the side of the car. 

Urinal Pipe. See, Urinal. 

Urinal Ventilator. A pipe attached to a cap on a urinal, 
communicating with the top of a car, where some form 
of wind scoop is often added. 

V-shaped Screw Thread. A thread with a sharp edge at 
the top and sharp groove at the root. The Sellers (U. 
S.) standard thread is flat at the top and at the root, 
and the Whitworth is rounded at those points. V- 
threads are now used chiefly for pipe threads. 

Vacuum Brake. A system of continuoi^s brakes which is 
operated by exhausting the air from some appliance 
under each car by which the pressure of the external 
air is transmitted to the brake levers and shoes. So 




called in distinction from Air Brakes, which see, 
which are technically understood to refer only to brakes 
operating with compressed air, although in a literal 
sense the vacuum brake is also an air brake. An 
ejector on the engine is ordinarily used for exhausting 
the air, connected with the rest of the train by pip^ 
and flexible hose between the cars. Now little used. 

Valance. A term applied to the tasselated decorations of 
windows and which cover and conceal the shade roller 
and curtain holder. B, fig. 1781. 

Valve. A lid, cover, or plug for opening and closing an 
aperture or passage. 

Valve Body. The shell case or frame of a valve. See, 
Triple Valves. 2, figs. 910, 913. Engineer's Valve, 
2, FIGS. 907-09. 

Valve Key (Pintsch Gas Lighting Apparatus). Figs. 2512- 
13. A key for opening all the high pressure valves, the 
lamp key, fig. 2513, being used for the low pressure 
valves connected with the burners. 

Valve Piston (Reducing Valve). 4, fig. 952. 

Valve Seat. "The flat or conical surface on which a valve 
rests." — Knight. See, Discharge Valve Seat. Tank 
Valve Seat. 

Valve Stem. A rod attached to a valve, and by which the 
latter is moved, is always called a valve stem. 

Van (English). A comprehensive term for any covered 
vehicle not used for conveying ordinary passengers or 
ordinary freight. See, Brake Van. Bullion Van. 
Guard's Van. 

Vanderbilt Brake Beam. Figs. 854-59, 863-67. A brake 
beam made of a 5 in. I beam, not trussed. One type has 
the ends cut out to permit the removal of the fulcrum 
without removing the brake shoe heads. The beam 
shown in figs. 863-67 is a trussed beam, using a chan- 
nel for compression member. The parts are self lock- 
ing, and no rivets are used. 

Vanderbilt Hopper Car. Figs. 42, 308-11. A hopper car 
built entirely of steel with only two sills, of 15 in. chan- 
nels, which are in the center of the car. The side plates 
are reinforced to form a plate girder and carry a large 
part of the load. 

Vanderbilt Tank Car. Figs. 68, 338-42. A tank car with 
steel under frame, made up of two I beams placed well 
under the sides of the car as sills. Short channels are 
used as center sills for the attachment of draft gear, 
extending from the end sill back to the bolster. 

Vanderbilt Truck. Figs. 3765-67. A form of arch bar 
truck using channels for the compression members of 
the truss. It is fitted with Rocker Side Bearings, which 

Van Dyke Tank Car. Fig. 67. A type of tank car in 
which the tank is supported on saddles over each truck. 
No sills are used, the bottom tank plate being made 
extra heavy, and the draft gear riveted to it. 

Varnish. A "liquid glass" for covering paint or wood 
work. See, Finishing Varnish. 

Velocipede Car. Generally a three wheeled car, in which 
the rider sits astride and propels the car with his feet 
(or feet and hands together), after the manner of a 
velocipede. They comprise a variety of light cars for 
inspectors, telegraph line repairers, lamp lighters, etc. 

Veneer. "A thin leaf of a superior wood for overlaying an 
inferior wood." — Webster. By trade usage it is a 
veneer if it covers other materials than inferior wood. 
Thus in the Spurr veneers and wood carvings, figs. 
2923-26, the material covered is a matrix resembling 
papier mache. It may be in relief, resembling wood 
carvings. See, Ceiling Veneers. Perforated Veneers. 

Vent. "A small aperture ; a hole or passage for air or other 
fluid to escape." — Webster. See, Lamp Vent. 

Vent Valve (Triple Valve). 71, figs. 959-62. (Engi- 
neer's Valve.) 180, figs. 968-71. 

Veitt Valve Piston Seat and Spring (Triple Valves). 
129-32, figs. 959-^. 

Ventilated Box Car. Figs. 7, 208-11. A box car with 
grated doors and screened openings called ventilators, 
through which the air can circulate freely. Used 
chiefly for fruit. See, Fruit Car. 

Ventilating Chimney (Pintsch Lamp). 324, figs. 2605- 

Ventilating Jack (for Saloons). Also called wind scoop. 
A flaring horizontal tube, constituting a simple form of 
the ventilating devices which use the current produced 
by the motion of the cars to cause an exhaust current 
of air. See, Wind Scoop. Injector, etc. 

Ventilator, i. Figs. 3483-3503. A device for admitting or 
exhausting air to or from a car. Ventilators, according 
to their position, are designated as deck ventilators 
(end or side), end ventilators, frieze ventilators, etc. 
They are often designated as automatic or self acting. 
The prominent forms of the latter varieties are shown 
in figs. 3483-99. 

Day coaches usually depend upon the deck windows 
for ventilation, the sash at every other window being 
hung on different sides, so that the open sash may be 
hinged on the front end. Sash openers for deck sash 
hinged in this manner are shown in figs. 3504-15. For 
a report of tests with the various ventilators shown see 
Proceedings M. C. B. Association, 1894, page 234. 

2. (For Fruit Car.) Fig. 7, 208-11. A system of 
slats protected by netting at each end of the car, so ar- 
ranged as to enable the ventilators to be readily opened 
or closed from the outside. 

Ventilator Arm. A small attachment carried on deck 
sashes, especially of street cars, for holding them open. 

Ventilator Casing (Street Car). The casing of the side 
ventilators, or deck windows, which takes the venti- 
lator sash, or to which the wire screen is fastened. 

Ventilator Cowl (English). See, Ventilator Hood. 

Ventilator Deflector. A metal plate or board placed in 
such a position at a ventilator opening that it will cause 
a current of air to flow into or out of the car when the 
latter is in motion. Another form, used in windows to 
produce an exhaust draft when opened, is a mere loose 
board with a notch to receive the lower edge of the 
window sash, figs. 3695-98. See, Deflector. 

Ventilator Door. A door for closing the aperture of a 
ventilator. See also. Ventilator Valve. 

Ventilator Fixed Panel (English). The outer panel in a 
ventilator composed of two perforated panels, one 
being capable of being slid over the other so that the 
perforations coincide or become covered. This form of 
ventilator is used in English cars to the exclusion of 
any other. See also. Ventilator Hood and Ventilator 
Sliding Panel. 

Ventilator Hood. i. A shield over the outside of a venti- 
lator to prevent the entrance of sparks, cinders, rain or 
snow. It is sometimes intended to direct the current of 
air either into or out of the car. See also. Deck End 
Ventilator Hood. 

2. (English.) Also called ventilator cowl. A shield 
made of either wood or metal, preventing the entrance 
of rain or cinders. 

Ventilator Netting, i. A wire screen or netting fastened 
over the outer deck window sash to prevent the en- 
trance of sparks, cinders and dust. 

2. A netting over the ventilator windows of a fruit 

Ventilator Opener. See, Deck Sash Opener. Figs. 3504- 

Ventilator Panel. A panel in the frame of a valve or door 

for closing the aperture of a ventilator. 

Ventilator Pivot. A pin on which a ventilator door or 
sash is swung or hinged. It is the same ^ a deck sash 
pivot, FIGS. 3528-34. 

Ventilator Pivot Plate. The same as a sash lock plate 
or stop, FIGS. 3558-61, etc 




Ventilator Plate. See, Frieze Ventilator Plate. 

Ventilator Register. A metal plate or frame attached to 
a ventilator opening, provided with slats arranged so 
as to turn, and thus either open or close the ventilator. 
They are chiefly used as frieze ventilators, but some- 
times elsewhere. In sleeping cars they are sometimes 
combined with berth curtain rod brackets. 

(Ventilator Sash. Usually a deck sash. 

(Ventilator Sash Pivot. A deck sash pivot. 

ITentilator Sliding Panel (English). Part of a ventilator 
in which there are two perforated hardwood slides, the 
outer fixed, the inner movable, so as to make the per- 
forations coincide or be covered. See, Ventilator Hood 
and Ventilator Fixed Panel. 

R^ENtilator Staff. Figs. 3546-50. A Pull Hook or Deck 
Sash Opener^ which see. 

KTentilator Stop (Street Car). A small metal bracket on 
which a ventilator sash rests when open. 

KTentilator Valve. A door for opening or closing the 
aperture of a ventilator, usually made to turn on pivots 
at or near its center. See, Deck Sash Pivot. 

KTektical Equalizing Lever. 25, figs. 1784-86. (Pullman 
Vestibule.) A vertical lever, one end of which bears 
against an overhead face plate buffing spring (called an 
overhead equalizer spring) and the other end against 
the horizontal equalizing lever, the middle of which is 
pivoted by a bracket attached to a longitudinal plate or 
bar that abuts against the body end plate. The object 
of these vertical equalizing levers is to get the hori- 
zontal equalizer lever high enough to give head room 
in the vestibule for the dome lamp, etc. 

Vertical Steam Trap and Blow Off (Gold's Car Heat- 
ing). Fig. 2389. A Thermostatic Steam Trap, which 
see, and a blow off valve combined. It may be operated 
from inside of the car. 

Vertical Telegraph Cock, or Faucet. See, Telegraph 

Vestibule, i. (Of a Car.) Formerly that part of the car 
nearest the door, cut off from the main saloon by an 
interior door. It was occup