(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Children's Library | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "Cardinal principles of secondary education. A report of the Commission on the reorganization of secondary education"

[SE> UC-NRLF 

1607 




B 3 117 S2T 



CO 

CO 

o 



DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR 

BUREAU OF EDUCATION 



BULLETIN. 1 91 8, No. 35 



CARDINAL PRINCIPJUF.S OF 
SECONDARY EDUCATION 



A REPORT OF THE COMMISSION ON 
THE REORGANIZATION OF SECOND- 
ARY EDUCATION, APPOINTED BY THE 
NATIONAL EDUCATION ASSOCIATION 




WASHINGTON 

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFHCE 

1918 



DEP.^RTMENT OF THE INTERIOR 

BUREAU OF EDUCATION 



BULLETIN, 1918, No. 35 



CARDINAL PRINCIPLES OF 
SECONDARY EDUCATION 



A REPORT OF THE COMMISSION ON 
THE REORGANIZATION OF SECOND- 
ARY EDUCATION. APPOINTED BY THE 
NATIONAL EDUCATION ASSOCIATION 




WASHINGTON 

GOVERNMENT PRLNTING OFFICE 

1918 






ii.JLft)lTIONAL COPIES 

or TSt,S fr,TJ LIGATION MAY BE PROCURED FROM 

THE gLi'ERBTTENDENT OF DOCUMENTS 

GOVERNMENT PRUTTING OFFICE 

WASHINGTON, D. C. 

AT 

CE>JTS PER COPY 



*►••». 



CONTENTS 



rage. 

Preface 5 

Membership of the reviewing committee of the commission 3 

^ I . The need for reorganization 7 

II. The goal of education in a democracy 9 

III. The main objectives of education . . 9 

IV. The role of secondary education in achieving these objectives 11 

1. Health 11 

2. Command of fundamental processes 11 

3. Worthy home-membership 12 

4. Vocation 13 

5. Civic education 13 

6. Worthy use of leisure 15 

7. Ethical character 15 

V. Interrelation of the objectives in secondary education 18 

VI. Recognition of the objectives in reorganizing high-school su.bjects IG 

VII. Education as a process of growth IG 

VIII. Need for explicit values 17 

IX. Subordination of deferred values 17 

"^ X. Division of education into elementary and secondarj'' 17 

^ XI. Division of secondary education into junior and senior periods 18 

"^XII. Articulation of secondary education with elementary education 1;) 

XIII . Articulation of higher education with secondary education 10 

XIV. Recognition of the objectives in planning curriculums 20 

XV. The specializing and unifying functions of secondary education 21 

XVI. The comprehensive high school as the standard secondary e^-hool 24 

XVII. Recognition of the objectives in organizing the school 27 

XVIII. Secondary education essential for all youth „ . . 29 

XIX. Part-time schooling as a compulsory mininmm requirement 30 

XX. Conclusion SI 

8 



isicet 



REPORTS OF THE COMMISSION ON THE REORGANIZATION 
OF SECONDARY EDUCATION. 

The following reports of the commission have been issued as bulletins of the 
United States Bureau of Education and may be procured from the Superin- 
tendent of Documents, Government Printing Office, Washington, D. C, at the 
prices stated. Remittance should be made in coin or money order. Other 
reports of the commission are in preparation. 

1913, No. 41. The Reorganization of Secondary Education. Contains prelimi^ 
nary statements by the chnirraen of committees. 10 cents. 

1915, No. 23. The Teaching of Conmumity Civics, 10 cents. 

1916, No. 2S. The Social Studies in Secondary Education. 10 cents. 

1917, No. 2. Reorganization of English in Secondary Sciiools. 20 cents. 
1917, No. 49. I\Iusic in Secondary Schools. 5 cents. 

1917, No. 50. Physical Education in Secondary Schools. 5 cents. 

1917, No. 51. Moral Values in Secondary Education. 5 cents, 

1918, No. 19. Vocational Guidance in Secondary Schools. 5 cents. 
1918, No. 35. Cardinal Principles of Secondary Education. 5 cents. 

4 



MJ 



PREFACE. 



TI18 Commission on the Reorganization of Secondary Education 
presents herewith the cardinal principles which, in tlie judgment of 
its reviewing committee, should guide the reorganization and devel- 
opment of secondary education in the United States. 

The commission w^as the direct outgrowth of the work of the com- 
mittee on the articulation of high school and college, which submit- 
ted its report to the National Education Association in 1911. That 
committee set forth briefly its conception of the field and function of 
secondar}^ education and urged the modification of college entrance 
requirements in order that the secondar}^ school might adapt its work 
to the varying needs of its pupils without closing to them the possi- 
bility of continued education in higher institutions. It took the 
position that the satisfactory completion of any w^ell-planned high- 
school curriculum should be accepted as a preparation for college. 
This recommendation accentuated the responsibility of the secondary 
school for planning its Avork so that young people may meet the 
needs of democracy. 

Through 16 of its committees the commission is issuing reports 
dealing wdth the organization and administration of secondary 
schools, and Avith the aims, methods, and content of the various 
studies. To assist these committees through constructive criticism, 
a reviewing committee was organized in 1913. Besides conducting 
continuous correspondence, that committee has each j^ear held one oj* 
two meetings of from one to six days' duration, at which reports of 
the various committees w^ere discussed from many points of view, and 
as a result some of the reports have been revised and revv-ritteii sev- 
eral times. In' addition to its task of criticizing reports, it seemed 
desirable that the reviewing committee itself should outline in a sin- 
gle brief report those fundamental principles that would be most 
helpful in directing secondary education. In its desire to determine 
the principles that are most significant and to set them forth ade- 
quately, the rcAdewing committee has been three years in formulating 
and revising the report wdiich is presented in this bulletin. 

The reports already issued by seven committees and listed on the 
last page of this bulletin are, for the most part, in fundamental agree- 
ment with the principles herein set forth. 

The translation of these cardinal principles into d:\ily practice will 
of necessity call for continued study and experiment on the pax^; of 
the administrative officers and teachers in secondar}^ schoools. 

Clarence D. Kingsley, 
Chairman of the Commission, 

5 



THE REVIEWING COMMITTEE OF THE COMMISSION ON THE 
REORGANIZATION OF SECONDARY EDUCATION. 

(The Reviewing Committee consists of 26 members, of whom 16 are chairmen of com- 
nittees and 10 are members at large.) 

Gluiirman of the Commission and of the Reviewing Committee: 

Clareiice D. Kingsley, State iiigli-scliool supervisor, Boston, Mass. 
Memhers at large: 

Hon. I:'. I*. Ciaxton, United States Commissioner of Education, Wasliing- 
ton, D. C. 

Tliomay H. Brigg:s, associate professor of education, Teachers College, 
Cohn^bia University, New York City. 

Alexander Inglis, assistant professor of education, in charge of secondary 
education, Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass. 

Henry Neuniann, Ethical Culture School, New York City. 

William Orr, senior educational secretary, international Y. M. C. A. com- 
mittee, 104 East Twenty-eighth Street, New York City. 

William B. Owen, principal Clilcago Normal College. Chicago, 111". 

Edward O. Sisson, president University of Montana, Missoula. Mont. 

Joseph S. Stewart, professor of secondary education, University of Georgia, 
Athens, Ga. 

Milo 11. Stuart, principal Technical High School, Indianapolis, Ind. 

H. L, Terry, State high-school supervisor, Madison, ^Vis. 

Chairmen of Committees: 

Organization and Administration of Secondary Education — Ciiarles Hughes 
Johnston, professor of secondary education. University of Illinois, Urbana, 
111.^ 

Agriculture — A. Y. Storm, professor of agricultural education, University of 
IMinnesota, St. Paul, Minn. 

Art Education — Henry Turner Bailey, dean, Cleveland Scliool of Art, 
Cleveland, Ohio. 

Articulation of High School and College — Clarence D. Kir.gsley, State high- 
school inspector, Boston, Mass. 

Business Education — Cheesman A. Herrick, president, Glrard College, Phila- 
delphia, Pa. 

Classical Languages — Walter Eugene Foster, Stuyvesant High School, New 
York City. 

English — James Fleming Hoslc, Chicago Normal College, Chicago, 111. 

Household Arts — Mrs. Henrietta Calvin, United States Bureau of Educa- 
tion, Washington, D. ,C. 

Industrial Arts — Wilson PL Henderson, extension division. University of 
Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wis. (now Major, Sanitary Corps, War Depart- 
ment. U. S. A.) 

Mathematics — William Heard Kilpatrick, associate professor of education, 
Teachers College, Columbia University, New York City. 

Modern Languages— Edward Manley, Englewood High School, Chicago, 111. 

INIusic — AVill Earhart, director of nuisic, Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Physical Education — James H. McCurdy, director of normal courses of 
physical education. International Y. M. C. A. College, Springlield, ISiass. 
(now In France, in charge of Y. IM. C. A. recreation work). 

Sciences — Otis W. Caldwell, director, Lincoln School, and professor of edu- 
cation, TeachvM-s College, Columbia University. New York City. 

Social Studies— -Thomas Jesse Jones, United States Bureau of Education, 
Washington, D. C. 

Vocational Gnidance — Frank I\T. Lenvitt, associate superintendent of schools, 
Pittsburgh, Pa. 



g » Deceased, Sept. 4, 1917. 



CARDINAL PRINCIPLES OF SECONDARY EDUCATION, 



I. THE NEED FOR REORGANIZATION. 

Secondary education should bo determined by the needs of the so- * 
ciety to be served, the character of the individuals to be educated, J 
and the knowledge of educational theory and practice available. / 
These factors are by no means static. Society is always in process j 
of development; the character of the secondary-school population I 
undergoes modification ; and the sciences on which educational theory 
and practice depend constantly furnish new information. Secondary 
education, however, like any other established agency of society, is , 
conservative and tends to resist modification. Failure to make ad- j 
justments T^-hen the need arises leads to the necessity for extensive 
reoro-anization at irrei^'ular intervals. The evidence is stronc: that 
such a comprehensive reorganization of secondary education is im- 
perative at the present time. 

1. Changes in society. — Within the past few decades changes have 
taken place in American life profoundly aiTecting the activities of 
the individual. As a citizen, he must to a greater extent and in a more 
direct way cope with problems of communit}' life, State and National 
Governments, and international relationships. As a worker, ho must 
adjust himself to a more complex economic order. As a relatively 
independent personalit}^, he has more leisure. The problems arising 
from these three dominant phases of life are closely interrelated and 
call for a degree of intelligence and efficiency on the part of every 
citizen that can not be secured through elementary education alone, 
or even through secondary education unless the scope of that edu- 
cation is broadened. 

The responsibility of the secondary school is still further increased ^ 
because many social agencies other than the school atTord less stim- \ 
ulus for education than heretofore. In many vocations there have 
come such significant changes as the substitution of the factory sys- 
.tern for the domestic system of industry; the use of machiHory in j 
place of manual labor; the high specialization of processes wfjfti a ^ 
corresponding subdivision of labor; and the hreakdown of the ap- 
prentice system. In connection with home and family life have fre- 
quently come lessened responsibility on the part of the children ; the 
withdrawal of the father and sometimes the mother from home oc- 
cupations to the factory or store ; and increased urbanization, res'.ilt- 

7 



8 CAKDIKAI. PElKGIPLEr:^ QF SECONDARY EDUCATION. 

ing in less unified family life. Similarly, many important changes 
have taken place in community life, in the church, in the State, and 
in other institutions. These changes in American life call for ex- 
tensive modifications in secondary education. 

2. Changes in the secondary-school population. — In the past 25 
years there have been marked changes in the secondar}- -school pop- 
ulation of the United States. The number of pu pils has incre ased, 
according to Federal returns, from one for everj^ 210 of the total 
population in 1889-00, to one for every 121 in 1899-1900. to one for 
every 89 in 1909-10, and to one for every 73 of the estimated total 
population in 1914-15. The'cliaracter of the secondary-school pop- 
ulation has been modified by the entrance of large numbers of pupils 
of -vwid^lj' varying capacities, aptitudes, social heredity, and destinies 
in life. Further, the broadening of the scope of secondary education 
has brought to the school many pupils who do not complete the full 
course but leave at various stages of advancement. The needs of these 
pupils can not be neglected, nor can we expect in the near future 
that all pupils will be. able to complete the secondary school as full- 
time students. 

At present only about one-third of the pupils who enter the first 
year of the elementary school reach the four-year high school, and 
only about one in nine is graduated. Of those who enter the seventh 
school year, only one-half to two- thirds reach the first year of the 
four-year high school. Of those who enter the four-year high school 
about one-third leave before the beginning of the second year, about 
one-half are gone before the beginning of the third year, and fewer 
than one-third are graduated. These facts can no longer be safely 
ignored. 

3. Changes in educational theory. — The sciences on which educa- 
tional theory depends have within recent years made significant 
contributions. In particular, educational psychology emphasizes the 
following factors: 

'{a) Individucil di-ffcrenccs in capacities ami aptitudes among sec- 
ondaTy -school pupils. Already recognized to some extent, this factor 
merits fuller attention. 

(&) The reexaminatiGn and reinterpret ation of subject values and 
the teaching methods loitk reference to *' general discipline.'''— Whih 
the fin^l verdict of modern psychology has not as yet been rendered, 
it is clear that former conceptions of " general values " must be thor- 
oughly revised. 

(c) Importance of applying hnoiclcdge.—Swh]Qol values and 
teaching methods must be tested in terms of the laws of learning and 
the application of knowledge to the activities of life, rather than 
primarily in terms of thedemands of any subject as a logically or- 
ganized science. 



CARDINAL PRINCIPLES OF SECONDARY EDUCATION. 9 

(d) Continuityjn^the development of children. — It has long been 
held that ps^'chological changes at certain stages are so pronounced 
as to overshadow the continuity of development. On this basis 
secondary education has been sharply separated from elementary edu- 
cation. Modern psychology, however, goes to show that the develop- ' 
ment of the individual is in most respects a continuous process and \ 
that, therefore, any sudden or abrupt break between_the elementary \ 
and the secondary school or between ariy two successive stages of ; 
education is undesirable. 

The foregoing changes in society, in the character of the secondary- 
school population, and in educational theory, together vvith many ' 
other considerations, call for extensive modifications of secondary 
education. Such modifications have already begun in part. The 
present need is for the formulation of a comprehensive program of 
reorganization, and its adoption, with suitable adjustments, in all 
the secondary schools of the Nation. Hence it is appropriate for a 
representative body like the National Education Association to out- 
line such a program. This is the task entrusted by that association 
to the Commission on the Reorganization of Secondary Education. 

II. THE GOAL OF EDUCATION IN A DEMOCRACY. 

Education in the United States should be guided b}^ a clear con- . 
ception of the meaning of democracy. It is the ideal of democracy y ' 
that the individual and societv_niay_ fincT fu]fillment_each in the ] 
other. I Democracy sanciions neither the exploitation of the inclivid-^l 
ual by societ}^, nor the disregard of the interests of society by the,/* 
individual. More explicitly — 

The purpose of democracy is so to org-aiiize society that each member /) 
may develop his personality primp.rily through activities designed for the) V 
well-being of_his fellow m.embers and of society as a whole. ' // 

This kleal demands that human activities be placed upon a high 
level oi efficiency ; that to this efficiency be added an appreciation of 
the signtficatlce of these activities and loyalty to the best ideals in- 
volved ; and that the individual choose that vocation and those forms 
of social service in which his personality may develop and become 
most effective. For the achievement of these ends democracy must / 
place chief reliance upon education. 

Consequently, education in a democracy, both within and without the \ 
school, should develop in each individual the knowledge, intei-ests, ideals, ^, / 
habits, and powers whereby he will find his place and use that place to 
shape both himself and society toward ever nobler ends. 

III. THE MAIN OBJECTIVES OF EDUCATION. 

In order to determine the main objectives that should guide educa- 
tion in a democracy it is necessary to analyze the activities of the 
individual. Normally he is a member of a family, of a vocational 
83453°— 18 2 — " , - 



10 CARDINAL PEINCIPLES OP SECOIs^DAEY EDUCATION. 

group, and of A'arioiis civic groups, and by virtue of these relation- 
ships he is called upon to engage in activities that enrich the family 
life, to render important vocational services to his fellows, and to 
jj promote the common v^'elf are. |^ It Jollovrs, therefore, that worthy 
[/ home-membership, vocation, andcitizenship, demand attention as 
ij three of the leading cbjectives.\ ^^-^-i.-— 

Aside from the immedialemlscharge of these specific duties, every 
individual should have a m.argin of time for the cultivation of per- 
sonal and social intere sts. This leisure, if worthily used, wiTTre- 
create his powers and enlarge and enrich life, thereby making him 
better able to meet his responsibilities. The unworthy use of leisure 
impairs health, disrupts home life, lessens vocational efficiency, and 
destroj^'s civic-mindedness. The tendenc}^ in industrial life, aided by 
legislation, is to decrease the working hours of large groups of peo- 
ple. While shortened hours tend to lessen the harmful reactions that 
arise from prolonged strain, the}^ increase, if possible, the importance 
of preparation for leisure. In view of these considerations, educa- 
tion for the worthy use of leisure is of increasing importance as an 
objecti^'e. 

To discharge the duties of life and to benefit from leisure, one 
must have good health. The health of the individual is essential also 
to the vitalit}^ of the race and to the defense of the Nation. Health 
education is, therefore, fundamental. 

There are various processes, such as reading, writing, arithmetical 
computations, and oral and written expression, that are needed as 
tools in the affairs of life. Consequently, command of these funda- 
mental processes, vrhile not an end in itself, is nevertheless an indis- 
pensable objective. 

And, finally, the realization of the objectives already named is de- 
pendent upon ethical character, that is, upon cond^ict founded upon 
right principles, clearly perceived Tind loyally adhered to. Good 
citizenship, vocational excellence, and the v^^orthy use of leisure go 
hand in hand with ethical character; they are at once the fruits of 
sterling character and the channels through which such character is 
developed and made manifest. On the one hand, character is mean- 
ingless apart from the will to discharge the duties of life, and, on 
the other hand, there is no guarantee that these duties will be rightly 
discharged unless principles are substituted for impulses, hovs^ever 
well-intentioned such impulses may be. Consequently ethical char- 
acter is at once involved in all the other objectives and at the same 
time requires specific consideration in any program of national edu- 
cation. :; r' ^-"^ 

This commission, therefore, regards the followiug as tfie main ob- 
jectives of education : 1. Health. 2. Command of fundamental proc- 



V 



CARDINAL PRINCIPLES OF SECONDARY -EDUCATION. 11 

esses. 3. Worthy home-menlbership. 4. Vocation. 5. Citizenship. - ; 
6. Worthy tise of leisure. 7. Ethical character. ' f 

The naming of the above objectives is not intended to imply TTiat 
the process of education can be divided into separated fields. This \ 
can not be, since the pupil is indivisible. Nor is the analysis all- I 
inclusive. Nevertheless, we believe that distinguishing and naming / ^ 
these objectives will aid in directing efforts; and we hold that thej 
should constitute the principal aims in education. 

IV. THE ROLE OF SECONDARY EDUCATION IN ACHIEVING THESE 

OBJECTIVES. 

The objectives outlined above apply to education as a whole — ele- 
mentary, secondary, and higher. It is the purpose of this section to , 
consider specifically the role of secondar}^ education in achieving each , 
of these objectives. 

For reasons stated in Section X, this commission favors such reor- 
ganization that secondary education may be defined as applying to 
all pupils of approximately 12 to 18 years of age. 
C^. Health, — Health needs can not be neglected during the period 
of secondary education without serious danger to the individual and 
the race. The secondary school should therefore provide health in- 
struction, inculcate health habits, organize an effective program of 
physical activities, regard health needs in planning work and play, 
and cooperate with home and community in safe-guarding and pro- 
moting health interests. 

To carry out such a program it is necessary to arouse the public 
to recognize that the health needs of young people are of vital im- 
portance to society, to secure teachers competent to ascertain and 
meet the needs of individual pupils and able to inculcate in the entire 
student body a love for clean sport, to furnish adequate equipment 
for physical activities, and to make the school building, its rooms and 
surroundings, conform to the best standards of hygiene and sani- 
tation.^ 

J 2. Gommand of fundamental processes. — Much of the energy of the 
elementar}'^ school is properly devoted to teaching certain fundamen- 
tal processes, such as reading, writing, arithmetical computations, 
and the elements of oral and written expression. The facility that a 
child of 12 or 11 may acquire in the use of these tools is not suflicient 
for the needs of modern life. This is particularly true of the mother 
tongue. Proficiency in many of these processes may be increased 
more effectively by their application to new material than by the 
formal reviews commonly employed in grades seven and eifilit. 

1 For the outlines of a health program, see a report of this commission issuer] by the 
Bureau of Education as Bulletin, 1017, No. 50, "Physical Education in Secondary Schools." 



12 CAEDINAL PRINCIPLES OF SECONDARY EDUCATION. 

Throughout tho secondary school, instruction and practice must go 
hand in hand, but as indicated in the report of the committee on 
English,^ only so much theory should be taught at any one time as 
will show results in practice. 

3. Worthy home-iiwinhershiiJ. — ^Worthy home-membership as an 
objective calls for the development of those qualities that make the in- 
dividual a worthy member of a family, both contributing to and de- 
riving benefit from that membership. 

This objective applies to both boys and girls. The social studies 
should deal with the home as a fundamental social institution and 
clarify its relation to the wider interests outside. Literature should 
interpret and idealize the human elements that go to make the home. 
Music and art should result in more beautiful homes and in greater 
joy therein. The coeducational school with a faculty of men and 
women should, in its organization and its activities, exemplify whole- 
some relations between boys and girls and men and women. 

Home membership as an objective shouM not be thought of solely 
with reference to future duties. These are the better guaranteed if 
the school helps the pupils to take the right attitude toward present 
home responsibilities and interprets to them the contribution of the 
home to their development. 

In the education of every high-school girl, the household arts 
should have a prominent place because of their importance to the 
girl herself and to others whose welfare will be directly in her keep- 
ing. The attention now devoted to this phase of education is in- 
adequate, and especially so for girls preparing for occupations not 
related to the household arts and for girls planning for higher insti- 
tutions. The majority of girls who enter wage-earning occupations 
directly from the high school remain in them for only a few years, 
after which home making becomes their lifelong occupation. For 
them the high-school period oifers the only assured opportunity to 
prepare for that lifelong occupation, and it is during this ])eriod 
that they are most likely to form their ideals of life's duties and re- 
sponsibilities. For girls planning to enter higher institutions — 

(Rir traditional ideals of preparation for higher institutions arc particularly 
incongruous with the actual needs and future responsibilities of girls. It 
would seem that such high-school work as is carefully designed to develop 
capacity for, and interest in, the proper management and conduct of a home 
should be regarded as of importance at least equal to that of any other work. 
We do not understand how society can properly continue to sanction for girls 
high-school curriculums that disregard this fundamental need, even though 
sucli curriculums are planned in response to the demands made by some of the 
colleges for women." 

^ Bureau of Education, Bulletin, 1917, No. 2, " Reorganization of English in Secondary 
Schools." 

a Report of the Committee on the Articulation of High School and College, 1911. 



CARDINAL PKINCIPLES OF SECONDARY EDUCATION. 13 

In the education of boys, some opportunity should be found to 
give them a basis for the intelligent appreciation of the value of the 
;\^ell-appointed home and of the labor and skill required to maintain 
such a home, to the end that they may cooperate more effectively. 
For instance, thoy should understand the essentials of food values, 
of sanitation, and of household budgets. 

4. Vocation. — Vocational education should equip the individual to 
secure a livelihood for himself and those dependent on him, to serve 
society v\ell through his location, to maintain the right relatTonships 
toward his fellow v;orkersjind_socicjty, and, ai: far as possible, to 
find in that vocation his own best development. 

This ideal demands that the pupil explore his own capacities and 
aptitudes, and make a survey of the v/orld's work, to the end that ho 
may select his vocation wisely. Hence, an ciTective program of vo- 
cational guidance in the secondary school is essential.^ 

• Vocational education should ai.ni to develop an appreciation of 
the significance of the vocation to the community, and a clear con- 
ception of right relations between the members of the chosen vocation, 
between different vocational groups, between employer and employee, 
and between producer and coixsumer. These aspects of vocational 
education, heretofore neglected, demand emphatic attention. 

The extent to which the secondary school should offer training for 
a specific vocation depends upon the vocation, the facilities that the 
school can acquire, and the opportunity that the pupil may have to 
obtain such training later. To obtain satisfactory results those pro- 
ficient in that vocation should be employed as instructors and the 
actual conditions of the vocation should be utilized either within t]">e 
high school or in cooperation v/ith the home, farm, shop, or office. 
Much of the pupil's time will be required to prodtsce such efficiency. 

5. Civi€ education should develop in the individual those qualities 
wliereb}' he will act well his part as a member of neighborhood, town v 
or city, State, and Nation, and give him a basis for understanding in- 
ternational problems. 

For such citizenship the following are essential : Ajnany -sided x 
interest in the welfare of the communities to which one belongs; J 
loyalty to ideals of civic righteousness ; practical knowledge of social 
agencies and institutions; good judgment as to means and methods 
that will promote one social end without defeating others; and as 
putting all these into effect, habits of cordial cooperation in social 
undertakings. 

The school should develop the concept that the civic duties of men 
and women, while in part identical, are also in part supplementary. 

* For a comprehensive program of vocational guidance see a report of this commission 
issued as Bureau of Education Bulletin, 1918, No. 1^^ " Vocational Guidance* in Seconda'-j 
Schools," 



14 CAKDIISrAL PEINCIPIES OF SECONDARY EDUCATIOIT. 

Differentiation in civic activities is to be encouraged, but not to tlie 
extent of loss of interest in the common problems with which all 
should cope. 

Among the means for developing attitudes and habits important 
in a democracy are the assignment of projects and problems to 
groups of pupils for cooperative solution and the socialized recita- 
tion wdiereb}^ the class as a whole develops a sense of collective 
responsibility. Both of these devices give training in collective think- 
ing. Moreover, the democratic organization and administration of 
the school itself, as vrell as the cooperative relations of pupil and 
teacher, pupil and pupil, and teacher and teacher, are indispensable. 

While all subjects should contribute to good citizenshij), the social ' 
studies — geography, history, civics, and economics — should have this 
as their dominant aim. Too frequently, however, does mere in- 
formation, conventional in value and remote in its bearing, make 
up the content of the social studies. History should so treat the 
growth of institutions that their present value may be appreciated. 
Geography should show^ the interdependence of men while it shows 
their common dependence on nature. Civics should concern itself 
less with constitutional questions and remote governmental functions, 
and should direct attention to social agencies close at hand and to 
the informal activities of daily Tife that regard and seek the common 
good. Such agencies as child-welfare organizations and consumers' 
leagues afford specific opportunities for the expression of civic quali- 
ties by the older pupils'. 

The work in English__should kindle social ideals and give insight 

into social conditions and into personal character as related to these 

conditions. Hence the emphasis by the committee on English on 

1 the importance of a knowledge of social activities, social movements, 

and social needs on the part of the teacht?r of English. 

The comprehension of the ideals of American democracy/ and 
i loyalty to them should be a prominent aim of civic education. The 
pupil should feel that he will be responsible, in cooperation with 
others, for keeping the Nation true to the best inherited conceptions 
of democrac}^, and he should also realize that democracy itself is an 
ideal to be wrought out by his own and succeeding generations. 

Civic education should consider other nations also. As a peo- 
ple we should try to understand their aspirations and ideals that we 
may deal more sympathetically and intelligently with the immi- 
grant coming to our shores, and have a basis for a Aviser and more 
sympathetic approach to international problems. Our pupils should 
learn that each nation, at leMst potentially, has something of worth 
to contribute to civilization and that humanity would be incom- 
plete Avithout that contribution. Tliis means a study of specific 
nations, their achievements and possibilities, not ignoring their limi- 
tations. Such a study of dissimilar contributions in the light of the 



CAKDIKAL PRINCIPLES OF SECONDARY EDUCATION. 15 

ideal of human brotherhood should help to establish a genuine in- 
ternationalism, free from sentimentality, founded on fact, and ac- 
tually operative in the affairs of nations/ 

6. Worthy use of leisure. — Education should equip the individual 
to secure from his'leisure the re-creation of body, mind, and spirit, 
and the enrichment and enlarg'ement of his per.sonality. 

This objective calls for the ability to utilize the common means of 
enjoyment, such as music, art, literature, drama, and social inter- 
course, together with the fostering in each individual of one or more 
special avocational interests. 

Heretofore the high school has given little conscious attention to 
this objective. It has so exclusively sought intellectual discipline 
that it has seldom treated literature, art, and music so as to evoke 
right emotional response and produce positive enjoyment. Its pre- 
sentation of science should aim, in part, to arouse a genuine appre- 
ciation of nature. 

The school has failed also to organize and direct the social activi- ^ 
ties of young people as it should. One of the surest ways in which 
to prepare pupils worthily to utilize leisure in adult life is by guiding ^ 
and directing their use of leisure in j^outh. The school should, there- "^ 
fore, see that adequate recreation is provided both witliiiiJhe school 
and by other proper agencies in the community. The school, how- 
ever, has a unique opportunity in this field because it includes in its :^ 
membership representatives from all classes of society and conse- 
quently is able through social relationships to establish bonds of 
friendship and common understanding that can not be furnished by 
other agencies. Moreover, the school can so organize recreational '^ 
activities that they will contribute simultaneously to other ends of 
education, as in the case of^the school pageant or festival. 

7. Ethical character. — In a democratic society ethical character be- 
comes paramount among the objectifies of the secondary school. 
Among the means for developing ethical character may be men- 
tioned the wise selection of content and methods of instruction in all 
subjects of study* the social contacts of pupils with one another and 
w-ith their teachers, the opportunities afforded by the organization 
and administration of the school for the development on the part of 
pupils of the sense of personal responsibility and initiative, and, 
above all, the spirit of service and the principles of true democracy O 
which should permeate the entire school — princii)al, teachers, and 
pupils. 

Specific consideration is given to the moral values to be obtained 
from the organization of the school and the subjects of study in the 
report of this commission entitled " Moral Values in Secondary 

1 For a further discussion of civic education, see the rcporvs of this commission on " Tho 
Teaching of Community Civics " and " Social Studies in Secondary Education," Issued 
as Bureau of Education BulJ^^Uo^, 1915, Xo. 23, and 191G, Nk 28, respectively. 



16 CARDINAL PEINCIPLES OF SECONDARY EDUCATION. 

Education."^ That report considers also the coiKlitions under which 
it may be advisable to supplement the other activities <^f the school 
b}^ offering a distinct course in moral instruction. 

V. INTERRELATION OF THE OBJECTIVES IN SECONDARY EDUCA- 

TION. 

This commission holds that education is essentialh' a unitary and 
continuous process, and that each of the objectives defined above 
must be recognized throughout the entire extent of secondary edu- 
cation. Health needs are evidently imporltint at all stages; the vo- 
cational purpose and content is coming properl}^ to be recognized 
as a necessary and valuable ingredient even in the early stages and 
even when siDecific pre^Daration is postponed; citizenship and the 
worthy use of leisure, obviously important in the earlier stages, in- 
volve certain phases of education that require maturit}^ on the part 
of the pupil and hence are indispensable also in the later stages of 
secondary education. 

Furthermore, it is only as the pupilsees his vocation in relation 
to his citizenship and his citizenship in the light of his vocation 
that he will be prepared for effective membership in an industrial 
democracy. Consequently, this commission enters its protest against 
any and all plans, however well intended, which are in danger of 
divorcing vocation and social-civic education. It stands squarely for 
the infusion of vocation with the spirit of service and for the 
vitalization of culture by genuine contact with the world's work. 

VI. RECOGNITION OF THE OBJECTIVES IN REORGANIZING HIGH- 

SCHOOL SUBJECTS. 

Each subject now taught in high sclitols is in need of extensive 
reorganization in order that it may contribute more effectively to the 
objectives outlined herein, and the place of that subject in secondary 
education should depend upon the value of such contribution. In 
Section IV of this report various references have been made to 
needed changes. For fuller treatment the reader is referred to re- 
^3orts of this commission dealing with the several subjects. These 
reports indicate important steps in such modifications. In each 
report the comm.ission attempts to analyze the aims in terms of the 
objectives; to indicate the adaptation of methods of ])resentation to 
the aims accepted; and to suggest a selection of content on the basis 
of aims and methods. 

VII. EDUCATION AS A PROCESS OF GROWTH. 

Education must be conceived as a process of growth. Only when 
so conceived and so conducted can it become a preparation for life. 

1 Bureau of Education Bulletin, 1917, No. 51. 



CAKDINAL PEINCIPLES OF SECONDARY £DUCATIO:Nr. 17 

In SO far as this principle lias been ignored, formalism and ifcterility 
have resulted. 

For example, civic education too oileu has begun with topics re- 
mote from the pupil's experience and interest. Keacting against this 
formalism, some would have pupils study only those activities in 
which they can engage ^Yhilc young. This extreme, however, is 
neither necessary nor desirabU\ Pupils should be led to respond to 
present duties and, at the same time, their interest should be aroused 
in problems of adult life. With this interest as a basis, they should 
be helped to acquire the habits, insight, and ideals that will enable 
them to meet the duties and responsibilities of later life. Similar ly 
in home-making education, to neglect present duties and responsi- 
bilities toward the family of which the pupil is now a meinber, is to 
court moral insincerity and jeopardize future right conduct. - With 
present duties as a point of departure',liome-inlilang education sliould 
arouse'an interest in future home-making activities and with that in- 
terest as a basis give the training necessary. 

VIII. NEED FOR EXPLICIT VALUES. 

The number of years that pupils continue in school beyond the 
compulsory school age depends in large measure upon the degree to 
which the}^ and their parents realize that school work is worth while 
for them and thi\t they are succeeding in it. Prc^bably in most com- 
munities doubt regarding the value of the work offered causes more 
pupils to leave school than economic necessity. Consequently, it is 
important that the work of each pupil sliould be so presented as to 
convince him and his parents of its real value. 

IX. SUBORDINATION^ OF DEFERRED VALUES. 

Many subjects are now so organized as to be of little value unless 
the i:)upil studies them for several years. Since a large proportion of 
pupils leave school in each of the successive years, each subject 
should be so organized tliat the first jqhv of work will be of definite 
value to those who go no further; and tliis principle should be :ip-. 
l^lied to the work of each year. Cour^-es planned in accordance with 
this principle will deal with the simpler aspects, or those of more 
direct application, in the earlier years and wall defer the refinements 
for later years when these can be better appreciated. The ccnirse as a 
wdiole w^iil then be better adapted to the needs both of those who 
continue and of those who drop out of school. 

X. DIVISION OF EDUCATION INTO ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY. 

Individual differences in pupils and the varied needs of society 
alike demand that education be so varied as to touch the leading 
aspects of occupational, civic, and leisure.. life. To this end curric- 



18 CARDINAL PEINCIPLES OF SECONDARY EDUCATION". 

iilums ^» must be organized at appropriate stages and the work of 
pupils progressively differentiated. 

To accomplish this differentiation most wisely the pupil should 
be assisted ordinarily at about 12 or 13 years of age to begin a 
preliminary survey of the activities of adult life and of his own 
aptitudes in connection therewith, so that he may choose, at least 
tentatively, some field of human endeavor for special consideration. 
Following the period of preliminary survey and provisional choice, 
he should acquire a more intimate knowledge of the field chosen, in- 
cluding therewith an appreciation of its social significance. Those 
whose schooling ends here should attain some mastery of the technique 
involved. The field chosen will be for some as sharply defined as a 
specific trade; for others, it will be but the preliminary choice of a 
wider domain within which a narrower choice will later be made. 

These considerations, reenforced by others, imply, in the judgment 
of this commission, a redivision of the period devoted to elementary 
and secondary education. The eight years heretofore given to ele- 
mentary education have not, as a rule, been effectively utilized. The 
last two of these years in particular have not been well adapted to 
the needs of the adolescent. Many pupils lose interest and either 
drop out of school altogether or form habits of dawdling, to the 
serious injury of subsequent work. We believe that much of the diffi- 
culty will be removed by a new type of secondary education begin- 
ning at about 12 or 13. Furthermore, the period of four years now 
allotted to the high school is too short a time in which to accom- 
plish the work above outlined. 

Wc, therefore, recormiiend a reorganization of the school system 
wherely the first six years shall oe devoted to elementary education ( 
designed to meet the needs of impils of approximately 6 to 12 years 
of age; and the second six years to secondary education designed to '' 
meet the needs of pupils of approximately 12 to 18 years of age. 

XL DIVISION OF SECONDARY EDUCATION INTO JUNIOR AND 
SENIOR PERIODS. 

The six years to be devoted to secondary education may well bo 
divided into two periods which may be designated as the junior and 
senior periods. In the junior period emphasis should be placed upon 
the attempt to help the pupil to explore his own aptitudes and to , 
make at least provisional choice of the kinds of work to which he will , 
devote himself. In the senior period emphasis should be given to 
training in the fields thus chosen. This distinction lies at the basis 
of the organization of junior and senior high schools. 

1 The term " curriculum " is used by this commission to designate a systematic arranjie- 
jient of subjects, and courses in those subjects, botla required and eleciivo, extending 
through two or more years and designed Tor a group of pupils whose common aims and 
probable careers may properly differentiate a considerable part of their work from that of 
other groups in the school. 



CARDINAL PRINCIPLES OF SECONDARY EDUCATION. 19 

In the jiiiiior high scliool there should be the oi'iidual introduction 
of departmental in.^tiiiction, some choice of subjects under guidance, 
promotion by subjects, prevocational courses, and a social or^c^aiTTz'a- 
tion that cjills forth initiative and develops the sense of persoiial re- 
sponsibility for the Av el fare of the group. 

In the senior high school a definite curriculum organization slnndd 
be provided by means of which each pupil may take work system- 
atically planned with reference to liis needs as an individual and as 
a member of societ y. The senior high school should be characterized 
by a^rapiclly developing social consciousness and by an aptitude of 
self-reliance based upon clearl}'' perceived objectives. 

Under ordinary circumstances the junior and senior periods should 
each be three years in length so as to realize their distinctive pur- 
poses. In sparsely settled communities where a senior high school 
can not be maintained effectivel}', the junior high school may well 
be four years in length, so that the pupils may attend school nearer 
to their homes for one more year. 

The commission is not unmindful of the desirability, when funds 
permit, of extending secondary education under local auspices so as 
to include the first two years of work usually offered in colleges, and 
constituting what is known as the " junior college," but it has seemed 
unwise for the commission to attempt to outline the work of this 
new unit. 

XII. ARTICULATION OF SECONDARY EDUCATION WVVB. ELE- 
MENTARY EDUCATION. 

Admission to higli school is now, as a rule, based upun the com- 
pletion of a prescribed amount of jicademic work. As a tesult many 
over-age pupils either leave school altogether or are retained in the 
elementary school when they are no longer deriving jjiuch benefit 
from its instruction. Should a similar conception of the articulation 
of the two schools continue after the elementary- program has been 
shortened to six years, similar bad results will persist. Ex^^erience 
in certain school systems, hovvever, shows that the secondai'y school 
can provide special instruction for over-age pupils more successfully 
than the elementary school can. Vonsequcntli/ we recommend that, 
secondary schools adrait^ and frovlde suitahle instruction for, all pu- 
pils ivho are in any respect so mature that they would derive more 
hene-jit from the secondary school than from the elementary school. 

XIII. ARTICULATION OF HIGHER EDUCATION WITH SECONDARY 

EDUCATION. 

In view of the important role of secondary education in achieving 
the objectives essential in American life, it follows that higher insti- 
tutions of learning are not justified in maintaining entrance require- 



2G CAnDINA;^ PRINCIPLES OF SECONDARY EDUCATION. 

ments and examinations of a character that handicap the secondary 
school in discharging its proper functions in a democracy. 

As stated in Section XII of this report, the secondary school 
should admit all pupils who would derive greater benefit from the 
secondary than from the elementary school. With the demand of 
democratic society for extended liberal and vocational education for 
an ever-increasing number of persons, the higher institutions of 
learning, taken as a whole, are under a similar obligation with refer- 
ence to those vsdiose needs are no longer met by the secondary school 
and are disposed to continue their education. The conception that 
higher education should be limited to the few is destined to disap- 
pear in the interests of democracy. 

The tradition that a particular type of education, and that exclu- 
sively nonvocational in character, is the only acceptable preparation 
for advanced education, either liberal or vocational, must therefore 
give way to a scientific evaluation of all types of secondary edu- 
cation as preparation for continued study. This broader concep- 
tion need not involve any curtailment of opportunities for those 
who early manifest academic interest to pursue the work adapted 
to their needs. It does, however, mean that pupils who, during the 
secondary period, devote a considerable time to courses having voca- 
tional content should be permitted to pursue whatever form of higher 
education, either liberal or vocational, they are able to undertake 
with profit to them.selves and to society. 

XIV. RECOGNITION OF THE OBJECTIVES IN PLANNING CURRICU- 

LUMS. 

ISTo curriculum in the secondary school can be regarded as satis- 
factory unless it gives due attention to each of the objectives of 
education outlined herein. 

Health, as an objective, makes imperative an adequate time assign- 
ment for physical ' training and requires science courses properly 
focused' upon personal and community hygiene, the principles of 
sanitation, and their applications. Command of fundamental proc- 
esses necessitates thorough courses in the English language as a 
means of taking in and giving forth ideas. (Worthy home-member- 
ship calls for the redirection of much of the mTfk in literature, art, 
and the social studies. For girls it necessitates adequate courses in 
household arts. ' Citizenship demands that the social studies be given 
a prominent place. Vocation as an objective requires that many 
pupils devote much of their time to specific preparation for a definite 
trade or occupation, and that some pursue studies that serve as a 
basis for advanced work in higher institutions. The worthy use of 
leisure calls for courses in literature, art, music, and science so taught 



CARDINAL PRINCIPLES OF SECONDARY EDUCATION. 21 

as to develop appreciation. It necessitates also a margin of free 
electives to be chosen on the basis of personal avocational interests. 

Due recognition of these objectives will provide the elements of 
distribution and concentration which are recognized as essential for 
a well-balanced and effective education. 

XV. THE SPECIALIZING AND UNIFYING FUNCTIONS OF SECOND- 
ARY EDUCATION. 

1. Their significance. — ^The ideal of a democracy, as set forth in 
Section II of this report, involves, on the one hand, specialization 
whereby individuals and groups of individuals may become effective 
in the various vocations and other fields of human endeavor, and, 
on the other hand, unification whereby the members of that democ- 
racy may obtain those common ideas, common ideals, and common 
modes of thought, feeling, and action that make for cooperation, 
social cohesion, and social solidarity. 

Without eiiective specialization on the part of groups of individ- 
uals there can be no progress. Without unification in a democracy 
there can be no worthy community life and no concerted action for 
necessary social ends. Increasing specialization emphasizes the need 
for unification, without which a democracy is a prey to enemies at 
home and abroad. 

2. The specializing function. — Secondary education in the past has 
met the needs of only a few groups. The growing recognition that 
progress in our i^nerican democracy depends in no small measure 
npon adequate provision for specialization in many fields is the chief 
cause leading to the present reorganization of secondary education. 
Only through attention to the needs of various groups of individuals 
as shown by aptitudes, abilities, and aspirations can the secondary 
school secure from each pupil his best efforts. The school must capi- 
talize the dominant interest that each boy and girl has at the time 
and direct that interest as wisely as possi]:>le. This is the surest 
method by which hard and effective work may be obtained from each 

jpupil. 

/ Specialization demands the following provisions in secondary 
f education : 

I (a) A loide range of suhjects. — In order to test and develop tlie 
/ many important capacities and interests found in pupils of secondary- 
school age, the school should provide as wide a range of subjects as 
it can offer effectively. 

{h) Exploration and guidance. — Especiall}'' in the junior high 

school the pupil should have a variety of experience and contacts 

* in order that he may explore his own capacities and aptitudes. 

Through a system of educational supervision or guidance he should 



22 CARDINAL PRINCIPLES OF SECONDARY EDUCATION. 

be helped to determine his education and his vocation. These de- 
cisions should not be imposed upon him hj others. 

(c) Adaptation of content and methods. — The content and teach- 
ing methods of every study should be adapted to the capacities, in- 
terests, and needs of the pupils concerned. In certain studies these 
factors ma}^ differ widely for various groups of pupils, e. g., chemis- 
try should emphasize different phases in agricultural, commercial, 
industrial, and household-arts curriculums. 

(d) Flexibility of organization ecM, administration. — Flexibility 
ehould be secured by " election " of studies or curriculum, promotion 
by subjects from the beginning of the junior high school, possible 
transfer from curriculum to curriculum, provision for maximum and 
minimum assignments for pupils of greater and less ability, and, 
under certain conditions, for the rapid or slow progress of such 
pupils. 

{e) Differentiated citri-iculums. — The work of the senior high school 
should be organized into diff'erentiated curriculums. The range of 
such curriculums should be as v/ide as the school can offer effect- 
ively. The basis of differentiation should be, in the broad sense of 
the term, vocational, thus justif3dng the names commonly given, 
such as agricultural, business, clerical, industrial, fine-arts, and 
household-arts curriculums. Provision should be made also for those 
having distinctively academic interests and needs. The conclusion 
that the w^ork of the senior high school should be organized on the 
basis of curriculums does not imply that every stud}?- should be differ- 
ent in the various curriculums. Nor does it imply that ever}'- study 
should be determined by the dominant element of that curriculum. 
Indeed any such practice woukl ignore other objectives of education 
just as important as that of vocational eiffciency. 

3. The unify ing function. — In some countries a common heredity, 
a strongly centralized government, and an established religion con- 
tribute to social solidarity. In America, racial stocks are widely di- 
versified, various forms of social heredity come into conflict, diff'erincr 
religious beliefs do not ahvays make for unification, and the members 
of dift'erent vocations often fail to recognize the interests that they 
have in common with othci'S. The school is the one agency that 
may be controlled definitely and consciously by our democracy for the 
purpose of unifying its people. In this process the secondary school 
must play an important part because the elementar}^ school with its 
immature pupils can not alone develop the common knowledge, com- 
mon ideals, and common interests essential to American democracy. 
Furthermore, children of immigrant parents attend the secondary 
school in large and increasing numbers; secondary education comes 
at a stage in the development of boys and girls when social interests 



CxVEDINAL PRINCIPLES OF SECONDARY EDUCATION. 23 

develop rapidly; and from the secondary school the majority of 
pupils pass directly into participation in the activities of our society. 
The unifying function calls for the folhjwing provisions in second- 
ary education: 

(a) Studies of direct value for this purpose, especially the s(;cial 
studies and the mother tongue, with its literal are. 

(b) The social mingling of pupils through the organization and 
administration of the school. 

(c) The participation of pupils in common activities in Avhich 
they should have a large measure of responsibility, such as athletic 
games, social activities, and the government of the school. 

4. SpeciaUsation and unification as supplementary functions. — 
With increasing specialization in any society comes a corresponding 
necessity for increased attention to unification. So in the secondary 
school, increased attention to specialization calls for.more purpose- 
ful plans for uniiication. When there was but little dift'erentiation 
in the work within the secondary school, and the pupils in attendance 
were less diversified as to their heredity and interests, social unifica- 
tion in the full sense of the term could not take place. 

The supplementary character of these fun.ctions has direct bearing- 
upon the subjects to be taken by secondary-school pupils. To this 
end the secondary school should provide the following groups of 
studies : 

{a) Constants^ to be taken by all or nearly all pupils. These 
should be determined mainly b}' the objectives of health, coniiUand of 
fundamental proSsses, worthy home-meSbership, citiz;6s^;hip, and 
ethical cl^racter. c^. ■ ^ ', 

(Z>) 'Viirriculum'^varia'bles, peculiar to a curriculum or to a group 
of related curriculums. These should be determined for the most 
part by voca^nal needs, including, as thejL frequently do, prepara- 
tion for advanced study in special fields. *^> ;;r.< ■: 

{c) Free electices, to be taken by pupils In accordance with in- 
dividual aptitudes or special interests, generally of a nonvocational 
nature. These are significant, especiailj' in preparation for the 
worthy use of leisure. 

The constants should contribute definitely to unification, the cur- 
riculum variables to specialization, and the free electives to either or 
both of these functions. 

In the seventh year, that is the first year of the junior high school, 
the pupil should not be rex^uired to choose at the outset the field to 
which he will devote himself. For those who do not at this time 
have a definite purpose, opportunity should be given to gain some 
experience with several significant types of work, such as some form 
of industrial arts, gardening or othei- agricultural activity, type- 
Avriting or problems drawn from business, household arts for girls, 
and for at least a part of the pupils some work in a foreign language. 



24 CAEDINAL PEINCIPLES OF SECOXDAEY EDUCATION. 

It may be found feasible to organize several such subjects or projects 
into short units and to arrange the schedule so that ever}^ pupil may 
take several of them. The Avork thus offered may and should be of 
real educational value, in addition to its exploratory- value. 

In the two following years of the junior high school, some pupils 
should continue this trying-out process, while others may well devote 
one-fourth to one-half of their time to curriculum variables. Pupils 
"who will probably enter industry at the end of the ninth grade may 
well give as much as tvvo-thirds of their time to vocational prepara- 
tion, but they must not be permitted to neglect preparation for citi- 
zenship and the worthy use of leisure. 

In the senior high school the relative proportion of these three 
groups of subjects will vary with the curriculum. Pupils who are 
to enter a gainful occupation before the completion of the senior high 
school may well devote a large proportion of their time to the cur- 
riculum variables, especially during their last year in school. 

In brief, the greater the time allowed for curriculum variables, the 
more purposeful should be the time devoted to the constants in order 
that the school may be effective as an agency of unification. Above 
all, the gi^eater the differentiation in studies, the 'more important be- 
comes the social mingling of pupils pursuing different cjirriculums. 

The supplementary character of the specializing and unifying 
functions has a direct bearing also upon the type of high school best 
suited to the needs of democratic societj^, as discussed in the next sec- 
tion. 

, XVI. THE COMPREHENSIVE HIGH SCHOOL AS THE STANDARD 
> SECONDARY SCHOOL. 

The comprehensive (sometimes called composite, or cosmopolitan) 
high school, embracing all curriculums in one unified organization, 
should remain the standard type of secondary school in the United 
States. 

Junior high schools must be of the comprehensive type, whatever 
policy be adopted for the senior high schools, since one of the pri- 
mary purposes of the junior high school is to assist the pupil through 
a wide variety of contacts and experiences to obtain a basis for in- 
telligent choice of his educational and vocational career. In the 
judgment of the commission senior high schools and four-year high 
schools of the older organizations should, as a rule, be of the compre- 
hensive type for the following reasons: 

1. For effectiveness of vocational education. — ^^Vhien effectively or- 
ganized and administered (see pp. 27 to 29) the comprehensive 
high school can make differentiated education of greater value to, 
the individual and to society, for such value depends largely upo^f 
the extent to which the individual pursues the curriculum best suited 



CARDINAL PPJXCIPLES OF 5EC0XDARY EDUCATION. 25 

to his needs. This factor is of prime importance, althouo a fre- 
quently ignored in discussions regarding the effectiveness of voca- 
tional and other types of differentiated education. 

In a s\'stem of special-type schools many in^uei.vcs interfere with 
ti\Q wise choice of curriculum. Thus mac^ pupils choose the high 
school nearest to their homes, or the schc«ol to which their friends 
have gone or are going, or the school that provides the most attractive 
social life or has the best athletic teams. Still others are unwisely 
influenced by the notions of neighbors and friends of the family. 
After entering a special-type school, many pupils drop out because 
the work is not adapted to their needs, while comparatively few 
transfer to another school. 

In a comprehensive school the influences interferiag with a wise 
choice of curriculum may be reduced to a mlRimum. When an un- 
wise choice has been made the pupil may be greatly aided in discover- 
ing a curriculum better adapted to his needs because he can see other 
work in the school, talk with school companions, and confer with 
teachers who are able to give him expert advice regarding such cur- 
riculums. When such a pupil has found a curriculum better adapted 
to Ills needs, he can be transferred to it without severance of school 
relationships and. what seems to him. the sacrifice of school loyalty. 

Moreover, pupils in comprehensive schools have contacts valuable 
to them vocationally, since people in every vocation must be able to 
deal intelligently with those in other vocations, and employers and 
employees must be able to imderstand one another and recognize 
common interests. Similarly, teachers in comprehensive schools have 
a better opportunity to observe other curriculmns and are thereby 
better able to advise pupils intelligently. 

Summarizing under this head, the well-organized comprehensive 
school can make differentiated education of greater value than can 
the special-type school, because it aids in a wise choice of curriculum, 
assists in readjustments when such are desirable, and provides for 
wider contacts e^ential to true success in every vocation. 

2. For u?iificati07i.—rVrhQJi administered by a principal wlio him- 
self recognizes tlie social value of all types of secondary education 
and inspires a broad spirit of democracy among teachers and pupils, 
the comprehensive high school is a better instrimient for unitication. 
Through friendships formed with pupils pursuing ether curriculums 
iid having vocational and educational goals widely different from 
their own, the pupils realize that the interests which they hold in 
common with others are, after all, far more important than the 
*7ifferciices that would tend to make them antagonistic to othei*s. 
Ihrough school assemblies and organizations they acquire common 
ideas. Through group activities they secure training in cooperation 
Through loyalty to a school T^hich includes many groups they ap§ 



26 CAEDilVAl. PRINCIPLES OF SECONDARY EDUCATION. 

prepared for loyalty to State and Nation. In short, the compre- 
hensive school is the prototype of a democracy in which various 
groii]:>s iiRist have a degree of self-consciousness as groups and yet 
be federated into a larger whole through the recognition of common 
interests and ideals. Life in such a school is a natural and valuable 
preparation for life in a democracy. 

?>. For ol)iQr Lives other than vgcatio^^^ — A comprehensive liigh 
school can provide much more effectively for health education, educa- 
tion for the worthy use of leisure, and home-making education than 
n number of smaller special-type schools can. 

The most effective health education requires adequate equipment 
and instructors competent to diagnose health needs and direct health 
activities. Expenses and difficulties of duplication of such facilities 
in every smaller special-type school are almost prohibitive. Prepara- 
tion for the worthy use of leisure is best achieved when there is a 
wide variety of activities from which pupils may select, such as 
arts and crafts clubs, literary and debating societies, and "musical 
organizations. All of these require for their success enthusiastic 
leadership such as can best be secured from a large faculty. Girls 
in all curriculums should have the advantages of work in household 
arts under efficient directors and with adequate equipment. Such 
conditions are most readily provided in the comprehensive school 
where there is a strong department of household arts. 

With the establishment of a special-type high school it frequently 
happens that various important phases of education are neglected 
or minimized in the other schools of that system. 

4. For accessibility. — In cities large enough to require more than 
one high school it is desirable to have each school so located as to 
serve a particular section of the city, thereby reducing the expense 
and loss of tim.e involved in travel on the part of pupils. The 
proximity of the school to the homes results also in greater interest 
hi education on the part of pupils and parents, and consequently 
increases the drawing and holding power of the school. 

5. Adaptation to local needs. — In recommending the comprehensive 
high school as the standard secondary school the commission recog- 
nizes that in large cities Avhere tAvo or more high schools are needed 
it is not always possible to provide every curriculum in each high 
school, such a practice being precluded by the fact that certain 
curriculums would thereby enroll in the several schools too few 
pupils to permit economical organization and administration. In 
such cases a few curriculums may well appear in selected comprehen- 
sive schools or even in a single school onty, while other curriculums 
appear in every school. 

The commission also recognizes the impracticability of offering 
uvery curriculum in every small rural high school. In such cases it 



CARDINAL PRINCIPLES OF SECONDARY EDUCATIOK. 27 

is dosinible that a curriculum for which the number of pupils does 
not warrant such duplication should be oiToi'ed in selected schools, 
and that pupils needing that curricuhim should go to those schools. 
This plan is substantitilly the same as that recom.mended for the- 
large city. 

(■). Effective organip:ation of curr/.culnins in ccmprehensive high 
schools. — Finally, the connnission recognizes that in the past rela- 
tively ineffective instruction has been alTorded in some comprehen- 
sive schools. This has been due in part to the fact that every- 
where vocational education has been passing and is still passing 
througli a period of experimentation. The commission believes, 
however, that the most serious defect in vocational education in the 
comprehensive high school has been due to a lack of proper organiza- 
tion and administration. Effective vocational educati(m can not be 
secured when administered like so many accidental groupings of sub- 
jects. To rem.edy this situation tlie commission recommends that 
each curriculum, or group of closely related curriculums, in the 
large comprehensive liigh school be placed under the supervision of 
a director v\hose task it shall be to organize that curriculum and 
maintain its efficiency. The curriculum directors must work under 
the general direction of the principal, who must be the coordinator of 
all the activities of the school. Especially is it necessary that each 
director shall be selected with the same care that would be exer- 
cised in choosing the principal of a special-type school enrolling as 
n:!any pupils as are enrolled in the curriculum 'or curriculums under 
his direction. In medium-sized high schools unable to employ 
directors for the various curriculums, the teachers should be or- 
ganized into committees to consider the problems of the various 
curriculums, all working under the direction of the principal. 

Unless the various curriculums are effectively organized and ad- 
ministered, and unless the democratic spirit pervades the school, the 
comprehensive high school is in danger of failure; with tliese factors 
present, it has every promise of succes.^;;. 

XVIL RECOGNITION OF THE OBJECTIVES IN ORGANIZING THE 

SCHOOL. 

Tlie objectives must determine the organization, or else the or- 
ganization will determine the objectives. If the only basis upon 
which a high school is organized is that of the subjects of study, 
each department being devoted to some particular* subject, there 
will result an over-vahintion of the importance of subjects as ^ich, 
and the tendency will be for each teacher to regard hisi function as 
merely that of leading the pupils to master a particular subject, 
rather than that of using the subjects of study and the activities of 
the school as micans for achieving the objectives of education. The 



28 CARDINAL PEIXCIPLES OF SECONDARY EDUCATION. 

departmental organization is desirable but needs to be supplemented. 
' The two following methods are suggested : 

(A) The PrincipaVs Council. 

The principal may select from his teachers a council, each member 
of which shall be charged with the responsibility of studying the 
activities of the school with reference to a specific objective. Plans 
for realizing these objectives should be discussed by the principal 
and the council. Without impairing in any way the ultimate re- 
sponsibility of the principal, it will, as a rule, increase the efficiency 
of the school if the principal encourages initiative on the part of 
these council members and delegates to them sucli responsibilities as 
he finds they can discharge. The members of such a council and 
their duties are suggested as. follows : 

Health director. — This council member should seek to ascertain 
whether the health needs of the pupils are adequately met. For this 
purpose he should consider the ventilation and sanitation of the 
building, the provisions for lunch, the posture of pupils, the amount 
of home work required, the provisions for physical training, and 
the effects of athletics. He should find out whether the pupils are 
having excessive social activities outside of school, and devise means 
for gaining the cooperation of parents in the proper regulation of 
w^ork and recreation. He may well see whether the teaching of 
biology is properly focused upon hygiene and sanitation. 

Citizenship director. — The citizenship director should determine 
whether the pupils are developing initiative and the sense of per- 
sonal responsibility. He should foster civic-mindedness through the 
school paper, debating society, and general school exercises, and give 
suggestions for directing the thinking of the pupils to significant 
problems of the day. 

Curriculum directors. — As discussed in Section XVI of this re- 
port, for each important group of vocations for wdiich the school 
oifers a curriculum, or group of curriculums, there should be a 
director to study the needs of these vocations and find out the respects 
in which the graduates are succeeding or failing in meeting legiti- 
mate vocational demands. With the knowledge thus gained ho 
should strive to improve the work offered b}^ the school. 

One of these curriculum directors should have charge of prepara- 
tion for colleges and normal schools. He should obtain the records 
of graduates attending those schools and find out the strong and 
weak points in their preparation. He will advise with pupils in- 
tending to enter these institutions as to the work that they should 
take in the high school. 

Director of vocational and educational guidance. — This member of 
the council should collect data regarding various vocational and edu- 



CAKDINAL PSINCIPLES OF SECONDARY EDUOATIOJBr, 29 

cational opportunities and the qualifications needed. If the school 
is small, he may help individual pupils in acquiring an intelligent 
attitude toward the choice of a vocation or of a higher education; 
but if the school is largo, he must train others who can know the 
pupils more intimately, to assist in this service, always holding him- 
self ready to give advice. 

Director of 2)re2)aratlon for leisure. — This council member should, 
so far as possible, see that the i^upils are developing interests that 
will assist them in later life to use their leisure wisely. He should 
consider especially the musical organizations, the school library, the 
art clubs and classes, and the various ways in which pupils are 
si^ending their leisure. 

The large school may have need for additional directors to deal 
with other vital phases of education. 
(B) By Committees. 

The principal may appoint committees of teachers each of which 
would be charged vvith duties simihir to those described. An ad- 
vantage of the committee plan is that a larger number of teachers 
will be stimulated to acquire a broad educational point of view. 

Theoretically, it is possible for the principal himself to supervise 
the teaching and direct all the activities of the school. Practically, 
hoAvever, the majority of administrators tend to become absorbed in 
a few aspects of education. In fact, intensive creative work along 
any one line on the part of the principal leads naturally to at least a 
temporary neglect of the other aspects of education. Consequently, 
either a principal's council or committees of teachers seem essential 
in order that none of the objectives may be neglected. 

It is not intended that the council or the committees should in 
any way lessen the ultimate responsibility of the principal, but that 
by this means the cooperation of the entire teaching body may be 
secured and all the objectives held in view. 

XVIII. SECONDARY EDUCATION ESSENTIAL FOR ALL YOUTH. 

To the extent to which the objectives outlined herein are adopted 
as the controlling aims of education, to that extent wiJl it be recog- 
nized that an extended education for every boy and girl is essential 
to the welfare, and even to the existence, of democratic society. 
The significance of these objectives is becoming r<iore and more ap- 
parcr/c under modern conditions in our democrac}^ These conditions 
grow cut of increased knowledge of science with its rapidly extend- 
ing applications to all the affairs of life, keener competition with 
its attendant dangers, closer contacts of peoples of varied racial and 
religious types, and greater assertivcness of all men and women in 
the control of their own destinies. These and many other tendencies 



30 CARDINAL PEINCIPLES OF SECONDARY EDUCATION^ 

increase the significance of health, worthy home-membership, voca- 
tion, citizenship, the wortliy use of leisure, and ethical character. 

Each of these objectives requires for its realization not only the 
training and habit formation that the child may secure, but also the 
intelligence and efficiency that can not be developed before ado- 
lescence. In fact, their realization calls for the full period allotted 
to both the junior and senior high schools. 

Consequently^ this commission holds that education should he so 
reorganized that every norraal hoy and girl vnll he encouraged to 
remain in school to the age of 18, on full time if possible, otherwise 
on pa^t time. 

XIX. PART-TIME SCHOOLING AS A COMPULSORY MINIMUM 
REQUIREMENT. 

As stated in Section I of this report, only one American youth in 
about three reaches the first year of the four-year high school, and 
only one in about nine remains in school to the end of the high- 
school course. This condition is, in the last analysis, due principally 
to four causes: First, the limited range of instruction commonly 
offered by secondary schools; second, the failure on the part of the ^ 
school adequately to demonstrate to young people and their parents 
the value of the education offered; third, the lure of emplojanent, 
together with the desire for increased economic independence on the ) 
part of young parsons ; and fourth, economic pressure in the family, 
real or imagined. 

The first of these causes is rapidly disappearing through the intro- 
duction of curricuiums with rich vocational content. The second 
may be removed by subordinating deferred values and reorganizing 
instruction so as to make the values more evident to the learner, as 
discussed in Sections VIII and IX. The third may be diminished 
in its effect by gi-eater virility in school work. Economic pressure 
will continue until social conditions can be materially improved. 

In the meantime, a sound national polic}^ dictates the urgent need 
for legislation whereby all young persons, whether employed or not, 
shall be required to attend school not less than eight hours in each 
week that schools are in session until the}^ reach the age of 18. 

Attendance for eight hours in each week will make possible im- 
portant progress not only in vocational efliciency but also in the 
promotion of health, preparation for worth}?- home-membership, 
civic intelligence and clliciency, the better utilization of leisure, and 
ethical development. All these objectives are evidently as impor- 
tant for the young worker as for those who remain in full-time at- 
tendance at school. 

The value of part-tim.e instruction, if properly organized, is out of 
%[{ proportion to the time involved, because it can utilize as a basis 



CAEDINAL PRINCIPLES OF SECONDARY EDUCATION. 3l 

the new experiences of the yoinifr worker and his new social ancl' 
civic contacts. Moreover, continued attendance at school will afford 
an intellectual stimulus too often lacking to these yoiuiir persons 
under (he modern subdivision of labor. 

Consequently^ this commission recommends the enactment of legis- 
lation whereby all young persons up to the age of 18^ v)hether em- 
ployed or not, shall be required to attend the secondary school not 
less than eight hours in each' week that the schools are in session. 

In some States it may be held to be impracticable at the outset to 
require such part-time attendance beyond the age of 10 or 17, but the. 
commission holds that the imperative needs of American democracy 
can not be met until the period is extended to 18. 

To make this part-time schooling effective it will be necessary to 
adapt it specifically to the needs of the pupils concerned. More- 
over, teachers must be trained for this new type of work. Without 
such provisions there is great clanger of failure and a consequent re- 
action against this most valuable extension of secondary education. 

In view of the importance of developing a sense of common inter- 
ests and social solidarity on the part of the young worker and those 
of his fellows wdio are continuing in full-time attendance at school, 
it appears to this commission that this part-time education, sliould be 
conducted in the comprehensive secondary scliocl rather than in 
separate continuation schools, as is the custom in less dem.ocratic 
societies. By this plan the part-time students and the full-time 
students may share in the use of the assembly hall, gymnasium, and 
other equipment provided for all. This plan has the added advan- 
tage that the enrollment of all pupils may be continuous in the sec- 
ondary school, thus furthering employment supervision on the one 
hand and making easier a return to full-time attendance whenever 
the lure of industry or the improvement of economic conditions in 
the family makes such a return inviting and feasible. 

The part-time attendance for eight hours a week of all persons 
between 14 and 18 who are not now in school vrill require a large 
increase in the teaching force in secondary schools. No other single 
piece of educational legislation could, however, do more to raise 
the level of intelligence and efficiency and to insure the v\'elfare of 
democracy. 

XX. CONCLUSION. 

In concluding this report on the cardinal principles of secondary 
education the commission would call attention to its IT other reports 
in which the principles herein set forth are applied to the various 
aspects of secondary education. The reports now available are listed 
on the last page of this bulletin, and other are nearly read}^ for pub- 
lication. One report will consider in detail the application of these 



32 CARDINAL PEINCIPLES OF SECONDARY EDUCATION. 

principles to the organization and administration of secondary 
schools. Thirteen reports deal with the aims, methods, and content 
of the various subjects of study and curriculums in the light of these 
principles. Three others discuss vocational guidance, physical edu- 
cation, and the moral values that should be derived from secondary- 
school organization and instruction. 

It is becoming increasingly apparent that the problems of sec- 
ondary education merit much more serious attention than tliey have 
received heretofore. The study of the best methods for adapting sec- 
ondary education to the needs of modern democratic life is but begun. 
The physical, intellectual, emotional, and ethical characteristics of 
young people are still but vaguely comprehended. Such Imowledge of 
social needs and educational theory and practice as is already avail- 
able has been seriously studied by comparatively few administrators 
and teachers. Progress w^ill depend very largely upon adequate pro- 
fessional training of teachers both before and after entering upon 
service. Plans must be adopted for pooling the results of successful 
experimentation on the part of individual teachers. To make the 
reorganization effective, competent supervision and constructive lead- 
ership must be provided in the various fields of secondary education. 

It is the firm belief of this commission that secondary education 
in the United States must aim at nothing less than complete and 
worthy living for all youth, and that therefore the objectives de- 
scribed herein must find place in the education of every boy and 
girl. 

Finally, in the process of translating into daily practice the cardi- 
nal principles herein set forth, the secondary school teachers of the 
United States must themselves strive to explore the inner meaning 
of the great democratic movement now struggling for supremacy. 
The doctrine that each individual has a right to the opportunity to 
develop the best that is in him is reinforced by the belief in the po- 
tential, and perchance unique, worth of the individual. The task of 
education, as of life, is therefore to call forth that potential worth. 

"While seeking to evoke the distinctive excellencies of individuals 
and groups of individuals, the secondary school must be equally 
zealous to develop those common ideas, common ideals, and common ^ 
modes of thought, feeling, and action, whereby America, through a - 
rich, unified, common life, may render her truest service to a world 
seeking for democracy among men and nations. 

o 



*0r23»47 




UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA LIBRARY 
BERKELEY 

Return to desk from which borrowed. 
This book is DUE on the last date stamped below. 



21N0V'53£ 

.'AN 5 1954LU 



tov6l^C| 



M 919BI 

5]an'62Di.W 

REC D Llii 
'AN 2 9 m 



3\)ec' 



,i^lC\.f 



REC'D LD 



LD 21-100»(,-9,'47(A5702sl6)476 



LOAN DEPT 

™s book is due on the last H,, 
Kenewe<fg<5^1-/^tee-^'''-'o-- 
■ IfJI^If^to^ediate recall. 







RHCEiVED 
LOAN DEPT. 

^^ 1 1 2005' 



(64427sl0)476B 



GeneraHibraiT 



raulord I 

PAMPHLH BINDER 

Syracuse, N. Y. 
Sfockfon, Calif.