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CARLSBAD 



AND ITS ENVIRONS 



• • • 

• • • • 















• • 



BV 



JOHN MERRYLEES 

AUTHOR OP 

THE englishman's GUIDE TO THE UNITED STATES AND CANADA," 
" PATERSON'S united kingdom," " SWITZERLAND," ETC. 



WITH 



B Ae^ical XCreatiBC on tbe XSIbc ot tbe 'QOaterB 



BY 



B. LONDOl!f, M.D. 

RESIDENT PHYSICIAN AT CARLSBAD 



MEDICAL 



SSSitt JFotttteen MvasttBtwx\s, anti ipian of Carlsboli atUi ^xtStixann 



LONDON 
SAMPSON LOW, MARSTON, SEARLE, & RIVINGTON 

CROWN BUILDINGS, i88 FLEET STREET, E.G. 

1886 
[ AH rights reserved\ 



• • • 



• • 

• •• 


• • • • « 

• • ••• i 




» • • 




• » 


• • • 






• •• 


** • 


• • • • 


• • * • 2 




• • 


• • • 


* * • 


• • • 


• • *•• i 


> • • • 


• * • 


•• » 


• • • • 

• • • • • 



BALLANTYNE, HANSON AND CO. 
KUINBURGH AND LONOoN 






PREFACE. 



■M- 




IN the preparation of this handbook it has been 
the aim of the Author to supply English- 
speaking visitors to Carlsbad with such prac- 
tical information as may contribute to the comfort and 
enjoyment of their sojourn at this beautiful watering- 
place. Although exhaustive treatises, principally medi- 
cal, have been written on Carlsbad in other languages, 
the English contributions to its literature have so far 
been exceedingly meagre, and have only been obtainable 
in Carlsbad itself. The present work, therefore, has 
been undertaken in response to the frequently ex- 
pressed need of a handbook which intending English 
and American visitors can consult prior to undertaking 
the journey, and which it is hoped will prove of prac- 
tical use during the period of their stay. 

We have pleasure in taking this opportunity to 
tender our grateful acknowledgments to the Burgo- 
meister of Carlsbad, and his courteous secretary, for 



IV PREFACE. 

valuable information received from them during the 
Author's visit to Carlsbad. We have also to acknow- 
ledge our indebtedness to the comprehensive German 
works on Carlsbad by Dr. Hlawacek, Dr. Eudolf Mannl, 
Herr Vincenz Prokl, and an excellent brochure in 
French by Dr. W.* Pichler, as well as to the admirable 
articles on Carlsbad, written to the Times by its well- 
known correspondent, Eraser Ea«, Esq. 

Annexed to the descriptive portion of the work is a 
medical treatise by Dr. London, resident physician at 
Carlsbad, which embraces the nature and rules of the 
treatment, and a synopsis of the various diseases which 
can be relieved or cured by the use of the Carlsbad 
waters. Coming from so well-known an authority, 
this treatise will doubtless be of interest, not only to 
patients, but also to the medical profession. 



CONTENTS, 



-H- 



CARLSBAD AND ITS ENVIRONS. 

No. PACK 

I, Introduction ii 

Routes to Carlsbad . 19 

IL Situation and Climate 25 

III. Histobt and Reminiscences 6f Cablsbad ... 28 

IV. Life at Cablsbad . 48 

V. Abbival, Hotels, Lodgings, Cap^s, and Best Shops 53 

YI. CONCEBTS, ThEATBES, AND AMUSEMENTS • • • 59 

VII. Town Regulations , . . . . . .62 

Cure and Music Tax 62 

Regulations Respecting Lodgings . . . .64 

Bath Regulations 68 

Public Carriages . ; . . . . • 7^ 
Donkeys and Donkey Carriages . . . . 7^ 

Omnibuses 7^ 

Post and Telegraph Regulations .... 80 

Dienstmann-Institute 81 

VIII. Descbiption of the Town and Pbinoipal Buildings . 83 

IX. The Spbings of Cablsbad . .' . . . .93 

Sprudel . . . . . ' . . . .97 

Hygiensquelle 99 

Marktbrunn . . . . " . . . . 99 
Kaisefr Karlsquelle 100 



VI CONTENTS. 

No. PAOB 

Schlossbrunn lOO 

Russische Kronequelle lOi 

Miihlbrunn loi 

Neubrunn loi 

Bemhardsbrunnen . 102 

Elisabethquelle 103 

Felsenquelle . . . . . . . .104 

Curhausquelle 105 

Kaiserbrunnen 106 

Eisenquelle 107 

Sauerbrunn 108 

X. Walks to the 

Alte Wiese, Kiesweg, Posthof, and Kaiser Park . .109 
Ecce Homo Kapelle, Franz Josef's Hohe, and Eind- 
later's Temple 114 

Findlater's Pyramid and Freundschafts-Hohe . 'US 

• 

Hirschensprung .116 

Belvidere and Aberg 118 

Weisses Kreuz and Shiitzen Park . , . .120 
Panorama, Waldschloss, and Drei Kreuzberg . .121 
Wiener Sitz, Sauerbrunn, and Schweizerhof . .122 

Schonbrunn 123 

Veitsberg 123 

Rothe-Sauerling 124 

Dallwitz 125 

XI. Drives bound Carlsbad — 

Hammer, Aich, and Hans Heiling-Fels . . .126 

Engelhaus 130 

Elbogen 137 

Giesshiibl-Puchstein 140 

Petschau 144 

Schlaggenwald 145 

Schlackenwerth and Hauenstein 145 

Falkenau 148 

Joachimsthal and the Sonnenwirbel , . . .148 



CONTENTS. vii 

No. PAOF 

Kupferberg 150 

Fischem, Altrohlau, and Neudeck . . , .151 

XII. LoNGEB Excursions— 

Eger and Marienbad .152 

Frauzensbad 157 

Teplitz 159 

XIII. Shooting and Fishing 163 

XIV. The Exportation and Products op the Carlsbad 

Waters 165 



MEDICAL TREATISE. 

1. Action of the Carlsbad Waters 173 

II. Use op the Waters 177 

III. External Use op the Waters 179 

IV. Dietetics during the Use op the Waters . . .182 
V. General Indications for the Use op the Waters . 187 

1. Dyspepsia 188 

2. Gastralgia 189 

3. Dilatation of the Stomach 189 

4. Chronic Catarrh of the Bowels, Chronic Diarrhoea, 

Chronic Constipation 190 

5. Colic 190 

6. Diseases of the Liver and Biliary Ducts . . .190 

7. Gallstones and Hepatic Colics . . . .191 

8. Gravel and Small Calculi of the Kidneys and Bladder 192 

9. Gout and Chronic Rheumatism . . . • I93 

10. Bright's Disease 194 

11. Diabetes 195 

12. Haemorrhoids 196 

13. Obesity 196 

14. Prosopalgia and Migraine 196 

15. Diseases of the Sexual System . . . .196 
VI. Period at which the Effect op the Waters manifests 

itself 19S 



ILLUSTRATIONS. 

M 

PAGE 

View op Carlsbad Facin// title 

Stadtpabk 49 

Gabtenzbils 83 

Pabkstbabse 85 

Cubhaus 89 

Neubad • • • • 93 

Sprudbl Colonnade 97 

Mabktbbunn 99 

MiJHLBBUNN Colonnade 103 

Hans Heiling-Fels 127 

Engelhaus 131 

Elbogen 137 

giesshubl-fuohstein i4i 

Castle of Hauenstein 145 

Plan op Cablsbad and Envibons . in packet at end of volume. 



part E 

CARLSBAD AND ITS ENVIRONS. 




I. 



INTRODUCTION. 

jHE Carlsbad season is from the ist of May to 
the 1st of September, the most crowded time 
being from the middle of June till the end of 
July. The spring at Carlsbad is generally early, and 
by May the foliage is well advanced, but the weather 
is apt to be somewhat changeable. Nevertheless the 
bright sunshine and soft invigorating breezes, so wel- 
come to the invalid after the winter is past ; the wild- 
flowers which grow in the woods and on the hillsides 
around Carlsbad in such endless variety ; the cheerful 
notes of the feathered songsters as they herald the 
approaching summer, when their voices will be hushed 
in the drowsy noon-tide heat ; and the first fresh green 
and the blossoms of the orchards, amply compensate for 
the few wet days and cloudy skies. 

The summers at Carlsbad are generally very warm, but 
as the life is entirely out of doors, and the walks and 
resting-places delightfully shaded, the discomforts of the 
heat are reduced to a minimum, while, to those who are 
unable to take active exercise, the warm summer days, 



1 2 IKTEODUCnON. 

in which they can remain in the open air without risk 
of being chilled, are very welcome. But perhaps the 
pleasantest time of the year at Carlabad is September 
and October, when there ia little rain, and the air is 
clear, dry, and bracing, and the tints of the foliage 
almost rival the brilliant autumn colouring of American 
woods. The disadvantage, however, of remaining after 
the isth September is that the open-au- concerts are 
over and most of the cafi^s close, although a still con- 
siderable number of visitors remain till November. In 
spite of what several works on Carlsbad, wi'itt«n by 
Carlsbad physicians and others, say about its advan- 
tages as a winter residence, it has no attractions what- 
ever at this season for visitors either sick or well ; the 
hotels are almost all closed ; the sole distraction is an 
occasional concert at the Curhaus ; and the ground being 
generally covered with snow for several months, some- 
times to a considerable depth, walking is difficult and 



Americans who intend visiting Carlsbad should try 
and arrange their journey so aa to sail from the United 
States in April, which will secure them time to travel 
in Europe, after the course of the cure, at the most 
agreeable season. With the large, fast, and magnifi- 
cently appointed steamers now crossing the Atlantic, 
the voyage is no longer to be dreaded, and indeed is 
exceedingly beneficial to many patients, especially to 
those suffering from disorders of the liver and stomach, 
or from lung complaints, Tiie enforced relaxation from 



INTRODUCTION. 1 3 

daily business anxieties during the voyage is also of 
great value to business men, in affording them an 
opportunity of banishing from their minds the cares 
they have left behind them. 

The present travel across the Atlantic has reached 
such large proportions that, in spite of the number of 
steamers sailing weekly, the best state-rooms are gene- 
rally engaged months ahead ; American travellers are 
therefore strongly advised not to leave engaging their 
rooms till near the time of sailing. The seasons the 
steamers are most crowded are, from America, during 
the spring and early summer months, and from England, 
during the late summer and autumn months. K the 
intending traveller be not a good sailor, he should 
secure a berth as nearly amidships as possible, prefer- 
ring the bow to the stem. This is a matter of the 
utmost importance, as the most trying hour on board 
ship is when dressing in the morning, and it will often 
depend on the situation of the state-room whether the 
passenger comes through it safely or not. In rough 
weather the difference between the motion at the bow 
or stem, and amidships is very marked indeed. As 
so much of the comfort at sea, therefore, depends upon 
having a well-situated state-room, it is advisable, if 
possible, to go over the ship and see the position of 
the state-room before engaging it. Nervous invalids 
should not take their state-rooms near the pantry, 
as the clatter of the dishes is very disturbing ; they 
shoxdd also, if possible, avoid the proximity of the 



1 4 ISTRODUCTIOjr. 

cinder- shoot from the engine-room. Invalids should 
also choose the snnny side of the ship. 

Useful Hints for the Passage. — Travellers are recom- 
mended to get a steamer trunk or bag that will fit 
under the berth, to contain the articles reqtdred on the 
passage ; the space between the floor and bottom of 
lower berth is generally about 15 inches. We also 
strongly recommend getting a " steamer chair," which 
will be found most useful on the voyage, especially if 
the weather be at all fine ; a good supply of rugs and 
shawls should also be taken. Ail the steamers have 
bath-rooms, and those who desire their morning " tub " 
should, as soon as coming on board, register their name 
and the time at which they woiild like to take their 
bath with the barber or bath-room steward (whoever 
has charge of the baths), as the demand for the baths 
generally exceeds the supply. Travellers making the 
passage across the Atlantic who are liable to sea-sick- 
ness will do well not to put their trust in any of the 
so-called remedies for sea-sickness. Some of these may 
alleviate the trouble on a short passage, but no remedy, 
except that of becoming accustomed to the motion of 
the vessel, will cure sea-sickness on an Atlantic voyage, 
and the best thing the imfortunate sufferer can do is to 
brace up as well as he can, be as much as possible on 
deck, and live plainly ; and, from long experience, ws 
can assure timid travellers that it is very rarely mal-de- 
mer lasts more than the first day or two. The purser 
allots the places at table. The usual fees on board the 



INTEODUCnON. 1 5 

Atlantic steamers are los. "each to the table and bed- 
room stewards, and 2s. 6d. to the " boots ; " or in the 
case of ladies, lOs. to the stewardess who attends to the 
ladies' state-rooms. A collection is also made among 
the frequenters of the smoking-room for the smoking- 
room steward. 

The meals on board are usually: — Breakfast be- 
tween 8.30 and 10 A.M. ; lunch, i P.M. ; dinner, 

6 P.M. 

Invalids going to Carlsbad can save the fatiguing 
part of the journey from Liverpool to Germany, and 
the discomforts of crossing the Channel, by taking one 
of the fine new steamers " Elbe," " Werra," " Pulda," 
" Ems," or " Eider," of the North German Lloyd, to 
Bremen. The appointments of these steamers are fully 
equal to any of the Liverpool lines, while the cuisine is 
superior. 

General Hints. — We cannot do better than preface 
these remarks with the excellent advice of Dr. E. Gut- 
mann, the well-known authority on European spas, 
"that patients in the last stage of consumption or 
Bright's disease, or other chronic affections, should not 
be allowed to undergo the hardships and the excitement 
of a trip to a watering-place, thereby sacrificing the 
little amount of strength they still possess for the 
imaginary hope of an impossible cure. It is the sacred 
duty of the physician to dissuade them from the journey, 
though very often the contrary takes place. Every bath 
physician during the bath season has the opportunity 



I 



1 6 mTBODDCnoN. 

of examining quite a nuraber of incurable invalicls, who 
have been sent to the spa by unacrupulous medical 
advisers, never again to return to their homes. Far 
away from their families, surrounded by strangers, 
more helpless and suffering than ever before, they vainly 
long for the tender care of their relatives during the 
last days of their earthly pilgrimage." 

It should not be forgotten that the waters of Carls- 
bad are powerful remedies, and no invalid should go 
there without having first consulted his own physician 
and obtained from him a certificate stating the history 
and nature of bis disease, which he should hand to the 
physician at Carlsbad under whose care he iatenda 
placing himself. This will save the bath physician 
much time and trouble, and enable him to prescribe 
the treatment at Carlsbad with greater certainty. The 
usual stay is four weeks ; but it is quite impossible 
even for an experienced physician to accurately de- 
termine beforehand how long it will be necessary 
for a patient to take the waters, and indeed it is 
often the case that a patient must return for two or 
three consecutive years before a radical cure can be 
effected. 

Having chosen his route, the invalid should proceed 
by short and easy stages, and should by all means avoid 
travelling at night, which on the Continent, with the 
exception of the few lines which run v;agons-lits, is 
most uncomfortable. For the convenience of travellers 
we append to the routes to Carlsbad a list of the most 



St ^ 



INTRODUCTION. I / 

interesting places on the way, with the principal sights 
and best hotel at each. 

On all Continental lines the amount of the fare is 
stamped on the tickets. The fare should be tendered 
in the coin of the country, and not in English bank 
notes or gold, as the rate of exchange at the railway 
stations will sometimes be found anything but satisfac- 
tory. The change should always be counted. 

The second class carriages in Germany and Austria 
are comfortable, and are used by a most respectable 
class of travellers, and, except for invalids who may 
wish to have as few fellow-travellers as possible, the 
small extra comfort of the first class is hardly worth the 
additional cost. In France, however, the second class 
carriages generally speaking are uncomfortable, and 
certainly quite unsuited for ladies or invalids. In tra- 
velling from Paris, or any other place in France, to any 
place in Germany and Austria by the express trains, 
the traveller can purchase a mixed ticket entitling him 
to travel first class to the frontier, and thence to his 
destination in the second class. 

As the trains in the Continent seldom wait long 
enough at the stations to give time for a meal, a lun- 
cheon basket should always be taken. 

"When circular or through tickets are taken the 
ticket must be stamped at the ticket oflSce, both on 
arrival and departure, when the journey is broken at 
any intermediate station. 

Travellers should always be careful to see that the 

B 



I S nnitoDOCTioN. 

conductor wlien collecting the ticket tears out tlio | 
proper coupon. 

In Germany and Austria smoking is permitted in all 
carriages except those marked 'Nicht Rancher,' and 
in compartments reserved for ladies. In France com- i 
liartments are set apart for travellers who wish to smoke | 
(marked ' Fomeura') ; and no smoking is allowed in 
any other escept with the consent of the occupants. 
The guard will always interfere to prevent smoking in 
the non-smoking compartments if he ia requested to do 
so. Lavatories and other conveniences, ' cabinets am- 
bulants,' are attached to most of the express trains. 

With regard to luggage, on the ocean steamers no 
limit is made, and whatever may be the printed rules of 
the steamship companies on the subject, practically, the 
traveller is permitted to carry all the personal luggage 
he may desire. In France and Belgium 56 lbs. of lug- 
gage per passenger is carried free, but on the Rhine 
railways, and on most of the German lines, a charge is 
made for all luggage except such as is taken in the 
carriage. The charge for extra luggage on the Con- 
tinent is very high, and if the visitor to Carlsbad 
intends taking a qnantity of iuggage with him, con- 
siderable expense may be saved by sending it on by 
goods trains through some express company. Baggage 
forwarded in this way, however, should be sent on at 
least a week in advance. 

English bank notes and gold can be exchanged every- 
where on the Continent. The rate of exchange ia 



INTRODUCTION. 1 9 

generally 25 francs, 20 marks, or 12 Austrian florins 
to the pound, but ^ little more than this can be ob- 
tained at respectable banks or exchange offices. Eng- 
lish silver is of no use except at a very low exchange. 

As the weather of Carlsbad is liable to sudden 
changes, visitors should be provided with both warm 
and light clothing. It is not necessary for invalids to 
encumber their luggage with a number of "invalid 
comforts," such as English tea, biscuits, &c., as they 
can be obtained at Carlsbad. Smokers, however, who 
are particular, should take their cigars, cigarettes, and 
tobacco, although they will find when they have paid 
the duty they will have become somewhat expensive. 

Routes to Carlsbad. 
The two main routes from London to Carlsbad are — 



(i.) Via Brussels, Cologne, Mayence, Aschaffenburg, 
and Eger. Between Aschaffenburg and Eger some of 
the trains run via Nuremberg, and others via Bamberg 
and Oberkotzau. Travellers intending to go through 
without stopping will find this the quickest and most 
direct route. 

(2.) Via Paris, Strassburg, Carlsruhe, Stuttgart, 
Nuremberg, and Eger. 

The length of the journey, of course, depends upon 
the length of the stoppages made by the way, but the 
time consumed in actual travelling is about one and 
a half days via Calais or Ostend. 





20 INTRODUCTION. 

The best traia from London via Calais and Ostend 
is the 8 P.M., as it gives an opportunity of travelling up 1 
the Rhine by dayliglit. 

If the journey to Brussela is taken by the London, 
Chatham, and Dover service, via Queenborough and 
Blushing, or by the Great Eastern service, via Harwich 
and Eotterdam or Antwerp, the time is about four to 
six hoars longer. The steamers on both these services 
are large, swift., and exceedingly comfortable, and the 
fares about twenty shillings cheaper. 

ITie night express trains from Calais, Ostend, Flush- 
ing, Rotterdam, and Antwerp to Cologne have sleeping 
carriages. Travellers from Paris can take the Orient 
Express, leaving in the evening, as far as Stuttgart, 
where it arrives about nine o'clock the next morning. 
This train, which is exceedingly comfortable, is com- 
posed entirely of sleeping, dining, and drawing-room 
carriages. The fares are about 25 per cent, more than 
by the ordinary expresses, but to those who can afford 
it, the additional comfort is well worth the extra charge. 

Carlsbad can also be reached from Paris by Strass- 
burg, Appenweier, Heidelberg, and Aschaffeuburg (see 
above). Also by Pagny-sur-Moselle, Forbach, Dinger- 
bruck, Mayence, and Aschaffenburg (see above). These 
routes take from four to six hours longer than the 
route via Stuttgart. 

(3.) An exceedingly pleasant and interesting route to 
Carlsbad, though somewhat longer and more expensive 



INTEODUCTION. 



21 



than the above routes, is from Paris to Bale, thence to 
Zurich and Rorschach, across the Lake of Constance 
by steamer to Lindau, thence to Munich, Pilsen, and 
Carlsbad. 

Note, — ^Through tickets are only issued fix)m London 
by Route i. 



Routes from London. 


Fares. 


Siugle Tickets. 


Return Tickets, avail- 
able for 30 days. 


istCl. 


2nd 01. 


istCL 


2nd Cl. 


Uarwich, Rotterdam, Col- \ 
ogne, Mayence, W"urz- ^ 
burg, Nuremburg, Eger j 

Queenboro*, Flushing, Col-S 
ogne, Mayence, &o., as V 
above J 

Harwich, Antwerp, Brus-^ 
sels, Cologne, Mayence, > 
&c., as above . . . . j 

Dover, Calais (or Ostend), ) 
Brussels, &c., as above . ) 


£ «. d. 
5 i6 3 

627 

5 17 

6 17 


£ i. d. 
4 3 7 

490 

430 
500 


£ «. d. 
10 14 9 

10 18 

10 10 6 

11 17 6 


£ s. d. 
7 14 8 

7 18 6 

7 10 

8 IS 3 



The fares via Paris are about £^, los. first class, 
and £Sy 5s. second class. 

Principal Places of Interest on the above Routes. 

Route I. 

Brussels. — Hotel Mengelle. Sights : Cathedral of St. 
Guduld, H6tel de Ville, King's Palace, Museums, Zoo- 
logical Gardens, Wiertz Museum, Gallery of the Duke 



INTBODCCTION. 

of Arenberg, the New Palais de Justice, and the Boia 
de Cambre. 

Aix-la-Chapclle. — Hfitel Grand Monarque, Sights : 
Cathedral, Eathaca, Eliaenbrunnen, Kurhaus, Suei-- 
mondt Museum, and Lousberg. 

Cologne. — Hotel du Nord. Sights : Cathedral, Wall- 
raf-Richartz Museum, Episcopal Museum, Rathans, 
Giirzenich, Churches of St. Gereon, St. Maria-im- 
Capitol, and St. Ursula, Monnment of Frederick 
William III., Flora and Zoological Gardens. 

Cohlenz. — H6tel du Giiant. Sights : Fortress of 
Ehrenbreitstein, Rhine Promenade, Church of St. 
Castor, The Castor Erunnen, The Burg, Kanfhaus, 
Moselle Bridge, Imperial Palace, The Petersberg. 

Maycnce. — Hotel de Hollande. Sights : Cathedral, 
Gutenberg Monument, The Citadel and Eigelstein, 
Museum in the Palace, New Promenade on the Rhine. 

Frankfort. —Kotei Schwan. Sights : The Kaisersaal 
in the Riimer, Cathedral, Ariadneum, Picture Galleries 
of the Stiidel Institute, Kunst Verein, and Kunstge- 
werbe-Verein, Historical Museum, Jenkenberg Natural 
History Museum, New Opera, Zoological Garden, Palm 
Garden. 

W^rd)erg. — HStel Kronprinz. Sights : Cathedral, 
Neue Miinster, Royal Palace, Marien Kapolle, Citadel. 

Nuremberg. — Hotel de BaviJjre. Sights : Church of 
St. Lawrence, Frauen Kirche, Rathaus, Church of St. 
SebalduB, Schone Brunnen, Germanic Museum, The 



I 



INTRODUCTION. 2 3 



Route II. 



Strasburg, — Hotel de la Ville de Paris. Sights: 
Cathedral, Church of St. Thomas, Statue of Gutenberg, 
The Broglie. 

Stuttgart, — Hotel Marquardt. Sights : Konigs Bau, 
New Palace, Old Palace, Stifts Kirche, Natural His- 
tory Museum, Museum of Art, Stadt Garten, and 
Anlagen. 

Route III. 

Bdle, — H6tel Trois Rois. Sights : Cathedral, Cathe- 
dral Museum, Rathaus, Town Museum, Zoological 
Garden. 

Zurich, — Hotel Bauer au Lac. Sights : Stadt Gar- 
ten, Stadthaus, Grossmunster, St. Peter's Church, 
Wasser Kirche, The Tonhalle, Hohe Promenade, Town 
Museum, Kunster Giitli Museum, The Arsenal, Botanic 
Garden, Excursion to the Uetliberg. 

Munich, — Hotel Four Seasons. Sights: Royal Palace, 
Alte Pinakothek, Glyptothek, Neue Pinakothek, 
National Museum, The Basilica, Count Schack's Pic- 
ture Gallery, The Propylaea, Monument of Maximilian 
II., Mariahilf Kirche, Royal Library, Hof Garten, 
Aquarium, Hall of Fame and Statue of Bavaria, 
English Garden. 



raTBODUCriON. 



TABLE OP MONEY, WEIGHTS, AND MBASORES. 



Amoriwn. 


„.. 


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Wbibhts (Appkoiikate). 

I Gramme ^ ift oi. 

I Hectogramme = 3S oe, 

I Kilograrame = 2) lbs. 

1015 Kilogrammes — i ton. 

Land Meabubes. 

I CBntiare = llBq. jj, 
I Hectare = 2) aciea. 



lis It. id. Buglifh mouey.) 
IiINEAR MEASDRES. 

1 Centimetre = | iocb. 
1 Mfet™ = 3 ft. 3i inchea. 
I Kilometre = J mile. 



Fluid MEAausES. 
T Litre = i| pints. 



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10° 

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( 25 ) 




II. 

SITUATION AND CLIMATE. 

fARLSBAD, one of the most attractive and 
beautiful of European watering-places, is situ- 
ated in tlie north-west of Bohemia, in lat. 50° 
and long. 13°. The town lies in the narrow and 
winding valley of the Tepel, near its junction with the 
Eger, 1 1 24 feet above the level of the sea. On either 
side of the valley rise picturesque and rugged hills of 
volcanic formation, the highest of which, called the 
Ewige Leben, or ' Eternal Life,' is 2CX)3 feet above the 
sea-level, or 879 feet above the town. These hUls are 
covered with woods of pine, spruce, beech, elm, birch, 
and oak ; spruce and pine predominating. Numberless 
paths intersect the woods in all directions, aflfording 
shady and picturesque walks, and on the level portion 
of the valley, and over some of the gentler slopes, are 
well-kept carriage roads. The composition of these 
hills is of three varieties of granite : gneiss, quartz, and 
argillaceous schist, the rocks being intersected with the 
usual fissures accompanying this formation. On some 
of the hills are strata and out-croppings of basalt, and 
extensive veins of homstone. 



A liLimorist lias said that Carlsbad "is built on the 
lid of a Ixiiling kettle," which is almost literally true, as 
it stands on a, crust of comparative thinnesB, throngh 
ivhich rise no less than nineteen springs of various 
temperatures. Borings which have been made in the 
crust have reached a vast and seething subterranean 
cauldron below, of immeasurable depth. This crust, 
on which the Marktplatz, the Kreuzgasse, and the 
llithlbrann Colonnade are built, is mostly composed 
of Spmdelatein, or Spnidelschelle (Sprudel-stone or 
Sprudel- shell), a hard stone, capable of taking a fine 
polish. The Sprudelstein ia supposed to have been 
ibrmed by the mineral constituents of the springs being 
gradually deposited as they came into contact with the 
open air (see page 95). 

TfiE Climate of Carlsbad, like that of all mountainous 
districts, is rather changeable, but the air ia remarkably 
pure and invigorating, the town never having been 
^'isited by any contagious diseases or epidemics. It 
entirely escaped the Pest of the Middle Ages, and during 
the Auatro-German war, when cholera, brought by the 
sick and wounded soldiers, was raging in the surround- 
ing districts, not a single case occiured at Carlsbad. 
There is no stagnant water in the neighbourhood, and 
consequently malaria is unknown. In summer, even 
when the days are very warm, the nights and early morn- 
ings are generally cool and invigorating. Owing to 
the character of its soil, which permits of moisture being 
rapidly absorbed, the roads and paths around Carlsbad 



CLIMATE. 27 

become perfectly dry, and are fit for walking in a few 
hours, after even heavy rain. The mean temperature 
of the year is 43 J° Fahr. ; in summer, 66^" Fahr. ; in 
spring and autumn, 47 ° Fahr. ; and in winter 27 /|^° Fahr. 
The prevailing winds are from the west and north, the 
latter of which, having free access to the town, is goner- 
ally cool and bracing. 




( 28 ) 



HISTORY AND REMINISCENCES OF CARLSBAD. 

t^JftfeSCjARLSBAD is one of tlio very few important 
iJJ^Pff European watering- places which does not 
iSsKii appear to have been known to the Romans. 
The town was originally incorporated by King John 
of Luxemburg, who, by an ancient charter dated 1325, 
conferred on it certain rights and privileges, though 
there is no doubt from the name, Wary, or ' Warm,' that 
the hot springs were known long before this period. 

The discovery of the springs ia traditionally attributed 
to the Emperor Charles IV., son of King John, who in 
the year 1358 was hunting in the neighbourhood while 
on a visit to the castle of Elbogen (see page 137). One 
of hia dogs while following a wounded deer fell over a 
cliff, since called the ' Hirscheusprung,' or Deer's Leap 
(see page 116), into one of the hot springs below. 
Attracted by its cries, the hunters came to the rescue of 
the animal, and on taking it out, found it severely 
wounded by its fall. Its subsequent recovery was Bo 
rapid, that the Emperor's physician attributed it to the 
healing power of the water, and lie induced bis royal 



HISTORY. 29 

master, who was suffering from an old wound in his leg, 
received at the battle of Crecy, to test its efficacy. 
The Emperor's wound also rapidly healed, and in 
gratitude he founded a town at the springs and named 
it Carlsbad. 

As, however, the existence of the springs was known 
long before this time, the legend, as far as their first 
discovery is concerned, is purely mythical, though the 
incident itself may actually have occurred. But if the 
Emperor did not first discover Carlsbad, he gave it its 
present name, extended the charter granted by King 
John, and built a royal residence in the town. 

Of the early history of Carlsbad we have no certain 
data, as the archives of the town were almost entirely 
destroyed by fire in 1604. In the middle of the sixth 
century the Eger district was settled by a horde of Slavs, 
who came from the plains of Russia and Lithuania, and 
from whom the present Bohemian people are descended. 
These Slavs were pagans, and it was not until after 
Bohemia was united to the German Empire by Charle- 
magne in A.D. 800, that Christianity began to spread 
among them ; indeed, paganism did not finally disappear 
till the tenth century. In the ninth century the district 
of Eger came into possession of the powerful Margrave 
Vohburg, who built the castle of Elbogen in 870, and it 
seems impossible that the remarkable phenomena of the 
hot springs should have been unknown to those who 
lived so near them. A chronicle written about this time 
mentions the rivers Tepel and Eger, which in the ori- 



30 eiSTOHY. 

giiial Slav language meant 'tepid' and. 're-warmed." 
Another cnrioua fact ia that the walla of the castle of 
Neadeck, built at the commencement of the thirteenth 
century, and diatant about nine miles from Carlsbad, 
are partly constructed of Sprudelstone, 

In 1 149 the whole of the Eger districtj together with 
the towns of Falkenau, Elbogen, and Warmbad (or 
Wary), became the personal property of the German 
Emperor, Frederick Barbarossa, who received it as a. 
dowry on hia marriage with Adelheid, daughter of the 
Margrave Diebold von Vohburg. 

The nomenclature of the towns and villages which 
were founded before the commencement of the twelfth 
century is almost entirely Slavonic; the settlements 
founded after the diatrict came into poaaesaion of the 
Emperor Frederick Barbarossa in 1 149 having been 
generally given German names. We may, therefore, 
assume that the towns, and villages, and castles with 
Bohemian names were founded before, and those with 
German, founded after this date. 

In 1306 John of Luxemburg, the blind King who 
was killed at the battle of Crecy in 1 349, was elected 
King of Bohemia, and in 13 17 be visited the castle of 
Elbogen (see page 137) with his consort and his infant 
son. In 1 325, by a charter which still exists, he enfiefed 
the town and granted it certain privileges, which he 
increased by a second charter dated 1 337. In 1 358 the 
Emperor Charles lY., son of King John, built a royal 
castle at Carlsbad, at which time the town consisted of 



HISTORT. 3 1 

only forty houses, and in 1370 granted a new charter, 
conferring on the citizens rights of self-government and 
the free choice of magistrates. A transcript of this 
charter, in which Wary is first called Carlsbad, still 
exists, Charles died in 1378, and his son, Wencelaus I, 
confirmed all these privileges. At the end of the four- 
teenth or beginning of the fifteenth centuries the estate 
of Elbogen, with Carlsbad, was separated from the dis- 
trict of Eger, and came into possession of the Bohemian 
royal family ; how, is not exactly known, but the first 
step which led to this was doubtless the foreclosing 
of a mortgage of 70CX) marks silver, which Wencelaus 
I. claimed had been lent by his father, Charles IV., to 
the heirs of Frederick Barbarossa. 

An eventful period in the history of Carlsbad com- 
mences with the mortgaging in 1434 of the Burgravate 
of Elbogen by the crown to the Chancellor Caspar 
Schlick for 11,900 florins. Schlick had constant feuds 
with a neighbouring magnate. Count Von Eulenburg, 
who, in the prosecution of certain personal claims he 
had against the Chancellor, made frequent raids on 
Carlsbad and the Elbogen district, burning the houses 
and plundering the inhabitants. These outrages were 
returned in kind by Schlick and his followers, till they 
reached such a height that the German Parliament in 
1444 passed a special Act for their suppression. In 
1455 Heronimus Schlick, the nephew of Caspar, mort- 
gaged the castle of Carlsbad to Count Polaczky von 
Polaky for 500 florins, reserving to himself the protec- 



torate of the town. A feud, soon broke out between these 
nobles ; the citizenB of Elbogen siding with Schlick, 
and those of Carlsbad taking the part of Polaky. Tn 
one of their numerous fights Polaky took 200 of the 
Elbogeners prisoners and brought them to the castle 
at Carlsbad, which was, however, shortly afterwards 
besieged and taken by Schlick, and the prisoners set at 
liberty. This feud was finally settled by arbitration, 
and three umpires were appointed by King Wladislaw, 
the decision being that Schlick had to pay to Polaky 
600 florins to redeem his debt, and receive back his 
castle at Carlsbad. 

In 1462 civil war broke out in Bohemia owing 
to the issue of a Papal bull by Pope Pius forbidding 
the taking of the wine at the sacrament by laymen. 
King George of Bohemia, on bis refusal to allow his 
subjects to obey the bull, was deposed by the Pope, 
who offered the crown to King Matthias Corvinus of 
Hungary. The greater part of Bohemia rebelled and 
went over to King Matthias, but a still influential 
number of his subjects, among whom were the Burgrave 
Schlick and his vassals of Elbogen and Carlsbad, 
remained faithful for a time. Owing, however, to the 
rapidly increasing power of King Matthias and the 
persuasions of Papal emissaries, together with threats 
of excommunication fi-om Rome, they finiilly deserted 
their sovereign, and sent him a letter renouncing their 
allegiance. After the restoration of peace on the 
death of George, the Burgrave Matthias Schlick 



HISTORY. 33 

commenced to plmider and oppress the citizens of 
Elbogen and Carlsbad, and succeeded in making himself 
so unpopular that he lost all control over his followers. 
Schlick vainly appealed to King Matthias for assist- 
ance to quell the insurrection, and finding himself 
unable to cope with his rebellious vassals, he made over 
the Burgravate of Elbogen and Carlsbad in 1470 to the 
brothers, Elector Ernst and Duke Albrecht of Saxony, 
for the sum of 23,<XX) florins. The Elbogeners, however, 
relished as little the rule of their new masters as of 
their former ruler, and declined to take the oath of alle- 
giance. The brothers took up arms in 1471, and laid 
siege to the castle of Elbogen, which was surrendered 
by treachery, and numbers of its defenders were hung 
over the castle walls. After the subjugation of the 
Elbogeners peace was concluded, Schlick being per- 
mitted to remain actual lord in fief, while Duke 
Albrecht became lord protector. No sooner, however, 
was Schlick reinstated than he began a second time to 
harass and oppress the citizens of Elbogen and Carls- 
bad, and on their again showing signs of rebellion he 
arranged with Duke Albrecht to make another raid on 
Elbogen. This plan was executed on the night of the 
1st October 1476; the town was taken and plundered, 
and frightful atrocities were committed by Schlick 
and his followers, in consequence of which many of the 
citizens emigrated. 

For the next fifty years the history of the town is 

simply one of petty feuds and personal quarrels. 

c 



34 HISTOBT. 

Ie 1480 we have the first mention of a ' Cur- guest,' 
Frauleia Barhara Schenk von Prautenburg, who came 
for the cure accompanied by her mother. 

In 1 53 1 Albert Schlick, grandson of Matthias, 
founded in Carlsbad a hospital for indigent patients, 
which he dedicated to the Holy Spirit. He also 
obtained a charter from King Wladislaw giving him 
the right to exact from all visitors to Carlsbad, rich or 
poor, a donation for the hospital ; the amount being 
left to the guests themselvea. This was the first 
' Cur-tax ' imposed at Carlsbad. 

In 1533 Albert Schiick exchanged with his cousin, 
Hermonius, the Burgravate of Elbogen and Carlsbad 
for that of Winteritz. On the outbreak of the war 
between Bohemia and Saxony, Hermonius Schlick 
renounced his allegiance to hie sovereign and joined 
the Saxon army. After the disaetroua defeat of the 
Saxons at the battle of Miihlberg, 24th April 1547, 
Hermonius was outlawed, but on the conclusion of 
peace he managed to obtain a pardon from the Emperor 
Ferdinand I., hie estates of Elbogen and Carlsbad, how- 
ever, being confiscated to the crown.. The town of 
Carslbad was then incorporated and made a royal 
borough, and the citizens took the oath of allegiance 
to Ferdinand. 

There being now no resident Burgrave, the castle 
of Carlsbad for a long time remained unoccupied, 
and the citizens not wishing to see this historic 
building fall into decay, petitioned the Emperor 



I 



J 



MMimil i m to makt xkpfec to lae tc^rz. iz- ^be sa&o^ 
tlie fiie-lngBle. l^is roepHflc toe z^azmed by & deed 
dated 1567. 

Tlie cnyvn ssO rsc&zs^d paeseastga d aH tiie laztl 
and oCher iKupe g it atuAi^ed to ue Borgr avate -:f 
ClaiU»d. and the firiT4'n^ fit sluit Tears tEi^rd ia T^Zn 
to aoqniie tihem. Ui^j. luveTer. sacoeeded at lasc in 
poiciiaHiig tiiem fiam die sficdr Empei^ Bisdolidi in 
1598 fi)r die flom of 52^800 mazks. Bt diis purchase 
die town gained oomsidefaU j. and also greatly extended 
its influenoe and statos. 

When die Beformation began to spread in Bohemia 
at dieoGmmencement of the sixteenth centurv, the then 
reigning BnrgTave, Sebastian Schlick. who was a fiiend 
of Lather, energeticaUy devoted himself to fnithering 
the cause of the new fiuth, and sncceeded in establishing 
the Protestant religion thronghout the whole Eger dis- 
trict. The first Beformed preacher, Wolfgang Bappold« 
was appointed in Elbogen in 1 523. A Lutheran pastor 
was doubtless appointed about the same time to Carlsbad, 
though the first reference made in existing records is 
to the preaching of Andreas Hampisch in the Andreas 
Church in 1554. After the death of the Emperor 
Budolph in 161 2, his successor, Ferdinand II., who was 
bitterly opposed to the Eeformed faith, re-established tho 
Catholic religion throughout Bohemia, and in 1624 tho 
parish church of Carlsbad was again made over to tho 
Bomanists, in consequence of which the last Lutheran 
pastor, Johann Georg Kreizel, together with a largo 



36 HISTOEY. 

nomber of the citizens, emigrated to Saxony and founded 
the town of Johanngeorgenstadt. On the Galgenbni^, 
above the Chapel of St. Mary, is a large atone which 
commemoratea thia exodus. 

During the Thirty Tears' War Carlabad suffered 
severely, the town being repeatedly sacked, and many of 
the citizens killed. 

The fame of Carlsbad as a resort for crowned heads 
and personages of the highest rank dates from the 
visit of the Archduke Ferdinand in 1571, who was 
accompanied by his consort, Philippina Welser, the 
danghter of an Augsburg merchant, who won all hearts, 
even of the Archduke's royal relations, by her beaaty 
and accomplishments. 

In 1630 Carlsbad was visited by Wallenstein, Dnke 
of Friedland, who was afterwards barbarously mur- 
dered in the Castle of Eger (see page 153). 

In 1683 the Crown Prince of Saxony, afterwards 
George III., with the Duke of Lauenburg, came to 
Carlsbad for the cure, accompanied with a large i-etinue, 
and stayed six weeks. During their visit they gave 
great entertainments, at one of which, we are told, an 
ox stnffed with capons was roasted whole and served 
in the Fest Piatz, now occupied by the garden of the 
Hotel Goldener Schild. All the inhabitants of the town 
were summoned to the banquet by a fanfare of trumpets 
and kettledrums stationed on the Hirschensprung. The 
Prince, dressed in a servant's livery of red and green, 
waited on the guests himself. The festivities woimd 



HISTORY. 37 

up with a balL the music beinff supplied by an or- 
chestra of fiddli pipes, and steixLk horns ! 

In 1 69 1 Augustus I., King of Poland, accompanied 
by the famous beauty, Aurora, Countess von Konig- 
stein, took the cure at Carlsbad. He was accompanied 
by so many soldiers that temporary barracks had to be 
erected for their accommodation in the fields. He 
entertained the visitors and townspeople with tourna- 
ments on the Alte Wiese, and on the AU^e Platz he 
gave a grand entertainment in a ballroom he had 
erected, and decorated with Bohemian lustres and 
mirrors. We are told he provided a surprise for his 
guests by having the water from the Sprudel conducted 
in pipes to the ballroom, and while the ball was at its 
height he had the water turned on and gave the 
dancers a thorough drenching. 

At this time the Cur-guests at Carlsbad were such 
insatiate pleasure - seekers that, in addition to the 
almost nightly fUes^ they had mating dansantes qy&tj 
day from 1 1 a.m. to I P.M. 

The years 171 1 and 17 12 were memorable from the 
visits of Peter the Great, who came to be cured of 
rheumatism. 

We are told that the Czar on his arrival was ordered 
by his physician to take three glasses of the waters 
before breakfast, but by some misunderstanding he 
thought three large pitchers were meant. He managed 
to get down one, and was almost choking over the second, 
when the doctor, fortunately appearing, informed him of 



L 



38 HISTOBT^ 

his mistake. He must, besides this, have swallowed a 
considerable quantity of the waters during his stay, as he 
was in the hahit of taking twenty-three glasses at a time. 
In a letter dated 19th September, written to the 
Empress Catherine, he says : " We, thank God, are 
well, only oar bellies are swelled up with water, because 
we drink like horses, and have nothing else to do." In 
the following year he writes again to hia wife: "We 
began to drink the waters at this hole yesterday. How 
it works I win write, but don't look for any other news 
from this wilderness." The treatment may have bene- 
fited him in a bodily sense, but it certainly did not 
improve bis violent temper. We are told that he took 
part in the annual shooting match at Carlsbad, and 
carried off the prize. One of the spectators, whose 
admiration had been excited by hia fine shooting, began 
to vigorously applaud, when the Czar, thinking he was 
trying to distract bis aim, fired at bim, but fortunately 
missed him. On another occasion he assisted at the 
building of a honse, laying the stones with his own 
hands. One of the masons, who was gazing at bim in 
astonisbment, was the victim of a similar outbreak of 
temper. One of the peculiarities of the Czar was an 
intense dislike of being watched while he was at work, 
and on seeing the mason looking at him he became 
BO enraged that he threw a trowelful of mortar in his 
face. On finding bis mistake, however, he made ample 
amends in both cases by apologising and presenting the 
with handsome snms of money. There being no 



HISTORY. 39 

Russian church at Carlsbad, the Czar went daily to offer 
up his prayers before the cross on the Hirschensprung, 
on the spot since named the Petershohe (see page 117). 

At the shooting match referred to, the Czar had given 
as the prize, a cask of wine, which had been sent him by 
the Emperor Charles VI., and on winning it himself 
he refused to take it back. Another contest was there- 
fore held, in which the Czar did not compete. The 
winner of the cask at the second contest had it bottled 
in small flasks which readily sold at a high price, and 
invested the proceeds for the benefit of the shooting 
society, to whom this fund still yields an income of 
thirty florins a year. The target which the Czar shot 
at is preserved in the Schiesshaus. 

It was at Carlsbad that Peter carried on the nego- 
tiations for the marriage of his son Alexis with 
the Princess Charlotte of Wolfenbiittel, whom the 
Prince first met at the Castle of Schlackenwerth. It 
was at first proposed that the marriage should take 
place secretly at Carlsbad, but it was eventually solem- 
nised at Dresden. The Czar left Carlsbad to attend 
the marriage, contrary to the advice of his physicians, 
which led to his experiencing a serious relapse. During 
his second visit to Carlsbad in 171 2 Peter renewed his 
acquaintance with the celebrated philosopher Leibnitz, 
whose advice received at that time proved of such 
assistance to the Czar in introducing reforms into 
Russia. The Czar lived in the house *Zum Rothen 
Herz/ on the Alte Wiese, 



Ill the same year, 1712, the Empress Cliriatiua of 
Austria, with a large retinue, visited Carlsbad, accom- 
panied by her daughter, the Princesa Maria Theresa, 
then four years of age. In honour of her visit the citizens 
had a beantiful drinking goblet made for her at the 
famous porcelain mancfaotory at Meissen. Thia goblet 
is now in the musenin at Prague. 

In 1732 Carlsbad was honoured with a visit from the 
Emperor Charles II. and his consort, the Empress 
Christina, who seem to have been accompanied by about 
half the nobility of Austria. The town records of that 
time relate that it required 6600 horses to convey their 
Majesties and their retinue to the place. The Emperor 
during his stay took a great interest in Carlsbad. He 
rebuilt the parish church, and gave largely to the 
charities and for improving the town. 

During the war of succession, which broke out after 
the ascent of Maria Theresa to the throne of Austria in 
1740, Carlsbad suffered severely, as well as Eger and 
Elbogen, these three towns being sacked by the French 
and the citizens laid under heavy contribution. 

In 1762 the first Car-lists were published. Theso 
lists were in writing, the first printed lists not being 
published till 1794. 

In 1766 commenced what may be termed a new era 
in the history of Carlsbad, as in that year the celebrated 
physician. Dr. David Becher, made the first scientific 
analysis of the medical and chemical properties of the 
waters, and laid down regulations for their use which 



HISTOKT. 41 

were practically the same as those in force to-day, and 
which have proved so beneficial to hundreds of thousands 
of patients for the last century. From this time the 
number of visitors has steadily increased ; — from 445 in 
1 785 to 28,600 in 1 885. This rapid increase encouraged 
the municipal authorities to provide better accommoda- 
tion for visitors, and to take steps for making the town 
more attractive. Fine chestnut alleys were planted 
and walks were laid out along the Tepel and through 
the woods. In 1774 a new drinking and bathing hall 
was erected in place of the old Sprudel Hall. 

One of the most celebrated leaders of Carlsbad society 
at this period was Count Maurice von Briihl, the inti- 
mate friend of Admiral Orloff (see page 1 14). At one 
of the great open-air /e^es he gave on the Plobensberg 
fresh flowers were fastened to the trees in the woods, 
which gave them the appearance of a forest in bloom. 

In 1784 the municipality erected the fine stone 
bridge over the Eger which now leads to the railway 
station. 

In 1794 the "Sprudel Book," in which all visitors 
entered their voluntary contributions, was abolished, 
and an act was passed ordering that every nobleman 
should pay a cur-tax of two florins, and every commoner 
one florin. In 1800 the walls which confine the course 
of the Tepel were built, and a row of wooden booths or 
shops erected along the ^Alte Wiese.' At this time 
Carlsbad benefited greatly from the visits of Lord 
Findlater, a Scotch nobleman, who, in gratitude for 



42 

the great benefit he derived from drinking the waters, 
gave large Bums of money to the local charities and for 
laying out and beantiiying the environs of the town. 

In 1 785 , when thirty-four years of age, Goethe paid hia 
first visit to Carlsbad, where he afterwards spent many 
of the happiest and most fruitfii! years of hia life. He 
altogether paid fourteen visits to Carlsbad, and there ia 
little doubt but that the drinking of the waters greatly 
contributed to prolong his life and added greatly to hia 
vigour of both mind and body. The houses in the 
Markt Platz in which he lived are marked by marble 
tableta Goethe from his youth was afflicted with a 
painiii! malady which caused himself and his friends 
great anxiety. After much suffering he was at last 
persuaded to try the efScacy of the Carlsbad waters. 
Shortly after his first arrival in 1785 he wrote that 
he had already experienced great benefit, and that 
pleasant intercourse with the visitors had " rubbed oflF 
the rust" he bad gathered in the retired life he had 
hitherto been obliged to lead. A touching incident ia 
related of bis visit in 1819. " The 28tb August being 
bis seventieth birthday, the Grand Duke of Mecklenburg 
provided a pleasant and most agreeable surprise for 
him by bringing the old clock which hang up in the 
house where he first saw the light and spent his youth 
at Frankfort, and having it hung up in his Carlsbad 
lodgings. When Goethe awoke early in the morning 
and heard the clock strike the hour, he called to his ser- 
vant, saying, ' I hear a clock strike that arouses all the 



HISTORY. 43 

memaries of my childhood. Is it a dream or a reality ? ' 
Then he got up, and learning the truth, was moved to 
tears." His last visit was in 1823. He was then 
seventy-four, but, susceptible as ever, he fell in love 
with a charming young lady, Fraulein von Levetzov. 
He proposed marriage, which she declined, although 
she never married afterwards, and when the bust of the 
poet was unveiled in 1883 she sent a wreath of flowers 
to be laid at its foot. During his visits Goethe wrote a 
number of odes on subjects connected with Carlsbad. 

The period embracing the close of the eighteenth 
and commencement of the nineteenth century was the 
" golden age " of Carlsbad. The royal and noble visitors 
vied with each other in the originality and costliness of 
their entertainments. Among the most celebrated fttes 
was the Chinese banquet given in 1786 by the Countess 
Ozinska, when the Alte Wiese was lighted with 1 500 
coloured lanterns and lined with small pavilions deco- 
rated with mirrors. On the Pupp'sche All^e an immense 
Chinese pagoda was erected, in which the servants of 
til© Countess, dressed in Chinese costume, served the 
feast. Another curious entertainment was given in 
1797 by the Duke of Saxe-Gotha to the beautiful 
Duchess Dorothde of Curland (see page 122). In a 
meadow near the Pranzens Briicke hay was being 
made, and the Duke had invited all the visitors to take a 
drive along the Eger. While the carriages were passing 
the field the Duke suggested that his guests should 
alight and join in the merriment of the haymakers, who 



44 HISTOHY. 

were dancing to tto music of pipes and fiddles. His 
proposal was at once adopted, and after the dance was 
over their host led the guests to an immense hayrick 
which stood in the meadow, and from which soanda of 
mnsic were apparently proceeding. On their approach 
it fell apart, and disclosed a sumptuous banquet spread 
on a long table, over one end of which a gallery filled 
with musicians had been erected. Besides these fMes, 
there were, almost daily, balls, balloon ascents, cheas 
tournaments, where the places of the chessmen were 
taken by children suitably attired, and concerts in which 
the most celebrated musicians in Europe took part. 

In 1791 the poet Schiller visited Carlsbad with hia 
wife, to whom he had been married the year before. We 
gather from his letters written during his stay that the 
time he passed was the happiest period in his life. It 
was during this visit that Rheinhardt painted the cele- 
brated portrait of the poet. He lodged at the house 
' Zum Weissen Schwan,' near the Johannisbriicke. 

In 1809 the town suffered severely in the French 
war, the number of guests being reduced from 1200 
the year previous, to 112. In 1813 the visitors from 
Saxony and Poland and other states then at war with 
Saxony were ordered to leave the baths within three 
days. In 1819 the celebrated conference which was 
held to decide the settlement of Europe after the 
Napoleonic wars, and which lasted from 7th August to 
20th December, assembled at Carlsbad, in the Hotel 
Zum Weissen Lbwen. Shortly after the battle of 



HISTORY. 45 

Waterloo Marshal Bluclier paid a visit to Carlsbad, and 
was much fSted by the Cur-guests. He is said to have 
remarked that " he had been an enemy to water all his 
life, but now the devil had sent him where he could get 
nothing else." 

In 1830 the new bath-houses were commenced, and 
other improvements in the town and environs were 
undertaken. In 1852 the present Cur-tax was estab- 
lished, and visitors were no longer received as formerly 
by a flourish of trumpets from the Stadtthurm. In 
1858 the 500th anniversary of the legendary discovery 
of the baths by the Emperor Charles IV. was held 
amid great rejoicing. 

Besides the distinguished visitors already mentioned 
Carlsbad has been honoured by visits from Frederick I., 
1708, and Frederick William I, of Prussia, 1732 ; the 
Emperor Joseph II. of Austria, 1766; the Empress 
Marie Ludovika, 18 10; King Anthony of Saxony, 1812 ; 
the Emperor Francis I. and his daughter Maria Louisa, 
second wife of Napoleon I., 1812 ; William III., 1816 ; 
the Empress Maria Feodorowna of Eussia, 1818 ; King 
Ernest of Hanover, 1837; King Otho of Greece, 1856; 
the present German Emperor, 1864; the Crown Prince 
and Princess of Prussia, 1870 ; the Emperor and Em- 
press of Brazil, 1 872 ; the ex-Empress of the French, 
1883. 

Besides these royalties the Cur-books at Carlsbad are 
inscribed with the names of Bach, Beethoven, Catalani, 
Sontag, Paganini, Schopenhauer, Wellington, Prince 



46 

Metternichj Kroner, Chateattbriand, Auerbach, Toiir- 
genieff, Prince Bismarck, John Bright, and the late 
Lord Ampthill. 

Carlsbad has many times anffered severely from 
inundations of the Tepel, notably in May 1582, when 
three -fourths of the houses were swept away and many 
of the inhabitants drowned; in February 1655, when 
eighteen houses were destroyed; and in September 
1 83 1, when all the bridges and a great part of the wail 
along the Tepel were carried away, and the goods in the 
shops on the river-bank were almost entirely destroyed, 
the water reaching the second floor of the houses. Great 
destruction has also several times been worked by 
the breaking out of the Sprudel. On the 23d February 
1799, in consequence of the sudden brealdng-up of the 
ice, the spring burst through the ground, carrying every- 
thing before it, and then almost disappeared, — in conse- 
quence of which a rumour spread that the spring Lad 
been swallowed up by an earthquake. This was a 
serious calamity for Carlsbad, as a total cessation of the 
drinking of the waters took place in consequence. It 
was months before the spring was replaced, it being 
necessary to level the bed of the river and pave the 
sides with massive slabs of granite, while its banks had 
to be sealed with cement. In 1604 the town was 
almost entirely distroyedby fire, only three houses being 
left standing, and again in 1 759, when 224 houses were 
burned to the ground. 

A sketch of the history of Carlsbad would not be 



HISTORY. 47 

complete without reference being made to its celebrated 
K. K. Schiitzen-Corps, or Royal and Imperial Shooting 
Corps. This society is a very ancient one, having been 
orginally a company of crossbowmen. The date of the 
foundation of the society is unknown, but its first royal 
charter was granted in 1630. One of the ancient privi- 
leges of Carlsbad was that no military should be quartered 
in the town, and there being therefore no garrison, the 
shooting corps have always undertaken the duties of the 
town guard. The corps wear a handsome uniform of 
green and gold, and the visitor to Carlsbad will have 
many opportunities of seeing them marching through 
the town headed by their band. The shooting matches 
of the society have been patronised by most of the royal 
and noble visitors to Carlsbad since its foundation, who 
have written their names in the autograph-book, and 
have presented a number of prizes to be shot for. This 
book and many of the prizes are preserved in the Schiess- 
haus in the Schiitzen Park, and form a most interesting 
collection. Weekly shooting matches are still held on 
Sundays, at which visitors are made welcome, and 
allowed to take part. 



LIFE AT CARLSBAD. 



k 



^g*^ARLSBAD has now settled down, after tlie 
r^l(^ S^y ^BjB of lier premiere j'cutmssc — when her 
^*^*''-*' princeiy and noble visitora accompanied the 
drinking of the waters with a continnal round of gaiety 
— to follow again the sound maxim of old Dr. Payer, 
" that Nature hath created this bath for patients, and 
not for anybody's Inat or amusement." When he reads 
of the open-air /^(es, the balls, and the nightly illumina- 
tions given by the distinguished guests, where all were 
welcome, the visitor of to-day may naturally feel tempted 
to regret the change in the social life at Carlsbad, when 
he finds his days bound by rigid rules, and himself but 
a unit of a crowd of health-seekers who, from their very 
number and difference of station and nationality, are 
debarred from that free social intercourse which doubt- 
less most would desire if it were possible. 

There are many reasons that account for this change. 
In earlier days the guests were few in number, and were 
nearly all of the " upper classes," with some crowned 
head or star of fashion as their presiding genius. To- 



I4FE AT CARl-SBAD.- 



49 



day this select circle lias gradually extended to a 
mingled concourse, drawn from all countries and classes 
of the civilised world, with few able to lead, and fewer 
willing to follow, in any revival of the old festivities. 
All now must feel themselves more or less strangers in 
this vast throng, and be content to devote themselves to 
the bneinesa of the hour, and to seek their enjoyment 
amid their own immediate circle, and in the bappy 
consciousness of returning health. But in spite of the 
barriers to general intercourse among the visitors, there 
is withal a kindly tone in the social life at Carlsbad, 
doubtless owing greatly to the leaven of the geniality 
of the Austrian character, and there are many quiet and 
healthful pleasures, particularly suited to those who have 
come in search of health and repose. 

The cure at Carlsbad is by no means a " fancy " cure. 
It is no place for those who wish to make a visit to 
a watering-place simply in search of amusement or 
gaiety. Here there is no extravagance either in the 
mode of life or in fashionable display. The goddess of 
tealth roigna supreme, and all must yield to her sway. 
But after all he must be a discontented and unapprecia- 
tive mortal indeed who cannot find amusement enough 
in the pleasant summer days at Carlsbad, with its 
charming drives and walks, its promenades and caf^a, 
where be can mingle witb the passing throng, or can 
rest luxuriously beneath some shady chestnut tree, 
aad wile away the hours in friendly intercourse, or in 
'listening to the music of the orchestra ; or perchance, 



i 



so 



lIfE at CARLSBAD, 



if weai-y, aud wisliing solitude, he can aeok refuge with 
a favourite author in some sequestered nook, — returning 
health aud the hope of a speedy recovery adding aeat 
to every pleasure. 

" Early to bed and early to rise " is the strict role at 
Carlsbad, and the visitor must be prepared for the — 
perhaps at first nuwelconie — rap at half-past five ; but 
when once up and dressed, what can be more delightful 
than the first fresh cool hours of the summer mornings 
and the first singing of the birds, which are so carefully 
looked after by the kindly peasantry for the welcome of 
the guests ? At six the visitor seeks the health-restoriug 
springs, and takes his morning goblet from the hands 
of the neatly dressed little maid who presides over the 
foimtain ; and here let us advise him to be early at the 
well, and so save himself many tedious waits in the 
slowly advancing line of two or three hundred other 
patients, which have to be repeated for as many glasses 
as he is ordered to driuk. This trouble can be avoided, 
however, by hii-iug a 'dienstmann' (see page 8 1) for 
20 kr., who will stand in the line and hand the cup to the 
visitor when his turn comes. After drinking, a promenade 
is taken, enlivened by the strains of the band and the 
curious sight of » long line of people, of many climes 
and many costumes, solemnly waiting their turn, cup 
in hand, at the spring. After each cup another walk 
is taken, until the prescribed quantity has been taken. 
Then to breakfast ; — and now, to the newly arrived 
English or American visitor, comes the rub. Accus- 



UFE AT CARLSBAD; 5 I 

tomed at home to his substantial morning meal, it does 
seem hard at first, after a good hour's exercise in the 
fresh morning air, to have to content himself with a cup 
of coffee and a roll purchased at the nearest bakery. He 
is not even allowed butter, unless he happens to have 
an indulgent doctor, who will allow him just enough to 
remind him of his boarding-school days. But there is 
no help for it ; he has come for the " cure," and must 
abide by its rules. One solace, however, is left him, 
few doctors . being so hard-hearted as to deny just one 
pipe or cigar. The rest of the morning is spent at 
the Curhaus perusing the newspapers, with which the 
reading rooms are plentifully supplied, or in a short 
drive or gentle stroll, until the bathing-hour comes 
round ; after which the visitor returns to his hotel re- 
freshed and invigorated with the bracing mineral or 
luxurious peat bath. The dinner-hour at Carlsbad is 
primitive, but to the hungry visitor who has gone 
through a long morning on a roll and a cup of coffee, it 
is welcome enough. The dinner of the Cur-guest, how- 
ever, must be simple and in keeping with his Arcadian 
life ; but, with soup, fish, a roast joint, green vegetables, 
stewed fruit, and the satice piquante of a healthy appe- 
tite, he has little ground for complaint. Nor is he ob- 
liged to join the Army of the Blue Eibbon ; in modera- 
tion he can take claret, hock, light German beer, or 
better still, and most refreshing, the country wines of 
Bohemia, diluted with sparkling Giesshiibl or Kron- 
dorfer water. Dinner over, another walk is taken, for 



52 LIFE AT CAHLSBAD. 

even " forty winks," however tempting in the drowsy 
summer weather, are strictly forbidden. And bo passes 
the day, till the sen begins to drop behind the wooded hills, 
when all Carlsbad tarns out at its gayest to promenade, 
to see and be seen, or to sit at the little tables under the 
trees and drink the most aromatic coffee in the world, 
so cheerfully served by the young and pretty coffee-girls. 
At the cafes or in the Curgarten Labitzky's band dis- 
courses sweet music from four to six, and on the Alte 
Wiese and the Pupp'sche A\Ue there is a constant ebb 
and flow of promenaders, amongst whom the lively and 
exquisitely dressed daughters of Austria and Hungary, 
we must unpatriotically say, bear away the palm for style 
and beauty. The concert ended, the visitors soon dis- 
perse ; and a light supper taken, the fine new theatre 
or the evening concerts at the Curhans are now the 
attractions, or if it be a Saturday — the fSte-day of the 
week, on which viaitora, like children of a larger 
growth, are allowed to " stay up " — the ballroom at the 
Curhans is opened, and from eight till twelve, to the 
strains of Labitzky's band, dancing goes on with the 
full consent of even our tyrant the Cnr physician. 
These are no formal gatherings ; the " swallow-tail " 
of civilisation finds no place in the simple life at 
Carlsbad, and ladies are expressly requested to appear 
in "toilette de ville ;" but, nevertheless, these dances 
are most enjoyable from their very freedom from re- 
straint and ceremony. On other evenings Carlsbad ia 
in bed by ten, for early to rise means early to rest. 



( 53 ) 




V. 



ARRIVAL— HOTELS— LODGINGS— CAFES AND 

BEST SHOPS. 

'N crossing the Austrian frontier the luggage of 
travellers is examined by the Customs; but 
tobacco and spirits, and uncut pieces of silk 
or velvet are practically the only articles on which duty 
is levied. The Custom-House officers are extremely 
civil, but to avoid all chance of trouble the traveller 
should declare at once any dutiable articles he may 
have in his luggage. 

Passports are not now required in Austria. It is 
nevertheless advisable to carry one as a means of per- 
sonal identification. 

On arrival at the station the traveller will find 
carriages and omnibuses from the hotels in waiting. 
If he has chosen his hotel he should seek out the hotel 
porter, who will look after his luggage and see him 
comfortably settled in his carriage or omnibus. The 
traveller should try and so arrange his journey as to 
arrive at Carlsbad early in the evening, when, if he 
have not secured apartments beforehand, he should 
proceed to a hotel for the night, and next day look for 



54 ARRIVAL HOTELS — LODGINGS. 

lodgings at liia leisure. The choice of lodgings, how- 
eveFj being a matter of great importance, it is better, 
in the height of the season, to secure them if possible 
beforehand. The doctor to whom the visitor is recom- 
mended will willingly render all assistance in his power 
on receiving particulars of the case, the accommodation 
required, and the expected date of arrival, and his 
advice as to the most desirable locality suited to the 
patient will be found most valuable. The prices of 
rooms, of course, depend very much on the situation 
and the period of the year at which they are taken. 
Apartments in the Alte Wiese, Park Strasse, Neue 
Wiese, or on the heights of the Schlossberg are much 
dearer than those in the Prager Gasse, the Kreutz 
Gasse, or the Eger Strasse. Between the 15th May 
and 1 5th July the prices are twice as much as during 
the rest of the year. During the height of the season 
single bedrooms can be had from 10 to 20 fl. per 
week, a suite of two to four rooms between 20 and 50 
fl. a week, and large suites from 100 to 200 fl. a week. 

The hotels in Carlsbad are exceedingly comfortable, 
and the prices compare favourably with those of other 
fashionable watering-places. The rooms are generally 
large, airy, and well furnished, and the cooking is good. 
The average prices in hotels of the first class are — 
from April to May, salon and bedroom, 15 to 30 fl. 
per week ; single bedrooms, 8 to 1 2 fl,, and per day 
about 2 fl. From June to July, salon and bedroom, 
30 to 60 fl, ]KT week; single bedroom, 12 to 20 fl., 



ARRIVAL HOTELS LODGINGS. $ 5 

and per day, 3 fls. During August and September the 
prices are the same as in April and May. The price 
for rooms include service only. Gaslights and candles 
are about 25 kr. each, lamps 35 kr. per day, fires 50 
kr. per day. The charge for service does not in- 
clude the porter or boots. ' Visitors should always 
make a definite arrangement with the proprietor before 
taking rooms. 

The Carlsbad hotels do not furnish table d'hSte, as 
nearly all the visitors are on a special regimen. The 
meals taken by visitors generally consist of coffee and 
bread in the morning, generally taken at a caf(5, dinner 
in the middle of the day, and a light supper in the 
evening. The average prices charged for meals at the 
hotels are about as follows : — Coffee with bread, half 
portion, 36 kr. ; whole portion, 60 kr. ; eggs, 6 kr. each. 
Dinner is charged at a fixed price of about i fl. 50 kr. 
to 4 fl., according to the number of dishes ordered. 

Soup, beef or mutton, vegetables, a roast dish, and 
compot and pudding, l guld. 50 kr. 

Same as above, with fish, 2 fl. 

With fish, ice, and dessert, 3 fl. 

With fish, an additional roast dish, entree, ice, and 
dessert, 4 fl. 

Supper is order d la carte, a portion of fish or meat 
costing from 50 to 80 kr. One portion, as in France, 
can be shared by two. 

The second-class hotels are generally about 20 per 
cent, cheaper, although in some cases they arp just as 



5 6 ARRIVAL — HOTELS — LODGINGS, 

dear as the first class, and ehould vistors intend to stay 
jn any of tliem a bargain should be made beforehand. 

Hotels of the first class are — Anger's Hold, Neue 
Wiese, adjoining the new theatre; Papps' Hotel, 
Pupp'sche AU^e ; Konigs Villa, Theresien Park ; Gold- 
tJier Schild, with dipendaiises, Erziierzog Slepkan and 
Zioei Deutsche Moiiarchen; Hotel Hanover, 'Ka,-ckt; Hotel 
National, Neue Gartenzeile ; Hokl de Eussie, Kaiser- 
Gtrasse. 

Hotels of the second class are : — Donau, Parkstrasse j 
Paradies, Kaiserstrasse ; Ih-ei Fasanen, Kirchengasse ; 
Erzkerzog Karl, Kirchengasse. 

All the hotels have restaurants attached. 

Caf^. — Piipps', on the Alte "Wiese (page log), CafS 
Sckonbrunn {page 123), Kaiser Park (page 114), Sans 
Souei (page 111), Post /To/ (page 113), Freundschafts- 
Salle (page 113), Ca/d Saxe, Cafi Zum Elephant, on the 
Alte Wiese — English and French newspapers ; Cafi 
Imperial, north of the town on the right bank — electric 
light, concerts. 

Coffee at the caKs, 28 kr. ; rolls, 2 kr. each. When 
black coffee ia desired the order is given for ' Recht 
caK,' and for weaker coffee, ' Verkehrt.' At all the 
caKa two cups can be ordered with one portion. If 
only one cup is wanted, the order is for a ' Kleinen 
Kapoziner,' for which 16 kr. is charged. The usnal 
custom is to buy the rolls at a baker's, the best being 
Mannl & Pittroff, in the Alte Wiese, and take them to 
the cafe. 



ARRIVAL — HOTELS — LODGINGS. 5 7 

The servants at the hotels and lodging-houses, and 
the attendants at the caf(^s all expect gratuities. Those 
given at the hotels and lodgings must of course depend 
on the length of the visit and the attention shown. At 
the cafi^s and restaurants the usual fees are — for cofifee, 
lO kr. ; dinner, 20 kr. to the head waiter, to whom the 
bill is paid, and 10 kr. to the waiter ; supper the same, 
At the baths the girl who supplies the linen expects 
about 20 kr., and the male attendant 10 kr. The 
drivers of the carriages expect a fee of 5 to 10 per 
cent, on the fare. 

Recommendable Shops. 

Antiquities and Curiosities — C. J. Meyer, Alte Wiese. 
Bohemian Glass — L. Moser, " Rother Adler," Alte 

Wiese ; Holzner, Bahnhof-Str. ; A, H. Pfeiffer, 

42 Alte Wiese. 
Booksellers — ^Franieck, " Drei Lammer," Markt; Knauer, 

Markt ; Feller, Markt ; Stark, Miihlbadgasse. 
Cartridges — Rosenfeld, " Weisser Lowe," Markt. 
Chemists — F. Worliczek, Markt, 381 ; H. R . Lipp- 

mann, 17 Miihlbadgasse. 
Cigars and Cigarettes — ^David Moser, Markt; Frank, 

Sprudelgasse. 
Confectioners — W. Stadler, " Konig von Preussen,*' 

Miihlbadgasse; Rumler, Alte Wiese; Bar, Alte 

Wiese. 
Express, Parcels, and Baggage — Ulrich & Gross, Kaiser- 

Str. ; Bartels, Kaiser-Str. 



5 8 ARRIVAL — HOTEL LODGINGa. 

Grocer — Eosenfeld, Sprudelgasse. 

Hairdressers and Perfumers — Jelinecb & Erdmann, 

Alte Wieee. 
HatUr — Karl Gimm, MiiMbadgasBe, 
Medical Instruments and Bandages — W. Eusy, Alte 

Wiese ; Berry, Neue Wiese. 
Milliners — E. Hein, " Mozart," Alte Wiese ; Briider 

Nastopil. Alte Wiese, 335, 
Oplicians — Briider Teiner, " Goldener Harfe," Alte 

Wiese. 
Phologrwphers—3&ri&, Am Quai ; Hirsch, Garten Zeil ; 

Wagner, Marienbad-Str, 
Pianos (also for hire) — Anton Wieainger, Hotel Na- 

tioaal. 
Shoemaker — Mannl-Hein, " Goldener Schliiasel," Miihl- 

badgasse. 
Sprudelstein Articles — J. Sebert., Alte Wieae ; Tscham- 

merholl, Sprudel Colonnade. 
7'ailors—E. Epstein, " Drei Ljimmer," Markt ; Max 

Epstein, Wittwe, Markt. 

Bankers — 
Gottlieb Lederer, Markt ; Briider Benedict, Alte Wiese 

and Miiblbadgasse ; A, Schwalb, Markt; Boh- 

mirche Escompte, Bank Filiall, Jliihlbadgasae. 



( 59 ) 



VI. 



CONCEKTS, THEATRES, AND AMUSEMENTS. 




lARLSBAD has a fine theatre, opened 1886 
(see p. 90), in which excellent performances 
of German, French, and Italian plays and 

operas are given. The box-office is open from 9 till 1 2. 

Doors open at 6 p.m.; performance commences at 7. 



Theatre Prices. 
I. In the Parterre, 

Proscenium boxes for six persons . 
Parterre boxes for four persons 
Parquet seats (stalls), first three rows . 

„ „ fourth to eighth rows 

Balcony stalls, first row 

second row . 
third and fourth rows . 
First floor boxes— mittelfremdenloge 
First row, four fauteuils 
Second row, four fauteuils . 
First row boxes, for five persons . 



5> 



5) 



JJ 



>5 



fl. 


kr. 


. 12 





. 7 





. 2 





I 


SO 


. 2 





I 


SO 


I 


20 


2 


20 


I 


60 


. 8 






CONCERTS, THEATRES, AND AMUSEMENTS. 



2. In the Balcony. 




Middle balcony seat, first row 


I 20 


„ „ Becond to sixth rows 


I o 


Side balcony seats, first row 


I lO 


,, „ . second and tliird rows 


o 70 


Amptitlieatre ..... 


so 


„ area .... 


20 



Concerts,— From ist May to 30th \ 
the Curb a as, on Monday, Wednesday, and Friday, 
in unfavourable weather from 7. 30 to 9 p.m. When 
the weather ia fine the band plays on these evenings 
— Monday, at the Caf4 SaTie-Souci ; Wednesday, at the 
Salh de Scure ; Friday, in the Stadtpark ; also in the 
Stadtpark, Sundays from 4 to 6 P.M. ; in the garden 
of the Cafg Pupp, Tuesdays and Thursdays, from 4 
to 6 P.M. ; and in rainy weather in the salon of the 
caf^. The orchestra plays during the drinking boors 
from 6 to S a.m. in the morning daily in the Sprudel 
and Miihlirunn Colonnades. Military and classical 
concerts are also given in the CaKs Posthof, Schbn- 
hrunn, Sans-Souci, and Salle de Saxe — admission, 50 
kra. From the 1st October to 30th April concerts 
are given in the Curhans on Tuesday, Friday, and 
Thursday evenings from 7 t« 8.30 P.M., and every 
alternate Sunday, from 4 to 6 P.M. in the afternoon, 
The days given above for concerts are liable to altera- 
tion. 



CONCERTS, THEATRES, AND AMUSEMENTS. 6 X 

Balls are given every Saturday evening at the 
Curhaus from 8 to 12 P.M.; admission, i fl. 50 kr. 
The finest ball of the year is held on the i8th of 
August, in honour of the birthday of the Austrian 
Emperor. 

In the Summer Theatre performances of comedy, 
vaudeville, farce, &c., are given in the afternoon from 
four to six. 

During the season numerous strolling companies 
of actors, gymnasts, musicians, conjurors, &c., visit 
Carlsbad. 

For shooting and fishing see p. 163. 



( 62 ) 



TOWN REGULATIONS. 
Cuke and Music Tax. 
^ffi^LL visitors to Carlsbad who remain over eiglit 
Sj^W days, whether taking the care or nofc, are 
**^®* subject to the cure and music taxes, which 
are divided into four classes. 

Cure-Tax. 
1st Class. — Which embraces noblemen, officers, 
Government employees, the superior prieathoocl, land- 
owners, independent gentry, professional men, mer- 
chants, bankers, manufacturers, and well-to-do people 



2d Class.-— People of moderate means , 6 ,, 

3d Class. — The working classes, small shop- 
keepers, and people of small means . . 4 ,, 

4th Class. — Children under fourteen and 
servants . . . . . , . i „ 

Doctors and surgeons, military officers under the 
rank of captain, and their wives, widows and children, 
are exempt from the cure-tax, but pay a reduced music- 
tax. 



I 



TOWN REGULATIONS. 



63 



1st Class. 






Music'Tax. 

-One person 
A party of 2 persons 



3 
4 
S ,j or more 

2d Class. — One person 

A party of 2 persons 



jj 



J5 






5) 

>5 



55 



55 
55 
55 



3 
4 

S 



55 



>> 



55 



3d Class. — One person 

A party of 2 persons 



55 

55 
55 
55 



5J 
55 
55 



3 

4 55 

5 



or more 



or more 



fl. 

S 

8 

1 1 

14 

17 

3 

S 
6 

7 
8 

2 

3 

4 

5 
6 



Children under fourteen and servants pay no music- 
tax. 

The " cure-tax " does not include admission to the 
reading and smoking rooms. Tickets for these rooms 
can be purchased at the office. Daily tickets, i S kr. ; 
weekly, 70 kr.; monthly, 2 fl. 

The taxes are assessed by the Burgomaster, but any 
visitor objecting to his assessment can appeal against 
it within three days, by lodging a notice in writing 
at either the office of the Burgomaster, in the Town 
Hall, or at the office of the District Surveyor in the 
Municipal Buildings on the Neue Wiese. Shortly 



64 TOWN SEGULATIONa. 

after his arrival each visitor is supplied with a form of 
assessment to fill up, which ig returned a few daya 
afterwards for payment. A List of Itegulations is 
issued annually by the Burgomaster and circulated 
among the visitors. 

Eegolations Resfectikg Lodgings. 

1. Any stranger arriving in Carlsbad ia permitted 
to hire a lodging either for a fixed or for an indefinite 
period of time. With respect to rent, and all other 
arrangements entered into, written or verbal contracts 
are considered equally binding. To save disputes, 
however, it is better to have a contract in writing. 
(See Rule 13,) 

2. If the lodging is hired for a fixed period, the 
contract made is considered in force during the whole 
of the time the rooms are occupied ; and when the 
period originally fixed on has expired, and the stay is 
prolonged, no further contract is necessary, unless an 
alteration in the torma be agreed on, in which case a 
new contract must be made. 

3. The fact of the rent being paid weekly (as is 
usual) has no bearing upon the contract, i.e.., a week 'a 
notice on either side is not sufficient when the apart- 
ments have been hired by the month. 

4. During the continuauce of a contract for a fixed 
period, the owner of the lodgings cannot increase the 
rent. 

5. If the lodgings be rented for an indefinite 



I 



J 



TOWN HEQULATIONa. 65 

period, and no special contract have been made, it ia 
assumed that tlie visitor has hired the apartments for 
the usual time of taking the waters, viz., four weeks ; 
but during this time the landlord cannot insist on any 
increase in the rent originally agreed on. In this 
case, if the hirer wishes to vacate the apartments at 
the end of the fourth week, or if the landlord wishes 
to let them to some other person, a week's notice be- 
forehand is necessary. Should this not be given, the 
contract runs on for an indefinite period, and can be 
put an end to at any time by either party giving a 
week's notice. 

6. If apartments are expressly rented by the day, it 
is only necessary to give a notice of twenty-four hours 
on either side ; or, if by the week, a week's notice. 

7. The week's notice is reckoned from the day ou 
which the weekly payment becomes due. If notice ba 
given during the course of the week, it is only regarded 
aa having been given at the expiration of the week, 

8. If, in the case of a lodging which is hired either 
by the week or for an indefinite penod, the lodger 
gives notice to leave at any time during the first day 
he takes possession, he cannot be required to pay more 
than the rent for the current week, 

9. If the visitor who has hired his apartments 
either by the week or for an indefinite period ■ desires 
to quit his lodgings suddenly, he has not only to pay 
the rent for the current week, but also the amount of 
an additional week's rent as compensation in lieu of 




66 TOWN REODLATIONS. 

notice ; but at the same time, he cannot sublet the 
apartments for tliis unexpired period to any other 
person. In the case of lodgings being hired by the day, 
the compensation in lien of notice is one day's rent. 

10. All persona letting lodgings have & right to 
demand a deposit from the hirer, which, however, must 
not exceed the amount of one week's rent. The de- 
posit is forfeited if the hirer fihall not take possession 
of the lodging during the course of the first week. 
This rule does not apply if the hirer furnishes the 
owner with sufficient security for his fulfilling the 
terms of his contract. Should such security not be 
furnished, the landlord has the right, at the termina- 
tion of the week, to cancel the contract and let the 
lodgings to any other person. 

1 1. In hotels and boarding-hooses, visitors have the 
right to vacate their apartments at any time they 
please, and only to pay by the day. Should, however, 
a visitor hire apartments in a hotel or hoarding-house 
for a fixed price, and for a period longer than one day 
(whether it be for a fixed or indefinite period), the above 
regulations applicable to lodging-houses come into force. 

12. If the stipulations of the contract sj'e not kept 
by the landlord- — that is, if the visitor shall not be 
provided with that which is contracted for, or what 
may be said to come under the bead of necessities ; i 
it can be proved that the lodging is damp, dirty, or i 
any way injurious to health ; or if facts come to light 
which the hirer had no means of discovering at the 



.TOWN REGULATIONS. 6/ 

time of his entering into the contract, whereby he may- 
be inconvenienced ; and provided such causes of com-, 
plaint are not immediately removed by the landlord, 
the lodger shall have the right of vacating the apart- 
ments without notice ; but he must pay for the actual 
time he has occupied the apartments. 

13. In such cases the onus of proof lies upon the 
lodger ; and also if any dispute arises as to whether 
the Jodging was hired for a fixed or an indefinite 
period, the onus of proof lies with the person who 
raises the dispute. If no written contract has been 
made between the parties, and a dispute takes place 
regarding a verbal contract, the arrival-sheet, which 
contains a column stating the period for which the 
visitor proposes to stay, shall be taken as proof. In 
cases where this is not recorded in the arrival-sheet, the 
assertion of the visitor is taken as proof. 

14. In the case of furnished lodgings, no compensa- 
tion can be claimed for injury or deterioration sustained 
by the fiimiture, linen, &c., by ordinary wear and tear, 
but compensation can be claimed where anything has 
been wilfully broken or damaged, and in cases of 
severe or prolonged illness, where any large amount of 
bed-linen is required, or when fix)m this cause any 
articles have been rendered unfit for further use. 

15. Every visitor has the right to procure his 
meals, food, and necessaries, as well as to take his 
baths, where he pleases. He has also the right of 
having his own laundress. 



68 TOWN BEGDLATIOKB. 

1 6, The rent does not usually include attendance, 
unless it has been expressly stipulated in the contract. 
Where no arrangement shall have been made for at- 
tendance, it shall be determined according to the tariff 
usual in the house. "When attendance is charged in 
the usual monthly or weekly account, and shall have 
been thus paid to the landlord by the lodger, the ser- 
vants have no claim to separate gratuities. 

The term "attendance" is understood to meanusnal 
domestic services, such aa the cleaning and putting in 
order of the rooms, attending at meals, and other ser- 
vices usually rendered by domestics; but ironing of 
linen, washing, mending, and cleaning of clothes and 
boots, or attending upon the sick are expressly ex- 
cluded. 

17. All disputes arising between visitors and lodg- 
ing-house keepers must be laid before the Royal Dis- 
trict Assessor, at the Amtsgebaude, or district oEGces, 
Neue Wiese, who will use his best endeavours to arrange 
the matters in dispute satisfactorily ; but, failing this, 
he shall then direct the parties to apply to the law 
courts. When, however, both parties shall agree that 
the District Assessor shall be called upon to arbitrate 
the matter, his decision shall be final. 

Bath Regulations. 
I . The public baths of the town are under the direct 
control of the municipality of Carlsbad, subject to the 
general supervision of the Government. 



TOWN REGULATIONS. 69 

2. When baths are ordered, they will be allotted by 
the cashier according to priority of application. 

3. The baths are open to the public from morning 
till evening. 

4. Tickets for a bath, or for a series of baths, are 
issued in the establishment by the cashier or the bath 
attendants at the prices fixed by the tariff. Only 
tickets obtained in this way are available. Tte tickets 
must be paid for in advance. 

5. The ticket is only available at the establishment 
where it is bought and for the hour arranged. 

6. In case the patient cannot take the bath at the 
hour arranged for, at least two hours' notice must be 
given in advance, otherwise the price of the ticket will 
not be refunded. 

7. The ticket must be delivered to the attendant on 
entering the bath-room. 

8. Bathers must be punctual to the hours mentioned 
on the ticket, the time allowed being one hour for each 
bath. A bell is rung fifteen minutes before the expira- 
tion of the hour to give the bather warning to dress 
and vacate the bath-room. 

9. Every bather has the right to request that his 
bath shall be prepared in his presence; and in order 
to assure himself that the temperature of the bath is 
exactly that desired, a thermometer is placed in each 
bath-room. 

10. The bath attendants must obey strictly all orders 



70 TOWN BEGDLATIOJfS. 

given for the preparation of the baths, and must t 
bathers with proper civility. 

1 1 . The bath attendants are strictly enjoined to keep 
the bath-rooms clean and in order ; and bathers are 
also urgently requested not to damage or soil the bath- 
rooms in any way. 

12. Smokingand the use of strong- smelling linimenta 
are strictly forbidden. 

13. A bell will be found in each cabinet, which can 
be rang in case of necessity. 

14. The bath inspectors and attendants are strictly 
forbidden to interfere with the comfort of the bathers. 

I S- Any disorder in the bath-rooms, negligence, or 
incivility on the part of the bath attendants, or other 
cause of complaint, must be written in the complaint 
book, which will be found in the waiting-room, and 
which duly comes under the notice of the municipality. 

16 It is strictly forbidden to bring dogs into the Cnr- 
haus or bath-rooms. 

17 The use of the common baths is given free to the 
poor, who, however, must produce a legal certificate of 
their inability to pay, 

Bath Tariff. 

a. kr. 
One mineral salon bath in the Curhans, morning 

or evening, with service . . . . i 50 
One mineral bath in the Curhaus or in the other 

bath-houses, after 2 p.m., with service 
One mineral bath in do. before 2 p.m., with service 



o 

J 



TOWN REGULATIONS. 



71 



J) 



» 



)) 



» 



JJ 



)5 



>5 



>) 



)J 



>> 



7) 



>> 



One mineral douche bath, with service 
One Russian steam bath and cold douche, with- 
out service .... 
One cold douche bath, without service 
One peat bath, including a bath of fresh water 

afterwards, as follows : — 
With 48 kilogrammes of peat 

60 

72 

84 

96 
One salon peat bath in the new Curhaus bath 
One iron bath ..... 

One bath at the Sauerbrunnen 
One fresh-water bath, with service . 
Each person in the public bath 
Heating the bath-room with woodfire 

Use of Bath Linen. 

Each bath-gown ..... 

Each bath-sheet ..... 

Each towel ...... 

Where a salon bath is taken, the price of bath 
linen is double these rates. 

In the Curhaus only peat baths can be had. 
With 6 kilogrammes of earth . . . . 

,,12 „ ,,.... 
Bran in addition, each 3 kilos 



fl. 


kr. 


. I 


SO 


. I 





. 


60 


. 2 





2 


30 


. 2 


60 


. 2 


80 


. 3 





• 3 





. I 





I 





. I 





. 


s 


. 


20 


. 


20 


. 


10 





4 



o 24 
o 48 
o so 



72 



TOWS BEQULATIOKS. 



H. kr. 

20 

1 D 

o 70 
o 40 

o 20 



Carlsbad Sprudel soap-lye, per litre 
Carlsbad Sprudel-lye salt, per kilo. 
With Sprudel soap in addition . 
Sea-salt, 2 to 5 kilos., per kilo. . 
Common- salt, 3 to 5 kiloa., per kilo. 

In every bath-house there is a complaint book. 

Regulations for Public Carriages. 



1. The hirer is at liberty to select any vehicle he 
may choose, without regard to its position upon the 

2. Whore the carriage is hired by the hour, the fare 
commences from the time of engaging the carriage. 
Where the fare is paid by distance, a delay of ten 
minutes is allowed ; beyond this time, for each half- 
honr'a waiting, for a one-horse carriage, 40 kr. ; two- 
horse carriage, 60 kr. For a longer time, in which a 
wait of three hours is included, for each half-honr's 
delay beyond this time, one-horse carriage, 20 kr. ; 
two-horse carriage, 30 kr. 

3. From 9 P.M. to 6 a.m. half-fare additional is 
charged. If the carriage is hired by the hour, during 
the day, and is kept beyond g p.m., half-fare additional 
is to be paid for the time after that hour. 

4. No charge is made for small articles taken inside 
the carriage. For luggage carried outside a one-horse 
carriage, not exceeding i| cwt., 30 kr., and on a two- 
horse carriage, not exceeding 2 cwt., 50 kr. 



TOWN REGULATIONS. 73 

5. Should the carriage, after being hired, be counter- 
manded by the hirer, a compensation of gne florin for a 
one-horse carriage, and i fl. 50 krs. for a two-horse 
carriage must be paid, unless the delay, if reckoned 
by time, entitle the driver to more. 

6. The driver of a carriage can in no case decline to 
take a fare, unless he can show it to be impossible to 
undertake it. 

7. If the drive be interrupted by any accident to 
either the driver or his vehicle, he has no claim what- 
ever on the hirer. 

8. If the driver of a public vehicle have accepted an 
engagement, he shall make it known by laying his whip 
down on his seat. 

9. The driver is bound to supply the hirer with the 
same carriage as he had in use when hired ; and, unless 
by the express consent of the hirer, he cannot transfer 
the contract to any other driver. 

10. Public carriages are required, when conveying a 
fare, to proceed at a trot whenever the ground will 
permit. 

11. The driver is bound, whenever he is hired by 
time, to show the hirer his watch and to call attention 
to it ; should he fail to do this, the time, as computed 
by the hirer, will be assumed to be correct without 
further question. 

12. One-horse carriages ax©. bound to be capable of 
holding three persons, and' two-horse carriages five 
persons. 



74 TOWN KEG0LATHHIB. 

13. The driver is not permitted, unless with tlia 
espreaa consent of tlie hirer, to convey any other 
person either in the can-iage or on the box. 

14. Each carriage is bound to have hunj; in the 
carriage a, fahr-hiUeten block; on the front of the leavea 
of this block a tariiF of fares must be printed. The 
back of the leaf may be used by the passenger for 
making any complaint, which should be sent to the 
Burgomaster at Carlsbad, either by being at once handed 
to a policeman or sent through the post. 

Fares. 

Fares to any place not mentioned in this list are left 
to be a matter of private arrangement between the 
driver and hirer. 

Bt/ Time. 
I. For driving within the precincts of Carlsbad 
(bounded by the Egerbriicke, Salzaudhaus, Biirgerver- 
sorgungshaus, along the main road to the Reichsadler, 
Helenenhof, Eellaria, English Church, and by the Park- 
strasse and the Alte Bahnhofstrasse) — 

fi. kr. 

Two-horse carriage for the first J hour . . i 20 

„ „ „ every subsequent J hour O 60 

One-horse carriage for the first J hour . . o JO 

„ „ „ beyond I and less than J 

hour 80 

„ „ „ for every subsequent J 

hour . . . . . o 20 



TOWN REGULATIONS. 



75 



By Distance, 



Two-horse 
Carriage. 



II. From any point within the precincts 

of the town for the drive- 
To Sans-Souci (Karlsbriicke) Schon- 
hrunn, Posthof, Hospital, Swimming- 
bath, Klein- Versailles 
To Jagerhaiis, Donitzer Waterworks, 
Drahowitz, Cemetery, Freundschafts- 
Baal, Kaiserpark .... 
To Restaurant Leibold at Pirkenham- 

To Aberg, Leoiihard, Bergwirthshaus, 
Zettlitz, Schwarzenbergbriicke, Aich, 
Dallwitz, Fischem, Pirkenhammer 
(including the factories) . 

III. From any point within the precincts of 

the town, including a stay of three 
hours and return drive — 

To Altrohlau 

To Schlackenwerth, Lichtenstadt, Tiip- 
pelsgriin, Engelliaus 

To Elbogen, Giesshiibl-Puchstein, Giess- 
hiibler Porcelain Works . 

To Petschau, Buchau .... 

To Joachimsthal 

To Hauenstein, Welchau 

To Schlackenwerth and back through 
Lichtenstadt 

Through Fischem, Altrohlau, Tiippels- 
griin and Edersgriiu to Lichtenstadt 
and back 

To Elbogen and back through Schlag- 
genwald and Pirkenhammer . 

To Elbogen, fetching the passengers 
from Hans Heilinga Warteplatz and 
back through Aich or Hammer 

To Giesshiibl-Puchstein and back along 
the Schlackenwerther Chau3see 

To Giesshiibl and back along the 
Schlackenwerther Chaussee but al- 
lowing time to see Schlackenwerth . 



fl. 


kr. 


I 


O 


I 


50 


2 


50 



)9 



Oi e-horse 
Carriage. 



fl. kr. 



o 70 

I O 
I 50 



2 O 



6 





4 





6 


70 


4 


50 


8 





•) 





9 





6 





10 





7 





12 





8 






10 



76 TOWH REGULATIONS. 

IV. From the Bailway Station. 

1. To any point within the town or vice v 

fl. kr. 
Two-horse carriage . . . . ,20 
One-horae „ . . . . . i 20 

2. To any of the places mentioned above in 

§§ II. or III. or vice versd — 
(a) For all places on the right bank of the 

Eger, in addition to the regular fare as 

above mentioned — 
Two-horee carriage . . . . . i 20 
One-horse „ . . . o 60 

(i) For all places on the left bankof Eger, 

deduct from the regular fare aa above 

mentioned — 
Two-horse carriage . . . . 1 20 

One-horse j; - ■ . . O 60 

STasDS. 
For two-horse vehicles: Theaterplatz and Kaiaerstrasse. 
For one-horse vehicles : Marktplatz, Geweihdiggaaae, 

Sprudelgaase, Lower Kaiseratrasse and Parkstrasae, 

behind the military batha. 

Regulations for Hiring Donkeys and Donkey- 

CARRIAGEa. 

The office where orders are taken is in the Stadthans, 
in the Milhlhadgasse (Qrst Soor, Stadtkaasa). 



TOWN REGULATIONS. 7/ 



Fares. 



fl. 


kr. 


4 


SO 


4 


o 


3 






For the whole day 

For the whole day, if hired for one week or 
more ....... 

For half a day ...... 

During the forenoon : for a ride or drive to the 
Kreuzberg, the Hirschensprung, or any 
other place at a similar distance . . i 50 
During the forenoon : for a ride or drive, on 

level ground, per hour . . , . o 80 
Drive to the springs or baths within the 
town, including the Eisen- and Sauer- 
brunn baths, with or without return drive o 80 
The drivers are not entitled to ask for any douceur, 
as they are employed by the town. 

For any ride or drive commenced in the forenoon, but 
not completed until after i p.m., the fare for the day has 
to be paid. 

The fares for conveyance to the baths are only in 
force until i o'clock P.M. ; after which time half a day 
must be paid for. 

If any other object than a mere visit to the baths be 
combined with a ride or drive thither, the fare according 
to time comes at once into force. 

In ordering donkeys the following regulations must 
be observed : — 

Only such orders as are lodged at the above office will 
be attended to. 



78 TOWH HEGULATTOHS. 

Owing to the distance of the stables from the office, 
it is requested that orders may be given at least half an 
hour before the animal is required. 

More than one grown-up person or two children under 
the age of twelve years are not allowed to sit in the 
carriage. A contravention of this rule will involve the 
driver in punishment. He is also not permitted to 
make his donkey go faster than a walking pace. 

Payment mast be made in advance, and the hirer will 
be provided with a ticket, which is only available on the 
day of issue. Afternoon excursions can only be coun- 
termanded up to 12 o'clock noon. 

It is requested that any improper behaviour on the 
part of the driver may be at once reported to the town 
officials in the above-named office. 



To the station from the Becher Platz, opposite the 
Hotel Goldener Schild, every hour before the departnre 
of the trains. Fare, 40 kr.; each piece of luggage, lOkr. 

To Leibold's Restaurant and Firkenhammer from the 
Theater Plata, Neuewiese, ist May to 30th Septem- 



ber : — 

From Carlsbad 
Theater- Plalz : 

1,30 P.M. 



Arrive at Leibold's 
Restaurant : 



2.40 1 
340 I 



TOWN REGULATIONS. 79 



Ret am from 


Pirkenliammer to the 


Leibold Restaurant to 


Leibold Restaurant : 


Carlsbad : 


2.IO P.M. 


5.30 P.M. 


2.40 „ 


6 „ 


340 „ 


6.30 „ 


4.10 „ 


7 


5.10 „ 


• • • 



Fare, 40 kr. 

Omnibuses also run to ErVs Restaurant^ Habsburg, 
and Pirkenhammer^ starting from the Goldener Thurm, 
Sprudelgasse — 

Leaving Carlsbad at 9.30 A.M. and 1.30 and 3 p.m. 

Returning at 12.15, 2.15, 4.30, and 6 P.M. 

Single fare, 40 kr. 

To Aich, from ist May to 30th September, from the 
Theatre Platz— 

Leaving Carlsbad at 1.30 and 3.30 P.M. 

Returning at 5.30 and 7 p.m. 

Single fare, 40 kr. 

To DcUlmtZy from ist May to 30th September, from 
the Dienstmann Institut, on the Becher Platz — 

Leaving Carlsbad at 1.30 and 3.30 p.m. 

Returning at 5 and 7 p.m. 

Single fare, 60 kr. Return fare, i fl. 

To Giesshubl PtccJistein, from ist May to 30th Septem- 
ber, starting from the omnibus office on the Becher 
Platz— 

Leaving Carlsbad at 1 1 a.m. and i p.m. 

Returning at 6 p.m. 

Return fare, I fl. 50 kr. 



r 


80 TOWN EEGDLATIONB. 

To Fetschau, from the Post-Office, 12.30 p.m.; re 
turn, 6.30 P.M. Fare, l florin. 

To Neudeck, from the Post-Office, 6.30 and 11.3a 
A.M. ; retmm, 6 A.M. and 3 P.M. Two honra. Fare, 9c 
creutaera. 

Post asd I'^legraph Regtjlatioxs. 

The Post and Telegraph Office ia in the Markt Platz 
and is open in summer 6 a.m. to 12 p.m. (ist May to 30th 
September), and in winter from 8 a.m. to 9 P.M. Foi 
Bale of stamps, issuing of post-office orders, and register 
ng of letters, from 7 a.m. to 7 P.m. 

There are also branch and pillar post-officea in variou 
parts of the town. 

Postal Rates. 






CountriM. 


Prepaid, e^h 


PMt-QimJs, 
grommss. 


Printsdniat. 
ter, prepsM, 
traon 50 gram- 




Austria . . . .1 
Germany , . . / 
Montenegro and Servia . 
All other European coun- \ 
tries, Canada and the \ 
United States of America J 
Soutli America and Asia 


5kr. 
7 ., 


2kr. 
4 .1 

8 .. 


2kr. 

3 ., 
6 „ 




Unstamped letters are forwarded, but double postage 
s collected on delivery. Only Anatrian post-cards an< 
tamps are available. 





town regulations. 8 i 

Telegraph Rates, 
Austria-Hungary — 

A first charge of 24 kr., and each word . 2 kr. 
France — 

First S words 60 kr., and each additional 

word • . . * • . . 12 „ 
Great Britain and Ireland — 

First 5 words 85 kr., and for each addi- 
tional word . . • . . . 17 „ 
German Empire — 

A first charge of 24 kr., and each word . 6 „ 
Italy— 

A first charge of 24 kr., and each word . 8 „ 
Switzerland — 

Per word . . . . . , 6 „ 

United States and Canada — 

From I fl. 27 kr. to 2 fl. 47 kr., according 

to destination. 
In all cases the address and signature must ba p^id for. 

Tariff of the Dienstmann-Institute. 

Froprietor—WiLLUM Knoll. 

1. For messages and light employments, or carrying 
packages up to 15 kilogrammes, i hour, 15 kr. ; J 
hour, zo kr. ; I hour, 30 kr. ; each additional hour, 
15 kr. 

2. For heavy work, and for messages beyond town 
limits, J hour, 20 kr. ; J hour, 30 Jn*, ; I hour, 40 kr. ; 
each additional hour, 20 kr. 

F 



82 TOWN REGULATIONS. 

3. Carrying packages to and from the railway station, 
50 to 60 kilogrammes, 60 kr. Each additional 10 kilo- 
grammes, 10 kr. 

4. Messages from 9 p.m. to 6 a.m. are charged half 
as much again as ordinary messages. 

Cleaning clothing and boots, per week, each per- 
son, I florin. 

Carrying a piano one way, 2 florins. 
„ „ both ways, 3 florins. 



( 83 ) 




yiii. 

DESCRIPTION OF THE TOWN AND PRINCIPAL 

BUILDINGS. 

|HE town of Carlsbad consists principally of 
two long streets, which extend for about 
a mile on either side of the river Tepel, 
a clear and rapid stream, which winds through 
the town in the shape Of the letter S, and wiich 
is crossed by one large stone, and a number of 
small iron and wooden bridges. These streets, as we 
approach from the station, take the names, on the left 
bank, of the Gartenzeile, Mlihlbadgasse, and Alte 
Wiese ; and on the right the Eger Strasse, Kaiser 
Strasse, Krenzgasse, Sprudelgasse, and Neue Wiese, 
the latter being simply portions of the long Marienbad 
road, which runs through the town. In the centre of 
the town, on the left bank, is the Markt^Platz, in the 
immediate neighbourhood of which are the Sprudel 
Colonnade, Miihlbrunn Colonnade, and the Curhaus — 
the principal places of resort of the visitors. From 
the Markt Platz along the left bank of the river runs 
the Alte Wiese, a favourite promenade (see page 109). 



The oldest portion of the town is that surrounding the 
Markt Platz and Spmdel Colonnade, while the newer 
hotels and villas extend on either side of the Tepel, 
and line the heights above the left bank. Beyond the 
Alte Wiese the valley of the Tepel is laid oat with 
beautiful walks and drives, having all the advantages 
of a large and well-kept park. (For detailed descrip- 
tions of the walks and drives see page lOQ.) 

The town at present has about 12,000 inhabitants 
and 900 houses, mostly hotels and lodging-houses, the 
majority of which have been built within the last thirty 
years. At the time of the visit of Charles IV. in 
1358, the town only contained forty bouses ; and even 
two hundred years later, only consisted of the Marlct 
Platz and the Sprudelgasse. The next streets built 
were the Kreuzgasse and the Andreasgasse. The first 
houses on the Alte Wiese were built in 1 690, and in 
1796 the first shops on the Alte Wiese were erected 
by the town guilds, in whose possession they remained 
until 1842, when they were sold to private individuals 
and rebuilt. None of the buildings in Carlsbad have 
in themselves any particular historical or architectural 
interest ; but, taken as a whole, the town is well built, 
and, aided by its natural attractions, it is picturesque 
and cheerful. 

The chief occupation of the inhabitants of Carlsbad 
is housing, feeding, and generally supplying the wants 
of its numerous visitors. Its principal industrief 
the polishing and carving of objects made of sprudel- 



I 



TOWN AND BDILDINGS. 85 

stone, the manufacture of the various products of the 
Carlsbad salts, and of hand-mado needlea and pins, 
which latter have quite a celebrity, and which as 
late aa the commencement of this century wore known 
throughout Germany and Austria as " Carlsbad wares." 
Goethe during one of his visits sent a parcel of Carls- 
bad pins to his favourite Frauleiu von Stein, with a 
letter telling her they cost 7 marks, " as brass was so 
dear." There are also a few manufactories of boots and 
gloves, which are of excellent quality, A considerable 
trade is carried on in porcelain, which is made in the 
vicinity. 

Other specialties of Carlsbad are " Carlsbad plums," 
which are prepared by the fruit being partially dried in 
the sun, and which are even superior to the finest French 
plums; and "Carlsbad wafers," a thiu dessert biscuit, 
which can bo had best at Barbara Bayr'a, Konigshof, 

The inhabitants of Carlsbad are a kindly, intelligent, 
and industrious people, and always willing to do all 
in their power to add to the comfort and enjoyment 
of vkitors. An exceedingly pleasant trait in their 
character is their kindness to birds, of which there are 
a great number and variety in and around Carlsbad. 
Killing, and robbing the neata of small birds is strictly 
forbidden by law, and besides this, a society cares for 
and feeds them during the winter. The birds are 
therefore naturally very tame, and any visitor who 
has a few crumbs to scatter can soon attract numbers 
of them round him. 




TOWK AND BUILDIXGS, 

The majority of the inhabitants are Roman Catholics, 
bat there are German and English Protestant and 
Enssian churches, as well as a Jewish synagogue. 

Public Buildings. 
The principal centre of attraction is the Sprudel 
Colonnade, a large and handsome pavilion of iron and 
glass, erected in 1 879 over the Sprudel and Hygeia 
Bpringa at a cost of 254,000 florins. The principal 
entrances are from the Sprudelgasae and at the west 
end. The springs are in the north-east portion of the 
building, while the south-west portion consists of a 
large promenade hall, in which is ample space for a 
thousand people. Here the orchestra plays every 
morning from six until eight. After drinldng each 
glass of the waters, visitors promenade round the hall 
to the strains of the band for a quarter of au hour, all 
being done with the greatest regularity, notices being 
put up at either end requesting the visitors to circulate 
from right to left. This long line of promenaders, of 
many nationalities, with their varied costumes, is one 
of the most picturesque sights in Europe, to which a 
grotesque element is lent by the earthenware muga 
which each patient carries, either in their hand or, 
more generally, suspended from their necks. The hall 
is prettily decorated with palms and flowering plants, 
while round the walls and up the centre are ranged 
comfortable seats for the use of the Curguest'a spec- 
tators. On dark days the hall is brilliantly illuminated 



I 



TOWW AND BUILDINaS. 87 

by handsome chandeliers. Opposite the orchestra is a 
monument erected in honour of the celebrated Carlsbad 
physician, Dr. Becher, died 1792 (see p. 40). En- 
tered from the promenade hall are the rooms containing 
the springs, which are conducted from the main reser- 
voir by pipes. (For description of the springs see 
P- 93-) 

Beaide the Sprudel Colonnade is the Sprudd Baih- 
house, which contains thirty-six baths ; the hatha on 
the ground floor being of porcelain, and on the second 
floor of metal. 

On the opposite side of the river, below the Martt 
Platz, fronting on the Muhlbrnnngasse, is the MiiMbrunn 
Colonnade, o, handsome covered promenade of Corin- 
thian architecture, 410 feet in length, supported by 
' ^6 pillars, and decorated with eight classical stone 
statoea. The building was completed in iSSo at a 
cost of 800,000 florins. Under the Colonnade are the 
Miihlbrunnen (p. lOl), Neubrunnen (p. lOl), There- 
sienbrunnen (p. 103), Eemhardsbrunnen {p. 102), and 
Elizabethquelle (p. 103). 

Near the Miihlbrunn Colonnade, and attached to the 
Stadthaus, is the Muhlhad, which is supplied by the 
waters of the springs in the Miihlbrunn Colonnade. 
These bath-rooms are exceedingly comfortable and well 
fitted up, the baths being of porcelain. 

The StadthaiLs is a plain building, erected in 1874 
on the foundations of an older structure built in 
1 5 10. 

Beyond the Muhlbrunn Colonnade is the Curhaus, a 



•taws AND BUILDINQ3. 

large castellated building of little arcliifcectural preten- 
eiona, erected in 1874—77, ^^ ^ ^°^^' of 350,000 floring. 
The interior, however, is comfortable, and admirably 
fitted for the purpose for which it was designed. The 
lower storey is used for bathing purposes — the bathing 
rooms being high and well Tentilated, and some of 
them, called " Salon-bader," are luxuriously fitted up. 
In all, there are aeventy-five mineral baths, twenty-six 
peat baths, and a Russian steam bath, which, how- 
ever, is fitted up in a rather primitive style. On thia 
floor there is also a reception room. In the upper 
storey is a large concert salon, in which concerts and 
balls are given (p. 61), a restaurant, and three reading- 
rooms, which are liberally supplied with the principal 
European newspapers. The English and American 
newspapers taken are — The Times, The Daily News, ' 
Daily Telegraph, Standard, Illustrated London News, 
Punch, Galignani's Messenger, New York Herald, Tri- 
bune, and the American Register. Readers pay a small 
fee for admission (see page 63). 

To the east of the Curhaua is the Stranger's Hospital 
for poor patients visiting Carlsbad, containing four bed 
and four bath-rooma. Beyond the Curhaua, to the 
west, is the Military Hospital, in which accommoda- 
tion is provided for 3 3 officers and 2 1 privates. 
The hospital was built in 1856 from the proceeds 
of a lottery. In the dining-hall is a large oil- 
painting by Randier, representing the discovery of the 
springs at Carlsbad by Charles IV. Admission to 
the iiospital can only be had by an order from the 



I 



i 




TOWN AHD BTHLDINQa. 89 

CommandaQt. The springs which supply the hospital 
are the Hochhergerqaelle and tlie Kaiserbmnn. 

Beyond the hospital is the Stadt-Park, a prettily 
laid out open apace, shaded with trees, under which 
■ tables and chairs are placed for visitors to drink their 
coffee, and sit and listen to the band. In the park is 
an excellent restaurant, open rat May to ist September, 

On the opposite side of the river, near the stone 
Ijridge, is the Neutad, a commodioua stone building, 
completed in 1880, at a cost of 165,600 florins ex- 
clusive of the cost of the ground. On the ground- 
floor are twenty-two peat baths, and on the first floor 
twenty-four mineral baths, the firsfc-class baths being 
of porcelain, and the second-clasa of wood. 

Opposite the Neubad is the Zweite Volksckule, in the 
upper storey of which is the Tovm Library and Museum, 
open Wednesdays and Saturdays, 2 to 4 p.m. The 
Museum contains collections of natural history, minerals, 
and a few curiosities. 

On a small eminence above the Markt Platz is 
the oldest building in Carlsbad, the Siadtthurm, or 
Town-tower, erected in i6o8 on the site of the castle 
bnilt by Charles IV. in 1358. It was greatly dam- 
aged by fire in i^S/, and rebuilt a few years latei". 
Formerly all guests arriving at Carlsbad were wel- 
comed by a flourish of trumpets sounded from the 
town tower. This custom was abolished in 1852, as 
visitors began to complain about their rest being con- 
Btantly disturbed at all hours. 

In the Morkt Platz is a monument to the ITuly 



go TOWN AND BUILDINGS. 

Trinity, erected in 1 7 1 6 by the Countess Wrtby, in 
commemoration of the escape of Carlsbad from the 
plague, which raged throughout Bohemia in 171 3. 
In former times on Trinity Sunday the clergy of the 
town marched round the statue in proceaaion after 
morning semce. 

Nearly opposite the statue is the Post and Telegraph 
Office, erected in 1875. (For post and telegraph 
regulations see p. 80.) 

The moat beautiful public building in Carlsbad is 
the new Theatre on the Neue Wiese, a handsome 
ediSce of Ilenaissance architecture, with a fine facade 
decorated with groups of figures representing Poetry 
and Music, and richly ornamented with designs in 
terra-cotta and pi aster- work. The building — which 
was erected in a remarkably short space of time, the 
first stone having been laid on the ist of November 
1885, and the first performance given on the 15th 
of May 1886 — occupies the site of the old theatre 
erected in 17S4. The interior ia chastely decorated 
in white and gold in Louis XVI. style, the balcony 
panels being richly upholstered in red velvet. On 
the ceiling are four fine frescoes. The whole theatre 
is flighted with electric light, and the body of the 
house is protected from fire by an iron curtain. On 
the first and second floor are refreshment buffets. 
(For hoars of performance and prices of seats see 
page 59.) 

Churches. — Tlie principal church in Carlsbad ia 
the Church of St. Magdalen ov the Belcanal Kirehe, 



TOWN AND BUILDINGS. 9 I 

a plain RomaneRque edifice with twotowers, erected in 
1733-36 on the site of an older building which had 
fallen into great disrepair, and which was pulled down 
by desire of the Emperor Charles VI., who made a fir^t 
donation of 1 000 ducata towards the new building. 

It is not known when the original church was 
founded, the church records having been destroyed 
during the great fire of 1 604. The earliest mention 
of it, however, in existing records ia in 1419. 

Like the exterior, the interior is plain, and contains 
little of either antiquarian or artistic interest. Above 
the high altar ia a picture of St. Magdalen, which 
was presented by Lord Odo Russell, the late British 
Ambassador at the Court of Berlin, who lived for some 
time at Carlsbad, and became a great favourite in the 
town. To the left is a painting representing the con- 
version of St. Magdalen, and on the right the Cruci- 
fision with St. Magdalen at the Cross. Above the 
altar are four colossal figures of the Evangelists. 

The services in the church are performed by the 
deacons of the ancient Order of the Eed Cross with 
the Star, which was established during the Crusades to 
care for the sick and wounded. On their return from 
Palesfcine in 1227 they settled in Bohemia, and were 
presented with a hospital in Prague by King Wcn- 
celaua L, which is still under their charge. They 
were admitted to Holy Orders by Pope Gregory IX., 
and have since supplied ministers to many of the 
Bohemian churches. The Order still holds consider- 
able possessions in Austria and Bohemia. 




92 TOWN ASD BDILDISOS, 

The Andreas Kirch-e in the Pragei'strasse, dating 
f[-om 1500, is the oldest ecclesiastical building in 
Carlsbad. Over the altar ia a fine painting of the 
martyrdom of St. Andreas, which is attributed to 
Ijeonardo da Vinci It waa the gift of Conntaaa 
Pauline von Lnxenetein in 1677, A copy of tliia 
picture is in the Belvedere at Vienna, In the dis- 
used graveyard attached to the church, a son of Mozart, 
who died at Carlsbad in 1844, ia buried. 

Hours of Service in the jRoman Catholic Churches. — 
Mass daily at 7, 9, and 10 a.m. Sundays and festivah, 
maaa, 7 and 8 a.m. High mass with sermon, 9 a.m. 
Mass, 1 1 A.M Vespers, 3 p.m. 

The German Protestant Church in the Marienbad- 
strasse is a plain building consecrated in 1865. The 
church waa erected by subscription.^ collected among 
the Curguests, among whom the King of Prussia and 
King George of Hanover were liberal subscribers. 
Services on Sundays at 1 1 A.M, Pastor Rodewald. 

The Russian Church, Marienbadstrasse, was erected 
in 1867. Services from May ist to September 30th 
— Sundaya and festivals, 1 1 a.m. and 6 p.m. 

The English Church on the Schlossberg, a tastefully 
designed Gothic edifice, waa consecrated by the Lord 
Bishop of London in 1877. Services from ist May 
to 30th September — Sundays 1 1 a.m. and 4 P.M. 
The services are performed by visiting clergymen of 
the Church of England. 



( 93 ) 



* * 




IX. 

THE SPRINGS OF CARLSBAD. 

IRADITION tells us that the method in which 
the Emperor Charles IV. took his bath was 
by sitting on a stone biench, carved out of the 
rock, over the Kaiser Karlsquelle, with his legs in the 
Water. For the first two centuries after the discovery 
of the springs the waters were only used for bathing. 
During this period the patient was kept in the hot mine- 
ral water for eight to twelve hours at a time, the object 
being to cause an eruption to break out over the whole 
body, in order that the " evil humours," as they were 
called, might be brought to the surface ; or, as we are 
told, " the waters bit the skin so that the evil matter 
might come but." When this took place the patient was 
pronounced in a fair way to recovery. It was not until 
1 550 that the patieiits began to drink the waters. This 
treatment was advocated by Dr. Payer in a pamphlet 
published in 1522, in which he writes — "Nature has 
created this bath for patients and not for anybody's lust or 
amusement." The new treatment at first seems to have 
been as heroic as the old, as Dr. Hoffmann, a celebrated 



physician of liia time (1705), prescribed a dose o 
teen to twenty glasses of the water as a commencement, 
which was gradually increased to thirty or forty glasses. 
Dr. Tilling (1756), who was himself under treatment, 
states that he drank from fifty to sixty glasses within 
two hours. At that time drinking was not done, as at 
present, in the open air at the springs, but in a warm 
room, and the effect was similar to that of drinking 
water in a Turkish bath. When the drinking of the 
waters was first instituted it was alternated with the 
bathing — seven days being devoted to drinking, and the 
next seven days to the baths ; but as time went on 
the latter period was gradually diminished and the 
former extended, till finally both the waters and the 
baths were taken together. In 1766 the first really 
scientific analysis of the physical and chemical proper- 
ties of the mineral waters was made by Dr. David 
Becher, who published a pamphlet embodying his ana- 
lysis and setting forth his treatment, which may be said 
to have been the first work which attracted general 
attention to the springs of Carlsbad. 

The first document setting forth the virtoes of the 
mineral waters at Carlsbad is a fine Latin Ode written 
by Dr. von Bohuslaw of Lobkowitz in i J 10. 

The theory of the rising of the springs may be 
generally explained as follows. The rain water and 
melting snow, and probably part of the river Tepel and 
its tributary streams, percolating through the crevices 
of the strata of gi'anite rocks which underlie the 



THE SPRINGS OF CARLSBAa 9 5 

district, absorb a number of mineral constituents — 
carbonate of soda, lime, and magnesia, sulphate of soda 
aud potash, chloride of sodium, &c. The celebrated 
chemist Herr Gottl, by a series of exhaustive experi- 
ments, has proved conclusively that the granite of 
which the hills round Carlsbad are formed contains all 
the mineral constituents which have been found in 
the springs. These waters penetrate to a great depth, 
which, from the temperature of the springs, is ascer- 
tained to be not less than 8000 feet. By the action 
of the earth's heat at this depth on these mineral con- 
stituents, carbonic acid gas is given oflF, which forces 
the water back again to the surface, the hottest spring 
being that which has the shortest channel connecting 
it with the main reservoir. This spring is the Sprudel, 
but all the other springs in Carlsbad come from the 
same source. The taste of all the waters, — which are 
free from smell and npt unpleasant, having been com- 
pared to the flavour of over-salted chicken broth, — is 
the same, except that the cooler waters contain rather 
more carbonic acid gas. When exposed to the air the 
waters become cloudy and precipitate a brown sub- 
stance, which is precisely of the same nature as the 
Sprudelstein. The daily discharge of the springs is 
2,cxx),ooo gallons, of which two-thirds is discharged 
by the Sprudel. 





)6 THE SPEIKGS OF CABLSBAD. 

I'HYSICAL and CUEMICAL PR0FERTIE8 OF THE SPRINGS. 

Analyses of the springs have been made by Dr 
Berger (1708), Dr. Borries (1733), Dr. Becher (1770) 
Dr. Schneider (1855), Herr Rayaky (1862), Herr Gott 
;i87o), and by Professor Ludwig and Dr. Mauthne 
1879). Their leading conatitneiita, sulphate of soda 
carbonate of soda, and muriate of soda, place them 
among the so-called alkaline and saline springa, 01 
Glauber salt waters. 

A comparative analysis of nearly all the springs has 
leen frequently made, aa above mentioned, in order to 
ascertain the similarity or the difference which the 
springs may show in their composition. It will be 
readily seen on examining the following table, showing 
the results obtained by Professor Ludwig in 1879 of the 
hree chief springs, that their constituents are almoB 
dentical : — 

Leading Constituents of the Waters 


1 


/ 


.0,000 GrsnuoHi-t the WalEf 


Spmdel. 
Tenip. t6j- F. 


Temp. Tjj- F. 






Sulphate of aoda . . . 
Carbonate of soda . . 
Chloride of fiodium . . 
Carbonate uf lime . . 

Sulphate of potash . . 

Carbonic acid half com- J 

bioed ( 

Carbouic acid free . . 


24.05 
.2.9S 
10.42 

s; 

0.86 


23-9' 

12.79 

1:1 

1.19 


23.16 

I2.2S 

10.05 
1-93 


55. '7 
7.76 
1.90 


54-73 
7.68 
517 


53-30 
7-49 
5.S2 


» 1 


■ 



THE SFBmOS 07 CARLSBAD. 



97 



Later analysis has revealed soma other constituents, 
but only in veiy small quantities, namely, carbonate of 
iron, oxydulate of manganese, phosphate of alumina, 
phosphate of lime, fluoiide of potassium, iodide and 
bromide of sodium, lithium, boracic acid, rubidium, 
cffisinm, and arsenic. 

The temperature of the springs is as follows : — 



SmruAel l , 

Cv/rhavaqmlU 

Nevhruwn . 

FelsenquelU 

Theregienhrann 

Miihlbrunn 

Schlossbrann 

Marktbrunn 

Kauerbrunn 

Elimbelhqudle 

Roekbergerquelle 

Kaiser CnHquelk 

RiitaUche Kronen^udU 

SpraddsUuerling 



eof 



34' 



Eleven only of these springs are now prescribed by 
phyaicians, viz., ( r .) The Sprudel ; (2.) The Bemhards- 
IruTvn; (3.} TkeNeuhnmn; (4.) The FeUmguelle ; (5.J 
The Theresienlrunn ; (6.) Tlie MiiliMrunn; (7.) The 
Schlossbnmn; (S.) The Marktbrunn; (9.) The Kaiser- 
hnmn; (10.) The Elisabethquelle ; (ll.) The Kaiser 
Cwrlguelle. 

The Sprudel is the most abundant and the most used 



THE SPBIKOS OP CARLSBAD. 

of the Carlsbad apringa. It discharges about 90 gallons 
per minute, or 1 30,000 gallons per day. The waters are 
used both for drinking and bathing, and also for the 
manufacture of Sprudel saUa. This spring has the 
property of rapidly encrusting any objects placed in it, 
with a thick yellowish brawn coating, called sprudel- 
stein, consisting principally of lime and silicioua earth, 
the yellow colour being due to a Small quantity of iron 
which it contains. The water is so impregnated with 
this earth that the pipes which conduct it to the sur- 
face have to be cleaned four times a year. The ex- 
planation of this phenomenon is that the mineral con- 
stituents in the water are held in solution by the 
carbonic acid gas. As soon as the water comes into 
contact with the air, it discharges its gas and precipi- 
tates the solid matter it contains. In addition to this 
sprudelstein, a greenish mould is formed at the edge 
of the springs, which, on microscopic examination, has 
been found to consist of animalculse of a very low 
order. The waters are conducted from the main reser- 
voir to the surface by iron pipes, which are about 20 
feet in depth. Only about one-sixth of the water in 
the spring is discharged in the fountain, the remaindei 
supplying the various bath-houses and the factory of 
the Sprudel salts, any excess of the amount required 
for these purposes being allowed to escape into the 
Tepel, The water rises in a volume about ij ft, in 
diameter and 3 ft. iu height, and every few minutea 
suddenly springs up to a height of 6 to 8 ft., with 



THE SPBIXaS OF CAHLSBAD. gg 

a faint subterranean Bninncr, throwing up clouds of 
st'Cam. When the volume of steam becomes excessive 
it is considered an almost certain sign of approaching 
rain. The Sprudel has a temperature of 166° Fahr., hot 
enough to boil eggs ; indeed some of the thrifty house- 
keepers in the neighbourhood use the water for cooking 
purposes. (For analysis see page 96.) The analysis 
of a large body of the water made by Herr H. Gottl of 
Carlsbad gives traces of twenty metals and acids, of 
which gold is one. 

There have been many violent eruptions of the Spru- 
del when the spring, either from an excess of steam or 
estra pressure of the water, has broken through the 
upper crust, necessitating new borings and the sealing 
up again of the spring. (See page ,) During the 
great earthquake at Lisbon the spring ceased to flow 
for three days. 

The Hyoiensquelle, which springs beside the Sprudel, 
broke forth in 1809 daring one of the eruptions of the 
latter spring, when it shot up in a column as high as 
the third storey of the neighbouring houses. Coming 
from the same source, its constituents are, of course, 
identical with those of the Sprudel. It is only used for 
bathing. 

The Marktbrdxs, in the Itarbt Plata, enclosed in a 
emftH colonnade, was discovered in 1838, and is used for 
drinking. Its temperature is 122° Fahr. The follow- 
ing analysis was made by Dr. Ludwig of Vienna in 
1&79-- 



THE &PBING3 OF CAKLSBAD. 



In 10,000 grammea of water — 







Grammea 


Sulphate of potasa . 




I.814 


„ „ soda . 




23.860 


Chloride of sodium . 




10.304 


Carbonate of lithia . 




0.123 


„ soda . 




12.705 


„ Ume . 




3.350 


,, „ magnesia 




1.634 


„ „ strontium 




0.004 


„ ,j protoxide 0: 


iron 


0,006 


II II ji 1 


manganese 


0.002 


Borate of soda 




0.040 


Oxide of alumina . 




0.007 


Phosphate of lime . 




0.007 


Fluor of Bodium . 




0.051 


Silica . 




0.712 



54.619 

Carbonic acid in combination . . 7.681 
Free carbonic acid . . . 5.5 57 

Pensity ...... 1.00357 

The Kaisek Karlsquelle is also in the Markt 
Platz, and has been enclosed since 1871. It ia prin- 
cipally used for drinking. Thia is the oldest spring in 
Carlsbad, and ia supposed to have been that in which 
the Emperor Charles IV. bathed. 

The ScHLOaSBRUNN, discovered in 1789, is a short 
distance up the hill, beyond the Kaiser Karlsquelle. 



THE SPRINGS OF CARLSBAD, 101 

This Spring suddenly disappeared on the occasion of 
the outbreak Of the Spradel in 1809, and did not make 
its reappearance till 1823. The waters are principally 
used for drinking. (For analysis see page g6.) Op- 
posite the Schlossbrunn ia the 

RusSiSCHE EjtoHEQUELLE, discovered in 1844, and 
enclosed in the Hotel Russisehe Krone. 

The following springs are under the Miihlbrunn 
Colonnade : — 

The MiJHLBRDMN, known since 1571, and one of the 
most used of the springs. Near it is the 

Necbbunn, which, in spite of its name, has been 
known for three centuries. It was first recommended 
in 174S by Dr. Springsfeld, who gave it this name. 
It has latterly fallen into disuse, it is supposed irom 
the absurd notion that drinking it was apt to produce 
vertigo. Up to 1 748 the spring was only used for the 
treatment of sick horses. The following ia the analysis 
by Dr. Ludwig of Vienna in 1 879 : — 

In 10,000 grammes of water — 



Sulphate of potass . 


1839 


„ „ soda . 


23.654 


Chloride of sodium . 


10.309 


Carbonate of lithia . 


0.113 


„ soda . 


13.910 


,, „ lime . 


3.287 


„ „ magnesia , 


1.593 


J, „ strontium . 


0.004 



L 



1 02 THE SPRINGS OF CARLSBAD. 

Grammes. 

Carbonate of protoxide of iron . O.026 

„ ,, ,, „ manganese traces 

Borate of soda .... 0.036 

Oxide of alumina .... O.006 

Phosphate of lime .... 0.004 

Fluor of sodium .... 0.046 

Silica 0.709 

54,535 
Carbonic acid in combination . 7-627 

Free carbonic acid .... 4.372 

Density 1,00534 

Temperature 145° Fahr. 

The Berkhardsbrtjknen, whicii takes its name from 
Btatue of St. Bemhard beside it, is also but little used. 

At the back of the Colonnade is the Theresiehbhun- 
NEN, which has been used since 1571. During the great 
eruption of the Sprudel in 1809 this spring ceased to 
flow for two days. The following is the analysis by 
Dr. Ludwig of Vienna in 1 879 : — 

In 10,000 grammes of water — 



Sulphate of potass .... 1.905 

„ „ soda .... 23.774 

Chloride of sodium .... 10,278 

Carbonate of lithia .... 0.I13 

„ „ soda . - . . . 12.624 

„ „ lime .... 3.277 



THE SPRINGS OF CARLSBAD. 



103 



Carbonate of magnQsia 

V „ . J, strontium . . . 

: „ „ protoxide of iron . 

„ „ . „ „ manganese 

Borate of soda . 

Oxide of alumina .... 

Phospliate of lime . 

Fluor of sodium .... 

• • • 

Silica ...... 

Carbonic acid in combination . 
Free carbonic acid .... 
Density ..... 
Temperature 140° Fahr. 



The Elisabethquelle was discovered in 1 874. Tem- 
perature, 1 16° Fahr. This is the coolest of the springs 
in general use. The following is the analysis by Dr. 
Ludwig of Vienna in 1879 : — 

In lOjOOO grammes of water — 



Grammes. 

I.S77 
0.003 

0.017 

0.002 

0.036 

0.005 

0.009 

0.046 

0.718 

54.384 
7.584 

5.100 

1.00537 



Sulphate of potass . , 


1.840 


jy ,, soda , . . . 


• 23.769 


Chloride of sodium . , 


. 10.314 


Carbonate of lithia ... 


0.I2I 


5, ,5 soda . . . . 


. 12.799 


„ „ lime , . . . 


3.273 


5, 5, magnesia . 


1 .642 



4 THE SPRINGS OF CARLSBAD. 

Carbonate of strontiuiu . . . 0.004 

,, ,, protoxide of iron . . 0.026 

„ ,, ,, „ manganese 0.003 

Borate of soda .... O.030 

Oxide of alumina .... 0.006 

Phosphate of lime .... 0.007 

Fluor of sodium .... O.057 

Silica 0.724 

54.614 

Carbonic acid in combination . . 7.697 

Free carbonic acid .... 6.085 

Density ...... 1.00539 



Beyond the Miihlbrnnn Colonnade is the 
Felsenquelle, which came into use in 1844, and is 
one of the favourite drinking springs. The following ia 
the analysis by Dr. Ludwig of Vienna in 1879 : — 
In 10,000 grammes of water — 



Sulphate of potass . 






1.803 


„ „ soda 






23-785 


Chloride of sodium . 






10.314 


Carbonate of lithia , 






0.116 


„ „ Hoda . 






12,836 


„ „ lime . 






3-293 


„ „ magnesia 






1.615 


„ „ strontium 






0.003 


„ „ protoxide of 


iron 




0.026 



THE SPRINGS OF CARLSBAD. 



lOS 



Carbonate of protoxide of manganese 

Borate of soda 

Oxide of alumina 

Phosphate of lime 

Fluor of sodium 

Silica 



Grammes. 
0.(X)2 
0.036 
0.003 
0.007 
0.060 
0.707 



54.606 

Carbonic acid in combination . . 7.704 

Free carbonic acid .... 4.653 

Density 1.00540 

Temperature 140° Fahr. 

Opposite the Curhaus is the Curhausquelle, enclosed 
since 1866, and principally used for bathing. The 
analysis made by Herr Gottl in 1872 is as follows : — 

In 16 ounces = 7680 grains — 



Sulphate of potass . 


Grains. 
1.920 


„ „ soda 


18.217 


Chloride of sodinm . 


8.303 


Carbonate of soda . . . . 


9.002 


„ „ lime . . . . 


2.459 


„ „ magnesia 


1-537 


„ „ protoxide of iron . 


0.023 


Phosphate of alumina 


0.0 1 1 


Silica 


0.469 




41.941 


Free carbonic acid . . . . 


'5 



io6 



THE SPRINGS OF CARLSBAI>. 



The Kaiserbrunnen was discovered in 185 1, in 
excavating the foundations of the Military Hospital, to 
which it is now attached. It is open to the public for 
drinking up to 9 o'clock in the morning, after which 
it is used for the baths in the hospital. The analysis 
made by Dr. Ludwig of Vienna in 1879 ^® *® follows : — 

In 10,000 grammes of water — 





Grammes. 


Sulphate of potass . 


1.796 


„ ,, socia • • « 1 


23.411 


Chloride of sodium . 


10.103 


Carbonate of lithia . 


0.I2I 


„ „ soda 


. 12.674 


„ „ lime . 


3-173 


„ „ magnesia . 


1.602 


5, 5, strontium . 


0.004 


„ „ oxide of iron 


0.029 


„ „ „ „ manganese 


C.002 


Borate of soda 


0.056 


Oxide of alumina . 


0.C05 


Phosphate of lime . 


0.007 


Fluor of sodium 


0.0s 3 


Silex 


0.729 




53.765 


Carbonic acid in combination . 


7.581 


Free carbonic acid . . . . 


5.641 


Density 


1.00537 


Temperature 120° Fahr. 





THE SPRINGS OF CARLSBAD. 



107 



The Eisenquelle is situated on the brow of the hill 
on the right bank of the Tepel, a short distance beyond 
the stone bridge. Though known for several centuries, 
it Was only first used in 1852. This spring, rising 
from a separate source, differs entirely in its consti- 
tuents from the other waters of Carlsbad. It is classed 
among the chalybeate springs, and is recommended in 
the treatment of diseases requiring iron waters. On 
coming to the surface the water is clear, but on being 
exposed to the air it takes a slight yellowish tinge. 
Its temperature is only 48° Fahr., which it retains even 
in the hottest weather. The following is the analysis 
by Herr Gottl in 1852 : — 

In 7680 grains of water — 



Sulphate of potass . 

„ „ soda 
Chloride of sodium . 
Carbonate of soda . 

„ lime . 

„ magnesia 
Phosphate of iron . 
Oxide of iron . 
Silica 
Organic matter 



>j 



jj 



Grains. 
0.076 
0.156 
0.152 
0.092 
0.215 

0.053 
0.008 

0.34s 
0.013 

0.268 
1.378 

1.300 to 1.700. 



Carbonic acid . 
The waters are used both for drinking and bathing. 



108 THE SPRINGS OF CARLSBAD. 

The Sauerbrunn rises behind the Dorotheenau. It 
contains but few mineral ingredients, but is largely 
impregnated with carbonic acid gas, and is an agree- 
able and refreshing drinking water. It is also used for 
bathing. Its temperature varies between 53'' and 60'' 
Fahr. 



C "09 ) 



X 

WALKS. 

Tha letters and numbers in briickets refer to the numbers on the 
plan in the pocket at the end of the volume. Theae numbers are also 
plainly marked, for the guidance of visiturs, on trees or rocka at the 
sides of the paths. 

To THE Alte Wjese, Ejesweg, Posthof, and 
Kaiser Park. 



(?5fjSj^HE most frequented and one of the moat beau- 
«?l^ tiful promenades at Carlsbad is the Alte Wi^e, 
****»" " Old Mendow," which commences fi^om the 
market-place and follows the left bank of the Tepel up 
the valley. The Alte Wieae, which is beautifully shaded 
with chestnut trees, presents an animated scene in the 
season, when it is thronged by ali classes of visitors, 
who assemble here twice a day to promenade and to 
ait under the trees drinking their coffee and listening 
to the strains of the band at the Cafe Pupp. On the 
left-hand side, as far as the Caf^ PupPj and on the 
river-side as far as the second bridge, the street is 
lined with good shops, giving it the appearance of 



.1 



k 



a bazaar. At the farther end, in tiie Picpp'sche Allee, 
is the hftudsomo ffotel and Cqf^ ^upp, at which the 
band plays thrice weekly. The open space in front of 
the CaK is planted with trees, under which are placed 
tahlea and chairs for the accommodation of visitors. 
In the Cafi5 is a large and handsome salon, in which 
the band playa when the weather is unfavourable. 

Beyond the Pupp'sche Allee we come to the Kiesu-eg 
(C i), a beautifully shaded avenne which leads along 
the river up the valley as fai- as the JCaiser-Bnieke 
(C ii). We first pass the 6ne marble monument 
of Goethe, unveiled in 1883. The monument, the 
first erected to Goetho in Austria, cost 12,000 
marks. To tlie right, above a little grotto, is the 
Sasumowska Platz, an open space with seats, named 
in honour of the Russian Countess Easumowska. 
The rocks on the side of the road here are covered 
with inscriptions recording the gratitude of many visi- 
tors, high and low, for the benefits they have received 
from the Carlsbad waters. We nest pass on tbe right 
hand the Mohan Platz (C 6), a little shady nook with 
an iron table and seats, which were placed here by the 
family of the present Prince de Rohan, who has made 
forty-two visits to Carlsbad. On the truidi of a beech- 
tree we read an inscription to the memory of his 
father, the late Prince Louis de Rohan (d. 1837). 
Adjoining the Rohan Plafz is the ICaizerin Sitz, 
" Empress's Seat," ereet«d in memory of its having 
been the favourite resting - place of the Austrian 



J 



Empress, Ifaria Ludovika (the third wife of Francis I.), 
who visited Carlsbad in 1 8 lo. Groetbe has celebrated 
the erection of this Sitz in some charming verses. Oil 
the heights above the Sitz is the Summer Theatre 
(page 6 1 ). 

We now reach the Sans Souci (C 8), an elegant 
caf(5, with a concert salon and tables under the trees. 
On the opposite aide of the river is the little Doroiheen's 
Temple (Cd 12), erected in honour of the Herzogin 
Dorotbee in 1791. A few steps farther bring us to 
a small rock called the Paulinen Sitz, dedicated to 
Pauline, Duchess of HohenzoUem. From this rock 
there ia a most picturesque view of the romantic valley 
of the Tepel. 

The Kiesweg ends at the Karlsbriicke (C 11), an 
iron bridge of one arch crossing the Tepel, erected 
in 1880 at a cost of 29,000 fl. The first bridge 
here was simply a wooden foot-bridge, waggons and 
carriages having to cross the river over a ford. This 
bridge was replaced in 1798 by a carriage -bridge, 
which was carried away by a flood in iSoi. A third 
bridge was then erected and opened by Maria Theresa, 
who named it the Karlsbrticke in honour of her 
brother, the Grand Duke Charles, the victor of Aspern. 
After this the bridge was several times destroyed by 
floods, lastly in I 82 i, when the heavy wooden beams, 
being carried down the river, did immense damage, 
breaking into the houses and carrying away a number 
of the bridges lower down. In 1822 the Town 



from 4 to 6 p.m. Opposite is the SUz der Freunde, 
" the Friends' Seat," erected in i/Si, and named in 
honour of the Russian Admiral Orloff and Coant 
Briihl, who were hoon companions, and who often 
visited Carlshad together. Five years later the Countess 
Briihl erected a small granite tablet with the inscrip- 
tion, ' A Hygeia le xxi. Aout MDCCLxxxvi. erige par 
Tina Bruhl." Near it is another stone with the inscrip- 
tion, " Elle ^carte lea maux, les languers, los faihlesses, 
Sana elle beautd n'est pins " — She drives away the 
evils of languor and weakness— without her beauty 
cannot exist. 

Beyond this point the road, still following the river, 
again bends northwards, leading in about a quarter of 
an hour to the ICaiser Park (C 41), a Swiss chalet, 
with a cafe and restaurant nestling in a most pictu- 
resque and shady nook. The walk can be extended 
by following the road for half an hour to the village of 
rirkenharamer (seep. 126). 

To THE EccE Homo Kapelle, Franz Josef's HQhe, 
ASD Findlater's Temple. 

Starting from the Pupp'sehe All^e we turn to the 
right up the hill and reach the Mariannen's Suhe 
(A 10), a rocky prominence surmounted by a cross, 
from which there is a pretty view of the Alte Wiese 
and the town. On the side of the rock is the inscrip- 
tion, " Plus etre que paraitre " — " Be more than yon 



J 



WALKS. I I 5 

appear to be." This spot is named in honour of the 
Princess Marian of Saxony. From the Mariannen'a 
Ruhe we take the Butiirlin Weg (following the marks 
Ab), a road constructed by the Russian Connt Buturlin, 
which ascends through the wood in about twenty 
minutes to the Hammer or Ecee Homo Kapelh. Here 
two paths, indicated by finger-posts, branch off, lead- 
ing to the Franz Josefs Hohe, which is crowned with 
glorietta, commanding one of the most beautiful views 
round Carlsbad. Beyond the Franz Josef's Hohe we 
follow the path, A 29 to 12, where we again reach 
the Pupp'sche-All^o. 

Another path (B) from the Ecce Homo Chapel 
descends to the Findlater's Temple, a classical semi- 
circular building surrounded by a cupola, erected by 
Lord Findlater, a Scotch nobleman, in gratitude for 
the benefits be received from the Carlsbad waters. 

Beyond the Findlater's Temple a path descends 
on the right (Ca 2S-39) to the Frcundsehafl's Salle 
(p. 113), the main path (Ca 28—15) leading to the 
Schwartz en berg Obelisk and the Vier Uhr Promenade 

(p. 112). 



I 



To THE Fixdlater's Pyeamid and Fkeukdschaft's- 
IIonE. 

Starting from the Mariennen's Ruhe (A 10), near 
the Pupp'sche AlMe (see page 109), we take the first 
path to the right (Ab 1 1 ), which lends in windings 



tlirough the wood, passing the Ilrkjicn's Silz, the 
favourite resting-placs of the Grand Duchess Helena 
of Russia, to the Findlater's Pyramid, a granite 
obeliskj twenty-eight feet in height, erected in 1804 
in honour of Lord Findlater, " the friend and beautifier 
of nature, as a token of the gratitude of the citizens of 
Carlsbad." The pyramid commands a fine view of the 
valley below. 

About a quarter of an hour farther up the hill (by 
path D) we come to the Freundschaft's-Hohe {D 5), 
also commanding a beautiful view. From here a small 
footpath ascends to the Vogdhiitte, the highest point 
on the left bank of the river with the exception of the 
Aberg. From the Freundschaft's-Kohe we descend 
to the Fnedi-ich Wilhelm Plaiz, named in honour of 
Frederick William' III., from which there ia one of 
the finest views of the town. A little lower down 
(path "W) ia an open space in the wood, which is often 
illnminated. From here a path winds down to ths 
Marien KapclU, behind the Hotel Piipp. 



To THE HlRaCHENSPRUNU. 

The easiest way of making the ascent of the Hir- 
achensprung is by starting from the Markt Platz { 
OurhauE and ascending to the English chapel, where 
we take the road to the left (B 5). After passing the 
mark B 8, we find a path to the left, called the 
Jvbildumsweg, which leads to the Himmel auf Erden, a 



WALK3. I 1 J 

little retired spot which scarcely merits its high-soand- 
ing name. Beyond this we take a path to the right, 
shortly after passing Jb 2, which joins the path, de- 
scribed below, leading directly up to the Hjrschen- 
sprung. The rocks here are covered with inscriptions 
commemorating cures by the Carlsbad waters. 

A shorter but somewhat steeper path can be taken 
from the Markt Plata by passing the Schlossbrunnen 
and turning to the left along the H irschen sprung - 
gasse, from which a path (at A 5) turns to the right, 
leading in windings up the face of the hill. At Aa 8 
the path divides, and we take that leading to the 
right, which shortly after joins the path from the 
Jubilaumsweg (see above). A short distance farther 
on the path divides, leading on the right directly to 
the restaurant, and to the left to Meyer's Gloriette, a 
little temple built by a merchant of Vienna who was a 
native of Carlsbad. Near this point ia an isolated 
rock, on the summit of which is a bronze figure of 
a chamois. Beyond the Gloriette we pass a black 
marble tablet erected in honour of the Grand Duke 
of Saxe Weimar, and reach the Pdcrshoke, named 
in honour of Peter the Great, who ascended the Hir- 
Bchensprnng mounted on a bare-backed horse, and 
inscribed on the cross the letters, M, S. P. I., " Manu 
sna PetruB I." This cross has unfortunately been 
destroyed, the present cross, which is on the summit 
of the rock, being modem. On the rock before the 
cross is a colossal bust of Peter the Great, On the 



I 



liS 



WALKS. 



face of the rock Lelow is a black marble slab ori whicli 
are inscribed the names of Russian noblea who have 
visited Carlsbad, the list being headed by the name of 
Peter the Great. A few steps above the Petershohe 
is the Thercsienhohe, a small open space with a stone 
pryamid erected in honour of Theresa of Angouleme. 
A stone stairway now leads 113 to the summit of the 
Hirschen sprung, which commands a magnificent pano- 
ramic view of the valleys of the Tepel and Eger and 
the Erzgebirge. A short distance below the Bummit, 
oa a terrace, is a cafi5 restaurant. 

The Hirschensprung, or Deer's Leap, is the tradi- 
tional spot from which the deer sprang while pursued 
by Charles IV. (see page 28). 



To THE BicLvir 



AND Abeeg, 



Starting up the hill from the Marien Kapelle behind 
the Caf^ PupPi and passing the FriedHch Wilhelm 
Flats (see page l 1 6), we take the path to the right at 
B 20, and then to the left at B 19, along the brow of 
the hilljkeeping the Freundschaft's Htihe (see page I 16) 
on our right, and after a pleasant walk of about twenty 
minutes through the woods we arrive at the Katha- 
rinen Platz (E 9), a sheltered nook among the t 
named in Leopold Stohr's " Reminiscences of Carls- 
bad," after his friend Katharine Deimel. A short 
distance beyond, a path to the left (Ea I 3) leads up 
to the Bdvidere, wiiich commands a fine view of the 



valley, with the ruins of Engelbaus in the distance. 
Near the Belyidere the path (G) descends to the 
Kaiser Park (see page i 1 4), If, instead of turning off 
to the BeWidere at E 13, we keep straight on, we 
come to the Bild, so called from a picture of the 
Madonna fastened to a pine-tree. In about twenty 
minotea more, keeping along the path E, we reach 
the summit of the Abcrg, 2000 feet above the sea, or 
806 feet above the Sprudel, the highest point near 
Carlsbad. Near the summit ia a caf(5 and a tower, 
from which we have a magniScent view. Beyond the 
summit the path turns northwards, and descends to 
Ziegelhiitte, where refreshments can be had. We can 
return to Carlsbad by St. Leonard's Chapel and the 
Echo (see route below). 

Another way to reach the Aberg is by taking tho 
road from the Schlosaberg, passing the English Church, 
and following the road B till we come to B 13, when 
we take the road Be, leading to Kaiser Karl IV.'s 
Jdgerhaus. Passing the bowling-green, we come to 
an open space, and crossing a small brook, find a 
path on the left (at Be 24), which leads up to the 
Russell Sitz, a seat on a rock named in honour of Lord 
Odo Rnssell, the late British Ambassador to the Court 
of Berlin. The rock commands a fine view of the 
Krzgcbirge, through an opening in the woods. 

Beyond this we reach the Kcko, a spot where an 
echo answers five or six times. From the Echo wo 
take the path Beb, and nest pass, situated on a small 



J 



til!, the Chapel of St. Leonard, formerly the pariah 
church of the ancient village of Tkiergartcn, of which 
only a few traces now remain of old walls built of 
Sprudelatein. The inhabitants of this village migra 
to Carlsbad after King John had issued his charter 
(see page 28). The chapel has been restored by the 
late Lord Odo Russell, British Ambassador to the 
Court of Berlin, About ten minutes farther on we 
arrive at ZiegelkiUte, from whence we take a path to 
the left, leading up to the summit of the hill (ae 
rout« above), 

To THE Weisses Kreuz and ScbOtzen Park. 

Proceeding to the English Church, wo take the 
road to the right (Bb), which we follow as far as the 
Restaurant Khin Versailles (Bb 12), Here we croaa 
the meadows by a path which leads along the edge of 
the forest. A few paces beyond Bb 22 we tarn to 
the right, and in about five minutes arrive at a group 
of rocks, surmounted by a white cross, called the 
Weisses Kreuz. Farther on, the path reaches the ilario 
Sophienweg, a carriage road, along which we turn first 
to the right (33) and then to the left {3 1), and wind- 
ing round the slope of the mountain, have beautiful 
views of the valley of the Eger. We now descend 
into the valley, and take the road leading to the rail- 
way station, and passing the restaurant of the Sckutzen 
Park, return to Carlsbad. 



To THE Panorama, Waldschloss, Drei Kreuzbeeg, 

AND EWIGES LeBEN, 

Starting from the church opposite the Sprudel 
Colonnade, and proceeding up the Schulgasse to 
the left, we arrive first at the Slephan's Plats, and 
then reach the Stadtgarten, an open space in which ia a 
column surmounted by a statue of Charles IV,, erected 
in 1858 to commemorate the 500th anniversary of 
the foundation of Carlsbad. From here we have a 
fine view of the town, A short distance farther on, 
on the left, is the Panorama, a favourite point of view, 
with a cafe restaurant, in which is a collection of 
stuffed animals killed in the neighbourhood. 

The return to the town can be made by following 
the road to the left, or the walk may be extended by 
taking the first road to the right from the Prager 
Strasse, which leads by a winding path to tiie 
villa of WaldscMois. The next turning to the right 
(K) from the Prager Strasse, a short distance before 
we come to the Andreas-Kirche, leads up the hill 
ivinding round behind the slope to the Eeslaurant of 
the Drei-Kreuzberg, with a small garden. Near tho 
Restaurant is a camera ohscura. Five minutes farther 
on we reach the summit of the Drei-Kreuzberg itself, 
and in tea minutes more the summit of the Otto's-Hohe, 
named in honour of the late King of Greece, to whom 
a statue has been erected. 

To return from the Otto's-Hohe we can descend a 



I 



steep path which leads directly down to the Panorama ' 
From tho Otto'a-Hohe a footpath leada to the summit 
of the Ewiges Leben {2003 feet), the highest point 
near Carlsbad. On the summit a gloriette haa been 
erected, which commands the most extensive view , 
round Carlsbad. 



To THE "WlEXEB SiTZ, SaOERBRLTTN, AND 
SCHWEIZEEHOF, 

We proceed along the right bank of the Tepel by ] 
the llarienbad Strasse, passing on our right, as wo I 
approach the Karlsbriicke, on the face of a steep rock, 
the iron head of a lion, with a serpent in its mouth, 
designed and erected by the sculptor Kiess. On the 1 
face of the rock are numerous inscriptions recording 1 
cures. A little farther on is the Dorotheen's Temple 
erected in 1791 in honour of Dorothee, Dnchess of \ 
Curland. Before arriving at the bridge we take a 1 
path (Cd) up the hill to the left, and join another 
path leading along the brow of tho hill. Taking • 
this path to the left (Ce) we come to the Wiener 
Silz, an eminence commanding a fine panoramic view 
of the town and valley. On this point there is an 
elegant temple, erected in 1840 by a subscription 
made among the Cur-gueats. Several paths lead from 
the west side of the Wiener Sitz directly into the 

The path to the right, opposite tho Dorotheen's 



WALKS. 123 

Temple, leads to the Sauerbrunn drinking-hall and 
baths, and to the Schweizerhof, a prettily situated 
restaurant, with a garden, commanding a fine view up 
the valley of the Tepel. From the Saurbrunn we can 
descend into the valley again by taking the path to 
the right, and crossing the river by the foot-bridge a 
short distance above the Karlsbriicke. 

To THE Sch5nbrunn. 

We follow the Kiesweg to the Karlsbriicke, and 
keeping along on the road leading to the Posthof for 
a short distance, we take a road to the left planted with 
trees, and crossing the Tepel by a foot-bridge, ascend 
the hill opposite, to the Bestaurant Schonbrunn. From 
here paths lead in all directions through the woods 
which overhang the right bank of the Tepel. From 
the Caf^ the Schvnndelweg follows the brow of the hill, 
passing the AugusterCs PlatZy on which is a pyramid, 
erected in 1823 in honour of the Duchess of Cum- 
berland, finally arriving at the Kaiser Park (see p. 114). 
Some short distance (Cb 33) before arriving at the 
Kaiser Park a path descends to the right, crossing 
the river over a foot-bridge, reaching the Freundschaft- 
saal (see p. 115). 

To THE VeITSBERG. 

We follow a path turning off from the Schwindelweg 
(see above),nearly opposite the Posthof (see p. 1 1 3), which 



134 WALKS. 

aacenila the hill through beautifully wooded sceaery to 
the summit of the Veitsherg. Descending on the other 
side, we leave on the right the village of Eapenthor, 
and turning to the left again ascend, arrive at a 
moat picturesque little glade, surrounded by beeches, 
from which we can return again to the Schwindelweg. 
This walk is one of the most beautiful in the neigh- 
bourhood of Carlsbad, with its lovely and ever-chang- 
ing views of the Tepel valley, and the open country on 
the other side towards Encfelhaus. 



To THE EOTHE-SiUERLISG. 



Starting from the Andreasgasse, near the Andri 
Kirche, we take the road leading up the Galgenberg, 
passing a small monument erected to commemorate 
the exodus of the Protestant citizens of Carlsbad, who 
left the city in 1624, in consequence of the re-estab- 
lishment of the Catholic religion by Ferdinand II. 
Before reaching the Cemetery we find (at 8) a path, 
rather ill-defined, leading down to the main road to 
Giessbiibl. From here we take another path to the 
left, which brings us to the Rothe-Sauerling, a small 
mineral spring. Near the bank of the Eger, a short 
dist-ance down the river, is EuJenfels or JTexm/els, 
" Rock of the Owls or Witches," at which, according to 
a local tradition, the witches meet on Walpurgia night, 
and after having gone through their incantations ascend 
the Bloxberg on their brooms. Keturning, we take 



ler^. ^^ 



WALKS. I 2 5 

the main Giesshiibl road, whlcli brings us back to 
Carlsbad. 

To Dallwitz. 

We take the Saurbrunn Strasso, the main road to 
Giesshublj and come to the village of Drahowitz, 
where we cross the Eger in a small ferry-boat. Turn- 
ing to the right, we proceed along the bank of the 
river for about half an hour, when we come to a small 
brook, which we follow for about ten minutes, till we 
reach DcUwifz, celebrated for its magnificent oak-trees, 
some of which are so large that it requires five or six 
men with outstretched arms to encircle them. At the 
village there is a porcelain manufactory, specimens of 
which are exhibited in the small castle. Refreshments 
can be had at the Restaurant Zu Drei JEichen, "Three 
Oaks." The return journey can be made by taking 
the road up the hill, crossing the railway, and join- 
ing the main road leading to the railway station at 
Carlsbad. 



{ '26 ) 



DRIVES ROUND CARLSBAD. 



Hammer, Aice, and Hans Heiling-Fels. 
(For omnibus to Hammer and Aich, see page 78.) 

jfgSSj^jHE Hans Heiling-Fels can be reached either by j 
^f^ljS the valley of the Eger or the valley of the 
^J^^J^ Tepel, both roads joining at the village of 
Aich. The pleasantest way is to go by the valley of 
the Tepel and return by the Eger. 

Leaving Carlsbad, we drive along the Marienbad 
Strasse, crossing the Tepel at the Karlsbrticke, and 
passing the Kaiser Park (see p. 1 14) reach the village of 
Pirkenhammer, celebrated for its wood-carving industry ; 
it has also a large porcelain manufactory, over which 
visitors are shown. Behind the factory rises the Mec- 
setyliShe, from which there is a fine view of the Tepel 
vall'ey. There are two good restaurants at Pirken- 
hammer, Leibold's and Habsburg, 

A short distance beyond Pirkenhammer we leave the 
Tepel, and cross over into the valley of the Eger, which 
we reach at the village of Aich. At Aich there is a 



DRIVES EOCND CABL5BAD. 12/ 

little cli3,teau with a cafd restaurant, and a porcelain 
manufactory with a specialiU of photographs on china. 

From Aich it is about half an hour's walk to ITans 
Heiling'Fels, a picturesque ^roup of rocks overhanging 
the Eger. A romantic legend ia connected with these 
rocks, which forma the subject of the opera of Mar- 
Bchener and a novel by Kriiuer. 

Once upon a time there lived in a village ia the valley 
of the Eger a wealthy farmer named Veit, whose only 
daughter, Elabeth, was famed far and wide for her beauty 
and accomplishment 9. Near the farm, in a small but, 
there lived an honest and industrious peasant, whose 
son Arnold was Elsbeth's favourite playfellow. As the 
boy grew up be developed a restless disposition and 
a love of adventure, and finally left home to seek his 
fortune in foreign lands. After an absence of several 
years Arnold returned to his native village only just 
in time to close his aged parents' eyes in death. A few 
days afterwards he and Elsbetb met again, and bringing 
back the tender recollections of the happy childhood they 
bad spent together, they renewed their former ftiend- 
sbip, which soon ripened into love. After plighting 
their troth Arnold lost no time in seeking the father 
of Elsbeth and requesting her band in marriage. Veit 
at first received bim in a friendly manner, and listened 
with interest to the story of his adventures in foreign 
lands ; but as soon as Arnold touched on the subject 
nearest his heart the old man gave bim a short and 
aurly answer. At last, however, he promised that if 



128 DHIVES ROnSD CARLSBAD. 

Arnold succeeded in making his way in the world 
during the next three years he would then give hia 
consent to the union of the lovers. After a tender 
parting, in which vows of eternal constancy were ex- 
changed, Arnold, with a heavy heart, set out once 
more to seek his fortune, promising that, rich or poor, 
he would rotnrn when the three years were past. 

NoWj many years before this, one of the villagers, 
named Hans Heiling, had mysteriously disappeared, and 
nothing having been heard from him, he had long sincd 
been forgotten. About a year after the departure of 
Arnold, Hans suddenly returned, apparently a rieli and 
prasperous man. He had, however, became proud and 
morose, and many st.range stories began to be circulated 
among the villagers, who all began to look upon him 
with suspicion, with the exception of Veit, with whom, 
by flattery and judicions presents, he had succeeded in 
ingratiating himself. This influence he soon began to 
nse to further his suit with Elsbeth, of whom he had 
become deeply enamoured. Elabeth, however, remained 
true to her lover, and rejected his advances with scorn. 
Finding it impossible to win her hand by fair means, 
Hans Heiling brought the arts of magic to his aid ; bufc 
Elsbeth, who had received a friendly warning, constantly 
wore a small cross which her lover had given her round 
her neck as a talisman, and which was effectual in keep- 
ing her evil lover and his unwelcome attentions at a 
distance. 

One day, however, the charm was stolen from Elsbeth 



DRIVES HOUND CARLSBAD. I 29 

through the cunning of Hans, who became daily more 
importunate. By this time the three years of pro- 
bation had nearly elapsed, and, nothing having been 
heard of Arnold, doubts of his fidelity began to creep 
into Elspeth'a bosom. Worn out by the importunitiea 
of Heiling and the menaces of her father, the unhappy 
girl at last reluctantly gave her consent to the hated 
union, and the date of the marriage waa fixed. 

Three days now only remained of the three years, 
and as they slowly passed Elspeth began to waver 
and to bitterly repent the promise she had given. She 
still clung desperately to the fond hope that her young 
lover might even yet return in time to save her. 

The morning of the last day arrived. The wedding 
with Heiling was to take place on the following day, 
and Elspeth had already given herself up as lost, when 
there suddenly came galloping into the village a troup 
of horsemen with Arnold at their head. Riding 
straight to the house of Elspeth's father, and hastily 
informing him that during his absence he had succeeded 
in obtaining rank and fortune, he demanded of him the 
fulfilment of his promise. At the same time some of 
Arnold's followers recognised in Hans Heiling a well- 
known sorcerer. Veit, on hearing this, and on seeing 
the good fortune of Arnold, now readily gave his consent 
to the union of the true lovers, who were shortly after- 
wards united. 

After the wedding the happy couple, accompanied by 
their friends, adjourned to a meadow on the banks of the 



I 



130 



DRIVES BOUMD CARLSBAD. 



Eger, where Veit Itad a tent erected and a sapper pre-i ^ 
pared. The evening passed quickly in merriment till it 
was close upon midnight ; but just as the last stroke of 
the church clock struck twelve a terrible storm of wind 
and rain suddenly burst on the affrighted company, and J 
amid the darkness appeared the form of Hans Heiling, I 
surrounded by a legion of devils and imps, his face frightr 
fully distorted and flaming with passion. He suddenlyj 
plunged into the foaming depths of the river and dis^l 
appeared ; but the wedding company remained rooted to J 
the spot, having been all changed by the power of tha-l 
devil into stone ; and still from the river-bank they I 
are said to look down with melancholy countenancea a 
the passers-by. 

Returning fram Aich we follow the right bank ofB 
the river Eger, passing the villages of MeiETshofen and | 
Donitz to Carlsbad, 



To Ekgeliiaus. 
The drive to Engelhaus takes about two hours there I 
and back. From Carlsbad we follow the Prager Strasae, 
the old coach-road to Prague, having fine views of I 
Carlsbad and the Tepel valley. The Prager Strasae J 
was constructed by the Emperor Francis I. in 1804, , 
and on the portion between Carlsbad and Engelhaua I 
shows great engineering skill. About half-way we paa» I 
on the right at the village of Eerghauser an ancient j 
inn, the B&rgwirthshaus, erected about the thirteenth J 
century. Some of the walls are from ro to 12 feet thick. 



I 



I 



'J 



DRIVES RODND CARLSBAD. 131 

At Engelhaus there is a small inn wliere refreshments 
can be had. 

The ruins of the Castle of Engelhaus, of which now 
but a few crumbling fragments remain, occupy the 
summit of an isolated and precipitous rock 468 feet in 
height, which is ascended by a dilapidated stone stair- 
case from behind the church. The date of the build- 
ing of the castle is lost in obscurity, but mention of 
it is made in records of the twelfth and thirteenth 
centuries. 

Many interesting legends are told about this castle, 
among which the raost prominent are the legend of 
King Arthur and the legend of Aloiaia. 

King Arthur one day while hunting in England was 
attracted by the screams of an infant. On approaching 
the spot he found a handsome baby boy in the claws of a 
bear, which had already devoured the infant's mother. 
The king killed the savage beast, took the child home 
with him, and adopted him as his son, having him bap- 
tized Richard. The boy grew up brave and handsome, 
and in time fell secretly in love with the king's daugh- 
ter, Albina, who returned his affection. Fearing the 
king would forbid their union they arranged to elope, 
and one dark night, accompanied by a few devoted fol- 
lowers, fled from the royal castle. On therr arrival at 
the sea-shore they found a ship awaiting them, in which 
fhey crossed to the coast of Prance, and finally, after 
many wanderings, reached the mountains of Bohemia in 
the vicinity of Engelhaus. Here, on the rock on which 



I 

I 



132 



DRIVES KODND CARLSBAD. 



the ruins now stand, Richard erected a strong fortress, , 
in which he and hia wife lived in seclusion for many I 
years. ' - 

Their marriage was biassed with many children ; but I 
their happiness was not complete, as Albina often re- 
proached herself for her nndutiful conduct towards her 
father. ELchanl also; in time, began to tire of his wife, 
whose beauty had begun to fade, and of the monotonoua | 
life they. led. He also regretted having thrown away ' 
hia chances of advancement at the English court, and 
as time wore on mutual reproaches followed. 

Meanwhile King Arthur, who had mocmed the loss 
of hia daughter for many years, abdicated in favour of \ 
his nephew, and determined to spend the rest of hia ' 
life in searching for her. He first Bought the advice 
of an Arabian astrologer, who, by hia magic arts, 
ascertained the hiding-place of the errant couple. 
Disguised in the garb of a pilgrim, and attended , 
only by a few faithful knights, the king travelled 
through Germany and Bohemia until he reached 
small village in the neighbourhood of Engelhaua, where 
he left his attendants and proceeded to the castle, to 
which, in his assumed character of a pilgrim, he soon 
obtained admission. On hearing him speak English, 
however, Richard began to suspect he might ha a | 
spy sent by the king, and refused him permission i 
to see his wife, threatening at the same time, if hi 
discovered his suspicions were true, to put him in i 
cauldron of boiling oil. The old king on hearing thiq 



DRIVES ROUND CARLSBAD. ij^ 

left the castle and songhfc the aasiatance of a neigh- 
bouring knight, to whom he told hia sad story. The 
knight in return informed him how Richard had begun 
to neglect his wife, and how unhappy she had become, 
and at the same time proffered hia services to try to 
capture the castle and release Albina. 

News of the intended attack was brought to 
Richard, who, in revenge, resolved to poison hia wife 
and flee from the country. To carry out his vil- 
lainous scheme he went to Albina, and pretending to 
have repented of his former ill-usage, proposed that 
they should pledge their reconciliation in a goblet of 
wine, and should then go together and seek the pardon 
of King Arthur. Two goblets of wine, one of which 
had been poisoned, were brought in. Handing the 
deadly draught to his wife, and taking the other him- 
self, they were just about to drink the pledge when a 
flourish of trumpets outside proclaimed the approach 
of the attacking army. Albina and Richard, eager to see 
the old king and his followers, though from very different 
motives, put down their glasses untasted ; but Richard, 
who now recognised the king, anxious to complete his 
treacherous design before the arrival of the besiegers, 
again took up the goblets, and handing one to hia wife 
they both drank them off, and then Richard instantly 
made his escape. Albina rushed to meet her father, and 
throwing herself at his feet implored his pardon, which 
was only too gladly granted. He had hardly raised her 
from the ground when a knight rushed in, bringing the 



134 D&IVES BOUND CABLSBAD. 

news that Richard had been found in the castle-yard 
expiring in mortal agony. In his haste he had 
wittingly changed the glasses and dnink the fatal 
draught himself. After the burial of Itichard, Albina 
returned to England, and the castle, which was after- 
wards haunted by the gliost of the would-be marderer, 
remained uninhabited for many centuries. 

Another romantic legend is that of Aloisia. 

Othon Sigismond, Count of Wratibor von Starkowitz- 
Schwarzstein, a Bohemian nobleman, who fought on 
the side of the French at the battle of Crecy in j 
1346, was dangerously wounded and taken prisoner 
by the English, but was afterwards released on paying 
a heavy ransom. During his captivity in England he 
wooed and married Aloisia, the beautiful Duchess of 
Westmoreland, grand-daughter of Edward I. After his 
ransom he brought her to hia castle of Schwarzstein 
as Engelhaus was then called. Tor four years she 
lived a life of unalloyed happiness with her beloved 
husband, but soon after the birth of their son and heir, 
Sigismond was called on to join the standard of hia 
liege lord the Emperor Charles IV. in an expedition 
to quell a rebellion which had broken out among the 
cities of Northern Italy, 

Before he left he committed the care of his wife and 
son, and the management of his estates to his friend 
Count Wianitz, who had been his fellow-prisoner in 
England. During their joint captivity there, Wianitz 
had also been in love with Aloisia, and, though un- 



DRIVES HOCND CABLSBAD. 1 35 

known to Sigiamond, had tried to gaia her hand. A3 
long as Sigismond had remained to protect his wife 
Wlanita had kept his passion under due control, but 
no sooner did he fiud her alone and in his power 
than he renewed his protestations of love. The Coun- 
tess, faithful to her husband, rejected his advances with 
acorn, till, maddened by hia passion, Wlanita deter- 
mined on a bitter revenge. Intercepting the letters 
the Countess wrote to her husband, he sent messengers 
instead to the Count informing him that, in his absence, 
his wife was leading a life of gaiety and dissipation. 
Deeply wounded l)y his wife's continued silence, the 
confidence of her husband was at last undermined. 

Finally Wlanita sent word that the Countess had 
become so shameless in her conduct that she remained 
away from home for several days at a time, and that 
her child had at last died of neglect. Maddened by 
anger and jealousy. Count Sigismond left the Emperor's 
camp and travelled night and day until he reached 
the castle. Aloisia was praying in her oratory by 
an open casement overhanging the precipice, when 
Sigismond suddenly entered. Startled by the expres- 
sion on his face, the thought flashed across her mind 
that her husband had lost iiis reason, and she stood 
motionless before him, struck with grief and horror. 
Mistaking her emotion for guilt, he seiacd her and 
threw her from the casement over the precipice. 
Sigismond then fainted and fell on the floor of the 
chapel, where for hours he lay in a stupor. 



T36 DRIVES ROOND CARLSBAD. 

When night came he was suddenly aroused by hea- 
venly harmonies floating throngh the air outside. 
Looking through the casement he beheld a beautiiul 
angel floating over the valley, supporting in its arms 
the forme of bis dead wife and child. As the heavenly 
form passed the window, Sigismond heard a voice say- 
ing, " I am a messenger sent from heaven to lead the 
soul of your sainted wife to the realms of eternal bliss. 
Ab you have been betrayed, God in hia mercy may for- 
give you, but He demands the punishment of the traitor 
by whom you have been deceived." On recovering 
from the trance Sigismond called hia followers to- 
gether, who, seizing Wlanitz, carried him to the top 
of the castle, and meted out to liim a justretribution by 
flinging him from the window of the chapel. Sigie- 
mond then seized a torch and set fire to his castle, 
which was soon reduced to a few blackened walls. At 
daybreak he descended to the village, and putting on 
the garb of a pilgrim he set out on foot for Rome to 
obtain pardon of the Pope. On his arrival absolution, 
was granted him by the Holy Father ; but, worn out 
by the privations he had endured on his journey, he 
sought refuge in a monastery, where he died shortly 
afterwards. 

The village of Engelhaus suffered greatly from a fire 
in 1885, which destroyed the church and about half 
the houses in the village. 



r 




J 



DRIVES BOUND CARLSBAD. 



To Elbogen. 



Elbogen is from ij to i^ hour's walk from Carlsbad 
[ along the valley of the Eger. It can also be reached by 
I rail, a short branch line connecting the village with the 
1 line to Eger, at the station of Elbogen Neilstattel. 
The town, which has a popnlation of about 3CXDO, is 
picturesquely situated on a rocky peninsula almost sur- 
rounded by the Eger, from which the town takes its 
name oY Elbogen or " Elbow." Visitors can obtain fair 
accommodation at the Hotel Zum Weissen Ross, in the 
market-place, which baa a garden and pavilion from 
which there ia a lovely view of the Eger valley, or at 
the Hotel Scherbaura, near the suspension -bridge. In 
returning pedestrians can follow the course of the Eger 
I to Hanaheilingfels, and hare a carriage to meet them at 
I Aich (see. p. 126). 

The Castle of Elbogen, situated above the village, on 
a steep granite rock, was founded by the Margraves 
I Voburg in 870. In 1 149 the castle became the 
property ofthe German Emperor, Frederick Barbarossa, 
who received it as a dowry on his marriage with Ade!- 
heid, daughter of the Margrave Diebold von Vohburg. 
In 1434 it came into the possession of the family 
of tbe Burgravea Schlick, to whom it belonged for 
several centuriea. In 1725 the castle, along with the 
town, was almost entirely destroyed by fire, but waa 
afterwards restored. In July 1742 the town and for- 



138 DBITE3 BODND CAHLSBia 

tress were besieged by the French under General 
Armiti^rea. The garrison held out for fonr months, 
but were at last compelled to sorrender through otarva- 
tion. 

From its foundation up to the fourteenth century 
nothing is known of the history of the castle, as all the 
records cp to that period were destroyed by fire. In. 13 1/ 
King John of Luxembourg took up his residence for a 
short time at the castle, accompanied by his wife and 
infant son, afterwards the Emperor Charles IV. In 
1353 Charles IV. granted the citizens of Elbogen a 
charter, freeing the town from all taxes, under the con- 
dition, that whenever he or any of his heirs should viaife 
the town, they should be presented with fi\'e pounds of 
Swabian silver farthings, which were to be handed by 
the Burgomaster to the sovereign in a wooden beaker. 
This beaker is still preserved in the Rathhaus, where it 
may be seen, filled with silver farthings, awaiting the 
next visit of an Austrian monarch. It was during the 
visit of the Emperor Charles IV. in 1358 to the Castlft 
of Elbogen that he made his famous hunting expedition 
to Carlsbad, 

Daring the progress of the Elector Frederick V. 
and his consort the Princess Elizabeth, daughter of 
James I. of England, from Heidelberg to Prague to 
assume the crown of Bohemia, they rested for a night 
at the Castle of Elbogen, and were magnificently enter- 
tained by the Borgrave Schlick at an open-air banquet. 



I 



DMVES ROUND CARLSBAH. I 39 

The festivities, however, mnst have been of a somewhat 
sober kind, as we are told that after the banquet the 
Protestant chaplain of the Burgrave preached a sermon 
of two hours in length to their Majesties on the duties 
of their bigh position. The castle is now used as a 
prison. 

The Eger at Elbogen is crossed by a fine suspension- 
bridge, erected 1833-36 at a cost of 90,0130 florins. 
From the bridge there is a fine view of the river and 
valley, with the castle above. 

In the Rathhaus is part of a large meteoric stone 
which fell at Elbogen, the remaining portion of 
which weighing no pounds, is in the mineralogical 
museum at Vienna. A model of the stone in its ori- 
ginal condition is also to be seen. The stone is locally 
known as the Vervunschte Graf, or " Accursed Count," 
from the legend that one of the Burgraves of Elbogen 
had so oppressed the people that they had him cursed 
with bell, book, and candle. One day shortly after- 
wards, as be was compelling some of his vassals to 
undertake some enforced labour, he was struck by a 
flash of lightning out of a clear skj', and turned into 
this shapeless mass of atone. In the Rathhaus is also 
the wooden beaker referred to above. 

In the Deckanalf or St. Wtncelaus Kirdie, erected in 
the thirteenth century, and restored after the fire of 
172S1 is ^ fi^6 altar-piece by Peter Brandel, repre- 
senting the murder of St. Wencelaus by bis brother 



^ 



140 DRIVES ROfSD CARLSBAD. ^ 

Bolealaus I. before the altar in the Church of Alt 
Banzlau in 936. ■ ' 

A specialiU of Elbogen is the " Elbogener pumper- 
nickel," B. kind of gingerbread with a sugar coating. 
Elbogen has an important porcelain manufactory, over 1 
which visitora are shown on application to the office. 1 

To GlESSHUBL PuCHSTEDf. I 

This is one of the most favourite eicnrBiona in the 
vicinity of Carlsbad. Omnibuses run twice daily. {See 
page 79.) The drive, which takes about an hour and a 
half, follows the right bank of the Eger through moat 
picturesque scenery. 

Giesshiibl, which is rapidly becoming a fashionable 
watering-place, ia beautifully situated on the right 
bank of the Eger, at the foot of the Buchberg, a rocky 
and pine-clad hill. The environs are laid out with 
ehady and well-kept paths, and each year the pro- 
prietor, Herr Mattoui, adds some new attraction to the 
place. The general arrangements for the convenience 
of guests are under the charge of a Cur-committee, who 
will furnish all information, and, if desired, engage 
rooms in advance for intending visitors. The number 
of visitors in 1885 was i8,ooo. The climate resembles 
that of Carlsbad. 

The springs of Giesshiibl have been known for cen- 
turies, and were resorted to by the hunters and mona- 



I 



DRIVES ROUND CAHLSBAD. 141 

taiueerB in the neighbourhood; but it was only in 
1852 that the first spring was enclosed and dedicated 
to hia Majesty Otho, the late King of Greece, who was 
among the first to visit it. The place, however, owes 
its rise into prominence to Herr Mattoni, who leased 
the springs from the proprietor, Baron Neuberg, in 
1867, and purchased the Otto Quelle in 1872. Besides 
conferring a benefit on the public by improving and 
beautifying this attractive watering - place and its 
Burroundings, he has been eminently successful in a 
financial way, as the export of Griesshiibler water, bottled 
at the springs, has reached the enormous quantity of 
4,000,000 bottles per annum. 

The principal building is the Curhaus, a handsome 
stone erection surrounded by gardens and pleasure- 
grounds. It contains a conversation-room, reading- 
room, library, and sleeping apartments. Attached 
to the Curhaus are two ' dependances.' Near the Cur- 
haus is a Colonnade, decorated with a bust of King 
Otho. The waters of the springs are conducted in 
pipes both to the Curhaus and to the Colonnade. Op- 
posite the Colonnade is a handsome restaurant with a 
verandah. On the hill a short distance above Gies- 
shiibl is the handsome residence of the pioprietor, Herr 
Mattoni. 

The springs are the Olto Quelle, or GiessJiiiUer Saiie^-- 
bninn, Mizabetk Quelle, Franz Josef Quelle, and the 
Zoschner Quelle, which have nearly all the same pro- 



1 




DRIVES ROUKD CARLSBAD. 



perties. The foil 


awing ia the analys 


8 of the Olio 


Quelle :— 




J 


In 10,000 parts 


of water — 


\ 


Silica . 




0.5941 


Chloride of potassium . 


0.3038 


Sulphate „ 


„ 


0-3397 


Carbonate „ 


» 


0.8240 ^ 


„ „ 


sodium . . 


84308 




lithium . 


0.0650 


„ „ 


strontium 


0.0230 


„ „ 


magnesia . 


1.4004 , 


It I' 


lime 


2.3878 1 


Oxide of alumina . 


0.0290 


Oxide of iron 




0.0263 1 


„ „ manganese . 


0.0099 


Organic substances 


0.0198 


Carbonic aci< 


in combination 


S.6004 


,, „ 


free . 


23.7396 1 



437936 

The waters of Gieashiibl are highly charged with 
carbonic acid gas and are slightly acidulated. They 
are admirably suited for mixing with wines and spirita, 
especially with the poorer classes of Austrian and Ger- 
man white wines, as they have the property of almost 
entirely destroying the acid which is characteristic of 
these vintages. It is also largely used by itself as a 



i 



DRIVES ROUND CARLSBAD. 1 43 

table water. Its effervescence is purely natural, and is 
therefore free from the injuriona results which frequently 
attend the use of waters which are artificially charged 
with gas. Giesshilbler water has been found to be ex- 
tremely efficacious in catarrhal affections of the stomach 
and intestines, jaundice, dyspepsia, and all other com- 
plaints caused by a surplas of acid in the system. It 
has also been found particularly beneficial in cases of 
catarrhal affection of the respiratory organs. ilixed 
with warm milk or whey it has a stimalating action on 
diminished mucous secretion, and at the same time is 
invigorating and nourishing. In connection with the 
springs a whey cure baa been estabUshed. 

The spriug principally used is the Otto Quelle, which 
is situated on the face of the hill immediately above the 
CorliauB. Over the spring is a Colonnade supported on 
fourteen granite pillars, which was inaugurated by King 
Otho of Greece in 1 353- In the Colonnade is a bust of 
the King, with an inscription commemorating the event. 
At the spring a new bath-house has lately been erected. 
The bottling of the waters takes place at this spring, 
a small railway connecting the bottling establishment 
with the export warehouse below. 

The walks around Giesshlibl are charming in their 
pictnresqueness and variety and almost numberless in 
extent. Well-kept paths have been opened up by the 
Cur-direction to almost every point of view on the 
Burroimding bills, and on these points little temples, 
gloriettas and resting-places have been erected, whilst, 



144 DHIVK8 KOUMD CASI5flAD. 

for feebler visitors, level walks and drives extend both 
up and down the valley of the Eger. 

To Petscdau. 

The village of Petschan, lying abont half-way between 
Cai-lsbad and ilarienbad (2J hours' drive), is pictur- 
esquely situated overlooking the beautiful valley of the 
Tepel. In mediieval times the village was of consider- 
able importance, but in 1760 it was almost entirely 
burned down, and, with the exception of the castle, 
most of the buildings are now comparatively modem. 

The castle, which was erected not later than the 
eleventh centurj' (as records exist referring to its 
having been inhabited in 1061), occupies the summit 
of an eminence overlooking the Tepel. On three sides 
it is fortified by a wall, and is entered on the south 
side by a stone bridge, which crosses the old moat, now 
laid out in gardens. Several of the walls of the castle 
are of immense thickness. On the left, as we enter, is 
the ancient round watch-tower, the upper storeys of 
which were removed in 1623. On the summit of tte 
tower is a platform commanding an extensive pano- 
ramic view of the surrounding country. In the interior 
are a number of large and handsomely decorated apart- 
ments, and in the south tower is a Gothic chapel 
erected in a.d, 1400, the walls of which are decorated 
with fine frescoes. The view from the windows of the 
chapel over the valley of the Tepel is exceedingly fine. 
The castle is still occupied as a residence. 



DRmsa HODND CARLSBAD. 14^ 

ViBitors are ahown over the castle during the absence 
of the family. 

To SCHLAGGESWaLD. 
The ehorteat road to the village of Schlaggenwald, 
passes through Pirkenhamnier (see page 126), about i^ 
mile beyond which we take the road to Marienbad, and 
taming off to the left and following the valley of the 
Tepel, reach Schlan^genwald in about ij hour. The 
village, which ia prettily situated, has a porcelain manu- 
factory and a tin and silver mine, which was formerly 
very productive, but which now hardly pays the expense 
of working. The parish church is decorated with 
frescoes executed in 1771 by DoUkopf, who resided for 
some time at Schlaggenwald, In the Deckanal Kirche 
is a fine carved altar-piece and a number of tombs 
of the fourteenth century. Refreshments can be bad 
at the Gasthof zur Krone. Returning we can drive 
through the picturesque valley of the Zeche, which 
joins the Eger at Elbogen {see page 137). The drive 
by Elbogen takes about 2^ hours. 

To SCHLACKENWERTH AND HaUENSTEIS, 
Schlackenwerth can be reached direct by rail, and 
Hauenstein from the railway station at Hauenstein- 
Waarte, from which it is about half-an-hour's drive. 
Carriages are generally found in waiting at Hauenstein- 
Waarte. The drive from Carlsbad to Schlackcnwert 



^ 



DRIVE3 BOUSD CABUffiAD. 

takea about i^ hour, and to HaaenBtem about 2| 
hours, the road passing through exceedingly pictur- 
esque scenery, 

Sehlackenwerth is an old town with a chateau of the 
Duke of Tuscany, surrounded by a fine park on which 
is a pavilion with a restaurant. The village has two 
inns — the Renthaua and Adler. 

At Hauenstein there is also a small inn, at which 
visitors can dine, as well as at the restaurant at 
Hauenstein-Waarte. On the Eickdberg, three-quarters 
of an hour's walk from the village, is the fine modem 
chateau of Count J. Buqnoi, huilt in old castellated 
style. Attached to the chateau is a beautiful chapel. 
Surrounding the chateau and extending over the hill 
is a magnificent park, intersected by romantic and 
shady walks. Visitors are not now allowed in the 
park except by special permission. The summit of the 
Eichelberg commands one of the most magnificent and 
extensive views in Germany. In the foreground are 
the ruined castles of Eugelhaus, Himmelstein, Schon- 
burg, and Hauenstein, and below us the fertile valley 
of the Eger, white in the distance extends the range 
of the Fichtelbirgen. Of the old castle of Hauen- 
stein only a tower and a fragment of one of the walls 
remain. In the sixteenth century this old castle was 
the residence of the Burgrave Heronimua Schlick (see 
page 34). In the tower the visitor is shown a room in 
which, during the Thirty Years' War, a Swedish officer 
was assassinated. The Ilimniclsfdn, which also com- 



DHIVES ROUND CARLSBAD. I47 

maiids a lovely view, can be ascended either from 
Hauenatein or Hauenateia-Waarte. 

Pedestrian a can return from Hauen stein tli rough 
JVelchau, Rodisfort, aad Glesshiihl-Puclistein. 

Welchau is a little village prettily situated on the 
Eger, with a chiteau surrounded by a park in which 
there are pleasant walks and fine views over the valley. 
There is a good reatanrant, Zur Linde, m the village. 
About one mile beyond Welchau is the village of 

Rodisfort, at which there is aJao a restaarant. Above 
the village is the Modif/orlerberi/, on the summit of 
which formerly stood a castle, A legend tells ua that 
in this castle there lived a knight named Bode, who 
was a jovial soid, but always in debt. The patience of 
his creditors at last becoming exhausted, they proceeded 
to the castle and swore to hang him over the walls if 
he did not pay his debts within an hour. The knight 
having nothing to pay, and having too small a garrison 
to withstand the siegej did as a good many of the needy 
fraternity have done since, — he quietly mounted his 
horse, and leaving the castle by a secret door, made off 
as fast as he could. Impatient of waiting, his creditors 
at last broke into the castle, and on inquiring from 
his vaasala where their master was, received the short 
answer, Rode ist fort — Rode is off — from which the 
castle and village were afterwards called liodisfort. 
About half-way up the mountain there is a cave, in 
which, even in the middle of summer, large icicles are 
to be seen on the vaulted roof, which show a most charm- 



I 



I 



148 DRIVES SODND CARLSBAD. 

ing prismatic colour glflncing in the Bunbeams which find 
their way from the entrance. Giesshiibl-Puchatein (see 
page 140) is about ij mile beyond Rodiafort. 



Falkenau. 



Falkenan is about a half-an-hour*s jonmey by rail 
the line to Eger, and two and a half honra' drive £rora 
Carlsbad. The carriage road passes through Elbogeu 
(see page 137) and the village of Altsattel, near which 
are the large vitriol, sulphur, and alum works of Heir 
von Stark, About two miles beyond Altsattel we notice 
on the bank of the Eger the remains of a landslide which 
took place in 1832, and which uncovered two extinct 
volcanoes and partly changed the course of the river. 

Falkenau, famous for its hops and its beer, is a basy 
village of 2500 inhabitants, almost all of whom are 
employed in the cultivation of the hops and iu its 
large breweries. Beyond its picturesque situation in a 
hilly but fertile district, its only interest to visitors is 
the fine castle of Count Nostiz-Ehieneck, which is sur- 
rounded by a beautiful park, intersected with lovely 
walks and drives, and planted with old trees, 
shrubs, and exotic plants. The castle, which is shown 
to visitors, contains a fine collection of ancient armour. 
The best inn is the " Anker." 



4 

am ^" 



JOACHIMSTHAL ASD THE SONNENWIRBEL, OR KeILBERQ. 

Joachimsthal, a town of 5500 inhabitants, lies 5i I 
miles north of Schlackenwerth (see page 146), the road ] 



DRTVSS ROUND CAHLSBAD. I 49 

passing throiigli the beantiful valley of the AVistritz. 
The town was formerly celebrated for ita silver-mines, 
which, although now bat little worked, were very pro- 
ductive in the Middle Ages, when they gave employment 
to over 9000 people. These mines were among the 
earliest indastries of Bohemia. For several centuries 
after their discovery they were only occasionally rudely 
mined by the peasants and mountaineers. In 1513 
they attracted the notice of the Burgrave, Stephan 
Schlicb, of Carlsbad, who, with the aid of several 
neighbouring landowners, commenced to work them 
on a large scale, when they soon became exceedingly 
productive, yielding between 1516 and 1545 about 
;^I, 250,000, an enormous sum at that time. As a 
German writer naively remarks, "There being no 
Stock Exchange speculations or State lotteries in those 
days, this was a very nice way of getting money." 

Stephan Schlick in 15 19 erected a mint here, where 
he coined the first " Thalers," the name of the coin 
being a contraction of " Joachim sthaler." These coins 
had on one side the heads of St. Joachim, and on the 
other those of King Ludwig of Saxony and the Bur- 
grave Schlick. This old mint is now used as the 
offices of the mine. 

In 152G Schlick bnilt the castle of Fremdenstein am 
Berg, near the town, of which only a few scanty ruins 
remain. 

The principal indnstries of the town are the manu- 
facture of bobbin-lace, woollen yum, plaited straw, and 



t;o DBtVES BODKD CABLSBAD. 

gloves. In the centre of the town is the inn " Zunt 'I 
Stadt Dresden," where visitors can dine well andJ 



About one hour beyond Joachimsthal we come to the I 
village of Gottesgab (3300 feet — inn, Griines Haus), the i 
highest village in Aoatria, from which we can ascend 
the Sonnenwirbel or Keilberg, 4080 feet, the higheab I 
point of the Erzgebirge. A carriage road leads to tJie | 
sammit, which commands a magnificent and extensive J 
panoramic view. A tower has been erected on the \ 
highest point. 

To the north, across the frontier, is the Ficfttelbery 
(3985 feet), the highest peak in Saxony. The ascent 
of the Fichtelberg can be made in about three^juarters 
of an hour from the village of Ohcr-Wiesenthal, 2^ miles 
beyond Gottesgab. The summit, on which ia a etons 
tower, commands a most magnificent view, and was 
formerly an important station in the trigonometrical 
survey of Centra! Europe. This excnrsion reqnires al 
long day. 

To KUFFEEBEHG. 

This is one of the pleasantest excursions from J 
Carlsbad, We take the rail to Schlackenwerth, and ] 
thence drive past Joachimsthal (see page 148}, G!ot- 
tesgab (see above), and the pretty village of Obep- | 
hals to Kupfcrlcrg, a station on the line from Ko- j 
matau to Chemitz, where the line reaches its highest 1 
point, 2830 feet. The drive takes about fonr honrs. J 



DRIVES ROUND CARLSBAD. ISI 

The view from the little chapel on the summit of the 
Kiapferberg is one of the finest in Austria, and even 
more extensive than that from the Sonnenwirbel, on a 
clear day the white hill above Prague and the Drei- 
Kreuz-Berg above Carlsbad being visible. The return 
journey can be made by rail 

To FiscHERNj AltrohlaUj and Neudeck. 

From Carlsbad we take the road crossing the Eger 
by the Franz Josefs Bridge, and at the station turn to 
the left, passing through the villages of Fischern and 
AltrohlaUy both with china manufactories, to Nevdecky 
3 J hours distant from Carsbad, on the river Rohlau, a 
busy village, with woollen-nulls and tin-factories, and 
tin and iron mines. Near the village is the handsome 
new ch§;teau of Count Asseburg, surrounded by a 
large park. About a quarter of a mile south of the 
town are the ruins of an ancient castle, formerly one 
of the seats of the Barons Schlick. Above the town 
is the Kreiizbergy on the summit of which is a monas- 
tery; on the ascent, which winds in zig-zags up the 
hill, is a Calvary with fourteen stone stations of the 
cross. The hill was purchased by a maiden lady, who 
expended 27,000 florins in constructing the road and 
stations, and presented it as a votive offering to the 
Church. The summit of the hill commands a charm- 
ing view over the town and surrounding country. 



XII. 
LONGER EXCURSIONS BY RAIL. 

To Eger and Marienbad, 

J^KK-A-RIENBAD, though only nineteen miles 
^^Jol? southward from Carlsbad in a direct line, is 
^*'^*-^' about two hours by rail. 

All exceedingly pleasant excursion can be made by 
driving from Carlsbad to Marienbad (about five hours) 
in a two-horse carriage, and thence returning by rail 
to Eger, 

About an hour after leaving Carlsbad by rail we 
reach Eger (hotels, Wenzel, opposite the station, Erzher- 
zogatephan, in the town), an ancient town with 16,500 
inhabitants, situated on the river Eger. It was formerly 
a free imperial city, and was fortified in 1809. In the 
RathJiaus in the " Ring " the celebrated general, Albert 
von Walleiisteinj the leader of the Imperialista in the 
Thirty Years' War, was assassinated by an Irishman 
named Devereux on 25th FebruuTy 1634. In the rooms 
in the upper storey, which were those occupied by 
Wallenstein before his death, there is a museum con- 



on- ^H 



LONGER EXCURSIONS BY RAIL. I 53 

taining a collection of curiosities and antiquities, among 
which are the sword, the writing-table, and other me- 
mentoes of the great general, and the halberd with which 
he was assassinated. In the museum are also a portrait 
of Wallenstein and pictures representing his assassina- 
tion, and the murder of his officers, lUo, Terozky, Kinsky, 
and Neumann. In the Council Chambers are portraits 
of the emperors from Leopold I. 

Occupying a commanding position on a rock above 
the river to the north-west of the town are the ruins of 
the Imperial Castle^ erected by the Emperor Frederick 
Barbarossa in 1 1 80, and for several centuries afterwards 
often occupied by the German emperors. The Castle of 
Barbarossa was built on the site of a still older fortress, 
of which the lofty square towers built of blocks of lava, 
still standing, formed a portion. In the banqueting- 
room, which adjoins the chapel, the officers of Wallen- 
stein were assassinated a few hours previous to the 
murder of their general. Since the perpetration of this 
foul deed the castle has never been inhabited. The ter- 
race above the river commands a fine panoramic view 
over the town and surrounding country. In the distance 
rise the three towers of the Mdria-JS/ulm, an ancient 
pilgrimage church, for a long time a haunt of robbers, 
the bones of whose victims are shown in the chapel. 

Fourteen miles beyond Eger we pass the small for- 
tress and spa o{ Konigswart, 2250 feet above the level 
of the sea. The springs, which are chalybeate, are the 
highest in Germany, and are used both for drinking and 



r 



I 5 4 LOXGER EXCDRSIOirS BY RAIL. 

bathing. They are recomin ended in cases of s 

and incipient consumption. A Curhaus and villas for 

the reception of visitors have recently been erected. 

At Konigswart is the chateau of Prince Metternich, 
which has been in possession of the family since i6iS, 
The chateau, which is surrounded by beautifully laid 
out gardens and pleasure-grounds, contains a collection 
of coins, minerals, and autiqoitieB, and a gallery of 
family and historical portraits. 

The next station is Marienhad. The station is two 
miles from the town itself. One-horse carriage, i fl. ; 
two horses, i fl. So kr. Omnibus, 40 br. The best 
hotels at Marienhad are, " Klinger's," " Neptune," 
" Hot«l Casino," and " Stadfc Hamburg." There are 
also a number of good boarding and lodging houses. 
The most frequented caf^s are the Bellevue, Panorama, 
Victoria, Miramonte, and Ferdinand's Miihle. Excellent 
meals and good beer can be had at the Delphin Restau- 
rant. English Church service in the season in the 
English church erected in 1S79, and Presbyterian ser- 
vice in a German Protestant church. 

Marienhad is situated in a picturesque valley, about 
2000 feet above the level of the sea, above which on 
three sides rise pine-clad hills. The village is almost 
entirely modern, having been built since the beginning 
of the present century. The principal buildings are the 
Stadthaus, which contains reading and recreation rooms, 
a large hall used for balls and concerts and other 
public gatherings, the large military Curhaus erected 



L05HER EXCURSIONS BY RAIL. I J 5 

iSSo, and Roman Catholic, German Protestant, and 
li cliurches. 

The springs were first brought into public notice in 
1870 by the Abbot of the Convent of Tepel. The 
waters are of much the same character aa those of 
Carlsbad, except that they are of a much lower tem- 
perature, ranging from 43° to 50° Fahr., but for bathing 
they are warmed up to 90". There are six springs, 
of which the most used is the Krenzbrunn, which is 
a mile distant from the village, the water being con- 
ducted in pipes to the Promenade Plata. There are two 
large bathing- ho uses, the Alte and the Keue Badhaus, 
in which are mineral, peat, carbonic acid, and vapour 
baths. The Marienbad wat-ers, however, are principally 
used for drinking. The peat found round Marienbad is 
exceedingly rich in mineral constituents, each cubic 
foot containing no less than one pound of sulphate of 
iron. One million bottles of the water from the Krenz- 
brunn are annually exported to all parts of the world. 

Adjoining the Krenzbrunn is a beautiful shady avenue 
300 yards long, where the visitors promenade from six to 
eightinthe moi'uing while drinking the waters. Close 
to the spring there is a large brick building, which is 
used forpromenading when the weather is imfavourable. 
Adjoining this covered promenade is the Bazaar, a 
double row of shops where Bohemian goods and other 
speciality are sold. 

The most abundant of the Marienbad springs is the 
Ferdinands Brunnen, which is about half a mile distant 



I 




156 LOXOER EXCUB8I0MS BY RAIL. 

from the village. The water is carried by pipes to the 
Promenade Plata, where it flows into a vase of alabaster. 
The spring which is used for bathing is the Marien- 
quelle ; it is highly charged with carbonic acid gas, 
which keeps the surface of the water in perpetual 
motion. The quantity of this gas is so great that a 
light lowered to the surf^e of the water is immediately 
extinguished. Gas-batha have been erected at this 
spring, in which patients are shut up in a box, all 
except the head, the box being so constructed that 
the gas ia not breathed. 

The principal place of resort at Marienbad in fine 
weather ia the Gurgarten, a prettily laid out pleasure- 
ground with lawns and parterres, and intersected with 
pleasant shady walks. Concerts are given in the 
Promenade Platz from 6 to 7. 30 a.m. and from 6 to 7 
P.M., and at the Waldquelle from 11.30 a.m. to 12.30 
P.M. The season begins about ist May and lasts till 
the middle of September. 

Marienbad is an exceedingly fashionable spa, and 
the hotels and boarding-houses are crowded in summer. 
Booms should therefore be applied for in advance, in 
the height of the season. Like Carlsbad, Marienbad 
is specially attractive from the beauty of its environs, 
shady walks having been laid out in all directions 
through the woods and to the best points of view on 
the hois. The most frequented walk is to the cross on 
the Hamelikahcrg, which commands a beantifol view of 
the valley. Another favourite walk is to the Mecsinj 



LONGER EXCDK8I0N5 Br RAIL. I 57 

Temple, from which there is also a charming and open 
prospect to the north. The most extensive view, which, 
however, does not embrace the Wald itself, is to be had 
from the Hohendorferkohe. A delightful excursion can 
be made to the Podhom (2750 feet), a mountain of 
basalt lying to the east, ij hour distant from the 
village. The summit of the mountain commands a 
most extensive view of the Erzgebirge, Fichtelbirge, 
and the Bohemian forest. A longer, but also a most 
charming excursion can be made to the wealthy Abbey 
of Tepel, to which the spring at Marienbad belongs. 
The Abbey, which lies nine miles east of Marienbad, 
contains an extensive library and a Zoological and 
Geological Museum, There are also various other ob- 
jects of interest which are shown to visitors. 

To Franzeksbad. 

Franzensbad, wliich lies west of Carlsbad, is reached 
in about 2J hours by railway. The best hotels are the 
Adler, Post, Hubner, British Hotel, Jliiller's Hotel, the 
Erzherzogin Gisela, and the Kaiser von Oesterreich, 
Restaurants at the Cursaal, Railway Station, Weilburg, 
Brandenburg Thor, Prince of Wales, the latter with 
gardens. 

The springs of Franzensbad, which are situated on 
a level plain 1570 feet above the sea, are principally 
frequented by ladies, the iron spring and peat baths 
being highly recommended for female complaints. The 
annual number of visitors is about 10,000, only a small 



I 



I 



LONUEK EXCUE8I0X3 BT BAIL. 

proportion of whom belong to the male aex. The 
climate is bracing, bnt the changes in temperature are 
often very Eodden and somewhat trjing. Aboat 200 
hooBes have been erected at this spa, almost all of 
which are devoted to the accommodation of visitors. 

The principal building is the Cursaai, a large atmc- 
ture containing reading and conversation rooms, restan- 
rant, and a large concert salon 150 feet long and 52 
feet wide. For shelter in unfavourable weather there 
are two colonnades, one of wood lined with shops, which 
extends from the Franz ensquelle to the Cursaai, and 
another of brick, 220 yards in length, has been erected 
at the Salzquelle. 

In fine weather the viaitora promenade in a large and 
beautifiilJy laid out park, which extends from the city 
to the railway station. In the park there is a bronze 
statne of Francis I., the fonnder of the baths. There 
are several large bathing establiahments at the spa, 
about one-half of the baths being mineral, and the 
remainder peat baths, which are greatly used. The 
Franzensbad peat, like that of Marienbad, is ex- 
tremely rich in snlphate of iron. The springs, which 
are cold (50° Fahr.), are ferruginous and are highly 
tonic, the principal ingredients being iron, carbonic 
acid, soda, and Glauber salts. The principal spring is 
the FruTtzeiisquelle, where most of the visitors assemble 
from 4.30 to 6.30 r.M. to drink the waters and listen to 
the orchestra. Life at Franzensbad, however, is dull 
at its beat, aa the majority of the patients are feeble 



LONGER EXCURSIONS BY RAIL. 1^9 

g, and the absence of the male sex gives a 
ne-sided character to the conversation and 



Tu Teputz. 
Teplitz, next to Carlsbad the most celebrated and 
the most frequented of the Austrian watering-places, 
liea west from Carlsbad about three hours' distance by 
rail. The hotels are the Stadt LondoUj Post, Altes- 
Rathhaus, Konig von Prenssen, and Schwartz's Ross ; 
at Schonau, the Neptun. The best and most frequented 
restaurants and caKs are at the Cursaal, in the Stephan's 
Platz, and the Garten Salon, in the Schlossgarten ; at 
both of these (able d'hdte is served during the season. 
There are also restaurants at the hotels. Excellent 
confectionery at Miiller's in the Bader Platz and Zimma 
in the Cnrgarten, English Church service is held 
during the season. A new Theatre has been erected in 
the Cnrgarten, at which performances are given daily. 
Concerts are given in the Cnrgarten daily from 6.30 to 
8 A.M., in the Schlossgarten from 11 a.m. to i p.m. 
In the evening concerts are given alternately in the 
Cur-garten and the Schlossgarten. Balls are held in 
the Garten salon every Saturday evening from 8 to 

12 P.M. 

Teplitz, which takes its name from a Slavonic 
word signifying " warm bath," lies in the broad and 
fertile valley of the Bela, 725 feet above the sea-level. 
It is an ancient town with 16,000 inhabitants, and is 



LOIfGER EXCUBSIONS BY HAH. 

one of tlie oldest watPring-places in Earope, the spring 
haying been known as early . as the eighth century. 
The number of visitors is abont 12,000 annually. 

The life at Teplitz is a great contrast to that of most 
of the other watering-places in the north of Anstria, 
as it is a quiet and comparatively cheap place ; but, 
nevertheless, it is by no means dull, while, with its 
splendid gardens and beautifol environs, it even ont- 
rivals its gayer sisters of Carlsbad and Marienbad. The 
season lasts from May till September, bat the baths are 
open the whole year. 

The springs, which are 9 aline -alkaline, have a tem- 
perature of 86° to 118° Fahr., and are used both for 
drinking and bathing. They have a stimulating and 
exciting effect, and are considered exceedingly beneficial 
in cases of rheumatism, gont, paralysis, and nervous 
disorders. 

As in Carlsbad, the visitors at Teplitz assemble to take 
the waters and promenade at the Trinkhalle in the Cur- 
garten between 6 and 8 A.M. Another favourite pro- 
menade is the grounds of the Chdieau of Prince Clai-y, 
where the visitors assemble from 1 1 a.m. to 1 p.m. to 
listen to the concerts which are given between these 
hours. In the grounds, which are beautifully laid out, 
are a cafi5 restaurant and a dairy. On the south-east 
side of the Curgarten, in the Stephan's Plata, are 
the Cursalon, with reading and conversation rooms, 
restaiu'ant, and cafd, and the Kaiserbad, a magnificent 
structure, fitted up with bath-rooms and elegantly 



LOXGER EXCL'RSroXS BY HAIL, 1 6 I 

furnished apartmcats. On the opposite aide of the 
Garten is the new Theatre, a handBOme bnilding of 
Renaissance architecture. 

The favourite walks are to the KorngshdliB (820 fl.), 
an eminence lying immediately to the south of the 
town, on which ia the Soklackmberff, a, curious roccoco 
erection of sandstone and glazed bricks. In the 
building is a restaurant, and from the tower {camera 
obscura 1 5 kr.) there ia a fine panoramic view of the 
town and the Bela valley. Charming views can also be 
obtained fi-om the Belvidere restaurant and from the 
cafe Vilia Bel la vista. 

A short distance from the Curgarten, on the road to 
the Schlackenberg, is a monument erected in honour of 
Frederick William III. of Prussia in 1 841, by "Grateful 
Teplitz," to commemorate the visits of the emperor to 
the hatha. 

To the east side of the town lies the suburb of 
Schonau, which was formerly a separate village, but ia 
now united to Teplitz by terraces of new houses. At 
Schonau there are also extensive bath-houses and ample 
accommodation for visitors. 

Between Teplitz and Schiinau is a small hill, the 
Mont de Ligne, on the summit of which ia a restaurant 
and a belvidere, the latter commanding a fine panoramic 
view of the town and its environs. 

East of Schiinau ia the Schlossberg ( 1 280 feet), which 
can be ascended in about half an hour. On the summit 
are the ruins of an ancient castle destroyed by the Im- 



'■ 



I 



163 LONGEB EZCUI{SIO>'S BT HAIL. 

perialist troops m a.d 1655 during the Thirty Years^ 
War. 

A pleasant excursion &om Teplitz can be made to the 
baths ot Eichwcddy .1378 feet above the level of the sea, 
which is delightfully situated amid beautiful wooded 
scenery, three miles to the north-west. An omnibus 
runs between Teplitz and Eichwald several times daily. 

Another favourite excursion can be made to the 
MUeschauer or Donnersberg^ a hill 2740 feet in height, 
lying about ten miles to the south-east. The summit, 
on which there is an inn, commands one of the most 
extensive and picturesque views in Bohemia. Visitors 
take the stage or a carriage (two hours) from Teplitz to 
Pilkau, from which it is about an hour's walk to the 
summit. 



( i63 ) 




XIII. 

SHOOTING AND FISHING. 

jERY fair shooting and fishing can be enjoyed 
by visitors in the neighbourhood of Carls- 
bad. For shooting, a licence (" wafienpass "), 
price I fl., must be obtained from the Burgomaster, 
and leave must also be obtained from the shooting 
society. Shooting begins on the ist August, and 
ends on the 3 1 st January ; the best time for winged 
game being August and the beginning of September, 
and for ground game and deer the late autumn and 
winter months. Cartridges to fit English guns can 
be obtained from Rosenfeldt's Wisen Lowen, Markt 
Platz, and A. Epstein, Goldener Lowen, opposite the 
Curhaus. The game in the neighbourhood of Carisbad 
consists of partridge (rebhahn), blackcock (birkhahn), 
hares (hasen), and deer (reh), also a very few wild boar. 
The fish in the streams near Carlsbad are trout 
(forellen), best season May and June, which run from 
4 to 6 to the pound, with an occasional half-pounder 
or even larger, pike, barm, rothauge — ^very game fish 



with red eyes, whicli run from 3 to 6 pounds — and 
weissfiscli (white fish), whicli average from i to 3 
pounds. 

Visitors are permitted to fish in the Eger provided 
they are accompanied by one of the fishermen of the 
Fischerei-Verein, who expects a small honorariam. 
All fish caught must be given up to the society or 
paid for at the market price. For fishing in the 
Eger tickets are issued by the Fischerei-Verein, price 
3 florins per month. Fish caught can be kept by 
the angler. 

For trout the best baits are artificial flies, worms, 
and grasshoppers. The small boys abont Carlsbad will 
gladly collect a packet of either of the latter for visitors. 
Flies can be obtained at Bosenfeldt's and Epstein's. 
Barm and rothauge are taken in the same way as 
trout. For weissfisch, which in the summer months 
are very plentiful and take freely, the best bait is 
whole cherries, either black or red. These fish lie in 
the necks of the pools, which should be baited the 
previous day by throwing in quantities of cherries. 
They take most freely in the mornings and evenings. 

The best rivers are the Tepel, the Petschan, the 
Eger (no trout), the Neudeck, and the Weissbach. 
In the district round Carlsbad there are a number of 
deep ditches which contain large carp. They give, 
however, very little sport. 



( 165 ) 




XIV. 

THE EXPOKTATIOX AND PRODUCTS OF THE 

CARLSBAD SPRINGS. 

|HE exportation of the Carlsbad water is com- 
paratively a new industry, the first water 
for export having been bottled in 1842. 
For a long time it was supposed that the waters lost 
their efficacy after they became cold. This prejudice 
was removed by Dr. Hlawacek, who proved incontest- 
ably that after being heated again to their normal 
temperature they still retained most of their medicinal 
properties. It is impossible, however, to contend 
that the exported waters are of equal efficacy to 
those drunk at the springs, not only from the possible 
escape of their most volatile constituents, but from the 
absence of the salutary efiect of the change of air and 
regular mode of life, which are in themselves most 
valuable aids to recovery. Besides this, their beneficial 
influence is often greatly increased by bathing in the 
same water, which of course is only possible at Carlsbad 
itself. 



I 66 EXPORTATIOW AXD PRODUCTS OF THE SPRINGS. 

NevertheleBB the exported waters are often of value 
in cases of sadden emergency, or when the patient 
finds it impossible to visit tho springs ; they are also 
of great use in completing the cure after the visit 18 
ended. The waters best suited for exportation are 
those of the cooler springs, as they contain the grei 
amount of carbonic acid gas, those most used for the 
purpose, therefore, being the llarktbrunn, Schloss- 
brunn, and Muhlbninn, 

The bottles are packed in cases and sold in Carlsbad 
at the following prices, cases included : — 

fl. 

Case of 50 Iwttles . . . -13 

.-30 9 



Sprudel Salt was first prepared by Dr. Berger in 
1708, though his experiments were only tentative.- 
In 1732 Dr. Borriaa discovered a method of obtaining 
the salt in sufficient quantities for export by evapo- 
rating the water and crystallising tho depOFit. This 
process he made over to Dr. Richter, who obtained 
from the Eniperar Charles VI. the right to maauiac- 
ture the salt. At first the townspeople objected; 
strongly to the preparation and sale of the salt, feaiv 
ing that it would do away with the necessity of 
visitors coming to Carlsbad, This absurd prejudice 
at last became so strong that the manufacture 
the salt was stopped for several vears, and it was 



EXPORTATION AITD PKODDCTS OF THE SPHINGS. 1 6/ 

only allowed to be given to patients actually resident 
at Carlabad. 

In 1764 Dr. David Becker discovered & new pro- 
cess of preparing the salt by using the natural heat of 
the Sprndel itself as the means of evaporation. 

By this method a mneh larger quantity of the salts 
was able to be produced, and its price was greatly 
reduced. Shortly after this a Government act was 
passed permitting the exportation of the salt, and the 
townspeople, finding that this had rather the effect of 
attracting the attention of the pcbhc to fcho springs 
than of keeping visitors away, soon got rid of their 
prejndices. 

The demand for the salt rapidly increased, until in 
1 8 1 3 it was found necessary to erect a building for 
its manufaiiture, connected by pipes with the Sprndel. 
In 1863 the Government leased the manufacture of 
the salt to Herr Mattoni, who built a stone factory 
nearthe Ferdinand's Briicke. In i S77 Herr Mattoni's 
contract expired, and the factory was let to Herr L, 
Schottlcender for ten years, at an annual rent of 70,000 
florins. TJie constantly increasing demand for the salt 
has necessitated the extension of the factory, till it is 
now one of the largest and most completely appointed 
in Europe. 

In 1880 the Carlsbad Town Council commissioned 
the celebrated analyiat. Dr. Ernest Ludwig of Vienna, 
to undertake experiments with the view of obtaining 



I 




1 68 EXPORTil 

a salt from the springs which, when dissolved, Bhoiild 
more nearly resemble the natural mineral water than 
the Sprndel Salt. He succeeded in obtaining a pre- 
paration which he named Natural Carlsbad Salt, and 
which contains all the properties of the springs them- 
selves. It has also the advantage of being less liable 
to evaporation when exported. The Natnral Salts, 
which are packed in bottles of lOO and 200 grammes, 
(J and I lb.) with green labels, have now almost-] 
superseded the Spmdel Salt. 

The salt is used either dissolved in the mineral j 
water to increase its cathartic action, the dose bein^J 
one to two drachms to a tumbler of the water, or by 
dissolving a small teaspoonful in half a tumbler of hot 
water, or better still, of Giesshiibl, Krondorf or 
water. 

The Natural Carlsbad Salt is a most valuable mild j 
cathartic, as it operates quickly and without pain. 
It has also the advantage that the dose does not reqnira 
to be increased after a time as with most other cathar- 
tics, nor does constipation follow after its use is dis- 
continued. The salt should be taken in the morning 
before breakfast. 

The Natural Carlsbad Salts are also made into pas- 
tilles, which are taken for acidity, heartburn, and 
flatulency. Two to four pastilles should be taken two 
to three times daily, preferably about half an hour 
after meals. 



I 



EXPORTATION AND PRODUCTS OF THE SPRINGS. I 69 

The salt contains in 100 parts — 





Per cent. 


Carbonate of lithium 


0.39 


Bicarbonate of soda . 


• 35-95 


Sulphate of potash . 


3.25 


Sulphate of soda 


. 42.03 


Chloride of soda 


. 18.16 


Fluoride of soda 


.09 



99.87 

The Sjprudel Soap is prepared from the lye, or first 
deposit of the Sprudel water, after the crystallised salts 
have been extracted. This lye contains about fourteen 
cent, of mineral constituents. 

This chemical compound is purified from all traces of 
Glaubers' salt, and by the addition of lime is turned 
into caustic lye, from which the soap is manufactured 
by the ordinary process. The soap, which possesses 
considerable healing power, is beneficial in cases of 
chronic diseases of the skin, and is used in both plain 
and mineral water baths. It is also used for poulticing 
cold abscesses and boils, and for making a soap 
embrocation. 



!■■ 

f » 

1 



i ! 



c. 



;i; 



part M. 



MEDICAL TREATISE. 



Il 

• I. 

4. I 



^i 






r' 

if 



( 1/3 ) 




I. 



ACTION OF THE WATERS. 

ESIDES the stimulating properties common 
to most mineral waters, those of Carlsbad 
possess three special properties of their own. 

( I .) By their high temperature they accelerate the 
absorption, stimulate the circulation of the blood, pro- 
duce perspiration, and act as a sedative upon the 
nervous system. 

(2.) .The carbonic acid gas which they contain 
augments the secretion of gastric juice, stimulates the 
appetite and the digestion, calms the gastric nerves, 
and strengthens the peristaltic movements of the 
stomach and intestinal tract. 

(3.) Their use results in a specific action, viz., a 
chemical modification in the system by the introduc- 
tion of the alkaline salts j the sulphates and carhonatcs 
of soda, and the chloride of sodium. They are anti- 
add par excellence, and the sulphate of soda is a mild 
laxative. Alkalies among other things have been 
proved to be indispensable to the phenomena of 
endosmosis, combustion, digestion, and secretion; 



174 



ACTIOS OF THE WATERS. 



tUey contribute to maintain the blooJ in tlie i 
of viscosity necessary to keep it fitted for endos- 
mosia, es osmosis, the different compositions and 
decompositions which constitute esiat«nce. They 
render the saccharine and amylaceous matters, intro- 
daced by alimentation, capable of combining with the 
oxygen and assisting in the functions of respiration 
and calorification. They cause the elements of the 
bile to become fluid, prevent them from thickening 
or forming calculi, maintain the intestinal diges- 
tion, facilitate the secretions, and thus influence all 
the acts of nutrition and assimilation. The Carlsbad 
waters, in rendering the blood more alkaline, cause it 
to lose a part of its coagulatory properties ; they attack 
the albumen and the fibrine, and bring about promptly 
the dissolution of these substances. If the blood, 
having become more flnid, moves with more liberty in 
its channels, and if, besides, it possesses the property 
of dissolving the two principal elements which form the 
basis of most chronic congestions, a near approach has 
been attained to a knowledge of the mechanism by 
which the Carlsbad waters are dissolvent, resolutive, 
antiplastic, and deobstruent. It is, therefore, of ex- 
treme importance to pay particular attention to the 
double action, tonic and chemical, of those waters 
when using them for the treatment of different 



b 



From their exciting and tonic properties their use is 
not advisable in acute inflammatory disorders, in cases 



ACTIOS OF TOE WATERS. 1 7 5 

in whiuli chronic inflammations have a tendency to 
assume an acute form, and in those in which tha 
viscera are subject to eerious disorganisation, the pro- 
gress of which is generally airgravated by anything 
that accelerates the circulation. On the other hand, 
they are beneficial in chronic afiections, if it is required 
to give a particular stimulus to the organs, to promote 
the circulation, excite the secretions, or regulate nutri- 
tion and assimilation. 

By their chemical properties they are suitable in 
all cases of congestion, obstruction of the- viscera, as 
calarrk of the stomach, catarrh of the bowels, biliary and 
urinary calculi, disorders of the liver, gravel, catarrh of 
the bladder, gout, rheumatism, and diabetes. Practical 
observation shows that they produce benejicial modifica- 
tions in lymphaiic or s(yrofiilous coTistiiutions, as well as 
in albuminuria. But they should be employed with 
great cantion and prudence by cachectic, consumptive, 
or emaciated patients, who, though they sometimes 
derive advantage from their stimulating virtues, have 
to fear, on the other hand, an aggravation of their 
condition. 

The Carlsbad springs present, in their medical 
aspect, differences much more important than might 
be supposed from their chemical analysis. By their 
stimulating and at the same time alterative properties 
the same springs often present the greatest contrasts. 
According to the constitution of the persons and the 
nature of the disease they produce calm or excite- 



( 

I 



1/6 ACTION OF THE WATERS. 

ment, sleep or wakefulness, diarrhoea or constipation ; 
they soothe or increase certain pains, strengthen or 
weaken, fatten or reduce. 

The first sensation on taking the waters is decidedly- 
pleasant. After a short use of them a genial warmth 
spreads itself over the body, and a feeling of comfort 
and lightness is experienced. In some cases, after the 
first week, the pains or symptoms from which the 
patient is sufiering are greatly increased (called the 
crisis), but this need not in the least degree excite 
fear or apprehension. In a few days the unpleasant- 
ness passes away, and then rapid improvement takes 
place. The complexion gradually clears day by day, 
and by the end of the course it assumes a natural and 
healthy tinge. 



( 17; ) 




IL 



USE OF THE MINERAL WATERS AT CARLSBAD. 

I OR the right use of the waters it is very 
necessary that a correct diagnosis of each 
case should be formed. For this reason 
the invalid should always seek the advice of a physi- 
cian who has made a special study of the diseases 
upon which the Carlsbad waters are supposed to 
exercise a salutary influence. The following explana- 
nation, therefore, of the treatment is only intended to 
induce the patient to follow the directions of the phy- 
sician more intelligently. 

The usual regime is, to commence with, from three 
half to three whole tumblers of the special spring pre- 
scribed by the medical attendant, taken at intervals of 
a quarter of an hour, and increasing gradually to three, 
four, five, and six tumblers. 

The waters are taken in the morning as a rule, the 
usual hours being from 6 to 8 a.m., except in the case 
of delicate invalids, who may be permitted to breakfast 
lightly beforehand if necessary, and even to use the 
waters at home. 

M 




78 DSE OF THE MINER4L WATERS AT CAHLSBAD. 



The patient should rise about 6 a.m., so as to reacJiB 
the spriDg about 6.30 A.M. To go early to the sprin^l 
has many advantages, as it not only avoids loss of ■ 
time, and consequent hurry, a serious consideration j 
for patients subject to congestion in the head andl 
perspiration ; but at that time, the stomach bein^l 
empty, the water will be more easily absorbed. Here 
at the different springs are to be met people of 
all classes and from every country- — crowned beads 
and princes of royal blood, members of the English 
aristocracy, Americans, French, Germans, Russians, 
Swedes, Turks, &c. Ailments of almost every form 
are likewise represented, and it is a most interesting ■ 
sight to watch the daily improvement in health and I 
spirits of many who had probably considered their I 
cases hopeless. There is a covered colonnade at each] 
of the principal springs, irbieh can be used in wofe^ 
weather, and an excellent band plays every morning"! 
i'rom 6 to 8, thereby assisting the cure, by diverting'! 
the mind and enlivening the spirits. Between th& I 
times of drinking the waters the patient should pro- i 
menade, as far as his strength or the complaint from 1 
which he suffers will allow, and after the last draugKtl 
should, if possible, take a walk of an hour's dnratdon. 

Exercise facilitates the absorption of the waters,.! 
und is also necessary to the re-establishment of health. 
After the walk breakfast should be taken. 



( ^79 ) 



EXTERNAL USE OF THE SIINERAL WATER. 



S^^LTHOUGH driuking tlie waters at Carlsbad 
j^^^l^ constitutes the principal means of cure, 
'^=^"** experience and obseiTation teach ua that 
by bathing their effects are considerably increased. 
To assist the operation of the watera, mineral, mud, 
iron, vapour, or douche baths are prescribed, and for 
this purpose there are several bathing establiahmenta 
fitted up with every requisite. The special form of 
baths, their temperature, the frequency with which 
they should be taken, aud the time which the patient 
should remain in them, must depend upon their 
special case and on the advice of their medical at- 
tendant. 

The Sprudel Water is conducted in long iron pipes 
to the Curhaus, to the Sladthaus, and to the Neubad, 
where it is cooled to the requisite degree. 

Thepeai hatk consists of Hack peat. This peat is 
rich in mineral constituents. It is first pulverised, 
then screened and freed from accidental impurities, 
mixed with the hot Sprudel Water, or, as in the Neu- 



I 



l80 EXTERNAL DSB OF THE MINERAL WATER. ^M 

bad, heated by steam when the bath is ordered. ThaS 
usual temperature of the Sprudel bath ranges from™ 
So° Fahr. to 96° Fahr. ; of the peat bath, from 96°! 
Fahr. to lOo''Fahr. ; of the vapour bath, from I00°* 
Fahr. to 130° Fahr, The hatha are taken either in. 1 
the morning when faatiag, after drinking the mineral I 
water, or about two hours after breakfast, generally I 
between 1 1 and l o'clock in the forenoon. During I 
the bath any affected parts, such as the region of the 1 
spleen and liver or inflamed or stiffened joints, should 9 
be subjected to gentle friction. I 

Before taking the bath all excitement or fatigue, or ■ 
anything that is liable to accelerate the circulation trf I 
the blood, or produce palpitation of the heart or eon- I 
gestion of the brain, must bo carefully avoided. A J 
bath must never be taken on a full stomach, and three I 
hours at least should be allowed to elapse after a meal.>-^ 
Strong persons may take their bath in the morning 
after drinking the waters and before breakfast, but 
weak patients should not bathe till after having had a 
meal. 

The nature of the bath, the number necessary to l 
taken, and the duration of the bath must always 1 
determined by the physician, as he has in pres 
to take into consideration the nature of the diseac 
the age and constitution of the patient, and the chemi*, 
cal composition of the water or peat. 

It very often occurs at Carlsbad that patients aflesl 
having taken a number of mineral or peat baths gst'l 



EXTERNAL USE OF THE MINERAL WATER. l8l 

an eruption on the skin, sometimes itching, called the 
" badfriesel " or " bath-rush." This eruption, however, 
need occasion no alarm, as it is only due to the action 
on the skin of the salt in the water or peats. The 
eruption entirely disappears when the baths are stopped 
for two or three days. 

As the greater number of patients suffering from 
chronic rheumatism, gout, or skin eruptions are liable 
to a profuse perspiration after taking the baths, they 
should always be provided with warm clothing. In 
warm weather they may take a short walk after the 
bath, but in damp or cold weather they should imme- 
diately return home and rest for a short time. 

Patients who are in the slightest degree subject to 
congestion of the brain should, especially if they take 
peat baths, keep a cold wet towel on their heads as 
long as they remain in the bath, and they should also 
be careful to have an attendant at hand to change the 
towels as they become warm. 



( iS2 ) 



DIETETICS DURING THE USE OF THE WAT! 



ES^^OT less important than drinking the waten 
^^tpK and taking the haths is the pi'oper man- 
f^A.\^ agement of the patient's regimen. It ia of ^ 
the most vital importance that the patient at Carls- 
bad should lead a regular life ; retire early, rise early, 
eat and drink moderately, and always at the same 
hour of the day. He should be the whole day, if i 
possible, in the open air, and should take constanfij 
hut moderate exercise, but be moat careful to avoid 1 
all fatigue or exhaustion. Above all, he should keepl 
his mind free from worry about business aSaii's, otm 
any other matters requiring anxious thought, aa tliel 
mind requires rest as well as the body- 
Bathing and drinking the waters cannot effect al 
cure if the diet and method of life, and even the 1 
amusements, are not regulated by the rules of the 1 
special case. Especially the diet and the amount of 1 
exercise has to be prescribed by the medical attendant. I 




DIETETICS DUHING THE DSE OF THE WATERS, 



The diet should be always nourishing but simple. 
The desire for food is generally increased ; "but as the 
main object of the use of the waters ia restoration to 
health, reason must regulate the diet. It is very im- 
portant that there should be a considerable interval 
between each meal. Experience proves that the 
stomach requires from four to five hours to digest 
the quantity of food eaten at a moderate meal, and after 
this process the stomach remains for almost an hour 
in an abnormal conditiouj which may be compared to a 
slight catarrh. It is only after the lapse of five to six 
hours that the stomach resumes its ordinary healthy 
condition. Three meala during the day are generally 
sufficient. 

The common custom in Carlsbad is as follows : — 
After having drunk the requisite number of caps of 
mineral water early in the morning, a good hour's 
walk is prescribed before taking breakfast, between 8 
and g o'clock. This meal consists of coffee or tea 
■with milk, a moderate quantity of toast or roll (with- 
out butter), and a couple of eggs or a small quantity 
of cold meat. Butter, fat, or grease of any kind is 
expressly forbidden. 

The greater number of visitors to Carlsbad take 
their breakfast in the open air. In the gardens and 
at the restaurants the moat delicious coffee and tea 
and excellent Vienna rolis (Semmel & Kipfel) are 
served at little tables under verandahs and beneath 
the shade of the trees. Having rested a while after 



1 



1 



! 84 ^DnrrETics ddbihg the use of the WATEBS. 

Ijreakfast, another short walk should be taken before I 
bathing-time, which is generally between lO and il 
A.M. After the bath a rest shonld be taken before 
dinner. 

At Carlsbad table d'hote dinners are not cus- 
tomary, as nearly all of the patients have to follow a 
certain regimen prescribed by their physician. Besides 
this, no dishes at the hotels or restaurants which afo 
unsuitable for patients taking the mineral waters (so- 
called " curgemiiss " or " against the cure rules ") are 
allowed to be put on the bills of fare. 

Dinner is usually taken between the hours of one 
and two. It consists of three to four dishes, as soup 
(not always), fish, roast beef, roast veal, or roast 
chicken ; and green vegetables, such as spinach, cauli- 
flower, asparagus, French beans, or green peas, Ac,, 
and stewed fruits (compote). The patients should be 
careful not to overload the stomach ; any objectionable 
or injurious food, such as raw fruits, ices, sour or too 
sweet dishes, are to be avoided. Stimulants of good 
quality, such as claret, hock, pilsener beer, when 
taken in moderation, in no way diminish the eSects of 1 
the mineral waters ; they often, indeed, serve as a 
stimulant to the system. But, at the same time, , 
spirits, such as brandy and whisky, must be strictly ] 
avoided, as they may lead to the most serious conse^ 1 
quences. A short rest after dinner (but no sleep), and J 
then a stroll through the woods or a walk to some of I 
the pleasure-gardens outside the town, where there ii i 



DIETETICS DURING THE USE OF THE WATERS. I 8 S 

music, brings the time up to 6 p.m., at which hour tea 
witji milk and eggs, or a chop, or cold meat, is usually- 
taken, and by 9 or I o o'clock most people retire to 
bed, rising up refreshed the next morning to go through 
precisely the same course as on the preceding day. 

Over-fatigue or unnecessary exertion is to be par- 
ticularly avoided ; but, at the same time, as fresh air 
greatly assists the cure, patients are advised to be out 
as much as possible so long as the weather admits of 
it, taking especial care, however, not to get chilled. 

The climate of Carlsbad, like that of most moun- 
tainous districts, is liable to sudden changes, especially 
during the morning and evenings ; and as patients 
have to be the greater part of the day out of doors 
taking exercise, and so liable to perspire freely, they 
should always wear flannel undershirts and be provided 
with a shawl or an overcoat. 

Smoking is to be restricted within the narrowest 
limits. 

Sleeping during the day is generally unadvisable. 
Weak persons, however, who sleep badly during the 
night may sleep for about half an hour before dinner. 

Occupation. — During the use of the waters the 
patient ought to avoid all kinds of business. The 
beneficial effect of the waters will be much assisted if 
the patient's mind be at rest during his stay at our 
watering-place, where he will find the most beautiful 
walks and drives among the charming and picturesque 
woods and mountains. Other patients need and find 



I 86 DIETETICS DUROG THE USE OF THE WATERS. 

pleasant society and cheerful company at Carlsbad. 
The excellent bands of music and the famous classical 
concerts also contribute much to the general enjoy- 
ment. To the artist and lover of scenery Carlsbad 
presents numberless charms ; and the views to be seen 
from the Aherg, the Hirschensprung^ the Panorama^ 
and the Dreikreuzberg are magnificent, and should on 
no account remain unvisited. A few miles distant 
are Hammer , Hanaheiling and Giesshilbl, Hans- 
heiling is a lovely spot in the valley of the Eger, and 
at Giesshilbl there is a natural spring from which the 
water issues forth as cold as ice and effervescing like 
soda water. 



( 187 ) 



GENERAL INDICATIONS FOR THE USE OF 
CARLSBAD WATER 

Cases in which the Waters are Decidedly Indi- 
cated, AMD THOSE IN WHICH THEY AHE CONTRA- 

Indicated. 

IM^^SIHBONIC conditions of every form of alidominal 
L^[^ disease are the most likely to be benefited by 
'**~*^ the water. They are not in all cases com- 
pletely cured, but it very rarely happens that they are 
not modified in their worst symptoms. Most of our 
patients are affected with Plethora aldominalis, arising 
from too substantial and abnudant nourishmentj com- 
bined with a sedentaiy life, where chylification exceeds 
the ordinary want of nature. The blood is therefore 
overloaded with the final results of the digestion, and 
all the secretions are disturbed. The excretory organs 
are found incapable of eliminating the superfinons 
matters, and this being retained, morbid products 
came to be developed. The quantity as well as the 
quality of the blood and of the other fluids being 
thna injuriously altered, many chronic diseases arise, 



t88 jsmCA-najis for vse of cAm^As water: 

Buch as indigestion, constipation, gont, piles, 
stones, renal calcnli, gravel, gonty eczema, &c. 
In these complaints the waters are verj' efficacioi 
account of their action on the bowels, on the nr 
organs, and on the skin, which tends to diminish 1 
amoont of the solid constituents of the blood and othei 
wiae to restore it to its normal condition. 



Special iNDtCA-noxs, 

I. Si/spepsin. At least two-thirds of the patients t 
bo met with at Carlsbad go there in order to obtaj 
from the waters relief from the varied forma of indigea 
tion. They frequently complain that they have littl^ 
or no appetite. After eating they feel heaviness and 
pain in the epigastrium, flatulence, acidity, headaclu 
weakness, and depression. When the dyspepsia 
simple and idiopathic it is generally cured in a com 
plete and easy manner by the use of the Carlsbt 
waters. 

But dyspepsia depends also very frequently on chrooiH 
or constitutional affections, and manifests itself as i 
secondary symptom of some predominant disease, f 
as chronic catarrh of the stomach, ulcer of the stomachjn 
gout, &c. Even in these cases patients have oil 
obtained the moat favourable results, as the thei 
treatment has a very beneficial influence on thoi 
chronic and constitutional maladies. 

It happens very often with a dyspeptic patient, as c 
of the consequences of the slowness of the digestioi^ 



INDICATIONS FOR USE OF CARLSBAD WATER. 1 89 

that the local nervous system becomes excited to such a 
point as to give rise to neuralgic symptoms. This 
painful neurosis of the stomach, or gastralgia^ manifests 
itself under several forms. 

2. The typical form is the attack of gastralgia or 
cramp in the stomach — cramps, both violent and last- 
ing from half an hour to several hours. It begins with 
headache, pain in the epigastrium and back, accom- 
panied with dyspnoea and vomiting, and finishing with 
exhaustion. There are a certain number of cases in 
which we find combined both the symptoms of gas- 
tl'algia and dyspepsia, namely, gastralgic dyspepsia or 
dyspeptic gastralgia^ according to which of those forms 
predominates. 

Gastralgia and dyspepsia, however distinct they may 
be from each other, may therefore meet on the same 
ground, and thus necessitate those therapeutic mea- 
sures which apply to both. Carlsbad waters produce 
in both cases the most satisfactory results. Another 
most disagreeable consequence of chronic catarrh of 
the stomach is 

3. The dilatation of the stomach. The slightest pres- 
sure on a greatly distended stomach easily produces a 
visible undulation and gurgling noise, accompanied by 
dyspepsia, gastralgia, flatulency, frequent eructations 
of sour liquid and air, palpitation of the heart, vomit- 
ing, dyspnoea, and general exhaustion. This com- 
plaint, when far advanced, is seldom completely cured, 
but it can decidedly be very much improved by washing 




190 ntDICATlOHS FOa USE OP CAHLSBAD WATER. 

out the stomach with "CarUbad water, introdaced and 
withdrawn through a stomach tube and funnel like a 
siphon. 

Besides this innocent, painless, and most efficacious 
treatment massage and electricity may be applied to the 
dilated stomach. 

4. Chronic catarrh of the bowels, chronic diarrluea, 
as well as chronic constipation, and their consequences, 
all being different species of the same affection, find 
generally a quick and radical remedy in the Carlsbad 
waters. 

5. Culicy a neuralgia of the intestinal nerves, and 
perhaps also of the ramifications of the mesenteric plexus, 
characterised by constringent, wandering, or fixed pains 
in the umbilical region and the colon, is often cured at 
Carlsbad. Also the Colica, satiimina (Colic of Devon- 
shire), the so-called lead poisoning, finds a remedy in 
the Carlsbad waters. 

The Carlsbad waters have no anthelmintic or womi- 
destroying action, properly speaking, notwithstanding 
that Ascarides lumhriciyides and ox-ym-is vermicidaris, 
and even great lengths of tapeworm are often expelled 
by them ; they, however, have a great influence in de- 
stroying the tendency to the formation of worms. 

6. Diseases of the liver and hUiary duets are also 
treated with moat successful results at the hot alkaline 
springs of Carlsbad, especially enlargements of the liver 
of various kinds, occasioned principally by accumulation, 
offal or by congestion. The waters are, however, of 



nroiCATIONS FOR DSE OP CARLSBAD WATER. ipf 

little or no Me if the enlargement of the liver ia caused 
by cancer or by encysted echinococcua. 

Cirrhosis of the liver can only be benefited in its 
earlier stages. In -Marly all cases of Jaundice where the 
discharge of the bile into the intestine is prevented, 
either by gastric catarrh having extended into the 
duodenum and biliary ducts or by chronic inflammation 
in the liver, or when it ia prevented by any other inter- 
ruption of the flow of the bile, snch as aome strong 
nervona perturbation or gallstones, Carlsbad waters are 
particularly efficacious. 

7. GallstoTies and hepatic coUes are diseases in which 
the favourable effects of the Carlabad springs may be 
looked for with the greatest certainty. The fact is, that 
under the influence of the thermal treatment the ex- 
pulsion of gallatunes and gravel is often singularly 
facilitated, sometimes without pain, but more frequently 
with the most painful colics, which may occur at 
Carlsbad or immediately after the thermal treatment. 
Such attacks of violent colic occurring either during or 
after the use of the Carlsbad waters indicate invariably 
a considerable amelioration of the disease, if not its 
entire disappearance. 

Our alkaline waters not only facilitate the expulsion 
of smaller concretions through the biliary ducts into the 
duodenum, but also seem to act upon the bile, so as to 
do away either temporarily or altogether with tendency 
to this species of litbiaais or forming of gallstones. 
Carlsbad ia a sure remedy also for polyrkolia, the ex- 



I 



L 



192 IHDlCATIONa FOB USE OF C&RLBBAD WATER. 

cesHive Becretion of bile, generally the consequence of an 
hereditary bilious constitution, of a residence in tropical 
climates, of too luxurious and heating food, or of the 
abuse of mercury and the iodides. 

Also the functional derangements of the spleen, 
especially enlargement of that organ as a consequence of 
malaria and intermittent and typhoid fever, are generally 
not only improved but completely cured in Carlsbad. 

8. Our waters are also specially useful in dissolving 
and expelling gravel and small calculi of the kidneys 
and bladder. Patients suffering from gravel or calculi 
soon feel in Carlsbad a great relief from their com- 
plaint. The urine becomes alkaline. Being secreted 
more abundantly and without pain, it dissolves and 
carries o£F the glairy and purulent matters resulting 
from irritation of the mucous membrane, soon ceases 
to be thick and fcotid, and becomes limpid; while at 
the same time hminatiiria or blood in the urine, nephri- 
tic or kidney colics, pain in the kidneys and bladder, 
and the disorders caused by the presence of calculi are 
diminished and removed. Sleep, appetite, and strength 
revive, and patients who on arriving could scarcely 
stand are able in a few days to take salutary exercise. 
It has been proved by practical tests that the Carlsbad 
springs, being strongly charged with bicarbonate of 
soda, dissolve and disintegrate the different ingredients 
of the calculi, and assist in their natural expulsion from 
the bladder. The waters dissolve the animal matter, 
and as a consequence separate the saline parts, which, 



iKDiOATions ran dsb or caklsbad water. 193 

deprived of their cement, are deposited in small scales 
and expelled with the nrine. In this manner the waters 
may act on the phosphatic calculi, especially on those of 
ammoniaeal-magnesian-phosphati;, as well as on the cal- 
culi of uric add. 

The effect of the waters is indeed out oaly to neut- 
ralise the uric diathesis, and for the time to prevent it 
from manifesting itself, hut also to modify the organic 
causes of its pnjductioD, by rendering the nrine alka- 
line before its arrival in the kidneys and bladder. 
Also the efficacy of our alkaline springs ia incontestably 
evident in cases where the urine is neutral or alkaline, 
muddy, fcetid, or discoloured, containing phosphatic 
(white) gravel deposits and calculi of phosphate of lime, 
orof aramoniac-nmgnesia-phosphate, or of a mistore of 
this latter with phosphate of lime, as well as in cases 
of n on- ammoniac -phosphatic gravel and calculi. By 
the introduction of a large qnantity of bicarbonate of 
soda into the system they modify the pathological state 
of the mucous membrane of the bladder and liquefy the 
thickened mucus. They also act on the composition of 
the blood, by preventing the formation of uric acid or 
neutral phosphates ; thus they change the constitution 
of the urine, so that when secreted in the kidneys and 
passing thraugh the bladder it no longer contains any 
insoluble substances of a nature to form precipitates. 

9. Carlsbad has also acquired a considerable reputa- 
tion for its eminently beneficial influence on ijout and 
chronic rhe\tmatifm. 




Although the treatment cannot always diaaolve fcl 
depoaitB of uric acid or the calcareous concretions ii 
and aroiuid the joints, still they diminish the frequency, 
the duration, and the intensity of the attacks ; they 
also alleviate, or often in whole or in part put an end to, 
the local lesions, to the congestions, the stiffness of the 
ligaments, and the contractions of the muscles which 
are the effects of the paroxysms. 

It is important for gouty people, after leaving 
Carlsbad, to continue the use of alkaline waters if 
they would not rapidly lose the benefits of the thermal 
treatment, which, in order to insure success, should. 
if required, be repeated for at least three consecuti' 
years. 

10. Clinical experience has proved that the stimi 
lating effect of the hot alkaline springs on the skin 
and gastro-intestinal membrane, the activity given to 
the functions of assimilation, enervation, and secretionj, 
have very often removed the beginning of Brigh^i 
disease, as well as congestion of the kidneys generally^) 
Alhiminvria at a certain point (when not complicated 
by any serious organic disorder) has very ofl^n been 
not only relieved, but when the use of the waters is 
combined with a tonic and strengthening regimf 
there is good reason to expect even a complete recovery^ 

11. There is another disease, the result of a genei 
neurosis, affecting all the nerves which govern thi 
secretions — a neurosis resulting in an increased pi 
duction of sugar in the system, and modiiying thi 



rin 1 

tin 



INDICATIOSS FOR D8E OK CARLSBAD WATER. 195 

chemical composition of the floids in the animal 
economy, not less important by its gravity than by its 
increasing frequency, which requires as a remedy a 
sufficient quantity of alliali^that ia, Diabetes. Scrupu- 
lous observation, as well as experience in nnmerous 
cases, has shown that these waters are particularly 
efficacious in diabetes and its consequences. 

The excessive secretion from the kidneys charged with 
sugar, excessive appetite and thirst, dryness of the skin, 
emaciation, loss of the hair and teeth, eczema, boils and 
carbuncles, great mental depression — all of these com- 
plaints become less distressing during the residence at 
Carlsbad, provided the waters are taken in time and the 
prescribed antidiabetic regimen strictly adhered to. 

All, in fact, obtain here in a short time very great 
relief, and many of the above -mentioned symptoms 
disappear entirely. 

The sugar in the urine disappears gradually and in 
time completely. The thirst is assuaged, the general 
strength is restored, calm succeeds to nneasiness, find 
sleep to wakefulness. The relief obtained may be a re- 
sult of the tonic action and of the stimulating proper- 
ties which almost all mineral waters exercise on the akin , 
on the secretions, and on the functions in general. Or, 
again, the real cause of the benefit derived by diabetic 
patients may be in consequence of the chemical com- 
position and alkaline properties of the water, which acts 
as a very useful adjuvant, or specific and sovereign 
remedy in cases of diabetes. 



I 



I 



196 JNDICATI0H8 FOR USE OF CARLSBAD WATER. 

12. The Carlsbad w&tara are of the greatest use in 
the treatment of Hmm^rrhoids (piles), a very distress- 
ing condition, which arise from abdominal disorders. 
Patients with the most alarming symptons, sach as gid- 
diness, congestions, haemorrhage, asthma, itching and 
burning of the skin, are very often freed from the com- 
plaint, as the blind piles biuret and a hemorrhoidal Siix 
results ft^m the use of the waters. 

13. Also general obesity as well as local deposition of 
fat in the intestinal organs of the chest and abdomen 
and their consecutive symptoms, as asthma, congestion, 
different disorders of the digestion, weakness, &c., 
undergo a remarkable improvement by a prolonged 
residence at Carlsbad. 

14. Also Prosopalgia (FothergiU's pain, Tic-doulou- 
reux) as well as Migraine, which are not infrequently 
a consequence of plethora abdominalis, are very often 
greatly benefited here. 

15. Diseases of the sexual system, anch as Metritis 
chronica, swelling of the ostium uterinale, menstrual 
derangements, swelling of the ovaries, sterility — all 
these female complaints (especially if they arise in con- 
sequence of plethora abdominalis, even if the state is 
chronic and the character is atonic), derive much ad- 
vantage and improvement from a course of these waters. 
The efficacy of the Carlsbad water in the treatment of 
these diseases is often greatly assisted at the same time 
by the use of the peat baths and the local application 
of peat ponlticea 




INDICATIONS FOR USE OF CARLSBAD WATER. 1 9/ 

Hypochondriasis^ Hysteria^ and Melancholia^ which 
have their origin in disorders of the abdominal organs ; 
symptoms of stagnation of blood in the liver, in the 
spleen, in the pancreas, and in the uterus ; symptoms of 
suppressed and irregular catamenia — in all these cases 
the use of Carlsbad water has a powerful effect. 

The change of climate, picturesque scenery, and plea- 
sant companions also largely contribute to the restora- 
tion of the health of invalids. 



( '98 ) 



■TECT OF TH]Q^| 
ITSELF. ^B 



PERIOD AT WHICH THE EF! 
WATEES MANIFESTS 



j^^^^j^j^HEKE is no fallacy more widely Bpread and 
«^l^ none less baaed on reason and experience 
■™**®^ than the expectation of immediate or even 
rapid results from the treatment by natural mineral 
waters of sach diseases as are amenable to this 
efficacious and permanently beneficent therapeutic 
agency when properly applied. Patients are fre- 
quently disappointed and often lose hope if urgent 
symptoms are not quickly relieved or do not yield to 
treatment aa they may be expected to do in acute 
disease, in which remedies are usually heroic in their 
application, and when successful more or less quickly 
manifest their effects. 

It must not be forgotten that most, if not all, of 
those affections for which hydrotherapeutica are adapted 
are not only chronic in character, but are also usually 
of long standing. In numberless cases they are due 
to hereditary causes or to the habits of a lifetime, and 



THE EFFECT OF THE WATERS. 1 99 

produce results, functional and organic, which it would 
not be safe to attempt to change suddenly, even if it 
were practicable to attain this result. What is slow 
of growth and becomes ingrafted in the constitution 
can only gradually be changed surely and safely. 

*^ Chi va piano va sano, e chi va sano va lontano," 
says a good Italian proverb. In many cases of some 
affections, such as gout in several of its protean forms, 
scrofulous disease, and not a few acquired affections, 
the immediate result of a course of mineral water 
treatment is not only not manifest at all until some 
time afterwards, but needs renewal for several seasons 
before a permanent cure can be effected. Hence no 
patient should lose heart or abandon hope, even if 
there is no magician's wand in the hands of his physi- 
cian to perform miracles in the relief of his sufferings. 



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EDINBURGH AND LONDON. 



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WaU-Fnmiahed ApEirtmeiitE for FamilieE, with good Attendance, 
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5 ayoid fine, thia book should be returned 
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1858 Merrylees.J. 15011 
K1M5 Carlsbad and its en- 
1 na^ Tri rnnn 


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